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Title: New National Fourth Reader
Author: Hawkes, J. Marshall, Barnes, Charles J.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "New National Fourth Reader" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's Notes

      Where reference is made to page numbers, there is an annotation
      showing a footnote number and the relative information is appended
      at the end of each lesson or section.

      Pronunciation marks have been ignored. However, accented syllables
      precede the single apostrophe, which also serves as a break.
      Otherwise breaks are shown by spaces.

Barnes' New National Readers





[Illustration: Destruction of Pompeii by Vesuvius.]


It is thought that the following special features of this book will
commend themselves to Teachers and School Officers.

_The reading matter of the book is more of a descriptive than
conversational style_, as it is presumed that the pupil, after having
finished the previous books of the series, will have formed the habit of
easy intonation and distinct articulation.

_The interesting character of the selections_, so unlike the reading
books of former times.

_The large amount of information_ which has been combined with incidents
of an interesting nature, to insure the pupil's earnest and thoughtful

_The length of the selections for reading_,--the attention of pupils
being held more readily by long selections than by short ones, though of
equal interest.

_The gradation of the lessons_, which has been systematically maintained
by keeping a careful record of all new words as fast as they appeared,
and using only such pieces as contained a limited number.

_The simplicity of the lessons_, which becomes absolutely necessary in
the schools of to-day, owing to the short school life of the pupil, his
immature age, and inability to comprehend pieces of a metaphysical or
highly poetical nature.

_The ease with which pupils may pass from the Third Reader of this
series to this book_, thereby avoiding the necessity of supplementary
reading before commencing the Fourth Reader, or of using a book of
another series much lower in grade.

_Language Lessons_, of a nature to secure intelligent observation, and
lead the pupil to habits of thought and reflection. Nothing being done
for the learner that he could do for himself.

_Directions for Reading_, which accompany the lessons--specific in their
treatment and not of that general character which young teachers and
pupils are unable to apply.

_All new words of special difficulty, at the heads of the lessons_,
having their syllabication, accent, and pronunciation indicated
according to Webster. Other new words are placed in a vocabulary at the
close of the book.

_The type of this book, like that of the previous books of the series,
is much larger than that generally used_, for a single reason. Parents,
every-where, are complaining that the eye-sight of their children is
being ruined by reading from small, condensed type. It is confidently
expected that this large, clear style will obviate such unfortunate

_The illustrations have been prepared regardless of expense_, and will
commend themselves to every person of taste and refinement.



 1.--"I'M GOING TO" (Part I) _Charlotte Daly_.

 2.--"I'M GOING TO" (Part II) _Charlotte Daly_.




 7.--THE SAILOR CAT _David Ker_.


10.--ADVENTURE WITH A LION _Livingstone_.





17.--A FUNNY HORSESHOE "_Christian Union_."










30.--AIR _J. Berners_ (Adapted).






38.--HOLLAND (I) _Mary Mapes Dodge_.

39.--HOLLAND (II) _Mary Mapes Dodge_.


42.--FOREST ON FIRE (I) _Audubon_.

43.--FOREST ON FIRE (II) _Audubon_.

45.--A GHOST STORY (I) _Louisa M. Alcott_.

46.--A GHOST STORY (II) _Louisa M. Alcott_.

47.--A GHOST STORY (III) _Louisa M. Alcott_.
















69.--MAKING MAPLE SUGAR (I) _Charles Dudley Warner_.

70.--MAKING MAPLE SUGAR (II) _Charles Dudley Warner_.



74.--AFRICAN ANTS _Du Chaillu_.




 4.--TO-MORROW _Mrs. M.R. Johnson_.

 8.--RESCUED _Celia Thaxter_.

12.--MARJORIE'S ALMANAC _T.B. Aldrich_.


20.--A HAPPY PAIR _Florence Percy_.

24.--ILL-NATURED BRIER _Mrs. Anna Bache_.


32.--BIRDS IN SUMMER _Mary Howitt_.

36.--THE MILLER OF THE DEE _Charles Mackay_.

40.--THE WIND IN A FROLIC _William Howitt_.


48.--WHAT THE CHIMNEY SANG _Bret Harte_.



60.--THE BROOK _Alfred Tennyson_.

64.--TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW _Charles Mackay_.

68.--THE FISHERMAN _John G. Whittier_.

71.--OLD IRONSIDES _Oliver Wendell Holmes_.

75.--THE LEAP OF ROUSHAN BEG _Henry W. Longfellow_.




The publishers desire to thank Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., the
Century Co., Roberts Brothers, and Charles Scribner's Sons, for
permission to use and adapt some of their valuable copyright matter.


To Teachers

The following suggestions are submitted for the benefit of young

In order that pupils may learn how to define words at the heads of the
lessons, let the teacher read the sentences containing such words and
have pupils copy them upon slate or paper.

Then indicate what words are to be defined, and insist upon the proper
syllabication, accent, marking of letters, etc.

In this way the pupil learns the meaning of the word as it is used, and
not an abstract definition that may be meaningless.

Have pupils study their reading lessons carefully before coming to

The position of pupils while reading should be erect, easy, and

Give special attention to the subject of articulation, and insist upon a
clear and distinct enunciation.

In order to develop a clear tone of voice, let pupils practice, in
concert, upon some of the open vowel sounds, using such words as _arm,
all, old_.

In this exercise, the force of utterance should be gentle at first, and
the words repeated a number of times; then the force should be increased
by degrees, until "calling tones" are used.

Encourage a natural use of the voice, with such modulations as may be
proper for a correct rendering of the thoughts which are read.

It should, be remembered that the development of a good tone of voice is
the result of careful and constant practice.

Concert reading is recommended as a useful exercise, inasmuch as any
feeling of restraint or timidity disappears while reading with others.

Question individual pupils upon the manner in which lessons should be
read. In this way they will learn to think for themselves.

Do not interrupt a pupil while reading until a thought or sentence is
completed, since such a course tends to make reading mechanical and
deprive it of expression.

Errors in time, force of utterance, emphasis, and inflection should be
carefully corrected, and then the passage read over again.

The "Directions for Reading" throughout the book are intended to be
suggestive rather than exhaustive, and can be added to as occasion

The "Language Lessons" in this book, should not be neglected. They
contain only such matter as is necessary to meet the requirements of

Words and expressions not readily understood, must be made intelligible
to pupils. This has been done in part by definitions, and in part by
interpreting some of the difficult phrases.

After the habit of acquiring the usual meaning has been formed, the
original meaning of those words which are made up of stems modified by
prefixes or affixes should be shown.

The real meaning of such words can be understood far better by a study
of their formation, than by abstract definitions. It will be found,
also, that pupils readily become interested in this kind of work.

As the capabilities of classes of the same grade will differ, it may
sometimes occur that a greater amount of language work can be done
effectively than is laid down in this book. When this happens, more time
can be devoted to such special kinds of work as the needs of the classes

Constant drill upon the analysis of lessons, varied at times by the
analysis of short stories taken from other sources and read to the
class, will develop the reasoning faculties of pupils and render the
writing of original compositions a comparatively easy exercise.

Encourage the habit of self-reliance on the part of pupils. Original
investigation, even if followed at first by somewhat crude results, is
in the end more satisfactory than any other course.

The Definitions (pages 373-382) and the List of Proper Names (pages
383 and 384) may be used in the preparation of the lessons.[01]

When exercises are written, particular care should be required in regard
to penmanship, correct spelling, punctuation, and neatness.

[01] "The Definitions" are found at the end of the text, however "the
List of Proper Names" has not been included in this production.



a as in  lake
a "  "   at
a "  "   far
a "  "   all
a "  "   care
a "  "   ask
a as in  what
e "  "   be
e "  "   let
i "  "   ice
i "  "   in
o "  "   so
o as in  box
u  "  "  use
u  "  "  up
u  "  "  fur
oo "  "  too
oo "  "  look


oi, oy (unmarked), as in oil, boy
ou, ow     "       "  "  out, now


 b  as in bad
 d  "  "  do
 f  "  "  fox
 g  "  "  go
 h  "  "  he
 j  "  "  just
 k  "  "  kite
 l  "  "  let
 m  as in me
 n  "  "  no
 p  "  "  put
 r  "  "  rat
 s  "  "  so
 t  "  "  too
 v  "  "  very
 w  "  "  we
 y  as in yes
 z  "  "  froze
ng  "  "  sing
ch  "  "  chick
sh  "  "  she
th  "  "  think
th  "  "  the
wh(hw),"  what



a    like o  as in what
e     "   a  "  "  where
e     "   a  "  "  they
e     "   u  "  "  her
i     "   u  "  "  girl
i     "   e  "  "  police
o, u like oo as in to, rule
o     "   u  "  "  come
o     "   a  "  "  for
u, o  "   oo "  "  put, could
y     "   i  "  "  by
y     "   i  "  "  kit'ty


c like  s    as in   race
c  "    k    "  "    cat
g  "    j    "  "    cage
n like ng    as in   think
s  "    z    "  "    has
x  "   ks, or gz "   box, exist



spokes'man, _one who speaks for others_.

cho'rus, _a number of speakers or singers_.

apt, _likely; ready_.

folks, _people; family_.

mis'er a ble, _very unhappy; very poor_.

lone'some, _without friends; lonely_.

score, _twenty_.

wretch'ed, _unhappy; very sad_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Once upon a time, there was a little boy, whose name was Johnny.
"Johnny," said his mamma, one day, "will you bring me an armful of

"Yes," said Johnny, "I'm going to"; but just then he heard Carlo, the
dog, barking at a chipmunk over in the meadow, so he ran off as fast as
he could go.

Now this was not the first time that Johnny had said to his mamma, "Yes,
I'm going to." He never thought of that wood again until about
dinner-time, when he began to feel hungry.

When he got back, he found that dinner was over, and papa and mamma had
gone to ride. He found a piece of bread and butter, and sat down on a
Large rock, with his back against the stump of a tree, to eat it.

When it was all gone, Johnny began to think what he should do next. He
closed his eyes as people are apt to do when they think.

Presently he heard a score of voices about him. One was saying, "Wait a
bit"; another, "Pretty soon"; another, "In a minute"; another, "By and
by"; and still another, louder than the rest, kept screaming as loud as
it could, "Going to, going to, going to," till Johnny thought they were

"Who in the world are you?" said he, in great surprise, "and what are
you making such a noise about?"

"We are telling our names," said they; "didn't you ask us to tell our

"No," said Johnny, "I didn't."

"O what a story!" cried they all in a breath.


"Let's shake him for it," said one.

"No, let us carry him to the king," said another.

So they began to spin about him like so many spiders; for each one of
them carried a long web, and when that gets wound around a boy or a
girl, it is a very difficult thing to get rid of.

In a few minutes they had him all wound up--hands and feet, nose and
eyes, all tied up tight. Then they took him among them, and flew away
with him, miles and miles, over the hills, and up to a big cave in the
mountain. There he heard ever so many more voices, and it was noisier
than ever.

"Where am I?" he said, as soon as he could speak.

"O you're safe at home," answered Wait-a-bit, for he seemed to be the
spokesman; "and they have been expecting you for some time."

"This isn't my home," said Johnny, feeling very miserable and beginning
to cry.

"O yes, it is," said a chorus of voices. "This is just where such folks
as you belong. There are many of your fellows here, and you won't be
lonesome a bit."

They had begun to unwind the web from his eyes now, so he opened them
and looked about him. O what a wretched place it was!

Against the sides of the cave, stood long rows of boys and girls, with
very sorry faces, all of them saying over as fast as they could speak,
"Going to, going to!" "Wait a bit, wait a bit!" "Pretty soon, pretty
soon!" "In a minute, in a minute!" studying the names just as hard as if
they were lessons.

There were Delays, and Tardys, and Put-offs, with ever so many more; and
in a corner by themselves, and looking more unhappy than all the rest,
were the poor little fellows whose names were "Too late."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Pupils should read loud enough for all the
class to hear them.

The words forming a _quotation_ should usually be spoken in a louder
tone than the other words in the lesson, as--

_"Johnny,"_ said his mamma, one day, _"will you bring me an armful of

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Divide into syllables, accent, and mark the sounds
of the letters in the following words: _Carlo, armful, mountain,

What two words can be used for each of the following: _I'm, didn't,
let's, you're, isn't, won't?_

What other words could be used instead of _got_ (page 16, line 4)?[02]

Proper names should begin with capital letters: as, _Johnny, Carlo_.

Give three other words used as proper names in this lesson.

[02] paragraph 4 of this lesson

       *       *       *       *       *


de spair', _loss of hope_.

pro cras' ti na tor, _one who puts off doing any thing_.

res o lu'tions, _promises made to one's self; resolves_.

yon'der, _there; in that place_.

mon'strous, _of great size_.

gi'ant, _an unreal person, supposed to be of great size_.

hor'rid, _causing great fear or alarm_.

ex pect'ed, _thought; looked for_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"O dear, dear! Where am I?" said Johnny in despair. "Please let me out!
I want my mamma!"

"No, you don't," said Wait-a-bit. "You don't care much about her, and
this is really where you belong. This is the kingdom of Procrastination,
and yonder comes the king."

"The kingdom of what?" said Johnny, who had never heard such a long word
in his life before.

But just then he heard a heavy foot-fall, and a great voice that sounded
like a roar, saying, "Has he come? Did you get him?"

"Yes, here he is," said Wait-a-bit, "and he'd just been saying it a
little while before we picked him up."

Johnny looked up and saw a monstrous giant, with a bright green body and
red legs, and a yellow head and two horrid coal-black eyes.

"Let me have him," said the giant. So he took him up just as if he had
been a rag-baby, and looked him all over, turning him from side to side,
and from head to feet.

O but Johnny was frightened, and expected every moment to be swallowed!

"Let's see," said the giant; "he always says 'Pretty soon.' No, that
isn't it. What is it, my fine fellow, that you always say to your mamma
when she asks you to do any thing for her?

"It isn't 'Pretty soon,' nor 'In a minute.' What is it? They all mean
about the same thing, to be sure, and bring every body to me in the end;
but I must know exactly, or I can't put you in the right place."

Johnny hung his head, and did not want to tell; but an extra hard poke
of the giant's big finger made him open his mouth and say with shame,
that he always said, "I'm going to."

"O that's it!" said the giant. "Well, then, you stand there."

So he unwound a bit of the web from his fingers--just enough so that he
could hold the Procrastinator's Primer--and stood him at the end of a
long row of children, who were saying over and over again, just as fast
as they could speak, "Going to, going to, going to, going to," just
that, and nothing else in the world.

Johnny was tired and hungry by this time, and longed to see his mamma,
thinking that, if he could only get back: to her, he would always mind
the very moment she told him to do any thing.

He made a great many good resolutions while he stood there. At last the
giant called him to come and say his lesson.

"You shall have a short one to-day," said he, "and need say it only a
thousand times, because it is your first day here. To-morrow, you must
say it a million."

Johnny tried to step forward, but the web was still about his feet, so
he fell with, a bang to the floor.

Just then he opened his eyes to find that he had rolled from the rock
to the grass, and that mamma was calling him in a loud voice to come to
supper, and this time he didn't say, "I'm going to."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--The words in quotation marks should be read in
the same manner as in Lesson I.

Read words in dark type in the following sentences with more force than
the other words:

    "Has he _come?_ Did you _get_ him?"

Words that are read more forcibly than other words in a sentence are
called _emphatic words_.

Which are the _emphatic words_ in the following sentences?

    "You shall have a short one to-day."

    "I must know exactly."

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Divide into syllables, accent, and mark the sounds
of the letters in the following words: _extra, primer, moment,

       *       *       *       *       *


remark'able, _worthy of notice; unusual_.

moist'ure, _wetness; that which makes wet_.

absorbed', _sucked up; drunk up_.

with'er, _lose freshness_.

starched, _stiffened, as starch_.

germ, _that from which the plant grows; bud_.

hand'some, _pleasing in appearance; very pretty_.

clasped, _surrounded; inclosed_.

       *       *       *       *       *


"I think I ought to be doing something in the world!" said a little
voice out in the garden.

"Pray, what can you do?" asked another and somewhat stronger voice.

"I think I can grow," answered the little voice.

If you had seen the owner of the little voice, perhaps you would not
have thought him any thing remarkable.

It is true he had on a clean white coat, so smooth and shining that it
looked as if it had been newly starched and ironed, and inside of this,
he hugged two stout packages.

The coat had only one fastening; but that fastening extended down the
back, and was a curious thing to see.

It looked just as if the coat had been cut with a knife, and had
afterward grown together again. It was like a scar on your hand; and a
scar it is called.

"Yes, I ought to be growing," said the little voice, "for I am a bean,
and in the spring a bean ought to grow."

Now you know how the coat came by its scar, for the scar was the spot
which showed where the bean had been broken from the pod.

"What do you mean by growing?" said the other voice, which came from a
large red stone.

"Why," said the bean, "don't you know what growing means? I thought
every thing knew how to grow. You see, when I grow, my root goes down
into the soil to get moisture, and my stem goes up into the light to
find heat. Heat and moisture are my food and drink.

"By and by, I shall be a full-grown plant, and that is wonderful! In the
ground, my roots will travel far and wide.

"In the air, how happy my stem will be! I shall learn a great deal, and
see beautiful things every day. O how I long for that time to come!"

"What you say is very strange," said the red stone. "Here I have been in
this same place for many years, and I have not grown at all. I have no
root; I have no stem; or, if I have, they never move upward nor
downward, as you say. Are you sure you are not mistaken?"

"Why, of course I'm not mistaken," cried the bean. "I feel within myself
that I can grow; and I have absorbed so much moisture that I must soon

Just then the bean's coat split from end to end, and for one or two
minutes neither the stone nor the bean spoke. The stone was astonished,
and the bean was a little frightened. However, he soon recovered his

"There!" said he, showing the two packages he had been carrying; "these
are my seed-leaves. In them is the food on which I intend to live when I
begin growing.

"When my stem is strong enough to do without them, they will wither away.
My coat is all worn-out, too. I shall not need it any longer. Look
inside the seed-leaves, and you will see the germ. Part of it is root,
and part of it is stem. Do you see?"

"I see two little white lumps," replied the stone; "but I can not
understand how they will ever be a root and a stem."

"I do believe you are a poor, dull mineral, after all," said the bean;
"and if so, of course you can not understand what pleasure a vegetable
has in growing.

"I wouldn't be a mineral for the world! I would not lie still and do
nothing, year after year. I would rather spread my branches in the
sunshine, and drink in the sweet spring air through my leaves."

"What you say must be all nonsense," said the stone. "I can't understand

But the bean grew on without minding him. The roots pushed down into the
soil and drank up the moisture from the ground. Then this moisture went
into the stem, and the stem climbed bravely up into the light.

"How happy I am!" cried the bean.

It ran over the red stone, and clasped it with long green branches,
covered with white bean flowers.

"O indeed!" said the stone. "Is this what you call growing? I thought
you were only in fun. How handsome you are!"

"May I hang my pods on you, so that they can ripen in the sun?" said the

"Certainly, friend," said the stone.

He was very polite, now that he saw the bean was a full-grown vine.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Read in a conversational tone of voice, as in
Lessons I and II.

What word is emphatic in the third paragraph?

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
words, _broken, packages, courage, polite_.

Tell in your own words how the bean grew.

       *       *       *       *       *


elf, _a very small person; an unreal being_.

vex, _make angry; trouble_.

pon'dered, _thought about with care_.

streak, _line; long mark_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  A bright little boy with laughing face,
  Whose every motion was full of grace,
  Who knew no trouble and feared no care,
  Was the light of our household--the youngest there.

  He was too young--this little elf--
  With troublesome questions to vex himself;
  But for many days a thought would rise,
  And bring a shade to the dancing eyes.

  He went to one whom he thought more wise
  Than any other beneath the skies:
  "Mother,"--O word that makes the home!--
  "Tell me, when will to-morrow come?"

  "It is almost night," the mother said,
  "And time for my boy to be in bed;
  When you wake up and it's day again,
  It will be to-morrow, my darling, then."

  The little boy slept through all the night,
  But woke with the first red streak of light;
  He pressed a kiss on his mother's brow,
  And whispered, "Is it to-morrow now?"

  "No, little Eddie, this is to-day;
  To-morrow is always one night away."
  He pondered awhile, but joys came fast,
  And this vexing question quickly passed.

  But it came again with the shades of night:
  "Will it be to-morrow when it is light?"
  From years to come, he seemed care to borrow,
  He tried so hard to catch to-morrow.

  "You can not catch it, my little Ted;
  Enjoy to-day," the mother said;
  "Some wait for to-morrow through many a year--
  It always is coming, but never is here."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In reading poetry, pupils should notice the
emphatic words, and give them proper force.


    "_Mother_,"--O word that makes the home!--

    "_Tell_ me, when will _to-morrow_ come?"

The two dashes in the first line of the preceding example are used
instead of a parenthesis, and have the same value.

When there is no pause at the end of a line (see first line, third
stanza), it should be closely joined in reading to the line which
follows it, thus making the two lines read as one.

       *       *       *       *       *


ap'pe tite, _wish for food_.

a muse'ment, _play; enjoyment_.

gaunt, _lean; hungry looking_.

spe'cies, _kind_.

oc curred', _took place; happened_.

en cour'age ment, _hope given by another's words or actions_.

di rec'tion, _way; course_.

dusk'y, _very dark; almost black_.

sin'gu lar, _unusual; strange_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"During the summer and winter, we had several adventures in the
trapping and killing of wild animals. One of them was of such a
singular and dangerous kind, that you may feel interested in hearing

"It occurred in the dead of winter, when there was snow upon the ground.
The lake was frozen over, and the ice was as smooth as glass. We spent
much of our time in skating about over its surface, as the exercise
gave us health and a good appetite.

"Even Cudjo, our colored servant, had taken a fancy for this amusement,
and was a very good skater. Frank was fonder of it than the rest of us,
and was, in fact, the best skater among us.

"One day, however, neither Cudjo nor I had gone out, but only Frank and
Harry. The rest of us were busy at some carpenter work within doors.

"We could hear the merry laugh of the boys, and the ring of their skates
as they glided over the smooth ice. All at once, a cry reached our
ears, which we knew meant the presence of some danger.

"'O Robert!' cried my wife, 'they have broken through the ice!'

"We all dropped what we held in our hands, and rushed to the door. I
seized a rope as I ran, while Cudjo took his long spear, thinking it
might be of use to us. This was the work of a moment, and the next we
were outside the house.

"What was our astonishment to see both the boys, away at the farthest
end of the lake, but skating toward us as fast as they could!

"At the same time, our eyes rested upon a terrible sight. Close behind
them upon the ice, and following at full gallop, was a pack of wolves!

"They were not the small prairie wolves, which either of the boys might
have chased with a stick, but of a species known as the 'Great Dusky
Wolf' of the Rocky Mountains.

"There were six of them in all. Each of them was twice the size of the
prairie wolf, and their long, dark bodies, gaunt with hunger, and
crested from head to tail with a high, bristling mane, gave them a most
fearful appearance.

"They ran with their ears set back and their jaws apart, so that we
could see their red tongues and white teeth.

"We did not stop a moment, but rushed toward the lake. I threw down the
rope, and seized hold of a large rail as I ran, while Cudjo hurried
forward armed with a spear. My wife, with presence of mind, turned back
into the house for my rifle.

"I saw that Harry was foremost, and that the fierce wolves were fast
closing upon Frank. This was strange, for we knew that Frank was by far
the better skater. We all called out to him, uttering loud shouts of
encouragement. Both were bearing themselves manfully, but Frank was
most in danger.

"The wolves were upon his heels! 'O they will kill him!' I cried,
expecting the next moment to see him thrown down upon the ice. What was
my joy at seeing him suddenly wheel and dart off in a new direction."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--This lesson should be read with spirit, and
in a full, clear tone of voice.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--_Presence of mind_ is the power to act quickly when
sudden danger threatens.

_Upon his heels_ means very close to.

_Dead of winter_ is the middle of winter, as that is supposed to be
the quietest or most lifeless time.

Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words:
_fancy, gallop, prairie, bristling, rifle_.

       *       *       *       *       *


e lud'ed, _got away from; avoided_.

ex cit'ing, _causing deep interest_.

marks'man, _one who shoots well_.

re treat'ing, _going away from_.

en a'bled, _helped; made able_.

sim'i lar, _like; nearly the same_.

pur suit', _following after_.

nim'bly, _with a quick motion_.

com menced', _began_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"The wolves, thus nimbly eluded, now kept on after Harry, who, in turn,
became the object of our anxiety.

"In a moment they were close upon him; but he, already warned by his
brother, wheeled in a similar manner, while the fierce brutes, swept
along by the force of their running, were carried a long distance upon
the ice before they could turn themselves.

"Their long, bushy tails, however, soon enabled them to turn about and
follow in the new direction, and they galloped after Harry, who was now
the nearest to them.

"Frank, in the meantime, had again turned, and came sweeping past behind
them, at the same time shouting loudly, as if to tempt them away from
their pursuit of Harry.

"They heeded him not, and again he changed his direction, and, as though
he was about to skate into their midst, followed the wolves.

"This time he skated up close behind them, just at the moment when Harry
had turned again, and thus made his second escape.

"At this moment, we heard Frank calling out to his brother to make for
the shore, while, instead of retreating himself, he stopped until Harry
had passed, and then dashed off, followed closely by the whole pack.

"Another slight turn brought him nearly in our direction; but there was
a large hole broken through the ice close by the shore, and we saw
that, unless he turned again, he would skate into it.

"We thought he was watching the wolves too intently to see it, and we
shouted to warn him. Not so; he knew better than we what he was about.

"When he had reached within a few feet of the hole, he wheeled sharply
to the left, and came dashing up to the point where we stood to receive

"The wolves, too intent upon their chase to see any thing else, went
sweeping past the point where he had turned, and the next moment
plunged through the broken ice into the water.

"Then Cudjo and I ran forward, shouting loudly, and, with the heavy rail
and the long spear, commenced dealing death among them.

"It was but a short, though exciting scene. Five of them were speared
and drowned, while the sixth crawled out upon the ice and was rapidly
making off, frightened enough at his cold ducking.


"At that moment I heard the crack of a rifle and saw the wolf tumble

"On turning round I saw Harry with, my rifle, which my wife had brought
down and handed to him, as a better marksman than herself.

"The wolf, only wounded, was kicking furiously about on the ice; but
Cudjo now ran out, and, after a short struggle, finished the business
with his spear.

"This was, indeed, a day of great excitement in our forest home. Frank,
who was the hero of the day, although he said nothing, was no doubt not
a little proud of his skating feat.

"And well he might be, as, but for his skill, poor Harry would no doubt
have fallen a prey to the fierce wolves."

      *      *      *      *      *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of
what is given below in dark type.

    Again he _changed his direction_.

    He then _dashed off_.

    He wheeled _sharply_ to the left.

    Cudjo and I commenced _dealing death among them_.

    Cudjo _finished the business_ with his spear.

    Harry would have _fallen a prey to_ the fierce wolves.

Tell the story in your own words, using the points in the following

Analysis.--1. Frank and Harry go to skate. 2. The alarm. 3. The
wolves. 4. The pursuit. 5. The escape. 6. Death of the wolves.

       *       *       *       *       *


craft, _ship; a boat of any kind_.

mew'ing, _crying, like a cat_.

a dopt'ed, _received as one's own_.

ad mir'er, _one who likes another_.

voy'age, _journey by water_.

dain'ty, _nice in form or taste_.

a loft', _on high; in the air_.

wind'ward, _the point from which the wind blows_.

star'board, _the right-hand side of a ship_.

bruised, _injured, hurt_.

       *       *       *       *       *


She was a sailor cat, indeed, and it was a sailor who first brought her
on board.

Our steamer was lying at her pier in the North River, at New York,
taking in cargo.

One of our men, who had been ashore, came back with a little
gray-and-white kitten in his arms. She was very poor and thin, and her
little furry coat was sadly soiled with dirt and grease.

But she had not lost all her fun, for she was making play with her tiny
fore-paws at the ends of the sailor's red beard, to honest Jack's great

"Where did you pick that up, Jack?" asked the third officer.

"Well, your honor," said Jack Harmon, touching his cap with a grin,
"seems to me she must have left her ship and gone to look for another,
for I found her tramping along the pier there, and mewing as if she was
calling out for somebody to show her the road.

"So I thought that, as we have many rats aboard the old craft, she would
be able to pick up a good living there; and I called to her, and she
came at once, and here she is."

Here she was, sure enough; and as Jack ended his story, she chimed in
with a plaintive little "Me-ow," which said, as plainly as ever any cat
spoke yet, "I'm very cold and hungry, and I do wish somebody would take
me below and give me some food!"

She had not long to wait. Half an hour later she was the best-fed cat in
that part of New York City, and that night she lay snugly curled up with
a good warm blanket over her.

Of course, the first thing to do with an adopted cat is to give it a
name, and Jack Harmon, who was a bit of a wag in his way, and a great
admirer of the monster elephant which was just then making such a stir
in New York, called his new pet "Jumbo."

Jumbo soon became the pet of the whole crew, and of the passengers, too,
when they came on board, a few days later, for the voyage back to

Before we were half-way across the ocean, the bits of meat or cake, and
bits of white bread soaked in milk, which were being constantly given
her by one and another, had made her look as round as an apple.

The ladies were never tired of stroking her soft fur and admiring her
dainty white paws, which were now as spotless as snow. The children
romped all day with this new playmate, who seemed to enjoy the sport
quite as much as themselves.

But Jumbo was not content with mere play. She seemed to think herself
bound to do something to "work her passage." Whenever any of the crew
went aloft to take in sail, Jumbo would always climb up, too, as if to
help them.

Jack Harmon was still her favorite, and whenever it came his turn to
stand at the bow and keep watch, there was Jumbo going backward and

On the eighth night of the voyage, the stars looked dim and
watery, and a low bank of clouds began to rise to windward of us, just
between sea and sky.

The old sailors shook their heads and looked grave, as if they expected
an unusual storm. Suddenly the wind began to blow strongly upon the
starboard quarter, stirring up a cross-sea which tossed the great ship
like a toy.

Nearly all the passengers had gone below, and the few who remained on
deck buttoned their water-proof coats, and held tightly on by any thing
they could seize.

Jack Harmon had shut up his cat below, but poor puss escaped somehow,
for all at once a shrill cry was heard, and there was Jumbo clinging to
a rail, with a great mountain of a wave coming right down upon her.

Several men sprang toward the spot, but Jack was foremost, and he had
just reached his little pet when down came the great wave upon them

Instantly the whole after-deck was one roaring, foaming waterfall, the
flying spray of which blinded one for a moment. But when it cleared,
there stood our brave Jack--dripping, bruised, and bleeding from a cut
on the head.

But his little favorite was safe in his arms, and as he came back with
her, such a cheer went up from all who were on deck, as the old ship had
not heard for many a day.

"Let's send round the hat for him," said one of the passengers.

And the hat was sent around, so successfully that Jack got enough money
to give his poor old mother a happy Christmas, and still have something
left over for himself and Jumbo, who was his mother's pet ever after.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Should this lesson be read with the same tone
of voice as Lessons V. and VI.?

In the first paragraph, do not say _pier rin_ for _pier in; dir' tand_
for _dirt and_.

Point out two other places in the lesson where mistakes similar to those
just given might occur.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark the sounds of letters in
the following words: _cargo, officer, blanket, passengers, instantly,

_Work her passage_ means to pay her fare by making herself useful.

Make out an _analysis_ in six parts for this lesson, and use it in
telling the story in your own words.

       *       *       *       *       *


loi'ter ing, _going slowly, lingering_.

pro tect'or, _one who keeps another from harm_.

throng'ing, _gathering in large numbers_.

wrecked, _dashed to pieces_.

thatched, _covered with straw or twigs_.

bronzed, _brown, darked-colored_.

bleach'ing, _whitening_.

van'ished, _gone out of sight; departed suddenly_.

rapt'ure, _great joy; delight_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  "Little lad, slow wandering across the sands so yellow,
  Leading safe a lassie small--O tell me, little fellow,
  Whither go you, loitering in the summer weather,
  Chattering like sweet-voiced birds on a bough together?"

  "I am Robert, if you please, and this is Rose, my sister,
  Youngest of us all"--he bent his curly head and kissed her,
  "Every day we come and wait here till the sun is setting,
  Watching for our father's ship, for mother dear is fretting.

  "Long ago he sailed away, out of sight and hearing,
  Straight across the bay he went, into sunset steering.
  Every day we look for him, and hope for his returning,
  Every night my mother keeps the candle for him burning.

  "Summer goes, and winter comes, and spring returns but never
  Father's step comes to the gate. O, is he gone forever?
  The great, grand ship that bore him off, think you some tempest wrecked her?"
  Tears shone in little Rose's eyes, upturned to her protector.

  Eagerly the bonny boy went on: "O, sir, look yonder!
  In the offing see the sails that east and westward wander;
  Every hour they come and go, the misty distance thronging.
  While we watch and see them fade, with sorrow and with longing."

  "Little Robert, little Rose!" The stranger's eyes were glistening
  At his bronzed and bearded face, upgazed the children, listening;
  He knelt upon the yellow sand, and clasped them to his bosom,
  Robert brave, and little  Rose, as bright as any blossom.

  "Father, father! Is it you?" The still air rings with rapture;
  All the vanished joy of years the waiting ones recapture!
  Finds he welcome wild and sweet, the low-thatched cottage reaching,
  But the ship that into sunset steered, upon the rocks lies bleaching.


       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Read the conversational parts of this poem
like conversation in prose.

Point out the _emphatic words_ in the first line of the last stanza.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--_Into sunset steering_, means sailing westward.

_The misty distance thronging_, means gathering together in the

_The still air rings with rapture_, means that the air becomes full of
joyful shouts.

_All the vanished joy of years the waiting ones recapture_, means that
the children regain the happiness lost during their father's absence.

       *       *       *       *       *


impos'ing, _grand looking; of great size_.

glar'ing, _fierce looking_.

lim'its, _space_.

e nor'mous, _very large; huge_.

start'led, _suddenly alarmed; surprised_.

au'dible, _that may be heard_.

maj'esty, _greatness; nobility_.

increas'ing, _growing larger_.

       *       *       *       *       *


There is, in the appearance of the lion, something both noble and
imposing. Nature has given him wonderful strength and beauty.

His body, when full grown, is only about seven feet long and less than
four feet high; but his large and shapely head, with its powerful jaws,
his glaring eye, and long, flowing mane, give him an air of majesty that
shows him worthy of the name--"King of Beasts."

Yet we are told that a lion will not willingly attack man, unless first
attacked himself or driven by hunger to forget his habits.

On meeting man suddenly, he will turn, retreat slowly for a short
distance, and then run away.

The lion belongs to the cat family, and his teeth and claws are similar
in form and action to those of the house cat.

His food is the flesh of animals; and so great is his appetite, that it
must require several thousand other animals to supply one lion with food
during his life-time.

His strength is so enormous that he can crush the skull of an ox with a
single blow of his powerful paw, and then grasp it in his jaws and bound

Unless driven by hunger to bolder measures, he will hide in the bushes,
or in the tall reeds along the banks of rivers, and spring suddenly upon
the unlucky animal that chances to come near him.

Many lions have been captured, and their habits and appearance carefully
studied. Although there is a difference in color--some being of a
yellowish brown, others of a deep red, and a few silvery gray--the
general form and appearance of all lions is the same.

The mane is of a dark brown, or of a dusky color, and the tail nearly
three feet long, with a bunch of hair at the tip.

The lioness, or female lion, is smaller in every way than the male and
has no mane.

It is in the night-time that the lion goes out from his den to seek for
food, and his color is so dark and his movements so silent, that his
presence is not known even at the distance of a few yards.

These dangerous beasts are no longer found in Europe, although they
lived there in numbers many hundred years ago. It is only in the deserts
and rocky hills of Asia and Africa that they are met with.

Those who have visited a menagerie, and have seen a lion within the
limits of a narrow iron cage, can form no idea of the majesty of the
brute when roaming about freely on his native soil.

The voice of the lion is loud and strong. It is likely to strike terror
to the bravest heart.

"It consists," says a well-known writer, "at times of a low, deep
moaning, repeated five or six times, and ending in scarcely audible
sighs; at other times, the forest is startled with loud, deep-toned,
solemn roars, increasing in loudness to the third or fourth, and then
dying away in sounds like distant thunder."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--This lesson should be read a little more
slowly than conversation. When we wish to describe any thing, we must
give time for those who listen to us to get the meaning of what we say.

Do not run the words together when reading. (See Directions for Reading,
page 42.)[03]

Example.--"There is, in the appearance of the lion, something both
noble and imposing."

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _meeting, require, Europe, idea, terror, measures,
unlucky, narrow, bolder_.

_Air of majesty_ means the noble appearance supposed to belong to

[03] See Lesson VII.

       *       *       *       *       *


ar ti fi' cial, _not real; made by human skill_.

ex er'tion, _great effort; attempt_.

destroyed', _killed; put an end to_.

cleansed, _cleaned; freed from dirt_.

sit u a'tion, _position_.

fa'mous, _much talked of; well known_.

fre'quent ly, _often_.

in'ci dent, _adventure; event_.

nar rat'ed, _told_.

hurled, _thrown with force_.

stu'por, _sleepy feeling_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The dangers of lion-hunting may be understood from the following
incident, narrated by Livingstone, the famous African traveler:

"The villagers among whom I was staying were much troubled by lions,
which leaped into their cattle-pens and destroyed their cows.

"As I knew well that, if one of a number of lions is killed, the others
frequently take the hint and leave that part of the country, I gave the
villagers advice to that end, and, to encourage them, offered to lead
the hunt.

"The lions were found hiding among the rocks on a hill covered with
trees, and about a quarter of a mile in length. The men circled the
hill, and slowly edged in closer and closer, so that the lions might be
completely surrounded.

"Presently one of the natives spied a lion sitting on a piece of rock,
and fired at him, the ball missing the beast and striking the rock.

"The lion turned, bit like a dog at the spot where the bullet had
struck, and then bounded off to the shelter of the brushwood.

"Soon I saw another lion in much the same situation as the former, and,
being not more than thirty yards from it, let fly with both barrels.

"As the lion was still on its legs, I hastened to reload my gun; but
hearing a sudden and frightful cry from the natives, I looked up and
saw the wounded lion springing upon me.

"I was caught by the shoulder and hurled to the ground. Growling
terribly in my ear, the lion shook me as a dog does a rat.

"The shock produced a stupor, similar to that which seems to be felt by
a mouse after the first shake of a cat.

"The lion then leaped upon one of the natives who had tried to shoot at
him, and then sprang at the neck of a second native who, armed with a
spear, was rushing to the rescue.


"The exertion was too much for the wounded beast, and so, with his claws
bedded in the spearman's shoulder, he rolled over and died.

"I had escaped, but with a shoulder so broken as to need an artificial
joint, and with eleven teeth wounds in my arm.

"These wounds were less severe than they would have been, had not a
heavy jacket which I had on, cleansed the teeth of the lion in their
passage. As it was, they were soon cured and gave me no trouble

      *      *      *      *      *

Directions for Reading.--Read this lesson in a full and clear
conversational tone of voice.

Those parts of the lesson to which we wish to call attention, should be
read slowly.

Example.--"The men edged in closer and closer, so that the lions might
be completely surrounded."

Should the slow and clear reading be kept up throughout pages 51 and 52,
or should those pages be read more rapidly?[04]

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _Livingstone, bullet, growling, jacket, offered,
advice, severe_.

_Edged in closer and closer_ means went slowly nearer and nearer.

_Let fly with both barrels_ means fired both barrels of his gun at the
same time.

_Still on its legs_ means not so badly wounded but that it was able to
stand up.

Tell the story in your own words.

[04] See this lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *


en riched', _made rich_.

de tec'tion, _being found out_.

dis mount'ed, _got down from_.

sat' is fied, _supplied with all one wants_.

sum'mit, _top; highest point_.

en trust'ed, _gave the care of_.

em ployed', _used; made use of_.

im por'tant, _worthy of attention_.

ad dressed', _spoke to_.

di' a mond, _a very valuable stone_.

in clud' ed, _put in as a part_.

       *       *       *       *       *


A rich Persian, feeling himself growing old, and finding that the cares
of business were too great for him, resolved, to divide his goods among
his three sons, keeping a very small part to protect him from want in
his old age.

The sons were all well satisfied, and each took his share with thanks,
and promised that it should be well and properly employed. When this
important business was thus finished, the father addressed the sons in
the following words:

"My sons, there is one thing which I have not included in the share of
any one of you. It is this costly diamond which you see in my hand. I
will give it to that one of you who shall earn it by the noblest deed.

"Go, therefore, and travel for three months; at the end of that time,
we will meet here again, and you shall tell me what you have done."

