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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (4 of 12) - Stephan Earle Of Bullongne
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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STEPHAN EARLE OF BULLONGNE.


[Sidenote: 1135 An. Reg. 1.] Stephan earle of Bullongne, the sonne of
Stephan erle of Blois, by his wife Adela, daughter to William
Conquerour, came ouer with all speed after the death of his vncle, and
tooke vpon him the gouernement of the realme of England, partlie through
confidence which he had in the puissance and strength of his brother
Theobald earle of Blois, and partlie by the aid of his brother Henrie
bishop of Winchester and abbat of Glastenburie, although that he with
other of the Nobles had sworne afore to be true vnto the empresse and
hir issue as lawfull heires of king Henrie latelie deceased.

[Sidenote: A tempest. _Matth. West._] The same daie that he arriued in
England, there chanced a mightie great tempest of thunder, horrible to
heare, and lightning dreadfull to behold. Now bicause this happened in
the winter time, it séemed against nature, and therefore it was the more
noted as a foreshewing of some trouble and calamitie to come.

This Stephan began his reigne ouer the realme of England the second day
of December, in the yere of our Lord 1135. in the eleuenth yeare of the
emperour Lothair, the sixt of pope Innocentius the second, and about the
xxvii. of Lewes the seuenth, surnamed Crassus king of France, Dauid the
first of that name then reigning in Scotland, & entring into the twelfe
of his regiment. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Wil. Mal._ _Simon Dun._] He
was crowned at Westminster vpon S. Stephans day, by William archbishop
of Canturburie, the most part of the Nobles of the realme being present,
and swearing fealtie vnto him, as to their true and lawfull souereigne.

Howbeit, there were diuerse of the wiser sort of all estates, which
regarding their former oth, could haue béene contented that the empresse
should haue gouerned till hir sonne had come to lawfull age;
notwithstanding they held their peace as yet, and consented vnto
Stephan. [Sidenote: Periurie punished.] But this breach of their othes
was worthilie punished afterward, insomuch that as well the bishops as
the other Nobles either died an euill death, or were afflicted with
diuerse kinds of calamities and mischances, and that euen here in this
life, of which some of them as occasion serueth shall be remembred
hereafter. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ The bishop of Salisburies
protestation.] Yet there were of them (and namelie the bishop of
Salisburie) which protested that they were frée from their oth of
allegiance made to the said empresse, bicause that without the consent
of the lords of the land she was maried out of the realme, whereas they
tooke their oth to receiue hir for queene, vpon that condition, that
without their assent she should not marrie with any person out of the
realme.

[Sidenote: The bishops think to please God in breaking their oth.]
Moreouer (as some writers thinke) the bishops tooke it, that they should
doo God good seruice in prouiding for the wealth of the realme, and the
aduancement of the church by their periurie. For whereas the late
deceassed king vsed himselfe not altogither for their purpose, they
thought that if they might set vp and creat a king chéeflie by their
especiall meanes and authoritie, he would follow their counsell better,
and reforme such things as they iudged to be amisse. But a great cause
that mooued manie of the lords vnto the violating thus of their oth,
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Hugh Bigot.] was (as some authors rehearse)
for that Hugh Bigot, sometime steward to king Henrie the first,
immediatlie after the decease of king Henrie, came into England, and as
well before the archbishop of Canturburie, as diuers other lords of the
land, tooke a voluntarie oth (although most men thinke that he was hired
so to doo bicause of great promotion) declaring vpon the same that he
was present a little before king Henries death, when the same king
adopted and chose his nepheue Stephan to be his heire and successour,
bicause his daughter, the empresse had gréeuouslie displeased him. But
vnto this mans oth the archbishop and the other lords were so hastie in
giuing of credit. Now the said Hugh for his periurie, by the iust
iudgment of God, came shortlie after to a miserable end.

[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._] [Sidenote: 1136.] [Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Simon
Dun._ _Matth. Paris._] But to our purpose. King Stephan (by what title
soeuer he obteined the crowne) immediatlie after his coronation, went
first to Reading to the buriall of the bodie of his vncle Henrie, the
same being now brought ouer from Normandie, from whence after the
buriall he repaired to Oxenford, and there calling a councell of the
lords & other estates of his realme; [Sidenote: The faire promises of
king Stephan.] amongst other things he promised before the whole
assemblie (to win the harts of the people) that he would put downe and
quite abolish that tribute which oftentimes was accustomed to be
gathered after the rate of their acres of hides or land, commonlie
called Danegilt, which was two shillings of euerie hide of land. Also,
that he would so prouide, that no bishop sees nor other benefices should
remaine void, but immediatlie after vpon their first vacation, they
should be againe bestowed vpon some conuenient person meet to supplie
the roome. Further he promised not to seize vpon any mans woods as
forfeit, though any priuate man had hunted and killed his déere in the
same woods, as the maner of his predecessour was. ¶ For a kind of
forfeiture was deuised by king Henrie, that those should lose their
right inheritance in their woods, that chanced to kill any of the kings
déere within the same.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Ran. Higd._ Licence to build castels.] Moreouer,
he granted licence to all men, to build either castell, tower, or other
hold for defense of themselues vpon their owne grounds. Al this did he
chieflie in hope that the same might be a safegard for him in time to
come, if the empresse should inuade the land, as he doubted she shortlie
would. Moreouer he aduanced manie yoong & lustie gentlemen to great
liuings. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ In nouella historia.] For such as were
of any noble familie, and thereto through a certeine stoutnesse of
stomach sought preferment, easilie obteined of him the possession of
castels and great lordships, diuerse of whom he honored with titles of
dignitie, creating some of them earles and some lords. Now, such was
their importunate sute in demanding, that when he had little more to
bestow amongst them, hauing[1] alreadie giuen sundrie portions that
belonged to the crowne, they ceassed not to be in hand with him for
more, and being denied with reasonable excuses on his behalfe, they
thought themselues ill dealt withall, and so turning from him, fortified
their castels and holds, making open warre against him: as hereafter
shall appeare.

[Sidenote: The resort of strangers to serue king Stephan.] There came
ouer vnto him also a great number of Flemings and Britons to serue him
as souldiers, whom he reteined, to be the stronger and better able to
defend himselfe against the malice of the empresse, by whom he looked to
be molested he wist not how soone. Wherefore he shewed himselfe verie
liberall, courteous, and gentle towards all maner of persons at the
first, and (to saie truth) more liberall, familiar, and free harted than
stood with the maiestie of a king: which was afterward a cause that he
grew into contempt. ¶ But to such meanes are princes driuen, that
atteine to their estates more through fauour and support of others, than
by any good right or title which they may pretend of themselues. Thus
the gouernement of this prince at the beginning was nothing bitter or
heauie to his subiects, but full of gentlenesse, lenitie, courtesie, and
mildnes.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] Howbeit whilest these things were a dooing,
certeine of the English Nobilitie, abhorring both the king and the
present state of his gouernment, went priuilie out of the realme into
Scotland to king Dauid, declaring vnto him what a detestable act was
committed by the lords of England, in that (contrarie to their oth made
vnto the empresse Maud, and hir issue) they had now crowned Stephan.
Wherefore they besought the said king to take in hand to reuenge such a
vile iniurie practised against hir, and to restore the kingdome vnto the
said empresse, which if he did, it should be a thing most acceptable
both to God and man.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots inuadeth the English marshes. _Sim. Dunel._
_Matt. Paris._ _Polydor._] King Dauid hauing heard and well weied the
effect of their request, foorthwith was so mooued at their words, that
in all possible hast he assembled an armie, and entring into England,
first tooke the citie and castell of Carleil: afterward comming into
Northumberland, he tooke Newcastell and manie other places vpon the
borders there. Whereof king Stephan being aduertised, streightwaies
assembled a power, and foorthwith hasted into Cumberland, meaning to
recouer that againe by force of armes, which the enimie had stolen from
him by craft and subtiltie. [Sidenote: K. Stephan encamped néere to his
enimie the K. of Scots.] At his approch néere to Carleil, he pitched
downe his field in the euening, thinking there to staie till the
morning, that he might vnderstand of what power the enimie was, whome he
knew to be at hand.

King Dauid also was of a fierce courage, and redie inough to haue giuen
him battell, but yet when he beheld the English standards in the field,
and diligentlie viewed their order and behauiour, [Sidenote: An accord
made betwixt the two kings Stephan and Dauid.] he was at the last
contented to giue care to such as intreated for peace on both sides.
Wherevpon comming to king Stephan, he entred a fréendlie peace with him,
wherein he made a surrender of Newcastell, with condition that he should
reteine Cumberland by the frée grant of king Stephan, who hoped thereby
to find king Dauid the more faithfull vnto him in time of need: but yet
he was deceiued, as afterwards manifestlie appéered. For when king
Stephan required of him an oth of allegiance, he answered that he was
once sworne alreadie vnto Maud the empresse. Howbeit to[2] gratifie him,
he commanded his son Henrie to receiue that oth, for the which the king
gaue him the earledome of Huntington to hold of him for euer.

[Sidenote: _Hec. Boetius._] ¶ The Scotish chronicles set out the matter
in other order, but yet all agrée that Henrie sweare fealtie to king
Stephan, as in the said historie of Scotland you may sée more at large.
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Matth. Paris._ _Simon Dun._ King Stephan
sicke.] Now after that king Stephan had concluded a peace with king
Dauid, he returned to London, and there kept his Easter with great ioy
and triumphes: who whilest he was yet in the middest of all his pastime,
about Rogation wéeke, he chanced to fall sicke of a litargie, by reason
whereof a rumor was spred ouer all the realme that he was dead. Which
though it was but a vaine tale, and of no importance at the first, yet
was it after the occasion of much euill. [Sidenote: False rumors what
hurt they oftentimes doo.] For vpon that report great sedition was
raised by the kings enimies amongst the people, the minds of his fréends
were alienated from him, & manie of the Normans (which were well
practised in periuries & treasons) thought they might boldlie attempt
all mischéefes that came to hand, and hervpon some of them vndertooke to
defend one place, and some another. [Sidenote: Hugh Bigot. Baldwin
Reduers. Robert Quisquere.] Hugh Bigot erle of Norfolke a valiant
chieftein entered into Norwhich, Baldwin Reduers tooke Excester, &
Robert Quisquere got certeine castels also into his hands.

King Stephan hearing what his enimies had doone, though he was somewhat
mooued with this alteration of things, yet as one nothing afraid of the
matter, he said merilie to those that stood about him: "We are aliue yet
God be thanked, and that shall be knowne to our enimies yer it be long."
Neither doubted he any thing but some secret practise of treason, and
therefore vsing all diligence, he made the more hast to go against his
enimies, whose attempts though streightwaies for the more part he
repressed, yet could he not recouer the places (without much adoo) that,
they had gotten, as Excester, and others: which when he had obteined, he
contented himselfe for a time and followed not the victorie any further
in pursuing of his enemies. Wherevpon they became more bold afterward
than before; in somuch that soone after they practised diuerse things
against him, whereof (God willing) some in places conuenient shall
appeare: howbeit they permitted him to remaine in quiet for a time.
[Sidenote: _Polydor._] But whilest he studied to take order in things at
home (perceiuing how no small number of his subiects did dailie shew
themselues to beare him no hartie good will) he began by little and
little to take awaie those liberties from the people, which in the
beginning of his reigne he had granted vnto them, and to denie those
promises which he had made, according to the saieng, "That which I haue
giuen, I would I had not giuen, and that which remaineth I will kéepe
still." This sudden alteration and new kind of rough dealing purchased
him great enuie amongst all men in the end. [Sidenote: Geffrey earle of
Aniou.] About the same time, great commotions were raised in Normandie
by meanes of the lord Geffrey earle of Aniou, husband to Maud the
empresse, setting the whole countrie in trouble: but yer any newes
thereof came into England, king Stephan went against Baldwin Reduers,
who being latelie (though not without great and long siege expelled out
of Excester) got him into the Isle of Wight, [Sidenote: _Simon Dunel._
_Wil. Paruus._ _Polydor._] and there began to deuise a new conspiracie.
Howbeit the king comming suddenlie into the Isle, tooke it at the first
assault, and exiled Baldwin out of the realme.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2. 1137] [Sidenote: K. Stephan passeth into
Normandie.] Having thus with good successe finished this enterprise, and
being now aduertised of the businesse in Normandie, he sailed thither
with a great armie: and being come within two daies iournie of his
enimie the earle of Aniou, he sent foorth his whole power of horssemen,
diuided into three parts, which were not gone past a daies iournie
forward, but they encountred the earle, finding him with no great force
about him. [Sidenote: The earle of Aniou put to flight.] Wherevpon
giuing the charge vpon him, they put him to flight, and slue manie of
his people. Which enterprise in this maner valientlie atchiued, euen
according to the mind of king Stephan, [Sidenote: Lewes king of France.
Eustace son to king Stephan.] he ioined in freendship with Lewes the
seuenth king of France: and hauing latelie created his sonne Eustace
duke of Normandie, he presentlie appointed him to doo his homage vnto
the said Lewes for the same.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Theobald erle of Blois.] Now whereas his
elder brother Theobald earle of Blois at that time in Normandie, found
himselfe greeued, that Stephan the yoonger brother had vsurped the lands
that belonged to their vncle king Henrie, rather than himselfe, Stephan
to stop this iust complaint of his brother, [Sidenote: K. Stephan
agréeth with the earle of Aniou.] and to allaie his mood, agréed with
him, couenanting to paie him yearelie two thousand marks of such current
monie as was then in vse. Furthermore, wheras Geffrey the earle of Aniou
demanded in right of his wife the empresse, the whole kingdome of
England, to be at an end with him, king Stephan was contented to
satisfie him with a yearelie pension of fiue thousand marks, which
composition he willinglie receiued.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] Thus when he had prouided for the suertie of
Normandie, he returned againe into England, where he was no sooner
arriued, but aduertisement was giuen him of a warre newlie begon with
the Scots, whose king vnder a colour of obseruing the oth to the
empresse, [Sidenote: The Scots inuade the English borders.] made dailie
insurrections and inuasions into England, to the great disturbance of
king Stephan and the annoiance of his people. Wherwith being somewhat
mooued, he went streightwaies toward the north parts, and determined
first to besiege Bedford by the waie, which apperteined to the earledome
of Huntington, by gift made vnto Henrie the sonne of king Dauid, and
therevpon at that present kept with a garison of Scotish men.

[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._.] This place did the king besiege by the space
of 30. daies togither, giuing thereto euerie daie an assault or alarme,
in somuch that cōming thither on Christmasse daie, he spared not on the
morow to assaile them, and so at length wan the towne from them by méere
force and strength. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 3. 1138.] [Sidenote: King Dauid
inuaded Northumberland. _Matth. West._ _Polydor._ _Matt. Paris._ _Simon
Dun._] King Dauid hearing those newes, and being alreadie in armour in
the field, entered into Northumberland, and licensed his men of warre to
spoile and rob the countrie thereabout at their pleasure. Herevpon
followed such crueltie, that their rage stretched vnto old and yoong,
vnto preest and clearke, yea women with child escaped not their hands,
they hanged, headed, and slue all that came in their waie: houses were
burnt, cattell driuen awaie, and all put to fire and sword that serued
to any vse for reléefe, either of man or beast.

¶ Here we see what a band of calamities doo accompanie and waite vpon
warre, wherein also we haue to consider what a traine of felicities doo
attend vpon peace, by an equall comparing of which twaine togither, we
may easilie perceiue in how heauenlie an estate those people be that
liue vnder the scepter of tranquillitie, and contrariwise what a hellish
course of life they lead that haue sworne their seruice to the sword. We
may consider also the inordinat outrages of princes, & their frantike
fiersenes, who esteeme not the losse of their subiects liues, the
effusion of innocent bloud, the population of countries, the ruinating
of ample regions, &c.: so their will may be satisfied, there desire
serued. [Sidenote: M. Pal. in suo Capric.] And therefore it was aptlie
spoken by a late poet, not beside this purpose:
    Reges atque duces dira impelluntur in arma,
    Imperiúmque sibi miserorum cæde lucrantur.
    O cæci, ô miseri, quid? bellum pace putatis
    Dignius aut melius? nempe hôc nil terpius, & nil
    Quod magis humanâ procul à ratione recedat.
    [Sidenote: _Ouid._]
      Candida pax homines, trux decet ira feras.

