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Title: George Washington: Farmer
Author: Haworth, Paul Leland
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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GEORGE WASHINGTON: FARMER

BEING AN ACCOUNT OF HIS HOME LIFE AND AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

By

PAUL LELAND HAWORTH

Author of THE PATH OF GLORY, RECONSTRUCTION AND UNION,
AMERICA IN FERMENT, ETC.

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS, FACSIMILIES OF PRIVATE PAPERS, AND A MAP OF
WASHINGTON'S ESTATE DRAWN BY HIMSELF

1915



[Illustration: _By permission of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association_
Mount Vernon Stable Built in 1733 Showing also the Powell Coach]



"The aim of the farmers in this country (if they can be called farmers)
is, not to make the most they can from the land, which is or has been
cheap, but the most of the labour, which is dear; the consequence of
which has been, much ground has been _scratched_ over and none
cultivated or improved as it ought to have been: whereas a farmer in
England, where land is dear, and labour cheap, finds it his interest to
improve and cultivate highly, that he may reap large crops from a small
quantity of ground."

Washington to Arthur Young, December 5, 1791.



PREFACE


The story of George Washington's public career has been many times told
in books of varying worth, but there is one important aspect of his
private life that has never received the attention it deserves. The
present book is an attempt to supply this deficiency.

I desire to acknowledge gratefully the assistance I have received from
Messrs. Gaillard Hunt and John C. Fitzpatrick of the Library of
Congress, Mr. Hubert B. Fuller lately of Washington and now of
Cleveland, Colonel Harrison H. Dodge and other officials of the Mount
Vernon Association, and from the work of Paul Leicester Ford,
Worthington C. Ford and John M. Toner.

Above all, in common with my countrymen, I am indebted to heroic Ann
Pamelia Cunningham, to whose devoted labor, despite ill health and
manifold discouragements, the preservation of Mount Vernon is due. To
her we should be grateful for a shrine that has not its counterpart in
the world--a holy place that no man can visit without experiencing an
uplift of heart and soul that makes him a better American.

PAUL LELAND HAWORTH.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER

I     A MAN IN LOVE WITH THE SOIL.
II    BUILDING AN ESTATE.
III   VIRGINIA AGRICULTURE IN WASHINGTON'S DAY.
IV    WASHINGTON'S PROBLEM.
V     THE STUDENT OF AGRICULTURE.
VI    A FARMER'S RECORDS AND OTHER PAPERS.
VII   AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS BEFORE THE REVOLUTION.
VIII  CONSERVING THE SOIL.
IX    THE STOCKMAN.
X     THE HORTICULTURIST AND LANDSCAPE GARDENER.
XI    WHITE SERVANTS AND OVERSEERS.
XII   BLACK SLAVES.
XIII  THE FARMER'S WIFE.
XIV   A FARMER'S AMUSEMENTS.
XV    A CRITICAL VISITOR AT MOUNT VERNON.
XVI   PROFIT AND LOSS.
XVII  ODDS AND ENDS.
XVIII THE VALE OF SUNSET.

INDEX.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Mount Vernon Stable, Built in 1733, Showing also the Powell Coach.

Mount Vernon, Showing Kitchen to the Left and Covered
  Way Leading to It.

The Washington Family.

Driveway from the Lodge Gate.

The Porter's Lodge.

One of the Artificial Mounds. The Tree Upon It Was
  Set Out by Mrs. Grover Cleveland.

The Seed House. Beyond Lay the Vegetable Garden.

The Mount Vernon Kitchen (restored).

Map of Mount Vernon Drawn by Washington and Sent
  by Him to Arthur Young in 1793.

Gully on a Field of Union Farm, Showing Susceptibility to Erosion.

Looking Across Part of Dogue Run Farm to "Woodlawn,"
the Home of Nelly Custis Lewis.

First Page of Washington's Digest of Duhamel's Husbandry.

Dogue Run Below the Site of the Mill.

On the Road to the Mill and Pohick Church.

Part of Washington's Plan for His Sixteen-Sided Barn.

Bill of Lading for "Royal Gift".

Experimental Plot, with Servants' Quarters (restored)
in Background.

West Front of Mansion House, Showing Bowling Green
  and Part of Serpentine Drive.

First Page of the Diary for 1760.

Part of a Manager's Weekly Report.

The Butler's House and Magnolia Set Out by Washington
  the Year of His Death.

Spinning House--Last Building to the Right.

Weekly Report on the Work of the Spinners.

The Flower Garden.

A Page from a Cash Memorandum Book.

One of Washington's Tavern Bills.



CHAPTER I


A MAN IN LOVE WITH THE SOIL

One December day in the year 1788 a Virginia gentleman sat before his
desk in his mansion beside the Potomac writing a letter. He was a man of
fifty-six, evidently tall and of strong figure, but with shoulders a
trifle stooped, enormously large hands and feet, sparse grayish-chestnut
hair, a countenance somewhat marred by lines of care and marks of
smallpox, withal benevolent and honest-looking--the kind of man to whom
one could intrust the inheritance of a child with the certainty that it
would be carefully administered and scrupulously accounted for to the
very last sixpence.

The letter was addressed to an Englishman, by name Arthur Young, the
foremost scientific farmer of his day, editor of the _Annals of
Agriculture_, author of many books, of which the best remembered is his
_Travels in France_ on the eve of the French Revolution, which is still
read by every student of that stirring era.

"The more I am acquainted with agricultural affairs," such were the
words that flowed from the writer's pen, "the better I am pleased with
them; insomuch, that I can no where find so great satisfaction as in
those innocent and useful pursuits. In indulging these feelings I am led
to reflect how much more delightful to an undebauched mind is the task
of making improvements on the earth than all the vain glory which can be
acquired from ravaging it, by the most uninterrupted career of
conquests."

Thus wrote George Washington in the fulness of years, honors and
experience. Surely in this age of crimson mists we can echo his
correspondent that it was a "noble sentiment, which does honor to the
heart of this truly great man." Happy America to have had such a
philosopher as a father!

"I think with you that the life of a husbandman is the most delectable,"
he wrote on another occasion to the same friend. "It is honorable, it is
amusing, and, with judicious management, it is profitable. To see
plants rise from the earth and flourish by the superior skill and bounty
of the laborer fills a contemplative mind with ideas which are more easy
to be conceived than expressed."

The earliest Washington arms had blazoned upon it "3 Cinque foiles,"
which was the herald's way of saying that the bearer owned land and was
a farmer. When Washington made a book-plate he added to the old design
spears of wheat to indicate what he once called "the most favorite
amusement of my life." Evidently he had no fear of being-called a
"clodhopper" or a "hayseed!"

Nor was his enthusiasm for agriculture the evanescent enthusiasm of the
man who in middle age buys a farm as a plaything and tries for the first
time the costly experiment of cultivating the soil. He was born on a
plantation, was brought up in the country and until manhood he had never
even seen a town of five thousand people. First he was a surveyor, and
so careful and painstaking was he that his work still stands the test.
Later he became a soldier, and there is evidence to show that at first
he enjoyed the life and for a time had military ambitions. When
Braddock's expedition was preparing he chafed at the prospect of
inaction and welcomed the offer to join the general's staff, but the
bitter experiences of the next few years, when he had charge of the
herculean task of protecting the settlers upon the "cold and Barren
Frontiers ... from the cruel Incursions of a crafty Savage Enemy,"
destroyed his illusions about war. After the capture of Fort Duquesne
had freed Virginia from danger he resigned his commission, married and
made a home. Soon after he wrote to an English kinsman who had invited
him to visit London: "I am now I believe fixed at this seat with an
agreeable Consort for Life. And hope to find more happiness in
retirement than I ever experienced amidst a wide bustling world."

Thereafter he quitted the quiet life always with reluctance. Amid long
and trying years he constantly looked forward to the day when he could
lay down his burden and retire to the peace and freedom of Mount Vernon,
there to take up again the task of farming. As Commander-in-Chief of the
Armies of the Revolution and as first President of the Republic he gave
the best that was in him--and it was always good enough--but more from a
sense of duty than because of any real enthusiasm for the rôle of
either soldier or statesman. We can well believe that it was with
heartfelt satisfaction that soon after independence was at last assured
he wrote to his old comrade-in-arms the Marquis de Chastellux: "I am at
length become a private citizen on the banks of the Potomac, where under
my own vine and fig-tree free from the bustle of a camp and the
intrigues of a court, I shall view the busy world with calm
indifference, and with serenity of mind, which the soldier in pursuit of
glory, and the statesman of a name, have not leisure to enjoy."

Years before as a boy he had copied into a wonderful copy-book that is
still preserved in the Library of Congress some verses that set forth
pretty accurately his ideal of life--an ideal influenced, may we not
believe, in those impressionable years by these very lines. These are
the verses--one can not call them poetry--just as I copied them after
the clear boyish hand from the time-yellowed page:

     TRUE HAPPINESS

     These are the things, which once possess'd
     Will make a life that's truly bless'd
     A good Estate on healthy Soil,
     Not Got by Vice nor yet by toil;
     Round a warm Fire, a pleasant Joke,
     With Chimney ever free from Smoke:
     A strength entire, a Sparkling Bowl,
     A quiet Wife, a quiet Soul,
     A Mind, as well as body, whole
     Prudent Simplicity, constant Friend,
     A Diet which no art Commends;
     A Merry Night without much Drinking
     A happy Thought without much Thinking;
     Each Night by Quiet Sleep made Short
     A Will to be but what thou art:
     Possess'd of these, all else defy
     And neither wish nor fear to Die
       These are things, which once Possess'd
       Will make a life that's truly bless'd.

George Washington did not affect the rôle of a Cincinnatus; he took it
in all sincerity and simpleness of heart because he loved it.

Nor was he the type of farmer--of whom we have too many--content to
vegetate like a lower organism, making scarcely more mental effort than
one of his own potatoes, parsnips or pumpkins. As the pages that follow
will reveal, he was one of the first American experimental
agriculturists, always alert for better methods, willing to take any
amount of pains to find the best fertilizer, the best way to avoid
plant diseases, the best methods of cultivation, and he once declared
that he had little patience with those content to tread the ruts their
fathers trod. If he were alive to-day, we may be sure that he would be
an active worker in farmers' institutes, an eager visitor to
agricultural colleges, a reader of scientific reports and an
enthusiastic promoter of anything tending to better American farming and
farm life.



CHAPTER II


BUILDING AN ESTATE

Augustine Washington was a planter who owned thousands of acres of land,
most of it unimproved, besides an interest in some small iron works, but
he had been twice married and at his death left two broods of children
to be provided for. George, a younger son--which implied a great deal in
those days of entail and primogeniture--received the farm on the
Rappahannock on which his father lived, amounting to two hundred and
eighty acres, a share of the land lying on Deep Run, three lots in
Frederick, a few negro slaves and a quarter of the residuary estate. He
was also given a reversionary interest in Mount Vernon, bequeathed to
his half-brother Lawrence. The total value of his inheritance was small,
and, as Virginia landed fortunes went, he was left poorly provided for.

Much of Washington's youth was spent with Lawrence at Mount Vernon, and
as an aside it may be remarked here that the main moulding influence in
his life was probably cast by this high-minded brother, who was a
soldier and man of the world. By the time he was sixteen the boy was on
the frontier helping Lord Thomas Fairfax to survey the princely domain
that belonged to his lordship, and received in payment therefor
sometimes as much as a doubloon a day. In 1748 he patented five hundred
fifty acres of wild land in Frederick County, "My Bullskin Plantation"
he usually called it, payment being made by surveying. In 1750 he had
funds sufficient to buy four hundred fifty-six acres of land of one
James McCracken, paying therefor one hundred twelve pounds. Two years
later for one hundred fifteen pounds he bought five hundred fifty-two
acres on the south fork of Bullskin Creek from Captain George Johnston.
In 1757 he acquired from a certain Darrell five hundred acres on Dogue
Run near Mount Vernon, paying three hundred fifty pounds.

It is evident, therefore, that very early he acquired the "land hunger"
to which most of the Virginians of his day were subject, as a heritage
from their English ancestry. In the England of that day, in fact, no
one except a churchman could hope to attain much of a position in the
world unless he was the owner of land, and until the passage of the
great Reform Bill in 1832 he could not even vote unless he held land
worth forty shillings a year. In Virginia likewise it was the landholder
who enjoyed distinction and consideration, who was sent to the House of
Burgesses and was bowed and scraped to as his coach bumped along over
the miserable roads. The movement to cities did not begin until after
the Industrial Revolution, and people still held the healthy notion that
the country was the proper place in which to live a normal human
existence.

In 1752 Lawrence Washington died. As already stated, he was the
proprietor by inheritance of Mount Vernon, then an estate of two
thousand five hundred acres which had been in the Washington family
since 1674, being a grant from Lord Culpeper. Lawrence had fought
against the Spaniards in the conflict sometimes known as the war of
Jenkins's Ear, and in the disastrous siege of Cartagena had served under
Admiral Vernon, after whom he later named his estate. He married Anne
Fairfax, daughter of Sir William Fairfax, and for her built on his
estate a new residence, containing eight rooms, four to each floor, with
a large chimney at each end.

[Illustration: Mount Vernon, Showing Kitchen to the Left and Covered
Way Leading to It]

[Illustration: _From a painting by T.P. Rossiter and L.R. Mignot_ The
Washington Family]  Lawrence Washington was the father of four
children, but only an infant daughter, Sarah, survived him, and she died
soon after him. By the terms of his father's and Lawrence's wills George
Washington, after the death of this child, became the ultimate inheritor
of the Mount Vernon estate, but, contrary to the common idea, Anne
Fairfax Washington, who soon married George Lee, retained a life
interest. On December 17, 1754, however, the Lees executed a deed
granting said life interest to George Washington in consideration of an
annual payment during Anne Lee's lifetime of fifteen thousand pounds of
tobacco or the equivalent in current money[1]. Mrs. Lee died in 1761 and
thereafter Washington owned the estate absolutely. That it was by no
means so valuable at that time as its size would indicate is shown by
the smallness of the, rent he paid, never more than four hundred
sixty-five dollars a year. Many eighty-acre farms rent for that much
to-day and even for more.

[1] From entries in Washington's account book we know that this
equivalent in 1755 was £93.15; during each of the next four years it was
£87.10, and for 1760 it was £81.5.

Up to 1759 Washington was so constantly engaged in fighting the French
and Indians that he had little time and opportunity to look after his
private affairs and in consequence they suffered. In 1757 he wrote from
the Shenandoah Valley to an English agent that he should have some
tobacco to sell, but could not say whether he did have or not. His pay
hardly sufficed for his personal expenses and on the disastrous Fort
Necessity and Braddock campaigns he lost his horses and baggage. Owing
to his absence from home, his affairs fell into great disorder from
which they were extricated by a fortunate stroke.

This stroke consisted in his marriage to Martha Custis, relict of the
wealthy Daniel Parke Custis. The story of his wooing the young widow has
been often told with many variations and fanciful embellishments, but of
a few facts we are certain. From a worldly point of view Mrs. Custis was
the most desirable woman in all Virginia, and the young officer, though
not as yet a victor in many battles, had fought gallantly, possessed the
confidence of the Colony and formed a shining exception to most of the
tidewater aristocracy who continued to hunt the fox and guzzle Madeira
while a cruel foe was harrying the western border. Matters moved
forward with the rapidity traditional in similar cases and in about
three weeks and before the Colonel left to join Forbes in the final
expedition against Fort Duquesne the little widow had been wooed and
won. After his return from that expedition Washington resigned his
commission and on the 6th of January, 1759, they were married at her
"White House" on York River and spent their honeymoon at her "Six
Chimney House" in Williamsburg.

The young groom and farmer--as he would now have styled himself--was at
this time not quite twenty-seven years old, six feet two inches high,
straight as an Indian and weighed about one hundred and seventy-five
pounds. His bones and joints were large, as were his hands and feet. He
was wide-shouldered but somewhat flat-chested, neat-waisted but broad
across the hips, with long arms and legs. His skin was rather pale and
colorless and easily burned by the sun, and his hair, a chestnut brown,
he usually wore in a queue. His mouth was large and generally firmly
closed and the teeth were already somewhat defective. His countenance as
a whole was pleasing, benevolent and commanding, and in conversation he
looked one full in the face and was deliberate, deferential and
engaging. His voice was agreeable rather than strong. His demeanor at
all times was composed and dignified, his movements and gestures
graceful, his walk majestic and he was a superb horseman[2].

[2] Adapted from a description written by his comrade-in-arms, George
Mercer.

The bride brought her husband a "little progeny" consisting of two
interesting stepchildren; also property worth about a hundred thousand
dollars, including many negro slaves, money on bond and stock in the
Bank of England. Soon we find him sending certificates of the marriage
to the English agents of the Custis estate and announcing to them that
the management of the whole would be in his hands.

The dower negroes were kept separate from those owned by himself, but
otherwise he seems to have made little distinction between his own and
Mrs. Washington's property, which was now, in fact, by Virginia law his
own. When Martha wanted money she applied to him for it. Now and then in
his cash memorandum books we come upon such entries as, "By Cash to Mrs.
Washington for Pocket Money £4." As a rule, if there were any purchases
to be made, she let George do it and, if we may judge from the long
list of tabby colored velvet gowns, silk hose, satin shoes, "Fashionable
Summer Cloaks & Hatts," and similar articles ordered from the English
agents she had no reason to complain that her husband was niggardly or a
poor provider. If her "Old Man"--for she sometimes called him
that--failed in anything she desired, tradition says that the little
lady was in the habit of taking hold of a button of his coat and hanging
on until he had promised to comply.

He managed the property of the two children with great care and
fidelity, keeping a scrupulous account in a "marble colour'd folio Book"
of every penny received or expended in their behalf and making a yearly
report to the general court of his stewardship. How minute this account
was is indicated by an entry in his cash memorandum book for August 21,
1772: "Charge Miss Custis with a hair Pin mended by C. Turner" one
shilling. Her death (of "Fitts") in 1773 added about ten thousand pounds
to Mrs. Washington's property, which meant to his own.

There can be no question that the fortune he acquired by the Custis
alliance proved of great advantage to him in his future career, for it
helped to make him independent as regards money considerations. He
might never have become the Father of His Country without it. Some of
his contemporaries, including jealous-hearted John Adams, seem to have
realized this, and tradition says that old David Burnes, the crusty
Scotsman who owned part of the land on which the Federal City was laid
out, once ventured to growl to the President: "Now what would ye ha'
been had ye not married the widow Custis?" But this was a narrow view of
the matter, for Washington was known throughout the Colonies before he
married the Custis pounds sterling and was a man of too much natural
ability not to have made a mark in later life, though possibly not so
high a one. Besides, as will be explained in detail later, much of the
Custis money was lost during the Revolution as a result of the
depreciation in the currency.

Following his marriage Washington added largely to his estate, both in
the neighborhood of Mount Vernon and elsewhere. In 1759 he bought of his
friend Bryan Fairfax two hundred and seventy-five acres on Difficult
Run, and about the same time from his neighbor, the celebrated George
Mason of Gunston Hall, he acquired one hundred acres next that already
bought of Darrell. Negotiations entered into with a certain Clifton for
the purchase of a tract of one thousand eight hundred six acres called
Brents was productive of much annoyance. Clifton agreed in February,
1760, to sell the ground for one thousand one hundred fifty pounds, but
later, "under pretence of his wife not consenting to acknowledge her
right of dower wanted to disengage himself ... and by his shuffling
behavior convinced me of his being the trifling body represented."
Washington heard presently that Clifton had sold the land to another
man for one thousand two hundred pounds, which fully "unravelled his
conduct ... and convinced me that he was nothing less than a thorough
paced rascal." Ultimately Washington acquired Brents, but had to pay
one thousand two hundred ten pounds for it.

During the next few years he acquired other tracts, notably the Posey
plantation just below Mount Vernon and later often called by him the
Ferry Farm. With it he acquired a ferry to the Maryland shore and a
fishery, both of which industries he continued.

By 1771 he paid quit rents upon an estate of five thousand five hundred
eighteen acres in Fairfax County; on two thousand four hundred
ninety-eight acres in Frederick County; on one thousand two hundred
fifty acres in King George; on two hundred forty in Hampshire; on two
hundred seventy-five in Loudoun; on two thousand six hundred eighty-two
in Loudoun Faquier--in all, twelve thousand four hundred sixty-three
acres. The quit rent was two shillings and sixpence per hundred acres
and amounted to £15.11.7.

In addition to these lands in the settled parts of Virginia he also had
claims to vast tracts in the unsettled West. For services in the French
and Indian War he was given twenty thousand acres of wild land beyond
the mountains--a cheap mode of reward, for the Ohio region was to all
intents and purposes more remote than Yukon is to-day. Many of his
fellow soldiers held their grants so lightly that he was able to buy
their claims for almost a song. The feeling that such grants were
comparatively worthless was increased by the fact that to become
effective they must be located and surveyed, while doubt existed as to
whether they would be respected owing to conflicting claims,
jurisdictions and proclamations.

[Illustration: The Porter's Lodge]

[Illustration: Driveway from the Lodge Gate]

Washington, however, had seen the land and knew it was good and he
had prophetic faith in the future of the West. He employed his old
comrade Captain William Crawford to locate and survey likely tracts not
only in what is now West Virginia and western Pennsylvania, but beyond
the Ohio River. Settlement in the latter region had been forbidden by
the King's proclamation of 1763, but Washington thought that this was
merely a temporary measure designed to quiet the Indians and was anxious
to have picked out in advance "some of the most valuable land in the
King's part." In other words he desired Crawford to act the part of a
"Sooner," in the language of more than a century later.

In this period a number of companies were scrambling for western lands,
and Washington, at one time or another, had an interest in what was
known as the Walpole Grant, the Mississippi Company, the Military
Company of Adventurers and the Dismal Swamp Company. This last company,
however, was interested in redeeming lands about Dismal Swamp in eastern
Virginia and it was the only one that succeeded. In 1799 he estimated
the value of his share in that company at twenty thousand dollars.

Washington took the lead in securing the rights of his old soldiers in
the French War, advancing money to pay expenses in behalf of the common
cause and using his influence in the proper quarters. In August, 1770,
he met many of his former officers at Captain Weedon's in
Fredericksburg, and after they had dined and had talked over old times,
they discussed the subject of their claims until sunset, and it was
decided that Washington should personally make a long and dangerous trip
to the western region.

In October he set out with his old friend Doctor James Craik and three
servants, including the ubiquitous Billy Lee, and on the way increased
the party. They followed the old Braddock Road to Pittsburgh, then a
village of about twenty log cabins, visiting en route some tracts of
land that Crawford had selected. At Pittsburgh they obtained a large
dugout, and with Crawford, two Indians and several borderers, floated
down the Ohio, picking out and marking rich bottom lands and having
great sport hunting and fishing.

The region in which they traveled was then little known and was
unsettled by white men. Daniel Boone had made his first hunting trip
into "the dark and bloody ground of Kaintuckee" only the year before,
and scattered along the banks of the Ohio stood the wigwam villages of
the aboriginal lords of the land. At one such village Washington met a
chief who had accompanied him on his memorable winter journey in 1753 to
warn out the French, and elsewhere talked with Indians who had shot at
him in the battle of the Monongahela and now expressed a belief that he
must be invulnerable. At the Mingo Town they saw a war party of three
score painted Iroquois on their way to fight the far distant Catawbas.
Between the Indians and the white men peace nominally reigned, but
rumors were flying of impending uprisings, and the Red Man's smouldering
hate was soon to burst into the flame known as Lord Dunmore's War. Once
the party was alarmed by a report that the Indians had killed two white
men, but they breathed easier on learning that the sole basis of the
story was that a trader had tried to swim his horse across the Ohio and
had been drowned. In spite of uncertainties, the voyagers continued to
the Great Kanawha and paddled about fourteen miles up that stream. Near
its mouth Washington located two large tracts for himself and military
comrades and after interesting hunting experiences and inspecting some
enormous sycamores--concerning which matters more hereafter--the party
turned back, and Washington reached home after an absence of nine weeks.

Two of Washington's western tracts are of special interest. One had been
selected by Crawford in 1767 and was "a fine piece of land on a stream
called Chartiers Creek" in the present Washington County, southwest of
Pittsburgh. Crawford surveyed the tract and marked it by blazed trees,
built four cabins and cleared a patch of ground, as an improvement,
about each. Later Washington, casting round for some one from whom to
obtain a military title with which to cover the tract, bought out the
claim of his financially embarrassed old neighbor Captain John Posey to
three thousand acres, paying £11.11.3, or about two cents per acre.
Crawford, now a deputy surveyor of the region, soon after resurveyed two
thousand eight hundred thirteen acres and forwarded the "return" to
Washington, with the result that in 1774 Governor Dunmore of Virginia
granted a patent for the land.

In the meantime, however, six squatters built a cabin upon the tract and
cleared two or three acres, but Crawford paid them five pounds for their
improvements and induced them to move on. To keep off other interlopers
he placed a man on the land, but in 1773 a party of rambunctious
Scotch-Irishmen appeared on the scene, drove the keeper away, built a
cabin so close in front of his door that he could not get back in, and
continued to hold the land until after the Revolution.

By that time Crawford himself was dead--having suffered the most
terrible of all deaths--that of an Indian captive burnt at the stake.

The other tract whose history it is worth our while to follow consisted
of twelve hundred acres on the Youghiogheny River, likewise not far from
Pittsburgh. It bore seams of coal, which Washington examined in 1770 and
thought "to be of the very best kind, burning freely and abundance of
it." In the spring of 1773 he sent out a certain Gilbert Simpson, with
whom he had formed a sort of partnership, to look after this land, and
each furnished some laborers, Washington a "fellow" and a "wench."
Simpson managed to clear some ground and get in six acres of corn, but
his wife disliked life on the borderland and made him so uncomfortable
with her complaints that he decided to throw up the venture. However, he
changed his mind, and after a trip back East returned and, on a site
noticed by the owner on his visit, built a grist mill on a small stream
now called Washington's Run that empties into the Youghiogheny. This was
one of the first mills erected west of the Alleghany Mountains and is
still standing, though more or less rebuilt. The millstones were dug out
of quarries in the neighborhood and the work of building the mill was
done amid considerable danger from the Indians, who had begun what is
known as Dunmore's War. Simpson's cabin and the slave quarters stood
near what is now Plant No. 2 of the Washington Coal and Coke Company.
The tract of land contains valuable seams of coal and with some
contiguous territory is valued at upward of twenty million dollars.

Washington had large ideas for the development of these western lands.
At one time he considered attempting to import Palatine Germans to
settle there, but after careful investigation decided that the plan was
impracticable. In 1774 he bought four men convicts, four indented
servants, and a man and his wife for four years and sent them and some
carpenters out to help Simpson build the mill and otherwise improve the
lands. Next year he sent out another party, but Indian troubles and
later the Revolution united with the natural difficulties of the
country to put a stop to progress. Some of the servants were sold and
others ran away, but Simpson stayed on in charge, though without making
any financial settlement with his patron till 1784.

At the close of the Revolution Washington wrote to President John
Witherspoon of Princeton College that he had in the western country
patents under signature of Lord Dunmore "for about 30,000 acres, and
surveys for about 10,000 more, patents for which were suspended by the
disputes with Great Britain, which soon followed the return of the
warrants to the land office. Ten thousand acres of the above thirty lie
upon the Ohio; the rest on the Great Kenhawa, a river nearly as large,
and quite as easy in its navigation, as the former, The whole of it is
rich bottom land, beautifully situated on these rivers, and abounding
plenteously in fish, wild-fowl, and game of all kinds."

He could have obtained vast land grants for his Revolutionary services,
but he stuck by his announced intention of receiving only compensation
for his expenses. He continued, however, to be greatly interested in the
western country and was one of the first Americans to foresee the
importance of that region to the young Republic, predicting that it
would become populated more rapidly than any one could believe and
faster than any similar region ever had been settled. He was extremely
anxious to develop better methods of communication with the West and in
1783 made a trip up the Mohawk River to the famous Oneida or Great
Carrying Place to view the possibilities of waterway development in that
region--the future course of the Erie Canal. Soon after he wrote to his
friend the Chevalier de Chastellux: "I could not help taking a more
extensive view of the vast inland navigation of these United States and
could not but be struck by the immense extent and importance of it, and
of the goodness of that Providence which has dealt its favors to us with
so profuse a hand. Would to God we may have wisdom enough to improve
them. I shall not rest contented till I have explored the Western
Country, and traversed those lines or great part of them, which have
given bounds to a new empire."

In partnership with George Clinton he bought, in 1784, a tract of six
thousand acres on the Mohawk, paying for his share, including interest,
one thousand eight hundred seventy-five pounds. In 1793 he sold
two-thirds of his half for three thousand four hundred pounds and in his
will valued the thousand acres that remained at six thousand dollars.
This was a speculation pure and simple, as he was never in the region in
which the land lay but once.

On December 23, 1783, in an ever memorable scene, Washington resigned
his commission as Commander of the Continental Army and rode off from
Annapolis to Mount Vernon to keep Christmas there for the first time
since 1774. The next eight months he was busily engaged in making
repairs and improvements about his home estate, but on September first,
having two days before said good-by to Lafayette, who had been visiting
him, he set off on horseback to inspect his western lands and to obtain
information requisite to a scheme he had for improving the "Inland
Navigation of the Potomac" and connecting its head waters by canal with
those of the Ohio. The first object was rendered imperative by the
settlement of squatters on part of his richest land, some of which was
even being offered for sale by unscrupulous land agents.

With him went again his old friend Doctor Craik. Their equipage
consisted of three servants and six horses, three of which last carried
the baggage, including a marquee, some camp utensils, a few medicines,
"hooks and lines," Madeira, port wine and cherry bounce. Stopping at
night and for meals at taverns or the homes of relatives or friends,
they passed up the picturesque Potomac Valley, meeting many friends
along the way, among them the celebrated General Daniel Morgan, with
whom Washington talked over the waterways project. At "Happy Retreat,"
the home of Charles Washington in the fertile Shenandoah Valley, beyond
the Blue Ridge, Washington met and transacted business with tenants who
lived on his lands in that region. On September fifth he reached Bath,
the present Berkeley Springs, where he owned two thousand acres of land
and two lots. Here fifteen years before he had come with his family in
the hope that the water would benefit poor "Patey" Custis, and here he
met "the ingenious Mr. Rumney" who showed him the model of a boat to be
propelled by steam.

At Bath the party was joined by Doctor Craik's son William and by the
General's nephew, Bushrod Washington. Twelve miles to the west
Washington turned aside from the main party to visit a tract of two
hundred forty acres that he owned on the Virginia side of the Potomac.
He found it "exceedingly Rich, & must be very valuable--the lower end of
the Land is rich white oak in places springey ... the upper part is ...
covered with Walnut of considerable size many of them." He "got a snack"
at the home of a Mr. McCracken and left with that gentleman the terms
upon which he would let the land, then rode onward and rejoined
the others.

The cavalcade passed on to Fort Cumberland. There Washington left the
main party to follow with the baggage and hurried on ahead along
Braddock's old road in order to fill an appointment to be at Gilbert
Simpson's by the fifteenth. Passing through the dark tangle of Laurel
known as the Shades of Death, he came on September twelfth to the
opening among the mountains--the Great Meadows--where in 1754 in his
rude little fort of logs, aptly named Fort Necessity, he had fought the
French and had been conquered by them. He owned the spot now, for in
1770 Crawford had bought it for him for "30 Pistols[3]," Thirty years
before, as an enthusiastic youth, he had called it a "charming field for
an encounter"; now he spoke of it as "capable of being turned to great
advantage ... a very good stand for a Tavern--much Hay may be cut here
When the ground is laid down in grass & the upland, East of the Meadow,
is good for grain."

[3] Doubtless he meant pistoles, coins, not weapons.

Not a word about the spot's old associations!

The same day he pushed on through the mountains, meeting "numbers of
Persons & Pack horses going in with Ginseng; & for Salt & other articles
at the Markets below," and near nightfall reached on the Youghiogheny
River the tract on which Gilbert Simpson, his agent, lived. He found the
land poorer than he had expected and the buildings that had been erected
indifferent, while the mill was in such bad condition that "little Rent,
or good is to be expected from the present aspect of her," He was, in
fact, unable to find a renter for the mill and let the land, twelve
hundred acres, now worth millions, for only five hundred bushels
of wheat!

The land had cost him far more than he had received from it. Simpson had
not proved a man of much energy and even had he been otherwise
conditions in the region would have prevented him from accomplishing
much in a financial way, for there was little or no market for farm
produce near at hand and the cost of transportation over the mountains
was prohibitive. During the Revolution, however, Simpson had in some way
or other got hold of some paper currency and a few months before had
turned over the worthless bills to Washington. A century later the
package was sold at auction, and the band, which was still unbroken,
bore upon it in Washington's hand: "Given by Gilbt. Simpson, 19
June, 1784."

At Simpson's Washington was met by a delegation from the squatters on
his holdings on Miller's Run or Chartiers Creek, "and after much
conversation & attempts in them to discover all the flaws they could in
my Deed &c." they announced that they would give a definite answer as to
what they would do when Washington reached the land in dispute.

He drew near the neighborhood on the following Saturday, but the next
day "Being Sunday, and the People living on my Land, _apparently_ very
religious, it was thought best to postpone going among them till
to-morrow." On Monday, in company with several persons including the
high sheriff, Captain Van Swearingen, or "Indian Van," captain of one of
the companies in Morgan's famous rifle corps, he proceeded to the land
and found that, of two thousand eight hundred thirteen acres, three
hundred sixty-three were under cultivation and forty more were in
meadow. On the land stood twelve cabins and nine barns claimed by
fourteen different persons, most or all of whom were doughty
Scotch-Irishmen.

Washington was humane enough to see that they had something to urge in
their behalf and offered to sell them the whole tract at twenty-five
shillings an acre, or to take them as tenants, but they stubbornly
refused his offers and after much wrangling announced their intention to
stand suit. Ejectment proceedings were accordingly brought by
Washington's attorney, Thomas Smith of Carlisle. The case was tried in
1786 before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania and resulted in
Washington's favor.

In 1796 Washington sold the tract to a certain Matthew Richey for twelve
thousand dollars, of which three thousand one hundred eighty dollars was
to be paid in cash and the rest in three annual instalments. Richey died
in 1798, and Washington's heirs had difficulties in their attempts to
collect the remainder.

Leaving these legal matters to be disposed of by lawyers, Washington
turned back without visiting his Kanawha or Ohio lands, and on October
fourth reached Mount Vernon, having traveled on horseback about six
hundred eighty miles. One result of his trip was the formation of the
Potomac Company, but this is a subject that lies without the scope of
this book.

[Illustration: The Seed House, Beyond Lay the Vegetable Garden]

[Illustration: One of the Artificial Mounds. The Tree upon It was Set
out by Mrs. Grover Cleveland.]

From that time onward he bought occasional tracts of lands in various
parts of the country or acquired them in discharge of debts. By the
death of his mother he acquired her land on Accokeek Creek in Stafford
County, near where his father had operated an iron furnace.

Washington's landed estate as listed in his will amounted to about sixty
thousand two hundred two acres, besides lots in Washington, Alexandria,
Winchester, Bath, Manchester, Edinburgh and Richmond. Nine thousand two
hundred twenty-seven acres, including Mount Vernon and a tract on Four
Mile Run, he specifically bequeathed to individuals, as he did some of
the lots. The remaining lots and fifty thousand nine hundred
seventy-five acres (some of which land was already conditionally sold)
he directed to be disposed of, together with his live stock, government
bonds and shares held by him in the Potomac Company, the Dismal Swamp
Company, the James River Company and the banks of Columbia and
Alexandria--the whole value of which he conservatively estimated at five
hundred and thirty thousand dollars. The value of the property he
specifically bequeathed, with his slaves, which he directed should be
freed, can only be guessed at, but can hardly have been short of two
hundred and twenty thousand dollars more. In other words, he died
possessed of property worth three-quarters of a million and was the
richest man in America.

Not all of the land that he listed in his will proved of benefit to his
heirs. The title to three thousand fifty-one acres lying on the Little
Miami River in what is now Ohio and valued by him at fifteen thousand
two hundred fifty-five dollars proved defective. In 1790 a law, signed
by himself, had passed Congress requiring the recording of such
locations with the federal Secretary of State. Washington's locations
and surveys of this Ohio land had already been recorded in the Virginia
land office, and with a carelessness unusual in him he neglected to
comply with the statute. After his death certain persons took advantage
of the defect and seized the lands, and his executors failed to embrace
another opportunity given them to perfect the title, with the result
that the lands were lost.

The matter rested until a few years ago when some descendants of the
heirs set their heads together and one of them, Robert E. Lee, Jr.,
procured his appointment in 1907 by the court of Fairfax County as
administrator _de bonis non_ of Washington's estate. It was, of course,
impossible to regain the lands--which lie not far from Cincinnati and
are worth vast sums--so the movers in the matter had recourse to that
last resort of such claimants--Congress--and, with the modesty usually
shown by claimants, asked that body to reimburse the heirs in the sum of
three hundred and five thousand one hundred dollars--that is, one
hundred dollars per acre--with interest from the date of petition.

Thus far Congress has not seen fit to comply, nor does there seem to be
any good reason why it should do so. The land cost Washington a mere
bagatelle, it was lost through the neglect of himself and his executors,
and not one of the persons who would benefit by such a subsidy from the
public funds is his lineal descendant. As a mere matter of public policy
and common sense it may well be doubted whether any claim upon
government, no matter how just in itself, should be reimbursed beyond
the third generation. The heirs urge in extenuation of the claim that
Washington refused to accept any compensation for his Revolutionary
services, but it is answered that it is hardly seemly for his grand
nephews and grand nieces many times removed to beg for something that
the Father of His Country himself rejected. One wonders whether the
claimants would dare to press their claims in the presence of their
great Kinsman himself!



CHAPTER III


VIRGINIA AGRICULTURE IN WASHINGTON'S DAY

The Virginia of George Washington's youth and early manhood was an
imperial domain reaching from Atlantic tidewater through a thousand
leagues of forests, prairies and mountains "west and northwest" to the
South Sea. Only a narrow fringe along the eastern coast was settled by
white men; the remainder was a terra incognita into which Knights of the
Golden Horseshoe and Indian traders had penetrated a short distance,
bringing back stories of endless stretches of wolf-haunted woodland, of
shaggy-fronted wild oxen, of saline swamps in which reposed the whitened
bones of prehistoric monsters, of fierce savage tribes whose boast was
of the number of scalps that swung in the smoke of their wigwams. Even
as late as 1750 the fertile Shenandoah Valley beyond the Blue Ridge
formed the extreme frontier, while in general the "fall line," where the
drop from the foothills to the coastal plain stops navigation, marked
the limit of settlement.

At the time that Washington began to farm in earnest eastern Virginia
had, however, been settled for one hundred fifty-two years. Yet the
population was almost wholly rural. Williamsburg, the capital, was
hardly more than a country village, and Norfolk, the metropolis,
probably did not contain more than five thousand inhabitants. The
population generally was so scattered that, as has been remarked, a man
could not see his neighbor without a telescope or be heard by him
without firing a gun.

A large part of the settled land was divided up into great estates,
though there were many small farms. Some of these estates had been
acquired for little or nothing by Cavalier favorites of the colonial
governors. A few were perfectly enormous in size, and this was
particularly the rule on the "Northern Neck," the region in which Mount
Vernon was situated. The holding of Lord Thomas Fairfax, the early
friend and patron of Washington, embraced more than a score of modern
counties and contained upward of five million acres. The grant had been
made by Fairfax's grandfather, Lord Culpeper, the coproprietor and
Governor of Virginia.

The Virginia plantation of 1760 was much more sufficient unto itself
than was the same plantation of the next century when methods of
communication had improved, articles from the outside world were easier
to obtain, and invention was beginning to become "the mother of
necessity." Many of the large plantations, in fact, bore no small
resemblance to medieval manors. There was the planter himself residing
with his family in the mansion, which corresponded to the manor house,
and lording it over a crowd of white and black dependents, corresponding
to serfs. The servants, both white and black, dwelt somewhat apart in
the quarters, rude log huts for the most part, but probably as
comfortable as those of the Saxon churls of the time of the
Plantagenets. The planter's ownership over the persons of his dependents
was, however, much more absolute than was that of the Norman lord, for
on the manors the serfs could not be sold off the land, a restriction
that did not apply in Virginia either to black slaves or indentured
servants. On the manor, furthermore, the serf had his own bits of
ground, for which he paid rent in kind, money or service, and the
holdings passed from father to son; on the plantation the slave worked
under an overseer on his master's crops only and had nothing that he
could call his own--not even his wife or children. In the matter of the
organization of industries there was a closer resemblance. The planter
generally raised the staple articles of food for his family and slaves,
as did the lord, and a large proportion of the other articles used or
consumed were manufactured on the place. A son of George Mason,
Washington's close friend and neighbor, has left us the following
description of industry at Gunston Hall:

"My father had among his slaves carpenters, coopers, sawyers,
blacksmiths, tanners, curriers, shoemakers, spinners, weavers, and
knitters, and even a distiller. His woods furnished timber and plank for
the carpenters and coopers, and charcoal for the blacksmith; his cattle
killed for his own consumption and for sale, supplied skins for the
tanners, curriers, and shoemakers; and his sheep gave wool and his
fields produced cotton and flax for the weavers and spinners, and his
own orchards fruit for the distillers. His carpenters and sawyers built
and kept in repair all the dwelling-houses, barns, stables, ploughs,
harrows, gates, etc., on the plantations, and the outhouses of the
house. His coopers made the hogsheads the tobacco was prized in, and
the tight casks to hold the cider and other liquors. The tanners and
curriers, with the proper vats, etc., tanned and dressed the skins as
well for upper as for lower leather to the full amount of the
consumption of the estate, and the shoemakers made them into shoes for
the negroes. A professed shoemaker was hired for three or four months in
the year to come and make up the shoes for the white part of the family.
The blacksmiths did all the iron work required by the establishment, as
making and repairing ploughs, harrows, teeth, chains, bolts, etc. The
spinners, weavers, and knitters made all the coarse cloths and stockings
used by the negroes, and some of fine texture worn by the white family,
nearly all worn by the children of it. The distiller made every fall a
good deal of apple, peach, and persimmon brandy. The art of distilling
from grain was not then among us, and but few public distilleries. All
these operations were carried on at the home house, and their results
distributed as occasion required to the different plantations. Moreover,
all the beeves and hogs for consumption or sale were driven up and
slaughtered there at the proper seasons, and whatever was to be
preserved was salted and packed away for distribution."

