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Title: Chronicles (1 of 6): The Historie of England (1 of 8) - From the Time That It Was First Inhabited, Vntill the Time That It Was Last Conquered: Wherein the Sundrie Alterations of the State Vnder Forren People Is Declared; And Other Manifold Observations Remembred
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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The order obserued in the description of Britaine, by reason of the
necessarie diuision thereof into bookes and chapters growing out of
the varietie of matters therein conteined, seemed (in my iudgement) so
conuenient a course deuised by the writer, as I was easilie induced
thereby to digest the historie of England immediatlie following into the
like method: so that as in the one, so likewise in the other, by summarie
contents foregoing euerie chapter, as also by certeine materiall titles
added at the head of euerie page of the said historie, it is a thing of
no difficultie to comprehend what is discoursed and discussed in the

Wherein (sith histories are said to be the registers of memorie and the
monuments of veritie) all louers of knowlege, speciallie historicall,
are aduisedlie to marke (among other points) the seuerall and successiue
alterations of regiments in this land: whereof it was my meaning to haue
[Sidenote: Pag. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 26, 27, 28, 49, 50, 51, of the
description: and pag. 765, 766, of the historie of England.]
made an abstract, but that the same is sufficientlie handled in the first
booke and fourth chapter of the description of Britaine; whereto if the
seuenth chapter of the same booke be also annexed, there is litle or no
defect at all in that case wherof iustlie to make complaint.

Wherfore by remitting the readers to those, I reape this aduantage,
namelie a discharge of a forethought & purposed labour, which as to
reduce into some plausible forme was a worke both of time, paine and
studie: so seeming vnlikelie to be comprised in few words (being a matter
of necessarie and important obseruation) occasion of tediousnes is to and
fro auoided; speciallie to the reader, who is further to be aduertised,
that the computations of yeares here and there expressed, according to
the indirect direction of the copies whense they were deriued and drawne,
is not so absolute (in some mens opinion) as it might haue beene: howbeit
iustifiable by their originals.

Wherin hereafter (God prolonging peace in the church and commonwelth
that the vse of bookes may not be abridged) such diligent care shall be
had, that in whatsoeuer the helpe of bookes will doo good, or conference
with antiquaries auaile, there shall want no will to vse the one and the
other. And yet it is not a worke for euerie common capacitie, naie it is
a toile without head or taile euen for extraordinarie wits, to correct
the accounts of former ages so many hundred yeares receiued, out of
vncerteinties to raise certeinties, and to reconcile writers dissenting
in opinion and report. But as this is vnpossible, so is no more to be
looked for than may be performed: and further to inquire as it is against
reason, so to vndertake more than may commendablie be atchiued, were
fowle follie.


       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *

_Who inhabited this Iland before the comming of Brute: of Noah & his
three sonnes, among whom the whole earth was diuided: and to which of
their portions this Ile of Britaine befell._


What manner of people did first inhabite this our country, which hath
most generallie and of longest continuance béene knowne among all nations
by the name of Britaine as yet is not certeinly knowne; neither can it be
decided fr[=o] whence the first inhabitants there of came, by reason of
such diuersitie in iudgements as haue risen amongst the learned in this
[Sidenote: The originall of nations for the most part vncerteine.]
behalfe. But sith the originall in maner of all nations is doubtfull, and
euen the same for the more part fabulous (that alwaies excepted which we
find in the holie scriptures) I wish not any man to leane to that which
shall be here set downe as to an infallible truth, sith I doo but onlie
shew other mens conjectures, grounded neuerthelesse vpon likelie reasons,
concerning that matter whereof there is now left but little other
certeintie, or rather none at all.

[Sidenote: Whither Britaine were an Iland at the first.
_Geog. com. lib._
No Ilands at the first, as some coniecture.]
To fetch therefore the matter from the farthest, and so to stretch it
forward, it séemeth by the report of Dominicus Marius Niger that in the
beginning, when God framed the world, and diuided the waters apart from
the earth, this Ile was then a parcell of the continent, and ioined
without any separation of sea to the maine land. But this opinion (as all
other the like vncerteinties) I leaue to be discussed of by the learned:
howbeit for the first inhabitation of this Ile with people, I haue
thought good to set downe in part, what may be gathered out of such
writers as haue touched that matter, and may séeme to giue some light
vnto the knowledge thereof.

[Sidenote: In the first part of the acts of the English votaries.
Britaine inhabitied before the floud.
_Genesis 6_.
_Berosus ant. lib._ 1.]
First therefore Iohn Bale our countrieman, who in his time greatlie
trauelled in the search of such antiquities, dooth probablie coniecture,
that this land was inhabited and replenished with people long before the
floud, at that time in the which the generation of mankind (as Moses
writeth) began to multiplie vpon the vniuersall face of the earth: and
therfore it followeth, that as well this land was inhabited with people
long before the daies of Noah, as any the other countries and parts
of the world beside. But when they had once forsaken the ordinances
appointed them by God, and betaken them to new waies inuented of
themselues, such loosenesse of life ensued euerie where, as brought vpon
them the great deluge and vniuersall floud, in the which perished as well
the inhabitants of these quarters, as the residue of the race of mankind,
generallie dispersed in euerie other part of the whole world, onelie Noah
& his familie excepted, who by the prouidence and pleasure of almightie
God was preserued from the rage of those waters, to recontinue and
repaire the new generation of man of vpon earth.

