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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (5 of 12) - Henrie the Second
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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HENRIE THE SECOND,

The Second Sonne of Geffrey Plantagenet.


[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1.] Henrie the second of that name, a French man
borne, the second sonne of Geffrey Plantagenet earle of Aniou, begotten
of Maud the empresse, daughter to Henrie the first, [Sidenote: 1154.]
began his reigne ouer England the fiue and twentith of October, in the
yeare after the creation of the world 5121. and in the yeare after the
incarnation of our sauiour 1154. about the beginning of the third yeare
of the emperour Frederike the first, the second of pope Anastasius the
fourth, the seuenteenth yeare of Lewes the seuenth king of France, and
second of Malcolme then king of Scotland. Immediatlie after he was
aduertised of the death of king Stephan, he came ouer into England,
landing at Ostreham about the seuenth day of December. [Sidenote: _N.
Triuet._ _Matth. Paris._] After he had got his companies togither, which
by tempest were scattered in his passage, he came first to Winchester,
where he receiued homage and fealtie of the Nobles of the realme
resorting vnto him. This doone he set foorth towards London, where he
was crowned king by Theobald archbishop of Canturburie the twentith daie
of December.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ The archbishop of Rouen.] The archbishop of
Rouen, with thrée of his suffragans, the archbishop of Yorke, and manie
other bishops of England: Theodorus the earle of Flanders, with a great
number of other earles, lords and barons were present there at his
coronation. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] He was at that time about the age of
three and twentie yeares, and to win the peoples loue, he spake manie
comfortable words vnto them, to put them in hope (as the manner is) that
they should find him a louing prince. He vsed the lords also verie
courteouslie. [Sidenote: Councellers chosen.] And first of all, after
his attéining to the crowne, he chose to him councellers of the grauest
personages, and best learned in the lawes of the realme, with whose
prudent aduice he perused those lawes, and amended them where he thought
necessarie, commanding chieflie, [Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._] that the lawes
established by his grandfather Henrie the first should be obserued:
[Sidenote: Thom. Becket lord chancellor] and in manie things he relied
vpon the aduice of Theobald archbishop of Canturburie, at whose sute he
admitted Thomas Becket to be his chancellour, which Becket the said
archbishop had made archdeacon of Canturburie the yeare before.

Moreouer, by the sentence and doome of his councellers, to the intent
that peace and quiet order might take place, and be the better
mainteined, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 2. 1155] he commanded by waie of
publishing a proclamation, [Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._ _Polydor._ _Wil.
Paruus._ Strangers appointed to depart the realme. Aliens auoid the
land.] that all strangers (which to get somwhat by the wars had flocked
into the realme, during the time of the ciuill discord betweene him and
king Stephan) shuld depart home without further delaie: wherefore he
appointed them a daie, before the which they should auoid vpon perill
that might insue. It was a worlds woonder to sée and marke how suddenlie
these aliens were quite vanished, as though they had béene phantasmes.
Their abiding here was nothing profitable to the subiects of the realme,
as they that were accustomed to attempt one shrewd turne vpon an others
necke, and thought it lawfull for them so to doo. Amongst them was a
great number of Flemings, whom the king hated more than the residue.

[Sidenote: William de Ypres.] By vertue also of this edict, William of
Ypres, whom king Stephan (as ye haue heard) had made earle of Kent, was
constreined with others to depart the realme, king Henrie seizing all
his possessions into his owne hands. [Sidenote: Castels ouerthrowne.
_Polydor._ _Matth. Paris._] Diuerse castels were throwne downe and made
plaine with the ground at the kings commandement, which priuate men by
king Stephans permission had builded, or else for that they stood not in
such places as was thought meet and expedient; [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._
_Matth. Paris._] yet some he caused to be fortified: and furthermore,
tooke into his hands againe such lands and possessions as apperteined to
the crowne, and were alienated vnto any manner of person, of what degrée
so euer he was. This wounded the minds of many with an inward grudge, as
well enough perceiuing that the king would looke so néere to his owne
commoditie, that nothing should be left for them that might any way be
recouered and gotten to his vse.

In this yere queene Elianor being then in the citie of London, on the
last of Februarie was deliuered of hir second sonne named Henrie.
[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Matth. Paris._ _Matth. West._ William Peuerell
disherited.] About the same time also, William Peuerell of Notingham a
noble man and of great possessions was disherited by the king for
sorcerie and witchcraft[1], which he had practised to kill Ranulfe earle
of Chester, as it was reuealed openlie, and brought to light. In
accomplishing of which hainous crime and detestable act, many others
were of counsell, and found giltie with him, which escaped not
vnpunished.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Treuet._] On the tenth of Aprill, king Henrie assembled
the péeres & great lords of his realme togither at Wallingford, and
caused them to sweare allegiance vnto his eldest sonne William:
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Nic. Treuet._ Hugh de Mortimer. The castell
of Cleberie.] prouiding, that if he chanced to die, then they should doo
the like vnto his brother Henrie. Also whereas Hugh de Mortimer had
fensed his castels against king Henrie, he besieged the same, and taking
the castell of Cleberie, he destroied it. Wherevpon, the foresaid Hugh
shortlie after was at peace with the king, and surrendred to him the two
castels of Wigmore and Bridgenorth, which hitherto he had holden.
[Sidenote: Roger Fitz Miles.] Moreouer, whereas there was variance
kindled betwixt the king, and Roger Fitz Miles of Glocester (who was
earle of Hereford) for the lands of Glocester, that variance was also
quenched: for after the same Roger was dead, his brother Walter
succeeding him in the earldome of Hereford, was constreined to depart
with the citie of Glocester, which the king held and reteined in his
owne hands.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.] In the second yeare of his reigne, [Sidenote:
The king goeth into the north.] king Henrie went to Yorke, and in that
countrie tooke into his hands diuers castels which had béene long in
possession of priuate men; [Sidenote: The castell of Scarborough.]
namelie, the castell of Scarborough, which William earle of Albemarle
held, and now was constreined to resign it vp, full sore against his
will. [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ _Nic. Treuet._ The death of the kings
son William.] This yeare William the kings eldest sonne departed this
life, and was buried at Reading. The realme of England was brought on
all sides into verie good quiet; [Sidenote: Geffrey the kings brother
rebelleth.] but yer long, word came to K. Henrie, that his brother
Geffrey had begun a rebellion on the other side of the sea. For their
father Geffrey (when he died) left thrée sonnes behind him, Henrie,
Geffrey, and William, ordeining by his testament, when Henrie should
haue gotten possession of England and Normandie, that then the countrie
of Aniou should remaine vnto Geffrey, and in the meane time, he to haue
these three townes, Chinon, Lodun, and Mirabell, to mainteine his
estate; and when the time came that the whole heritage should fall vnto
him, he might by possession of these three haue a readier meane to come
by all the rest. [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] Furthermore, fearing least
his eldest sonne Henrie (who as then was absent) would not consent to
the performance of this his will, he caused certeine bishops and other
of the Nobles to sweare, that they should not suffer his bodie to be
committed to buriall, till his sonnes had sworne to fulfill his last
will and testament in all other things, but especially in this behalfe,
wherin he iudged not amisse. For though Henrie was loth to take his oth,
yet bicause his fathers bodie should not remaine vnburied, he was
contented to sweare.

But after he had obteined the kingdome of England, his couetous desire,
increasing still with abundance alreadie obteined, [Sidenote: Pope
Adrian an Englishman borne. A dispensatiō for an oth. _Nic. Treuet._]
found meanes to procure of pope Adrian the fourth (who was an Englishman
borne) a dispensation for that oth: wherevpon (hauing got licence to
depart from the office both of right, law and equitie) neglecting his
fathers ordinance, he passed ouer into Normandie, and making war against
his brother the said Geffrey, easilie expelled him out of those places,
which were assigned him by bequest in his fathers testament, and so
tooke the earledome of Aniou into his owne possession. Howbeit, he gaue
vnto his said brother a pension of a thousand pounds English & two
thousand pounds of the monie of Aniou, with the towne of Lodun, and
certeine other lands to liue vpon; who neuerthelesse thinking himselfe
euill vsed at the kings hands, rebelled and died.

¶ Here we haue to note the lacke of conscience and religion, not onlie
in the pretended successor of Peter in giuing a dispensasion for an oth,
but also in his good ghostlie sonne, who was no lesse forward in
reuolting from his oth, than the other was willing to acquite him from
the force thereof. But if these men had beene profiting scholars in the
vniuersitie of the pagans, as they were arrand truants and ranke
dullards in the schoole of christians, they might haue learned by
profane examples, that as oths are not to be rashlie taken, so they are
not to be vnaduisedlie broken. Herevnto alludeth Aristotle in his
Metaphysikes, shewing the cause why poetrie hath feigned that the gods
in old time vsed to sweare by water, as Jupiter is reported to haue
doone in this manner;
[Sidenote: _Ouid. Met. lib. 1. fab. 6._]
                       ---- per flumina iuro
    Infera sub terra Stygio labentia luco.

To signifie vnto vs, that as water is a verie ancient and excellent
element, and so necessarie that without it the life of man cannot
consist; euen so we ought to estéeme of an oth, than the which we should
thinke nothing more religious, nothing more holie, nothing more
christian. [Sidenote: _Ouid. Met. lib. 3. fab. 8, 9, 10._] Herevnto also
tendeth the fable of the transmutation of mariners into Dolphins for
periurie: importing thus much for our instruction, that the breaking of
an oth, in a case that may preiudice, procureth greeuous punishments
from God against them that so lewdlie doo offend. But such is the
impudencie of the pope, that he will not grant dispensations onlie for
oths, but for incest, for treason, and for any other sinne: which he may
doo (as he boasteth) by vertue of his absolute and vniuersall
iurisdiction: as we haue latelie in most lamentable sort séene
exemplified. But to the course of our storie.

[Sidenote: 1156.] Shortlie after, when king Henrie had dispatched his
businesse in Normandie, and made an end of troubles there betwixt him
and his brother Geffrey, he returned into England, bicause he receiued
aduertisement, that Malcolme king of Scotland began to make war against
his subiects that bordered next vnto him, wherevpon he hasted
northwards: [Sidenote: King Henrie goeth against the Scots. He wan
Carleil and Newcastell and others.] and comming first into Cumberland,
he tooke the citie of Carleil, seizing all that countrie into his hands;
and going after into Northumberland, he wan the towne of Newcastell,
with the castell of Bamburg, and tooke into his possession all that
countrie which his mother the empresse had sometimes granted vnto king
Dauid, as before ye haue heard: howbeit, bicause he would not séeme to
offer too much wrong, and be esteemed vnmindfull of former benefites
receiued, [Sidenote: The earledome of Huntingtō.] he suffered king
Malcolme to enioy the earledome of Huntington, which king Stephan had
giuen vnto his father earle Henrie, sonne to king Dauid, as before is
partlie touched.

[Sidenote: William earle of Mortaigne _Matth. Paris._ _Nic. Treuet._]
William also the earle of Mortaigne, and Warren sonne of king Stephan,
were compelled to surrender to king Henrie, the castell of Pemsey, the
citie of Norwich, and other townes and castels which he held,
apperteining to the demeane of the crowne: to whom the king in
recompense restored those lands which his father king Stephan held in
the daies of king Henrie the first.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3. 1157.] [Sidenote: Theodorike earle of Flanders.]
About this time Theodorike earle of Flanders (going with his wife vnto
Jerusalem) committed his sonne Philip with all his lands, to the
custodie of the king of England. Hugh Bigot also resigned his castels
into the kings hands.

But whilest king Henrie was about (as before ye haue heard) to recouer
and get backe the portions of his kingdome made away and dismembred by
his predecessors, he was informed that the Welshmen raised a rebellion
against him; [Sidenote: Rebellion of Welshmen. The king inuadeth them.]
to represse whose attempts, he hasted foorth with all diligence. Now at
his first approch to their countrie, his souldiers being set vpon in the
straits, were verie fiercelie put back by the enimies, in somuch that a
rumor ran how king Henrie was slaine, which puffed vp the Welshmen with
no small hope, and dawnted the Englishmen with great feare. In déed,
diuerse of the English nobilitie were slaine, [Sidenote: Eustace Fitz
John & Robert de Curey slaine.] and (amongst others) Eustace Fitz John,
and Robert de Curey, men of great honor and reputation.

Those which escaped in returning backe, not knowing that the king passed
through the straits without danger, declared to their fellowes that
followed and were approching to the said straits, that (so farre as they
knew) the king and all the residue were lost. [Sidenote: Henrie of
Essex.] These newes so discomforted the companies, that Henrie of Essex,
which bare the kings standard by right of inheritance, threw downe the
same, and fled: [Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _Wil. Paruus._ A combat
betwixt Henrie de Essex, and Robert de Mountfort. _Matth. West._] which
dishonorable déed was afterward laid to his charge by one Robert de
Mountfort, with whom (by order taken of the king) he fought a combat in
triall of the quarrell, and was ouercome: but yet the king qualifieng
the rigor of the iudgement by mercie pardoned his life, and appointed
him to be a shorne moonke, and put into the abbey of Reading, taking his
lands and possessions into his hands as forfeited: howbeit this combat
was not tried till about the 9. yeare of this kings reigne.

Now the king, hearing that his armie was discomfited, came to his men,
and shewing himselfe to them with open visage, greatlie reuiued the
whole multitude, and then procéeding against the enimies, his people
were afterwards more warie in looking to themselues, [Sidenote: The
Welshmen submit themselues.] insomuch that at length (when the K.
prepared to inuade the Welshmen both by water & land) they sought to him
for peace, and wholie submitted themselues vnto his grace and mercie.

[Sidenote: The castell of Rutland and Basingwerke built. _Matth.
Paris._] About the same time, king Henrie builded the castell of
Rutland, the castell of Basingwerke, and one house also of Templers. In
the moneth of September also this yeare, the kings third sonne was borne
at Oxenford, & named Richard. [Sidenote: Ann. Reg. 4.] [Sidenote: Thomas
Becket lord Chancelor.] [Sidenote: 1158.] This yeare was Thomas Becket
preferred to be the kings Chancellor. The king holding his Christmas at
Worcester in great royaltie, sat in the church at seruice, with his
crowne on his head, as the kings vsed in those daies to doo on solemne
feasts: but as soone as masse was ended, he tooke his crowne from his
head, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ The king laieth his crown on the
altar.] and set it downe vpon the altar in signe of humblenes, so that
he neuer after passed for the wearing of a crowne. [Sidenote: Coine
altered.] The same yeare also the king altered his coine, abrogating
certeine peeces called basels.

In the moneth of August he went ouer into Normandie, and came to an
enteruiew with the French king neere to the riuer of Eata, [Sidenote:
Additions to John Pike.] where they intreated of a league, and of a
marriage, which was after agréed vpon, betwixt Henrie the sonne of king
Henrie; and the ladie Margaret, daughter to the French king: [Sidenote:
The lord chancellor Becket sent into France. _Matth. West._] at which
time Thomas Becket (then being the kings chancellor) was sent to Paris
in great araie to fetch hir: who among other furnitures had nine long
charrets (as Matthew Paris writeth.) Now when this ladie was deliuered
to Thomas Becket the lord chancellor, and brought from Paris, she was
appointed from thencefoorth to remaine in the house of Robert de
Newburge, a Noble man of great honor, vntill such time as the mariage
should be solemnized.

After the two kings were departed in sunder, K. Henrie prepared an armie
against Conan duke of Britaine, who had seized the citie of Naunts into
his hands, after the decease of Geffrey the kings brother, who was earle
of Naunts. At length, the same Conan perceiuing himselfe not able to
resist the king of England, vpon the daie of the feast of saint Michael
the archangell came to king Henrie, and surrendred the citie of Naunts
into his hands, with all the whole countrie therevnto belonging. Soone
after which resignation, [Sidenote: Geffrey the kings fourth son born.]
and vpon the 24. of August, Geffrey the kings fourth sonne was borne of
his wife queene Elianor.

In December following, Theobald earle of Blois was accorded with king
Henrie, to deliuer to him two of his castels. [Sidenote: Petroke earle
of Perch.] Likewise Petroke earle of Perch surrendred two castels vnto
king Henrie, which he had vsurped of the demeanes of Normandie in the
daies of king Stephan: one of which castels the king gaue him againe,
receiuing homage of him for the same.

[Sidenote: Raimond erle of Barzelone. Richard the kings sonne offered to
erle Raimonds daughter.] Moreouer king Henrie and Raimond earle of
Barzelone met togither at Blaime, where they concluded a league by way
of allegiance, so that Richard the sonne of king Henrie should take to
wife the daughter of the said Raimond in time conuenient; and that the
king of England should giue vnto the said Richard the duchie of
Aquitane, & the countie of Poictow. This earle Raimond had married the
daughter and heire of the king of Aragon.

In the meane time, a secret grudge that had long depended betwéene king
Henrie and king Lewes of France did still continue, and though there was
a friendship agreed betweene them (as ye haue heard) to haue
extinguished the same; [Sidenote: A fained friendship.] yet was it but a
fained friendship: for vpon euery new occasion they were readie to
breake againe, as it came to passe shortlie after.

[Sidenote: William duke of Aquitaine.] William duke of Aquitane,
grandfather to queene Elianor, married the daughter and heire of the
earle of Tholouze, and going vnto the warres of the holie land,
[Sidenote: Earle of saint Giles otherwise Tholouze.] he engaged that
earledome vnto Raimond the earle of saint Giles, and died before he
could returne. His sonne William, father to quéene Elianor, suffered his
earledome to remaine still vnredéemed, either for want of sufficiencie,
or through negligence and carelesnesse: so that the earle of saint Giles
kéeping possession thereof vnto his dieng daie, left it to his sonne
Raimond, who inioyed it likewise. Now when king Lewes (hauing married
the foresaid Elianor) demanded restitution as in the right of his wife,
earle Raimond flatlie at the first denied to restore it, but after
considering his lacke of power to resist the kings puissance, he plied
the K. with humble petitions, and so preuailed by faire words; that in
the end king Lewes granted him his sister Constance in marriage (which
Constance, as ye haue heard, was married before vnto Eustace the sonne
of king Stephan) & with hir granted him libertie to reteine the earldome
of Tholouze as it were by waie of endowment: whereto the other accorded.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5. 1159.] [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris_ _Matt. Westm._]
Howbeit king Henrie hauing married the foresaid quéene Elianor, after
the diuorse had betwixt hir and king Lewes, made claime to the said
countie of Tholouze in the right of his wife. Herevpon earle Raimond,
trusting now to the aid of his brother in law king Lewes, denied to
restore it; so that king Henrie determined to recouer it by force, and
entring by and by into Gascoine with an armie, he drew towards the
countrie of Tholouze, & began to inuade the same with great force and
courage.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ William Trencheuille.] Diuerse great lords of
those parties ioyned with king Henrie in his war which he attempted
against the earle of saint Giles, as the earle of Barzelone, and the
lord William Thencheuile, a man of great power in those quarters, hauing
vnder his rule manie cities, castels and townes, notwithstanding that he
had of late lost many of them by violence of the foresaid earle of
Tholouze, but now by the aide of king Henrie he recouered them all.
[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] Malcolme also king of Scotland came vnto king
Henrie, whilest he was foorth in this iournie, to associate him in this
businesse.

The earle hearing of king Henries comming with an armie, was put in
great feare, and therevpon wrote letters to his brother in law king
Lewes, requiring him with all spéed possible to come vnto his aid. King
Lewes vpon receipt of the letters, & vnderstanding the present danger of
the earle, made such hast in continuing his iournie both daie and night,
that he came to Tholouze, before king Henrie could arriue there. Which
when king Henrie vnderstood, and perceiued how he was preuented, he
changed his purpose of besieging the citie, and fell to spoiling of the
countrie thereabouts: [Sidenote: The citie of Cahors. _N. Triuet._ The
lord chancellor Becket.] at which time he recouered certaine places
that latelie before had reuolted from his gouernment, & (amongst the
rest) the citie of Cahors, which he furnished with men, munition and
vittels, appointing his chancellor Thomas Becket to the custodie and
keeping thereof: he fortified other places also which he had gotten,
placing capteines and men of warre to looke vnto the defense of the
same. Whilest the king was thus abrode on his iournie in the parties of
Aquitaine, [Sidenote: _Rob. Houed._ William earle of Bullongne.] William
earle of Bullongne and Mortaine the sonne of king Stephan, and Haimon
earle of Glocester departed this life, which two earles went thither
with him.

Finallie, when he had set things at a staie in those parties, he
returned towards Normandie, and comming to the citie of Toures, he gaue
the order of knighthood vnto Malcolme king of Scotland, and so in the
moneth of October he came backe into Normandie, and there augmenting his
armie with new supplies, [Sidenote: The countie of Beauuoisin.] entred
into the countie of Beauuoisin, burned manie villages in the same, and
destroied the strong castell of Gerberie, except one turret, which his
souldiers could not take, by reason of the fire and smoke which staied
and kept them from it. Moreouer, Simon earle of Auranches deliuered vnto
king Henrie such fortresses as he held in France, as Rochfort, Montfort,
and such like, which was no small discommoditie and inconuenience to the
French king, bicause the garisons placed in those fortresses impeached
the passage betwixt Paris and Orleance. [Sidenote: A truce taken.] But
shortlie after, a truce was taken to last from the moneth of December,
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6. 1160.] vnto the feast of the holie Trinitie in
the yeare next following.

[Sidenote: A peace concluded. A marriage concluded. _Matth. Paris._
Legats.] In the moneth of Maie also insuing, a peace was concluded vpon
the former articles and conditions: for further confirmation whereof,
the mariage was solemnized betwixt Henrie the kings sonne being seuen
yeares of age, and the ladie Margaret daughter to the French king, being
not past three yeares old: as writers doo report. The marriage was
celebrated at Newborough on the second daie of Nouember, by the
authoritie of two legats of the apostolike sée, Henrie bishop of Pisa,
and William bishop of Pauia, both preests and cardinals.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ Certeine of the Ualdois came into England
being Dutchmē.] About the same time came certeine Dutchmen of the sort
called Ualdoies ouer into this realme, to the number of thirtie or more,
who held opinions in religion contrarie to the faith of the Romane
church, for (as one author affirmeth) they which first spred the
opinions which these men held, came from Gascoigne, and preuailed so
greatlie in setting foorth their doctrine, that they mightilie increased
through the large regions of Spaine, France, Italie, and Germanie:
simple men (God wote) they were for the most part, as is written of
them, and of no quicke capacitie. Howbeit, those which at this time came
ouer into England, were indifferentlie well learned, and their
principall or ringleader was named Gerard. [Sidenote: A councell at
Oxford.] Now also was a councell assembled at Oxford, whereat these
dogmatists were examined vpon certeine points of their profession.
[Sidenote: The professions of the Ualdoies.] The forsaid Gerard
vndertaking to answere for them all, protested that they were good
christians, and had the doctrine of the apostles in all reuerence.
Moreouer, being examined what they thought of the substance of the
godhead and the merits of Christ, they answered rightlie, and to the
point; [Sidenote: Their examination & protestation. The Ualdois
condemned.] but being further examined vpon other articles of the
religion then receiued, they swarued from the church, and namelie, in
the vse of the diuine sacraments, derogating such grace from the same,
as the church by hir authoritie had then ascribed thereto. To conclude,
they would renounce their opinions, in somuch that they were condemned,
burned in the forehead with an hot iron, and in the cold season of
winter stripped naked from the girdle steed vpward, and so whipped out
of the towne; [Sidenote: They are forbidden meat and drinke. They are
starued to death.] with proclamation made, that no man should be so
hardie as to receiue them into any house, relieue them with meat,
drinke, or any other kind of meanes: wherevpon it fell out in fine that
they were starued to death through cold and hunger: howbeit in this
their affliction they séemed to reioise, in that they suffered for Gods
cause, as they made account.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ The first falling out betwixt the K. & Thomas
Becket.] The same yeare, Matthew sonne to the earle of Flanders married
the ladie Marie the abbesse of Ramsie, daughter to king Stephan, and
with hir had the countie of Bullongne. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Matth. West._] [Sidenote: 1161.] About this
mariage grew the first falling out betwixt the king and his chancellor
Thomas Becket (as some haue written) but none more than the said
Matthew was offended with the said chancellor, bicause he was so sore
against the said contract.

King Henrie, shortlie after the marriage was consummate betwixt his
sonne & the French kings daughter, got into his hands the castell of
Gisors, with two other castels, situate vpon the riuer of Eata in the
confines of Normandie and France. For it was accorded betwixt the two
kings, that when the marriage should be finished, king Henrie should
haue those thrée castels, bicause they apperteined to Normandie;
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] in the meane time, the same castels were
deliuered into the hands of Robert de Poiron, Tostes de Saint Omer, and
Robert Hastings, thrée knights templers, who vpon the consummation of
the marriages before said, and according to the trust committed to them,
surrendred the possession of the said castels into the hands of king
Henrie.

But the French king was not a little mooued, for that king Henrie had
seized vpon them without his licence, in so much that he raised a power
of armed men, and sent them into Normandie, [Sidenote: _Gaguinus._ The
French & Normans fight.] where they had one cruell conflict aboue the
rest with the Normans, till the night parted them in sunder, by meane
whereof the Frenchmen withdrew to Chaumount, and the Normans to Gisors.
The next daie, as the Frenchmen came foorth againe, purposing to haue
won Gisors, they were beaten backe by the Normans, who issued out of the
towne to skirmish with them. Thus was the warre renewed betwixt these
two princes; [Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._] and by setting on of Theobald
earle of Blois, the matter grew to that point, that the English and
French powers comming foorthwith into the field, and marching one
against an other, they approched so neere togither, that battell was
presentlie looked for, first in Ueulgessine, and after in the teritorie
of Dune; but yet in the end such order was taken betwixt them, that
their armies brake vp.

[Sidenote: Thrée knights templers. _Rog. Houed._] The three Templers
also ran in displeasure of the French king, for the deliuerie of the
castels before they knew his mind, so that he banished them the realme
of France for euermore: but king Henrie receiued them, and gaue them
honorable enterteinement. Some write that there were but two castels,
Gisors and Meall, which were thus put into their hands, [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._] and by them deliuered as before is mentioned.