The sons thereupon departed, and traveled for three months, each in a
different direction. At the end of that time they returned; and all came
together to their father to give an account of their journey. The eldest
son spoke first.

"Father, on my journey a stranger entrusted to me a great number of
valuable jewels, without taking any account of them. Indeed, I was well
aware that he did not know how many the package contained.

"One or two of them would never have been missed, and I might easily
have enriched myself without fear of detection. But I gave back the
package exactly as I had received it. Was not this a noble deed?"

"My son," replied the father, "simple honesty cannot be called noble.
You did what was right, and nothing more. If you had acted otherwise,
you would have been dishonest, and your deed would have shamed you. You
have done well, but not nobly."

The second son now spoke. He said: "As I was riding along on my
journey, I one day saw a poor child playing by the shore of a lake; and
just as I rode by, it fell into the water, and was in danger of being

"I at once dismounted from my horse, and plunging into the water,
brought it safe to land. All the people of the village where this
happened will tell you that what I say is true. Was it not a noble

"My son," replied the old man, "you did only what was your duty. You
could hardly have left the child to die without exerting yourself to
save it. You, too, have acted well, but not nobly."

Then the third son came forward to tell his tale. He said: "Father, I
had an enemy, who for years had done me much harm and tried to take my

"One evening during my journey, I was passing along a dangerous road
which ran beside the summit of a cliff. As I rode along, my horse
started at sight of something in the road.

"I dismounted to see what it was, and found my enemy lying fast asleep
on the very edge of the cliff. The least movement in his sleep and he
must have rolled over and been dashed to pieces on the rocks below.

"His life was in my hands. I drew him away from the edge and then woke
him, and told him to go on his way in peace."

Then the old Persian cried out with great joy, "Dear son, the diamond is
yours, for it is a noble and godlike thing to help an enemy and return
good for evil."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Read this lesson in a conversational tone of
voice, and somewhat more slowly than Lesson III.

Read what is said by each one of the four different persons, as you
think each one of them would speak.

How would you read the third and fourth paragraphs?--the last paragraph?

Point out the _emphatic words_ in the last paragraph.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _Persian, therefore, valuable, account, jewels, aware,
contained, dishonest, duty, enemy_.

Let pupils use other words, to express the following:

     To go on his way in peace.       Return good for evil.

Tell the story in your own words, using the points in the following

Analysis.--1. The father divides his goods. 2. What he said to his
sons. 3. What the eldest son did. 4. What the second son did. 5. What
the third son did. 6. What the father said.

       *       *       *       *       *


a new', _over again_.

al'ma nac, _a book giving days, weeks, and months of the year_.

rus'tling, _shaking with a gentle sound_.

scents, _smells_.

drow'sy, _sleepy; making sleepy_.

larch, _a kind of tree_.

flue, _an opening for air or smoke to pass through_.

haunt'ing, _staying in; returning often_.

mur'mur, _a low sound_.

fra' grant, _sweet smelling_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Robins in the tree-top,
    Blossoms in the grass,
  Green things a-growing
    Every-where you pass;
  Sudden fragrant breezes,
    Showers of silver dew,
  Black bough and bent twig
    Budding out anew;
  Pine-tree and willow-tree,
    Fringed elm and larch,--
  Don't you think that May-time's
    Pleasanter than March?

  Apples in the orchard
    Mellowing one by one;
  Strawberries upturning
    Soft cheeks to the sun;
  Roses faint with sweetness,
    Lilies fair of face,
  Drowsy scents and murmurs
    Haunting every place;
  Lengths of golden sunshine,
    Moonlight bright as day,--
  Don't you think that summer's
    Pleasanter than May?

  Roger in the corn-patch
    Whistling negro songs;
  Pussy by the hearth-side
    Romping with the tongs;
  Chestnuts in the ashes
    Bursting through the rind;
  Red leaf and gold leaf
    Rustling down the wind;
  Mother "doin' peaches"
    All the afternoon,--
  Don't you think that autumn's
    Pleasanter than June?

  Little fairy snow-flakes
    Dancing in the flue;
  Old Mr. Santa Claus,
    What is keeping you?
  Twilight and firelight,
    Shadows come and go;
  Merry chime of sleigh-bells
    Tinkling through the snow;
  Mother knitting stockings
    (Pussy's got the ball!)--
  Don't you think that winter's
   Pleasanter than all?

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Read the lesson with spirit, and avoid
anything like sing-song.

Do not make the last word of each line _emphatic_, unless it is really
an _emphatic word_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words; _Marjorie's, chestnuts, peaches, afternoon_.

What part of the year is described in each stanza?

What two words can be used for each of the following: _May-time's,

       *       *       *       *       *


col'o ny, _a number of people living together in one place_.

set'tlers, _those people who form a colony_.

shy, _easily frightened; timid_.

es tab'lished, _formed; settled_.

war'rior,  _a soldier; one who fights in war_.

fur'ni ture, _articles used in a house_.

dread'ed, _feared very much_.

pros' per ous, _successful; rich_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"You want to know why this is called Indian Spring, Robbie? I will tell

"When Mary and I were little girls, father moved away from our pleasant
home on the bank of the Delaware River, and came to this part of the
country. There were five of us: father, mother, Mary, our dear nurse
Lizzie, and I.

"Lizzie was a colored woman, who had lived with us a long time. She was
very handsome, and straight as an arrow. She was a few years older than

"Grandfather Thorpe, your great grandfather, boys, gave her to mother
when she was married. Your grandfather was a miller. The old mill that
I went to see to-day, was his. It was the first mill built in this part
of Pennsylvania.

"O, this was a beautiful country! my eyes never were tired of looking
out over these mountains and valleys. But I saw that mother's face was
getting thinner and whiter every day; they said she was homesick, and
before we had been in the colony a year, a grave was made under an
elm-tree close by, and that grave was mother's.

"I thought my heart was broken then, but I soon forgot my sorrow: I
still had father, sister Mary, and Lizzie.

"In this part of Pennsylvania at that time there were very few white
people, and besides our own, there was no other colony within ten
miles. But our people being so near together, and well armed, felt
quite safe.

"Ten miles away on the Susquehanna, was a small village established by a
colony from the north, which was used as a trading-post. There the
friendly Indians often came to trade.

"Father went twice a year to this village to get supplies that came up
the river. He often spoke of Red Feather, an old Indian warrior. Father
liked Red Feather, and he learned to trust him almost as he would have
trusted a white man.

"Time passed on until I was thirteen years old, a tall, strong girl, and
very brave for a girl. I could shoot almost as well as father.

"Little Mary was very quiet and shy, not like me at all. I loved
fishing, and often went out hunting with father, but she staid at home
with Lizzie, or sat down under the trees by the spring, watching the
shadow of the trees moving in it.

"Our colony had by this time become quite prosperous. A good many of the
settlers had built houses for themselves more like those they had left
behind on the Delaware.

"The spring that I was fourteen, father built this house. The mill had
already been grinding away for two years. We were very happy when we
moved out of our little log cabin into this pleasant house.

"We had but little furniture, but we had plenty of room. Up to this
time, there had not been much trouble with the Indians, and though we
had often dreaded it, and lived in fear many days at a time, only four
of our men had been killed by them.

"We had trusted many of the friendly Indians, and Red Feather had
frequently spent days at our settlement. He seemed to like the mill.

"I became quite attached to the old man; but Mary was always afraid of
him, and Lizzie kept her sharp eyes on him whenever he came into the
house. She hated him, and he knew it.

"One beautiful clear morning in August of that year, father went down to
the mill as usual. Lizzie was busy with her work, and little Mary was
playing with some tame doves, when looking up, I saw Lizzie start

"She had seen something in the woods that frightened her. Without
speaking, she went to the door, closed and fastened it, then turned and
looked out of the window. She never told mo what she saw.

"Father came home early that day; he looked anxious, and I knew that
something troubled him. Without waiting to eat his supper, he went out,
and very soon most of the men of the colony had gathered round him at
the spring."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--With what tone of voice should this lesson be

What other lessons before this, have been read with the same tone of

Name two _emphatic words_ in the following _exclamation_:

    "O, this was a beautiful country!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Change the _exclamation_ given above to a
_statement_. What word would be omitted? How would the punctuation be

Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the following words:
_Delaware, thinner, Susquehanna, grinding_.

       *       *       *       *       *


con fu'sion, _disorder_.

sense'less, _without the power of thinking or acting; seemingly lifeless_.

re vived', _came back to life; recovered_.

cun'ning, _slyness; skill_.

pro voke', _make angry_.

stunned_, made senseless by a blow on the head_.

meek'ly, _in a gentle manner_.

his'to ry, _what is told of the past; a story_.

tot'ter, _shake as if about to fall_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"It was as I had feared; we were in danger of an attack from the

"Something had happened at the trading-post to provoke them, and rouse
their thirst for blood. But a quiet night passed by and the sun shone
again over the hills in wonderful beauty.

"Suddenly, there sounded from the forest a scream. I had never heard it
before, but I knew it. It was the terrible war-whoop. Then all was
confusion and horror.

"I saw Nanito, an Indian that I knew, who had eaten at our table. I saw
him strike down our father, while Lizzie fought to save him.

"But it was no use, there was no mercy in the heart of the Indian. They
carried Lizzie away from us, and we never saw her again.

"Poor little frightened Mary and I were tied together, our hands
fastened behind us, and we were given, to--whom do you think,
Robbie?--to Red Feather. Then I hated him, and resolved that I would
kill him if I could.

"After a while he took us out of the house, and then I saw that most of
the houses in the little village were burning. The women and children
were saved alive, but nearly all the men were killed.

"I was very quiet, for I wanted my hands untied, and I thought perhaps
Red Feather would pity me and unfasten them.

"Little Mary was frightened nearly to death. She had not spoken since
she saw the Indian strike father down,--when she screamed and fell

"For a good while I thought she was dead. She had revived a great deal,
but had not spoken.

"About sundown Red Feather led us down past the spring, out into the
woods, but not far away. We could still see the smoke rising from the
burning houses. The Indians had gone some distance farther and camped
with the white prisoners.

"Red Feather could speak English, so I told him if he would untie my
hands, I would make his fire, and bake his corn cake for him.

"He was old and feeble, and had lost much of his natural cunning. He
knew me, and trusted me; so without speaking, he took his hunting knife
from his belt, cut the cords, and I was free.

"I took the hatchet that he gave me to cut some branches for a fire, and
went to work very meekly, with my head down.

"I dared not speak to Mary, for fear he might see me, for his eyes were
fixed on me every moment. I baked his corn cake in the ashes, and gave
it to him. By this time it was dark, but the light from our fire shone
far out into the woods.

"I noticed Red Feather did not watch me so closely, and his eyes would
now and then shut, for he was very tired.

"He leaned forward to light his pipe in the ashes, when instantly,
almost without thinking, I seized the hatchet, and struck him with all
my might.

"With a loud scream, I plunged into the woods toward home. Turning an
instant, I saw Mary spring up, totter, and fall. With another sharp
report came a twinge of pain in my side. Suddenly I fell, and in the
darkness of the woods, they passed on, leaving me stunned and nearly

"I will not tell you now, my dear Robbie, how I was cared for, and who
brought home little Mary and laid her to rest under the elm, beside
mother--but the bullet that struck me then, I still carry in my side,
and shall as long as I live.

"Many years have passed since that terrible day, but I can never forget
it. As long as the history of this country lasts, Indian Spring will be
remembered, and other boys will listen, with eyes as wide open as
yours, to the tale it has to tell."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Should the second or third paragraph of the
lesson be read the faster?

When do we speak more rapidly--in telling an exciting story, or in
common conversation?

Do our feelings guide us when we speak slowly or rapidly?--when, we
speak quietly or forcibly?

Point out three paragraphs in the lesson that you would read as slowly
as Lesson XIII.; three that you would read more rapidly.

In reading rapidly, be careful not to omit syllables, and not to run
words together. (See Directions for Reading, page 42.)[05]

[05] See Lesson VII.

       *       *       *       *       *


aft, _near the stern of a ship_.

anch'or, _a large iron for holding a ship_.

aimed, _directed or pointed at, as a gun_.

car'tridge, _a small case containing powder and ball_.

mood, _state of mind; temper_.

sul'try, _very hot_.

cleav'ing, _cutting through; dividing_.

dis cov'ered, _found out; seen clearly_.

buoys, _floats, made of wood, hollow iron, or copper_.

re sults', _what follows an act_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our noble ship lay at anchor in the Bay of Tangiers, a town in the
north-west part of Africa.

The day had been very mild, with a gentle breeze sweeping to the
northward and westward. Toward the close of the day the sea-breeze died
away, and hot, sultry breathings came from the great, sunburnt desert of

Half an hour before sundown, the captain gave the cheering order to call
the hands to "go in swimming"; and, in less than five minutes, the forms
of our sailors were seen leaping from the arms of the lower yards into
the water.

One of the sails, with its corners fastened from the main yard-arm and
the swinging boom, had been lowered into the water, and into this most
of the swimmers made their way.

Among those who seemed to be enjoying the sport most heartily were two
boys, one of whom was the son of our old gunner; and, in a laughing
mood, they started out from the sail on a race.

There was a loud ringing shout of joy on their lips as they put off;
they darted through the water like fishes. The surface of the sea was
smooth as glass, though its bosom rose in long, heavy swells that set in
from the ocean.

One of the buoys which was attached to the anchor, to show where it lay,
was far away on the starboard quarter, where it rose and fell with the
lazy swell of the waves.

Towards this buoy the two lads made their way, the old gunner's son
taking the lead; but, when they were within about sixty yards of the
buoy, the other boy shot ahead and promised to win the race.

The old gunner had watched the progress of his son with great pride; and
when he saw him drop behind, he leaped upon the quarter-deck, and was
just upon the point of urging him on by a shout, when a cry was heard
that struck him with instant horror.

"A shark! a shark!" shouted the officer of the deck; and, at the sound
of those terrible words, the men who were in the water, leaped and
plunged toward the ship.

Three or four hundred yards away, the back of a monster shark was seen
cleaving the water. Its course was for the boys.

For a moment the gunner stood like one who had lost his reason; then he
shouted at the top of his voice for the boys to turn; but they heard him

Stoutly the two swimmers strove, knowing nothing of the danger from the
shark. Their merry laughter still rang over the waters, as they were
both nearing the buoy.

O, what anxiety filled the heart of the gunner! A boat had put off, but
he knew it could not reach the boys in time to prevent the shark from
overtaking them.

Every moment he expected to see the monster sink from sight,--then he
knew all hope would be gone. At this moment a cry was heard on board
the ship, that reached every heart,--the boys had discovered their

The cry startled the old gunner, and, quicker than thought, he sprung
from the quarter-deck. The guns were all loaded and shotted, fore and
aft, and none knew their temper better than he.

With steady hand, made strong by sudden hope, the old gunner pricked the
cartridge of one of the quarter guns; then he took from his pocket a
percussion cap, fixed it on its place, and set back the hammer of the

With great exertions, the old man turned the heavy gun to its bearing,
and then seizing the string of the lock, he stood back and watched for
the next swell that would bring the shark in range. He had aimed the
piece some distance ahead of his mark; but yet a moment would settle his
hopes and fears.

Every breath was hushed, and every heart in that old ship beat
painfully. The boat was yet some distance from the boys, while the
horrid sea-monster was fearfully near.


Suddenly the silence was broken by the roar of the gun; and, as the old
man knew his shot was gone, he covered his face with his hands, as if
afraid to see the result. If he had failed, he knew that his boy was

For a moment after the report of the gun had died away upon the air,
there was an unbroken silence; but, as the thick smoke arose from the
surface of the water, there was, at first, a low murmur breaking from
the lips of the men,--that murmur grew louder and stronger, till it
swelled to a joyous, deafening shout.

The old gunner sprung to his feet, and gazed off on the water, and the
first thing that met his sight was the huge body of the shark floating
on its back, the shot aimed by him having instantly killed it.

In a few moments the boat reached the daring swimmers, and, greatly
frightened, they were brought on board. The old man clasped his boy in
his arms, and then, overcome by the powerful excitement, he leaned upon
a gun for support.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--What paragraphs should be read rapidly? Does
the feeling require it?

Use _calling tones_ for the words, "A shark! A shark!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _Tangiers, Sahara, percussion, excitement, support_.

Tell the story in your own words, using the points in the following

Analysis.--1. Where the ship was. 2. The race. 3. The shark. 4. The
gunner's trial. 5. The result.

       *       *       *       *       *


scant'y, _not enough for use_.

hu'man, _belonging to man or mankind_.

cubs, _the young of wild animals_.

le'gend, _a story; a tale_.

soot'y, _blackened with smoke_.

scar'let, _of a bright red color_.

self'ish ly, _as if caring only for one's self_.

knead'ed, _pressed and rolled with the hands_.

dough, _unbaked bread or cake_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Away, away in the Northland,
    Where the hours of the day are few,
  And the nights are so long in winter,
    They can not sleep them through;

  Where they harness the swift reindeer
    To the sledges when it snows;
  And the children look like bear's cubs,
    In their funny, furry clothes:

  They tell them a curious story--
    I don't believe 'tis true;
  And yet you may learn a lesson
    If I tell the tale to you.

  Once, when the good Saint Peter
    Lived in the world below,
  And walked about it, preaching,
    Just as he did, you know;

  He came to the door of a cottage,
    In traveling round the earth,
  Where a little woman was making cakes,
    In the ashes on the hearth.

  And being faint with fasting--
    For the day was almost done--
  He asked her, from her store of cakes,
    To give him a single one.

  So she made a very little cake,
    But as it baking lay,
  She looked at it and thought it seemed
    Too large to give away.

  Therefore she kneaded another,
    And still a smaller one;
  But it looked, when she turned it over,
    As large as the first had done.

  Then she took a tiny scrap of dough,
    And rolled and rolled it flat;
  And  baked it thin as a wafer--
    But she couldn't part with that.

  For she said, "My cakes that seem so small
    When I eat of them myself,
  Are yet too large to give away."
    So she put them on a shelf.

  Then good Saint Peter grew angry,
    For he was hungry and faint;
  And surely such, a woman
    Was enough to provoke a saint.

  And he said, "You are far too selfish
    To dwell in a human form,
  To have both food and shelter,
    And fire to keep you warm.

  "Now, you shall build as the birds do,
    And shall get your scanty food
  By boring, and  boring, and boring,
    All day in the hard dry wood."

  Then up she went through the chimney.
    Never speaking a word;
  And out of the top flew a woodpecker,
    For she was changed to a bird.

  She had a scarlet cap on her head,
    And that was left the same,
  But all the rest of her clothes were burned
    Black as a coal in the flame.

  And every country school-boy
    Has seen her in the wood;
  Where she lives in the trees till this very day
    Boring and boring for food.

  And this is the lesson she teaches:
    Live not for yourselves alone,
  Lest the needs you will not pity
    Shall one day be your own.

  Give plenty of what is given to you,
    Listen to pity's call;
  Don't think the little you give is great,
    And the much you get is small.

  Now, my little  boy, remember that,
    And try to be kind and good,
  When you see the woodpecker's sooty dress,
    And see her scarlet hood.

  You mayn't be changed to a bird, though you live
    As selfishly as you can;
  But you will be changed to a smaller thing--
    A mean and selfish man.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In what manner should this lesson be read at
the beginning--quietly, or with much spirit?

On page 77, beginning with the second stanza, is what Saint Peter says
quiet and slow, or emphatic and somewhat rapid?[06]

Point out three places where two lines are to be joined and read as

What two lines in each stanza end with similar sounds?

[06] See stanza number 12 of the poem.

       *       *       *       *       *


ex pres'sion, _a look showing feeling_.

a maze'ment, _great surprise; astonishment_.

mag'netisnm, _an unknown power of drawing or pulling_.

con tin'ued, _went on; stayed_.

test'ing, _trying_.

con ven'ience, _ease; the saving of trouble_.

ex per'i ments, _the trials made to find out facts_.

       *       *       *       *       *


"What a funny horseshoe!" said Charlie, "It has no holes for the nails!"

I looked up and saw that he had taken up a small "horseshoe magnet."

"Why that isn't a horseshoe," I said. "It's a magnet."

"Magnet! What's that?"

Charlie turned it over in his hands, and pulled the bar a little. The
bar slipped so that it hung only by a corner.

"Never mind," I said, as he looked up with a scared expression. "It
isn't broken. Put the bar back."

Charlie put it back, and it sprung into place with a sharp click.

"That's funny!" he cried again. "What made it jump so? And what makes it
stick? It doesn't feel sticky."

"We call it magnetism," I said. "Now, take hold of the bar, and see if
you can pull it straight off."

"I can't. It sticks fast."

"Pull harder."

Charlie braced himself for a strong pull. Suddenly the bar came off, and
he went tumbling backward.

"What did you say makes it hold so hard?" said he, getting up.

"Magnetism," said I again.

"But what is magnetism?"

"I couldn't tell you if I tried; but I think you could learn a great
deal about it with that magnet. You will find a lot of things in that
box that may help you."

Saying this, I left him to pursue his studies as best he could. When I
came back, I found him more puzzled than when I left him.

"That's the queerest thing I ever saw," he said. "Some things just jump
at it as though they were alive; some things it pulls; and some things
it doesn't pull a bit."

"That's a very long lesson you have learned," I said. "What does it

"These," he said, pointing to a pile of things on one side of the box.
"And these things it doesn't pull."

"Let us see what you have in this pile," I said, looking at the first
little heap; "keys?"

"Trunk keys," said Charlie. "It doesn't pull door keys. I tried ever so

"Try this key," said I, taking one from my pocket. "This is a trunk key.
See if the magnet pulls it."

"No-o," said Charlie, thoughtfully, "it doesn't; but it pulled all the
rest of the trunk keys I could find."

"Try this key to my office door."

Charlie tried it, and to his great amazement the key stuck fast to the

"Surely," said I, "it pulls some door keys, and fails to pull some trunk

Charlie was more puzzled than ever. He looked at the keys, thought a
moment, then picked up my trunk key, and said: "This key is brass; the
rest are iron."

"That's so," I said.

"And all these door keys that the magnet didn't pull," he continued,
"are brass, too. Perhaps it can't pull brass things."

"Suppose you try. But first see if there are any brass things that the
magnet pulled."

Charlie looked them over. Then we tried the casters of my chair, and all
the other brass things we could find, none of which the magnet would

"There's no use in trying any longer," said Charlie. "It won't pull

"Then, there's another matter settled," I said. "The magnet does not
pull brass. Is there any thing else it does not pull?"

"Wood," said Charlie. "I tried lots of pieces."

"Any thing else?"

"Stones," said Charlie, eagerly.

"What are these?" I asked, holding up a couple of heavy stones he had
put among the things the magnet pulled.

"I guess I put those there by mistake," said Charlie, testing with, the
magnet a number of stones in the other pile.

"Try them," I said.

"O!" he said, as the magnet lifted them; "I forgot. It does lift some

"Well, what else have you in that pile of things the magnet did not

"Glass, leather, lead, bone, cloth, tin, zinc, corn, and a lot of

"Very well. Now let us see what the magnet does pull."

"Iron keys," said Charlie, "and nails."

"Here's a nail in this other pile."

"That's a brass nail. The magnet pulls only iron nails."

"What else have we in this pile?"

"Needles, hair-pins, screws, wire--iron wire," he added quickly. "Brass
wire doesn't stick, you know."

"How about this?" I asked, taking a small coil of copper wire from my

"I guess that won't stick," said Charlie. "Because that's copper wire,
and the magnet doesn't seem to pull any thing that isn't iron."

Much to Charlie's satisfaction, the magnet did not pull the copper wire.
Then I took up two stones, one rusty red, the other black, and said:
"What about these?"

"I guess they must have iron in them too," said Charlie. "Have they?"

"They have," I replied. "They are iron ores from which iron is made. Why
did you think there was iron in them?"

"Because they wouldn't have stuck to the magnet if there wasn't."

"Quite true. So you have learned another very important fact. Can you
tell me what it is?"

"The magnet pulls iron," said Charlie.

"Good," said I; "and it is also true that the magnet does not pull--"

"Things that are not iron," said Charlie.

"True again," I said. "So far as our experiments go, the magnet pulls
iron always, and never any thing else."

"But what makes it pull iron?"

"That I can not tell. We see it does pull, but just how the pulling is
done, or what makes it, no one has yet found out.

"For convenience we call the pulling power magnetism. You may keep the
magnet, and at some other time, I will tell you more about it."

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Name six words in the lesson, each of which is made
up of two words by leaving out letters.

Write out the two words in each case.

What is the name of the mark which shows the omission of letters?

Point out the _statement, command, question_, and _exclamation_ in
the sentences given below.

    "O, isn't it a funny horseshoe!"

    "Put the bar back."

    "What made it jump so?"

    "The magnet pulls iron."

       *       *       *       *       *


ex pos'es, _shows_.

mi mo'sa, _a tree that grows in Africa_.

mot'tled, _marked with spots of different color_.

re sem'bling, _looking like_.

ap proach', _coming near_.

pub'lic, _open to all; free_.

va'ri ous,  _different; unlike in kind_.

de fend', _take care of; protect_.

gait, _manner of stepping_.

pre vents', _keeps from; stops_.

ca' pa ble, _having power; able_.

       *       *       *       *       *


There are few sights more pleasing than a herd of tall and graceful

With, their heads reaching a height of from twelve to eighteen feet,
they move about in small herds on the open plains of Africa, eating the
tender twigs and leaves of the mimosa and other trees.

The legs of a large giraffe are about nine feet long, and its neck
nearly six feet; while its body measures only seven feet in length and
slopes rapidly from the neck to the tail.

The graceful appearance of the giraffe is increased by the beauty of its
skin, which is orange red in color and mottled with dark spots.

Its long tail has at the end a tuft of thick hair which serves the
purpose of keeping off the flies and stinging insects, so plentiful in
the hot climate of Africa.


Its tongue is very wonderful. It is from thirteen to seventeen inches in
length, is slender and pointed, and is capable of being moved in various
ways. It is almost as useful to the giraffe as the trunk is to the

The horns of the giraffe are very short and covered with skin. At the
ends there are tufts of short hair. The animal has divided hoofs
somewhat resembling those of the ox.

The head of the giraffe is small, and its eyes, large and mild looking.
These eyes are set in such a way that the animal can see a great deal of
what is behind it without turning its head.

In addition to its wonderful power of sight, the giraffe can scent
danger from a great distance; so there is no animal more difficult of

Strange to relate, the giraffe has no voice. In London, some years ago,
two giraffes were burned to death in their stables, when the slightest
sound would have given notice of their danger, and saved their lives.

The giraffe is naturally both gentle and timid, and he will always try
to avoid danger by flight. It is when running that he exposes his only
ungraceful point.

He runs swiftly, but as he moves the fore and hind legs on each side at
the same time, it gives him a very displeasing and awkward gait.

But though timid, he will, when overtaken, turn even upon the lion or
panther, and defend himself successfully by powerful kicks with his
strong legs.

The natives of Africa capture the giraffe in pitfalls, which are deep
holes covered over with branches of trees and dirt. When captured, he
can be tamed, and gives scarcely any trouble during captivity.

Fifty years ago, but little was known about giraffes in Europe or
America. Now we can find them in menageries and the public gardens of
our large cities.

The giraffe thrives in captivity and seems to be well satisfied with a
diet of corn and hay. It is a source of great satisfaction to those who
admire this beautiful animal, that there is no reason which prevents him
from living in a climate so different from that of his African home.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Write statements containing each of the following
words, used in such a manner as to show their proper meaning: _feet,
feat; red, read; fore, four; gait, gate_.


    We are coming to _see_ you to-morrow.

    He stood watching the ships sailing on the _sea_.

       *       *       *       *       *


ex pert', _skillful_.

ad vise', _offer advice; give notice of what has happened_.

civ'il ized, _having laws, learning, and good manners_.

quan'ti ty, _a large amount; part_.

in duce', _lead one to think or act_.

pre pared', _made ready for use_.

de part'ed, _went away_.

hence forth', _from this time forward_.

part'ner, _one who shares with another, as a partner in business_.

ar riv'ing, _coming to; reaching a point_.

con vince', _make one believe_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Out in the West, where many Indians live, there are white men who go
among them to trade for furs and skins of animals.

These furs and skins are collected and prepared by the Indians, and
serve the purpose of money when the traders visit them to dispose of
various kinds of goods.

In old times, before the white men came to this country, the Indians had
only bows and arrows, and spears with which to hunt.

But the white men soon taught them to use guns, and to-day, nearly all
the tribes in America are well supplied with rifles or shotguns.

They are very expert with these fire-arms, and as they use them a great
deal, must have a large and constant supply of gunpowder.

A story is told of how, at one time, a tribe of Indians tried to raise
gunpowder by planting seed. This shows how little they knew of civilized
life and habits.

A trader went to a certain Indian nation to dispose of a stock of goods.
Among other things he had a quantity of gunpowder.

The Indians traded for his cloths, hats, axes, beads, and other things,
but would not take the powder, saying: "We do not wish for the powder;
we have plenty."

The trader did not like to carry all the powder back to his camp; so
thought he would play a trick on the Indians, and induce them to buy it.

Going to an open piece of ground near the Indian camp, he dug some
little holes in the soft, rich soil; then mixing a quantity of onion
seed with his powder, he began to plant it.

The Indians were curious to know what he was doing, and stood by greatly

"What are you doing?" said one. "Planting gunpowder," replied the

"Why do you plant it?" inquired another.

"To raise a crop of powder. How could I raise it without planting?" said
the trader. "Do you not plant corn in the ground?"

"And will gunpowder grow like corn?" exclaimed half a dozen at once.

"Certainly it will," said the trader. "Did you not know it? As you do
not want my powder, I thought I would plant it, and raise a crop which I
could gather and sell to the Crows."

Now the Crows were another tribe of Indians, which was always at war
with this tribe. The idea of their enemies having a large supply of
powder increased the excitement, and one of the Indians said:

"Well, well, if we can raise powder like corn, we will buy your stock
and plant it."

But some of the Indians thought best to wait, and see if the seed would
grow. So the trader agreed to wait a few days.

In about a week the tiny sprouts of the onion seed began to appear above
the ground.

The trader calling the Indians to the spot, said: "You see now for
yourselves. The powder already begins to grow, just as I told you it

The fact that some small plants appeared where the trader had put the
gunpowder, was enough to convince the Indians.

Every one of them became anxious to raise a crop of gunpowder.

The trader sold them his stock, in which there was a large mixture of
onion seeds, at a very high price, and then left.

From this time, the Indians gave no attention to their corn crop. If
they could raise gunpowder, they would be happy.

They took great care of the little plants as they came up out of the
ground, and watched every day for the appearance of the gunpowder

They planned a buffalo hunt which was to take place after the powder

After a while the onions bore a plentiful crop of seeds, and the Indians
began to gather and thresh it.

They believed that threshing the onion seeds would produce the powder.
But threshing failed to bring it. Then they discovered that they had
been cheated.

Of course the dishonest trader avoided these Indians, and did not make
them a second visit.

After some time, however, he sent his partner to them for the purpose of
trading goods for furs and skins.

By chance they found out that this man was the partner of the one who
had cheated them.

They said nothing to him about the matter; but when he had opened his
goods and was ready to trade, they coolly helped themselves to all he
had, and walked off.

The trader did not understand this. He became furiously angry, and went
to make his complaint to the chief of the nation.

"I am an honest man," said he to the chief. "I came here to trade
honestly. But your people are thieves; they have stolen all my goods."

The old chief looked at him some time in silence, and then said: "My
children are all honest. They have not stolen your goods. They will pay
you as soon as they gather their gunpowder harvest."

The man had heard of the trick played upon the Indians; but did not know
before this, that his partner was the one who had cheated them. He could
not say a word. He departed at once. Arriving at his home, he said to
his partner:

"We must separate. I have learned a lesson. I can not remain in business
with a dishonest man. You cheated the Indians for a little gain. You
have lost it, and I advise you, henceforth, to deal honestly with all

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In the first paragraph of the lesson, notice
the places marked below (__) where words are likely to be run together
in reading, and avoid making such errors.

    "Out__in the West, there__are men who trade for furs__and skins__of

Point out similar places in the second paragraph.

Name four _emphatic words_ occurring in the last sentence of the

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson. Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _dispose, gunpowder, complaint, henceforth_.

Give reasons for the capital letters and marks of punctuation used in
the last paragraph of the lesson.

Tell the story in your own words, using the points given in the

Analysis.--1. Trading with the Indians. 2. The use of fire-arms among
the Indians. 3. The trader's trick. 4. Visit of the trader's partner. 5.
What the Indians did. 6. The return of the partner. 7. What he said to
the trader.

       *       *       *       *       *


floss'y, _made of silk_.

mag'ic, _unnatural power_.

war'bling, _singing_.

mope, _become stupid or dull_.

boun'ty, _what is given freely_.

lan'guish, _become weak; wither_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Over my shaded doorway
    Two little brown-winged birds
  Have chosen to fashion their dwelling,
    And utter their loving words;
  All day they are going and coming
    On errands frequent and fleet,
  And warbling over and over,
    "Sweetest, sweet, sweet, O sweet!"

  Their necks are changeful and shining,
    Their eyes like living gems;
  And all day long they are busy
    Gathering straws and stems,
  Lint and feathers and grasses,
    And half forgetting to eat,
  Yet never failing to warble,
    "Sweetest, sweet, sweet, O sweet!"

  I scatter crumbs on the doorstep,
    And fling them some flossy threads;
  They fearlessly gather my bounty,
    And turn up their grateful heads.
  And chatter and dance and flutter,
    And scrape with their tiny feet,
  Telling me over and over,
    "Sweetest, sweet, sweet, O sweet!"

  What if the sky is clouded?
    What if the rain comes down?
  They are all dressed to meet it,
    In water-proof suits of brown.
  They never mope nor languish,
    Nor murmur at storm  or heat;
  But say, whatever the weather,
    "Sweetest, sweet, sweet, O sweet!"

  Always merry and busy,
    Dear little brown-winged birds!
  Teach me the happy magic
    Hidden in those soft words,
  Which always, in shine or shadow,
    So lovingly you repeat,
  Over and over and over,
    "Sweetest, sweet, sweet, O sweet!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils express, in their own language, the words
given below in dark type.

    Their eyes are like _living gems_.

    Which you always repeat _in shine or shadow_.

What kind of birds are described in the lesson?

Why did they gather straws, stems, lint, feathers, and grasses?

       *       *       *       *       *


mes'sage, _word; notice_.

mer'chan dise, _things traded; goods_.

guid'ance _leading; directing_.

halt, _stop_.

de cid'ed, _made up their minds_.

re trac'ing, _going back over_.

ho ri'zon, _line where the earth and sky seem to meet_.

en camped', _set up tents_.

sole, _only_.

gushed, _flowed rapidly; poured_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Hassan was a camel-driver who dwelt at Gaza. It was his business to go
with caravans, backwards and forwards, across the desert to Suez, to
take care of the camels. He had a wife and one young son, called Ali.

Hassan had been, absent for many weeks, when his wife received from him
a message, brought by another camel-driver, who had returned with a
caravan from Suez.

It said: "Send the boy with the camel to Suez with the next caravan. I
have some merchandise to bring home, and I will stop at Suez till he

Ali's mother was pained at the thought of sending her young son away to
such a distance for the first time; but she said to herself that Ali
was now quite old enough to be helping his father, and she at once set
about doing what was required for his journey.

Ali got out the trappings for the camel, and looked to the water-bottles
to see that they did not leak. His mother did all that was needed to
make him quite ready to join the next caravan that started.

Ali was delighted to think that he was to go to his father, and that at
last the day was come when, he too was to be a camel-driver, and to take
a journey with the dear old camel which he was so fond of.

He had long wanted to ride on its back across the desert, and to lie
down by its side to rest at night. He had no fear.

The camel, of which Ali was so fond, had been bought by his father with
the savings of many a year's hard work, and formed the sole riches of
the family.

Hassan was looked upon as quite a rich man by the other camel-drivers,
and Ali, besides having a great love for the animal, was proud of his
father being a camel owner.

Though it was a great creature by the side of the young boy, it would
obey the voice of Ali, and come and go at his bidding, and lie down and
rise up just as he wished. Hassan called his camel by an Arabian word,
which meant "Meek-eye."

At last, there was a caravan about to start for Suez which Ali could
join. The party met near the gates of the city, where there were some
wells, at which the water-bottles could be filled. Ali's mother
attended, and bid her son a loving farewell.

The caravan started. The camels which were to lead the way, had around
their necks jingling bells, which the others hearing, followed without
other guidance.

Ali looked about and saw his mother standing near the city gate. He took
his cap off and waved it above his head, and his mother took off the
linen cloth which she wore over her head, and waved it.

Tramp, tramp, tramp went the camels, their soft spongy feet making a
noise as they trod the ground. The camel-drivers laughed, and talked to
each other.

Ali was the only boy in the caravan, and no one seemed to notice him. He
had a stout heart, and tried not to care.

He could talk to Meek-eye, and this he did, patting the creature's back,
and telling him they would soon see his father.

The sun rose higher and higher, and the day grew hotter and hotter. The
morning breeze died away, and the noon was close and sultry.

The sand glowed like fire. There was nothing to be seen but sand and
sky. At mid-day a halt was made at one of the places well known to the
drivers, where shade and water could be had.

The water-bottles were not to be touched that day, for at this place a
little stream, which gushed from a rock, supplied enough for the men,
while the camels needed no water for many days.

After resting a short time, the kneeling camels were made to rise, the
riders first placing themselves on their backs, and the caravan then
moved on.

At night the party encamped for rest, the camels lying down, while fires
were lighted and food was prepared.

Several days were thus passed, and Ali found that he liked this kind of
life as well as he thought he should.

No Arabs were met with, nor even seen; but a danger of the desert, worse
than a party of Arabs, came upon them.

There arose one day at noon, one of those fearful burning winds which do
such mischief to the traveler and his camel. The loose sand was raised
like a cloud. It filled the nostrils and blinded the eyes.

The only thing to be done, was for the men to get off the backs of the
camels, and lie down with their faces to the earth.

After the storm had passed, they arose to continue their journey. But
the sand had been so blown as to cover the beaten track, and thus all
trace of the road was lost.

The camel-drivers who led the way stood still, and said that they did
not know which way to turn.

No distant rock or palm-tree was to be seen, and no one could say which
was the south, towards which their faces ought to be turned.

They wandered on, now turning to the right, and now to the left; and
sometimes, when they had gone some distance in one direction, retracing
their steps and trying another.

The caravan made a halt, and it was now decided to journey towards the
setting sun, in hopes of finding once more the right track.

Night came on, however, and they had not found it, nor had they reached
any place where they could fill their water-bottles, which were empty.

Once or twice, some one of the party fancied that he saw in the distance
the top of a palm-tree; but no, it turned out to be but a little cloud
upon the horizon.

They had not yet found the old track; neither had they supplied
themselves with water to cool their parched lips.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Always take breath before beginning to read a
sentence. If the sentence is a long one, choose such places for breathing
as will not injure the sense.

When we are out of breath, we are likely either to read too fast, or
stop to breathe at such places as to injure the sense.

In the first sentence of the second paragraph on page 101, we may make
slight pauses to take breath after _noon_ and after _winds_.[07]

Point out breathing-places in the last paragraph on page 100.[08]

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _jingling, nostrils, farewell_.

Let pupils use other words to express the following:

    A stout heart.    Towards the setting sun.

[07] See paragraph 22 beginning, "There arose one day at noon...."

[08] See paragraph 21 beginning, "Several days were thus passed...."

       *       *       *       *       *


pro pose', _offer; advise_.

group, _a number of persons or things together_.

grief, _great sorrow; distress_.

draughts (drafts), _quantities of water taken at one time_.

quenched, _satisfied; put out_.

re' cently, _newly; lately_.

flick'er ing, _fluttering; keeping in motion_.

greed'ily, _very eagerly_

pre'cious, _of great price; costly_.

wea'ry, _very tired_.

refresh'ing, _cooling; reviving_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Poor Ali suffered like the rest from terrible thirst. He drank the last
drop of water from his water-bottle, and thought of the morrow with

He was so tired when night came, he was glad to lie down by the side of
Meek-eye and go to sleep. Ali slept, but before morning, was awakened by
the sound of voices.

He listened, and heard the chief driver tell one of the merchants that,
if they did not find water very soon, the next day a camel must be
killed, in order to get the water contained in its stomach.

This is often done in cases of great need in the desert, the stomach of
the camel being so formed as to hold a great quantity of water.

Ali was not surprised to hear such a thing spoken of; but what was his
distress and alarm, when he heard the merchant propose that it should be
"the boy's camel" that should be killed!

The merchant said the other camels were of too good a kind, and of too
much value; while, as to this young boy, what business had he to have a
camel of his own?