[Sidenote: K. Stephan maketh hast to rescue the north parts.] But to our
storie. King Stephan hearing of this pitifull spoile, hasted forward
with great iournies to the rescue of the countrie. [Sidenote: The Scots
retire.] The Scots put in feare of spéedie comming to encounter them,
drew backe into Scotland: [Sidenote: K. Stephan burnt the south parts of
Scotland.] but he pursued them, and entring into their countrie burned
and destroied the south parts of that realme in most miserable maner.
Whilest king Stephan was thus about to beat backe the forren enimies,
and reuenge himselfe on them, he was assailed by other at home, & not
without the iust vengeance of almightie God, who meant to punish him for
his periurie committed in taking vpon him the crowne, contrarie to his
oth made vnto the empresse and hir children. [Sidenote: Robert earle of
Glocester.] For Robert erle of Glocester, base brother vnto the
empresse, and of hir priuie councell, sought by all meanes how to bring
king Stephan into hatred, both of the Nobles and commons, that by their
helpe he might be expelled the realme, and the gouernment restored to
the empresse and hir sonne.

Such earnest trauell was made by this earle of Glocester, that manie of
his freends which fauoured his cause, now that king Stephan was occupied
in the north parts, ioined with him in conspiracie against their
souereigne. [Sidenote: Bristow taken.] First the said earle himselfe
tooke Bristowe; and after this diuerse other townes and castels there in
that countrie were taken by him and others, with full purpose to kéepe
the same to the behoofe of the empresse and hir sonne. [Sidenote: _Sim.
Dun._ Talbot.] Amongst other William Talbot tooke vpon him to defend
Hereford in Wales: [Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._ Louell. Painell. Fitz-John.
Fitz-Alain.] William Louell held the castell of Gary: Paganell or
Painell kept the castell of Ludlow: William de Moun the castell of
Dunestor: Robert de Nicholl, the castle of Warram: Eustace Fitz-John,
the castle of Walton; and William Fitz-Alain, the castle of
Shrewesburie.

When word hereof came to king Stephan, he was maruellouslie vexed: for
being determined to haue pursued the Scots euen to the vttermost limits
of their countrie, he was now driuen to change his mind, and thought it
good at the first to stop the proceedings of his enimies at home, least
in giuing them space to increase their force, they might in processe of
time growe so strong, that it would be an hard matter to resist them at
the last. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Matth. Paris._ The castle of Douer
deliuered to the quéene. _Polydor._] Herevpon therefore he returned
southward, and comming vpon his enimies, recouered out of their hands
diuers of those places which they held, as Hereford, and the castle of
Shrewesburie. About the same time one Walkeline yéelded the castle of
Douer vnto the quéene, who had besieged him within the same.

Now king Stephan knowing that the Scots were not like long to continue
in quiet, returned northwards againe; [Sidenote: Thurstan archbishop of
Yorke made lieutenant of the north ports.] and comming to Thurstan the
archbishop of Yorke, he committed the kéeping of the countrie vnto his
charge, commanding him to be in a redinesse to defend the borders vpon
any sudden inuasion. Which thing the couragious archbishop willinglie
vndertooke. By this meanes king Stephan being eased of a great part of
his care, fell in hand to besiege the residue of those places which the
rebels kept: but they fearing to abide the danger of an assault, fled
away, some into one part, and some into another; whom the kings power of
horssemen still pursuing and ouertaking by the way, slue, and tooke no
small number of them prisoners in the chase. Thus was the victorie in
maner wholie atchiued, and all those places recouered, which the enimies
had fortified.

[Sidenote: The Scots eftsoones inuade Northumberland.] In like maner
when king Dauid heard that the king was thus vexed with ciuill warre at
home, he entred England againe in most forceable wise: and sending his
horssemen abroad into the countrie, commanded them to waste and spoile
the same after their accustomed maner. But in the meane time he purposed
with himselfe to besiege Yorke: which citie if he might haue woone, he
determined to haue made it the frontier hold against king Stephan, and
the rest that tooke part with him. Herevpon calling in his horssemen
from straieng further abroad, he marched thitherwards, and comming neere
to the citie, pitched downe his tents.

[Sidenote: Archbishop Thurstan raiseth a power to fight with the Scots.]
In this meane while the archbishop Thurstan, to whom the charge of
defending the countrie cheefelie in the kings absence apperteined,
called togither the Nobles and gentlemen of the shire and parties
adioining, whom with so pithie and effectuall words he exhorted to
resist the attempts of the Scots (whose cruell dooings could kéepe no
measure) that incontinentlie all the power of the northparts was raised,
[Sidenote: _Sim. Dunel._ Capteines of the armie.] and (vnder the leading
of William earle of Albermarle, Walter Espeke, William Peuerell of
Nottingham, and two of the Lacies, Walter and Gilbert) offered euen with
perill of life and limme to trie the matter against the Scots in a pight
field, and either to driue them out of the countrie, or else to loose
their liues in the quarel of their prince.

It chanced at this time, that archbishop Thurstan was sicke, and
therefore could not come into the field himselfe, [Sidenote: Rafe bish.
of Durham supplieth the roome of the archbishop.] but yet he sent Rafe
bishop of Durham to supplie his roome, who though he saw and perceiued
that euerie man was readie enough to encounter with their enimies; yet
he thought good to vse some exhortation vnto them the better to
encourage them, in maner as here ensueth.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Sim. Dun._] "Most noble Englishmen, and ye
right valient Normans, of whose courage the Frenchman is afraid, by you
England is kept vnder, by you Apulia dooth flourish, and vnto you
Jerusalem and Antioch haue yéelded their subjection. We haue at this
present the rebellious nation of Scotland (which of right ought to be
subiect to the crowne of England) come into the field against vs,
thinking for euermore to rid themselues of their submission, and to
bring both vs and our countrie into their bondage and thraldome. Now
albeit I see in you courage sufficient, to beat them backe from any
further attempt; yet least when you shall come to the triall, by any
manner of chance, you should loose any péece thereof, I lamenting the
state of my countrie (whose gréeuances I wish you should redresse) doo
meane to vse a few words vnto you, not for that I would exhort you to
doo any man wrong, but rather to beat them backe which offer to doo you
iniurie. Consider therefore that you shall here fight with that enimie,
whom you haue oftentimes vanquished, and oftentimes offending in
periurie, haue oftentimes most worthilie punished: whome also (to be
bréefe) raging after the maner of cruell robbers, wickedlie spoiling
churches, and taking awaie our goods, you did latelie constreine to
lurke in desert places and corners out of sight. Against this enimie (I
say) therefore worthie of reuengement for his so manifold outrages, shew
yourselues valiant, and with manlie stomaches driue him out of our
confines. For as far as I can perceiue, the victorie is yours, God
surelie will aid you, who cannot longer abide the sinnes of this people.
Wherefore he that looseth his life in so iust a quarell (according to
the saieng of our sauiour) shall find it. Let not their rash and
presumptuous boldnesse make you afraid, sith so manie tokens of your
approoued valiancie cannot cause them to stand in doubt of you. You are
clad in armour, and so appointed with helmet, curase, greiues, and
target, that the enimie knoweth not were to strike and hurt you. Then
sith you shall haue to doo with naked men, and such as vse not to weare
any armour at all, but more méet for brablers and ale-house quarrellers
than men of warre vsed to the field: what should you stand in doubt of?
Their huge number is not able to stand against your skilfull order and
practised knowledge in all warlike feats and martiall discipline. A rude
multitude is but a let, rather than a furtherance to atchiue the
victorie. A small number of your worthie elders haue oftentimes
vanquished great multitudes of enimies." As the bishop was thus speaking
to the English armie, and before he grew to an end of his exhortation,
the Scots approched with their battels, & first certeine of their bands
of horssemen were sent afore, to take the higher ground: [Sidenote: The
Englishmen set vpon the Scots.] which when the Englishmen perceiued,
they staied not till the enimies should begin the battell, but
straightwaies caused their trumpets to sound, and so giue the onset.

The Scots were as readie to encounter with them, so that the battell
began to be verie hot, and euen at the first out flew the arrows, and
then the footmen ioined, who fought most fiercelie on both sides.
[Sidenote: The Scots of Lodian disorder the Englishmen. _Simon Dun._
_Matth. Paris._] Herewith a wing of them of Lodian, which were in the
Scotish vauntgard, brake in vpon the vauntgard of the English: but yet
closing togither againe, they kept out the enimies, and casting about
with a wing, compassed the Scotish horssemen round about, and panching
their horsses, they slue a great number, and constreined the residue to
retire. Which thing when their felowes in the other wing saw, their
hearts began to faint, and by and by betooke them to their heeles.

The rumor of this flight being notified to the maine battell of the
Scotish men, where king Dauid himselfe was fighting with his enimies,
discomfited them also, in such wise, [Sidenote: The Scots put to
flight.] that they in like began to shrinke backe: first by parts, and
after by heapes togither. The king did what he could to staie them: but
the English pressed so vpon them, that there was no recouerie. Wherefore
he himselfe was glad in the end to beare his men companie, in séeking to
saue himselfe by flight, and make such shift as he could amongst the
residue.

[Sidenote: Henrie earle of Huntington his valiancie.] His sonne Henrie
the earle of Huntington more regarding his honour, than the danger of
life, neither mooued with the flight of his father, nor the ouerthrow of
the other, came in amongst his men, being readie to turne their backes,
and with bold countenance spake these or the like words vnto them, as
the shortnesse of the time would permit. "Whither go you good fellowes?
Here shall you find armour and force, neither shall you, whilest life
remaineth in your capteine (whom ye ought to follow) depart without the
victorie. Therefore choose whether yee had rather trie the matter with
the enimies by battell, or to be put to a shamefull death at home after
your returns thither." The Scots mooued with these vehement words of
their valiant capteine, recoiled vpon their enimies, and began to make
hauocke of them: but being no great number, and beset with the English
footmen before, and the horssemen behind, they were shortlie brought to
distresse, and for the more part either taken or slaine.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Hen. Hunt._ The number. _Simon Dun._ _Matth.
Paris._ _Wil. Paru._ _Polydor._] At length earle Henrie perceiuing how
the matter went, and that there was no hope left of recouerie, fled also
with those that could escape, bitterlie cursing the frowardnesse of
fortune, and mishap of that daies chance. The number of them that were
killed at this battell was aboue ten thousand. In which number there
were not manie of the English: but yet among other, Walter Lacie the
brother of Gilbert Lacie, one of their cheefe capteines is remembered to
be one. This battell was fought in the moneth of August, in the fourth
of king Stephan, who hearing of this victorie, greatlie reioised, and
gaue infinite commendations to his subiects (the Englishmen and the
Normans) but principallie praised archbishop Thurstan and the bishop of
Durham for their faithfull and diligent seruice shewed in this behalfe.

On the other side he himselfe vsing the like good successe amongst the
rebels at home, ouercame them, and chased them out of the land.
[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ Castels recouered by king Stephan.] For in this
meane time he had taken the castels of Hereford, Glocester, Webbeley,
Bristowe, Dudley, and Shrewesburie. Likewise Robert earle of Glocester
not being able to resist the king thus preuailing against his
aduersaries on ech hand, fled into France vnto his sister the empresse.
[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Simon Dun._ _Matth. Paris._] After this, about
Aduent, the popes legat one Alberike bishop of Hostia, held a synod at
London, within Paules church, where by the kings consent, [Sidenote:
Theobald archbishop of Canturburie.] Theobald abbat of Bechellouin was
consecrated archbishop of Canturburie, being the 37. archbishop which
had ruled that see, after Augustine the moonke.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5. 1140.] The king hauing now accomplished his
purpose, taken the castell of Leides, and brought the state of the
realme to a meetlie good staie, thought it expedient after the late
ouerthrow giuen to the Scots, to pursue the victorie, and vtterlie to
subdue them with all expedition. [Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Matth. Paris._
K. Stephan inuadeth Scotland.] He brought his armie therefore into
Scotland, first wasting and spoiling the countrie, and afterward
preparing to fight with such Scots as came foorth to defend their goods
and houses. K. Dauid perceiuing himselfe to be too weake, made sute to
the king for peace, which with much difficultie he obteined at length,
[Sidenote: A peace concluded betwéene the two kings of England and
Scotland.] by deliuering his sonne Henrie vnto king Stephan in pledge
for the sure performance of couenants concluded vpon betwixt them.
Herevpon king Stephan hauing thus ended his businesse in Scotland,
returned into England: and after directing his iornie towards Wales, he
came to Ludlow: [Sidenote: Ludlow wun.] which towne (being held by his
aduersaries) he wan yer long out of their hands.

After this he went to Oxenford, where whilest he remained, a great brute
was spred abroad, that the empresse was comming with hir brother, the
earle of Glocester: which caused him to put the lesse trust in his
people from thenceforth, in so much that he began to repent himselfe
(although too late) for that he, had granted licence to so manie of his
subiects to build castels within their owne grounds. [Sidenote: Roger
bishop of Salisburie. Alexander B. of Lincolne. _Wil. Malm._] For he had
them all in suspicion: and amongst other, he vehementlie suspected Roger
bishop of Salisburie (who had doone verie much for him) and Alexander
bishop of Lincolne nephue to the said bishop of Salisburie, or (as some
thought) more néere to him in kindred than his nephue, I meane, his
sonne. [Sidenote: Castels built by the bishop of Salisburie.] For the
said Roger had builded diuerse castels, as at Shierborne, at the Uies,
and at Malmesburie. The said Alexander likewise following his vncles
example, bestowed his monie that way verie fréelie, hauing builded one
castell at Newarke, and another at Sléeford.

[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ Newarke castel built by the bishop of Lincolne.]
The king therefore hauing committed both these bishops to prison,
[Sidenote: The B. of Elie banished.] and furthermore sent Nigell or
Neill the bishop of Elie into exile (which Nigell was nephue also to the
foresaid bishop of Salisburie) he threatened to keepe them without
either meate or drinke, if they would not cause these castels to be
deliuered into his hands, whereby he obteined them, and moreouer found
in the bishop of Salisburies cofers 40. thousand marks, which he tooke
to his owne vse, by way of confiscation for his disloiall demeanor.
[Sidenote: The bishop of Salisburie dieth of thought. _Wil. Malm._ In
nouella historia.] This ingratitude of the king wounded the bishops
hart, insomuch that taking thought for the losse of his houses and
monie, he pined awaie, and died within a while after.

The quarrell which was first picked at these bishops, rose by occasion
of a fraie betwixt the bishops men and the seruants of Alaine duke of
Britaine, about the taking vp of Innes at their comming to Oxenford. In
which fraie one of the dukes men was killed, his nephue almost slaine,
and the residue of his folkes sore beaten and chased. Herevpon were the
bishops first committed to ward, and afterward handled at the kings
pleasure, as partlie ye haue heard.

[Sidenote: Fortunes inconstancie. _Wil. Paru._] ¶ Héere by the way, good
reader, thou hast one example worthie to be marked of fickle fortunes
inconstancie, whereof the poet speaketh verie excellentlie;
    [Sidenote: M. Pal. in suo scor.]
    ---- variat semper fortuna tenorem,
    Diuerso gaudens mortalia voluere casu,
    Nam qui scire velit, cur hunc fortuna vel illum
    Aut premat aut sursum tollat, nimis ardua quærit:
    Terrarum sequidem est illi concessa potestas
    Maxima, & huic illam præfecit Iuppiter orbi.

For this Roger bishop of Salisburie, was in the daies of William Rufus a
poore préest, seruing a cure in a village néere the citie of Caen in
Normandie. Now it chanced, that the lord Henrie the kings brother came
thither on a time, and called for a préest to say masse before him.
Whervpon this Roger comming to the altar, was by and by readie and
quicke at it, and therewithall had so speedilie made an end thereof,
that the men of warre then attendant on the said lord Henrie, affirmed
that this préest aboue all other, was a chapleine meet to say masse
before men of warre, bicause he had made an end when manie thought he
had but newlie begun. Herevpon the kings brother commanded the preest to
follow him, insomuch that when oportunitie serued, for his diligent
seruice, and readie dispatch of matters, when Henrie had atteined the
crowne, he was by him aduanced to great promotions: [Sidenote: The
bishop of Salisburie made lord chancelour.] as first to be Chancelour of
England, & after bishop of Salisburie, growing still into such
estimation, that he might doo more with the king than any other of the
councell.