[Sidenote: The death of Theobald archbishop of Canturburie.] About this
time Theobald archbishop of Canturburie departed this life, after he had
gouerned that sée the space of 22. yeares, who at his going to Rome, and
receipt of the pall of pope Innocent the second, was also created legat
of the see apostolike, which office he exercised so diligentlie, and so
much to the auaile of the church, [Sidenote: The power legantine anexed
to Cant. _Wil. Paru._] that the dignitie of legatship remained euer
after to the archbishop of Canturburie by a speciall decrée, so that
they were intituled Legati nati, that is to say Legats borne (as mine
author dooth report.) This Theobald greatlie fauoured Thomas Becket.

This Becket was borne in London, his father hight Gilbert, but his
mother was a Syrian borne, and by religion a Saracen: [Sidenote: The
authoritie of Becket.] howbeit (no regard had of his parents) he grew so
highlie in fauour with the king, and might doo so much in England,
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.] that he seemed to reigne as if he had beene
associat with him also in the kingdome, and being Lord chancellor, the
king sent him ouer into England (Richard Lucie being in his companie)
with sundrie letters in his fauour, thereby to procure his election to
that sée: which was brought to passe according to the kings desire at
Westminster. [Sidenote: He is consecrated archb. _Wil. Paru._] Afterward
he was ordeined at Canturburie on saturdaie in Witsunwéeke, by Henrie
bishop of Winchester (although there be that write how Walter bishop of
Rochester did consecrate him) which consecration was in the 44. yeare of
his age, [Sidenote: 1162.] and in the fift yere after his first
aduancement to the office of Lord chancellor, [Sidenote: Quadrilogium ex
vita eiusdem Thomæ.] so that he was the eight and thirtith archbishop
which gouerned in that see.

Toward the end of the same yeare, Henrie the kings sonne receiued homage
of the barons, first in Normandie, and after in England. [Sidenote: The
archbishop a better courtier than a preacher.] In the yeare ensuing, the
king his father committed him to archbishop Becket, that he might sée
him brought vp and trained in maners and courtlie behauiour, as
apperteined to his estate: wherevpon the archbishop in iest called him
his sonne.

[Sidenote: The quéene brought to bed of a daughter.] This yeare Quéene
Elianor was brought to bed at Rohan of a daughter named Elianor.

[Sidenote: An enteruiew.] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9. 1163.] [Sidenote: _N.
Triuet._] In like maner the kings of England and France receiued pope
Alexander the third at Cocie vpon Loire with all honor and reuerence,
insomuch that they attended vpon his stirrup on foot like pages or
lackies, the one vpon his right side, and the other on his left.

¶ Note here the intollerable pride of this antichristian pope in
assuming, and the basemindednesse of these two kings in ascribing vnto
that man of sinne such dignitie as is vtterlie vnfit for his indignitie.
But what will this monster of men, this Stupor mundi, this Diaboli
primogenitus & hæres not arrogate for his owne aduancement; like yuie
climing aloft, & choking the trée by whose helpe it créepeth vp from the
root to the top. But the end of this seauen horned beast so extolling
and lifting it selfe vp to heauen, is
    ---- Erebo miserè claudetur in imo
    Atque illic miris cruciatibus afficietur.

[Sidenote: Homage of the K. of Scots.] In Januarie ensuing, the king
returned into England, and the same yeare the king of Scots did homage
vnto Henrie the yonger, and deliuered his yonger brother Dauid to the
king his father, with diuerse other the sonnes of his lords and barons
in pledge, for assurance of a perpetuall peace to be kept betweene them,
with some such castels as he required.

[Sidenote: A councell at Tours.] In the meane time archbishop Thomas
went to the councell holden by pope Alexander at Tours in the Octaues of
Pentecost, where he resigned his bishoprike into the popes hands (as the
fame went) being troubled in conscience for that he had receiued it by
the kings preferment. The pope allowing his purpose, committed the same
pastorlike dignitie to him againe by his ecclesiasticall power, whereby
the archbishop was eased verie well of his greefe, and shortlie after
his returne from his councell, seemed desirous to reduce & cause to be
restored such rights as he pretended to belong vnto the church of
Canturburie, whereby he ran into the displeasure of manie, and namelie
of the mightiest.

Moreouer he required of the king the kéeping of Rochester castell, & the
custodie of the tower of London. [Sidenote: The archbish. practiseth
treason secretlie. Homage for the castell of Tunbridge.] He alledged
also that Saltwood & Hith belonged peculiarlie to the seigniorie of his
see. He called Roger earle of Clare vnto Westminster, to doo his homage,
vnto him for the castell of Tunbridge: but the earle denied it through
the setting on of the king, alledging all the fee thereof to apperteine
rather to the king than to the archbishop. Thus was the archbishop
troubled, and he grew dailie more and more out of the kings fauour. For
yee must vnderstand, that this was not the first nor the second, but the
eight time that the king had shewed tokens of his displeasure against
him.

After this, vpon the first day of Julie, Rice prince of Southwales, with
diuerse other lords and nobles of Wales, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._
_Matth. West._] did homage both to the king and to his sonne Henrie at
Woodstocke. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.] Hamline the kings bastard brother
married the countesse of Warren, the widow of William earle of Mortaigne
bastard sonne to king Stephan. [Sidenote: Homage of the Welshmen.]
[Sidenote: 1164.] [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] This countesse was the sole
daughter and heire of William the third earle of Warren, which went with
Lewes king of France into the holie land, and there died. Soone after,
the Welshmen rebelling with their prince Rice and his vncle Owen, did
manie mischéefes on the marshes: and by the death of Walter Gifford
earle of Buckingham (who deceased this yeare without heire) that
earledome came to the kings hands.

On the 20. daie of September were three circles seene to compasse the
sun, and so continued the space of thrée houres togither: [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._] which when they vanished awaie, two sunnes appeared and
sprang foorth after a maruellous maner. Which strange sight the common
people imagined to be a signe or token of the controuersie then kindling
betwixt the king and the archbishop.

About this time the king called a parlement at Westminster, to treat of
matters concerning the commonwealth, [Sidenote: Discord still kindleth
betwixt the king and the archb.] wherein great discord arose betwixt the
king & archbishop Becket, about certeine points touching the liberties
of the church. For the king hauing an earnest zeale vnto iustice, and
commanding the iudges to punish offenders without respect, vnderstood by
their information, that manie things by them of the spiritualtie
(against whome their authoritie might not be extended) were committed
contrarie to common order: as theft, rapine, murther, and manslaughter;
in so much that in his presence it was made notorious, that sith the
beginning of his reigne, [Sidenote: Murthers committed by préests.]
aboue an hundred manslaughters had béene committed within his realme of
England by préests and men of religious orders. Herevpon being mooued in
mind, he set forth lawes against the spiritualtie, wherein he shewed his
zeale of iustice. For as the cause procéeded from the bishops of that
age, so did the fault also, sith contrarie to their owne canons they
permitted préests to liue ouer licentiouslie without due correction,
[Sidenote: _W. Paruus._] studieng onelie to mainteine the liberties and
immunities of the church, and not to reforme the irregularitie of the
regulars. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] Of this crew was one Philip de
Broc, a canon of Bedford, who being arreigned before the kings iusticer
for a murther, vttered disdainefull words against the same iusticer:
which when he could not denie before the archbishop, he was depriued of
his prebend, and banished the land for two yeares space.

These things troubled the king, who therefore hauing alreadie set downe
such orders as should bridle the spiritualtie from their wicked dooings,
thought that if he might get them confirmed in parlement by consent of
the bishops and clergie, then the same should take place and be receiued
for lawes. [Sidenote: The king meaneth to bridle the spiritualtie frō
presumptuous dealing. The prelats against the king. _Ger. Dor._]
Wherefore he earnestlie required at this parlement that it
might be enacted against all such of the spiritualtie, as should be
taken and conuicted for any henious offense, they should loose the
priuiledge of the church, and be deliuered vnto the ciuill magistrate,
who should sée them suffer execution for their offences, in like maner
as he might any of the kings subiects being laie men. For otherwise the
king alledged, that they would boldlie presume to doo much more
mischiefe, if after ecclesiasticall discipline, no secular correction
should follow. And likelie it was that they would passe but little for
their disgrading and losse of their order, who in contempt of their
calling would not absteine from committing most mischieuous
abhominations and hainous enormities.

Unto these reasons thus proponed by the king (to haue his purpose take
effect) the archbishop and his suffragans, with the rest of the bishops,
answered verie pithilie, labouring to proue that it was more against the
liberties of the church, than that they might with reason well allow.
Wherevpon the king being moued exceedinglie against them, demanded
whether they would obserue his roiall lawes and customes, which the
archbishops and bishops in the time of his grandfather did hold and
obeie or not? [Sidenote: Their order saued.] Wherevpon they made
answere, that they would obserue them, Saluo ordine suo, Their order in
all things saued. But the king being highlie offended with such
exceptions, vrged the matter so, that he would haue them to take their
oth absolutely, & without all exceptions, but they would none of that.
[Sidenote: The king offended with the bishops.] At length he departed
from London in verie great displeasure with the bishops, hauing first
taken from the archbishop Thomas all the offices and dignities which he
enioied since his first being created chancellor.

Howbeit, after this, manie of the bishops séeing wherevnto this broile
would grow, began to shrinke from the archbishop, and inclined to the
king. But the archbishop stood stiflie in his opinion, and would not
bend at all, till at length not onelie his suffragans the bishops,
[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] but also the bishop of Liseux (who came ouer to
doo some good in the matter) and the abbat of Elemosina (who was sent
from the pope) persuaded him to agree to the kings will, in so much that
being ouercome at last with the earnest suit of his freends, [Sidenote:
_R. Houed._] he came first to Woodstocke, and there promised the king to
obserue his lawes, Bona fide, Faithfullie, and without all collusion or
deceit.

[Sidenote: 1164.] [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ A councell at Clarendon.]
Shortlie after, in the feast of S. Hilarie, a councell was holden at
Clarendon, whereto the archbishop, and in manner all the lords
spirituall and temporall of the land made their repaire. Here the
archbishop would haue willinglie started from his promise, if first the
bishops, and after the earles of Leicester and Cornewall, [Sidenote:
_Ger. Dor._] Robert and Reignald (which Reignald was vncle to the king)
and lastlie two knights templers, had not mooued him to yéeld to the
kings will. But (amongst the rest) these two knights, namelie Richard de
Hastings, and Hosteus de Boloigne were verie earnest with him, & at
length preuailed, though not for conscience of dutie, wherewith he
should haue beene touched; yet with feare of danger, which (by refusing
to satisfie the kings will) he should haue brought not onelie vpon
himselfe, but also vpon the other bishops there present.

These knights séemed to lament his case, as if alreadie they had séene
naked swords shaken about his eares. And indeed, certeine of the kings
seruants that attended vpon his person after the manner of a gard, went
to and fro, rushing vp and downe the chambers, shaking their bright
battell axes readie appointed, and looking as if they would forthwith
run vpon the bishops. Wherevpon the archbishop being touched with
remorse, and séeming to striue against his determinat purpose, consented
to obey the kings pleasure, and so promised in the word of a préest,
[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._ The archbishop Becket receiueth an oth.]
swering furthermore, that he would obserue the kings lawes and customes,
without expressing these words, Saluo ordine meo, Mine order saued,
which he had vsed before. The like oth did all the bishops take. But the
archbishop refused at that time to seale to the writing that conteined
the articles of the oth which he should haue obserued, requiring as it
were a time to consider of them, sith in so weightie a matter nothing
ought to be doone without good and deliberate aduice, wherefore he tooke
with him a copie thereof, and so did the archbishop of Yorke an other,
and the third remained with the king.

[Sidenote: He repenteth him in that he had receiued an oth. _Matth.
Paris._] Shortlie after, the archbishop considering further of this oth
which he had taken, repented himselfe greeuouslie therof, in so much
that he absteined from saieng of masse, till he had by confession and
fruits of penance (as saith Matth. Paris) obteined absolution of the
pope. For addressing and sending out messengers with all spéed vnto the
pope, with a certificat of the whole matter as it laie, he required to
be assoiled of the bond which he had vnaduisedlie entred into. This suit
was soone granted, in so much that the pope directed his especiall
letters vnto him, conteining the same absolution in verie ample and
large manner, as Matth. Paris dooth report. And thus began a new broile.

The archbishop in the meane time, perceiuing that the liberties of the
church were now not onelie embezelled, but in maner extinguished, and
being loth to make any further attempt against his former dealings,
would now (without the kings knowledge) haue departed the realme,
wherevpon comming to Romnie, he tooke shipping, [Sidenote: The
archbishop Becket would haue fled out of the realme.] to haue passed
ouer into France, and so to haue gone to the popes court. But by a
contrarie wind he was brought backe into England, and thereby fell
further into the kings displeasure than before, in so much that, whereas
an action was commensed against him of late for a manor, which the
archbishops of Canturburie had of long time held: now the matter was so
vsed that the archbishop lost the manor, and was moreouer condemned to
paie the arrerages, and thus his troubles increased euen through his
owne malapertnesse and brainesicknesse; whereas all these tumults might
haue béene composed and laid asléepe, if he had béene wise, peaceable,
patient, and obedient. For,
    [Sidenote: _M. Pal. in suo sag._]
    Vir bonus & sapiens quærit super omnia pacem,
    Vúltque minora pati, metuens grauiora, cauétque,
    Ne paruo ex igni scelerata incendia surgant.

[Sidenote: The archbishop to appeare at Northampton. _R. Houed._] In the
end, the archbishop was cited to appeere before the king at Northampton,
where the king vsed him somewhat roughlie, placing his horsses at his
Inne, and laid disobedience to his charge, for that he did not
personallie appeare at a certeine place before his highnesse, vpon
summons giuen vnto him[2] for the same purpose. Wherevnto though the
archbishop alledged that he had sent thither a sufficient deputie to
make answere for him; [Sidenote: Sentence giuen against the
archbishop.] yet could he not be so excused, but was found giltie, and
his goods confiscat to the kings pleasure.

Now when the archbishop heard that sentence was in suchwise pronounced
against him; "What maner of iudgement (saith he) is this? Though I hold
my peace, yet the age that shall hereafter follow, will not hide it in
silence; for sithens the world began, it hath not beene heard, that any
archbishop of Canturburie hath béene iudged in any of the king of
Englands courts for any maner of cause; partlie in regard of the
dignitie and authoritie of his office, and partlie bicause he is
spirituallie the father of the king and all his people. This is
therefore a new forme and order of iudgement, that the archbishop should
be iudged by his suffragans, or the father by his sons."

The next daie the king required of him the repaiment of fiue hundred
marks, which he had lent him when he was chancellor. [Sidenote: The
archbish. condemned in fiue hundred marks.] Now although he affirmed
that he receiued the same by waie of gift, and not by waie of lone; yet
bicause he confessed receit, he was condemned in that debt, forsomuch as
he could not prooue the title the gift.

[Sidenote: An assemblie of bishops.] On the morrow after, the archbishop
with his felow bishops being set in councell, by commandement of the
king (& the doores fast locked that they should not get out) this was
proponed against the archbishop, that whereas he held certeine bishops
sées as then vacant, with abbeies, and other reuenues of his souereigne
lord the king in his hands, and had made none account to him for the
same of long time; [Sidenote: The archbish. called to an account.] the
king required now to be answered at his hands, and that with all spéed,
for he would haue no delaie. The summe amounted to thirtie thousand
markes.

When the archbishop had heard the variable sentences of the bishops in
this case, he answered after this maner: "I would (said he) speake with
two earles which are about the king," and named them. Who being called,
and the doores set open, he said vnto them; "We haue not héere at this
present to shew whereby the thing may be more manifest: therefore we
aske respit for answer till to morrow." The councell therefore brake vp,
and the multitude of people, which came with the archbishop thither,
being afraid of the kings displeasure, fell from him. Wherefore he
caused his seruants to fetch a great number of poore and impotent people
to his lodging, saieng that by the seruice of such men of warre, a more
spéedie victorie in short space might be gotten, than by them which in
time of temptation shamefullie drew backe. Herevpon his house was filled
full, and the tables set with such as his seruants had brought in, out
of the lanes and streats abroad.

Upon the tuesdaie, the bishops all amazed and full of care, came vnto
him; [Sidenote: The bishops persuade the archbishop to submit himself to
the kings pleasure.] and bicause of the displeasure which the king had
conceiued against him, counselled him to submit himselfe to the kings
will, or else in fine, they told him plainelie, that he would be iudged
a periured person; bicause he had sworne vnto the king as to his
earthlie souereigne, touching all temporall honor in life, lim, and
member; and namelie to obserue all his roiall lawes and customes, which
of late he had established.

[Sidenote: The archbish. answer to his brethren.] Wherevnto he answered:
"My brethren, ye see how the world roreth against me, and the enimie
riseth vp, but I more lament that the sonnes of my mother fight against
me. If I should hold my peace, yet would the world come to declare how
ye leaue me alone in the battell, and haue iudged against me now these
two daies past, I being your father, though neuer so much a sinner. But
I command you by virtue of your obedience, and vpon perill of your
order, that you be not present in any place of iudgement, where my
person may fortune to be adiudged: [Sidenote: He appealeth to the church
of Rome.] in testimonie whereof I appeale to our mother the church of
Rome. Furthermore, if it chance that temporall men laie their hands vpon
me, I charge you likewise by vertue of your obedience, that ye exercise
the censures of the church in the behalfe of your father the archbishop
as it becommeth you. This one thing know ye well, that the world roreth,
the flesh trembleth and is weake, but I (by Gods grace) will not
shrinke, nor leaue the flocke committed vnto me."

After this he entred into the church, and celebrated the masse of saint
Stephan (otherwise than he was accustomed to doo) with his pall:
[Sidenote: He goeth to the court.] which being ended, he put on his
sacrificing vestures, with a cope vpon them all, and so went to the
court. Furthermore, bicause he was afraid, he receiued the sacrament
secretlie with him, and bearing the crosse in his right hand, and the
reine of his bridell in his left, he came in that order to the court,
where he alighted, and entred the place, still bearing the crosse
himselfe, till he came to the kings chamber doore, the other bishops
following him with great feare and trembling. Now being come thither,
the bishop of Hereford would gladlie haue taken the crosse, and haue
borne it before him, but he would not suffer him, saieng: "It is most
reason that I should beare it my selfe, vnder the defense whereof I may
remaine in safetie: and beholding this ensigne, I néed not doubt vnder
that prince I serue."

[Sidenote: He is reputed a traitour.] At length, when the king had
exhibited great complaints vnto them all generallie against him, they
cried that he was a traitor, sith he had receiued so manie benefits at
the kings hands, and now refused to doo him all earthlie honor as he had
sworne to doo. To be short, when the bishops came to sit vpon the matter
in councell, they appealed to the sée of Rome against the archbishop,
accusing him of periurie: and in the word of truth bound themselues by
promise, to doo what they might to depose him, if they king would pardon
them of that iudgement which now hanged ouer the archbishops head. Then
comming to the archbishop they said: "Thou wast sometime our archbishop,
and we were bound to obeie thée: but sith thou hast sworne fealtie to
the king, that is, life member, and earthlie honor, & to obserue his
lawes and customes, and now goest about to destroie the same, we say
that thou art guiltie of periurie, [Sidenote: The bishops disallow their
archbishop.] and we will not from hencefoorth obey a periured
archbishop. Therefore we cite thée by appelation to appeare before the
pope, there to answer thine accusors." Then they, appointed him a day,
in which they ment to prosecute their appeale. "I heare you well" (said
the archbishop).

The princes and péeres of the realme did also iudge him a periured
person and a traitour. Among whome (manie then being present) the earle
of Leicester accompanied with Reignald earle of Cornewall, came vnto him
and said; "The king commanded thée to come and render an accompt of that
which is obiected against thée, or else heare thy iudgement."
"Judgement?" said the archbishop, [and wherewith rising vp said,] "Naie
sonne earle, first heare thou: It is not vnknowne to thée how faithfull
I haue béene to the king, in consideration whereof he aduanced me to the
archbishops see against my will (as God can be my iudge:) for I knew
mine owne infirmitie, and I was contented to take it vpon me rather for
his pleasure, than for Gods cause, and therefore dooth God both withdraw
himselfe and the king from me. In the time of mine election he made me
frée, and discharged me of all courtlie bondage. Wherefore as touching
those things from which I am frée and deliuered, I am not bound to
answer, neither will I. So much as the soule is more worth than the
bodie, so much the more art thou bound to obeie God and me, rather than
any earthlie creature. Neither will law nor reason permit, that the
sonnes should iudge or condemne the father: and therefore I refuse to
stand to the iudgement either of the king, or of any other, and appeale
to the pope, by whome (vnder God) I ought to be iudged, referring all
that I haue vnto Gods protection and his, and vnder the defense of his
authoritie I depart out of this place." Hauing thus spoken, went
incontinent to take horsse.

Now as he passed on his waie, the kings seruants and others of the court
did cast out manie reprochfull words against him, calling him traitor
and false forsworne caitife. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ The stout courage of
the archbishop.] At which words turning himselfe, and looking backe with
a sterne countenance he said; "That if it were not for his order of
priesthood, and that it were lawfull for him, he would surelie cléere
himselfe of periurie and treason, in defending and mainteining his cause
against them with weapon in hand."

When he was come to the vtter gate, he found the same fast locked,
whereat they began all to be amazed: but one of his seruants espieng
where a bunch of keies tied to a clubs and were hanging on a pin, he
tooke them down, & tried which was the right key, by proof whereof he
found it at the last, opened the gate, and let the archbishop out, the
porters standing still as men amazed, and speaking not one word against
it.

Now when he was got out, a great number of poore, weake and impotent
people met him, saieng: "Blessed be God, which hath deliuered his
seruant from the face of his enimie." Thus with a great rout or
companie, and with the clergie, he was honorablie conueied to the abbie
of S. Andrews: and looking behind and before him, as he passed
thitherward, he said vnto those that went with him; "How glorious a
procession dooth bring me from the face of the enimie? Suffer all the
poore people to come into the place, that we may make merie togither in
the Lord." Hauing thus spoken the people had entrance, so that all the
hall, parlours, and chambers being furnished with tables and stooles,
they were conuenientlie placed, and serued with vittels to the full.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The archbishop Becket fled awaie in the night.]
The verie same night before the cockcrowing he issued foorth by a little
posterne gate, and taking with him onelie two moonks of the Cisteaux
order, the one named Robert Canne, and the other S. Cayman, with one of
his owne seruants called Roger de Broc, he fled awaie disguised in a
white vesture and a moonks coule, and changing his name, caused himselfe
to be called Dereman, & iourneied still all the night, and by daie laie
close in one fréends house or other; till at last he got to Sandwich,
and there taking ship, he sailed ouer into Flanders, and so went to
France, where at the citie of Sens he found pope Alexander, into whose
bosome he emptied whole cart lodes of complaints and greeuances.

[Sidenote: Gilbert Follioth bishop of London was sent to the French
king.] The king vpon knowledge that the archbishop was fled the realme,
sent Gilbert Follioth bishop of London, and William earle of Arundell in
spéedie ambassage to, the king of France, to signifie vnto him the whole
matter and circumstance of the falling out betwixt him and the
archbishop, requiring him not to receiue the archbishop into his realme,
but this request was little regarded of the French king, as appeared:
for the archbishops cause was fauoured of manie, and the blame imputed
to king Henrie, so that the archbishop found great grace with the French
king, and no small fauour at the hands of the pope.

Now when king Henrie heard that he was accused by the archbishop vnto
the pope, [Sidenote: Additions to _Iohn Pike._ _Matth. Paris._ _Ger.
Dor._] he appointed Roger archbishop of Yorke, the aforesaid Gilbert
bishop of London, Hilarius bishop of Chichester, Roger bishop of
Worcester, Bartholomew bishop of Excester, with diuerse bishops, deanes,
archdeacons, & other learned men of good accompt to the number of 15. to
passe in ambassage vnto the pope, that they might excuse his dooings,
and burden the archbishop with the note of rebellion, whereof he had
good proofe.

[Sidenote: Roger archbishop of Yorke with others are sent to the pope.]
Being admitted to declare their message in the consistorie before the
pope, they opened the whole circumstance of the matter, from the
beginning to the end, declaring that betwixt Thomas the archbishop of
Canturburie and the king there was a controuersie moued, and by both
their consents a daie appointed for the hearing and determining thereof,
as iustice should require. At the which daie (by the kings commandement)
all the chéefest lords of the realme both spirituall and temporall were
assembled, to the end that the more generall the méeting should be, the
more manifest might the discouerie of the fraud and malice of the
archbishop appéere.

"At the daie appointed (saie they) there came before the catholike
prince his presence, the Nobles of his realme: and amongst other, the
archbishop the disquieter both of the kingdome & church, who (as one not
well assured of the qualitie of his owne deseruings) blessed himselfe
with the signe of the crosse at his comming into the court, as though
he should haue come before some tyrant or schismaticall person.
Notwithstanding all which contemptuous and ambitious behauiour, the
kings maiestie was nothing offended, but committed the iudgement of his
cause to the faithfull order of the bishops, meaning so to deliuer
himselfe of all suspicion of wrong dealing. Then it rested in the
bishops hands to make an end of the controuersie, and to set a finall
vnion and agréement betwixt them. But the archbishop would none of that,
alleging how it should be a derogation to the sée apostolike and his
metropoliticall dignitie, to stand before the king in iudgement, or anie
other temporall magistrate. And albeit (saie they) some diminution or
eclipse might haue chanced to the dignitie of the church by that
iudgement, yet it had beene his part to haue dissembled the matter for
the time, to the end that peace might haue béene restored to the church.
He further obiected (ascribing to himselfe the name of father, which
seemed to sauour somewhat of arrogancie) that the children ought not to
come togither to iudge the fathers cause, but it had béene far more
necessarie that the humblenesse of the sons should mitigate the pride
and temper the ambition of the father."