It would be better far, they said, for him to lose his camel than for
him to die, like the rest, of thirst. And so it was decided that
Meek-eye should be killed, unless water were found the next morning.

Ali slept no more. His heart was full of grief; but his grief was mixed
with courage and resolution. He said to himself that Meek-eye should not

His father had trusted him to bring the camel, and what would he say if
he should arrive at Suez without it? He would try to find his way alone,
and leave the caravan as soon as possible.

That night when all was quiet, and the merchant and camel-driver had
gone to sleep, Ali arose, and gently patting the neck of Meek-eye, awoke

He placed his empty bag and water-bottles on his back, and seating
himself on him, made signs for the creature to rise, and then suddenly
started off.

Tramp, tramp, tramp, went Meek-eye over the soft sand. The night was
cool and refreshing, and Ali felt stronger and braver with every tramp.
The stars were shining brightly, and they were his only guides.

He knew the star which was always in the north, and the one which was in
the west after the sun had gone down. He must keep that star to the
right, and he would be sure to be going towards the south.

He journeyed on till day began to dawn. The sun came up on the edge of
the desert, and rose higher and higher. Ali felt faint, weary, and
thirsty, and could scarcely hold himself on to Meek-eye. When he thought
of his father and mother, he took courage again, and bore up bravely.

The sun was now at its height. Ali fancied he saw a palm-tree in the
distance. It seemed as if Meek-eye saw it also, for he raised his head
and quickened his step.

It was not long before Ali found himself at one of those pleasant green
islands which are found throughout the desert, and are called oases.

He threw himself from the camel's back, and hunted out the pool of water
that he knew he should find in the midst of the reeds and long grass
which grew there.

He dipped in his water-bottle and drank, while Meek-eye, lying down,
stretched out his long neck, and greedily sucked up great draughts of
the cool water.

How sweet was the sleep which crept over them as they lay down in the
shade of the great palm-tree, now that they had quenched their thirst!

Refreshed and rested, Ali was able to satisfy his hunger on some ripe
dates from the palm-tree, while Meek-eye began to feed upon the grass
and leaves around.

Ali noticed, while eating his dates, that other travelers had been there
recently: as the grass at the side of the pool was trampled down. This
greatly cheered him. He quickly followed in their track, still going in
a southerly direction.

He kept the setting sun to his right, and when it had gone down, he
noticed the bright star that had guided him before.

He traveled on, tired and faint with hunger for many a mile, till at
last he saw, a long way off, the fires of a caravan which had halted for
the night.

Ali soon came up to them. He got down, from Meek-eye, and leading him by
the bridle, came towards a group of camel-drivers, who were sitting in a

He told them his story, and asked permission to join the party, and
begged a little rice, for which he was ready to pay with the piece of
money that his mother had given him when he left home.

Ali was kindly received by them, and allowed to partake of their supper.
The men admired the courage with which he had saved his favorite camel.
After supper Ali soon closed his weary eyes, and slept soundly by the
side of Meek-eye.

In the midst of a pleasant dream, Ali was suddenly aroused by the sound
of tinkling bells, and on waking up he saw that another caravan had
arrived, which had come from the south.

The merchants sat down to wait until their supper was brought to them,
and a party of camel-drivers drew round the fire near which Ali had
been sleeping. They raked up its ashes, put on fresh fuel, and then
prepared to boil their rice.

What voice was that which roused Ali just as he was falling asleep
again? He listened, he started to his feet, he looked about him, and
waited for a flash of flame from the fire to fall on the faces of the
camel-drivers who stood around it.

It came flickering up at first, and then all at once blazing out,
flashed upon the camel-driver who stood stooping over it, and lighted up
the face of Ali's father!

The father had waited at Suez many days, wondering why Ali did not come;
and then, thinking there had been some mistake, determined to return
home with the caravan, which was starting for Gaza.

We need hardly describe the joy of both father and son at thus meeting,
nor the pleasure with which the father listened to the history of Ali
the fears and dangers to which his young son had been exposed. He was
glad, too, that their precious Meek-eye had been saved.

There was no one in the whole caravan so happy as Hassan, when, the next
morning, he continued, his journey to Gaza in company with Meek-eye and
his beloved son Ali.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Syllabify, accent, and mark sounds of letters in the
following words: _suffered, permission, partake, merchants, beloved_.

Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of what is given below
in dark type.

    Ali _bore up bravely_.

    Meek-eye _quickened his step_.

    _The sun_ was now _at its height_.

Write statements containing each of the following words, used in such a
manner as to show their proper meaning: _herd, heard; need, knead; no,
know; way, weigh; knew, new_.

Make out an _analysis_ of the two lessons, and use it in telling the
story in your own words.

       *       *       *       *       *


ob served', _saw; noticed_.

trans par'ent, _clear; easily seen through_.

ma te'ri al, _that of which any thing is made or to be made_.

ob tained', _taken from; received_.

gar'ments, _articles of clothing_.

verd'ure, _any green growth_.

a dorn', _dress with taste; beautify_.

par tic'ular, _of an unusual kind_.

va ri'e ty, _a number of different kinds_.

del'i cate, _gentle; tender_.

ca ressed', _treated with fondness_.

       *       *       *       *       *


One evening, as Captain Perry was sitting by the fireside at his home in
Liverpool, his children asked him to tell them a story.


"What shall it be about?" said the captain.

"O," said Harry, "tell us about other countries, and the curious people
you have seen in them."

"Yes, yes!" exclaimed Mary. "We were much interested, while you were
away the last time, in reading 'Gulliver's Travels' and 'Sindbad the

"You have seen as wonderful things as they did, haven't you, father?"
said Harry.

"No, my dears," said the captain. "I never met such wonderful people as
they tell about, I assure you; nor have I seen the 'Black Loadstone
Mountain' or the 'Valley of Diamonds.'"

"But," said Mary, "you have seen a great many people, and their
different manners and ways of living."

"Yes," said the captain, "and if it will interest you, I will tell you
some of the curious things that I have observed."

"Pray, do so!" cried Harry, as both the children drew close to him.

"Well, then," began the captain, "I was once in a country where it was
very cold, and the poor people could scarcely keep themselves from

"They were clothed partly in the skins of beasts, made smooth and soft
by some particular art; but chiefly in garments made from the outer
covering of an animal cruelly stripped off its back while alive.

"They lived in houses partly sunk below the ground. These houses were
mostly built of stones or of earth hardened by fire.

"The walls of the houses had holes to let in light; but to prevent the
cold air and rain from coming in, they were covered with a sort of
transparent stone, made of melted sand.

"As wood was rather scarce, they used for fuel a certain kind of stone
which they dug out of the earth, and which, when put among burning
wood, catches fire and makes a bright flame."

"Dear me!" said Harry. "What a wonderful stone! Why didn't you
bring a piece home with you, father?"

"I have a piece, which I will show you some time," replied the captain.
"But to go on with my story.

"What these people eat is remarkable, too. Some of the poor people eat
fish which had been hung up and smoked until quite dry and hard, and
along with it they eat the roots of plants, or coarse, black cake made
of powdered seeds.

"The rich people have a whiter kind of cake upon which they spread a
greasy matter that is obtained from a large animal. They eat also the
flesh of many birds and beasts when they can get it, and the leaves and
other parts of a variety of vegetables--some raw and others cooked.

"For drink they use the water in which certain dry leaves have been
steeped. These leaves, I was told, came from a country a great distance

"I was glad to leave this country because it was so very cold; but about
six months after, I was obliged to go there again. What was my surprise
to find that great changes had taken place!

"The climate was mild and warm, and the country was full of beauty and
verdure. The trees and shrubs bore a great variety of fruits, which,
with other vegetable products, were used largely as food.

"The people were gentle and civilized. Their dress was varied. Many wore
cloth woven from a sort of wool grown in pods on bushes.

"Another singular material was a fine, glossy stuff used chiefly by the
rich people. I was told that it was made out of the webs of
caterpillars, which to me seemed quite wonderful, as it must have taken
a great number of caterpillars to produce the large quantity of the
stuff that I saw.

"These people have queer ideas about their dress. The women wear
strangely figured garments, and adorn their heads, like some Indian
nations, with feathers and other fanciful head-dresses.

"One thing surprised me very much. They bring up in their houses an
animal of the tiger species, having the same kind of teeth and claws as
the tiger.

"In spite of the natural fierceness of this little beast, it is played
with and caressed by the most timid and delicate of their women and

"I am sure I would not play with it," said Harry.

"You might get an ugly scratch, if you did," said the captain.

"Aha!" cried Mary; "I've found you out: you have been telling us of our
country and what is done at home all this while!"

"But we don't burn stones, or eat grease and powdered seeds, or wear
skins and caterpillars' webs, or play with tigers," said Harry.

"No?" said the captain. "Pray, what is coal but a kind of stone; and is
not butter, grease; and wheat, seeds; and leather, skins; and silk, the
web of a kind of caterpillar; and may we not as well call a cat an
animal of the tiger kind, as a tiger an animal of the cat kind?"

"So, if you will remember what I have been describing, you will find
that all the other wonderful things that I have told you of, are well
known among ourselves."

"I have told you the story to show that a foreigner might easily
represent every thing among us as equally strange and wonderful, as we
could with respect to his country."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Point out breathing-places in the last

Name the _emphatic words_ in the last paragraph.

Pronounce carefully the following words: _vegetable, foreigner, beasts,
products, across, again, also, apron_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils express the meaning of what is given below
in dark type, using a single word for each example.

    Houses built of _earth hardened by fire_.

    The walls have _holes to let in the light_.

    They were covered with _a sort of transparent stone_.

    They drink _water in which dry leaves have been steeped_.

    Many wore cloth woven from _a sort of wool grown in pods_.

       *       *       *       *       *


lin'net, _a kind of bird_.

com pare', _be equal; have similar appearance_.

wor'ried, _troubled; anxious_.

hum'ble, _meek; lowly_.

mis'chiev ous, _full of mischief; troublesome_.

grub, _dig up by the roots_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Little Miss Brier came out of the ground,
  She put out her thorns, and scratched ev'ry thing 'round.
              "I'll just try," said she,
              "How bad I can be;
  At pricking and scratching, there are few can match me."

  Little Miss Brier was handsome and bright,
  Her leaves were dark green, and  her flowers pure white;
              But all who came nigh her
              Were so worried by her,
  They'd go out of their way to keep clear of the Brier.

  Little Miss Brier was looking one day
  At her neighbor, the Violet, over the way;
              "I wonder," said she,
              "That no one pets me,
  While all seem so glad little Violet to see."

  A sober old Linnet, who sat on a tree,
  Heard the speech of the Brier, and thus answered he:
              "'Tis not that she's fair,
              For you may compare
  In beauty with even Miss Violet there;

  "But Violet is always so pleasant and kind,
  So gentle in manner, so humble in mind,
              E'en the worms at her feet
              She would never ill-treat,
  And to Bird, Bee, and Butterfly always is sweet."

  Then the gardener's wife the pathway came down,
  And the mischievous Brier caught hold of her gown;
              "O dear, what a tear!
              My gown's spoiled, I declare!
  That troublesome Brier!--it has no business there;
  Here, John, grub it up; throw it into the fire."
  And that was the end of the ill-natured Brier.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--This lesson should be read in a spirited

It is suggested to vary the reading exercise by having one pupil read
each stanza, and the class repeat it in concert.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of
what is given below in dark type.

    There are few can _match_ me.

    They'd go out of their way to _keep clear of_ the Brier.

Supply letters omitted from the following words: _they'd, gown's, e'en,
'round_. Write the words in full.

       *       *       *       *       *


ply, _make regular journeys_.

com'merce, _trade between places or peoples_.

might'y, _of great power_.

trav'erse, _pass over; cross_.

re'al ize, _understand the truth of_.

pro pel', _drive forward_.

prop'erty, _any thing that belongs to a person_.

or'chards, _numbers of fruit-trees_.

im mense', _very large_.

glit'ter ing, _sparkling with light_.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is difficult to realize that nearly three-fourths of the surface of
the earth is water; yet it is a fact.

Think of the immense space covered by oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers,
and how useful all this water is to mankind.

Sailing ships and steam-ships traverse the oceans and lakes. Steam-boats
ply along the rivers, carrying people and merchandise to and fro, going
sometimes as far as three thousand miles from their starting point.

It is by water that men float their rafts of logs or lumber to distant
places. Water turns the great wheels of many of our mills, and thus
harnessed to mighty machines, does more work than thousands of men and

These machines produce paper, cloth, flour, lumber, and many other
useful articles.

When water is heated and turned into steam, it moves powerful engines.
These engines propel our great steam-ships and steam-boats and drive
machines of all kinds in mills and factories.

Many of you have seen water, clear and cool, trickling from the rocks in
the side of a hill. This water first forms a spring.

From this spring, the water escapes in a tiny stream, called a rivulet
or creek, and flows along until it enters a river. Many springs make
many rivulets; many rivulets make large rivers.

Rivers sometimes receive such great quantities of water that they
overflow their banks, and destroy much valuable property. This is called
a freshet or a flood.

Many people who live near some of our rivers have lost their houses,
furniture, and cattle, which were all swept away by these floods.

In the winter of 1883, the Ohio River received so much water from the
thousands of rivulets flowing into it, that it overflowed its banks.

The result of this overflow was one of the greatest floods ever known,
and many, no doubt, who read this, were there to see its terrible

But where does all this water come from? you may ask.

Let me see if I can explain it to you. The water in all these rivers,
lakes, and oceans is constantly rising into the air in what is called
moisture or vapor. We can not see this moisture, neither can we see the

If the air is cold, moisture does not rise rapidly; but, as the air
becomes heated, it takes up more moisture, so that the more heat there
is in the air, the more moisture rises.

Heated air is light, and rises higher and higher from the ground, taking
the moisture with it, until it reaches a point where it begins to cool.

Then as the air cools, the moisture forms into clouds, and these clouds
are, in a certain sense, floating water.

Floating water! How can water float! do you ask?

Well, I will tell you. Cold air is heavier than heated air, and until
the clouds become so full of moisture as to return some of it to the
earth, in the shape of rain, they float because they are lighter than
the air underneath them.

The winds, by the flapping of their mighty wings, drive the clouds over
the land to the hills and the mountains and the thirsty fields; and
there they pour their blessings on the farms, pastures, orchards, and
the dusty roads and way-side grass, bringing greenness and gladness

Without water nothing would grow; every thing would dry up and wither.

All animals drink water, for it forms a part of their blood and thus
helps to keep them alive. All trees and plants drink it by drawing it
through their roots or leaves, for it helps to form their sap.

Sometimes on a summer morning you will see drops of clear sparkling
water on flowers and grass.

To look at them you would think it had rained during the night; but,
noticing that the ground is dry, you know that no rain has fallen.

What then are these glittering drops of water? Where do they come from?

I will tell you. These drops are called dew. As night comes on, the
grass and the leaves of flowers and plants become cool.

When the warm air touches them, it becomes chilled, and as the air can
not then carry so much moisture as before, it leaves some of its
moisture on the flowers and grass.

A moisture like dew sometimes collects in the house. Did you ever
observe it in drops on the outside of a pitcher of cold water? Some
people suppose that the water comes through the pitcher, but it does

The water being cold makes the pitcher cold, and as the warm air of the
room strikes it, a moisture like dew is left on the pitcher, in the same
manner as dew is left on grass, leaves, and flowers.

In cold weather, when the dew gathers on plants and flowers, it
sometimes freezes and forms frost, and when the clouds throw off their
moisture in rain drops, the rain becomes sleet, hail, or snow.

So you see that dew, rain, frost, sleet, snow, and hail are only
different forms of water.

       *       *       *       *       *


treas'ure, _a large quantity of money; valuable things_.

for'mer ly, _in time past; heretofore_.

mod'er ate, _not great; limited in quantity_.

or'phan, _a child whose father and mother are dead_.

at tract'ive, _inviting; having power to draw toward_.

em'er y, _a kind of hard, sharp sand_.

ex treme', _last point or limit_.

rub'bish, _things of no value_.

fit'tings, _things needed in making an article ready for use_.

       *       *       *       *       *



On a pleasant street in the old town of Fairfield, stands a neat, little
cottage. This was formerly the home of Mrs. Reed, an old lady respected
by her neighbors and loved by all the young people of the place.

There was about Mrs. Reed a kindly manner which pleased all who knew
her. Although very poor, she took much interest in her young friends and
tried to make them happy.

Mrs. Reed had not always been poor. Her husband when alive was supposed
to be rich; but after his death, it was found that nothing was left to
his widow but two small cottages.

In one of these cottages, Mrs. Reed lived; the other, she rented. But
the rent received was no more than enough to enable her to live with
moderate comfort. She had little or nothing left with which to do for

One cold winter morning, two persons were talking together in the cozy
sitting-room of the cottage. One was Mrs. Reed, and the other, Alice
Brown, a poor orphan girl, who lived with some distant relatives in

"You are very kind to come to see me so often, Alice," said Mrs. Reed.
"I wonder why you do; because there is nothing attractive here."

"Why, Mrs. Reed!" replied Alice; "how can you talk so? are you not here?
do I not always receive a kind word and a welcome smile from you?"

"Well, you know I love you, Alice, and am always delighted to have you
come," said Mrs. Reed; "I am sure that were it in my power to do so, I
would have you here all the time.

"I would like to give you books, have you attend school, and do every
thing to make you happy. But alas! Alice, you know I am too poor to do
what I wish, and at times it makes me feel very sad."

"O, indeed you are too good, Mrs. Reed! My greatest pleasure is to come
and see you, and I hope you will always love me.

"I wish I could stay here all day; but you know that the day after
to-morrow will be Christmas, and I must hurry home now, as auntie wants
me to help her prepare for it. So good-by."

"But, Alice, you will come to see me Christmas morning, will you not?"
asked Mrs. Reed.

"Yes," replied Alice, "for a little while." And with a kiss and another
good-by, she left Mrs. Reed alone.

"What a dear good girl she is," said Mrs. Reed to herself, as she
watched Alice tripping down the street toward her home.

"She was so good to me last summer when I was ill! and here is Christmas
and I have no money with which to buy her a present.

"O dear, dear! why was I left so poor! I am sure my husband had some
money; what could he have done with it!"

Mrs. Reed sat down in her rocking-chair and for a full half hour looked
thoughtfully into the fire. Starting up suddenly, she again exclaimed to

"I do really believe that if I go up into the garret, I can find,
something for a Christmas present, that will please Alice.

"I remember a curious old box that Mr. Reed had, that was sent to him
from India. If I can find some bits of ribbon, and silk, I will line it
and make it into a nice little work-box for Alice."

Then Mrs. Reed climbed up the narrow stairway into the garret, and,
after searching some time among the rubbish that lay around in all the
nooks and corners, discovered the box.

Taking it down-stairs and finding some pieces of silk, she spent the
rest of the day in making it into a work-box.

She made a pretty needle-book, a tiny pincushion, and an emery bag like
a big strawberry. Then from her own scanty stock she added needles,
pins, thread, and her only pair of small scissors, scoured to the last
extreme of brightness.

One thing only she had to buy--a thimble; and that she bought for a
penny. The thimble was of brass and so bright that it was quite as
handsome as gold.

When full, the little box was very pretty. In the bottom lay a quilted
lining, which had always been there, and upon which she had placed the

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--The conversational parts of this lesson may
be read as a dialogue by two pupils.

Which is the most _emphatic word_ in the following sentence?

    "O dear, dear! Why was I left so poor!"

Point out the _emphatic words_ in the third paragraph of the lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *


hand'y, _convenient; ready for use_.

ad join'ing, _next to; neighboring_.

sin cere'ly, _honestly; truly_.

fort'u nate, _favored; lucky_.

act'u al ly, _really; truly_.

suf fi'cient, _enough; plenty_.

carv'ings, _figures cut in wood or stone_.

mys'ter y, _something entirely unknown_.

thresh'old, _a piece of board which lies under a door_.

tile, _a thin piece of baked clay_.

ex am'ine, _look at with care_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Christmas morning came, and soon Alice Brown entered Mrs. Reed's cottage
and received a warm welcome.

"Merry Christmas! Mrs. Reed," said Alice.

"Thank you, my dear," replied Mrs. Reed; "it will indeed be a 'Merry
Christmas' if you can remain with me this forenoon."

"Well, I can stay till dinner-time," said Alice. "See what a pretty
present cousin John sent me!" and Alice held up a new pocket-book.

"That is very nice, Alice," said Mrs. Reed; "now if you had some one to
fill it with money, it would be better still."

"Yes, indeed," cried Alice, laughingly; "but as I was not so fortunate
as to receive any money, and have none of my own to put in it, the
pocket-book is not likely to be worn out for a long time."

"Well, well, Alice," replied Mrs. Reed, "it is always handy to have
things in the house; for some time they may be needed.

"Excuse me a moment, Alice," continued Mrs. Reed; "sit down here by the
fire and warm yourself."

Alice took a seat by the fire and warmed her fingers; for, although it
was a bright sunshiny day, it was very cold.

Mrs. Reed stepped into the adjoining room, and with a light heart and
an expression on her face that no one had seen for many a day, took up
the little work-box she had prepared for Alice.

Returning again to the sitting-room with the box in her hand, she
approached Alice and said;

"Here, my dear, is a little Christmas present I have for you. I
sincerely wish it were something better. It will be useful, I know, and
I hope it will please you."

"O how beautiful!" exclaimed Alice, as she caught sight of the curious
carvings on the outside of the box. "And a work-box, too!" she
continued, as she took it in her hands and lifted the cover; "is it
really for me?"

"For no one else, I assure you," replied Mrs. Reed, as her face lighted
up with joy, at seeing Alice so happy.

"O how can I ever thank you enough!" exclaimed Alice, as she threw her
arms around Mrs. Reed's neck and kissed her again and again.

Then taking a seat by Mrs. Reed, Alice began to examine the contents of
the new work-box, lifting out the articles one by one, and placing them
in her lap.

She then admired the beautiful lining which. Mrs. Reed had put in the
box, asking her where she got such pretty pieces of silk.

"That piece of silk at the top, Alice, is a bit of my wedding-dress; and
that on the sides, is a part of my wedding-sash. Those remind me of
happy days, Alice.

"I had plenty then: a good husband, a happy home, and never thought that
I should come to poverty."

"What is this from?" asked Alice, touching the silk lining at the
bottom of the box.

"O that was always in the box, Alice. It was there when my husband
received it, and must be a piece of India silk.

"Is any thing the matter with it?" continued Mrs. Reed, as she noticed
Alice picking at one corner of it.

"O nothing is the matter," replied Alice; "it only seemed to me to be a
little loose."

"Let me look," said Mrs. Reed. "I don't think it can be loose, or I
should have seen it when I was lining the box."

"It is actually quite loose," said Alice, as she examined it further,
and picked up one corner with, a pin; "and here is a little piece of
paper underneath it."

"That is remarkable," said Mrs. Reed, as she put on her spectacles and
drew up her chair a little closer to Alice.

"And there is some writing on it too," said Alice, as she drew it from
its hiding-place and handed it to Mrs. Reed.

"Why, it's my husband's writing!" exclaimed Mrs. Reed, as she closely
examined the faded letters. "What can it mean? I never saw it before.
Read it, Alice; your eyes are younger than mine."

Alice read: "'Look and ye shall find,' and underneath this," continued
Alice, "is a picture of a mantel-piece, and underneath that, it reads:
'A word to the wise is sufficient.'"

Mrs. Reed again took the paper. Her hand trembled and her face became a
little pale.

"Alice," said she, "this is a picture of the old tile mantel-piece in
the other room. There is some mystery about this. What can it mean?"

"Yes," said Alice, "the tiles in that mantel have quotations on them."

In an instant, Alice was on her feet and sprung into the other room,
leaving Mrs. Reed in a state of wonderment.

Hastily examining the tiles in the mantel, Alice cried out: "O Mrs.
Reed, do come! here is a tile with exactly the same words on it!"

Mrs. Reed hurried into the room, and had scarcely passed the threshold,
when the tile fell to the hearth and broke into a dozen pieces.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Point out breathing-places in the last

Pronounce carefully the following words: _fortunate, adjoining,
clothes, hearth, sitting-room, wedding-dress_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of
the following sentences.

    _Alice received a warm welcome_.

    _Mrs. Reed stepped into the adjoining room with a light heart_.

    _Her face lighted up with joy_.

    _Those things remind me of happy days_.

    "_A word, to the wise is sufficient_."

Change the _statements_ given above to _questions_.

Change the following _exclamations_ to complete _statements_.

    Do come!           Let me look!           Read it, Alice!

Model.--See my pocket-book! = I wish you would look at my pocket-book.

       *       *       *       *       *


be fall'en, _happened to_.

thrust, _move suddenly or with force_.

mis hap', _something which has occurred to cause pain or sorrow_.

ex cit'ed ly, _in a very earnest manner_.

min'gled, _joined closely; united_.

le'gal ly, _as the law requires_.

a bun'dant, _beyond one's need; plentiful_.

com'fort a ble, _having everything needed to keep one from pain or want_.

re la'tions, _the feelings or acts of people toward each other_.

charm'ing, _very pleasant_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"O what have I done! what have I done!" cried Alice. "O Mrs. Reed, I'm
so sorry--I have broken the tile!"

"How did it happen, Alice? Was it loose?"

"Why yes," replied Alice; "I put my hand on it, and thought it appeared
to move a little. Having my scissors with, me, I, through curiosity, ran
the points in between that tile and the next one."

"Never mind, child," said Mrs. Reed kindly, seeing that Alice was
feeling sad over the mishap; "perhaps the tile can be mended--let us

As they both stooped down to pick up the pieces, Alice noticed that
there was a hollow space back of where the tile had been, and that it
contained something of a dingy white color.

"O Mrs. Reed!" cried she; "there is something in there! See, it looks
like a bag tied up! May I take it out?"

Mrs. Reed turned deadly pale. "Yes," she replied, scarcely knowing what
she expected or dared hope.

Alice thrust her hand into the hole to pull the hag out, but as it was
very old, it fell apart, and O wonder of wonders! as many as a hundred
pieces of gold coin fell with a jingle on the hearth and rolled every

"My husband's money!" exclaimed Mrs. Reed, as she leaned on Alice to
keep from falling.

Alice was nearly wild and talked like a crazy person.

"O goody, goody!" she cried, clapping her hands and jumping up and down.
"Now you can have everything you want! you won't be poor any longer!"

But Mrs. Reed was too much overcome to hear what Alice said.


She could scarcely realize the good fortune that had so suddenly
befallen her.

Presently, however, with the tenderness of a mother, she placed her arms
around Alice and said: "O you precious child! but for you, I should
never have known this!"

"And if you had not given me the work-box," said Alice, "perhaps no one
would ever have found it out.

"But," continued she, excitedly, "let us see if there is any thing more
in there."

Again reaching into the hole in the mantel-piece, she sprung back with a
look of amazement that frightened Mrs. Reed.

"Why, Alice, what is the matter?" inquired the old lady.

"Matter!" exclaimed Alice. "Why, dear me! Mrs. Reed, there are lots and
lots of bags in there yet!"

"Is it possible!" said Mrs. Reed hoarsely. Then reaching her hand into
the hole, she drew out bag after bag, handling them very carefully, so
that they would not fall to pieces as the first one had done.

In the meantime Alice had pushed a table up near the fire-place. The
bags were emptied upon it, until the glittering gold made a heap that
struck Mrs. Reed and Alice with greater amazement than ever.

"Alice," said Mrs. Reed, "this is a blessing from Heaven that I do not
deserve. I can not tell you how thankful I am for it. My happiness now
will be in doing for others."

Alice said nothing; her heart was too full. A look of sadness came over
her face.

She was wondering whether Mrs. Reed would continue to love her, and
thinking, with a mingled feeling of fear and dread, that now her friend
was rich, perhaps she, the poor orphan girl, might not be so welcome at
the cottage as before.

Mrs. Reed seemed to understand somewhat the nature of Alice's thoughts.
"Cheer up, Alice," said she; "this is not a time to be sad! Come, help
me put away this gold.

"By the way, Alice, now is the time to use your pocket-book; you know I
told you it was handy to have things in the house, they might be
needed," she continued, smilingly.

"Why, certainly, Mrs. Reed; do you want to borrow my pocket-book? here
it is."

"Yes, my dear," replied Mrs. Reed, "I shall want a new one myself, and I
want to see yours. I wonder how many pieces of gold it will hold."

Then Mrs. Reed crammed the pocket-book full of gold pieces.

"There!" said she, handing it to Alice; "that is the Christmas present I
wanted to give you this morning, but did not have it."

"What! this for me! O no, no! I do not deserve it!" cried Alice.

"But you must take it, Alice, and listen; for I have something to tell
you. I want you to be my daughter now. I will have abundant means to
make both of us comfortable and happy."

"O Mrs. Reed," said Alice, bursting into tears; "I would love to be your
daughter, nothing could make me happier."

In a very short time every thing was changed in the little cottage. Mrs.
Reed had legally adopted Alice as her daughter and was sending her to

Fresh paint, inside and out, and many new comforts, made the old house
charming and bright. But nothing could change the happy relations
between the two friends, and a more contented and cheerful household
could not be found anywhere.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Tell the story in your own words, using the points
given in the following

Analysis.--1. Mrs. Reed's home. 2. Her talk with Alice. 3. Mrs. Reed
prepares a present for Alice. 4. Alice receives the work-box. 5. What
was found in it. 6. The broken tile and the discovery of the money. 7.
What happened after that.

       *       *       *       *       *


dells, _small valleys_.

bow'ers, _covered places made of boughs_.

troupe, _a number of living beings; a company_.

daf'fo dils, _yellow flowers_.

sheen, _brightness; splendor_.

sprite, _an unreal person_.

sus pend'ed, _stopped for a time; hung_.

va'ries, _is different; changes_.

blue'bell, _a kind of flower_.

ram'bling, _wandering_.

rev'el, _play in a noisy manner_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  I've peeped in many a bluebell,
    And crept among the flowers,
  And hunted in the acorn cups,
    And in the woodland bowers;
  And shook the yellow daffodils,
    And searched the gardens round,
  A-looking for the little folk
    I never, never found.

  I've linger'd till the setting sun
    Threw out a golden sheen,
  In hope to see a fairy troupe
    Come dancing on the green;
  And marveled that they did not come
    To revel in the air,
  And wondered if they slept, and where
    Their hiding-places were.

  I've wandered with a timid step
    Beneath the moon's pale light,
  And every blazing dew-drop seemed
    To be a tiny sprite;
  And listened with suspended breath,
    Among the grand, old trees,
  For fairy music floating soft
    Upon the evening breeze.

  Ah me! those pleasant, sunny days,
    In youthful fancies wild,--
  Rambling through the wooded dells,
    A careless, happy child!
  And now I sit and sigh to think
    Age from childhood varies,
  And never more may we be found
    Looking for the fairies.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Which one of the stanzas should be read more
slowly than the others?

Point out the _emphatic words_ in the last four lines of the lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Which lines in each stanza end in similar sounds?

Let pupils explain the meaning of what is given below in dark type.

    I've hunted in the _acorn cups_.

    I've wandered with a _timid step_.

    _Age from childhood varies._

       *       *       *       *       *


poi'son ous, _likely to do great harm or injury_.

sep'a rate, _apart from other things_.

con di'tion, _state; situation_.

nec'es sa ry, _really needed_.

dis a gree'a ble, _very unpleasant_.

sen'si ble, _wise; knowing what is proper_.

ac cus'tomed, _being used to_.

es pe'cial ly, _more than usual_.

       *       *       *       *       *


We all know very well that we can not live without breathing.

What we do not all know, or do not all think of, is that we want not
only air, but good air. We are apt to take it for granted that any air
will do for us; stale air, dirty air, even poisonous air.

What makes the matter worse is, that we can not help spoiling air
ourselves by the very act of breathing.

If people are shut up in rooms where the bad air can not get out and the
good air can not get in at all, they are sure to be made ill.

Some people in Scotland thought they would have a merry Christmas party,
and invited their friends to come to a dance.

As it was very cold weather, they shut all the doors and windows tight,
and then they began to dance.

It was a small room with a low ceiling, and there were thirty-six people
dancing in it all night. By the time morning came the air was so bad
that it was really like poison; and very soon seven of the poor dancers
were seized with a terrible fever, and two of them actually died.

The air we breathe out is different from the air we take in. We send
away some things with our breath which were not in the air when we took
it in.

One of these is water. Sometimes you can see this for yourself. On a
cold, frosty day, you know we can see the clouds of steam coming out of
our mouths. This steam is only very fine particles of water.

In warm weather we do not see the steam, but the water is there all the
same; if you will breathe on a looking-glass at any time, you will make
it dim and damp directly with the water that is contained in your

We also breathe out animal matter, little particles of our own bodies
just ready to decay. We can not see them, but they soon give the air a
close, disagreeable smell. Good air has no smell at all.

And now I have something to say to you about the use of noses.

I dare say you can not see much use in the sense of smell. Seeing,
hearing, touching, are very needful to us, we all know; but as to
smelling, that does not seem to have any particular value.

It is pleasant to smell a sweet rose or violet; and, I believe, smelling
really forms a good part of what we call tasting.

Of all our senses, smell is the one that soonest gets out of practice.
If people would always accustom themselves to use their noses, they
never would consent to live in the horrid air they do.

If you go from the fresh air into a close room, you will notice the
smell at once. Then, if you remain there, you will soon get accustomed
to the smell and not notice it; but it will still be there, and will be
doing you a great deal of harm.

In good air there are, mainly, two sorts of gas.

The first is a very lively sort of gas, called oxygen; it is very fond
of joining itself with other things, and burning them, and things burn
very fast indeed in oxygen.

The second is a very slow, dull gas, called nitrogen; and nothing will
burn in it at all. Pure oxygen would be too active for us to live in, so
it is mixed with nitrogen.

When we breathe, the air goes down into our lungs, which are something
like sponges, inside our chests.

These sponges have in them an immense quantity of little blood-vessels,
and great numbers of little air-vessels; so that the blood almost
touches the air; there is only a very, very thin skin between them.

Through that skin, the blood sends away the waste and useless things it
has collected from all parts of the body, and takes in the fresh oxygen
which the body wants.

You have often heard man's life compared to a candle. I will show you
some ways in which they are much alike.

When a candle or lamp burns, if we keep it from getting any new air, it
soon uses all the lively gas, or oxygen, and then it goes out. This is
easily shown by placing a glass jar over a lighted candle.

If the candle gets only a little fresh air, it burns dim and weak. If we
get only a little fresh air, we are sickly and weak.

The candle makes another kind of gas. It is called carbonic acid gas,
which, is unhealthy and not fit for breathing. The heat of our bodies
also makes this gas, and we throw it off in our breath.

Oxygen and carbon, in a separate condition, make up a good part of our
flesh, blood, and bones; but when they are joined together, and make
carbonic acid gas, they are of no further use to us.

You might go to a store and buy sand and sugar; but if they became mixed
together as you brought them home, you would not be able to use either
one of them, unless some clever fairy could pick them apart for you.

You see now one great way of spoiling the air. How are we to get rid of
this bad air, and obtain fresh air, without being too cold?

In summer time this is quite simple, but in winter it is more difficult;
because it is a very bad thing to be cold, and a thin, cold draught of
air is especially bad.

The bad air loaded with carbonic acid gas, when we first breathe it out,
is warm. Warm gases are much lighter than cold ones, therefore the bad
air at first goes up to the ceiling.

If there is an opening near the top of the room, the bad air goes out;
but if there is no opening, it by and by grows cold and heavy, and comes
down again. Then we have to breathe it.

If you open the window at the top, it will let out the bad air, and you
will not feel a draught. It is not often so very cold that you cannot
bear the window open, even a little way from the top, and that is the
best way of airing a room.

This is just as necessary by night as by day. People who shut in the bad
air, and shut out the good air, all night long, can never expect to
awake refreshed, feeling better for their sleep.

What becomes of the carbonic acid gas which the body throws off through
our breath? Can any thing pick the carbon and oxygen in it apart, and
make them fit for us to use again?

Yes. Every plant, every green leaf, every blade of grass, does that for
us. When the sun shines on them, they pick the carbon out and send back
the oxygen for us to breathe. They keep the carbon and make that fit
for us and animals to eat.

The grass makes the carbon fit for sheep and cows, and then we eat their
flesh or drink their milk; and the corn makes the carbon fit to eat; so
do potatoes, and all the other vegetables and fruits which we eat. Is
not this a wonderful arrangement?

But perhaps you think, considering what an amazing number of people
there are in the world, besides all the animals--for all creatures that
breathe, spoil the air just as we do--there can hardly be trees and
plants enough to set all the air right again.

Round about cities and large towns there are certainly more people than
there are trees, but in many other parts of the world there are a great
many more trees than there are people.

I have heard of forests in South America so thick and so large, that the
monkeys might run along the tops of the trees for a hundred miles. So
you see there are plenty of trees in the world to do the work.

But then, how does all the bad air leave the towns and cities where men
live, and get to the forests and meadows?

The air is constantly moving about; rising and falling, sweeping this
way or that way, and traveling from place to place.

Not only the little particles out of our breath, but any thing that
gives the air any smell, does it some harm. Even nice smells, like those
of roses, are unhealthy, if shut up in a room for some time.

Dirty walls, ceilings, and floors give the air a musty, close, smell; so
do dirty clothes, muddy boots, cooking, and washing. Some of these ought
not to be in the house at all; others remind us to open our windows

All the things I have been saying to you about pure air, apply still
more to sick people than to healthy ones.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Read the following sentences carefully, and
avoid running the words together.

    The good__air can not get__in at__all.

    We are__apt to take__it for granted.

    It__is sure to make them__ill.

Point out three other places in the lesson where similar errors are
likely to occur.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Add _ment_ to each of the following words, and then
give the meaning of the words so formed.

    _arrange    move    settle    encourage_

       *       *       *       *       *


dis tinct'ly, _clearly; plainly_.

a roused', _wakened_.

re ced'ing, _going backward or away from_

vig'i lant, _watchful; careful_.

ex haust'ed, _tired out with work_.

pre ced'ing, _going before_.

fort'night, _two weeks' time_.

con vul'sive, _irregular in movement_.

tar'ried, _delayed; remained_.

grad'u al ly, _step by step; slowly_.

       *       *       *       *       *


It was in the month of February, 1831, a bright moonlight night, and
extremely cold, that the little brig I commanded lay quietly at her
anchors inside the bay.

We had had a hard time of it, beating about for eleven days, with
cutting north-easters blowing, and snow and sleet falling for the
greater part of the time.

When at length we made the port, all hands were almost exhausted, and we
could not have held out two days longer without relief.

"A bitter cold night, Mr. Larkin," I said to my mate, as I tarried for a
moment on deck to finish my pipe. "The tide is running out swift and
strong; it will be well to keep a sharp look-out for this floating ice,
Mr. Larkin."

"Ay, ay, sir," answered the mate, and I went below.

Two hours afterwards I was aroused from a sound sleep by the vigilant
officer. "Excuse me for disturbing you, captain," said he, as he
detected an expression of vexation on my face; "but I wish you would
turn out, and come on deck as soon as possible."

"Why--what's the matter, Mr. Larkin?"

"Why, sir, I have been watching a cake of ice that swept by at a little
distance a moment ago; I saw something black upon it--something that I
thought moved."

We were on deck before either spoke another word. The mate pointed out,
with no little difficulty, the cake of ice floating off to leeward, and
its white, glittering surface was broken by a black spot.

"Get me a spy-glass, Mr. Larkin--the moon will be out of that cloud in a
moment, and then we can see distinctly." I kept my eye on the receding
mass of ice, while the moon was slowly working its way through a heavy
bank of clouds.

The mate stood by with a spy-glass. When the full light fell at last
upon the water, I put the glass to my eye. One glance was enough..

"Forward, there!" I shouted at the top of my voice; and with, one bound
I readied the main hatch, and began to clear away the ship's cutter. Mr.
Larkin had received the glass from my hand to take a look for himself.

"O, pitiful sight!" he said in a whisper, as he set to work to aid me in
getting out the boat; "there are two children on that cake of ice!"

In a very short space of time we launched the cutter, into which Mr.
Larkin and myself jumped, followed by two men, who took the oars. I held
the tiller, and the mate sat beside me.

"Do you see that cake of ice with something black upon it, lads?" I
cried; "put me alongside of that, and I will give you a month's extra
wages when you are paid off."

The men were worn out by the hard duty of the preceding fortnight; and,
though they did their best, the boat made little more way than the tide.
This was a long chase; and Mr. Larkin, who was suffering as he saw how
little we gained, cried out--

"Pull, lads--I'll double the captain's prize. Pull, lads, for the sake
of mercy, pull!"

A convulsive effort at the oars told how willing the men were to obey,
but their strength was gone. One of the poor fellows splashed us twice
in recovering his oar, and then gave out; the other was nearly as far
gone. Mr. Larkin sprung forward and seized the deserted oar.

