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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (3 of 12) - Henrie I.
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1. 1100.] Henrie the yoongest sonne to William the
first, brother to Rufus latelie departed, the first of that name that
ruled heere in England, & for his knowledge in good literature surnamed
Beauclerke, was admitted king by the whole assent of the lords and
commons, and began his reigne ouer England the first of August, in the
yeare after the creation of the world 1067. after the birth of our
Sauiour 1100. and 44. of the emperour Henrie the fourth, Paschall the
second then gouerning the sée of Rome, which was about the 51. yeare of
Philip the first of that name king of France, and in the beginning of
the reigne of Edgar king of Scotland. [Sidenote: _Wil. Thorne._
_Geruasius Dorobernensis._] This king was consecrated and crowned at
Westminster, the fift daie of August, by Thomas archbishop of Yorke, and
Maurice bishop of London, bicause at that time Anselme archbishop of
Canturburie was exiled. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] This prince had
aforehand trained the people to his humor and veine, in bringing them to
thinke well of him, and to conceiue a maruellous euill opinion of his
brother duke Robert, persuading them moreouer, that the said duke was
likelie to prooue a sharpe and rigorous gouernour, if he once obteined
the crowne and dominion of the land. Moreouer, he caused to be reported
for a certeine truth, that the same Robert was alreadie created king of
Jerusalem. And therefore considering that the kingdome of Palestine (as
the rumor ran) was of greater reuenues than that of England, there was
no cause why they should staie for him, who would not willinglie leaue
the greater for the lesser. By which meanes the Nobilitie and Commons
were the sooner persuaded to decline from the election of the said
Robert, and to receiue his brother Henrie for their lawfull king, who on
the other side ceased not to promise mountaines, till his enterprise
tooke effect; and then at leisure paied some of them with molhils as by
the sequele of the storie shall more at large appéere.

This Henrie therefore comming thus to the crowne, considered furthermore
with himselfe, that hereafter, when his eldest brother Robert should
returne, and vnderstand how the matter was brought about, he would
thinke himselfe to haue had much wrong, and béene verie euill dealt
withall, sith that as well by birthright, as also by agréement made with
his brother William Rufus, he ought of right to be preferred, and
therevpon would not faile but make earnest claime against him.
[Sidenote: The king séeketh to win the peoples fauour.] Wherefore yer he
should come home out of the holie land (where he then remained) the king
studied by all possible meanes how to gratifie all the states of his
realme, & to plant in their harts some good opinion of him. And first of
all he reformed such things as his brother had left verie preiudiciall
to the estate of the church, setting the same frée which before was sore
oppressed. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Hen. Hunt._ _Matth. Paris._] And
furthermore, somewhat to reléeue the common-wealth, he promised to
restore the lawes of good king Edward, and to abolish or amend those
which by his father and brother were alreadie ordeined to the hurt &
preiudice of the old ancient liberties of the realme of England.
[Sidenote: Anselme called home.] He reuoked Anselme the archbishop of
Canturburie out of exile, who fled (as yee haue heard) to auoid the
wrath of king William. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ William Gifford bishop of
Winchester. _Hen. Hunt._] Moreouer, he placed in the see of Winchester,
one William Gifford, a graue and discréet person, and also ordeined
moonkes of honest reputation to be abbats in certeine abbies which had
beene long void, and in the hands of William his brother: in like maner
he remitted certeine paiments which his brother and predecessour had
caused to be raised by waie of taxes and customes. [Sidenote: Rafe
bishop of Durham committed to the Tower. _Simon Dun._] Besides this, on
the 8. daie of September, he committed Rafe bishop of Durham to the
Tower of London, by whose lewd counsell his said brother being seduced,
had in his life time doone manie oppressions to his people. [Sidenote:
The first ordeining of the yard measure. _Wil. Malm._] He ordeined also
that one length of measuring should be vsed through this realme, which
was a yard, appointing it to be cut after the length of his owne arme.
Manie other things he redressed, to the contentation and commoditie of
his subiects, who gaue God thanks that he had in such wise deliuered
them out of the hands of cruell extortioners.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Polydor._] After he had thus brought the
common-wealth in so good estate, he consulted with his Nobilitie, where
he might best get him a wife, and thereby leaue vnlawfull companie
keeping with concubines: which demand was not misliked at all. Herevpon
they considered that Edgar king of Scotland had a sister named Maud, a
beautifull ladie, and of vertuous conditions, who was a professed nunne
in a religious house, to the end she might auoid the stormes of the
world, and lead hir life in more securitie after hir fathers deceasse.
This gentlewoman, notwithstanding hir vow, was thought to be a meet
bedfellow for the king: wherefore he sent ambassadors to hir brother
Edgar, requesting that he might haue hir in mariage. But she refusing
superstitiouslie at the first to breake hir professed vow, would not
heare of the offer: wherewithall king Henrie being the more inflamed,
sent new ambassadors to moue the case in more earnest sort than before,
in somuch that Edgar, vpon the declaration of their ambassage, set the
abbesse of the house (where then she abode) in hand to persuade hir, who
so effectuallie and diuerselie telling hir how necessarie, profitable, &
honorable the same should be both to her countrie and kinred, did so
preuaile at the last, that the yoong ladie granted willinglie to the
mariage. Herevpon she was transported into England, and wedded to the
king, who caused the archbishop Anselme to crowne hir queene on S.
Martins daie, which fell vpon a sundaie, being the eleuenth of Nouember.

¶ It should séeme by Eadmerus, that she was neuer nunne, but onelie
veiled by hir mother, and placed amongst nunnes against hir will (as she
protested to the whole world) at such time as archbishop Anselme refused
to solemnize the mariage betwixt them, till that doubt were cleared, and
the occasion remoued, wherevpon euill disposed men would haue surmised
ilfauoredlie, and reported the worst. Howbeit whether she were
professed, or veiled onelie, loth she was to consent at the first (as
partlie ye haue heard) but after that she was coupled with the king in
mariage, she prooued a right obedient wife.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Vienna the popes legat.] About this season
the archbishop of Vienna came ouer into England with the popes
authoritie (as he pretended) to be legat ouer all Briteine, which was
strange newes vnto England, and greatlie woondered at (as Eadmerus
saith) of all men. For it had not beene heard of in England before that
time, that any person should supplie the popes roome except the
archbishop of Canturburie. [Sidenote: He is not receiued for legat.] And
so he departed as he came, for no man receiued him as legat, neither did
he exercise anie legantine authoritie. Not long after, the king sent
ambassadours to Rome, about a suit which he had against the archbishop
Anselme, for that he denied not onelie to doo him homage, but also would
not consecrate such bishops and ecclesiasticall gouernours as he
vndertooke to inuest. Touching which matter no small trouble arose, as
hereafter shall appeere.

[Sidenote: 1101.] In the meane time, Robert the kings elder brother,
returning out of the holie land, came into Normandie: for after he had
aduertisement of the death of his brother Rufus, and that his yoonger
brother was crowned king of England, he was greatlie displeased in his
mind, and meant with all spéed to assaie if he might recouer it out of
his hands.

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ Duke Robert chosen king of Hierusalem.] ¶ We
read, that when christian princes had woone Hierusalem, they met
togither in the temple to chuse a king for the gouernement of that citie
and countrie, in which conuent duke Robert was chosen before all the
residue to be king there, by reason of a miracle (as some haue left
recorded) wrought by quenching of a taper, and the sudden kindling
thereof againe, as he held the same in his hand, standing in the church
before the altar amongst other on Easter euen: [Sidenote: _Polydor._] so
as thereby it should be thought he was appointed among all the residue
to be king, and so was nominated. But he hauing his mind more inclined
to England, refused to take the charge vpon him: wherevpon after that
daie he neuer greatlie prospered in anie businesse which he tooke in
hand: as some doo gather. Other authors of good credit, which haue
written that voiage into the holie land, make no mention of anie such
matter, but declare, that Godfraie of Bolongne was by the generall
consent of all the princes and capiteins there elected king, as in the
description of that voiage more plainelie appéereth. But now to returne
from whence I haue digressed.

[Sidenote: _An. Reg. 2._] When the fame was blown into England, that
duke Robert was returned into Normandie, and that the people had
receiued him for their duke with great triumph and ioy: [Sidenote: Duke
Robert is solicited to come into England to claim the crowne.] there
were diuerse which desiring innouations, deliting in alterations, and
being wearie of the quiet gouernment of king Henrie, wrote letters into
England to the duke, signifieng to him, that if he would make hast, and
come to recouer the realme out of his brothers hands (who vsurped it by
an vniust title) they would be readie to aid him with all their power.
Herewithall the duke being readie of his owne accord to this enterprise,
was not a little inflamed, and grew more earnest to make hast about this
businesse: in so much as, where he would not séeme at the first to
estéeme greatlie of the offer made to him by the Englishmen, who had
thus written ouer vnto him (blaming generallie all the English
Nobilitie, for that while he was abroad in the seruice of the christian
common-wealth against the infidels, they would suffer him to be in such
wise defrauded of his fathers inheritance, by his brother, through their
vntruth and negligence) yet although he meant to delaie the matter,
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Simon Dun._] and thought it rather better to
dissemble with them for a time, than to commit the successe of his
affaires and person to their inconstancie; shortlie after being set on
fire, and still incouraged by the persuasion of Rafe bishop of Durham
(who by a woonderfull wilie shift, about the first of Februarie had
broken out of prison) [Sidenote: In the Kal. of Februarie. _R. Houe._
_Hen. Hunt._ _Polydor._] with all speed possible he gathered an armie,
purposing out of hand to passe ouer with the same into England, and to
hazard his right by dent of sword, which was thus by plaine iniurie most
wickedlie deteined from him.

King Henrie in the meane time vnderstanding his meaning, assembled
likewise his power, and rigged foorth a great number of ships,
appointing them to lie in a readinesse to stop his brothers comming to
land if it might be. He himselfe, also lodged with his maine armie neere
the towne of Hastings, to giue him battell if he landed thereabouts.

Duke Robert also meaning to set foreward, sent certeine of his ships
before, to choose some conuenient place where he might land with his
armie: which ships by chance fell into the danger of the kings nauie,
but yet absteining from battell, they recouered the wind, and returned
backe to the duke, signifieng from point to point how they had sped in
this voiage. The duke as he was of a bold courage, and of so gentle a
nature that he beleeued he should win their good wils, with whom he
should haue any thing to doo, passed forward, and approching to the
kings nauie, vsed such mild persuasions, that a great part of the
souldiours which were aboord in the kings ships, submitted themselues
vnto him, [Sidenote: Duke Robert arriued at Portsmouth. _Simon Dun._
_Wil. Malm._ _Hen. Hunt._ _Polydor._] by whose conduct he arriued in
Portsmouth hauen, and there landed with his host, about the begining of
August. Now when he had rested a few daies & refreshed his men, he tooke
the way towards Winchester, a great number of people flocking vnto him
by the way.

The king hauing knowledge as well of the arriuall of his enimies, as
also of the reuolting of his subiects, raised his campe, and came to
lodge neere vnto his enimies, the better to perceiue what he attempted
and purposed to doo. They were also in maner readie to haue ioined
battell, when diuerse Noble men that owght good will to both the
brethren, and abhorred in their minds so vnnaturall discord, began to
entreat for peace, which in the end they concluded vpon, [Sidenote:
_Wil. Malm._ _Simon Dun._ _Hen. Hunt._] conditionallie that Henrie (who
was borne after his father had conquered the realme of England) should
now enioy the same, yeelding and paieng yeerelie vnto duke Robert the
summe of iij. M. marks. Prouided, that whose hap of the two it should be
to suruiue or outliue, he should be the others right and lawfull heire,
by mutuall agreement. Conditionallie also, that those English or
Normans, which had taken part either with the king or the duke, should
be pardoned of all offenses that could be laid vnto them for the same by
either of the princes. [Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._ _Wil. Thorne._ _Matth.
West._ _Geruasius Dorober._] There were twelue Noble men on either part
that receiued corporall othes for performance of this agréement, which
being concluded vpon in this sort, duke Robert, who in his affaires
shewed himselfe more credulous than suspicious, remained with his
brother here in England till the feast of S. Michaell, and then shewing
himselfe well contented with the composition, returned into Normandie.
In the second yeare of this kings reigne, the Quéene was deliuered of
hir daughter Maud or Mathild, so called after hir owne name, who
afterward was empresse, of whom yée shall heare by Gods grace anon in
this historie.

[Sidenote: 1102.] [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ Robert de Belesme[1] earle of
Shrewsburie.] The king being now rid of forren trouble, was shortlie
after disquieted with the seditious attempts of Robert de Belesme earle
of Shrewsburie, sonne to Hugh before named, who fortified the castell of
Bridgenorth, and an other castell in Wales at a place called Caircoue,
and furnished the towne of Shrewsburie, with the castels of Arundell &
Tickehill (which belonged to him) in most substantiall maner. Moreouer
he sought to win the fauour of the Welshmen, by whose aid he purposed to
defend himselfe against the king in such vnlawfull enterprises as he
ment to take in hand. But the king hauing an inkeling whereabout he
went, straightwaies proclaimed him a traitor, wherevpon he got such
Welshmen and Normans together as he could conuenientlie come by, with
whom and his brother Arnold, he entered into Staffordshire, [Sidenote:
Stafford wasted.] which they forraied and wasted excéedinglie, bringing
from thence a great bootie of beasts and cattell, with some prisoners,
whom they led foorthwith into Wales, where they kept themselues as in a
place of greatest safetie.

The king in the meane time with all conuenient[2] spéed raised a power,
[Sidenote: Arundell castell besieged.] first besieging the castell of
Arundell, and then planting diuerse bastillions before it, he departed
from thence, and sending the bishop of Lincolne with part of his armie
to besiege Tickehill, he himselfe went to Bridgenorth, [Sidenote:
Bridgenorth besieged.] which he enuironed about with a mightie armie
made out of all parts of his realme: so that what with gifts, large
promises, and fearefull threatnings, at the last he allured to his side
the fickle Welchmen, and in such wise wan them, that they abandoned the
earle, and tooke part against him. [Sidenote: _An. Reg. 3._] Wherevpon
the king within 30. daies subdued all the townes and castels (which he
held) out of his hands, [Sidenote: The earle of Shrewsburie banished the
realme.] and banished him the relme, and shortlie after confined his
brother Arnold for his traitorous demeanour vsed against him, whereby
their attempts were brought vnto an end.

[Sidenote: A synod of bishops. _Eadmerus._] After this, at the feast of
saint Michaell, Anselme archbishop of Canturburie held a councell at
Westminster, whereat were present the archbishop of Yorke, the bishops
of London, Winchester, Lincolne, Worcester, Chester, Bath, Norwich,
Rochester, and two other bishops latlie elected by the king, namelie,
Salisburie and Hereford: the bishop of Excester was absent by reason of

[Sidenote: Abbats & Priors depriued.] At this councell or synod, diuerse
abbats and priors, both French and English, were depriued of their
promotions and benefices by Anselme, bicause they had come vnto them
otherwise than he pretended to stand with the decrées of the church;
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] as the abbats of Persor, Ramsey, Tauestocke,
Peterborow, Middleton, Burie, and Stoke, the prior of Elie, and others.
[Sidenote: The cause why they wer depriued. _Hen. Hunt._ _Sim. Dun._]
The chéefest cause of their deposing, was, for that they had receiued
their inuestitures at the kings hands.

Diuerse constitutions were made by authoritie of this councell, but
namelie this one.

     [Sidenote: _Eadmerus._ Mariage of préests forbidden. _Hen. Hunt._]
     1 That preests should no more be suffered to haue wiues, which
     decree (as saith Henrie of Huntingdon) séemed to some verie pure,
     but to some againe verie dangerous, least whilest diuers of those
     that coueted to professe such cleannesse and puritie of life as
     passed their powers to obserue, might happilie fall into most
     horrible vncleannesse, to the high dishonour of christianitie, and
     offense of the Almightie.