To conclude the kings ambassadors made earnest suit, that two legats
might be sent from the pope, to haue the hearing & discussing of all the
matter betwixt the king and the archbishop without any other appealing.
[Sidenote: The kings tale could not be heard.] But the kings tale could
not be heard in that court, [Sidenote: The archbishop Becket.] the
archbishop hauing alreadie persuaded the pope to the contrarie. For
comming to the pope he vttered his complaint as followeth:

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._] "Most holie father, I doo here come for
succour to your audience, lamenting that the state of the church, and
the liberties thereof are brought to ruine by the couetous dealing of
kings and princes. Wherefore when I thought to resist the disease
approching, I was suddenlie called before the king, to render accompts
as a laie man about certeine wards, for whom (while I was the kings
chancellor) I had notwithstanding giuen accounts; and also, when I was
made bishop, and entred into the dignitie of ruling the archbishops sée,
I was released and discharged of all reckonings and bonds by the kings
eldest sonne, and by the cheefe iusticer of the realme: so that now,
where I looked to haue found aid, I was destitute thereof, to my great
hinderance and vexation. Consider furthermore (I praie you) how my lords
and brethren the bishops are readie at the pleasure of the Noble men of
the court to giue sentence against me, so that all men being about to
run vpon me, I was almost oppressed: and therfore am now come as it were
to take breath in the audience of your clemencie, which dooth not
forsake your children in their extreme necessitie, before whom I here
stand, readie to declare and testifie that I am not to be iudged there,
nor yet at all by them. For what other thing should that be, but to
plucke awaie the right of the church? What else then to submit
spirituall things to temporall? This example therefore once sproong vp,
might giue an occasion to manie enormities to follow. The bishops doo
say, 'Those things that are Cesars, ought to be restored to Cesar.' But
admit that in manie things the king is to be obeied, is he therefore to
be obeied in things wherein he is no king? For those belong not to
Cesar, but to a tyrant. Wherein if for my sake they would not, yet ought
the bishops for their owne sakes to haue resisted him. For what should
be the cause of such deadlie and vnnaturall hatred, that to destroie me,
they should destroie themselues? Therefore whilest for temporall things
they neglect spirituall, they faile in both. Weigh then most holie
father, my fleeing awaie, and my persecution, and how for your sake I
haue beene prouoked with iniuries, vse your rigour, constraine them to
amendement, through whose motion this hath chanced; let them not be
borne out by the king, who is rather the obstinate minister, than the
finder out of this practise."

The pope hauing heard his words, tooke deliberation in the matter, with
the aduice of his cardinals, [Sidenote: The popes answer to the
archbishop.] and therevpon answered the archbishop in effect as
followeth: "That the lower power may not iudge the higher, and chéefelie
him whome he is bound to obeie, all the lawes both of God and man doo
witnesse, and the ordinances of the ancient fathers doo manifestlie
declare: Herevpon we (to whome it apperteineth to reforme disorders) doo
clearelie reuerse and make void the iudgement pronounced against you by
the barons and bishops, whereby as well against the order of law, as
against the customes of the church, your goods were adiudged forfeit,
whereas the same goods were not yours, but the churches of Canturburie,
ouer which you haue the onelie cure and charge. But if those that haue
violentlie entred vpon the possessions and goods of your church, and
haue thereby wronged either you or yours, will not vpon admonition giuen
to them, make restitution with sufficient amends, then may you (if you
shall thinke conuenient) exercise ecclesiasticall iustice vpon them, and
we shall allow of that which you shall reasonablie doo in that behalfe.
Howbeit as touching the king himselfe we will not giue you any speciall
commandement, neither yet doo we take from you any right belonging to
your bishoprike office, which you receiued at your consecration. But the
king onelie we will spare, and exempt from your excommunications and
censures." [Sidenote: The archbish. resigneth his pall.] After these and
many by-matters were ouerpassed, the archbishop resigned his pall vnto
the pope, but the pope gaue it him againe, and appointed him to remaine
at Pountney an abbeie of moonks Cisteaux in the diocesse of Auxerre,
till the variance were brought to some good end betwixt the king and
him. This was doone in the yeare of our Lord 1164.

The king hauing knowledge by his ambassadors what answer the pope had
made, became gréeuouslie offended in his mind, and therevpon confiscated
all the goods that belonged to the archbishop and his complices, and
seized their reuenues into his hands, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] appointing
one Randall de Broc to haue the custodie of all that belonged to the
see, which Broc was nothing fréendlie to the archbishop, being his
knowne enimie of old, but fauoured the moonkes, and would not suffer
that they should take wrong or displeasure at any hand.

[Sidenote: 1165.] [Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _Matt. Paris._] In the yeare
1165. queene Elianor was deliuered of a daughter which was named Joane.
Also on the 26. daie of Januarie, there chanced a maruellous earthquake
in Northfolke, in the Ile of Elie, and in Suffolke, so that men as they
stood on the ground were ouerthrowne therewith, and buildings so shaken,
that the belles in stéeples knolled: the like had also chanced in the
Aduent season then last before passed.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen make war on the English marshes. _Wil. Paruus._
_Polydor._ The king inuadeth Wales.] The Welshmen this yeare spoiled a
great part of those countries that bordered vpon them: wherewith the
king being sore mooued, leuied an armie with all spéed as well of
Englishmen as strangers, and (without regard of difficulties and
dangers) did go against the rebels, and finding them withdrawne into
their starting holes (I meane the woods and strait passages) he
compassed the same about in verie forceable maner. The Welshmen
perceiuing themselues now to be brought into such ieopardie, as that
they could not well deuise how to escape the same, consulted what was
best to be doone. After consultation, casting awaie their weapons, they
came foorth to the king, asking mercie; which somewhat hardlie they
obteined. Few of them were executed in comparison of the numbers that
offended: but yet the capteines and chéefe authors of this rebellion
were so punished, that it was thought they would neuer haue presumed so
rashlie to offend him in like sort againe. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The
seuere punishment vsed by king Henry against the Welshmen.] For (as some
writers affirme) he did iustice on the sonnes of Rice or Rees, & also on
the sonnes and daughters of other noble men that were his complices
verie rigorouslie: causing the eies of the yoong striplings to be pecked
out of their heads, and their noses to be cut off or slit: and the eares
of the yoong gentlewomen to be stuffed.

But yet I find in other authors, that in this iournie king Henrie did
not greatlie preuaile against his enimies, but rather lost manie of his
men of warre, both horssemen and footmen: for by his seuere proceeding
against them, he rather made them more eger to séeke reuenge, than
quieted them in any tumult. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ _Ran. Cogge._
Cardigan castell woonne by the Welshmen.] They tooke the castell of
Cardigan, and in besieging of Briges, the king was in no small danger of
his life: for one of the enimies shooting directlie at him, [Sidenote:
Hubert de S. Clere conestable of Colchester.] had persed him through the
bodie if Hubert de Saint Clere conestable of Colchester, perceiuing the
arrow coming had not thrust himselfe betwixt the king and the same
arrow, and so preseruing his maister, receiued the stripe himselfe,
whereof he died presentlie after, beséeching the king to be good lord to
one onelie daughter which he had, [Sidenote: William de Langualée.]
whome the king bestowed in mariage vpon William de Langualée, togither
with hir fathers inheritance, which William begat of hir a sonne that
bare both his name and surname. ¶ A president of gratitude & thankfulnes
is here committed to memorie. And surelie the king could doo no lesse,
than some way requite the venturous courage and hartie zeale of the
gentleman, who with the losse of his owne life preserued the king, if
not from death, yet from some dangerous wound that might haue put him to
extreame anguish and paine. This may incite men to be mindfull of
benefits receiued, a virtue no lesse rare than the contrarie is common,
and as one saith,
                    ---- inueniuntur
    Quidam sed rari, acceptorum qui meritorum
    Assiduè memores, &c.

[Sidenote: _W. Paruus._] But to conclude with this iourneie which king
Henrie made at this time against the Welshmen, although by reason of the
cumbersome difficulties of the places, he could not enter within the
countrie so farre as he wished, yet he so impounded and constreined them
to kéepe within the woods and mountains, that they durst not come
abroad, insomuch that at the length they were glad to sue for peace.

[Sidenote: William king of Scots doth his homage to king Henrie.]
William king of Scots, successor of Malcolme (who departed this life in
the yeare last past) after he had receiued the crowne of Scotland, came
about this present time into England, and finding king Henrie at London,
did his homage to him as his predecessour Malcolme had doone before. He
made suit also to haue Northumberland restored vnto him, which the king
of Englands mother the empresse had in times past giuen vnto king Dauid.
But king Henrie gaue diuerse reasons to excuse himselfe whie he might
not deliuer that countrie to him at that present, namelie, without
consent of a parlement: wherevpon king William perceiuing how the matter
went, gaue ouer his suit for that present, meaning (when occasion
serued) to attempt the getting thereof by force, sith that by praier and
suit he sawe well inough he should not obteine it.

Moreouer, the Scotish king being required by king Henrie to go ouer with
him into Normandie, granted so to doo: insomuch that king Henrie, hauing
set all things in order within his realme of England, in the Lent
following passed ouer into Normandie. [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Matth.
Paris._ _Ger. Dor._] But before he tooke his iourneie, he set foorth a
decree consisting of these points in effect as followeth.

     [Sidenote: An edict against the archbishop Becket.]
     1 That no man should bring any letters or commandement from pope
     Alexander, or Thomas archbishop of Canturburie into England,
     conteining an interdiction of the realme: vpon perill to be
     apprehended and punished as a traitour to the king, and an enimie
     to the realme.

     2 That no religious person or préest should be permitted to passe
     the seas, or to come into the relme of England, except he had
     letters of safe conduct from the iusticers for passage ouer, and
     of the king for his returne from thence.

     [Sidenote: Appeales forbidden.]
     3 That no man should appeale to the said pope or archbishop, nor
     by their appointment hold any plée: and if any person were found
     dooing the contrarie herevnto, he should be taken and committed
     to prison.

     4 That if any maner of person, either spirituall or temporall,
     were obedient to the sentence of the interdiction, the same
     person should be banished the realme without delaie, and all his
     linage with him, so as they should not conueie with them any of
     their goods, the which togither with their possessions should be
     seized into the kings hands.

     5 That all spirituall persons, which had any benefices within
     England, should haue warning giuen to returne into England within
     foure moneths after the same summons pronounced, and that if they
     failed hereof, then should the king seize vpon their goods and
     possessions.

     6 That the bishops of London and Norwich, should be (and by
     vertue hereof were) summoned to appeare before the kings
     iusticers, to make answer for that they had interdicted the lands
     of erle Hugh, and excommunicated him.

     7 That the Peter pence should be gathered and kept.

[Sidenote: The kings of England and France enteruiew. _Cro. Sigeb._
_Matth. Paris._] In the octaues of Easter king Henrie came to an
enterview with the French king at Gisors, where they had conference
togither of sundrie matters.

[Sidenote: King John borne.] This yeare the quéene was deliuered of a
sonne named John, who afterward was king of this realme.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ A contribution.] Moreouer, king Henrie calling a
councell of his bishops and barons in Normandie, caused and ordeined a
collection (by their aduise) to be made through all his countries and
dominions of two pence in the pound of euerie mans lands and goods,
iewels and apparell onelie excepted: to be paid this yeare 1166. and for
the space of foure yeares next ensuing, one penie of euerie pound to be
paid yearelie: and those that were not worth twentie shillings in goods
or lands (being housholders notwithstanding) or bare any office, should
paie a penie to this contribution, which was onelie granted for the
releefe of the christians in the east parts, and those that warred
against the miscreants there. The paiment thereof was appointed to be
made in the feast daie of saint Remigius, or within fiftéene daies
after. It was also ordeined, that all such as departed this life, within
the terme that this collection was in force (their debts being paid)
should giue the tenth part of the residue of all their goods vnto this
so necessarie a contribution.

King Henrie remaining now in Normandie, and vnderstanding that diuerse
lords and barons of Maine, and the marshes of Britaine, would not in his
absence shew themselues obedient vnto his wife quéene Elianor, but were
about to practise a rebellion, raised an armie, and went against them,
easilie subduing them whom he found obstinate: [Sidenote: The castell of
Foulgiers. _Matth. Paris._] and besieging the castell of Foulgiers,
tooke and vtterlie destroied it.

[Sidenote: Uizeley.] Soone after the archbishop of Canturburie came from
Pountney to Uizeley, and there (on Ascension daie) when the church was
most full of people, got him into the pulpit, [Sidenote: The archbishop
Becket accursed those in England that mainteined the customs of their
elders.] and with booke, bell, and candell solemnelie accurssed all the
obseruers, defenders, and mainteiners, with the promoters of such
customs, as within the realme of England they terme the custome of their
elders: amongst others that were accursed, was Richard de Lucie, Richard
the archdeacon of Poictiers, Jocelin de Bailleuille, Alane de Neuille,
and manie other. But they being absent, & neither called nor conuinced
(as they alleged notwithstanding they were thus excommunicated) sent
their messengers vnto the archbishop, and appealed from him, and so
feared not to enter into their churches.

[Sidenote: _R. Houe._] He had before this also written certeine letters
vnto his suffragans, denouncing some of these and other persons by
expresse name accursed, not onelie for mainteining the matter against
him, touching the ancient custome of the realme: but also for the
schisme raised in Almaine by Reignald archbishop of Colein, for the
which he accursed one John of Oxford. Moreouer, he accursed Ranulfe de
Broc, Hugh de S. Clere, & Thomas Fitz Bernard, for violentlie seizing
vpon and deteining the goods and possessions belonging to his
archbishoprike, without his consent or agréement therevnto.

The king on the other part banished out of England, and all parts of his
other dominions, all those persons that were knowen to be of kin vnto
the archbishop, both yoong and old: and furthermore sent aduertisement
to the abbat of Pountney and to his moonks, with whom the archbishop by
the popes appointment remained, that if they kept him stil in their
house, he would not faile to banish all the moonks of their order out of
England. Now the archbishop, after he had remained there scarse two
yeares, departed from thence of his owne accord, and came to the king of
France, who courteouslie receiued him, and sent him to the abbeie of
saint Columbes neere to the citie of Sens, where he remained a certeine
season, as shall be shewed hereafter.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] Shortlie after this, two legats named
William of Pauia, and John of Naples both cardinals, [Sidenote: Legats
from the pope.] came from the pope to Montmiriall, whom the archbishop
suspected rather to fauour the kings cause than his: yet he was
contented that they should haue the iudgment thereof committed vnto
them: so that first (according to the rules of the church) restitution
might be made both to him and his, of such goods as had beene taken from
them. For being spoiled, as he was, he would not stand to any iudgement,
nor could not be compelled thervnto by any reason (as he said.) Now when
the two legats saw that they could not bring any thing to passe, they
departed without any thing concluded.

[Sidenote: Comes Sagiensis. _N. Triuet._ Alerium.] About this time
William Taiuan earle of Sagium (by the consent of his sons and nephues)
deliuered into the hands of king Henrie the castels of Alerium, and Roch
Laberie, with all the appurtenances to the castels belonging.

[Sidenote: Conan duke of Britaine deceasseth. _Matt. Paris._] About this
season also Conan the duke of Britaine departed this life, leauing
behind him no issue, but one onelie daughter begot of his wife the
dutchesse Constance, the daughter of the king of Scotland, which
succéeded him in the estate. [Sidenote: A mariage concluded betwixt
Geffrey the kings son and the Duchesse of Britaine. _Wil. Paruus._]
Wherevpon king Henrie made earnest suit to procure a marriage betwixt
hir and his sonne Geffrey, which at length he brought to passe, to the
great comfort and contentation of his mind, in that his sonne had by
such good fortune atteined to the dukedome of Britaine.

At that season in Britaine were certeine Noble men of such strength and
power, that they disdained to acknowledge themselues subiect to any
superior, in somuch that through ambitious desire of rule and
preheminence, they warred continuallie one against an other, to the
great destruction and vtter vndooing of their miserable countrie, so
that the land sometime fruitfull by nature, was as it were a wildernes.
Wherevpon, those that were the weaker, perceiuing themselues too much
oppressed by the stronger, submitted themselues vnto king Henrie, and
required his aid and succour. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 13.] King Henrie
reioising to haue so good an occasion and opportunitie to reduce them to
reason, with all speed aided these supplicants and subdued the
resistants, notwithstanding their great puissance, & the strength of the
places which they kept.

[Sidenote: 1167.] In the meane while Henrie came ouer to his father, and
found him at Poictiers, from whence (shortlie after Easter) he remoued,
[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ King Henrie inuadeth the erle of Aluergnes
lands.] and with an armie entred into the lands of the earle of
Aluergnes, which he wasted and spoiled, bicause the said earle had
renounced his allegiance to king Henrie, and made his resort to the
French king, séeking to sow discord betwixt the foresaid two kings:
which was kindled the more by a challenge pretended about the sending of
the monie ouer into the holie land, which was gathered within the
countie of Tours: for the French king claimed to send it, by reason that
the church there apperteined to his dominion: and the king of England
would haue sent it, bicause it was gathered within the countrie that
belonged to his gouernement.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ The earle of Bolongne prepareth 600. ships to
inuade England.] This yeare a great preparation of ships was made by the
earle of Bullongne, to haue inuaded England, but by the warlike
prouision of Richard Lucie, lord gouernour of the realme, the sea-coasts
were so prouided of sufficient defense, that the earles attempts came to
nothing. The cause why he made this brag, was for that the king withheld
from him certeine reuenues which he claimed to haue here in England, and
therefore he ment to recouer them by force. [Sidenote: The deceasse of
the empresse Maud. _Matth. West._] The empresse Maud mother to the king
of England (a woman in stoutnesse of stomach and warlike attempts more
famous than commonlie any of that sex) deceassed this yere the 10. of
Septem.

[Sidenote: The sée of Lincolne void 17. yeares.] Also Robert bishop of
Lincolne departed this life, after whose deceasse the sée of Lincolne
was vacant by the space of seuentéene yeares, the king in all that meane
time receiuing the profits. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.] [Sidenote: An
ambassage from the emperour.] The elect of Colein came ambassadour from
the emperour vnto the king of England, requiring to haue one of his
daughters giuen in marriage vnto the emperours sonne, and an other of
them vnto Henrie duke of Saxonie: which request the K. did willinglie
grant, and therevpon was the queene sent for to come ouer into
Normandie, and to bring hir sonne the lord Richard and hir daughter the
ladie Maud with hir: [Sidenote: 1168.] which ladie was married vnto the
duke of Saxonie, in the beginning of the yeare next insuing; [Sidenote:
_Matth. West._] and had issue by him three sons, Henrie, Otho, and
William, of which the middlemost came to be emperour.

The variance still depending betwixt the king and the archbishop of
Canturburie: [Sidenote: Debate betwixt the pope and the Emperour. K.
Henrie offereth to aid the emperour.] there was also about the same time
a great debate betwixt the emperour Frederike the first and pope
Alexander the third: whervpon king Henrie wrote to the emperor, and
signified vnto him, that he would aid him if néed should require against
the pope, who mainteined such a runnagate traitor as the archbishop
Becket was. Moreouer at the same time the king caused all his subiects
within the realme of England, from the child of twelue yeares old vnto
the aged person, to forsweare all obedience that might be pretended as
due to the same pope Alexander. The king for the space of two yeares
togither, remaining still in Normandie, and in other places beyond the
seas, subdued diuerse rebels, as the earle of Angoulesme, Aimerike de
Lucignie, and his sonnes Robert and Hugh.

[Sidenote: An enterview betwixt the king of England and king of France.]
Also he came to an enterview with the king of France betwixt Pacie and
Maunt, where they communed of such iniuries as were thought to be
attempted on either part. [Sidenote: The kings meet again to commen of
peace.] For the Poictouins had made their resort to the French king, and
were confederate with him against their supreme lord king Henrie, and
had deliuered pledges for assurance thereof, which pledges the French
king would not restore. [Sidenote: A truce.] But yet there was a truce
concluded betwixt them, to endure till the feast of S. John Baptist.

[Sidenote: Patrike earle of Salisburie slaine.] About the feast of
Easter Patrike the earle of Salisburie was slaine by treason of the
Poictouins, and was buried at Saint Hilaries: after whome his sonne
William succeeded in the earledome.

The Britons practised rebellions dailie: but king Henrie entring their
countrie, wan diuerse strong townes and castels, and brought them at
length vnder his subiection. Moreouer in this summer season the two
kings met againe at Fert Bernard to treat of peace, but they departed
without concluding any agréement at all. For there were manie of the
Poictouins and Britons, which tooke part with the king of France, and
hauing deliuered vnto him hostages, had a promise made them, that the
French king should not conclude an agréement with the king of England
without their consent. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 15. 1169.] Hervpon they made
warres either vpon other, till finallie (about the feast of the
Epiphanie) a peace was accorded betwixt them: [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ _N.
Triuet._] and then Henrie the king of Englands sonne made his homage
vnto the French king for the countie of Aniou: and the French king
granted him the office of the Seneschalcie of France, which ancientlie
belonged vnto the earles of Aniou. [Sidenote: Geffrey duke of Britaine.]
Also Geffrey duke of Britaine did homage to his elder brother the
aforesaid Henrie, by commandement of his father, for the duchie of
Britaine. And afterwards the same Geffrey went into Britaine, and at
Rheines receiued the homage and fealtie of the lords and barons of that
countrie.

King Henrie in the meane while subdued certeine rebels in Gascoine, and
returning into Normandie, built a goodlie towne and fortresse neere to
Haie de Malafrey, ycleped Beauver.

[Sidenote: Haruey de Yuon.] About the same time one Haruey de Yuon, who
had married the daughter of one William Goieth, (that died in his
iournie which he tooke into the holie land) deliuered certeine castels
into the hands of king Henrie, bicause he was in despaire to keepe them
against Theobald earle of Chartres, who through the French kings aid,
sought to dispossesse him of the same castels: wherevpon the war was
renewed betwixt the king of England and the said earle of Chartres.
Neuerthelesse king Henrie making no great accompt of those wars, went
into Britaine with his sonne Geffrey, where going about the countrie to
visit the cities and townes, he reformed many disorders, laieng as it
were a maner of a new foundation of things there, fortifieng the
castels, cities and townes, and communing in courteous manner with the
lords and péeres of the countrie, sought to win their good wils: and so
in such exercises he spent a great part of the time.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16. 1170.] He kept his Christmasse at Nauntes,
whither all the great lords and barons of Britaine resorted to him. The
solemnitie of which feast being past, he entred into the lands of earle
Eudo, and wasted the same, till the said earle submitted himself. At
length, after the king had taken order for the good gouernement of
Normandie, and his other countries on that side the sea, he returned
into England in the first wéeke of March, but not without great danger,
by reason of a tempest that tooke him on the seas, beginning about
midnight, and not ceassing till 9. of the clocke in the morning, about
which houre he came on land at Portesmouth, not with many of his ships,
the rest being tossed and driuen to séeke succour in sundrie créeks and
hauens of the land, and one of them which was the cheefest and newest,
was lost in the middle of the flouds, together with 400. persons, men &
women: among whome was Henrie de Aguell with two of his sons, Gilbert
Sullemuy, and Rafe Beumont the kings physician & houshold seruant.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ Dauid was made knight by K. Henrie as _Houedon_
hath.] After this the king held his Easter at Winsor, whither William
the Scotish king came with his brother Dauid, to welcome him home, and
to congratulat his happie successe in his businesse on the further side
the seas. They were honorablie enterteined, and at their departure
princelie rewarded. [Sidenote: A prudent consideration of the king.] The
king thus returned into England, punished the shiriffes of the land very
gréeuously for their extortion, briberie, and rapine. After this,
studieng how to assure the estate of the realme vnto his sons, vpon good
consideration remembring that no liuing creature was more subiect to the
vncerteintie of death than Adams heires, [Sidenote: Mans nature
ambitious.] and that there is ingraffed such a feruent desire in the
ambitious nature of man to gouerne, that so oft as they once come in
hope of a kingdome, they haue no regard either of right or wrong, God or
the diuell, till they be in possession of their desired prey: he thought
it not the worst point of wisedome to foresee that which might happen.
For if he should chance to depart this life, and leaue his sons yoong,
and not able to mainteine wars through lacke of knowledge, it might
fortune them through the ambition of some to be defrauded and
disappointed of their lawful inheritance. Therefore to preuent the
chances of fortune, he determined whilest he was aliue to crowne his
eldest sonne Henrie, being now of the age of 17. yeares, and so to
inuest him in the kingdome by his owne act in his life time: which deed
turned him to much trouble, as after shall appeare.

Being vpon this point resolued, he called togither a parlement of the
lords both spirituall and temporall at London, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._]
and there (on S. Bartholomews daie) proclaimed his said sonne Henrie
fellow with him in the kingdome, whom after this on the sundaie
following, [Sidenote: Henrie the son crowned the 18. of Julie saith
_Matth. Paris._] being the fouretéenth daie of June 1170. Roger
archbishop of Yorke did crowne according to the manner, being commanded
so to doo by the king. This office apperteined vnto the archbishop of
Canturburie, but bicause he was banished the realme, the king appointed
the archbishop of Yorke to doo it, [Sidenote: _W. Paruus._] which he
ought not to haue doone without licence of the archbishop of Canturburie
within the precinct of his prouince (as was alledged by archbishop
Becket) who complained thereof vnto pope Alexander, and so incensed the
pope, that he being highly moued by his letters, [Sidenote: The archb.
of Yorke is forbidden the vse of the sacraments.] forbad not onelie the
archbishop of Yorke, but also Gilbert bishop of London, and Jocelin
bishop of Salisburie (who were present at the coronation) the vse of the
sacraments, which made king Henrie far more displeased with the
archbishop Thomas than he was before.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._ _Polydor._ The king became seruitor to his
sonne.] Upon the daie of coronation, king Henrie the father serued his
sonne at the table as sewer, bringing vp the bores head with trumpets
before it, according to the maner. Whervpon (according to the old adage,
    Immutant mores homines cùm dantur honores)
    [Sidenote: Honours change manners.]
the yoong man conceiuing a pride in his heart, beheld the standers-by
with a more statly countenance than he had béen woont. The archbishop of
Yorke, who sat by him, marking his behauior, turned vnto him, & said;
[Sidenote: Yong men set vp in dignitie easilie forget themselues.] "Be
glad my good sonne, there is not an other prince in the world that hath
such a sewer at his table." To this the new king answered, as it were
disdainefullie, thus: "Why doost thou maruell at that? My father in
doing it, thinketh it not more than becommeth him, he being borne of
princelie bloud onlie on the mothers side, serueth me that am a king
borne hauing both a king to my father, and a queene to my mother." Thus
the yoong man of an euill and peruerse nature, was puffed vp in pride by
his fathers vnseemelie dooings.