"Lie down in the bottom of the boat," said he to the man; "and, captain,
take the other oar; we must row for ourselves." I took the second man's

Larkin had stripped to his Guernsey shirt; as he pulled the bow I waited
the signal stroke. It came gently, but firmly; and the next moment we
were pulling a long, steady stroke, gradually increasing in rapidity
until the wood seemed to smoke in the oar-locks.

We kept time with each other by our long, deep breathing. Such a pull!
At every stroke the boat shot ahead like an arrow. Thus we worked at the
oars for fifteen minutes--it seemed to me as many hours.

"Have we almost come to it, Mr. Larkin?" I asked.

"Almost, captain,--don't give up: for the love of our dear little ones
at home, don't give up, captain," replied Larkin.

The oars flashed as the blades turned up to the moonlight. The men who
plied them were fathers, and had fathers' hearts; the strength which
nerved them at that moment was more than human.

Suddenly Mr. Larkin stopped pulling, and my heart for a moment almost
ceased its beating; for the terrible thought that he had given out
crossed my mind. But I was quickly reassured by his saying--

"Gently, captain, gently--a stroke or two more--there, that will
do"--and the next moment the boat's side came in contact with something.

Larkin sprung from the boat upon the ice. I started up, and, calling
upon the men to make fast the boat to the ice, followed.

We ran to the dark spot in the centre of the mass, and found two little
boys--the head of the smaller nestling in the bosom of the larger. Both
were fast asleep!

They were benumbed with cold, and would surely have frozen to death, but
for our timely rescue.

Mr. Larkin grasped one of the lads, cut off his shoes, tore off his
jacket; and then, loosening his own garments to the skin, placed the
chilled child in contact with his own warm body, carefully wrapping over
him his great-coat.

I did the same with the other child; and we then returned to the boat;
and the men having partly recovered, pulled slowly back.

The children, as we learned when we afterwards had the delight of
returning them to their parents, were playing on the ice, and had
ventured on the cake.

A movement of the tide set the ice in motion, and the little fellows
were borne away on that cold night, and would certainly have perished,
had not Mr. Larkin seen them as the ice was sweeping out to sea.

"How do you feel?" I said to the mate, the next morning after this

"A little stiff in the arms, captain," the noble fellow replied, while
the big tears of grateful happiness gushed from his eyes--"a little
stiff in the arms, captain, but very easy here," and he laid his hand on
his manly heart.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Change the following _commands_ to _statements_.

    Take the other oar.    Don't give up!

Give the meaning of the word _lads_ in the third and fourth lines of
page 152, and in the fourth line of page 154.[09]

Make out an _analysis_ of the lesson, and use it in telling the story
in your own words.

[09] See Lesson XXXI.

       *       *       *       *       *


re'gion, _place; space_.

furze, _a thorny shrub with yellow flowers_.

list'eth, _wishes; pleases_.

mirth, _joy; fun_.

boon, _gay; merry_.

shaft, _an arrow; the stem of an arrow_.

up borne', _held or borne up_.

crest'ing, _touching the tops of_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  How pleasant the life of a bird must be,
  Flitting about in each leafy tree;--
  In the leafy trees so broad and tall,
  Like a green and beautiful palace hall,
  With its airy chambers, light and boon,
  That open to sun, and stars, and moon;
  That open unto the bright blue sky,
  And the frolicsome winds, as they wander by!


  They have left their nests in the forest bough;
  Those homes of delight they need not now;
  And the young and old they wander out,
  And traverse their green world round about;
  And hark! at the top of this leafy hall,
  How, one to the other, they lovingly call:
  "Come up, come up!" they seem to say,
  "Where the topmost twigs in the breezes play!

  "Come up, come up, for the world is fair,
  Where the merry leaves dance in the summer air!"
  And the birds below give back the cry,
  "We come, we come to the branches high!"
  How pleasant the life of the birds must be,
  Living in love in a leafy tree;
  And away through the air what joy to go,
  And to look on the green, bright earth below!

  How pleasant the life of a bird must be,
  Skimming about on the breezy sea,
  Cresting the billows like silvery foam,
  And then wheeling away to its cliff-built home!
  What joy it must be to sail, upborne
  By a strong, free wing, through the rosy morn,
  To meet the young sun, face to face,
  And pierce, like a shaft, the boundless space!

  How pleasant the life of a bird must be,
  Wherever it listeth there to flee:
  To go, when a joyful fancy calls,
  Dashing down, 'mong the waterfalls;
  Then wheeling about, with its mates at play,
  Above and below, and among the spray,
  Hither and thither, with screams as wild
  As the laughing mirth of a rosy child!

  What a joy it must be, like a living breeze,
  To flutter among the flowering trees;
  Lightly to soar, and to see beneath,
  The wastes of the blossoming purple heath,
  And the yellow furze, like fields of gold,
  That gladden some fairy region old.
  On mountain tops, on the billowy sea,
  On the leafy stems of the forest tree,
  How pleasant the life of a bird must be!

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--The words of the first line of the poem, when
repeated on pages 157 and 158, should be slightly emphasized.[10]

Point out the lines on page 157 which would be joined in reading.

Let the class read one or more stanzas of the poem in concert.

[10] This lesson, Lesson XXXII.

       *       *       *       *       *


stroll'ing, _wandering on foot_.

quaint, _unusual; curious looking_.

con sult'ed, _asked advice of_.

roy'al, _belonging to a king or a queen_.

en ter tain', _receive and care for_.

court'esy, _politeness of manners_.

bod'ice, _an article of clothing_.

loy'al ty, _love of one's country or ruler_.

a miss', _out of the way; wrong_.

tri'fles, _articles small in size or value_.

mut'tered, _said in a low voice_.

ad mis'sion, _permission to enter_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Prince George, the husband of Queen Anne of England, one time visited
the town of Bristol, having with him as a companion, an officer of his

While strolling about the town, looking at the people and the quaint old
buildings, they stepped into the Exchange, where all the great merchants
of the town had come together doing business.

Prince George walked about, talking quite freely, first to one and then
to another. As the towns-people had not expected him, no preparation had
been made to receive him with honor; and the merchants stood in little
groups, and consulted together with, a look of anxiety upon their faces.

"What is to be done?" asked one.

"I do not know," replied another. "If his Royal Highness does not give
us notice of his coming, how can we entertain him in a proper manner?"

"Would it be well to ask him to come to one of our homes?" inquired a

"No, no!" cried another. "We could not ask him to partake of our humble
fare, or even come to our homes, after the splendor to which he has been
accustomed. For my part, I shall go home to dinner."

"And I also," said the first one. "I do not care to remain here, and
stare at the Prince, when we have nothing to offer."

Then one by one, the merchants slipped away, afraid or ashamed to ask
the great Prince to their homes.

Prince George and the officer wondered at seeing the merchants
disappear. At last there was but one man left, and as he walked toward
the Prince, he bowed low, and said--

"Excuse me, sir; are you the husband of our Queen Anne, as folks here
say you are?"

"Yes, I am," was the answer; "and have come for a few hours to see the
sights of the good town of Bristol."

"Sir," said the man, "I have seen with much distress that none of our
great merchants have invited you to their homes. Think not, sir, that it
is because they are wanting in love and loyalty. They doubtless were all
afraid to ask one so high as yourself to dine with them.

"I am one John Duddlestone, sir, only a bodice-maker, and I pray you not
to take it amiss if I ask you and the gentleman who is with, you, to
come to my humble home, where you will be most welcome."

"Indeed," answered the Prince, laughing, "I am only too delighted to
accept your kind invitation, and I thank you for it very heartily. If
you lead the way, we will follow at once."

So Prince George, the officer, and Duddlestone, passed out of the
Exchange together.

"Ours is but humble fare," said Duddlestone; "for, sir, I can offer you
only roast beef and plum-pudding."

"Very good, very good indeed!" exclaimed the Prince; "it is food to
which I bring a hearty appetite."

They stopped before a small house. John pulled the latch, and, walking
in, looked for his wife; but she was upstairs.

"Here, wife, wife!" he called in a loud whisper, as he put his head up
the narrow staircase; "put on a clean apron, and make haste and come
down, for the Queen's husband and a soldier-gentleman have come to dine
with, us."

As you may think, Mrs. Duddlestone was strangely surprised at the news;
but she did not become excited; she very seldom did, I believe.

"Ay, ay!" she called. "I'm coming;" and then muttered, "The Queen's
husband! the Queen's husband! Sure, that can never be--however, I'll go
down and see."

She ran to her closet, and pulled out a nice, clean apron and cap, and
tied, the one round her waist, and the other round her comely face,
saying all the time, "Dear me, dear me, to think of it!" and away she
ran down stairs, where stood her husband and the two gentlemen.

The good woman bowed low, first to one and then to the other.

"Indeed, but I'm proud," she said, turning to Prince George, "to welcome
you to our home. 'Tis but poor and humble, but we shall think more of it
after this. I'll hurry and get dinner at once. I dare say you are
hungry, gentlemen."

Prince George laughed gayly, as he thanked her for her kind welcome, and
sat down.

The table was soon spread, and the Prince ate well, and appeared to
enjoy himself so much, that Mrs. Duddlestone could scarcely believe he
had always been accustomed to lords and ladies and footmen, and had
never before sat down in such an humble way.

Prince George inquired about their business and pleasures.

"Do you never come up to London?" he asked; "I think you would find it
worth your while to take a holiday some time, and see the great city."

"Ah well," said Mrs. Duddlestone, "if that is not just the thing I long
for. I've never been yet, nor am I likely to go, but John has been once
or twice."

"And why, John, have you never taken your wife as well, to see the great

"Well, to say the truth," answered John, "I do not go to see the sights;
for though I've been two or three times, I don't think I've seen any.

"I must needs go sometimes to buy whalebone, and other trifles which I
must have for my business here. So I just go and come back, and meddle
with none."

"Well, well," said the Prince, "the next time you come to London, you
must bring your wife with you, and pay me a visit."

Mrs. Duddlestone clasped her fat little hands with delight.

"And shall I see the Queen?" she exclaimed.

"And see both the Queen and myself," answered the Prince. "Come, John,
say you will do so!"

"Surely, sir," said John, "I should like to give the good woman a bit of
pleasure in that way, but your grand servants would shut the doors
before us, and never let us in, perhaps."

"I can soon set that right!" and taking a card from his pocket, Prince
George wrote a few words on it, and gave it to them.

"That will gain you ready admission," he said, "and now I must leave
you. Next time we meet, I shall entertain and care for you. For the
present, I thank you for your kind welcome and good dinner, which I have
heartily enjoyed."

Then rising, he and the officer bade farewell to the good people and
took their leave.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson--Let pupils use other words to express what is given
below in dark type.

    I _must needs go_.

    Indeed, _but I'm proud_.

    Ours is _but humble fare_.

    He _pulled the latch_.

    So I _meddle with none_.

    To see _the great sights_.

Notes.--Queen Anne ruled over England from 1702 to 1714. Royal
Highness is a title belonging to all persons in a royal family.

       *       *       *       *       *


de sired', _asked; expressed a wish_.

as sem'bled, _come together_.

in tro duce', _make known_.

sum'moned, _called_.

knight, _a man of noble position_.

grat'i tude, _thankfulness_.

el'e gant, _beautiful; handsome_.

pos sess'ing, _having; holding_.

dis play', _a grand show_.

e vent', _anything that takes place_.

       *       *       *       *       *



It was some weeks later that John Duddlestone found his stock of
whalebone was growing low.

"Wife," said he, "the whalebone's nearly gone, and I must have some more
at once."

"Surely, John, I know well it's nearly gone!" she answered. "Haven't I
watched every bit as you've used it? and haven't I pretty near cried to
see it go so slowly?"

"Pooh! you foolish woman!" he cried.

"But, John, you'll take me, and go to see the King and Queen?" she

"Why, you silly woman, do you think I should leave you behind, when I
know you're nearly crazed to go?"

"O John, John, you dear, good man! I've mended all my dresses, and made
myself trim and neat. I've seen to your coats; and all's done; and I
feel as if I could scarcely live till I see the Queen."

"You'd best keep alive," said her husband; "and if all goes well we'll
start by the coach on Monday."

Monday was as lovely a day as heart could wish; and John and his wife
walked down the Bristol streets to the public-house from which the coach
was to start.

It was a great event in Mrs. Duddlestone's life, for she had never been
beyond her own town, except for a drive into the country in a neighbor's

They were quiet people; but it had got about the town, that they were
going to London to visit the Queen, and numbers came out to see them go.

Perhaps some of the great merchants wished they had been simple and
humble enough to offer to entertain Prince George when he had visited
their town.

They journeyed straight to London, where John bought his whalebone, and
then found their way to St. James' Palace, where, presenting the
Prince's card, they gained ready admittance.

They were shown into a room, more beautiful than any that they had ever
seen. Very shortly the door opened, and the well-remembered face of
their guest appeared. Almost before he had greeted them, a quiet-looking
lady followed him, and came smilingly to greet them.

"This is the Queen," said Prince George; and then, turning to her, he
added, "These are the good people who showed me such kindness in

The Queen was so gentle and courteous that neither John nor his wife
felt confused in her presence. She talked kindly to them, asking after
their trade, and how they had fared in their journey.

She then asked them to dine with her that evening, and said dresses
would be provided for them, so that they should not feel strange by
seeing that they were dressed differently from all her other guests.

She then called an attendant, and desired that refreshment should be
given them, and that they should be well cared for, and shown all that
might interest them until dinner time.

It was a long, wonderful day to them, as they walked about from place to
place. Before dinner they were taken to the room that was prepared for
them, and there they found elegant court dresses of purple velvet ready
to put on.

"Surely, John, they can not be for us!" cried Mrs. Duddlestone.

"Yes, but they must be! Did not the Queen say she would give us dresses?
and do not these dresses look as if they had been given by a queen?"

"John, I shall feel very strange before all the grand ladies!"

"Then you need not, wife, for the Queen and Prince will be there; and
the others will not trouble you; but this is a queer dress. It's like
being somebody else."

And very queer they felt, as for the first time they walked down the
grand stairs, in such, splendid dresses, to dine at the Queen's table,
with the Queen's servants to wait on them.

"You must go first, John," said his wife, for shyness came over her.

"Be not so foolish, wife," whispered John; and, though feeling rather
awkward in his new dress, he walked simply forward, as he might have
done in a friend's house.

The Queen met them at the door, and, turning to her other guests, who
were assembled, she said, "Gentlemen, I have to introduce to you, with
great pleasure, the most loyal people in the town of Bristol."

At these words they all rose and bowed low, while John and his wife did
the same, and then sat down, and ate a good dinner.

After the dinner was over, the Prince summoned John Duddlestone to the

At her command John knelt before her, and she laid a sword lightly on
his shoulder, with the words, "Rise up, Sir John Duddlestone"; and the
simple, kind-hearted bodice-maker of Bristol rose up a knight.

His wife stood by, watching with eagerness, and could hardly believe
that from plain Mistress Duddlestone she had become Lady Duddlestone.

She would, have been very proud if the Queen had laid the sword upon her
also; but she heard that was not needed. However, she was made very
happy by being called to the Queen's side.

"Lady Duddlestone," said Her Majesty, "allow me to present you with my
gold watch, in remembrance of your visit to St. James' Palace, and of
the Prince's visit to Bristol, which led to our knowing two such loyal
and courteous subjects."

Lady Duddlestone bowed lower and lower, almost unable to find any words
in which to express her gratitude.

A gold watch! Was it possible? Watches were not common in those times.
She had heard of watches, and had even seen some; but had never dreamt
of possessing one.

Such a big beauty it was! She was glad to fall back behind the other
guests, and get time to think quietly, and realize that all was true,
and not a dream from which she would wake, and find herself in her
little attic bed-room at Bristol.

Queen Anne then spoke to Sir John, offering to give him a position under
Government; but he begged to be excused.

"It would be strange, your Majesty, very strange, up in London, and my
work at Bristol suits me far the best. We want for nothing, and should
never feel so well and home-like as in our little house at Bristol."

The Queen understood him, and did not press him; and in another day or
two the couple were again on their way home.

"You're glad, wife, that we're going home?" John asked; "and you think I
did well not to take some office in London?"

"Well! You could have clone no better. It's been grand to see, and grand
to hear; but it would be very strange and uncomfortable to live always
like that, and I'll be right glad to be back once more.

"I'm more than proud of it all. But I should never like our own room, in
which Prince George sat so home-like with us, to belong to another."

"No, no--we will keep our own snug home," replied John with earnestness.

And so they did, living on quietly as of old; and the only display ever
made by Lady Duddlestone was, that whenever she went to church or to
market, she always wore the Queen's big gold watch.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of
what is given below in dark type.

    You'd _best keep_ alive.

    It's been _grand_ to see.

    _Then you need not_.

    You're _nearly crazed to go_.

_Attendant_ is made up of two parts--the stem, _attend_, and the
ending, _ant_ (meaning one who).

The meaning of the word _attendant_ is _one who attends_.

Make out an _analysis_ of the last two lessons, and use it in telling
the story in your own words.

       *       *       *       *       *


pre sume', _suppose; think without being sure_.

mus'cles, _those parts of the body which give us
  motion, and by which we exert our strength_.

ex tent', _space; distance_.

or'di na ry, _common; usual_.

knowl'edge, _that which is known through study_.

de gree', _measure, as of space or time_.

spent, _used up; exhausted_.

snapped, _broken off_.

de tached', _taken away from_.

       *       *       *       *       *


"Father," said Lucy, "I have been reading to-day that Sir Isaac Newton
was led to make a great discovery, by seeing an apple fall from a tree.
What was there wonderful about the apple falling?"

"Nothing very wonderful in that," replied her father; "but it set him to
thinking of what made it fall."

"Why, I could have told him that," said Lucy; "because the stem snapped
and there was nothing to support it."

"And what then?" asked her father.

"Why, then, of course it must fall."

"Ah!" said her father, "that is the point: why must it fall?"

"I am sure I don't know," said Lucy. "I presume it was because there was
nothing to keep it up."

"Well, Lucy, suppose there was not--does it follow that it must come to
the ground?"

"Yes, certainly," replied Lucy, wonderingly.

"Let us see," said her father; "but first answer this question: What is
an animate object?"

"Any thing that has animal life, and power to move at will," replied

"Very good," said her father; "now, what is an inanimate object?"

"Any thing that does not possess animal life, or can not move at will."

"Very good again," said her father. "Now an apple is, of course, an
inanimate object; and therefore it could not move itself, and Sir Isaac
Newton thought that he would try to find out what power moved it."

"Well, then," said Lucy; "did he find that the apple fell, because it
was forced to fall?"

"Yes," replied her father; "he found that there was some force outside
of the apple itself that acted upon it, otherwise it would have remained
forever where it was, no matter if it were detached from the tree."

"Would it, indeed?" asked Lucy.

"Yes, without doubt," replied her father, "for there are only two ways
in which it could be moved--by its own power of motion, or the power of
something else moving it. Now the first power, you know it does not
have; so the cause of its motion must be the second."

"But every thing falls to the ground as well as an apple, when there is
nothing to keep it up," said Lucy.

"True. There must therefore be some power or force which causes things
to fall," said her father.

"And what is it?" asked Lucy.

"If things away from the earth can not move themselves to it," said her
father, "there can be no other cause of their falling than that the
earth pulls them."

"But," said Lucy, "the earth is no more animate than they are; so how
can it pull?"

"That is not an ordinary question, but I will try an explanation," said
her father. "Sir Isaac Newton discovered that there was a law in nature
called attraction, and that all bodies exert this force upon each
other. The greater the body, the greater is its power of attraction.

"Now, the earth is an immense mass of matter, with which nothing near it
can compare in size. It draws therefore with mighty force all things
within its reach, which is the cause of their falling. Do you understand

"I think that I do," said Lucy; "the earth is like a great magnet."

"Yes," said her father; "but the attraction of the magnet is of a
particular kind and is only over iron, while the attraction of the earth
acts upon every thing alike."

"Then it is pulling you and me at this moment!" said Lucy.

"Certainly it is," replied her father; "and as I am the larger, it is
pulling me with more force than it is pulling you. This attraction is
what gives every thing weight.

"If I lift up any thing, I am acting against this force, for which
reason the article seems heavy; and the more matter it contains, the
greater is the force of attraction and the heavier it appears to me."

"Then," said Lucy, "if this attraction is so powerful, why do we not
stick to the ground?"

"Because," replied her father, "we are animate beings, and have the
power of motion, by which, to a limited degree, we overcome the
attraction of the earth."

"Well then, father," said Lucy, "if our power of motion can overcome the
attraction, why can not we jump a mile high as well as a foot?"

"Because," replied her father, "as I said before, we can only overcome
the attraction to a certain extent. As soon as the force our muscles
give to the jump is spent, the attraction of the earth pulls us back."

"Did Sir Isaac Newton think of all these things, because he saw the
apple fall?" inquired Lucy.

"Yes; of all these and many more. He was a man of great knowledge. The
name by which the force he discovered is generally known, is the
Attraction of Gravitation, and some time you will learn how this force
keeps the earth, and the sun, moon, and stars, all in their places."

       *       *       *       *       *


en'vy, _wish one's self in another's place_.

doffed, _took off, as an article of dress_.

blithe, _very happy; gay_.

fee, _what is received as pay for service done_.

boast, _object of pride_.

quoth, _spoke_.

hale, _in good health; strong_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  There dwelt a miller, hale and bold,
    Beside the river Dee;
  He worked and sang from morn till night--
    No lark so blithe as he;
  And this the burden of his song
    Forever used to be:
  "I envy nobody--no, not I,
    And nobody envies me!"

  "Thou'rt wrong, my friend," said good King Hal;
    "As wrong as wrong can be;
  For could my heart be light as thine,
    I'd gladly change with thee.
  And tell me now, what makes thee sing,
    With voice so loud and free.
  While I am sad, though I'm a king,
    Beside the river Dee?"

  The miller smiled and doffed his cap:
    "I earn my bread," quoth he;
  "I love my wife, I love my friend,
    I love my children three;
  I owe no penny I can not pay;
    I thank the river Dee,
  That turns the mill that grinds the corn
    That feeds my babes and me."

  "Good friend," said Hal, and sighed the while,
    "Farewell! and happy be!
  But say no more, if thou'dst be true,
    That no one envies thee.
  Thy mealy cap is worth my crown;
    Thy mill, my kingdom's fee;
  Such men as thou are England's boast,
    O miller of the Dee!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In the second stanza of the lesson, _wrong_
becomes very _emphatic_ on account of _repetition_ (being repeated a
number of times). _My_ and _thine_, in the same stanza, are
_emphatic_ on account of _contrast_ (contrary meaning of the words).

Point out an example of _emphasis_ by _repetition_, and an example
of _emphasis_ by _contrast_, in the third stanza.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Hal = Harry = Henry.

Let pupils place _un_ before each of the following words, and give
their meaning.

    changed    burdened    envied

       *       *       *       *       *


fero'cious, _savage; fierce_.

rosette', _an article made to resemble a rose_.

aban'doned, _left forever; given up_.

encoun'ter, _meet face to face_.

in'fluence, _power over others_.

keen, _sharp; piercing_.

reputa'tion, _what is known of a person_.

wit'ness, _see or know by personal presence_.

trail, _track; footsteps_.

alert', _on the watch; careful_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The jaguar, or as he is sometimes called, the American tiger, is the
largest and most ferocious of the cat family found on this continent.

Some jaguars have been seen equal in size to the Asiatic tiger; but in
most cases the American, animal is smaller. He is strong enough,
however, to drag a horse or an ox to his den--sometimes to a long
distance; and this feat has been frequently observed.

The jaguar is found in all the tropical parts of North and South

While he bears a considerable likeness to the tiger, both in shape and
habits, the markings of his skin are quite different. Instead of being
striped like the tiger, the skin of the jaguar is beautifully spotted.

Each spot resembles a rosette, and consists of a black ring with a
single dark-colored spot in the middle.

Jaguars are not always of the same color; some have skins of an orange
color, and these are the most beautiful. Others are lighter colored; and
some few have been seen that were very nearly white.

There, is a "black jaguar," which is thought to be of a different
species. It is larger and fiercer than the other kinds, and is found
only in South America.

This animal is more dreaded by the inhabitants than the other kinds and
is said always to attack man wherever it may encounter him. All the
other beasts fear it.

Its roar produces terror and confusion among them and causes them to
flee in every direction. It is never heard by the natives without a
feeling of fear, and no wonder; for a year does not pass without a
number of these people falling victims to its ferocity.

It is difficult for one living in a country where such fierce animals
are unknown, to believe that they have an influence over man, to such
an extent as to prevent his settling in a particular place; yet such is
the fact.

In many parts of South America, not only plantations, but whole
villages, have been abandoned solely from fear of the jaguars.

There are men, however, who can deal single-handed with the jaguar; and
who do not fear to attack the brute in its own haunts.

They do not trust to fire-arms, but to a sharp spear. On their left arm
they carry a strong shield.

This shield is held forward and is usually seized by the jaguar. While
it is busied with this, the hunter thrusts at the animal with his sharp
spear, and generally with deadly effect.

A traveler in South America relates the following incident as having
come under his observation:

"Desiring to witness a jaguar hunt, I employed two well-known Indian
hunters, and set out for the forest. The names of these hunters were
Niño and Guapo. Both of them had long been accustomed to hunt the
jaguar, and I felt perfectly safe in their company.

"Guapo, the larger of the two, was a man of wonderful muscular power,
and had the reputation of having at one time killed a black jaguar with
only a stout club.

"When all the preparations had been made for our start, we looked as if
we might capture all the jaguars that came in our way.

"Some hours after we had entered the forest, the quick eye of Guapo
discovered the trail of a large jaguar which he assured me was recently

"Stopping for a moment, both Guapo and Niño looked carefully about in
every direction, and listened attentively, in order that they might see
or hear the animal if he were near.

"Then motioning me to follow at a little distance behind them, they
stepped off quietly in the direction of the trail, Guapo being about
thirty feet in advance of Niño.

"We went forward in this manner several hundred yards, not a word being
spoken, and the keen eyes of both the hunters constantly on the alert.

"Guapo, in the meantime, who seemed to have no fear and became more and
more excited as he approached to where he thought the animal must be,
had increased the distance between himself and Niño considerably.


"Suddenly a terrific roar, and at the same time a cry of pain and a
shout, warned us that Guapo had met the jaguar.

"Niño bounded forward, and I followed as quickly as I could. A fearful
sight met our eyes!

"The jaguar, which had been hiding in the branches of a large tree, had
sprung down upon Guapo and fastened its terrible teeth in his thigh.

"With a shout filled with fury and determination, Niño at once sprung
forward and savagely attacked the beast with his spear.

"This caused the jaguar to let go its hold of Guapo, who, made furious
from the pain of the wound the animal had given him, turned, and with
his spear attacked it with a mad ferocity as savage as that of the
beast itself.

"In a moment all was over, and the jaguar lay dead at our feet. I
dressed Guapo's wound the best I could, while Niño took the skin from
the body of the animal, which proved to be nearly eight feet long.

"We returned very slowly to the village with the wounded man and our
prize. In a few weeks Guapo had entirely recovered from his wounds, and
was ready for another hunt."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils pronounce in concert, and singly,
the following words: _O, most, ferocious, only, whole, hold, slowly,
over, both, roar_.

What tone of voice should be used in reading this lesson?

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Place _re_ before each of the following words, and
then give the meaning of each.

    turned    told    join    capture    call

       *       *       *       *       *


dikes, _high banks of earth_.

con'tra ry, _quite different from what is usual_.

dis as'trous, _causing great loss or suffering_.

keels, _strong timbers extending along the bottom of boats_.

stork, _a kind of bird_.

bus'tle, _quick and excited motion_.

mire, _soft and wet earth_.

scorn'ing, _turning from any thing as if of no value_.

sat'u rat ed, _wet through and through_.

moored, _tied fast, as a ship to land_.

slouched, _hung down_.

mim'ic, _copied in a smaller form_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Holland is one of the queerest countries under the sun. It should be
called Odd-land, or Contrary-land; for, in nearly every thing, it is
different from other parts of the world.

In the first place, a large portion of the country is lower than the
level of the sea. Great dikes have been built at a heavy cost of money
and labor, to keep the ocean where it belongs.

On certain parts of the coast it sometimes leans with all its weight
against the land, and it is as much as the poor country can do to stand
the pressure.

Sometimes the dikes give way, or spring a leak, and the most disastrous
results follow. They are high and wide, and the tops of some of them are
covered with buildings and trees. They have even fine public roads upon
them, from which horses may look down upon wayside cottages.

Often the keels of floating ships are higher than the roofs of the
dwellings. The stork, on the house-peak, may feel that her nest is
lifted far out of danger, but the croaking frog in the neighboring
bulrushes is nearer the stars than she.

Water-bugs dart backward and forward above the heads of the chimney
swallows; and willow-trees seem drooping with shame, because they can
not reach so high as the reeds near by.

Ditches, canals, ponds, rivers, and lakes are every-where to be seen.
High, but not dry, they shine in the sunlight, catching nearly all the
bustle and the business, quite scorning the tame fields, stretching
damply beside them. One is tempted to ask: "Which is Holland--the shores
or the water?"

The very verdure that should be confined to the land has made a mistake
and settled upon the fish ponds. In fact the entire country is a kind of
saturated sponge, or, as the English poet Butler called it--

    "A land that rides at anchor, and is moored,
    In which they do not live, but go aboard."

Persons are born, live, and die, and even have their gardens on
canal-boats. Farmhouses, with roofs like great slouched hats pulled over
their eyes, stand on wooden legs, with a tucked up sort of air, as if to
say, "We intend to keep dry if we can."

Even the horses wear a wide stool on each hoof to lift them out of the

It is a glorious country in summer for bare-footed girls and boys. Such
wadings! Such mimic ship sailing! Such rowing, fishing, and swimming!
Only think of a chain of puddles where one can launch chip boats all
day long, and never make a return trip!

But enough. A full recital would set all Young America rushing in a body
toward the Zuyder Zee.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In reading the first line of page 187, there
will be a slight rising of the voice after each of the words,
_ditches', canals', ponds', rivers'_, and a slight falling of the voice
after _lakes'_.[11]

This rising or falling of the voice is called _inflection_, and may be
indicated as above.

Language Lesson.--What is the meaning of "Young America"?

[11] See paragraph 7.

       *       *       *       *       *


freight, _cargo; that which forms a load_.

convey'ance, _the act of carrying_.

jum'ble, _a number of things crowded together without order_.

bobbed, _cut off short_.

bewil'dering, _confusing_.

gild'ed, _covered with a thin, surface of gold_.

yoked, _joined together with harness_.

rare'ly, _not often_.

impris'oned, _shut up or confined, as in a prison_.

clat'tering, _making a loud noise_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Dutch cities seem, at first sight, to be a bewildering jumble of
houses, bridges, churches, and ships, sprouting into masts, steeples,
and trees. In some cities boats are hitched, like horses, to their
owners' door-posts, and receive their freight from the upper windows.


Mothers scream to their children not to swing on the garden gate for
fear they may be drowned. Water roads are more frequent there than
common roads and railroads; water-fences, in the form of lazy green
ditches, inclose pleasure-ground, farm, and garden.

Sometimes fine green hedges are seen; but wooden fences, such as we
have in America, are rarely met with in Holland. As for stone fences, a
Hollander would lift his hands with astonishment at the very idea.

There is no stone there excepting those great masses of rock that have
been brought from other lands to strengthen and protect the coast.

All the small stones or pebbles, if there ever were any, seem to be
imprisoned in pavements, or quite melted away. Boys, with strong, quick
arms, may grow from aprons to full beards without ever finding one to
start the water-rings, or set the rabbits flying.

The water roads are nothing less than canals crossing the country in
every direction. These are of all sizes, from the great North Holland
Ship Canal, which is the wonder of the world, to those which a boy can

Water-omnibuses constantly ply up and down these roads for the
conveyance of passengers; and water-drays are used for carrying fuel and

Instead of green country lanes, green canals stretch from field to barn,
and from barn to garden; and the farms are merely great lakes pumped
dry. Some of the busiest streets are water, while many of the country
roads are paved with brick.

The city boats, with their rounded sterns, gilded bows, and gayly-painted
sides, are unlike any others under the sun; a Dutch wagon with its
funny little crooked pole is a perfect mystery of mysteries.

One thing is clear, you may think that the inhabitants need never be
thirsty. But no, Odd-land is true to itself still. With the sea pushing
to get in, and the lakes struggling to get out, and the overflowing
canals, rivers, and ditches, in many districts there is no water that is
fit to swallow.

Our poor Hollanders must go dry, or send far inland for that precious
fluid, older than Adam, yet young as the morning dew.

Sometimes, indeed, the inhabitants can swallow a shower, when they are
provided with any means of catching it; but generally they are like the
sailors told of in a famous poem, who saw

    "Water, water, every-where,
    Nor any drop to drink!"

Great flapping windmills all over the country make it look as if flocks
of huge sea birds were just settling upon it. Every-where one sees the
funniest trees, bobbed into all sorts of odd shapes, with their trunks
painted a dazzling' white, yellow, or red.

Horses are often yoked three abreast. Men, women, and children, go
clattering about in wooden shoes with loose heels.

Husbands and wives lovingly harness themselves side by side on the bank
of the canal and drag their produce to market.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils practice upon the inflections
marked in the following

Model.--Houses', bridges', churches', and ships', sprouting into
masts', steeples', and trees'.

Which words take the _falling inflection_?

       *       *       *       *       *


whisk'ing, _pulling suddenly and with force_.

lus'ti er, _stronger; louder_.

of fend'ed, _made angry_.

fa mil'iar, _friendly; as of a friend_.

ma'tron ly, _elderly; motherly_.

com mo'tion, _noise; confusion_.

pant'ed, _breathed quickly_.

sa lute', _greeting_.

mute, _silent; unable to speak_.

stur'dy, _strong; powerful_.

ker'chiefs, _pieces of cloth worn about the head_.

a do', _trouble; delay_.

in'mates, _the persons in a house_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  The wind one morning sprung up from sleep,
  Saying, "Now for a frolic! Now for a leap!
  Now for a madcap galloping chase!
  I'll make a commotion in every place!"

  So it swept with a bustle right through a great town,
  Creaking the signs and scattering down
  Shutters, and whisking with merciless squalls,
  Old women's bonnets and gingerbread stalls.
  There never was heard a much lustier shout,
  As the apples and oranges tumbled about.

  Then away to the fields it went blustering and humming,
  And the cattle all wondered whatever was coming.
  It pulled by their tails the grave, matronly cows,
  And tossed the colts' manes all about their brows,
  Till, offended at such a familiar salute,
  They all turned their backs and stood silently mute.

  So on it went, capering and playing its pranks;
  Whistling with  reeds on  the broad  river banks;
  Puffing the birds, as they sat on  the spray,
  Or the traveler grave on the king's highway.
  It was not too nice to hustle the bags
  Of the beggar, and flutter his dirty rags.
  'Twas so bold that it feared not to play its joke
  With the doctor's wig, and the gentleman's cloak.

  Through the forest it roared, and cried gayly, "Now
  You sturdy old oaks, I'll make you bow!"
  And it made them bow without more ado,
  Or it cracked their great branches through and through.

  Then it rushed like a monster o'er cottage and farm,
  Striking their inmates with sudden alarm;
  And they ran out like bees in a midsummer swarm.
  There were dames with their kerchiefs tied over their caps,
  To see if their poultry were free from mishaps;
  The turkeys they gobbled, the geese screamed aloud,
  And the hens crept to roost in a terrified crowd;
  There was raising of ladders, and logs laying on,
  Where the thatch from the roof threatened soon to be gone.

  But the wind had passed on, and had met in a lane
  With a school-boy, who panted and struggled in vain;
  For it tossed him, and whirled him, then passed, and he stood
  With his hat in a pool, and his shoe in the mud.

  Then away went the wind in its holiday glee,
  And now it was far on the billowy sea;
  And the lordly ships felt its powerful blow,
  And the little boats darted to and fro.

  But, lo! it was night, and it sunk to rest
  On the sea-birds' rock in the gleaming west,
  Laughing to think, in its frolicsome fun,
  How little of mischief it really had done.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let some pupil in the class state the manner
in which the lesson should be read.

Point out four lines that should be read more quietly than the rest of
the lesson.

Vary the reading by having parts of lesson read as a concert exercise.

What effect has the repetition of the word _now_, in the second and
third lines?

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils write six sentences, each containing one
of the following words, used in such a manner as to show its proper
meaning: _right, write; reed, read; tied, tide_.

Let pupils make out an _analysis_ of the lesson, and use it in
giving the story in their own words.

       *       *       *       *       *


veg e ta'tion, _every thing that grows out of the ground_.

meth'od, _way; manner_.

ta'per ing, _growing smaller toward the end_.

men'tioned, _spoken of_.

struct'ure, _arrangement of parts; a building of any kind_.

marsh'y, _wet_.

swamp, _low ground filled with water_.

sprung, _started; begun_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The name plant belongs in a general way to all vegetation, from the
tiniest spear of grass or creeping flower one sees on the rocks by the
brook-side, to the largest and tallest of forest trees.

Plants are divided into numerous groups of families, and the study of
the many species belonging to each family, is very interesting.

There are thousands of kinds of grasses, shrubs, and trees, scattered
over the different parts of the earth, and the larger portion of them
are in some way useful to mankind.

In speaking of grasses, we are apt to think only of the grass in the
meadows, which is the food for our horses and cattle; but there are
other kinds of grasses which are just as important to man as the grass
of the meadow is to the beast. These are oats, rye, barley, wheat, corn,
and others, all of which belong to the grass family.

Perhaps it appears strange to you to hear wheat and corn called grass,
and you ask how can that be.

In the first place, all plants that have the same general form and
method of growth, belong to the same family.

Now, if you will pull up a stalk of grass and a stalk of wheat or rye
and compare them, you will find that they are alike in all important

The roots of each look like a little bundle of strings or fibers, and
are therefore called fibrous; the stalks you will find jointed and
hollow; and the leaves are long and narrow, tapering to a point at their

Then, if you examine the seeds, you will see that they are placed near
together and form what we call an ear or head, as in an ear of corn, or
a head of wheat.

This same general form or structure applies to every one of the plants
belonging to the grass family; and in this family are included all the
different kinds of canes and reeds that grow in swamps and marshy
places, as well as the bamboo of the tropics.

Shrubs are those plants which have woody stems and branches. They are
generally of small size, rarely reaching over twenty feet in height.
Small shrubs are usually called bushes.

In this class of plants, the branches generally start close to the
ground, and in some cases, a little below the surface of the ground,
rising and spreading out in all directions.

The common currant bushes, blackberry bushes, and rose bushes which we
see in gardens, are shrubs.

So also are grape-vines, honeysuckles, ivy, and all other creeping
vines. These are called climbing plants, because little tendrils or
claspers which grow out of their branches, wind around and fasten
themselves to any thing in their way.

Trees are the largest and strongest of all plants.

They have woody stems or trunks, and branches. These branches do not, as
in shrubs, start close to the ground, but at some distance above, from
which height they extend in different directions.

It is difficult to believe that some of the large trees we see, sprung
from small seeds; yet it is true that all trees started in this manner.

The seeds are scattered about by birds and tempests, and falling on the
soft ground, where they become covered with, leaves and earth, they take
root and grow.

Thus the little acorn sprouts, and from it springs the sturdy oak, which
is not only the noblest of trees, but lives hundreds of years.

The trunks and branches of trees are protected by a covering called
bark. This bark is thicker near the base or root of the tree than it is
higher up among the branches.

On some trees, the bark is very rough and shaggy looking, as on the oak,
ash, walnut, and pine; on others, the bark is smooth, as on the beech,
apple, and birch.

Some trees live for only a few years, rapidly reaching their full
growth, and rapidly decaying. The peach-tree is one of this kind.

Other trees live to a great age. An elm-tree has been known to live for
three hundred years; a chestnut-tree, six hundred years; and oaks, eight
hundred years.

The baobab-tree of Africa lives to be many hundred years old. There is a
yew-tree in England that is known to be over two thousand years old.

The "big trees" of California are the largest in the world, although not
of so great an age as some that have been mentioned. The tallest of
these trees that has yet been discovered, measures over three hundred
and fifty feet in height, and the distance around it near the ground is
almost one hundred feet. The age of this tree must be between one
thousand five hundred and two thousand years.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let, pupils pronounce in concert and singly,
the following words: _corn, stalks, important, form, tall, walnut,

In the fifth paragraph on page 199, why are _some_ and _others_

Mark _inflections_ of _oak, ash, walnut_, and _pine_; and of _beech,
apple_, and _birch_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Place _dis_ before each of the following words,
and then give the meaning of each of the words so formed.

    appear    covered    able    like    believe

[12] See fifth paragraph from the end of the lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *


flush, _bright red color_.

low'ing, _the bellowing or cry of cattle_.

rang'ing, _wandering_.

in tent', _determined_.

striv'ing, _making great efforts_.

pre serve', _keep in safety_.

re flect'ed, _shining back; thrown back, as by a looking-glass_.

pro ceed'ed, _went forward_.

checked, _stopped_.

blasts, _sounds made by blowing_.