     [Sidenote: Decrées instituted in this councell.] 2 That no
     spirituall person should haue the administration of any temporall
     office or function, nor sit in iudgment of life and death.

     [Sidenote: Against préests that were alehouse hunters.] 3 That
     preests should not haunt alehouses, and further, that they should
     weare apparell of one maner of colour, and shooes after a comelie
     fashion: for a little before that time, préests vsed to go verie

     [Sidenote: Archdeaconries.] 4 That no archdeaconries should be let
     to farme.

     5 That euerie archdeacon should at the least receiue the orders of
     a deacon.

     [Sidenote: Subdeacons.] 6 That none should be admitted to the
     orders of a subdeacon, without profession of chastitie.

     [Sidenote: Préests sons.] 7 That no préests sonnes should succéed
     their fathers in their benefices.

     8 That moonks and préests which had forsaken their orders (for the
     loue of their wiues) should be excommunicated, if they would not
     returne to their profession againe.

     [Sidenote: Préests to weare crowns.] 9 That préests should weare
     broad crownes.

     [Sidenote: Tithes.] 10 That no tithes should be giuen but to the

     [Sidenote: Benefices.] 11 That no benefices should be bought or

     [Sidenote: New chapels.] 12 That no new chappels should be builded
     without consent of the bishop.

     [Sidenote: Consecration of churches.] 13 That no church, should be
     consecrated except prouision were first had to the maintenance of
     it and the minister.

     [Sidenote: Abbats.] 14 That abbats should not be made knights or
     men of war, but should sléepe & eat within the precinct of their
     owne houses, except some necessitie mooued them to the contrarie.

     [Sidenote: Moonks.] 15 That no moonks should inioyne penance to any
     man without licence of their abbat, and that abbats might not grant
     licence, but for those of whose soules they had cure.

     16 That no moonks should be godfathers, nor nuns godmothers to any
     mans child.

     [Sidenote: Farmes.] 17 That moonks should not hold and occupie any
     farmes in their hands.

     [Sidenote: Parsonages.] 18 That no moonks should receiue any
     parsonages, but at the bishops hands, nor should spoile those which
     they did receiue in such wise of the profits and reuenues, that
     curats which should serue the cures might thereby want necessarie
     prouision for themselues and the same churches.

     [Sidenote: Contracts.] 19 That contracts made betwéene man and
     woman without witnesses concerning mariage should be void, if
     either of them denied it.

     [Sidenote: Wearing of haire] 20 That such as did weare their heare
     long should be neuerthelesse so rounded, that part of their eares
     might appéere.

     21 That kinsfolke might not contract matrimonie within the seuenth
     degrée of consanguinitie.

     [Sidenote: Buriall] 22 That the bodies of the dead should not be
     buried but within their parishes, least the préest might lose his

     [Sidenote: Fond worshipping of men.] 23 That no man should vpon
     some new rash deuotion giue reuerence or honour to any dead bodies,
     fountaines of water, or other things, without the bishops
     authoritie, which hath béene well knowne to haue chanced

     24 That there should be no more buieng and selling of men vsed in
     England, which was hitherto accustomed, as if they had béene kine
     or oxen.

     25 That all such as committed the filthie sinne of Sodomitrie
     should be accursed by the decrée of this councell, till by
     penance & confession they should obteine absolution. Prouided
     that if he were a preest or any religious person, he should lose
     his benefice, and be made vncapeable of any other ecclesiasticall
     preferment: if he were a laie man, he should lose the prerogatiue
     of his estate. Prouided also that no religious man might be
     absolued of this crime, but at the bishops hands.

     [Sidenote: The cursse to be read euerie sundaie]
     26 That euerie sundaie this cursse should be read in euerie

The king also caused some necessarie ordinances to be deuised at this
councell, to mooue men to the leading of a good and vpright life.

[Sidenote: S. Bartholomewes by Smithfield founded. Smithfield sometimes
a common laiestall & a place of execution. _An. Reg. 3._] About the
third yeare of K. Henries reigne, the foundation of saint Bartholomews
by Smithfield was begun by Raier one of the kings musicians (as some
write) who also became the first prior thereof. In those daies
Smithfield was a place where they laid all the ordure and filth of the
citie. It was also the appointed place of execution, where felons and
other malefactors of the lawes did suffer for their misdeeds.

In this third yeare of king Henries reigne the quéene was deliuered of a
sonne called William.

When the earle of Shrewesburie was banished (as ye haue heard) the state
of the realme seemed to be reduced into verie good order and quietnesse:
so that king Henrie being aduanced with good successe in his affaires,
was now in no feare of danger any maner of waie. [Sidenote: _Polydor._
The king bestoweth bishopriks. _Matth. Paris._] Howbeit herein he
somewhat displeased the cleargie: for leaning vnto his princelie
authoritie, he tooke vpon him both to nominate bishops and to inuest
them into the possession of their sées: amongst whom was one Remclid,
bishop of Hereford by the kings ordinance. [Sidenote: _Simon Dunel._]
This Remclid or Remeline did afterwards resigne that bishoprike to the
king, bicause he was pursuaded he had greatlie offended in receiuing the
same at a temporall mans hands.

Trulie not onelie king Henrie here in England, but also other princes
and high potentates of the temporaltie about the same season, challenged
this right of inuesting bishops and other cleargie men, as a thing due
vnto them and their predecessors, without all prescription of time, as
they alledged, which caused no small debate betwixt them and the
spiritualtie, as in that which is written thereof at large by others may
more easilie appeere.

[Sidenote: Anselme refuseth to consecrate the bishops inuested by the
king.] Howbeit Anselme the archbishop of Canturburie more earnest in
this case than any other, would not admit nor consecrate such bishops as
were nominated and inuested by the king, making no account of their
inuestiture: and further he tooke vpon him to admonish the K. not to
violate the sacred lawes, rites and ceremonies of christian religion so
latelie decréed concerning those matters. But so far was the king from
giuing any eare to his admonitions, that he stood the more stiffelie in
his chalenge. [Sidenote: Gerard inuested archbishop of Yorke.] And where
Thomas the archbishop of Yorke was not long before departed out of this
transitorie life, he gaue that benefice then void to one Gerard, a man
of great wit, but (as some writers report) more desirous of honor than
was requisite for his calling, and willed him in despite of Anselme to
consecrate those bishops whom he had of late inuested. [Sidenote: W.
Gifford bishop of Winchester. _Matth. Paris._ _Wil. Thorne._ _Polydor._]
This Gerard therefore obeieng his commandement, did consecrate them all,
William Gifford bishop of Winchester excepted; who refused to be
consecrated at his hands, wherevpon he was depriued and banished the
relme. The archbishop Anselme also was quite out of fauour, for that he
ceased not to speake against the K. in reproouing him in this behalfe,
till time that the king was contented to referre the matter to pope
Paschall, and to stand to his decree and determination: [Sidenote:
_Polydor._] also, that such as he had placed in any bishoprike, should
haue licence to go to Rome to plead their causes, whither he promised
shortlie to send his ambassadours, and so he did: [Sidenote: 1103. An.
Reg. 4.] [Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to Rome.] appointing for the
purpose, Herbert bishop of Norwich, and Robert bishop of Lichfield,
being both of his priuie councell, and William Warlewast, of whom
mention is made before, who went on their waie and came to Rome,
according to their commission.

[Sidenote: Anselme goeth also to Rome.] After them also folowed Anselme
archbishop of Canturburie, Gerard archbishop of Yorke, & William the
elect of Winchester, whom the pope receiued with a courteous kind of
interteinement. But Anselme was highlie honored aboue all the residue,
whose diligence and zeale in defense of the ordinances of the sée of
Rome, he well inough vnderstood. The ambassadours in like maner
declaring the effect of their message, opened vnto the pope the ground
of the controuersie begun betweene the king and Anselme, & with good
arguments went about to prooue the kings cause to be lawfull. Vpon the
otherside, Anselme and his partakers with contrarie reasons sought to
confute the same. Wherevpon the pope declared, that sith by the lawes of
the church it was decréed, that the possession of any spirituall
benefice, obteined otherwise than by meanes of a spirituall person,
could not be good or allowable; from thencefoorth, neither the king nor
any other for him, should challenge any such right to apperteine vnto

The kings ambassadours hearing this, were somwhat troubled in their
minds: [Sidenote: _Eadmerus._ The saieng of Wil. Warlewast to the pope.]
wherevpon Willam Warlewast burst out and said with great vehemencie euen
to the popes face: "Whatsoeuer is or may be spoken in this maner to or
fro, I would all that be present should well vnderstand, that the king,
my maister will not lose the inuestitures of churches for the losse of
his whole realme." [Sidenote: The popes answer to him.] Vnto which words
Paschall himselfe replieng, said vnto him againe: "If (as thou saiest)
the king thy maister, will not forgo the inuestiture of churches for the
losse of his realme, know thou for certeine, and marke my words well, I
speake it before God, that for the ransome of his head, pope Paschall
will not at any time permit that he shall enioie them in quiet." At
length by the aduise of his councell, the pope granted the king certeine
priuileges and customes, which his predecessours had vsed and enioied:
but as for the inuestitures of bishops, he would not haue him in any
wise to meddle withall: [Sidenote: _Polydor._] yet did he confirme those
bishops whom the king had alreadie created, least the refusall should be
occasion to sowe any further discord.

This businesse being in this maner ordered, the ambassadours were
licenced to depart, who receiuing at the popes hands great rewards, and
Gerard the archbishop of Yorke his pall, they shortlie after returned
into England, declaring vnto the king the popes decrée and sentence. The
king being still otherwise persuaded, and looking for other newes, was
nothing pleased with this matter. Long it was yer he would giue ouer his
claime, or yéeld to the popes iudgement, till that in processe of time,
ouercome with the earnest sute of Anselme, he granted to obeie the popes
order herein, though (as it should appeare) right sore against his will.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._] In this meane time, the king had seized into
his hands the possessions of the archbishop of Canturburie, and banished
Anselme, so that he staied at Lions in France for the space of one yeare
and foure moneths, during which time there passed manie letters and
messages to and fro. [Sidenote: The pope writeth courteouslie to the
king.] The pope also wrote to king Henrie in verie courteous maner,
exhorting him to call Anselme home againe, and to release his claime to
the inuestitures of bishops, wherevnto he could haue no right, sith it
apperteined not to the office of any temporall magistrate: adding
furthermore, if the king would giue ouer that vngodlie and vsurped
custome, that he would shew such fréendlie fauour in all things, as by
the sufferance of God in any wise he might be able to performe, and
further would receiue not onelie him, but also his yoong soone William
(whom latelie it had pleased God to send him by his vertuous wife queene
Maud) into his protection, so that who so euer did hurt either of them,
should be thought to hurt the holie church of Rome.

In one of the letters which the said pope wrote vnto Anselme (after that
the king was contented to renounce the inuestitures aforesaid) he willed
Anselme, according to the promise which he had made, to assoile as well
from sinne as from penance due for the same, both the king and his wife
queene Maud, with all such persons of honour as in this behalfe had
trauelled with the king to induce him to be agréeable to his purpose.

[Sidenote: 1104.] [Sidenote: The earle of Mellent.] [Sidenote: An. Reg.
4.] Moreouer, the earle of Mellent, and Richard de Riuers (who had
counselled the king to stand stoutlie in the matter, and not to giue
ouer his title of such inuestitures, sith his ancestors had vsed them so
long a time before his daies, by reason whereof, in renouncing his right
to the same, he should doo a thing greatlie preiudiciall to his roiall
estate and princelie maiestie) were now earnest labourers to agree the
king and the pope, [Sidenote: The K. persuaded to renounce his title to
the inuestiture of prelates. _Eadmerus._] in so much that in the end the
king was persuaded by Anselme and them to let go his hold, resigning the
inuestitures with staffe and ring; notwithstanding that, he reserued the
right of elections, and such other roialties as otherwise apperteined to
his maiestie, so that such bishops as had doone homage to the king, were
not disabled thereby, but quietlie permitted to receiue their

[Sidenote: Duke Robert commeth into England to visit his brother.] About
this time Robert duke of Normandie came into England to see his brother:
who through the sugred words and sweet enterteinment of the king,
released the yeerelie tribute of 3000. markes, which he should haue had
out of the realme vpon agreement (as before ye haue heard) but cheefelie
indéed at the request of the queene, being instructed by hir husband how
she should deale with him that was knowne to be frée and liberall,
without any great consideration what he presentlie granted.

Now hauing béene here a certeine time, and solaced himselfe with his
brother and sister, he returned into Normandie, where shortlie after he
began to repent him of his follie, in being so liberall as to release
the foresaid tribute: wherevpon he menaced the king, and openlie in his
reproch said that he was craftilie circumuented by him, and fatlie
couzened. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ Factious persons practise to set the
two brethren at variance.] Diuerse in Normandie desired nothing more
than to set the two brethren at square, and namelie Robert de Belesme
earle of Shrewsburie, with William earle of Mortaigne: these two were
banished the realme of England. The earle of Shrewesburie for his
rebellious attempts (as before you haue heard) [Sidenote: The earle of
Mortaigne.] and the earle of Mortaigne left the land of his owne
willfull and stubborne mind, exiling himselfe onelie vpon hatred which
he bare to the king. For being not contented with the earledome of
Mortaigne in Normandie, and the earledome of Cornewall in England, he
made sute also for the earledome of Kent, which his vncle Odo sometime
held. Now bicause he was not onelie denied of that sute, but also by
order of lawe had certeine parcels of land taken from him, which he
wrongfullie deteined, he got him into Normandie, and there made war both
against those places which the king held, [Sidenote: Richard earle of
Chester.] and also against other that belonged to Richard earle of
Chester, who was then vnder the kings tuition and gouernement by reason
of his minoritie.

The threatning words of duke Robert comming at the last to king Henries
eares, caused him foorthwith to conceiue verie sore displeasure against
the duke, [Sidenote: A power of men sent into Normandie.] in so much
that he sent ouer a power into Normandie, which finding no great
resistance, did much hurt in the countrie, by fetching and carieng
spoiles and preies. Againe the Normans rather fauoured than sought to
hinder the enterprise of king Henrie, bicause they saw how duke Robert
with his foolish prodigalitie and vndiscréet liberalitie had made awaie
all that belonged to his estate; so that of the whole duchie of
Normandie, he had not any citie or towne of name left in his owne
possession, Roan onelie excepted, which he also would haue alienated, if
the citizens would haue consented to his fond motion. [Sidenote:

[Sidenote: 1105.] [Sidenote: The k. passeth ouer to Normandie. An. Reg.
6. _Simon Dun._ _Gemeticensis._ _Polydor._] Now king Henrie hearing of
the good successe of his men, passed ouer himselfe soone after with a
mightie armie, and with little adoo tooke Eureux or (as others haue)
Baieux and Caen, which cities when he had furnished with sufficient
garisons of men, he repassed the sea into England, bicause the winter
approched, and the wether waxed troublesome for such as laie in the
field. Herevpon duke Robert considering how vnable he was (by reason
that his people failed him at néed) to resist king Henrie, sith the
Britans also, and they of Aniou, tooke part with the said king, he
thought good to laie armour aside, and to passe ouer into England, to
entreat with him by way of brotherlie amitie, in full hope by that
meanes to auoid this present danger. [Sidenote: 1106. An. Reg. 7.] But
at his arriuall here, he learned how the king his brother as then was at
Northampton: wherefore he hasted thither, and comming to him, made
earnest sute for peace, beséeching the king in respect of brotherlie
loue to grant the same; or if it were that he regarded not the goodwill
of his naturall brother, to consider at least wise what apperteined to
his accustomed gentlenesse, and to think with himselfe that warre
betwixt brethren could not be mainteined without reproch, nor that
victorie be honorable which was obteined against his owne flesh.
Wherefore he required him not to refuse peace, freendship, and
voluntarie beneuolence, sith he was now readie to render all that euer
he had into his hands.