But the king his father hearing his talke, was verie sorrowfull in his
mind, and said to the archbishop softlie in his eare: "It repenteth me,
it repenteth me my lord, that I haue thus aduanced the boy." For he
gessed hereby what a one he would prooue afterward, that shewed himselfe
so disobedient and froward alreadie. But although he was displeased with
himselfe in that he had doone vndiscréetlie, yet now when that which was
doone could not be vndoone, he caused all the Nobles and lords of the
realme togither with the king of Scots and his brother Dauid, to doo
homage vnto his said sonne thus made fellow with him in the kingdome:
but he would not release them of their oth of allegiance, wherein they
stood bound to obeie him the father, so long as he liued.

¶ Howbeit some write that he renounced his estate, first before all the
lords of the land, and after caused his sonne to be crowned: but in such
vncerteine points set foorth by parciall writers, that is to be receiued
as a truth, which is confirmed by the order and sequele of things after
doone and put in practise. For true it is, that king Henrie the father
(so long as his sonne liued) did shew himselfe sometime as fellow with
his sonne in gouernement, and sometime as absolute king: and after his
sons decease, he continued in the entier gouernment, so long as he
liued. But to procéed.

The French king hearing that his sonne in law was thus crowned, and not
his daughter the wife of Henrie the sonne, [Sidenote: The French king
offended.] was highlie offended therewith, and threatned to make war
against king Henrie the father, except his daughter Margaret might
receiue the crowne also as quéene immediatlie.

The cause why she was not crowned, was by reason of hir yoong yeares,
and for that she had not as yet accompanied with hir husband. But K.
Henrie the father vnderstanding the French kings threats, sailed ouer
into Normandie, where whilest they prepared for war on both sides, by
the earnest diligence of Theobald earle of Blois, [Sidenote: An
enteruiew of the kings. _R. Houed._] both the kings came to an enteruiew
at Uendosme, where at length they were accorded, vpon promise made by
king Henrie, that he would cause his sonne to be crowned againe, and
with him his wife the said Margaret the French kings daughter as quéene.

The French king contented therewith, departed homewards, and king Henrie
returning came to Uernon, where he fell into so great a sicknesse, that
anon it was noised ouer all the countrie. [Sidenote: He made his
testament. _Rog. Houed._] Insomuch that he was in such despaire of life,
that he made his testament: wherein he assigned his sonne Richard the
dutchie of Aquitaine, and all those lands which came by quéene Elianor
the mother of the same Richard. And to his sonne Geffrey he bequeathed
Britaine (with the daughter of earle Conan) which he had purchased to
his vse of the French king. And to his sonne king Henrie he gaue the
dutchie of Normandie, and all those lands which came by his father
Geffrey earle of Aniou. And to his yoongest sonne John be bequeathed the
earledome of Mortaine. And finally appointed where he would haue his
bodie to be buried.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ King Henrie the sonne his misorder.] In the meane
time Henrie the sonne remaining at home in England, fell from all good
order of measure kéeping, and gaue himselfe to all excessiue riot,
spending and wasting his reuenues inordinatelie. Of which behauiour his
father being aduertised, returned into England, where he taried not
long, but passed ouer againe into Normandie, hauing his said sonne in
his companie, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 16. 1170.] meaning thereby to remoue
him from the companie of those that were verie like to corrupt this
nature, and frame the same to all lewdnesse: for he knew that
              ---- commercia turpia sanctos
    Corrumpunt mores: multi hoc periere veneno,
    Labimur in vitium & facilè ad peiora mouemur.

In this meane while Thomas the archbishop of Canturburie remained in
exile almost six yeares, and could not be restored, till partlie by
swelling threats of the pope, and partlie at the earnest suit of Lewes
the French king, Theobald earle of Blois, and others king Henrie began
somewhat to shew himselfe conformable towards an agréement.

[Sidenote: _Ex Quadrilagio._ The king and the arch. Becket met togither
in the presence of the French king.] Wherevpon the two kings met diuerse
times, and the archbishop Thomas comming with the French king, at one
time humbled himselfe so to the king of England, that knéeling downe at
his féet, he said: "My souereigne liege lord, I commit the whole cause
of the controuersie betwixt your grace and me, vnto your maiesties
order, Gods honour onlie reserued."

The king offended with that ambiguous exception, said to the king of
France: "Whatsoeuer displeaseth this man, is taken (as he interpreteth
it) contrarie to Gods honour, and so by that shift will he chalenge to
himselfe all that belongeth vnto me. But bicause you shall not thinke
that I go about to resist Gods honour, or him, in any reasonable order,
looke what the greatest and most holie of all his ancestors haue doone
vnto the meanest of mine ancestours, let him doo the same vnto me, and I
am contented therewith."

All the companie present cried, "that the king humbled himselfe enough."
"My lord archbishop (said the French king) will you be greater than
saints, and better than saint Peter? Wherof stand you in doubt? Behold,
your peace is at hand." [Sidenote: The present state of the church in
Becket daies.] The archbishop made answer in commendation of the present
state of holie church, as thus: "My holie predecessours in their time,
although they cut not all things away that extolled it selfe against
God, yet did they cut off diuers: but if they had plucked vp all by the
hard roots, which might offend, who should now haue raised the fire of
temptation against vs? We are in much better case (thanks be to God) and
as we haue laboured in their lot and number, so are we partakers of
their labour and reward. What if any of them had béene defectiue or
excessiue in any point, are we bound to follow the example of their
defection or excesse? We blame Peter for his denieng of Christ, but we
praise him in reproouing of Neros violence with danger of his life. The
church hath risen and increased out of manie dangerous oppressions, our
fathers haue suffered manie things, bicause they would not forsake the
name of Christ; and ought I to suppresse his honour, to be reconciled
vnto any mans fauour? God forbid, God forbid."

[Sidenote: The archb. Becket blamed of arrogancie.] When the Noble men
present heard this answer of a subiect against his souereigne, they all
held against him, imputing the fault to the archbishops arrogancie, that
the peace was not made betweene the king and him, insomuch that there
was an erle which openlie said; "Sith he resisteth the will of both the
realmes, he is not worthie to be succoured by either of them from
henceforth: and therefore being cast out of England, let not France
receiue him."

The councell then being broken vp, the kings departed without bidding
the archbishop farewell, and such as were mediatours for peace, in
departing from this meeting, spake manie reprochfull words to him,
[Sidenote: Archb. Becket wilfull in his owne opinion.] alledging that he
had béene euer stout and wise in his owne conceit, and a folower of his
owne will and opinion: adding that it was a great hinderance to the
church, that he was ordeined archbishop, and that by him the church was
alreadie in part destroied, and would shortlie be altogither brought to
vtter ruine.

But the archbishop setting a watch before his mouth, kept silence (as
though he had not heard) and folowed the French king with his people.
Manie said by the waie as they iournied, "Behold the archbishop yonder,
which in talke the last night would not for the pleasure of the king
denie God, nor kéepe his honor in silence."

After this, when the archbishop was come to Sens, and aduised with
himselfe whether it should be best for him to go, at length he said,
"God is able in the last point of miserie and distresse, to helpe those
that be his." Herewith came a messenger from the French king to bring
him to the court, for the French king (as one that had béene better
instructed in the matter) repented himselfe that he had iudged euill of
his answers at the last meeting, and herevpon receiued him againe into
his fauour, and rested not to trauell so much in his cause, that at
length another méeting was assigned at a certeine place neere the
confines of Normandie, [Sidenote: The French K. receiueth the archbishop
Becket againe into fauour.] whither king Henrie came, and there found
Lewes, the archbishop of Rouen, and diuerse other bishops together, with
the foresaid archbishop, who after they had reasoned of the matter
throughlie as they saw cause, [Sidenote: The archb. is reconciled to the
king.] king Henrie receiued the archbishop into his fauour againe, and
promised to redresse all that had béene doone amisse, and pardon all
those that had followed him out of the realme. Wherevpon the king and
the archbishop being reconciled, the archbishop the same day came before
the king, and talked with him.

Now among other things he required of the K. that it might be lawfull
for him (without offending of his maiestie) to punish (according to the
censures of the church) the iniurie doone vnto him by the archbishop of
Yorke, and other bishops in the coronation of his sonne. The king
granted this, and shewed himselfe so courteous at that time, that (as it
is said) he held his stirrup whiles he mounted on horssebacke.

¶ Notwithstanding which obsequiousnes of the king, it is to be presumed
that all inward repining could not be so abolished, as that no fragments
remained: but that the archbishop for his part, for the maintenance of
his great title, & the K. for the supportation of his souereigntie, when
opportunitie serued, sought to get aduantage one of another, & acquit
their harts with a new reuenge of an old grudge: for
    [Sidenote: _Iuuen. sat._ 15.]
    Immortale odium & nunquam sanabile vulnus.

[Sidenote: The king would not kisse the pax with the archbishop.] But
whereas twise within a few daies after, the king and the said archbishop
met at masse, the king refused to kisse the pax with him. This was
marked as a signe of a fained reconciliation, though in déed he
afterwards interteined him verie courteouslie, and at his departure ouer
into England, tooke leaue of him in fréendlie manner, and directed
letters vnder his sele to his sonne the new king in forme as followeth.
[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._]

     A letter of the king touching the pacification betweene him and
     Thomas Becket.

     Know ye that Thomas the archbishop of Canturburie hath made his
     peace with me at my will and pleasure; and therefore I command you,
     that both he and his may remaine in peace; and that he and al those
     which for his cause departed out of the realme, may haue all their
     goods restored, and in such quiet estate be now possessed of them
     as at any time within three moneths before their departure from
     thence. [Sidenote: The honor of Saltwood.] And further, cause to
     come before vs of the best and most ancient knights of the honor of
     Saltwood, that vpon their oths they may find what fee the
     archbishop ought to haue within that honor, and that which shall
     appeare to apperteine vnto him, as in fee, let him inioy the same.
     And thus farewell.

The archbishop (before he tooke his iournie into England) went to visit
the French king, and to giue him thanks for his great paines and trauell
susteined in his cause, [Sidenote: The French kings aduise to the
archbish. Becket.] who aduised him in no wise as yet to commit himselfe
to present danger amongst his new reconciled enimies, but rather to
staie till their malice were somewhat assuaged. For he perceiued by king
Henries words & countenance such a deepe rooted displeasure in his hart,
that he agréed to receiue him into fauour rather by compulsion and
against his will than otherwise.

But when the archbishop would needs depart & go ouer into England, the
French K. suffered him so to doo, dooing him all the honor he could at
his leaue taking. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ The archbishop Becket
returneth into England.] Then the archbishop departing out of France,
came into England, and landed at Sandwich about the first of December,
in the seuenth yeare after his first departure out of the realme.
Shortlie after his arriuall, Roger the archbishop of Yorke, Gilbert
bishop of London, and Jocelin bishop of Salisburie, with diuerse other,
came vnto him as to the popes legat, and required that it might please
him to restore them to the ministration of their offices againe; whose
request be granted, but yet vpon condition, that they should vndertake
to stand to his iudgement and order in all things, which (by the
counsell of the archbishop of Yorke) they vtterlie refused.

¶ Here authors agrée not (as Polydor trulie saith) for some write that
archbishop Thomas (immediatlie vpon his returne into England) denounced
the archbishop of Yorke with the bishops of Salisburie and London
accurssed, whereas before they were depriued of the vse and
administration of the sacraments. Some others write, that now at his
comming ouer into England from his exile, he depriued them onlie of the
ministration of the sacraments, togither with the bishops of Excester,
Chester, Rochester, S. Asaph, & Landaff, which had personallie béene
present at the coronation of king Henrie the sonne, to the derogation of
the dignitie of their primat the archbishop of Canturburie (as before
you haue heard.) It shuld seeme yet by Ger. Dorober. that the archbishop
of Yorke, and the bishop of Durham were suspended, and the bishops of
London, Salisburie, and diuerse other excommunicated.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Yorke and other go ouer to the king to
complaine of the archbishop Becket. _Ger. Dor._] But how soeuer he vsed
them, the archbishop of Yorke, the two bishops London and Salisburie,
being offended with his dooings, sailed ouer into Normandie, and there
complained to king Henrie of iniuries doone to them by archbishop
Thomas, gréeuouslie accusing him that he went about to take awaie their
libertie of priesthood, to destroie, corrupt, and finallie to abolish
both the lawes of God and man, togither with the ancient decrées and
statutes of their elders; in somuch that he tooke vpon him to exclude
bishops at his pleasure from the companie of christian men, and so being
excluded, to banish them for euer: to derogat things meerelie
preiudiciall to the kings roiall prerogatiue; and finallie to take awaie
from all men the equitie of laws and ciuill orders.

The king giuing eare to their complaint, was so displeased in his mind
against archbishop Thomas, that in open audience of his lords, knights,
and gentlemen, [Sidenote: The occasion of the kings words that cost
bish. Becket his life.] he said these or the like words: "In what
miserable state am I, that can not be in rest within mine owne realme,
by reason of one onelie préest? Neither is there any of my folkes that
will helpe to deliuer me out of such troubles."

There were some that stood about the king, which gessed by these words,
that his mind was to signifie how he would haue some man to dispatch the
archbishop out of the waie. The kings displeasure against the archbishop
was knowne well inough, which caused men to haue him in no reuerence at
all, so that (as it was said) it chanced on a time, that he came to
Strowd in Kent, where the inhabitants meaning to doo somewhat to his
infamie, being thus out of the kings fauour, and despised of the world,
cut off his horsses taile.

[Sidenote: The knights that slue the archbishop Becket.] There were some
also of the kings seruants, that thought after an other maner of sort to
reuenge the displeasure doone to the kings maiestie, as sir Hugh
Moreuille, sir William Tracie, sir Richard Britaine, and sir Reignold
Fitz Urse, knights, who taking aduice togither, and agréeing in one mind
and will, tooke shipping, & sailed ouer into England, landing at a place
called Dogs hauen, néere Douer.

Now the first night they lodged in the castell of Saltwood, which
Randulfe de Broc had in keeping. The next morning (being the 29. of
December, and fift daie of Christmasse, which as that yeare came about
fell vpon a tuesdaie) hauing gotten togither certeine souldiers in the
countrie thereabouts, came to Canturburie, and first entring into the
court of the abbeie of S. Augustine, they talked with Clarenbald the
elect abbat of that place: and after conference had with him, they
proceeded in their businesse as followeth.

[Sidenote: Reignold Fitz Urse. That is betwéene 4. and 5. in the
euening.] The first knight sir Reignold Fitz Urse came to him about the
eleuenth houre of the daie, as the archbishop sat in his chamber, and
sitting downe at his feet vpon the ground without any manner of greeting
or salutation, at length began with him thus: "Being sent of our
souereigne lord the king from beyond the seas, we doo here present vnto
you his Graces commandements, to wit, that you should go to his sonne
the king, to doo vnto him that which apperteineth vnto you to doo vnto
your souereigne lord, and to do your fealtie vnto him in taking an oth,
and further to amend that wherein you haue offended his maiestie."
Wherevnto the archbishop answered: "For what cause ought I to confirme
my fealtie vnto him by oth? or wherein am I giltie in offending the
kings Maiestie?" [Sidenote: An oth required of him for his baronie.] Sir
Reignold said: "For your baronie, fealtie is demanded of you with an
oth, and an other oth is required of those clerkes, which you haue
brought with you, if they meane to continue within the land." The
archbishop answered: "For my baronie I am readie to do to the king
whatsoeuer law or reason shall allow: but let him for certeine hold,
that he shall not get any oth either of me or of my clerks." "We knew
that (said the knight) that you would not doo any of these things which
we proponed vnto you. Moreouer the king commandeth you to absolue those
bishops that are excommunicated by you without his licence." Wherevnto
he said: "The bishops are excommunicated not by me, but by the pope, who
hath therto authoritie from the Lord. If in déed he hath reuenged the
inurie doone to my church, I confesse that I am not displeased
therwith." Then said the knight: "Sith that such things in despite of
the king doo please you, it is to be thought that you would take from
him his crowne, and be called and taken for king your selfe, but you
shall misse of your purpose surelie therein." The archbishop answered:
"I do not aspire to the name of a king, rather would I knit three
crownes vnto his crowne if it lay in my power."

[Sidenote: The knights command the moonks to sée the archbishop kept
safe.] At length after these and such words, the knights turning them to
the moonks, said: "In the behalfe of our souereigne lord the king, we
command you, that in any wise ye keepe this man safe, and present him to
the king when it shall please his grace to send for him." The archbishop
said: "Doo ye thinke that I will run away? I came not to run away, but
looke for the outrage and malice of wicked men." "Truelie (said they)
you shall not runne away," and herewith went out with noise and
threatnings. [Sidenote: John de Salisburie the archb. Beckets
chancellor.] Then maister John of Salisburie his chancellor said vnto
him: "My lord, this is a woonderfull matter that you will take no mans
counsell: had it not beene méet to haue giuen them a more méeke and
gentle answer?" [Sidenote: The archbishops resolution.] But the
archbishop said: "Surelie I haue alreadie taken all the counsell that I
will take, I know what I ought to doo." Then said Salisburie, "I pray
God it may be good." Now the knights departing out of the place,
[Sidenote: The knights put on their armor.] and going about to put on
their armour, certeine came to the archbishop, & said; "My lord, they
arme themselues." "What forceth it? said he, let them arme themselues."

Now when they were armed, and manie other about them, they entred into
the archbishops palace. Those that were about the archbishop cried vpon
him to flée; but he sat still and would not once remoue, till the moonks
brought him euen by force & against his will into the church. The
comming of the armed men being knowne; [Sidenote: The moonks with force
bring the archbishop into the church.] some of the moonks continued
singing of euensong, and some sought places where to hide themselues,
other came to the archbishop, who was loth to haue entred into the
church, and when he was within, he would not yet suffer them to make
fast the doores, so that there was a great stur among them, but cheeflie
when they perceiued that the armed men went about to séeke for the
archbishop, by meane whereof their euensong was left vnfinished.

At length the knights with their seruants hauing sought the palace,
[Sidenote: The knights enter the church.] came rushing into the church
by the cloister doore with their swords drawne, some of them asking for
the traitor, and some of them for the archbishop, who came and met them,
saieng; "Here am I, no traitor, but the archbishop." [Sidenote: As
though archbishops can be no traitors.] The formost of the knights said
vnto him: "Flee; thou art but dead," To whome the archbishop said, "I
will not flée." The knight stept to him taking him by the sléeue, and
with his sword cast his cap besides his head, and said, "Come hither,
for thou art a prisoner." "I will not (said the archbishop) doo with me
here what thou wilt:" and plucked his sleeue with a mightie strength out
of the knights hand. Wherewith the knight stepped backe two or thrée
paces. [Sidenote: The courage of the archb.] Then the archbishop turning
to one of the knights, said to him, "What meaneth this, Reignold? I
haue doone vnto thée manie great pleasures, and commest thou now vnto
me into the church armed?" Unto whome the knight presentlie answered and
said; "Thou shalt know anon what is ment, thou art but dead: it is not
possible for thee any longer to liue." Unto whom the archbishop
answered: "I am readie to die for my God, and for the defense of his
iustice and the libertie of the church; gladlie doo I imbrace death, so
that the church may purchase peace and libertie by the shedding of my
blood." And herewith taking on other of the knights by the habergeon, he
floong him from him with such violence, that he had almost throwne him
downe to the ground. This was sir Will. Tracie, as he after confessed.

Then the archbishop inclined his head after the maner of one that would
praie, pronouncing these his last words: "To God, to saint Marie, and to
the saints that are patrones of this church, and to saint Denise, I
commend my selfe and the churches cause." Therewith sir Reignold
FitzUrse striking a full blow at his head, [Sidenote: Edward of
Cambridge.] chanced to light vpon the arme of a clerke named Edward of
Cambridge, who cast vp his arme to saue the archbishop: but when he was
not able to beare the weight of the blow, he plucked his arme backe, and
so the stroke staied vpon the archbishops head, in such wise that the
bloud ran downe by his face. [Sidenote: The archbish. is slaine.] Then
they stroke at him one after an other, and though he fell to the ground
at the second blow, yet they left him not till they had cut and pashed
out his braines, and dashed them about vpon the church pauement. All
this being doone, they rifled his house, spoiled his goods, and tooke
them to their owne vses, supposing it lawfull for them being the kings
seruants so to doo.

But doubting how the matter would be taken, after they had wrought their
feat, they got them into the bishoprike of Duresme, there to remaine
till they might heare how the king would take this their vnlawfull
enterprise: though (as they alledged) they had lustilie defended his
cause, and reuenged his quarell as faithfull seruants ought to doo.
Howbeit, it chanced otherwise than they looked it should haue doone: for
king Henrie gaue them so litle thankes for their presumptuous act,
sounding to the euill example of other in breach of his lawes,
[Sidenote: The murtherers come to an euill end. _Matth. Paris._ _W.
Paruus._] that they despairing vtterlie of pardon, fled one into one
place, and another into another, so that within foure yeares they all
died an euill death (as it hath béene reported.) Some write, that they
went to Rome by the kings commandement, and there presented themselues
before the pope, to receiue such penance for their wicked act as he
should enioine them. Herevpon the pope appointed them to go vnto
Jerusalem, their to do their penance, where they remained certeine
yeares, applieng themselues verie diligentlie to performe the
satisfaction of their offense, according to the maner prescribed to them
by the pope, and so at length died.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17. 1171.] This was the end of Thomas Becket
archbishop of Canturburie, which was after he had entred into that see
eight yeares and six moneths, [Sidenote: After their account that begin
the yere on Christmas day.] in the yeare after the birth of our Lord
1171. On Christmas day before his death, which fell that yeare on the
fridaie, he preached a sermon to the people, and when he had made an end
thereof, he accurssed Nigell de Sackeuille, the violent incumbent of the
church of Berges, [Sidenote: Robert de Broc.] and Robert de Broc, both
which had (vpon spite) curtailed the horsse of the said archbishop: and
as the same day whilest he was at the altar, according to his custome,
altogither in teares and lamentation; so at dinner he shewed himselfe
verie pleasant & merrie, insomuch that when those that were at the table
séemed somewhat doubtfull to eat of the flesh that was set before them,
bicause it was friday; "Why do ye abhorre (saith he) to eat flesh? This
day flesh hath a great priuilege, for this same day the word was made
flesh, and came into light, and appeared vnto vs." These his words
greatlie contented all the companie.

¶ Thus you haue heard the tragicall discourse of ambitious Becket, a man
of meane parentage, and yet through the princes fauour verie fortunate,
if he had not abused the beneuolence of so gratious a souereigne by his
insolencie and presumption. Wherein we haue to note, how vnseemelie a
thing it was for him, being called to so sacred a function, to lead so
secular and prophane a life, as if he had professed open hostilitie to
the vocation which he pretended to honour and reuerence. We are also
taught, that promotions atchiued by ambition are not permanent, and are
so farre from procuring fame and renowne to the obteiners, that they
turne them in the end to shame, infamie and reproch, after losse of life
and effusion of bloud. The issue of all which tragedie is to be imputed
to the prouidence and counsell of almightie God, as one writeth verie
agréablie to this purpose, saieng,
    [Sidenote: _Hesi. in lib. cui tit. op. & dies._]
    Nam facilè extollit facilè elatúmq; refrænat,
    Et clarum obscurans, obscuri nomen adauget.
    Erigit & miserum facilè extinguítque superbum
    Iuppiter altifremus, cui celsum regia cœlum.

[Sidenote: King Henrie sorie for the archb. Beckets death. _Polydor._]
But to let this matter passe. King Henrie doubtlesse was right pensiue
for his death, bicause he wist well inough that it would be iudged, that
he himselfe was priuie to the thing: and euen so it came to passe, for
immediatlie vpon notice giuen into France of the archbishops death, king
Lewes, and Theobald the earle of Blois, as they that loued him most
deerelie were most sorowfull for it, and iudging straightwaie that king
Henrie was the procurer, they wrote their letters vnto pope Alexander,
giuing him to vnderstand both of the slaughter, and how king Henrie had
caused it to be put in execution, requiring most instantlie, that such
an iniurie doone to the Christian religion, might spéedilie be punished.
The pope was much offended, and determined to haue the matter throughlie
considered and ordered, so as might stand with his dignitie, and
accordinglie as the hainous state of the case required. King Henrie
whilest these things were a dooing, lay certein daies at Argenton, so
much displeased in his mind, that he would suffer no man once to speake
to him about any maner of businesse.