Nevertheless the plantation drew upon the outside world for many
articles, especially luxuries, and the owner had to find the wherewithal
to make payment. The almost universal answer to this problem
was--tobacco. It was not an ideal answer, and historians have scolded
the departed planters vigorously for doing the sum in that way, yet the
planters were victims of circumstances. They had no gold or silver mines
from which to draw bullion that could be coined into cash; the fur trade
was of little importance compared with that farther north; the Europe of
that day raised sufficient meat and grain for its own use, and besides
these articles were bulky and costly to transport. But Europe did have a
strong craving for the weed and, almost of necessity, Virginians set
themselves to satisfying it. They could hardly be expected to do
otherwise when a pound of tobacco would often bring in England more than
a bushel of wheat, while it cost only a sixtieth part as much to send it
thither. It is estimated that prior to the Revolution Virginia often
sent out annually as much as ninety-six thousand hogsheads of tobacco.
Tobacco took the place of money, and debts, taxes and even ministers'
salaries were paid in it.

The disadvantages of tobacco culture are well known. Of all crops it is
perhaps the most exhausting to the soil, nor was a large part of
Virginia particularly fertile to begin with. Much land was speedily
ruined, but nothing was so cheap and plentiful in that day as land, so
the planter light-heartedly cleared more and let the old revert to the
wilderness. Any one who travels through the long settled parts of
Virginia to-day will see many such old fields upon which large forest
trees are now growing and can find there, if he will search closely
enough, signs of the old tobacco ridges. Only heroic measures and the
expenditure of large sums for fertilizer could make such worn-out land
again productive. Washington himself described the character of the
agriculture in words that can not be improved upon:

"A piece of land is cut down, and left under constant cultivation, first
in tobacco, and then in Indian corn (two very exhausting plants), until
it will yield scarcely anything; a second piece is cleared, and treated
in the same manner; then a third and so on, until probably there is but
little more to clear. When this happens, the owner finds himself reduced
to the choice of one of three things--either to recover the land which
he has ruined, to accomplish which, he has perhaps neither the skill,
the industry, nor the means; or to retire beyond the mountains; or to
substitute quantity for quality in order to raise something. The latter
has been generally adopted, and, with the assistance of horses, he
scratches over much ground, and seeds it, to very little purpose."

The tobacco industry was not only ruinous to the soil, but it was badly
organized from a financial standpoint. Three courses were open to the
planter who had tobacco. He might sell it to some local mercantile
house, but these were not numerous nor as a rule conveniently situated
to the general run of planters. He might deposit it in a tobacco
warehouse, receiving in return a receipt, which he could sell if he saw
fit and could find a purchaser. Or he could send his tobacco direct to
an English agent to be sold.

If a great planter and particularly if situated upon navigable water,
this last was the course he was apt to follow. He would have his own
wharf to which once or twice a year a ship would come bringing the
supplies he had ordered months before and taking away the great staple.
If brought from a distance, the tobacco was rarely hauled to the wharf
in wagons--the roads were too wretched for that--instead it was packed
in a great cylindrical hogshead through which an iron or wooden axle was
put. Horses or oxen were then hitched to the axle and the hogshead was
rolled to its destination.

By the ship that took away his tobacco the planter sent to the English
factor a list of the goods he would require for the next year. It was an
unsatisfactory way of doing business, for time and distance conspired to
put the planter at the factor's mercy. The planter was not only unlikely
to obtain a fair price for his product, but he had to pay excessive
prices for poor goods and besides could never be certain that his order
would be properly filled.

Washington's experiences with his English agents were probably fairly
typical. Near the close of 1759 he complained that Thomas Knox of
Bristol had failed to send him various things ordered, such as half a
dozen scythes and stones, curry combs and brushes, weeding and grubbing
hoes, and axes, and that now he must buy them in America at exorbitant
prices. Not long afterward he wrote again: "I have received my goods
from the Recovery, and cant help again complaining of the little care
taken in the purchase: Besides leaving out half and the most material
half too! of the Articles I sent for, I find the Sein is without Leads,
corks and Ropes which renders it useless--the crate of stone ware don't
contain a third of the Pieces I am charged with, and only two things
broken, and everything very high Charged."

In September of the same year he ordered, among other things, busts of
Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Charles XII of Sweden, Frederick the
Great, Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough; also of two wild
beasts. The order was "filled" by sending him a group showing Aeneas
bearing his father from Troy, two groups with two statues of Bacchus and
Flora, two ornamental vases and two "Lyons."

"It is needless for me to particularise the sorts, quality, or taste I
woud choose to have them in unless it is observd," he wrote a year later
to Robert Gary & Company of London apropos of some articles with which
he was dissatisfied, "and you may believe me when I tell you that
instead of getting things good and fashionable in their several kind,
we often have articles sent us that coud only have been used by our
Forefathers in the days of yore--'Tis a custom, I have some reason to
believe, with many Shop keepers, and Tradesmen in London when they know
Goods are bespoke for Transportation to palm sometimes old, and
sometimes very slight and indifferent goods upon us taking care at the
same time to advance 10, 15, or perhaps 20 pr. Ct. upon them."

To his London shoemaker he wrote, November 30, 1759, that the last two
pairs of dog leather pumps scarce lasted twice as many days. To his
tailor he complained on another occasion of exorbitant prices. "I shall
only refer you generally to the Bills you have sent me, particularly for
a Pompadour Suit forwarded last July amounting to £16.3.6 without
embroidery, Lace or Binding--not a close fine cloth neither--and only a
gold Button that woud not stand the least Wear."

Another time he mentions that his clothes fit poorly, which is not
strange considering that measurements had to be sent three thousand
miles and there, was no opportunity to try the garments on with a view
to alterations. We may safely conclude, therefore, that however elegant
Virginia society of that day may have been in other respects, it was
not distinguished for well fitting clothes!

Most Virginia planters got in debt to their agents, and Washington was
no exception to the rule. When his agents, Robert Gary & Company, called
his attention to the fact, he wrote them, that they seemed in a bit of a
hurry considering the extent of past dealings with each other.
"Mischance rather than Misconduct hath been the cause of it," he
asserted, explaining that he had made large purchases of land, that
crops had been poor for three seasons and prices bad. He preferred to
let the debt stand, but if the agents insisted upon payment now he would
find means to discharge the obligation.

Not all planters could speak so confidently of their ability to find
means to discharge a debt, for the truth is that the profits of tobacco
culture were by no means so large as has often been supposed. A recent
writer speaks of huge incomes of twenty thousand to eighty thousand
pounds a year and asserts that "the ordinary planter could count on an
income of from £3,000 to £6,000." The first figures are altogether
fabulous, "paper profits" of the same sort that can be obtained by
calculating profits upon the geometrical increase of geese as
illustrated in a well known story. Even the last mentioned sums were
realized only under the most favorable conditions and by a few planters.
Much of the time the price of the staple was low and the costs of
transportation and insurance, especially in time of war, were
considerable. Washington himself had a consignment of tobacco captured
by the French.

The planters were by no means so prosperous as is often supposed and
neither was their life so splendid as has often been pictured. Writers
seem to have entered into a sort of conspiracy to mislead us concerning
it. The tendency is one to which Southern writers are particularly prone
in all that concerns their section. If they speak of a lawyer, he is
always a profound student of the law; of a soldier, he is the bravest
tenderest knight that ever trod shoe leather; of a lady, she is the most
beautiful that ever graced a drawing-room.

The old Virginia life had its color and charm, though its color and
charm lay in large part in things concerning which the writers have
little or nothing to say. It is true that a few planters had their
gorgeous coaches, yet Martha Washington remembered when there was only
one coach in the whole of Virginia, and throughout her life the roads
were so wretched that those who traveled over them in vehicles ran in
imminent danger of being overturned, with possible dislocation of limbs
and disjointing of necks. Virginians had their liveried servants,
mahogany furniture, silver plate, silks and satins; an examination of
the old account books proves that they often had these and many other
expensive things, along with their Madeira and port wine. But the same
books show that the planter was chronically in debt and that bankruptcy
was common, while accounts left by travelers reveal the fact that many
of the mansion houses were shabby and run down, with rotting roofs,
ramshackle doors, broken windows into which old hats or other garments
had been thrust to keep the wind away. In a word, a traveler could find
to-day more elegance in a back county of Arkansas than then existed in
tidewater Virginia.

The tobacco industry was a culture that required much labor. In the
spring a pile of brush was burned and on the spot thus fertilized and
made friable the seed were sowed. In due course the ground was prepared
and the young plants were transplanted into rows. Later they must be
repeatedly plowed, hoed and otherwise cultivated and looked after and
finally the leaves must be cut or gathered and carried to the dry
house to be dried. One man could care for only two or three acres, hence
large scale cultivation required many hands--result, the importation of
vast numbers of indentured servants and black slaves, with the blighting
effects always consequent upon the presence of a servile class in a
community.

[Illustration: _By permission of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association_
The Mount Vernon Kitchen (restored)]

Although tobacco was the great staple, some of the Virginia planters had
begun before the Revolution to raise considerable crops of wheat, and
most of them from the beginning cultivated Indian corn. From the wheat
they made flour and bread for themselves, and with the corn they fed
their hogs and horses and from it also made meal for the use of their
slaves. In the culture of neither crop were they much advanced beyond
the Egyptians of the times of the Pyramids. The wheat was reaped with
sickles or cradles and either flailed out or else trampled out by cattle
and horses, usually on a dirt floor in the open air. Washington
estimated in 1791 that the average crop of wheat amounted to only eight
or ten bushels per acre, and the yield of corn was also poor.

So much emphasis was laid upon tobacco that many planters failed to
produce food enough. Some raised none at all, with the result that
often both men and animals were poorly fed, and at best the cost of food
and forage exhausted most of the profits. A somewhat similar condition
exists in the South to-day with regard to cotton.

Almost no attention was paid to conserving the soil by rotation of
crops, and even those few planters who attempted anything of the sort
followed the old plan of allowing fields to lie in a naked fallow and to
grow up in noxious weeds instead of raising a cover crop such as clover.
Washington wrote in 1782: "My countrymen are too much used to corn
blades and corn shucks; and have too little knowledge of the profit of
grass land." And again in 1787:

"The general custom has been, first to raise a crop of Indian corn
(maize) which, according to the mode of cultivation, is a good
preparation for wheat; then a crop of wheat; after which the ground is
respited (except for weeds, and every trash that can contribute to its
foulness) for about eighteen months; and so on, alternately, without any
dressing, till the land is exhausted; when it is turned out, without
being sown with grass-seeds, or reeds, or any method taken to restore
it; and another piece is ruined in the same manner. No more cattle is
raised than can be supported by lowland meadows, swamps &c. and the
tops and blades of Indian corn; as very few persons have attended to
growing grasses, and connecting cattle with their crops. The Indian corn
is the chief support of the labourers and their horses."

As for the use of fertilizer, very little was attempted, for, as
Jefferson explained, "we can buy an acre of new land cheaper than we can
manure an old one." It was this cheapness of land that made it almost
impossible for the Virginians to break away from their ruinous
system--ruinous, not necessarily to themselves, but to future
generations. Conservation was then a doctrine that was little preached.
Posterity could take care of itself. Only a few persons like Washington
realized their duty to the future.

In the matter of stock as well as in pure agriculture the Virginians
were backward. They showed to best advantage in the matter of horses.
Virginia gentlemen were fond of horses, and some owned fine animals and
cared for them carefully. A Randolph of Tuckahoe is said to have had a
favorite dapple-gray named "Shakespeare" for whom he built a special
stable with a sort of recess next the stall in which the groom slept.
Generally speaking, however, even among the aristocracy the horses were
not so good nor so well cared for as in the next century.

Among the small farmers and poorer people the horses were apt to be
scrubs, often mere bags of bones. A scientific English agriculturist
named Parkinson, who came over in 1798, tells us that the American
horses generally "leap well; they are accustomed to leap from the time
of foaling; as it is not at all uncommon, if the mare foal in the night,
for some part of the family to ride the mare, with the foal following
her, from eighteen to twenty miles next day, it not being customary to
walk much. I think that is the cause of the American horse having a sort
of amble: the foal from its weak state, goes pacing after the dam, and
retains that motion all its life. The same is the case with respect to
leaping: there being in many places no gates, the snake or worm-fence
(which is one rail laid on the end of another) is taken down to let the
mare pass through, and the foal follow: but, as it is usual to leave two
or three rails untaken down, which the mare leaps over, the foal,
unwilling to be left behind, follows her; so that, by the time it is one
week old, it has learned to leap three feet high; and progressively, as
it grows older, it leaps higher, till at a year old, it will leap its
own height."

Sheep raising was not attempted to any great extent, partly because of
the ravages of wolves and dogs and partly because the sheep is a
perverse animal that often seems to prefer dying to keeping alive and
requires skilled care to be made profitable. The breeds were various and
often were degenerated. Travelers saw Holland or rat-tailed sheep, West
Indian sheep with scant wool and much resembling goats, also a few
Spanish sheep, but none would have won encomiums from a scientific
English breeder. The merino had not yet been introduced. Good breeds of
sheep were difficult to obtain, for both the English and Spanish
governments forbade the exportation of such animals and they could be
obtained only by smuggling them out.

In 1792 Arthur Young expressed astonishment when told that wolves and
dogs were a serious impediment to sheep raising in America, yet this was
undoubtedly the case. The rich had their foxhounds, while every poor
white and many negroes had from one to half a dozen curs--all of which
canines were likely to enjoy the sport of sheep killing. Mr. Richard
Peters, a well informed farmer of Pennsylvania, said that wherever the
country was much broken wolves were to be found and bred prodigiously.
"I lay not long ago at the foot of South Mountain, in York county, in
this State, in a country very thickly settled, at the house of a Justice
of the Peace. Through the night I was kept awake by what I conceived to
be a jubilee of dogs, assembled to bay the moon. But I was told in the
morning, that what disturbed me, was _only_ the common howling of
wolves, which nobody there regarded. When I entered the _Hall of
Justice_, I found the 'Squire giving judgment for the reward on two wolf
whelps a countryman had taken from the bitch. The _judgment-seat_ was
shaken with the intelligence, that the wolf was coming--_not to give
bail_--but to devote herself or rescue her offspring. The animal was
punished for this _daring contempt_, committed in the face of the court,
and was shot within a hundred yards of the tribunal."

Virginians had not yet learned the merits of grass and pasture, and
their cattle, being compelled to browse on twigs and weeds, were often
thin and poor. Many ranged through the woods and it was so difficult to
get them up that sometimes they would not be milked for two or three
days. Often they gave no more than a quart of milk a day and were
probably no better in appearance than the historian Lecky tells us were
the wretched beasts then to be found in the Scottish Highlands.

Hogs received even less care than cattle and ran half wild in the woods
like their successors, the famous Southern razor-backs of to-day, being
fed only a short period before they were to be transformed into pork.
Says Parkinson:

"The real American hog is what is termed the wood-hog: they are long in
the leg, narrow on the back, short in the body, flat on the sides, with
a long snout, very rough in their hair, in make more like a fish called
a perch than anything I can describe. You may as well think of stopping
a crow as those hogs. They will go a distance from a fence, take a run,
and leap through the rails, three or four feet from the ground, turning
themselves sidewise. These hogs suffer such hardships as no other animal
could endure. It is customary to keep them in the woods all winter, as
there is no thrashing or fold-yards; and they must live on the roots of
trees, or something of that sort, but they are poor beyond any creature
that I ever saw. That is probably the cause why American pork is so
fine. They are something like forest-sheep. I am not certain, with
American keeping and treatment, if they be not the best: for I never saw
an animal live without food, except this; and I am pretty sure they
nearly do that. When they are fed, the flesh may well be sweet: it is
all young, though the pig be ten years old."

"The aim of the farmers in this country (if they can be called
farmers)," wrote Washington to Arthur Young in 1791, "is, not to make
the most they can from the land, which is or has been cheap, but the
most of the labour, which is dear; the consequence of which has been,
much ground has been _scratched_ over and none cultivated or improved as
it ought to have been: whereas a farmer in England, where land is dear,
and labour cheap, finds it his interest to improve and cultivate highly,
that he may reap large crops from a small quantity of ground."

No clearer statement of the differences between American and European
agriculture has ever been formulated. Down to our own day the object of
the American farmer has continued to be the same--to secure the largest
return from the expenditure of a given amount of labor. But we are on
the threshold of a revolution, the outcome of which means intensive
cultivation and the realization of the largest possible return from a
given amount of land.

That Washington saw the distinction so clearly is of itself sufficient
proof that he pondered long and deeply upon agricultural problems.



CHAPTER IV


WASHINGTON'S PROBLEM

"No estate in United America," wrote Washington to Arthur Young in 1793,
"is more pleasantly situated than this. It lies in a high, dry, and
healthy country, 300 miles by water from the sea, and, as you will see
by the plan, on one of the finest rivers in the world. Its margin is
washed by more than ten miles of tide water; from the beds of which and
the innumerable coves, inlets, and small marshes, with which it abounds,
an inexhaustible fund of mud may be drawn as a manure, either to be used
separately or in a compost....

"The soil of the tract of which I am speaking is a good loam, more
inclined, however, to clay than sand. From use, and I might add, abuse,
it is become more and more consolidated, and of course heavier
to work....

"This river, which encompasses the land the distance above mentioned, is
well supplied with various kinds of fish at all seasons of the year;
and, in the spring, with great profusion of shad, herring, bass, carp,
perch, sturgeon, etc. Several fisheries appertain to the estate; the
whole shore, in short, is one entire fishery."

The Mount Vernon estate, amounting in the end to over eight thousand
acres, was, with the exception of a few outlying tracts, subdivided into
five farms, namely, the Mansion House Farm, the Union Farm, the Dogue
Run Farm, Muddy Hole Farm and the River Farm.

On the Mansion House Farm stood the owner's residence, quarters for the
negroes and other servants engaged upon that particular estate, and
other buildings. The land in general was badly broken and poor in
quality; much of it was still in woodland.

The River Farm lay farthest up the Potomac, being separated from the
others by the stream known as Little Hunting Creek. Visitors to Mount
Vernon to-day, traveling by trolley, cross this farm and stream. It
contained more tillable ground than any other, about twelve hundred
acres. In 1793 it had an "overlooker's" house of one large and two small
rooms below and one or two rooms above, quarters for fifty or sixty
negroes, a large barn and stables gone much to decay.

Muddy Hole Farm lay across Little Hunting Creek from the River Farm and
back of the Mansion House Farm and had no frontal upon the Potomac. It
contained four hundred seventy-six acres of tillable soil and had in
1793 a small overlooker's house, "covering for about 30 negroes, and a
tolerable good barn, with stables for the work-horses."

Union Farm lay just below the Mansion House Farm and contained nine
hundred twenty-eight acres of arable land and meadow. In 1793 it had, in
Washington's words, "a newly erected brick barn, equal, perhaps, to any
in America, and for conveniences of all sorts, particularly for
sheltering and feeding horses, cattle, &c. scarcely to be exceeded any
where." A new house of four rooms was building, and there were quarters
for fifty odd negroes. On this farm was the old Posey fishery and ferry
to Maryland.

Dogue Run Farm, of six hundred fifty acres, lay back of Union Farm and
upon it in 1793 stood the grist mill and later a distillery and the
famous sixteen-sided "new circular barn, now finishing on a new
construction; well calculated, it is conceived, for getting grain out
of the straw more expeditiously than the usual mode of threshing." It
had a two-room overseer's house, covering for forty odd negroes, and
sheds sufficient for thirty work horses and oxen. Washington considered
it much the best of all his farms. It was this farm that he bequeathed
to Nelly Custis and her husband, Lawrence Lewis, and upon it they
erected "Woodlawn," which is shown in the photograph herewith
reproduced.

Not long since I rambled on foot over the old estate and had an
opportunity to compare the reality, or what remains of it, with
Washington's description. I left the Mansion House, often visited
before, and strolled down the long winding drive that runs between the
stunted evergreens and oaks through the old lodge gate and passed from
the domain, kept trim and parklike by the Association, out upon the
unkempt and vastly greater part of the old Mount Vernon.

It was early morning, about the hour when in the long past the master of
the estate used to ride out on his tour of inspection. The day was one
of those delicious days in early autumn when earth and sky and air and
all things in nature seem kindly allied to help the heart of man leap up
in gladness and to enable him to understand how there came to be a poet
called Wordsworth. Meadow-larks were singing in the grass, and once in
an old hedgerow over-grown with sweet-smelling wild honeysuckle I saw a
covey of young quails. These hedgerows of locust and cedar are broken
now, but along the old road to the mill and Pohick Church and between
fields the scattered trees and now and then a bordering ditch are
evidences of the old owner's handiwork.

Then and later I visited all the farms, the site of the old mill, of
which only a few stones remain, the mill stream, the fishery and old
ferry landing. I walked across the gullied fields and examined the soil,
I noted the scanty crops they bear to-day and gained a clearer idea of
what Washington's problem had been than I could have done from a
library of books.

Truly the estate is "pleasantly situated," though even to-day it seems
out of the world and out of the way. One must go far to find so
satisfying a view as that from the old Mansion House porch across the
mile of shining water to the Maryland hills' crowned with trees
glorified by the Midas-touch of frost. The land does lie "high" and
"dry," but we must take exception to the word "healthy." In the summer
and fall the tidal marshes breed a variety of mosquito capable of biting
through armor plate and of infecting the devil himself with malaria. In
the General's day, when screens were unknown, a large part of the
population, both white and black, suffered every August and September
from chills and fever. The master himself was not exempt and once we
find him chronicling that he went a-hunting and caught a fox and
the ague.

What he says as regards the fisheries is all quite true and in general
they seem to have been very productive. Herring and shad were the chief
fish caught and when the run came the seine was carried well out into
the river in a boat and then hauled up on the shelving beach either by
hand or with a windlass operated by horse-power. There were warehouses
and vats for curing the fish, a cooper shop and buildings for sheltering
the men. The fish were salted down for the use of the family and the
slaves, and what surplus remained was sold. Now and then the landing and
outfit was rented out for a money consideration, but this usually
happened only when the owner was away from home.

At the old Posey fishery on Union Farm the industry is still carried on,
though gasoline engines have been substituted for the horse-operated
winch used in drawing the seines. Lately the industry has ceased to be
very productive, and an old man in charge told me that it is because
fishermen down the river and in Chesapeake Bay are so active that
comparatively few fish manage to get up so far.

The Mount Vernon estate in the old days lacked only one quality
necessary to make it extremely productive, namely, rich soil! Only
ignorance of what good land really is, or an owner's blind pride in his
own estate, can justify the phrase "a good loam." On most of the estate
the soil is thin, varying in color from a light gray to a yellow red,
with below a red clay hardpan almost impervious to water. To an observer
brought up on a farm of the rich Middle West, Mount Vernon, except for a
few scattered fields, seems extremely poor land. For farming purposes
most of it would be high at thirty dollars an acre. Much of it is so
broken by steep hills and deep ravines as scarcely to be tillable at
all. Those tracts which are cultivated are very susceptible to erosion.
Deep gullies are quickly worn on the hillsides and slopes. At one time
such a gully on Union Farm extended almost completely across a large
field and was deep enough to hide a horse, but Washington filled it up
with trees, stumps, stones, old rails, brush and dirt, so that scarcely
a trace of it was left. In places one comes upon old fields that have
been allowed to revert to broom sedge, scrub oak and scrub pine. One is
astonished at the amount that has never been cleared at all. Only by the
most careful husbandry could such an estate be kept productive. It never
could be made to yield bumper crops.

The situation confronting "Farmer Washington" was this: He had a great
abundance of land, but most of it on his home estate was mediocre in
quality. Some of that lying at a distance was more fertile, but much of
it was uncleared and that on the Ohio was hopelessly distant from a
market. With the exception of Mount Vernon even those plantations in
Virginia east of the Blue Ridge could not be looked after in person. He
must either rent them, trust them to a manager, or allow them to lie
idle. Even the Mount Vernon land was distant from a good market, and the
cost of transportation was so great that he must produce for selling
purposes articles of little bulk compared with value. Finally, he had an
increasing number of slaves for whom food and clothing must be provided.

His answer to the problem of a money crop was for some years the old
Virginia answer--tobacco. His far western lands he left for the most
part untenanted. Those plantations in settled regions but remote from
his home he generally rented for a share of the crop or for cash. The
staple articles that he produced to feed the slaves were pork and corn,
eked out by herring from the fishery.

From his accounts we find that in 1759 he made thirty-four thousand one
hundred sixty pounds of tobacco; the next year sixty-five thousand
thirty-seven pounds; in 1763, eighty-nine thousand seventy-nine pounds,
which appears to have been his banner tobacco crop. In 1765 the quantity
fell to forty-one thousand seven hundred ninety-nine pounds; in 1771, to
twenty-nine thousand nine hundred eighty-six pounds, and in 1773 to only
about five thousand pounds. Thereafter his crop of the weed was
negligible, though we still find occasional references to it even as
late as 1794, when he states that he has twenty-five hogsheads in the
warehouses of Alexandria, where he has held it for five or six years
because of low prices.

[Illustration: Looking across part of Dogue Run Farm to "Woodlawn," the
Home of Nelly Custis Lewis]

[Illustration: Gully on a Field of Union Farm, Showing Susceptibility to
Erosion]

He tried to raise a good quality and seems to have concentrated on
what he calls the "sweet scented" variety, but for some reason, perhaps
because his soil was not capable of producing the best, he obtained
lower prices than did some of the other Virginia planters, and grumbled
at his agents accordingly.

He early realized the ruinous effects of tobacco on his land and sought
to free himself from its clutches by turning to the production of wheat
and flour for the West India market. Ultimately he was so prejudiced
against the weed that in 1789 we find him in a contract with a tenant
named Gray, to whom he leased a tract of land for ten pounds,
stipulating that Gray should make no more tobacco than he needed for
"chewing and smoaking in his own family."

Late in life he decided that his land was not congenial to corn, in
which he was undoubtedly right, for the average yield was only about
fifteen bushels per acre. In the corn country farmers now often produce
a hundred. He continued to raise corn only because it was essential for
his negroes and hogs. In 1798 he contracted with William A. Washington
to supply him with five hundred barrels annually to eke out his own
crop. Even this quantity did not prove sufficient, for we find him next
year trying to engage one hundred barrels more.

Before this time his main concern had come to be to conserve his soil
and he had turned his attention largely to grass and live stock. Of
these matters more hereafter.



CHAPTER V


THE STUDENT OF AGRICULTURE

Washington took great pains to inform himself concerning any subject in
which he was interested and hardly was he settled down to serious
farming before he was ordering from England "the best System now extant
of Agriculture," Shortly afterward he expressed a desire for a book
"lately published, done by various hands, but chiefly collected from the
papers of Mr. Hale. If this is known to be the best, pray send it, but
not if any other is in high esteem." Another time he inquires for a
small piece in octavo, "a new system of Agriculture, or a speedy way to
grow rich."

Among his papers are preserved long and detailed notes laboriously taken
from such works as Tull's _Horse-Hoeing Husbandry_, Duhamel's _A
Practical Treatise of Husbandry, The Farmer's Compleat Guide,_ Home's
_The Gentleman Farmer_, and volumes of Young's _Annals of Agriculture_.

The abstracts from the _Annals_ were taken after the Revolution and
probably before he became President, for the first volume did not appear
until 1784. From the handwriting it is evident that the digests of
Tull's and Duhamel's books were made before the Revolution and probably
about 1760. In the midst of the notes on chapter eight of the _Compleat
Guide_ there are evidences of a long hiatus in time--Mr. Fitzpatrick of
the manuscript division of the Library of Congress thinks perhaps as
much as eight or ten years. A vivid imagination can readily conceive
Washington's laying aside the task for the more important one of
vindicating the liberties of his countrymen and taking it up again only
when he had sheathed the sword. But all we can say is that for some
reason he dropped the work for a considerable time, the evidence being
that the later handwriting differs perceptibly from that which
precedes it.

As most of Washington's agricultural ideas were drawn from these books,
it is worth while for us to examine them. I have not been able to put my
hands on Washington's own copies, but in the library of the Department
of Agriculture I have examined the works of Tull, Duhamel and Young.

Tull's _Horse-Hoeing Husbandry_ was an epoch-making book in the history
of English agriculture. It was first published in 1731 and the third
edition, the one I have seen and probably the one that Washington
possessed, appeared in 1751. Possibly it was the small piece in octavo,
"a new system of Agriculture, or a speedy way to grow rich" concerning
which he wrote to his agent. It deals with a great variety of subjects,
such as of roots and leaves, of food of plants, of pasture, of plants,
of weeds, of turnips, of wheat, of smut, of blight, of St. Foin, of
lucerne, of ridges, of plows, of drill boxes, but its one great thesis
was the careful cultivation by plowing of such annuals as potatoes,
turnips, and wheat, crops which hitherto had been tended by hand or left
to fight their battle unaided after having once been planted.

Duhamel's book was the work of a Frenchman whose last name was Monceau.
It was based in part upon Tull's book, but contained many reflections
suggested by French experience as well as some additions made by the
English translator. The English translation appeared in 1759, the year
of Washington's marriage. It dealt with almost every aspect of
agriculture and stock raising, advocated horse-hoeing, had much to say
in favor of turnips, lucerne, clover and such crops, and contained
plates and descriptions of various plows, drills and other kinds of
implements. It also contained a detailed table of weather observations
for a considerable time, which may have given Washington the idea of
keeping his meteorological records.

Young's _Annals_ was an elaborate agricultural periodical not unlike in
some respects publications of this sort to-day except for its lack of
advertising. It contains records of a great variety of experiments in
both agriculture and stock raising, pictures and descriptions of plows,
machines for rooting up trees, and other implements and machines, plans
for the rotation of crops, and articles and essays by experimental
farmers of the day. Among its contributors were men of much eminence,
and we come upon articles by Mr. William Pitt on storing turnips, Mr.
William Pitt on deep plowing; George III himself contributed under the
pen name of "Ralph Robinson." The man who should follow its directions
even to-day would not in most matters go far wrong.

As one looks over these publications he realizes that the scientific
farmers of that day were discussing many problems and subjects that
still interest those of the present. The language is occasionally
quaint, but the principles set down are less often wrong than might be
supposed. To be sure, Tull denied that different plants require
different sorts of food and, notes Washington, "gives many unanswerable
Reasons to prove it," but he combats the notion that the soil ever
causes wheat to degenerate into rye. This he declares "as ridiculous as
it would be to say that an horse by feeding in a certain pasture will
degenerate into a Bull." And yet it is not difficult to discover farmers
to-day who will stubbornly argue that "wheat makes cheat." Tull also
advocated the idea that manure should be put on green and plowed under
in order to obtain anything like its full benefit, as well as many other
sound ideas that are still disregarded by many American farmers.

Washington eagerly studied the works that have been mentioned, and much
of his time when at Mount Vernon was devoted to experiments designed to
ascertain to what extent the principles that were sound in England could
be successfully applied in an American environment.



CHAPTER VI


A FARMER'S RECORDS AND OTHER PAPERS

Washington was the most methodical man that ever lived. He had a place
for everything and insisted that everything should be kept in its place.
There was nothing haphazard about his methods of business. He kept exact
accounts of financial dealings.

His habit of setting things down on paper was one that developed early.
He kept a journal of his surveying experiences beyond the Blue Ridge in
1748, another of his trip to Barbadoes with his brother Lawrence in
1751-52, another of his trip to Fort Le Boeuf to warn out the French,
and yet another of his Fort Necessity campaign. The words are often
misspelled, many expressions are ungrammatical, but the handwriting is
good and the judgments expressed, even those set down when he was only
sixteen, are the mature judgments of a man.

A year after his marriage he began a formal diary, which he continued
until June 19, 1775, the time of his appointment to command the army of
the Revolution. He called it his _Diary_ and later _Where, & how my time
is Spent_. In it he entered the happenings of the day, his agricultural
and other experiments, a record of his guests and also a detailed
account of the weather.

His attention to this last matter was most particular. Often when away
from home he would have a record kept and on his return would
incorporate it into his book. Exactly what advantages he expected to
derive therefrom are not apparent, though I presume that he hoped to
draw conclusions as to the best time for planting crops. In reading it I
was many times reminded of a Cleveland octogenarian who for fifty-seven
years kept a record twice a day of the thermometer and barometer. Near
the end of his life he brought the big ledgers to the Western Reserve
Historical Society, and I happened to be present on the occasion. "You
have studied the subject for a long time," I said to him. "Are there any
conclusions you have been able to reach as a result of your
investigation?" He thought a minute and passed a wrinkled hand across a
wrinkled brow. "Nothing but this," he made answer, "that Cleveland
weather is only constant in its inconstancy."

We would gladly exchange some of these meteorological details for
further information about Washington's own personal doings and feelings.
Of the latter the diaries reveal little. Washington was an objective
man, above all in his papers. He sets down what happens and says little
about causes, motives or mental impressions. When on his way to Yorktown
to capture Cornwallis he visited his home for the first time in six
weary years, yet merely recorded: "I reached my own Seat at Mount Vernon
(distant 120 Miles from the Hd. of Elk) where I staid till the 12th."

Not a word of the emotions which that visit must have roused!

For almost six years after 1775 there is a gap in the diary, though for
some months of 1780 he sets down the weather. On May I, 1781, he begins
a new record, which he calls a _Journal_, and he expresses regret that
he has not had time to keep one all the time. The subjects now
considered are almost wholly military and the entries reveal a different
man from that of 1775. The grammar is better, the vocabulary larger, the
tone more elevated, the man himself is bigger and broader with an
infinitely wider viewpoint.

From November 5, 1781, for more than three years there is another
blank, except for the journal of his trip to his western lands already
referred to. But on January 1, 1785, he begins a new _Diary_ and
thenceforward continues it, with short intermissions, until the day of
his last ride over his estate.

A few of the diaries and journals have been lost, but most are still in
existence. Some are in the Congressional Library and there also is the
Toner transcript of these records. The transcript makes thirty-seven
large volumes. The diary is one of the main sources from which the
material for this book is drawn.

The original of the record of events for 1760 is a small book, perhaps
eight or ten inches long by four inches wide and much yellowed by age.
Part of the first entry stands thus:

"January 1, Tuesday

"Visited my Plantations and received an Instance of Mr. French's great
Love of Money in disappointing me of some Pork because the price had
risen to 22.6 after he had engaged to let me have it at 20 s."

On his return from his winter ride he found Mrs. Washington "broke out
with the Meazles." Next day he states with evident disgust that he has
taken the pork on French's own terms.

The weather record for 1760 was kept on blank pages of _The Virginia
Almanac_, a compendium that contains directions for making "Indico," for
curing bloody flux, for making "Physick as pleasant as a Dish of
Chocolate," for making a striking sun-dial, also "A Receipt to keep
one's self warm a whole Winter with a single Billet of Wood." To do this
last "Take a Billet of Wood of a competent Size, fling it out of the
Garret-Window into the Yard, run down Stairs as hard as ever you can
drive; and when you have got it, run up again with it at the same
Measure of Speed; and thus keep throwing down, and fetching up, till the
Exercise shall have sufficiently heated you. This renew as often as
Occasion shall require. _Probatum est_."

This receipt would seem worth preserving in this day of dear fuel. As
Washington had great abundance of wood and plenty of negroes to cut it,
he probably did not try the experiment--at least such a conclusion is
what writers on historical method would call "a safe inference."

[Illustration: First Page of Washington's Digest of Duhamel's Husbandry]

There is in the almanac a rhyme ridiculing physicians and above the
March calendar are printed the touching verses:

     "Thus of all Joy and happiness bereft,
     And with the Charge of Ten poor Children left:
     A greater Grief no Woman sure can know,
     Who,--with Ten Children--who will have me now."

Also there are some other verses, very broad and "not quite the proper
thing," as Kipling has it. But it must not be inferred that Washington
approved of them.

Washington also kept cash memorandum books, general account books, mill
books and a special book in which he recorded his accounts with the
estate of the Custis children. These old books, written in his neat
legible hand, are not only one of our chief sources of information
concerning his agricultural and financial affairs, but contain many
sidelights upon historical events. It is extremely interesting, for
example, to discover in one of the account books that in 1775 at Mount
Vernon he lent General Charles Lee--of Monmouth fame--£15, and "to Ditto
lent him on the Road from Phila to Cambridge at different times" £9.12
more, a total of £24.12. In later years Lee intrigued against Washington
and said many spiteful things about him, but he never returned the loan.
The account stood until 1786, when it was settled by Alexander White,
Lee's executor.

In the Cash Memorandum books we can trace Washington's military
preparations at the beginning of the Revolution. Thus on June 2, 1775,
being then at Philadelphia, he enters: "By Expences bringing my Horses
from Baltimore," £2.5. Next day he pays thirty pounds for "Cartouch
Boxes &c. for Prince Wm. Comp." June 6, "By Covering my Holsters,"
£0.7.6; "By a Cersingle," £0.7.6; "By 5 Books--Military," £1.12.0. He
was preparing for Gage and Howe and Cornwallis and whether the knowledge
contained in the books was of value or not he somehow managed for eight
years to hold his opponents at bay and ultimately to win. At Cambridge,
July tenth, he spends three shillings and four pence for a "Ribbon to
distinguish myself," that is to show his position as commander; also
£1.2.6 for "a pair of Breeches for Will," his colored body servant.

A vast number of papers bear witness to his interest in agriculture and
with these we are particularly concerned. He preserved most of the
letters written to him and many of these deal with farming matters.
During part of his career he had a copying press and kept copies of his
own important letters, while many of the originals have been preserved,
though widely scattered. When away from home he required his manager to
send him elaborate weekly reports containing a meteorological table of
each day's weather, the work done on each farm, what each person did,
who was sick, losses and increases in stock, and other matters of
interest. Scores of these reports are still in existence and are
invaluable. He himself wrote--generally on Sunday--lengthy weekly
letters of inquiry, direction, admonition and reproof, and if the
manager failed in the minutest matter to give an account of some phase
of the farm work, he would be sure to hear of it in the proprietor's
next letter.

Washington's correspondence on agricultural matters with Arthur Young
and Sir John Sinclair, eminent English agriculturists, was collected
soon after his death in a volume that is now rare. In it are a number of
letters written by other American farmers, including Thomas Jefferson,
relative to agriculture in their localities. These letters were the
result of inquiries made of Washington by Young in 1791. In order to
obtain the facts desired Washington sent out a circular letter to some
of the most intelligent farmers in the Middle States, and the replies
form perhaps our best source of information regarding agricultural
conditions in that period.

Because of this service and of his general interest in agricultural
matters Washington was elected a foreign honorary member of the English
Board of Agriculture and received a diploma, which is still preserved
among his papers.

Some of Washington's other agricultural papers have been printed in one
form and another, but a great number, and some the most interesting, can
still be consulted only in manuscript.

Washington bequeathed his books and papers, along with his Mansion
House, to his nephew, Bushrod Washington, an associate justice of the
Federal Supreme Court. Judge Washington failed to appreciate fully the
seriousness of the obligation thus incurred and instead of safeguarding
the papers with the utmost jealousy gave many, including volumes of the
diary, to visitors and friends who expressed a desire to possess
mementoes of the illustrious patriot. In particular he permitted
Reverend William Buel Sprague, who had been a tutor in the family of
Nelly Custis Lewis, to take about fifteen hundred papers on condition
that he leave copies in their places. The judge also intrusted a
considerable portion to the historian Jared Sparks, who issued the first
considerable edition of Washington's writings. Sparks likewise was
guilty of giving away souvenirs.

Bushrod Washington died in 1829 and left the papers and letter books for
the most part to his nephew John Corbin Washington. In 1834 the nation
purchased of this gentleman the papers of a public character, paying
twenty-five thousand dollars. The owner reserved the private papers,
including invoices, ciphering book, rules of civility, etc., but in 1849
sold these also to the same purchaser for twenty thousand dollars. The
papers were kept for many years in the Department of State, but in the
administration of Theodore Roosevelt most of them were transferred to
the Library of Congress, where they could be better cared for and would
be more accessible.

Bushrod Washington gave to another nephew, John Augustine Washington,
the books and relics in the dining-room of the Mansion House. In course
of time these were scattered, some being bought for the Boston
Athenaeum, which has decidedly the larger part of Washington's library;
others were purchased by the state of New York, and yet others were
exhibited at the Centennial Exposition and were later sold at auction.
Among the relics bought by New York was a sword wrongly said to have
been sent to the General by Frederick the Great.