The king nothing mooued herewith, but as one that disdained to make a
direct answer, murmured certeine things with himselfe, and turned away
from the duke, as one that either by experience knew his brothers light
and vnstable mind, or as one that determined to be reuenged of him euen
to the vttermost. [Sidenote: The brethren depart in displeasure.] Duke
Robert also, abhorring and vtterlie detesting this his brothers pride,
streightwaies returned home, purposing with himselfe to the hazard of
warre, sith he sawe no hope to be had in brotherlie loue and amitie.
Wherevpon he prouided for wars with all his power, seeking aid from all
places where he might get any, though the king his brother gaue him
small leisure thereto, [Sidenote: K. Henrie passeth into Normandie to
pursue his brother.] who followed him incontinentlie with a new supplie
of souldiours, desiring nothing more than to get him within his danger.

Soone after, both the brethren approching neere togither, ech of them
pitched their campe within the sight of other, preparing themselues to
giue battell with princelie stomachs. [Sidenote: They ioine in battell.]
The king surmounting the duke his brother in number, first bringeth
foorth his men in order of battell, and streightwaies the duke likewise,
both being readie to trie the matter by dint of sword. Then the one
prouoking the other, and the trumpets sounding aloft, the conflict
began. The kings souldiers trusting too much in their owne force, by
reason of their great multitude, brake their arraie, and assailed their
enimies on ech side verie disorderlie: but the Normans being wiselie
ordered and instructed by their duke, kept themselues close togither: so
that the kings battell, which had without order stept foorth to assaile
them, finding sturdie resistance, began now to result or giue backe: for
not onelie duke Robert but also William earle of Mortaigne preased
foreward amongst their men, and fought valiantlie with their owne hands.
Whervpon the king, when he perceiued how his men began to shrinke, cried
vpon them to staie, and withall commanded his horssemen to breake vppon
the flanks of his enimies battell: which they did, with such violence
that they disparkled the same, and caused the enimies to scatter.
Herewith also the kings footmen, togither with the horssemen inuaded the
Normans afresh, who neuerthelesse resisted a while, till being compassed
about in maner on euerie side, they began to flee: [Sidenote: The
Normans vanquished.] as oftentimes it chanceth, when a few driuen in
sunder by a multitude, are assailed on all sides. The king then hauing
vanquished his aduersaries, followeth the chase, and maketh great
slaughter of them, though not without some losse of his owne: for the
Normans despairing of safetie, turned oftentimes againe vpon their

[Sidenote: The earle of Mortaigne. _Eadmerus._ W. Crispine. W. Ferreis.
Robert de Estoutuille. The number slaine.] Duke Robert and the earle of
Mortaigne fighting most manfullie in the verie prease of enimies, were
taken or (as other saie) betraied, and deliuered into their enimies
hands: beside which twaine, William Crispine, William Ferreis, Robert
Estoutuille the elder, with foure hundreth men of armes, and to the
number of 10. thousand footmen were taken. As for the number that were
slaine in this battell, there is none that declareth the certeintie: but
yet it is reported by diuers writers, that no one battell in those daies
was sorer fought, nor with greater bloudshed either in Normandie, or

[Sidenote: _Gemeticensis._] Gemeticensis sheweth breefelie, that king
Henrie was offended with his brother duke Robert, for alienating the
duchie of Normandie his inheritance, & for wasting his reuenues with
such riotous demeanour as he vsed, so that he left himselfe nothing but
the citie of Roan, which he had not passed to haue giuen awaie also, if
the citizens would thereto haue granted their consent. The king (I saie)
taking displeasure herewith, went ouer into Normandie, and assuming a
mightie power, first besieged Baieux, & then halfe destroieng it, he
tooke it by force. After this he tooke Caen also, and then besieged a
castell called Tenerchbray perteining to the earle of Mortaigne, during
which siege his brother Robert, and the said earle of Mortaigne came
with a great multitude of people in hope to be reuenged of the king, and
to chase him out of the countrie. But the punishment of God fell so vpon
them, that they were both taken, and manie of their freends with them,
as Robert de Estoutuille, William de Crispine, and others, who were
brought before king Henrie as prisoners. ¶ Thus did almightie God grant
vnto the king a notable victorie without bloodshed, for he lost not a
man: as for his aduersaries, there died in the field not past three
score persons.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Mal._] This séemeth also to agree with that which Wil.
Malmesburie writeth: for he saith, that king Henrie with small adoo
brought into his hands duke Robert, who with a great troope of men came
against him then lodging néere the said castell of Tenerchbray.
[Sidenote: Robert de Belesme.] The earle of Mortaigne was also taken,
but the earle of Shrewsburie escaped by flight, notwithstanding he was
apprehended, as he went about to practise some priuie conspiracie
against the king. [Sidenote: The 27. of September chro. de Nor.] ¶ This
battell was fought (as the same Wil. Malme. affirmeth) vpon a saturdaie,
being the daie of S. Michaell, In gloria, and (as maybe thought) by the
prouident iudgment of God, to the end that Normandie should be subdued
vnto England on that daie, in the which 40. yeares passed, king William
the Conquerour first set foot on land at Hastings, when he came out of
Normandie to subdue England. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._] Neither dooth
Simon Dunelmensis varie in anie thing from Gemeticensis touching the
conclusion of this businesse, and the taking of duke Robert.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._] [Sidenote: 1107.] These wars being thus
finished, and the countrie set in quiet, which through the méere folie
of duke Robert was woonderfullie impouerished, the king receiued the
keies of all the townes and castels that belonged either to the duke or
the earle of Mortaigne, and furnished the same with garisons to be kept
for his behoofe. Hauing thus pacified the countrie of Normandie, he came
to Bec or Bechellouin, where archbishop Anselme then remained, whome by
mediation of freends he receiued to fauour againe, [Sidenote: Anselme
returneth home.] and sending him ouer into England, immediatlie after
followed himselfe.

[Sidenote: Duke Robert prisoner in the castell of Cardiff.
_Gemeticensis._] Duke Robert being also spoiled of his dominions, lands
and liberties, was shortlie committed to prison within the castell of
Cardiff in Wales, where he remained about the space of 26. yeares, and
then died. He gouerned the duchie of Normandie 19. yeares, he was a
perfect and expert warrior, & comparable with the best capiteines that
then liued, had he béene somwhat more warie and circumspect in his
affaires, and therewithall constant in his opinion. [Sidenote:
_Polydor._] His worthie acts valiantlie and fortunatlie atchiued against
the infidels, are notified to the world by manie and sundrie writers to
his high commendation and long lasting praise. It is said also, that he
was after his taking once set at libertie by king Henrie, and bound to
forsweare the realme of England and Normandie, being appointed to auoid
within the space of 40. daies, and twelue houres. But bicause he was
perceiued to practise somewhat against the king, he was eftsoones taken
againe, and hauing his eies put out, committed to prison, where finallie
worne through age and gréefe of mind, he ended his miserable life. ¶ The
forme of banishing men out of the realme, was ordeined by Edward the
Confessor, and remained as a law in vse till these our daies, for the
benefit of them which fled to any church or other priuiledged place,
thereby to escape the punishment of death due for their offenses. By a
latter custome it was also deuised, that they should beare a crosse in
their hand, as a signe that they were pardoned of life, for the holie
place sake where they sought for succour.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._] But duke Robert (as it should appeere by that
which others write) found no such fauour, saue onlie libertie to walke
abroad in the kings forests, parks, and chases néere the place where he
was appointed to remaine; so that vpon a daie, as he was walking abroad,
he got a horsse, and with all post hast rode his waie, in hope to haue
escaped: howbeit his keepers being aduised thereof, followed him with
hue and crie, and at length ouertooke him in a medow, where he had laid
his horsse vp to the bellie in a quauemire. Then being brought backe,
his keepers kept him in close prison, aduertising the king of his
demeanour: wherevpon he commanded that the sight of his eies should be
put out, but so, as the balles of them should remaine unbroken, for the
auoiding of a noisome deformitie that otherwise would ensue, if the
glassie tunicles should take hurt.

In his returne out of the holie land, he maried one Sibell, the earle of
Conuersans sister in Puglia, hir father hight Roger or Geffrey (as some
bookes haue) [Sidenote: _Iohn Pike._] and was nephue to Robert Guyshard
duke of Puglia, and by hir had issue one sonne named William afterward
earle of Flanders, whereof (God willing) more shall be said hereafter.

Here must I leaue duke Robert, and speake somwhat of Anselme the
archbishop, who shortlie after his returne into England, receiued
letters from pope Paschall, wherein Anselme was authorised to dispose
and order things as should séeme to him most expedient. Now, whereas the
greater and better part of the English clergie consisted of préests
sonnes, he committed to his discretion the order to dispense with them;
namelie, that such as were of commendable life and sufficient learning,
might be admitted to the ministerie, as the necessitie of time and state
of the church should require. [Sidenote: Richard prior of Elie.] The
pope also by the same letters gaue Anselme authorise to absolue Richard
the prior of Elie, vpon his satisfaction pretermitted, and to restore
him to the gouernement of the priorie of Elie, if the king thought it

[Sidenote: 1107.] About the calends of August, in this yeare 1107, the
king held a councell of bishops, abbats, and other lords of his realme
in his pallace at London, where in the absence of Anselme, the matter
touching the inuestitures of churches, was argued vpon for the space of
thrée daies togither, and in the end bicause the pope had granted the
homages of bishops and other prelats to the king, which his predecessor
Urban had forbidden, togither with the inuestitures; the king was
contented to consent to the popes will in forbearing the same. So that
when Anselme was come, the king in presence of him and a great multitude
of his people, granted and ordeined, that from thenceforth no bishop nor
abbat should be inuested within the realme of England, by the hand
either of the king or any laie man: on the other side it was granted
againe by Anselme, that no person elected into the prelacie, should be
depriued of his consecration for dooing his homage to the king.

These things thus ordred, the churches which through England had bin
long vacant, were prouided of gouernors, which were placed without any
inuestiture of staffe or ring. About this time, Anselme consecrated fiue
bishops at Canturburie in one day, archbishop William to the sée of
Winchester, Roger that was the kings chancellor to Salisburie, William
Warlewast to Excester, Remaline the quéenes chancellor to Hereford, and
one Urban to Glamorgan in Wales.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Ran. Higd._] About this season a great part of
Flanders being drowned by an exundation or breaking in of the sea, a
great number of Flemings came into England, beséeching the king to haue
some void place assigned them, wherein they might inhabit. [Sidenote:
Flemings cōming ouer into England, haue places appointed them to
inhabit.] At the first they were appointed to the countrie lieng on the
east part of the riuer of Twéed: but within foure yeres after, they were
remooued into a corner by the sea side in Wales, called Penbrokeshire,
to the end they might be a defense there to the English against the
vnquiet Welshmen.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malms._] ¶ It should appeare by some writers, that this
multitude of Flemings consisted not of such onelie as came ouer about
that time by reason their countrie was ouerflowne with the sea (as ye
haue heard) but of other also that arriued here long before, euen in the
daies of William the Conquerour, through the freendship of the quéene
their countriewoman, sithens which time their number so increased, that
the realme of England was sore pestered with them: wherevpon king Henrie
deuised to place them in Penbrokeshire, as well to auoid them out of the
other parts of England, as also by their helpe to tame the bold and
presumptuous fiercenesse of the Welshmen. Which thing in those parties
they brought verie well to passe: for after they were setled there, they
valiantlie resisted their enimies, and made verie sharpe warres vpon
them, sometimes with gaine, and sometimes with losse.

[Sidenote: 1108.] [Sidenote: A councell. _Sim. Dunel._ _Eadmerus._]
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.] In the yeare 1108. Anselme held an other synod
or councell, whereat in presence of the king, and by the assent of the
earles and barons of the realme it was ordeined.

     [Sidenote: Préests are sequestred frō their wiues.] 1 That préests,
     deacons, and subdeacons should liue chastlie, and kéepe no women in
     their houses, except such as were neere of kin to them.

     2 That such preests, deacons, and subdeacons, as contrarie to the
     inhibition of the councell holden at London, had either kept
     their wiues, or married other (of whom as Eadmerus saith, there
     was no small number) they should put them quite away, if they
     would continue still in their préesthood.

     3 That neither the same wiues should come to their houses, nor
     they to the houses where their wiues dwelled: but if they had any
     thing to say to them, they should take two or thrée witnesses,
     and talke with them abroad in the street.

     4 That if any of them chanced to be accused of breaking this
     ordinance, he should be driuen to purge himselfe with six
     sufficient witnesses of his owne order, if he were a préest: if a
     deacon, with foure: and if a subdeacon, with two.

     5 That such preests as would forgo seruing at the altar, and
     holie order (to remaine with their wiues) should be depriued of
     their benefices, and not suffered to come within the quire.

     [Sidenote: Archdeacons and canons.] 6 That such as contemptuouslie
     kept still their wiues, and presumed to say masse, if being called
     to satisfaction, they should neglect it, they should then be
     excommunicated. Within compasse of which sentence all archdeacons
     and prebendarie canons were comprised, both touching the forgoing
     of their women, and auoiding of their companie; and also the
     punishment by the censures of the church, if they transgressed the

     [Sidenote: Archdeacons to be sworn.] 7 That euerie archdeacon
     should be sworne, not to take any monie for fauouring any person
     transgressing these statutes: and that they should not suffer any
     preests, whome they knew to haue wiues, either to say masse, or to
     haue any vicars. The like oth should a deane receiue. Prouided that
     such archdeacons or deanes as refused this oth, should be depriued
     of their roomes.

     [Sidenote: Penance.] 8 That préests, who leauing their wiues, would
     be content to serue God & the altar, should be suspended from that
     office, by the space of fortie daies, and be allowed to haue vicars
     in the meane time to serue for them: and after, vpon performance of
     their inioined penance by the bishop, they might return to their

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ Philip king of Fran. dead. Lewis le gros K. of
France.] In this meane time king Henrie being aduertised of the death of
Philip king of France, and not knowing what his sonne Lewes, surnamed
Crassus might happilie attempt in his new preferment to the crowne,
sailed ouer into Normandie, to see the countrie in good order, and the
townes, castels, and fortresses furnished accordinglie as the doubtfull
time required. [Sidenote: Ambassadors from the emperour.] Now after he
had finished his businesse on that side, he returned into England, where
he met with ambassadours sent to him from the emperour Henrie. The
effect of whose message was, to require his daughter Maud in mariage
vnto the said emperour, wherevnto (though she was not then past fiue
yeares of age) he willinglie consented, and shewing to the ambassadours
great signes of loue, [Sidenote: Maud the kings daughter fianced vnto
the emperour.] he caused the espousals by waie of procuration to be
solemnized with great feasts and triumphs. This being ended, he suffered
the ambassadors honored with great gifts and princelie rewards to

[Sidenote: _Eadmerus._ The death of Gerard archbishop of Yorke. Thomas
the kings chapleine succéeded in that sée.] About this time Gerard
archbishop of Yorke died, whom one Thomas the kings chapleine succeeded,
who for lacke of monie to furnish his iournie, and for other causes (as
in his letters of excuse, which he wrot to Anselme it dooth appeere)
could not come to Canturburie for to be consecrated of him in so short a
time as was conuenient. But Anselme at length admonished him by letters,
that without delaie he should dispatch and come to be consecrated.
[Sidenote: The doubt of Anselme.] And wheras Anselme vnderstood that the
same Thomas was purposed to send vnto Rome for his pall, he doubted,
least if the pope should confirme him in his see by sending to him his
pall, he would happilie refuse to make vnto him profession of his due
obedience. [Sidenote: Anselme writeth to the Pope.] Wherefore to preuent
that matter, Anselme wrote to pope Paschall, requiring him in no wise to
send vnto the nominated archbishop of Yorke his pall, till he had
(according[3] to the ancient customes) made profession to him of
subiection, least some troublesome contentions might thereof arise, to
the no small disquieting of the English church. He also aduertised pope
Paschall, that bicause he permitted the emperour to inuest bishops, and
did not therefore excommunicate him, king Henrie threatened, that
without doubt he would resume the inuestitures into his hands, thinking
to hold them in quiet as well as he; and therefore besought him to
consider what his wisedome had to doo therein with spéed, least that
building which he had well erected, should vtterlie decaie, & fall
againe into irrecouerable ruine. For K. Henrie maketh diligentlie
inquirie (saith he) what order you take with the emperour.