But to returne to king Stephan, who after he had thus imprisoned the
aforesaid bishops, manned those castles which he tooke from them with
his owne soldiers, in like maner as he had doone all the rest which he
had taken from the rebels, that he might the better withstand the
empresse and hir sonne, whose comming he euer feared. He began also to
shew himselfe cruell towards all men, and namelie against those that had
chieflie furthered his title to the obteining of the crowne. ¶ This (as
manie tooke it) came to passe by the prouidence of almightie God, that
those should suffer for their periuries, which contrarie to law and
right had consented to crowne him king.

[Sidenote: K. Stephan doubts whom to trust.] In déed he wist not well
whom he might trust, for he stood in doubt of all men, bicause he was
aduertised by credible report, that the empresse sought for aid on all
sides, meaning verie shortlie to come into England. For this cause also
he thought good to procure the fréendship of Lewes king of France, which
he brought to passe, [Sidenote: He cōtracteth affinitie with the French
king.] by concluding a mariage betwéene his sonne Eustace and the ladie
Constance sister to the said Lewes. But within a few yeares after, this
Eustace died, and then was Constance maried to Raimond earle of
Tholouse.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Polydor._ _Matth. Paris._ Alberike de Uéer
pleadeth the kings cause.] In the meane time, namelie on the first daie
of September, a councell was holden at Winchester, wherein earle
Alberike de Ueer pleaded with great eloquence the kings case, in excuse
of his fault for imprisoning the bishops, which was sore laid to his
charge by his owne brother the bishop of Winchester, being also the
popes legat: who (togither with the archbishop of Canturburie and other
bishops) had called this councell for that purpose. Howbeit they got
nothing of the king but faire words, and promises of amendment in that
which had béene doone otherwise than equitie required which promises
were vtterlie vnperformed, and so the councell brake vp.

[Sidenote: The empresse landed here in England.] In the moneth of Iulie
the empresse Maud landed here in England at Portesmouth, & went strait
to Arundell, which towne (togither with the countie of Sussex) hir
mother in law Adelicia king Henries second wife, wedded to William de
Albenay, held in right of assignation for hir dower. There came in with
the empresse hir brother Robert and Hugh Bigot, of whom ye haue heard
before.

[Sidenote: What power she brought with hir.] Some write that the
empresse brought with hir a great armie, to the intent that ioining with
Ranulph earle of Chester (who tooke part with Robert erle of Glocester,
bicause the same Rob. had maried his daughter) she might fight with king
Stephan, and trie the battell with him. [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._
_Polydor._] Other declare that she came to England now at the first, but
with a small power (as seuen score horssemen or men of armes as we may
call them) in hope of Gods assurance (who seldome faileth those that
fight in a rightfull cause) and againe vpon trust of aid of freends, who
for the benefits receiued at hir fathers hands, would be readie to go
against king Stephan. Wherevpon hir brother earle Robert leauing his
sister in the castle of Arundell, rode with all spéed vnto Glocester
thorough his enimies countrie, not taking with him past 12. men of
armes, and as manie archers on horssebacke, that vpon his cōming thither
he might leuie an armie with so much speed as was possible. [Sidenote:
Earle Robert commeth to Glocester.] Now when he came to Glocester,
though the citie was kept with a garison of soldiours placed there by
king Stephan, yet the townesmen, after they heard that their earle was
approched to the gates, they droue out the garison, & receiued him into
the towne, where he remained a time, partlie to assemble an armie, and
partlie to practise with other townes and castels thereabouts, to reuolt
vnto his sister. [Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._ Brian the earle of Glocesters
sonne. Miles earle of Hereford.] Amongst all other, the earles sonne
Brian, and Miles of Glocester were right ioifull of the news of the
empresses arriuall, and gladlie prepared themselues to fight in defense
of hir cause.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ The empresse besieged in Arundell castel.] In the
meane time king Stephan, hauing knowledge of the landing of the
empresse, and other his enimies, came strait to Arundell, where he
besieged hir in the castle, and spent his labour certeine daies in vaine
about the winning of it. Howbeit at that present he did not preuaile,
for there were certeine with him, who in fauour of the empresse bare him
in hand, that it was not possible to win that fortresse, and therefore
aduised him to raise his siege, and suffer the empresse to be at
libertie to go to some other place, where he might with more ease and
lesse damage get hir into his hands. [Sidenote: The king raiseth his
siege.] The king not perceiuing the drift of those secret practisers,
followed their counsell. Wherevpon the empresse being now at libertie,
went from place to place to trie and solicit hir fréends: and as a riuer
increaseth in the passage, so the further the ladie went, the more hir
power increased. About the midst of the next night after the siege was
raised, she departed out of the castle, [Sidenote: The empresse goeth to
Bristow.] and with great iournies sped hir towards Bristow; which was
alreadie reuolted to hir side.

These things being thus bruted abroad, the Peeres of the realme resorted
to hir, as they that well remembred how in time past by oth of
allegiance they were suerlie bound to hir and hir issue. [Sidenote: K.
Stephen besiegeth Wallingford.] The king in the meantime besieged the
castle of Wallingford, but after he vnderstood that the empresse was
gotten to Bristow, repenting himselfe for his light credit giuen to
euill counsell, he left off the siege of Wallingford, and drew towards
Bristow, that he might (if it were possible) inclose his aduersaries
within that walled citie. But the empresse, being aduertised of his
determination (by such of hir fréends as were resident about him) first
went to Glocester, and after to Lincolne, where she prouided vittailes
and all other things necessarie for hir armie and defense: purposing to
remaine in that citie, till the matter were either tried by chance of
warre betwixt hir and king Stephen, or that by the peoples helpe
reuolting to hir side, he might be driuen out of the realme, and she
restored to the whole gouernement. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 6. 1141.] The
king followed hir verie earnestlie, and comming vnto Lincolne besieged
it, assaieng on euerie side which waie he might best find meanes to win
it, & enter into the same. [Sidenote: K. Stephen winneth Lincolne, _Ran.
Higd._ _Simon Dun._ _Polydor._ _N. Triuet._] At length the empresse
found shift to escape from thence, and within a little while the king
got possession of the citie. But shortlie after, Robert earle of
Glocester, and Ranulph earle of Chester, Hugh Bigot, and Robert of
Morley assembling their power, aswell of Welshmen as others, to come to
the succour of those that were thus besieged, came to Lincolne, &
pitching downe their tents néere to the enimies, they rested the first
night without making any great attempt.

[Sidenote: The ordering of the kings armie readie to giue battell.
_Simon Dun._ _Matt. Paris._] In the morning being the second daie of
Februarie, so soone as it was daie, they set their men in order of
battell, and brought them foorth in sight of the king and his host: who
were on the other side, not meaning to refuse the conflict, ordered his
men readie to encounter them, whome he diuided into 3. seuerall battels.
The chiefest part of his armed men he appointed to remaine on foot,
amongst whom he placed himselfe, with certeine noble men, as earle
Baldwin, and others. The residue being horssemen, he disposed into two
seuerall wings, [Sidenote: The earles of Norfolke, Hampton, Mellent, &
Waren.] in one of which were Alaine duke of Britaine, Hugh Bigot earle
of Norfolke, Simon earle of Hampton, and two other earles, Mellent and
Waren: Howbeit they were not furnished with such number of men as had
béene requisit; for as it fell out, they brought no great retinues with
them. [Sidenote: The earle of Albermarle, William de Ypres.] The other
wing was gouerned by the earle of Albemarle, and William de Ypres.

[Sidenote: The ordering of the battels on the kings aduersaries part.]
Now on the aduersaries side, the earle of Chester led the fore ward, and
those whome king Stephan had disherited, were placed in the middle ward.
In the rere ward the earle of Glocester with his companie had the rule.
And besides those thrée battels, the Welshmen were set as a wing at one
of the sides.

Here the earle of Chester (to vtter the good will which he had to fight)
appointed in faire armour as he was, [Sidenote: The oration of the earle
of Chester. _Ran. Higd._] spake these words in effect as followeth,
directing the same to the earle of Glocester, and other the capteines,
saieng: "I giue you hartie thanks, most inuincible chiefteine, and you
my fellow soldiers, which declare your hartie good wils towards me, euen
to the ieoparding of your liues at this my request and instance. Sith
then I am the occasion of your perill, it is conuenient that I make the
first entrance, and giue the onset of the battell vpon that most
disloiall king, who granting a truce, hath broken the peace; and
swearing to be a subiect, is now prooued a most wicked vsurper: I
therefore trusting both vpon reuenge of the vniust dealings of this
king, and also vpon mine owne force and courage, shall straitwaies
breake in sunder the arraie of his armie, and make waie through the
middest of the enimies with sword in hand. It shall be your parts then
to follow me, who will lead you the waie: for euen now my mind giueth
me, that I shall passe thorough the battels, tread the capteines vnder
foot, and run the king through with this my sharpe sword."

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocesters answer to the earle of Chesters
oration.] When he had thus ended, the earle of Glocester answered in
this wise: "It is not against reason that you should require the honor
of the first onset, both for the nobilitie of your house, and also in
respect of the prowesse wherein you excell: but yet if you stand vpon
nobilitie, for my part, being the sonne and nephue of a king, ought not
I to be preferred? If vpon valiance, here are manie verie worthie men,
afore whom there is not one aliue that may chalenge any prerogatiue. But
another reason moueth me most chieflie to be the formost. The king, who
contrarie to his oth made to my sister, hath cruellie vsurped the
kingdoms, and setting all in trouble, hath beene the cause of manie
thousand mens deaths, and distributed lands and liuings to such as haue
no right to the same, which he hath violentlie taken from the rightfull
owners, who are quite disherited. This king (I saie) is first to be
assailed with the assistance of the righteous iudge, who prepareth
punishment for wicked dooers. For almightie God, who iudgeth his people
with equitie, will looke downe from his heauenlie habitation, and will
not leaue vs comfortlesse in this so great a necessitie. One thing there
is, most valiant capteines, and all you right hardie souldiers, which I
would haue you to consider, that through the fennes, which much adoo you
haue passed, there is no waie to escape by flight. [Sidenote: The
necessitie to fight valientlie.] Here must we either vanquish the
enimies, or else die in the field: for no hope of safegard remaineth in
fléeing awaie. This onelie resteth (I saie) that you make waie for you
to enter the citie with force of your weapons. If I be not deceiued in
that which my mind giueth me to coniecture, the lacke of meanes to
escape, otherwise than by shewing your selues valiant men, by Gods helpe
will bring vs the victorie. For he must néeds plaie the man, who hath
not other succor to auoid the danger of destruction The citizens of
Lincolne, who shall fight so néere their houses as you shall sée, will
not staie long to get them thither for their refuge. And herewith
consider and weie (I beseech you) against whom you shall match in this
battell. [Sidenote: Alaine duke of Brittanie.] There is Alane duke of
Britaine, who commeth armed against you, yea rather against God, a
wicked person, and spotted with all kind of filthinesse; who in malice
hath no péere, as one that neuer wanted desire to doo mischéefe and who
to be comparable in crueltie, would iudge it a great reproch. [Sidenote:
The earle of Mellent.] There commeth also the earle of Mellent, a man
full of all guile and deceit, in whose hart iniquitie is rooted, and
nothing sounding in his mouth but vnthankfulnesse; besides this, he is
slothfull in déeds, presumptuous in words, not hastie to fight, but
swift to run awaie. [Sidenote: Earle Hugh.] Then commeth earle Hugh, who
hath not thought it sufficient to breake his oth to my sister the
empresse, but he must commit periurie the second time, in aduouching
(vpon a new oth) that king Henrie granted the kingdome to Stephan, and
disabled his daughter. After him marcheth the earle of Albemarle, a man
of singular constancie in euill, verie readie to attempt and loth to
giue ouer a mischeefe: [Sidenote: The earle of Albermerles wife.] whose
wife, through irkesomnes of his filthie behauiour is gone from him; & he
that keepeth hir, cōmeth with him also against vs, an open adulterer, &
one well esteemed of Bacchus, but nothing acquainted with Mars.
[Sidenote: Simon earle of Hampton.] Then setteth foorth Simon earle of
Hampton, whose déeds consist in words, & whose gifts rest in promises.
For when he hath said, he hath doone; & when he hath promised, ye get no
more. Finallie there come togither a knot of Péeres & Noble men, [Like
maister, like seruants.] like to their king and maister, accustomed to
robberies, enriched with rapines, embrued with manslaughters, & defamed
with periurie. You therefore (most valiant capteins & hardie souldiers)
whom king Henrie hath aduanced, and this man hath brought vnder foot;
whom he made wealthie, and this man hath impouerished; vpon trust of
your worthy valiancie, yea rather vpon trust of Gods iustice seeke your
reuenge thus offered by God vpon these wicked wretches, & with manlie
stomachs vow to go forward, & forswere stepping back." When the earle
had made an end, all the armie (lifting vp their hands to Gods) abiured
all intention to flée, and so made themselues readie to set forward.

King Stephan hauing no pleasant voice of himselfe, appointed earle
Baldwin to giue an exhortation to his armie, wherevpon getting himselfe
to an high place where he might be seene & heard of them, he thus began.
[Sidenote: Earle Baldwin his oration on the behalfe of king Stephan.]
"All such as shall giue battell, ought to foresée thrée things:
[Sidenote: Thrée things to be foreséene by them that shall giue
battell.] first, that their cause be righteous: secondlie, the number of
their men to be equall at the least: and thirdlie, the goodnesse and
sufficiencie of them. The righteousnes of their cause ought to be
regarded, least men runne in danger of the soule; the number of men is
to be respected, least they should be oppressed with multitude of
enimies; and the goodnesse of the soldiers is to be considered, least
trusting in the multitude, they should presume vpon the aid of feeble
persons, & such as are of small valure. In all these points we see our
selues sufficientlie furnished. The iustice of our cause is this: that
obseruing the thing which we vowed to our king before God, we stand to
the same against those that haue falsified their faith, euen to the
perill of death. Our number is not much lesse in horssemen, and in
footmen we excéed them. As for the goodnesse or sufficiencie of our men,
who is able to expresse the noble prowesse of so manie earles, of so
manie lords and soldiers, trained vp euer in warres: The passing
valiancie of our king may stand in place of innumerable souldiers. Sith
then he being the lords annointed, is here amongst you, vnto whom ye
haue vowed allegiance, performe your vow. For the more earnestly and
faithfully ye serue your prince in this battell, which you are readie to
fight against periured persons, the more shall your reward be at the
hands of God and him. Therfore be of good comfort, & haue in remembrance
against whom you doo darraine the battell. [Sidenote: Erle Robert.] The
force of erle Robert is well knowne, his maner is to threaten much, & to
worke little, furious in words, eloquent of speach, but cold or rather
dead harted in déeds. [Sidenote: The earle of Chester.] The earle of
Chester what is he? A man of vnreasonable boldnesse, bent to
conspiracie, inconstant to performe that which he rashlie taketh in
hand, readie to run into batell, vncircumspect in danger, practising
things of great importance, séeking after things vnpossible, bringing
with him few good soldiers, but gathering a vagrant rout of rascals.
There is nothing in him that we ought to be afraid of, for looke
whatsoeuer he attempteth manfullie, the same he giueth ouer womanlie, in
all his dooings vnfortunate, in all encounters either he is ouercome and
fléeth awaie, or if he get the vpper hand (which seldome times chanceth)
he susteineth greater losse than they whom he dooth vanquish.

"The Welshmen, whom he bringeth with him are little estéemed of vs, who
pretend a naked rashnesse without any vse of armor, so that as men
without any knowledge of martiall policie, they fall as brute beasts
vpon the hunters iaueline. The other, as well the nobles as the common
souldiers are but runnagates and vagabounds; of whom I would wish the
number greater than it is: for the more they be, the woorse in effect
their seruice shall prooue in time of need. You therefore (most worthie
cheefetaines) you men of honor, it standeth you vpon to haue in regard
your vertue and dignities. This day aduance your renowme, and follow the
foresteps of your famous ancestors, leaue to your sonnes an euerlasting
commendation. [Sidenote: Continuall good successe a prouocation of
boldnesse.] The continuall successe of victorie ought to be a
prouocation vnto you to doo manfullie: the continuance of euil speed may
be to yonder side an occasion to run away. For euen alreadie (I dare
say) they repent them of their comming hither, and could be contented to
be gone, if the nature of the place would suffer them to depart. Then
sith it is not possible for them either to fight or to flée, what other
thing can they doo, but (as appointed by Gods ordinance) offer
themselues and all they haue about them presentlie vnto vs. Yée sée then
their horsses, their armour, and their bodies readie here at your
pleasure, lift vp your hearts therefore, and reach your hands to take
that with great chearefulnesse of mind, which the Lord hath thus offered
and freelie presented vnto you."