One hundred and twenty-seven of his letters, mostly to William Pearce,
his manager at Mount Vernon during a portion of his presidency, were
bought from the heirs of Pearce by the celebrated Edward Everett and now
belong to the Long Island Historical Society. These have been published.
His correspondence with Tobias Lear, for many years his private
secretary, are now in the collection of Thomas K. Bixby, a wealthy
bibliophile of St. Louis. These also have been published. The one
greatest repository of papers is the Library of Congress. Furthermore,
through the unwearying activities of J. M. Toner, who devoted years to
the work, the Library also has authenticated copies of many papers of
which it does not possess the originals.

All told, according to Mr. Gaillard Hunt, who has them in charge, the
Washington manuscripts in the Library of Congress is the largest
collection of papers of one person in the world. The collection contains
about eighteen thousand papers in his own hand, press copies, or drafts
in the writing of his secretaries, and many times that number of others.
As yet all except a small part are merely arranged in chronological
order, but soon it is to be sumptuously bound in royal purple levant.
The color, after all, is fitting, for he was a King and he reigns still
in the hearts of his countrymen.

Benjamin Franklin knew the great men of earth of his time, the princes
and kings of blood royal. Near the close of his life he wrote in his
will: "My fine crabtree walking-stick with a gold head, curiously
wrought in the form of a cap of Liberty, I give to my friend, and the
friend of mankind, General Washington. If it was a sceptre, he has
merited it, and would become it."

And thus Thackeray, who knew the true from the false, the dross from
pure gold: "Which was the most splendid spectacle ever witnessed, the
opening feast of Prince George in London or the resignation of
Washington? Which is the noble character for ages to admire--yon fribble
dancing in lace and spangles, or yonder hero who sheathes his sword
after a life of spotless honor, a purity unreproached, a courage
indomitable, and a consummate victory? Which of these is the true
gentleman? What is it to be a gentleman? Is it to have lofty aims, to
lead a pure life, to keep your honor virgin; to have the esteem of your
fellow-citizens, and the love of your fireside; to bear good fortune
meekly; to suffer evil with constancy; and through evil or good to
maintain truth always? Show me the happy man whose life exhibits these
qualities, and him will we salute as gentleman, whatever his rank may
be; show me the prince who possesses them, and he may be sure of our
love and loyalty."

'Tis often distance only that lends enchantment, but it is Washington's
proud pre-eminence that he can bear the microscope. Having read
thousands of his letters and papers dealing with almost every
conceivable subject in the range of human affairs, I yet feel inclined,
nay compelled, to bear witness to the greatness of his heart, soul and
understanding. He was human. He had his faults. He made his mistakes.
But I would not detract a line from any eulogium of him ever uttered.
Words have never yet been penned that do him justice.



CHAPTER VII


AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS BEFORE THE REVOLUTION

A detailed account of all of Washington's agricultural experiments would
require several hundred pages and would be tedious reading. All that I
shall attempt to do is to give some examples and point the way for any
enthusiast to the mass of his agricultural papers in the Library of
Congress and elsewhere.

At the outset it should be stated that he worked under extremely
different conditions from those of to-day. Any American farmer of the
present who has a problem in his head can have it solved by writing to
the nearest government experiment station, a good farm paper, an
agricultural college, the department of agriculture, or in some favored
districts by consulting the local county "agent." Washington had no such
recourse. There was not an agricultural college or agricultural paper in
the whole country; the department of agriculture was not created until
near the end of the next century; county "agents" were as unthought of
as automobiles or electric lights; there was not a scientific farmer in
America; even the Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture
was not founded until 1785. In his later years our Farmer could and did
write to such foreign specialists as Arthur Young and Sir John Sinclair,
but they were Englishmen unfamiliar with American soils and climate and
could rarely give a weighty answer propounded to them by an American. If
Washington wished to know a thing about practical farming, he usually
had to find it out for himself.

This state of affairs accounts for his performing some experiments that
seem absurd. Thus in the fall of 1764 we find him sowing "a few Oats to
see if they would stand the winter." Any country boy of to-day could
tell him that ordinary oats sown under such conditions in the latitude
of Mount Vernon would winter kill too badly to be of much use, but
Washington could not know it till he had tried.

In another category was his experiment in March, 1760, with lucerne.
Lucerne is alfalfa. It will probably be news to most readers that
alfalfa--the wonderful forage crop of the West, the producer of more
gold than all the mines of the Klondike--was in use so long ago, for the
impression is pretty general that it is comparatively new; the fact is
that it is older than the Christian era and that the name alfalfa comes
from the Arabic and means "the best crop." Evidently our Farmer had been
reading on the subject, for in his diary he quotes what "Tull speaking
of lucerne, says." He tried out the plant on this and several other
occasions and had a considerable field of it in 1798. His success was
not large with it at any time, for the Mount Vernon soil was not
naturally suited to alfalfa, which thrives best in a dry and pervious
subsoil containing plenty of lime, but the experiment was certainly
worth trying.

In this same year, 1760, we find him sowing clover, rye, grass, hope,
trefoil, timothy, spelt, which was a species of wheat, and various other
grasses and vegetables, most of them to all intents and purposes unknown
to the Virginia agriculture of that day.

He also recorded an interesting experiment with fertilizer. April 14,
1760, he writes in his diary:

"Mixed my composts in a box with the apartments in the following
manner, viz. No. 1 is three pecks of earth brought from below the hill
out of the 46 acre field without any mixture. In No. 2 is two pecks of
sand earth and one of marle taken out of the said field, which marle
seemed a little inclined to sand. 3 has 2 pecks of sd. earth and 1 of
river sand.

"4 has a peck of Horse Dung

"5 has mud taken out of the creek

"6 has cow dung

"7 has marle from the Gulleys on the hillside, wch. seem'd to be purer
than the other

"8 sheep dung

"9 Black mould from the Gulleys on the hill side, wch. seem'd to be
purer than the other

"10 Clay got just below the garden

"All mixed with the same quantity and sort of earth in the most
effective manner by reducing the whole to a tolerable degree of fineness
and rubbing them well together on a cloth. In each of these divisions
were planted three grains of wheat, 3 of oats, and as many of barley,
all of equal distances in Rows and of equal depth done by a machine made
for the purpose. The wheat rows are next the numbered side, the oats in
the middle, and the barley on the side next the upper part of the
Garden. Two or three hours after sowing in this manner, and about an
hour before sunset I watered them all equally alike with water that had
been standing in a tub abt two hours exposed to the sun."

Three weeks later he inspected the boxes and concluded that Nos. 8 and 9
gave the best results.

The plows of the period were cumbersome and did their work poorly.
Consequently in March, 1760, Washington "Fitted a two Eyed Plow instead
of a Duck Bill Plow", and tried it out, using his carriage horses in the
work. But this new model proved upon the whole a failure and a little
later he "Spent the greater part of the day in making a new plow of my
own Invention." Next day he set the new plow to work "and found She
answerd very well."

A little later he "got a new harrow made of smaller and closer teethings
for harrowing in grain--the other being more proper for preparing the
ground for sowing."

Much of his attention in the next few years was devoted to wheat
growing, for, as already related, he soon decided gradually to
discontinue tobacco and it was imperative for him to discover some
other money crop to take its place. We find him steeping his seed wheat
in brine and alum to prevent smut and he also tried other experiments to
protect his grain from the Hessian fly and rust. Noticing how the
freezing and thawing of the ground in spring often injured the wheat by
lifting it out of the ground, he adopted the practice of running a heavy
roller over the wheat in order to get the roots back into the ground and
he was confident that when the operation was performed at the proper
time, that is when the ground was soft and the roots were still alive,
it was productive of good results.

In June, 1763, he "dug up abt. a load of Marle to spread over Wheat Land
for experiment." In 1768 he came to the conclusion that most farmers
began to cut their wheat too late, for of course cradling was a slow
process--scarcely four acres per day per cradler--and if the acreage was
large several days must elapse before the last of the grain could be
cut, with the result that some of it became so ripe that many of the
kernels were shattered out and lost before the straw could be got to the
threshing floor. By careful experiments he determined that the grain
would not lose perceptibly in size and weight if the wheat were cut
comparatively green. In wheat-growing communities the discussion as to
this question still rages--extremists on one side will not cut their
wheat till it is dead ripe, while those on the other begin to harvest it
when it is almost sea-green.

In 1763 Washington entered into an agreement with John Carlyle and
Robert Adams of Alexandria to sell to them all the wheat he would have
to dispose of in the next seven years. The price was to be three
shillings and nine pence per bushel, that is, about ninety-one cents.
This would not be far from the average price of wheat to-day, but, on
the one side, we should bear in mind that ninety-one cents then had much
greater purchasing power than now, so that the price was really much
greater, and, on the other, that the cost of raising wheat was larger
then, owing to lack of self-binders, threshing machines and other
labor-saving devices.

The wheat thus sold by Washington was to be delivered at the wharf at
Alexandria or beside a boat or flat on Four Mile Run Creek. The delivery
for 1764 was 257-1/2 bushels; for 1765, 1,112-3/4 bushels; for 1766,
2,331-1/2 bushels; for 1767--a bad year--1,293-1/2 bushels; for 1768,
4,994-1/2 bushels of wheat and 4,304-1/2 bushels of corn; for 1769,
6,241-1/2 bushels of wheat.

Thereafter he ground a good part of his wheat and sold the flour. He
owned three mills, one in western Pennsylvania, already referred to, a
second on Four Mile Run near Alexandria, and a third on the Mount Vernon
estate. This last mill had been in operation since his father's day. It
was situated near the mouth of the stream known as Dogue Run, which was
not very well suited for the purpose as it ran from the extreme of low
water in summer to violent floods in winter and spring. Thus his miller,
William A. Poole, in a letter that wins the sweepstakes in phonetic
spelling, complains in 1757 that he has been able to grind but little
because "She fails by want of Water." At other times the Master sallies
out in the rain with rescue crews to save the mill from floods and more
than once the "tumbling dam" goes by the board in spite of all efforts.
The lack of water was partly remedied in 1771 by turning the water of
Piney Branch into the Run, and about the same time a new and better mill
was erected, while in 1797 further improvements were made. During the
whole period flatboats and small schooners could come to the wharf to
take away the flour. Corn and other grains were ground, as well as
wheat, and the mill had considerable neighborhood custom, the toll
exacted being one-eighth. Only a few stones sticking in a bank now
remain of the mill.

Washington divided his flour into superfine, fine, middlings and ship
stuff. It was put into barrels manufactured by the plantation coopers
and much of it ultimately found its way to the West India market. A
tradition--much quoted--has it that barrels marked "George Washington,
Mount Vernon," were accepted in the islands without any inspection, but
Mr. J.M. Toner, one of the closest students of Washington's career,
contended that this was a mistake and pointed to the fact that the
Virginia law provided for the inspection of all flour before it was
exported and the placing of a brand on each barrel. However this may be,
we have Washington's own word for it, that his flour was as good in
quality as any manufactured in America--and he was no boaster.

[ILLUSTRATION: Dogue Run below the Site of the Mill]

[ILLUSTRATION: On the Road to the Mill and Pohick Church]

That his flour was so good was in large measure due to the excellent
quality of the wheat from which it was made. By careful attention to his
seed and to cultivation he succeeded in raising grain that often
weighed upward of sixty pounds to the bushel. After the Revolution he
wrote: "No wheat that has ever yet fallen under my observation exceeds
the wheat which some years ago I cultivated extensively."

His idea of good cultivation in these years was to let his fields lie
fallow at certain intervals, though he also made use of manure, marl,
etc., and in 1772 tried the experiment of sowing two bushels of salt per
acre upon fallow ground, dividing the plot up into strips eight feet in
width and sowing the alternate strips in order that he might be able to
determine results.

He imported from England an improved Rotheran or patent plow, and,
having noticed in an agricultural work mention of a machine capable of
pulling up two or three hundred stumps per day, he expressed a desire
for one, saying: "If the accounts are not greatly exaggerated, such
powerful assistance must be of vast utility in many parts of this wooden
country, where it is impossible for our force (and laborers are not to
be hired here), between the finishing of one crop and preparations for
another, to clear ground fast enough to afford the proper changes,
either in the planting or farming business."

These were his golden days. He was not so rich as he was later nor so
famous, but he was strong and well and young, he had abundant friends,
and his neighbors thought well enough of him to send him to the
Burgesses and to make him a vestryman of old Pohick Church; if he felt
the need of recreation he went fishing or fox-hunting or attended a
horse race or played a game of cards with his friends, and he had few
things to trouble him seriously. But fussy kings and ministers overseas
were meddling with the liberties of subjects and were creating a
situation out of which was to come a mighty burden--a burden so
Atalantean that it would have frightened most men, but one that he was
brave enough and strong enough to shoulder and with it march down to
immortality.



CHAPTER VIII


CONSERVING THE SOIL

The Revolution rudely interrupted Washington's farming experiments, and
for eight long years he was so actively engaged in the grim business of
checkmating Howe and Clinton and Cornwallis that he could give little
time or thought to agriculture. For more than six years, in fact, he did
not once set foot upon his beloved fields and heard of his crops, his
servants and his live stock only from family visitors to his camps or
through the pages of his manager's letters.

Peace at last brought him release. He had left Mount Vernon a simple
country gentleman; he came back to it one of the most famous men in the
world. He wasted no time in contemplating his laurels, but at once threw
himself with renewed enthusiasm into his old occupation. His observation
of northern agriculture and conversations with other farmers had
broadened his views and he was more than ever progressive. He was now
thoroughly convinced of the great desirability of grass and stock for
conserving the soil and he was also wide awake to the need of better
tools and methods and wished to make his estate beautiful as well
as useful.

Much of his energy in 1784-85 was devoted to rebuilding his house and
improving his grounds, and to his trip to his Ohio lands--all of which
are described elsewhere. No diary exists for 1784 except that of the
trip to the Ohio, but from the diary of 1785 we learn that he found time
to experiment with plaster of Paris and powdered stone as fertilizers,
to sow clover, orchard grass, guinea grass and peas and to borrow a scow
with which to raise rich mud from the bed of the Potomac.

The growing poverty of his soil, in fact, was a subject to which he gave
much attention. He made use of manure when possible, but the supply of
this was limited and commercial fertilizers were unknown. As already
indicated, he was beginning the use of clover and other grasses, but he
was anxious to build up the soil more rapidly and the Potomac muck
seemed to him a possible answer to the problem. There was, as he said,
"an inexhaustible fund" of it, but the task of getting it on the land
was a heavy one. Having heard of a horse-power dredge called the
_Hippopotamus_ that was in use on the Delaware River, he made inquiries
concerning it but feared that it would not serve his purpose, as he
would have to go from one hundred to eight hundred or a thousand yards
from high water-mark for the mud--too far out for a horse to be
available. Mechanical difficulties and the cost of getting up the mud
proved too great for him--as they have proved too great even down to the
present--but he never gave up the idea and from time to time tried
experiments with small plots of ground that had been covered with the
mud. His enthusiasm on the subject was so great that Noah Webster, of
dictionary fame, who visited him in this period, says that the standing
toast at Mount Vernon was "Success to the mud!"

Every scientific agriculturist knows that erosion is one of the chief
causes of loss in soil fertility and that in the basins and deltas of
streams and rivers there is going to waste enough muck to make all of
our land rich. But the cost of getting this fertility back to the soil
has thus far proved too great for us to undertake the task of
restoration. It is conceivable, however, that the time may come when we
shall undertake the work in earnest and then the dream of Washington
will be realized.

The spring and summer of 1785 proved excessively dry, and the crops
suffered, as they always do in times of drought. The wheat yield was
poor and chinch bugs attacked the corn in such myriads that our Farmer
found "hundreds of them & their young under the blades and at the lower
joints of the Stock." By the middle of August "Nature had put on a
melancholy look." The corn was "_fired_ in most places to the Ear, with
little appearance of yielding if Rain should now come & a certainty of
making nothing if it did not."

Like millions of anxious farmers before and after him, he watched
eagerly for the rain that came not. He records in his diary that on
August 17th a good deal of rain fell far up the river, but as for his
fields--it tantalizingly passed by on the other side, and "not enough
fell here to wet a handkerchief." On the eighteenth, nineteenth and
twenty-second clouds and thunder and lightning again awakened hopes but
only slight sprinkles resulted. On the twenty-seventh nature at last
relented and, to his great satisfaction, there was a generous downpour.

The rain was beneficial to about a thousand grains of Cape of Good Hope
wheat that Washington had just sown and by the thirty-first he was able
to note that it was coming up. For several years thereafter he
experimented with this wheat. He found that it grew up very rank and
tried cutting some of it back. But the variety was not well adapted to
Virginia and ultimately he gave it up.

In this period he also tried Siberian wheat, put marl on sixteen square
rods of meadow[4], plowed under rye, and experimented with oats,
carrots, Eastern Shore peas, supposed to be strengthening to land, also
rib grass, burnet and various other things. He planted potatoes both
with and without manure and noted carefully the difference in yields. At
this time he favored planting corn in rows about ten feet apart, with
rows of potatoes, carrots, or peas between. He noted down that his
experience showed that corn ought to be planted not later than May
15th, preferably by the tenth or perhaps even as early as the first, in
which his practice would not differ much from that of to-day. But he
came to an erroneous conclusion when he decided that wheat ought to be
sown in August or at the latter end of July, for this was playing into
the hands of his enemy, the Hessian fly, which is particularly
destructive to early sown wheat. Later he seems to have changed his mind
on that point, for near the end of his life he instructed his manager to
get the wheat in by September 10th. Another custom which he was
advocating was that of fall and winter plowing and he had as much of it
done as time and weather would permit. All of his experiments in this
period were painstakingly set down and he even took the trouble in 1786
to index his agricultural notes and observations for that year.

[4] "On sixteen square rod of ground in my lower pasture, I put 140
Bushels of what we call Marle viz on 4 of these, No. Wt. corner were
placed 50 bushels--on 4 others So. Wt. corner 30 bushels--on 4 others
So. Et. corner 40 bushels--and on the remaining 4-20 bushels. This Marle
was spread on the rods in these proportions--to try first whether what
we have denominated to be Marie possesses any virtue as manure--and
secondly--if it does, the quantity proper for an acre." His ultimate
conclusion was that marl was of little benefit to land such as he owned
at Mount Vernon.

Many of his experiments were made in what he called his "Botanical
Garden," a plot of ground lying between the flower garden and the
spinner's house. But he had experimental plots on most or all of his
plantations, and each day as he made the rounds of his estate on
horseback he would examine how his plants were growing or would start
new experiments.

The record of failures is, of course, much greater than of successes,
but that is the experience of every scientific farmer or horticulturist
who ventures out of the beaten path. Even Burbank, the wizard, has his
failures--and many of them.

One of Washington's successes was what he called a "barrel plough." At
that time all seed, such as corn, wheat and oats had to be sown or
dropped by hand and then covered with a harrow or a hoe or something of
the kind. Washington tried to make a machine that would do the work more
expeditiously and succeeded, though it should be said that his plans
were not altogether original with him, as there was a plan for such a
machine in Duhamel and another was published by Arthur Young about this
time in the _Annals of Agriculture_, which Washington was now perusing
with much attention. Richard Peters also sent yet another plan.

Washington's drill, as we should call it to-day, consisted of a barrel
or hollow cylinder of wood mounted upon a wheeled plow and so arranged
that as the plow moved forward the barrel turned. In the barrel, holes
were cut or burnt through which the corn or other seed could drop into
tubes that ran down to the ground. By decreasing or increasing the
number of holes the grain could be planted thicker or thinner as
desired. To prevent the holes from choking up he found it expedient to
make them larger on the outside than on the inside, and he also found
that the machine worked better if the barrel was not kept too full of
seed. Behind the drills ran a light harrow or drag which covered the
seed, though in rough ground it was necessary to have a man follow after
with a hoe to assist the process. A string was fastened to this harrow
by which it could be lifted around when turning at the ends of the rows,
the drill itself being managed by a pair of handles.

Washington wrote to a friend that the drill would not "work to good
effect in land that is very full either of stumps, stones, or large
clods; but, where the ground is tolerably free from these and in good
tilth, and particularly in light land, I am certain you will find it
equal to your most sanguine expectation, for Indian corn, wheat, barley,
pease, or any other tolerably round grain, that you may wish to sow or
plant in this manner. I have sown oats very well with it, which is among
the most inconvenient and unfit grains for this machine.... A small bag,
containing about a peck of the seed you are sowing, is hung to the nails
on the right handle, and with a small tin cup the barrel is replenished
with convenience, whenever it is necessary, without loss of time, or
waiting to come up with the seed-bag at the end of the row."

As Washington says, the drill would probably work well under ideal
conditions, but there were features of it that would incline, I have no
doubt, to make its operator swear at times. There was a leather band
that ran about the barrel with holes corresponding to those in the
barrel, the purpose of the band being to prevent the seeds issuing out
of more than one hole at the same time. This band had to be "slackened
or braced" according to the influence of the atmosphere upon the
leather, and sometimes the holes in the band tended to gape and admit
seed between the band and the barrel, in which case Washington found it
expedient to rivet "a piece of sheet tin, copper, or brass, the width of
the band, and about four inches long, with a hole through it, the size
of the one in the leather."

Washington was, however, very proud of the drill, and it must have
worked fairly well, for he was not the man to continue to use a
worthless implement simply because he had made it. He even used it to
sow very small seed. In the summer of 1786 he records: "Having fixed a
Roller to the tale of my drill plow, & a brush between it and the
barrel, I sent it to Muddy Hole & sowed turnips in the intervals
of corn[5]."

[5] Another passage from his papers in which he mentions using his drill
plow is also illustrative of the emphasis he placed upon having the seed
bed for a crop properly prepared. The passage describes his sowing some
spring wheat and is as follows: "12th [of April, 1785].--Sowed sixteen
acres of Siberian wheat, with eighteen quarts, in rows between corn,
eight feet apart. This ground had been prepared in the following manner:
1. A single furrow; 2. another in the same to deepen it; 3. four furrows
to throw the earth back into the two first, which made ridges of five
furrows. These, being done some time ago, and the sowing retarded by
frequent rains, had got hard; therefore, 4. before the seed was sown,
these ridges were split again by running twice in the middle of them,
both times in the same furrow; 5. after which the ridges were harrowed;
and, 6. where the ground was lumpy, run a spiked roller with a harrow at
the tail of it, which was found very efficacious in breaking the clods
and pulverizing the earth, and would have done it perfectly, if there
had not been too much moisture remaining from the late rains. After
this, harrowing and rolling were necessary, the wheat was sown with the
drill plough on the reduced ridges eight feet apart, as above mentioned,
and harrowed in with the small harrow belonging to the plough. But it
should have been observed, that, after the ridges were split by the
middle double furrows, and before they were closed again by the harrow,
a little manure was sprinkled in."

No man better understood the value of good clean seed than did he, but
he had much trouble in satisfying his desires in this respect. Often the
seed he bought was foul with weed seeds, and at other times it would not
grow at all. Once he mentions having set the women and "weak hands" to
work picking wild onions out of some Eastern Shore oats that he
had bought.

He advocated planting the largest and finest potatoes instead of the
little ones, as some farmers out of false ideas of economy still make
the mistake of doing, and he followed the same principle that "the best
will produce the best" in selecting all seed.

He also appreciated the importance of getting just the right stand of
grain--not too many plants and not too few--upon his fields and
conducted investigations along this line. He laboriously calculated the
number of seed in a pound Troy of various seeds and ascertained, for
example, that the number of red clover was 71,000, of timothy 298,000,
of "New River Grass" 844,800 and of barley 8,925. Knowing these facts,
he was able to calculate how much ought to be sowed of a given seed
to the acre.

The spectacle of the former Commander of the Armies of a Continent
engaging in such minute labor is ridiculous or sublime, according to the
viewpoint!

In the spring of the year that he helped to frame the Federal
Constitution he "Sowed the squares No. 2 & 4 at this place [Dogue Run]
with oats in the following manner--viz--the East half of No. 2 with
half a Bushel of Oats from George Town--and the west half with a Bushel
of Poland Oats--The east half of No. 4 with half a bushel of the Poland
Oats and the west half with a bushel of the George Town Oats. The
objects, and design of this experiment, was to ascertn. 3 things--1st.
which of these two kinds of Oats were best the George Town (which was a
good kind of the common Oats)--2d. whether two or four bushels to the
Acre was best--and 3d. the difference between ground dunged at the Rate
of 5 load or 200 bushels to the Acre and ground undunged."

This experiment is typical of a great many others and it resulted, of
course, in better yields on the manured ground and showed that two
bushels of seed were preferable to four. But if he ever set down the
result of the experiment as regards the varieties, the passage has
escaped me.

While at Fredericksburg this year visiting his mother and his sister
Betty Lewis he learned of an interesting method of raising potatoes
under straw and wrote down the details in his diary. A little later when
attending the Federal Convention he kept his eyes and ears open for
agricultural information. He learned how the Pennsylvanians cultivated
buckwheat and visited the farm of a certain Jones, who was getting good
results from the use of plaster of Paris. With his usual interest in
labor-saving machinery he inspected at Benjamin Franklin's a sort of
ironing machine called a mangle, "well calculated," he thought, "for
Table cloths & such articles as have not pleats & irregular foldings &
would be very useful in large families."

This year he had in wheat seven hundred acres, in grass five hundred
eighty acres, in oats four hundred acres, in corn seven hundred acres,
with several hundred more in buckwheat, barley, potatoes, peas, beans
and turnips.

In 1788 he raised one thousand eighty-eight bushels of potatoes on one
plantation, but they were not dug till December and in consequence some
were badly injured by the frost. An experiment that year was one of
transplanting carrots between rows of corn and it was not successful.

He worked hard in these years, but, as many another industrious farmer
has discovered, he found that he could do little unless nature smiled
and fickle nature persisted in frowning. In 1785 the rain seemed to
forget how to fall, and in 1786 how to stop falling. Some crops failed
or were very short and soon he was so hard up that he was anxious to
sell some lands or negroes to meet debts coming due. In February, 1786,
in sending fifteen guineas to his mother, he wrote:

"I have now demands upon me for more than £500, three hundred and forty
odd of which is due for the tax of 1786; and I know not where or when I
shall receive one shilling with which to pay it. In the last two years I
made no crops. In the first I was obliged to buy corn, and this year
have none to sell, and my wheat is so bad I can neither eat it myself
nor sell it to others, and tobacco I make none. Those who owe me money
cannot or will not pay it without suits, and to sue is to do nothing;
whilst my expenses, not from any extravagance, or an inclination on my
part to live splendidly, but for the absolute support of my family and
the visitors who are constantly here, are exceedingly high."

To bad crops were joined bad conditions throughout the country
generally. The government of the Confederation was dying of inanition,
America was flooded with depreciated currency, both state and
Continental. In western Massachusetts a rebellion broke out, the rebels
being largely discouraged debtors. A state of chaos seemed imminent and
would have resulted had not the Federal Convention, of which Washington
was a member, created a new government. Ultimately this government
brought order and financial stability, but all this took time and
Washington was so financially embarrassed in 1789 when he traveled to
New York to be inaugurated President that he had to borrow money to pay
the expenses of the journey.

After having set the wheels of government in motion he made an extended
trip through New England and whenever public festivities would permit he
examined into New England farm methods and took copious notes. On the
first day up from New York he saw good crops of corn mixed with pumpkins
and met four droves of beef cattle, "some of which were very fine--also
a Flock of Sheep.... We scarcely passed a farm house that did not abd.
in Geese." His judgment of New England stock was that the cattle were
"of a good quality and their hogs large, but rather long legged." The
shingle roofs, stone and brick chimneys, stone fences and cider making
all attracted his attention. The fact that wheat in that section
produced an average of fifteen bushels per acre and often twenty or
twenty-five was duly noted. On the whole he seems to have considered
the tour enjoyable and profitable in spite of the fact that on his
return through Connecticut the law against Sabbath traveling compelled
him to remain over Sunday at Perkins' Tavern and to attend church twice,
where he "heard very lame discourses from a Mr. Pond."

About 1785 Washington had begun a correspondence with Arthur Young and
also began to read his periodical called the _Annals of Agriculture_.
The _Annals_ convinced him more than ever of the superiority of the
English system of husbandry and not only gave him the idea for some of
the experiments that have been mentioned, but also made him very
desirous of adopting a regular and systematic course of cropping in
order to conserve his soil. Taking advantage of an offer made by Young,
he ordered (August 6, 1786) through him English plows, cabbage, turnip,
sainfoin, rye-grass and hop clover seed and eight bushels of winter
vetches; also some months later, velvet wheat, field beans, spring
barley, oats and more sainfoin seed. He furthermore expressed a wish for
"a plan of the most complete and useful farmyard, for farms of about 500
acres. In this I mean to comprehend the barn, and every appurtenance
which ought to be annexed to the yard."

Young was as good as his word. Although English law forbade the
exportation of some of these things--a fact of which Washington was not
aware--he and Sir John Sinclair prevailed upon Lord Grenville to issue a
special permit and in due course everything reached Mount Vernon. Part
of the seeds were somewhat injured by being put into the hold of the
vessel that brought them over, with the result that they overheated--a
thing that troubled Washington whenever he imported seeds--but on the
whole the consignment was in fair order, and our Farmer was
duly grateful.

The plows appeared excessively heavy to the Virginians who looked them
over, but a trial showed that they worked "exceedingly well."

To Young's plan for a barn and barnyard Washington made some additions
and constructed the barn upon Union Farm, building it of bricks that
were made on the estate. He later expressed a belief that it was "the
largest and most convenient one in this country." It has now disappeared
almost utterly, but Young's plan was subsequently engraved in
the _Annals_.

In return for the exertions of Young and Sinclair in his behalf
Washington sent over some American products and also took pains to
collect information for them as to the state of American agriculture.
His letters show an almost pathetic eagerness to please these good
friends and it is evident that in his farming operations he regarded
himself as one of Young's disciples. He was no egotist who believed that
because he had been a successful soldier and was now President of the
United States he could not learn anything from a specialist. The trait
was most commendable and one that is sadly lacking in many of his
countrymen, some of whom take pride in declaring that "these here
scientific fellers caint tell me nothin' about raisin' corn!"

Young and Sir John Sinclair were by no means his only agricultural
correspondents. Even Noah Webster dropped his legal and philological
work long enough in 1790 to propound a theory so startlingly modern in
its viewpoint that it is worthy of reproduction. Said he:

"While therefore I allow, in its full extent, the value of stable
manure, marl, plaster of Paris, lime, ashes, sea-weed, sea-shells &
salt, in enriching land, I believe none of them are absolutely
necessary, but that nature has provided an inexhaustible store of
manure, which is equally accessible to the rich and the poor, & which
may be collected & applied to land with very little labor and expense.
This store is the _atmosphere_, & the process by which the fertilizing
substance may be obtained is vegetation."

He added that such crops as oats, peas, beans and buckwheat should be
raised and plowed under to rot and that land should never be left bare.
As one peruses the letter he recalls that scientists of to-day tell us
that the air is largely made up of nitrogen, that plants are able to
"fix it," and he half expects to find Webster advocating "soil
innoculation" and speaking of "nodules" and "bacteria."

Throughout the period after the Revolution our Farmer's one greatest
concern was to conserve and restore his land. When looking for a new
manager he once wrote that the man must be, "above all, Midas like, one
who can convert everything he touches into manure, as the first
transmutation toward gold; in a word, one who can bring worn-out and
gullied lands into good tilth in the shortest time." He saved manure as
if it were already so much gold and hoped with its use and with
judicious rotation of crops to accomplish his object. "Unless some such
practice as this prevails," he wrote in 1794, "my fields will be growing
worse and worse every year, until the Crops will not defray the expense
of the culture of them."

He drew up elaborate plans for the rotation of crops on his different
farms. Not content with one plan, he often drew up several alternatives;
calculated the probable financial returns from each, allowing for the
cost of seed, cultivation and other expenses, and commented upon the
respective advantages from every point of view of the various plans. The
labor involved in such work was very great, but Washington was no
shirker. He was always up before sunrise, both in winter and summer, and
seems to have been so constituted that he was most contented when he had
something to do. Perhaps if he had had to engage in hard manual toil
every day he would have had less inclination for such employment, but he
worked with his own hands only intermittently, devoting his time mostly
to planning and oversight.

One such plan for Dogue Run Farm is given on the next page. To
understand it the reader should bear in mind that the farm contained
five hundred twenty-five arable acres divided into seven fields, each of
which contained about seventy-five acres.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
 No. of |        |        |        |        |        |        |        |
 Fields |  1793  |  1794  |  1795  |  1796  |  1797  |  1798  |  1799  |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        |  Corn  |        |Buckwheat        | Clover | Clover | Clover |
   3    |   and  |  Wheat |   for  |  Wheat |   or   |   or   |   or   |
        |Potatoes|        | Manure |        |  Grass |  Grass |  Grass |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        | Clover |  Corn  |        |Buckwheat        | Clover | Clover |
   4    |   or   |   and  |  Wheat |   for  |  Wheat |   or   |   or   |
        |  Grass |Potatoes|        | Manure |        |  Grass |  Grass |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        | Clover | Clover |  Corn  |        |Buckwheat        | Clover |
   5    |   or   |   or   |   and  |  Wheat |   for  |  Wheat |   or   |
        |  Grass |  Grass |Potatoes|        | Manure |        |  Grass |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        | Clover | Clover | Clover |  Corn  |        |Buckwheat        |
   6    |   or   |   or   |   or   |   and  |  Wheat |   for  |  Wheat |
        |  Grass |  Grass |  Grass |Potatoes|        | Manure |        |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        |        | Clover | Clover | Clover |  Corn  |        |Buckwheat
   7    |  Wheat |   or   |   or   |   or   |   and  |  Wheat |   for  |
        |        |  Grass |  Grass |  Grass |Potatoes|        | Manure |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        |Buckwheat        | Clover | Clover | Clover |  Corn  |        |
   1    |   for  |  Wheat |   or   |   or   |   or   |   and  |  Wheat |
        | Manure |        |  Grass |  Grass |  Grass |Potatoes|        |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        |        |Buckwheat        | Clover | Clover | Clover |  Cornr |
   2    |  Wheat |   for  |  Wheat |   or   |   or   |   or   |   and  |
        |        | Manure |        |  Grass |  Grass |  Grass |Potatoes|
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Of this rotation he noted that it "favors the land
very much; inasmuch as there are but three corn
crops [i.e. grain crops] taken in seven years from
any field, & the first of the wheat crops is followed
by a Buck Wheat manure for the second Wheat
Crop, wch. is to succeed it; & which by being laid
to Clover or Grass & continued therein three years
will a ford much Mowing or Grassing, according as
the Seasons happen to be, besides being a restoration
to the Soil--But the produce of the sale of the
Crops is small, unless encreased by the improving
state of the fields. Nor will the Grain for the use of
the Farm be adequate to the consumption of it in
this Course, and this is an essential object to attend to."

In a second table he estimated the amount of work that would be required
each year to carry out this plan of rotation, assuming that one plow
would break up three-fourths of an acre per day. This amount is hardly
half what an energetic farmer with a good team of horses will now turn
over in a day with an ordinary walking plow, but the negro farmer
lacked ambition, the plows were cumbersome, and much of the work was
done with plodding oxen. The table follows:

[ILLUSTRATION (TABLE): PLANTING CHART]

He estimated that seventy-five acres of corn would yield, at twelve and
a half bushels per acre, 937-1/2 bushels, worth at two shillings and
sixpence per bushel £117.3.9. In this field potatoes would be planted
between the rows of corn and would produce, at twelve and a half bushels
per acre, 937-1/2 bushels, worth at one shilling per bushel £46.17.6.
Two fields in wheat, a total of one hundred fifty acres, at ten bushels
per acre, would yield one thousand five hundred bushels, worth at five
shillings per bushel three hundred seventy-five pounds. Three fields in
clover and grass and the field of buckwheat to be turned under for
manure would yield no money return. In other words the whole farm would
produce three thousand three hundred seventy-five bushels of grain and
potatoes worth a total of £539.1.3.

A second alternative plan would yield crops worth £614.1.3; a third,
about the same; a fourth, £689.1.3; a fifth, providing for two hundred
twenty-five acres of wheat, £801.11.0; a sixth, £764. Number five would
be most productive, but he noted that it would seriously reduce the
land. Number six would be "the 2d. most productive Rotation, but the
fields receive no rest," as it provided for neither grass nor pasture,
while the plowing required would exceed that of any of the other plans
by two hundred eighty days.

On a small scale he tried growing cotton, Botany Bay grass, hemp, white
nankeen grass and various other products. He experimented with deep soil
plowing by running twice in the same furrow and also cultivated some
wheat that had been drilled in rows instead of broadcasted.

In 1793 he built a new sixteen-sided barn on the

[ILLUSTRATION: Part of Washington's Plan for His Sixteen-Sided Barn]

Dogue Run Farm. The plan of this barn, drawn by Washington himself, is
still preserved and is reproduced herewith. He calculated that one
hundred and forty thousand bricks would be required for it and these
were made and burnt upon the estate. The barn was particularly notable
for a threshing floor thirty feet square, with interstices one and a
half inches wide left between the floor boards so that the grain when
trodden out by horses or beat out with flails would fall through to the
floor below, leaving the straw above.

This floor was to furnish an illustration of what Washington called "the
almost impossibility of putting the overseers of this country out of the
track they have been accustomed to walk in. I have one of the most
convenient barns in this or perhaps any other country, where thirty
hands may with great ease be employed in threshing. Half the wheat of
the farm was actually stowed in this barn in the straw by my order, for
threshing; notwithstanding, when I came home about the middle of
September, I found a treading yard not thirty feet from the barn-door,
the wheat again brought out of the barn, and horses treading it out in
an open exposure, liable to the vicissitudes of the weather."

I think we may safely conclude that this was one of those rare
occasions when George lost his temper and "went up in the air!"

Under any conditions treading or flailing out wheat was a slow and
unsatisfactory process and, as Washington grew great quantities of this
grain, he was alert for a better method. We know that he made inquiries
of Arthur Young concerning a threshing machine invented by a certain
Winlaw and pictured and described in volume six of the _Annals_, and in
1790 he watched the operation of Baron Poelnitz's mill on the Winlaw
model near New York City. This mill was operated by two men and was
capable of threshing about two bushels of wheat per hour--pretty slow
work as compared with that of a modern thresher. And the grain had to be
winnowed, or passed through a fan afterward to separate it from
the chaff.

Finally in 1797 he erected a machine on plans evolved by William Booker,
who came to Mount Vernon and oversaw the construction. Next April he
wrote to Booker that the machine "has by no means answered your
expectations or mine," At first it threshed not quite fifty bushels per
day, then fell to less than twenty-five, and ultimately got out of
order before five hundred bushels had been threshed, though it had used
up two bands costing between eight and ten pounds. Booker replied that
he had now greatly improved his invention and would come to Mount Vernon
and make these additions, but whether or not he ever did so I have
failed to discover.

By 1793 the burden of the estate had become so heavy that Washington
decided to rent all of it except the Mansion House Farm and accordingly
he wrote to Arthur Young telling his desire in the hope that Englishmen
might be found to take it over. One man, Parkinson, of whom more
hereafter, came to America and looked at one of the farms, but decided
not to rent it. Washington's elaborate description of his land in his
letter to Young, with an accompanying map, forms one of our best sources
of information regarding Mount Vernon, so that we may be grateful that
he had the intention even though nothing came of it. The whole of Mount
Vernon continued to be cultivated as before until the last year of his
life when he rented Dogue Run Farm to his nephew, Lawrence Lewis.

As a public man he was anxious to improve the general state of American
agriculture and in his last annual message to Congress recommended the
establishment of a board of agriculture to collect and diffuse
information and "by premiums and small pecuniary aids to encourage and
assist a spirit of discovery and improvement." In this recommendation
the example of the English Board of Agriculture and the influence of his
friend Arthur Young are discernible. It would have been well for the
country if Congress had heeded the advice, but public opinion was not
then educated to the need of such a step and almost a century passed
before anything of much importance was done by the national government
to improve the state of American agriculture.

In farming as in politics Washington was no standpatter. Notwithstanding
many discouragements, he could not be kept from trying new things, and
he furnished his farms with every kind of improved tool and implement
calculated to do better work. At his death he owned not only threshing
machines and a Dutch fan, but a wheat drill, a corn drill, a machine for
gathering clover seed and another for raking up wheat. Yet most of his
countrymen remained content to drop corn by hand, to broadcast their
wheat, to tread out their grain and otherwise to follow methods as old
as the days of Abel for at least another half century.

He was the first American conservationist. He realized that man owes a
duty to the future just as he owes a debt to the past. He deplored the
already developing policy of robber exploitation by which our soil and
forests have been despoiled, for he foresaw the bitter fruits which such
a policy must produce, and indeed was already producing on the fields of
Virginia. He was no misanthropic cynic to exclaim, "What has posterity
ever done for us that we should concern ourselves for posterity?" His
care for the lands of Mount Vernon was evidence of the God-given trait
imbedded in the best of men to transmit unimpaired to future generations
what has been handed down to them.

His agricultural career has its lessons for us, even though we should
not do well to follow some of his methods. The lessons lie rather in his
conception of farming as an honorable occupation capable of being put on
a better and more scientific basis by the application of brains and
intelligence; in his open-minded and progressive seeking after better
ways. Many of his experiments failed, it is true, but for his time he
was a great Farmer, just as he was a great Patriot, Soldier and
Statesman. Patient, hard-working, methodical, willing to sacrifice his
own interests to those of the general good, he was one of those men who
have helped raise mankind from the level of the brute and his whole
career reflects credit upon human nature.

Peace hath its victories no less renowned than war, and the picture of
the American Cincinnatus striving as earnestly on the green fields of
Mount Vernon as he did upon the scarlet ones of Monmouth and Brandywine,
is one that the world can not afford to forget.