[Sidenote: The popes answer to Anselme.] The pope receiuing and perusing
these letters, wrote againe vnto Anselme a verie freendlie answer
concerning the archbishop of Yorke. And as for suffering of the emperour
to haue the inuestitures, he signified to him that he neither did nor
would suffer him to haue them: but that hauing borne with him for a
time, he now ment verie shortlie to cause him to feele the weight of
the spirituall sword of S. Peter, which alreadie he had drawen out of
the scaberd, therewith to strike if he did not the sooner forsake his
horrible errour & naughtie opinion.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke refuseth to come vnto Canturburie to
be consecrated.] There was another cause also that moued Anselme to
doubt of the archbishop of Yorke his meaning, as after it appeered. For
being summoned to come and receiue his consecration at Canturburie (as
alreadie yee haue heard) through counsell of the canons Yorke he refused
so to doo: bicause they informed him that if he so did, it should be
greatlie preiudiciall to the liberties of that sée, whose archbishop was
of like authoritie in all things vnto the archbishop of Canturburie, so
that he was bound onelie to fetch his consecration and benediction at
Canturburie, but in no wise to acknowledge anie subiection vnto that
sée. [Sidenote: Looke in the 15. pa. of the debate betwéene Thomas of
Yorke[4] & Lanfranke of Canturburie.[5]] ¶ For ye must vnderstand, that
there was great stomaching betwixt the clergie of the two prouinces,
Canturburie and Yorke, about the metropolitane prerogatiue: and euer as
occasion serued, and as they thought the fauor of the prince, or
opportunitie of time might aduance their quarels, they of Yorke sticked
not to vtter their gréefes, in that (as they tooke it) some iniurie was
offered them therein.

[Sidenote: 1109] The archbishop of Yorke being thus instructed by the
canons of his church, signified to archbishop Anselme the cause why he
came not at his summons. The copie of a parcell whereof is here
exemplified. "Causam, qua differtur sacratio mea, quam nemo studiosius
quàm ego vellet accellerare, qui protulerunt, non desistunt
corroborare. Quamobrem, quàm periculosum & quàm turpe sit, contra
consensum ecclesiæ, cui præfici debeo, regimen ipsius inuadere, vestra
discretio nouerit. Sed & quàm formidabile & quàm sit euitandum, sub
specie benedictionis maledictionem induere," &c: that is;

     "The cause why my consecration is deferred, which no man liuing
     would wish to be doone with more speed than I my selfe: those
     that haue prolonged it, ceasse not to confirme. Wherefore how
     dangerous and how dishonest it should be for me to inuade the
     gouernment of that church, which I ought to rule, without cōsent
     of the same, your discretion rightwell vnderstandeth. Yea and how
     dreadful a thing it is, and how much to be auoided to receiue a
     cursse, vnder colour of a blessing," etc.

Anselme hauing alreadie written twice vnto the said Thomas archbishop of
Yorke about this matter, and now receiuing this answer, could not be
quiet in mind, and therevpon taking aduice with certeine bishops whom he
called vnto him, determined to send two bishops vnto the said Thomas of
Yorke: [Sidenote: The bishop of London deane to the archbishop of
Canturburie. The bishop of Rochester his chapleine.] and so the bishop
of London (as deane to the archbishop of Canturburie) & the bishop of
Rochester (as his household chapleine) were sent to commune with him,
who met them at his manour of Southwell, where they declared to him the
effect of their message: but he deferred his answer, till a messenger
which he had sent to the king (as then being in Normandie) was returned,
and so without any full answer the bishops came backe againe.

Howbeit shortlie after, there came to Canturburie a messenger on the
behalfe of the archbishop of Yorke, with letters inclosed vnder the
kings seale, by the tenour whereof the king commanded Anselme, that the
consecration of the archbishop of Yorke might staie till the feast of
Easter; and if he might returne into England by that daie, he promised
(by the aduice had therein of the bishops and barons of his realme) that
he would set a direction betwixt them in all matters, whereof anie
controuersie had beene moued heretofore: or if he could not returne so
soone, he would yet take such order, that brotherlie loue & concord
might remaine betwixt them. When he that brought these letters required
an answer, Anselme answered, [Sidenote: A stout prelat.] that he would
signifie his mind to the king, and not to his maister. Immediatlie
therefore as the deane of Chichester sent ouer from Anselme, with a
moonke of Bechellouin to the king, to informe him of all the matter, and
to beséech his maiestie, by his authority to prouide, that no discord
should rise to the diuiding of the present state of the church of
England. Furthermore, whereas he had commanded him to grant vnto Thomas
the archbishop of Yorke, a time of respit; [Sidenote: Anselme sendeth to
the king.] he should take for certeine answer, that he would rather
suffer himselfe to be cut in peeces, than to grant so much as one hours
space on the said Thomas of Yorke, whom he knew alreadie to haue set
himselfe vniustlie against the ancient constitutions of holie fathers,
and against the Lord himselfe. The messengers declared these things to
the king, and brought word backe againe at their returne, that the king
had heard their message with fauourable mind, and promised by the power
of God, to declare to the world that he coueted vnitie, and not any
diuision in the church of England.

[Sidenote: Anselme sick.] All this while Anselme was detained with long
and gréeuous sicknesse, and yet not forgetfull of the obstinate dealing
of Thomas of Yorke, he wrote letters vnto him, by vertue whereof he
suspended him from exercising all pastorall function, till he had
reformed his errour, submitted himselfe to receiue his blessing, and
acknowledged his subiection to the church of Canturburie, as his
predecessours Thomas and Gerard had doone, and before them other
ancients, as custome had prescribed. Thus he charged him, vpon paine of
cursing, except he would renounce his archbishops dignitie: for in so
dooing he did grant him licence to vse the office and ministerie of a
préest (which before time he had taken vpon him) or else not.

In the same letters he prohibited all the bishops within the precinct of
the Ile of Britaine, that in no wise they should consecrate him, vpon
paine of cursing: and if he should chance to be consecrated by any
stranger, that in no wise they should (vnder the like paine) receiue
him for archbishop, or communicate with him in any condition. [Sidenote:
Letters from Anselme.] Euerie bishop also within the whole Ile of
Britaine had a copie of these leters directed to him from Anselme vnder
his seale, commanding them to behaue themselues therein according to the
contents, and as they were bound by the subiection which they owght to
the church of Canturburie. The letters were dated alike in March.

[Sidenote: 1109. An. Reg. 10.] Notwithstanding all this, vpon the 21. of
Aprill insuing, Anselme ended his life in the sixteenth yéere after his
first preferment to that sée, being thréescore and sixtéene yeeres of
age. He was an Italian, borne in Piemont, néere to the Alpes, [Sidenote:
Augusta Prætoriana.] in a citie called Aosta, he was brought vp by
Lanfranke, and before he was made archbishop, was abbat of the
monasterie of Bechellouin in Normandie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ The first erection of the bishoprike of Elie.
_Eadmerus._] About the same time was the bishops sée of Elie erected by
the king, who appointed one Haruie to be the first bishop there, who
before had béene bishop of Bangor. Cambridgeshire was annexed to that
see, which bicause it had of former time belonged to the see of
Lincolne, the king gaue vnto the bishop of Lincolne (as it were in
recompense) the towne of Spalding which was his owne. [Sidenote: Richard
prior of Elie.] The prior of Elie, named Richard, desirous to honour
himselfe and his house with the title of a bishops dignitie, procured
the erection of that bishoprike, first moouing the king therein, and
after persuading with the bishop of Lincolne to grant his good will: but
yet yer the matter was brought to perfection, this prior died, and so
the said Haruie enioied the roome: [Sidenote: _Polydor._] wherein the
prouerbe tooke place, that One soweth, but an other reapeth (as Polydor
alledgeth it.) But to procéed.

[Sidenote: _Eadmerus._] Shortlie after the deceasse of Anselme, a Legat
came from Rome, bringing with him the pall for the archbishop of Yorke.
[Sidenote: A legate from Rome.] Howbeit now that Anselme was dead, the
said Legat wist not what to doo in the matter, bicause he was appointed
to deliuer the pall first and immediatlie vnto Anselme, and further
therein to deale (concerning the bestowing thereof) as should séeme good
vnto him.

In the feast of Pentecost next insuing, the king returned from
Normandie, and held his court at London, where after the solemnitie of
that feast, he called an assemblie of the bishops, to vnderstand what
was to be doone in the matter, for the consecration of the archbishop of
Yorke. Here were the letters shewed which the archbishop Anselme had (a
little before his death) directed vnto euerie of the bishops as before
yee haue heard. [Sidenote: The earle of Mellent.] Which when the earle
of Mellent had read, and vnderstood the effect, he asked what he was
that durst receiue any such letters without the kings assent and
commandement: [Sidenote: Samson bishop of Worcester.] At length the
bishops aduising themselues what they had to doo, required Samson bishop
of Worcester to declare his opinion, who boldlie spake these words;
"Although this man, who is elected archbishop, is my sonne, whome in
times past I begot of my wife, and therfore ought to seeke his
aduancement as nature and worldlie respects might mooue me: yet am I
more bound vnto the church of Canturburie, my mother, which hath
preferred me to this honor that I doo beare, and by the ministerie of a
bishoplike office hath made me partaker of that grace, which it hath
deserued to enioy of the Lord. Wherefore I would it should be notified
vnto you all, that I meane to obeie in euerie condition the commandement
conteined in the letters of our father Anselme concerning the matter
which you haue now in hand. For I will neuer giue mine assent, that
Thomas nominated archbishop of Yorke shall be consecrated, till he haue
professed his due and canonicall obedience touching his subiection to
[Sidenote: Looke in pa. 15, where you shall sée this matter
determined.[6]] the church of Canturburie. For I my selfe was present
when my brother Thomas archbishop of Yorke, constreined both by ancient
customes and inuincible reasons, did professe the like subiection vnto
archbishop Lanfranke, and all his successours the archbishops of

[Sidenote: The protestations of the bishops to the king.] These words
thus vttered by the bishop of Worcester, all the bishops returned
togither, comming before the kings presence, boldlie confessed that they
had receiued Anselmes letters, and would not doo any thing contrarie to
the tenour of the same. Whereat the earle of Mellent shooke the head, as
though he ment to accuse them of contempt towards the king. But the
king himselfe vttered his mind, and said, that whatsoeuer other men
thought of the matter, he suerlie was of the like mind with the bishops,
& would be loth to run in danger of Anselms cursse. Wherefore it was
determined, that the elect of Yorke should either acknowledge his
subiection to the church of Canturburie, or else forgo his dignitie of
archbishop: wherevpon in the end he came to London, and there vpon the
28. daie of Maie was consecrated by Richard bishop of London, as deane
to the sée of Canturburie. Then hauing the profession or protestation of
his subiection to the sée of Canturburie deliuered him vnder seale, he
brake vp the same, and read the writing in maner and forme following:

     [Sidenote: The tenour of the profession which the archbishop of
     Yorke made vnto the archbishop of Canturburie.] "Ego Thomas
     Eboracensis ecclesiæ consecrandus metropolitanus, profiteor
     subiectionem & canonicam obedientiam sanctæ Dorobernensi ecclesiæ,
     & eiusdem ecclesiæ primati canonicè electo & consecrato, &
     successoribus suis canonicè inthronizatis, salua fidelitate domini
     mei Henrici regis Anglorum, & salua obedientia ex parte mea
     tenenda, quam Thomas antecessor meus sanctæ Romanæ ecclesiæ ex
     parte sua professus est:" that is;

     "I Thomas to be consecrated metropolitane archbishop of Yorke,
     professe my subiection and canonicall obedience vnto the holie
     church of Canturburie, and to the primate of the same church,
     canonicallie elected and consecrated, and to his successours
     canonicallie inthronized, sauing the faith which I owe vnto my
     souereigne lord Henrie king of the English, and sauing the
     obedience to be holden of my part, which Thomas my predecessour
     professed on his behalfe vnto the holie church of Rome."

When this writing was read, the bishop of London tooke it, and deliuered
it vnto the prior of Canturburie, appointing him to kéepe the same as a
testimoniall for the time to come. [Sidenote: 1110.] Thus was Thomas the
archbishop of Yorke consecrated, being the 27. in number that had
gouerned that sée, who when he was consecrated, the popes Legate went
vnto Yorke, and there deliuered to the same archbishop the pall,
wherewith when he was inuested, he departed and returned to Rome, as he
was appointed.

At the feast of Christmasse next insuing, the king held his court at
London with great solemnitie. The archbishop of Yorke prepared to haue
set the crown on the king's head, and to haue soong masse afore him,
bicause the archbishops see at Canturburie was void. But the bishop of
London would not suffer it, claiming as high deane to the sée of
Canturburie to execute that office, and so did, leading the king to the
church after the maner. [Sidenote: Strife betwixt bishops.] Howbeit when
they should come to sit downe at dinner, there kindled a strife betwixt
the said two bishops about their places, bicause the bishop of London,
for that he had beene ordeined long before the archbishop, and therefore
not onelie as deane to the see of Canturburie, but also by reason of
prioritie, pretended to haue the vpper seat. But the king perceiuing
their maner, would not heare them, but commanded them out of his house,
and get them to dinner at their innes.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.] About the same time the cause of the mariage of
préests and their keeping of women came againe into question, so that by
the kings commandement, [Sidenote: Préests prohibited to marrie or kéepe
women.] they were more streightlie forbidden the companie of women than
before in Anselmes time. For after his deceasse, diuerse of them (as it
were promising to themselues a new libertie to doo that which in his
life time they were constreined sore against their willes to forbeare)
deceiued themselues by their hastie dealing. For the king being informed
thereof, by the force of the ecclesiasticall lawes compelled them to
stand to and obeie the decree of the councell holden at London by
Anselme (as before ye haue heard) at least wise in the sight of men. But
if so it be (saieth Eadmerus) that the préests attempt to doo worsse, as
it were to the condemnation and reproofe of Anselmes dooings, let the
charge light on their heads, sith euerie man shall beare his owne
burthen: for I know (saith he) that if fornicatours and adulterers God
will iudge, the abusers of their one cousins (I will not say their owne
sisters and daughters) shall not suerlie escape his iudgement.

[Sidenote: The riuer of Trent dried vp.] About the same time manie
woonders were seene and heard of. The riuer of Trent néere to Notingham,
for the space of a mile ceassed to run the woonted course during the
time of foure & twentie houres, so that the chanell being dried vp, men
might passe ouer to and fro drie shod.

[Sidenote: Monsters.] Also a sow brought foorth a pig with a face like a
man, & a chicken was hatched with foure feet. [Sidenote: A comet. _Wil.
Thorne._ _Matth. West._] Moreouer a comet or blasing star appéered in a
strange sort: for rising in the east, when it once came aloft in the
firmament, it kept not the course forward, but seemed to go backeward,
as if it had bin retrograde.

[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow._ Robert the kings base son created earle of
Glocester.] About this season the king maried Robert his base sonne to
the ladie Maud, daughter and heire to Robert Fitzham, and withall made
his said sonne earle of Glocester, who afterwards builded the castels of
Bristow and Cardiff, with the priorie of S. James in Bristow, where his
bodie was buried.