Now yer he had all made an end of his words, the batels were readie to
ioine, they met with great noise of trumpets and other instruments, and
the fight began with a verie sore and cruell slaughter. [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._ _Hen. Hunt._] Hard it was in the beginning to gesse who
should haue the better. The wing of the disherited men ouerthrew and
bare downe their aduersaries, which were led by the duke of Britain, and
the forenamed earles. On the contrarie part, the earle of Albemarle and
William de Ypres put the Welshmen to flight, but by the earle of Chester
and his retinue, the same earle and William de Ypres were fiercelie
assailed afresh, and put out of order. [Sidenote: _W. Paru._ _Hen.
Hunt._] Thus was the kings side put to the worse, namelie his horssemen,
who being placed in the forefront, and there ouermatched, fell to
galoping. Which thing when the king beheld, he was not yet any whit
therewith abashed, but like an hardie captein (as he was no lesse
indéed) comforted his footmen whom he had about him, and rushing vpon
his enimies, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] bare them down, and ouerthrew so
manie as stood before him, so that with the point of his weapon he made
himselfe waie. His footmen, who were but a few in number to the
multitude of his enimies, counteruailed in all points the prowes and
manlike dooings of their king and capteine, insomuch that few battels
had beene better fought, nor with greater slaughter on both sides, if
the kings fore ward (which in maner at the first shranke backe and was
disordered, not without some supicion of treason) had staied the brunt
of the enimies a while, as it had béene requisite. At length the king
encountring with the earle of Chester, being ouercharged with multitude,
was taken prisoner by one William de Cahames.

[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Hen. Hunt._] Earle Baldwine, who had made the
oration in the kings behalfe, was also taken, after he had fought
valiantlie and receiued manie sore wounds: likewise Richard Fitzvrse,
who on that daie had shewed good proofe of his manhood, [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._] and had giuen and received manie a sore stripe. To
conclude, all those that abode with the king, [Sidenote: _W. Paru._] and
namelie all the footmen were taken prisoners, those which were slaine in
the place excepted. This battell was fought in the sixt yeare of king
Stephans reigne, vpon Candlemas daie, being sundaie, as Niger saith.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ The king led to Bristow.] The king being
apprehended and brought to the empresse lieng at Glocester, was
commanded by hir to be conueied in safetie vnto Bristow, where he was
kept as prisoner from that time of his taking, vntill the feast of All
saints next ensuing. [Sidenote: _W. Paru._] Not long after this field
fought, as ye haue heard, Geffrey earle of Aniou husband to the
empresse, receiuing aduertisement of this victorie atchiued in England,
foorthwith inuaded Normandie, inducing all the Nobles of the countrie to
incline vnto him: for by publishing the captiuitie of king Stephan, it
was easie for him to come by the possession of the same.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots taketh Northumberland into his possession.
_Polydor._ The empresse foloweth the victorie.] Moreouer, Dauid king of
Scotland entred into Northumberland, and by commandement of the empresse
tooke the countrie into his hands, whilest she (like a woman of great
wisedome, as she was no lesse indéed) iudging that it stood hir vpon to
vse the victorie which fell to hir lot, slept not hir businesse, but
went forward, and setting from Glocester, she came to Winchester, where
she was honorablie receiued of bishop Henrie, though he was king
Stephans brother, and inwardlie lamented the misfortune of the king.
Then came she backe againe to Wilton, and so to Oxenford, from thence to
Reading, and then to S. Albons, into all which cities and townes she was
receiued with great triumph and honour.

[Sidenote: Shée cōmeth to London.] Hauing thus passed through all the
south parts of the realme on that side, she finallie came to London,
where the citizens welcomed hir in most ioifull and hartie maner. Now
being come to London, and consulting with those of hir councell for the
quieting of the whole state of the realme, [Sidenote: The quéene sueth
to the empresse for the deliuerie of hir husband.] queene Maud wife to
king Stephan (for so she was also called) made humble suit vnto hir to
haue hir husband set at libertie, promising that he should resigne his
whole claime and title into hir hands, and content himselfe with a
priuate life. But hir suit was so farre off from being granted, that she
was reiected and cast off with reprochfull words. Wherevpon she
conceiued a most high displeasure, and vnderstood well inough; that
peace was to be purchased by force of armes onelie, and not by any other
meanes: insomuch that with all diligence she sent to hir sonne Eustace
(then being in Kent) & willed him to prepare an armie, which he did most
spéedilie.

It chanced at the same time that the citizens of London made great and
laborious suit vnto the said empresse, that they might haue the lawes of
king Edward the Confessour restored, and the straight lawes of hir
father king Henrie abolished. But for so much as they could get no grant
of their petition, and perceiued the empresse to be displeased with them
about that importunat request, wherein onelie she ouershot hir selfe,
[Sidenote: The Londoners conspire to take the empresse.] they deuised
how and by what meanes they might take hir prisoner, knowing that all
the Kentishmen would helpe to strengthen[3] them in their enterprise.
But reckoning with hir selfe that
    Nil poterit propera tutius esse fuga,
[Sidenote: Shée fled in the night time out of the citie.] And being
warned thereof, she fled by night out of the citie, and went to
Oxenford, determining to be reuenged vpon hir aduersaries when time
should serue hir turne. Herewith she began to wax more displeased both
against those Nobles whom she kept in prison, & other also whom she
troubled, but namelie king Stephan, whom she commanded to be loden with
yrons, and serued with verie slender diet.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] Now when she had thus fled out of London, which
was about the feast of the natiuitie of S. John Baptist, the tower of
London was besieged, [Sidenote: Geffrey de Mandeuile.] which Geffrey de
Mandeuile held, and valiantlie defended. The same Geffrey rushing out on
a time, came to Fulham, [Sidenote: The bishop of Londō taken.] where he
tooke the bishop of London then lodging in his manor place, being one of
the contrarie faction.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] Henrie bishop of Winchester perceiuing the wrath
of the empresse more and more to increase dailie against hir people,
thinking it wisedome to serue the time, manned all the castels which he
had builded within his dioces; [Sidenote: Castells fortified by the
bishop of Winchester.] as at Waltham, Farnham, and other places and
withdrew himselfe into the castell of Winchester, there to remaine, till
he might sée to what end the furie of the woman would grow. This being
knowne, the empresse tooke vnto hir Dauid king of Scotland that was hir
vncle, who immediatlie ioining their armies togither, went to Winchester
and besieged the castell. In the meane time the quéene and hir sonne
Eustace, with the helpe of their freends, as the Kentishmen, the
Londoners and other had assembled a great armie, [Sidenote: William de
Ypresse. _Ia. Meir._] and appointed the gouernement and generall conduct
thereof vnto one William of Ypres a Fleming, who for his valiancie was
by king Stephan created earle of Kent: he was sonne to Philip of
Flanders, begotten of a concubine, his father also was sonne to Robert
earle of Flanders, surnamed Frisius. This William was banished out of
his countrie by Theodorike Elsas earle of Flanders, bicause he attempted
to bereaue him of his earledome.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ In nouella historia. _N. Triuet._ _Sim. Dun._
_Polydor._ The empresse armie put to flight. _Wil. Malm._ Robert earle
of Glocester taken prisoner. _Matth. Paris._] The quéenes armie thus
committed to his guiding, came néere vnto Winchester, and kept the
empresse and hir people in maner besieged: at length perceiuing the
aduantage after the comming of a great supplie of Londoners to their
aid, they set vpon hir armie as the same was departing, with such
violence, that straightwaies hir host was put to flight and discomfited.
The empresse was glad to faine hir selfe dead, and so to be conueied in
a coch as a dead corps vnto Glocester. Hir brother Robert with manie
other of the Nobles that staied behind, till she and other might get out
of danger, were taken prisoners. And bicause the king was kept at
Bristow vnder the custodie of the said Robert, the queene caused him to
be hardlie handled, that he might prooue the words of the gospell true:
"With what measure yée meat vnto other, with the same by other shall it
be remeasured vnto you." He had deserued verie euill of the king
heretofore, and therefore it was now remembred. He was taken (in maner
abouesaid) on the feast day of the exaltation of the crosse.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ _N. Triuet._ Dauid king of Scots retired home.
_Simon Dun._ _R. Houe._ Alberike de Uéer slaine. _Wil. Malm._
_Polydor._] Dauid king of Scotland was not at the battell himselfe, but
hearing of the discomfiture, got him out of the countrie, and by helpe
of trustie guides returned into Scotland, whilest Alberike de Uéer was
slaine at London in a seditious tumult raised by the citizens. The
kingdome being thus diuided into two seueral factions, was by all
similitudes like to come to vtter ruine: for the people kindled in
hatred one against another, sought nothing else but reuenge on both
sides, and still the land was spoiled and wasted by the men of warre
which lodged within the castels and fortresses, and would often issue
out to harrie and spoile the countries. But now that the two cheefest
heads were prisoners, there was good hope conceiued that God had so
wrought it, whereby might grow some ouerture of talke, to quiet such
troubles by fréendlie peace and agreement.

Herevpon those lords that wished well to the common-wealth, began to
intreate betwixt them, and articles were propounded for a concord to be
had, and an exchange of prisoners on both sides. But the empresse and
hir brother would not hearken to any agréement, except that the realme
might wholie remaine to the said empresse. [Sidenote: _Geruasius
Dorober._ The king and the earle of Glocester deliuered by exchange.]
Whereby the enimies were rather increased than decreased by his treatie,
so that at length the king and the earle (weried with tedious
yrksomnesse of yrons and hard imprisonment, and putting all their hope
in the chance of war) about the feast of All saints made by deliuering
of the one for the other, without making mention of any peace at all:
and so kindled with new displeasures, they renewed the warre.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7. 1142.] King Stephan being deliuered in such wise
as you haue heard, comming to London, and there being accompanied with
his brother Henrie bishop of Winchester (then the popes legat) Theobald
archbishop of Canturburie, and others, [Sidenote: _Geruasius
Dorobernensis._ A parlement called.] he called a parlement, wherein the
king declared the present state, how the enimie was brought to this
point, that if it would please the Nobles of the realme to mainteine him
with men & monie, he trusted now so to worke, as they should not need to
feare submission to the yoke of a womans gouernment: which at the first
they seemed much to mislike, and now sithens (to their great gréefe) had
prooued to be intollerable. The summe of his talke tended to this end,
that those which were able of themselues to aid him with their owne
persons, should prepare them out of hand so to doo; and the residue that
were not meet (as bishops, and such like maner of men) should be
contributors to aid him with hired souldiers, armour, and monie.

This was gladlie agréed vpon, with the generall consent of all the
assemblie. And bicause the bishops shewed themselues verie liberall
towards the aduancing of the kings purpose, [Sidenote: A statute
established in fauour of préests.] there was a statute made at the same
parlement, that who so euer did laie any violent hands on a sacred
person, or else tooke vpon him to apprehend any of them, for what fault
soeuer, without the bishops licence, he should be accursed, and not be
assoiled of any maner of person, except of the pope, as by a canon it
was alreadie decréed but not obeied among the Englishmen till that daie.
¶ The cause of making this statute was chéeflie, for that preests during
the time of the ciuill wars, were dailie either slaine, or taken
prisoners, and so put to their ransoms, or charged with great penalties
and gréeuous fines.

The bishop of Winchester at this councell also began an other brall
among the cleargie, for being brother to king Stephan, & armed with the
popes authoritie as his legat in England, by reason of exercising his
authoritie, fell at variance with the bishop of Canturburie, who tooke
himselfe for his superior, bicause he was his primat. This quarell grew
so far in question, that they went both to Rome to haue the controuersie
decided, and so bringing their sutes thither, contented well the eares
of them that had the hearing of the same: for the more weightie the
cause seemed, the better it liked them.

[Sidenote: Paul. Lang. in Chron. citizen. pag. 760.] ¶ A late writer,
noting in clergiemen of his age & countrie not onelie the aspiring vice
of ambition, but other disorders also, and monstrous outrages, after a
complaint made that gold (by which title he calleth those of the
ecclesiasticall order) is turned into drosse, and swéet wine become tart
vineger, concludeth with the illation of the cause hereof comprised in
this metricall accouplement, saieng:
    Dum factor rerum priuaret flamine clerum,
    Ad satanæ volum successit turba nepotum.

Which he inferred vpon occasion against the preposterous elections of
vnmeet men into episcopall sées, for that they were not so qualified as
the dignitie of the place required; otherwise peraduenture enabled with
competent knowledge and learning. And suerlie, we may note these
inordinate affections from the beginning of this our chronicle in the
best (I meane in respect of their estates) of this liuerie, and may
iustlie impute it to the defection of Gods spirit in them, whose nature
is to plant peace and méekenesse in the harts of his tenants, not
discord, not ambition, not the works of darknesse, which beséeme not the
children of light. But to the purpose.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Earle Robert passeth ouer into Normandie.] As
the king began (after his libertie obteined) to prouide for warres, so
earle Robert (after he was discharged) sailed ouer into Normandie,
taking with him the sonnes of diuerse Noble men who fauored the
empresse, whome he deliuered to hir husband the earle of Aniou to be
kept as pledges, & earnestlie besought him to passe ouer into England
with an armie to aid the empresse. [Sidenote: Normandie woone by the
earle of Aniou.] Howbeit bicause he was newlie intred into the conquest
of Normandie, and had alreadie won the most part thereof, he thought
good to make first an end of his warres there, hauing somewhat to doo
against certeine rebels of his owne countie of Aniou, which did not a
little molest him. But he recouered (whilest the earle of Glocester was
there with him) Alney, Mortaigne, Tenerchbray, and diuerse other places
perteining chieflie to the earle of Mortaigne: about the same time also
they of Constances submitted themselues vnto him. Thus the earle of
Aniou being occupied in those parties, could not well come into England.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ Earle of Glocester returneth.] Wherevpon the
earle of Glocester came backe againe himselfe, and bringing with him
somewhat lesse than foure hundred men of armes (imbarked in 52. ships)
landed with the same at Warrham, and besieged the castell there,
[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] which his enimies had won out of his hands
whilest he was absent in Normandie. In the end they that were within it
(vnder the gouernment of Herebert de Lucy) fell to agreement by
composition, [Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._] that if they were not succoured by
a certeine time, they should deliuer the castell vnto the earle. King
Stephan himselfe the same time held a siege before Oxford, within the
which he had inclosed the empresse, as hereafter shall be shewed: so
that they within the castell of Warrham had no succour sent vnto them,
and therefore (according to the articles of their composition) they
yeelded vp the hold, after erle Robert had lien three wéekes before it.

[Sidenote: The ile of Portland. Circester.] This castell being thus
woone, earle Robert subdued also such as kept the ile of Portland, and
had fensed it after the maner of a fortresse: afterwards he came to
Circester, and there assembled all those that fauoured the part of the
empresse, meaning with all conuenient spéed to go to Oxford, & there to
giue battell to king Stephan, if he would abide it. Who after his
deliuerance from captiuitie, had assembled a great host of men,
[Sidenote: The empresse besieged in Oxford.] and comming to Oxford,
where the empresse then laie, suddenlie besieged hir, before she looked
for him. And to the end also that he might compell the townsmen to
yeeld, or else kéepe them from entring which would come to their
succors, he ranged abroad into the countrie with part of his armie,
wasting all afore him by fire & sword. This siege continued almost two
moneths, in maner from his deliuerie in the beginning of Nouember,
vntill Christmasse immediatlie following: in somuch that through lacke
of vittels they within the towne began to raise mutinies. The empresse
therefore doubting the sequele, and séeing hir prouision to decaie,
deuised a shift how to escape that present danger, which by force she
was vnlikelie to performe.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Simon Dun._ _Wil. Paru._ _Ran. Higd._ _Matth.
Paris._ The empresse escapeth out of Oxford. _Polydor._ _Wil. Malm._
_Simon Dun._ _Matth. Paris._ Brian sonne to the earle of Glocester.] It
was a verie hard winter that yeare, the Thames and other riuers
thereabouts were frosen, so that both man and horsse might safelie passe
oner vpon the yce, the fields were also couered with a thicke and déepe
snow. Herevpon taking occasion, she clad hir selfe and all hir companie
in white apparell, that a far off they might not be discerned from the
snow; and so by negligence of the watch that kept ward but slenderlie,
by reason of the excéeding cold weather, she and hir partakers secretlie
in the night issued out of the towne, and passing ouer the Thames, came
to Walingford, where she was receiued into the castell by those that had
the same in kéeping to hir vse: of whom Brian the sonne to the erle of
Glocester was the chiefe.