[Sidenote: King Henrie sendeth ambassadours to the pope.] At length, he
sent his ambassadors to Rome, partlie to purge himselfe of the
archbishops death, partlie to excuse his fault, for that in his furie he
had vttered words against the archbishop, which had giuen occasion to
naughtie men to contriue his death, & partlie to require the pope to
send his legats into England, to make inquirie both for the death of the
archbishop, and also of the state of the clergie. The kings ambassadors
found the pope at Tiuoli, and there were heard to declare their message:
but little credit was giuen to their words, in so much that the pope
plainelie told them, that he vnderstood the matter to be much otherwise
than they had declared. Yet according to the kings request, he sent two
of his cardinals into England, which vpon due examination, might
vnderstand the truth of the matter thoroughlie as apperteined.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] There be that write, that the king sent
ambassadours twice vnto the pope, for the first that went, could not
come to his presence, nor be suffered to declare their message: those
that were sent the second time, were receiued of some of the cardinals,
but yet onelie with words without anie other way of freendlie
interteinement. At length, when the feast of Easter drew néere, on the
which either absolution or excommunication was to be denounced against
euerie man, there were certeine of the cardinals which gaue intelligence
to the English ambassadours, that the pope by aduice of the colledge,
meant on the thursdaie before Easter daie to declare the sentence of
interdiction against the king of England, and against all his dominions,
and to confirme that which had beene alreadie pronounced against Richard
the archbishop of Yorke, and the other bishops his complices.

The ambassadours being brought to a streict issue herewith, by helpe of
some of the cardinals found meanes to haue it put into the popes head,
how the English ambassadours had commission to vndertake, that the king
of England should obeie in all things what order soeuer it pleased the
pope and his court to award him. Herevpon they tooke their oth, that it
should so be, and by that meanes they auoided the interdiction. The
messengers of the archbishop of Yorke & the other bishops vsed the like
shift, but yet the same daie the pope did excommunicate the knights that
had murthered the archbishop Thomas, and all those that had procured,
aided, succoured, or abetted them therein. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ The
ambassadours were glad to vse a shift by briberie.] Some write, that
those ambassadours which the king sent to the court of Rome, could not
be suffered to come to the popes presence, till according to the
fashion, they had giuen 500. marks in reward, and so at length were
admitted to his presence.

Howsoeuer that matter passed, the king stood in great feare least his
land should be interdicted, in so much that he commanded the wardens of
the ports both on this side the sea and beyond, to take good héed, least
any cōming with letters of interdiction should passe into England;
but if any such came, that the bringer should be arrested and committed
to prison. Also he commanded, that no clearke were suffered to come ouer
into England, except he first tooke an oth that he came about no
businesse that might turne to the preiudice of the king or his realme.
This commandement he set forth, at what time he transported ouer into
England himselfe, where he landed this yeare at Portesmouth the third
daie of August. About which time it came into the kings mind, to make a
conquest of Ireland vpon this occasion.

[Sidenote: Sundrie rulers in Ireland.] It chanced, whereas diuerse
rulers or (as we may call them) petie kings reigned the same seson in
that Iland (which was diuided into seuerall estates or kingdomes) that
continuall strife and dissention remained amongst them, so that
oftentimes they made sore war after the manner of their countrie one
against an other, (for
    [Sidenote: _Luc. lib. 1._]
    Nulla fides regni socijs, omnisque potestas
    Impatiens consortis erit.)

Herevpon it fortuned, that one of those kings or rulers, about the 14.
yeare of this kings reigne, was sore afflicted and oppressed by his
neighbours, wherevpon taking aduice what he might best doo for remedie
in that case, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _W. Paruus._ Sée more hereof in
Ireland.] at length he sent his son into England to reteine souldiours
and men of warre, and to bring them ouer vnto his aid in hope of gaine,
& such commodities as he assured them of.

Now it came to passe, that by the assistance of such Englishmen as then
came ouer, the foresaid Irish king began to recouer his losses, and in
the end waxed so strong, that he subdued all his enimies. When he had
thus obteined the victorie, he did not onelie not send backe his aiders,
but so liberallie reteined them still with him, that they had no hast to
returne home, but setled themselues in that countrie, where they liued a
pleasant and verie licentious life. For this cause also the stoutest
lords and rulers of the Irish nation began sore to stomach the matter
against him that had thus brought the English nation into their
countrie, in so much that the Englishmen perceiuing their malice, and
therewithall hauing some feare of themselues, bicause of their small
number, they sent ouer into England for such as wanted liuing, and were
willing to seeke for it in other countries, of which sort, great numbers
went ouer thither within a short space, whereby the multitude of the
English greatlie increased: [Sidenote: Erle Strangbow. _N. Triuet._] but
for as much as they had no ruler to gouerne them, they procured Richard
Strangbow earle of Struguille, aliàs Chepstow in Wales to come ouer
thither, and to receiue the souereigne gouernement, with such honorable
prouision for maintenance of his estate, as should séeme requisit.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Wil. Paruus._] ¶ Some write, that this earle
Richard (being also earle Marshall of England) for a rebellion moued
against king Henrie, had before this time forfeited all his lands; but
others affirme that through riot and more sumptuous port than his
abilitie might beare, he had made awaie and consumed the most part of
his liuing, and was run so far in debt, that he knew not how to satisfie
his creditors, and therefore was he the readier to incline to their
request, which made labour vnto him to come ouer into Ireland to haue
the gouernance of such English people, as had alreadie planted
themselues there to inhabit & remaine. Herevpon he prepared a nauie, and
assembled togither a great number of such as lacked liuing, and shortlie
determined to passe ouer into Ireland. [Sidenote: Strangbow
countermanded.] But euen as he was readie to set forward, there came
vnto him messengers from king Henrie, commanding him to staie, and not
to take that iournie in hand. Howbeit the earle hauing nothing in
England whereof to make anie great accompt, notwithstanding the kings
commandement, tooke the sea, and passed ouer into that countrie, where
he greatlie delited such Englishmen as dailie had looked for his repaire
and comming thither.

Shortlie after, ioining those which he brought ouer with him, with the
other that were there before his comming, he thought to worke some feat,
whereby he might make his name famous, & cause the Irishmen to haue him
in feare. [Sidenote: Dublin won. Additions to _Iohn Pike._] Wherevpon he
first assailed the citie of Dublin, and by force wan it. He likewise wan
Waterford, & diuerse other townes neere vnto the sea side. Also to haue
some freendship amongst those barbarous people, [Sidenote: Strangbow
marrieth Dermutius his daughter.] he married the daughter of the
confederate king, and so grew into verie great estimation in that
countrie and region.

Howbeit, with these and the like doings of the earle, king Henrie tooke
such displeasure (but chéeflie for disobeieng his commandement) that he
confined him the realme, [Sidenote: Strangbow confined.] seized his
lands as forfeited, and by proclamation restreined all his subiects from
passing into Ireland with any kind of merchandize, prouision of vittels,
or other commodities whatsoeuer. By reason whereof, earle Strangbow,
partlie by constreint, [Sidenote: He séeketh to procure the kings
fauour.] and partlie in hope to returne into fauour with king Henrie,
and for other respects as may be coniectured, aduertised him of the
whole state of the countrie of Ireland, promising him, that if it would
please his grace to come ouer thither, he would so worke that he should
be admitted souereigne lord of all the land. [Sidenote: The king
pardoneth him. _N. Triuet._[3]] Heerevpon king Henrie pardoned him of
all former trespasses, and restored vnto him all his lands and
inheritances within England and Normandie: and further, confirmed to him
such liuings abroad in Ireland out of the walled townes, as he held
alreadie in right of his wife: and furthermore ordeined, that he should
be high steward of Ireland vnder him.

King Henrie then returning out of Normandie into England about the sixt
day of August (as is aforesaid) caused a nauie of 400. ships to be made
readie, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] and to assemble at Milford hauen in
Penbrokshire, with all such prouision and furniture as was thought
necessarie for such a iournie. Herewith also he leuied a great armie
both of horssemen and footmen, and came forward with the same vnto
Penbroke, and so when all his prouision and ships were readie,
[Sidenote: Milford hauen.] he entred the sea at Milford hauen aforesaid
the sixtéenth daie of October, [Sidenote: King Henrie landeth in
Ireland. Crowch.] and landed in Ireland, at a place called Crowch, not
past seauen miles from Waterford the day next folowing, about nine of
the clocke: and on the morrow after being S. Luke the euangelists day,
he with all his armie marched foorth to Waterford, where he found
William Fitz Aldelme his sewer, and Robert Fitz Bernard, with other
whome he had sent thither before him for such purposes as he thought
most conuenient. He remained at Waterford fiftéene daies, during which
time, there came in vnto him the king of Corke, the king of Limerike,
the king of Ossorie, the king of Méeth, Reignald de Waterford, and
diuerse other great princes of Ireland. [Sidenote: The surrender made by
erle Strangbow.] At his first arriuall, the foresaid earle Richard
surrendred into his hands all those townes and places which he had
subdued in that countrie.

Herewithall the whole land began to tremble, so that the rulers of
townes and countries sent vnto him messengers; offering to become
tributaries, and to deliuer hostages: [Sidenote: Sundrie rulers in a
land what weakenes it causeth.] for whilest euerie of those rulers which
had the gouernment of Ireland in their hands, feared their owne estate,
and mistrusted their owne powers, they all in maner submitted
themselues, so that this victorie chanced to king Henrie, without the
drawing foorth of his sword, and in such wise, that he could not haue
wished for better or more speedie successe therein. For whereas the
whole Iland was diuided into sundrie dominions, and ruled by sundrie
gouernours, not drawing all one waie, but through factions and contrarie
studies one enuieng an others wealth (for
    [Sidenote: _Ouid. li. 3. de art. Stat. 1. Th._]
    Non bene cum socijs regna venúsque manent,
      ---- Socijsq; comes discordia regnis)
nothing more hindred the fierce and vnquiet nation from making
resistance, than that they could not agrée to take councell togither for
defending of their liberties, and entier state of the commonwelth.
Whervpon, whilest euerie of them apart by himselfe was in doubt to
attempt the hazard of war against so mightie a king, they were all
ouercome, as were the Britons likewise in the time of Cesar and the
Saxons. King Henrie therefore gladlie receiued their humble submission,
and they doing homage vnto him, sware to be his liege and faithfull
subiects. Onelie Roderike gouernour of Connagh refused to submit
himselfe.

[Sidenote: Roderike K. of Connagh.] This Roderike pretended to be the
chéefe king of Ireland, and therefore kept continuall war with the other
rulers, which was partlie the cause wherefore they submitted themselues
so soone vnto king Henrie. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Polydor._ The
nature of the countrie of Connagh.] The said Roderike held that part of
Ireland which lieth toward the west, being full of great and thicke
woods, and defended with verie high & great mountaines, closed also with
waters and marishes, so that it should be verie hard, and speciallie in
the winter season, to bring an armie vnto it: which was the onelie cause
whie king Henrie attempted nothing against Roderike at that time, but
tooke in hand to plant garisons of souldiers in places conuenient to
kéepe the land in quiet, which he had woone alreadie, and to giue order
for the gouernement of the whole estate of the countrie to his behoofe
and commoditie. Hervpon going to Dublin, which is the cheefest citie of
all Ireland, he assembled all the rulers and lords as well spirituall as
temporall togither in councell, consulting with them for the assurance
of the dominion of the land to him and his heires for euermore.

[Sidenote: The allegation of the Irishmen.] The Irishmen alleged for
themselues, that his deuise therin could not be compassed, vnles the
popes authoritie were therein first obteined: for they affirmed, that
immediatlie vpon receiuing the christian faith, they did submit
themselues, & all that they had, vnto the see of Rome, so that they
could not acknowledge any for their souereigne lord, but onelie the
pope. Which opinion some of them (although vainelie) haue holden vnto
these our daies. King Henrie then vnderstanding this matter, dispatched
ambassadours to Rome, requiring of pope Alexander, that he would by his
authoritie grant him licence to ioine the countrie of Ireland vnto the
realme of England, who went thither with all expedition according to
their charge.

And certeinelie, these ambassadors whom the king sent now out of Ireland
to Rome in this behalfe, returned with better spéed in their message,
than did the other whom he had sent to him out of Normandie, to excuse
him of the death of the archbishop Thomas. For the pope vpon good aduice
taken in this matter (considering that he had now no profit growing to
him by that Ile, and that the Irish people being wild and rude, were far
off from all good order of christianitie in diuerse points) thought it
would be a meane to bring some gaine to his cofers, and the people more
easilie from their naughtie customes, if they were once made subiect
vnto some christian prince of puissance able to tame them, and
constreine them by force to be more meeke and tractable. In
consideration wherof, he was content to grant vnto the king all that
herein he required.

Herevpon, king Henrie considering in what respect the pope was so readie
to accomplish his request, [Sidenote: A councell at Cassill.] called a
councell of the bishops to assemble at Cassill, where manie things were
decréed and ordeined for the reforming of diuerse customes vsed before
amongst the Irish men, and méerelie repugnant to the lawes of the
christian religion. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] There were also appointed as
solicitors in these matters, and to sit as assistants with the Irish
bishops, one of the kings chaplaines named Nicholas, [Sidenote: The
archdeacon of Landaf.] and one Rafe the archdeacon of Landaf.

1 Amongst other things there concluded, it was ordeined, that children
shuld be brought to the church, there to receiue baptisme in faire
water, with thrée dippings into the same, in the name of the father, the
sonne, and the Holie-ghost, and that by the préests hands, except in
case where danger of death was feared, which then might be doone by any
other person, and in any other place.

2 Also it was ordeined, that tithes should be paid to churches, and that
such laie men as would kéepe wiues, should keepe them according to the
lawes of holie church, and not otherwise.

3 The Peter pence also that Adrian reserued in his buls, sent to the
king touching the same matter in the beginning of his reigne (with
diuerse other things) were in like maner appointed to be paid, so that
nothing was omitted that might pleasure the pope, or recouer his
gratious fauour alreadie lost in the matters of Thomas Becket, whereof
you haue alreadie heard. Thus you heare what successe our ambassadours
had in this voiage. ¶ Now will I tell you (yer I procéed any further)
what strange things did happen in England whilest the king was thus
occupied in Ireland, and within the compasse of that yeare, and first of
all, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 18.] in the night before Christmas day last
passed, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Matth. West._ A sore tempest.]
[Sidenote: 1172.] there chanced such a tempest of lightning and thunder,
that the like had not bin heard of, which tempest was not onelie
generallie throughout all England, but also in other foreine parts néere
adioining, namelie in Ireland, where it continued all that night, and
Christmas daie following, to so great terror of the people, that they
looked for present death.

The same night at Andeuer in Hamshire, a préest being in his praiers
before the altar, was striken with the tempest, so that he died yer it
was nine of the clocke in the morning. [Sidenote: Lightning.] Also, a
temporall man that was there the same time, was burned with the
lightning, and whereas his brother being present, ran to him to haue
succoured him, he likewise was caught with the fire, and in like maner
consumed. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] In Ireland also, euill diet in eating
of fresh flesh and drinking of water, contrarie to the custome of the
Englishmen, brought the flix and other diseases in the kings armie, so
that manie died thereof, for
    [Sidenote: _Pub. Mim._]
    Grauissimum est imperium consuetudinis.
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] Wherfore, about the beginning of Lent, the
king remoued from Dublin, & went vnto the citie of Wexford, where he
remained till toward Easter, and then prepared to returne into England:
[Sidenote: The kings gift vnto Hugh Lacie.] but before he tooke the sea,
he gaue and by his charter confirmed to Hugh Lacie, all the lands of
Meeth, with the appurtenances, to hold of him & his heires in fee by
knights seruice, as to find him an hundred knights or men of armes (as
we may terme them) for euermore. He gaue also vnto the same Hugh, the
kéeping of the citie of Dublin, and made him chéefe iusticer of Ireland.
Unto Robert Fitz Bernard he committed the cities of Waterford and
Wesseford, that he should kéepe the same to his vse, and build in them
castels, for a more sure defense against the enimies.

Thus when the king had planted garisons of souldiers in those & other
places also where was thought néedfull; and further had giuen order for
the politike gouernement of the whole countrie, so far as he had
conquered; he first sent ouer his houshold seruants, which tooke the
water on Easter daie, and landed at Milleford, but he himselfe and other
of the Nobles staid there all that daie, by reason of the high
solemnitie of that feast: howbeit the daie next after they tooke the sea
togither, and landed néere to S. Dauids in south Wales, [Sidenote: The
king returneth into England. _Ger. Dor._ The popes legats.] from thence
(without delaie) he hasted foorth to Douer, and hauing his sonne the
yoong king with him, he sailed ouer into Normandie in the crosse weeke
to meet the popes legats, whom he vnderstood to be alreadie come
thither. At his méeting with them there, he gaue them verie good
countenance, and right honorable enterteinment, omitting nothing that
might doo them pleasure.

Here when the matter came to be discussed touching the death of
archbishop Thomas, bicause it could not be certeinelie tried out in whom
the fault rested, much reasoning to and fro passed, about obiections and
excuses laid (as in doubtfull cases it often happeneth) so that welneere
the space of foure moneths was spent in debating of that matter. In
which meane time, the king to auoid all contention and strife betwixt
him and king Lewes, sent his son Henrie togither with his wife ouer into
England there eftsoones to receiue the crowne, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._
_R. Houed._] and with them came Rotrod the archbishop of Rouen, Giles
bishop of Eureux, Roger bishop of Worcester, and diuerse others.

Herevpon the yoong king being arriued in England, called an assemblie of
the lords spirituall and temporall at Winchester, [Sidenote: _Rog.
Houed._] where both he and his said wife Margaret daughter to the French
king was crowned with all solemnitie, by the hands of the said Rotrod
archbishop of Rouen vpon the twentie one of August.

In the meane time (saith one writer) his father king Henrie might haue
foreséene and found means to haue auoided the discord, which euen now
began to spring vp betwixt him and his children, causing a sore and
ciuill warre, if he had not beene a man that vtterlie did detest all
superstitious admonitions. For being told (I wot not by whome) that if
he did not repent, and take more regard to minister iustice, which is a
vertue that conteineth in it selfe all other vertues; it would come to
passe, that within short time he should fall into great and manifold
calamities.

[Sidenote: A strange apparition.] "In his returne also out of Ireland
(saith an other) vpon the sundaie next after the feast of Easter,
commonlie called Lowsundie, as he should take his horsse at Cardiffe in
Wales, there appeared vnto him a man of pale and wanne colour,
barefooted, and in a white kirtell, who boldlie in the Dutch language
spake vnto him, and admonished him of amendment of life, and to haue
regard that the sabboth daie (commonlie called the sundaie) might be
more duelie kept and obserued, so that no markets nor bodilie workes be
holden, vsed, or doone vpon that day within the bounds of his dominions,
except that which apperteineth to dressing of meats. And if thou doo
(saith he) after this commandement, I assure thée that all things which
thou dooest enterprise of good intent and purpose, shall sort to good
effect and verie luckie end.

"But the king was not greatlie pleased with these words, and in French
said to the knight that held his bridle; 'Aske of this churle, whether
he had dreamed all this that he telleth or not.' When the knight had
expounded it in English, the man answered, Whether I haue dreamed it in
my sleepe or not, take thou héed to my words, & marke what day this is:
for if thou amend not thy life, and doo as I haue aduertised thée,
before a twelue moneth come to an end, thou shalt heare such tidings as
will make thee sorowfull all the daies of thy life after." The man
hauing thus spoken, vanished awaie suddenlie, and the king tooke his
words but in sport: howbeit he woondered that he was so suddenlie gone,
as he did likewise at his sudden appearing. Manie other warnings the
king had (saith mine author) but he set little thereby.

The second warning he receiued of an Irishman, that told him of tokens
verie priuie. The third time a knight of Lindsey, called Philip de
Chesterby, passing the sea, came to the king into Normandie, and there
declared vnto him seauen articles, which he should amend, which if he
did, then he should reigne seauen yeares in great honor, and subdue Gods
enimies. If he did not amend and redresse those points, then should he
come to death with dishonour in the fourth yeare.

     1 The first article or point was, that he should séeke to
     mainteine holie church.

     2 The second, that he should cause rightfull lawes to be
     executed.

     3 The third, that he should condemne no man without lawfull
     processe.

     4 The fourth, that he should restore the lands, goods and
     heritages to those rightfull owners from whome he had taken them
     by any wrong or vnlawfull meanes.

     5 The fift, that he should cause euerie man to haue right,
     without bribing and giuing of méed.

     6 The sixt, that he should paie his debts as well due to any of
     his subiects, for any stuffe taken vp of them to his vse, as to
     his seruants and souldiers, who bicause they could not haue their
     wages truelie paid them, fell to robbing and spoiling of true
     labouring men.

     7 The seauenth and last article was, that he should cause the
     Jewes to be auoided out of the land, by whom the people were sore
     impouerished with such vnmercifull vsurie as they exercised.

The king (notwithstanding these and other like warnings) tooke no regard
to the amendment of his sinfull life, wherevpon (as is thought) the
troubles which ensued did light vpon him by Gods iust appointment.

¶ Howsoeuer this may séeme a fable, but no written veritie, & therefore
esteemed as the chaffe of summer flowers; yet as in the tales of Aesop
many good morals are comprised, so the scope whereto this apparition
tendeth being necessarie, maketh the argument it selfe of the more
authoritie. The end therefore being (as you sée) to reuoke the king from
woorse to better, from the swines-stie of vice to the statelie throne of
vertue, from the kennell of sinne to the riuers of sanctitie, prooueth
that euen verie fictions of poets (though of light credit) haue their
drift manie times to honest purpose, and therefore bring with them a
competent weight of profit to the readers. So the scope of this tale
being the same that Dauid pointeth at in the second psalme, when he
saith,
    [Sidenote: _Ex G. Buch. paraph. in psal. 2._]
    (At vos in populos quibus est permissa potestas,
      Et ius ab alta sede plebi dicitis,
    Errorum tenebras depellite, discite verum, &c.)
maketh the narration it selfe (though otherwise séeming méere fabulous)
to be somewhat authenticall. But to returne to the course of our storie,
and now to saie somewhat of this Henrie the seconds sonne the yoong
king, by whom the troubles were moued, (note you this) that after he had
receiued the crowne togither with his said wife, they both passed the
seas incontinentlie backe againe into Normandie, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._
_Ger. Dor._ King Henrie purgeth him selfe of the archbishop Beckets
death.] where on the seauen and twentith of September, at a generall
assemblie holden within the citie of Auranches in the church of the
apostle S. Andrew, king Henrie the father, before the cardinals the the
popes legats, and a great number of bishops and other people, made his
purgation, in receiuing an oth vpon the holie relikes of the saints, and
vpon the sacred euangelists, that he neither willed, nor commanded the
archbishop Thomas to be murthered, and that when he heard of it, he was
sorie for it. But bicause he could not apprehend them that slue the
archbishop, and for that he feared in his conscience least they had
executed that vnlawfull act vpon a presumptuous boldnesse, bicause they
had perceiued him to be offended with the archbishop, he sware to make
satisfaction (for giuing such occasion) in this maner.

     [Sidenote: O vile subiection vnbeséeming a king!]
     1 In primis, that he would not depart from pope Alexander, nor
     from his catholike successours, so long as they should repute him
     for a catholike king.

     2 Item, that he would neither impeach appeales, nor suffer them
     to be impeached, but that they might freelie be made within the
     realme vnto the pope, in causes ecclesiasticall; yet so, that if
     the king haue the parties suspected, they shall find him suerties
     that they shall not procure harme or hinderance whatsoeuer to him
     or to his realme.

     3 Item, that within thrée yeares after the natiuitie of our lord
     next ensuing, he should take vpon him the crosse, and personallie
     passe to the holie land, except pope Alexander or his successours
     tooke other order with him.

     4 Prouided, that if vpon any vrgent necessitie he chanced to go
     into Spaine to warre against the Saracens there, then so long
     space of time as he spent in that iournie, he might deferre his
     going into the east parts.

     5 Item, he bound himselfe in the meane time by his oth, to
     emploie so much monie as the templers should thinke sufficient
     for the finding of two hundred knights or men of armes, for one
     yeares terme in the defense of the holie land.

     6 Item, he remitted his wrath conceiued against those which were
     in exile for the archbishop Thomas his cause, so that they might
     returne againe into the realme.

     7 Item, to restore all the lands and possessions which had béene
     taken awaie from the sée of Canturburie, as they were belonging
     thereto in the yere before the departure of the archbishop Thomas
     out of England.

     8 Item, he sware to take awaie and abolish all those customes,
     which in his time had béene brought in against the church, as
     preiudiciall thereto.

All these articles faithfullie, and without male-ingene to performe and
fulfill in euerie degrée, he receiued a solemne oth, and caused his
sonne the yoong king being there present, to receiue the same for
performance of all those articles, such as touched his owne person
onelie excepted. And to the intent the same should remaine in the popes
consistorie as matter of record, he put his seale vnto the writing
wherein the same articles were ingrossed, togither with the seales of
the aboue mentioned cardinals.

Shortlie after king Henrie the father suffered the yoong king his son to
go into France, togither with his wife, to visit his father king Lewes,
according as their deputies required, which iournie verelie bred the
cause of the dissention that followed betwixt him and his father. King
Lewes most louinglie receiued them (as reason was) and caused diuers
kinds of triumphant plaies and pastimes to be shewed for the honour and
delectation of his sonne in law and daughter.

Neuerthelesse, whilest this yoong prince soiourned in France, king Lewes
not hartilie fauouring the king of England, [Sidenote: The French king
séeketh to sow sedition betwixt the father and the sonne.] and
therewithall perceiuing the rash and headstrong disposition of the yong
king did first of all inuegle him to consider of his estate, and to
remember that he was now a king equall vnto his father, and therefore
aduised him so shortlie as he could, to get the entire gouernment out of
his fathers hands: wherevnto he furthermore promised all the aid that
laie in him to performe.