[Sidenote: 1111. An. Reg. 12.] In the yeare following, Foulke earle of
Aniou, enuieng the prosperous estate of king Henrie, and lamenting the
case of duke Robert, [Sidenote: _Fabian._ The citie of Constances[7]
taken. The king passeth into Normandie.] wan the citie of Constances, by
corrupting certeine of the kings subiects the inhabitants of the same.
Whereof king Henrie being aduertised, passed ouer into Normandie,
recouered the said citie, punished the offenders, reuenged himselfe of
the earle, and returned into England.

[Sidenote: 1112.] Now, as also before, the king continued his inordinate
desire of inriching himselfe, for the fulfilling of which hungrie
appetite (called _Sacra_ of the poets _Per antiphrasin_) he pinched
manie so sore, that they ceased not to speake verie ill of his dooings.
He did also incurre the misliking of verie manie people, bicause he kept
still the sée of Canturburie in his hands, and would not bestow it, for
that he found sweetnesse in all the profits and reuenues belonging
therevnto, during the time that it remained vacant, [Sidenote: The
archbishops sée of Canturburie in the kings hand foure years.] which was
the space of foure yeares, or thereabouts. [Sidenote: 1113. An. Reg.
13.] In like maner, when he was admonished to place some méet man in the
roome, he would saie, that he was willing to bestow it, but he tooke the
longer time, for that he meant to find such a one to prefer therto as
should not be too far behind Lanfranke and Anselme in doctrine, vertue
and wisedome. And sith there was none such yet to be found, he suffered
that sée to be void till such could be prouided. [Sidenote: The kings
excuse.] This excuse he pretended, as though he were more carefull for
the placing of a worthie man, than of the gaine that followed during the
time of the vacation. [Sidenote: 1114. An. Reg. 14.] Howbeit not long
after, he translated one Richard bishop of London to that
archbishoprike, who enioieng it but a while, he gaue the same to one
Rafe then bishop of Rochester, [Sidenote: _Eadmerus._] and made him
archbishop of Canturburie, being the 35. in order that ruled that see.
He was elected at Windsor the 26. daie of Aprill, and on the 16. daie of
Maie installed at Canturburie, great preparation being made for the
feast which was holden at the same. Soone after likewise he sent for his
pall to Rome, which was brought from Paschall by one Anselme nephue vnto
the late archbishop Anselme. [Sidenote: The popes authoritie not
regarded in England.] About this time also the pope found himselfe
gréeued, for that his authoritie was but little estéemed in England, &
for that no persons were permitted to appeale to Rome in cases of
controuersie, and for that (without seeking to obteine his licence and
consent) they did kéepe their synods & councels about ecclesiasticall
affaires, neither would obeie such Legats as he did send, nor come to
the conuocations which they held. In so much that one Cono the popes
Legat in France had excommunicated all the préests of Normandie, bicause
they would not come to a synod which they had summoned. [Sidenote: The
bishop of Excester sent to Rome.] Wherevpon the king being somewhat
troubled, by aduice of his councell, sent the bishop of Excester to
Rome, (though he were then blind) to talke with the pope concerning that

[Sidenote: Thurstane archbishop of Yorke.] Not long after this Thomas
the archbishop of Yorke died: after whom succeeded Thurstane, a man of a
loftie stomach, but yet of notable learning, who euen at the verie first
began to contend with Rafe the archbishop of Canturburie about the title
and right of the primasie. And though the king aduised him to stand to
the order which the late archbishops of Yorke had obserued, yet he would
not staie the matter, sith he saw that archbishop Rafe being sicke and
diseased, could not attend to preuent his dooings. [Sidenote: Giles
Aldane bishop of S. Ninian.] Thurstane therfore consecrated certeine
bishops of Scotland, and first of all Giles Aldane the elect bishop of
S. Ninian, who promised and tooke his oth (as the manner is) to obeie
him in all things as his primate.

[Sidenote: _Floriacensis._ _Wigorniensis._ Worcester burnt. _Polydor._
The Welshmen inuade the english marshes. K. Henrie entreth into Wales
with an armie.] The citie of Worcester about this season was by a
casuall fire almost wholie burnt vp and consumed. Which mishap, bicause
that citie ioineth néere vnto Wales, was thought to be a signification
of troubles to folow by the insurrection of the Welshmen: who conceiuing
hope of good speed by their good successe in the wars held with William
Rufus, began now to inuade & waste the English marshes. Whervpon king
Henrie desirous to tame their hautie stomachs (bicause it was a gréefe
to him still to be vexed with such tumults and vprisings as they dailie
procured) assembled a mightie armie and went into Wales. Now bicause he
knew the Welshmen trusted more to the woods and mountains, than to their
owne strength, he beset all the places of their refuge with armed men,
and sent into the woods certeine bands to laie them waste, & to hunt the
Welsh out of their holes. The soldiours (for their parts) néeded no
exhortation: for remembring the losses susteined afore time at the
Welshmens hands, they shewed well by their fresh pursute, how much they
desired to be reuenged, so that the Welsh were slaine on each hand, and
that in great numbers, till the king perceiued the huge slaughter, & saw
that hauing throwne away their armour and weapons, they sought to saue
themselues by flight, he commanded the souldiours to ceasse from
killing, and to take the residue that were left prisoners, if they would
yéeld themselues: which they did, and besought the king of his mercie
and grace to pardon and forgiue them.

[Sidenote: Garisons placed in Wales by K. Henrie. _Floriacensis._
_Wigorniensis._] The king thus hauing vanquished and ouercome the
Welshmen, placed garisons in sundrie townes & castels, where he thought
most necessarie, and then returned to London with great triumph. Thither
shortlie after came ambassadours from the emperour, requiring the kings
daughter affianced (as before you haue heard) vnto him, and (being[8]
now viripotent or mariable) desired that she might be deliuered vnto
them. [Sidenote: A subsidie raised by the king to bestowe with his
daughter. _Hen. Hunt._ _Polydor._] King Henrie hailing heard their sute
and willing with spéed to performe the same, raised a great tax among
his subiects, rated after euerie hide of land which they held, & taking
of ech one thrée shillings towards the paiment of the monie which was
couenanted to be giuen with hir at the time of the contract. Which when
the king had leuied, with much more, towards the charges to be emploied
in sending hir foorth, he appointed certeine of his greatest péeres to
safe conduct hir vnto hir husband, who with all conuenient speed
conueied hir into Germanie, and in verie honorable maner there deliuered
hir vnto the foresaid emperour. [Sidenote: The king goeth ouer into
Normandie.] After this, the king went into Normandie, and there created
his sonne William duke of that countrie, causing the people to sweare
fealtie and obedience to him, whereof rose a custome, that the kings of
England from thencefoorth (so long as Normandie remained in their hands)
made euer their eldest sonnes dukes of that countrie. When he had doone
this with other his businesse in Normandie, he returned into England.

[Sidenote: 1114.] [Sidenote: The sea decreaseth. Wonders. _Wil.
Thorne._] In this yeare about the fiftéenth daie of October, the sea so
decreased and shranke from the old accustomed water-markes and coasts of
the land here in this realme, that a man might haue passed on foot ouer
the sands and washes, for the space of a whole daie togither, so that it
was taken for a great woonder. It was also noted, that the maine riuers
(which by the tides of the sea vsed to ebbe and flow twice in 24.
houres) became so shallow, that in many places men might go ouer them
without danger, [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Ran. Higd._ _Matth. Westm._]
and namlie the riuer of Thames was so lowe for the space of a day and a
night, that horsses, men, and children passed ouer it betwixt London
bridge and the tower, and also vnder the bridge, the water not reaching
aboue their knées. Moreouer, in the moneth of December, the aire
appeared red, as though it had burned. [Sidenote: 1115. An. Reg. 16.] In
like maner, the Winter was verie extreame cold with frosts, by reason
whereof at the thawing and breaking of the yce, the most part of all
the bridges in England were broken and borne downe.

[Sidenote: 1116. An. Reg. 17.] [Sidenote: Griffin ap Rice dooth much
hurt on the marshes. _Polydor._] Not long after this, Griffin ap Rees
tooke a great preie and bootie out of the countries subiect to the king
within the limits of Wales, and burned the kings castels, bicause he
would not restore such lands and possessions vnto him as apperteined to
his father Rées or Rice. Howbeit, the king (notwithstanding this
businesse) being not otherwise troubled with any other warres or
weightie affaires, deferred his voiage into those quarters, and first
called a councell of his lords both spirituall and temporall at
Salisburie on the nintéenth daie of March, wherein manie things were
ordeined for the wealth and quiet state of the land. And first he sware
the Nobilitie of the realme, that they should be true to him and his
sonne William after his deceasse. Secondlie, he appeased sundrie matters
then in controuersie betwixt the Nobles and great Péers, causing the
same to be brought to an end, and the parties made freends: the diuision
betwixt the archbishops of Yorke and Canturburie (which had long
depended in triall, and could not as yet haue end) excepted. [Sidenote:
Thurstane refuseth to obey the kings pleasure. _Eadmerus._] For
ambitious Thurstane would not stand to any decrée or order therin,
except he might haue had his whole will, so that the king taking
displeasure with him for his obstinate demeanor, commanded him either to
be conformable to the decrée made in Lanfranks time, or else to renounce
his miter, which to doo (rather than to acknowledge any subiection to
the archbishop of Canturburie) he séemed to be verie willing at the
first, but afterwards repented him of his speech passed in that behalfe.
Now when the councell was ended, and the king went ouer into Normandie,
he followed, trusting by some meanes to persuade the king, that he might
haue his furtherance to be consecrated, without recognizing any
obedience to the sée of Canturburie: but the king would not heare him,
whereby the matter rested long in sute, as heereafter shall appeare.

¶ Hereby it is plaine (as Polydor saith) how the bishops in those daies
were blinded with couetousnesse and ambition, not considering that it
was their duties to despise such worldlie pompe, as the people regard,
and that their calling required a studious endeuour for the health of
such soules as fell to their charge. Neither yet remembred they the
simplicitie of Christ, and his contempt of worldlie dignitie, when he
refused to satisfie the humor of the people, who verie desirouslie would
haue made him a king, but withdrew himselfe, and departed to a mountaine
himselfe alone. They were rather infected with the ambition of the
apostles, contending one with another for the primasie, forgetting the
vocation whereto Christ had separated them, not to rule as kings ouer
the gentiles; but to submit their necks to the yokes of obedience, as
they had Christ their maister an example and president.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: The first vse of parlements in England.] ¶ Here is to be
noted, that before this time, the kings of England vsed but seldome to
call togither the states of the realme after any certeine maner or
generall kind of processe, to haue their consents in matters to be
decreed. But as the lords of the priuie councell in our time doo sit
onlie when necessitie requireth, so did they whensoeuer it pleased the
king to haue any conference with them. So that from this Henrie it may
be thought the first vse of the parlement to haue proceeded, which sith
that time hath remained in force, and is continued vnto our times,
insomuch that whatsoeuer is to be decreed touching the state of the
commonwealth and conseruation thereof, is now referred to that councell.
And furthermore, if any thing be appointed by the king or any other
person to be vsed for the wealth of the realme, it shall not yet be
receiued as law, till by authoritie of this assemblie it be established.

Now bicause the house should not be troubled with multitude of vnlearned
cōmoners, whose propertie is to vnderstand little reason, and yet to
conceiue well of their owne dooings: there was a certeine order taken,
what maner of ecclesiasticall persons, and what number and sort of
temporall men should be called vnto the same, and how they should be
chosen by voices of free holders, that being as atturnies for their
countries, that which they confessed or denied, should bind the residue
of the realme to receiue it as a law. This counsell is called a
parlement, by the French word, for so the Frenchmen call their publike

[Sidenote: The maner of the parlement in England] The maner of their
consulting heere in England in their said assemblies of parlement is on
this wise. Whereas they haue to intreat of matters touching the
commoditie both of the prince and of the people, that euerie man may
haue free libertie to vtter what he thinketh, they are appointed to sit
in seuerall chambers, the king, the bishops, and lords of the realme sit
in one chamber to conferre togither by themselues; and the commoners
called knights for the shires, citizens of cities, and burgesses of good
townes in another. These choose some wise, eloquent, and learned man to
be their prolocutor or speaker (as they terme him) who propoundeth those
things vnto them that are to be talked of, and asketh euerie mans
opinion concerning the conclusion thereof. In like sort, when any thing
is agreed vpon, and decreed by them in this place (which they call the
lower house in respect of their estate) he declareth it againe to the
lords that sit in the other chamber called the higher house, demanding
likewise their iudgments touching the same. For nothing is ratified
there, except it be agreed vpon by the consent of the more part of both
those houses. Now when they haue said their minds, and yeelded their
confirmation therevnto, the finall ratification is referred to the
prince; so that if he thinke good that it shall passe for a law, he
confirmeth also by the mouth of the lord Chancelor of the realme, who is
prolocutor to the lords alwaies by the custome of that house.

The same order is vsed also by the bishops and spiritualtie in their
conuocation houses. For the bishops sit in one place by themselues as in
the higher house, and the deanes, archdeacons, and other procurators of
the spiritualtie in an other, as in the lower house, whose prolocutor
declareth to the bishops what is agreed vpon by them. Then the
archbishop (by consent of the more part of them that are assembled in
both those conuocation houses) ratifieth and pronounceth their decrees
for lawes, remitting (notwithstanding) the finall ratification of them
to the temporall houses.

This is the order of the lawgiuing of England; and in such decrees
(established by authoritie of the prince, the lords spirituall and
temporall, and the commons of this realme thus assembled in parlement)
consisteth the whole force of our English lawes. Which decrees are
called statutes, meaning by that name, that the same should stand firme
and stable, and not be repealed without the consent of an other
parlement, and that vpon good and great consideration.

       *       *       *       *       *

About this season, one Owin (whome some name prince of Wales) was
slaine, [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._] as Simon Dunelmen. writeth, but by
whom, or in what sort, he sheweth not. In this eightéenth yeare of king
Henries reigne, on All hallowes daie, or first of Nouember, great
lightning, thunder, and such a storme of haile fell, that the people
were maruellouslie amazed therwith. Also on the thirtéenth of December,
there happened a great earthquake, and the moone was turned into a
bloodie colour: which strange accidents fell about the middest of the
night. At the same time quéene Maud, wife to king Henrie departed this
life. But now to returne to other dooings.

It chanced vpon a small occasion, that verie sore and dangerous warres
followed out of hand, betwixt king Henrie and Lewes surnamed the grosse
king of France: the beginning whereof grew herevpon. [Sidenote: Theobald
erle of Champaigne. _Polydor._] Theobald earle of Champaigne, descended
of the earles of Blois, was linked in amitie with king Henrie, by reason
of affinitie that was betwixt them (for Stephan the earle of Blois
married ladie Adila the sister of king Henrie.) Now it happened, that
the foresaid Theobald had by chance offended the said Lewes, who in
reuenge made sharpe warres vpon him. But earle Theobald hoping for aid
to be sent from his fréends in the meane time valiantlie resisted him,
[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._] and at length (by reason of a power of men
which came to him from king Henrie) in such sort vexed and annoied the
French king, that he consulted with Baldwine earle of Flanders,
[Sidenote: Foulke earle of Aniou.] and Foulke earle of Aniou, by what
means he might best depriue king Henrie of his duchie of Normandie, and
restore the same vnto William the sonne of duke Robert, vnto whom of
right he said it did belong.

Now king Henrie hauing intelligence of his whole purpose, endeauoured on
the otherside to resist his attempts, and after he had leuied a sore
tribute of his subiects, [Sidenote: King Henrie passeth ouer into
Normandie to assist the erle of Champaigne.] passed ouer into Normandie
with a great power, and no small masse of monie, where ioining with
earle Theobald, they began to prepare for warre, purposing to follow the
same euen to the vttermost. K. Lewes in the meane time, supposing that
all hope of victorie rested in spéedie dispatch of present affaires,
determined likewise to haue inuaded Normandie vpon the sudden. But after
he perceiued that his enimies were all in a redinesse, and verie well
prouided to resist him: he staied and drew backe a little while.
Neuerthelesse in the end he became so desirous to be dooing with king
Henrie, [Sidenote: The French K. inuadeth Normandie.] that approching
néere vnto the confines of Normandie, he made manie skirmishes with the
English, yet no notable exploit passed betwixt them in that yeare.