       *       *       *       *       *



We were sound asleep one night, when, about two hours before day, the
snorting of our horses and lowing of our cattle, which were ranging in
the woods, suddenly awoke us.

I took my rifle and went to the door to see what beast had caused the
hubbub, when I was struck by the glare of light reflected on all the
trees before me, as far as I could see through the woods.

My horses were leaping about, snorting loudly, and the cattle ran among
them in great confusion.

On going to the back of the house I plainly heard the crackling made by
the burning brushwood, and saw the flames coming toward us in a
far-extended line.

I ran to the house, told my wife to dress herself and the child as
quickly as possible, and take the little money we had, while I managed
to catch and saddle two of the best horses.

All this was done in a very short time, for I felt that every moment was
precious to us.

We then mounted our horses, and made off from the fire. My wife, who is
an excellent rider, kept close to me; and my daughter, who was then a
small child, I took in one arm.

When making off, I looked back and saw that the frightful blaze was
close upon us, and had already laid hold of the house.

By good luck there was a horn attached to my hunting-clothes, and I blew
it, to bring after us, if possible, the remainder of my live-stock, as
well as the dogs.

The cattle followed for a while; but before an hour had passed they all
ran, as if mad, through the woods, and that was the last we saw of them.

My dogs, too, although at all other times easily managed, ran after the
deer that in great numbers sprung before us as if fully aware of the
death, that was so rapidly approaching.

We heard blasts from the horns of our neighbors as we proceeded, and
knew that they were in the same unfortunate condition that we were in

Intent on striving to the utmost to preserve our lives, I thought of a
large lake, some miles off, where the flames might possibly be checked,
and we might find a place of safety.

Urging my wife to whip up her horse, we set off at full speed, making
the best way we could over the fallen trees and the brush heaps, which
lay like so many articles placed on purpose to keep up the terrific
fires that advanced with a broad front upon us.

By this time we were suffering greatly from the effects of the heat, and
we were afraid that our horses would be overcome and drop down at any

A singular kind of breeze was passing over our heads, and the glare of
the burning trees shone more brightly than the daylight. I was sensible
of a slight faintness, and my wife looked pale.

The heat had produced such a flush in the child's face that, when she
turned toward either of us, our grief and anxiety were greatly

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--What tone of voice should be used in reading
the lesson?

Should the rate of reading be slow or rapid?

Point out two paragraphs requiring a somewhat different rate.

Should the feelings expressed in the lesson be rendered in a quiet or
loud tone?

Different inflections are sometimes used, simply to give variety to the
reading and not for emphasis.

In the first paragraph, mark _inflection_ of _night, day, horses,
cattle, woods, us_.

       *       *       *       *       *


de voured', _eaten up greedily, as by wild animals_.

por'cu pine, _a kind of animal_.

smold'der ing,  _burning slowly; smoking_.

in suf'fer a ble, _not to be borne_.

shift'ed, _moved about; changed position_.

sti'fling, _stopping the breath_.

dismal, _gloomy; cheerless_.

un grate'ful, _not thankful_.

rem'e died, _relieved; cured_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Ten miles are soon gone over on swift horses; but yet, when we reached
the borders of the lake we were quite exhausted, and our hearts failed
us. The heat of the smoke was insufferable, and sheets of blazing fire
flew over us in a manner beyond belief.


We reached the shore, however, coasted the lake for a while, and got
round to the sheltered side. There we gave up our horses, which we never
saw again.

We plunged down among the rushes, by the edge of the water, and laid
ourselves down flat, to await the chance of escaping from being burned
or devoured. The water greatly refreshed us, and we enjoyed the

On went the fire, rushing and crashing through the woods. Such a morning
may we never again see! The heavens themselves, I thought, were

All above us was a bright, red glare, mingled with, dark, threatening
clouds and black smoke, rolling and sweeping away in the distance.

Our bodies were cool enough, but our heads were scorching; and the
child, who now seemed to understand the matter, cried so as nearly to
break our hearts.

The day passed on, and we became hungry. Many wild beasts came plunging
into the water beside us, and others swam across to our side, and stood
still. Although faint and weary, I managed to shoot a porcupine, and we
all tasted its flesh.

The night passed, I cannot tell you how. Smoldering fires covered the
ground, and the trees stood like pillars of fire, or fell across each

The stifling and sickening smoke still rushed over us, and the burnt
cinders and ashes fell thick around us.

When morning came, every thing about us was calm; but a dismal smoke
still filled the air, and the smell seemed worse than ever. What was to
become of us I did not know.

My wife hugged the child to her breast, and wept bitterly; but God had
preserved us through the worst of the danger, and the flames had gone
past, so I thought it would be both ungrateful to Him and unmanly to
despair now.

Hunger once more pressed upon us, but this was soon remedied. Several
deer were standing in the water, up to the head, and I shot one of them.
Some of its flesh was soon roasted, and after eating it we felt
wonderfully strengthened.

By this time the blaze of the burning forest was beyond our sight,
although the remains of the fires of the night before were still burning
in many places, and it was dangerous to go among the burnt trees.

After resting for some time, we prepared to commence our march. Taking
up the child in my arms, I led the way over the hot ground and rocks;
and after two weary days and nights of suffering, during which we
shifted in the best manner we could, we at last succeeded in reaching
the hard woods, which had been free from the fire.

Soon after we came to a house, where we were kindly treated. Since then
I have worked hard and constantly as a lumber-man; and, thanks to God,
we are safe, sound, and happy.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Point out, breathing-places in the last
paragraph of page 207.[13]

Name the _emphatic words_ in the last sentence of the lesson.

Mark _inflection_ in the last line of the lesson.

Pronounce carefully the following words: _dark, march, hard, calm,

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils define the following words: _complete,
attract, locate, intent, procrastinate, separate_; then add to each
word as a stem, the ending _ion_, and define the words so formed.

Point out the omissions of letters necessary in joining the stems and

Let pupils make out an _analysis_ in six parts for the last two
lessons, and use it in writing or telling the story in their own words.

[13] See third paragraph from the end of the lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *


peas'ants, _those who work on farms_.

hedge'rows, _rows of shrubs or trees used to inclose a space_.

tow'ers, _very high buildings_.

an ces'tral, _belonging to a family for a great many years_.

mon'arch, _king; ruler_.

roy'al ty, _kings and queens_.

gifts, _things given; presents_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  The sunshine is a glorious thing,
    That comes alike to all,
  Lighting the peasant's lowly cot,
    The noble's painted hall.

  The moonlight is a gentle thing,
    Which through the window gleams
  Upon the snowy pillow, where
    The happy infant dreams.

  It shines upon the fisher's boat
    Out on the lonely sea,
  As  well as on the flags which float
    On towers of royalty.

  The dewdrops of the summer morn
    Display their silver sheen
  Upon the smoothly shaven lawn,
    And on the village green.

  There are no gems in monarch's crown
    More beautiful than they;
  And yet you scarcely notice them,
    But tread them off in play.

  The music of the birds is heard,
    Borne on the passing breeze,
  As sweetly from the hedgerows as
    From old ancestral trees.

  There are as many lovely things,
    As many pleasant tones,
  For those who dwell by cottage hearths
    As those who sit on thrones.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--This lesson should be read with a full and
clear tone of voice. The thoughts expressed are not of a conversational

In the first stanza, in the contrast between _peasant's lowly cot_ and
_noble's painted hall_, the inflections are _rising circumflexes_
and _falling circumflexes_.

The _rising circumflex_ consists of a downward turn of the voice
followed by an upward turn; the _falling circumflex_, of an upward
turn followed by a downward turn.

Let pupils mark the inflections in the last two lines of the poem.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils express the meaning of what is given
below in dark type, using a single word for each example.

    For _those who dwell by cottage hearths_

    As _those who sit on thrones_.

       *       *       *       *       *


re quest', _a wish that is expressed; desire_.

har'bor, _a sheltered place where ships can anchor_.

lo'cate, _place; choose as a place to live_.

both'er, _trouble_.

beach, _the shore of the sea_.

knack, _an easy way of doing any thing_.

in dulged', _gave way to, as to appetite_.

ban'quet, _a very good dinner or other meal_.

rheu'ma tism, _a painful trouble in the muscles or joints_.

       *       *       *       *       *



"I have not a room in the house; but if you don't mind going down to the
cottage, and coming up here to your meals, I can take you, and would be
glad to," said Mrs. Grant, in answer to my request for board.

"Where is the cottage?" and I looked about me, feeling ready to accept
any thing in the way of shelter, after the long, hot journey from Boston
to breezy York Harbor.

"Right down there--just a step, you see. It's all in order; and next
week it will be full, for many folks prefer it because of the quiet."

At the end of a very steep path, which offered every chance for
accidents of all sorts, from a sprained ankle to a broken neck, stood
the cottage--a little white building, with a pretty vine over the door,
gay flowers in the garden, and the blue Atlantic rolling up at the foot
of the cliff.

"A regular 'Cottage by the Sea.' It will suit me exactly if I can have
the upper front room. I don't mind being alone; so have my trunk taken
down, please, and I'll get ready for tea," said I, feeling very happy on
account of my good luck.

Alas, how little I knew what a night of terror I was to pass in that
pretty white cottage!

An hour later, refreshed by my tea and the coolness of the place, I
plunged into the pleasures of the season, and accepted two invitations
for the evening--one to a, walk on Sunset Hill, the other to a clam-bake
on the beach.

The stroll came first, and on the hill-top we met an old gentleman with
a spy-glass, who welcomed me with the remark--

"Pretty likely place for a prospect."

After replying to what he said, I asked the old gentleman if he knew any
legend or stories about the old houses all around us.

"Yes, many of them," he replied; "and it isn't always the old places
that have the most stories about 'em.

"Why, that cottage down yonder isn't more'n fifty years old, and they do
say there's been a lot of ghosts seen there, owin' to a man's killin' of
himself in the back bed-room."

"What! that house at the end of the lane?" I asked, with sudden

"Just so; nice place, but lonesome and dampish. Ghosts and toadstools
are apt to locate in houses of that sort," was his mild reply.

The dampness scared me more than the ghosts, for I had never seen a
ghost yet; but I had been haunted by rheumatism, and found it a hard
thing to get rid of.

"I've taken a room there, so I'm rather interested in knowing what
company I'm to have."

"Taken a room, have you? Well, I dare say you won't be troubled. Some
folks have a knack of seeing spirits, and then again some haven't.

"My wife is uncommon powerful that way, but I an't; my sight's dreadful
poor for that sort."

There was such a sly look in the starboard eye of the old fellow as he
spoke, that I laughed outright, and asked, sociably--

"Has she ever seen the ghosts of the cottage? I think I have rather a
knack that way, and I'd like to know what to expect."

"No, her sort is the rapping kind. Down yonder, the only ghost I take
much stock in is old Bezee Tucker's. Some folks say they've heard him
groaning there nights, and a dripping sound; he bled to death, you know.

"It was kept quiet at the time, and is forgotten now by all but a few
old fellows like me. Bezee was always polite to the ladies, so I guess
he won't bother you, ma'am;" and the old fellow laughed.

"If he does, I'll let you know;" and with that I left him, for I was
called and told that the beach party was anxious for my company.

In the delights of that happy hour, I forgot the warning of the old
gentleman on the hill, for I was about to taste a clam for the first
time in my life, and it was a most absorbing moment.

Perched about on the rocks like hungry birds, we sat and watched the
happy cooks with breathless interest, as they struggled with
frying-pans, fish that refused to brown, steaming sea-weed, and hot

Little Margie Grant waited upon me so prettily, that I should have been
tempted to try a sea porcupine if she had offered it, so charming was
her way of saying, "O here's a perfectly lovely one! Do take him by his
little black head and eat him quick!"

I indulged without thought, in clams, served hot between two shells,
little dreaming what a price I was to pay for that banquet.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson--Let pupils use other words to express the meaning of
the parts given below in dark type.

    "Right down there--_just a step_, you see."

    "_Pretty likely_ place for a prospect."

    "The only one I _take much stock in_."

Write out in full the words for which _'em_ and _an't_ are used.

       *       *       *       *       *


quaked, _shook, as with fear_.

cha'os, _a great number of things without order_.

gi gan'tic, _of very great size_.

stealth'y, _very quiet, so as to escape notice_.

fa'tal, _causing great harm_.

mis'sion, _what one is sent to do_.

in'ter vals, _spaces of time_.

thrill, _feeling, as of pain or pleasure_.

af fect'ing, _making a show of_.

a pol'o gize, _express sorrow for an act_.

ret ri bu'tion, _paying back for one's acts; punishment_.

       *       *       *       *       *



We staid up till late, and then I was left, at my own door by my
friends, who informed me that York was a very quiet, safe place, where
people slept with unlocked doors, and nothing ever went amiss o' nights.

I said nothing of ghosts, being ashamed to own that I quaked, a little
at the idea of the "back bed-room," as I shut out the friendly faces and
fastened myself in.

A lamp and matches stood in the hall, and lighting the lamp, I whisked
up stairs with suspicious rapidity, locking my door, and went to bed,
firmly refusing to own even to myself that I had ever heard the name of
Bezee Tucker.

Being very tired, I soon fell asleep; but fried potatoes and a dozen or
two of hot clams are not kinds of food best fitted to bring quiet sleep,
so a fit of nightmare brought me to a realizing sense of my foolishness.

From a chaos of wild dreams was finally brought forth a gigantic clam,
whose mission it was to devour me as I had devoured its relatives. The
sharp shells were open before me, and a solemn voice said, "Take her by
her little head and eat her quick."

Retribution was at hand, and, with a despairing effort to escape by
diving, I bumped my head smartly against the wall, and woke up feeling
as if there was an earthquake under the bed.

Collecting my scattered wits, I tried to go to sleep again; but alas!
that fatal feast had destroyed sleep, and I vainly tried to quiet my
wakeful senses with the rustle of leaves about the window and the
breaking waves upon the beach.

In one of the pauses between the sounds of the waves, I heard a curious
noise in the house--a sort of moan, coming at regular intervals.

And, as I sat up to make out where it was, another sound caught my
attentive ear. Drip, drip, drip, went something out in the hall, and in
an instant the tale told me on Sunset Hill came back with unpleasant

"Nonsense! It is raining, and the roof leaks," I said to myself, while
an unpleasant thrill went through me, and fancy, aided by indigestion,
began to people the house with ghostly inmates.

No rain had fallen for weeks, and peeping through my curtain, I saw the
big, bright stars shining in a cloudless sky; so that explanation
failed, and still the drip, drip, drip went on.

Likewise the moaning--so distinctly now that it was clear that the
little back bed-room was next the chamber in which I was quaking at that
very moment.

"Some one is sleeping there," I said, and then remembered that all the
rooms were locked, and all the keys but mine in Mrs. Grant's pocket, up
at the house.

"Well, let the ghosts enjoy themselves; I won't disturb them if they let
me alone. Some of the ladies thought me brave to dare to sleep here,
and it never will do to own I was scared by a foolish story and an odd

So down I lay, and said the multiplication table with great
determination for several minutes, trying to turn a deaf ear to the
outside world and check my unruly thoughts.

But it was a failure; and when I found myself saying over and over "Four
times twelve is twenty-four," I gave up affecting courage, and went in
for a good, honest scare.

As a cheerful subject for midnight consideration, I kept thinking of B.
Tucker, in spite of every effort to give it up. In vain I remembered the
fact that the departed gentleman was "always polite to ladies."

I still was in great fear lest he might think it necessary to come and
apologize in person for "bothering" me.

Presently a clock struck three, and I gave a moan that beat the ghost's
all hollow, so full of deep suffering was I at the thought of several
hours of weary waiting.

I was not sure at what time the daylight would appear, and I was
bitterly sorry for not gathering useful information about sunrise,
tides, and such things, instead of listening to the foolish gossip of
Uncle Peter on the hill-top.

Minute after minute dragged slowly on, and I was just thinking that I
should be obliged to shout "Fire!" as the only means of relief in my
power, when, a stealthy step under the window gave me a new feeling.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--To give greater effect to certain parts of
the lesson, read them very slowly.

The first line of the last paragraph is a good example of adding
_emphasis_ by reading slowly.

Point oat two other places in the lesson where slow reading would be

What word in the last paragraph may be made very emphatic, even to the
extent of using the _calling tone_ of voice?

Let pupils pronounce in concert, and singly, the following words:
_soon, do, two, foolish, roof, food, room_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils write statements, each containing one of
the following words, used in such a manner as to show its proper
meaning: _beech, beach; sense, scents; fourth, forth; hear, here_.

Give rules for the capital letters in the first three paragraphs of the

Let pupils place _un_ before each of the following words, and then
define them.

    safe    lock    heard    pleasant    fit

Define each of the following words formed from _please_, and state in
each case what change of meaning occurs.

    please    pleasant    pleasantly    unpleasantly

       *       *       *       *       *


dag'ger, _a short sword_.

spell, _a feeling which prevents one from moving_.

bran'dished, _raised, and moved in different directions_.

in spir'ing, _making one feel_.

awe, _deep fear_.

de mand'ed, _asked as a right_.

punct'u al, _always on time_.

ro mance, _a story of surprising adventures_.

bur'glar, _one who breaks into a house at night_.

cus'tom, _a way or a manner of doing things_.

reigned, _ruled; held power_.

       *       *       *       *       *



This was a start, not a scare--for the new visitor was a human foe, and
I had little fear of such, being possessed of good lungs, strong arms,
and a Roman dagger nearly as big as a carving-knife.

The step that I had just heard broke the spell, and creeping noiselessly
to the window, I peeped out to see a dark figure coming up the stem of
the tall tree close by, hand-over-hand, like a sailor or a monkey.

"Two can play at that game, my friend; you scare me, and I'll scare
you." And with an actual sense of relief in breaking the silence, I
suddenly flung up the curtain, and leaned out.

I brandished my dagger with what I intended to be an awe-inspiring
screech; but, owing to the flutter of my breath, the effort ended in a
curious mixture of howl and bray.

A most effective sound, nevertheless; for the burglar dropped to the
ground as if he had been shot, and, with one upward glance at the white
figure dimly seen in the starlight, fled as if a thousand ghosts were at
his heels.

"What next?" thought I, wondering whether this eventful night would ever
come to a close.

I sat and waited, chilly but brave, while the strange sounds went on
within the house and silence reigned without, till the cheerful crow of
the punctual "cockadoo," as Margie called him, told me that it was
sunrise and laid the ghosts.

A red glow in the east drove away my last fear, and I soon lay down and
slept quietly, quite worn out.

The sun shining upon my face waked me, and a bell ringing warned me to
hurry. A childish voice calling out, "Betfast is most weady, Miss Wee,"
assured me that sweet little spirits haunted the cottage as well as
ghostly ones.

As I left my room to join Margie, who was waiting for me, I saw two
things which caused me to feel that the horrors of the night were not
all unreal.

Just outside the back bed-room door was a damp place, as if that part of
the floor had been newly washed; and when led by curiosity, I peeped
through the keyhole of the haunted chamber, my eye distinctly saw an
open razor lying on a dusty table.

My seeing was limited to that one object, but it was quite enough. I
went up the hill thinking over the terrible secret hidden in my breast.

I longed to tell some one, but was ashamed; and, when asked why I was so
pale and absent-minded, I answered with a gloomy smile--

"It is the clams."

All day I hid my sufferings pretty well, but as night approached and I
thought of sleeping again in that haunted cottage, my heart began to
fail. As we sat telling stories in the dusk, a bright idea came into my

I would relate my ghost story, and rouse the curiosity of my hearers, so
that some of them would offer to stay at the cottage in hopes of seeing
the spirit of the restless Tucker.

Cheered by this fancy, when my turn came I made a thrilling tale about
Bezee Tucker and my night's adventure. After my hearers were worked up
to a proper state of excitement, I paused for applause.

It came in a most unexpected form, however, for Mrs. Grant burst out
laughing, and the two boys--Johnny and Joe--rolled about in convulsions
of merriment.

Much displeased, I demanded the cause of their laughter, and then joined
in the general shout when Mrs. Grant informed me that Bezee Tucker
lived, died in, and haunted the tumble-down house at the other end of
the lane, and not the cottage where I was staying.

"Then who or what made those mysterious noises?" I asked, relieved but
rather displeased at the downfall of my romance.

"My brother Seth," replied Mrs. Grant, still laughing. "I thought you
might be afraid to be there all alone, so he slipped into the bed-room,
and I forgot to tell you. He's a powerful snorer, and that's one of the
awful sounds.

"The other was the dripping of salt water; for you wanted some, and the
girl got it in a leaky pail. Seth swept out the water when he left the
cottage early in the morning."

I said nothing about having seen through the keyhole the harmless razor;
but wishing to get some praise for my heroic encounter with the burglar,
I mildly asked if it was the custom in York for men as well as turkeys
to roost in trees.

Another burst of laughter from the boys did away with my last hope of
glory. As soon as he could speak, Joe answered--

"Johnny planned to be up early to pick the last cherries off that tree.
I wanted to get ahead of him, and as I was going a-fishing, I went off
quietly before daylight."

"Did you get the cherries?" I asked, bound to have some laugh on my

"Guess I didn't," grumbled Joe, rubbing his knees, while Johnny added--

"He got a horrid scare and a right good scraping, for he didn't know
any one was down there. Couldn't go a-fishing, either--he was so
lame--and I had the cherries after all. Served him right, didn't it?"

No answer was necessary. Mrs. Grant went off to repeat the tale in the
kitchen, and the sounds of hearty laughter that I heard, assured me that
Seth was enjoying the joke as well as the rest of us.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils make out an _analysis_ for so much of the
last three lessons as may be included under the subject--"A Night at
the Cottage."

Suggestion.--The _analysis_ of _simple subjects_, and their treatment
orally or in writing, are valuable exercises, and should be assigned to
pupils as frequently as possible during the whole of their school life.

       *       *       *       *       *


mel'o dy, _sounds pleasant to the ear_.

chant'ed, _sung in a simple melody_.

witch, _a person supposed to deal with evil spirits_.

trump'et, _a hollow piece of metal used to make music_.

har'mo ny, _the effect produced by uniting two or
    more different parts in music_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Over the chimney the night-wind sang
  And chanted a melody no one knew;
  And the Woman stopped, as her babe she tossed,
  And thought of the one she had long since lost:
  And said, as her tear-drop back she forced,
  "I hate the wind in the chimney."

  Over the chimney the night-wind sang
  And chanted a melody no one knew;
  And the Children said, as they closer drew,
  "'Tis some witch that is cleaving the black night through--
  'Tis a fairy trumpet that just then blew,
  And we fear the wind in the chimney."

  Over the chimney the night-wind sang
  And chanted a melody no one knew;
  And the Man, as he sat on his hearth below,
  Said to himself, "It will surely snow,
  And fuel is dear and wages low,
  And I'll stop the leak in the chimney."

  Over the chimney the night-wind sang
  And chanted a melody no one knew;
  But the Poet listened and smiled, for he
  Was Man, and Woman, and Child--all three,
  And said, "It is God's own harmony,
  This wind we hear in the chimney."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--The first two lines of each stanza may be read
more slowly and with a fuller tone of voice than the rest of the

Notice that the words of special _emphasis_ throughout the poem begin
with capital letters.

Mark _inflections_ in the last four lines of the first and last

       *       *       *       *       *


sel'dom, _not often; rarely_.

jun'gles, _places covered with trees and brushwood_.

tough (tuf), _not easily separated_.

ap par'ent ly, _seemingly; in appearance_.

a cute', _quick in action; sharp_.

charg'es, _rushes forward_.

gram'p us, _a kind of fish_.

re sumed', _started again; took up again_.

hid'e ous, _horrid to look at_.

de struc'tion, _death; entire loss_.

re sist', _stand against_.

des'per ate, _without hope or care_.

ex cur'sions, _journeys; rambles_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Next to the mighty elephant, the rhinoceros is the largest and strongest
of animals. There are several species of the rhinoceros, some of which
are found in Asia, and others in different parts of Africa.

In the latter country there are four varieties--the black rhinoceros,
having a single horn; the black species having two horns; the
long-horned white rhinoceros; and the common white species, which has a
short, stubby horn.

The largest of the African species is the long-horned, white, or
square-nosed rhinoceros. When full-grown, it sometimes measures eighteen
feet in length, and about the same around the body. Its horn frequently
reaches a length of thirty inches.

The black rhinoceros, although much, smaller than the white, and seldom
having a horn over eighteen inches long, is far more ferocious than the
white species, and possesses a wonderful degree of strength.

The form of the rhinoceros is clumsy, and its appearance dull and heavy.
The limbs are thick and powerful, and each, foot has three toes, which
are covered with broad, hoof-like nails.

The tail is small; the head very long and large. Taken altogether, there
are few--if any--animals that compare with the rhinoceros in ugliness.

The eyes are set in such a manner that the animal can not see any thing
exactly in front of it; but the senses of hearing and smelling are so
keen that sight is not required to detect an enemy, whether it be man or

The skin of the African rhinoceros is smooth, and has only a few
scattering hairs here and there. It is, however, very thick and tough,
and can resist the force of a rifle-ball unless it is fired from a very
short distance.

The largest known species of the rhinoceros is found in Asia. It lives
chiefly in the marshy jungles, and on the banks of lakes and rivers in
India. Some of this species are over live feet in height, and have horns
three feet in length and eighteen inches around the base.

Unlike the African rhinoceros, the skin of the Asiatic species is not
smooth, but lies in thick folds upon the body, forming flaps which can
be lifted with the hand.

The food of the rhinoceros consists of roots, and the young branches and
leaves of trees and shrubs.

It plows up the roots with the aid of its horn, and gathers the branches
and leaves with the upper lip which is long and pointed, and with which
the food is rolled together before placing it in the mouth.

The flesh of the rhinoceros is good to eat; and its strong, thick skin
is made by the natives, into shields, whips, and other articles.

Though clumsy and apparently very stupid, the rhinoceros is a very
active animal when attacked or otherwise alarmed, dashing about with
wonderful rapidity.

It is very fierce and savage--so much so that the natives dread it more
than they do the lion. In hunting the animal, it is dangerous for a man
to fire at one unless he is mounted upon a swift horse, and can easily
reach some place of safety.

When attacking an enemy, the rhinoceros lowers its head and rushes
forward like an angry goat. Though it may not see the object of its
attack, the sense of smell is so acute that it knows about when the
enemy is reached.

Then begins a furious tossing of the head, and if the powerful horn
strikes the foe, a terrible wound is the result.

When wounded itself, the rhinoceros loses all sense of fear, and charges
again and again with such desperate fury that the enemy is almost always

A famous traveler in South Africa relates the following incident that
happened during one of his hunting excursions:

"Having proceeded about two miles, I came upon a black rhinoceros,
feeding on some Wait-a-bit thorns within fifty yards of me.

"I fired from the saddle, and sent a bullet in behind his shoulder, when
he rushed forward, blowing like a grampus, and then stood looking about

"Presently he started off, and I followed. I expected that he would come
to bay, but it seems a rhinoceros never does that--a fact I did not
know at that time.

"Suddenly he fell flat upon the ground; but soon recovering his feet, he
resumed his course as if nothing had happened.

"I spurred on my horse, dashed ahead, and rode right in his path. Upon
this, the hideous monster charged me in the most resolute manner,
blowing loudly through his nostrils.

"Although I quickly turned about, he followed me at such a furious pace
for several hundred yards, with his horrid horny snout within a few
yards of my horse's tail, that I thought my destruction was certain.

"The animal, however, suddenly turned and ran in another direction. I
had now become so excited with the incident, that I determined to give
him one more shot any way.

"Nerving my horse again, I made another dash, after the rhinoceros, and
coming up pretty close to him, I again fired, though with little
effect, the ball striking some thick portion of his skin and doing no

"Feeling that I did not care to run the chance of the huge brute again
charging me, and believing that my rifle-ball was not powerful enough
to kill him, I determined to give up the pursuit, and accordingly let
him run off while I returned to the camp."


      *      *      *      *      *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils mark _inflections_ in the first
sentence of the lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils express in other words the meaning of
what is given below in dark type.

    "I expected that he would _come to bay_."

       *       *       *       *       *


per'il, _great danger that is near one_.

pru'dent, _careful in regard to what may happen_.

con'fi dence, _courage; freedom from doubt_.

oc ca'sion, _a chance event; an incident_.

tor'rents, _violent streams, as of water_.

ford, _a place to cross a river_.

per suad'ed, _influenced by advice_.

op'po site, _on the other side; in front of_.

fran'tic, _without power to act properly_.

her'o ism, _great courage, which makes one willing to face
    danger of any kind_.

res'o lute, _decided; firm_.

af fec'tion ate, _kind and loving_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Many years ago, there lived on the banks of the Naugatuck River, in
Connecticut, a family by the name of Bishop.

The father was not wealthy, but a good man, and respected by all who
knew him. He had fought in the battles of his country during the
Revolutionary War, and was familiar with scenes of danger and peril.

He had learned that it is always more prudent to preserve an air of
confidence in danger, than to show signs of fear, and especially so,
since his conduct might have a great influence upon the minds of those
about him.

On one occasion he sent his son James, a boy twelve years old, across
the river to the house of a relative, on an errand. As there was no
bridge or ferry, all who crossed the river were obliged to ford it.

James was familiar with every part of the fording-place, and when the
water was low, which was the case at this time, there was no danger in

Mounted on one of his father's best horses, James set out. He crossed
the river, and soon reached the house of his relatives.

He was ready to start on his return, when suddenly the heavens became
black with clouds, the wind blew with great violence, and the rain fell
in torrents.

It was late in the afternoon, and as his relatives feared to have him
attempt to reach home in such a storm, they persuaded him to remain over
night and wait until daylight before starting for home.

His father suspected the cause of James' delay, and was not over anxious
on his account. He knew that the boy was prudent, and did not fear that
any accident would happen to him during the night.

But he knew that he had taught James to obey his commands in every
particular, and as the boy possessed, a daring and fearless spirit, that
he would attempt to ford the river as soon as it was light enough in the

He knew, also, that the immense quantity of water that appeared to be
falling, would cause the river to rise to a considerable height by
morning, and make it very dangerous even for a strong man to attempt to
cross it.

The thought of what might befall his child caused Mr. Bishop to pass a
sleepless night; for although he was very strict with his children, he
possessed an affectionate nature and loved them dearly.

The day dawned; the storm had ceased; the wind was still, and nothing
was to be heard but the roar of the river.

The rise of the river was even greater than Mr. Bishop expected, and as
soon as it was light enough, for him to see objects across it, he took
up a position on the bank to watch for the approach of his son.

James arrived on the opposite shore at the same time, and his horse was
beginning to enter the stream.

All his father's feelings were roused into action, for he knew that his
son was in fearful danger. James had already proceeded too far to
return--in fact, to go forward or back was equally dangerous.

His horse had arrived at the deepest part of the river, and was
struggling against the current. The animal was being hurried down the
stream, and apparently making but little progress toward the shore.

James became very much alarmed. Raising his eyes toward the
landing-place, he discovered his father. Almost frantic with fear, he
exclaimed, "O father, father! I shall drown! I shall drown!"

"No," replied his father, in a stern and resolute tone of voice,
dismissing for a moment his feelings of tenderness; "if you do, I will
whip you severely. Cling to your horse! Cling to your horse!"

The son, who feared his father more than he did the raging river, obeyed
the command; and the noble animal on which he was mounted, struggling
for some time, carried him safe to shore.

"My son!" exclaimed the glad father, bursting into tears, "remember,
hereafter, that in danger you must possess courage, and being determined
to save your life, cling to the last hope!

"If I had replied to you with the tenderness and fear which I felt, you
might have lost your life; you would have lost your presence of mind,
been carried away by the current, and I should have seen you no more."

What a noble example is this! The heroism of this father and his
presence of mind saved the life of his boy.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In _calling tones_, as on pages 237 and 238,
notice that the falling inflections only can be used.[14]

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils make out an _analysis_, and use it in
telling the story in their own words.

[14] See the last six paragraphs.

       *       *       *       *       *


rug'ged, _full of rough places_.

con cealed', _covered over; hidden_.

ra vines', _deep and narrow hollow places_.

prec'i pice, _a very steep place_.

dis'lo cate ed, _thrown out of joint_.

mis'er y, _great unhappiness_.

ev'i dence, _signs; that which is shown_.

de scent', _going down_.

haz'ards, _dangers; difficulties_.

toil, _hard work_.

pro ject'ing, _hanging over_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Far up in the Highlands of Scotland lived Malcolm, a shepherd, with his
wife and his son Halbert.

Their little cottage was far from any village, and could only be reached
by a rugged path through the mountains.

One evening Halbert's mother was taken very ill, and Malcolm made
preparations to go to the village to obtain some medicine for her.

"Father," said Halbert, "I know the path through the dark glen better
than you. Shag will walk before me, and I will be quite safe. Let me go
for the doctor, and you stay at home and comfort mother."

Old Shag, the dog, stood by, wagging his tail and looking up into
Malcolm's face as if to say, "Yes, master, I will take good care of
Halbert. Let him go."

Malcolm did not like to have his boy undertake a journey of so much
peril, as the snow was falling in heavy flakes, and it was growing very
dark. But the boy again repeated his request, and Malcolm gave his

Halbert had been accustomed to the mountains from his earliest boyhood,
and Shag set out with his young master, not seeming to care for wind,
snow, or storm.

They reached the village safely. Halbert saw the doctor, received some
medicine for his mother, and then started on his return home with a
cheerful heart.

Shag trotted along before him to see that all was right. Suddenly,
however, in one of the most dangerous parts of the rocky path, he
stopped and began snuffing and smelling about.

"Go on, Shag," said Halbert.

Shag would not stir.

"Shag, go on, sir," repeated the boy. "We are nearly at the top of the
glen. Look through the dark, and you can see the candle shining through
our window."

Shag disobeyed for the first time in his life, and Halbert advanced
ahead of him, heedless of the warning growl of his companion.

He had proceeded but a few steps when he fell over a precipice, the
approach to which had been concealed by the snow.

It was getting late in the night, and Malcolm began to be alarmed at the
long absence of Halbert. He placed the candle so as to throw the light
over his boy's path, piled wood on the great hearth fire, and often went
to the door.

But no footstep sounded on the crackling ice; no figure darkened the
wide waste of snow.

"Perhaps the doctor is not at home, and he is waiting for him," said
Halbert's mother. She felt so uneasy at her boy's absence, that she
almost forgot her own pain.

It was midnight when Malcolm heard the well-known bark of the faithful

"O there is Halbert!" cried both parents at the same moment. Malcolm
sprang to the door and opened it, expecting to see his son.

But alas! Halbert was not there. Shag was alone. The old dog entered
the door, and began to whine in a piteous manner.

"O Malcolm, Malcolm, my brave son has perished in the snow!" exclaimed
the mother.

Malcolm stood wondering. His heart beat rapidly. A fear that the worst
had happened almost overcame him. At that moment he saw a small package
around the dog's neck.

Seizing it in his hands, he exclaimed, "No, wife; look! Our boy lives!
Here is the medicine, tied with his handkerchief; he has fallen into one
of the deep ravines, but he is safe.

"I will go out, and Shag shall go with me. He will conduct me safely to
the rescue of my child."

In an instant Shag was again on his feet, and gave evidence of great joy
as he left the cottage with his old master.

You may imagine the misery and grief the poor mother suffered--alone in
her mountain dwelling; the certainty of her son's danger, and the fear
that her husband also might perish.

Shag went on straight and steadily for some distance after he left the
cottage. Suddenly he turned down a path which led to the foot of the
precipice over which Halbert had fallen.

The descent was steep and dangerous, and Malcolm was frequently obliged
to support himself by clinging to the frozen branches of the trees.

At last Malcolm stood on the lower and opposite edge of the pit into
which his son had fallen. He called to him, "Halbert! Halbert!" He
looked in every direction, but could not see or hear any thing.

Shag was making his way down a very steep and dangerous ledge of rocks,
and Malcolm resolved at all hazards to follow him.

After getting to the bottom, Shag scrambled to a projecting rock, which
was covered with snow, and commenced whining and scratching in a violent

Malcolm followed, and after some search found what appeared to be the
dead body of his son. He hastily tore off the jacket, which was soaked
with blood and snow, and wrapping Halbert in his great cloak, took him
upon his shoulders, and with much toil and difficulty reached the path
again, and soon had his boy at home.

Halbert was placed in his mother's bed, and by using great exertion,
they aroused him from his dangerous sleep.

He was much bruised and had his ankle dislocated, but was not otherwise
hurt. When he recovered his senses, he fixed his eyes on his mother, and
his first words were, "Did you get the medicine, mother?"

When he fell, Shag had descended after him. The affectionate son used
what little strength he had left to tie the medicine that he had
received from the doctor around the dog's neck, and then sent him home
with it.

You may be sure that Shag was well taken care of after this incident.
Even after Halbert became a man Shag was his constant companion, and he
lived to a good old age.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson--Let pupils add _ship_ to each of the following
words, and then give their meaning.

    friend    hard    relation    partner    fellow

Make out an _analysis_ of the lesson, and use it in telling the story
in your own words.

       *       *       *       *       *


ebb'ing, _flowing out; falling_.

break'ers, _waves breaking into foam against_
     the shore_.

main, _the great sea; the ocean_.

reef, _a row or chain of rocks_.

dis mayed', _having lost courage_.

strand, _beach; shore_.

treach'er ous, _likely to do harm_.

vic'tor, _a successful warrior_.

shroud'ing, _covering over_.

murk'y, _gloomy; dark_.

bea'con, _a signal fire or light_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  The tide comes up, and the tide goes down,
  Over the rocks, so rugged and brown,
  And the cruel sea,  with a hungry roar,
  Dashes its breakers along the shore;
  But steady and clear, with a constant ray,
  The star of the light-house shines alway.

  The ships come sailing across the main,
  But the harbor mouth is hard to gain,
  For the treacherous reef lies close beside,
  And the rocks are bare at the ebbing tide,
  And the blinding fog comes down at night,
  Shrouding and hiding the harbor light.

  The sailors, sailing their ships along,
  Will tell you a tale of the light-house strong;
  How once, when the keeper was far away,
  A terrible storm swept down the bay,
  And two little children were left to keep
  Their awesome watch with the angry deep.

  The fair little sister wept, dismayed,
  But the brother said, "I am not afraid;
  There's One who ruleth on sea and land,
  And holds the sea in His mighty hand;
  For mercy's sake I will watch to-night,
  And feed, for the sailors, the beacon light."

  So the sailors heard through the murky shroud
  The fog-bell sounding its warning loud!
  While the children, up in the lonely tower,
  Tended the lamp in the midnight hour,
  And prayed for any whose souls might be
  In deadly peril by land or sea.

  Ghostly and dim, when the storm was o'er,
  The ships rode safely, far off the shore,
  And a boat shot out from the town that lay
  Dusk and purple, across the bay,
  She touched her keel to the light-house strand,
  And the eager keeper leaped to land.

  And swiftly climbing the light-house stair,
  He called to his children, young and fair;
  But, worn with their toilsome watch, they slept,
  While slowly o'er their foreheads crept,
  The golden light of the morning sun,
  Like a victor's crown, when his palm is won.

  "God bless you, children!" the keeper cried;
  "God bless thee, father!" the boy replied.
  "I dreamed that there stood beside my bed
  A beautiful angel, who smiled and said,
  'Blessed are they whose love can make
  Joy of labor, for mercy's sake!'"


       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Mark the _inflection_ of the following lines.

    The tide comes up, and the tide goes down.

    The fair little sister wept, dismayed,
    But the brother said, "I am not afraid."

Name the _emphatic words_ in the lines just quoted. State whether the
emphasis falls upon words that are inflected.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Why is the sea called _cruel_ and its roar _hungry?_
Give two examples of a similar use of words.

       *       *       *       *       *


oc'cu pant, _one who is in possession of a thing_.

ac quired', _gained_.

mi'cro scope, _a glass so formed as to make small_
    _objects appear large_.

slug'gish, _slow; stupid_.

in spect'ing, _looking at with attention_.

com posed', _made up_.

se'ries, _a number of things in order_.

stub'bed, _short and thick_.

dis turbed', _interfered with_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Last summer, when the trees were covered with green leaves, and when the
little stream was sparkling and dancing in the sun, there appeared in
the garden, a large caterpillar of many colors, and about as pretty as a
caterpillar could be.