CHAPTER IX


THE STOCKMAN

A various times in his career Washington raised deer, turkeys, hogs,
cattle, geese, negroes and various other forms of live stock, but his
greatest interest seems to have been reserved for horses, sheep
and mules.

From his diaries and other papers that have come down to us it is easy
to see that during his early married life he paid most attention to his
horses. In 1760 he kept a stallion both for his own mares and for those
of his neighbors, and we find many entries concerning the animal.
Successors were "Leonidas," "Samson," "Steady," "Traveller" and
"Magnolia," the last a full-blooded Arabian and probably the finest
beast he ever owned. When away from home Washington now and then
directed the manager to advertise the animal then reigning or to exhibit
him in public places such as fairs. Mares brought to the stallion were
kept upon pasture, and foal was guaranteed. Many times the General
complained of the difficulty of collecting fees.

During the Revolution he bought twenty-seven worn-out army mares for
breeding purposes and soon after he became President he purchased at
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, thirteen fine animals for the same use. These
last cost him a total of £317.17.6, the price of the highest being
£25.7.6 and of the cheapest £22.10. These mares were unusually good
animals, as an ordinary beast would have cost only five or six pounds.

In November, 1785, he had on his various Mount Vernon farms a total of
one hundred thirty horses, including the Arabian already mentioned.
Among the twenty-one animals kept at the Mansion House were his old war
horses "Nelson" and "Blewskin," who after bearing their master through
the smoke and dangers of many battles lived in peace to a ripe old age
on the green fields of Virginia.

In his last days he bought two of the easy-gaited animals known as
Narragansetts, a breed, some readers will recall, described at some
length by Cooper in _The Last of the Mohicans._ A peculiarity of these
beasts was that they moved both legs on a side forward at the same time,
that is, they were pacers. Washington's two proved somewhat skittish,
and one of them was responsible for the only fall from horseback that we
have any record of his receiving. In company with Major Lewis, Mr.
Peake, young George Washington Custis and a groom he was returning in
the evening from Alexandria and dismounted for a few moments near a fire
on the roadside. When he attempted to mount again the horse sprang
forward suddenly and threw him. The others jumped from their horses to
assist him, but the old man got up quickly, brushed his clothes and
explained that he had been thrown only because he had not yet got
seated. All the horses meanwhile had run away and the party started to
walk four miles home, but luckily some negroes along the road caught the
fugitives and brought them back. Washington insisted upon mounting his
animal again and rode home without further incident. This episode
happened only a few weeks before his death.

Like every farmer he found that his horses had a way of growing old.
Those with which he had personal associations, like "Blueskin" and
"Nelson," he kept until they died of old age. With others he sometimes
followed a different course. In 1792 we find his manager, Whiting,
writing: "We have several Old Horses that are not worth keeping thro
winter. One at Ferry has not done one days work these 18 Months. 2 at
Muddy hole one a horse with the Pole evil which I think will not get
well the other an Old Mare was not capable of work last summer. Likewise
the Horse called old Chatham and the Lame Horse that used to go in the
Waggon now in a one horse Cart. If any thing could be Got for them it
might be well but they are not worth keeping after Christmas." No doubt
a sentimental person would say that Washington ought to have kept these
old servants, but he had many other superannuated servants of the human
kind upon his hands, so he replied that Whiting might dispose of the old
horses "as you judge best for my interest."

Now and then his horses met with accidents. Thus on February 22, 1760,
his horse "Jolly" got his right foreleg "mashed to pieces," probably by
a falling limb. "Did it up as well as I could this night." "Saturday,
Feb. 23d. Had the Horse Slung upon Canvas and his leg fresh set,
following Markleham's directions as well as I could." Two days later the
horse fell out of the sling and hurt himself so badly that he had to
be killed.

Of Washington's skill as a trainer of horses his friend De Chastellux
writes thus: "The weather being fair, on the 26th, I got on horseback,
after breakfasting with the general--he was so attentive as to give me
the horse he rode, the day of my arrival, which I had greatly
commended--I found him as good as he is handsome; but above all,
perfectly well broke, and well trained, having a good mouth, easy in
hand, and stopping short in a gallop without bearing the bit--I mention
these minute particulars, because it is the general himself who breaks
all his own horses; and he is a very excellent and bold horseman,
leaping the highest fences, and going extremely quick, without standing
upon his stirrups, bearing on the bridle, or letting his horse run
wild,--circumstances which young men look upon as so essential a part of
English horsemanship, that they would rather break a leg or an arm than
renounce them."

Comparatively few farmers in Virginia kept sheep, yet as early as 1758
Washington's overseer at Mount Vernon reported sixty-five old sheep and
forty-eight lambs; seven years later the total number was one hundred
fifty-six. The next year he records that he "put my English Ram Lamb to
65 Ewes," so that evidently he was trying to improve the breed. What
variety this ram belonged to he does not say. Near the end of his career
he had some of Bakewell's breed, an English variety that put on fat
rapidly and hence were particularly desirable for mutton.

During his long absences from home his sheep suffered grievously, for
sheep require a skilled care that few of his managers or overseers knew
how to give. But sheep were an important feature of the English
agriculture that he imitated, and he persisted in keeping them. In 1793
he had over six hundred.

"Before I left home in the spring of 1789," he wrote to Arthur Young, "I
had improved that species of my stock so much as to get 5-1/4 lbs of
Wool as the average of the fleeces of my whole flock,--and at the last
shearing they did not yield me 2-1/2 lbs.--By procuring (if I am able)
good rams and giving the necessary attention, I hope to get them up
again for they are with me, as you have declared them to be with you,
that part of my stock in which I most delight."

In 1789, by request, he sent Young "a fleece of a midling size and
quality." Young had this made up into cloth and returned it to
the General.

In 1793 we find our Farmer giving such instructions to Whiting as to
cull out the unthrifty sheep and transform them into mutton and to
choose a few of the best young males to keep as rams. Whiting, however,
did not manage the flock well, for the following February we find
Pearce, the new manager, writing:

"I am sorry to have to inform you that the stock of sheep at Both Union
and Dogue Run farms are Some of them Dicing Every Week--& a great many
of Them will be lost, let what will be done--Since I came I have had
shelters made for them & Troughs to feed them In & to give them salt--&
have attended to them myself & was In hopes to have saved those that I
found to be weak, but they were too far gone--and Several of the young
Cattle at Dogue Run was past all Recovery when I come & some have died
already & several more I am afraid must die before spring, they are so
very poor and weak."

Washington, according to his own account, was the first American to
attempt the raising of mules. Soon after the Revolution he asked our
representative in Spain to ascertain whether it would be possible "to
procure permission to extract a Jack ass of the best breed." At that
time the exportation of these animals from Spain was forbidden by law,
but Florida Blanca, the Spanish minister of state, brought the matter
to the attention of the king, who in a fit of generosity proceeded to
send the American hero two jacks and two jennets. One of the jacks died
on the way over, but the other animals, in charge of a Spanish
caretaker, reached Boston, and Washington despatched an overseer to
escort them to Mount Vernon, where they arrived on the fifth of
December, 1785. An interpreter named Captain Sullivan was brought down
from Alexandria, and through him the General propounded to the caretaker
many grave inquiries regarding the care of the beasts, the answers being
carefully set down in writing.

[ILLUSTRATION: Bill of Lading for "Royal Gift"]

"Royal Gift," as he was duly christened, probably by the negro groom,
Peter, who seems to have considered it beneath his dignity to minister
to any but royalty, was a large animal. According to careful
measurements taken on the porch at Mount Vernon he was fifteen hands
high, and his body and limbs were very large in proportion to his
height; his ears were fourteen inches long, and his vocal cords were
good. He was, however, a sluggish beast, and the sea voyage had affected
him so unfavorably that for some time he was of little use. In letters
to Lafayette and others Washington commented facetiously upon the
beast's failure to appreciate "republican enjoyment." Ultimately,
however, "Royal Gift" recovered his strength and ambition and proved a
valuable piece of property. He was presently sent on a lour of the
South, and while in South Carolina was in the charge of Colonel William
Washington, a hero of the Cowpens and many other battles. The profits
from the tour amounted to $678.64, yet poor "Royal Gift" seems to have
experienced some rough usage on the way thither, arriving lame and thin
and in a generally debilitated condition. The General wrote to the
Colonel about it thus:

"From accounts which I have received from some gentlemen in Virginia he
was most abominably treated on the journey by the man to whom he was
entrusted;--for, instead of moving him slowly and steadily along as he
ought, he was prancing (with the Jack) from one public meeting or place
to another in a gate which could not but prove injurious to an animal
who had hardly ever been out of a walk before--and afterward, I presume,
(in order to recover lost time) rushed him beyond what he was able to
bear the remainder of the journey."

No doubt the beast aroused great curiosity along the way among people
who had never before set eyes upon such a creature. We can well believe
that the cry, "General Washington's jackass is coming!" was always
sufficient to attract a gaping crowd. And many would be the sage
comments upon the animal's voice and appearance.

In 1786 Lafayette sent Washington from the island of Malta another jack
and two jennets, besides some Chinese pheasants and partridges. The
animals landed at Baltimore in November and reached Mount Vernon in good
condition later in the month. To Campion, the man who accompanied them,
Washington gave "30 Louis dores for his trouble." The new jack, the
"Knight of Malta," as he was called, was a smaller beast than "Royal
Gift," and his ears measured only twelve inches, but he was well formed
and had the ferocity of a tiger.

By crossing the two strains Washington ultimately obtained a jack called
"Compound," who united in his person the size and strength of the "Gift"
with the courage and activity of the "Knight." The General also raised
many mules, which he found to be good workers and more cheaply kept in
condition than horses.

Henceforward the peaceful quiet of Mount Vernon was broken many times a
day by sounds which, if not musical or mellifluous, were at least
jubilant and joyous.

Evidently the sounds in no way disturbed the General, for in 1788 we
find him describing the acquisitions in enthusiastic terms to Arthur
Young. He called the mules "a very excellent race of animals," cheap to
keep and willing workers. Recalling, perhaps, that a king's son once
rode upon a mule, he proposes to breed heavy ones from "Royal Gift" for
draft purposes and lighter ones from the "Knight" for saddle or
carriage. He adds: "Indeed in a few years, I intend to drive no other in
my carriage, having appropriated for the sole purpose of breeding them,
upwards of twenty of my best mares."

Ah, friend George, what would the world not give to see thee and thy
wife Martha driving in the Mount Vernon coach down Pennsylvania Avenue
behind four such long-eared beasts!

In all his stock raising, as in most other matters, Washington was
greatly hampered by the carelessness of his overseers and slaves. It is
notorious that free negroes will often forget or fail to water and feed
their own horses, and it may easily be believed that when not influenced
by fear, slaves would neglect the stock of their master. Among the
General's papers I have found a list of the animals that died upon his
Mount Vernon estate from April 16, 1789, to December 25, 1790. In that
period of about twenty months he lost thirty-three horses, thirty-two
cattle and sixty-five sheep! Considering the number of stock he had, a
fifth of that loss would have been excessive. During most of the period
he was away from home looking after the affairs of the nation and in his
absence his own affairs suffered.

Hardly a report of his manager did not contain some bad news. Thus one
of January, 1791, states that "the Young black Brood Mare, with a long
tail, which Came from Pennsylvania, said to be four Years old next
spring ... was found with her thigh broke quite in two." This happened
on the Mansion House farm. On another farm a sheep was reported to have
been killed by dogs while a second had died suddenly, perhaps from
eating some poisonous plant.

Dogs, in fact, constituted an ever present menace to the sheep and it
was only by constant watchfulness that the owner kept his negroes from
overrunning the place with worthless curs. In 1792 he wrote to his
manager: "I not only approve of your killing those Dogs which have been
the occasion of the late loss, & of thinning the Plantations of others,
but give it as a positive order that after saying what dog, or dogs
shall remain, if any negro presumes under any pretence whatsoever, to
preserve, or bring one into the family, that he shall be severely
punished, and the dog hanged.--I was obliged to adopt this practice
whilst I resided at home, and from the same motive, that is for the
preservation of my Sheep and Hogs.... It is not for any good purpose
Negroes raise, and keep dogs; but to aid them in their night robberies;
for it is astonishing to see the command under which the dogs are."

After the Revolution, in imitation of English farmers, he made use of
hurdles in pasturing sheep and milk cows. Thereby he secured more even
distribution of the manure, which was one of his main objects in
raising stock.

Washington's interest in cattle seems to have been less intense than was
the case with some other kinds of stock. He always had a great number of
cows, bulls, oxen and calves upon his farms--in 1793 over three hundred
"black cattle" of all sorts. He was accustomed to brand his cattle with
the letters "G.W.," the location of the brand on the body indicating
the farm on which the beast was raised. To what extent he endeavored to
improve the breed of his cattle I am unable to say, but I have found
that as early as 1770 he owned an English bull, which in July he killed
and sold to the crew of the British frigate _Boston_, which lay in the
Potomac off his estate. In 1797 he made inquiries looking toward the
purchase of an improved bull calf from a cattle breeder named Gough, but
upon learning that the price was two hundred dollars he decided not to
invest. Gough, however, heard of Washington's interest in his animals,
and being an admirer of the General, gave him a calf. An English farmer,
Parkinson, who saw the animal in 1798, describes him in terms the
reverse of enthusiastic, and of this more hereafter.

A large part of the heavy work on all the farms was done by oxen. In
November, 1785, there were thirteen yoke of these beasts on the Mount
Vernon estate and the number was sometimes still larger. In 1786
Washington recorded putting "a Collar on a large Bull in order to break
him to the draft.--at first he was sulky and restive but came to by
degrees." The owner always aimed to have enough oxen broken so that none
would have to be worked too hard, but he did not always succeed in his
aim. When they attained the age of eight years the oxen were usually
fattened and killed for beef.

The management of the milk cows seems to have been very poor. In May,
1793, we find the absent owner writing to his manager: "If for the sake
of making a little butter (for which I shall get scarcely anything) my
calves are starved, & die, it may be compared to stopping the spigot,
and opening the faucit." Evidently the making of butter was almost
totally discontinued, for in his last instructions, completed only a few
days before his death, he wrote: "And It is hoped and will be expected,
that more effectual measures will be pursued to make butter another
year; for it is almost beyond belief, that from 101 Cows actually
reported on a late enumeration of the Cattle, that I am obliged to _buy
butter_ for the use of my family."

In his later years he became somewhat interested in the best methods of
feeding cattle and once suggested that the experiment be tried of
fattening one bullock on potatoes, another on corn, and a third on a
mixture of both, "keeping an exact account of the time they are fatting,
and what is eaten of each, and of hay, by the different steers; that a
judgment may be formed of the best and least expensive mode of stall
feeding beef for market, or for my own use."

During his early farming operations his swine probably differed little
if at all from the razor-backs of his neighbors. They ranged half wild
in the woods in summer and he once expressed the opinion that fully half
the pigs raised were stolen by the slaves, who loved roast pork fully as
well as did their master. In the fall the shoats were shut up to fatten.
More than a hundred were required each year to furnish meat for the
people on the estate; the average weight was usually less than one
hundred forty pounds. Farmers in the Middle West would to-day have their
Poland Chinas or Durocs of the same age weighing two hundred fifty to
three hundred pounds. Still the smallness of Washington's animals does
not necessarily indicate such bad management as may at first glance
appear. Until of considerable size the pigs practically made their own
living, eating roots and mast in the woods, and they did not require
much grain except during fattening time. And, after all, as the story
has it, "what's time to a hawg?"

In his later years he seems to have taken more interest in his pigs. By
1786 he had decided that when fattening they ought to be put into
closed pens with a plank floor, a roof, running water and good troughs.
A visitor to Mount Vernon in 1798 says that he had "about 150 of the
Guinea kind, with short legs and hollow back," so it is evident that he
was experimenting with new breeds. These Guinea swine were red in color,
and it is said that the breed was brought to America from west Africa by
slave traders. It was to these animals that Washington fed the
by-products of his distillery.

In the slaughtering of animals he tried experiments as he did in so many
other matters. In 1768 he killed a wether sheep which weighed one
hundred three pounds gross. He found that it made sixty pounds of meat
worth three pence per pound, five and a half of tallow at seven and a
half pence, three of wool at fifteen pence, and the skin was worth one
shilling and three pence, a total of £1.3.5. One object of such
experiments was to ascertain whether it was more profitable to butcher
animals or sell them on the hoof.

Washington also raised chickens, turkeys, swans, ducks, geese and
various other birds and beasts. In 1788 Gouverneur Morris sent him two
Chinese pigs and with them "a pair of Chinese geese, which are really
the foolishest geese I ever beheld; for they choose all times for
setting but in the spring, and one of them is even now [November]
actually engaged in that business." Of some golden pheasants that had
been brought from China the General said that before seeing the birds he
had considered that pictures of them must be "only works of fancy, but
now I find them to be only Portraits."

The fact is that his friends and admirers sent him so many feathered or
furred creatures that toward the end of his life he was the proprietor
of a considerable zoo.

Notwithstanding mismanagement by his employees and slaves, Washington
accumulated much valuable domestic stock. In his will, made the year of
his death, he lists the following: "1 Covering horse, 5 Cob. horses--4
Riding do--Six brood mares--20 working horses and mares,--2 Covering
jacks & 3 young ones 10 she asses--42 working mules--15 younger ones.
329 head of horned cattle. 640 head of Sheep, and the large stock of
hogs, the precise number unknown." He further states that his manager
believes the stock worth seven thousand pounds, but he conservatively
sets it down at fifteen thousand six hundred fifty-three dollars.



CHAPTER X


THE HORTICULTURIST AND LANDSCAPE GARDENER

Washington's work as a horticulturist prior to the educating influences
of the Revolution was mostly utilitarian. That he had a peach orchard as
early as 1760 is proven by an entry in his diary for February 22: "Laid
in part, the Worm of a fence round the Peach orchard." Just where this
orchard stood I am not quite certain, but it was probably on the slope
near the old tomb.

He learned how to propagate and "wed" his own trees and in 1763 was
particularly active. On March 21st he recorded that he had "Grafted 40
cherries, viz 12 Bullock Hearts, 18 very fine May Cherry, 10 Coronation.
Also grafted 12 Magnum Bonum Plums. Also planted 4 Nuts of the
Mediterranean Pame in the Pen where the Chestnut grows--sticks by East.
Note, the Cherrys and Plums came from Collo. Masons Nuts from Mr.
Gr[een's.] Set out 55 cuttings of the Madeira Grape."

A little later he grafted quinces on pear and apple stocks; also he
grafted "Spanish pairs," "Butter pears," "Bergamy Pears," "Newtown
Pippins," "43 of the Maryland Red Strick," etc., and transplanted
thirty-five young crab scions. These scions he obtained by planting the
pumice of wild crab apples from which cider had been made. They were
supposed to make hardier stocks than those grown from ordinary seeds.

He grafted many cherries, plums, etc., in March, 1764, and yet again in
the spring of 1765, when he put English mulberry scions on wild mulberry
stocks. In that year "Peter Green came to me a Gardener." In 1768 and
1771 he planted grapes in the inclosure below the vegetable garden and
in March, 1775, he again grafted cherries and also planted peach seeds
and seeds of the "Mississippi nut" or pecan.

Long before this he had begun to gather fruits from his early trees and
vines. Being untroubled by San Jose scale and many other pests that now
make life miserable to the fruit grower, he grew fine products and no
doubt enjoyed them.

His esthetic sense was not yet fully developed, but he was always
desirous of having his possessions make a good appearance, and by 1768
was beginning to think of beautifying his grounds. In that year he
expressed a wish that he later carried out, namely to have about his
mansion house every possible specimen of native tree or shrub noted for
beauty of form, leaf or flower.

Even amid the trials of the Revolution this desire was not forgotten. In
1782 he directed Lund Washington, his manager, to plant locusts and
other ornamental trees and shrubs at the ends of the house. He wrote
that such trees would be more likely to live if taken from the open
fields than from the woods because the change of environment would be
less pronounced. To what extent the work was carried I have been unable
to ascertain, for, as elsewhere stated, very little of his
correspondence with his manager during these years survives.

He returned from the Revolution with a strong desire to beautify his
estate, a desire in part due no doubt to seeing beautiful homes
elsewhere and to contact with cultured people, both Americans and
foreigners. One of his first tasks was to rebuild and enlarge his house.
From a small house of eight rooms he transformed Mount Vernon into the
present large mansion, ninety-six feet and four inches long by
thirty-two feet in depth, with two floors and an attic, an immense
cellar and the magnificent portico overlooking the Potomac. The plans
and specifications he drew with his own hands, and those who have
visited the place will hardly deny that the mansion fits well into its
setting and that, architects tell us, is a prime consideration. The
flagstones for the floor of the portico he imported from Whitehaven,
England, and these still remain in place, though many are cracked
or broken.

The portico runs the entire length of the house, is over fourteen feet
deep and its floor is one hundred twenty-four feet ten and one-half
inches above high water-mark, according to calculations made by
Washington himself. From it one commands miles of the Potomac and of the
Maryland shore and there are few such noble prospects in America.
Washington owned a telescope and spy glasses and with them could watch
the movements of ships and boats on the river. The portico was a sort of
trysting place for the family and visitors on summer afternoons and
evenings, and some of the thirty or so Windsor chairs bought for it are
still in existence.

[Illustration: West Front of Mansion House, Showing Bowling Green and
Part of Serpentine Drive]

[Illustration: Experimental Plot, with Servants' Quarters (restored) in
Background]

This was the second time our Farmer reconstructed his house, as in
1758-60 he had made numerous alterations[6]. In 1758 he paid John
Patterson £328.0.5 for work done upon it, and the whole house was pretty
thoroughly renovated and remodeled in preparation for the reception of a
new mistress. In March, 1760, we find the owner contracting with William
Triplett "to build me two houses in front of my house (plastering them
also) and running walls to them from the great house and from the great
house to the washouse and kitchen also." By the "front" he means the
west front, as that part toward the river is really the rear of the
mansion. Hitherto the house had stood detached and these walls were the
originals of the colonnades, still a noticeable feature of the building.

[6] In 1775 a Frenchman was engaged to panel the main hall and apply
stucco ornaments to the ceilings of the parlor and dining-room.

Owing to the absence of a diary of his home activities during 1784 we
can not trace in detail his work that year upon either his house or
grounds, but we know such facts as that he was ordering materials for
the house and that he had his French friend Malesherbes and others
collecting vines and plants for him.

With January 1, 1785, he began a new diary, and from it we ascertain
that on the twelfth, on a ride about his estate, he observed many trees
and shrubs suitable for transplanting. Thereafter he rarely rode out
without noticing some crab, holly, magnolia, pine or other young tree
that would serve his purpose. He was more alive to the beauties of
nature than he had once been, or at least more inclined to comment upon
them. On an April day he notes that "the flower of the Sassafras was
fully out and looked well--an intermixture of this and Red bud I
conceive would look very pretty--the latter crowned with the former or
vice versa." He was no gushing spring poet, but when the sap was
running, the flowers blooming and the birds singing he felt it all in
his heart--perhaps more deeply than do some who say more about it.

On January 19th of this year he began laying out his grounds on a new
plan. This plan, as completed, provided for sunken walls or "Haw has!"
at the ends of the mansion, and on the west front a large elliptical
lawn or bowling green such as still exists there. Along the sides of the
lawn he laid out a serpentine drive or carriage way, to be bordered with
a great variety of shade trees on each side and a "Wilderness" on the
outside. At the extreme west, where the entrance stood, the trees were
omitted so that from the house one could see down a long vista, cut
through the oaks and evergreens, the lodge gate three-quarters of a mile
away. On each side of the opening in the lawn stood a small artificial
mound, and just in front of the house a sun-dial by which each day, when
the weather was clear, he set his watch. A sun-dial stands on the same
spot now but, alas, it is not the original. That was given away or sold
by one of the subsequent owners.

This same spring our Farmer records planting ivy, limes and lindens sent
by his good friend Governor Clinton of New York; lilacs, mock oranges,
aspen, mulberries, black gums, berried thorns, locusts, sassafras,
magnolia, crabs, service berries, catalpas, papaws, honey locusts, a
live oak from Norfolk, yews, aspens, swamp berries, hemlocks, twelve
horse chestnut sent by "Light Horse Harry" Lee, twelve cuttings of tree
box, buckeye nuts brought by him the preceding year from the mouth of
Cheat River, eight nuts from a tree called "the Kentucke Coffee tree," a
row of shell bark hickory nuts from New York, some filberts from "sister
Lewis." His brother John sent him four barrels of holly seeds, which he
sowed in the semicircle north of the front gate; in the south
semicircle, from the kitchen to the south "Haw ha!"; and from the
servants' hall to the north "Haw ha!"

Nor did he neglect more utilitarian work, for in April he grafted many
cherries, pears and other fruit trees. Such work was continued at
intervals till his death.

In raising fruit, as in many other things, he was troubled by the
thieving propensities of the slaves. September tenth of this year he
records that because of the scarcity of apples and the depredations that
were being committed "every Night upon the few I have, I found it
necessary (tho much too early) to gather and put them up for
Winter use."

The spring of 1785 proved an exceptionally dry one and he was forced to
be absent from home several days, leaving the care of the trees and
shrubs to his careless lazy servants. He records that they _said_ that
they watered them according to directions, but he seems to doubt it. At
all events, "Most of my transplanted trees have a sickly look.--The
small Pines in the Wilderness are entirely dead.--The larger ones in the
Walks, for the most part appear to be alive (as yet)--almost the whole
of the Holly are dead--many of the Ivy, wch. before looked healthy &
well seem to be declining--few of the Crab trees had put forth leaves;
not a single Ash tree has unfolded its buds; whether owing to the trees
declining or any other cause, I know not.... The lime trees, which had
some appearance of Budding when I went away, are now withering--and the
Horse chestnut & Tree box from Colo. Harry Lee's discover little signs
of shooting.--the Hemlock is almost entirely dead, & bereft of their
leaves;--and so are the live Oak.--In short half the Trees in the
Shrubberies & many in the Walk are dead & declin[in]g."

Nevertheless he refused to be discouraged and proceeded to plant
forty-eight mahogany tree seeds brought by his nephew, George A.
Washington, from the West Indies. He also set out a "Palmetto Royal" in
the garden and sowed or planted sandbox trees, palmettos, physic nuts,
pride of Chinas, live oaks, accacias, bird peppers, "Caya pepper,"
privet, guinea grass, and a great variety of Chinese grasses, the names
of which, such as _"In che fa," "all san fa" "se lon fa,"_ he gravely
set down in his diary.

The dry weather continued and presently he notes that all the poplars,
black gums and pines, most of the mulberries, all of the crab apples
and papaws, most of the hemlock and sassafras, and several of the cedars
are dead, while the tops of the live oaks are dead but shoots are coming
up from the trunks and roots. The Chinese grasses are in a bad way, and
those that have come up are almost entirely destroyed either by insects
or drought. None of this grass survived the winter, though he took the
trouble to cover it with straw.

During the fall of 1785 and spring of 1786 he sowed the lawn with
English grass seeds, replaced the dead trees in the serpentine walks and
shrubberies, and sent two hundred and fifteen apple trees to his River
Plantation. He made the two low mounds already mentioned and planted
thereon weeping willows. He set out stocks of imported hawthorns, four
yellow jessamines, twenty-five of the Palinurus for hedges, forty-six
pistacia nuts and seventy-five pyramidical cypress, which last were
brought to him by the botanist Michaux from the King of France. As 1786
was one of the wettest summers ever known, his plants and trees lived
better than they had done the preceding year.

During this period and until the end of his life he was constantly
receiving trees and shrubs from various parts of the world. Thus in
1794 he sent to Alexandria by Thomas Jefferson a bundle of "Poccon
[pecan] or Illinois nut," which in some way had come to him at
Philadelphia. He instructed the gardener to set these out at Mount
Vernon, also to sow some seeds of the East India hemp that had been left
in his care. The same year thirty-nine varieties of tropical plants,
including the bread fruit tree, came to him from a well wisher in
Jamaica. At other times he sowed seeds of the cucumber tree, chickory
and "colliflower" and planted ivy and wild honeysuckle. Again he once
more planted pecans and hickory nuts. It can hardly be that at his
advanced age he expected to derive any personal good from either of
these trees, but he was very fond of nuts, eating great quantities for
dessert, and the liking inclined him to grow trees that produced them.
In this, as in many other matters, he planted for the benefit of
posterity.

In order to care for his exotic plants he built adjoining the upper
garden a considerable conservatory or hothouse. In this he placed many
of the plants sent to him as presents and also purchased many others
from the collection of the celebrated botanist, John Bartram, at
Philadelphia. The structure, together with the servants' quarters
adjoining, was burned down in December, 1835, and when the historian
Lossing visited Mount Vernon in 1858 nothing remained of these buildings
except bare walls crumbling to decay. Of the movable plants that had
belonged to Washington there remained in 1858 only a lemon tree, a
century plant and a sago palm, all of which have since died. The
conservatory and servants' quarters have, however, been rebuilt and the
conservatory restocked with plants such as Washington kept in it. The
buildings probably look much as they did in his time.

One of the sights to-day at Mount Vernon is the formal garden, which all
who have visited the place will remember. Strangely enough it seems
impossible to discover exactly when this was laid out as it now stands.
The guides follow tradition and tell visitors that Washington set out
the box hedge, the principal feature, after his marriage, and that he
told Martha that she should be mistress of this flower garden and he the
master of the vegetable garden. It is barely possible that he did set
out the hedges at that time, but, if so, it must have been in 1759, for
no mention is made of it in the diary begun in 1760. In April, 1785, we
find by his diary that he planted twelve cuttings of the "tree box" and
again in the spring of 1787 he planted in his shrubberies some holly
trees, "also ... some of the slips of the tree box." But of box hedges I
can find no mention in any of the papers I have seen. One guess is about
as good as another, and I am inclined to believe that if they were
planted in his time, it was done during his presidency by one of his
gardeners, perhaps Butler or the German, Ehler. They may have been set
out long after his death. At all events the garden was modeled after the
formal gardens of Europe and the idea was not original with him.

East of the formal garden lies a plot of ground that he used for
agricultural experiments. The vegetable garden was south of the Bowling
Green and separated from it by a brick wall. Here utility was lord and a
great profusion of products was raised for the table. Washington took an
interest in its management and I have found an entry in his diary
recording the day that green peas were available for the first time that
year. Evidently he was fond of them.

The bent of our Farmer's mind was to the practical, yet he took pride in
the appearance of his estate. "I shall begrudge no reasonable expense
that will contribute to the improvement and neatness of my farms," he
wrote one of his managers, "for nothing pleases me better than to see
them in good order, and everything trim, handsome, and thriving about
them; nor nothing hurts me more than to find them otherwise."

Live hedges tend to make a place look well and it was probably this and
his passion for trees that caused Washington to go in extensively for
hedges about his farms. They took the place of wooden fences and saved
trees and also grew more trees and bushes. His ordinary course in
building a fence was to have a trench dug on each side of the line and
the dirt thrown toward the center. Upon the ridge thus formed he built a
post and rail fence and along it planted cedars, locusts, pines, briars
or thorn bushes to discourage cattle and other stock. The trenches not
only increased the efficiency of the fence but also served as ditches.
In many places they are still discernible. The lines of the hedges are
also often marked in many places by trees which, though few or none can
be the originals, are descended from the roots or seeds of those trees.
Cedar and locust trees are particularly noticeable.

[Illustration: First page of the Diary for 1760]

In 1794 our Farmer had five thousand white thorn sent from England for
hedge purposes, but they arrived late in the spring and few survived and
even these did not thrive very well. Another time he sent from
Philadelphia two bushels of honey locust seed to be planted in his
nursery. These are only instances of his activities in this direction.

Much of what he undertook as a planter of trees failed for one reason or
another, most of all because he attended to the business of his country
at the expense of his own, but much that he attempted succeeded and
enough still remains to enable us to realize that by his efforts he made
his estate attractive. He was no Barbarian or Philistine. He had a sense
of beauty and it is only in recent years that his countrymen, absorbed
in material undertakings, have begun to appreciate the things that he
was enjoying so long ago.

"The visitor at Mount Vernon still finds a charm no art alone could
give, in trees from various climes, each a witness of the taste that
sought, or the love that sent them, in fields which the desolating step
of war reverently passed by, in flowers whose root is not in graves, yet
tinged with the lifeblood of the heart that cherished them from
childhood to old age. On those acres we move beneath the shade or
shelter of the invisible tree which put forth whatever meets the eye,
and has left some sign on each object, large or small. Still planted
beside his river, he brings forth fruit in his season. Nor does his
leaf wither."



CHAPTER XI


WHITE SERVANTS AND OVERSEERS

In colonial Virginia, as in most other new countries, one of the
greatest problems that confronted the settlers was that of labor. It
took human muscle to clear away the forest and tend the crops, and the
quantity of human muscle available was small. One solution of the
problem was the importation of black slaves, and of this solution as it
concerned Washington something will be said in a separate chapter.
Another solution was the white indentured servant.

Some of these white servants were political offenders, such as the
followers of Monmouth, who were punished by transportation for a term of
years or for life to the plantations. Others were criminals or
unfortunate debtors who were sold in America instead of being sent to
jail. Others were persons who had been kidnapped and carried across the
sea into servitude. Yet others were men and women who voluntarily bound
themselves to work for a term of years in payment of their passage to
the colonies. By far the largest number of the white servants in
Washington's day belonged to this last-mentioned class, who were often
called "redemptioners." Some of these were ambitious, well-meaning
people, perhaps skilled artisans, who after working out their time
became good citizens and often prospered. A few were even well educated.
In favor of the convicts, however, little could be said. In general they
were ignorant and immoral and greatly lowered the level of the
population in the Southern States, the section to which most of them
were sent.

Whether they came to America of their own free will or not such servants
were subjected to stringent regulations and were compelled to complete
their terms of service. If they ran away, they could be pursued and
brought back by force, and the papers of the day were full of
advertisements for such absconders. Owing to their color and the ease
with which they found sympathizers among the white population, however,
the runaways often managed to make good their escape.

To give a complete list of Washington's indentured servants, even if it
were possible, would be tedious and tiresome. For the most part he
bought them in order to obtain skilled workmen. Thus in 1760 we find him
writing to a Doctor Ross, of Philadelphia, to purchase for him a joiner,
a brick-layer and a gardener, if any ship with servants was in port. As
late as 1786 he bought the time of a Dutchman named Overdursh, who was a
ditcher and mower, and of his wife, a spinner, washer and milker; also
their daughter. The same year he "received from on board the Brig Anna,
from Ireland, two servant men for whom I agreed yesterday--viz--Thomas
Ryan, a shoemaker, and Cavan Bowen a Tayler Redemptioners for 3 years
service by Indenture." These cost him twelve pounds each. The story of
his purchase of servants for his western lands is told in another place,
as is also that of his plan to import Palatines for the same purpose.

On the day of Lexington and Concord, but before the news of that
conflict reached Virginia, two of his indentured servants ran away and
he published a lengthy advertisement of them in the Virginia _Gazette_,
offering a reward of forty dollars for the return of both or twenty
dollars for the return of either. They were described as follows:

"THOMAS SPEARS, a joiner, born in _Bristol_, about 20 years of age, 5
feet 6 inches and a half high, slender made. He has light grey or
blueish colored eyes, a little pock-marked, and freckled, with sandy
colored hair, cut short; his voice is coarse, and somewhat drawling. He
took with him a coat, waistcoat, and breeches, of light brown duffil,
with black horn buttons, a light colored cloth waistcoat, old leather
breeches, check and oznabrig shirts, a pair of old ribbed ditto, new
oznabrig trowsers, and a felt hat, not much the worse for wear. WILLIAM
WEBSTER, a brick maker, born in _Scotland_, and talks pretty broad. He
is about 5 feet six inches high and well made, rather turned of 30, with
light brown hair, and roundish face.... They went off in a small yawl,
with turpentine sides and bottom, the inside painted with a mixture of
tar and red lead."

In the course of his business career Washington also employed a
considerable number of free white men, who likewise were usually skilled
workers or overseers. He commonly engaged them for the term of one year
and by written contracts, which he drew up himself, a thing he had
learned to do when a boy by copying legal forms. Many of these papers
still survive and contracts with joiners and gardeners jostle inaugural
addresses and opinions of cabinet meetings.

As a rule the hired employees received a house, an allowance of corn,
flour, meat and perhaps other articles, the money payment being
comparatively small.

Some of the contracts contain peculiar stipulations. That with a certain
overseer provided: "And whereas there are a number of whiskey stills
very contiguous to the said Plantations, and many idle, drunken and
dissolute People continually resorting the same, priding themselves in
debauching sober and well-inclined Persons the said Edd. Voilett doth
promise as well for his own sake as his employers to avoid them as
he ought."

Probably most readers have heard of the famous contract with the
gardener Philip Bater, who had a weakness for the output of stills such
as those mentioned above. It was executed in 1787 and, in consideration
of Bater's agreement "not to be disguised with liquor except on times
hereinafter mentioned," provided that he should be given "four dollars
at Christmas, with which he may be drunk four days and four nights; two
dollars at Easter to effect the same purpose; two dollars at
Whitsuntide to be drunk for two days; a dram in the morning, and a drink
of grog at dinner at noon."

Washington's most famous white servant was Thomas Bishop, who figures in
some books as a negro. He had been the personal servant of General
Braddock, and tradition says that the dying General commended him to
Washington. At all events Washington took him into his service at ten
pounds per year and, except for a short interval about 1760, Bishop
remained one of his retainers until death. It was Bishop and John Alton
who accompanied Washington on his trip to New York and Boston in
1756--that trip in the course of which, according to imaginative
historians, the young officer became enamored of the heiress Mary
Phillipse. Doubtless the men made a brave show along the way, for we
know that Washington had ordered for them "2 complete livery suits for
servants; with a spare cloak and all other necessary trimmings for two
suits more. I would have you choose the livery by our arms, only as the
field of arms is white, I think the clothes had better not be quite so,
but nearly like the inclosed. The trimmings and facings of scarlet, and
a scarlet waist coat. If livery lace is not quite disused, I should be
glad to have the cloaks laced. I like that fashion best, and two silver
laced hats for the above servants."

When the Revolution came Bishop was too old to take the field and was
left at home as the manager of a plantation. He was allowed a house, for
he had married and was now the father of a daughter. He lived to a great
age, but on fair days, when the Farmer was at home, the old man always
made it a point to grasp his cane and walk out to the road to see his
master ride by, to salute him and to pass a friendly word. He seems to
have thought of leaving Mount Vernon with his daughter in 1794, for the
President wrote to Pearce: "Old Bishop must be taken care of whether he
goes or stays." He died the following January, while Washington was away
in Philadelphia.

Custis tells an amusing story of Bishop's daughter Sally. Following the
Revolution two of Washington's aides-de-camp, Colonels Smith and
Humphreys, the latter a poet of some pretensions, spent considerable
time at Mount Vernon arranging the General's military papers. One
afternoon Smith strolled out from the Mansion House for relaxation and
came upon Sally, then in her teens and old enough to be interesting to
a soldier, milking a cow. When she started for the house with the pail
of milk the Colonel gallantly stepped forward and asked to be permitted
to carry it. But Sally had heard from her father dire tales of what
befell damsels who had anything to do with military men and the fact
that Smith was a fine-looking young fellow in no way lessened her sense
of peril. In great panic she flung down the pail, splashing the contents
over the officer, and ran screaming to the house. Smith followed, intent
upon allaying her alarm and ran plump into old Bishop, who at once
accused him of attempting to philander with the girl, turned a deaf ear
to all the Colonel's explanations, and declared that he would bring word
of the offense to his honor the General, nay more, to Mrs. Washington!

In great alarm the Colonel betook himself toward the Mansion House
pondering upon some way of getting himself out of the scrape he had
fallen into. At last he bethought himself of Billy Lee, the mulatto body
servant, and these two old soldiers proceeded to hold a council of war.
Smith said: "It's bad enough, Billy, for this story to get to the
General's ears, but to those of the lady will never do; and then
there's Humphreys, he will be out upon me in a d--d long poem that will
spread my misfortunes from Dan to Beersheba!" At last it was decided
that Billy should act as special ambassador to Bishop and endeavor to
divert him from his purpose. Meanwhile Bishop had got out his old
clothes--Cumberland cocked hat and all--of the period of the French War,
had dressed with great care and, taking up his staff, had laid his line
of march straight to the Mansion House. Billy met him midway upon the
road and much skirmishing ensued, Billy taking two lines of attack:
first, that Smith was a perfect gentleman, and, second, that Bishop had
no business to have such a devilishly pretty daughter. Finally these
tactics prevailed, Bishop took the right about, and a guinea dropped
into the ambassador's palm completed the episode.

In due time Sally lost her dreadful fear of men and married the
plantation carpenter, Thomas Green, with whose shiftless ways, described
elsewhere, Washington put up for a long time for the sake of "his
family." Ultimately Green quitted Washington's service and seems to have
deserted his wife or else died; at all events she and her family were
left in distressed circumstances. She wrote a letter to Washington
begging assistance and he instructed his manager to aid her to the
extent of £20 but to tell her that if she set up a shop in Alexandria,
as she thought of doing, she must not buy anything of his negroes. He
seems to have allowed her a little wood, flour and meat at killing time
and in 1796 instructed Pearce that if she and her family were really in
distress, as reported, to afford them some relief, "but in my opinion it
had better be in anything than money, for I very strongly suspect that
all that has, and perhaps all that will be given to her in that article,
is applied more in rigging herself, than in the purchase of real and
useful necessaries for her family."

By his will Washington left Sally Green and Ann Walker, daughter of John
Alton, each one hundred dollars in "consideration of the attachment of
their father[s] to me."