The yong king being readie inough not onelie to worke vnquietnesse, but
also to follow his father in lawes counsell (as he that was apt of
nature to aspire to the sole gouernement, and loth to haue any partener
in authoritie (according to that of the tragedie-writer,
    [Sidenote: _Sen. in Agam._]
    Nec regna socium ferre nec tedæ sciunt)
and namelie such one as might controll him) was the more encouraged
thereto by a number of prodigall currie fauours, who by flatterie set
him aloft, declaring vnto him that he was borne to rule, and not to
obeie, and therefore it became not his highnesse to reigne by the
appointment of an other, but rather to haue the gouernement fréelie in
his owne hands, that he might not be counted prince by permission.
Herevpon the youthfull courage of the yong king being tickled, began to
wax of a contrarie mind to his father: who suspecting indéed that which
chanced; to wit (least his sonnes yoong yeares not able yet to discerne
good and wholesome counsell from euill, might easilie be infected with
some sinister practise) thought it not good to suffer him to be long
absent from him, and therefore sent for him: [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._]
who taking leaue of his father in law king Lewes in courteous maner,
returned and came to his father king Henrie into Normandie, [Sidenote:
An. Reg. 19. 1173.] who when the feast of Christmas drew néere, repaired
towards Aniou, where in the towne of Chinon, he solemnized that feast,
hauing left his sonne the yong king and his wife all that while in
Normandie: but sending for him after the feast was ended, they went both
into Auvergne, [Sidenote: Hubert earle of Morienne.] where being at
mount Ferrat, Hubert earle of Morienne came vnto them, bringing with him
his eldest daughter Alice, whom king Henrie the father bought of him for
the summe of fiue thousand markes, [Sidenote: A marriage contracted.]
that he might bestow hir in marriage vpon his yongest sonne John with
the heritage of the countie of Morienne, if hir father died without
other issue, or at the leastwise the said Hubert chanced to haue any
sonne lawfullie begotten, that then he should leaue vnto them and to
their heires the countie of Russellon, [Sidenote: _Comitatus
bellensis._] the countie of Belle, as he then had and held the same,
Pierre castell with the appurtenances, the vallie of Noualleise, also
Chambrie with the appurtenances, Aiz, Aspermont, Rochet, mont Magor, and
Chambres, with Burg, all which lieng on this side the mountaines with
their appurtenances, the said Hubert granted to them immediatlie for
euer. And beyond the mountaines he couenanted to giue vnto them Turine
with the appurtenances, the colledge of Gauoreth with the appurtenances,
and all the fées which the earles of Canaues held of him, togither with
the fealties and seruices. And also, the fees, fealties, and seruices
which belonged to him in the countie of Amund, and in the vallie called
Vale Dosta; and in like maner, the towne of Castellone.

All the forenamed places the said earle gaue and granted to the said
John, sonne to the king of England for euermore, with his daughter, so
fréelie, wholie and quietlie (in men and cities, castels, fortresses, or
other places of defense, in medowes, leassewes, milnes, woods, plaines,
waters, vallies and mountaines, in customes and all other things) as
euer he or his father had held or enioied the same. And furthermore, the
said earle would, that immediatlie (when it pleased the king of England)
his people should doo homage and fealtie to the king of Englands sonne,
reseruing the fealtie due to him so long as he liued. [Sidenote: The
countie of Granople.] Moreouer, the said earle Hubert granted to the
said John and his wife all the right that he had in the countie of
Granople, and whatsoeuer might be got and euicted in the same countie.
It was also couenanted, if the elder daughter died, that then the said
John should marrie the yoonger daughter, and enioy all the like portions
and parts of inheritance as he should haue enioied with the first.

Finallie, that these couenants, grants and agréements should be
performed on the part and behalfe of the said earle Hubert, both he, the
said earle, and the erle of Geneua, and in maner all the great lords and
barons of those countries receiued an oth, and vndertooke to come and
offer themselues as hostages to remaine with the king of England, in
case the said earle Hubert failed in performance of any of the aforesaid
articles, till he framed himselfe to satisfie the kings pleasure in such
behalfe.

Furthermore, Peter the reuerend archbishop of Tarensasia, and Ardune the
bishop of Geneua, and also William the bishop of Morienne, with the
abbat of S. Michell promised vpon their oth to be readie at the
appointment of the king of England, to put vnder the censures of the
church the said earle and his lands, refusing to performe the foresaid
couenants, and so to kéepe him and the said lands bound, till he had
satisfied the king of England therein.

[Sidenote: The earles of Mandeuille and Arundell.] William earle of
Mandeuill, and William earle of Arundell sware on the part of king
Henrie, that he should performe the articles, couenants and agréements
on his part, as first to make paiment immediatlie vnto the said Hubert
of one thousand markes, and as soone as he should receiue his daughter,
he should paie him an other thousand markes at the least, and the
residue then remaining of the said sum of fiue thousand markes, should
be paid when the mariage was consummate.

It was prouided also, that the said earle Hubert might marrie his
yoonger daughter where he would, without any great diminishing of the
earledome after the first marriage consummate with the lord John, the
king of Englands sonne. And that if either the said lord John, or his
affianced wife chanced to die before the consummation of the marriage,
then should the monie which the earle had receiued, be repaid to the
king, or bestowed as the king should appoint.

Shortlie after that the parties were agreed vpon the couenants afore
cited, the marques of Montferrat & one Geffrey de Plozac with his sonne
Miles and other Noble men came to the king as ambassadors from the earle
of Morienne, and receiued an oth, that they should see and procure the
said earle to performe the couenants and agreements concluded betwixt
the king and him. When these things were thus ordered, as séemed good to
both parties, for the establishment of the foresaid marriage, the king
the father, and the king the sonne remoued to Limoges, [Sidenote: The
earle of S. Giles.] whither the earle of S. Giles came, and was there
accorded with king Henrie and his sonne Richard duke of Guien,
concerning the controuersie that had béene moued for the countie of
Tholouze, dooing his homage as well vnto the father as to the sonne for
the same countie, [Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._] and further couenanted to
serue them with an hundred knights or men of armes (as we may call them)
for the terme of fourtie daies at all times, vpon lawfull summons. And
if the king or his sonne duke Richard would haue his seruice longer time
after the fourtie daies were expired, they should paie wages both to him
and his men in reasonable maner. [Sidenote: Tribute for Tholouze.]
Moreouer, the said earle condescended & agreed to give yearelie for
Tholouze an hundred marks, or else 10. horsses with 10. marks a péece.
Now also, whilest the king soiourned at Limoges, the earle of Morienne
came thither to him, and required to vnderstand what parcels of land he
would assigne vnto his sonne John. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Wherevpon the
king resolued to allot vnto him the chappell of Chinon, Lodun and
Mirabell, whereby he offended his eldest sonne the yoong king (as after
may appeare) who was glad to haue occasion (whome the poets faine to be
bald behind and hairie before, as this monastich insinuateth,
    Fronte capillata est post est occasio calua)
offered to broch his conceiued purpose of rebellion which of late he had
imagined, and now began to put in practise, vsing the opportunitie of
the time and the state or qualitie of the quarell then taken for his
best aduantage, and meaning to make it an ingredience or entrance to the
malicious conceit which he had kept secret in his hart.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _N. Triuet._] This yeere the moonks of
Canturburie (by the kings assent) chose for their archbishop one
Richard, who before was prior of Douer, this man was the 39. in number
that had ruled the church of Canturburie, being of an euill life as he
well shewed, in that he wasted the goods of the church inordinatlie.
Roger the abbat of Bechellouin was first chosen, but he refused that
dignitie rather for slothfulnes and idlenes (as some take it) than for
modestie or wisedome: [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] so hard a thing it is
to please the people, which measure all things to be honest or
dishonest, as they eb or flow in profit and gaine.

The said Richard, after that he was elected, did homage vnto king
Henrie, and sware fealtie vnto him (Saluo semper ordine suo, His order
alwaies saued) without making mention of the customes of the kingdome.
[Sidenote: A councell holden at Westminster.] This was doone at
Westminster in the chappel of S. Katharine, the kings iusticer giuing
his assent therevnto, where a councell was held the same time, and a
letter of the popes read there before the bishops and barons of the
realme, conteining amongst other things this that followeth.

     A breefe extract or clause of a letter which the pope sent to the
     clergie of England, &c. for the making of a new holie daie.

     We admonish you all, & by the authoritie which we reteine, doo
     streightlie charge you, that you celebrat the daie of the
     suffering of the blessed man Thomas the glorious martyr, sometime
     archbishop of Canturburie, euerie yere in most solemne sort, &
     that with deuout praiers ye endeuour your selues to purchase
     forgiuenes of sins: that he which for Christes sake suffered
     banishment in this life, and martyrdome in death by constancie of
     vertue, through continuall supplication of faithfull people, may
     make intercession for you vnto God.

The tenor of these letters were scarslie read, but euerie man with a
lowd voice began to recite this psalme or hymne, Te Deum laudamus.
Furthermore bicause his suffragans had not exhibited due reuerence to
him their father, either in time of his banishment, or at his returne
from the same, but rather persecuted him; that they might openlie
confesse their errour and wickednesse to all men, they made this
collect: [Sidenote: A collect deuised in honor of the archbishop
Becket.] "Be fauourable good Lord to our supplication and praier, that
we which acknowledge our selues guiltie of iniquitie, may be deliuered
by the intercession of Thomas thy blessed martyr and bishop, Amen."

This praier was vsed by the couent of S. Albons on the daie of his
martyrdome. Thus
                ---- cæca superstitionis
    Est facilísque via & cunctis iam cognita sæclis.

¶ Notwithstanding all which honor of the pope then exhibited to his
saint, as his canonization, with other solemnities procured for the
maintenance of his memoriall in all ages, succeeding; what remembrance
is there now of Thomas Becket? Where be the shrines that were erected in
this church and that chappell for perpetuities of his name and fame? Are
they not all defaced? are they not all ruinated? are they not all
conuerted to powder and dust? And although the pope ment by causing such
ikons to be erected, to prefer Thomas as a perpetuall saint to all
posterities, and thought as he that said of his poems,
    Exegi monumentum ære perennius,
    Regalíque situ pyramidum altius,
    Quod non imber edax non aquilo impotens
    Possit diruere aut innumerabilis
    Annorum series & fuga temporum,

Yet is he growne not into renowne, but infamie and shame in England, as
our chronicles declare, which haue published that Romish rakehels
ambitious and traitorous heart to all successions. Naie, whereas in
times past he was reckoned in the popes rubricke for a saint and a
martyr, now it is come to passe (by the meanes belike of other saints
whose merits haue surpassed Beckets) that he is growne in obliuion euen
at Rome, [Sidenote: M. Vaghan at Spitle the tuesdaie in Easter wéeke
1565.] and his name raced out of the pope's calendar (as a learned man
preached in a solemne audience at a high festiuall time) by whome he was
so magnified. In which kind of discontinuing his fauour to his sworne
children, he sheweth himselfe verie ingratefull, and not worthie of the
dutifulnesse wherewith (like buzzards as they be) they ouercharge their
hellish (holie I would saie) father.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ The archbishops consecratiō disturbed by the
yoong king.] This yeare the sister of the said archbishop Richard was
made abbesse of Berking. But now touching the new elected archbishop
Richard, we find that comming to Canturburie on the saturdaie after his
election, in hope to be there consecrated, he was disappointed by
letters that came from king Henrie the sonne, in forme as followeth.

     A letter of yoong king Henrie touching the disappointment of
     archbishop Richards consecration.

     Henrie by the grace of God king of England, duke of Normandie,
     and earle of Aniou, sonne of king Henrie; to our deere and
     faithfull freend Odo, prior of the Church of Canturburie, and to
     all the conuent there, sendeth greeting. By the assured report of
     some we vnderstand, that in your church and in other churches
     also, my father goeth about to institute certein persons not
     verie meet for such calling: and bicause (without our consent) it
     ought not so to be doone, who by reason of our kinglie annointing
     haue taken vpon vs the kingdome and charge of the whole realme:
     hervpon we haue in the presence of many persons appealed to the
     see of Rome, and haue signified our appeale in that behalfe, made
     vnto our reuerend fathers and freends Albert and Theodorike,
     cardinals and legats of the apostolike see, by our writing and
     messenger, who like wise and discreet personages haue assented
     therevnto. We haue likewise signified the same our appeale to our
     faithfull freends the bishops of London, Excester, and Worcester,
     and as we haue appealed, so likewise we do appeale vnder your
     testimonie.

After the perusall of this letter, and the due consideration of the
substance and summe of the same, (albeit no such afterclaps were
suspected before) the bishops were altogither driuen to their shifts,
some of them desiring to go forward with the consecration, and some
supposing it better to yéeld vnto the appeale. The elect archbishop
therefore first sent messengers to Rome with letters, not written onelie
by himselfe, but also by all the bishops and conuent of Canturburie.
After this he followed himselfe in person, and comming to the popes
court, found there diuers aduersaries to his cause. For some were there
that tooke part with the king the father, and some with the king the
sonne, and so his businesse could haue no spéedie dispatch. In the meane
time the rancor which king Henrie the sonne had concerned against his
father was so ripened, that it could not but burst out, and shew itselfe
to the breach of all dutifull obedience which nature requireth of a
sonne towards his father.

You haue heard how king Henrie promised the earledome of Morienne, when
the marriage was concluded betwixt his son John and the said earles
daughter, to giue vnto the said John certeine townes in Normandie, for
the better mainteining of his estate and his wiues. This gift of the
fathers caused his eldest sonne the yong king Henrie, the sooner to
powre out his poison which he had sucked before at his being with his
father in law king Lewes. [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] For conceiuing an
offense, that his father should giue away any portion of his
inheritance, he would not condescend to any such gifts, but alledged
that sithens he was king of England, and that all belonged to him, his
father could not now haue any title to giue awaie that which did in no
wise apperteine vnto him.

There was another cause that troubled his mind also, and mooued him to
grudge at his father, which was; for that the proportion of his
allowance for maintenance of his houshold and port was verie slender,
and yet more slenderlie paied. [Sidenote: Astulfe de S. Hilarie a
counsellor, or rather corrupter of king Henrie the sonne. _Polydor._]
Also his father remooued from him certeine of his seruants, as Astulfe
de S. Hilarie, and other whome he suspected to giue him euill counsell.
Wherefore those that were procurers of him to attempt the seizing of the
gouernement into his hands, vpon this occasion slept not, but put into
his head such matter, that at length he openlie demanded to haue the
whole rule committed to him: which when he saw would not be obteined of
his father by quiet meanes, [Sidenote: King Henrie the sonne fled to the
French king.] he fled secretlie awaie vnto his father in law king Lewes,
requiring aid of him to recouer his right, which king Henrie the elder
vniustlie deteined from him.

The French king comforted him, and bad him be of good cheare, for he
ment to doo for him all that in him laie. Herewith he proclaimed him
duke of Normandie, and receiued homage of him for the same. King Henrie
the father vnderstanding that his sonne was thus tied to the French
king, sent ambassadours foorthwith to the same king, requiring him to
giue his son some good & wholesome counsell, that he might repent, and
not follow such wilfulnesse of mind in swaruing from his fathers
freendship, but rather with spéed to returne home againe; & to promise
in his name, that if any thing were otherwise than well, he would be
contented the same should be reformed by his order and correction. But
so farre was king Lewes from meaning to set a quietnesse betwixt the
father and the sonne, that he would not heare the ambassadors declare
their message, [Sidenote: _W. Paruus._] bicause they named the father,
king, to the derogation of the sonnes right, to whome he said he offered
manifest wrong in vsurping the gouernement, which he had alreadie giuen
ouer and resigned. Insomuch that when the ambassadours had declared some
part of their message, he asked them what he was that willed such things
of him: and when they answered that the king of England had sent them
with that message, "That is a false lie (saith he) for behold here is
the king of England, who hath giuen you no commission to declare any
message from him vnto me at all."

¶ Here we sée philautie or selfe-loue, which rageth in men so
preposterouslie, that euen naturall dutie and affection quite forgotten,
they vndertake what mischéefe soeuer commeth next to hand; without
exception of place or person; and all for the maintenance of statelie
titles, of loftie stiles, of honorable names, and such like vanities
more light than thistle downe that flieth in the aire. A vice that hath
beene noted to reigne in all ages, among all péeres and people of all
nations, both at home and abroad, as one verie well noteth and giueth
his verdict therevpon, saieng,
    [Sidenote: _M. Pal. in virg. & sag._]
           ---- proh dij, mine nomina tantùm
    Magnifica, & claros titulos sibi quilibet optat,
    Arrogat, affectat, sequitur, rapit; vt meritò iam
    Et se asinus pardum vocet & formica leonem.
    Quid tituli illustres præclaráq; nomina prosunt?
    Quæ citò mors rapit, & lethæas mergit in vndas.

[Sidenote: King Henrie the father knoweth not whome he may trust.
_Polydor._] King Henrie the father perceiuing hereby that warres would
follow, prepared the best he could for his owne defense: but he was in
great doubt on euerie side, not knowing whome he might trust. And to
increase this mischéefe, his wife quéene Elianor studied to mainteine
the strife betwixt hir sonnes. The yoong king then getting an armie
togither entred into Guian.

[Sidenote: Richard Bart chancellor to the young king, also his
chaplaine, Sir Walter Ailward with others. _Rog. Houed._] King Henrie
was not hastie to go against him, but sought rather with gentlenesse and
all courteous meanes to reconcile him: insomuch that whereas diuerse
graue personages being of the yoong kings counsell, and doubting to
runne into the displeasure of his father, reuolted from the sonne to the
father, and brought with them the sonnes seale, which he vsed in sealing
of letters. Howbeit, the father receiued them not, but sent them backe
againe to his sonne, commanding them to continue faithfull in seruing
him as he should appoint them, and herewith he sent ambassadours vnto
his sonne to entreate with him of peace and concord.

Now whilest the father went about to asswage the sonnes displeasure, the
mother quéene Elianor did what she could to pricke him forward in his
disobedient attempts. For she being enraged against hir husband bicause
he kept sundrie concubines, and therefore delited the lesse in hir
companie, cared not what mischéefe she procured against him. Herevpon
she made hir complaint so greeuouslie vnto hir sons Richard and Geffrey,
that they ioined with their brother against their father, & came to him
into Guien, to aid him to the vttermost of their powers.

¶ This may well séeme to be brought vpon the king as a plague of his
incontinent, vnchast and libidinous life; who hauing Chara coniugij
pignora, a notable motiue to kindle and to continue honest loue in
wedlocke, did not notwithstanding most inordinatelie abandon his bodie
to beastlie and vnlawfull companie kéeping with strange flesh. Note
heere how God stirreth vp the wife of his owne bosome, & the sonnes
descending of his owne loines to be thornes in his eies and godes in his
sides for profaning so diuine and holie an ordinance; which the verie
pagans did so honour and reuerence, that they did not onlie giue
precepts touching the due obseruation thereof, but denounced vndoubted
vengeance for the violation of the same, as appeareth in this old
testimonie,
    [Sidenote: _Hesiod. in lib. cui tit. op. & di._]
    Patrat & ingraditur quicunq; cubilia fratris
    Vxorem maculans, & sancta cubilia stupro
    Hunc pater ipse deûm Saturnius odit, & ipsi
    Hunc malè dij vexant, &c.

But we will remit this to the readers consideration, and note the issue
of this mischéefe now broched. The yoong king reioicing that he had his
brethren thus on his side, readie to take his part, became more stout
than before, and for answere vnto the messengers that came to him from
his father, he declared that if his father would deliuer vp the whole
gouernment into his hands, he would be content to breake vp his armie.
As for such souldiers as would willinglie take his part in this quarell,
he caused them to sweare that they should faithfullie serue him against
his aduersaries: and those that had rather serue on the other side, he
licensed them fréelie to depart and go to his father.

King Henrie the father receiuing such a rebellious answer from his
sonne, much lamented the matter, and so much the more, for that he saw
there was no remedie, but to haue the controuersie decided by the sword.
[Sidenote: Twētie thousand Brabanders were reteined by king Henrie the
father as saith _R. Houed._ _Wil. Paruus._ _N. Triuet._ _Polydor._]
Therefore least he should be taken vnprouided, he kept his armie in a
readinesse about him, hauing reteined certeine bands of Brabanders
called the Rowts.

The lords that tooke part with his sonne, being aduertised by espials of
the dooings of the father, and hearing that he was readie (if he were
constreined) to defend himselfe by battell, and yet willing to receiue
his sons into his fauour againe, if they would be reformed, they tooke
great care how to cause his sons to persist in their enterprise, till
the father were compelled by force to resigne the gouernment vnto them.
But none more than the French king coueted to mainteine the discord,
till it might be ended by force of armes: and therefore sent vnto king
Henrie the sonne, willing him to come to Paris, where he caused a
councell to be called, & there made a league betwixt the said Henrie and
himselfe, [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Polydor._] with William king of
Scotland, Hugh earle of Chester, William Patrike the elder, the thrée
sons of Robert earle of Mellent, whose castels king Henrie the elder had
in possession, Roger Moumbray, Hugh Bigot, and diuerse other complices
of the conspiracie, Flabella seditionum, that tooke part with Heurie the
sonne.

Here after they had consulted of the maner how to mainteine warre,
bicause they would assure the yoong king that they ment not to forsake
him, [Sidenote: The French king taketh an oth to aid Henrie the sonne.
_Rog. Houed._ _Ger. Dor._] first king Lewes, and after that all the
residue tooke an oth to aid him with men and monie, till his father
should either be driuen out of his kingdome, or brought to agrée with
him at his will and pleasure. On the other part, he sware neuer to
conclude any peace with his father without their consent and good will.
He also promised vpon his oth to giue, [Sidenote: Philip earle of
Flanders.] & by his charter vnder his scale he confirmed vnto Philip
earle of Flanders (for his homage) a thousand pounds of yearlie reuenues
in England, and the countie of Kent, with the castles of Douer and
Rochester. [Sidenote: Matthew earle of Bullongne.] And to Matthew earle
of Bullongne (for his homage) he likewise promised and confirmed the
Soke of Kirketon in Lindsey, and the earledome of Morton, with the
honour of Hey. Also to Theobald earle of Blois (for his homage) he gaue
and granted fiue hundred marks of yearlie reuenue in Aniou with the
castell of Ambois, and all that which he claimed as his right within the
countrie of Touraine, [Sidenote: Chateau Reignold.] and surrendred to
him all the right which he and his father claimed and demanded to haue
in Chateau Reignold. To the K. of Scots (for his assistance) he gaue and
granted all Northumberland as far as the riuer of Tine. [Sidenote: Earle
Dauid.] And to his brother Dauid (to haue his seruice) he granted the
counties of Huntingdon and Cambridge. [Sidenote: Hugh Bigot.] To Hugh
Bigot (for his seruice) he gaue the castell of Norwhich. All these gifts
and grants (with diuerse other to other persons) promised & granted, he
confirmed with his new seale, which the king of France had caused him to
make. [Sidenote: _Polydor._[4]] These things being thus ordered at
Paris, euerie man resorted to his charge, that he might prouide for the
warre with all spéed conuenient.

King Henrie the father aduertised of this new league of the conspirators
against him, was in great perplexitie of mind, for that he saw himselfe
in danger, not onelie of outward enimies, but also of his owne subiects
at home. Yet bicause the winter season was alreadie at hand, taking
awaie all conuenient occasions of attempting any great exploit by war
for that time, he was in hope to compasse some agréement with his sons
yer the spring of the yeare should returne, and therefore he made not so
great prouision for his defense, as had béene necessarie in so dangerous
a case. But the Frenchmen who were bent to set forward this war with all
diligence, were readie in the field immediatlie vpon the comming of the
spring with king Henrie the sonne, [Sidenote: The confederats inuade the
dominions of king Henrie the father.] and euen at one instant made their
inuasions vpon the lands of king Henrie the father in three seuerall
parties; namelie, in Normandie, Guien, and Britaine, which (against the
will of his sonne Geffrey duke thereof) king Henrie the father did hold
and reteine in his owne hands. The Frenchmen thus inuading the foresaid
countries, did much hurt with robbing and spoiling, and also tooke
diuerse castels and townes.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots inuadeth Cumberland.] Moreouer about the
same time, William king of Scotland entred with a great power, first
into Cumberland, and besieged Carleil: but hearing that an armie was
prepared against him in the south parties of the realme, and readie to
set forward, he raised his siege, and entred into Northumberland (which
prouince king Henrie the sonne had giuen him in the last assemblie
holden at Paris) endeuouring to bring it into his possession. But the
more earnestlie he went about to inforce the people to his will, the
more stiflie did they withstand his purpose, hating him so much, that in
no condition they were willing to come vnder his rule, whereby the Scots
were put backe and repelled, and that to their great losse. [Sidenote:
_Wil. Paruus._] The kings power also comming into the countrie followed
them, and passing ouer the water of Tweed, which diuided then (as it
dooth at this daie) the two realmes, made the like spoile in the land of
the enimies, as they had made in the countries of Northumberland and
Cumberland.

But in Normandie, whilest others in other places, made their hand in
fetching preies and booties out of the enimies countrie, [Sidenote:
Vernueil besieged. _R. Houed._ Hugh Beauchampe.] king Lewes besieged
Vernueil, which towne being strong of it selfe, Hugh Beauchampe and
others that had charge thereof valientlie defended, so that the
French[5] king was a moneth before it, yer he could win anie part
thereof. This towne of Vernueil was in those daies diuided into three
portions, beside the castell, euerie of them apart from other with
mightie wals and déepe ditches full of water. One of these parts was
called the great Burrow without the wals, where the French king had
pitcht his field & planted his engins. About a moneth after whose coming
thither, vittels began to faile them within, so that at length they
required a truce onelie for thrée daies, & if no succour came within
those thrée daies, they promised to yeeld that part of the towne called
the great Burrow, & the peremptorie daie was the vigill or eeue of S.
Laurence. Herevpon were hostages deliuered by the burgesses vnto the
French king. Now it was agréed that if they yéelded the towne at the
daie appointed for want of succor, king Henrie the son, and Robert the
French kings brother, with the earles of Trois & Blois, Henrie and
Theobald, and William archbish. of Sens, vndertooke vpon their othes
that the hostages should then be restored free & without any hurt or
damage.

King Henrie being certified from them within of the composition thus
made, was driuen to a verie hard shift: for he doubted nothing lesse
than that any such thing should haue chanced. Yet considering with
himselfe, that the sauing of the towne stood in his speedie comming to
the rescue, he hasted thither without any staie, and came to the place
the daie before the third and last daie of the truce. [Sidenote: The
French king requireth to talke.] King Lewes perceiuing him to be come,
doubting least he should loose the preie which he looked for, sent vnto
the king, and required that he might common with him on the next daie,
touching some means of agréement to be had betwixt him and his sons.
This did he of policie, to féed him with hope of some end to be made in
the troubles betwixt him and his sons, till he had gotten possession of
the towne.