All day long it was nibbling the green leaves, and leaf after leaf
disappeared before it with wonderful rapidity. It seemed to live only
for eating.

As autumn came on, it quite lost its appetite; so much so, that even the
tenderest and most juicy leaves could not tempt it to eat any more. It
grew dull and stiff, and lost all interest in life.

Feeling that some change was about to happen, it crawled into a little
hole in the old garden wall. It wrapped itself up in a cobweb, and fell
into a long sleep, during which it became changed from a caterpillar
into a dried-up, dead-looking grub or chrysalis.

It remained in this state through all the long winter, till the snow and
frost had gone, and the cold March winds were over.

In April the trees burst forth with their bright green leaves, and the
grass looked fresh under the power of the warm rains.

In May the many-tinted flowers appeared, filling the air with their
sweetness, and brightening the fields and gardens with their gay colors.

At this time another great change came over the old grub. It showed
signs of life again; but it was now no longer a caterpillar--it was
something else.

It wriggled and turned in its narrow little home, and seemed anxious to
get out and look at the sunshine and flowers. It bumped its head up and
down until it succeeded in pushing off a little door.

When the door was off, and the bright sunlight shone in, this little
occupant of the chrysalis took a look at itself.

It saw that during its long winter's nap, it had acquired a pair of
beautiful wings, and its legs had grown longer and stronger than they
were before.

Crawling out of the chrysalis, and taking a position on a branch of the
tree, it discovered that instead of a caterpillar, it was now a
beautiful butterfly.

It was a kind that is called the swallow-tail butterfly, because each of
its wings tapered to a point, something like the tail of a swallow. We
will call the butterfly, Miss Swallow-tail, and now let us see what her
next move was.

Her wings were damp and heavy, and she stood shivering and trembling;
for although she had six legs, they were weak, having never before borne
such a weight.

But fresh air brings strength; so she soon felt like trying to walk. At
first her movements were sluggish, but she finally reached a sunny spot
where she dried and warmed herself, giving her wings a little shake now
and then, until they opened grandly above her back.

And how beautiful they were! Dark brown, bordered with two rows of
yellow spots; and there were seven blue spots on each of the hind

As she stood there in the sun, a little wind came along and raised Miss
Swallow-tail off her feet. She spread her wings to keep from falling,
and found herself floating in the air.

This proved to be such a delightful way of traveling, that she lifted
her wings occasionally, and so kept herself floating; and in a short
time she learned to turn in any direction she chose.

As she flew along, growing stronger every minute, she was attracted by
the bright colors of a flower, and stopped to admire it.

The sweet perfume tempted her to taste, and unrolling her long tongue
from under her chin, where she carried it, she put it down into the
flower and drew up the honey hidden there.

Miss Swallow-tail had wonderful eyes. All butterflies have wonderful
eyes. If you will look at them through a microscope you will find that
each eye is composed of a great many smaller ones, that can see in all

They have great need of such eyes, because there are so many birds and
other hungry creatures, that want to eat them.

One day a whiff of celery coming from a garden near by, reminded Miss
Swallow-tail of the time when she was a baby and liked to eat celery.

So she flew over into the garden, and fastened her eggs to a celery bush
with some glue that she carried with her. Then she left them, and never
thought of them again.

In about ten days the babies that had been growing inside of the eggs,
broke open the shells and crawled out. And what do you think they were?
Butterflies? like their mamma, only very much smaller?

No, indeed! for you know butterflies never grow any larger. They were
the smallest green and black worms you ever saw!

As soon as they were out of the shells, they began eating the celery,
and grew so fast that in a week they were quite large worms.

They were covered with green rings and black rings dotted with yellow.
They each had sixteen short legs, and they had a flesh-colored, Y-shaped
horn hidden away under a ring above the head, that they would show when
they were disturbed.

One morning the gardener discovered that something was eating his
celery. Searching among the leaves he found all but one of the little
worms, and put them where they could do no more mischief.

Soon the little worm that had escaped his notice, had grown so fat that
he was too stupid to eat any more; so he crawled away to a dark place on
the fence and fastened himself there.

But first he covered a small spot of the fence with a white, silken
carpet, that he wove from a web which he drew from his under lip.

He then glued the end of a web to the carpet, carried the rest of it up
over his breast, and down on the other side and fastened it there.

He then bent his head down under it, letting it pass over his head, and
by bending forward and backward worked it down near the middle of his
back. After inspecting his work, he bent his head upon his breast, and
leaned against the fence.

After resting two days, he began a series of twistings and turnings
that burst open his skin from the corners of his mouth down a short way,
and worked it all off himself.

He drew his head in out of sight, and sent out a stubbed horn on each
side of it, and lo! no worm was to be seen!--but a chrysalis, like the
one his mother was sleeping in when we first found her.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils read the following lines, and then
mark the _inflection_.

    "And what do you think they were? Butterflies? like their mamma,
    only very much smaller?"

Does the first question expect the answer _yes_ or _no?_

Do the last two questions expect the answer _yes_ or _no?_

What would be the inflections used in the following questions?

What kind of an answer is expected to each question?

    "Where are you going?"

    "Are you coming back again?"

Fill blanks in the following statements.

Questions which may be answered by _yes_ or _no_, regularly require
the ---- inflection.

Questions which can not be answered by _yes_ or _no_, regularly
require the ---- inflection.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson. Let pupils copy the following words.

    seize    chief    grief    fear    beach    receive

    relief    believe    weary    beacon

Write sentences, each containing one of the preceding words, used in
such a way as to show its meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *


ob'sti nate, _determined to have one's own way_.

vi'cious, _not well tamed; given to bad tricks_.

sub dued', _made gentle; overcome_.

swerve, _turn from a direct line_.

squad'ron, _a number of horses drawn up together_.

pli'able, _capable of being turned or bent_.

strove, _attempted; tried hard_.

ex ceed'ed, _went beyond_.

thong, _a long strip of leather_.

       *       *       *       *       *


At the time of the discovery of America there were no wild horses in any
part of the continent.

Soon, however, some of the horses brought over from Europe by the early
settlers, wandered away, and now wild horses are to be met with in large
numbers, in some cases as many as a thousand at a time.

They appear to be under the command of a leader, the strongest and
boldest of the herd, whom they obey.

When threatened with danger, at some signal, understood by them all,
they either close together and trample their enemy to death, or form
themselves into a circle and welcome him with their heels.

The leader first faces the danger, and when he finds it prudent to
retreat, all follow his rapid flight.

Byron thus describes a troop of wild horses:

  "A trampling troop; I see them come!
  In one vast squadron they advance!
  I strove to cry--my lips were dumb.
  The steeds rush on in plunging pride;
  But where are they the reins to guide?
  A thousand horse--and none to ride!
  With flowing tail, and flying mane,
  Wide nostrils--never stretch'd by pain,
  Mouths bloodless to the bit or rein
  And feet that iron never shod,
  And flanks unscarr'd by spur or rod,
  A thousand horse, the wild, the free,
  Like waves that follow o'er the sea.
  On came the troop....
  They stop--they start--they snuff the air,
  Gallop a moment here and there,
  Approach, retire, wheel round and round,
  Then plunging back with sudden bound,
  They snort--they foam--neigh--swerve aside,
  And backward to the forest fly."

The capture and breaking in of wild horses in America are described by
Miers as follows--

"The lasso is used by the natives of South America. It is a very strong
braided thong, half an inch thick, and forty feet long, made of many
strips of rawhide, braided like a whip-thong, and made soft and pliable
by rubbing with grease.

"It has at one end an iron ring, about an inch and a half in diameter,
through which the thong is passed, forming a running noose.

"The herdsmen--gauchos, as they are called--are generally mounted on
horseback when they use the lasso. One end of the thong is attached to
the saddle; the remainder is coiled in the left hand, except about
twelve feet belonging to the noose end, which is held in a coil in the
right hand.

"This long noose is then swung around the head, the weight of the iron
ring at the end of the noose assisting in giving to it, by a continued
circular motion, a sufficient force to project it the whole length of
the line.

"The gauchos drive the wild horses into a corral, which is a circular
space surrounded by rough posts firmly driven into the ground. The
corral," relates Miers, "was quite full of horses, most of which were
young ones about two or three years old.

"The chief gaucho, mounted on a strong, steady horse, rode into the
corral, and threw his lasso over the neck of a young horse and dragged
him to the gate.

"For some time he was very unwilling to lose his companions; but the
moment he was forced out of the corral his first idea was to gallop
away; however, a timely jerk of the lasso checked him.

"Some of the gauchos now ran after him on foot, and threw a lasso over
his fore legs, and jerking it, they pulled his legs from under him so
suddenly that I really thought the fall had killed him.

"In an instant a gaucho was seated on his head. They then put a piece of
hide in his mouth to serve for a bit, and a strong hide halter on his
head, and allowed him to get on his feet.

"While two men held the horse by his ears, the gaucho who was to mount
him fastened on the saddle, and then quickly sprung into it.

"The horse instantly began to jump in a manner which made it very
difficult for the rider to keep his seat; however, the gaucho's spurs
soon set him going, and off he galloped, doing every thing in his power
to throw his rider.

"Then another horse was brought from the corral; and so quickly was
every thing done that twelve gauchos were mounted in less than an hour.

"It was wonderful to see the different manner in which different horses
behaved. Some would actually scream while the gauchos were fastening
the saddle upon their backs, and some would instantly lie down and roll
upon it.

"Others would stand without being held, their legs stiff and in
unnatural positions, their necks half bent towards their tails, and
looking vicious and obstinate.

"It was now curious to look around and see the gauchos trying to bring
their horses back to the corral, which is the most difficult part of
their work, for the poor creatures had been so scared there that they
were unwilling to return to the place.

"At last they brought the horses back, apparently subdued and broken in.
The saddles and bridles were taken off, and the young horses trotted
off towards the corral, neighing to one another.

"When a gaucho wishes to take a wild horse, he mounts a horse that has
been used to the sport, and gallops over the plain.

"As soon as he comes near his victim, the lasso is thrown round the two
hind-legs, and as the gaucho rides a little on one side, the jerk
throws the wild horse without doing injury to his knees or his face.


"Before the horse can recover from the shock, the rider dismounts, and
snatching his cloak from his shoulders, wraps it round the fallen
animal's head.

"He then forces into his mouth one of the powerful bridles of the
country, fastens a saddle on his back, and, mounting him, removes the

"Upon this the astonished horse springs to his feet, and attempts to
throw off his new master, who sits calmly on his back.

"By a treatment which never fails, the gaucho brings the horse to such
complete obedience that he is soon trained to give his whole speed and
strength to the capture of his companions."

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils pronounce in concert, and singly,
the following words: _I, hide, side, rides, flight, wild, finds,
retire, describe_.

Mark the inflection of the last six lines of poetry on page 256.[15]

What _inflection_ is used (1) to keep up the interest?--(2) to show
hesitation?--(3) to express a decided opinion?--(4) to give the
conclusion of a story?--(5) to ask a question that may be answered by
_yes_ or _no_?--(6) to ask a question that can not be answered by
_yes_ or _no_?

Let pupils state the special uses of _inflection_ shown in the
following examples.

    I, I think perhaps you may go.

    I know that you may go.

    They silently went away.

Yesterday, about three o'clock, just as we were preparing to go home,
suddenly we heard a band of music.

[15] This lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *


career', _course of life_.

gen'erous, _free in giving aid to others_.

char'ity, _goodwill; desire to aid others_.

in her'ited, _came into possession of_.

in jus'tice, _wrong-doing_.

ac cused', _charged with a fault_.

hes i ta'tion, _delay_.

pre scrip'tion, _an order for medicine_.

flor'ins, _pieces of money, each valued at about fifty cents_.

pen'sion, _money paid for service in war_.

re stor'ing, _giving back_.

phy si'cian, _doctor of medicine_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Joseph II., Emperor of Austria, was a generous, warm-hearted man, who
took great delight in doing acts of kindness and charity.

One time, as he was passing through the streets of Vienna, dressed as a
private gentleman, his attention was attracted to a boy about twelve
years old, who timidly approached, and seemed, anxious to speak to him.

"What do you wish, my little friend?" said the gentleman. His voice was
so tender, and he had such a kindly look in his eyes, that the boy had
courage to say:

"O sir, you are very good to speak to me so kindly. I believe you will
not refuse to do something for me."

"I should be sorry to refuse you," replied the gentleman; "but why are
you begging? You appear to be something better than a beggar; your voice
and your manner show it."

"I am not a beggar, sir," replied the boy, as a tear trickled down his
cheek. "My father was a brave officer in the army. Owing to illness, he
was obliged to leave the service, and was granted a pension by the

"With this pension he supported our family; but a few months ago he
died, and we are left very poor indeed."

"Poor child!" said the gentleman. "Is your mother living?"

"Yes, sir, she is; and I have two brothers who are at home with her now.
She has been unable to leave her bed for weeks, and one of us must watch
beside her, while the others go out to beg."

Saying this, the poor boy tried very hard to keep back the great tears,
but they would come in spite of all he could do to stop them.

"Well, well, my boy," said the gentleman, "do not feel so unhappy; I
will see what can be done to help you. Is there a physician to be found
near you?"

"There are two, sir, only a little way from where we live."

"That is well. Now you go at once and have one of them visit your
mother. Here is money, not only for the physician, but for other things
to feed you and make you comfortable."

"O sir," said the boy, as he looked upon the gentleman in amazement,
"how can I thank you enough? This money will save my mother's life, and
keep my brothers from want."

"Never mind, my child; go and get the physician."

The boy obeyed, and the good emperor having learned the situation of the
house where the boy's mother lived, bent his steps in that direction,
and soon arrived there.

The room in which he found the poor woman gave evidence of great misery.

She was lying on a low bedstead, and though still young, her face was
pale and thin from sickness and want. Very little furniture of any kind
was to be seen, for the mother had disposed of nearly all she possessed
to obtain bread for her children.

When the emperor entered the room, the widow and her children looked at
him in astonishment. They did not know he was their emperor.

"I am a physician, madam," said he, bowing respectfully; "your neighbors
have informed me of your illness, and I am come to offer what service
may be in my power."

"Alas! sir," she answered with some hesitation, "I have no means of
paying you for your attention."

"Do not distress yourself on that account; I shall be fully repaid if I
have the happiness of restoring you to health."

With these words, the emperor approached the bed and inquired all about
her illness, after which he wrote a few lines and placed them on the

"I will leave you this prescription, madam; and on my next visit, I hope
to find you much better." He then withdrew. Almost immediately after
this, the eldest son of the widow came in with a medical man.

"O mother!" cried the boy, "a kind, good gentleman has given me all
this!" and he placed in his mother's hand, the money which the emperor
had given him. "There now, don't cry, mother; this money will pay the
doctor and buy every thing till you are well and strong again."

"A physician has already been here, my child, and has left his
prescription. See, there it is." and she pointed to the paper on the
chimney-piece. The boy took the paper, and no sooner had he glanced at
its contents, than he uttered an exclamation of joyful surprise.

"O mother! It's the best prescription a physician ever wrote; it's an
order for a pension, mother--a pension for you--signed by the emperor
himself; listen, mother; hear what he says:--

    "'_Madam:_--Your son was fortunate enough to meet me in the city,
    and informed me of the fact that the widow of one of my bravest
    officers was suffering from poverty and sickness, without any means
    of assistance. I had no knowledge of this, therefore I can not be
    accused of injustice.

    "'It is difficult for me to know every thing that takes place in my
    empire. Now that I do know of your distress, I should indeed be
    ungrateful, did I not render you all the help in my power. I shall
    immediately place your name on the pension list for the yearly sum
    of two thousand florins, and trust that you may live many years to
    enjoy it.

                                                   "'_Joseph II_.'"

The widow and her children were taken under the especial care of the
emperor, and a brilliant career was opened up for the boys, who had
inherited all their father's bravery as well as their mother's gentle

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Mark the _inflection_ of the following

    Where do you live?

    Is your name Harry or John?

    Why are you begging?

    Do you wish to walk?

In such a question as the last one, if _emphasis_ be given in turn to
the words _you, wish, walk_, the answer might still be _yes_ or
_no_; and yet the meaning of the answer would be different in each

Do _you_ wish to walk? Yes, I do.

Do you _wish_ to walk? No, I do not _wish_ to walk; but suppose I

Do you wish to _walk?_ No, I would rather _ride_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils write a letter to some friend, using the
last paragraph of the lesson as a subject.

       *       *       *       *       *


persist'ed, _continued_.

crip'ples, _those who have lost the use of a limb_.

merged, _united; joined_.

stal'wart, _strong; powerful_.

in'nocent, _harmless_.

pass'port, _what enables one to go in safety_.

gal'lant, _brave; noble_.

riv'en, _taken away; deprived_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  "O mother! What do they mean by blue?
    And what do they mean by gray?"
  Was heard from the lips of a little child
    As she bounded in from play.
  The mother's eyes filled up with tears;
    She turned to her darling fair,
  And smoothed away from the sunny brow
    Its treasure of golden hair.

  "Why, mother's eyes are blue, my sweet,
    And grandpa's hair is gray,
  And the love we bear our darling child
    Grows stronger every day."
  "But what did they mean?" persisted the child;
    "For I saw two cripples to-day,
  And one of them said he fought for the blue,
    The other, he fought for the gray.

  "Now he of the blue had lost a leg,
    And the other had  but one arm,
  And both seemed worn and weary and sad,
    Yet their greeting was kind and warm.
  They told of the battles in days gone by,
    Till it made my young blood thrill;
  The leg was lost in the Wilderness fight,
    And the arm on Malvern Hill.

  "They sat on the stone by the farm-yard gate,
    And talked for an hour or more,
  Till their eyes grew bright and their hearts seemed warm
    With fighting their battles o'er;
  And they parted at last with a friendly grasp,
    In a kindly, brotherly way,
  Each calling on God to speed the time
    Uniting the blue and the gray."

  Then the mother thought of other days--
    Two stalwart boys from her riven;
  How they knelt at her side and lispingly prayed,
    "Our Father which art in heaven;"
  How one wore the gray and the other the blue;
    How they passed away from sight,
  And had gone to the land where gray and blue
    Are merged in colors of light.

  And she answered her darling with golden hair,
    While her heart was sadly wrung
  With the thoughts awakened in that sad hour
    By her innocent, prattling tongue:
  "The blue and the gray are the colors of God,
    They are seen in the sky at even,
  And many a noble, gallant soul
    Has found them a passport to heaven."

       *       *       *       *       *


declin'ing, _failing_.

expe'rience, _that which happens to any one_.

regard', _look at; consider_.

robust', _sound in health_.

ben'efit ed, _made better; helped_.

intense', _extreme_.

moc'ca sin, _a kind of shoe made of deer-skin_.

tem'po ra ry, _for a time_.

pe cul'iar, _strange; unusual_.

in tel'li gent, _showing good sense_.

       *       *       *       *       *



In the summer of 1862, while we were living in the State of Minnesota, I
had an experience which I regard as one of the most remarkable that I
ever met with.

We lived at Lac Qui Parle, or rather quite close to it, for we were
about a mile from the place.

There were only three of us--father, mother, and myself. We had moved to
Minnesota three years before, the main object of my parents being to
restore their health; for they were feeble and needed a change of

The first year, both father and mother were much benefited; but not long
after, father began to fail.

I remember that he used to take his chair out in front of the house in
pleasant weather and sit there, with his eyes turned toward the blue
horizon, or into the depths of the vast wilderness which was not more
than a stone's throw from our door.

Mother would sometimes go out and sit beside father, and they would talk
long and earnestly in low tones. I was too young to understand all this
at the time, but it was not long afterward that I learned the truth.

Father was steadily and surely declining in health; but mother had
become strong and robust, and her disease seemed to have left her
altogether. She tried to encourage father, and really believed his
weakness was only temporary.

Scarcely a day passed that I did not see some of the Sioux Indians who
were scattered through that portion of the State. In going to, and
coming from the agency, they would sometimes stop at our house.

Father was very quick in picking up languages, and he was able to
converse quite easily with the red men.

How I used to laugh to hear them talk in their odd language, which
sounded to me just as if they were grunting at each other.

But the visits used to please father and mother, and I was always glad
to see some of the rather ragged and not over-clean warriors stop at the

I remember one hot day in June, when father was sitting under a tree in
front of the house, and I was inside helping mother, we heard the
peculiar noises which told us that father had an Indian visitor. We both
went to the door, and I passed outside to laugh at their queer talk.

Sure enough, an Indian was seated in the other chair, and he and father
were talking with great animation.

The Indian was of a stout build, and wore a straw hat with a broad, red
band around it; he had on a fine, black broad-cloth coat, but his
trousers were shabby and his shoes were pretty well worn.

His face was bright and intelligent, and I watched it very closely as he
talked in his earnest way with father, who was equally animated in
answering him.

The Indian carried a rifle and a revolver--the latter being in plain
sight at his waist--but I never connected the thought of danger with
him as he sat there talking with father.

I describe this Indian rather closely, as he was no other than the
well-known chief, Little Crow, who was at the head of the frightful
Sioux war, which broke out within sixty days from that time.

The famous chieftain staid until the sun went down. Then he started up
and walked away rapidly in the direction of Lac Qui Parle. Father called
good-by to him, but he did not reply and soon disappeared in the woods.

The sky was cloudy, and it looked as if a storm was coming; so, as it
was dark and blustering, we remained within doors the rest of the
evening. A fine drizzling rain began to fall, and the darkness was

The evening was well advanced, and father was reading to us, when there
came a rap upon the door.

It was so gentle and timid that it sounded like the pecking of a bird,
and we all looked in the direction of the door, uncertain what it

"It is a bird, scared by the storm," said father, "and we may as well
admit it."

I sat much nearer the door than either of my parents, and instantly
started up and opened it. As I did so, I looked out into the gloom, but
sprung back the next moment with a low cry of alarm.

"What's the matter?" asked father, hastily laying down his book and
walking rapidly toward me.

"It isn't a bird; it's a person." As I spoke, a little Indian girl,
about my own age, walked into the room, and looking in each of our
faces, asked in the Sioux language whether she could stay all night.

I closed the door and we gathered around her. She had the prettiest,
daintiest moccasins, but her limbs were bare from the knee downward. She
wore a large shawl about her shoulders, while her coarse, black hair
hung loosely below her waist.

Her face was very pretty, and her eyes were as black as coal and seemed
to flash fire whenever she looked upon any one.

Of course, her clothing was dripping with moisture, and her call filled
us all with wonder. She could speak only a few words of English, so her
face lighted up with pleasure when father addressed her in the Sioux

As near as we could find out, her name was Chitto, and she lived with
her parents at Lac Qui Parle. She told us that there were several
families in a spot by themselves, and that day they had secured a
quantity of strong drink, of which they were partaking very freely.

At such times Indians are dangerous, and Little Chitto was terrified
almost out of her senses. She fled through the storm and the darkness,
not caring where she went, but only anxious to get away from the
dreadful scene.

Entering, without any intention on her part, the path in the woods, she
followed it until she saw in the distance the glimmer of the light in
our window, when she hastened to the house and asked for admission.

I need scarcely say it was gladly granted. My mother removed the damp
clothes from the little Sioux girl, and replaced them with some warm,
dry ones belonging to me. At the same time she gave her hot, refreshing
tea, and did every thing to make her comfortable.

I removed the little moccasins from the wondering Chitto's feet, kissed
her dark cheeks, and, as I uttered expressions of pity, though in an
unknown tongue, I am quite sure that they were understood by Chitto, who
looked the gratitude she could not express.

She soon began to show signs of drowsiness and was put to bed with me,
falling asleep as soon as her head touched the pillow.

I lay awake a little longer and noticed that the storm had ceased. The
patter of the rain was heard no more upon the roof, and the wind blew
just as it sometimes does late in the fall. At last I sunk into a sound

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils write a short letter to some friend,
taking as a subject, "A Visit from Little Crow," as given on pages 272
and 273.[16]

Let pupils add _y_ to each of the following words, make such other
changes as may be necessary, and then define them.

    earth    air    fire    water    sleep

    rain    rust    fun    fur    stick

What two words double their final letter before adding _y_? _Fiery_,
from _fire_, is irregular in spelling.

[16] This lesson.

       *       *       *       *       *


de'mons, _spirits; evil spirits_.

groped, _found one's way by feeling with the hands_.

pre'vi ous, _going before in time; preceding_.

in clined', _leaning towards; disposed_.

dis tract'ed, _confused by grief_.

ex pired', _died_.

stat'ue, _a figure carved to represent a living being_.

stag'gered, _walked with trembling steps_.

as cer tained', _found out by inquiring_.

re tain', _keep possession of_.

       *       *       *       *       *



I awoke in the morning and saw the rays of the sun entering the window.
Recalling the incidents of the previous evening, I turned to speak to my
young friend.

To my surprise she was gone, and supposing she had risen a short time
before, I hurriedly dressed myself and went down stairs to help keep her

But she was not there, and father and mother had seen nothing of her.
She had no doubt risen in the night and gone quietly away.

There was something curious and touching in the fact that she had groped
about in the darkness, until she found her own clothing, which she put
on and departed without taking so much as a pin that belonged to us.

We all felt a strong interest in Chitto, and father took me with him a
few days later when he visited Lac Qui Parle. He made many inquiries for
the little girl, but could learn nothing about her.

I felt very much disappointed, for I had built up strong hopes of taking
her out home with me to spend several days.

Father and I went a number of times afterward, and always made an effort
to discover Chitto; but we did not gain any knowledge of her.

On the afternoon of August 19, father was sitting in his accustomed seat
in front of the house, and mother was engaged, as usual about her
household duties. I was playing and amusing myself as a girl of my age
is inclined to do at all times.

The day was sultry and close, and I remember that father was unusually
pale and weak. He coughed a great deal, and sat for a long time so still
that I thought he must be asleep.

"Mother," said I, "what is that smoke yonder?"

I pointed in the direction of Lac Qui Parle. She saw a dark column of
smoke floating off in the horizon, its location being such, that there
could be no doubt that it was at the Agency.

"There is a fire of some kind there," she said, while she shaded her
eyes with her hand and gazed long and earnestly in that direction.

"The Indians are coming, Edward," she called to father; "they will be
here in a few minutes!"

Suddenly, a splendid black horse came galloping from the woods, and with
two or three powerful bounds, halted directly in front of me. As it did
so, I saw that the bareback rider was a small girl, and she was our
little Sioux friend, Chitto.

She made a striking picture, with her long, black hair streaming over
her shoulders, and her dress fluttering in the wind.

"Why, Chitto," said I, in amazement, "where did you come from?"

"Must go--must go--must go!" she exclaimed, in great excitement. "Indian
soon be here!"

So it seemed that, in the few weeks since she had been at our house,
she had picked up enough of the English language to make herself

"What do you mean?" asked mother, as she and I advanced to the side of
the black steed upon which the little Sioux sat; "what are the Indians

"They burn buildings--have killed people--coming this way!"

Chitto spoke the truth, for the Sioux were raging like demons at that
very hour at Lac Qui Parle.

"What shall we do, Chitto?" asked my mother.

"Get on horse--he carry you."

"But my husband; the horse can not carry all three of us."

My poor distracted mother scarcely knew what to do. All this time father
sat like a statue in his chair. A terrible suspicion suddenly entered
her mind, and she ran to him.

Placing her hand upon his shoulder, she addressed him in a low tone, and
then uttered a fearful shriek, as she staggered backward, saying: "He is
dead! he is dead!"

Such was the fact. The shock of the news brought by the little Indian
girl was too much, and he had expired in his chair without a struggle.
The wild cry which escaped my mother was answered by several whoops from
the woods, and Chitto became frantic with terror.

"Indian be here in minute!" said she.

Mother instantly helped me upon the back of the horse and then followed
herself. She was a skillful rider, but she allowed Chitto to retain the
bridle, and we started off.

Looking back I saw a half-dozen Sioux horsemen come out of the woods and
start on a trot toward us.

Just then Chitto spoke to the horse, and he bounded off at a terrible
rate, never halting until he had gone two or three miles.

Then, when we looked back, we saw nothing of the Indians, and the horse
was brought down to a walk; and finally, when the sun went down, we
entered a dense wood, where we staid all night.

I shall not attempt to describe those fearful hours. Not one of us slept
a wink. Mother sat weeping over the loss of father, while I was
heart-broken, too.

Chitto, like the Indian she was, kept on the move continually. Here and
there she stole as noiselessly through the wood as a shadow, while
playing the part of sentinel.

At daylight we all fell into a feverish slumber, which lasted several
hours. When we awoke, we were hungry and miserable.

Seeing a settler's house in the distance, Chitto offered to go to it for
food. We were afraid she would get into trouble, but she was sure there
was no danger and went.

In less than an hour she was back again with an abundance of bread. She
said there was no one in the house, and we supposed the people had
become alarmed and escaped.

We staid where we were for three days, during which time we saw a party
of Sioux warriors burn the house where Chitto had obtained the food for

It seemed to mother that the Indians would not remain at Lac Qui Parle
long, and that we would be likely to find safety there. Accordingly, she
induced Chitto to start on the return.

When we reached our house nothing was to be seen of father's body; but
we soon, discovered a newly-made grave, where we had reason to believe
he was buried.

As was afterward ascertained, he had been given a decent burial by
orders of Little Crow himself, who, doubtless, would have protected us,
had we awaited his coming.

We rode carefully through the woods, and when we came out on the other
side, our hearts were made glad by the sight of the white tents of
United States soldiers. Colonel Sibley was encamped at Lac Qui Parle,
and we were safe at last.

Chitto disappeared from this post in the same sudden manner as before;
but I am happy to say that I have seen her several times since. Mother
and I were afraid her people would punish her for the part she took in
helping us, but they did not.

Probably the friendship which Little Crow showed toward our family, may
have had something to do with the gentle treatment which the Indians
showed her.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Supply the words omitted from the following

    "Must go! Indian soon be here!"

    "Indian be here in minute!"

Let pupils make out an _analysis_ for the subject--

    "Our Second Visit from Chitto,"

and use it in giving that part of the story in their own words.

       *       *       *       *       *


e mit', _send forth_.

con'trast, _difference in form or appearance_.

molt'en, _melted_.

con'ic al, _having the shape of a cone_.

vol'umes, _quantities; masses_.

char'ac ter, _kind; formation_.

del'uge, _flood; drown_.

com pre hen'sion, _the power of the mind to understand_.

ap pall'ing, _terrifying_.

grand'eur, _majesty; vastness of size_.

lu'rid, _gloomy; dismal_.

tre men'dous, _terrific; awful_.

       *       *       *       *       *


In various parts of the earth, there are mountains that send out from
their highest peaks, smoke, ashes, and fire.

Mountains of this class are called volcanoes, and they present a
striking contrast to other mountains, on account of their conical form
and the character of the rocks of which they are composed.

All volcanoes have at their summits what are called craters. These are
large, hollow, circular openings, from which the smoke and fire escape.

Nearly all volcanoes emit smoke constantly. This smoke proceeds from
fires that are burning far down in the depths of the earth.

Sometimes these fires burst forth from the crater of the volcano with
tremendous force. The smoke becomes thick and black, and lurid flames
shoot up to a height of hundreds of feet, making a scene of amazing


With the flames there are thrown out stones, ashes, and streams of
melted rock, called lava. This lava flows down the sides of the
mountain, and, being red-hot, destroys every thing with which it comes
in contact. At such times, a volcano is said to be in eruption.

A volcanic eruption is generally preceded by low, rumbling sounds, and
trembling of the earth's surface. Then follows greater activity of the
volcano, from which dense volumes of smoke and steam issue, and fire and
molten lava make their appearance.

Such is the force of some of these eruptions, that large rocks have been
hurled to great distances from the crater, and towns and cities have
been buried under a vast covering of ashes and lava.

The quantity of lava and ashes which sometimes escapes from volcanoes
during an eruption, is almost beyond comprehension.

In 1772, a volcano in the island of Java, threw out ashes and cinders
that covered the ground fifty feet deep, for a distance of seven miles
all around the mountain. This eruption destroyed nearly forty towns and

In 1783, a volcano in Iceland sent out two streams of lava; one forty
miles long and seven miles wide, and the other fifty miles long and
fifteen miles wide. These streams were from one hundred to six hundred
feet deep.

Near the city of Naples, Italy, is situated the volcano Mt. Vesuvius.
This fiery monster has probably caused more destruction than any other
volcano known.

In the year 79 A.D., it suddenly burst forth in a violent eruption, that
resulted in one of the most appalling disasters that ever happened.

Such immense quantities of ashes, stones, and lava were poured forth
from its crater, that within the short space of twenty hours, two large
cities were completely destroyed. These cities were Herculaneum and

At this eruption of Vesuvius, the stream of lava flowed directly through
and over the city of Herculaneum into the sea. The quantity was so great
that, as it cooled and became hardened, it gradually filled up all the
streets and ran over the tops of the houses.

While the lava was thus turning the city into a mass of solid stone,
the inhabitants were fleeing from it along the shore toward Naples, and
in boats on the sea.

At the same time, too, the wind carried the ashes and cinders in such a
direction as to deluge the city of Pompeii.

Slowly and steadily the immense volume of ashes and small stones,
blocked up the streets and settled on the roofs of houses.

The light of the flames that burst out from the awful crater, aided the
people in their escape; but many who for some reason could not get away,

Pompeii was so completely covered that, nothing could be seen of it.
Thus it remained buried under the ground until the year 1748, when it
was discovered by accident.

Since that time much of the city has been uncovered, and now one can
walk along the streets, look into the houses, and form some idea how the
people lived there eighteen hundred years ago.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Language Lesson_.--Let pupils write an account of a supposed journey
from their homes to Naples, telling about the route they would take, and
the particulars as to time and distance. Be very particular about
handwriting, spelling, punctuation, and capital letters.

       *       *       *       *       *


coot, _a water-bird_.

hern (her'on), _a wading bird_.

ed'dying, _moving in small circles_.

mal'low, _a kind of plant_.

bick'er, _move quickly; quarrel_.

fal'low, _plowed land_.

gray'ling, _a kind of fish_.

cress'es, _a kind of water-plant_.

sal'ly, _a rushing or bursting forth_.

thorps, _villages_.

bram'bly, _full of rough shrubs_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  I come from haunts of coot and hern,
    I make a sudden sally,
  And sparkle out among the fern,
    To bicker down a valley.

  By thirty hills I hurry down,
    Or slip between the ridges,
  By twenty thorps, a little town,
    And half a hundred  bridges.

  Till last by Philip's farm I flow
    To join the brimming river,
  For men may come, and men may go,
    But I go on forever.

  I chatter over stony ways,
    In little sharps and trebles,
  I bubble into eddying bays,
    I babble on the pebbles.

  With many a curve my bank I fret
    By many a field and fallow,
  And many a fairy foreland set
    With willow-wood and mallow.

  I chatter, chatter, as I flow
    To join the brimming river,
  For men may come, and men may go,
    But I go on forever.

  I wind about, and in and out,
    With here a blossom sailing,
  And here and there a lusty trout,
    And here and there a grayling.

  And here and there a foamy flake
    Upon me, as I travel
  With many a silvery waterbreak
    Above the golden gravel.

  And draw them all along, and flow
    To join the brimming river,
  For men may come, and men may go,
    But I go on forever.

  I steal by lawns and grassy plots,
    I slide by hazel covers;
  I move the sweet forget-me-nots
    That grow for happy lovers.

  I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance,
    Among my skimming swallows;
  I make the netted sunbeam dance
    Against my sandy shallows.

  I murmur under moon and stars
    In brambly wildernesses;
  I linger by my shingly bars;
    I loiter round my cresses.

  And out again I curve and flow
    To join the brimming river,
  For men may come, and men may go,
    But I go on forever.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Point out the places in the poem where two
lines should be joined in reading.

Mark the _inflection_ of the following lines.

  "I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance,
    Among my skimming swallows."

  "For men may come, and men may go,
    But I go on forever."

Read the last two lines, and state whether the _inflected words_ are
also _emphatic words_.

Find a similar example of _inflection_ and _emphasis_ upon the same
words in the last stanza of Lesson XXXVI.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils explain the meaning of the following

    _Join the brimming river_.

    _Netted sunbeam_.

       *       *       *       *       *


de terred', _kept from_.

en'ter prise, _an undertaking_.

im'ple ments, _articles used in a trade_.

sur vey'ing, _measuring land_.

in'di cated, _showed; pointed out_.

re clin'ing, _partly lying down_.

re lease', _let go_.

con clu'sion, _final decision_.

suc ces'sion, _following one after another_.

hur'ri cane, _a high wind_.

an'ec dote, _incident; story_.

com pact', _closely put together_.

       *       *       *       *       *



It was a calm, sunny day in the year 1750; the scene, a piece of forest
land in the north of Virginia, near a noble stream of water.

Implements of surveying were lying about, and several men reclining
under the trees, indicated by their dress and appearance, that they were
engaged in laying out the wild lands of the country.

These persons had just finished their dinner. Apart from the group
walked a young man of a tall and compact frame, who moved with the firm
and steady tread of one accustomed to constant exercise in the open air.

His face wore a look of decision and manliness not usually found in one
so young, for he was but little over eighteen years of age.

Suddenly there was a shriek, then another, and then several more in
rapid succession. The voice was that of a woman, and seemed to proceed
from the other side of a small piece of wooded land.

At the first scream, the youth turned his head in the direction of the
sound; but when it was repeated, he pushed aside the undergrowth and
soon dashed into an open space on the banks of the stream, where stood a
small log-cabin.

As the young man broke from the undergrowth, he saw his companions
crowded together on the banks of the river, while in their midst stood a
woman, from whom proceeded the shrieks he had heard. She was held by two
of the men, but was struggling to free herself.

The instant the woman saw the young man, she exclaimed, "O sir, you will
do something for me! Make them release me. My boy--my poor boy is
drowning, and they will not let me go!"

"It would be madness; she will jump into the river," said one of the
men, "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!"

The youth had scarcely waited for these words; for he remembered the
child, a bold little boy four years of age, whose beautiful blue eyes
and flaxen ringlets made him a favorite with every one.

He had been accustomed to play in the little inclosure before the cabin;
but the gate having been left open, he had stolen out, reached the edge
of the bank, and was in the act of looking over, when his mother saw

The shriek she uttered only hastened the accident she feared; for the
child, frightened at the cry of his mother, lost his balance and fell
into the stream, which here went foaming and roaring along among rocks
and dangerous rapids.

Several of the men approached the edge of the river, and were on the
point of springing in after the boy. But the sight of the sharp rocks
crowding the channel, the rush and whirl of the waters, and the want of
any knowledge where to look for the child, deterred them, and they gave
up the enterprise.

Not so with the noble youth. His first act was to throw off his coat;
next to spring to the edge of the bank. Here he stood for a moment,
running his eyes rapidly over the scene below, taking in with a glance
the different currents and the most dangerous of the rocks, in order to
shape his course when in the stream.

He had scarcely formed his conclusion, when he saw in the water a white
object, which he knew was the boy's dress; and then he plunged into the
wild and roaring rapids.

"Thank God, he will save my child!" cried the mother; "there he is!--O
my boy, my darling boy! How could I leave you!"

Every one had rushed to the brink of the precipice and were now
following with eager eyes the progress of the youth, as the current bore
him onward, like a feather in the power of a hurricane.

Now it seemed as if he would be dashed against a projecting rock, over
which the water flew in foam, and a whirlpool would drag him in, from
whose grasp escape would appear impossible.

At times, the current bore him under, and he would be lost to sight;
then in a few seconds he would come to the surface again, though his
position would be far from where he had disappeared.

Thus struggling amid the rocks and angry waters, was the noble youth
borne onward, eager to succeed in his perilous undertaking. Those on
shore looked on with breathless interest.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Point out the _emphatic words_ and mark
_inflection_ in the third paragraph on page 295.[17]

What effect has very strong _emphasis_ upon _inflection_? (See
_Directions for Reading_, page 238.)[18]

Should this lesson be read more slowly, or somewhat faster than

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils fill blanks in the sentences given below,
using in turn, each of the following sets of words:

    (1) _saw, knew, was, plunged;_

    (2) _sees, knows, is, plunges;_

    (3) _perceived, thought, was, jumped;_

    (4) _perceives, thinks, is, jumps;_

    (5) _noticed, concluded, was, dived;_

    (6) _notices, concludes, is, dives_.

He ---- in the water a white object, which he ---- -- the boy's dress.
Then he ---- into the roaring rapids.

When the first, third, and fifth sets of words are used, the action is
represented as something that is past; but when the second, fourth, and
sixth sets are used, the action is represented as going on at the
present time.

The forms of _verbs_ (_action-words_) which are given in the first,
third, and fifth sets are used to indicate past time, and are called
_past tenses_; and the forms given in the second, fourth, and sixth
sets are used to indicate present time, and are called _present

[17] See fifth paragraph from the end of the passage.