¶ Here will I leaue the kings of England and France skirmishing and
encountring one another, and shew something more of the contention that
was betwéene the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke, to the end that
their ambitious desire of worldlie honor may in some respect appéere.

[Sidenote: 1117. An. Reg. 18.] [Sidenote: Anselme the popes legat.]
About this verie time, Anselme the nephue to archbishop Anselme came
againe from Rome, with frée authoritie to execute the office of the
popes legat in England: which seemed a thing right strange to the
English clergie. [Sidenote: The bishop of Canturburie goth to Rome]
Wherefore the bishop of Canturburie, to preuent other inconueniences
likelie to insue, tooke vpon him to go vnto Rome, to vnderstand the
popes pleasure concerning the truth and certeintie of this matter, and
to require him in no wise to diminish the authoritie or to extenuat the
prerogatiue of his sée of Canturburie, which hitherto vsed to determine
all causes rising in his prouince.

This said archbishop came to Rome, but finding not the pope there, he
sent messengers with letters vnto him, then lieng sicke at Beneuento,
and obteined a fauourable answer, wherewith returning towards England,
he came to the king at Roan (where he had left him at his setting foorth
forward) certifieng him how he had sped in this voiage. The forsaid
Anselme was also staid by the king at Roan, and could not be suffered to
passe ouer into England all that time, till it might be vnderstood by
the returne of the archbishop, what the popes pleasure should be further
in that matter. [Sidenote: Pope Gelasius succéeded pope[9] Paschall.]
Shortlie after whose repaire to the king, word was brought that pope
Paschall was departed this life, and that Gelasius the second was
elected in his place. [Sidenote: 1118. An. Reg. 19.] This Gelemasius (to
auoid the dangers that might insue to him by reason of the schisme and
controuersie betwixt the sée of Rome, and the emperour Henrie the fift)
came into France, where he liued not long, but died in the abbeie of
Clugnie, [Sidenote: Carlixtus the second of that name pope.] after whose
decease Calixtus the second was called to the papasie.

Thus by the chance and change of popes, the legatship of Anselme could
take no place, although his bulles permitted him without limitation or
time, not onelie to call and celebrate synods for reformation of
disorders in the church, but also for the receiuing of Peter pence to be
leuied in England (in the which point pope Paschall in his life time
thought them in England verie slacke) as by the same bulles more
largelie dooth appéere. The archbishop of Canturburie had alreadie
staied foure or fiue yeares in the parties beyond the sées, about the
matter in controuersie betwixt him and Thurstane archbishop of Yorke,
who was likewise gone ouer to solicit his cause. But where as at the
first he could not find the king in anie wise agréeable to his mind, yet
when the councell should be holden at Rhemes by pope Calixt, he sued at
the leastwise for licence to go thither: but he could neither haue any
grant so to doo, till he had promised (vpon his allegiance which he
ought to the king) not to attempt anie thing there that might be
preiudiciall to the church of Canturburie in anie maner of wise.
Neuerthelesse, at his comming thither, he so wrought with bribes and
large gifts, that the popes court (a thing easilie doone in Rome)
fauoured his cause; yea, such was his successe, that the pope
consecrated him with his owne hands, although king Henrie had giuen
notice to him of the controuersie depending betwixt Thurstane and Rafe
the archbishop of Canturburie, requiring him in no wise either to
consecrate Thurstane himselfe, or grant licence to anie other person to
consecrate him; for if he did, surelie (for his part) he would banish
him quite out of his dominion, which should not be long vndoone. But now
to the purpose.

[Sidenote: 1119. An. Reg. 20.] [Sidenote: The two kings of England &
France ioine battell.] In this meane time, the warres were busilie
pursued betwixt the two kings of England & France, and a battell was
fought betweene them, with great slaughter on both sides for the space
of nine houres. The forewards on both parties were beaten downe and
ouerthrowne; [Sidenote: King Henrie hurt in the battell.] and king
Henrie receiued sundrie stripes on his head at the hands of one William
Crispine countie de Eureux, so as (though his helmet were verie strong
and sure) the blood burst out of his mouth: wherewith he was nothing
afraid, but like a fierce lion laid more lustilie about him, and stroke
downe diuerse of his enimies, namelie the said Crispine, [Sidenote: The
earle of Eureux taken prisoner.] who was there taken prisoner at the
kings feet. Now were the kings people incouraged at the valiancie and
prowesse of their king and chieftaine, so that at length they opened and
ouercame the maine battell, and setting vpon the rereward, ouerthrew the
whole armie of France, which neuer recoiled, but fought it out euen to
the vttermost. There died and were taken prisoners in this conflict
manie thousands of men. The French king leauing the field, [Sidenote:
Andelei. Nicasium.] got him vnto a place called Andelie: and the king of
England recouering a towne by the waie called Nicasium, which the French
king had latelie woone, returned vnto Rouen, where he was with great
triumph receiued, and highlie commended for his noble victorie thus

The earle of Flanders (as some write) was so wounded in this battell,
that he died thereof. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Ia. Meir._] But others
affirme, that cōming into Normandie in the yeare last past, to make
warre against king Henrie in fauour of king Lewes, he wan the towne of
Andelie, and an other which they name Aquæ Nicasij. [Sidenote: The earle
of Flanders wounded. He departed this life.] But as he was come before
the towne of Augen in the moneth of September, and assailed the same, he
receiued his deaths wound in the head, wherevpon returning home in the
ninth moneth after, when he could not be cured of his hurt, he departed
this life at Rosilare the 17. daie of June.

[Sidenote: Foulke earle of Aniou became the king of Englands man.]
Shortlie after Foulke earle of Aniou (who before had aided the French
king against king Henrie) became now king Henries freend by aliance,
marieng his daughter to William king Henries eldest sonne. But the
French king (as their histories make mention) minding still to be
reuenged of the earle Theobald, inuaded his countrie againe with a
puissant armie, and had destroied the citie of Chartres, which belonged
vnto the same earle, had not the citizens humbled themselues to his
mercie: and so likewise did the earle, as may be thought. For in the
warres which immediatlie followed betwixt Lewes and the emperour Henrie,
the erle aided the French king against the same emperour to[10] the
vttermost of his power. [Sidenote: The king and the pope come to an
enteruew at Gisors.] Soone after this, the king came to an enteruiew
with pope Calixtus at Gisors, where manie matters were talked of betwixt
them: and amongst other, the king required of the pope a grant of all
such liberties as his father enioied within the limits of England and
Normandie, and chéefelie that no legat should haue any thing to doo
within England, except he required to haue one sent him for some vrgent

[Sidenote: The pope is a suiter for Thurstane] All which matters being
determined (as the state of the time present required) the pope besought
the king to be good vnto archbishop Thurstane, and to restore him to his
sée: but the king protested that he had vowed neuer so to doo whilest he
liued. [Sidenote: The pope offereth to discharge the K. of his vow.]
Wherevnto the pope answered, that he was pope, and by his apostolike
power he would discharge him of that vow, if he would satisfie his
request. The king to shift the matter off, promised the pope that he
would take aduice of his councell, and giue him further knowledge, as
the cause required, wherevpon departing from thense, [Sidenote:
_Eadmerus._ The kings answer sent to the pope.] he did afterwards (vpon
farther deliberation) send him this message, in effect as followeth.

     "Whereas he saith he is pope, and will (as he said) assoile me of
     the vow which I haue made, if contrarie thereto I will restore
     Thurstane to the sée of Yorke: I thinke it not to stand with the
     honor of a king, to consent in any wise vnto such an absolution.
     For who shall beléeue an others promise hereafter, if by mine
     example he sée the same so easilie by an absolution to be made
     void. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Eadmerus._] But sith he hath so
     great a desire to haue Thurstane restored, I shall be contented at
     his request, to receiue him to his sée, with this condition, that
     he shall acknowledge his church to be subiect vnto the sée of
     Canturburie, as his predecessours haue doone before him; although
     in fine this offer would not serue the turne."

[Sidenote: 1120.] But now to returne againe to the two princes.
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 21.] Not long after the
departure of the pope from Gisors, Foulke earle of Aniou found meanes to
make an agreement betwixt king Henrie & king Lewes, so that king William
sonne to king Henrie did homage vnto king Lewes for the duchie of
Normandie. [Sidenote: The kings of England and France are accorded.
_Wil. Malm._ _Eadmerus._] And further it was accorded betwéene them,
that all those that had borne armour either on the one side or the
other, should be pardoned, whose subiects[11] soeuer they were. In like
maner, Rafe archbishop of Canturburie returned into England, after he
had remained long in Normandie, bicause of the controuersie betwixt him
and Thurstan archbishop of Yorke, as is aforesaid.

[Sidenote: Alexander K. of Scots.] Now shortlie after his returne to
Canturburie, messengers came with letters from Alexander king of
Scotland vnto him, signifieng, that where the sée of S. Andrews was
void, the same king did instantlie require him to send ouer Eadmer a
moonke of Canturburie (of whom he had heard great commendation for his
sufficiencie of vertue and learning) to be seated there. ¶ This Eadmer
is the same which wrote the historie intituled Historia nouorum in
Anglia, out of which (as may appeare) we haue gathered the most part of
our matters concerning Anselme and Rafe archbishops of Canturburie, in
whose daies he liued, [Sidenote: Eadmer Anselmes disciple.] and was
Anselmes disciple.

Archbishop Rafe was contented to satisfie the request of king Alexander
in that behalfe, and obteining the consent of king Henrie, he sent the
said Eadmer into Scotland with letters of commendation vnto the said
king Alexander, who receiued him right ioifullie, and vpon the third
daie after his comming thither (being the feast of the apostles Peter &
Paule) he was elected archbishop of S. Andrews by the clergie and people
of the land, to the great reioicing of Alexander, and the rest of the
Nobilitie. The next daie after the king talked with him secretlie of his
consecration, and vttered to him how he had no mind to haue him
consecrated at the hands of Thurstan archbishop of Yorke. In which case
when he was informed by the said Eadmer, that no such thing needed to
trouble his mind, since the archbishop of Canturburie, being primate of
all Britaine, might consecrate him as reason was; the king could not
away with that answer, bicause he would not heare that the church of
Canturburie should be preferred before the church of S. Andrews.
Herevpon he departed from Eadmer in displeasure, and calling one William
(sometime moonke of S. Edmundsbury) vnto him, a man also that had
gouerned (or rather spoiled) the church of S. Andrews in the vacation:
this William was commanded to take vpon him the charge thereof againe,
at the kings pleasure, whose meaning was vtterlie to remooue Eadmer, as
not worthie of that roome. Howbeit, within a moneth after (to satisfie
the minds of his Nobles) he called for the said Eadmer, [Sidenote:
Eadmer receiueth his staffe from an altar.] and with much adoo got him
to receiue the staffe of that bishoprike, taking it from an altar
whereon it laie (as if he shuld haue that dignitie at the Lords hands)
whereby he was inuested, & went streight to S. Andrews church, where he
was receiued by the quier, the schollers, and all the people, for true
and lawfull bishop.

In this meane while Thurstan nothing slacking his sute in the popes
court, obteined such fauour (wherein the king of England also was
greatlie laboured vnto) that he wrote letters thrice vnto the king of
Scotland, and once vnto the archbishop of Canturburie, that neither the
king should permit Eadmer to be consecrated, nor the archbishop of
Canturburie in any wise consecrate him if he were therevnto required.
Herevpon it came to passe, that finally Eadmer, after he had remained in
Scotland twelue moneths or thereabouts, and perceiued that things went
not as he would haue wished (for that he could not get the kings consent
that he shuld be consecrated of the archbishop of Canturburie, as it was
first meant both by the archbishop and Eadmer) he departed out of
Scotland, and returned againe to Canturburie, there to take further
aduice in all things as cause should mooue him. [Sidenote: King Henrie
returneth into England. _Ran. Higd._ _Wil. Malm._ _Polydor._ _Matth.
Paris._ The kings sonnes and his daughter with other Nobles are drowned
by shipwracke.] In like maner king Henrie, hauing quieted his businesse
in France, returned into England, where he was receiued and welcomed
home with great ioy and triumph; but such publike reioising lasted not
long with him. For indéed, this pleasantnesse and mirth was changed into
mourning, by aduertisement giuen of the death of the kings sons, William
duke of Normandie, and Richard his brother, who togither with their
sister the ladie Marie countesse of Perch, Richard earle of Chester,
with his brother Otwell gouernour to duke William, and the said earle of
Chester his wife the kings neece, the archdeacon of Hereford, Geffrey
Riddle, Robert Manduit, William Bigot, and diuerse other, to the number
of an hundreth and fourtie persons, besides fiftie mariners, tooke ship
at Harflew, thinking to follow the king, and sailing foorth with a south
wind, their ship thorough negligence of the mariners (who had drunke out
their wits & reason) were throwne vpon a rocke, and vtterlie perished on
the coast of England, vpon the 25. of Nouember, so that of all the
companie none escaped but one butcher, who catching hold of the mast,
was driuen with the same to the shore which was at hand, and so saued
from that dangerous shipwracke. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._] Duke William
might also haue escaped verie well, if pitie had not mooued him more
than the regard of his owne preseruation. For being gotten into the
shipboat, and lanching toward the land, he heard the skréeking of his
sister in dredfull danger of drowning, and crieng out for succour;
wherevpon he commanded them that rowed the boat to turne backe to the
ship, and to take hir in. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Matth. Paris._] But
such was the prease of the companie that stroue to leape in with her,
that it streightwaies sanke, so that all those which were alreadie in
the boat were cast awaie.

[Sidenote: Looke in page 39.[12]] ¶ Here (by the way) would be noted the
vnaduised speech of William Rufus to the shipmaister, whom he emboldened
with a vaine and desperat persuasion in tempestuous weather and high
seas to hoise vp sailes; adding (for further encouragement) that he
neuer heard of any king that was drowned. In which words (no doubt) he
sinned presumptuouslie against God, who in due time punished that
offense of his in his posteritie and kinred, euen by the same element,
whose fearsenes he himselfe séemed so little to regard, as if he would
haue commanded the stormes to cease; as we read Christ did in the
gospell by the vertue and power of his word. Here is also to be noted
the variablenes of fortune (as we commonlie call it) or rather the
vncerteine and changeable euent of things, which oftentimes dooth raise
vp (euen in the[13] minds of princes) troblesome thoughts, and gréeuous
passions, to the great empairing of their quietnesse: as here we sée
exemplified in king Henrie, whose mirth was turned into mone, and his
pleasures relished with pangs of pensifenes, contrarie to his
expectation when he was in the midst of his triumph at his returne out
of France into England. So that we see the old adage verified, Miscentur
tristia lætis; and that saieng of an old poet iustified;

    [Sidenote: _Hesiod. in lib. cui tit. opera & dies._]
    "Sæua nouerca dies nunc est, nunc mater amica."