¶ Here we may see the subtiltie of the empresse, whereby she obteined
frée and safe passage out of hir enimies hands, who otherwise had taken
hir in their net. [Sidenote: _Aeneas Syluius._] So that it will be true,
that hath neuer béene false, which Æneas Syluius (and before him many
more driuing vpon the like argument) dooth saie in this distichon:
    Non audet stygius Pluto tentare, quod audent
      Effrænis monachus plenáque fraudis illa,

Meaning Mulier, a woman. And therefore looke what they want in
magnanimitie, in strength, in courage, the same is supplied by deceit,
by circumuention, by craft, by fraud, by collusion; sometimes applied to
a good intent, but most commonlie directed to an euil meaning and
purpose, as the euents themselues doo manie times declare. But let vs
sée what followed vpon this escape of the empresse.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Simon Dun._ _N. Triuet._] After hir departure
from Oxford, the townesmen yeelded vnto the king, who hauing taken order
for the kéeping of them in obedience, marched toward Walingford, minding
to besiege the castell there: but being encountred in the way by his
enimies, he was driuen backe, and so constreined to turne another waie.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8. 1143] Earle Robert hearing that his sister was
escaped and gotten to Wallingford, hasted thither with all spéed to
visit hir: [Sidenote: The empress hir sonne lord Henrie.] & (as some
write) brought with him hir sonne the lord Henrie that was come with him
from beyond the seas, to sée his mother: so that the empresse now
beholding both hir sonne and brother, receiued them with all the ioy and
honour that she could or might presentlie make them. Hir son remaining
vnder the gouernement of earle Robert, was then appointed by him to
abide within the citie of Bristow, & there continued for the space of 4.
yéeres, being committed to one Matthew his schoolemaister, to be
instructed in knowledge, and trained vp in ciuill behauiour.

King Stephan (after the spoiling of sundrie churches, the robbing and
burning of manie townes and villages by the hands of his hired
souldiers, who for the more part were Flemings) came at length with his
brother the bishop of Winchester stronglie armed vnto Wilton, [Sidenote:
The king commeth to Wilton.] where he tooke in hand to fortifie the
nunrie in steed of a castell, to resist the incursions and inrodes of
them of Salisburie, who in the behalfe of the empresse had doone manie
displeasures vnto his fréends: but earle Robert vnderstanding of his
dooings, got a power togither with all speed, and the first daie of
Julie about sunne setting came to Wilton, and suddenlie set the towne on
fire.

The king being lodged within the nunrie, and fearing no such matter,
after he heard of the sudden assemblie of his enimies, was put in such
feare, that he tooke himselfe dishonourablie to flight, leaning his men,
his plate, and other riches altogither behind him. [Sidenote: _Wil.
Par._ _Sim. Dun._ _M. Triuet._ _Matt. Paris._] The earles souldiers
egerlie assailed the kings people, killed and spoiled them at their
pleasure, rifled the kings treasurie without resistance, and satisfied
themselues with greedines. In this broile was William Marcell or Martell
taken prisoner by earle Roberts men, & led to the castell of
Wallingford, where Brian the earle of Glocesters sonne hauing charge of
that castell, kept him in close prison, and vsed him hardlie, who by
reason of the opinion which men had conceiued of his valiancie, could
not be deliuered, till he had paid 300. marks for his ransome, and
deliuered the castell of Shirborne into the earles hands. [Sidenote:
Miles earle of Hereford deceased.] Within a few daies after, Miles earle
of Hereford departed this life, whose death was verie gréeuouslie taken
of the empresse, for he was one of hir chéefe fréends and councellers.
His eldest sonne Roger succéeded him, a gentleman though yoong in
yeares, yet valiant and forward in feats of armes. [Sidenote: _Ger.
Dor._ The earle of Essex taken.] William Mandeuile earle of Essex, an
ancient capteine, & an expert warriour (who had serued the empresse, was
taken also at S. Albons) but not without great slaughter of the kings
souldiers: [Sidenote: The earle of Arundell.] in so much that among
other, the erle of Arundell mounted on a couragious palfrie & a verie
valiant man was ouerthrowen the middest of a water called Haliwell, by a
knight named Walkeline de Orcaie, so that same earle was sore bruised in
his bodie, and almost drowned. [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Wil. Paru._] The
king was present himselfe at the taking of the said Mandeuile, whom he
spoiled of all his goods, and constreined by way of redemption of his
libertie, to deliuer into the kings hands the Tower of London, the
castell of Walden, and Pleshey. Here vpon the same earle being released
was driuen through pouertie to seeke some recouerie of his losses by
sundrie spoiles and roberies. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9. 1144.] First of all
therefore he spoiled the abbeie of S. Albons, and then the abbeie of
Ramsey, which he fortified and defended as a fortresse, [Sidenote: _Hen.
Hunt._] casting the moonks out of doores, and in euerie place where
soeuer he came, he robbed the countrie before him, till at length in the
midst of his reuenge and malicious dooings, he was shot thorough with
an arrow amongst his men by a sillie footman, and so ended his life with
confusion, receiuing worthie punishment for his vngodlie behauiour.
[Sidenote: _Sim. Dunel._ _Iohn Pike._ _Matth. West._ _N. Triuet._] For
he was a man of high stomach & loftie courage, but verie obstinate
against God, of great industrie in worldlie businesse, but passing
negligent towards his maker, as writers report of him.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Wil. Paru._] Likewise Robert Marmion, who had
attempted the semblable robberie & spoile in the abbeie church of
Couentrie, was slain before the same abbeie by a like mischance. For
going foorth to encounter with the earle of Chester (his mortall enimie,
and being approched as then towards the citie) he fell with his horsse
into a ditch, which he caused to be couertlie made for the destruction
of his enimies: and before he could be relieued, a souldier of the
earles part stept to him, and stroke his head from his shoulders in
sight of both armies. Ernulfus the sonne of earle Geffrey Mandeuile that
kept the church of Ramsey as a fortresse, after his fathers death, was
taken at length and banished.

¶ Thus we see how Gods iudgement hunteth and pursueth the wicked, in
somuch that they be ouertaken in their owne imaginations: according to
that of the scripture, "The wicked and bloudthirstie man shall not liue
halfe his daies." And true it is, that as men liue, so commonlie they
die: for, as one saith verie well:
[Sidenote: M. Pal. in suo scor.]
                      ---- bona nulla scelestis
    Et iustis mala nulla quidem contingere possunt.

About the same time aduertisement was giuen, that the citie of Lincolne,
which the earle of Chester had in keeping, was but slenderlie manned.
Wherevpon the king conceiuing some hope to win the same, hasted forward:
[Sidenote: Lincolne besieged.] and comming thither in the night, laid
siege therevnto, and began to cast a trench to stop them within frō
making any salies without.

The earle at the first being somewhat amazed with the sudden approch of
the enimie, yet beholding from the walles the maner of them without, he
perceiued the rankes to be verie thin: and thereby gessing their number
to be but small, suddenlie issued foorth at the gates to encounter with
them. [Sidenote: The siege raised.] The king abode not the giuing of the
charge, bicause he was but weake and therefore fled; neither could the
earle follow the chace conuenientlie, for the like cause; [Sidenote: _N.
Triuet._] but setting vpon those that were about to make the trench, he
slue 80. of the workmen, and then retired into the castell.

[Sidenote: A child crucified by the Jewes.] This yeare was an heinous
act committed by the Jewes at Norwich, where they put a child to death,
in crucifieng him vpon a crosse to the reproch of Christian religion.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Simon Dun._] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 10. 1145.]
[Sidenote: A castell built at Faringdon. _Hen. Hunt._ The king winneth
it by force.] In the yeare following; namelie, in the 10. yeare of king
Stephans reigne, Robert earle of Glocester and other capteins took in
hand to build a castell at Faringdon. But King Stephan assembling an
armie of Londoners and other, came thither, and besieged them within.
Now whilest earle Robert and others of the empresses capteins remaining
not far off, taried for a greater power to come to their aid, the king
with sharpe assaults (but not without losse of his men) wan the
fortresse: whereby his side began to wax the stronger, and to be more
highlie aduanced. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 11. 1146.] After this he came with
a mightie armie vnto Wallingford, and there builded a strong castell
ouer against the other castell which his aduersaries held against him.

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ _Matth. Paris._ _N. Triuet._ _Simon Dun._]
Thither also came the earle of Chester with a great traine of knights
and gentlemen vnto the king, and so at length they were not vnfeignedlie
accorded and made freends, but in apperance on the kings behalfe. For
shortlie after, the earle was craftilie taken at a parlement holden at
Northampton, by the practise of K. Stephan, and could not be deliuered
till he had surrendred the citie and castell of Lincolne, with other
fortresses perteining to the crowne into the kings hands. [Sidenote:
_Ran. Higd._ The welshmen waste Cheshire. _Ger. Dor._] About that time
did the Welshmen destroie the prouince of Chester, but at last they were
distressed. This yeare also the loard Geffrey earle of Aniou sent thrée
Noble men into England, accompanied with certeine men of warre, vnto
earle Robert, requesting him to send ouer his sonne Henrie into France,
that he might sée him, and if need required, he promised to send him
backe againe with all conuenient speed. Earle Robert was contented to
satisfie his request: and so with a good power of armed men brought the
lord Henrie vnto Warham, where he tooke leaue of him, neuer after to sée
him in this world. [Sidenote: The earle of Glocester departeth this
life.] For when the child was transported, earle Robert returned
spéedilie to the parties from whence he came, and there falling into an
ague, departed this life about the beginning of Nouember, and was buried
at Bristow. The lord Henrie comming to his father, was ioifully
receiued, and remained in those parties for the space of two yeares and
foure moneths.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 12. 1147.] In the meane season, the vniust
procéedings of K. Stephan against the earle of Chester, purchased him
new hatred of his old aduersaries, and like supicion of such as were his
freends, for it sounded not a little to his dishonor. Euerie man
therefore was in doubt of his dealing, and iudged that it stood them
vpon to take héed to themselues. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ K. Stephen
entreth into Lincolne with his crowne on his head.] But he (as one that
thought he had atchiued some high exploit) in triumphant wise shortlie
after entred into Lincolne in his roiall robes, and his crowne on his
head, whereas it had not béene heard that any king had doone the like
manie yeares before.

¶ It is reported by some writers, that he did this, to root out of mens
minds a foolish superstitious conceit, which beléeued that no king with
his crowne vpon his head might enter that citie, but some mischance
should light vpon him: wherevpon he seemed by this meanes to mocke their
superstitious imagination.

About the same time manie of the Nobles of the realme (perceiuing the
kings authoritie to represse violent wrongs committed by euill dooers to
be defectiue) builded sundrie strong castels and fortresses vpon their
owne grounds, either to defend themselues, or to make force vpon their
enimies néere adioining. After the departing of the king from Lincolne,
the earle of Chester came thither with an armie, to assaie if he might
recouer that citie. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._] But his lieutenant that had
the leading of his men, was slaine at the entring of the northgate, and
so the erle was beaten backe with the losse of manie of his men: and the
citizens hauing got the vpper hand, reioised not a little for the
victorie.

But here (to staie a litle with temporall affaires) it shall not be
amisse to rehearse the effect of a contention, which fell about this
time betwéene that king and the archbishop of Canturburie. [Sidenote:
_Ger. Dor._] For so it happened (as Geruasius Dorobernensis writeth)
that pope Eugenius came this yere into France, about the middest of
Lent, and afterward held a synod or councell at Rhemes: wherevnto
Theobald archbishop of Canturburie, with others of the English bishops
were summoned. The archbishop therevpon asking licence of the king, &
not obteining it, found meanes to steale awaie in a small bote, not
without danger of his person.

Now therefore the case of this Theobald stood verie hard: for Henrie
bishop of Winchester the kings brother through enuie had so wrought,
that if the archbishop passed ouer without licence, he should be
confined of the king. Againe, he was sure, if he came not to the
councell, that he should be suspended by the pope. Herevpon the
archbishop meaning rather to offend the king than the pope, got ouer, as
it were swimming, rather than sailing; the vessell wherein he passed
ouer being starke naught: for all the ports were kept by the kings
seruants, so that he was glad to take such a bote as came next to hand.
In consideration whereof he was highlie commended by the pope.

In this councell the prebendaries of Yorke, togither with Henrie Mordach
then abbat of Fountney, presented themselues, exhibiting their complaint
against William archbishop of Yorke, for that (as they alledged) he was
neither canonicallie chosen, nor lawfullie consecrated, but intruded by
the kings authoritie. At length archbishop William was conuicted and
deposed, Albert bishop of Hostia pronouncing sentence in this wise: "We
doo decrée by the apostolike authoritie, that William archbishop of
Yorke is to be deposed from his sée, bicause Stephan king of England,
before any canonicall election, named him."

Then, for that pope Eugenius had thus deposed archbishop William,
although not with the consent of the more part of the cardinals, the
chapiter of the church of Yorke, by his commandement comming togither,
part of them chose Hilarie bishop of Chichester, and the other part
elected Henrie Mordach abbat of Fountney. Now pope Eugenius, when both
elections were shewed him at Auxerre, confirmed the election of Henrie
Mordach, and disanulled the other, and then consecrated the foresaid
Henrie with his owne hands. The late nominated archbishop William being
thus deposed, returned into England, and remained at Winchester with
king Henrie till the death of pope Eugenius, following the counsell of
the same bishop in all things.

Now when the councell at Rhemes was ended, archbishop Theobald returned
into England, and comming to Canturburie, was receiued with great honor,
of the couent and citizens there. But the king remaining then at London,
when he heard of it, was sore displeased, and came with great spéede
vnto Canturburie, where much conference being had betwixt him and the
archbishop (although to small purpose) for the bringing of them to an
agréement, at length the king compelled the archbishop to depart the
realme. Wherevpon, after a few daies respit, he went to Douer, where he
tooke ship and sailed into France. But within a while he was called
backe by the quéene and William of Ypres, vnto S. Omers, that they might
the sooner aduertise him of the kings mind and pleasure. Here he
consecrated Gilbert the elect bishop of Hereford, the fift daie of
September, Theodoric bishop of Amiens, and Nicholas bishop of Cambre
assisting him.

After this, when by sending of messengers to and fro, as well bishops,
abbats, and other, both spirituall persons and temporall, there could no
agréement be made, he directed his letter to certeine churches here in
England, pronouncing by a certeine day, namelie the twelfe day of
September, a sentence of interdiction to be obserued through the relme.
The monks of Canturburie sore offended herewith, before the prefixed day
of this sentence to be put in vse, sent two moonkes of their owne house,
Nigell and Absolon, vnto the pope: whose errand when the pope had
vnderstood, he commanded them to returne home, and to obeie their
archbishops sentence in all things.

In the meane time, the archbishops men and tenants were sore oppressed,
and his rents and reuenues seized to the kings vse, yea euen before the
daies of paiment. Which maner of proceeding sore gréeued the archbishop:
in so much that departing from S. Omers, he came to Graueling, and there
taking the sea, crossed ouer to a towne called Goseford that belonged
vnto Hugh Bigot erle of Northfolke: which earle receiued him with great
honor, and sent him all necessarie prouision, so long as he remained in
his countrie. At the terme appointed, he interdicted all the kings
dominions, and would not reuoke the sentence, till Robert bishop, of
London, Hilarie bishop of Chichester, and William bishop of Norwhich,
with manie other Noblemen, came to him vnto Framelingham in Norfolke, a
castell apperteining to the said earle, where at length an attonment was
concluded betwixt him and the king: wherevpon he was brought home vnto
Canturburie with great ioy and honor.