Alton entered Washington's service even before Bishop, accompanying him
as a body servant on the Braddock campaign and suffering a serious
illness. He subsequently was promoted to the management of a plantation
and enjoyed Washington's confidence and esteem. It was with a sad heart
that Washington penned in his diary for 1785: "Last night Jno. Alton an
Overseer of mine in the Neck--an old & faithful Servant who has lived
with me 30 odd years died--and this evening the wife of Thos. Bishop,
another old Servant who had lived with me an equal number of years
also died."

The adoption of Mrs. Washington's two youngest grandchildren, Nelly
Custis and George Washington Custis, made necessary the employment of a
tutor. One applicant was Noah Webster, who visited Mount Vernon in 1785,
but for some reason did not engage. A certain William Shaw had charge
for almost a year and then in 1786 Tobias Lear, a native of New
Hampshire and a graduate of Harvard, was employed. It is supposed that
some of the lessons were taught in the small circular building in the
garden; Washington himself refers to it as "the house in the Upper
Garden called the School house."

Lear's duties were by no means all pedagogical and ultimately he became
Washington's private secretary. In Philadelphia he and his family lived
in the presidential mansion. Washington had for him "a particular
friendship," an almost fatherly affection. His interest in Lear's little
son Lincoln was almost as great as he would have bestowed upon his own
grandson. Apropos of the recovery of the child from a serious illness he
wrote in 1793: "It gave Mrs. Washington, myself, and all who knew him
sincere pleasure to hear that our little favourite had arrived safe and
was in good health at Portsmouth--we sincerely wish him a long
continuance of the latter--that he may be always as charming and
promising as he now is--that he may live to be a comfort and blessing to
you--and an ornament to his Country. As a token of my affection for him
I send him a ticket in the lottery that's now drawing in the Federal
City; if it should be his fortune to draw the Hotel, it will add to the
pleasure I feel in giving it."

Truly a rather singular gift for a child, we would think in these days.
Let us see how it turned out. The next May Washington wrote to Lear,
then in Europe on business for the Potomac Navigation Company, of which
he had become president: "Often, through the medium of Mr. Langdon, we
hear of your son Lincoln, and with pleasure, that he continues to be the
healthy and sprightly child he formerly was. He declared if his ticket
should turn up a prize, he would go and live in the Federal City. He did
not consider, poor little fellow, that some of the prizes would hardly
build him a baby house nor foresee that one of these small tickets would
be his lot, having drawn no more than ten dollars."

Lear's first wife had died the year before of yellow fever at the
President's house in Philadelphia, and for his second he took the widow
of George A. Washington--Fanny--who was a niece of Martha Washington,
being a daughter of Anna Dandridge Bassett and Colonel Burwell Bassett.
This alliance tended to strengthen the friendly relations between Lear
and the General. In Washington's last moments Lear held his dying hand
and later penned a noble description of the final scene that reveals a
man of high and tender sentiments with a true appreciation of his
benefactor's greatness. Washington willed him the use of three hundred
sixty acres east of Hunting Creek during life. When Fanny Lear died,
Lear married Frances Dandridge Henley, another niece of Mrs. Washington.
Lear's descendants still own a quilt made by Martha Washington and given
to this niece.

During part at least of Washington's absence in the French war his
younger brother John Augustine, described in the General's will as "the
intimate friend of my ripened age," had charge of his business affairs
and resided at Mount Vernon. The relations with this brother were
unusually close and Washington took great interest in John's eldest son
Bushrod, who studied law and became an associate justice of the Federal
Supreme Court. To Bushrod the General gave his papers, library, the
Mansion House Farm and other land and a residuary share in the estate.

I am inclined to believe that during 1757-58 John Augustine did not have
charge, as Mount Vernon seems to have been under the oversight of a
certain Humphrey Knight, who worked the farm on shares. He was evidently
a good farmer, for in 1758 William Fairfax, who kept a friendly eye upon
his absent neighbor's affairs, wrote: "You have some of the finest
Tobacco & Corn I have seen this year," The summer was, however,
exceedingly dry and the crop was good in a relative sense only. Knight
tried to keep affairs in good running order and the men hard at work,
reporting "as to ye Carpentrs I have minded em all I posably could, and
has whipt em when I could see a fault." Knight died September 9, 1758, a
few months before Washington's marriage.

Washington's general manager during the Revolution was Lund Washington,
a distant relative. He was a man of energy and ability and retired
against protests in 1785. Unfortunately not much of the correspondence
between the two has come down to us, as Lund destroyed most of the
General's letters. Why he did so I do not know, though possibly it was
because in them Washington commented freely about persons and sections.
In one that remains, for example, written soon after his assumption of
command at Cambridge, the General speaks disparagingly of some New
England officers and says of the troops that they may fight well, but
are "dirty fellows." When the British visited Mount Vernon in 1781 Lund
conciliated them by furnishing them provisions, thereby drawing down
upon himself a rebuke from the owner, who said that he would rather have
had his buildings burned down than to have purchased their safety in
such a way. Nevertheless the General appreciated Lund's services and the
two always remained on friendly terms.

Lund was succeeded by Major George Augustine Washington, son of the
General's brother Charles. From his youth George Augustine had attached
himself to his uncle's service and fought under him in the Revolution,
a part of the time on the staff of Lafayette. The General had a strong
affection for him and in 1784 furnished him with money to take a trip to
the West Indies for his health. Contrary to expectations, he improved,
married Fanny Bassett, and for several years resided at Mount Vernon.
But the disease, consumption, returned and, greatly to his uncle's
distress, he died in 1792. Washington helped to care for the widow until
she became the wife of Tobias Lear.

Two other nephews, Robert Lewis and Howell Lewis, were in turn for short
intervals in charge of affairs, but presently the estate was committed
to the care of an Englishman named Anthony Whiting, who was already
overseer of two of the farms. Like his predecessor he was a victim of
consumption and died in June, 1793. Washington showed him great
kindness, repeatedly urging him not to overexert, to make use of wines,
tea, coffee and other delicacies that had been sent for the use of
guests. As Whiting was also troubled with rheumatism, the President
dropped affairs of state long enough to write him that "Flannel next the
skin [is] the best cure for, & preventative of the Rheumatism I have
ever tried." Yet after Whiting's death the employer learned that he had
been deceived in the man--that he "drank freely--kept bad company at my
house in Alexandria--and was a very debauched person."

William Pearce, who followed Whiting, came from the eastern shore of
Maryland, where he owned an estate called "Hopewell." His salary was a
hundred guineas a year. A poor speller and grammarian, he was
nevertheless practical and one of the best of all the managers. He
resigned in 1797 on account of rheumatism, which he thought would
prevent him from giving business the attention it deserved. Washington
parted from him with much regret and gave him a "certificate" in which
he spoke in the most laudatory terms of his "honesty, sobriety industry
and skill" and stated that his conduct had given "entire satisfaction."
They later corresponded occasionally and exchanged farm and family news
in the most friendly way.

The last manager, James Anderson, was described by his employer as "an
honest, industrious and judicious Scotchman." His salary was one hundred
forty pounds a year. Though born in a country where slaves were unknown,
he proved adaptable to Virginia conditions and assisted the overseers
"in some chastisements when needful." As his employer retired from the
presidency soon after he took charge he had not the responsibility of
some who had preceded him, for Washington was unwilling to be reduced to
a mere cipher on his own estate. Seeing the great profusion of cheap
corn and rye, Anderson, who was a good judge of whisky, engaged the
General in a distillery, which stood near the grist mill. The returns
for 1798 were £344.12.7-3/4, with 755-1/4 gallons still unsold.

Washington's letters to his managers are filled with exhortations and
sapient advice about all manner of things. He constantly urged them to
avoid familiarities with the blacks and preached the importance of
"example," for, "be it good or bad," it "will be followed by all those
who look up to you.--Keep every one in their place, & to their duty;
relaxation from, or neglect in small matters, lead to like attempts in
matters of greater magnitude."

The absent owner was constantly complaining that his managers failed to
inform him about matters concerning which he had inquired. Hardly a
report reached him that did not fail to explain something in which he
was interested. This was one of the many disadvantages of farming at
long range.

In 1793 Washington described his overseers to Pearce, who was just
taking charge, in great detail. Stuart is competent, sober and
industrious, but talkative and conceited. "If he stirs early and works
late ... his talkativeness and vanity may be humored." Crow is active
and possessed of good judgment, but overly fond of "visiting and
receiving visits." McKoy is a "sickly, slothful and stupid fellow."
Butler, the gardener, may mean well, but "he has no more authority over
the Negroes he is placed over than an old woman would have." Ultimately
he dismissed Butler on this ground, but as the man could find no other
job he was forced to give him assistance. The owner's opinions of Davy,
the colored overseer at Muddy Hole Farm, and of Thomas Green, the
carpenter, are given elsewhere.

In the same letter he exhorted Pearce to see what time the overseers
"turn out of a morning--for I have strong suspicions that this, with
some of them, is at a late hour, the consequences of which to the
Negroes is not difficult to foretell. All these Overseers as you will
perceive by their agreements, which I here with send, are on standing
wages; and this with men who are not actuated by the principles of honor
or honesty, and not very regardful of their characters, leads naturally
to endulgences--as _their_ profits whatever may be _mine_, are the same
whether they are at a horse race or on the farm."

From the above it will appear that he did not believe that the overseers
were storing up any large treasury of good works. In the Revolution he
wrote that one overseer and a confederate, "I believe, divide the
profits of my Estate on the York River, tolerably between them, for the
devil of anything do I get." Later he approved the course of George A.
Washington in depriving an overseer of the privilege of killing four
shoats, as this gave him an excuse when caught killing a pig to say that
it was one of those to which he was entitled. Even when honest, the
overseers were likely to be careless. They often knew little about the
stock under their charge and in making their weekly reports would take
the number from old reports instead of actually making the count, with
the result that many animals could die or disappear long before those in
charge became aware of it.

[Illustration: Part of Manger's Weekly Report]

Washington's carpenters were mostly slaves, but he usually hired a
white man to oversee and direct them. In 1768, for example, he engaged
for this purpose a certain Jonathan Palmer, who was to receive forty
pounds a year, four hundred pounds of meat, twenty bushels of corn, a
house to live in, a garden, and also the right to keep two cows.

The carpenters were required not only to build houses, barns, sheds and
other structures, but also boats, and had to hew out or whipsaw many of
the timbers and boards used.

The carpenter whose name we meet oftenest was Thomas Green, who married
Sally Bishop. I have seen a contract signed by Green in 1786, by which
he was to receive annually forty-five pounds in Virginia currency, five
hundredweight of pork, pasture for a cow, and two hundred pounds of
common flour. He also had the right to be absent from the plantation
half a day in every month. He did not use these vacations to good
advantage, for he was a drunken incompetent and tried Washington's
patience sorely. Washington frequently threatened to dismiss him and as
often relented and Green finally, in 1794, quit of his own accord,
though Washington thereafter had to assist his family.

The employment of white day labor at Mount Vernon was not extensive. In
harvest time some extra cradlers were employed, as this was a kind of
work at which the slaves were not very skilful. Payment was at the rate
of about a dollar a day or a dollar for cutting four acres, which was
the amount a skilled man could lay down in a day. The men were also
given three meals a day and a pint of spirits each. They slept in the
barns, with straw and a blanket for a bed. With them worked the
overseers, cutting, binding and setting up the sheaves in stools
or shocks.

Laziness in his employees gave our Farmer a vast deal of unhappiness. It
was an enemy that he fought longer and more persistently than he fought
the British. In his early career a certain "Young Stephens," son of the
miller, seems to have been his greatest trial. "Visited my Plantations,"
he confides to his diary. "Severely reprimanded young Stephens for his
Indolence, and his father for suffering it." "Visited my Quarters & ye
Mill according to custom found young Stephens absent." "Visited my
Plantations and found to my great surprise Stephens constantly at work."
"Rid out to my Plantn. and to my Carpenters. Found Richard Stephens hard
at work with an ax--very extraordinary this!"

To what extent the change proved permanent we do not know. But even
though the reformation was absolute, it mattered little, for each year
produces a new crop of lazybones just as it does "lambs" and "suckers."

Enough has been said to show that our Farmer was impatient, perhaps even
a bit querulous, but innumerable incidents prove that he was also
generous and just. Thus when paper currency depreciated to a low figure
he, of his own volition, wrote to Lund Washington that he would not hold
him to his contract, but would pay his wages by a share in the crops,
and this at a time when his own debtors were discharging their
indebtedness in the almost worthless paper.

If ever a square man lived, Washington was that man. He believed in the
Golden Rule and he practiced it--not only in church, but in business. It
was not for nothing that as a boy he had written as his one hundred
tenth "Rule of Civility": "Labor to keep alive in your Breast that
Little Spark of Celestial fire called Conscience."

In looking through his later letters I came upon one, dated January 7,
1796, from Pearce stating that Davenport, a miller whom Washington had
brought from Pennsylvania, was dead. He had already received six
hundred pounds of pork and more wages than were due him as advances for
the coming year. What should be done? asked the manager. "His Wife and
Children will be in a most Distressed Situation." As I examined the
papers that followed I said to myself: "I will see if I know what his
answer will be." I thought I did, and so it proved. Back from
Philadelphia came the answer:

"Altho' she can have no _right_ to the Meat, I would have none of it
taken from her.--You may also let her have middlings from the Mill,--and
until the house may become indispensably necessary for the succeeding
Miller, let her remain in it.--As she went from these parts she can have
no friends (by these I mean relations) where she is. If therefore she
wishes to return back to his, or her own relations, aid her in
doing so."

Not always were his problems so somber as this. Consider, for example,
the case of William M. Roberts, an employee who feared that he was about
to get the sack. "In your absence to Richmond," writes anxious William,
November 25, 1784, "My Wife & I have had a Most Unhappy falling out
Which I Shall not Trouble you with the Praticlers No farther than This.
I hapened To Git to Drinking one Night as She thought Two Much. & From
one Cros Question to a nother Matters weare Carred to the Langth it has
been. Which Mr. Lund Washington will Inform you For My part I am
Heartily Sorry in my Sole My Wife appares to be the Same & I am of a
pinion that We Shall Live More Happy than We have Don for the fewter."

In his dealings with servants Washington was sometimes troubled with
questions that worry us when we are trying to hire "Mary" or "Bridget."
Thus when Mrs. Washington's ill health necessitated his engaging in 1797
a housekeeper he made the following minute and anxious inquiries of
Bushrod Washington at Richmond concerning a certain Mrs. Forbes:

"What countrywoman is she?

"Whether Widow or Wife? if the latter

"Where her husband is?

"What family she has?

"What age she is?

"Of what temper?

"Whether active and spirited in the execution of her business?

"Whether sober and honest?

"Whether much knowledge in Cookery, and understands ordering and
setting out a Table?

"What her appearance is?

"With other matters which may occur to you to ask,--and necessary for me
to know.

"Mrs. Forbes will have a warm, decent and comfortable room to herself,
to lodge in, and will eat of the victuals of our Table, but not set at
it, at any time _with us_, be her appearance what it may, for if this
was _once admitted_, no line satisfactory to either party, perhaps,
could be drawn thereafter.--It might be well for me to know however
whether this was admitted at Govr. Brookes or not."

Considerate and just though he was, his deliberate judgment of servants
after a long and varied experience was that they are "necessary
plagues ... they baffle all calculation in the accomplishment of any
plan or repairs they are engaged in; and require more attention to and
looking after than can be well conceived."

Perhaps the soundest philosophy upon this trying and much debated
servant question is that of Miles Standish, who proceeded, however,
straightway to violate it.



CHAPTER XII


BLACK SLAVES

It is one of the strange inconsistencies of history that one of the
foremost champions of liberty of all time should himself have been the
absolute owner and master of men, women and children.

Visitors at Mount Vernon saw many faces there, but only a few were white
faces, the rest were those of black slaves. On each farm stood a village
of wooden huts, where turbaned mammies crooned and piccaninnies gamboled
in the sunshine. The cooks, the house servants, the coachmen, the stable
boys, almost all the manual workers were slaves. Even the Mansion House
grounds, if the master was away, were apt to be overrun with black
children, for though only the progeny of a few house servants were
supposed to enter the precincts, the others often disregarded the
prohibition, to the destruction of the Farmer's flowers and rare shrubs.

From his father Washington inherited ten or a dozen slaves and, as
occasion required or opportunity offered, he added to the number. By
1760 he paid taxes on forty-nine slaves, in 1770 on eighty-seven and in
1774 on one hundred thirty-five. Presently he found himself overstocked
and in 1778 expressed a wish to barter for land some "Negroes, of whom I
every day long more to get clear of[7]." Still later he declared that he
had more negroes than could be employed to advantage on his estate, but
was principled against selling any, while hiring them out was almost as
bad. "What then is to be done? Something or I shall be ruined."

[7] In 1754 he bought a "fellow" for £40.5, another named Jack for £52.5
and a woman called Clio for £50. Two years later he acquired two negro
men and a woman for £86, and from Governor Dinwiddie a woman and child
for £60. In 1758 he got Gregory for £60.9. Mount Vernon brought him
eighteen more. Mrs. Washington was the owner of a great many slaves,
which he called the "dower Negroes," and with part of the money she
brought him he acquired yet others. The year of his marriage he bought
Will for £50, another fellow for £60, Hannah and child for £80 and nine
others for £406. In 1762 he acquired two of Fielding Lewis for £115,
seven of Lee Massey for £300, also one-handed Charles for £30. Two years
later he bought two men and a woman of the estate of Francis Hobbs for
£128.10, the woman being evidently of inferior quality, for she cost
only £20. Another slave purchased that year from Sarah Alexander was
more valuable, costing £76. Judy and child, obtained of Garvin Corbin,
cost £63. Two mulattoes, Will and Frank, bought of Mary Lee in 1768,
cost £61.15 and £50, and Will became famous as a body servant; Adam and
Frank, bought of the same owner, cost £38. He bought five more slaves in
1772. Some writers say that this was his last purchase, but it is
certain that thereafter he at least took a few in payment of debts.

In 1786 he took a census of his slaves on the Mount Vernon estate. On
the Mansion House Farm he had sixty-seven, including Will or Billy Lee,
who was his "val de Chambre," two waiters, two cooks, three drivers and
stablers, three seamstresses, two house maids, two washers, four
spinners, besides smiths, a waggoner, carter, stock keeper, knitters and
carpenters. Two women were "almost past service," one of them being "old
and almost blind." A man, Schomberg, was "past labour." Lame Peter had
been taught to knit. Twenty-six were children, the youngest being Delia
and Sally. At the mill were Miller Ben and three coopers. On the whole
estate there were two hundred sixteen slaves, including many
dower negroes.

If our Farmer took any special pains to develop the mental and moral
nature of "My People," as he usually called his slaves, I have found no
record of it. Nor is there any evidence that their sexual relations were
other than promiscuous--if they so desired. Marriage had no legal basis
among slaves and children took the status of their mother. Instances
occurred in which couples remained together and had an affection for
their families, but the reverse was not uncommon. This state of affairs
goes far toward explaining moral lapses among the negroes of to-day.

I have found only one or two lists of the increase of the slaves, one
being that transmitted by James Anderson, manager, in February, 1797, to
the effect that "there are 3 Negro Children Born, & one dead--at River
Farm 1; born at Mansion house, Lina 1; at Union Farm 1 born & one
dead--It was killed by Worms. Medical assistance was called--But the
mothers are very inattentive to their Young."

Just why the managers, when they carefully mentioned the arrival of
calves, colts, lambs and mules, did not also transmit news of the advent
of the more valuable two-legged live stock, is not apparent. In many
reports, however, in accounting for the time of slaves, occur such
entries as: "By Cornelia in child bed 6 days." Occasionally the fact and
sex of the increase is mentioned, but not often.

Washington was much more likely to take notice of deaths than of
increases. "Dorcas, daughter of Phillis, died, which makes 4 Negroes
lost this winter," he wrote in 1760. He strove to safeguard the health
of his slaves and employed a physician by the year to attend to them,
the payment, during part of the time at least, being fifteen pounds per
annum. In 1760 this physician was a certain James Laurie, evidently not
a man of exemplary character, for Washington wrote, April 9, 1760,
"Doctr. Laurie came here. I may add Drunk." Another physician was a
Doctor Brown, another Doctor William Rumney, and in later years it was
Washington's old friend Doctor Craik. I have noticed two instances of
Washington's sending slaves considerable distances for medical
treatment. One boy, Christopher, bitten by a dog, went to a "specialist"
at Lebanon, Pennsylvania, for treatment to avert madness, and another,
Tom, had an operation performed on his eyes, probably for cataract.

When at home the Farmer personally helped to care for sick slaves. He
had a special building erected near the Mansion House for use as a
hospital. Once he went to Winchester in the Shenandoah region especially
to look after slaves ill with smallpox "and found everything in the
utmost confusion, disorder, and backwardness. Got Blankets and every
other requisite from Winchester, and settied things on the best footing
I could." As he had had smallpox when at Barbadoes, he had no fear of
contagion.

Among the entries in his diary are: "Visited my Plantations and found
two negroes sick ... ordered them to be blooded." "Found that lightening
had struck my quarters and near 10 Negroes in it, some very bad but by
letting blood recovered." "Found the new negro Cupid ill of a pleurisy
at Dogue Run Quarter and had him brot home in a cart for better care of
him.... Cupid extremely ill all this day and night. When I went to bed I
thought him within a few hours of breathing his last." However, Cupid
recovered.

In his contracts with overseers Washington stipulated proper care of the
slaves. Once he complained to his manager that the generality of the
overseers seem to "view the poor creatures in scarcely any other light
than they do a draught horse or ox; neglecting them as much when they
are unable to work; instead of comforting and nursing them when they lye
on a sick bed." Again he wrote:

"When I recommended care of and attention to my negros in sickness, it
was that the first stage of, and the whole progress through the
disorders with which they might be seized (if more than a slight
indisposition) should be closely watched, and timely applications and
remedies be administered; especially in the pleurisies, and all
inflammatory disorders accompanied with pain, when a few day's neglect,
or want of bleeding might render the ailment incurable. In such cases
sweeten'd teas, broths and (according to the nature of the complaint,
and the doctor's prescription) sometimes a little wine, may be necessary
to nourish and restore the patient; and these I am perfectly willing to
allow, when it is requisite."

Yet again he complains that the overseers "seem to consider a Negro much
in the same light as they do the brute beasts, on the farms, and often
times treat them as inhumanly."

His slaves by no means led lives of luxury and inglorious ease. A
friendly Polish poet who visited Mount Vernon in 1798 was shocked by the
poor quarters and rough food provided for them. He wrote:

"We entered some negroes' huts--for their habitations cannot be called
houses. They are far more miserable than the poorest of the cottages of
our peasants. The husband and his wife sleep on a miserable bed, the
children on the floor. A very poor chimney, a little kitchen furniture
amid this misery--a tea-kettle and cups.... A small orchard with
vegetables was situated close to the hut. Five or six hens, each with
ten or fifteen chickens, walked there. That is the only pleasure allowed
to the negroes: they are not permitted to keep either ducks or geese
or pigs."

Yet all the slaves he saw seemed gay and light-hearted and on Sundays
played at pitching the bar with an activity and zest that indicated that
they managed to keep from being overworked and found some enjoyment
in life.

To our Farmer's orderly and energetic soul his shiftless lazy blacks
were a constant trial. In his diary for February, 1760, he records that
four of his carpenters had only hewed about one hundred twenty feet of
timber in a day, so he tried the experiment of sitting down and watching
them. They at once fell to with such energy and worked so rapidly that
he concluded that each one ought to hew about one hundred twenty-five
feet per day and more when the days were longer.

A later set of carpenters seem to have been equally trifling, for of
them he said in 1795: "There is not to be found so idle a set of
Rascals.--In short, it appears to me, that to make even a chicken coop,
would employ all of them a week."

"It is observed by the Weekly Report," he wrote when President, "that
the Sowers make only Six Shirts a Week, and the last week Caroline
(without being sick) made only five;--Mrs. Washington says their usual
task was to make nine with Shoulder straps, & good sewing:--tell them
therefore from me, that what _has_ been done _shall_ be done by fair or
foul means; & they had better make a choice of the first, for their own
reputation, & for the sake of peace and quietness otherwise they will be
sent to the several Plantations, & be placed at common labor under the
Overseers thereat. Their work ought to be well examined, or it will be
most shamefully executed, whether little or much of it is done--and it
is said, the same attention ought to be given to Peter (& I suppose to
Sarah likewise) or the Stockings will be knit too small for those for
whom they are intended; such being the idleness, & deceit of
those people."

"What kind of sickness is Betty Davis's?" he demands on another
occasion. "If pretended ailments, without apparent causes, or visible
effects, will screen her from work, I shall get no work at all from
her;--for a more lazy, deceitful and impudent huzzy is not to be found
in the United States than she is."

"I observe what you say of Betty Davis &ct," he wrote a little later,
"but I never found so much difficulty as you seem to apprehend in
distinguishing between _real_ and _feigned_ sickness;--or when a person
is much _afflicted_ with pain.--Nobody can be very sick without having a
fever, nor will a fever or any other disorder continue long upon any one
without reducing them.--Pain also, if it be such as to yield entirely to
its force, week after week, will appear by its effects; but my people
(many of them) will lay up a month, at the end of which no visible
change in their countenance, nor the loss of an oz of flesh, is
discoverable; and their allowance of provision is going on as if nothing
ailed them."

He not only deemed his negroes lazy, but he had also a low opinion of
their honesty. Alexandria was full of low shopkeepers who would buy
stolen goods from either blacks or whites, and Washington declared that
not more than two or three of his slaves would refrain from filching
anything upon which they could lay their hands.

[Illustration: Spinning House--Last Building to the Right]

[Illustration: The Butler's House and Magnolia Set out by Washington the
Year of his Death]

He found that he dared not leave his wine unlocked, because the servants
would steal two glasses to every one consumed by visitors and then
allege that the visitors had drunk it all.

He even suspected the slaves of taking a toll from the clover and
timothy seed given them to sow and adopted the practice of having the
seed mixed with sand, as that rendered it unsalable and also had the
advantage of getting the seed sown more evenly.

Corn houses and meat houses had to be kept locked, apples picked early,
and sheep and pigs watched carefully or the slaves took full advantage
of the opportunity. Nor can we at this distant day blame them very much
or wax so indignant as did their master over their thieveries. They were
held to involuntary servitude and if now and then they got the better of
their owner and managed to enjoy a few stolen luxuries they merely did a
little toward evening the score. But it was poor training for
future freedom.

The black picture which Washington draws of slavery--from the master's
standpoint--is exceedingly interesting and significant. The character
he gives the slaves is commended to the attention of those persons who
continually bemoan the fact that freedom and education have ruined
the negroes.

One of the famous "Rules of Civility," which the boy Washington so
carefully copied, set forth that persons of high degree ought to treat
their inferiors "with affibility & Courtesie, without Arrogancy." There
is abundant evidence that when he came to manhood he was reasonably
considerate of his slaves, and yet he was a Master and ruled them in
martinet fashion. His advice to a manager was to keep the blacks at a
proper distance, "for they will grow upon familiarity in proportion as
you will sink in authority." The English farmer Parkinson records that
the first time he walked with General Washington among his negroes he
was amazed at the rough manner in which he spoke to them. This does not
mean that Washington cursed his negroes as the mate of a Mississippi
River boat does his roustabouts, but I suspect that those who have heard
such a mate can form an idea of the _tone_ employed by our Farmer that
so shocked Parkinson. Military officers still employ it toward
their men.

Corporal punishment was resorted to on occasion, but not to extremes.
The Master writes regarding a runaway: "Let Abram get his deserts when
taken, by way of example; but do not trust to Crow to give it to
him;--for I have reason to believe he is swayed more by passion than by
judgment in all his corrections." Tradition says that on one occasion he
found an overseer brutally beating one of the blacks and, indignant at
the sight, sprang from his horse and, whip in hand, strode up to the
overseer, who was so affrighted that he backed away crying loudly:
"Remember your character, General, remember your character!" The General
paused, reprimanded the overseer for cruelty and rode off.

Among his slaves were some that were too unruly to be managed by
ordinary means. In the early seventies he had such a one on a plantation
in York County, Will Shag by name, who was a persistent runaway, and who
whipped the overseer and was obstreperous generally. Another slave
committed so serious an offense that he was tried under state law and
>vas executed. When a bondman became particularly fractious he was
threatened with being sent to the West Indies, a place held in as much
dread as was "down the river" in later years. In 1766 Washington sent
such a fellow off and to the captain of the ship that carried the slave
away he wrote:

"With this letter comes a negro (Tom) which I beg the favor of you to
sell in any of the islands you may go to, for whatever he will fetch,
and bring me in return for him

"One hhd of best molasses

"One ditto of best rum

"One barrel of lymes, if good and cheap

"One pot of tamarinds, containing about 10 lbs.

"Two small ditto of mixed sweetmeats, about 5 lbs. each. And the
residue, much or little, in good old spirits. That this fellow is both a
rogue and a runaway (tho he was by no means remarkable for the former,
and never practiced the latter till of late) I shall not pretend to
deny. But that he is exceedingly healthy, strong, and good at the hoe,
the whole neighborhood can testify, and particularly Mr. Johnson and his
son, who have both had him under them as foreman of the gang; which
gives me reason to hope that he may with your good management sell well,
if kept clean and trim'd up a little when offered for sale."

Another "misbehaving fellow" named Waggoner Jack was sent off in 1791
and was sold for "one pipe and Quarter Cask" of wine. Somewhat later
(1793) Matilda's Ben became addicted to evil courses and among other
things committed an assault and battery on Sambo, for which he received
corporal punishment duly approved by our Farmer, whose earnest desire it
was "that quarrels be stopped." Evidently the remedy was insufficient,
for not long after the absent owner wrote:

"I am very sorry that so likely a fellow as Matilda's Ben should addict
himself to such courses as he is pursuing. If he should be guilty of any
atrocious crime that would affect his life, he might be given up to the
civil authority for trial; but for such offenses as most of his color
are guilty of, you had better try further correction, accompanied by
admonition and advice. The two latter sometimes succeed where the first
has failed. He, his father and mother (who I dare say are his receivers)
may be told in explicit language, that if a stop is not put to his
rogueries and other villainies, by fair means and shortly, that I will
ship him off (as I did Waggoner Jack) for the West Indies, where he will
have no opportunity of playing such pranks as he is at present
engaged in."

A few of the negroes occupied positions of some trust and
responsibility. One named Davy was for many years manager of Muddy Hole
Farm, and Washington thought that he carried on his work as well as did
the white overseers and more quietly than some, though rather negligent
of live stock. Each year at killing time he was allowed two or three
hundredweight of pork as well as other privileges not accorded to the
ordinary slave. Still his master did not entirely trust him, for in 1795
we find that Washington suspected Davy of having stolen some lambs that
had been reported as "lost."

The most famous of the Mount Vernon negroes was William Lee, better
known as Billy, whose purchase from Mary Lee has already been noticed.
Billy was Washington's valet and huntsman and served with him throughout
the Revolution as a body servant, rode with him at reviews and was
painted by Savage in the well-known group of the President and his
family. Naturally Billy put on airs and presumed a good deal upon his
position. On one occasion at Monmouth the General and his staff were
reconnoitering the British, and Billy and fellow valets gathered on an
adjoining hill beneath a sycamore tree whence Billy, telescope in hand,
surveyed the enemy with much importance and interest. Washington, with a
smile, called the attention of his aides to the spectacle. About the
same time the British, noticing the group of horsemen and unable to
distinguish the color of the riders, paid their respects to Billy and
his followers in the shape of a solid shot, which went crashing through
the top of the tree, whereupon there was a rapid recession of coat tails
toward the rear.

Billy was a good and faithful servant and his master appreciated the
fact. In 1784 we find Washington writing to his Philadelphia agent: "The
mullatto fellow, William, who has been with me all the war, is attached
(married he says) to one of his own color, a free woman, who during the
war, was also of my family. She has been in an infirm condition for some
time, and I had conceived that the connexion between them had ceased;
but I am mistaken it seems; they are both applying to get her here, and
tho' I never wished to see her more, I can not refuse his request (if it
can be complied with on reasonable terms) as he has served me faithfully
for many years. After premising this much, I have to beg the favor of
you to procure her a passage to Alexandria."

Next year while Billy and his master were engaged in surveying a piece
of ground he fell and broke his knee pan, with the result that he was
crippled ever after. When Washington started to New York in 1789 to be
inaugurated Billy insisted upon accompanying him, but gave out on the
way and was left at Philadelphia. A little later, by the President's
direction, Lear wrote to return Billy to Mount Vernon, "for he cannot be
of any service here, and perhaps will require a person to attend upon
him constantly ... but if he is still anxious to come on here the
President would gratify him, altho' he will be troublesome--He has been
an old and faithful Servant, this is enough for the President to gratify
him in every reasonable wish."

When Billy was at Mount Vernon he worked as a shoemaker. He kept careful
note of visitors to the place and if one arrived who had served in the
Revolution he invariably received a summons to visit the old negro and
as invariably complied. Then would ensue a talk of war experiences which
both would enjoy, for between those who had experienced the cold at
Valley Forge and the warmth of Monmouth there were ties that reached
beyond the narrow confines of caste and color. And upon departure the
visitor would leave a coin in Billy's not unwilling palm.

As later noted in detail, Washington made special provision for Billy
in his will, and for years the old negro lived upon his annuity. He was
much addicted to drink and now and then, alas, had attacks in which he
saw things that were not. On such occasions it was customary to send for
another mulatto named Westford, who would relieve him by letting a
little blood. There came a day when Westford arrived and proceeded to
perform his customary office, but the blood refused to flow. Billy
was dead.

Washington's kindness to Billy was more or less paralleled by his
treatment of other servants. Even when President he would write letters
for his slaves to their wives and "Tel Bosos" and would inclose them
with his own letters to Mount Vernon. He appreciated the fact that
slaves were capable of human feelings like other men and in 1787, when
trying to purchase a mason, he instructed his agent not to buy if by so
doing he would "hurt the man's feelings" by breaking family ties. Even
when dying, noting black Cristopher by his bed, he directed him to sit
down and rest. It was a little thing, but kindness is largely made up of
little things.

The course taken by him in training a personal servant is indicated by
some passages from his correspondence. Writing from the Capital to
Pearce, December, 1795, regarding a young negro, Washington says:

"If Cyrus continues to give evidence of such qualities as would fit him
for a waiting man, encourage him to persevere in them; and if they
should appear to be sincere and permanent, I will receive him in that
character when I retire from public life if not sooner.--To be sober,
attentive to his duty, honest, obliging and cleanly, are the
qualifications necessary to fit him for my purposes.--If he possess
these, or can acquire them--he might become useful to me, at the same
time that he would exalt, and benefit himself."

"I would have you again stir up the pride of Cyrus," he wrote the next
May, "that he may be the fitter for my purposes against I come home;
sometime before which (that is as soon as I shall be able to fix on
time) I will direct him to be taken into the house, and clothes to be
made for him.--In the meanwhile, get him a strong horn comb and direct
him to keep his head well combed, that the hair, or wool may grow long."

Once when President word reached his ears that he was being criticized
for not furnishing his slaves with sufficient food. He hurriedly
directed that the amount should be increased and added: "I will not
have my feelings hurt with complaints of this sort, nor lye under the
imputation of starving my negros, and thereby driving them to the
necessity of thieving to supply the deficiency. To prevent waste or
embezzlement is the only inducement to allowancing them at all--for if,
instead of a peck they could eat a bushel of meal a week fairly, and
required it, I would not withold or begrudge it them."

There is good reason to believe that Washington was respected and even
beloved by many of his "People." Colonel Humphreys, who was long at
Mount Vernon arranging the General's papers, wrote descriptive of the
return at the close of the Revolution:

     "When that foul stain of manhood, slavery, flowed,
     Through Afric's sons transmitted in the blood;
     Hereditary slaves his kindness shar'd,
     For manumission by degrees prepared:
     Return'd from war, I saw them round him press
     And all their speechless glee by artless signs express."

On the whole we must conclude that the lot of the Mount Vernon slaves
was a reasonably happy one. The regulations to which they had to conform
were rigorous. Their Master strove to keep them at work and to prevent
them from "night walking," that is running about at night visiting.
Their work was rough, and even the women were expected to labor in the
fields plowing, grubbing and hauling manure as if they were men. But
they had rations of corn meal, salt pork and salt fish, whisky and rum
at Christmas, chickens and vegetables raised by themselves and now and
then a toothsome pig sequestered from the Master's herd. When the annual
races were held at Alexandria they were permitted to go out into the
world and gaze and gabble to their heart's content. And, not least of
all, an inscrutable Providence had vouchsafed to Ham one great
compensation that whatever his fortune or station he should usually be
cheerful. The negro has not that "sad lucidity of mind" that curses his
white cousin and leads to general mental wretchedness and suicide.

Some of the Mount Vernon slaves were of course more favored than were
others. The domestic and personal servants lived lives of culture and
inglorious ease compared with those of the field hands. They formed the
aristocracy of colored Mount Vernon society and gave themselves airs
accordingly.

Nominally our Farmer's slaves were probably all Christians, though I
have found no mention in his papers of their spiritual state. But
tradition says that some of them at Dogue Run at least were Voudoo or
"conjuring" negroes.

Washington owned slaves and lived his life under the institution of
slavery, but he loved it not. He was too honest and keen-minded not to
realize that the institution did not square with the principles of human
liberty for which he had fought, and yet the problem of slavery was so
vast and complicated that he was puzzled how to deal with it. But as
early as 1786 he wrote to John F. Mercer, of Virginia: "I never mean,
unless some particular circumstances should compel me to it, to possess
another slave by purchase, it being among my _first_ wishes to see some
plan adopted by which slavery in this country may be abolished by law."
The running away of his colored cook a decade later subjected him to
such trials that he wrote that he would probably have to break his
resolution. He did, in fact, carry on considerable correspondence to
that end and seems to have taken one man on trial, but I have found no
evidence that he discovered a negro that suited him.

In 1794, in explaining to Tobias Lear his reasons for desiring to sell
some of his western lands, he said: "_Besides these I have another
motive which_ makes me earnestly wish for these things--it is indeed
more powerful than all the rest--namely to liberate a certain species of
property which I possess very repugnantly to my own feelings; but which
imperious necessity compels, and until I can substitute some other
expedient, by which expenses, not in my power to avoid (however well I
may be disposed to do it) can be defrayed."

Later in the same year he wrote to General Alexander Spotswood: "With
respect to the other species of property, concerning which you ask my
opinion, I shall frankly declare to you that I do not like even to
think, much less to talk of it.--However, as you have put the question,
I shall, in a few words, give _my ideas_ about it.--Were it not then,
that I am principled agt. selling negroes, as you would cattle at a
market, I would not in twelve months from this date, be possessed of one
as a slave.--I shall be happily mistaken, if they are not found to be a
very troublesome species of property ere many years pass over
our heads."

"I wish from my soul that the Legislature of the State could see the
policy of a gradual abolition of slavery," he wrote to Lawrence Lewis
three years later. "It might prevent much future mischief."

His ideas on the subject were in accord with those of many other great
Southerners of his day such as Madison and Jefferson. These men realized
the inconsistency of slavery in a republic dedicated to the proposition
that all men are created equal, and vaguely they foresaw the
irrepressible conflict that was to divide their country and was to be
fought out on a hundred bloody battle-fields. They did not attempt to
defend slavery as other than a temporary institution to be eliminated
whenever means and methods could be found to do it. Not until the cotton
gin had made slavery more profitable and radical abolitionism arose in
the North did Southerners of prominence begin to champion slavery as
praiseworthy and permanent.

And yet, though Washington in later life deplored slavery, he was human
and illogical enough to dislike losing his negroes and pursued runaways
with energy. In October, 1760, he spent seven shillings in advertising
for an absconder, and the next year paid a minister named Green four
pounds for taking up a runaway. In 1766 he advertised rewards for the
capture of "Negro Tom," evidently the man he later sold in the West
Indies. The return of Henry in 1771 cost him £1.16. Several slaves were
carried away by the British during the Revolution and seem never to have
been recovered, though the treaty of peace provided for the return of
such slaves, and Washington made inquiries concerning them. In 1796,
apropos of a girl who had absconded to New England, he excused his
desire to recapture her on the ground that as long as slavery was in
existence it was hardly fair to allow some to escape and to hold others.

A rather peculiar situation arose in 1791 with regard to some of his
"People," His attorney general, Randolph, had taken some slaves to
Philadelphia, and the blacks took advantage of the fact that under
Pennsylvania law they could not be forced to leave the state against
their will. Fearing that some of his own servants might do likewise,
Washington directed Lear to get the slaves back to Mount Vernon and to
accomplish it "under pretext that may deceive both them and the Public,"
which goes to show that even George Washington had some of the guile of
the serpent.

During this period he was loath to bring the fact that he was a
slaveholder too prominently before the public, for he realized the
prejudice already existing against the institution in the North. When
one of his men absconded in 1795 he gave instructions not to let his
name appear in any advertisement of the runaway, at least not north
of Virginia.

His final judgment on slavery is expressed in his will. "Upon the
decease of my wife it is my will and desire," he wrote, "that all the
slaves which I hold _in my own right_ shall receive their freedom--To
emancipate them during her life, would tho earnestly wished by me, be
attended with such insuperable difficulties, on account of their
intermixture by marriages with the Dower negroes as to excite the most
painful sensations,--if not disagreeable consequences from the latter,
while both descriptions are in the occupancy of the same proprietor, it
not being in my power under the tenure by which the dower Negroes are
held to manumit them."

The number of his own slaves at the time of his death was one hundred
twenty-four. Of dower negroes there were one hundred fifty-three, and
besides he had forty leased from a Mrs. French.