[Sidenote: 1121. An. Reg. 22] But to returne to the historie. King
Henrie being thus depriued of issue to succeed him, did not a little
lament that infortunate chance: but yet to restore that losse, shortlie
after, euen the 10. of Aprill next ensuing, [Sidenote: _Eadmerus._ _Hen.
Hunt._ The king marieth againe.] he maried his second wife named
Adelicia, a ladie of excellent beautie, and noble conditions, daughter
to the duke of Louaine, and descended of the noble dukes of Loraine,
howbeit he could neuer haue any issue by hir. [Sidenote: _Eadmerus._
The pope writeth to king Henrie, in fauour of the archbishop Thurstan, &
accurseth him with the archbishop of Canturburie.] The archbishop
Thurstan (after the manner of obteining suites in the court of Rome)
found such fauour at the hands of pope Calixt, that he directed his
letters as well to king Henrie, as to Rafe archbishop of Canturburie, by
vertue whereof he accursed them both, and interdicted as well the
prouince of Yorke as Canturburie from the vse of all maner of
sacraments: from baptisme of infants, the penance of them that died
onelie excepted: if archbishop Thurstan were not suffered (within one
moneth next after the receipt of those letters) to inioie his see,
without compelling him to make any promise of subiection at all. The
king to be out of trouble, permitted Thurstan to returne into the
realme, and so repaire vnto Yorke; but with condition, that he should
not exercise any iurisdiction out of his owne diocesse as metropolitane,
till he had confessed his obstinat errour, and acknowleged his obedience
to the church of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen make sturres. _Eadmerus._ The king raiseth an
armie to go against the Welshmen.] Whilest these things were thus a
dooing, king Henrie was aduertised, that the Welshmen breaking the
peace, did much hurt on the marshes, & speciallie in Cheshire where they
had burned two castells. Meaning therefore to be reuenged on them to the
vttermost, he assembled an armie out of all parts of his realme, and
entred with the same into Wales. The Welshmen, hearing that the king was
come with such puissance to inuade them, were afraid, and forthwith sent
ambassadours, beséeching him to grant them pardon and peace. [Sidenote:
The Welshmen sue for peace.] The king mooued with their humble
petitions, tooke hostages of them, & remitted them for that time,
considering that in mainteining of warre against such maner of people,
there was more feare of losse than hope of gaine. [Sidenote: More doubt
of losse than hope of gaine, by the warres against the Welshmen.] But
yet to prouide for the quietnes of his subiects which inhabited néere
the marshes, that they shuld not be ouerrun and harried dailie by them
(as oftentimes before they had béene) he appointed Warren earle of
Shrewesburie to haue the charge of the marshes, that peace might be the
better kept and mainteined in the countrie.

[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ A chanell cast from Torksey to Lincolne.] Soone
after king Henrie caused a chanell to be cast along the countrie in
Lincolnshire, from Torksey to the citie of Lincolne, that vessels might
haue passage out of the riuer of Trent vnto the same. [Sidenote: Norham
castell built. _H. Hunt._] Moreouer, Rafe bishop of Durham began to
build the castell of Norham, vpon the bank of the riuer of Twéed.

At this time likewise Foulke Earle of Aniou being now come out of the
holie land (whither he went after the peace was made betwixt king Henrie
and the French king) began to picke a quarrell against king Henrie, for
withholding the iointure of his daughter, who (as before you haue heard)
was married vnto William the kings sonne that was drowned. He also gaue
hir sister in mariage vnto William the sonne of duke Robert, assigning
vnto him the earledome of Maime to enioy in the right of his wife.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] In the meane time, king Henrie visited the north
parts of his realme, to vnderstand the state of the countrie, and to
prouide for the suertie and good gouernement thereof, as was thought

[Sidenote: 1122.] [Sidenote: 13. Kalends of Nouember.] [Sidenote: An.
Reg. 23.] In the yeare next ensuing, the twentith of October, Rafe
archbishop of Canturburie departed this life, after he had ruled that
see the space of 8. yeares, in whose roome succéeded one William
archbishop, who was in number the eight and twentith from Augustine.
Moreouer, Henrie the sonne of earle Blois, who before was abbat of
Glastenburie, was now made bishop of Winchester, a man for his singular
bountie, gentlenesse and modestie greatlie beloued of the English.

But to returne to the affaires of the king. It chanced about this time,
that the parts beyond the sea (being[14] now void of a gouernour (as they
suppose) by meanes of the death of the kings sonne) began to make
commotions. [Sidenote: 1123. An. Reg. 24.] [Sidenote: Robert earle of
Mellent rebelleth. _Hen. Hunt._ The castle of Roan fortified. _Matth.
Paris._] Soone after it came also to passe that Robert earle of Mellent
rebelled against the king, who being spéedilie aduertised thereof,
sailed foorthwith into those quarters, and besieged the castell of
Ponteaudemer perteining to the said earle, and tooke it. About the same
time also the king fortified the castell of Roan, causing a mightie
thick wall with turrets thereabout as a fortification to be made.
Likewise, he repaired the castell of Caen, the castels of Arches,
Gisors, Faleise, Argentone, Damfront, Vernon, Ambres, with others, &
made them strong. [Sidenote: 1124. An. Reg. 25.] [Sidenote: _Polydor._
_H. Hunt._ _Matth. Paris._] In the meane season, the earle of Mellent
(desirous to be reuenged of king Henrie) procured aid where he could,
and so with Hugh earle of Mountfert entred into Normandie, wasting and
destroieng the countrie with fire and sword, thinking yer long to bring
the same to obedience. But the kings chamberlaine and lieutenant in
those parts, named William de Tankeruile, being thereof aduertised, laid
an ambush for them, and training them within the danger thereof, set
vpon them, and after long fight, tooke them twaine prisoners, with
diuers other, and presented them both vnto the king, whereby the warres
ceassed in that countrie for a time.

The king hauing in this maner purchased quietnesse by the sword, gaue
himselfe somewhat to the reformation of his house, and among other
things which he redressed, [Sidenote: Long haire redressed in the court.
_Matth. West._] he caused all his knights and men of warre to cut their
haire short, after the maner of the Frenchmen, whereas before they ware
the same long after the vsage of women.

[Sidenote: 1125. An. Reg. 26.] [Sidenote: Johannes Cremensis a legat
sent into England.] After this also, in the yeare 1125. a cardinall
named Johannes Cremensis was sent into England from pope Honorius the
second, to sée reformation in certeine points touching the church: but
his cheefe errand was to correct preests that still kept their wiues
with them. At his first comming ouer he soiourned in colledges of
cathedrall churches, and in abbeies, addicting himselfe to lucre &
wantonnesse, reaping where he had not sowen. At length, about the feast
of the natiuitie of our ladie, he called a conuocation of the cleargie
at London, where making an oration, he inueihed sore against those of
the spiritualtie that were spotted with any note of incontinencie. Manie
thought themselues touched with his words, who hauing smelled somewhat
of his secret tricks, that whereas he was a most licentious liuer, and
an vnchast person of bodie and mind, vet he was so blinded, that he
could not perceiue the beame in his own eies, whilest he espied a mote
in another mans. Herevpon they grudged, that he should in such wise call
other men to accompts for their honest demeanor of life, which could not
render any good reckoning of his owne: insomuch that they watched him so
narrowlie, that in the euening (after he had blown his horne so lowd
against other men; in declaring that it was a shamefull vice to rise
from the side of a strumpet, and presume to sacrifice the bodie of
Christ) he was taken in bed with a strumpet, to his owne shame and
reproch. [Sidenote: But this shuld not séem to be any iust excuse, for
_M.P._ saith that the same day he consecrated the Lords bodie, &
therefore he must néeds be a préest.] But being reprooued thereof, he
alledged this excuse (as some write) that he was no preest, but a
reformer of preests. Howbeit to conclude, being thus defamed, he got him
backe to Rome againe from whence he came, without any performance of
that whereabout he was sent.

But to returne to king Henrie, who whilest he remained in Normandie
(which was a long time after the apprehension of the two foresaid
earles) vnderstood that his sonne in lawe Henrie the emperour was
departed this life at Utregt, the 23. of Maie last past. [Sidenote:
1126. An. Reg. 27.] Wherevpon he sent for his daughter the empresse to
come ouer vnto him into Normandie, and hauing set his businesse in order
on that side the sea, and taken hir with him, he returned into England
before the feast of S. Michaell, [Sidenote: _Polydor._ An oth taken by
the lords touching the succession of the crowne.] where calling a
parlement, he caused hir by the authoritie of the same to be established
as his lawfull heire and successor, with an article of intaile vpon hir
issue, if it should please God to send hir any at all. At this parlement
was Dauid K. of Scotland, who succéeded Alexander the fierce. Stephan
earle of Morton and Bullongne, and son of Stephan earle of Blois, nephue
to K. Henrie by his sister Adela; these two princes chéefelie tooke
their oth amongst other, to obey the foresaid empresse, as touching hir
right and lawfull claime to the crowne of England. [Sidenote: Stephan
erle of Bullongne the first that offered to receiue the oth.] But
although Stephan was now the first that was to sweare, he became
shortlie after the first that brake that oth for his owne preferment.
¶ Thus it commeth often to passe, that those which receiue the greatest
benefits, doo oftentimes soonest forget to be thankefull.

This Stephan latelie before by his vncle K. Henries meanes, had
purchased & got in marriage the onelie daughter and heire of Eustace
earle of Bullongne, and so after the decease of his father in lawe,
became earle there: and further, had goodlie possessions in England
giuen him by the king, and yet (as farther shall appeare) he kept not
his oth made with K. Henrie. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._] Some write that
there rose no small strife betwixt this earle Stephan, & Robert erle of
Glocester, in contending which of them should first receiue this oth:
the one alledging that he was a kings sonne, and the other affirming
that he was a kings nephue.

[Sidenote: 1127.] Shortlie after this parlement was ended, K. Henrie
held his Christmas at Windsor, where Thurstan archbishop of Yorke (in
preiudice of the right of William archbishop of Canturburie) would haue
set the crowne vpon the kings head, at his going to the church:
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] but he was put backe with no small reproch;
[Sidenote: Strife betwixt the prelates for preheminence.] and his
chapleine (whom he appointed[15] to beare his crosse before him at his
entrance into the kings chappell) was contemptuouslie and violentlie
thrust out of the doores with crosse and all by the fréends of the
archbishop of Canturburie. In short time, this vnseemlie contention
betwixt Thurstan and William the two archbishops grew so hot that not
onelie both of them, but also the bishop of Lincolne went to Rome about
the deciding of their strife.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] In this yeare Charles earle of Flanders, the
successor of earle Baldwin, was traitorouslie murthered of his owne
people: & bicause he left no issue behind him to succéed as his heire,
[Sidenote: William sonne to Robert Curthose made erle of Flanders] Lewes
the French king made William the sonne of duke Robert Curthose earle of
Flanders, as the next cousine in bloud to the same Charles. ¶ Truth it
is, that by his fathers side, this William was descended from erle
Baldwin surnamed Pius, whose daughter Maud being maried vnto William
Conqueror, bare by him the aforesaid Robert Curthose, father to this
William now aduanced to the gouernment of Flanders, but he wanted not
aduersaries that were competitors and malignant sutors for that
earledome, who sought to preferre themselues, and to displace him.

King Henrie misliking the promotion of the said William, although he was
his nephue, for that he supposed he would seeke to reuenge old
displeasures if he might compasse to haue the French kings assistance,
thought good with the aduice of his councell to withstand the worst.
Wherevpon he tooke order for the maintenance of the warre abroad, and
the supplie of souldiers, and other things necessarie to be considered
of for the suretie of his realme.

[Sidenote: The empresse Maud married to the earle of Aniou. _Ger. Dor._]
After this, bicause he was in dispaire to haue issue by his second wife,
about Whitsuntide he sent ouer his daughter Maud the empresse into
Normandie, that she might be married vnto Geffrey Plantagenet earle of
Aniou, and in August after he followed himselfe. Now the matter went so
forward, that the mariage was celebrated betwixt the said earle and
empresse vpon the first sundaie in Aprill, which fell vpon the third of
the moneth, and in the 27. of his reigne.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 28.] [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] [Sidenote: 1128.]
In the yeare ensuing, king Henrie meaning to cause the French king to
withdrawe his helping hand from his nephue William earle of Flanders,
passed foorth of Normandie with an armie, and inuading France, remained
for the space of eight daies at Hipard, in as good quiet as if he had
béene within his owne dominions, and finallie obteined that of the
French king which he sought for; namelie, his refusall to aid his nephue
the said earle of Flanders. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 29.] Who at length
contending with other that claimed the earldome, chanced this yeare to
be wounded, as he pursued his enimies vnto the walls of a towne called
Albust, [Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._] and soone after died of the hurt the 16.
of August.

[Sidenote: William earle of Flanders deceaseth of a wound.] ¶ It was
thought that the great felicitie of king Henrie was the chiefe occasion
of this earles death, who meant (if he might haue brought his purpose to
passe, and be once quietlie set in the dominion of Flanders) to haue
attempted some great enterprise against king Henrie for the recouerie of
Normandie, and deliuerie of his father out of prison. [Sidenote: The
fortunat & good hap of K. Henrie.] Which was knowen well inough to king
Henrie, who mainteined those that made him warre at home, both with men
and monie; [Sidenote: William de Hypres.] namelie, William of Hypres,
who tooke vpon him as regent in the name of Stephan earle of Bullongne,
whome king Henrie procured to make claime to Flanders also, in the title
of his grandmother queene Maud, wife to William Conqueror. But to
procéed with our historie.

[Sidenote: 1129. An. Reg. 30.] When king Henrie had sped his businesse
in Normandie, where he had remained a certeine space, both about the
conclusion and solemnizing of the mariage made betwixt his daughter Maud
the empresse and the earle of Aniou, and also to see the end of the wars
in Flanders, he now returned into England, [Sidenote: 1130. An. Reg.
31.] where he called a great councell or parlement at London, in August:
wherein (amongst other things) it was decreed, [Sidenote: _Matth.
Paris._ _Polydor._ An act against vnchast préests.] that préests, which
liued vnchastlie, should be punished, and that by the kings permission,
who hereby tooke occasion to serue his owne turne: for he regarded not
the reformation which the bishops trusted (by his plaine dealing) would
haue followed, but put those préests to their fines that were accused,
and suffered them to kéepe their wiues still in house with them, which
offended the bishops greatlie, who would haue had them sequestred

After this parlement ended, the king kept his Christmasse at Worcester,
and his Eastermasse following at Woodstocke, where a certeine noble man
named Geffrey Clinton was accused to him of high treason. In this 31.
yeare of king Henries reigne, great death and murren of cattell began in
this land so vniuersallie in all places, that no towne nor village
escaped frée: [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ In nouella historia. _Polydor._]
and long it was before the same discontinued or ceased. King Henrie
passing ouer into Normandie, was troubled with certeine strange dreames
or visitations in his sléepe. For as he thought, he saw a multitude of
ploughmen with such tooles as belong to their trade and occupation;
after whom came a sort of souldiers with warlike weapons: and last of
all, bishops approching towards him with their crosier staues readie to
fall vpon him, as if they meant to kill him. Now when he awaked, he lept
foorth of his bed, got his sword in his hand, & called his seruants to
come & helpe him. Neuerthelesse, repressing those perturbations, and
somewhat better aduising himselfe, partlie by his owne reason and
partlie by the counsell of learned gentlemen, was persuaded to put such
fantasies awaie, and was admonished withall, that whilest he had time
and space here on earth, he should redeeme his passed offenses and
sinnes committed against God, with repentance, almesdéeds, and
abstinence. Wherefore being moued herewith, he began to practise an
amendment of his former lewd life.