He accused the moonks of Canturburie, for disobeieng the interdiction,
trusting that the pope would not heare those two moonkes whom they had
sent, as he did not indéed. He excommunicated also all those that had
receiued the sacraments amongst them, during the time of the
interdiction. Now these moonkes being at their wits end, dispatched with
all speed other two moonkes to the pope, to obteine an absolution,
before the archbishop should vnderstand it: [Sidenote: _Geruasius._] but
they were sent backe againe with checks and commanded to obeie their
archbishop in all things, as the other were, which had béene there with
him before.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 13. 1148.] The moonks of Canturburie that were sent
to Rome, returning, came from thence to Bullongne, where they found
those that were first sent thither: and so they all foure came to
Canturburie. The pope also had sent a priuie commandement to the
archbishop that he should duelie punish as well them as the other.
Wherevpon the archbishop taking counsell with his fréends, deposed
Syluester the prior, and suspended William the secretarie of the house
from entring the quéere. It was decreed also, that the residue should
cease so long a time from saieng seruice, as they had said it before
vnlawfullie, against the archbishops commandement. For it was thought
reason, that whilest other sang and were merrie, they should keepe
silence, which wilfullie tooke vpon them to sing, whilest other held
their peace and were still. They began therefore to cease from saieng
diuine seruice, and from ringing their bels in the second wéeke of Lent
& so kept silence from the twelfe day of March, vntill the first daie of
August.

The quéene wife to king Stephan in this meane while lay much at S.
Augustines in Canturburie, bicause of hastening forward the building of
Feuersham abbeie, which she and hir husband had begonne from the verie
foundation. And bicause the moonkes of S. Augustine might not celebrate
diuine seruice, she called thither commonlie the moonks of Christes
church to say seruice before hir. Thus much for that purpose: and now to
other matters.

[Sidenote: The L. Henrie returneth into England.] [Sidenote: An. Reg.
14. 1149.] The lord Henrie Fitzempresse after all these businesses
returned into England, in the moneth of May, with a great companie of
men of warre both horssemen and footmen: by reason whereof many reuolted
from king Stephan to take part with him: whereas before they sat still,
and would not attempt any exploit against him. But now incouraged with
the presence of the lord Henrie, they declared themselues freends to
him, and enimies to the king. Immediatlie after his arriuall, he tooke
with him the earles of Chester and Hereford, Ranulfe and Roger, and
diuers other Noble men and knights of great fame, beside those whom he
had brought with him out of Normandie, and went vnto Carleil, where he
found his coosin Dauid king of Scotland, of whome he was most ioifullie
receiued; [Sidenote: He is made knight. _R. Houed._] and vpon Whitsunday
with great solemnitie, being not past sixtéene yeares of age, was by the
same king made knight, with diuerse other yoong gentlemen that were much
about the same age.

¶ Some write, that the king of Scots receiued an oth of him before he
gaue him the honor of knighthood, that if he chanced to atteine vnto the
possession of the realme of England, he should restore to the Scots the
towne of Newcastle, with the countrie of Northumberland, from the riuer
of Twéed, to the riuer of Tine. But whether it were so or not, I am not
able to make warrantize.

Now king Stephan hearing that the king of Scots, and his aduersarie the
lord Henrie with the chéefest lords of the west parts of England lay
thus in Carleil, [Sidenote: K. Stephan with an armie commeth to Yorke.]
he raised an armie, and came to the citie of Yorke, where he remained
for the most part of the moneth of August, fearing least his enimies
should attempt the winning of that citie. But after the one part had
remained a time in Carleil, and the other in Yorke, they departed from
both those places without any further exploit for that season, sauing
that Eustachius king Stephans sonne (hauing also latelie receiued the
order of knighthood) did much hurt in the countries which belonged to
those Noble men that were with the lord Henrie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._. Great raine.] The great raine that fell in
the summer season this yeare did much hurt vnto corne standing on the
ground, so that a great dearth followed. [Sidenote: A sore frost.] In
the winter also after, about the tenth day of December, it began to
fréese extreamelie, and so continued till the nineteenth of Februarie:
whereby the riuer of Thames was so frosen, that men might passe ouer it
both on foot and horssebacke.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 15. 1150.] In the meane while Henrie Duke of
Normandie, after he had returned from the king of the Scots, sailed
backe into Normandie, about the beginning of August, leauing England
full of all those calamities, which ciuill warre is accustomed to bring
with it, as burning of houses, killing, robbing, and spoiling of people,
so that the land was in danger of vtter destruction, by reason of that
pestilent discord.

This yeare the 23. of Februarie, Galfridus Monumetensis, otherwise
called Galfridus Arthurius, who turned the British historie into
Latine, was consecrated bishop of S. Assaph, by Theobald archbishop of
Canturburie, at Lambeth, William bishop of Norwhich and Walter bishop of
Rochester assisting him.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ The earle of Aniou father to Henry Fitzempress
departeth his life.] Morouer, this yeare (as some writers haue recorded)
Geffrey earle of Aniou, of husband to the empresse Maud, departed this
life, on the seuenth day of September, leauing his sonne Henrie onelie
heire and successor in the estates of the duchie of Normandie and
countie of Aniou. The bodie of the said earle was buried at Mans, with a
great funerall pompe: his three sonnes Henrie, Geffrey, and William
being present.

[Sidenote: Worcester assaulted.] But king Stephan assaulting the faire
citie of Worcester with a great power of men tooke it, and consumed it
with fire, but the castell he could not win. This citie belonged to
earle Waleran de Mellent, at that season: for king Stephan to his owne
hinderance had giuen it vnto him. Now after the men of warre had diuided
the spoile amongst them, they came backe, and passing through the lands
of their enimies, got great booties, which they also tooke away with
them, finding none to resist them in their iournie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16. 1151.] [Sidenote: _Ger. Dorober._ A synod at
London. ] In the yeare following Theobald archbishop of Canturburie, and
legat to the sée apostolike, held a generall synod or councell at London
in the Lent season, where king Stephan himselfe with his sonne
Eustachius, and other the peers of the realme were present. This
councell was full of appeales, contrarie to that had beene vsed in this
land, till the time that Henrie bishop of Winchester vnto his owne harme
(whilest he was likewise the Popes legat) had by vniust intrusion
brought them in, and now at this councell he was himselfe thrise
appealed to the hearing of the popes owne consistorie. After this king
Stephan in the same yeare brake into the citie of Worcester, and whereas
he could not the last time win the castell, he now endeauoured with all
his force to take it. But when those within made valiant resistance, he
raised two castels against it, and leauing in the same certeine of his
Nobles to continue the siege, he himselfe returned home. ¶ Thus (as yee
see) the kings propertie was to attempt manie things valiantlie, but he
procéeded in them oftentimes verie slowlie: howbeit, now by the policie
of the earle of Leicester, those two castels which the king had raised
to besiege the other castell, were shortlie after destroied: and so the
besieged were deliuered from danger. [Sidenote: The earle of Leicester
brother to the erle of Mellent.] This earle of Leicester was brother to
the earle of Mellent. Thus the kings purposed intention and painefull
trauell on that behalfe came to none effect.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17. 1152.] [Sidenote: The duke of Normandie
Fitzempresse marieth the duchesse of Aquitaine.] In the meane while
Henrie duke of Normandie maried Elianor duches of Guien or Aquitaine,
latelie diuorsed from the French king, and so in right of hir he became
duke of Aquitaine, and earle of Poictou; for she was the onelie daughter
to William duke of Guien, and earle of Poictou, and by hir father
created his sole and lawfull heire.

[Sidenote: The French king maketh warre against the duke of Normandie.]
The French king was nothing pleased with this mariage, in somuch that he
made sore warre vpon duke Henrie, ioining himselfe in league with king
Stephan, with his sonne Eustace, and with the lord Geffrey brother to
duke Henrie, so that the said Henrie was constreined to defer his
iournie into England, and applie his power to defend his countries and
subiects on that side of the sea. For whereas he was readie at the mouth
of the riuer of Barbe to passe ouer into England, not long after
midsummer, the French king, with Eustace king Stephans sonne, Robert
erle of Perch, Henrie erle of Champaigne, and Geffrey brother to duke
Henrie, hauing assembled a mightie armie, came and besieged the castell
of Newmarch, and sent foorth the lord Geffrey with a strong power to win
the castell of Angers. Duke Henrie aduertised hereof departing from the
place where he soiourned, hasted foorth to succour his people that were
besieged, [Sidenote: The castell of Newmarch deliuered to the French
king.] but the castell of Newmarch was deliuered to the French king
through treason of those that had it in kéeping, before the duke could
come to their rescue.

Wherevpon the said duke hauing knowledge by the waie that he should come
too late thither, he encamped first vpon the side of the riuer of
Andell, [Sidenote: Ueulquesine or Ueuxin.] and wasted a great part of
the countrie of Ueuxin or Ueulquesine, surnamed Le Normant, which lieth
betwixt the riuer of Epte and Andell. This countrie belonged sometime to
Normandie, but Geffrey earle of Aniou the dukes father had resigned it
to the French king, to the end he should not aid king Stephan. The duke
also burned the castels of Bascheruille, Chitrey, Stripiney, and the
castell of Fort, that belonged to Hugh de Gourney, with diuerse other.
About the end of August he left his townes in Normandie sufficientlie
furnished with garisons of souldiers, and went into Aniou, where he
besieged the castell de mount Sotelli, till he had taken it, and all
those that were within it, amongst whome was the lord thereof named
William. The French king on the other side entring into Normandie, burnt
part of the borough of Rieule, [Sidenote: The towne castell of Uernon.
_Simon Dun._] and either then or shortlie after that duke Henrie was
gone ouer into England, he tooke the towne and castell of Uernon.

Whilest these things were thus a dooing in France, K. Stephan would haue
caused the archbishop of Canturburie & diuerse other bishops, whom for
that purpose he had assembled, to crowne, annoint, and confirme his
sonne Eustace king ouer the realme of England. [Sidenote: The Pope is
against it.] But the archbishops and bishops refused so to doo, bicause
the pope by his letters sent to the archbishop, had commanded to the
contrarie; namelie, that he should in no wise crowne the kings sonne,
bicause his father king Stephan had got the possession of the land
against his oth receiued in behalfe of the empresse. [Sidenote: The
bishops are threatened.] The father and sonne being not a litle offended
herewith, committed most of his bishops to ward séeking by threats and
menacings to bring them to his purpose. The bishops also were in no
small perplexitie: for according to the truth, the king neuer seemed
greatlie to fauor churchmen, bicause of their strength (as in former
times by his rigor vsed against the bishops of Salisburie and Lincolne
it plainelie appeared) and yet would not these men yéeld to his
pleasure: wherevpon although they were set at libertie, they were
neuerthelesse depriued of their temporall possessions, which
notwithstanding afterwards vpon the kings owne motion were restored vnto
them.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Howbeit the archbishop of Canturburie persisting
still in his oppinion, was forsaken of diuerse of the bishops, who
throgh feare durst not stand against their princes pleasure. [Sidenote:
The Archbishop of Canturburie flieth out of the realme.] But the
archbishop, when he perceiued how the matter went, & that all the blame
was like to light and rest on his shoulders, he got himselfe by a
maruellous hap ouer the Thames, and with, spéed riding to Douer, passed
the sea, to auoid both the fathers and sonnes reuengefull displeasure.
Herevpon the king seized into his hands all the lands & possessions that
belonged to the archbishop.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Ger. Dor._] This yeare queene Maud wife to
king Stephan departed this life at Hangey castell, that belonged to
earle Alberike de Uéer, about the third daie of Maie, and was buried in
the abbeie of Feuersham, which she with hir husband king Stephan had
latelie founded.

This yeare through great and immoderate raine that fell in the summer,
the growing of corne was so hindred, that a great death of people
insued[4].

[Sidenote: The battell of Monadmore _Matth. Paris._ The second & also
the first bishops of Man.] This yeare also was the battell of Monadmore
fought in Ireland, where the flower and chiefest personages of Mounster
and Leynister were slaine. Moreouer one John a moonke of Sagium, was
made the second bishop of the Isle of Man: the first bishop that was
there instituted hight Wimond a moonke of Sauinie, who for his
importunate misdemenour in some respects, had his eies put out, and was
displaced.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._] John Papirio a cardinall, being sent from the
pope as legat into Ireland, ordeined foure archbishops there, one at
Dublin, an other at Ardmach, the third at Cassels, and the fourth at
Connach. [Sidenote: The bishop of Dublin made archbishop.] The sée of
Dublin he changed into an archbishops sée, one Gregorie at that time
possessing the same: to whom he gaue the first and chiefe pall, and
appointed the church of the blessed Trinitie to be church metropolitane.
As this cardinall passed through England, he receiued an oth of fealtie
vnto king Stephan.

[Sidenote: The castell of Newburie won.] The same yeare also king
Stephan by siege and force of assault did win the castell of Newberie
not far from Winchester. This doone he went to Wallingford, and
besieging the castell, he builded at the entring of the bridge a
fortresse to stop them within from issuing out, and likewise from
receiuing any reliefe or succour by their fréends abroad. The defendants
perceiuing themselues so hardlie laid at, sent to the duke of Normandie
(in whose name they kept that castell) desiring him either to succour
them, or else giue them licence to yéeld vp the castell to the king.
Herevpon duke Henrie hauing dispatched his businesse on the further side
of the sea, began to be kindled with a feruent desire once againe to
attempt his fortune here in England for recouerie of that kingdome, and
so with three thousand footmen, & 7 score horssemen, [Sidenote: Duke
Henrie Fitzempresse returneth into England. _Ger. Dor._] with all spéede
possible sailed ouer into England, where he landed about the 12. daie in
Christmasse. He was no sooner arriued, but a great number of such as
tooke part with his mother came flocking in vnto him: [Sidenote: He
besiegeth the castell of Malmesburie. _Matth. Paris._ _Polydor._]
wherevpon being now furnished with a great and puissant armie, he
marched foorth to Malmesburie, where in the castell was a great garison
of soldiers placed by king Stephan. Duke Henrie planted his siege about
this castell the thirtéenth daie of Januarie, and enforced himselfe to
the vttermost of his power to win it.

Now king Stephan hearing of his enimies arriuall, with all hast possible
got his armie on foot, and comming suddenlie towards the place where is
enimies were pitched, [Sidenote: K. Stephan constreineth him to raise
his siege.] he caused duke Henrie to raise his siege, and following
after, offered him battell. But duke Henrie, knowing that his enimies
were far more in number than he was at that present, and also conceiuing
with himselfe that by prolonging of time his owne power would increase,
absteined from fighting, and kept him within the closure of his campe.
[Sidenote: _Wil. Paru._] ¶ Thus haue some written, but other authors
write, that Henrie kept himselfe indeed within his campe, and refused to
giue battell, but yet remoued not his siege, till the king departed from
thence, after he saw he could not haue his purpose, and then did duke
Henrie win the castell of Malmesburie, or rather the maister tower or
chéefe dungeon of that castell. [Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Ger. Dor._] For
as (Simon of Durham writeth) he had won by assault the other parts and
lims of the castell before king Stephan came to remoue him.

This tower that thus held out, was in the keeping of one capteine
Jordan, who escaping foorth came to the king, informing him in what
state he had left his men within the tower: wherevpon the king (making
all the power that he was able) set forward, and comming to Circiter,
lodged there one night, and in the morning purposing to raise the siege,
or to fight with his enimies (if they would abide battell) marched
foorth towards Malmesburie. [Sidenote: A sore storm.] But vpon his
approch to the dukes campe, the daie following his comming thither,
there rose such a hideous tempest of wind and raine, beating full in the
faces of king Stephans people, that God seemed to fight for the duke,
who in respect of the number of people was thought too weake to deale
with the strong and puissant armie of the king: howbeit the storme being
on his backe, and beating extremelie in king Stephans mens faces, they
were not able to hold their weapons in their hands, in somuch that he
perceiued he could not passe the riuer that ran betwixt the armies:
wherevpon constreined in that sort through the violent rage of that cold
and wet weather, he returned to London full euill appaied, in that he
could not satisfie his expectation at that present.