He expressly forbade the sale of any slave or his transportation out of
Virginia, and made provision for the care of the aged, the young and
the infirm. He gave immediate freedom to his mulatto man, calling
himself William Lee, or if he should prefer it, being physically
incapacitated, he might remain in slavery. In either case he was to have
an annuity of thirty dollars and the "victuals and cloaths he has been
accustomed to receive." "This I give him as a testimony of my sense of
his attachment to me and for his faithful services during the
revolutionary War."

As a matter of fact, Mrs. Washington preferred to free her own and the
General's negroes as soon as possible and it was accordingly done before
her death, which occurred in 1802.

One of the servants thus freed, by name Cary, lived to the alleged age
of one hundred fourteen years and finally died in Washington City. He
was a personage of considerable importance among the colored population
of the Capital, and on Fourth of July and other parades would always
appear in an old military coat, cocked hat and huge cockade presented by
his Master. His funeral was largely attended even by white persons.



CHAPTER XIII


THE FARMER'S WIFE

Martha Dandridge's first husband was a man much older than herself and
her second was almost a year younger. Before she embarked upon her
second matrimonial venture she had been the mother of four children, and
having lost two of these, her husband, her father and mother, she had
known, though only twenty-seven, most of the vital experiences that life
can give. Perhaps it was well, for thereby she was better fitted to be
the mate of a man sober and sedate in disposition and created by Nature
to bear heavy burdens of responsibility.

In view of the important places her husband filled, it is astonishing
how little we really know of her. Washington occasionally refers to her
in his letters and diaries, but usually in an impersonal way that gives
us little insight into her character or activities. She purposely
destroyed almost all the correspondence that passed between her and her
husband and very little else remains that she wrote. From the few
letters that do survive it is apparent that her education was slender,
though no more so than that of most women of her day even in the upper
class. She had a fondness for phonetic spelling, and her verbs and
subjects often indulged in family wrangles. She seems to have been
conscious of her deficiencies in this direction or at least to have
disliked writing, for not infrequently the General acted as her
amanuensis. But she was well trained in social and domestic
accomplishments, could dance and play on the spinet--in short, was
brought up a "gentlewoman." That she must in youth have possessed charm
of person and manners is indicated by her subjugation of Daniel Parke
Custis, a man of the world and of much greater fortune than herself, and
by her later conquest of Washington, for, though it be admitted in the
latter case that George may not have objected to her fortune, we can not
escape the conclusion that he truly loved her.

In fact, the match seems to have been ideally successful in every
respect except one. The contracting parties remained reasonably devoted
to each other until the end and though tradition says that Martha would
sometimes read George a curtain lecture after they had retired from
company, there remains no record of any serious disagreement. Though not
brilliant nor possessed of a profound mind, she was a woman of much good
sense with an understanding heart. Nor did she lack firmness or public
spirit. Edmund Pendleton relates that when on his way to the Continental
Congress in 1774 he stopped at Mount Vernon, "She talked like a Spartan
mother to her son on going to battle. 'I hope you will all stand firm--I
know George will,' she said."

The poorest artisan in Boston with nothing to lose but his life did not
embrace the patriot cause with any greater eagerness than did these
Washingtons with their broad acres and thousands of pounds on bond.

There is every reason to believe that Martha Washington was helpful to
her husband in many ways. At home she was a good housewife and when
Washington was in public life she played her part well. No brilliant
sallies of wit spoken by her on any occasion have come down to us, but
we know that at Valley Forge she worked day and night knitting socks,
patching garments and making shirts for the loyal band of winter
patriots who stood by their leader and their cause in the darkest hour
of the Revolution.

A Norristown lady who paid her a call in the little stone house that
still stands beside the Schuylkill relates that "as she was said to be
so grand a lady, we thought we must put on our best bibs and bands. So
we dressed ourselves in our most elegant ruffles and silks, and were
introduced to her ladyship. And don't you think we found her _knitting
with a specked apron on!_ She received us very graciously, and easily,
but after the compliments were over, she resumed her knitting."

But the marriage was a failure in that there were no children. No doubt
both wanted them, for Washington was fond of young people and many
anecdotes are handed down of his interest in little tots. Some one has
remarked that he was deprived of offspring in order that he might become
the Father of His Country.

Toward those near and dear to her Martha Washington was almost foolishly
affectionate. In one of her letters she tells of a visit "in
Westmoreland whare I spent a weak very agreabley. I carred my little
patt with me and left Jackey at home for a trial to see how well I coud
stay without him though we ware gon but won fortnight I was quite
impatiant to get home. If I at aney time heard the doggs barke or a
noise out, I thought thair was a person sent for me. I often fancied he
was sick or some accident had happened to him so that I think it is
impossible for me to leave him as long as Mr. Washington must stay when
he comes down."

Any parent who has been absent from home under similar circumstances and
who has imagined the infinite variety of dreadful things that might
befall a loved child will sympathize with the mother's heart--in spite
of the poor spelling!

Patty Custis was an amiable and beautiful girl who when she grew up came
to be called "the dark lady." But she was delicate in health. Some
writers have said that she had consumption, but as her stepfather
repeatedly called it "Fits," I think it is certain that it was some form
of epilepsy. Her parents did everything possible to restore her, but in
vain. Once they took her to Bath, now Berkeley Springs, for several
weeks and the expenses of that journey we find all duly set down by
Colonel Washington in the proper place. As Paul Leicester Ford remarks,
some of the remedies tried savored of quackery. In the diary, for
February 16, 1770, we learn that "Joshua Evans who came here last Night
put an iron Ring upon Patey and went away after Breakfast." Perhaps
Evans failed to make the ring after the old medieval rule from three
nails or screws that had been taken from a disinterred coffin. At any
rate the ring did poor Patty little good and a year later "Mr. Jno.
Johnson who has a nostrum for Fits came here in the afternoon." In the
spring of 1773 the dark lady died.

Her death added considerably to Washington's possessions, but there is
every evidence that he gave no thought to that aspect of the matter.
"Her delicate health, or perhaps her fond affection for the only father
she had ever known, so endeared her to the 'general', that he knelt at
her dying bed, and with a passionate burst of tears prayed aloud that
her life might be spared, unconscious that even then her spirit had
departed." The next day he wrote to his brother-in-law: "It is an easier
matter to conceive than describe the distress of this Family: especially
that of the unhappy Parent of our Dear Patey Custis, when I inform you
that yesterday removed the Sweet Innocent Girl [who] Entered into a more
happy & peaceful abode than any she has met with in the afflicted Path
she hitherto has trod."

Before this John Parke Custis, or "Jacky," had given his stepfather
considerable anxiety. Jacky's mind turned chiefly from study to dogs,
horses and guns and, in an effort, to "make him fit for more useful
purposes than horse races," Washington put him under the tutorship of an
Anglican clergyman named Jonathan Boucher, who endeavored to instruct
some of the other gilded Virginia youths of his day. But Latin and Greek
were far less interesting to the boy than the pretty eyes of Eleanor
Calvert and the two entered into a clandestine engagement. In all
respects save one the match was eminently satisfactory, for the Calvert
family, being descended from Lord Baltimore, was as good as any in
America, and Miss Nelly's amiable qualities, wrote Washington, had
endeared her to her prospective relations, but both were very young,
Jack being about seventeen, and the girl still younger. While consenting
to the match, therefore, Washington insisted that its consummation
should be postponed for two years and packed the boy off to King's
College, now Columbia. But Martha Washington was a fond and doting
mother and, as Patty's death occurred almost immediately, Jack's absence
in distant New York was more than she could bear. He was, therefore,
allowed to return home in three months instead of two years, and in
February, 1774, was wedded to the girl of his choice. Mrs. Washington
felt the loss of her daughter too keenly to attend, but sent this
message by her husband:

"MY DEAR NELLY.--God took from me a Daughter when June Roses were
blooming--He has now given me another Daughter about her Age when Winter
winds are blowing, to warm my Heart again. I am as Happy as One so
Afflicted and so Blest can be. Pray receive my Benediction and a wish
that you may long live the Loving Wife of my happy Son, and a Loving
Daughter of

"Your affectionate Mother,

"M. WASHINGTON."

The marriage, it may be added here, sobered John Custis. He and his
bride established themselves at Abingdon on the Potomac, not far from
Mount Vernon, and with their little ones were often visitors, especially
when the General was away to the war and Mrs. Washington was alone.
Toward the close of the war Jack himself entered the army, rose to the
rank of colonel and died of fever contracted in the siege of Yorktown.
Thus again was the mother's heart made sorrowful, nor did the General
himself accept the loss unmoved. He at once adopted the two youngest
children, Eleanor and George Washington Parke, and brought them up in
his own family.

Eleanor Custis, or "Nelly," as she was affectionately called, grew up a
joyous, beautiful cultured girl, who won the hearts of all who saw her.
The Polish poet, Julian Niemcewicz, who visited Mount Vernon in 1798,
wrote of her as "the divine Miss Custis.... She was one of those
celestial beings so rarely produced by nature, sometimes dreamt of by
poets and painters, which one cannot see without a feeling of ecstacy."
As already stated, she married the General's nephew, Lawrence Lewis. In
September, 1799, Washington told the pair that they might build a house
on Grey's Heights on the Dogue Run Farm and rent the farm, "by all odds
the best and most productive I possess," promising that on his death the
place should go to them. Death came before the house was built, but
later the pair erected on the Heights "Woodlawn," one of the most
beautiful and pretentious places in Fairfax County.

George Washington Parke Custis grew up much such a boy as his father
was. He took few matters seriously and neglected the educational
opportunities thrown in his way. Washington said of him that "from his
infancy I have discovered an almost unconquerable disposition to
indolence in everything that did not tend to his amusements." But he
loved the boy, nevertheless, and late in life Custis confessed, "we have
seen him shed tears of parental solicitude over the manifold errors and
follies of our unworthy youth." The boy had a good heart, however, and
if he was the source of worry to the great man during the great man's
life, he at least did what he could to keep the great man's memory
green. He wrote a book of recollections full of filial affection and
Latin phrases and painted innumerable war pictures in which Washington
was always in the foreground on a white horse "with the British
streaking it." Washington bequeathed to him a square in the City of
Washington and twelve hundred acres on Four Mile Run in the vicinity of
Alexandria. Upon land near by inherited from his father Custis built the
famous Arlington mansion, almost ruining himself financially in doing
so. Upon his death the estate fell to his daughter, Mrs. Robert E. Lee,
and it is now our greatest national cemetery.

Mrs. Washington not only managed the Mount Vernon household, but she
looked after the spinning of yarn, the weaving of cloth and the making
of clothing for the family and for the great horde of slaves. At times,
particularly during the Revolution and the non-importation days that
preceded it, she had as many as sixteen spinning-wheels in operation at
once. The work was done in a special spinning house, which was well
equipped with looms, wheels, reels, flaxbrakes and other machinery. Most
of the raw material, such as wool and flax and sometimes even cotton,
was produced upon the place and never left it until made up into the
finished product.

In 1768 the white man and five negro girls employed in the work produced
815-3/4 yards of linen, 365-1/4 yards of woolen cloth, 144 yards of
linsey and 40 yards of cotton cloth. With his usual pains Washington
made a comparative statement of the cost of this cloth produced at home
and what it would have cost him if it had been purchased in England, and
came to the conclusion that only £23.19.11 would be left to defray the
expense of spinning, hire of the six persons engaged, "cloathing,
victualling, wheels, &c." Still the work was kept going.

A great variety of fabrics were produced: "striped woolen, wool plaided,
cotton striped, linen, wool-birdseye, cotton filled with wool, linsey,
M's and O's, cotton Indian dimity, cotton jump stripe, linen filled with
tow, cotton striped with silk, Roman M., janes twilled, huccabac,
broadcloth, counter-pain, birdseye diaper, Kirsey wool, barragon,
fustian, bed-ticking, herring-box, and shalloon."

In non-importation days Mrs. Washington even made the cloth for two of
her own gowns, using cotton striped with silk, the latter being obtained
from the ravellings of brown silk stockings and crimson damask
chair covers.

The housewife believed in good cheer and an abundance of it, and the
larders at Mount Vernon were kept well filled. Once the General
protested to Lund Washington because so many hogs had been killed,
whereupon the manager replied that when he put up the meat he had
expected that Mrs. Washington would have been at home and that he knew
there would be need for it because her "charitable disposition is in
the same proportion as her meat house."

[Illustration: Weekly Report on the Work of the Spinners]

She had a swarm of relatives by blood and marriage and they visited her
long and often. The Burwells, the Bassetts, the Dandridges and all the
rest came so frequently that hardly a week passed that at least one of
them did not sleep beneath the hospitable roof. Even her stepmother paid
her many visits and, what is more, was strongly urged by the General to
make the place her permanent home. When Mrs. Washington was at home
during the Revolution her son and her daughter-in-law spent most of
their time there. After the Revolution her two youngest grandchildren
resided at Mount Vernon, and the two older ones, Elizabeth and Martha,
were often there, as was their mother, who married as her second husband
Doctor Stuart, a man whom Washington highly esteemed.

It would be foolish to deny that Mrs. Washington did not take pleasure
in the honors heaped upon her husband or that she did not enjoy the
consideration that accrued to her as First Lady of the Land. Yet public
life at times palled upon her and she often spoke of the years of the
presidency as her "lost days." New York and Philadelphia, she said,
were "not home, only a sojourning. The General and I feel like children
just released from school or from a hard taskmaster.... How many dear
friends I have left behind! They fill my memory with sweet thoughts.
Shall I ever see them again? Not likely unless they come to me, for the
twilight is gathering around our lives. I am again fairly settled down
to the pleasant duties of an old-fashioned Virginia-housekeeper, steady
as a clock, busy as a bee, and cheerful as a cricket."

That she did not overdraw her account of her industry is borne out by a
Mrs. Carrington, who, with her husband, one of the General's old
officers, visited Mount Vernon about this time. She wrote:

"Let us repair to the Old Lady's room, which is precisely in the style
of our good old Aunt's--that is to say, nicely fixed for all sorts of
work--On one side sits the chambermaid, with her knitting--on the other,
a little colored pet learning to sew, an old decent woman, with her
table and shears, cutting out the negroes' winter clothes, while the
good old lady directs them all, incessantly knitting herself and
pointing out to me several pair of nice colored stockings and gloves she
had just finished, and presenting me with a pair half done, which she
begs I will finish and wear for her. Her netting too is a great source
of amusement and is so neatly done that all the family are proud of
trimming their dresses with it."

This domestic life was dear to the heart of our Farmer's wife, yet the
home-coming did not fail to awaken some melancholy memories. To Mrs.
George Fairfax in England she wrote, or rather her husband wrote for
her: "The changes which have taken place in this country since you left
it (and it is pretty much the case in all other parts of this State)
are, in one word, total. In Alexandria, I do not believe there lives at
this day a single family with whom you had the smallest acquaintance. In
our neighborhood Colo. Mason, Colo. McCarty and wife, Mr. Chickester,
Mr. Lund Washington and all the Wageners, have left the stage of human
life; and our visitors on the Maryland side are gone and going
likewise."

How many people have had like thoughts! One of the many sad things about
being the "last leaf upon the tree" is having to watch the other leaves
shrivel and drop off and to be left at last in utter loneliness.

Like her husband, Mrs. Washington was an early riser, and it was a habit
she seems to have kept up until the end. She rose with the sun and
after breakfast invariably retired to her room for an hour of prayer and
reading the Scriptures. Her devotions over she proceeded with the
ordinary duties of the day.

She seems to have been somewhat fond of ceremony and to have had a
considerable sense of personal dignity. A daughter of Augustine
Washington, who when twelve years of age spent several weeks at Mount
Vernon, related when an old woman that every morning precisely at eleven
o'clock the mistress of the mansion expected her company to assemble in
the drawing-room, where she greeted them with much formality and kept
them an hour on their good behavior. When the clock struck twelve she
would rise and ascend to her chamber, returning thence precisely at one,
followed by a black servant carrying an immense bowl of punch, from
which the guests were expected to partake before dinner. Some of the
younger girls became curious to discover why her "Ladyship" retired so
invariably to her room, so they slipped out from where she was
entertaining their mothers, crept upstairs and hid under her bed.
Presently Lady Washington entered and took a seat before a large table.
A man-servant then brought a large empty bowl, also lemons, sugar,
spices and rum, with which she proceeded to prepare the punch. The young
people under the bed thereupon fell to giggling until finally she became
aware of their presence. Much offended, or at least pretending to be,
she ordered them from the room. They retired with such precipitancy that
one of them fell upon the stairway and broke her arm.

Another story is to the effect that one morning Nelly Custis, Miss
Dandridge and some other girls who were visiting Nelly came down to
breakfast dressed dishabille and with their hair done up in curl papers.
Mrs. Washington did not rebuke them and the meal proceeded normally
until the announcement was made that some French officers of rank and
young Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, who was interested in Miss Custis,
had driven up outside, whereupon the foolish virgins sprang up to leave
the room in order to make more conventional toilets. But Mrs. Washington
forbade their doing so, declaring that what was good enough for General
Washington was good enough for any guest of his.

She spoiled George Washington Custis as she had his father, but was
more severe with Eleanor or Nelly. Washington bought the girl a fine
imported harpsichord, which cost a thousand dollars and which is still
to be seen at Mount Vernon, and the grandmother made Nelly practise upon
it four or five hours a day. "The poor girl," relates her brother,
"would play and cry, and cry and play, for long hours, under the
immediate eye of her grandmother." For no shirking was allowed.

The truth would seem to be that Lady Washington was more severe with the
young--always excepting Jacky and George--than was her husband. He would
often watch their games with evident enjoyment and would encourage them
to continue their amusements and not to regard him. He was the confidant
of their hopes and fears and even amid tremendous cares of state found
time to give advice about their love affairs. For he was a very human
man, after all, by no means the marble statue sculptured by some
historians.

Yet no doubt Mrs. Washington's severity proceeded from a sense of duty
and the fitness of things rather than from any harshness of heart. The
little old lady who wrote: "Kiss Marie. I send her two handkerchiefs to
wipe her nose," could not have been so very terrible!

She was beloved by her servants and when she left Mount Vernon for New
York in 1789 young Robert Lewis reported that "numbers of these poor
wretches seemed most affected, my aunt equally so." At Alexandria she
stopped at Doctor Stuart's, the home of two of her grandchildren, and
next morning there was another affecting scene, such as Lewis never
again wished to witness--"the family in tears--the children a-bawling--&
everything in the most lamentable situation."

Although she was not the paragon that some writers have pictured, she
was a splendid home-loving American woman, brave in heart and helpful to
her husband, neither a drone nor a drudge--in the true Scriptural sense
a worthy woman who sought wool and flax and worked willingly with her
hands. As such her price was far beyond rubies.

As has been remarked before, no brilliant sayings from her lips have
been transmitted to posterity. But I suspect that the shivering soldiers
on the bleak hillsides at Valley Forge found more comfort in the warm
socks she knitted than they could have in the _bon mots_ of a Madame de
Stael or in the grace of a Josephine and that her homely interest in
their welfare tied their hearts closer to their Leader and
their Country.

It is not merely because she was the wife of the Hero of the Revolution
and the first President of the Republic that she is the most revered of
all American women.



CHAPTER XIV


A FARMER'S AMUSEMENTS

No one would ever think of characterizing George Washington as frivolous
minded, but from youth to old age he was a believer in the adage that
all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy--a saying that many an
overworked farmer of our own day would do well to take to heart.

Like most Virginians he was decidedly a social being and loved to be in
the company of his kind. This trait was noticeable in his youth and
during his early military career, nor did it disappear after he married
and settled down at Mount Vernon. Until the end he and Mrs. Washington
kept open house, and what a galaxy of company they had! Scarcely a day
passed without some guest crossing their hospitable threshold, nor did
such visitors come merely to leave their cards or to pay fashionable
five-minute calls. They invariably stayed to dinner and most generally
for the night; very often for days or weeks at a time. After the
Revolution the number of guests increased to such an extent that Mount
Vernon became "little better than a well-resorted inn."

Artists came to paint the great man's picture; the sculptor Houdon to
take the great man's bust, arriving from Alexandria, by the way, after
the family had gone to bed; the Marquis de Lafayette to visit his old
friend; Mrs. Macaulay Graham to obtain material for her history; Noah
Webster to consider whether he would become the tutor of young Custis;
Mr. John Fitch, November 4, 1785, "to propose a draft & Model of a
machine for promoting Navigation by means of a Steam"; Charles Thomson,
secretary of the Continental Congress, to notify the General of his
election to the presidency; a host of others, some out of friendship,
others from mere curiosity or a desire for free lodging.

The visit of Lafayette was the last he made to this country while the
man with whose fame his name is inseparably linked remained alive. He
visited Mount Vernon in August, 1784, and again three months later. When
the time for a final adieu came Washington accompanied him to Annapolis
and saw him on the road to Baltimore. The generous young benefactor of
America was very dear to Washington, and the parting affected him
exceedingly. Soon after he wrote to the departed friend a letter in
which he showed his heart in a way that was rare with him. "In the
moment of our separation," said he, "upon the road as I travelled, and
every hour since, I have felt all the love, respect, and attachment for
you with which length of years, close connextion, and your merits have
inspired me. I have often asked myself, as our carriages separated,
whether that was the last sight I ever should have of you."

It was a true foreboding. Often in times that followed Washington was to
receive tidings of his friend's triumphs and perilous adventures amid
the bloody turmoil of the French Revolution, was to entertain his son at
Mount Vernon when the father lay in the dark dungeons of Olmütz, but was
never again to look into his face. Years later the younger man,
revisiting the grateful Republic he had helped to found, was to turn
aside from the acclaiming plaudits of admiring multitudes and stand
pensively beside the Tomb of his Leader and reflect upon the years in
which they had stood gloriously shoulder to shoulder in defense of a
noble cause.

Even when Washington was at the seat of government many persons stopped
at Mount Vernon and were entertained by the manager. Several times the
absent owner sent wine and other luxuries for the use of such guests.
When he was at home friends, relatives, diplomats, delegations of
Indians to visit the Great White Father swarmed thither in shoals. In
1797 young Lafayette and his tutor, Monsieur Frestel, whom Washington
thought a very sensible man, made the place, by invitation, their home
for several months. In the summer of that year Washington wrote to his
old secretary, Tobias Lear: "I am alone at _present_, and shall be glad
to see you this evening. Unless some one pops in unexpectedly--Mrs.
Washington and myself will do what I believe has not been done within
the last twenty Years by us,--that is to set down to dinner by
ourselves."

Washington was the soul of hospitality. He enjoyed having people in his
house and eating at his board, but there is evidence that toward the
last he grew somewhat weary of the stream of strangers. But neither then
nor at any other time in his life did he show his impatience to a
visitor or turn any man from his door. His patience, was sorely tried at
times. For example, we find in his diary under date of September 7,
1785: "At Night, a Man of the name of Purdie, came to offer himself to
me as a Housekeeper or Household Steward--he had some testimonials
respecting his character--but being intoxicated, and in other respects
appearing in an unfavorable light I informed him that he would not
answer my purpose, but that he might stay all night."

No matter how many visitors came the Farmer proceeded about his business
as usual, particularly in the morning, devoting dinner time and certain
hours of the afternoon and evening to those who were sojourning with
him. He was obliged, in self-defense, to adopt some such course. He
wrote: "My manner of living is plain, and I do not mean to be put out by
it. A glass of wine and a bit of mutton are always ready, and such as
will be content to partake of them are always welcome. Those who expect
more will be disappointed."

After his retirement from the presidency he induced his nephew Lawrence
Lewis to come to Mount Vernon and take over some of the duties of
entertaining guests, particularly in the evening, as Washington had
reached an age when he was averse to staying up late. Lewis not only
performed the task satisfactorily, but found incidental diversion that
led to matrimony.

Every visitor records that the Farmer was a kind and considerate host.
Elkanah Watson relates that one bitter winter night at Mount Vernon,
having a severe cold that caused him to cough incessantly, he heard the
door of his chamber open gently and there stood the General with a
candle in one hand and a bowl of hot tea in another. Doubtless George
and Martha had heard the coughing and in family council had decided that
their guest must have attention.

Washington was a Cavalier, not a Puritan, and had none of the old New
England prejudice against the theater. In fact, it was one of his
fondest pleasures from youth to old age. In his Barbadoes journal he
records being "treated with a play ticket by Mr. Carter to see the
Tragedy of George Barnwell acted." In 1752 he attended a performance at
Fredericksburg and thereafter, whenever occasion offered, which during
his earlier years was not often, he took advantage of it. He even
expressed a desire to act himself. After his resignation and marriage
opportunities were more frequent and in his cash memorandum books are
many entries of expenditures for tickets to performances at Alexandria
and elsewhere. Thus on September 20, 1768, in his daily record of
_Where & how my time is Spent_ he writes that he "& Mrs. Washington & ye
two children were up to Alexandria to see the Inconstant or way to win
him acted." Next day he "Stayd in Town all day & saw the Tragedy of
Douglas playd."

Such performances were probably given by strolling players who had few
accessories in the way of scenery to assist them in creating their
illusions.

In September, 1771, when at Annapolis to attend the races, he went to
plays four times in five days, the fifth day being Sunday. Two years
later, being in New York City, he saw _Hamlet_ and _Cross Purposes_.

On many occasions both in this period of his life and later he went to
sleight of hand performances, wax works, puppet shows, animal shows, "to
hear the Armonica," concerts and other entertainments.

The "association" resolutions of frugality and self-denial by the
Continental Congress put an end temporarily to plays in the colonies
outside the British lines and put Washington into a greater play, "not,
as he once wished, as a performer, but as a character." There were
amateur performances at Valley Forge, but they aroused the hostility of
the puritanical, and Congress forbade them. Washington seems, however,
to have disregarded the interdiction after Yorktown.

He had few opportunities to gratify his fondness for performances in the
period of 1784-89, but during his presidency, while residing in New York
and Philadelphia, he was a regular attendant. He gave frequent theater
parties, sending tickets to his friends. Word that he would attend a
play always insured a "full house," and upon his entrance to his box the
orchestra would play _Hail Columbia_ and _Washington's March_ amid great
enthusiasm.

The _Federal Gazette_ described a performance of _The Maid of the Mill,_
which he attended in 1792, as follows:

"When Mr. Hodgkinson as Lord Ainsworth exhibited nobleness of mind in
his generosity to the humble miller and his daughter, Patty; when he
found her blessed with all the qualities that captivate and endear life,
and knew she was capable of adorning a higher sphere; when he had
interviews with her upon the subject in which was painted the
amiableness of an honorable passion; and after his connection, when he
bestowed his benefactions on the relatives, etc., of the old miller, the
great and good Washington manifested his approbation of this
interesting part of the opera by the tribute of a tear."

Another amusement that both the Farmer and his wife enjoyed greatly was
dancing. In his youth he attended balls and "routs" whenever possible
and when fighting French and Indians on the frontier he felt as one of
his main deprivations his inability to attend the "Assemblies." After
his marriage he and his wife went often to balls in Alexandria, attired
no doubt in all the bravery of imported English clothes. He describes a
ball of 1760 in these terms:

"Went to a ball at Alexandria, where Musick and dancing was the chief
entertainment, however, in a convenient room detached for the purpose
abounded great plenty of bread and butter, some biscuits, with tea and
coffee, which the drinkers of could not distinguish from hot water
sweet'ned--Be it remembered that pocket handkerchiefs served the
purposes of Table cloths & Napkins and that no apologies were made for
either. I shall therefore distinguish this ball by the stile and title
of the Bread & Butter Ball."

A certain Mr. Christian conducted a dancing school which met at the
homes of the patrons, and the Custis children, John Parke and Martha,
were members, as were Elizabeth French of Rose Hill, Milly Posey and
others of the neighborhood young people. In 1770 the class met four
times at Mount Vernon and we can not doubt that occasionally the host
danced with some of the young misses and enjoyed it.

An established institution was the election ball, which took place on
the night following the choice of the delegate to the Burgesses.
Washington often contributed to the expenses of these balls,
particularly when he was himself elected. No doubt they were noisy,
hilarious and perhaps now and then a bit rough.

Much has been written of the dances by which Washington and his officers
and their ladies helped to while away the tedium of long winters during
the Revolution, but the story of these has been often told and besides
lies outside the limits of this book, as does the dancing at New York
and Philadelphia during his presidency.

There is much conflicting evidence regarding Washington's later dancing
exploits. Some writers say that he never tripped the light fantastic
after the Revolution and that one of his last participations was at the
Fredericksburg ball after the capture of Cornwallis when he "went down
some dozen couple in the contra dance." It is certain, however, that
long afterward he would at least walk through one or two dances, even
though he did not actually take the steps. One good lady who knew him
well asserts that he often danced with Nelly Custis, and he seems to
have danced in 1796 when he was sixty-four. But to the invitation to the
Alexandria assembly early in 1799 he replied:

"Mrs. Washington and myself have been honored with your polite
invitation to the assemblies of Alexandria this winter, and thank you
for this mark of your attention. But, alas! our dancing days are no
more. We wish, however, all those who have a relish for so agreeable and
innocent an amusement all the pleasure the season will afford them."

Nor was he puritanical in respect to cards. From his account books we
find that he ordered them by the dozen packs, and his diaries contain
such entries as "At home all day over cards, it snowing." To increase
the interest he not infrequently played for money, though rarely for a
large amount. "Loo" and whist seem to have been the games played, but
not "bridge" or draw poker, which were then unknown.

From entries in his cash memorandum books it is evident that he loved a
quiet game rather frequently. Thus in his memorandum for 1772 I find the
entry for September five: "To Cash won at cards" £1.5. Four days later
he writes: "To Cash won at Cards at Mrs. Calverts" ten shillings. But on
September 17th he lost £1.5; on September 30th, £2, and on October 5th,
six shillings. Two days later his luck changed and he won £2.5, while on
the seventh he won £12.8. This was the most serious game that I have
found a record of, and the cards must either have run well for him or
else he had unskilful opponents. The following March, when attending the
Burgesses at Williamsburg, he got into a game, probably at Mrs.
Campbell's tavern, where he took his meals, and dropped £7.10.

In one of his account books I find two pages devoted to striking a
balance between what he won and what he lost from January 7, 1772, to
January 1, 1775. In that time he won £72.2.6 and lost £78.5.9. Hence we
find the entry: "By balance against Play from Jany. 1772 to this
date ... £6.3.3." But he must have had a lot of fun at a cost of that
six pounds three shillings and three pence!

It should be remarked here that gaming was then differently regarded in
Virginia from what it is now. Many even of the Episcopal clergymen
played cards for money and still kept fast hold upon their belief that
they would go to Heaven.

The same may also be said of lotteries, in which Washington now and then
took a flier. Many of the churches of that day, even in New England,
were built partly or wholly with money raised in that way. January 5,
1773, Washington states that he has received sixty tickets in the
Delaware lottery from his friend Lord Stirling and that he has "put 12
of the above Sixty into the Hands of the Revd. Mr. Magowan to sell." And
"the Revd." sold them too!

In his journal of the trip to Barbadoes taken with his brother Lawrence
we find that on his way home he attended "a Great Main of cks [cocks]
fought in Yorktown between Gloucester & York for 5 pistoles each battle
& 10 ye. odd." Occasionally he seems to have witnessed other mains, but
I have found no evidence that he made the practice in any sense a habit.

As a counterweight to his interest in so brutal a sport I must state
that he was exceedingly fond of afternoon teas and of the social
enjoyments connected with tea drinking. Tea was regularly served at his
army headquarters and in summer afternoons on the Mount Vernon veranda.

There is abundant evidence that he also enjoyed horse racing. In
September, 1768, he mentions going "to a Purse race at Accotinck," a
hamlet a few miles below Mount Vernon where a race track was maintained.
In 1772 he attended the Annapolis races, being a guest of the Governor
of Maryland, and he repeated the trip in 1773. In the following May he
went to a race and barbecue at Johnson's Ferry. George Washington Custis
tells us that the Farmer kept blooded horses and that his colt
"Magnolia" once ran for a purse, presumably losing, as if the event had
been otherwise we should probably have been informed of the fact. In
1786 Washington went to Alexandria "to see the Jockey Club purse run
for," and I have noticed a few other references to races, but I conclude
that he went less often than some writers would have us believe.

Washington was decidedly an outdoor man. Being six feet two inches tall,
and slender rather than heavily made, he was well fitted for athletic
sports. Tradition says that he once threw a stone across the
Rappahannock at a spot where no other man could do it, and that he could
outjump any one in Virginia. He also excelled in the game of putting the
bar, as a story related by the artist Peale bears witness.

Of outdoor sports he seems to have enjoyed hunting most. He probably had
many unrecorded experiences with deer and turkeys when a surveyor and
when in command upon the western border, but his main hunting adventure
after big game took place on his trip to the Ohio in 1770. Though the
party was on the move most of the time and was looking for rich land
rather than for wild animals, they nevertheless took some hunts.

On October twenty-second, in descending the stretch of the Ohio near the
mouth of Little Beaver Creek and above the Mingo Town, they saw many
wild geese and several kinds of duck and "killed five wild turkeys."
Three days later they "saw innumerable quantities of turkeys, and many
deer watering and browsing on the shore side, some of which we killed."

He does not say whether they shot this game from the canoe or not, but
probably on sighting the game they would put to shore and then one or
more would steal up on the quarry. Their success was probably increased
by the fact that they had two Indians with them.

Few people are aware of the fact that what is now West Virginia and Ohio
then contained many buffaloes. Below the mouth of the Great Hockhocking
the voyagers came upon a camp of Indians, the chief of which, an old
friend who had accompanied him to warn out the French in 1753, gave
Washington "a quarter of very fine buffalo." A creek near the camp,
according to the Indians, was an especial resort for these great beasts.

Fourteen miles up the Great Kanawha the travelers took a day off and
"went a hunting; killed five buffaloes and wounded some others, three
deer, &c. This country abounds in buffaloes and wild game of all kinds;
as also in all kinds of wild fowls, there being in the bottoms a great
many small grassy ponds, or lakes, which are full of swans, geese, and
ducks of different kinds."

How many of the buffaloes fell to his gun Washington does not record,
but it is safe to assume that he had at least some shots at them. And
beyond question he helped to devour the delicious buffalo humps, these
being, with the flesh of the bighorn sheep, the _ne plus ultra_ of
American big game delicacies.

The region in which these events took place was also notable for its big
trees. Near the mouth of the Kanawha they "met with a sycamore about
sixty yards from the river of a most extraordinary size, it measuring,
three feet from the ground, forty-five feet round [almost fifteen feet
through], lacking two inches; and not fifty yards from it was another,
thirty-one feet round."

When at home, Washington now and then took a gun and went out after
ducks, "hairs," wild turkeys and other game, and occasionally he records
fair bags of mallards, teal, bald faces and "blew wings," one of the
best being that of February 18, 1768, when he "went a ducking between
breakfast and dinner & killed 2 mallards & 5 bald faces." It is doubtful
whether he was at all an expert shot. In fact, he much preferred chasing
the fox with dogs to hunting with a gun.

Fox hunting in the Virginia of that day was a widely followed sport. It
was brought over from England and perhaps its greatest devotee was old
Lord Fairfax, with whom Washington hunted when still in his teens.
Fairfax, whose seat was at Greenway Court in the Shenandoah Valley, was
so passionately fond of it that if foxes were scarce near his home he
would go to a locality where they were plentiful, would establish
himself at an inn and would keep open house and welcome every person of
good character and respectable appearance who cared to join him.

The following are some typical entries from Washington's _Where & how my
time is Spent_: "Jany. 1st. (1768) Fox huntg. in my own Neck with Mr.
Robt. Alexander and Mr. Colville--catchd nothing--Captn. Posey with us."
There were many similar failures and no successes in the next six weeks,
but on February twelfth he records joyfully, "Catchd two foxes," and on
the thirteenth "catch 2 more foxes." March 2, 1768, "Hunting again, &
catchd a fox with a bobd Tail & cut Ears, after 7 hours chase in wch.
most of the dogs were worsted." March twenty-ninth, "Fox Hunting with
Jacky Custis & Ld. [Lund] Washington--Catchd a fox after 3 hrs. chase."
November twenty-second, "Went a fox huntg. with Lord Fairfax & Colo.
Fairfax & my Br. Catchd 2 Foxes." For two weeks thereafter they hunted
almost every day with varying success. September 30, 1769, he records:
"catchd a Rakoon."

On January 27, 1770, the dogs ran a deer out of the Neck and some of
them did not get home till next day. The finding of a deer was no
uncommon experience, but on no occasion does the chase seem to have been
successful, as, when hard pressed, the fugitive would take to the water
where the dogs could not follow. January 4, 1772, the hunters "found
both a Bear and a Fox but got neither."

Bear and deer were still fairly plentiful in the region, and the fact
serves to indicate that the country was not yet thickly settled, nor is
it to this day.

In November, 1771, Washington and Jack Custis went to Colonel Mason's at
Gunston Hall, a few miles below Mount Vernon, to engage in a grand deer
drive in which many men and dogs took part. Mason had an estate of ten
thousand acres which was favorably located for such a purpose, being
nearly surrounded by water, with peninsulas on which the game could be
cornered and forced to take to the river. On the first day they killed
two deer, but on the second they killed nothing. No doubt they had a
hilarious time of it, dogs baying, horsemen dashing here and there
shouting at the top of their voices, and with plenty of fat venison and
other good cheer at the Hall that night.

Washington's most remarkable hunting experience occurred on the
twenty-third of January, 1770, when he records: "Went a hunting after
breakfast & found a Fox at Muddy hole & killed her (it being a Bitch)
after a chase of better than two hours & after treeing her twice the
last of which times she fell dead out of the Tree after being therein
sevl. minutes apparently well." Lest he may be accused of nature faking,
it should be explained that the tree was a leaning tree. Occasionally
the foxes also took refuge in hollow trees, up which they could climb.

The day usually ended by all the hunters riding to Mount Vernon,
Belvoir, Gunston Hall, or some other mansion for a bountiful dinner.
Mighty then were the gastronomic feats performed, and over the Madeira
the incidents of the day were discussed as Nimrods in all ages are
wont to do.

Being so much interested in fox hunting, our Farmer proceeded, with his
usual painstaking care, to build up a pack of hounds. The year 1768 was
probably the period of his greatest interest in the subject and his
diary is full of accounts of the animals. Hounds were now, in fact, his
hobby, succeeding in interest his horses. He did his best to breed
according to scientific principles, but several entries show that the
dogs themselves were inclined blissfully to ignore the laws of eugenics
as applied to hounds.

Among his dogs in this period were "Mopsey," "Taster," "Tipler," "Cloe,"
"Lady," "Forester" and "Captain." August 6, 1768, we learn that "Lady"
has four puppies, which are to be called "Vulcan," "Searcher," "Rover,"
and "Sweetlips."

Like all dog owners he had other troubles with his pets. Once we find
him anointing all the hounds that had the mange "with Hogs Lard &
Brimstone." Again his pack is menaced by a suspected mad dog, which
he shoots.

The Revolution broke rudely in upon the Farmer's sports, but upon his
return to Mount Vernon he soon took up the old life. Knowing his bent,
Lafayette sent him a pack of French hounds, two dogs and three bitches,
and Washington took much interest in them. According to George
Washington Custis they were enormous brutes, better built for grappling
stags or boars than chasing foxes, and so fierce that a huntsman had to
preside at their meals. Their kennel stood a hundred yards south of the
old family vault, and Washington visited them every morning and evening.
According to Custis, it was the Farmer's desire to have them so evenly
matched and trained that if one leading dog should lose the scent,
another would be at hand to recover it and thus in full cry you might
cover the pack with a blanket.

The biggest of the French hounds, "Vulcan," was so vast that he was
often ridden by Master Custis and he seems to have been a rather
privileged character. Once when company was expected to dinner Mrs.
Washington ordered that a lordly ham should be cooked and served. At
dinner she noticed that the ham was not in its place and inquiry
developed that "Vulcan" had raided the kitchen and made off with the
meat. Thereupon, of course, the mistress scolded and equally, of course,
the master smiled and gleefully told the news to the guests.

Billy Lee, the colored valet who had followed the General through the
Revolution, usually acted as huntsman and, mounted on "Chinkling" or
some other good steed, with a French horn at his back, strove hard to
keep the pack in sight, no easy task among the rough timber-covered
hills of Fairfax County.

On a hunting day the Farmer breakfasted by candlelight, generally upon
corn cakes and milk, and at daybreak, with his guests, Billy and the
hounds, sallied forth to find a fox. Washington always rode a good horse
and sometimes wore a blue coat, scarlet waistcoat, buckskin breeches,
top boots and velvet cap and carried a whip with a long thong. When a
fox was started none rode more gallantly or cheered more joyously than
did he and as a rule he was in at the death, for, as Jefferson asserts,
he was "the best horseman of his age, and the most magnificent figure
that could be seen on horseback."

The fox that was generally hunted was the gray fox, which was indigenous
to the country. After the Revolution the red fox began to be seen
occasionally. They are supposed to have come from the Eastern Shore, and
to have crossed Chesapeake Bay on the ice in the hard winter of 1779-80.
Custis tells of a famous black fox that would go ten or twenty miles
before the hounds and return to the starting-point ready for another run
next day. After many unsuccessful chases Billy recommended that the
black reynard be let alone, saying he was near akin to another sable
and wily character. Thereafter the huntsman was always careful to throw
off the hounds when he suspected that they were on the trail of the
black fox. This story may or may not be true; all that I can say is that
I have found no confirmation of it in Washington's own writings.