Now as he forecast that matter, euen so it came to passe, for whilest a
great péece of the next daie was spent in feined talke about an
agréement; K. Lewes appointed a great part of his host to close the
towne about, and to declare vnto them within, that king Henrie was put
to flight; which talke they within Vernueil beléeuing, yéelded the towne
& themselues to the Frenchmen. Soone after, king Lewes mistrusting least
he should not be able to kéepe it, set it on fire, and so burnt it,
contrarie to the composition betwixt him and them agréed and concluded
vpon. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The ninth of August being thursdaie
saieth _R. Houed._ king Lewes fléeth awaie in the night.] He kept also
the souldiers that had yeelded it into his hands, togither with the
hostages as prisoners, and doubting to cope with his enimie, went awaie
in the night with as still noise as was possible. Which euill dealing
had not inuaded his hart, but that euill meaning had possessed it
before, euen at the composition making: but he neuer learned that,
    [Sidenote: _Pub. Mim._]
    Fidem qui perdit nihil potest vltra perdere.

King Henrie at length perceiuing the fraud, sent certeine bands of his
horssemen after to persue the enimie: but for that king Lewes was
alreadie gotten into the inner parts of his owne countrie, those which
were sent, turned vpon those that were left in the hindermost ward, of
whome they slue a great number both horssemen and footmen.

K. Henrie following his men, came to Vernueil, and staieng there that
night, tooke order for the repairing and new fortifieng of the towne. On
the morrow after he went to the castell of Danuille, and wan it, taking
diuerse knights and yeomen within it: [Sidenote: Danuille. Gilbert de
Tileres.] this castell belonged to one Gilbert de Tileres. And thus it
came to passe touching the attempt of the French king for the winning of
Vernueil, as in some authors we find reported. [Sidenote: _Wil.
Paruus._] ¶ Other write otherwise of the mater, as thus, the French K.
being summoned by K. Henrie the father, either to depart from the seige
of Vernueil or to looke for battell; & hearing also that in performance
of the message K. Hearie approched with his power, he sent a bishop & an
abbat vnto him to vnderstand if he meant to giue battell in deed. The
messengers met king Henrie as he was aduanced before his host vpon some
occasion with a small companie about him, vnto whome they declared that
their maister the French king, required to be assured whether he should
haue battell or no. [Sidenote: K. Henrie his short answere to the French
kings messengers.] King Henrie armed as he was, with fierce countenance
and dreadfull voice made this short answere; "Get you hence, and tell
your king that I am here at hand." The messengers returning to their
maister, declared what they had séene and heard. Wherevpon (without
longer staie) he raised his field, and with a gallant and mightie armie
departed home to his great dishonour, not winning the towne at all, as
by the same author it should appeere.

About the same time the earle of Flanders, one of the confederats
besieged the towne of Albemarle, and the earle therof within it, which
earle was thought to betraie the towne, [Sidenote: Albemarle woon by the
earle of Flanders.] bicause it was so easilie woone, and both he
himselfe, and those which king Henrie the father had sent thither to
defend the towne were taken prisoners. Diuerse other places which
belonged to the same earle were also immediatlie deliuered into the
enimies hands, which increased the suspicion.

After this towne of Newcastell (otherwise called Drincourt) in those
frontiers was besieged, and finallie woone by surrender, by the said
earle of Flanders, who reioised nothing at the gaine of that towne: for
his brother Matthew; [Sidenote: _R. Houed._ _Ia. Meir._ _Ger. Dor._ The
earle of Bullongne wounded, and dieth.] the earle of Bullongne who
should haue béene his heire, was shot into the knée with an arrow, as he
approched to the wals, and died of the hurt within a few daies after.
The earle of Flanders was so pensife for his brothers death, that he
brake vp his iournie and returned, blaming his euill hap and follie in
that he had attempted war against his coosen germane king Henrie, who
neuer had harmed him, but rather had doone him manie great and singular
pleasures from time to time.

¶ Good cause had the earle to giue ouer the prosequuting of violence
against[6] his souereigne, being dawnted with so heauie a chance, &
griped also with the grudge of conscience, in so vnkindlie rewarding his
welwiller, at whose hands he confessed himselfe to haue receiued manie a
benefit. Wherein we are to note, that ingratitude neuer hurteth anie so
much as him or them in whom it is nestled. And hereto alludeth the
comedie-writer, when he saith verie neatlie,
    [Sidenote: _Plaut. in Ca._]
    ---- morem hunc homines habent, quod sibi volunt
    Dum id impetrāt, boni sunt: sed id vbi iam pene se habet,
    Ex bonis pessimi & fraudulentissimi sunt.

Moreouer Henrie the elder (after the iournie of Vernueil ended) came
backe to Rouen, and there vnderstanding that Hugh earle of Chester, and
Rafe de Foulgiers, men of singular prowesse (who long before were
reuolted to his sonne Henrie) had taken the castell of Dole in Britaine,
and there making warre, brought all the countrie into trouble, he sent
foorth streightwaies certeine of his capteines with the Brabanders to
aid his people in those parts who on the twentieth day of August (being
monday) encountring with the enimies, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._]
discomfited them in battell, tooke seauenteene knights, beside diuerse
others both horssemen and footmen, slue aboue fifteene hundred of the
enimies being Britaines, and pursuing the residue, entred the towne
which they wan, and droue their aduersaries into the castell, where
they besieged them, and with all spéed aduertised the king of that
enterprise, who immediatlie with all possible hast came thither,
applieng his whole diligence to win the place, that he might haue them
which were within the same at his commandement.

To be short, it was not long yer he had his desire, for being such a
multitude, that they were not able long to continue within so streict a
roome, for want of vittell they fell to a composition, yeelding the
castell vnto the king, their bodies, liues, and lims saued, on the 25.
day of August. There were within this castell 80. knights, besides
yeomen and other common souldiers. In like maner, and with the semblable
good fortune, about the same time, his capteins in England ouercame his
enimies: for whereas Robert earle of Leicester that tooke part with king
Henrie the sonne, had assembled at the towne of Leicester a great host
of men, in purpose to set vpon Reignold earle of Cornewall and Richard
Lucie capteines on the side of king Henrie the father: they
vnderstanding his meaning, marched streight towards Leicester, and by
the waie met with their enimie earle Robert, whome they so fiercelie
assailed, [Sidenote: The earle of Leicester put to flight.] that they
put him to flight, and after approching the towne, had it surrendered
vnto them, permitting the inhabitants to depart with bag and baggage,
and then burned the towne: but the castell (which in those daies was of
great strength by reason of the situation) they could not win.

Howbeit some write, that by vndermining, the walles of the towne were
subuerted and throwne downe, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Leicester won by
force.] so that the towne was entred by force, although they within
withdrew themselues into the castell and other strong houses, which they
defended for a time, till at length they surrendered all, one parcell of
the castell excepted, for the which by composition they paied by way of
a fine the sum of thrée hundred pounds to the vse of K. Henrie the
father. The siege began the seauenth day of Julie, and on the 28. day of
the same moneth the armie departed from thence, a truce being granted to
those that still defended a certeine tower of the castell into the which
they were withdrawne.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots inuadeth Northumberland.] William also the
Scotish king, with an armie of Scots and Gallowaimen inuaded
Northumberland, and passing by the confines of the bishoprike of Durham,
did much hurt by slaughter, burning and spoiling the countrie.
Neuerthelesse, hearing of a power raised by the English lords in those
parts to resist him, [Sidenote: He retireth.] he withdrew into his
countrie. The English armie [Sidenote: The English spoile Louthian. A
truce.] folowing him, wasted the countrie of Louthian, till at length by
mediation of certeine religious men, a truce was granted to the Scots to
indure till the feast of S. Hilarie. For the which truce happilie some
rewards went betwixt, and so the English lords with spoiles and gaines
returned homewards.

A few daies after these luckie chances thus happening to king Henrie,
king Lewes perceiuing fortune to be on that side, determined to assaie
whether he could obteine his purpose by some means of treatie, or at the
least put king Henrie in hope of a peace for a time, knowing that he
would rather suffer all discommodities whatsoeuer, than once to trie the
matter by battell with his sonnes: [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ A treatie of
peace.] wherefore he offered to come to a communication with him betwixt
Gisors and Trie, shewing bread in the one hand (as they say) and hiding
a stone in the other.

King Henrie was easilie intreated to heare of anie talke for peace, and
therefore comming to the place on tuesdaie the fiftéenth daie of
September, made so large offers, that he had almost conuerted the yoong
mens minds vnto concord. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The offer of K. Henrie
the father to his sonnes.] First he offered to his sonne Henrie the
yoong king, the moitie or one halfe of all the reuenues belonging to the
demaines of the crowne within England, and four conuenient castels
within the same. Or if his sonne had rather remaine in Normandie, he
offered the halfe of all the reuenues of that dutchie, with all the
rents and profits that were his fathers perteining to the earledome of
Aniou, with certeine castels in Normandie, one castell in Aniou, one in
Maine, and one in Towraine. To his sonne Richard, he offered halfe the
reuenues of Guien, and foure conuenient castels in the same. And to his
sonne Geffrey he offered all those lands that belonged by right of
inheritance vnto the daughter of Conan earle of Britaine, if he might by
the popes good licence marrie hir. And further king Henrie the father
yéelded himselfe to stand to the order of the archbishop of Tharent and
other the popes legats, not refusing to giue his sonnes what rents and
reuenues soeuer they should say were reasonable, reseruing onelie to
himselfe the administration of iustice, and the power roiall.

These séemed to be large offers, but yet they could not be accepted. For
certeine sonnes of Beliall, set vpon nothing but mischéefe, troublers of
common peace and quietnesse, wrought so with them, that no conditions of
peace (were the same neuer so reasonable) could content them, so that
without effect this communication brake vp, but not without contumelious
words passed betwixt the parties, insomuch that the earle of Leicester
(who being put from all his aid in England, was come ouer to the French
king to purchase aid at his hands) could not refraine but giuing credit
to the old adage,
    [Sidenote: _Pub. Mim._]
    Homo extra corpus suum est cùm irascitur,
[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester offred to strike the king.] after many
opprobrious words vttered against king Henrie the father, laid hand on
his sword to haue striken him but the standers by would not suffer him
and so they, departed; which rash attempt or rather disloiall
enterprise,
    Non sani esse hominis non sanus iuret Orestes.

On the morrow after, the French and English skirmished togither betwixt
Curseils and Gisors, in which conflict Enguerane Chastillone de Trie was
taken prisoner by earle William de Mandeuille, who presented him to the
king of England. King Lewes though he iudged it his part to preserue his
sonne in law from danger, yet he ment nothing lesse than to ioin battell
with the English at that present. But within a few daies after, he sent
Robert earle of Leicester into England with an armie of Flemings and
others, there to ioine with Hugh Bigot, that both of them might as well
by force as faire promises and gentle persuasions bring the whole realme
vnto the obedience of king Henrie the sonne.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Iohn Pike._] The earle of Leicester therefore
landing at Walton the 21. of September, passed through the countrie vnto
Fremingham, where he was receiued of Hugh Bigot earle of Northfolke; and
after that an other fléet of Flemings were arriued for their aid, they
went vnto Gipswich, where when they had remained a few daies, and
augmented their forces by certeine bands of men of warre that belonged
vnto earle Bigot, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] they went to the castell of
Haghenet (that belonged vnto Ranulph Broc) which they tooke, spoiled &
burned, & then returned to Fremingham.

After this, hearing that the countesse of Leicester was arriued at
Orreford with an other power of Flemings, they went to méet hir: and so
the earle of Leicester, hauing now a strong armie about him, tooke leaue
of earle Bigot, and ment to passe through the countrie into
Leicestershire, there to succour his freends, and to worke some feat for
the behoofe and furtherance of their quarell.

In the meane time the arriuall of the earle of Leicester being knowne,
the people of the countrie were assembled togither. [Sidenote: _Rog.
Houed._] Also Richard Lucie lord cheefe iustice, and Humfrey de Boun
high conestable of England, with the kings power of horssemen which
latelie before had béene in Scotland, and made inrodes there (as before
is mentioned) came with all spéed to saue the countrie from spoile,
hauing first taken a truce (as before is said) with the king of Scots,
till the feast of Saint Hilarie next ensuing (or rather Ester) hostages
being deliuered on both sides. Vpon knowledge then had where the enimies
were lodged, and what they intended to doo, the said Richard Lucie &
Humfrey de Boun came to Saint Edmundsburie, whither Reignold earle of
Cornewall the kings vncle, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] Robert earle of
Glocester, and William erle of Arundell resorted.

In the meane while, the earle of Leicester passed forward on his waie so
farre as Fornham a little village beside S. Edmundsburie. The lord
chéefe iustice & the earls before mentioned with a great armie, and
amongst others the said Humfrey de Boun, who had the leading of 300.
knights, or men of armes at the kings wages, came out of S.
Edmundsburie, hauing the baner of S. Edmund borne before them, & in a
marish ground betwixt Fornham & Edmunsburie, they encountred with the
said earle of Leicester, and after long and cruell fight discomfited his
people, [Sidenote: The earle of Leicester taken prisoner.]
and tooke him prisoner, togither with his wife the countesse
Petronill, after he had doone all that belonged to a valiant capteine.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ _Polydor._] Some write that there were killed
on that day of his people to the number of ten thousand [and almost as
manie taken] verelie [all the footmen of the Flemings being in number
foure or fiue thousand were either taken or slaine:] the residue that
escaped fled towards Leicester, [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] that they
might both defend the towne & themselues from the danger of their foes.

¶ But here is to be noted, that it séemeth by the report of some
writers, how the earle of Leicester had not so great an armie there at
that battell, as by others account of the number slaine and taken it
should appeare he had. For at his departure from his companion in armes
Hugh Bigot, he tooke vpon him to passe through the countrie (as some
write) partlie vpon trust that he had of the force and number of his
souldiers, being about foure or fiue thousand stout and valiant footmen,
besides 80 chosen and well appointed horssemen; and partlie in hope that
manie of those which were in his aduersaries campe, would rather turne
to him than fight against him.

He had a great confidence in the Flemings, who indéed presumed much vpon
their owne strength, so that they made account of some great conquest,
in such wise, that when they came into any large plaine where they might
rest, they would take ech others by the hand, and leading a danse, sing
in their countrie language,
    [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]
    Hop hop Wilkine, hop Wilkine,
    England is mine and thine.

King Henrie receiuing aduertisement of the victorie which his capteines
had thus gotten in England, was maruellous ioifull, and commanded that
the prisoners should be brought ouer vnto him into Normandie: which
being doone, he went into Aniou, and there fortified the towns and
castels of the countrie with sure garrisons of men, to resist all sudden
inuasion, secret practises, and other attempts of the enimies.
[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The towne of Vandosme woone.] On the feast of S.
Andrew the apostle, he tooke the towne of Vandosme by force, which
Buchard de Lauerdin held against him, hauing first expelled his father
the earle of Vandosme.

About this season, or rather somewhat before, [Sidenote: Sée his letter
before in page 147.[7]] king Henrie the father, (contrarie to the
prohibition of the king his sonne and after the appeale made vnto the
pope) gaue not onelie vnto Richard prior of Douer, the archbishoprike of
Canturburie; but also to Reignold Fitz-Joceline the bishoprike of Bath;
to Richard de Worcester archdeacon of Poictiers the bishoprike of
Winchester; to Robert Foliot the bishoprike of Hereford; to Geffrey
Ridell archdeacon of Canturburie he gaue the bishoprike of Elie, and to
John de Oxenford the bishoprike of Chichister.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ * Which was fought on the 17. of October] But
now to our purpose. The nobles of the realme of England (after the *
battell of of S. Edmundsburie) with an infinit number of men went
against Hugh Bigot in purpose to abate his pride. But whereas they might
easilie haue had him at their pleasure, by meanes of such summes of
monie as he gaue in bribes, a peace was granted to him till Whitsuntide,
within which time hauing gotten togither fourteene thousand Flemings, he
passed through Essex, and so getting ouer into Kent, came to Douer,
where he tooke ship and transported ouer into France.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 20. 1174.] King Henrie the father held his
Christmasse this yeare at Caen in Normandie, about which time a truce
was made betwixt him and king Lewes to endure till Easter, or (as others
write) for the terme of six moneths. For ye haue to vnderstand, that the
fame of the victorie gotten by the capteines of king Henrie the father
against the earle of Leicester (being not onlie spred through England,
but also blown ouer into France) put those that tooke part with him in
great feare; but speciallie king Lewes mistrusting the matter began to
wax wearie that he had attempted so far, and susteined so great trauell
and expenses in another mans cause.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Whilest this truce indured, the archbishop of
Canturburie being readie to returne home in dispaire of his businesse,
vpon a feigned rumor spred that there was a peace concluded betwixt the
two kings, the father and sonne, he was called backe and consecrated by
the pope the sundaie after Easter: and then furnished with the dignities
of primat and legat of England, and other priuileges according, he tooke
his waie homewards towards England, after he had laid foorth great
summes of monie to disappoint the purposes of his aduersaries.

This yeare in June, the lord Geffrey the elect of Lincolne the kings
sonne besieged the castell which Roger de Mowbry had repaired at Kinard
Ferie, within the Isle of Oxholme, and compelling the souldiers within
to yéeld, he beat downe and raced the same castell vnto the verie
ground. Robert Mowbray conestable of that castell, as he passed
thorough[8] the countrie towards Leicester, there to procure some aid,
was taken by the men of Claie, and kept as prisoner. Moreouer, the said
elect of Lincolne tooke the castell of Malesert that belonged to the
said Roger Mowbray, which being now taken, was deliuered vnto the
keeping of the archbishop of Yorke. The said elect also fortified a
castell at Topclife, and tooke it to the kéeping of William Stuteuille.
In this meane while the king tooke the strengths, and fortresses which
his sonne Richard had fortified at Xanctes, and in the same forts and
church (which was also fortified against him) 60. knights or men of
armes, and 400. archbalisters, that is, the best of them that bare
crossebowes.

[Sidenote: The oth of the earle of Flanders.] Philip earle of Flanders
in the presence of the French king and other the peeres of France,
laieng his hand vpon the holie relikes, sware that within 15. daies next
insuing the feast of S. John then instant to enter England with an
armie, and to doo his best to subdue the same to king Henrie the son.
[Sidenote: Additions to _Iohn Pike._] Vpon trust whereof the yoong king
the more presuming came downe to Whitsand, the 14. daie of Julie, that
he might from thence send ouer into England Rafe de la Haie with
certeine bands of souldiers. Before this the earle of Flanders had sent
ouer 318. knights or men of armes, as we may call them. But after their
arriuall at Orwell, which chanced the 14. of June, by reason that there
associats were dispersed, and for the more part subdued, they tooke with
them earle Hugh Bigot, and marching to Norwich, assaulted the citie and
wan it, gaining there great riches, and speciallie in readie monie,
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Ger. Dor._] and led awaie a great sort of
prisoners whome they ransomed at their pleasure. This chanced the 18. of
June.

¶ I remember that William Paruus writeth, that the citie of Norwich was
taken by the Flemings that came ouer with the earle of Leicester in the
yeare last past, by the conduct of the said earle before he was taken,
and that after he had taken that citie, being accompanied with earle
Bigot, he led those Flemings also vnto Dunwich, purposing to win and
sacke that towne also: but the inhabitants being better prouided against
the comming of their enimies than they of Norwich were, shewed such
countenance of defense, that they preserued their towne from that
danger, so that the two earles with Flemings were constreined to depart
without atchiuing their purpose. But whether that this attempt against
Dunwich was made by the earle of Leicester (before his taking) in
companie of earle Bigot, I haue not to auouch. But verilie for the
winning of Norwich, I suppose that William Paruus mistaketh the time,
except we shall saie that it was twise taken, as first by the earle of
Leicester in the yeare 1173. For it is certeine by consent of most
writers, and especiallie those that haue recorded particularlie the
incidents that chanced here in this land during these troubles betwixt
the king and his sons that it was taken now this yeare, 1174 by earle
Bigot (as before we haue shewed.)

But now to procéed. The lords that had the rule of the land for king
Henrie the father, perceiuing earle Bigots procéedings, sent knowledge
thereof with all expedition to the king, as yet remaining in the parties
beyond the seas. Whilest these things were a dooing, although the minds
of manie of the conspirators against king Henrie the father were
inclined to peace, yet Roger Mowbray, [Sidenote: Additions to _Iohn
Pike._] and Hugh Bigot (by reason of his new supplie of men got out of
Flanders) ceased not to attempt fresh exploits: and chéeflie they
solicited the matter in such wise with William king of Scotland, that
whilest they in other quarters of the realme plaied their parts,
[Sidenote: The king of Scots inuadeth England.] he entred into the
confines of Cumberland, and first besieged the citie of Carleil, but
perceiuing he could not win it in any short time, he left one part of
his armie to keepe siege before it, and with the residue marched into
the countrie alongst by the riuer of Eden, [Sidenote: Castels woon by
the Scots.] taking by force the castels of Bourgh and Applebie, with
diuerse other. This doone, he passed ouer the riuer, and came through
Northumberland (wasting the countrie as he went) vnto Alnewike, which
place he attempted to win, though his labour therein proued but in
vaine.

This enterprise which he made into Northumberland, he tooke in hand
chéeflie at the suit and request of Roger Mowbray, from whome Geffrey
(who after was bishop of Lincolne) K. Henries eldest base son had taken
two of his castels, so that he kept the third with much adoo. He had
giuen his eldest sonne in hostage vnto the said king of Scots for
assurance of such couenants to be kept on his behalfe as were passed
betwixt them. [Sidenote: _Polydor._ Duncane a Scotish capteine wasteth
Kendall.] In the meane time one Duncane or Rothland, with an other part
of the Scotish armie entred into Kendall, and wasted that countrie in
most cruell wise, neither sparing age nor sex, insomuch that he brake
into the churches, slue those that were fled into the same for safegard
of their liues as well preests as other. The English power of horssemen
which passed not the number of 400. was assembled at Newcastell,
[Sidenote: _Will. Paruus._ _Rog. Houed._] vnder the leading of Robert de
Stouteuille, Rafe Glanuille, William Ursie, Bernard Balliolle [and
Odonet de Umfreiuille.]

These capteines hauing knowledge that Duncane was in one side of the
countrie, and king William in another, determinned to issue foorth and
trie the chance of warre, (which is doubtfull and vncerteine, according
to the old saieng,
    [Sidenote: _Sen. in The._]
    Fortuna belli semper ancipiti in loco est)
against the enimies, sith it should be a great rebuke to them to suffer
the countrie to be wasted after that sort without reuengement. Herevpon
riding foorth one morning, there arose such a thicke fog and mist that
they could not discerne any waie about them, so that doubting to fall
within the laps of their enimies at vnwares, they staied a while to take
aduise what should be best for them to doo. Now when they were almost
fullie resolued to haue turned backe againe, [Sidenote: Bernard de
Balliolle.] by the comfortable words and bold exhortation of Bernard
Balliolle, they changed their purpose, and rode forward, till at length
the northerne wind began to waken, and droue awaie the mist, so that the
countrie was discouered vnto them, and perceiuing where Alnewike stood,
not knowing as yet whether the Scots had woone it or not, they staied
their pace, and riding softlie, at length learning by the inhabitants of
the countrie, that the Scotish king desparing to win Alnewike, had
raised his siege from thence the same day, they turned streight thither,
and lodging there all night, in the morning got to their horsses verie
earelie, riding foorth towards the enimies that were spred abroad in the
countrie to forey the same. They had anon espied where the king was, and
incontinentlie compassed him about on euerie side, who perceiuing the
English horssemen readie thus to assaile him with all diligence called
backe his men from the spoile; but the more part of them being straied
far off through the swéetnes they found in getting of preies, could not
heare the sound of the trumpets, yet notwithstanding with those his
horssemen which he could get togither, he encountred the English men
which came vpon him verie hastilie.

The battell was begun verie fiercelie at the first, and well fought for
a time, but the Scotish horssemen being toiled before in foreieng the
countrie, could not long continue against the fierce assault of the
English, but were either beaten downe, or else constreined to saue
themselues by flight. [Sidenote: The king of Scots taken.] The king with
a few other (who at the first had begun the battell) was taken. Also
manie of the Scots that being far off, and yet hearing of the skirmish,
came running toward the place, & were taken yer they could vnderstand
how the matter had passed. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] This taking of the
king of Scots was on a saturdaie, being the seuenth[9] of Julie.

The English capteines hauing thus taken the Scotish king in the midst of
his armie, conteining the number of 80000 men, returned to Newcastell,
[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] greatlie reioising of their good successe,
aduertising king Henrie the father hereof with all speed, who as then
was come ouer from Normandie, [Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._ _Matth. West._
_Wil. Paruus._ _Ger. Dor._] and was (the same day that the Scotish king
was taken) at Canturburie, making his praiers there before the sepulture
of the archbishop Becket (as after shall appéere.)

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] In the meane while and somewhat before this time,
the earle of Leicesters men, which laie at Leicester vnder the conduct
of Robert Ferreis earle of Darbie (as some write) or rather of Anketille
Malorie constable or gouernour (if we shall so call him, as Roger
Houeden saith) came to Northampton, where they fought with them of that
towne, and getting the victorie, [Sidenote: This chanced a little after
Whitsuntide.] tooke two hundred prisoners, and slue or wounded néere
hand as manie more, and so with this good successe in that enterprise
returned againe to Leicester, from whence they first set foorth. The
kings horssemen herevpon came streight waies to Northampton, and
following the enimies, could not ouertake them.