[Sidenote: NOAH. _In comment. super 4. lib._
_Berosus de antiquit. lib._ 1
_Annius vt suor._]
After the flood (as Annius de Viterbo recordeth) and reason also
enforceth, Noah was the onlie monarch of all the world, and as the same
Annius gathereth by the account of Moses in the 100. yeare after the
flood, Noah diuided the earth among his thrée sonnes; assigning to the
possession of his eldest sonne all that portion of land which now is
knowne by the name of Asia; to his second sonne Cham, he appointed all
that part of the world which now is called Affrica: and to his third
sonne Iaphet was allotted all Europa, with all the Iles therto belonging,
wherin among other was conteined this our Ile of Britaine, with the other
Iles thereto perteining.

_Johannes Bodinus ad fac. hist. cogn._
_Franciscus Tarapha_.]
Iaphet the third son of Noah, of some called Iapetus, and of others,
Atlas Maurus (because he departed this life in Mauritania) was the first
(as Bodinus affirmeth by the authoritie and consent of the Hebrue, Gréeke
& Latine writers) that peopled the countries of Europe, which afterward
he diuided among his sonnes: of whom Tuball (as Tarapha affirmeth)
obteined the kingdome of Spaine. Gomer had dominion ouer the Italians,
and (as Berosus and diuers other authors agrée) Samothes was the founder
of Celtica, which conteined in it (as Bale witnesseth) a great part of
Europe, but speciallie those countries which now are called by the names
of Gallia and Britannia.

[Sidenote: Britaine inhabited shortlie after the floud.]
Thus was this Iland inhabited and peopled within 200 yéeres after the
floud by the children of Iaphet the sonne of Noah: & this is not onlie
prooued by Annius, writing vpon Berosus, but also confirmed by Moses in
the scripture, where he writeth, that of the offspring of Iaphet, the
Iles of the Gentiles (wherof Britain is one) were sorted into regions in
the time of Phaleg the sonne of Hiber, who was borne at the time of the
[Sidenote: _Theophilus episcop. Antioch. ad Anfol lib. 2._
The words of Theophilus a doctor of the church, who liued an. Dom. 160.]
diuision of languages. Herevpon Theophilus hath these words: "Cùm priscis
temporibus pauci forent homines in Arabia & Chaldæa, post linguarum
diuisionem aucti & multiplicati paulatim sunt: hinc quidam abierunt
versus orientem, quidam concessere ad partes maioris continentis, alij
porrò profecti sunt ad septentrionem sedes quæsituri, nec priùs desierunt
terram vbiq; occupare, quàm etiam Britannos in Arctois climatibus
accesserint, &c." _That is_; "When at the first there were not manie
men in Arabia and Chaldæa, it came to passe, that after the diuision of
toongs, they began somewhat better to increase and multiplie, by which
occasion some of them went toward the east, and some toward the parts of
the great maine land: diuers of them went also northwards to seeke them
dwelling places, neither staid they to replenish the earth as they went,
till they came vnto the Iles of Britaine, lieng vnder the north pole."
Thus far Theophilus.

These things considered, Gildas the Britaine had great reason to thinke,
that this countrie had bene inhabited from the beginning. And Polydor
Virgil was with no lesse consideration hereby induced to confesse, that
the Ile of Britaine had receiued inhabitants foorthwith after the floud.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Samothes, Magus, Sarron, Druis, and Bardus, fiue kings succeeding
each other in regiment ouer the Celts and Samotheans, and how manie
hundred yeeres the Celts inhabited this Iland._


[Sidenote: _Gen. 2._]
Samothes the sixt begotten sonne of Iaphet called by Moses Mesech, by
[Sidenote: _De migr. gen._]
others Dis, receiued for his portion (according to the report of
Wolfgangus Lazius) all the countrie lieng betwéene the riuer of Rhene
and the Pyrenian mountains, where he founded the kingdome of Celtica
[Sidenote: _Cent. 1._]
ouer his people called Celtæ. Which name Bale affirmeth to haue bene
indifferent to the inhabitants both of the countrie of Gallia, and the
Ile of Britaine, & that he planted colonies of men (brought foorth of
the east parts) in either of them, first in the maine land, and after
[Sidenote: _Anti. lib._ 1.
_Bale Script_.
_Brit. cent._ 1.]
in the Iland. He is reported by Berosus to haue excelled all men of
that age in learning and knowledge: and also is thought by Bale to
haue imparted the same among his people; namelie, the vnderstanding
[Sidenote: _Cæsar. comment. lib._ 8.]
of the sundrie courses of the starres, the order of inferiour things,
with manie other matters incident to the morall and politike gouernment
of mans life: and to haue deliuered the same in the Phenician letters:
out of which the Gréekes (according to the opinion of Archilochus)
[Sidenote: _In epithet. temp._
_De æquinorus contra Appionem_.]
deuised & deriued the Gréeke characters, insomuch that Xenophon and
Iosephus doo constantlie report (although Diogenes Laertius be against
it) that both the Gréekes and other nations receiued their letters and
learning first from these countries. Of this king and his learning arose
[Sidenote: _Lib. de Magic. success. lib._ 22.]
a sect of philosophers (saith Annius) first in Britaine, and after in
Gallia, the which of his name were called Samothei. They (as Aristotle
and Secion write) were passing skilfull both in the law of God and man:
[Sidenote: _Script. Brit. cent._ I.]
and for that cause excéedinglie giuen to religion, especiallie the
inhabitants of this Ile of Britaine, insomuch that the whole nation
did not onelie take the name of them, but the Iland it selfe (as Bale
[Sidenote: _De ant. Cant. cent. lib._ I.]
and doctor Caius agree) came to be called Samothea, which was the first
peculiar name that euer it had, and by the which it was especiallie
[Sidenote: This Ile called Samothea.]
knowne before the arriuall of Albion.