The tower that duke Henrie had hardlie besieged immediatlie herewith was
surrendred vnto him, & then making prouision for vittels and other
things, [Sidenote: The castell of Wallingford.] to the reliefe of them
that kept the castell of Wallingford, he hasted thither, and finding no
resistance by the way, easily accomplished his enterprise. There were
diuerse castels thereabouts in the countrie furnished with garisons of
the kings souldiers, but they kept themselues close, and durst not come
abroad to stop his passage. [Sidenote: The castell of Cranemers. ]
Shortlie after he besieged the castell of Cranemers, and cast a trench
about it, so as his people within Wallingford castell might haue free
libertie to come foorth at their pleasure: but as for those within the
castell of Cranemers, they were so hardlie holden in, that there was no
waie for them to start out.

The king aduertised hereof, got all his host togither, and marched
forward verie terriblie toward duke Henries campe. But shewing no token
of feare, he caused the trench wherewith he had inclosed his campe
foorthwith to be cast downe, and leauing the siege, came into the fields
with his armie set in order of battell, meaning to trie the matter by
dint of sword, although he had not the like number of men as the king
had: whose armie perceiuing their enimies to come in the face of them,
were stricken with a sudden feare: neuerthelesse, he himselfe being of a
good courage, commanded his people to march forward. But herewith
certeine Noble men, that loued not the aduancement of either part, vnder
a colour of good meaning sought to treat an agréement betwixt them, so
that an intermission or cesing from war was granted, and by composition
the castell which the king had built, and the duke besieged, was razed
to the ground. The king and the duke also came to an interuiew and
communication togither, a riuer running betwixt them. [Sidenote: _Matth.
Paris._ _Ger. Dor._ Eustace king Stephans sonne.] Some write that they
fell to agreement, king Stephan vndertaking to raze the castell of
Cranemers himselfe, and so laieng armour aside for that time, they
parted asunder.

But Eustace K. Stephans son was sore offended herewith, and reprouing
his father for concluding such an agréement, in a great rage departed
from the court, & taking his waie toward Cambridgeshire (which countrie
he meant to ouerrun) he came to the abbeie of Burie, and vpon S.
Laurence daie caused all the corne in the countrie about and namelie
that which belonged to the said abbeie, to be spoiled and brought into a
castell which he had in keeping not far from thence. [Sidenote: Eustace
king Stephans son and Simon earl of Northāpton depart this life both in
one wéeke.] But as he sat downe to meat the same daie vpon receiuing the
first morsell he fell mad (as writers haue reported) and miserablie
ended his life. The same weeke Simon earle of Northampton departed this
world of a like disease, and so two of the cheefest aduersaries which
duke Henrie had, were rid out of the waie. Eustace was buried at
Feuersham in Kent, and earle Simon at Northampton.

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester deceasseth.] About the same time also
that noble and valiant earle of Chester called Ranulfe departed this
life, a man of such stoutnesse of stomach, that death could scarselie
make him to yeeld, or shew any token of feare: he was poisoned (as was
thought) by William Peuerell. After him succeeded his sonne Hugh, a man
likewise of passing strength and vertue. Now although earle Ranulfe
fauoured the part of duke Henrie, yet in these later yeares he did but
little for him: wherefore it was thought that the death of this earle
was not so great a losse to the duke, as the deaths of Eustace, earle
Simon, and other the kings fréends deceasing about the same time seemed
to further him: so that his part became dailie stronger, and the kings
weaker.

About the same time the castels of Reading and Béertwell were deliuered
to duke Henrie, [Sidenote: _Matth. Par._ _Rob. Mont._] and the ladie
Gundreda countesse of Warwike draue out the souldiers that held it for
king Stephan, and deliuered the towne to duke Henrie. In this yeare
duches Elenor, wife to Henrie Fitzempresse, was brought to bed of hir
first borne son, whom they named William, after the maner of the ancient
dukes of Aquitaine.

Thus came things to passe in sundrie places with so good successe as
duke Henrie could wish, wherevpon meaning to follow the steps of
prosperous fortune, he marched foorth to Stamford, [Sidenote: Stamford
was taken. _Simon Dun._ _Ger. Dor._ Gipswich or Ipswich besieged.] and
taking the towne at his first comming laid siege to the castell. Now
they that had it in keeping sent messengers to king Stephan, requiring
rescue, but the same time he had laid siege to the castell of Gipswich,
which Hugh Bigot kept against him: and bicause he wold not depart from
that siege till he had the castell giuen vp into his hands (which came
at last to passe) in the meane time the castell of Stamford was yéelded
vp to duke Henrie, [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] who immediatelie therevpon
departed from Stamford eastward, meaning to come to the succour of his
fréends besieged at Gipswich or Ipswich (as it is commonlie called) not
vnderstanding as yet that they had surrendred the hold: but hauing
knowledge by the way what was happened, [Sidenote: Notinghàm.] he
returned and marched streight to Notingham, and got the towne easilie;
for they within the castell had set it on fire, therefore he besieged
the castell standing vpon the point of a stéepe craggie rocke, and was
furnished with a strong garison of men, and all things necessarie for
defense, so that it could not easilie be woone.

[Sidenote: Duke Henrie raiseth his siege from Notingham. _Polydor._]
When duke Henrie had assaied all the waies how to take it, and saw that
he could not preuaile, he minded to loose no more time: but raising his
siege from thence, he ranged abroad to get other places into his
possession, and finallie came to his mother, and laie at Wallingford. K.
Stephan in the meane time being strong in the field, sought time and
place to haue Henrie at some aduantage, who in his yoong yeares (as yet
not hauing tasted any misfortune) he thought would rashlie attempt some
vnaduised enterprise. [Sidenote: The miserie of this land in time of the
ciuill warre.] ¶ But whereas the realme of England had béene now manie
yeares miserablie turmoiled with ciuill warre (which the verie heathen
haue so detested, that they haue exclaimed against it with a kind of
irksomnesse; as:
    [Sidenote: _Hor. lib. car. 1. ode. 35._]
    Eheu cicatricum & sceleris pudet,
    Fratrúmque: quid nos dura refugimus
        Aetas? quid intactum nefasti
        Linquimus? vnde manus iuuentus
    [Sidenote: _Idem. lib. car. 2. ode. 1._]
    Metu deorum continuit? quibus
    Pepercit aris? iam litui strepunt,
        Iam fulgor armorum fugaces
        Terret equos equitúmque vultus)
Wherein (besides millians of extremities) honest matrones and mens wiues
were violated, maids and virgins rauished, churches spoiled, townes and
villages robbed, whole flocks and heards of shéepe and beasts destroied
(wherein the substance of the realme cheeflie consisted) and men without
number slaine and murthered, it pleased the goodnesse of almightie God
at length to deliuer the land of these miseries, which were notified to
all countries round about that sore lamented the same.

Now whereas king Stephan was the cause of all the troubles, in hauing
vsurped an other mans rightfull inheritance, it pleased God to mooue his
hart at length to desire peace which he had euer before abhorred. The
cause that mooued him chéefelie to change his former purpose, was for
that his sonne Eustace by speedie death was taken out of this world (as
before ye haue heard) which losse séemed great not onelie to the father,
but also to all those lords and others which had alwaies taken his part,
bicause he was a yoong man so well liked of all men, that he was iudged
to be borne to much honour. [Sidenote: The ladie Constance wife to
Eustace sent home.] But his wife Constance tooke his death verie
sorowfullie, and the more indeed for that she had no issue by him,
wherevpon shortlie after she was sent honourablie home to hir father
king Lewes with hir dower, and other rich and princelie gifts.

King Stephan séeing himselfe thus depriued of his onelie sonne, vnto
whome he minded to leaue the kingdome which he so earnestlie sought to
confirme and assure vnto him by warlike endeuor, and that againe the
French kings aid would not be so readie as heretofore it had béene
(wherevpon he much staied, now that the bonds of affinitie were
abolished) he began at length (though not immediatlie vpon his sonnes
deceasse) to withdraw his mind from war, [Sidenote: K. Stephan began to
incline his mind to peace. _Matth. Paris._] and bequeathed it wholie to
peace. Which alteration being perceiued, those Nobles that were glad to
sée the state of their countrie quieted, did their best to further it; &
chéeflie Theobald archbishop of Canturburie trauelled earnestlie to
bring the princes to some agréement, now talking with the king, now
sending to the duke, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] and vsing all meanes
possible to set them at vnitie. The bishop of Winchester also, who had
caused all the trouble, vpon consideration of the great calamities
wherewith the land was most miserablie afflicted, began to wish an end
thereof. Wherevpon the lords spirituall and temporall were called
togither at Winchester about the latter end of Nouember, that they with
their consents also might confirme whatsoeuer the king and the duke
should conclude vpon.

[Sidenote: An assemblie of lords at Winchester. A peace concluded
betwixt the king and the duke.] Thus was a publike assemblie made in the
citie of Winchester, whither also duke Henrie came who being ioifullie
receiued of the king in the bishops palace, they were made fréends, the
king admitting the duke for his sonne, and the duke the king for his
father, insomuch that the agreement, which (through the carefull sute of
the archbishop of Canturburie) had beene laboured with such diligence to
good effect, was now confirmed: the cheefe articles whereof were these.

     [Sidenote: Some writers haue recorded that duke Henrie should
     presentlie by this agréement enioy halfe the realme of England.]
     1 That king Stephan, during his naturall life, should remaine king
     of England, and Henrie the empresses sonne should enioy the
     dukedome of Normandie, and be proclaimed heire apparant to succéed
     in and haue the regiment of England, after the deceasse of Stephan.

     2 That such noble men, and other, which had held either with the
     one partie or the other, during the time of the ciuill warres,
     should be in no danger for the same but enioy their lands,
     possessions and liuings, according to their ancient rights and
     titles.

     3 That the king should resume and take into his hands againe, all
     such portions and parcels of inheritance belonging to the crowne,
     as he had giuen away, or were otherwise vsurped by any maner of
     person, and that all those possessions which by any intrusion had
     béene violentlie taken from the right owners, since the daies of
     king Henrie, should be restored to them that were rightlie
     possessed in the same by the daies of the said king.

     [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Castels to be razed in number. 1115.]
     4 That all those castels, which contrarie to all reason and good
     order had béene made and builded by any maner of person in the
     daies of king Stephan, should be ouerthrowne and cast downe, which
     were found to be eleuen hundred and fifteene.

     5 That the king should reforme all such disorders as warre had
     brought in; to restore farmers to their holdings, to repaire
     decaied buildings, to restore pastures and leassues with cattell,
     hils with sheepe, &c.

     6 That by his meanes the cleargie might enioy their due
     quietnesse, and not be oppressed with any vniust exactions.

     7 That he should place shirifes where they had béene accustomed
     to beare rule, with instructions giuen them to deale vprightlie
     in causes, so as offenders might not escape through bribes, or
     any other respect of freendship; but that euerie man might
     receiue according to right and equitie.

     8 That soldiours should conuert their swords (as Esaie saith)
     into culters & plough shares, their speares into mattocks, and so
     returne from the campe to the plough: and that such as were woont
     to keepe watch in the night season, might now sléepe and take
     their rest without any danger.

     9 That the husbandman might be set frée from all trouble and
     vexation, by meanes wherof he might follow his tilth, and plie
     his culture.

     10 That merchant men and occupiers might enioy their trades and
     occupations to their aduancement.

     11 That one kind and manner of siluer coine should run through
     the land, &c.

     12 There was also consideration had of a sonne which king Stephan
     had, named William, who though he were verie yoong, was yet
     appointed to sweare fealtie vnto duke Henrie as lawfull heire to
     the crowne. The same William had the citie of Norwhich, and
     diuerse other lands assigned him for the maintenance of his
     estate, and that by the consent and agréement of duke Henrie his
     adopted brother.

These things being thus concluded at Winchester, and the warre that had
continued, for the space of 17 yeares now ended and fullie pacified: the
king tooke the duke with him to London, dooing to him all the honour he
could deuise. The newes whereof being spred abrode, euerie good man
reioised thereat. Thus through the great mercie of God, peace was
restored vnto the decaied state of this relme of England. Which things
being thus accomplished with great ioy and tokens of loue, king Stephan
and his new adopted sonne duke Henrie tooke leaue either of other,
appointing shortlie after to méet againe at Oxenford, there to perfect
euerie article of their agréement, which was thus accorded a little
before Christmas.

¶ But by the way, for the better vnderstanding of the said agreement, I
haue thought good to set downe the verie tenor of the charter made by
king Stephan, as I haue copied it out, and translated it into English
out of an autentike booke conteining the old lawes of the Saxon and
Danish kings, in the end whereof the same charter is exemplified, which
booke is remaining with the right worshipfull William Fléetwood esquire,
now recorder of London, and sargeant at law.

     The charter of king Stephan, of the pacification of the troubles
     betwixt him and Henrie duke of Normandie.

     Stephan king of England, to all archbishops, bishops, abbats,
     earles, iusticers, sherifes, barons and all his faithfull
     subiects of England sendeth greeting. Know yee that I king
     Stephan, haue ordeined Henrie duke of Normandie after me by right
     of inheritance to be my successour, and heire of the kingdome of
     England, and so haue I giuen and granted to him and his heires
     the kingdome of England. For the which honour, gift, and
     confirmation to him by me made, he hath doone homage to me, and
     with a corporall oth hath assured me, that he shall be faithfull
     and loiall to me, and shall to his power preserue my life and
     honour: and I on the other side shall maineteine and preserue him
     as my sonne and heire in all things to my power, and so far as by
     any waies or meanes I may.

     [Sidenote: William sonne to king Stephan.] And William my sonne
     hath doone his lawfull homage, and assured his fealtie vnto the
     said duke of Normandie, and the duke hath granted to him to hold of
     him all those tenements and holdings which I held before I atteined
     to the possession of the realme of England, wheresoeuer the same be
     in England, Normandie, or elsewhere, [Sidenote: Earle Warren.] and
     whatsoeuer he receiued with the daughter of earle Warren, either in
     England or Normandie, & likewise whatsoeuer apperteineth to those
     honoures. And the duke shall put my sonne William and his men that
     are of that honour in full possession and seizine of all the lands,
     boroughs and rents, which the duke thereof now hath in his demaine,
     and namelie of those that belong to the honour of the earle Warren,
     [Sidenote: The castels of Bellencumber and Mortimer.] and namelie
     of the castels of Bellencumber and Mortimer, so that Reginald de
     Warren shall haue the kéeping of the same castels of Bellencumber,
     and of Mortimer, if he will; and therevpon shall giue pledges to
     the duke: and if he will not haue the keeping of those castels,
     then other liege of men of the said erle Warren, whom it shall
     please the duke to appoint, shall be sure pledges and good suertie
     keepe the said castels.

     Moreouer, the duke shall deliuer vnto him according to my will and
     pleasure the other castels, [Sidenote: The erledome of Mortaigne.]
     which belong vnto the earledome of Mortaigne by safe custodie and
     pledges, so soone as he conuenientlie may, so as all the pledges
     are to be restored vnto my sonne free, so soone as the duke shall
     haue the realme of England in possession. The augmentation also
     which I haue giuen vnto my sonne William, he hath likewise granted
     the same to him; [Sidenote: Norwich. ] to wit, the castell and
     towne of Norwich, with seauen hundred pounds in lands, so as the
     rents of Norwich be accounted as parcell of the same seauen hundred
     pounds in lands, and all the countie of Norfolke; the profits and
     rents which belong to churches, bishops, abbats & earles excepted;
     [Sidenote: Hugh Bigot] and the third pennie whereof Hugh Bigot is
     earle, also excepted: sauing also and reseruing the kings roiall
     iurisdiction for administration of iustice. Also the more to
     strengthen my fauour and loue to himwards, [Sidenote: Richer de
     Egle.] the duke hath giuen and granted vnto my said sonne
     whatsoeuer Richer de Aquila hath of the honour of Peuensey. And
     moreouer the castell and towne of Peuensey, and the seruice of
     Faremouth, beside the castell and towne of Douer, and whatsoeuer
     apperteineth to the honour of Douer.