[18] See Lesson L.

       *       *       *       *       *


e merge', _come out_.

vor'tex, _water in whirling motion; a whirlpool_.

con fid'ed, _given into the care of_.

vis'i ble, _in sight_.

spec ta'tors, _those who look on_.

vent'ured, _dared_.

re ward', _that which is received in return for one's acts_.

des'ti nies, _lives and fortunes_.

sup pressed', _kept back_.

re doub'led, _made twice as great_.

       *       *       *       *       *



O, how that mother's straining eyes followed the struggling youth! How
her heart sunk when he went under, and with what joy she saw him emerge
again from the waters, and, flinging the waves aside with his strong
arms, struggle on in pursuit of her boy!

But it seemed as if his generous efforts were not to succeed; for,
though the current was bearing off the boy before his eyes, scarcely ten
feet distant, he could not overtake the drowning child.

Twice the boy went out of sight; and a suppressed shriek escaped the
mother's lips; but twice he reappeared, and then, with hands wrung
wildly together, and breathless anxiety, she followed his progress, as
his form was hurried onward.

The youth now appeared to redouble his exertions, for they were
approaching the most dangerous part of the river.

The rush of waters at this spot was tremendous, and no one ventured to
approach it, even in a canoe, lest he should be dashed to pieces.

What, then, would be the youth's fate, unless he soon overtook the
child? He seemed fully sensible of the increasing peril, and now urged
his way through the foaming current with a desperate strength. Three
times he was on the point of grasping the child, when the water's
whirled the prize from him.

The third effort was made just as they were entering within the
influence of the current above the falls; and when it failed, the
mother's heart sunk within her, and she groaned, fully expecting the
youth to give up his task.

But no; he only pressed forward the more eagerly; and, as they
breathlessly watched, amid the boiling waters, they saw the form of the
youth following close after that of the boy.

And now both pursuer and pursued shot to the brink of the falls. An
instant they hung there, distinctly visible amid the foaming waters.
Every brain grew dizzy at the sight.

But a shout burst from the spectators, when they saw the child held
aloft by the right arm of the youth--a shout that was suddenly changed
to a cry of horror, when they both vanished into the raging waters

The mother ran forward, and then stood gazing with fixed eyes at the
foot of the falls. Suddenly she gave the glad cry, "There they are! See!
they are safe! Great God, I thank Thee!"

And, sure enough, there was the youth still unharmed. He had just
emerged from the boiling vortex below the falls. With, one hand he held
aloft the child, and with the other he was making for the shore.

They ran, they shouted, they scarcely knew what they did, until they
reached his side, just as he was struggling to the bank. They drew him
out almost exhausted.

The boy was senseless; but his mother declared that he still lived, as
she pressed him to her bosom. The youth could scarcely stand, so faint
was he from his exertions.

Who can describe the scene that followed--the mother's calmness while
striving to bring her boy to life, and her wild gratitude to his
preserver, when the child was out of danger, and sweetly sleeping in her

"God will give you a reward," said she. "He will do great things for you
in return for this day's work, and the blessings of thousands besides
mine will attend you."

And so it was: for, to the hero of that hour were afterward confided the
destinies of a mighty nation. Throughout his long career, what tended to
make him honored and respected beyond all men, was the spirit of
self-sacrifice which, in the rescue of that mother's child, as in the
more important events of his life, characterized George Washington.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Read the first two pages of the lesson
quietly, but not slowly. About the middle of page 299, the manner of
reading should be changed, when the feeling of anxiety is turned to
that of joy.[19]

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils rewrite the first paragraph of the lesson,
changing _past tenses_ to _present tenses_ throughout.

What effect will this change have upon the meaning?

[19] This lesson, seventh paragraph from the end.

       *       *       *       *       *


ex ist'ing, _living_.

mas'sive _large and solid_.

hy e'na, _a beast of prey_.

cau'tion, _great care_.

strat'a gem, _a secret way; trick_.

de pends', _trusts to_.

mar'vel ous, _wonderful_.

jack'al, _a beast of prey_.

pro cure', _obtain_.

a dorn', _make beautiful_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The ostrich is the largest of all birds now existing, and is found
chiefly in the sandy deserts of Africa and Arabia.

A full-grown African ostrich stands from seven to nine feet in height,
to the top of its head, and will weigh from two to three hundred pounds.

The body of the ostrich is large and massive; the legs are long,
measuring four feet or more, and the neck is of about the same length as
the legs.

The head is small for so large a bird; but its feet with their two great
toes are of good size, and possess astonishing strength.

An ostrich's beak is short and blunt; its neck slender and covered with
gray down. Its eyes are large and bright, and the sense of sight so keen
that it can readily see a distance of from four to six miles. It hears
and sees equally well, and can only be approached by stratagem.

The feathers of the male ostrich are of a glossy black, with the
exception of the large plumes of the wing-feathers, which in both the
male and female are snowy white.

To procure these beautiful white plumes is the chief object in hunting
the ostrich. Those plumes when plucked are sent to foreign countries,
and used to adorn ladies' hats, and for various other purposes.

The ostrich feeds on vegetable substances; but as an aid to digestion,
it sometimes swallows stones, glass, paper, nails, and pieces of wood.

An incident is related of an ostrich on exhibition in Paris, swallowing
a gold watch and chain. A gentleman approached within reach of the beak
of the bird, and, in the twinkling of an eye, the watch and chain were
snatched from his pocket and swallowed.

Although the ostrich has wings, it can not fly--it depends upon its
strong legs and feet for speed, and can run much faster than a horse.

The strength of the ostrich is marvelous. Its only weapon of defence is
its long and muscular leg.


It is accustomed to kick directly forward, and it is said by those who
have observed this habit, that a single blow from its gigantic two-toed
foot is sufficient to kill a panther, a jackal, or a hyena.

No better idea of its strength can be given than the fact of its being
employed for riding. A traveler, writing about two ostriches he saw in a
village in Africa, says:

"These gigantic birds were so tame that two boys mounted together the
larger one. The ostrich no sooner felt their weight, than it started
off at full speed and carried them several times around the village.

"This trial pleased me so much that I wished to have it repeated; and in
order to test their strength, I had a full-grown man mount the smaller
bird, and two men the larger bird.

"At first, they started with caution; but presently they spread their
wings and went off at such a speed that they seemed scarcely to touch
the ground."

The voice of the ostrich is deep and hollow, and is said to resemble at
times the roar of the lion. The bird frequently makes a kind of cackling
noise, and when enraged at an enemy, it hisses very loudly.

Ostriches make their nests in the sand. One female will, in a single
season, lay from twenty to thirty eggs, weighing about three pounds

Most of these she places in the nest, standing them on one end; but some
of them are left outside of the nest as food for her young when they are

The natives of Africa are very fond of ostrich eggs, using them for
food. In taking the eggs, they exercise great caution; for should the
birds discover them, they would break all the eggs and leave the nest.

Young ostriches are readily tamed. Some families in Africa keep them as
we do chickens. They play with children, sleep in the houses, and when a
family moves, the ostriches follow the camels, frequently carrying the
children on their backs.

Within the past few years, ostriches have been brought to this country;
and places called ostrich farms have been established in California and
other States, for the purpose of raising them for their feathers.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils point out any points that are omitted from
the following

Analysis.--1. Where the ostrich lives. 2. Its size and appearance--body,
head, neck, eyes, feathers, and plumes. 3. Its food. 4. An incident. 5.
Its speed. 6. Its strength,--leg and foot. 7. Riding ostriches. 8.
Voice of ostrich. 9. Nests and habits of the birds. 10. Ostriches in
this country.

Change such points as may be found necessary, and use the _analysis_ in
describing some well-known bird.

       *       *       *       *       *


plead, _urge as a reason_.

breach, _a breaking, as of a promise_.

re buke', _call attention to wrong-doing_.

strew, _spread; scatter_.

chide, _find fault with_.

re sent'nent, _anger on account of an injury_.

un a vail'ing, _useless; not helping in any way_.

jus'tice, _honesty; what is right_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  If Fortune, with a smiling face,
    Strew roses on our way,
  When shall we stoop to pick them up?--
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But should she frown with face of care,
    And talk of coming sorrow,
  When shall we grieve, if grieve we must?--
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

  If those who have wronged us own their fault,
    And kindly pity pray,
  When shall we listen and forgive?--
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But if stern justice urge rebuke,
   And warmth from memory borrow,
  When shall we chide, if chide we dare?--
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

  If those to whom we owe a debt
    Are harmed unless we pay,
  When shall we struggle to be just?--
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But if our debtor fail our hope,
    And plead his ruin thorough,
  When shall we weigh his breach of faith?--
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

  For virtuous acts and harmless joys
    The minutes will not stay;--
  We have always time to welcome them
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But care, resentment, angry words,
    And unavailing sorrow,
  Come far too soon, if they appear
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let some pupil in the class state the manner
in which the lesson should be read.

What is the effect of repeating the words _to-day_ and _to-morrow_, in
the fourth and eighth lines of each stanza?

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils give the meaning of each stanza in their
own words.

_Warmth from memory borrow_ means become more angry when we remember
our own acts of kindness toward the person now doing us injury.

Explain the meaning of the following expressions.

    _Strew roses on our way._

    _Breach of faith._

       *       *       *       *       *


ref'uge, _a place of safety_.

fo'li age, _leaves and branches of trees or shrubs_.

op pressed', _heavily burdened_.

be tray', _give information to an enemy_.

con trived', _managed; arranged_.

rec'og nized, _knew by seeing_.

ren'der, _give; make_.

im'mi nent, _close by; threatening_.

com pel', _make one do any thing_.

cav'al ry, _soldiers mounted on horses_.

false, _not true; unreal_.

re spond'ed, _answered; replied_.

       *       *       *       *       *


During the Revolutionary War, when the American people were fighting
for independence, a governor of one of the colonies found himself in
great danger of being captured by British soldiers.

The governor, whose name was Griswold, contrived to reach the house of
a relative, and while there, was informed that the soldiers had
discovered his place of refuge and were then on their way to seize him.

Griswold at once realizing that his peril was imminent, determined, if
possible, to reach a small stream, where he had left a boat so hidden,
by the foliage that it could not be seen from the road.

In great haste and excitement, he left the house and proceeded in the
direction of the river. Passing through an orchard, he encountered a
young girl about twelve years old. She was watching some pieces of
linen cloth which were stretched out on the grass for the purpose of

Hetty--that was the girl's name--was seated under a tree with her
knitting, and had near her a pail of water, from which she occasionally
sprinkled the cloths to keep them damp.

She started up and was somewhat frightened when she saw a man leaping
over the fence; but soon recognized him to be her cousin.

"O, is it you, cousin!" exclaimed Hetty; "you frightened me--where are
you going?"

"Hetty," he replied, "the soldiers are seeking for me, and I shall lose
my life, unless I can reach the boat before they come. I want you to
run down toward the shore and meet them."

"They will surely ask for me; and then you must tell them that I have
gone up the road to catch the mail-cart, and they will turn off the
other way."

"But, cousin, how can I say so?--it would not be true. O, why did you
tell me which way you were going?"

"Would you betray me, Hetty, and see me put to death? Hark! they are
coming. I hear the clink of their horses' feet. Tell them I have gone
up the road and Heaven will bless you."

"Those who speak false words will never be happy," said Hetty. "But
they shall not compel me to tell which way you go, even if they kill
me--so run as fast as you can."

"I am afraid it is too late to run, Hetty; where can I hide myself?"

"Be quick, cousin. Get down and lie under this cloth; I will throw it
over you and go on sprinkling the linen."

"I will do it, for it is my last chance."

He was soon concealed under the heavy folds of the long cloth. A few
minutes afterward, a party of cavalry dashed along the road. An officer
saw the girl and called out to her in a loud voice--

"Have you seen a man run this way?"

"Yes, sir," replied Hetty.

"Which way did he go?"

"I promised not to tell, sir."

"But you must tell me this instant; or it will be worse for you."

"I will not tell, for I must keep my word."

"Let me question her, for I think I know the child," said a man who was
guide to the party. "Is your name Hetty Marvin?"

"Yes, sir."

"Perhaps the man who ran past you was your cousin?"

"Yes, sir, he was."

"Well, we wish to speak with him. What did he say to you when, he came

"He told me that he had to run to save his life."

"Just so--that was quite true. I hope he will not have far to run. Where
was he going to hide himself?"

"My cousin said that he would go to the river to find a boat, and he
wanted me to tell the men in search of him that he had gone the other
way to meet the mail-cart."

"You are a good girl, Hetty, and we know you speak the truth. What did
your cousin say when he heard that you could not tell a lie to save his

"He asked, would I betray him and see him put to death?"

"And you said you would not tell, if you were killed for it."

Poor Hetty's tears fell fast as she responded, "Yes, sir."

"Those were brave words, and I suppose he thanked you and ran down the
road as fast as he could?"

"I promised not to tell which way he went, sir."

"O yes, I forgot; but tell me his last words, and I will not trouble you
any more."

"He said, 'I will do it, for it is my last chance.'"

Hetty was now oppressed with great fear; she sobbed aloud, and hid her
face in her apron. The soldiers thought they had obtained all the
information they could, and rode off toward the river-side.

While Griswold lay hidden at the farm, he had agreed upon a signal with
his boatmen, that if in trouble he would put a white cloth by day, or a
light at night, in the attic window of his place of concealment. When
either signal was seen, the men were to be on the watch, ready to render
him assistance in case of need.

No sooner had the soldiers ridden away, than Griswold's friends in the
house hung out a white cloth from the window, to warn the boatmen, who
then pulled out to sea.

The boat, with two men in it, was nearly out of sight by the time the
soldiers reached the shore, and this caused them to conclude that
Griswold had effected his escape.

Meantime he lay safe and quiet until the time came for Hetty to go home
to supper. Then he requested her to go and ask her mother to put the
signal-lamp in the window as it grew dark, and send him clothes and
food. The signal was seen, the boat returned, and Griswold made his way
to it in safety.

In better days, when the war was over, and peace declared, he named one
of his daughters Hetty Marvin, that he might daily think of the brave
young cousin whose sense and truth-speaking had saved his life.

       *       *       *       *       *


con sume', _use entirely; exhaust_.

cul ti va'tion, _attending to the growth of plants_.

ex'ports, _the products of a country which are sold to other countries_

trans por ta'tion, _carrying_.

o'val, _shaped like an egg_.

prin'ci pal, _chief; that which is most important_.

es'ti mat ed, _stated in regard to quantity_.

se lect'ed, _chosen; picked out_.

ter'mi nates, _comes to an end_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Those who have not visited tropical countries, can scarcely imagine the
wonders of their vegetation. There is nothing in the northern half of
the United States, with which to compare the richness of the vegetable
growth of the tropics.

In the Southern States of our Union, as well as in Mexico and Central
America, there are found many of the same plants and trees that grow in
countries lying still nearer the equator.

The various kinds of fruits which grow in these countries, form a very
large portion of the exports. Among those that are most commonly sent to
us, are bananas, oranges, lemons, dates, cocoa-nuts, and figs.

In countries where the banana grows most abundantly, no article of food
which the natives can obtain, requires so little trouble in its

One has only to set out a few banana sprouts, and await the result. In a
short time, a juicy stem shoots up to the height of fifteen or twenty

It is formed of nothing more than a number of leaf stalks rolled one
over the other, and grows sometimes to a thickness of two feet.

Two gigantic leaves grow out from the top, ten feet long and two feet
broad. They are so very thin and tender that a light wind splits them
into ribbons.

From the center of the leaves a very strong stalk rises up, which
supports the cluster of bananas. There are sometimes over one hundred
bananas to a single stalk.

A cluster of ripe bananas will weigh from sixty to seventy pounds, and
represents a large amount of food. When a stalk has produced and ripened
its fruit, it begins to wither and soon dies.

In a very short time, however, new sprouts spring up from the old root,
and ere long the native has another cluster. So rapidly do they follow
each other, that one cluster is scarcely consumed before another one is
ready to ripen.

Bananas ripened on the stalk will not bear transportation to any great
distance; therefore, when selected for export, the clusters are cut off
while the bananas are very green.

Another valuable fruit of the tropics is the date. This fruit grows on a
tree called the date-palm, that is found in both Asia and Africa.

The date-palm is a majestic tree, rising to the height of sixty feet or
more, without branches, and with a trunk of uniform thickness throughout
its entire length.

It begins to bear fruit about eight years after it has been planted, and
continues to be productive from seventy to one hundred years.

Dates are oval in shape, and have a long solid stone. They form the
principal food of the inhabitants of some of the eastern countries, and
are an important article of commerce.

When they are perfectly ripe, they possess a delightful perfume, and are
very agreeable to the taste.

In preparing dates to be sent to distant countries, they are gathered a
short time before they are quite ripe, dried in the sun on mats, and
finally packed in boxes or straw sacks.

Travelers in the deserts of Africa, often carry dried dates with them
for their chief food, during a journey of hundreds of miles.

The Arabs grind dried dates into a powder which they call date flour. If
this is packed away in a dry place, it will keep for years, and only has
to be moistened with a little water to prepare it for eating.

One of the most valuable and productive of tropical trees is the
cocoa-nut palm. It grows largely in both the East and West Indies, and
elsewhere throughout the torrid zone.

It rises to a height of from sixty to one hundred feet, and terminates
in a crown, of graceful, waving leaves. Some of these leaves reach a
length of twenty feet, and have the appearance of gigantic feathers.

The fruit consists of a thick outward husk of a fibrous structure, and
within this, is the ordinary cocoa-nut of commerce.

The shell of the nut is hard and woody, and a little over a quarter of
an inch in thickness. Next to this shell is the kernel, which is also a
shell about half an inch thick, and composed of a white substance very
pleasant to the taste. Within this white eatable shell, is a milky
liquid, called cocoa-nut milk.


The cocoa-nut is very useful to the natives of the regions in which it
grows. The nuts supply a large portion of their food, and the milky
fluid inclosed within, forms a pleasant and refreshing drink.

The shell of the nut is made into cups, and from the kernel, cocoa-nut
oil is pressed out and largely used in making soap and for other

In Ceylon, the tree is cultivated extensively. It is estimated that
there are twenty million trees in that island, and that each tree
produces about sixty nuts yearly. The wealth of a native is based upon
the number of cocoa-nut palms he owns.

Another well-known tropical fruit is the fig, which grows on a bush or
small tree about eighteen or twenty feet high.

The fig-tree is now cultivated in all the Mediterranean countries, but
the larger portion of the American supply comes from western Asia and
the south of France.

The varieties are extremely numerous, and the fruit is of various
colors, from deep purple to yellow, or nearly white.

The trees usually bear two crops--one in the early summer, the other in
the autumn.

When ripe, the figs are picked and spread out to dry in the sun. Thus
prepared, the fruit is packed closely in barrels, baskets, or wooden
boxes, for commerce.

Oranges and lemons are cultivated in nearly all warm countries. They
grow on trees somewhat smaller than apple trees, and must be picked for
export while they are hard and green.

They ripen during transportation, so that green oranges put up and sent
to us from Sicily or other distant points, change to a golden yellow
color by the time they reach us.

Oranges are grown largely in Florida and Louisiana, extensive orange
orchards being frequently met with in traveling through those States.
The oranges grown there are considered very choice, and are generally
sweeter than those brought from Italy.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Define the following words, giving the meaning of
each part as indicated by hyphens: _ex-port-ing, un-common-ly,
dis-trust-ful, pro-vid-ing, un-bear-able, un-hope-ful_.

The syllables _placed before_ a stem are called _prefixes_; those
_placed after_ a stem, _suffixes_.

The words _shall_ and _will_ are used to indicate _future time_; as, I
shall go; you will go; he will go.

The three tenses of an action may in a general way be represented by the
words _yesterday, to-day_, and _to-morrow_.

Let pupils fill blanks in the following statements, and state the tense
of each action.

    We ---- go to see them next week.

    John ---- last night.

    You and I ---- in school at the present time.

       *       *       *       *       *


found'ed, _established; placed_.

gar'ri son, _soldiers stationed in a fort or town_.

strode, _walked with long steps_.

coun'cil, _a number of men called together for advice_.

in cit'ing, _moving to action_.

de vot'ed, _very much attached_.

de feat'ed, _overcome_.

cul'ture, _a high state of knowledge_.

or'na ment ed, _adorned_.

wam'pum, _shells used by the Indians as money or for ornament_.

fan tas'tic, _wild; irregular_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The early history of Detroit is highly romantic. It was founded in 1701
as a military colony.

It soon became one of the most important of the western outposts of
Canada, and as the French and Indians were usually on the most friendly
terms, the colony for a long time existed in a state of happiness and

At the close of the French War, Detroit contained over two thousand
inhabitants. Canadian dwellings with their lovely gardens lined the
banks of the river for miles.

Within the limits of the settlement were several Indian villages. Here
the light-hearted French-Canadian smoked his pipe and told his story,
and the friendly Indian supplied him with game and joined in his

In the year 1760, Detroit was taken possession of by the English. The
Indians hated the English, as much as they had loved the French.

Pontiac, the ruling spirit of the forests at this time, was a most
powerful and statesmanlike chief. When he found that his friends, the
French, had lost their power, he sought to unite the Indian tribes
against the English colonies, and to destroy the English garrison at
Detroit by strategy.

He was chief of the Ottawas, but possessed great influence over several
other tribes. Pontiac believed, and that truly, that the establishment
of English colonies would be fatal to the interests of the Indian race.

He strode through the forests like a giant, inciting the tribes to war.
He urged a union of all the Indian nations from the lakes to the
Mississippi for the common defense of the race.

There lived near Detroit a beautiful Indian girl, called Catharine. The
English commander, Gladwyn, was pleased with her, and showed her many
favors, and she formed a warm friendship for him.

One lovely day in May, this girl came to the fort and brought Gladwyn a
pair of elk-skin moccasins. She appeared very sad.

"Catharine," said Gladwyn, "what troubles you to-day?"

She did not answer at once. There was a silent struggle going on in her
heart. She had formed a strong attachment for the white people, and she
was also devoted to her own race.

"To-morrow," she said at length, "Pontiac will come to the fort with
sixty of his chiefs. Each will be armed with a gun, which will be cut
short and hidden under his blanket. The chief will ask to hold a
council. He will then make a speech, and offer a belt of wampum as a

"As soon as he holds up the belt, the chiefs will spring up and shoot
the officers, and the Indians outside will attack the English. Every
Englishman will be killed. The French inhabitants will be spared."

Gladwyn made immediate preparations to avoid the danger which threatened
them. The soldiers were put under arms. Orders were given to have them
drawn up in line on the arrival of the Indians the following day.

The next morning Indian canoes approached the fort from the eastern
shores. They contained Pontiac and his sixty chiefs. At ten o'clock the
chiefs marched to the fort, in fantastic procession. Each wore a colored
blanket, and was painted, plumed, or in some way gaily ornamented.

As Pontiac entered the fort, a glance showed him that his plot was
discovered. He passed in amazement through glittering rows of steel, he
made a speech, expressing friendship; but he did not dare to lift the
wampum belt which was to have been the signal for attack. He was allowed
to depart peaceably.

When he found that his plot had been discovered, his anger knew no
bounds. He gathered his warriors from every hand and laid siege to
Detroit. He was defeated, and with his defeat ended the power of the
Indian tribes in the region of the Upper Lakes.

Detroit became an English town, and afterward an American city. She has
gathered to herself the wealth of the fertile regions which lie around
her, as well as the commerce of the broad inland seas on either hand.
To-day she has more than one hundred and twenty thousand inhabitants,
and is famous for her wealth and culture.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils review, as a written exercise, the
spelling of the following words.

    treasure   rheumatism    group         desperate
    release    mischievous   courtesy      separate
    weary      approach      redoubled     vegetable
    stealthy   caution       mighty        stratagem
    peasants   exhausted     fortnight     spectator
    concealed  draughts      knowledge     necessary
    freight    guidance      flickering    particular

In the sentences given below, change the verbs so as to represent the
action as completed.

"The chiefs march to the fort in fantastic procession. They find that
their plot is discovered. Pontiac immediately gathers his warriors from
every hand, and lays siege to Detroit. He is defeated, and with his
defeat, the power of the Indian tribes is at an end."

In the last two sentences, change the verbs so as to represent future

Let pupils make out an _analysis_ and use it in treating the subject--

    _The town (or city) that I live in._

_Suggestion_.--Include the location and early history of the town. Its
present population. Its different manufactures. How to get to it. Its
chief points of interest to a stranger. Anecdotes.

       *       *       *       *       *


heave, _raise; lift_.

mack'er el, _a fish spotted with blue, and largely used for food_.

con geals', _freezes; grows hard from cold_.

ant'lers, _branching horns_.

a main', _suddenly; at once_.

lurks, _lies hidden_.

reels, _frames for winding fishing lines_.

teem'ing, _containing in  abundance_.

car'i bou, _a kind of reindeer_.

Mick'mack, _a tribe of Indians_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Hurra! the seaward breezes
    Sweep down the bay amain;
  Heave up, my lads, the anchor!
    Run up the sail again!
  Leave to the lubber landsmen
    The rail-car and the steed;
  The stars of heaven shall guide us
    The breath of heaven shall speed.

  From the hill-top looks the steeple,
    And the light-house from the sand;
  And the scattered pines are waving
    Their farewell from the land.
  One glance, my lads, behind us,
    For the homes we leave, one sigh,
  Ere we take the change and chances
    Of the ocean and the sky.

  Where in mist the rock is hiding,
    And the sharp reef lurks below,
  And the white squall smites in summer,
    And the autumn tempests blow;
  Where, through gray and rolling vapor,
    From evening unto morn,
  A thousand boats are hailing,
    Horn answering unto horn.

  Hurra! for the Red Island,
    With the white cross on its crown!
  Hurra! for Meccatina,
    And its mountains bare and brown!
  Where the caribou's tall antlers
    O'er the dwarf-wood freely toss,
  And the footsteps of the Mickmack
    Have no sound upon the moss.

  There we'll drop our lines, and gather
    Old ocean's treasures in,
  Where'er the mottled mackerel
    Turns up a steel-dark fin.
  The sea's our field of harvest,
    Its scaly tribes our grain;
  We'll reap the teeming waters
    As at home they reap the plain.

  Though the mist upon our jackets
    In the bitter air congeals,
  And our lines wind stiff and slowly
    From off the frozen reels;
  Though the fog be dark around us,
    And the storm blow high and loud,
  We will whistle down the wild wind,
    And laugh beneath the cloud!

  Hurra!--Hurra!--the west wind
    Comes freshening down the bay,
  The rising sails are filling--
    Give way, my lads, give way!
  Leave the coward landsman clinging
    To the dull earth like a weed--
  The stars of heaven shall guide us,
    The breath of heaven shall speed!

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let some pupil in the class state in what
manner the lesson should be read.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Change the verbs throughout the sixth stanza so as
to represent past action.

Give the time indicated in the following sentences.

    I _am thinking_ about it.    I _am going_ to-morrow.

As _verb-forms_ do not always determine the _time of an action_, we
must call an action _past, present_, or _future_, in accordance with
the meaning indicated by the verb.

       *       *       *       *       *


op er a'tions, _ways of working; deeds_.

e vap'o rat ed, _has the moisture taken from it_.

au'ger, _a tool used in boring holes_.

shan'ty, _a hut; a poor dwelling_.

e nor'mous, _of very large size_.

su per in tend'ing, _directing; taking care of_.

an nounce', _give first notice of; make known_.

de li'cious, _affording great pleasure, especially to the taste_.

de'tails, _small parts of any thing_.

clar'i fied, _made clear or pure_.

       *       *       *       *       *



There is no part of farming that a boy enjoys more than the making of
maple sugar; it is better than "blackberrying," and nearly as good as

And one reason he likes this work is that somebody else does the most of
it. It is a sort of work in which he can appear to be very active, and
yet not do much.

In my day maple-sugar-making used to be something between picnicking and
being shipwrecked on a fertile island, where one should save from the
wreck, tubs and augers, and great kettles and pork, and hen's-eggs and
rye-and-indian bread, and begin at once to lead the sweetest life in the

I am told that it is something different nowadays, and that there is
more desire to save the sap, and make good, pure sugar, and sell it for
a large price.

I am told that it is the custom to carefully collect the sap and bring
it to the house, where there are built brick arches, over which it is
evaporated in shallow pans, and that pains are taken to keep the leaves,
sticks, ashes and coals out of it, and that the sugar is clarified.

In short, that it is a money-making business, in which there is very
little fun, and that the boy is not allowed to dip his paddle into the
kettle of boiling sugar and lick off the delicious syrup.

As I remember, the country boy used to be on the lookout in the spring
for the sap to begin running. I think he discovered it as soon as

Perhaps he knew it by a feeling of something starting in his own
veins--a sort of spring stir in his legs and arms, which tempted him to
stand on his head, or throw a handspring, if he could find a spot of
ground from which the snow had melted.

The sap stirs early in the legs of a country boy, and shows itself in
uneasiness in the toes, which, get tired of boots, and want to come out
and touch the soil just as soon as the sun has warmed it a little.

The country boy goes barefoot just as naturally as the trees burst their
buds, which were packed and varnished over in the fall to keep the water
and the frost out.

Perhaps the boy has been out digging into the maple-trees with his
jack-knife; at any rate, he is pretty sure to announce the discovery as
he comes running into the house in a state of great excitement, with
"Sap's runnin'!"

And then, indeed, the stir and excitement begin. The sap-buckets, which
have been stored in the wood-house, are brought down and set out on the
south side of the house and scalded.

The snow is still a foot or more deep in the woods, and the ox-sled is
got out to make a road to the sugar camp. The boy is every-where
present, superintending every thing, asking questions, and filled with a
desire to help the excitement.

It is a great day when the cart is loaded with the buckets, and the
procession starts into the woods. The sun shines brightly; the snow is
soft and beginning to sink down; the snow-birds are twittering about,
and the noise of shouting and of the blows of the axe echoes far and

In the first place the men go about and tap the trees, drive in the
spouts, and hang the buckets under. The boy watches all these operations
with the greatest interest.

He wishes that some time when a hole is bored into a tree that the sap
would spout out in a stream, as it does when a cider-barrel is tapped.

But it never does, it only drops, sometimes almost in a stream, but on
the whole slowly, and the boy learns that the sweet things of the world
have to be patiently waited for, and do not usually come otherwise than
drop by drop.

Then the camp is to be cleared of snow. The shanty is re-covered with
boughs. In front of it two enormous logs are rolled nearly together, and
a fire is built between them.

Forked sticks are set at each end, and a long pole is laid on them, and
on this are hung the great iron kettles. The huge hogsheads are turned
right side up, and cleaned out to receive the sap that is gathered.

The great fire that is kindled is never allowed to go out, night or day,
so long as the season lasts. Somebody is always cutting wood to feed it;
somebody is busy most of the time gathering in the sap.

Somebody is required to watch the kettles that they do not boil over,
and to fill them. It is not the boy, however; he is too busy with things
in general to be of any use in details.

He has his own little sap-yoke and small pails, with which he gathers
the sweet liquid. He has a little boiling-place of his own, with small
logs and a tiny kettle.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--In the second line of the lesson, after the
word _more_, a pause should be made for the purpose of giving special
effect to the words which follow. This is called a _rhetorical pause_.

In the third and fourth lines, point out the _rhetorical pauses_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let some pupil explain the meaning of the third
paragraph of the lesson.

Change the verbs in the last paragraph so as to indicate _future

       *       *       *       *       *


grim'y, _dirty_.

re al i za'tion, _the act of coming true_.

in vent'ed, _found out; contrived_.

per mit'ted, _allowed_.

dis solved', _melted; broken up_.

a vid'i ty, _eagerness_.

re duced', _made smaller in quantity_.

sen sa'tion, _feeling_.

crys'tal lize, _change into hard particles of a regular shape_.

       *       *       *       *       *



In the great kettles the boiling of the sap goes on slowly, and the
liquid, as it thickens, is dipped from one to another, until in the end
kettle it is reduced to syrup, and is taken out to cool and settle,
until enough is made to "sugar off."

To "sugar off" is to boil the syrup until it is thick enough to
crystallize into sugar. This is the grand event, and is only done once
in two or three days.

But the boy's desire is to "sugar off" all the time. He boils his kettle
down as rapidly as possible; he is not particular about chips, scum, or

He is apt to burn his sugar; but if he can get enough to make a little
wax on the snow, or to scrape from the bottom of the kettle with his
wooden paddle, he is happy.

A great deal is wasted on his hands, and the outside of his face, and on
his clothes, but he does not care; he is not stingy.

To watch the operations of the big fire gives him constant pleasure.
Sometimes he is left to watch the boiling kettles, with a piece of pork
tied on the end of a stick, which he dips into the boiling mass when it
threatens to go over.

He is constantly tasting of it, however, to see if it is not almost
syrup. He has a long, round stick, whittled smooth at one end, which he
uses for this purpose, at the constant risk of burning his tongue.

The smoke blows in his face; he is grimy with ashes; he is altogether
such a mass of dirt, stickiness, and sweetness, that his own mother
wouldn't know him.

He likes to boil eggs with the hired man in the hot sap; he likes to
roast potatoes in the ashes, and he would live in the camp day and night
if he were permitted.

To sleep there with the men, and awake in the night and hear the wind in
the trees, and see the sparks fly up to the sky, is a perfect
realization of all the stories of adventures he has ever read.

He tells the other boys afterward that he heard something in the night
that sounded very much like a bear. The hired man says that he was very
much scared by the hooting of an owl.

The great occasions for the boy, though, are the times of "sugaring
off." Sometimes this used to be done in the evening, and it was made the
excuse for a frolic in the camp.

The neighbors were invited; sometimes even the pretty girls from the
village, who filled all the woods with their sweet voices and merry
laughter, were there, too.

The tree branches all show distinctly in the light of the fire, which
lights up the bough shanty, the hogsheads, the buckets on the trees, and
the group about the boiling kettles, until the scene is like something
taken out of a fairy play.

At these sugar parties every one was expected to eat as much sugar as
possible; and those who are practiced in it can eat a great deal.

It is a peculiar fact about eating warm maple sugar, that though you
may eat so much of it one day as to be sick, you will want it the next
day more than ever.

At the "sugaring off" they used to pour the hot sugar upon the snow,
where it congealed into a sort of wax, which I suppose is the most
delicious substance that was ever invented. And it takes a great while
to eat it.

If you should close your teeth firmly on a lump of it, you would be
unable to open your mouth until it dissolved. The sensation while it is
melting is very pleasant, but it will not do to try to talk, for you can

The boy used to make a big lump of it and give it to the dog, who seized
it with great avidity, and closed his jaws on it, as dogs will on any

It was funny the next moment to see the expression of perfect surprise
on the dog's face when he found that he could not open his jaws.

He shook his head; he sat down in despair; he ran round in a circle; he
dashed into the woods and back again.

He did every thing except climb a tree, and howl. It would have been
such a relief to him if he could have howled. But that was the one thing
he could not do.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils change the verbs in the following lines,
so that they will indicate _present time_.

"He shook his head; he sat down in despair; he ran around in a circle;
he dashed into the woods and back again."

Suggestion.--Let the teacher, from time to time, select stories, and
have them read before the class. After the reading, let pupils make
oral _analyses_. The stories should be short, and the exercise
conducted without the use of pencils or paper.

       *       *       *       *       *


en'sign, _flag_.

dis man'tled, _stripped of masts, sails, and guns_.

pa tri ot'ic, _full of love for one's country_.

hulk, _a dismantled ship_.

frig'ate, _a ship of war_.

tat'tered, _torn_.

me'te or, _a fiery body in the heavens_.

van'quished, _conquered; overcome_.

har'pies, _destroyers_.

manned, _supplied with men_.

       *       *       *       *       *


During our second war with Great Britain, which began in the year 1812,
many battles were fought both on land and sea.

Among the ships of war belonging to the United States Government, was a
frigate named the Constitution. She was built about the beginning of
the present century, and owing to her good fortune in many engagements,
her seamen gave her the name of "Old Ironsides."

She was in active service throughout the entire war, and captured five
ships of war from the British, two of which were frigates.

In all her service, her success was remarkable. She never lost her
masts, never went ashore, and though so often in battle, no very serious
loss of life ever occurred on her decks. Her entire career was that of
what is called in the navy "a lucky ship."

Perhaps this may be explained by the fact that she always had excellent
commanders, and that she probably possessed as fine a ship's company as
ever manned a frigate.

In 1829, the Government ordered the Constitution to be dismantled and
taken to pieces, because she had become unfit for service.

At that time, Oliver Wendell Holmes, who has since become famous as a
writer, was a young man twenty years of age, about completing his
studies at Harvard College.

When he heard of the intended destruction of "Old Ironsides," he went
directly to his room, and, inspired by patriotic feelings, wrote the
following poem.


  Ay, tear her tattered ensign down!
    Long has it waved on high,
  And many an eye has danced to see
    That banner in the sky;
  Beneath it rung the battle shout
    And burst the cannons' roar:
  The meteor of the ocean air
    Shall sweep the clouds no more.

  Her deck, once red with heroes' blood,
    Where knelt the vanquished foe,
  When winds were hurrying o'er the flood
    And waves were white below,
  No more shall feel the victors' tread,
    Or know the conquered knee:
  The harpies of the shore shall pluck
    The eagle of the sea!

  O, better that her shattered hulk
    Should sink beneath the wave!--
  Her thunders shook the mighty deep,
    And there should be her grave.
  Nail to the mast her holy flag,
    Set every threadbare sail,
  And give her to the god of storms,
    The lightning, and the gale!

The effect of this poem upon the people was so great that a general
outcry arose against the destruction of the gallant old ship.

The Government was induced to reconsider its determination. The old ship
was saved, repaired, and for many years has delighted the eyes of
thousands of people who have visited her.

At present, she is used as a receiving-ship at the United States Navy
Yard, Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--With what tone of voice should the prose part
of the lesson be read?

Read the poetry--first, slowly and quietly; then, in a loud tone of
voice, expressing the feeling of anger.

Which method of reading the poem do the pupils prefer?

Which do they think represents the poet's feelings?

Let pupils pronounce in concert, and singly, the following words: _hero,
year, people, deep, eagle, knee, serious, meteor, complete, pieces_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils point out and explain the unusual
expressions found in the first two stanzas, writing out a list of the
changes made.

       *       *       *       *       *


ver'tic al, _upright_.

cat'a ract, _a great fall of water over a precipice_.

pro vis'ions, _stock of food_.

con struct'ed, _made; formed_.

in cred'i ble, _not easily believed_.

sta'tion a ry, _not moving; fixed_.

ex tinct', _inactive; dead_.

de pos'it, _that which is laid or thrown down_.

ap'er ture, _an opening_.

di am'e ter, _distance across or through_.

com pris'es, _includes; contains_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Within the vast extent of territory belonging to the United States,
there are many wonderful natural curiosities which attract visitors from
all parts of the world.

A short description of some of the principal attractions is here given,
with the hope that many who read this lesson, may at some time visit a
part or all that are noticed.


The Yellowstone Park is a tract of country fifty-five by sixty-five
miles in extent, lying mainly in the northwest corner of the Territory
of Wyoming, but including a narrow belt in southern Montana. It
contains nearly thirty-six hundred square miles, and is nearly three
times as large as the State of Rhode Island. No equal extent of country
on the globe comprises such a union of grand and wonderful scenery.

Numerous hot springs, steam jets, and extinct geyser cones exist in the
Yellowstone basin. Just beyond the western rim of the basin, lies the
grand geyser region of Fire-Hole River.

Scattered along both banks of this stream are boiling springs from two
to twelve feet across, all in active operation.

One of the most noted geysers of this district is "Old Faithful." It
stands on a mound thirty feet high, the crater rising some six feet
higher still.

The eruptions take place about once an hour, and continue fifteen or
twenty minutes, the column of water shooting upward with terrific force,
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet.

The great mass of water falls directly back into the basin, flowing over
the edges and down the sides in large streams. When the action ceases,
the water recedes from sight, and nothing is heard but an occasional
escape of steam until another eruption occurs.


Just across the river and close to the margin, a small conical mound is
observed, about three feet high, and five feet in diameter at the base.

No one would suspect it to be an active geyser. But in 1871, a column of
water entirely filling the crater shot from it, which by actual
measurement was found to be two hundred and nineteen feet high.

Not more than a hundred yards from the river, there is a large oval
aperture eighteen feet wide and twenty-five feet long. The sides are
covered with a grayish-white deposit which is distinctly visible at a
depth of a hundred feet below the surface.

This geyser is known as the "Giantess," and a visitor in describing it
states that "no water could be discovered on the first approach, but it
could be distinctly heard gurgling and boiling at a great distance
below. Suddenly it began to rise, spluttering and sending out huge
volumes of steam, causing a general scattering of our company.