[Sidenote: MAGUS THE SON OF SAMOTHES. _Lib._ 9.
_Annius in commen. super eundem. Geogr._]
Magus the sonne of Samothes, after the death of his
father, was the second king of Celtica, by whome (as Berosus writeth)
there were manie townes builded among the Celts, which by the witnesse
of Annius did beare the addition of their founder Magus: of which townes
diuers are to be found in Ptolomie. And Antoninus a painfull surueior of
the world and searcher of cities, maketh mention of foure of them here
in Britaine, Sitomagus, Neomagus, Niomagus, and Nouiomagus. Neomagus
sir Thomas Eliot writeth to haue stood where the citie of Chester now
standeth; Niomagus, George Lillie placeth where the towne of Buckingham
is now remaining. Beside this, Bale dooth so highlie commend the foresaid
Magus for his learning renowmed ouer all the world, that he would haue
the Persians, and other nations of the south and west parts, to deriue
the name of their diuines called _Magi_ from him. In déed Rauisius
Textor, and sir Iohn Prise affirme, that in the daies of Plinie, the
Britons were so expert in art magike, that they might be thought to haue
first deliuered the same to the Persians. What the name of _Magus_
[Sidenote: _De diui. lib._ 1.
_De fastis li._ 5.]
importeth, and of what profession the _Magi_ were, Tullie declareth at
large, and Mantuan in briefe, after this maner:

  Ille penes Persas Magus est, qui sidera norit,
  Qui sciat herbarum vires cultúmq; deorum,
  Persepoli facit ista Magos prudentia triplex.

  The Persians terme him Magus, that
  the course of starres dooth knowe,
  The power of herbs, and worship due
    to God that man dooth owe,
  By threefold knowledge thus the name
    of Magus then dooth growe.

  [Sidenote: _H.F._]

_De ant. Cant. lib._ 1.]
[Sidenote: _Bale. script_.
_Brit. cent._ I.]
Sarron the third king of the Celts succéeded his father Magus in
gouernement of the countrie of Gallia, and the Ile Samothea, wherein as
(D. Caius writeth) he founded certaine publike places for them that
professed learning, which Berosus affirmeth to be done, to the intent
to restraine the wilfull outrage of men, being as then but raw and void
of all ciuilitie. Also it is thought by Annius, that he was the first
author of those kind of philosophers, which were called Sarronides, of
whom Diodorus Siculus writeth in this sort: "There are (saith he) among
[Sidenote: _Lib._ 6.]
the Celts certaine diuines and philosophers called Sarronides, whom
aboue all other they haue in great estimation. For it is the manner
among them, not without a philosopher to make anie sacrifice: sith they
are of beléefe, that sacrifices ought onelie to be made by such as are
skilfull in the diuine mysteries, as of those who are néerest vnto God,
by whose intercession they thinke all good things are to be required of
God, and whose aduise they vse and follow, as well in warre as in peace."

_De morte Claud._]
Druis, whom Seneca calleth Dryus, being the sonne of Sarron, was after
his father established the fourth king of Celtica, indifferentlie
reigning as wel ouer the Celts as Britons, or rather (as the inhabitants
of this Ile were then called) Samotheans. This prince is commended by
Berosus to be so plentifullie indued with wisedome and learning, that
Annius taketh him to be the vndoubted author of the begining and name of
the philosophers called Druides, whome Cæsar and all other ancient
Gréeke and Latine writers doo affirme to haue had their begining in
Britaine, and to haue bin brought from thence into Gallia, insomuch that
when there arose any doubt in that countrie touching any point of their
discipline, they did repaire to be resolued therein into Britaine, where,
speciallie in the Ile of Anglesey (as Humfrey Llhoyd witnesseth) they
[Sidenote: _Anti. lib._ 5.
_Annius super eundem_.
_De bello Gallico_. 6.]
made their principall abode. Touching their vsages many things are
written by Aristotle, Socion, Plinie, Laertius, Bodinus, and others:
which I will gather in briefe, and set downe as followeth. They had
(as Cæsar saith) the charge of common & priuate sacrifices, the
discussing of points of religion, the bringing vp of youth, the
determining of matters in variance with full power to interdict so manie
from the sacrifice of their gods and the companie of men, as disobeied
[Sidenote: _Hist. an. lib._ 1.]
their award. Polydore affirmeth, how they taught, that mens soules could
not die, but departed from one bodie to another, and that to the intent
[Sidenote: _De diui. lib._ 1.]
to make men valiant and drealesse of death. Tullie writeth, that
partlie by tokens, and partlie by surmises, they would foretell things
to come. And by the report of Hector Boetius, some of them were not
ignorant of the immortalitie of the one and euerlasting God. All these
[Sidenote: _Hist. Scoti. li._ 2.
_De migr. gen. lib._ 2.
things they had written in the Greeke toong, insomuch that Wolf. Lazius
(vpon the report of Marcellinus) declareth how the Gréeke letters were
first brought to Athens by Timagenes from the Druides. And herevpon it
commeth also to passe, that the British toong hath in it remaining at
this day some smacke of the Gréeke. Among other abuses of the Druides,
they had (according to Diodorus) one custome to kill men, and by the
falling, bleeding, and dismembring of them, to diuine of things to come:
for the which and other wicked practises, their sect was first condemned
for abhominable (as some haue written) and dissolued in Gallia (as
Auentinus witnesseth) by Tiberius and Claudius the emperours; and
[Sidenote: _Anna. Boiorum. lib._ 22.]
lastlie abolished here in Britaine (by the report of Caius) when the
gospell of Christ by the preaching of Fugatius and Damianus was receiued
[Sidenote: _De ant. Cant._]
among the Britaines, vnder Lucius king of Britaine, about the yeare of
our sauior, 179.