     [Sidenote: The church of Feuersham.] The duke hath also confirmed
     the church of Feuersham with the appurtenances; and all other
     things giuen or restored by me vnto other churches, he shall
     confirme by the counsell and aduice of holie church and of me. The
     earles and barons that belong to the duke, which were neuer my
     leeges, for the honour which I haue done to their master, they haue
     now doone homage and sworne fealtie to me, the couenants betwixt me
     & the said duke alwaies saued. The other which had before doone
     homage to me, haue sworne fealtie to me as to their souereigne
     lord. And if the duke should breake and go from the premisses, then
     are they altogither to ceasse from dooing him any seruice, till he
     reforme his misdooings. And my sonne also is to constreine him
     thereto, according to the aduice of holie church, if the duke shall
     chance to go from the couenants afore mentioned. My earles and
     barons also haue doone their leege and homage vnto the duke, sauing
     their faith to me so long as I liue, and shall hold the kingdome
     with like condition, that if I doo breake and go from the premitted
     couenants, that then they may ceasse from dooing me any seruice,
     till the time I haue reformed that which I haue doone amisse.

     The citizens also of cities, and those persons that dwell in
     castels, which I haue in my demaine, by my commandement haue doone
     homage, and made assurance to the duke, sauing the fealtie which
     they owe to me during my life time, and so long as I shall hold the
     kingdome. [Sidenote: Wallingford castell.] They which keep the
     castle of Wallingford haue doone their homage to me, and haue giuen
     to me pledges for the observing of their fealtie. And I haue made
     vnto the duke such assurance of the castels and strengths which I
     hold by the counsell and aduice of holie church, that when I shall
     depart this life, the duke thereby may not run into any losse or
     impeachment, whereby to be debarred from the kingdome. [Sidenote:
     The tower of London. Mota de Windsor.] The tower of London, and the
     fortresse of Windsor, by the counsell and aduice of holie church
     are deliuered vnto the lord Richard de Lucie, [Sidenote: Richard de
     Lucie.] safelie to be kept, which Richard hath taken an oth, and
     hath deliuered his sonne in pledge to remaine in the hands and
     custodie of the archbishop of Canturburie, that after my decease he
     shall deliuer the same castels vnto the duke. Likewise by the
     counsell and aduise of holie church, [Sidenote: Mota de Oxford.]
     Roger de Bussey keepeth the castell of Oxford, and Jordaine de
     Bussey the castell of Lincolne, which Roger & Jordaine haue sworne,
     and thereof haue deliuered pledges into the hands of the
     archbishop, that if I shall chance to leaue this life, they shal
     render the same castels to the duke without impeachment. [Sidenote:
     The bishop of Winchester.] The bishop of Winchester hath also giuen
     his faith in the hands of the archbishop of Canturburie, that if I
     chance to depart this life, he shall render vp vnto the duke the
     castels of Winchester, and the fortresse of Hampton.

     And if any of them, vnto whom the custodie of these fortresses
     shall be committed, fortune to die, or otherwise to depart from
     his charge, an other shall be appointed to the keeping of the
     same fortresse, before he shall depart foorth thereof, by the
     counsell and aduice of holie church. And if any of those persons
     that haue any castels or fortresses belonging to me in their
     custodie shall be found disobedient and rebell, I and the duke
     shall constreine him to satisfie our will & pleasure, not leauing
     him in rest till he be so constreined. The archbishops and
     bishops of the realme of England, and the abbats also, haue by my
     commandement sworne fealtie vnto the duke; and the bishops and
     abbats that hereafter shall be made and aduanced here within the
     realme of England shall likewise sweare fealtie to him. The
     archbishops also and bishops on either part, haue vndertaken,
     that if either of vs shall go from the foresaid couenants, they
     shall so long chastise the partie offending with the
     ecclesiastical censures, till he reforme his fault, and returne
     to fulfill and obserue the said couenants. The mother also of the
     duke, and his wife, and his brethren, & subjects whom he may
     procure, shall likewise assure the premisses.

     In matters belonging to the state of the realme, I shall worke by
     the dukes aduice. And through all the realme of England, as well
     in that part which belongeth to the duke, as in that which
     belongeth to me, I shall see that roiall iustice be executed.
     These beeing witnesses, Theobald archbishop of Canturburie, Hen.
     of Winchester, Robert of Excester, Rob. of Bath, Goceline of
     Salisburie, Robert of Lincolne, Hilarie of Cicester, William of
     Norwich, Richard of London, Migell of Elie, Gilbert of Hereford,
     John of Worcester, Walter of Chester, Walter of Rochester,
     Geffrey of S. Asaph, Bishops: Robert prior of Bermondsey, Othon
     knight of the temple, William earle of Cicester, Robert earle of
     Leicester, William earle of Glocester, Renold of Cornewall,
     Baldwin de Toning, Roger de Hereford, Hugh Bigot, Patrike de
     Salisburie, William de Albemarle, Earle Alberike, Roger Clare,
     Richard erle of Pembroke, Richard de Lucie, William Martell,
     Richard de Humer, Reginald de Warren, Mahaser Biset, John de
     Port, Richard de Cameuille, Henrie de Essex. Geuen at
     Westminster.

[Sidenote: 1154. An. Reg. 19.] [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Thus far the
Charter: and now to proceed with the historie. Immediatlie after
Christmasse, euen in the Octaues of the Epiphanie, the king and duke
Henrie met againe Oxenford, where all the earls and barons of the land
being assembled, sware fealtie vnto duke Henrie, their allegiance due
vnto king Stephan, as to their souereigne lord and supreme gouernour so
long as he liued, alwaies reserued. The forme of the peace was now also
ingrossed and registered for a perpetuall witnesse of the thing, in this
yeare 1154. after their account that begin the yeare at Christmasse, as
about the feast of S. Hilarie in Januarie commonlie called the twentith
daie. Thus was Henrie the sonne of the empresse made the adopted sonne
of king Stephan, and therevpon the said Henrie saluted him as king, and
named him father. After conclusion of this peace, by the power of
almightie God, all debate ceassed in such wise, that the state of the
realme of England did maruelouslie for a time flourish, concord being
mainteined on ech hand. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] ¶ There be which affirme,
that an other cause bound king Stephan to agrée to this attonement
chiefelie, namelie for that the empresse (as they saie) was rather king
Stephans paramour than his enimie: [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Egelaw
heath.] and therefore (when she saw the matter growne to this point,
that they were readie to trie battell with their armies readie ranged on
a plaine in the westerne parts called Egelaw heath) she came secretlie
vnto king Stephan, & spake unto him on this wise: [Sidenote: The words
of the empresse to K. Stephan.] "What a mischieuous and vnnaturall thing
go ye about? Is it méet that the father should destroie the sonne? Is it
lawfull for the sonne to kill the father? For the loue of God (man)
refraine thy displeasure, and cast thy weapons out of thy hand, sith
that (as thou thy selfe knowest full well) Henrie is thine owne
sonne." [Sidenote: The empresse confesseth hir selfe to be naught of hir
bodie.] With these and the like words she put him in mind, and couertlie
told him, that he had to doo with hir a little before she was maried
vnto earle Geffrey.

The king by such tokens as the empresse gaue him, tooke hir words to be
true, and therevpon all his malice was streightwaies quenched: so that
calling foorth the archbishop of Canturburie, he vttered to him the
whole matter, and tooke therewith such direction, in sending to his
aduersaries for auoiding battell at that present, that immediatlie the
armies on both sides wrapped vp their ensignes, and euery man was
commanded to kéepe the peace, that a communication might be had about
the conclusion of some pacification, which afterwards ensued in maner
aboue mentioned.

¶ But whether this or some other cause moued the king to this peace, it
is to be thought that God was the worker of it. And surelie a man may
thinke it good reason, that the report of such secret companie-keeping
betwixt the king and the empresse, [Sidenote: Slanders deuised by
malicious heads.] was but a tale made among the common people vpon no
ground of truth, but vpon some slanderous deuice of a malicious head.
And admit that king Stephan had to doo hir; yet is it like that both of
them would doo for best to kéepe it secret, that no such reproch might
be imputed either to Henrie, who was taken to be legitimate; or to his
mother, whose honour thereby should not a little be stained.

[Sidenote: Oxenford. _Ger. Dor._ The King and duke méet at Dunstable.]
But now to the purpose. Shortlie after that the king and duke Henrie had
béene togither at Oxenford, where they ended all things touching the
peace & concord betwixt them concluded, they met againe at Dunstable,
where some cloud of displeasure seemed to darken the bright sunshine of
the late begun loue and amitie betwixt those two mightie princes the
king and the duke. [Sidenote: Articles not performed.] For where it was
accorded (among other articles) that all the castels which had béene
built since the daies of the late king Henrie for euill intents and
purposes, should be razed and throwne downe: contrarie therevnto
(notwithstanding manie of them were ouerthrowne and destroied to the
accomplishment of that article) diuers through the kings permission were
suffered to stand. And when the duke complained to the king thereof, he
could not get at that time any redresse, which somewhat troubled him:
but yet bicause he would not giue occasion of any new trouble, nor
offend the king, to whom (as to his reputed father) he would seeme to
yeeld all honour and due reuerence, he passeth it ouer.

[Sidenote: The king and duke come to Canturburie.] Within a while after,
the king and he came to Canturburie, where they were solemnlie receiued
of the couent of Christes church with procession. After this, in the
Lent season they went to Douer, where they talked with Theodorike earle
of Flanders, and with the countesse his wife who was aunt to duke
Henrie. At their comming towards Canturburie (as it was bruted) the duke
should haue béene murthered, [Sidenote: The enuie of the Flemings.]
through treason of the Flemings that enuied both the dukes person, and
also that peace which he had concluded with the king. But sée the hap.
As this feat should haue béene wrought on Berhamdowne, William earle of
Northfolke king Stephan his sonne, who was one of the chéefe
conspirators, fell beside his horsse, and brake his leg, so that euerie
man by that sudden chance was in a maze, & came woondering about him. ¶
This no doubt came to passe by the prouidence of God, though such
accidents are commonlie imputed to casualtie or chance medlie. For it is
the worke of God either to preuent, or to intercept, or to recompense
the vnnatural conspiracies of traitors and rebels with some notable
plague: according to that of the poet;
[Sidenote: _Hesiod in lib, cui tit. op. & di._]
    [Greek: Hoi autô kaka teuchei anês allô kaka teuchôn,
    Hê de kakê boulê tô bouleusanti kakistê],
    Noxius ipse sibi est alij qui quærit obesse,
    Consiliúmq; malum danti fert maxima damna.

Duke Henrie herewith getting knowledge of the treason intended against
him, or at the least suspecting somewhat, got him backe againe to
Canturburie, and so auoided the danger. After this, taking his way to
[Sidenote: Duke Henrie passeth ouer into Normandie.] Rochester, and so
to London, he got him a shipboord, and sailed by long seas into
Normandie, where he arriued in safetie.

After his departure, king Stephan spent the summer season of this yeare,
in going about the most part of the realme; shewing all the courtesie he
could deuise to the people in all places where he came; [Sidenote: _Will
Paru._ Philip de Coleuille. The castell of Drax.] except where he found
any rebellious persons, as in Yorkshire, where Philip de Coleuille (in
trust of his castell which he had stronglie fortified at a certeine
place called Drax) shewed himselfe disobedient to the king, who
assembling a power in the countrie, besieged that castell, and shortlie
wanne it, without any great adoo.

When duke Henrie was departed (as ye haue heard) and gone ouer into
Normandie, now that he had concluded a peace with king Stephan,
[Sidenote: The puissance of duke Hērie.] his puissance was thought to be
such, that he was able to mainteine warres with the mightiest prince
that then reigned. For in right of his wife, he had gotten possession of
the duchie of Aquitaine, and the earledome of Poictou; and further by
his mother, he enioied the duchie of Normandie, and looked to succéed in
the kingdome of England: and in right of his father he was earle of
Aniou, Thouraigne, and Maine. He also reuoked into his hands certeine
parcels of his demeane lands, which his father had giuen away, and
passing from thence into Aquitaine, mightilie subdued certeine lords and
barons there, that had rebelled against him.

[Sidenote: A peace concluded betwixt the French king and duke Henrie.
_Matth. West._] About the same time a peace was concluded betwixt the
French king, and this duke Henrie: the king restoring vnto the duke the
townes of Newmarch and Uernon, which he had before taken from him, and
the duke giuing to the king 20000. markes of siluer, for the harmes
doone by him, within the realme of France.

But now to returne vnto king Stephan. Yee shall vnderstand, that within
a while after he had made his foresaid progresse almost about the whole
realme, he returned vnto London, where he called a parlement as well to
consult of matters touching the state of the commonwealth, as to furnish
the see of Yorke with a sufficient archbishop. [Sidenote: _Wil. Paru._
Roger Archdeacon of Canturburie made archbishop of Yorke.] Wherevpon one
Roger that was before archdeacon of Canturburie, was chosen to that
dignitie, and consecrated the tenth day of October, by archbishop
Theobald, as legat to the pope, and not as archbishop of Canturburie.
[Sidenote: Thomas Becket archdeacon of Canturburie.] Then also was
Thomas Becket made archdeacon of Canturburie by the said Theobald. The
new archbishop Roger first went to his see at Yorke, where after he had
receiued his inthronization, and set his businesse there in order, he
tooke his iournie towards Rome to fetch his pall in his owne person.

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders.] King Stephan also after the end of
the parlement went to Douer, there to meet the earle of Flanders, who
came thither to talke with him of certeine businesse. The earle was no
sooner returned backe, but the king fell sicke, and was so gréeuouslie
tormented with a paine in his bellie, and with an old disease also,
wherewith (as should appear) he had beene often troubled, namelie, the
emrods, [Sidenote: King Stephan departed this life.] that finallie he
died in the abbey on the fiue and twentith day of October, in the nine
and fortith yeare of his age, and after he had reigned eighteene yeares,
ten moneths, and od daies, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour
1154. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _N. Triuet._] [Sidenote: 1154.] His
bodie was interred in the abbeie of Feuersham in Kent, which he had
builded, where his wife also, and his sonne Eustace were buried before.
¶ Thus farre of the acts and deeds of Stephan; now a little of other
breefe remembrances, and first touching the prosopographie or
description of his person.

[Sidenote: His stature.] He was comelie of stature, of a verie good
complexion and disposition, of great strength, in qualities of mind
verie excellent, expert in warre, gentle, curteous, and verie liberall.
For though he continued all his time in a maner in the maintenance of
wars, yet he leuied but few tributs, or almost none at all. Indéed he
put diuers bishops to greeuous fines, and that not without the iust
Judgement of Almightie God, that they might so be punished duelie for
their periurie committed in helping him to the crowne. Vices wherewith
he should be noted I find none, but that vpon an ambitious desire to
reigne, he brake his oth which he made vnto the empresse Maud.

[Sidenote: Abbeies founded. Coggeshall he founded himselfe, and Fontneis
in Lancashire, & Feuersham in Kent. _Wil. Paruus._] In his daies, the
abbeies of Tiltey, Fontneis, Rieualle, Coggeshall in Essex, Newbourgh
and Béeland, Meriuale in Warwikeshire, Garedon in Leicestershire,
Kirkstéed in Yorkeshire, with diuers other in other parts of the realme,
were founded, in so much that more abbeis were erected in his daies,
than had béene within the space of an hundred yeares before, as William
Paruus writeth.

A great number of castels also were builded in his daies (as before ye
haue heard) by the Nobles of the realme, either to defend the confines
of their countries from inuasions of forrenners, and violence of
homelings; or as fortifications to themselues when they ment or intended
any inrode or breaking vpon their neighbours.

Diuerse learned men namelie historiographers liued in these daies, as
William Malmesburie, Henrie Huntington, Simon Dunelmensis, Galfridus
Arturius, otherwise called Monumetensis, Caradoc Lancarnauensis,
William Reuellensis, among whom Thurstan archbishop of Yorke is not to
be forgotten, besides many more who in diuerse sciences were verie
expert and skilfull, as by treatises of their setting fóorth to the
world hath sufficientlie appeared.


     Thus far Stephan of Bullongne.



Transcriber's notes

There are no footnotes in the original. The original spelling and
punctuation have been retained, with the exception of obvious errors
which have been corrected by reference to the 1587 edition of which
the original is a transcription.

[1] Original reads 'hauiug'; corrected to 'hauing'.

[2] Original reads ' o'; corrected to 'to'.

[3] Original reads 'strenghthen'; corrected to 'strengthen'.

[4] Original reads 'insused'; corrected to 'insued'.





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