¶ Here it shall not be amisse to compare the two sonnes of William the
Conquerour; namelie William Rufus, and Henrie Beauclerke togither; and
to consider among other euents the supernaturall dreames wherewith they
were admonished, to excellent good purpose (no doubt) if they could haue
applied them to the end whereto they were directed. For William Rufus
(as you shall read in pag. 44.[16]) neglecting to be admonished by a
dredfull dreame wherewith he was troubled, shortlie after receiued his
deaths wound by casualtie or chancemedlie, euen in the prime of his
pastime and disport. This other brother H. Beauclerke had the like
warnings by the same meanes, and (to a good effect) as the learned doo
gather. Their rash opinion therefore is much to be checked, which
contemne dreames as meere delusorie, alledging by waie of disproofe an
old erronious verse:
    Somnia ne cures, nam fallunt plurima plures,

Speaking indefinitelie of dreames without distinction: whereas in truth
great valure is in them in respect of their kind and nature. For though
some sort of dreames (as those that be physicall) are not greatlie to be
relied vpon; yet those of the metaphysicall sort hauing a speciall
influence from aboue natures reach, are not lightlie to be ouerslipped.
To determine this matter I remit the studious readers to that excellent
chapter of Peter Martyr, in the first part of his common places, pag.
32. columne 2. where dreames In genere are copiouslie handled.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] About the same time, Maud daughter of this
Henrie, being forsaken of hir husband Geffrey earle of Aniou, came to
hir father then being in Normandie. What the cause was why hir husband
put hir from him, is not certeinlie knowen: but the matter (belike) was
not verie great, sith shortlie after he receiued hir againe, and that of
his owne accord. During the time also king Henrie remained in Normandie,
pope Innocent the 2. came into France, to auoid the danger of his
enimies: [Sidenote: 1131. An. Reg. 32.] and holding a councell at
Cleremont, he accursed one Peter Fitz Leo, who had vsurped as pope, and
named himselfe Anacletus. Afterward at breaking vp of the same counsell
at Cleremont, he came to Orleance, and then to Charters, [Sidenote: King
Henrie and pope Innocent méet at Charters.] meeting king Henrie by the
waie, who offered vnto the pope to mainteine his cause against his
enimies to the vttermost of his power, for the which the pope gaue the
king great thankes: and séemed as though he had beene more carefull for
the defense of the common cause of the christian common-wealth than for
his owne, he exhorted king Henrie to make a iournie into the holie land,
against the Saracens and enimies of the christian religion.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._] In this enteruiew betwixt the pope and the
king, the Romans were mooued to maruell greatlie at the wisedome and
sharpnesse of wit which they perceiued in the Normans. For king Henrie,
to shew what learning remained amongst the people of the west parts of
Europe, [Sidenote: The sons of Robert erle of Melent praised for their
learning.] caused the sonnes of Robert earle of Melent to argue and
dispute in the points and subtill sophismes of Logike, with the
cardinals and other learned chapleins of the pope there present, who
were not ashamed to confesse, that there was more learning amongst them
here in the west parts, than euer they heard or knew of in their owne
countrie of Italy.

[Sidenote: King Henrie returneth into England.] King Henrie after this
returned into England, and vpon the sea was in danger to haue drowned by
tempest: so that iudging the same to be as a warning for him to amend
his life, he made manie vowes, and after his landing went to S.
Edmundsburie in Suffolke to doo his deuotions vnto the sepulchre of that
king. Now at his comming from thence, being well disposed, towards the
reliefe of his people, he lessened the tributes and impositions, and did
iustice aswell in respect and fauour of the poore as of the rich.

[Sidenote: 1132. An. Reg. 33] Not long after, Geffrey earle of Aniou had
a son named Henrie by his wife the empresse, who (as before is said) was
after king of England: for his grandfather king Henrie hauing no issue
male to succeed him, caused the empresse and this Henrie hir sonne to be
established heires of the realme: all the Nobles and other estates
taking an oth to be their true and loiall subiects. [Sidenote: 1133. An.
Reg. 34.] After this king Henrie kept his Christmasse at Dunstable, and
his Easter at Woodstocke. In the same yeare, or (as some haue) in the
beginning of the yeare precedent, or (as other haue) in the yeare
following, king Henrie erected a bishops sée at Carleil, [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._ Prior of L. Oswald as _Wil. Thorne._ hath, and likewise
_Matth. Paris._ and _Matt. Westm._] in which one Arnulfe or rather
Athelwoolfe, who before was abbat of S. Bothoulfs, and the kings
confessor, was the first bishop that was instituted there. This man
immediatelie after his consecration placed regular canons in that

Not long after, or rather before (as by Wil. Malmes. it should séeme)
king Henrie passed ouer into Normandie, from whence (this being the last
time of his going thither) he neuer returned aliue. And as it came to
passe, he tooke ship to saile this last iournie thither, euen the same
daie in which he had afore time receiued the crowne. [Sidenote: An
eclipse[17].] On which daie (felling vpon the Wednesdaie and being the
second of August) a wonderfull and extraordinarie eclipse of the sunne
and moone appeared, in somuch that Wil. Malmes. who then liued, writeth
that he saw the starres plainlie about the sunne at the verie time of
that eclipse. [Sidenote: An earthquake.] On the fridaie after such an
earthquake also happened in this realme, that manie houses and buildings
were ouerthrowne. This earthquake was so sensible, or rather so visible,
that the wall of the house wherein the king then sat was lift vp with a
double remoue, at the third it setled it selfe againe in his due place.
Moreouer at the verie same time also fire burst out of certeine riffes
of the earth in so huge flames, that neither by water nor otherwise it
could be quenched.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Matth. West._] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 35.] In
the 34. yeare of his reigne, his brother Robert Curthose departed this
life in the castell of Cardiff. It is said that on a festiuall daie king
Henrie put on a robe of scarlet, the cape whereof being streict, he rent
it in striuing to put it ouer his head: and perceiuing it would not
serue him, he laid it aside, and said; "Let my brother Robert haue this
robe, who hath a sharper head than I haue." Which when it was brought to
duke Robert, and the rent place not sowed vp, he perceiued it, and asked
whether any man had worne it before. The messenger told the whole matter
how it happened. [Sidenote: The deceasse of Robert Curthose.] Wherewith
duke Robert tooke such a greefe for the scornefull mocke of his brother,
that he waxed wearie of his life, and said: "Now I perceiue I haue liued
too long, that my brother shall cloth me like his almes man with his
cast and rent garments." Thus cursing the time of his natiuitie, he
refused from thencefoorth to eat or drinke, and so pined awaie, and was
buried at Glocester.

King Henrie remaining still in Normandie, rode round about a great part
of the countrie, shewing no small loue and courtesie to the people,
studieng by all meanes possible to win their fauours, and being merie
amongst them. Howbeit nothing reioised him more than that his daughter
Maud the empresse at the same time was deliuered of hir second sonne
named Geffrey, so that he saw himselfe prouided of an assured successor.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] [Sidenote: 1135. An. Reg. 35.] But whilest he
thus passed the time in mirth and solace, he began soone after to be
somewhat diseased, and neuer could perceiue any euident cause thereof.
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _Sim. Dunel._] Wherefore to driue his greefe
away, he went abrode to hunt, and being somewhat amended thereby (as he
thought) at his comming home he would néeds eat of a lampry, though his
physician counselled him to the contrarie: but he delighting most in the
meat (though it be in qualitie verie hurtfull to health) would not be
dissuaded from it, so that his stomach being annoied therewith he fell
immediatelie into an ague, [Sidenote: King Henrie departeth this life.]
and so died shortlie after, on the first day of December being as then
about 67. yeares of age after he had reigned 35. yeres, and foure
moneths lacking foure daies. His bodie was conueied into England, and
buried at Reading within the abbey church which he had founded, and
endowed in his life time with great and large possessions. [Sidenote:
_Matth. West._ _Ran. Higd._ _Sim. Dunel._] It is written, that his
bodie, to auoid the stench which had infected manie men, was closed in a
buls hide, and how he that clensed the head died of the sauour which
issued out of the braine.

¶ Thus we sée that euen princes come to the like end by as base meanes
as other inferiour persons; according to that of the poet:
    [Sidenote: Horat. lib. car. 1. ode. 28.]
    Dant alios furiæ toruo spectacula Marti,
      Exitio est auidis mare nautis:
    Mista senum ac iuuenum densantur funera, nullum
      Sæua caput Proserpina fugit.

And here we haue to note the neglect of the physicians counsell, and
that same ill disposition in diet which the king chose rather to
satisfie, than by restraining it to auoid the danger whereinto he fell.
But this is the preposterous election of vntoward patients, according to
    Nitimur in vetitum semper, cupimúsq; negata.

[Sidenote: The issue of king Henrie the first.] Touching his issue, he
had by his first wife a sonne named William, drowned (as ye haue heard)
in the sea: also a daughter named Maud, whome with hir sonnes he
appointed to inherit his crowne and other dominions. He had issue also
by one of his concubins, euen a sonne named Richard, and a daughter
named Marie, who were both drowned with their brother William. By an
other concubine he had a sonne named Robert, who was created duke of

[Sidenote: His stature.] He was strong of bodie, flehise, and of an
indifferent stature, blacke of haire, and in maner bald before, with
great and large eies, of face comelie, well countenanced, and pleasant
to the beholders, speciallie when he was disposed to mirth.

[Sidenote: His vertues.] He excelled in three vertues, wisedome,
eloquence, and valiancie, which notwithstanding were somewhat blemished
with the like number of vices that reigned in him; [Sidenote: His
vices.] as couetousnesse, crueltie, and fleshlie lust of bodie. His
couetousnesse appeared, in that he sore oppressed his subiects with
tributes and impositions. His crueltie, in that he kept his brother
Robert Curtehose in perpetuall prison, and likewise in the hard vsing of
his cousine Robert earle of Mortaigne, whome he not onelie deteined in
prison, but also caused his eies to be put out: which act was kept
secret till the kings death reuealed it. And his fleshlie lust was
manifest, by kéeping of sundrie women.

[Sidenote: His wisdome.] But in his other affaires he was circumspect,
in defending his owne verie earnest and diligent. Such wars as might be
auoided, with honourable peace he euer sought to appease; [Sidenote: His
manlie courage.] but when such iniuries were offered as he thought not
meet to suffer, he was an impatient reuenger of the same, ouercomming
all perils with the force of vertue and manlie courage, showing himselfe
either a most louing fréend, or an extreame enimie: for he would subdue
his foes to the vttermost, and aduance his fréends aboue measure.

[Sidenote: His zeale to iustice.] With iustice he ruled the commons
quietlie, and enterteined the nobles honorablie. Théeues, counterfeiters
of monie, and other transgressors he caused to be sought out with great
diligence, and when they were found, to be punished with great
seueritie. Neither did he neglect reformations of certeine naughtie
abuses. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ Théeues appointed to be hanged.] And (as
one author hath written) he ordeined that théeues should suffer death by
hanging. When he heard that such peeces of monie as were cracked would
not be receiued amongest the people, although the same were good and
fine siluer, he caused all the coine in the realme to be either broken
or slit. He was sober of diet, vsed to eat rather for the quailing of
hunger, than to pamper himselfe with manie daintie sorts of banketting
dishes. He neuer dranke but when thirst mooued him, he would sléepe
soundlie and snore oftentimes till he awaked therewith. [Sidenote: His
policie.] He pursued his warres rather by policie than by the sword, and
ouercame his enimies so neere as he could without bloudshed, which if it
might not be, yet with as little slaughter as was possible. [Sidenote:
His praise for his princelie government.] To conclude, he was not
inferiour to any of the kings that reigned in those daies, in wisedome
and policie, and so behaued himselfe, that he was honoured of the
Nobles, and beloued of the commons. [Sidenote: Reading abbey builded.]
He builded diuerse abbeies both in England and Normandie, but Reading
was the chéefe. He builded the manour of Woodstocke, with the parke there,
wherein (beside the great store of deere) he appointed diuerse strange
beasts to be kept and nourished, which were brought and sent vnto him
from foreign countries farre distant, as lions, lepards, lynxes, and
porcupines. His estimation was such among outlandish princes, that few
would willinglie offend him.

[Sidenote: Murcherdach K. of Ireland.] Murcherdach king of Ireland & his
successors had him in such reuerence, that they durst doo nothing but
what he commanded, nor write any thing but what might stand with his
pleasure, though at the first the same Morchad attempted something
against the Englishmen more than held with reason, but afterward (vpon
restraint of the entercourse of merchandize) he was glad to shew
himselfe more fréendlie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Orkney.] Moreouer the earle of Orkney, although
he was the king of Norwaies subiect, yet did he what he could to procure
king Henries fréendship, sending such strange beasts and other things to
him oftentimes as presents, wherein he knew the king tooke great delight
and pleasure. [Sidenote: Roger bishop of Salisburie.] He had in singular
fauour aboue all other of his councell, Roger, the bishop of Salisburie,
a politike prelate, and one that knew how to order matters of great
importance, vnto whome he committed the gouernment of the realme most
commonlie whilest he remained in Normandie.

As well in this kings daies, as in the time of his brother William
Rufus, men forgetting their owne sex and state, transformed themselues
into the habit and forme of women, [Sidenote: The abuse of wearing long
haire.] by suffering their haire to grow in length, the which they
curled and trimmed verie curiouslie, after the maner of damosels and
yong gentlewomen: insomuch that they made such account of their long
bushing perukes, that those which would be taken for courtiers,
contended with women who should haue the longest tresses, and such as
wanted, sought to amend it with art, and by knitting wreathes about
their heads of those their long and side locks for a brauerie.
[Sidenote: 1127.] [Sidenote: _Matth. West._] Yet we read that king
Henrie gaue commandment to all his people to cut their haire, about the
28. yeare of his reigne. Preachers indeed inueied against such vnseemlie
maners in men, as a thing more agréeable and seemelie for the contrarie

Wil. Malm. reciteth a tale of a knight in those daies that tooke no
small liking of himselfe for his faire and long haire, who chanced to
haue a verie terrible dreame. For it séemed to him in his sléepe that
one was about to strangle him with his owne haire (which[18] he wrapped
about his throte and necke) the impression whereof sanke so deepelie
into his mind, that when he awaked out of his sléepe, he streightwaies
caused so much of his haire to be cut as might seeme superfluous. A
great number of other in the realme followed his commendable example,
but the remorse of conscience herein that thus caused them to cut their
haire, continued not long, for they fell to the like abuse againe, so as
within a twelue moneths space they excéeded therein as farre beyond all
the bounds of séemelie order as before.

¶ In this Henrie ended the line of the Normans as touching the heires
male, and then came in the Frenchmen by the title of the heires
generall, after that the Normans had reigned about 69. yeares: for so
manie are accounted from the comming of William Conquerour, vnto the
beginning of the reigne of king Stephan, who succéeded the said Henrie.

     Thus farr the succession and regiment of the Normans; namelie,
     William Conquerour the father, William Rufus, and Henrie Beauclerke
     the sonnes.

Transcriber's notes

There are no footnotes in the original. The original spelling and
punctuation have been retained, with the exception of obvious errors
which have been corrected by reference to the 1587 edition of which
the original is a transcription.

[1] Original reads 'Robert de Bélesme'; changed to 'Robert de Belesme'.

[2] Original reads 'conuient'; changed to 'conuenient'.

[3] Original reads 'according to'; changed to '(according to'.

[4] Original reads 'York'; changed to 'Yorke'.

[5] The passage referred to is in the section on William the Conqueror,
    in Anno. Reg. 6. 1073.

[6] The passage referred to is in the section on William the Conqueror,
    in Anno. Reg. 6. 1073.

[7] Original reads 'Constanc'; changed to 'Constances'.

[8] Original reads 'and being'; changed to 'and (being'.

[9] Original reads 'pop'; changed to 'pope'.

[10] Original reads 'emperour to to'; changed to 'emperour to'.

[11] Original reads 'subiets'; changed to 'subiects'.

[12] Original refers to page 69, which is an obvious error for page
     39. The passage referred to is in the section on William Rufus, in
     An. Reg. 12. 1099.

[13] Original reads 'euen in the the'; changed to 'euen in the'.

[14] Original reads 'the sea being'; changed to 'the sea (being'.

[15] Original reads 'appointd'; changed to 'appointed'.

[16] Original refers to page 26. col 2., which is the location in
     the 1587 edition; changed to page 44, which is the correct page
     number in this edition. The passage referred to is in the section
     on William Rufus, in An. Reg. 13. 1100.

[17] Original reads 'eclips'; changed to 'eclipse'.

[18] Original reads 'owne haire, which'; changed to 'owne haire (which'.

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