Neither have I found there any confirmation of the story that Mrs.
Washington and other ladies often rode out to see the hunts. Washington
had avenues cut through some of his woods to facilitate the sport and
possibly to make the riding easier for the ladies. Upon the whole,
however, I incline to the opinion that generally at least Martha stayed
at home visiting with lady friends, attending to domestic concerns and
superintending the preparation of delectable dishes for the hungry
hunters. I very much doubt whether she would have enjoyed seeing a
fox killed.

The French hounds were, at least at first, rather indifferent hunters.
"Went out after Breakfast with my hounds from France, & two which were
lent me, yesterday, by Mr. Mason," says the Farmer the day of the first
trial; "found a Fox which was run tolerably well by two of the Frh.
Bitches & one of Mason's Dogs--the other French dogs shewed but little
disposition to follow--and with the second Dog of Mason's got upon
another Fox which was followed slow and indifferently by some & not at
all by the rest until the sent became so cold it cd. not be followed
at all."

Two days later the dogs failed again and the next time they ran two
foxes and caught neither, but their master thought they performed better
than hitherto, December 12th:

"After an early breakfast [my nephew] George Washington, Mr. Shaw and
Myself went into the Woods back of the Muddy hole Plantation a hunting
and were joined by Mr. Lund Washington and Mr. William Peake. About half
after ten O'clock (being first plagued with the Dogs running Hogs) we
found a fox near Colo Masons Plantation on little Hunting Creek (West
fork) having followed on his Drag more than half a Mile; and run him
with Eight Dogs (the other 4 getting, as was supposed after a Second
Fox) close and well for an hour. When the Dogs came to a fault and to
cold Hunting until 20 minutes after when being joined by the missing
Dogs they put him up afresh and in about 50 Minutes killed up in an open
field of Colo Mason's every Rider & every Dog being present at
the Death."

Eight days later the pack chased two foxes, but caught neither. The next
hunt is described as follows:

"Went a Fox hunting with the Gentlemen who came here yesterday with
Ferdinando Washington and Mr. Shaw, after a very early breakfast.--found
a Fox just back of Muddy hole Plantation and after a Chase for an hour
and a quarter with my Dogs, & eight couple of Doctor Smiths (brought by
Mr. Phil Alexander) we put him into a hollow tree, in which we fastened
him, and in the Pincushion put up another Fox which, in an hour and 13
Minutes was killed--We then after allowing the Fox in the hole half an
hour put the Dogs upon his Trail & in half a Mile he took to another
hollow tree and was again put out of it but he did not go 600 yards
before he had recourse to the same shift--finding therefore that he was
a conquered Fox we took the Dogs off, and came home to dinner."

[Illustration: The Flower Garden, By permission of the Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association]

Custis asserts that Washington took his last hunt in 1785, but in the
diary under date of December 22, 1787, I find that he went out with
Major George A. Washington and others on that day, but found nothing,
and that he took still another hunt in January, 1788, and chased a fox
that had been captured the previous month. This, however, is the last
reference that I have discovered. No doubt he was less resilient than in
his younger days and found the sport less delightful than of yore, while
the duties of the presidency, to which he was soon called, left him
little leisure for sport. He seems to have broken up his kennels and to
have given away most or all of his hounds.

Later he acquired a pair of "tarriers" and took enough interest in them
to write detailed instructions concerning them in 1796.

Washington's fishing was mostly done with a seine as a commercial
proposition, but he seems to have had a mild interest in angling.
Occasionally he took trips up and down the Potomac in order to fish,
sometimes with a hook and line, at other times with seines and nets. He
and Doctor Craik took fishing tackle with them on both their western
tours and made use of it in some of the mountain streams and also in the
Ohio. While at the Federal Convention in 1787 he and Gouverneur Morris
went up to Valley Forge partly perhaps to see the old camp, but
ostensibly to fish for trout. They lodged at the home of a widow named
Moore. On the trip the Farmer learned the Pennsylvania way of raising
buckwheat and, it must be confessed, wrote down much more about this
topic than about trout. A few days later, with Gouverneur Morris and Mr.
and Mrs. Robert Morris, he went up to Trenton and "in the evening
fished," with what success he does not relate. When on his eastern tour
of 1789 he went outside the harbor of Portsmouth to fish for cod, but
the tide was unfavorable and they caught only two. More fortunate was a
trip off Sandy Hook the next year, which was thus described by a
newspaper:

"Yesterday afternoon the President of the United States returned from
Sandy Hook and the fishing banks, where he had been for the benefit of
the sea air, and to amuse himself in the delightful recreation of
fishing. We are told he has had excellent sport, having himself caught a
great number of sea-bass and black fish--the weather proved remarkably
fine, which, together with the salubrity of the air and wholesome
exercise, rendered this little voyage extremely agreeable."

Our Farmer was extremely fond of fish as an article of diet and took
great pains to have them on his table frequently. At Mount Vernon there
was an ancient black man, reputed to be a centenarian and the son of an
African King, whose duty it was to keep the household supplied with
fish. On many a morning he could be seen out on the river in his skiff,
beguiling the toothsome perch, bass or rock-fish. Not infrequently he
would fall asleep and then the impatient cook, who had orders to have
dinner strictly upon the hour, would be compelled to seek the shore and
roar at him. Old Jack would waken and upon rowing to shore would inquire
angrily: "What you all mek such a debbil of a racket for hey? I wa'nt
asleep, only noddin'."

Another colored factotum about the place was known as Tom Davis, whose
duty it was to supply the Mansion House with game. With the aid of his
old British musket and of his Newfoundland dog "Gunner" he secured many
a canvasback and mallard, to say nothing of quails, turkeys and
other game.

After the Revolution Washington formed a deer park below the hill on
which the Mansion House stands. The park contained about one hundred
acres and was surrounded by a high paling about sixteen hundred yards
long. At first he had only Virginia deer, but later acquired some
English fallow deer from the park of Governor Ogle of Maryland. Both
varieties herded together, but never mixed blood. The deer were
continually getting out and in February, 1786, one returned with a
broken leg, "supposed to be by a shot." Seven years later an English
buck that had broken out weeks before was killed by some one. The
paddock fence was neglected and ultimately the deer ran half wild over
the estate, but in general stayed in the wooded region surrounding the
Mansion House. The gardener frequently complained of damage done by them
to shrubs and plants, and Washington said he hardly knew "whether to
give up the Shrubs or the Deer!" The spring before his death we find him
writing to the brothers Chickesters warning them to cease hunting his
deer and he hints that he may come to "the disagreeable necessity of
resorting to other means."

George Washington Custis, being like his father "Jacky" an enthusiastic
hunter, long teased the General to permit him to hunt the deer and at
last won consent to shoot one buck. The lad accordingly loaded an old
British musket with two ounce-balls, sallied forth and wounded one of
the patriarchs of the herd, which was then chased into the Potomac and
there slain. Next day the buck was served up to several guests, and
Custis long afterward treasured the antlers at Arlington House, the
residence he later built across the Potomac from the Federal City.

Upon the whole we must conclude that Washington was one of the best
sportsmen of all our Presidents. He was not so much of an Izaak Walton
as was one of his successors, nor did he pursue the lion and festive
bongo to their African lairs as did another, but he had a keen love of
nature and the open country and would have found both the Mighty Hunter
and the Mighty Angler kindred spirits.



CHAPTER XV


A CRITICAL VISITOR AT MOUNT VERNON

About thirty miles down the river Potomac, a gentleman, of the name of
Grimes, came up to us in his own boat[8]. He had some little time
before shot a man who was going across his plantation; and had been
tried for so doing, but not punished. He came aboard, and behaved very
politely to me: and it being near dinner time, he would have me go
ashore and dine with him: which I did. He gave me some grape-juice to
drink, which he called Port wine, and entertained me with saying he made
it himself: it was not to my taste equal to our Port in England, nor
even strong beer; but a hearty welcome makes everything pleasant, and
this he most cheerfully gave me. He showed me his garden; the produce of
which, he told me, he sold at Alexandria, a distance of thirty miles.
His garden was in disorder: and so was everything else I saw about the
place; except a favourite stallion, which was in very good condition--a
pretty figure of a horse, and of proper size for the road, about fifteen
hands high. He likewise showed me some other horses, brood-mares and
foals, young colts, &c. of rather an useful kind. His cattle were small,
but all much better than the land.

[8] This chapter is taken from _A Tour of America in 1798, 1799, and
1800_, by Richard Parkinson, who has already been several times quoted.
Parkinson had won something of a name in England as a scientific
agriculturist and had published a book called the _Experienced Farmer_.
He negotiated by letter with Washington for the rental of one of the
Mount Vernon farms, and in 1798, without having made any definite
engagement, sailed for the Potomac with a cargo of good horses, cattle
and hogs. His plan for renting Washington's farm fell through, by his
account because it was so poor, and ultimately he settled for a time
near Baltimore, where he underwent such experiences as an opinionated
Englishman with new methods would be likely to meet. Soured by failure,
he returned to England, and published an account of his travels, partly
with the avowed purpose of discouraging emigration to America. His
opinion of the country he summed up thus: "If a man should be so
unfortunate as to have married a wife of a capricious disposition, let
him take her to America, and keep her there three or four years in a
country-place at some distance from a town, and afterwards bring her
back to England; if she do not act with propriety, he may be sure there
is no remedy." I have rearranged his account in such a way as to make it
consecutive, but otherwise it stands as originally published.

He praised the soil very highly. I asked him if he was acquainted with
the land at Mount Vernon. He said he was; and represented it to be rich
land, but not so rich as his. Yet his I thought very poor indeed; for
it was (as is termed in America) _gullied_; which I call broken land.
This effect is produced by the winter's frost and summer's rain, which
cut the land into cavities of from ten feet wide and ten feet deep (and
upwards) in many places; and, added to this, here and there a hole,
which makes it look altogether like marlpits, or stone-quarries, that
have been carried away by those hasty showers in the summer, which no
man who has not seen them in this climate could form any idea of or
believe possible....

In two days after we left this place, we came in sight of Mount Vernon;
but in all the way up the river, I did not see any green fields. The
country had to me a most barren appearance. There were none but
snake-fences; which are rails laid with the ends of one upon another,
from eight to sixteen in number in one length. The surface of the earth
looked like a yellow-washed wall; for it had been a very dry summer; and
there was not any thing that I could see green, except the pine trees in
the woods, and the cedars, which made a truly picturesque view as we
sailed up the Potomac. It is indeed a most beautiful river.

When we arrived at Mount Vernon, I found that General Washington was at
Philadelphia; but his steward[9] had orders from the General to receive
me and my family, with all the horses, cattle, &c. which I had on board.
A boat was, therefore, got ready for landing them; but that could not be
done, as the ship must be cleared out at some port before anything was
moved: so, after looking about a few minutes at Mount Vernon, I returned
to the ship, and we began to make way for Alexandria....

[9] No doubt Anderson, Washington's last manager.

When I had been about seven days at Alexandria, I hired a horse and went
to Mount Vernon, to view my intended farm; of which General Washington
had given me a plan, and a report along with it--the rent being fixed at
eighteen hundred bushels of wheat for twelve hundred acres, or money
according to the price of that grain. I must confess that if he would
have given me the inheritance of the land for that sum, I durst not have
accepted it, especially with the incumbrances upon it; viz. one hundred
seventy slaves young and old, and out of that number only
twenty-seven[10] in a condition to work, as the steward represented to
me. I viewed the whole of the cultivated estate--about three thousand
acres; and afterward dined with Mrs. Washington and the family. Here I
met a Doctor Thornton, who is a very pleasant agreeable man, and his
lady; with a Mr. Peters and his lady, who was a grand-daughter of Mrs.
Washington. Doctor Thornton living at the city of Washington, he gave me
an invitation to visit him there: he was one of the commissioners of
the city.

[10] Most certainly a mistake.

I slept at Mount Vernon, and experienced a very kind and comfortable
reception; but did not like the land at all. I saw no green grass there,
except in the garden: and this was some English grass, appearing to me
to be a sort of couch-grass; it was in drills. There were also six
saintfoin plants, which I found the General valued highly. I viewed the
oats which were not thrashed, and counted the grains upon each head; but
found no stem with more than four grains, and these a very light and bad
quality, such as I had never seen before: the longest straw was of about
twelve inches. The wheat was all thrashed, therefore I could not
ascertain the produce of that: I saw some of the straw, however, and
thought it had been cut and prepared for the cattle in the winter; but I
believe I was mistaken, it being short by nature, and with thrashing out
looked like chaff, or as if chopped with a bad knife. The General had
two thrashing machines, the power given by horses. The clover was very
little in bulk, and like chaff; not more than nine inches long, and the
leaf very much shed from the stalk. By the stubbles on the land I could
not tell which had been wheat, or which had been oats or barley; nor
could I see any clover-roots where the clover had grown. The weather was
hot and dry at that time; it was in December. The whole of the different
fields were covered with either the stalks of weeds, corn-stalks, or
what is called sedge--something like spear-grass upon the poor limestone
in England; and the steward told me nothing would eat it, which is true.
Indeed, he found fault with everything, just like a foreigner; and even
told me many unpleasant tales of the General, so that I began to think
he feared I was coming to take his place. But (God knows!) I would not
choose to accept of it: for he had to superintend four hundred slaves,
and there would be more now. This part of his business especially would
have been painful to me; it is, in fact, a sort of trade of itself.

I had not in all this time seen what we in England call a corn-stack,
nor a dung-hill. There were, indeed, behind the General's barns, two or
three cocks of oats and barley; but such as an English broad-wheeled
waggon would have carried a hundred miles at one time with ease. Neither
had I seen a green plant of any kind: there was some clover of the first
year's sowing: but in riding over the fields I should not have known it
to be clover, although the steward told me it was; only when I came
under a tree I could, by favour of the shade, perceive here and there a
green leaf of clover, but I do not remember seeing a green root. I was
shown no grass-hay of any kind; nor do I believe there was any.

The cattle were very poor and ordinary, and the sheep the same; nor did
I see any thing I liked except the mules, which were very fine ones, and
in good condition. Mr. Gough had made a present to General Washington of
a bull calf. The animal was shown to me when I first landed at Mount
Vernon, and was the first bull I saw in the country. He was large, and
very strong-featured; the largest part was his head, the next his legs.
The General's steward was a Scotchman, and no judge of animals--a better
judge of distilling whiskey.

I saw here a greater number of negroes than I ever saw at one time,
either before or since.

The house is a very decent mansion: not large, and something like a
gentleman's house in England, with gardens and plantations; and is very
prettily situated on the banks of the river Potowmac, with extensive
prospects.... The roads are very bad from Alexandria to Mount Vernon.

The General still continuing at Philadelphia, I could not have the
pleasure of seeing him; therefore I returned to Alexandria.

I returned [to Mount Vernon some weeks later] ... to see General
Washington. I dined with him; and he showed me several presents that had
been sent him, viz. swords, china, and among the rest the key of the
Bastille. I spent a very pleasant day in the house, as the weather was
so severe that there were no farming objects to see, the ground being
covered with snow.

Would General Washington have given me the twelve hundred acres I would
not have accepted it, to have been confined to live in that country; and
to convince the General of the cause of my determination, I was
compelled to treat him with a great deal of frankness. The General, who
had corresponded with Mr. Arthur Young and others on the subject of
English farming and soils, and had been not a little flattered by
different gentlemen from England, seemed at first to be not well
pleased with my conversation; but I gave him some strong proofs of his
mistakes, by making a comparison between the lands in America and those
of England in two respects.

First, in the article of sheep. He supposed himself to have fine sheep,
and a great quantity of them. At the time of my viewing his five farms,
which consisted of about three thousand acres cultivated, he had one
hundred sheep, and those in very poor condition. This was in the month
of November. To show him his mistake in the value and quality of his
land, I compared this with the farm my father occupied, which was less
than six hundred acres. He clipped eleven hundred sheep, though some of
his land was poor and at two shillings and sixpence per acre--the
highest was at twenty shillings; the average weight of the wool was ten
pounds per fleece, and the carcases weighed from eighty to one hundred
twenty pounds each: while in the General's hundred sheep on three
thousand acres, the wool would not weigh on an average more than three
pounds and a half the fleece, and the carcases at forty-eight pounds
each. Secondly, the proportion of the produce in grain was similar. The
General's crops were from two to three[11] bushels of wheat per acre;
and my father's farm, although poor clay soil, gave from twenty to
thirty bushels.

[11] A misstatement, of course.

During this conversation Colonel Lear, aide-de-camp to the General, was
present. When the General left the room, the Colonel told me he had
himself been in England, and had seen Arthur Young (who had been
frequently named by the General in our conversation); and that Mr. Young
having learnt that he was in the mercantile line, and was possessed of
much land, had said he thought he was a great fool to be a merchant and
yet have so much land; the Colonel replied, that if Mr. Young had the
same land to cultivate, it would make a great fool of _him_. The Colonel
did me the honour to say I was the only man he ever knew to treat
General Washington with frankness.

The General's cattle at that time were all in poor condition: except his
mules (bred from American mares), which were very fine, and the Spanish
ass sent to him as a present by the king of Spain. I felt myself much
vexed at an expression used at dinner by Mrs. Washington. When the
General and the company at table were talking about the fine horses and
cattle I had brought from England, Mrs. Washington said, "I am afraid,
Mr. Parkinson, you have brought your fine horses and cattle to a bad
market; I am of opinion that our horses and cattle are good enough for
our land." I thought that if every old woman in the country knew this,
my speculation would answer very ill: as I perfectly agreed with Mrs.
Washington in sentiment; and wondered much, from the poverty of the
land, to see the cattle good as they were.

The General wished me to stay all night; but having some other
engagement, I declined his kind offer. He sent Colonel Lear out after I
had parted with him, to ask me if I wanted any money; which I
gladly accepted.



CHAPTER XVI


PROFIT AND LOSS

A biographer whose opinions about Washington are usually sound concludes
that the General was a failure as a farmer. With this opinion I am
unable to agree and I am inclined to think that in forming it he had in
mind temporary financial stringencies and perhaps a comparison between
Washington and the scientific farmers of to-day instead of the juster
comparison with the farmers of that day. For if Washington was a
failure, then nine-tenths of the Southern planters of his day were also
failures, for their methods and results were much worse than his.

It must be admitted, however, that comparatively little of his fortune,
which amounted at his death to perhaps three-quarters of a million
dollars, was made by the sale of products from his farm. Few farmers
have grown rich in that way. Washington's wealth was due in part to
inheritance and a fortunate marriage, but most of all to the increment
on land. Part of this land he received as a reward for military
services, but much of it he was shrewd enough to buy at a low rate and
hold until it became more valuable.

The task of analyzing his fortune and income in detail is an impossible
one for a number of reasons. We do not have all the facts of his
financial operations and even if we had there are other difficulties. A
farmer, unlike a salaried man, can not tell with any exactness what his
true income is. The salaried man can say, "This year I received four
thousand dollars," The farmer can only say--if he is the one in a
hundred who keeps accounts--"Last year I took in two thousand dollars or
five thousand dollars," as the case may be. From this sum he must deduct
expenses for labor, wear and tear of farm machinery, pro rata cost of
new tools and machinery, loss of soil fertility, must take into account
the fact that some of the stock sold has been growing for one, two or
more years, must allow for the butter and eggs bartered for groceries
and for the value of the two cows he traded for a horse, must add the
value of the rent of the house and grounds he and his family have
enjoyed, the value of the chickens, eggs, vegetables, fruit, milk, meat
and other produce of the farm consumed--as he proceeds the problem
becomes infinitely more complex until at last he gives it up
as hopeless.

This much, however, is plain--a farmer can handle much less money than a
salaried man and yet live infinitely better, for his rent, much of his
food and many other things cost him nothing.

In Washington's case the problem is further complicated by a number of
circumstances. As a result of his marriage he had some money upon bond.
For his military services in the French war he received large grants of
land and the payment during the Revolution of his personal expenses, and
as President he had a salary of twenty-five thousand dollars a year.

Yet another difficulty discloses itself when we come to examine his cash
accounts. We find, for example, that from August 3, 1775, to September,
1783, leaving out of the reckoning his military receipts, he took in a
total of about eighty thousand one hundred sixty-seven pounds. What then
more simple than to divide this sum by seven and ascertain his average
receipts during the years of the Revolution? But when we come to examine
some of the details more closely we are brought to pause. We discover
such facts as that in 1780 a small steer, supposed to weigh about three
hundred pounds, brought five hundred pounds in money! A sheep sold for
one hundred pounds; six thousand five hundred sixty-nine pounds of
dressed beef brought six thousand five hundred sixty-nine pounds; the
stud fee for "Steady" was sixty pounds. In other words, the accounts in
these years were in depreciated paper and utterly worthless for our
purposes. Washington himself gave the puzzle up in despair toward the
end of the war and paid his manager in produce, not money.

We of to-day have, in fact, not the faintest conception of the blessing
we enjoy in a uniform and fairly stable monetary system. Even before the
days of the "Continentals" there was depreciated paper afloat that had
been issued by the colonial governments and, unless the fact is
definitely stated, when we come upon figures of that period we can never
be sure whether they refer to pounds sterling or pounds paper, or, if
the latter, what kind of paper. People had to be constantly figuring the
real value of Pennsylvania money, or Virginia money or Massachusetts
money, and one meets with many such calculations on the blank leaves of
Washington's account books. Even metallic money was a Chinese puzzle
except to the initiated, there were so many kinds of it afloat. Among
our Farmer's papers I have found a list of the money that he took with
him to Philadelphia on one occasion--6 joes, 67 half joes, 2
one-eighteenth joes, 3 doubloons, 1 pistole, 2 moidores, 1 half moidore,
2 double louis d'or, 3 single louis d'or, 80 guineas, 7 half guineas,
besides silver and bank-notes.

The depreciation of the paper currency during the Revolution proved
disastrous to him in several ways. When the war broke out much of the
money he had obtained by marriage was loaned out on bond, or, as we
would say to-day, on mortgage. "I am now receiving," he soon wrote, "a
shilling in the pound in discharge of Bonds which ought to have been
paid me, & would have been realized before I left Virginia, but for my
indulgences to the debtors." In 1778 he said that six or seven thousand
pounds that he had in bonds upon interest had been paid in depreciated
paper, so that the real value was now reduced to as many hundreds. Some
of the paper money that came into his hands he invested in government
securities, and at least ten thousand pounds of these in Virginia money
were ultimately funded by the federal government for six thousand two
hundred and forty-six dollars in three and six per cent. bonds.

And yet, by examining Washington's accounts, one is able to estimate in
a rough way the returns he received from his estate, landed and
otherwise. We find that in ten months of 1759 he took in £1,839; from
January 1, 1760, to January 10, 1761, about £2,535; in 1772, £3,213;
from August 3, 1775, to August 30, 1776, £2,119; in 1786, £2,025; in
1791, about £2,025. Included in some of these entries, particularly the
earlier ones, are payments of interest and principal on his wife's share
of the Custis estate. Of the later ones, that for 1786--a bad farming
year--includes rentals on more than a score of parcels of land amounting
to £282.15, £25 rental on his fishery, payments for flour, stud
fees, etc.

Upon the average, therefore, I am inclined to believe that his annual
receipts were roughly in the neighborhood of ten thousand dollars to
fifteen thousand dollars a year from his estate.

As regards Mount Vernon alone, he sometimes made estimates of what the
crop returns ought to be; in other words, counted his chickens before
they were hatched. Thus in 1789 he drew up alternative plans and
estimated that one of these, if adopted, ought to produce crops worth a
gross of £3,091, another £3,831, and a third £4,449, but that from these
sums £1,357, £1,394 and £1,445 respectively would have to be deducted
for seed, food for man and beasts, and other expenses.

A much better idea of the financial returns from his home estate can be
obtained from his actual balances of gain and loss. One of these, namely
for 1798, which was a poor year, was as follows:

BALANCE OF GAIN AND LOSS, 1798

DR. GAINED                           CR. LOST

Dogue Run Farm  397.11.2         Mansion House .. 466.18. 2-1/2
Union Farm .... 529.10.11-1/2    Muddy Hole Farm   60. 1. 3-1/2
River Farm .... 234. 4.11        Spinning .......  51. 2. 0
Smith's Shop ..  34.12.09-1/2    Hire of Head
Distillery ....  83.13. 1          overseer ..... 140. 0. 0
Jacks .........  56.1
Traveler ......   9.17
  (stud horse)
Shoemaker .....  28.17. 1
Fishery ....... 165.12. 0-1/4    By clear gain on
Dairy .........  30.12. 3         the Estate.....£898.16. 4-1/4

Mr. Paul Leicester Ford considered this "a pretty poor showing for an
estate and negroes which had certainly cost him over fifty thousand
dollars, and on which there was live stock which at the lowest
estimation was worth fifteen thousand dollars more." In some respects it
was a poor showing. Yet the profit Washington sets down is about seven
per cent. upon sixty-five thousand dollars, and seven per cent. is more
than the average farmer makes off his farm to-day except through the
appreciation in the value of the land. The truth is, however, that Mount
Vernon, including the live stock and slaves, was really worth in 1798
nearer two hundred thousand dollars than sixty-five thousand, so that
the actual return would only be about two and a fourth per cent.

But Washington failed to include in his receipts many items, such as the
use of a fine mansion for himself and family, the use of horses and
vehicles, and the added value of slaves and live stock by
natural increase.

Besides in some other years the profits were much larger.

And lastly, in judging a man's success or failure as a farmer, allowance
must be made for the kind of land that he has to farm. The Mount Vernon
land was undoubtedly poor in quality, and it is probable that Washington
got more out of it than has ever been got out of it by any other person
either before or since. Much of it to-day must not pay taxes.

Washington died possessed of property worth about three-quarters of a
million, although he began life glad to earn a doubloon a day surveying.
The main sources of this wealth have already been indicated, but when
all allowance is made in these respects, the fact remains that he was
compelled to make a living and to keep expenses paid during the forty
years in which the fortune was accumulating, and the main source he drew
from was his farms. Not much of that living came from the Custis estate,
for, as we have seen, a large part of the money thus acquired was lost.
During his eight years as Commander-in-Chief he had his expenses--no
more. Of the eight years of his presidency much the same can be said,
for all authorities agree that he expended all of his salary in
maintaining his position and some say that he spent more. Yet at the end
of his life we find him with much more land than he had in 1760, with
valuable stocks and bonds, a house and furniture infinitely superior to
the eight-room house he first owned, two houses in the Federal City that
had cost him about $15,000, several times as many negroes, and live
stock estimated by himself at $15,653 and by his manager at upward of
twice that sum.

Such being the case--and as no one has ever ventured even to hint that
he made money corruptly out of his official position--the conclusion is
irresistible that he was a good business man and that he made farming
pay, particularly when he was at home.

It is true that only three months before his death he wrote: "The
expense at which I live, and the unproductiveness of my estate, will not
allow me to lessen my income while I remain in my present situation. On
the contrary, were it not for occasional supplies of money in payment
for lands sold within the last four or five years, to the amount of
upwards of fifty thousand dollars, I should not be able to support the
former without involving myself in debt and difficulties," This must be
taken, however, to apply to a single period of heavy expense when
foreign complications and other causes rendered farming unprofitable,
rather than to his whole career. Furthermore, his landed investments
from which he could draw no returns were so heavy that he had approached
the condition of being land poor and it was only proper that he should
cut loose from some of them.



CHAPTER XVII


ODDS AND ENDS

In an age when organized charity was almost unknown the burden of such
work fell mainly upon individuals. Being a man of great prominence and
known to be wealthy, the proprietor of Mount Vernon was the recipient of
many requests for assistance. Ministers wrote to beg money to rebuild
churches or to convert the heathen; old soldiers wrote to ask for money
to relieve family distresses or to use in business; from all classes and
sections poured in requests for aid, financial and otherwise.

It was inevitable that among these requests there should be some that
were unusual. Perhaps the most amusing that I have discovered is one
written by a young man named Thomas Bruff, from the Fountain Inn,
Georgetown. He states that this is his second letter, but I have not
found the first. In the letter we have he sets forth that he has lost
all his property and desires a loan of five hundred pounds. His need is
urgent, for he is engaged to a beautiful and "amiable" young lady,
possessed of an "Estate that will render me Independent. Whom I cannot
Marry in my present situation.... All my Happyness is now depending upon
your Goodness and without your kind assistance I must be forever
miserable--I should have never thought of making application to you for
this favor had it not been in Consequence of a vision by Night since my
Fathers Death who appeared to me in a Dream in my Misfortunes three
times in one Night telling me to make applycation to you for Money and
that you would relieve me from my distresses. He appeared the other
night again and asked me if I had obeyed his commands I informed him
that I had Wrote to you some time ago but had Received no answer nor no
information Relative to the Business he then observed that he expected
my letter had not come to hand and toald me to Write again I made some
Objections at first and toald him I thought it presumption in me to
trouble your Excellency again on the subject he then in a Rage drew his
Small Sword and toald me if I did not he would run me through. I
immediately in a fright consented."

One might suppose that so ingenious a request, picturing the deadly
danger in which a young man stood from the shade of his progenitor,
especially a young man who was thereby forced to keep a young lady
waiting, would have aroused Washington's most generous impulses and
caused him to send perhaps double the amount desired. Possibly he was
hard up at the time. At all events he indorsed the letter thus:

"Without date and without success."

Many times, however, our Farmer was open-handed to persons who had no
personal claim on him. For example, he loaned three hundred and two
pounds to his old comrade of the French War--Robert Stewart--the purpose
being to buy a commission in the British army. So far as I can discover
it was never repaid; in fact, I am not sure but that he intended it as a
gift. Another advance was that made to Charles L. Carter, probably the
young man who later married a daughter of Washington's sister, Betty
Lewis. Most of the story is told in the following extract from a letter
written by Carter from Fredericksburg, June 2, 1797:

"With diffidence I now address you in consequence of having failed after
my first voyage from China, to return the two hundred Dollars you
favored me with the Loan of. Be assured Dr. Sir that I left goods unsold
at the time of my Departure from Philadelphia on the second voyage, &
directed that the money arising therefrom should be paid to you, but the
integrity of my agent did not prove to be so uncorrupted as I had
flattered myself. I have, at this late period, sent by Mr. G. Tevis the
sum of two hundred Dollars with interest therefrom from the 15th of
March 1795 to the 1st June, 1797. That sum has laid the foundation of a
pretty fortune, for which I shall ever feel myself indebted to you."

He added that he had been refused the loan by a near relation before
Washington had so kindly obliged him and that his mother, who was
evidently acquainted with Washington, joined in hearty thanks for the
benefit received.

Washington had experienced enough instances of ingratitude to be much
pleased with the outcome of this affair. He replied in the kindest
terms, but declined to receive the interest, saying that he had not made
the loan as an investment and that he did not desire a profit from it.

Another recipient of Washington's bounty was his old neighbor, Captain
John Posey. Posey sold Washington not only his Ferry Farm but also his
claim to western lands. He became financially embarrassed, in fact,
ruined; his family was scattered, and he made frequent applications to
Washington for advice and assistance. Washington helped to educate a
son, St. Lawrence, who had been reduced to the hard expedient of tending
bar in a tavern, and he also kept a daughter, Milly, at Mount Vernon,
perhaps as a sort of companion to Mrs. Washington. The Captain
once wrote:

"I could [have] been able to [have] Satisfied all my old Arrears, some
months AGoe, by marrying [an] old widow woman in this County. She has
large soms [of] cash by her, and Prittey good Est.--She is as thick as
she is high---And gits drunk at Least three or foure [times] a
weak---which is Disagreable to me--has Viliant Sperrit when Drunk--its
been [a] great Dispute in my mind what to Doe,--I beleave I shu'd Run
all Resks--if my Last wife, had been [an] Even temper'd woman, but her
Sperrit, has Given me such [a] Shock--that I am afraid to Run the
Resk again."

Evidently the Captain did not find a way out of his troubles by the
matrimonial route, for somewhat later he was in jail at Queenstown,
presumably for debt, and we find in one of Washington's cash memorandum
books under date of October 15, 1773: "By Charity--given Captn. Posey,"
four pounds. One of the sons later settled in Indiana, and the "Pocket"
county is named after him.

Another boy toward whose education Washington contributed was the son of
Doctor James Craik--the boy being a namesake. Doctor Craik was one of
Washington's oldest and dearest friends. He was born in Scotland two
years before Washington saw the light at Wakefield, graduated from
Edinburgh University, practised medicine in the West Indies for a short
time and then came to Virginia. He was Washington's comrade in arms in
the Fort Necessity campaign, was subsequently surgeon general in the
Continental Army, and accompanied Washington to the Ohio both in 1770
and 1784. He married Mariane Ewell, a relative of Washington's mother,
and resided many years in Alexandria. He was a frequent visitor at Mount
Vernon both as a friend and in a professional capacity, and Washington
declared that he would rather trust him than a dozen other doctors. Few
men were so close to the great man as he, and he was one of the few who
in his letters ventured to tell chatty matters of gossip. Thus, in
August, 1791, he wrote a letter apropos of the bad health of George A.
Washington and added: "My daughter Nancy is there [Mt. Vernon] by way of
Amusement awhile. She begins to be tired of her Fathers house and I
believe intends taking an old Batchelor Mr. Hn. for a mate shortly."
Another young lady, Miss Muir, who had recently gone to Long Island for
the benefit of the sea baths was "pursued" by a Mr. Donaldson and the
latter now writes that "he shall bring back a wife with him." Craik was
a thorough believer in Washington's destiny, and in the dark days of the
Revolution would hearten up his comrades by the story of the Indian
chieftain met upon the Ohio in 1770 who had vainly tried to kill
Washington in the battle of the Monongahela and had finally desisted in
the belief that he was invulnerable.

To friends, family, church, education and strangers our Farmer was
open-handed beyond most men of his time. His manager had orders to fill
a corn-house every year for the sole use of the poor in the neighborhood
and this saved numbers of poor women and children from extreme want. He
also allowed the honest poor to make use of his fishing stations,
furnishing them with all necessary apparatus for taking herring, and if
they were unequal to the task of hauling the seine, assistance was
rendered them by the General's servants.

To Lund Washington he wrote from the camp at Cambridge: "Let the
hospitality of the house, with respect to the poor, be kept up. Let no
one go hungry away. If any of this kind of people should be in want of
corn, supply their necessaries, provided that it does not encourage them
to idleness; and I have no objection to you giving my money in charity
to the amount of forty or fifty pounds a year, when you think it well
bestowed. What I mean by having no objection is, that it is my desire it
should be done. You are to consider that neither _myself nor wife_ is
now in the way to do these good offices."

His relations with his own kindred were patriarchal in character. His
care of Mrs. Washington's children and grandchildren has already been
described. He gave a phaeton and money to the extent of two thousand
five hundred dollars to his mother and did not claim possession of some
of the land left him by his father's will. To his sister Betty Lewis he
gave a mule and many other presents, as well as employment to several of
her sons. He loaned his brother Samuel (five times married)
considerable sums, which he forgave in his will, spent "near five
thousand dollars" on the education of two of his sons, and cared for
several years for a daughter Harriot, notwithstanding the fact that she
had "no disposition ... to be careful of her cloaths." To his nephew,
Bushrod Washington, he gave money and helped him to obtain a legal
education, and he assisted another nephew, George A. Washington, and his
widow and children, in ways already mentioned. Over forty relatives were
remembered in his will, many of them in a most substantial manner.

In the matter of eating and drinking Washington was abstemious. For
breakfast he ordinarily had tea and Indian cakes with butter and perhaps
honey, of which he was very fond. His supper was equally light,
consisting of perhaps tea and toast, with wine, and he usually retired
promptly at nine o'clock. Dinner was the main meal of the day at Mount
Vernon, and was served punctually at two o'clock. One such meal is thus
described by a guest:

"He thanked us, desired us to be seated, and to excuse him a few
moments.... The President came and desired us to walk in to dinner and
directed us where to sit, (no grace was said).... The dinner was very
good, a small roasted pigg, boiled leg of lamb, roasted fowls, beef,
peas, lettice, cucumbers, artichokes, etc., puddings, tarts, etc. etc.
We were desired to call for what drink we chose. He took a glass of wine
with Mrs. Law first, which example was followed by Dr. Croker Crakes and
Mrs. Washington, myself and Mrs. Peters, Mr. Fayette and the young lady
whose name is Custis. When the cloth was taken away the President gave
'all our Friends.'"

The General ordinarily confined himself to a few courses and if offered
anything very rich would reply, "That is too good for me." He often
drank beer with the meal, with one or two glasses of wine and perhaps as
many more afterward, often eating nuts, another delicacy with him, as he
sipped the wine.

He was, in fact, no prohibitionist, but he was a strong believer in
temperance. He and the public men of his time, being aristocrats, were
wine drinkers and few of them were drunkards. The political revolution
of 1830, ushered in by Jackson, brought in a different type--Westerners
who drank whisky and brandy, with the result that drunkenness in public
station was much more common. Many of the Virginia gentlemen of
Washington's day spent a fourth or even a third of their income upon
their cellars. He was no exception to the rule, and from his papers we
discover many purchases of wine. One of the last bills of lading I have
noticed among his papers is a bill for "Two pipes of fine old London
particular Madeira Wine," shipped to him from the island of Madeira,
September 20, 1799. One wonders whether he got to toast "All our
Friends" out of it before he died.

[Illustration: One of Washington's Tavern Bills]

His sideboard and table were well equipped with glasses and silver wine
coolers of the most expensive construction. As in many other matters,
his inventive bent turned in this direction. Having noticed the
confusion that often arose from the passing of the bottles about the
table he designed when President a sort of silver caster capable of
holding four bottles. They were used with great success on state
occasions and were so convenient that other people adopted the
invention, so that wine _coasters_, after the Washington design, became
a part of the furniture of every fashionable sideboard.

To cool wine, meat and other articles, Washington early adopted the
practice of putting up ice, a thing then unusual. In January, 1785, he
prepared a dry well under the summer house and also one in his new
cellar and in due time had both filled. June fifth he "Opened the well
in my Cellar in which I had laid up a store of Ice, but there was not
the smallest particle remaining.--I then opened the other Repository
(call the dry Well) in which I found a large store." Later he erected an
ice house to the eastward of the flower garden.

His experience with the cellar well was hardly less successful than that
of his friend, James Madison, on a like occasion. Madison had an ice
house filled with ice, and a skeptical overseer wagered a turkey against
a mint julep that by the fourth of July the ice would all have
disappeared. The day came, they opened the house, and behold there was
enough ice for exactly _one_ julep! Truly a sad situation when there
were _two_ Virginia gentlemen.

Mention of Madison in this connection calls to mind the popular notion
that it was his wife Dolly who invented ice-cream. I believe that her
biographers claim for her the credit of the discovery. The rôle of the
iconoclast is a thankless one and I confess to a liking for Dolly, but I
have discovered in Washington's cash memorandum book under date of May
17, 1784, the entry: "By a Cream Machine for Ice," £1.13.4--that is an
ice-cream freezer. The immortal Dolly was then not quite twelve
years old.

Washington seems to have owned three coaches. The first he ordered in
London in 1758 in preparation for his marriage. It was to be
fashionable, genteel and of seasoned wood; the body preferably green,
with a light gilding on the mouldings, with other suitable ornaments
including the Washington arms. It was sent with high recommendations,
but proved to be of badly seasoned material, so that the panels shrunk
and slipped out of the mouldings within two months and split from end to
end, much to his disgust. Such a chariot was driven not with lines from
a driver's box, but by liveried postillions riding on horseback, one
horseman to each span.

The second coach he had made in Philadelphia in 1780 at a cost of two
hundred and ten pounds in specie. It was decidedly better built.

The last was a coach, called "the White Chariot," bought second hand
soon after he became President. It was built by Clarke, of Philadelphia,
and was a fine vehicle, with a cream-colored body and wheels, green
Venetian blinds and the Washington arms painted upon the doors. In this
coach, drawn by six horses, he drove out in state at Philadelphia and
rode to and from Mount Vernon, occasionally suffering an upset on the
wretched roads. It was strong and of good workmanship and its maker
heard with pride that it had made the long southern tour of 1791 without
starting a nail or a screw. This coach was purchased at the sale of the
General's effects by George Washington Parke Custis and later in a
curious manner fell into the possession of Bishop Meade, who ultimately
made it up into walking sticks, picture frames, snuff boxes and such
mementoes.

At Mount Vernon to-day the visitor is shown a coach which the official
Handbook states is vouched for as the original "White Chariot." In
reality it seems to be the coach once owned by the Powell family of
Philadelphia. It is said to have been built by the same maker and on the
same lines, and Washington may have ridden in it, but it never
belonged to him.

Most people think of Washington as a marble statue on a pedestal rather
than as a being of flesh and blood with human feelings, faults and
virtues. He was self-contained, he was not voluble, he had a sense of
personal dignity, but underneath he was not cold. He was really
hot-tempered and on a few well-authenticated occasions fell into
passions in which he used language that would have blistered the steel
sides of a dreadnaught. Yet he was kind-hearted, he pitied the weak and
sorrowful, and the list of his quiet benefactions would fill many pages
and cost him thousands of pounds. He was even full of sentiment in some
matters; on more than one occasion he provided positions that enabled
young friends or relatives to marry, and I shrewdly suspect that he
engineered matters so that the beloved Nelly Custis obtained a good
husband in the person of his nephew, Lawrence Lewis. I might say much
more tending to show his human qualities, but I shall add only this:
Having for many years studied his career from every imaginable point of
view, I give it as my deliberate opinion that perhaps no man ever lived
who was more considerate of the rights and feelings of others. Not even
Lincoln had a bigger heart.