_Berosus ant. lib._ 2.
_Annius in commen. super eundem_.
_Ant. Cant li._ 1.
_script. Britan. cent._ 1.
_Diodor. Sicul. lib._ 6.
_Carol. Stepha. in dict. hist._
_Iohn Prise_.]
Bardus the sonne of Druis succéeded his father in the kingdome of
Celtica, and was the fift king ouer the Celtes and Samotheans, amongst
whom he was highlie renoumed (as appeareth by Berosus) for inuention of
dities and musicke, wherein Annius of Viterbo writeth, that he trained
his people: and of such as excelled in this knowledge, he made an order
of philosophicall poets or heraulds, calling them by his owne name Bardi.
And it should séeme by doctor Caius and master Bale, that Cæsar found
some of them here at his arriuall in this Ile, and reported that they had
also their first begining in the same. The profession and vsages of these
Bardi, Nonnius, Strabo, Diodorus, Stephanus, Bale, and sir Iohn Prise,
are in effect reported after this sort. They did vse to record the
noble exploits of the ancient capteins, and to drawe the pedegrées and
genealogies of such as were liuing. They would frame pleasant dities and
songs, learne the same by heart, and sing them to instruments at solemne
feasts and assemblies of noble men and gentlemen. Wherefore they were had
in so high estimation, that if two hosts had bene readie ranged to ioine
in battell, and that any of them had fortuned to enter among them, both
the hosts (as well the enimies as the friends) would haue holden their
hands, giuen eare vnto them, and ceassed from fight, vntill these Bards
[Sidenote: _Lucan. lib._ 1.]
had gone out of the battell. Of these Bards Lucane saith,

  Vos quoq; qui fortes animas bellóq; peremptas,
  Laudius in longum vares dimittítis æuum,
  Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi:

  [Sidenote: _II. F._]
  And you ô poet Bards from danger
    void that dities sound,
  Of soules of dreadlesse men, whom rage
    of battell would confound,
  And make their lasting praise to time
    of later age rebound.

Because the names of these poets were neither discrepant from the
ciuilitie of the Romans, nor repugnant to the religion of the Christians,
they (of all the other sects before specified) were suffered onlie to
continue vnabolished in all ages, insomuch that there flourished of
them among the Britains (according to Bale) before the birth of Christ,
[Sidenote: _Iohn Bale script. Britan. cent._ 2.
_John Prise defen hist. Brit._
_Caius de ant._
_Cant. lib._ 1.
_Iohn Leland_
_syllab. ant dict._
_Hum. Lloyd de Mona insula_]
Plenidius and Oronius: after Christ (as Prise recounteth) Thalestine,
and the two Merlins, Melkin, Elaskirion, and others: and of late daies
among the Welshmen, Dauid Die, Ioslo Gough, Dauid ap William, with an
infinite number more. And in Wales there are sundrie of them (as Caius
reporteth) remaining vnto this day, where they are in their language
called (as Leland writeth) Barthes. Also by the witnes of Humfrey Llhoyd,
there is an Iland néere vnto Wales, called Insula Bardorum, and Bardsey,
whereof the one name in Latine, and the other in Saxon or old English,
signifieth the Iland of the Bardes or Barthes.

_Thus farré the gouernement of the Celts in this Ile._

       *       *       *       *       *


[Sidenote: _Bale_]
After Bardus, the Celts (as Bale saith) loathing the streict ordinances
of their ancient kings, and betaking themselues to pleasure and idlenesse,
were in short time, and with small labour brought vnder the subiection of
the giant Albion, the sonne of Neptune, who altering the state of things
in this Iland, streicted the name of Celtica and the Celts within the
bounds of Gallia, from whence they came first to inhabit this land vnder
the conduct of Samothes, as before ye haue heard, accordinglie as Annius
[Sidenote: _Annius_.]
hath gathered out of Berosus the Chaldean, who therein agréeth also with
[Sidenote: _Theophilus_.]
the scripture, the saieng of Theophilus the doctor, and the generall
consent of all writers, which fullie consent, that the first inhabitants
of this Ile came out of the parties of Gallia, although some of them
dissent about the time and maner of their comming. Sir Brian Tuke
[Sidenote: _Sir Brian Tuke_.]
thinketh it to be ment of the arriuall of Brute, when he came out of
[Sidenote: _Cæsar_.]
those countries into this Ile. Cæsar and Tacitus seeme to be of opinion,
that those Celts which first inhabited here, came ouer to view the
[Sidenote: _Tacitus_.
countrie for trade of merchandize. Bodinus would haue them to come in (a
Gods name) from Languedoc, and so to name this land Albion, of a citie in
[Sidenote: _Beda_.
Languedoc named Albie. Beda, and likewise Polydore (who followeth him)
affirme that they came from the coasts of Armorica, which is now called
little Britaine.

But that the authorities afore recited are sufficient to proue the time
that this Iland was first inhabited by the Celts, the old possessors of
Gallia; not onelie the néernesse of the regions, but the congruence
of languages, two great arguments of originals doo fullie confirme
[Sidenote: _Bodinus_.]
the same. Bodinus writeth vpon report, that the British and Celtike
language was all one. But whether that be true or not, I am not able to
affirme, bicause the Celtike toong is long sithens growne wholie out of
vse. Howbeit some such Celtike words as remaine in the writings of old
authours may be perceiued to agrée with the Welsh toong, being the
[Sidenote: _Pausanias_]
vncorrupted spéech of the ancient Britains. In déed Pausanias the
Grecian maketh mention how the Celts in their language called a horsse
_Marc_: and by that name doo the Welshmen call a horsse to this day:
and the word _Trimarc_ in Pausanias, signifieth in the Celtike toong,
thrée horsses.