"When within about forty feet of the surface, it became stationary, and
we returned to look upon it. All at once it rose with incredible
rapidity, the hot water bursting from the opening with terrific force,
rising in a column the full size of this immense aperture to the height
of sixty feet.

"Through, and out of the top of this mass, five or six lesser jets or
round columns of water, varying in size from six to fifteen inches in
diameter, were projected to the marvelous height of two hundred and
fifty feet."

[Illustration: View in the Grand Cañon]


The length of the Colorado River, from the sources of the Green River,
is about two thousand miles.

For five hundred miles of this distance, the river has worn deep cuts or
gorges through the soft rock, called cañons.

The rocky sides of these cañons form lofty vertical walls, which, in
some places, rise to a height of more than a mile above the surface of
the water.

The largest and most noted of these vast gorges is the Grand Cañon,
which extends a distance of more than two hundred miles. The height of
the walls of this cañon varies from four thousand to seven thousand

The river, as it runs through it, is from fifty to three hundred feet
wide. So swift is the current, that it is almost impossible to float a
boat down the stream without having it dashed to pieces against the
rocky walls on either side.

The first descent through these cañons was made in 1867, from a point on
Grand River, about thirty miles above its junction with Green River.

Three men were prospecting for gold, and being attacked by Indians and
one of their number killed, the other two decided to attempt the descent
of the river, rather than retrace their steps through a country where
Indians were numerous.

They constructed a raft of a few pieces of drift-wood, and having
secured their arms and provisions, commenced their journey down the

A few days afterward, while the raft was descending a cataract, one of
the men was drowned and all the provisions were washed overboard.

The third man, hemmed in by the walls of the cañon, continued the
journey alone amid great perils from cataracts, rocks, and whirlpools.

For ten days he pursued, his lonely way, tasting food but twice during
the whole time. Once he obtained a few green pods and leaves from bushes
growing along the stream, and the second time from some friendly

At last he succeeded in reaching Callville in safety, after having
floated several hundred miles.

       *       *       *       *       *


pro por'tions, _relations of parts to each other_.

in te'ri or, _the inside_.

al a bas'ter, _a kind of whitish stone_.

chasm, _a deep opening_.

a're a, _any surface, as the floor of a room_.

an'cient, _belonging to past ages_.

un ex am'pled, _without a similar case_.

co los'sal, _of great size_.

feat'ure, _any thing worthy of notice_.

dra'per y, _hangings of any kind_.

o ver awed', _held in a state of fear_.

sur pass'ing, _exceeding others_.

       *       *       *       *       *




In the year 1809, a hunter named Hutchins, while pursuing a bear in
Edmondson County, Kentucky, was surprised to see the animal disappear
into a small opening in the side of a hill.

Upon examining the spot, Hutchins found that the opening led into a
cave. Following up the examination soon after, it was discovered that
the cave was immense in its proportions.

On account of its great size, it was named Mammoth Cave. It has an area
of several hundred square miles, and two hundred and twenty-three known
and numbered avenues, with a united length of from one hundred and
fifty to two hundred miles.

The interior of this cave is divided by huge columns and walls of stone
into chambers of various shapes and sizes. Some of these are large
enough to afford standing room for thousands of people.

One of the largest of these chambers is called Mammoth Dome. This room
is four hundred feet long, one hundred and fifty feet wide, and two
hundred and fifty feet in height.

The walls of this grand room are curtained by alabaster drapery in
vertical folds and present to the eye a scene of unexampled beauty and

A large gateway at one end of this room opens into another room, in
which the position of the huge stone pillars, reminds one of the ruins
of some ancient temple.

Six colossal columns, or pillars, eighty feet high and twenty-five feet
in diameter, standing in a half circle, are among the imposing
attractions of this wonderful room.

Another striking feature of Mammoth Cave is what is called the Dead Sea.
This body of water is four hundred feet long, forty feet wide, and very

A curious fish is found in this dark lake. It is without eyes, and, in
form and color, is different from any fish found outside the cave.

There are found also a blind grasshopper, without wings, and a blind
crayfish of a whitish color, both of which are very curious and

The fact that these living creatures are blind would seem to indicate
that nature had produced them for the distinct purpose of inhabiting
this dark cave.


Of all the sights to be seen on this continent, there is none that
equals the great Falls of Niagara River, situated about twelve miles
north of Buffalo, in the State of New York.

On first beholding this most wonderful of all known cataracts, one is
overawed by its surpassing grandeur, "and stunned by the sound of the
falling waters as by a roar of thunder."

For quite a distance above the falls, the Niagara River is about one
mile wide, and flows with great swiftness.

Just at the edge of the cataract stands Goat Island, which divides the
waters of the river, and makes two distinct cataracts; one on the
Canadian side, and one on the American side of the river.

The one on the Canadian side, called from its shape the Horse-shoe Fall,
is eighteen hundred feet wide, and one hundred, and fifty-eight feet
high. The other, called the American Fall, is six hundred feet wide, and
one hundred and sixty-four feet high.

As the immense body of water leaps over this vast precipice, it breaks
into a soft spray, which waves like a plume in the wind. At times, when
the rays of the sun strike this spray, a rainbow is formed which
stretches itself across the deep chasm, and produces a beautiful effect.

During the winter, much of the water and spray freezes, and as each
moment adds to the frozen mass, some curious and wonderful ice
formations are produced.

Sometimes, during a very cold winter, the ice at the foot of the falls
forms a complete bridge from one shore to the other.

An interesting feature of a visit to these falls is a descent to the
level of the foot of the cataract behind the great sheet of water.

A long flight of steps leads down to a secure footing between the rocky
precipice and the falling torrent. By a narrow footpath, it is possible
for the visitor to pass between this column of water and the wall of

Once behind the sheet of water, the roar is deafening. One can only
cling to the narrow railing or his guide, as he picks his way for more
than a hundred feet behind the roaring torrent.

A single misstep, a slip, or a fall, and nothing remains but a horrible
death by being dashed to pieces upon the jagged rocks below.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Point out four places in the lesson where
words would likely be run together by a careless reader.

The word _cañon_ is pronounced _can'yon_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Give rules for marks of punctuation and capital
letters used in the first paragraph of the account of Niagara Falls.

Let pupils make out an _analysis_ in five or six parts, treating some
well-known scene.

       *       *       *       *       *


vo ra'cious, _greedy; very hungry_.

o ver whelmed', _overcome by force of numbers_.

a bound'ing, _existing in large numbers_.

as cend'ing, _going up_.

her'ald ed, _gave notice of_.

im pet'u ous, _furious; without care for what happens_.

crim'i nals, _those who have broken the law_.

con'cen trate, _gather in a large mass_.

in tol'er a ble, _not to be borne_.

ir re sist'i ble, _can not be opposed_.

       *       *       *       *       *


A strange kind of ant is very abundant in the whole region I have
traveled over in Africa, and is the most voracious creature I ever met.
It is the dread of all living animals, from the leopard to the smallest

I do not think that these ants build nests or homes of any kind. At any
rate they carry nothing away, but eat all their prey on the spot. It is
their habit to march through the forests in a long, regular line--a line
about two inches broad and often several miles in length. All along this
line are larger ants, who act as officers, stand outside the ranks, and
keep this singular army in order.

If they come to a place where there are no trees to shelter them from
the sun, whose heat they can not bear, they immediately build
underground tunnels, through which the whole army passes in columns to
the forest beyond. These tunnels are four or five feet underground, and
are used only in the heat of the day, or during a storm.

When, they grow hungry the long file spreads itself through the forest
in a front line, and attacks and devours all it overtakes with a fury
which is quite irresistible. The elephant and gorilla fly before this
attack. The black men run for their lives. Every animal that lives in
their line of march is chased.

They seem to understand and act upon the tactics of Napoleon, and
concentrate with great speed their heaviest forces upon the point of
attack. In an incredibly short space of time the mouse, or dog, or
leopard, or deer, is overwhelmed, killed, eaten, and the bare skeleton
only remains.

They seem to travel night and day. Many a time have I been awakened out
of a sleep, and obliged to rush from the hut and into the water to save
my life, and after all suffered intolerable agony from the bites of the
advance-guard, that had got into my clothes.

When they enter a house they clear it of all living things. Cockroaches
are devoured in an instant. Rats and mice spring round the room in vain.
An overwhelming force of ants kill a strong rat in less than a minute,
in spite of the most frantic struggles, and in less than another minute
its bones are stripped. Every living thing in the house is devoured.

They will not touch vegetable matter. Thus they are in reality very
useful, as well as dangerous, to the natives, who have their huts
cleaned of all the abounding vermin, such as immense cockroaches and
centipedes, at least several times a year.

When on their march the insect world flies before them, and I have often
had the approach of an ant-army heralded to me by this means. Wherever
they go they make a clean sweep, even ascending to the tops of the
highest trees in pursuit of their prey.

Their manner of attack is an impetuous leap. Instantly the strong
pincers are fastened, and they let go only when the piece gives way.

At such times this little animal seems animated by a kind of fury which
causes it to disregard entirely its own safety, and to seek only the
conquest of its prey. The bite of these ants is very painful.

The natives relate that in former times it was the custom to expose
criminals in the path of these ants, as the most cruel way that was
known of putting them to death.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Name the _emphatic words_ in the last
paragraph of the lesson, and mark the _inflections_.

In determining upon the _emphasis_ to be given to the words of a
sentence, the only guide we have to follow is the _meaning_. We must
ask ourselves, "Which, words are of special importance to the meaning?"

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Change each of the sentences given below to
_statements_, expressing as nearly as possible the same meaning.

    "What troubles you to-day?"

    "Tell me at once what the matter is!"

    "Let us shout for Meccatina, and its mountains bare and brown!"

Model.--"What is your name?" changed to the form of a _statement_,
becomes--"I wish you to tell me your name."

Let pupils write four _questions_, and then change them to
_statements_, expressing as nearly as possible the same meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *


plun'dered, _stripped  of their goods by force_.

surge, _a rolling swell of water; billows_.

verge, _extreme side or edge_.

sheer, _straight up and down_.

frag'ments, _pieces; small portions_.

vis'ion _scene; imaginary picture_.

a byss', _chasm; deep space_.

phan'tom, _ghost; airy spirit_.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Mounted  on Kyrat strong and fleet,
  His chestnut steed with four white feet,
    Roushan Beg, called Kurroglou,
  Son of the road and bandit chief,
  Seeking refuge and relief,
    Up the mountain pathway flew.

  Such was Kyrat's wondrous speed,
  Never yet could any steed
    Reach the dust-cloud in his course.
  More than maiden, more than wife,
  More than gold, and next to life,
    Roushan the  Robber loved his horse.

  In the land that lies beyond
  Erzeroum and Trebizond,
    Garden-girt his fortress stood.
  Plundered khan, or caravan
  Journeying north from Koordistan,
    Gave him wealth and wine and food.

  Seven hundred and fourscore
  Men at arms his livery wore,
    Did his bidding night and day.
  Now, through regions all unknown,
  He was wandering, lost, alone,
    Seeking without guide his way.

  Suddenly the pathway ends,
  Sheer the precipice descends,
    Loud the torrent roars unseen;
  Thirty feet from side to side
  Yawns the chasm; on air must ride
    He who crosses this ravine.

  Following close in his pursuit,
  At the precipice's foot,
    Reyhan the Arab of Orfah
  Halted with his hundred men,
  Shouting upward from the glen,
    "La Illah'illa Allah'!"

  Gently Roushan Beg caressed
  Kyrat's forehead, neck, and breast;
    Kissed him upon both his eyes;
  Sang to him in his wild way,
  As upon the topmost spray
    Sings a bird before it flies.

  "O my Kyrat, O my steed,
  Round and slender as a reed,
    Carry me this peril through!
  Satin housings shall be thine,
  Shoes of gold, O Kyrat mine,
    O thou soul of Kurroglou!

  "Soft thy skin as silken skein,
  Soft as woman's hair thy mane,
    Tender are thine eyes and true;
  All thy hoofs like ivory shine,
  Polished bright; O, life of mine,
    Leap and rescue Kurroglou!"

  Kyrat, then, the strong and fleet,
  Drew together his four white feet,
    Paused a moment on the verge,
  Measured with his eye the space,
  And into the air's embrace
    Leaped as leaps the ocean surge.

  As the ocean surge o'er sand
  Bears a swimmer safe to land,
    Kyrat safe his rider bore;
  Rattling down the deep abyss,
  Fragments of the precipice
    Rolled like pebbles on a shore.

  Roushan's tassled cap of red
  Trembled not upon his head,
    Careless sat he and upright;
  Neither hand nor bridle shook,
  Nor his head he turned to look,
    As he galloped out of sight.

  Flash of harness in the air,
  Seen a moment, like the glare
    Of a sword drawn from its sheath;
  Thus the phantom horseman passed,
  And the shadow that he cast
    Leaped the cataract underneath.

  Reyhan the Arab held his breath
  While this vision of life and death
    Passed above him. "Allahu!"
  Cried he. "In all Koordistan
  Lives there not so brave a man
    As this Robber Kurroglou!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils point out where changes in tone of
voice occur in reading this lesson.

What lines in the last two stanzas are to be joined in reading?

Keep the lungs sufficiently full of air to avoid stopping to breathe at
such places as would injure the sense.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils select a subject, and then make out an
_analysis_ to use in treating it.

       *       *       *       *       *


mu se'um, _a place where curiosities are exhibited_.

ban'daged, _bound with strips of cloth_.

dy'nas ties, _governments; families of kings_.

ex plored', _searched; examined_.

pop'u lat ed, _peopled; filled with people_.

gen era' tions, _succession of families or peoples_.

e rect'ed, _raised; built_.

cal'cu lat ed, _estimated_.

flour'ished, _prospered; thrived_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Egypt embraces that part of Africa occupied by the valley of the River
Nile. For many centuries, it was a thickly populated country, and at one
time possessed great influence and wealth, and had reached an advanced
state of civilization.

The history of Egypt extends through a period of about six thousand
years. During this time great cities were built which flourished for
hundreds of years.

Owing to wars and changes of government many of these cities were
destroyed, and nothing of them now remains but massive and extensive

Pyramids were built, obelisks erected, canals projected, and many other
vast enterprises were carried out.

Remains of these are to be seen to-day, some in ruins, some fairly
preserved, and, altogether, they give present generations an idea of the
wealth and power of the different dynasties under which they were built.


Not far from Cairo, which is now the principal city of Egypt, are the
famous pyramids. These are of such immense proportions, that from a
distance their tops seem to reach the clouds.

They are constructed of blocks of stone. Some of these blocks are of
great size, and how the builders ever put them into their places, is a
question we can not answer.

It is supposed that the construction of one of these pyramids required
more than twenty years' labor from thousands of men.

The largest pyramid is four hundred and sixty-one feet high, seven
hundred and forty-six feet long at the base, and covers more than twelve
acres of ground. In all, sixty-seven of these pyramids have been
discovered and explored.

They are the tombs in which the ancient kings and their families were
buried. In the interior of these pyramids, many chambers were
constructed to contain their stone coffins.

It has been calculated that one of the principal pyramids could contain
three thousand seven hundred rooms of large size.

The bodies of those who were buried in the pyramids were preserved from
decay by a secret process, known only to the priests.


After the bodies were prepared, they were wrapped in bands of fine
linen, and on the inside of these was spread a peculiar kind of gum.
There were sometimes a thousand yards of these bands on a single body.

After they were thus prepared, a soft substance was placed around the
bandaged body. This covering, when it hardened, kept the body in a
complete state of preservation.


These coverings are now called mummy-cases, and the bodies they inclose,

These bodies were finally placed, in huge stone coffins, many of which
were covered with curious carvings.

Some of these mummies have been found, that are said to be over three
thousand years old. However, when the wrappings are removed from them,
many of the bodies have been so well preserved, as to exhibit the
appearance of the features as in life.

Large numbers of these mummies have been carried to other countries and
placed on exhibition in museums.

Among the mummies brought to this country, are some of the best
specimens which have yet been discovered.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils mark the _inflection_ and point out
_emphatic words_ in the first two paragraphs of the lesson.

Show positions of the _rhetorical pauses_ in the first paragraph on
page 363.[20]

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils review, as a written exercise, the
spelling of the following words.

    receding     principal     rubbish      punctual
    precipice    council       orphan       microscope
    justice      civilized     threshold    muscles
    precious     merchandise   especially   traveler
    physician    recognize     anecdote     marvelous
    sufficient   apologize     character    benefited
    vicious      poisonous     tremendous   intelligent

Let pupils select a subject and make out an _analysis_ for its

Each point in the _analysis_ will require a separate paragraph
for its treatment.

Be careful to use capital letters and marks of punctuation correctly.

[20] Paragraph beginning, "Remains of these are to be seen to-day...."

       *       *       *       *       *


de vic'es, _curious marks or shapes_.

in scrip'tion, _any thing cut or written on a solid substance_.

trans lat'ing, _expressing in another language_.

mem'o ra ble, _worthy of being remembered_.

spec'i mens, _small portions of things_.

in ge nu'i ty, _skill in inventing_.

tour'ists, _travelers; sight-seers_.

ded'i cat ed, _set apart for a special purpose_.

cer'e mo nies, _forms; special customs_.

site, _the place where any thing is fixed_.

mon'o lith, _a column consisting of a single stone_.

o rig'i nal ly, _in the first place_.

       *       *       *       *       *



The ancient Egyptians erected many obelisks in various parts of their
country. These were monuments made from single pieces of hard stone, and
in some cases reached a height of more than a hundred feet.

They were placed before gateways leading to the principal temples and
palaces, and were covered with curious carvings in the stone, which
represented the language of the people at that time.

It thus appears that their written language was not composed of letters
and words alone, like our own; but that they used pictures of animals,
including birds, human figures, and other devices of a singular nature,
to express their thoughts and ideas.

Until the year 1799, it was impossible for the scholars of modern
nations to read this strange language. In that year, however, a stone
tablet was discovered by a French engineer, containing an inscription
written in three languages.

One of these was in the characters of the ancient Egyptian and another
in those of the Greek. Upon translating the Greek writing, it was
discovered to be a copy of the inscription in the Egyptian language.

By comparing the words of these inscriptions with many others, the
formation of this peculiar language was ascertained. It was then learned
that the inscriptions on these obelisks were the records of memorable
events, and the heroic deeds of their kings and heroes.

Many of these obelisks have been taken from their positions in Egypt and
transported with great labor to other countries. Nearly two thousand
years ago the Roman emperors began to carry them to the city of Rome.
Altogether, nearly fifty of these remarkable monuments were taken away
and set up in that city. They were then, as now, regarded as curious
examples of the ingenuity of the ancients who first made them.

[Illustration: The Obelisk in Central Park, New York, and as it appeared
in Egypt.]

In later years, specimens were taken to Paris and London, and more
recently one was brought to America, and set up in the Central Park, New
York City.

This one belongs to the largest class, being nearly seventy feet high
and about eight feet square at the base.

The accompanying cut shows the position of this obelisk as it appeared
when standing near the city of Alexandria, Egypt.

The difficulty of transporting one of these huge stone columns is so
great, that for a long time it was thought impossible to remove it from
Egypt to this country.

In their large cities, the Egyptians built massive temples which were
dedicated to religious ceremonies. Some of them, although now in ruins,
are considered to be among the most remarkable productions of the

Tourists who nowadays sail up the River Nile and visit the site of the
city of Thebes, the ancient capital of Egypt, are struck with amazement
at the vast ruins surrounding them.

On the eastern side of the Nile lies what is left of the temple of

Imagine a long line of courts, gateways, and halls; here and there an
obelisk rising above the ruins, and shutting off the view of the forest
of columns!

This mass of ruins, some lying in huge heaps of stone, others perfect
and pointed as when they were first built, is approached on every side
by avenues and gateways of colossal grandeur.

The temple originally covered an area of two hundred and seventy acres,
inclosed within a wall of brick. Parts of this wall are still visible,
while the rest lies crumbled and broken.

It is difficult to realize the grand appearance of the thirty rows of
stone columns standing within the wall. Some of them that are still
perfect, are capped with enormous monolith capitals, and it is said that
one hundred men could stand on one of them without crowding.

The hall itself is four hundred and twenty-two feet long by one hundred
and sixty-five feet broad. The stones of the ceiling are supported by
one hundred and thirty-four columns, which are still standing, and of
which the largest measures ten feet in diameter, and more than
seventy-two feet in height. They are covered with carvings and
paintings whose colors are still bright, even after a lapse of forty

Gazing on what he sees around, the traveler becomes lost in an effort to
form some idea of the grandeur and vastness of the original.

       *       *       *       *       *

Directions for Reading.--Let pupils read one or more of the paragraphs
in a whisper, so as to improve _articulation_.

Mark _rhetorical pauses_ in the last paragraph of the lesson.

Name _emphatic words_ in the same paragraph, and state whether the
_rhetorical pauses _occur before or after these words.

       *       *       *       *       *

Language Lesson.--Let pupils write _statements_, each containing one
of the following words, used in such a manner as to show its proper
meaning: _haul, hall; site, sight; piece, peace; our, hour; sum,

Rules for the Analysis of a Subject.--Select such points as are
necessary to make the treatment of the subject complete.

Add such points as will increase the interest felt in the subject.

Arrange the points in a natural and easy order.

Note.--In treating an historical subject, it is necessary to arrange
the points in the order in which they occurred. In description, it is
best to adopt some plan of treatment, and arrange the points according
to the plan decided upon.

       *       *       *       *       *




a board', _on board of_.
ac cept', _take; receive_.
ac'ci dents, _effects; unusual results_.
ac cord'ing ly, _agreeably to a plan_.
ac count', _statement of facts; bill_.
ad mit'tance, _permission to enter; entrance_.
ad vice', _opinion worthy to be followed; counsel_.
af ford', _give; produce_.
a'gen cy, _office of an agent; action_.
aid, _help; assistance_.
al to geth'er, _with united action;
a mid', _in the midst of; surrounded by_.
anxi' e ty (ang zi'e ty), _concern respecting some future event_.
ap plause', _praise_.
ap ply', _suit; agree_.
arch'es, _places made of stone, brick, etc_.
art, _skill_.
a shamed', _affected by a feeling of shame_.
as sist'ing, _helping; aiding_.
as sure', _tell truly; make sure or certain_.
at tempt', _try; make an effort_.
at ten'tion, _care; notice_.
av'e nues, _broad streets; openings_.
a wait'ed, _waited for_.
a ware', _informed_.
awk'ward, _clumsy; ungraceful_.
ay, _yes_.


bade, _said_.
ban'dit, _robber_.
ban'ner, _flag_.
base, _lower part_.
bid'ding, _command; order_.
bil'lows, _large waves_.
bon'ny, _handsome; beautiful_.
bor'row, _to receive from another with the intention of returning_.
bore, _carried_.
bor'ders, _edges; outer parts_.
braced, _took a firm stand_.
braid'ed, _woven or twined together_
brick, _a body made of clay and water and hardened by fire_.
bri'er, _a prickly plant or shrub_.
brig, _a vessel with two masts, square-rigged_.
brill'iant, _splendid; shining_.
brim'ming, _full; nearly overflowing_.
bris'tling, _standing erect_.
bul'let, _small ball of lead_.
bur'den, _that which is carried_.
but'ter fly, _a winged insect of many colors_.


cack'ling, _sharp and broken in sounds_.
ca nals', _water-courses made by man_.
ca'per ing, _playing; dancing_.
capped, _covered over at the top_.
cap tiv'ity, _state of being a prisoner_.
car'go, _burden; load_.
cas'ters, _rollers or small wheels_.
ceil'ing, _the upper surface of a room_.
cen'ter, _the middle point of any thing_.
cen'ti pedes, _a kind of insect having a great number of feet_.
cent'u ry, _one hundred years_.
chan'nel, _the regular course of a river_.
cheat'ed, _taken unfair advantage of; robbed_.
chose, _wished; desired_.
cin'ders, _small pieces of coal or wood partly burned_.
cir'cu lar, _round; shaped like a circle_.
cli'mate, _state or condition of the air as regards heat, cold,
   and moisture_.
clink, _sharp ringing sound_.
clum'sy, _awkward; ungraceful_.
clus'ter, _number of things of the same kind growing together_.
cock'roach es, _insects with long, flattish bodies_.
cof'fins, _cases in which dead bodies are placed_.
coin, _piece of stamped metal used for money_.
col'umn, _a dark cloud of regular shape; a shaft of stone_.
com mand'ed, _had charge of; ordered_.
com plaint', _expression of anger_.
com plete', _entire; perfect_.
con clude', _make up one's mind_.
con'duct, _manner of action_.
con fined', _kept within limits_.
con nect'ed, _joined_.
con'quered, _subdued; overcome_.
con'quest, _act of taking by force_.
con sid'er a bly, _in a manner worthy of notice_.
con sid'er ing, _thinking; regarding_.
con'stant ly, _all the time_.
con'tact, _touching; meeting_.
con tained', _held_.
con'ti nent, _a great extent of land unbroken by water_.
con tin'u ally, _all the time_.
con verse', _talk_.
cour' age, _boldness_.
cow'ard, _one who lacks courage_.
crack'ling, _sharp noises_.
creek, _a small river or brook; a bay_.
crew (kru), _the sailors who man a ship_.
croak'ing, _making a hoarse noise_.
crook'ed, _not straight_.
crop, _what grows in a season_.
cured, _made well_.
cu ri os'i ty, _eager desire to find out something_.
cur'rent, _motion of a river_.
cus'tom, _way of acting; habit_.
cut'ter, _small boat used by ships of war_.


dames, _women_.
debt, _that which is owed_.
de'cent, _fit; suitable_.
de clare', _say with firmness_.
deed, _act; that which is done_.
de fence', _protection_.
dense, _thick; close_.
de scrip'tion, _an account_.
de sert'ed, _left; given up_.
de struc'tion, _ruin_.
de ter'mine, _decided; resolved_.
di'et, _what is eaten or drunk_.
di rect'ly, _instantly; immediately_.
dis ap point'ed, _grieved; filled with regret_.
dis as'ters, _unfortunate events_.
dis ease', _illness; sickness_.
dis hon'est, _not honest; faithless_.
dis miss' ing, _putting or sending away_.
dis o beyed', _went contrary to orders_.
dis pose', _sell; part with_.
dis re gard', _lose sight of_.
dis'trict, _part of a country; region_.
di vide', _separate into equal shares or parts_.
dome, _very high and broad roof_.
drag, _pull; draw_.
drays, _kinds of carts_.
dread'ful, _full of terror_.
drift, _borne along by the current of a river_.
driz'zling, _falling in very small drops_.
drowned, _deprived of life by water_.
duck'ing, _plunging into water_.


earth'quake, _a shaking or trembling of the earth_.
ech'oes, _is heard_.
ef fects', _results_.
ef'fort (furt), _struggle; attempt_.
em brace', _clasp; grasp_.
em'pire, _the country of an emperor_.
en'e my, _one who hates another_.
en gaged', _occupied; taken_.
en'gines, _machines used for applying force_.
en raged', _made very angry_.
en tire', _whole_.
ere, _before_.
er'rand, _short journeys on business_.
ex am'ple, _a pattern; a copy_.
ex'cel lent (ek), _very good_.
ex cep'tion, _that which is left out or omitted_.
ex cite'ment, _intense feeling_.
ex cla ma'tion, _a cry; that which is cried out_.
ex'er cise, _bodily exertion_.
ex hi bi'tion, _show; display_.
ex pla na'tion, _that which makes clear_.
ex ten'sive ly, _widely; largely_.
ex'tra, _more than usual_.


fac'to ries, _places where things are made_.
fare well', _good-by_.
fa'vors, _kind acts_.
fear'less ly, _without fear_.
feast, _a joyous meal_.
feat, _a difficult act_.
fee'ble, _weak; sickly_.
fer'ry, _a place to cross a river_.
fig'ured, _ornamented with marks_.
file, _a row of soldiers ranged behind one another_.
flanks, _the fleshy parts of the sides of animals_.
flee, _to run away_.
flood, _great flow of water_.
flour, _ground wheat_.
flu'id, _water, or any liquid_.
foot'men, _male servants_.
for ma'tions, _things of certain shape or form_.
for'tress, _a fort; a castle_.
fort'une, _chance; luck_.
frol'ic some, _merry; playful_.
fu'el, _material for fire_.


gal'lop, _a rapid movement, as of horses_.
gar'ret, _the upper room of a house_.
gems, _precious stones_.
gen'eral ly, _usually; commonly_.
gleam'ing, _shining brightly_.
glee, _joy; happiness_.
glim'mer, _a faint light_.
glis'ten ing, _sparkling; shining_.
globe, _the earth; a round body_.
glo'ri ous, _grand; splendid_.
glos'sy, _smooth; shining_.
gor'ges, _narrow passages_.
gos'sip, _foolish talk_.
gov'ern ment, _the power that controls a people_.
grand, _large; imposing_.
grum'bled, _complained; found fault with_.
guard, _that which protects_.
guests, _visitors_.
gur'gling, _flowing in a noisy current_.


hatch, _the cover for an opening in a vessel's deck_.
heath, _a meadow; cheerless tract of country_.
hedg'es, _thickets of bushes_.
hemmed, _shut in; surrounded_.
hence forth', _hereafter_.
he'ro, _a brave man_.
high'way, _a public road_.
hint, _something intended to give notice_.
hitched, _tied; fastened_.
hith'er, _in this direction_.
hogs'head, _a large cask_.
hoot'ing, _crying; shouting_.
hor'ri ble, _dreadful; terrible_.
howl'ing, _crying like a dog or wolf_.
hub'bub, _a great noise; uproar_.
husk, _the outside covering of certain fruits_.
hust'le, _shake; push roughly_.


i de'a, _thought_.
ill'-nat ured, _cross; bad-tempered_.
im ag'ine, _think; consider_.
im me'di ate ly, _without delay_.
im pos'si ble, _not possible_.
in de pend'ence, _the state of being free_.
in for ma'tion, _news; knowledge_.
in formed', _told; gave notice of_.
in hab'i tants, _persons living in a place_.
in'jured, _hurt; harmed_.
in'stant ly, _at once; without loss of time_.
in tent', _eager; anxious_.
in vi ta'tions, _requests for one's company_.
is'sue, _come forth; flow out_.


jag'ged, _having sharp points_.
jew'els (ju'els), _precious stones_.
jin'gling, _giving forth fine, sharp sounds_.


kern'el, _the eatable part of a nut; a little grain or corn_.


la'bor, _work; toil_.
lapse, _passing away_.
las'sie, _a young girl; a lass_.
lat'ter, _last-named; nearer_.
launched, _put into the water_
laws, _rules of action_.
leath'er, _the skins of animals prepared for use_.
ledge, _shelf of rocks_.
lee'ward, _that part toward which the wind blows_.
leop'ard, _a large animal of the cat kind_.
lest, _for fear that_.
lev'el, _smooth and flat; of equal height_.
lin'ing, _inside covering_.
lint, _linen scraped into a soft substance_.
liq'uid, _any fluid, like water_.
lisp'ing ly, _with a lisp_.
liv'er y, _a peculiar dress_.
load'stone, _a kind of magnetic ore_.
loft'y, _very high_.
low'ered, _let down_.
lub'ber, _a heavy, clumsy fellow_.
luck'y, _fortunate; meeting with good success_.
lum'ber, _timber sawed or split for use; boards_.


main'ly, _mostly; chiefly_.
mam'moth, _of great size_.
man'aged, _controlled; brought to do one's wishes_.
mane, _the long hair on a horse's neck_.
man'tel, _a narrow shelf over a fire-place, with its support_.
mar'gin, _edge; border_.
mark'et, _a place where things are sold_.
mark'ings, _marks; stamped places_.
mean'time, _during the interval; meanwhile_.
mel'low ing, _ripening; growing soft_.
melt'ed, _changed to a liquid form by the action of heat_.
mem'o ry, _the power of recalling past events_.
mer'chants, _those who buy goods to sell again_.
mil'i ta ry, _belonging to soldiers, to arms, or to war_.
mis'er y, _great unhappiness; extreme pain_.
mod'ern, _of recent date; belonging to the present time_.
mon'ster, _something of unusual size, shape, or quality_.
mon'u ments, _those things which stand to remind us of the past_.
mound, _a small hill, natural or artificial_.
mo'tion, _movement; change of position_.
must'y, _spoiled by age; of a sour smell_.


neigh'bor, _a person who lives near one_.
nerved, _strengthened; supplied with force_.
night'-mare, _an unpleasant sensation during sleep_.
nim'bly, _actively; in a nimble manner_.


o be'di ence, _willingness to submit to commands_.
o bliged', _forced; compelled_.
oc'cu pied, _taken possession of; employed_.
of'fi cer, _one who holds an office_.
off'ing, _a part of the sea at a distance from the shore_.
om'ni bus es, _large, four-wheeled carriages_.
on'ion (un'yun), _a root much used for food_.
out'posts, _advanced stations, as of an army_.
o ver come', _affected; overpowered by force_.


pace, _rate of movement_.
pal'ace, _a splendid dwelling, as of a king_.
par take', _share; take part in_.
patch, _small piece of any thing, as of ground_.
paus'es, _short stops; rests_.
pave'ments, _coverings for streets, of stone or solid materials_.
peb'bles, _small, roundish stones, worn by the action of water_.
per cus'sion, _requiring to be struck; the act of striking_.
per'fume, _scent or odor of sweet-smelling substances_.
pe'ri od, _portion of time; an interval_.
per'ished, _died; were destroyed_.
per mis'sion, _the act of allowing; consent_.
pic'nick ing, _having an outdoor party_.
pier, _a landing-place for vessels_.
pierce, _force a way into or through an object_.
pil'lars, _columns; huge masses_.
pin'cers, _jaws; pinchers_.
pit'e ous, _fitted to excite pity; sorrowful_.
pit'falls, _pits slightly covered for concealment_.
plan ta'tions, _farms of great extent_.
plots, _small pieces of ground, as garden plots_.
plucked, _pulled out or off_.
plunged, _dove; fell_.
po'et, _a maker of verses_.
pol'ished, _made bright and smooth by rubbing_.
po lite', _obliging; pleasant in manner_.
por'tion, _a part; that which is divided off_.
prat'tling, _childish; talking like a child_.
preach'ing, _speaking in public upon a religious subject_.
pres'ent ly, _soon; in a short time_.
prey, _any thing taken by force from an enemy_.
pri'vate, _not publicly known; peculiar to one's self_.
pro ces'sion, _regular movement, as of soldiers_.
prod'ucts, _fruits; that which is brought forth_.
proved, _turned out; showed the truth of_.
pro vid'ed, _furnished; supplied with necessary articles_.
puff'ing, _swelling with air; blowing in short, sudden whiffs_.
pure, _clear; free from other matter_.


quilt'ed, _stitched together with some soft substance between_.
quo ta'tions, _portions of writings_.


range, _reach, as of a gun_.
ranks, _regular rows or lines, as of soldiers_.
ray, _light; a line of light or heat proceeding from a certain point_.
read'i ly, _without trouble or difficulty; easily_.
reap, _gather by cutting, as a harvest_.
re call'ing, _thinking of; bringing back to mind_.
re con sid'er, _think of again; change one's mind_.
rec'ords, _stories; descriptions of events_.
re gard'ed, _considered; looked at earnestly_.
re late', _tell_.
re lig'ious, _relating to religion_.
re main'der, _the rest; what is left_.
re mind', _call attention to for a second time_.
re moved', _moved away; took off_.
rent'ed, _gave possession of for pay_.
re paired', _mended_.
re placed', _put in place of another_.
rep re sent', _picture; tell about in an effective manner_.
re quire', _need; demand_.
re sist', _stand against; oppose with force_.
re spect', _regard_.
re tire', _withdraw; turn back_.
re volv'er, _a fire-arm with several chambers or barrels_.
rid, _free_.
ridg'es, _a long range of hills; steep places_.
ri'fle, _a gun having the inside of the barrel grooved_.
rind, _the outside coat, as of fruit_.
risk, _danger; peril_.
riv'u let, _a small river or brook_.
rob'ber, _one who commits a robbery_.
ro man'tic, _strange and interesting, as a romantic story_.
rouse, _awake; excite_.
ru'in, _that change of any thing which destroys it_.
rust'y, _covered with rust on account of long disuse_.


sake, _purpose; reason_.
sap, _the juice of plants_.
sat'in, _a glossy cloth made of silk_.
scene, _picture; view_.
schol'ars, _men of learning; those who attend school_.
scorch'ing, _burning slightly; affecting by heat_.
scoured, _made clean and bright_.
scram'bled, _moved with difficulty_.
scum, _that which rises to the surface; worthless matter_.
se'ri ous, _severe; sad in appearance_.
serv'ice, _duty, as of a soldier_.
se vere', _violent; hard_.
shab'by, _worn to rags; poor in appearance_.
shag'gy, _rough_.
shal'lows, _places where the water is not deep_.
shat'tered, _broken; broken at once into many pieces_.
sheath, _a covering for a sword_.
shep'herd, _one who has the care of sheep_.
shield, _a broad piece of armor carried on the arm_.
shock, _a sudden striking against_.
shriek, _a sharp, shrill cry on account of surprise or pain_.
siege, _a closing in on all sides of a fortified place_.
sighs, _stifled groans; long breaths_.
skein, _a number of threads of silk or yarn_.
skel'e ton, _bony frame-work of the body_.
skull, _the bony case which encloses the brain_.
sleet, _frozen mist_.
slopes, _declines by degrees_.
slum'ber, _sleep_.
sly'ness, _cunning; artfulness_.
smites, _strikes, as with a weapon_.
snort'ing, _forcing the air through the nose with a loud noise_.
soaked, _moistened throughout_.
soar, _fly high_.
sought (sawt), _tried; went in search of_.
spared, _saved from death or punishment_.
splut'ter ing, _boiling noisily; speaking hastily_.
spout, _run out with force_.
sprained, _injured by straining_.
spurred, _urged; encouraged_.
stale, _not new; not fresh_.
stee'ples, _high towers ending in a point_.
stern, _hind part of a boat_.
stock, _supply on hand_.
stout, _large; broad_.
strain'ing, _exerting to the utmost_.
strict, _severe; exact_.
stub'by, _short and thick_.
sub'stan ces, _bodies; matters_.
suc ceed'ed, _obtained the object desired_.
suf'fered, _felt pain_.
sul'try, _very hot; burning_.
sup port', _prop; pillar_.
sus pect'ed, _thought; considered quite probable_.
sus pi'cious, _indicating fear; inclined to suspect_.


tab'let, _a flat piece of stone_.
tac'tics, _disciplined movements_.
tem'per, _way of acting_.
tem'ple, _a place for worship_.
ten'drils, _tender branches of plants_.
ter'ri fied, _filled with fear_.
ter'ri to ry, _a large tract of land_.
ter'ror, _fear; dread_.
thieves _persons who steal_.
thirst, _strong desire for drink_.
thith'er, _to that place_.
thorns, _woody points on some trees and shrubs_.
thor'ough, _complete; perfect_.
thread'bare, _worn out_.
thrives, _prospers; flourishes_.
till'er, _the bar used to turn the rudder of a boat_.
ti'tle, _a name_.
tor'rid, _violently hot_.
trace, _mark; appearance_.
tract, _a region_.
treb'les, _the higher parts in music_.
trick'led, _flowed in drops_.
trop'ic al, _belonging to the tropics_.
tuft, _a cluster or bunch_.
tun'nels, _passages; openings_.
twinge, _a sudden, sharp pain_.
twink'ling, _a quick movement_.
twit'ter ing, _a trembling noise_.


uncom'forta ble, _causing uneasiness; not pleasant_.
un der neath', _below; beneath_.
un der take', _attempt_.
un ea'si ness, _want of ease_.
un grate'ful, _not thankful_.
u nit'ed, _joined; combined_.
un man'ly, _not worthy of a man_.
un ru'ly, _not submissive_.
un scarred', _not marked_.
urg'ing, _encouraging_.
ut'most, _to the furthest point_.


val'u a ble, _of great value_.
vel'vet, _a soft material woven from silk_.
ver'min, _little animals or insects_.
vic'tims, _persons destroyed in pursuit of an object_.
vic'tor, _one who conquers_.
vi'o lence, _force; power_.
virt'u ous, _inclined to do right_.


wa'ges, _what is paid for services_.
wa'ter break (breakwater), _that which breaks the force of water_.
weap'on, _any thing to be used against an enemy_.
whence, _from which or what place_.
whiff, _a quick puff of air_.
whith'er, _to what place_.
wig, _a covering for the head, made of hair_.
wine, _a liquor made from grapes_.
wits, _powers of the mind_.
wrig'gled, _moved or twisted_.
wrung, _distressed; twisted about_.


yawns, _opens wide_.
youth'ful, _young; belonging to early life_.

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