CHAPTER XVIII


THE VALE OF SUNSET

Washington looked forward to the end of his presidency as does "the
weariest traveler, who sees a resting-place, and is bending his body to
lay thereon." "Methought I heard him say, 'Ay.' I am fairly out, and you
are fairly in; see which of us is the happiest," wrote John Adams to his
wife Abigail. And from Mount Vernon Nelly Custis informed a friend that
"grandpapa is very well and much pleased with being once more Farmer
Washington."

The eight years of toilsome work, which had been rendered all the harder
by much bitter criticism, had aged him greatly and this helped to make
him doubly anxious to return to the peace and quiet of home for his
final days. And yet he was affected by his parting from his friends and
associates. A few partisan enemies openly rejoiced at his departure, but
there were not wanting abundant evidences of the people's reverence and
love for him. It is a source of satisfaction to us now that his
contemporaries realized he was one of the great figures of history and
that they did not withhold the tribute of their praise until after his
death. As we turn the thousands of manuscripts that make up his papers
we come upon scores of private letters and public resolutions in which,
in terms often a bit stilted but none the less sincere, a country's
gratitude is laid at the feet of its benefactor.

The Mount Vernon to which he returned was perhaps in better condition
than was that to which he retired at the end of the Revolution, for he
had been able each summer to give the estate some personal oversight;
nevertheless it was badly run down and there was much to occupy his
attention. In April he wrote: "We are in the midst of litter and dirt,
occasioned by joiners, masons, painters, and upholsterers, working in
the house, all parts of which, as well as the outbuildings, are much out
of repair."

Anderson remained with him, but Washington gave personal attention to
many matters and exercised a general oversight over everything. Like
most good farmers he "began his diurnal course with the sun," and if
his slaves and hirelings were not in place by that time he sent "them
messages of sorrow for their indisposition." Having set the wheels of
the estate in motion, he breakfasted. "This being over, I mount my horse
and ride around my farms, which employs me until it is time for dinner,
at which I rarely miss seeing strange faces.... The usual time of
sitting at table, a walk, and tea bring me within the dawn of
candlelight; previous to which, if not prevented by company, I resolve
that, as soon as the glimmering taper supplies the place of the great
luminary, I will retire to my writing table and acknowledge the letters
I have received, but when the lights are brought I feel tired and
disinclined to engage in this work, conceiving that the next night will
do as well. The next night comes, and with it the same causes of
postponement, and so on.... I have not looked into a book since I came
home; nor shall I be able to do it until I have discharged my workmen,
probably not before the nights grow longer, when possibly I may be
looking in Doomsday Book."

He had his usual troubles with servants and crops, with delinquent
tenants and other debtors; he tried Booker's threshing machine,
experimented with white Indian peas and several varieties of wheat,
including a yellow bearded kind that was supposed to resist the fly, and
built two houses, or rather a double house, on property owned in the
Federal City--he avoided calling the place "Washington."

A picture of the Farmer out upon his rounds in these last days has been
left us by his adopted son, George Washington Parke Custis. Custis
relates that one day when out with a gun he met on the forest road an
elderly gentleman on horseback who inquired where he could find the
General. The boy told the stranger, who proved to be Colonel Meade, once
of Washington's staff, that the General was abroad on the estate and
pointed out what direction to take to come upon him. "You will meet,
sir, with an old gentleman riding alone in plain drab clothes, a
broad-brimmed white hat, a hickory switch in his hand, and carrying an
umbrella with a long staff, which is attached to his saddle-bow--that
person, sir, is General Washington."

Those were pleasant rides the old Farmer took in the early morning
sunshine, with the birds singing about him, the dirt lanes soft under
his horse's feet, and in his nostrils the pure air fragrant with the
scent of pines, locust blossoms or wild honeysuckle. When he grew
thirsty he would pause for a drink at his favorite gum spring, and as he
made his rounds would note the progress of the miller, the coopers, the
carpenters, the fishermen, and the hands in the fields, how the corn was
coming up or the wheat was ripening, what fences needed to be renewed or
gaps in hedges filled, what the increase of his cattle would be, whether
the stand of clover or buckwheat was good or not. He was the owner of
all this great estate, he was proud of it; it was his home, and he was
glad to be back on it once more. For he had long since realized that
there are deeper and more satisfying pleasures than winning battles or
enjoying the plaudits of multitudes.

An English actor named John Bernard who happened to be in Virginia in
this period has left us a delightfully intimate picture of the Farmer on
his rounds. Bernard had ridden out below Alexandria to pay a visit and
on his return came upon an overturned chaise containing a man and a
woman. About the same time another horseman rode up from the opposite
direction. The two quickly ascertained that the man was unhurt and
managed to restore the wife to consciousness, whereupon she began to
upbraid her husband for carelessness.

"The horse," continues Bernard, "was now on his legs, but the vehicle
was still prostrate, heavy in its frame and laden with at least half a
ton of luggage. My fellow-helper set me an example of activity in
relieving it of internal weight; and when all was clear we grasped the
wheel between us and to the peril of our spinal columns righted the
conveyance. The horse was then put in and we lent a hand to help up the
luggage. All this helping, hauling and lifting occupied at least half an
hour under a meridian sun, in the middle of July, which fairly boiled
the perspiration out of our foreheads."

After the two Samaritans had declined a pressing invitation to go to
Alexandria and have a drop of something, the unknown, a tall man past
middle age, wearing a blue coat and buckskin breeches, exclaimed
impatiently at the heat and then "offered very courteously," says
Bernard, "to dust my coat, a favor the return of which enabled me to
take a deliberate survey of his person."

The stranger then called Bernard by name, saying that he had seen him
play in Philadelphia, and asked him to accompany him to his house and
rest, at the same time pointing out a mansion on a distant hill. Not
till then did Bernard realize with whom he was speaking.

"Mt. Vernon!" he exclaimed. "Have I the honor of addressing General
Washington?"

With a smile Washington extended his hand and said: "An odd sort of
introduction, Mr. Bernard; but I am pleased to find that you can play so
active a part in private and without a prompter."

Then they rode up to the Mansion House and had a pleasant chat[12].

[12] This anecdote is accepted by Mr. Lodge in his life of Washington,
but doubt is cast upon it by another historian. All that can be said is
that there is nothing to disprove it and that it is not inherently
improbable.

Upon his retirement from the presidency our Farmer had told Oliver
Wolcott that he probably would never again go twenty miles from his own
vine and fig tree, but the troubles with France resulted in a quasi-war
and he was once more called from retirement to head an army, most of
which was never raised. He accepted the appointment with the
understanding that he was not to be called into the field unless his
presence should be indispensable, but he found that he must give much
of his time to the matter and be often from home, while a quarrel
between his friends Knox and Hamilton over second place joined with
Republican hostility to war measures to add a touch of bitterness to the
work. Happily war was avoided and, though an adjustment of the
international difficulties was not reached until 1800, Washington was
able to spend most of the last months of his life at Mount Vernon
comparatively undisturbed.

Yet things were not as once they were. Mrs. Washington had aged greatly
and was now a semi-invalid often confined to her bed. The Farmer himself
came of short-lived stock and realized that his pilgrimage would not be
greatly prolonged. Twice during the year he was seriously ill, and in
September was laid up for more than a week. His brother Charles died and
in acknowledging the sad news he wrote:

"I was the first, and am, now, the last of my father's children by the
second marriage, who remain.

"When I shall be _called upon to follow them_ is known only to the Giver
of Life. When the summons comes, I shall endeavor to obey it with
good grace."

And yet there were gleams of joy and gladness. "About candlelight" on
his birthday in 1799 Nelly Custis and his nephew, Lawrence Lewis, were
wedded. The bride wished him to wear his gorgeous new uniform, but when
he came down to give her away he wore the old Continental buff and blue
and no doubt all loved him better so. Often thereafter the pair were at
Mount Vernon and there on November twenty-seventh a little daughter came
as the first pledge of their affection. As always there was much
company. In August came a gallant kinsman from South Carolina, once
Colonel but now General William Washington of Cowpens fame, and for
three days the house was filled with guests and there was feasting and
visiting. November fifteenth Washington "Rode to visit Mr. now Lord
Fairfax," who was back from England with his family, and the renewal of
old friendships proved so agreeable that in the next month the families
dined back and forth repeatedly.

Nor did the Farmer cease to labor or to lay plans for the future. He
entered into negotiations for the purchase of more land to round out
Mount Vernon and surveyed some tracts that he owned. On the tenth of
December he inclosed with a letter to Anderson a long set of
"Instructions for my manager" which were to be "most strictly and
pointedly attended to and executed." He had rented one of the farms to
Lawrence Lewis, also the mill and distillery, and was desirous of
renting the fishery in order to have less work and fewer hands to attend
to; in fact, "an entire new scene" was to be enacted. The instructions
were exceedingly voluminous, consisting of thirty closely written folio
pages, and they contain plans for the rotation of crops for several
years, as well as specific directions regarding fencing, pasturage,
composts, feeding stock, and a great variety of other subjects. In them
one can find our Farmer's final opinions on certain phases of
agriculture. To draw them up must have cost him days of hard labor and
that he found the task wearing is indicated by the fact that in two
places he uses the dates 1782 and 1783 when he obviously meant 1802
and 1803.

There was no hunting now nor any of those other active outdoor sports in
which he had once delighted and excelled, while "Alas! our dancing days
are no more." Happily he was able to ride and labor to the last, yet
more and more of his time had to be spent quietly, much of it, we may
well believe, upon the splendid broad veranda of his home.

Unimaginative and unromantic though he was, what visions must sometimes
have swept through the brain of that simple farmer as he gazed down upon
the broad shining river or beyond at the clustered Maryland hills
glorified by the descending sun. Perchance in those visions he saw a
youthful envoy braving hundreds of miles of savage wilderness on an
errand from which the boldest might have shrunk without disgrace. Then
with a handful of men in forest green it is given to that youth to put a
Continent in hazard and to strike on the slopes of Laurel Hill the first
blow in a conflict that is fought out upon the plains of Germany, in far
away Bengal and on most of the Seven Seas. For an instant there rises
the delirium of that fateful day with Braddock beside the ford of the
Monongahela when

     "Down the long trail from the Fort to the ford,
     Naked and streaked, plunge a moccasined horde:
     Huron and Wyandot, hot for the bout;
     Shawnee and Ottawa, barring him out.

     "'Twixt the pit and the crest, 'twixt the rocks and the grass,
     Where the bush hides the foe and the foe holds the pass,
     Beaujeu and Pontiac, striving amain;
     Huron and Wyandot, jeering the slain,"

The years pass and the same figure grown older and more sedate is taking
command of an army of peasantry at war with their King. Dorchester
Heights, Brooklyn, Fort Washington, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine,
Valley Forge, Monmouth, Morristown, the sun of Yorktown; Green, Gates,
Arnold, Morgan, Lee, Lafayette, Howe, Clinton, Cornwallis--what
memories! Lastly, a Cincinnatus grown bent and gray in service leaves
his farm to head his country's civil affairs and give confidence and
stability to an infant government by his wisdom and character.

Here, with bared heads, let us take leave of him--a farmer, but "the
greatest of good men and the best of great men."

THE END



INDEX

Adams, Abigail, letter of husband to about Washington's retirement, 306.
Adams, John: believes Washington was made by marriage with Custis money,
     16; on Washington's retirement, 306.
Ague, prevalence of along the Potomac, 65.
Alfalfa, _see "Lucerne"_.
Alton, John, a servant of Washington's, 170, 174, 175.
Anderson, James: manager of Mount Vernon, 181, 182; sends list of the
     increase of slaves, 194; mentioned by Parkinson, 276; remains with
     Washington, 307; final instructions to, 315.
_Anna_, brings indentured servants from Ireland, 167.
_Annals of Agriculture_ used by Washington, 71, 72; nature of, 74;
     plan of drill published in, 107; Washington begins to read, 116;
     plan of barn in, 117; threshing machine described in, 126.
_A Practical Treatise of Husbandry_: used by Washington, 71; its
     author, 73.

Barrel plough: Washington makes one, 107; operation of, 108-110.
Bartram, John, Washington obtains plants from, 159.
Bassett, Fanny, matrimonial adventures of, 177, 180.
Bater, Philip, Washington agrees to let him get drunk on certain days, 169.
Bath (Berkeley Springs): Washington's land at, 28; Patty Custis taken to,
     223.
Bear, one chased by the hounds, 257.
Belvoir, fox hunting dinners at, 258.
Bernard, John, peculiar meeting of with Washington, 310-312.
Bishop, Sally: Custis' story of, 171-173; marries Thomas Green, 173;
    later history of, 174.
Bishop, Thomas, history of, 170-173.
Bixby, Thomas K., owns the Lear papers, 86.
"Blueskin," one of Washington's war horses, 132, 133.
Board of Agriculture: Washington elected honorary member
     of, 84; he is influenced by example of, 128.
Booker, William:  makes threshing machine for Washington,
     126, 127; mentioned, 308.
Boston Athenaeum, buys Washington relics, 86.
_Boston_, British frigate, Washington sells bull to, 144.
"Botanical Garden": used for experimental purposes,  106;
     location of, 161.
Boucher, Jonathan, teaches John Parke Custis, 225.
Bowen, Cavan, indentured servant, bought, 167.
Bowling Green: laid out by Washington, 154; mentioned, 161.
Box hedge, doubtful history of, 160, 161.
Braddock, Gen. Edward: Washington joins staff of, 4, 5;
     Bishop his servant, 170; mentioned, 12, 316.
Brents, Washington purchases, 17.
Bruff, Thomas, amusing request for a loan, 291-293.
Bullskin Plantation, Washington patents, 9.
Burbank, Luther, mentioned, 107.
Burnes, David, quizzes Washington about his marriage, 16.
Butler,--: a gardener, 161; dismissed, 183.

Calvert, Eleanor: love affair with John Parke Custis, 225;
     letter of Martha Washington to, 226; for second husband
     marries Doctor Stuart, 231.
Campbell's tavern, Washington in card game at, 250.
Campion,--, brings "Knight of Malta," 140.
Cape of Good Hope wheat, Washington experiments with, 105.
Carrington, Mrs. Edward, describes Martha Washington's
     sewing activities, 232, 233.
Carroll, Charles, interested in Nelly Custis, 235.
Carter, Charles H., returns a loan, 293, 294.
Gary, freedman, death of at great age, 218.
Cattle: poor quality of, 56, 57; number lost in twenty months,
     142; Washington's experiences with, 143 et seq.; number
     owned in 1799, 148; Parkinson's poor opinion of,
     276, 279.
Chastellux, Marquis de: Washington describes to him the
     delights of his retirement, 5; letter of Washington to
     about inland navigation, 26; on Washington's horsemanship,
     235.
Chinch bugs, a bad year for, 104.
Chinese geese, Gouverneur Morris sends some to Washington, 147.
Chinese pigs, a gift to Washington, 147.
Christian, Mr., dancing master, 247, 248.
Cincinnatus: Washington did not affect rôle of, 6;
     picture of the American at Mount Vernon, 131;
     mentioned, 317.
Clifton,--, fails to abide by a bargain with Washington, 17.
Clinton, George: in partnership with Washington in a land speculation, 26;
     sends young trees and vines to Washington, 155.
Coaches: Washington's experiences with, 303, 304;
     mentioned, 141.
Compost, Washington experiments with, 92-94.
"Compound," a jackass, 140.
Congress, Washington recommends establishment of a board of agriculture
     to, 127, 128.
Conservationist, Washington the first, 129.
Copy-book, Washington's, verses quoted from, 5.
Corn: some raised in Virginia, 51, 52;
     chief food of laborers and horses, 53;
     Washington's experience growing, 69;
     his opinion as to the proper time for planting, 105.
Craik, Dr. James: tours western country with Washington, 20 et seq., 27
     et seq.; physician to Mount Vernon, 195; fishes with Washington,
     265; relations of Washington with, 296, 297.
Craik, William, accompanies Washington on western trip of 1784, 28.
Crawford, Captain William: Washington's western agent, 19;
     descends the Ohio with Washington, 20;
     locates lands for Washington, 22;
     trouble of with squatters, 23;
     burnt at stake, 23;
     buys Great Meadows for Washington, 29.
_Cross Purposes_, Washington sees performance of, 245.
Crow,--: overseer, 183;
     not to be trusted with punishing slaves, 203.
Cupid, near death of pleurisy, 196.
Custis children: Washington guardian of, 14, 15;
     his accounts with the estate of, 81.
Custis, Daniel Parke, first husband of Martha Washington, 12, 220.
Custis, Elizabeth, frequent visitor at Mount Vernon, 231.
Custis, George Washington Parke: sees Washington fall from a horse, 133;
     story of Sally Bishop, 171;
     adopted, 175;
     biography of, 227-229;
     spoiled by his grandmother, 236;
     says "Magnolia" ran in a race, 252;
     account of French hounds, 259 et seq.;
     slays a stag, 268;
     story of a black fox, 262;
     in error as to Washington's last hunt, 264;
     leaves word picture of Washington out on his
     rounds, 309.
Custis, John Parke: biography of, 225, 226; member of
     dancing class, 248; fox hunting with Washington, 256;
     deer hunting at Mason's, 257.
Custis, Martha (Patty): hairpin of mended, 15; taken to
     Bath for her health, 28; biography of, 222-225; member
     of dancing class, 248.
Custis, Martha, a frequent visitor at Mount Vernon, 231.
Custis, Nelly: builds "Woodlawn," 63; adopted by Washington,
     175; is given Dogue Run Farm, 227; rebuked by
     grandmother, 235; compelled to practise music, 236;
     Washington dances with, 249; mentioned, 300; secures
     a good husband, 305; says Washington is pleased with
     being once more a farmer, 306; marriage of, 314.
Cyrus, to be made a waiting man, 210.

Dandridge, Martha, _see "Martha Washington"_ 219.
Darrell,--: Washington buys land from, 9; mentioned, 17.
Davenport,--, dies and leaves family in distress, 187, 188.
Davis, Betty, a lazy impudent huzzy, 199, 200.
Davis, Tom, Mount Vernon hunter, 267.
Davy: colored overseer of Muddy Hole Farm, 183; suspected
     of stealing lambs, 206.
Deer: Washington's tame animals, 131, 267; deer seen on
     Ohio, 253; deer hunt at George Mason's, 257, 258;
     Custis shoots a buck, 268, 269.
Dismal Swamp Company, Washington's interest in, 19, 33.
Dogs, kill sheep, 55, 142, 143. _See also "Hounds_."
Dogue Run, used as a mill stream, 97.
Dogue Run Farm: described, 62, 63; rotation plans for, 120;
     sixteen-sided barn built upon, 124; excellent threshing
     floor of this barn, 125; rented to Lawrence Lewis, 127;
     conjuring negroes at, 213; given to Lawrence Lewis
     and his wife, 227; financial return from in 1798, 287.
Dower negroes: belong to Custis estate, 14; number of in 1799, 218.
Drill, _see "Barrel Plough_."
Duhamel du Monceau, Henri Louis, his treatise on husbandry
     abstracted by Washington, 71, 73, 74.
Dunmore, Lord, issues a land patent to Washington, 25.
Dutch fan, one owned by Washington at the time of his death, 128.

Eastern Shore oats, wild onions picked out of, 111.
Eastern Shore peas, experiment with, 105.
Evans, Joshua, puts iron ring on Patty Custis, 224.
Everett, Edward, buys the Pearce papers, 86.

Fairfax, Anne: wife of Lawrence Washington, 10;
     marries George Lee and sells her life interest in Mount Vernon
     to George Washington, 11.
Fairfax, Lord Thomas: employs George Washington as a surveyor, 9;
     vast land holdings of, 38;
     fondness of fox hunting, 255;
     hunts with Washington, 256.
Fairfax, Sir William, father of wife of Lawrence Washington, 11.
_Farmer's Compleat Guide_: used by Washington, 71;
     abstracts from, 72.
_Federal Gazette_,
     describes theatrical performance witnessed by Washington, 246.
Ferry, bought of Posey, 17.
Ferry Farm, bought by Washington, 17, 295.
Fertilizer: experiments with marl, 95, 99, 105;
     with mud, 102-104;
     experiment fertilizing oats, 112;
     Noah Webster's advanced ideas regarding, 118, 119;
     Washington wants a manager who can convert everything he
     touches into manure, 119;
     _see also "Compost" and "Rotation of Crops"_.
Fishery: bought of Posey, 17;
     description of, 65, 66;
     returns from in 1798, 287.
Fitch, John, visits Washington to interest him in steam navigation, 240.
Fitzpatrick, John C, on handwriting of the
     digest from the _Compleat Guide,_ 72.
Florida Blanca, helps Washington obtain a jackass, 137, 138.
Flour: Washington's classification of, 98;
     excellent quality of, 98.
Forbes, Mrs., Washington's inquiries about, 189, 190.
Ford, Paul Leicester:
     opinion of remedies tried on Patty Custis, 223;
     on Washington's success as a farmer, 287.
Fox hunting: account of Washington's experiences at, 255-265;
     mentioned, 100.
Franklin, Benjamin: gives Washington a cane, 87;
     Washington inspects mangle belonging to, 113.
Frederick the Great, mythical story of his sending a sword to
     Washington, 86.
French, Daniel, breaks contract for sale of corn, 79, 80.
French, Mrs. Daniel, Washington hires slaves from, 217.
French, Elizabeth, member of dancing class, 248.
Frestel, Monsieur, accompanies George W. Lafayette to Mount Vernon, 242.

Garden: doubtful history of part of the flower garden, 160; the
     vegetable garden, 161.
_Gentleman Farmer_, used by Washington, 71.
_George Barnwell_, Washington sees tragedy of acted, 244.
George, Prince, compared with Washington by Thackeray, 88.
George III, contributes to _Annals of Agriculture_ under pen
     name of "Ralph Robinson," 74.
George Town oats, sown, 112.
Golden pheasants, Washington astonished by, 148.
Gough,--: gives Washington a bull calf, 144; Parkinson thinks it a poor
     animal, 276.
Graham, Mrs. Macaulay, visits Mount Vernon, 240.
Great Kanawha: Washington visits, 21; land of upon, 21; hunts buffaloes
     near, 254, 255.
Great Meadows, owned by Washington, 29.
Greer, Thomas: marries Sally Bishop, 173; his laziness, 185; mentioned,
     183.
Grenville, Lord, issues special permit for sending seeds to Washington,
     117.
Guinea swine, some owned by Washington, 147.
"Gunner," a hunting dog, 267.
Gunston Hall, fox hunting dinners at, 258.

_Hamlet_, Washington sees performance of, 245.
Haw has: constructed at ends of Mansion House, 154; mentioned, 156.
Hedgerows, lines of still visible, 64.
Hedges: traces of still discernible, 64, 162; history of, 162, 163;
     _see also "Box hedge_."
Henley, Frances Dandridge, marries Tobias Lear, 177.
Hessian fly: Washington experiments to protect his wheat from, 95;
     plays into hands of by early sowing, 106.
_Hippopotamus_, dredge used on Delaware River, 103.
Hogs: described by Parkinson, 57, 58; Washington's, 131, 145-147; large
     stock of in 1798, 148.
Home,--, his book on farming digested by Washington, 71.
_Horse-Hoeing Husbandry_: used by Washington, 71; an epoch-making
     work, 73.
Horses: in Virginia, 53, 54; American described by Parkinson, 54, 55;
     Washington's stallions, 131; brood mares bought by him, 132;
     his war horses, 132; thrown from a Narragansett, 133;
     his worn-out animals, 134; accidents to, 134;
     his skill as a trainer of described by De Chastellux, 134, 135;
     losses of in twenty months, 142; number of in 1799, 148.
Horticulture, Washington's activities in, 149 et seq.
Hounds: Washington builds up a pack of, 258 et seq.; names of some of
     them, 259; the French hounds, 259 et seq.
Humphreys, Colonel: at Mount Vernon, 171; Smith fears he will write a
     poem, 173; poem of about Washington's slaves quoted, 211.
Hunt, Gaillard, on Washington manuscripts in the Library of Congress, 87.

Ice house, Washington's, 301, 302.
Indentured servants: classes of, 165; Washington's dealings with, 166-168.

Jack, Mount Vernon fisherman, 267.
Jackasses: Washington's, 137 et seq., 148; stud fees of in 1798, 287.
Jackson, Andrew, ushers in an era of whisky drinkers, 300.
Jefferson, Thomas: explains why land is misused, 53; agricultural
     correspondence with Washington, 83; carries bundle of pecan trees
     to Alexandria for Washington, 159; opposed to slavery, 215.
Johnson, John, brings nostrum for fits, 224.
Johnston, George, sells land to Washington, 9.
"Jolly," a horse, gets leg broken, 134.
Jones,--, Washington visits farm of, 113.

Knight, Humphrey, manages Mount Vernon, 178.
"Knight of Malta," a jackass, his history, 140, 141.
Knox, Thomas, one of Washington's English agents, 45, 46.

"Lady," has four puppies, 259.
Lafayette, George W., stay of at Mount Vernon, 241, 242, 300.
Lafayette, Marquis de: visits Washington, 27; Washington's letter to
     regarding "Royal Gift," 138; sends Washington a jackass and two
     jennets, 140; last visit to Washington, 240; sends Washington some
     hounds, 259.
Lame Peter, taught to knit, 193.
Laurie, Dr. James, comes to Mount Vernon drunk, 195.
Lear, Lincoln, Washington's interest in, 175-177.
Lear, Tobias: correspondence of with Washington published, 86;
     biography of, 175-177; marries widow of George A. Washington, 177,
     180; writes directions about Billy Lee, 208; Washington explains
     to him his desire for selling western lands, 213; directed to get
     slaves out of Pennsylvania, 216; letter of Washington to, 242;
     Parkinson's conversation with, 279; gives Parkinson money, 280.
Lee, General Charles: story of Washington's loans to, 81, 82;
     mentioned, 317.
Lee, George, marries widow of Lawrence Washington, 11.
Lee, Henry: sends Washington cuttings of the tree box, 155; they show
     little signs of growing, 157.
Lee, Robert E., Jr., administrator _de bonis non_ of Washington's
     estate, 35.
Lee, William (Billy): accompanies Washington to the Ohio, 20; breeches
     bought for, 82; helps get Colonel Smith out of a scrape, 172-174;
     val de chambre, 193; history of, 206-209; freed, 218; acts as
     huntsman, 260, 261.
"Leonidas," a stallion, 131.
Lewis, Betty: visit of Washington to, 112; sends brother some filberts,
     155; Washington gives her a mule, 298; mentioned, 293.
Lewis, Howell, manages Mount Vernon, 180.
Lewis, Lawrence: builds "Woodlawn," 63; rents Dogue Run Farm, 127, 315;
     with uncle on a ride, 133; Washington expresses wish to that
     Virginia would abolish slavery, 215; helps Washington entertain
     guests, 243, 244; possible part of Washington in furthering love
     affair of, 305; marriage of, 314.
Lewis, Nelly Custis, _see "Nelly Custis"_.
Lewis, Robert: manages Mount Vernon, 180; describes tearful scenes on
     departure of Martha Washington, 237.
Library of Congress, Washington papers in, 5, 85, 87, 90.
Little Miami River, history of Washington's lands upon, 34-36.
Long Island Historical Society, Pearce-Washington papers in, 86.
Lossing, Benson J., visit of to Mount Vernon, 160.
Lucerne, Washington experiments with, 91, 92.

McCracken, Washington buys land from, 9.
McKoy,--, overseer, 183.
Madison, Dolly, did not invent ice cream, 302, 303.
Madison, James: story of his ice house, 302; opposed to slavery, 215.
"Magnolia": a blooded Arabian stallion, 131, 132; in a race, 252.
Magowan, Rev. Mr., sells lottery tickets, 251.
_Maid of the Mill_, Washington witnesses performance of, 246.
Mansion House: view from porch of, 64; bequeathed to
     Bushrod Washington, 84; Bishop starts for, 172;
     grounds of overrun with negro children, 191; hospital
     for slaves built near, 195; mentioned, 63, 267, 268; Bernard
     visits, 312.
Mansion House Farm: described, 61; Washington will not
     rent, 127; bequeathed to Bushrod Washington, 178;
     financial loss on in 1798, 287.
Manure, _see "Fertilizer"_.
Marl, Washington experiments with, 95, 99, 105.
Mason, George: description of industry upon estate of, 40-43;
     is dead, 233; deer hunting at, 257, 258.
Matilda's Ben, misbehavior of, 205.
Meade, Colonel, visits Washington, 309.
Mercer, John F., Washington's letter to about slavery, 213.
Meteorological table, manager required to keep, 83.
Michaux, André, botanist, brings pyramidical cypress from
     the king of France, 158.
Military Company of Adventurers, Washington a member of, 19.
Mill: Washington's mill on the Youghiogheny, 24, 30; his
     mill on Four Mile Run, 97; that on Dogue Run, 97, 98, 182.
Mississippi Company, Washington interested in, 10.
Morgan, General Daniel: talks over inland waterways question
     with Washington 28; mentioned, 317.
Morris, Gouverneur: sends Washington Chinese pigs and
     geese, 146, 147; goes fishing with him, 265.
Mosquitoes, prevalence of about Mount Vernon, 65.
Mount Vernon: Washington retires to, 4; given to Lawrence Washington,
     8; George Washington spends part of youth at, 9; early history of,
     10; life interest of Anne Lee in bought by Washington, 11; estate,
     16, 17, 20, 32; bequeathed to Bushrod Washington, 33; description
     of, 60 et seq.; visit of owner in 1781, 78; seeds sent by Young
     reach, 117; Booker builds threshing machine at, 126, 127;
     Washington attempts to rent, 127; Washington's care for the lands
     of, 129; number of horses on in 1785, 132; number of sheep on,
     135; resounds with jubilant sounds, 140; number of oxen on, 144,
     208; house rebuilt, 151-153; successive managers of, 178-182;
     employment of white labor at, 186; slaves seen at, 191; number of
     slaves on in 1786, 193; lot of slaves at, 211, 212; Edmund
     Pendleton at, 221; managed by Mrs. Washington, 229; larders of
     kept well filled, 230; Custis grandchildren reside at, 231;
     visitors at, 240-242; dancing class meets at, 248; tea served on
     portico of, 252; fox hunting dinners at, 258; the fisherman of,
     267; described by Parkinson, 271 et seq., 291; Washington's
     estimate of probable crops on, 286; land of poor, 288; value of in
     1798, 288; coach shown there to-day not Washington's, 304; Nelly
     Custis writes from, 306; condition of on Washington's retirement,
     307; last months of owner's life spent at, 313; mentioned, 75, 78,
     97, 101, 103, 130, 208, 244, 291, 312, 314.
Mount Vernon Association, 63.
Muddy Hole Farm: described, 62; barrel plough used at, 110; its colored
     overseer, 183, 205; loss on in 1798, 287.
Mules: Washington raises, 137 et seq.; proposes to drive them to his
     carriage, 139; number of in 1799, 148.

Narragansetts, two bought by Washington, 132.
Negroes, _see "Slaves."_
"Nelson," one of Washington's war horses, 132, 133.
New England, Washington's observations of agriculture in, 115.
Niemcewicz, Julian: describes condition of negroes at Mount Vernon,
     197, 198; opinion of Nelly Custis, 227.

"Old Chatham," a worn-out horse, 134.
Overdursh,--, Dutch redemptioner bought with his family, 167.
Oxen: used in farm work, 122; number of in 1785, 144; fattened and
     killed when eight years old, 145.

Palatines: Washington considers importing, 24, 30;  mentioned, 167.
Palmer, Jonathan, overseer, contract of, 185.
Parkinson, James: description of American live stock, 54-58; considers
     renting one of Washington's farms, 127; on Washington's tone toward
     his slaves, 202; his account of Mount Vernon and Washington's
     farming operations, 270-280.
Patterson, John, paid for carpenter work, 153.
Peaches, Washington raises, 149.
Pearce, William: letters of Washington to, 86; describes poor condition
     of the sheep, 137; letter to about Bishop, 171; manages Mount
     Vernon, 181; overseers described to, 183; letter from about the
     dead miller's family, 187; direction to about Cyrus, 209.
Perkins' Tavern, Washington stays over Sunday at, 116.
Peters, Richard: quoted regarding wolves, 56; sends plan of drill to
     Washington, 107.
Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, founded, 91.
Phillipse, Mary, Washington's alleged infatuation with, 170.
Piney Branch, turned into Dogue Run, 97.
Pitt, William, a contributor to the _Annals of Agriculture, _74.
Plow: Washington invents one, 94; buys a Rotheran, 99.
Poelnitz, Baron, Washington inspects threshing machine belonging to, 126.
Pohick Church, Washington a vestryman of, 100.
Poland oats, sown in experimental plot, 112.
Pond, Rev., "lame discourses" of, 116.
Poole, William, letter of regarding want of water in mill stream, 97.
Posey, Captain John: fox hunting with Washington, 256; Washington's
     relations with, 294; bankrupt and in jail, 295, 296.
Posey, Milly: member of dancing class, 248; stays at Mount Vernon, 295.
Posey, St. Lawrence, Washington helps to educate, 295.
Posey plantation, bought by Washington, 17.
Potatoes: method of growing under straw, 112; quantity raised in 1788,
     113.

Randolph, Edmund, slaves of in Pennsylvania refuse to return to
     Virginia, 216.
Redemptioners, a class of indentured servants, 166.
Richey, Matthew, Washington sells part of his western lands to, 32.
River Farm: described, 61, 62; financial return from in 1798, 287.
Robert Gary & Company: English agents of Washington, 46, 47; Washington
     falls in debt to, 48.
Roberts, William M., amusing letter of, 188.
Roosevelt, Theodore, transfers Washington papers to Library of
     Congress, 85.
Ross, Doctor, Washington asks him to buy him some white servants, 167.
Rotation of crops: how practised in America, 52; Washington's elaborate
     plans for, 120 et seq.
"Royal Gift," a jackass, his history, 138-141.
"Rules of Civility," quoted, 202.
Rumney, Dr. William, physician to Mount Vernon, 195.
Ryan, Thomas, indentured servant, bought, 167.

"Samson," a stallion, 131.
Seed: Washington anxious to have the best, 110; counts number of grains
     in a pound of several varieties, 111; obtains some from England,
     116, 117.
Serpentine drive, laid out by Washington, 154.
Shag, Will, a runaway, 203.
Shaw, William, tutor to the Custis children, 175.
Sheep: raising of not much attempted, 55; breeds of, 55; much troubled
     by wolves and dogs, 55, 56; Washington's, 135 et seq.; number lost
     in twenty months, 142; he suspects an overseer of stealing lambs,
     206; Parkinson's opinion of, 278, 279.
Siberian wheat, experiment with, 105.
Simpson, Gilbert, one of Washington's western agents, 23, 24, 29, 30,
     31.
Sinclair, Sir John: Washington corresponds with, 83, 91: helps obtain
     seeds for Washington, 117; Washington sends some American products
     to, 118.
Sixteen-sided barn, mentioned, 62.
Slaves: Washington inherits from his father, 8; some sent to the west
     to Simpson's, 23, 25; steal fruit, 156; as solution of labor
     problem, 165; detailed account of Washington's, 191-218.
Smith, Colonel, adventure with Sally Bishop, 171-174.
Smith, Thomas, Washington's attorney in case against the squatters, 32.
Spears, Thomas, indentured servant, runs away, 168.
Spotswood, Gen. Alexander,
     Washington's letter to apropos of slavery, 214.
Sprague, William B., is given some of the Washington papers, 85.
Squatters: on Washington's western land, 22, 23; delegation from meet
     Washington at Simpson's, 31; dispossessed, 32.
Stallions, list of those kept by Washington, 131.
"Steady," a stallion, 131, 284.
Stephens, Richard, his laziness, 186.
Stewart, Robert, Washington's loan to, 293.
Stuart, overseer, 183.
Sullivan, Captain, interpreter of directions regarding "Royal Gift,"
     138.
Swearingen, Captain van, accompanies Washington on mission to
     squatters, 31.
Sycamores, enormous ones measured by Washington, 22, 255.

Thackeray, William M., quoted regarding Washington, 87, 88.
Thomson, Charles, notifies Washington of his election to the
     presidency, 240.
Threshing machine: Washington experiments with, 126, 127; owns one at
     time of death, 128; Parkinson says General has two, 275; uses one
     of Booker's model, 308.
Tobacco: place of in Virginia agriculture, 42-52; Washington's
     experience with, 68; discontinues growing of, 69.
Tom, sent to West Indies, 204, 216.
Toner, J.M.: his transcripts of Washington papers, 79, 86; opinion of
     regarding inspection of Washington's flour in the West Indies, 98.
"Traveler": a stallion, 131; stud fee of, 287.
Triplett, William, constructs outbuildings, 153.
Tull, Jethro: his book on horse-hoeing abstracted by Washington, 71,
     73; some of his ideas, 75; quoted by Washington, 92.
Turkeys: Washington raises, 131, 147; wild variety mentioned, 253.

Union Farm: described, 61, 62; fishery on, 65; gully upon, 66; new
     brick barn after Young's plans built upon, 117; financial return
     from in 1798, 287.

Virginia, agriculture and life in, 37-59.
_Virginia Almanac,_ weather record kept by Washington in, 80.
_Virginia Gazette,_ Washington advertises escaped servants in,
     167.
Voilett, Edward, agrees to avoid stills, 169.
"Vulcan," raid of on kitchen, 260.

Waggoner Jack, sold in West Indies, 204.
Walker, Ann, daughter of John Alton, receives a bequest from Washington,
     174.
Walpole Grant, Washington interested in, 10.
Washington, Augustine, bequests of to George, 8.
Washington, Augustine, Jr., daughter of describes Martha Washington's
     activities, 234, 235.
Washington, Bushrod: accompanies Washington on western trip, 28;
     inherits Mansion House and papers, 84; fails to safeguard papers
     properly, 85; educated by his uncle, 178; asked to make inquiries
     about Mrs. Forbes, 189; assisted by his uncle, 299.
Washington, George A.: brings mahogany seeds from West Indies, 157;
     widow of marries Tobias Lear, 177; manages Mount Vernon, 179, 180;
     course of approved, 184; fox hunting, 263, 264; ill health of,
     297; aided by his uncle, 299.
Washington, Harriot, helped by her uncle, 299.
Washington, John A., manages Mount Vernon, 177, 178.
Washington, John A., inherits books and relics of Washington, 85.
Washington, John C, sells Washington papers to the nation, 85.
Washington, Lawrence: inherits Mount Vernon, 8; influence of upon
     George, 9; biography of, 10; mentioned, 76.
Washington, Lund: directed to set out trees at end of Mansion House,
     151; manages Mount Vernon during the Revolution, 179; Washington's
     generous dealings with, 187; will inform owner of delinquencies of
     Roberts, 189; opinion of Washington's charity, 230, 231; is dead,
     233; fox hunting with Washington, 256, 263; instructions to
     concerning the poor, 298.
Washington, Martha: marriage of Washington to, 12, 13; family of by
     first husband, 14; her financial affairs, 14, 15; remembers when
     there was but one coach in Virginia, 49; "broke out with the
     Meazles," 79; tradition concerning her authority over the flower
     garden, 160; Bishop threatens to tell of Colonel Smith's escapade,
     172; gives a quilt to her niece, 177; on the required work of the
     sewing servants, 199; chapter about, 219-238; keeps open house,
     239; "Vulcan" steals one of her hams, 260; Parkinson's mention of,
     274, 279, 280; her husband's care of her grandchildren, 298;
     drinks a glass of wine, 300.
Washington, Mary: death of, 33; son visits, 112; son sends money to,
     114, 298.
Washington, Samuel, financial assistance received by from General
     Washington, 299.
Washington, William: has charge of "Royal Gift" in South Carolina, 139,
     140; visits Mount Vernon, 314.
Washington, William A., George Washington buys corn from, 69, 70.
Watson, Elkanah, anecdote of visit to Mount Vernon, 244.
Weather record, kept by Washington, 77, 80.
Webster, Noah: says toast at Mount Vernon was "Success to the mud,"
     103; explains how fertility can be obtained from the air, 118,
     119; visit of mentioned, 175, 240.
Webster, William, indentured servant, runs away, 168.
Western Lands, history of Washington's, 18-36.
Wheat: how reaped and threshed, 51; Washington turns to cultivation of,
     69; Washington rolls in spring, 95; his sales of before the
     Revolution, 96, 97; grinds into flour, 97; excellent quality of
     Washington's wheat before the Revolution, 99; experiments with
     Cape of Good Hope and Siberian, 105; opinion as to proper time for
     sowing, 106; acreage in 1787, 113.
White, Alexander, pays General Lee's debt to Washington, 82.
White Chariot, history of, 303, 304.
Whiting, Anthony: writes concerning worn-out horses, 133, 134;
     instructed to cull out the unthrifty sheep, 136, 137; manager of
     Mount Vernon, 180.
"Wilderness": Washington sets out, 154; many trees dead in, 156.
Wine coasters, invented by Washington, 301.
Witherspoon, John, Washington describes his western lands to, 25.
"Woodlawn," home of Nelly Custis, 63, 227.

Young, Arthur: letters of Washington to about his interest in farming,
     1, 2; astonished that wolves and dogs hinder sheep raising in
     America, 55; Washington explains differences between American and
     European agriculture to, 58; describes his estate to, 60 et seq.,
     127; his _Annals of Agriculture_ used by Washington, 71, 74;
     Washington's correspondence with, 83, 85, 91; sends inquiries
     regarding American agriculture, 84; obtains seeds for Washington,
     116, 117; sends plan for barn, 117; Washington sends agricultural
     information to, 118; Washington inquires of regarding a threshing
     machine, 126; influence of upon Washington, 128; letter of
     Washington to about his sheep, 136; about his mules, 141;
     mentioned by Parkinson, 277.





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