Thus it appeared by the authoritie of writers, by situation of place, and
by affinitie of language, that this Iland was first found and inhabited
by the Celts, that there name from Samothes to Albion continued here
the space of 310 yeares or there abouts. And finallie it is likelie,
[Sidenote: _Iohn Bale_.]
that aswell the progenie as the spéech of them is partlie remaining in
this Ile among the inhabitants, and speciallie the British, euen vnto
this day.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of the giant Albion, of his comming into this Iland, diuers opinions why
it was called Albion: why Albion and Bergion were slaine by Hercules: of
Danaus and of his 50 daughters._


[Sidenote: _Bale_.
_Annius de Viterbo_.
_Diodorus Sicubis_.
Pinnesses or gallies.
Neptunus called by Moses (as some take it) Nepthuim, the sixt sonne of
Osiris, after the account of Annius, and the brother of Hercules, had
appointed him of his father (as Diodorus writeth) the gouernement of the
ocean sea: wherefore he furnished himselfe of sundrie light ships for the
more redie passage by water, which in the end grew to the number of a
full nauie: & so by continuall exercise he became so skilfull, and
therewith so mightie vpon the waters (as Higinus & Pictonius doo write)
that he was not onelie called the king, but also estéemed the god of the
seas. He had to wife a ladie called Amphitrita, who was also honored as
goddesse of the seas, of whose bodie he begat sundrie children: and (as
Bale reporteth) he made euerie one of them king of an Iland. In the Ile
[Sidenote: _Scrip. Bri. cent._ 1.]
of Britaine he landed his fourth son called Albion the giant, who brought
the same vnder his subjection. And herevpon it resteth, that Iohn Textor,
[Sidenote: _Ioh. Textor_.
and Polydor Virgil made mention, that light shippes were first inuented
in the British seas, and that the same were couered round with the hides
of beasts, for defending them from the surges and waues of the water.

This Albion being put by his father in possession of this Ile of
Britaine, within short time subdued the Samotheans, the first
inhabitantes thereof, without finding any great resistance, for that (as
before ye haue heard) they had giuen ouer the practise of all warlike
and other painefull exercises, and through vse of effeminate pleasures,
wherevnto they had giuen themselues ouer, they were become now vnapt to
withstand the force of their enimies: and so (by the testimonie of
[Sidenote: _Nichol. Perot._
_Rigmanus Philesius_.
_Hum. Lhoyd_.]
Nicholaus Perottus, Rigmanus Philesius, Aristotle, and Humfrey Llhoyd,
with diuers other, both forraine & home-writers) this Iland was first
called by the name of Albion, hauing at one time both the name and
inhabitants changed from the line of Iaphet vnto the accursed race of Cham.

This Albion (that thus changed the name of this Ile) and his companie,
are called giants, which signifieth none other than a tall kind of men,
of that vncorrupt stature and highnesse naturallie incident to the first
[Sidenote: _Berosus_.]
age (which Berosus also séemeth to allow, where he writeth, that Noah
was one of the giants) and were not so called only of their monstrous
greatnesse, as the common people thinke (although in deed they exceeded
the vsuall stature of men now in these daies) but also for that they
tooke their name of the soile where they were borne: for _Gigantes_
[Sidenote: What _Gigantes_ signifie]
signifieth the sons of the earth: the Aborigines, or (as Cesar calleth
them) Indigenæ; that is, borne and bred out of the earth where they

Thus some thinke, but verelie although that their opinion is not to be
allowed in any condition, which maintaine that there should be any
[Sidenote: _Against the opinion of the Aborigines_.]
Aborigines, or other kind of men than those of Adams line; yet that
there haue béene men of far greater stature than are now to be found,
is sufficientlie prooued by the huge bones of those that haue beene
found in our time, or lately before: whereof here to make further
relation it shall not need, sith in the description of Britaine ye
shall find it sufficientlie declared.

[Sidenote: _Bale_.
Bergion brother to Albion.
Hercules Lybicus.]
But now to our purpose. As Albion held Britaine in subiection, so his
brother Bergion kept Ireland and the Orkenies vnder his rule and
dominion, and hearing that their coosine Hercules Lybicus hauing
finished his conquests in Spaine, meant to passe through Gallia into
Italie, against their brother Lestrigo that oppressed Italie, vnder
subiection of him & other of his brethren the sons also of Neptune;
as well Albion as Bergion assembling their powers togither, passed
ouer into Gallia, to stoppe the passage of Hercules, whose intention
was to vanquish and destroie those tyrants the sonnes of Neptune, &
their complices that kept diuers countries and regions vnder the
painefull yoke of their heauie thraldome.

[Sidenote: The cause why Hercules pursued his cousins.]
The cause that moued Hercules thus to pursue vpon those tyrants now
reigning thus in the world, was, for that not long before, the greatest
part of them had conspired togither and slaine his father Osiris,
notwithstanding that they were nephues to the same Osiris, as sonnes to
his brother Neptune, and not contented with his slaughter, they diuided
his carcase also amongst them, so that each of them got a péece in token
of reioising at their murtherous atchiued enterprise.

For this cause Hercules (whome Moses calleth Laabin) proclamed warres
against them all in reuenge of his fathers death: and first he killed
Triphon and Busiris in Aegypt, then Anteus in Mauritania, & the Gerions
in Spaine, which enterprise atchined, he led his armie towardes Italie,
and by the way passed through a part of Gallia, where Albion and Bergion
[Sidenote: _Pomp. Mela._]
hauing vnited their powers togither, were readie to receiue him with
battell: and so néere to the mouth of the riuer called Rhosne, in Latine
_Rhodanus_, they met & fought. At the first there was a right terrible
and cruell conflict betwixt them. And albeit that Hercules had the
greatest number of men, yet was it verie doubtfull a great while, to
whether part the glorie of that daies worke would bend. Whereupon when
the victorie began outright to turne vnto Albion, and to his brother
Bergion, Hercules perceiuing the danger and likelihood of vtter losse
of that battell, speciallie for that his men had wasted their weapons,
he caused those that stood still and were not otherwise occupied, to
stoope downe, and to gather vp stones, whereof in that place there was
great plentie, which by his commandement they bestowed so fréelie vpon
[Sidenote: Hercules discomfiteith his enimies. Albion is slaine.]
their enimies, that in the end hée obteined the victorie, and did not
only put his adversaries to flight, but also slue Albion there in the
field, togither with his brother Bergion, and the most part of all their
whole armie. This was the end of Albion, and his brother Bergion, by the
valiant prowesse of Hercules, who as one appointed by Gods prouidence to
subdue the cruell & vnmercifull tyrants, spent his time to the benefit
of mankind, deliuering the oppressed from the heauie yoke of miserable
thraldome, in euerie place where he came.

[Sidenote: The occasion of the fable of Jupiter helping his son Hercules.]
And by the order of this battell wée maye learne whereof the poets had
their inuention, when they faine in their writings, that Jupiter holpe
his sonne Hercules, by throwing downe stones from heauen in this battell
against Albion and Bergion. Moreouer, from henceforth was this Ile of
[Sidenote: How this Ile was called Albion, of the giant Albion.
_Iohn Bale_.]
Britaine called Albion (as before we haue said) after the name of the
said Albion: because he was established chiefe ruler and king thereof
both by his grandfather Osiris and his father Neptune that cunning
sailour reigning therein (as Bale saith) by the space of 44. yeares, till
finally he was slaine in maner afore remembred by his vncle Hercules

After that Hercules had thus vanquished and destroied his enimies, hée
passed to and fro thorough Gallia, suppressing the tyrants in euerie
part where he came, and restoring the people vnto a reasonable kinde of
libertie, vnder lawfull gouernours. This Hercules (as we find) builded
the citie Alexia in Burgongne, nowe called Alize. Moreouer, by Lilius
Giraldus in the life of Hercules it is auouched, that the same Hercules
came ouer hither into Britaine. And this dooth Giraldus write by warrant
of such Britons as (saith he) haue so written themselues, which thing
peraduenture he hath read in Gildas the ancient Briton poet: a booke that
(as he confesseth in the 5. dialog of his histories of poets) he hath
séene. The same thing also is confirmed by the name of an head of land
in Britaine called _Promontorium Herculis_, as in Ptolomie ye may read,
which is thought to take name of his arriuall at that place. Thus much
for Albion and Hercules.

[Sidenote: Diuers opinions why this Ile was called Albion.
Sée more hereof in the discription.]
But now, whereas it is not denied of anie, that this
Ile was called ancientlie by the name of Albion: yet there be diuers
opinions how it came by that name: for manie doo not allow of this
historie of Albion the giant. But for so much as it apperteineth rather
to the description than to the historie of this Ile, to rip vp and lay
foorth the secret mysteries of such matters: and because I thinke that
this opinion which is here auouched, how it tooke that name of the
forsaid Albion, sonne to Neptune, may be confirmed with as good
authoritie as some of the other, I here passe ouer the rest, & procéed
with the historie.

When Albion chiefe capteine of the giants was slaine, the residue that
remained at home in the Ile, continued without any rule or restraint of
law, in so much that they fell to such a dissolute order of life, that
they séemed little or nothing to differ from brute beasts: and those are
they which our ancient chronicles call the giants, who were so named, as
well for the huge proportion of their stature (sithens as before is said,
that age brought foorth far greater men than are now liuing) as also for
that they were the first, or at the least the furthest in remembrance
of any that had inhabited this countrie. For this word _Gigines_, or
_Gegines_, from whence our word giant (as some take it) is deriued, is a
Gréeke word, and signifieth, Borne or bred of or in the earth, for our
fore-elders, specially the Gentiles, being ignorant of the true beginning
of mankind, were persuaded, that the first inhabitants of any countrie
were bred out of the earth, and therefore when they could go no higher,
[Sidenote: _Terræ filius_ what it signifieth.]
reckoning the descents of their predecessours, they would name him _Terræ
filius_, The sonne of the earth: and so the giants whom the poets faine
to haue sought to make battell against heauen, are called the sonnes of
the earth: and the first inhabitants generally of euery countrie were of
the Gréekes called _Gigines_, or _Gegines_, and of the Latines
[Sidenote: _Aborigines_.
_Aborigines_, and _Indigenæ_, that is, People borne of the earth from the
beginning, and comming from no other countrie, but bred within the same.

These giants and first inhabitants of this Ile continued in their
beastlie kind of life vnto the arriuall of the ladies, which some of our
chronicles ignorantly write to be the daughters of Dioclesian the king
of Assyria, whereas in déed they haue béene deceiued, in taking the
[Sidenote: The mistaking of the name of Dioclesianus for Danaus.]
word _Danaus_ to be short written for _Dioclesianus_: and by the same
meanes haue diuers words and names béene mistaken, both in our chronicles,
and in diuers other ancient written woorks. But this is a fault that
learned men should not so much trouble themselues about, considering the
[Sidenote: _Hugh the Italian_.
Iohn Rous_ out of _Dauid Pencair_.]
same hath bin alreadie found by sundrie authors ling sithens, as Hugh the
Italian, Iohn Harding, Iohn Rouse of Warwike, and others,
speciallie by the helpe of Dauid Pencair a British historie, who recite
the historie vnder the name of Danaus and his daughters. And because we
would not any man to thinke, that the historie of these daughters
of Danaus is onelie of purpose deuised, and brought in place of
Dioclesianus, to excuse the imperfection of our writers, whereas
there was either no such historie (or at the least no such women that
[Sidenote: _Nennius_.]
arriued in this Ile) the authoritie of Nennius a Briton writer may be
auouched, who wrote aboue 900. yeares past, and maketh mention of the
arriuall of such ladies.

[Sidenote: Belus priscus.
_Danaidarium porticani_.](text unclear)
To be short, the historie is thus. Belus the sonne of Epaphus, or (as
some writers haue) of Neptune and Libies (whome Isis after the death
of Apis maried) had issue two sonnes: the first Danaus, called also
Armeus; and Aegyptus called also Rameses: these two were kings among
the Aegyptians, Danaus the elder of the two, hauing in his rule the
[Sidenote: Danaus.
vpper region of Aegypt, had by sundrie wiues 50. daughters, with whome
his brother Aegyptus, gaping for the dominion of the whole, did
instantlie labour, that his sonnes being also 50. in number, might
match. But Danaus hauing knowledge by some prophesie or oracle, that
a sonne in law of his should be his death, refused so to bestow his
daughters. Hereupon grew warre betwixt the brethren, in the end
whereof, Danaus being the weaker, was inforced to flée his countrie,
and so prepared a nauie, imbarked himselfe and his daughters, and with
them passed ouer into Gréece, where he found meanes to dispossesse
Gelenor (sonne to Stenelas king of Argos) of his rightfull
inheritance, driuing him out of his countrie, and reigned in his place
by the assistance of the Argiues that had conceiued an hatred towardes
Gelenor, and a great liking towardes Danaus, who in verie deed did so
farre excell the kings that had reigned there before him, that the
Gréekes in remembrance of him were after called Danai.

But his brother Aegyptus, taking great disdaine for that he and his
sonnes were in such sort despised of Danaus, sent his sonnes with a great
armie to make warre against their vncle, giuing them in charge not to
returne, till they had either slaine Danaus, or obtained his daughters
in mariage. The yoong gentlemen according to their fathers commandement,
being arriued in Greece, made such warre against Danaus, that in the end
he was constrained to giue vnto those his 50. nephues his 50. daughters,
to ioine with them in mariage, and so they were. But as the prouerbe
saith, "In trust appeared treacherie." For on the first night of the
mariage, Danaus deliuered to ech of his daughters a sword, charging them
that when their husbands after their bankets and pastimes were once
brought into a sound sléepe, ech of them should slea hir husband,
menacing them with death vnlesse they fulfilled his commandement. They
all therefore obeied the will of their father, Hypermnestra onely
excepted, with whom preuailed more the loue of kinred and wedlocke, than
the feare of hir fathers displeasure: for shee alone spared the life of
hir husband Lynceus, waking him out of his sléepe, and warning him to
depart and flée into Aegypt to his father. He therefore hauing all the
wicked practises reuealed to him by his wife, followed hir aduice, and so

[Sidenote: _Pausanias_.]
Now when Danaus perceiued how all his daughters had accomplished his
commandement, sauing onelie Hypermnestra, he caused hir to be brought
forth into iudgement, for disobeieng him in a matter wherein both the
safetie and losse of his life rested: but she was acquitted by the
Argiues, & discharged. Howbeit hir father kept hir in prison, and
séeking to find out other husbands for his other daughters that had
obeied his pleasure in sleaing their first husbands, long it was yer
he could find any to match with them: for the heinous offense committed
in the slaughter of their late husbands, was yet too fresh in memorie,
and their bloud not wiped out of mind. Neuerthelesse, to bring his
purpose the better to passe, he made proclamation, that his daughters
should demand no ioinctures, and euerie suter should take his choise
without respect to the age of the ladie, or abilitie of him that came to
make his choise, but so as first come best serued, according to their
owne phantasies and likings. Howbeit when this policie also failed,
& would not serue his turne, he deuised a game of running, ordeining
therewith, that whosoeuer got the best price should haue the first choise
among all the sisters; and he that got the second, should choose next to
the first; and so foorth, ech one after an other, according to the triall
of their swiftnesse of foote.

How much this practise auailed, I know not: but certeine it is, diuers of
them were bestowed, either by this or some other meanes, for we find that
Autonomes was maried to Architeles, Chrysanta or (as Pausanias saith)
Scea was matched with Archandrus, Amaome with Neptunus Equestris, on
whome he begat Nauplius.

[Sidenote: _Higinus_.]
But now to returne vnto Lynceus, whome his wife Hypermnestra preserued, as
before ye haue heard. After he was once got out of the reach and danger of
his father in law king Danaus, he gaue knowledge thereof to his wife, in
[Sidenote: _Pausanias_.]
raising a fire on heigth beaconwise, accordingly as she had requested him
to doo at his departure from hir: and this was at a place which afterwards
tooke name of him, and was called Lyncea. Upon his returne into Aegypt, he
gaue his father to vnderstand the whole circumstance of the trecherous
crueltie vsed by his vncle and his daughters in the murder of his
brethren, and how hardly he himselfe had escaped death out of his vncles
handes. Wherevpon at time conuenient he was furnished foorth with men and
ships by his father, for the spéedie reuenge of that heinous, vnnaturall
and most disloiall murder, in which enterprise he sped him foorth with
such diligence, that in short time he found meanes to dispatch his vncle
Danaus, set his wife Hypermnestra at libertie, and subdued the whole
kingdome of the Argiues.

This done, he caused the daughters of Danaus (so many as remained within
the limits of his dominion) to be sent for, whome he thought not worthie
to liue, bicause of the cruell murther which they had committed on his
brethren: but yet for that they were his wiues sisters, he would not
put them to death, but commanded them to be thrust into a ship, without
maister, mate or mariner, and so to be turned into the maine ocean sea,
and to take and abide such fortune as should chance vnto them. These
[Sidenote: _Harding_ and _Iohn Rouse_ out of _David Pencair_.]
ladies thus imbarked and left to the mercy of the seas, by hap were
brought to the coasts of this Ile then called Albion, where they tooke
land, and in séeking to prouide themselues of victuals by pursute of
wilde beasts, met with no other inhabitants, than the rude and sauage
giants mentioned before, whome our historiens for their beastlie kind of
life doo call diuells. With these monsters did these ladies (finding none
other to satisfie the motions of their sensuall lust) ioine in the act of
venerie, and ingendred a race of people in proportion nothing differing
from their fathers that begat them, nor in conditions from their mothers
that bare them.

But now peraduenture ye wil thinke that I haue forgotten my selfe, in
rehearsing this historie of the ladies arriuall here, bicause I make no
mention of Albina, which should be the eldest of the sisters, of whome
this land should also take the name of Albion. To this we answer, that as
the name of their father hath bene mistaken, so likewise hath the whole
course of the historie in this behalfe. For though we shall admit that
to be true which is rehearsed (in maner as before ye haue heard) of the
arriuall here of those ladies; yet certeine it is that none of them bare
the name of Albina, from whome this land might be called Albion. For
further assurance whereof, if any man be desirous to know all their
[Sidenote: _Higinus_.
The names of the daughters of Danaus.]
names, we haue thought good here to rehearse them as they be found in
Higinus, Pausanias, and others. 1 Idea, 2 Philomela, 3 Scillo, 4 Phìcomene,
5 Euippe, 6 Demoditas, 7 Hyale, 8 Trite, 9 Damone, 10 Hippothoe, 11
Mirmidone, 12 Euridice, 13 Chleo, 14 Vrania, 15 Cleopatra, 16 Phylea, 17
Hypareta, 18 Chrysothemis, 19 Heranta, 20 Armoaste, 21 Danaes, 22 Scea,
23 Glaucippe, 24 Demophile, 25 Autodice, 26 Polyxena, 27 Hecate, 28
Achamantis, 29 Arsalte, 30 Monuste, 31 Amimone, 32 Helice, 33 Amaome, 34
Polybe, 35 Helicte, 36 Electra, 37 Eubule, 38 Daphildice, 39 Hero, 40
Europomene, 41 Critomedia, 42 Pyrene, 43 Eupheno, 44 Themistagora, 45
Paleno, 46 Erato, 47 Autonomes, 48 Itea, 49 Chrysanta, 50 Hypermnestra.
These were the names of those ladies the daughters of Danaus: howbeit,
which they were that should arriue in this Ile, we can not say: but it
sufficeth to vnderstand, that none of them hight Albina. So that, whether
the historie of their landing here should be true or not, it is all one
for the matter concerning the name of this Ile, which vndoubtedlie was
[Sidenote: See more in the description.]
called Albion, either of Albion the giant (as before I haue said) or by
some other occasion.

And thus much for the ladies, whose strange aduenture of their arriuall
here, as it may séeme to manie & (with good cause) incredible, so without
further auouching it for truth I leaue it to the consideration of the
reader, to thinke thereof as reason shall moue him sith I sée not how
either in this, or in other things of such antiquitie, we cannot haue
sufficient warrant otherwise than by likelie coniectures. Which as in
this historie of the ladies they are not most probable, yet haue we
shewed the likeliest, that (as we thinke) may be déemed to agrée with
those authors that haue written of their comming into this Ile. But as
for an assured proofe that this Ile was inhabited with people before the
comming of Brute, I trust it may suffice which before is recited out of
Annius de Viterbo, Theophilus, Gildas, and other, although much more
might be said: as of the comming hither of Osiris, as well as in the
[Sidenote: Vlysses in Britaine.]
other parties of the world: and likewise of Vlysses his being here, who
in performing some vow which he either then did make, or before had made,
erected an altar in that part of Scotland which was ancientlie called
[Sidenote: _Iulius Solinus_.]
Calidonia, as Iulius Solinus Polyhistor in plaine words dooth record.

¶ Vpon these considerations I haue no doubt to deliuer vnto the reader,
the opinion of those that thinke this land to haue bene inhabited before
the arriuall here of Brute, trusting it may be taken in good part,
sith we haue but shewed the coniectures of others, till time that some
sufficient learned man shall take vpon him to decipher the doubts of all
these matters. Neuerthelesse, I thinke good to aduertise the reader that
these stories of Samothes, Magus, Sarron, Druis, and Bardus, doo relie
onelie vpon the authoritie of Berosus, whom most diligent antiquaries doo
reiect as a fabulous and counterfet author, and Vacerius hath laboured to
prooue the same by a speciall treatise latelie published at Rome.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles (1 of 6): The Historie of England (1 of 8) - From the Time That It Was First Inhabited, Vntill the Time That It Was Last Conquered: Wherein the Sundrie Alterations of the State Vnder Forren People Is Declared; And Other Manifold Observations Remembred" ***

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