[Sidenote: Rob. Ferreis.] Robert Ferreis earle of Darbie being now come
vnto Leicester in aid of them that laie there, staied not past ten
daies: but finding meanes to increase his number of horssemen, suddenlie
made to Notingham, which Reignold de Lucie had in kéeping, [Sidenote:
_Polydor._ _Reg. Houed._ Notingham taken.] and comming thither earelie
in the morning tooke it, droue out the kings souldiers that laie there
in garison, burned the towne, slue the inhabitants, and diuided their
goods amongst his souldiers: which thing put the countrie about in such
feare, that manie of the inhabitants submitted themselues vnto him.

King Henrie the sonne being hereof aduertised by letters oftentimes sent
vnto him by this Robert Ferreis, and other his fréends here in England,
eftsoones conceiued some good hope to obteine his purpose: and therefore
determined to prepare for the warre. Herevpon he purchased aid of king
Lewes, who (bicause the truce which he had taken with king Henrie the
father was now expired) thought it was reason to further his sonne in
lawes enterprise so farre as in him laie. [Sidenote: _W. Paruus._]
Wherfore he made his prouision at Graueling, and there incamping with
his people, staied till his ships were readie to transport him and his
armie, which consisted of certeine horssemen, and of a number of
Brabanders.

King Henrie the father being informed both of his sonnes purpose, and of
the dooings in England, with all possible spéed determined to passe ouer
into England, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] and therefore got his souldiers a
shipboord, among whome were certeine bands of Brabanders: and so soone
as the wind blew to his mind, he caused the sailes to be hoised vp, and
the nauie to set forward. Being landed, he repaired first vnto
Canturburie, there to make his praiers, [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._]
doubting least the bloud of the archbishop Thomas Becket being shed
through his occasion, did yet require vengeance against him for that
fact. From Canturburie he came to London, and tooke order for the
placing of capteines with their bands in certeine townes about the
coast, to defend the landing places, where he thought his sonne was like
to arriue. [Sidenote: Huntington castell woone.] Then went he to
Huntington, and subdued the castell there the 19. of Julie: for the
knights and other souldiers that were within it yéelded themselues to
the kings mercie, their liues and lims saued.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] After this, assembling his people on all sides,
he made his generall musters at S. Edmundsburie, and determined to
besiege the castels of Bunghey and Fremingham, which the earle Hugh
Bigot held against him, who mistrusting that he was not able to defend
himselfe and those places against the king, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._
Earle Bigot is accorded with the K.] agréed with the king to haue peace,
paieng him the summe of a thousand markes by composition. This agréement
was concluded the 25. of Julie. [Sidenote: The Flemings sent home.]
Herevpon a multitude of the Flemings which Philip earle of Flanders had
sent into England (as before is mentioned) vpon their oth receiued, not
afterwards to come as enimies into England, had licence to returne into
their countrie. Also the bands of souldiers that came into the realme
with Rafe de la Haie departed without impediment by the kings
sufferance.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] The king hauing thus accomplished that which
stood with his pleasure in those parties, remoued from thence and drew
towards Northampton. [Sidenote: The king of Scots presented to the King
of England.] To which towne after his comming thither, the king of Scots
was brought with his féet bound vnder the horsses bellie. Thither also
came the bishop of Durham, and deliuered to the king the castels of
Durham, Norham, and Allerton. Thither also came to the king Roger
Mowbraie, and surrendred to him the castell of Treske, and Robert earle
Ferreis deliuered vp into his hands the castels of Tutburie, and
Duffield, and Anketill Mallorie, and William de Diue constables to the
earle of Leicester yeelded to the king the castels of Cicester, Grobie,
and Mountsorell, to the intent that he should deale more courteouslie
with the earle their maister. [Sidenote: The earle of Glocester. The
earle Richard of Clare.] Also William earle of Glocester, and earle
Richard of Clare submitted themselues to the king, and so he brought all
his aduersaries within the realme of England vnto such subiection as he
himselfe wished; so that the king hauing atchiued the vpper hand of his
enimies returned to London.

¶ All this hurlie burlie and bloudie tumult, was partlie to be ascribed
to the king himselfe, who ouer tenderlie fauouring his sonne, did deiect
and abase himselfe to aduance the other; partlie to the ambitious
disposition of the youth, who was charged with roialtie, before he had
learned sufficient loialtie, else would he not haue made insurrections
against his father, that himself might obteine the monarchie, and the
old king doo him homage: and partlie to the quéenes discontented or
rather malicious mind, whose dutie it had béene (notwithstanding such
dishonour doone hir by the king in abusing his bodie vnlawfullie) so
little to haue thought of stirring commotions betwixt the father and the
sonnes that she should rather haue lulled the contention asléepe, and
doone what she possiblie could to quench the feruent fier of strife with
the water of pacification. But true it is that hath béene said long ago,
    [Sidenote: _Pub. Mim._]
    Mulier nihil nouit nisi quod vult,
    Et plenum malorum est onus.

But what insued herevpon euen by waie of chastisement, but that which
commonlie lighteth vpon tumult-raisers; namelie, either losse of life,
or at least restraint of libertie? For the king after this happie
atchiuement of his warlike affaires, being ruled by reason and aduise
(as it is likelie) would not that so smoking a fierbrand (as quéene
Elianor had prooued hirselfe to be) should still annoie his eies,
[Sidenote: Quéene Elinor is committed to close prison.] and therefore
(whether in angrie or quiet mood, that is doubtfull) he committed hir to
close prison, bicause she had procured his sons Richard and Geffrey to
ioine with their elder brother against him their father (as before ye
haue partlie heard.)

But to procéed, king Lewes being aduertised that there was no great
number of men of war left in Normandie to defend the countrie, raised a
power, and comming to Rouen, besieged it verie streitlie. [Sidenote:
_Polydor._] Shortlie after also king Henrie the sonne and Philip earle
of Flanders came thither, meaning to obteine the possession of Normandie
first, and after to go into England. [Sidenote: Rouen besieged by the
Frēch king. _Wil. Paruus._] The citizens of Rouen perceiuing in what
danger they stood, without out faint harts prepared all things
necessarie for defense, and did euerie thing in order, purposing not to
giue ouer their citie for any threats or menaces of their enimies. Now
whilest they within were busie in deuising how to repell the assault,
and to defend themselues, the aduersaries about midnight came forth of
their campe, and approching the walles with their ladders, raised them
vp, and began to scale the citie. But the citizens being aduised
thereof, boldlie got them to the loops and towers, ouerthrew the ladders
of the enimies that were comming vp, and with arrowes, stones and darts
beat them backe, to their great losse and ouerthrow. Howbeit though the
enimies could not preuaile thus to get the citie by this assault, yet
they continued the siege, and suffered not them with it to be in quiet,
but daie and night assailed them by one meanes or other.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ King Henrie returneth into Normandie.] King
Henrie the father being aduertised héereof, after he had set his
businesse in order, touching the suertie and safe defense of the English
estate, he returned into Normandie and landed at Harfleet on a thursdaie
being the eight daie of August, bringing backe againe with him his
Brabanders, and a thousand Welshmen. In this meane while, king Lewes
continued still his siege before Rouen, constreining them within by all
meanes he could deuise to yeeld vp their citie. At length came the feast
of Saint Laurence, on which daie the French king commanded that no man
should attempt any enterprise against the citizens, granting them truce
for that day, in worship of that saint. This truce was so acceptable a
thing to them within, that they forgetting themselues, without all
respect to the danger wherein the citie stood, threw off their armour,
and gaue themselues to sléepe and rest. Some also fell to banketting and
other pastimes in verie dissolute maner.

¶ But through this their remisse vsage and loose behauiour, and
forgetting that a temporarie truce is no safe warrant of securitie and
peace, they deriued danger and destruction to themselues; which it had
beene their parts prouidentlie to haue preuented, and not through their
carelesnesse to set open a gap of aduantage to their enimies, who
pursued them with professed hostilitie, notwithstanding they reposed
confidence in the truce that was granted. Héerein they are to be
resembled to the cooks of whome Plautus speaketh verie neatlie, saieng,
          ---- coquos equidem nimis
    Demiror, qui tot vtuntur condimentis, eos eo
    Condimento non vtier quod præstat omnibus,
Meaning sobrietie: so these delighting more in their dishes, than
mistrusting their enimies, remembred to take the vse of any pleasure
that the conuenientnesse of this present time might proffer; onelie as
cookes among all their sawces doo mind nothing lesse than sobernesse: so
these in the abundance of their ioies, thought nothing of after claps,
which afterwards made them (like fooles) to sing an vnhappie had I wist.
For the Frenchmen, perceiuing this their negligence, required licence of
the French king to giue assault to the citie, declaring in what state
the matter presentlie stood; who not meaning to violate the reuerence of
that day, and his promised faith, with any such vnlawfull attempt,
commanded his men of warre that made the request in no wise to stirre.
[Sidenote: The Frenchmen assault the citie, without commandement of
their king.] Howbeit the souldiers vpon couetousnesse of the spoile,
raised the ladders to that part of the wall which they iudged to be most
without warders, so that some of them mounting aloft, got vp, and were
about to help vp their fellowes.

[Sidenote: Two préests.] Now it happened (as God would haue it) that two
préests being gone vp into the steeple of the cheefe church, to looke
about them for their pleasures, fortuned to sée where the French men
were about to enter the citie, and streightwaies gaue knowledge to the
citizens beneath. Wherevpon the alarum rose, insomuch that with all
spéed the people ran to the place, [Sidenote: The Frenchmen are
repelled.] and with such violence came vpon their enimies which were
entred vpon the walles, that streightwaies they slue manie of them, and
chased the residue out of the ditches, so that they returned with
bleeding wounds to their campe, repenting them of their vnhappie
enterprise, that turned them to such wo and greeuance.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] The same day a little before night, king Henrie
the father came vnto Rouen, and was receiued into the citie with great
ioy and gladnesse: for he came thither by chance, euen about the time
that the citie had thus like to haue bin surprised & taken at vnwares.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._] ¶ There be that write, how the French king
(immediatlie vpon the arriuall of king Henrie) left his field and
departed, greatlie to his dishonor, burning vp his engines of warre, and
not staieng till his men might haue leisure to charge their wagons with
their armor and other stuffe, which they were glad to leaue behind for a
prey to the English men issuing foorth vpon them. But other declare,
that the French king being nothing abashed of king Henries comming,
continued the siege, in hope to win the citie.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The Welshmens good seruice.] The next day earlie
in the morning (or as other say in the night season) the king did send
foorth a certeine number of Welshmen to passe ouer the riuer of Saine,
which they did, and by force made themselues waie through the French
campe, getting without losse or danger vnto a great wood, and slue that
day of their aduersaries aboue an hundred men. [Sidenote: _Nic.
Triuet._] After this, lieng abroad in the countrie, they skirmished
dailie with the French horssemen, and oft times cut of such prouision of
vittels as came to nourish the campe. The king himselfe on the other
side remaining within the citie, caused his people to issue out at the
gates, and to kéepe the enimies occupied with skirmishes afore the
citie. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] And moreouer, where there was a great
trench cast betwixt the French campe and the walles of the citie, he
caused the same to be filled vp with fagots, stores, and earth. But
although the French men sawe this the kings deed well enough, yet none
of them issued foorth of their tents to hinder the English of their
purpose.

Now king Lewes being sore vexed with his enimies on ech side, and
perceiuing the citie would not be woone within any short time, began to
wax wearie, and to repent himselfe (as afore) for taking in hand so
chargeable and great a warre for another mans quarell. [Sidenote: The
French king maketh an ouerture for peace.] Wherevpon he caused William
bishop of Sens, and Theobald earle of Blois to go to king Henrie, and to
promise vpon forbearance from warre for a time, to find means to
reconcile him and his sonnes, betweene whom vnnaturall variance rested.
Whereof K. Henrie being most desirous, and taking a truce, [Sidenote:
_N. Triuet._ A truce.] appointed to come to Gisors [in the feast of the
natiuitie of our ladie] there to meet king Lewes, that they might talke
of the matter and bring it to some good end.

[Sidenote: The French king leaueth his siege.] The French king, so soone
as he knew that truce was taken, raised his siege, and returning home,
within a few daies after (according to the appointment) came to Gisors,
and there communed with king Henrie: but bicause he could not make any
agréement betwixt him and his sonnes at that time, he appointed another
time to meet about it. King Henrie the father (whilest the truce
continued with the French king) and his sonne Henrie went to Poictou,
where his sonne Richard (whilest his father had beene occupied in other
places) had gotten the most part of the countrie into his possession.
But now hearing of his comming, and that a truce was taken with the
French king and with his brother, he considered with himselfe, that
without their assistance he was not able to withstand his fathers power.
[Sidenote: Richard the kings sonne prepareth to resist his father.]
Howbeit at length choosing rather to trie the matter with force of
armes, than cowardlie to yéeld, he prepared for defense, furnishing
diuerse townes and castels with garisons of men: and assembling togither
all the other power that he was able to make, came into the field, &
pitched his tents not far off from his father. In the meane while, which
way soeuer his father passed, the townes and castels submitted
themselues vnto him, [Sidenote: He beginneth to dispaire of good
successe.] so that Richard began to despaire of the matter, insomuch
that he durst not approch néere his father, but kept aloofe, doubting to
be entrapped.

At length when he had considered his owne state, and weied how
vnthankefullie the French king and his brother had dealt with him,
[Sidenote: _Polydor._] in hauing no consideration of him at such time as
they tooke truce, he determined to alter his purpose, and hauing some
good hope in his fathers clemencie, thought best to trie it, which he
found to be the best waie that he could haue taken. For oftentimes it
chanceth, that latter thoughts are better aduised than the first, as the
old saieng is,
    [Greek: Deuterai phrontides sophoterai.]

[Sidenote: The son submitteth himselfe to the father.] Herevpon Richard
laieng armour aside, came of his owne accord vnto his father on the 21.
of September, and asked pardon. His father most courteously receiuing
him, made so much of him as though he had not offended at all. Which
example of courtesie preuailed much to the alluring of his other sons to
come to a reconciliation. For the bringing whereof to speedie effect, he
sent this Richard vnto king Lewes, and to his other sonne Henrie, to
commen with them of peace, at which time earle Richard did so effectuallie
his message, that he brought them both in good forwardnesse to agree to
his fathers purpose, so that there was a daie appointed for them to meet
with their father, betwixt Towres in Touraine and Ambois.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._ The father & sonnes are accorded.] King Henrie
reioising hereat, kept his daie (being the morrow after the feast of S.
Michaell) and there met him both king Lewes, and his two sonnes Henrie
and Geffrey, where finallie the father and the sonnes were accorded; he
promising to receiue them into fauour vpon these conditions.

     [Sidenote: The conditions of the agréement.]
     1 First the prisoners to be released fréelie without ransome on
     both sides, and their offenses, which had taken either the one
     part or the other, to be likewise pardoned.

     [Sidenote: _R. Houed._]
     2 Out of this article were excepted all those which before the
     concluding of this peace had alreadie compounded for their
     raunsomes, as the king of Scots, the earles of Leicester and
     Chester, and Rafe Fulgiers, with their pledges.

     3 It was also agréed that all those castels which had beene
     builded in time of this warre, should be raced and throwne downe,
     and all such cities, townes, castels, countries and places, as
     had beene woone by either part during these wars, should be
     restored vnto those persons that held the same, and were in
     possession of them 15. daies before the departure of the sonnes
     from king Henrie the father.

     4 That king Henrie the father should assigne to his sons more
     large reuenues for maintenance of their estates, with a caution
     included, that they should not spend the same riotouslie in any
     prodigall sort or maner.

     [Sidenote: _R. Houed._]
     5 To the king his sonne, he gaue two castels in Normandie, with
     an increase of yearelie reuenues, to the summe of 15. thousand
     pounds Aniouin.

     [Sidenote: Richard.]
     6 To his sonne Richard he gaue two houses in Poictou, with the
     one halfe of all the reuenues of the countie of Poictou to be
     receiued and taken in readie monie.

     [Sidenote: Geffrey.]
     7 And to his sonne Geffrey he granted in monie, the moietie of
     that which he should haue by the mariage of earle Conans
     daughter, and after he had maried hir by licence purchased of the
     pope, he should enioy all the whole liuings and reuenues that
     descended to hir, as in hir fathers writing thereof more at large
     was conteined.

     8 On the other part, king Henrie the son couenanted to & with the
     king his father, that he would performe and confirme all those
     gifts, which his father should grant out of his lands, & also all
     those gifts of lands which he either had made and assured, or
     hereafter should make and assure vnto any of his men for any of
     their seruices: [Sidenote: John.] & likewise those gifts which he
     had made vnto his sonne John the brother of king Henrie the sonne;
     namelie, a thousand pounds in lands by yeare in England of his
     demaine and excheats with the appurtenances, and the castell and
     countie of Notingham, with the castell of Marlebrough, and the
     appurtenances. Also a thousand pounds Aniouin of yearelie reuenues
     in Normandie, and two castells there. And in Aniou a thousand
     pounds Aniouin, of such lands as belonged to the earle of Aniou,
     with one castell in Aniou, and one in Touraine, and another in
     Maine.

Thus were the father and sons agréed and made freends, the sonnes
couenanting neuer to withdraw their seruices and bounden dueties from
their father, but to obeie him in all things from that day forward.
Herewith also the peace was renewed betwixt king Henrie and king Lewes,
and for the further confirmation, [Sidenote: A marriage concluded.] a
new aliance was accorded betwixt them, which was, that the ladie Adela
the daughter of king Lewes should be giuen in mariage vnto earle Richard
the sonne of king Henrie, who bicause she was not yet of age able to
marie, she was conueied into England to be vnder the guiding of king
Henrie, till she came to lawfull yeares.

Thus the peace being concluded, king Henrie forgetting all iniuries
passed, [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] brought home his sons in maner
aforesaid, who being well pleased with the agreement, attended their
father into Normandie, where Richard and Geffrey did homage to him,
receiuing their othes of allegiance according to the maner in that case
required. But king Henrie the sonne did no homage, [Sidenote: _R.
Houed._ _Wil. Paruus._ saieth that he did homage also.] for his father
(in respect that he was a king) would not suffer him, and therefore
tooke onelie sureties of him for performance of the couenants on his
part, as was thought expedient.

¶ All this dissention and strife was kindled (no doubt) by the meanes of
certeine sowers of discord, sycophants, parasits, flatterers, clawbacks,
& pickethanks, who had learned their lesson, that
    Principibus placuisse viris non vltima laus est,
and thinking by their embossed spéech to tickle the eares and harts of
the yoong princes, who by reason of their yoong yeares and nakednesse of
experience in the course of worldlie maters, sought their owne
aduancement, euen by flinging firie faggots of dissention betweene them,
whose harts naturall affection had vnited. For by the tenor of the
storie (marke it who will) we shall sée that no attempt of the sons
against the father but had originall from the suggestions of euill
disposed persons, who (like eeles that fatten not in faire running
water, but in muddie motes and ponds) sought honour in hurlie burlies, &
reached out long armes to riches by manie a ones impouerishment. This to
be true, the finall euent and issue prooueth; namelie, the mutuall
attonement and reconciliation wouen betweene the father and the sonnes;
their remorse for their vndutifulnes, his louing fauour and
gratiousnesse; their promptnesse to yéeld to conditions of agreement,
his forwardnes to giue consent to couenants required; their readinesse
to do the old king homage, his acceptable admission of their preferred
seruice; with other circumstances to be collected out of the storie, all
which doo prooue that this their disloiall resistance sprang rather by
others incitement, than of their owne seeking. Thus we sée what
alterations happen in the actions of men, and that euill things manie
times (though naturallie bad) doo inferre their contraries, as one
aptlie saith,
    Discordia fit charior concordia.

[Sidenote: Willi. king of Scots deliuered out of prison with other.] At
length king Henrie went to Faleise, and there deliuered out of
captiuitie William king of Scotland, Robert earle of Leicester, Hugh
earle of Chester, with diuerse other Noble men which were kept there as
prisoners, putting them to their ransomes, and receiuing of them pledges
with an oth of allegiance. [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Prisoners
released.] This king Henrie the father released for his part the number
of nine hundred 69. knights or men of armes (if yée list so to terme
them) which had beene taken since the beginning of these passed warres.

As for king Henrie the sonne he also set at libertie aboue an hundred,
and that without ransome paieng, according to the articles of the peace
(as before you haue heard.) But yet some (as is alreadie specified) were
excepted out of the benefit of that article, as William king of
Scotland, who being not able to paie his ransome in present monie,
deliuered vp in gage foure of the strongest castels within his realme
into king Henries hands; [Sidenote: Castels deliuered by the K. of
Scots.] namelie, Barwike, Edenbourgh, Roxbourgh, and Sterling, with
condition, that if he brake the peace, and paied not the monie behind
due for his raunsome, king Henrie and his successours should enioy for
euer the same castels. He also couenanted, not to receiue any English
rebels into his realme. [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ _Matth. Paris._] Other
write that the king of Scots did not onelie become the king of Englands
liegeman at this time, and couenanted to doo homage vnto him for the
realme of Scotland, and all other his lands, but also deliuered the
castels of Barwike, and Roxbourgh to be possessed of the same king of
England and his heires for euer, without any couenant mentioned of
morgage.

Things being setled thus in good order, king Henrie leauing his sonne
Henrie at Rouen, went to Argenton, and there held his Christmasse, and
afterwards, namelie in the feast of the purification of our ladie,
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] both the kings (as well the father as the
sonne) were at Mauns, [Sidenote: 1175.] and vpon their returne from
thence into Normandie, [Sidenote: The kings of England and France méet
at Gisors.] came to a communication with the French king at Gisors, and
then being come backe into Normandie at Bure, the sonne (to put the
father out of all doubt and mistrust of any euill meaning in him) sware
fealtie to him against all persons, and so became his liegeman in the
presence of Rothrod archbishop of Rouen, Henrie bishop of Baieux,
William earle of Mandeuille Richard de Humez his conestable, and manie
other.

After this they kept their easter at Chirebourgh, from whence they came
to Caen, [Sidenote: Philip earle of Flanders.] where they met with
Philip earle of Flanders, who had latelie before taken on him the
crosse, to go to the holie land: where king Henrie the father required
him to release all such couenants as king Henrie the sonne had made vnto
him in time of his last warres, which he fréelie did, and deliuered vp
the writing that he had of the same king concerning those couenants, and
so they confirmed vnto him the yearelie rent which he was woont to
receiue out of England, before the said warres.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] Finallie, when king Henrie had visited the most
part of the countrie, he came to Harflew, and caused his nauie to be
decked and rigged, that he might saile ouer into England. Whilest he
tarried heere till his ships were readie, he sent letters to his sonne
king Henrie, willing him to repaire vnto him, and meaning that he should
accompanie him into England. [Sidenote: Enuious persons readie to forge
matters of suspicion.] Who at the first was loth to obeie his fathers
will and pleasure herein, bicause some enuious persons about him had put
in his head a doubt, least his father had not altogither forgot his
former grudge, and that he ment at his comming into England to commit
him to prison. Which was a surmize altogither void of likeliehood,
considering that the father, in the whole processe of his actions
betweene himselfe and his sonnes, was so farre from the desire of
inflicting any corporall punishment, or leuieng anie fine vpon them for
their misdemenour, that he alwaies sought meanes of reconcilement and
pacification. And though this Henrie the sonne for his part deserued to
be roughlie dealt withall; yet the father handled him so gentlie with
courteous letters & messages, that shortlie after he came of his owne
accord vnto Harflew, [Sidenote: The two kings the father and the sonne
returne into England.] from whence shortlie after they sailed both
togither ouer into England, landing at Portsmouth on a fridaie being the
ninth of Maie, from thence they tooke their iournie streight to London,
all the waies being full of people that came to see them, and to shew
themselues glad and ioifull of their concord and happie arriuall. At
their comming to the citie they were receiued with great reioising of
the people, beseeching God long to preserue them both in health and
honour.

[Sidenote: William de Breause.] The same yeare William de Breause hauing
got a great number of Welshmen into the castell of Abergauennie, vnder a
colourable pretext of communication, proponed this ordinance to be
receiued of them with a corporall oth; That no traueller by the waie
amongst them should beare any bow, or other vnlawfull weapon. [Sidenote:
The Welshmē not well dealt withall.] Which oth when they refused to
take, bicause they would not stand to that ordinance he condemned them
all to death. This deceit he vsed towards them in reuenge of the death
of his vncle Henrie of Hereford, whom vpon easter euen before, they had
through treason murthered, and were now acquited with the like againe.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._ Reignold erle of Cornewall departed this life.]
The same yeare died Reignold earle of Cornwall, bastard sonne to king
Henrie the first without heirs male, by reason whereof the king tooke
into his hands all the inheritance of lands and liuings which he held
within England, Normandie and Wales, except certeine portions which the
daughters of the same earle had by assignement allotted to them. Also
Richard erle of Glocester deceassed this yeare, and his sonne Philip
succeeded him.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ A synod held at London.] The same yeare was a
synod of the cleargie kept at Westminster, wherein many things were
decréed for the conseruation of religion. Amongst other things it was
prouided, that those abbeies and churches which were void of gouernours,
and could haue none placed in them by the time of the late ciuill
warres, should now be committed vnto men worthie to enioy the same, for
the reformation of disorders growne and plentifullie sproong vp in time
of the vacations.

The realme now brought into good order and deliuered from the troubles
of warre, as well at home as abroad, the king being at good leisure
determined to ride about a great part of the realme, and comming to
Yorke, [Sidenote: _W. Paruus._ The king of Scots dooth homage to the
king of England.] sent for the king of Scots to come and doo his homage.
Now the king of Scots (according to couenants before concluded) came
vnto Yorke in the moneth of August, where dooing his homage about the
twentith day of the same moneth in S. Peters church, the king granted
further by his letters patents, that he and his successours kings of
Scotland, should doo homage and fealtie to the kings of England, so
often as they should be necessarilie required therevnto. In signe and
token of which subiection, the king of Scots offered his hat and his
saddle vpon the altar of S. Peter in Yorke, which for a remembrance
hereof was kept there many yeares after that day.

     The charter conteining the articles of the peace and agreement
     concluded betwixt the two kings, which was read in S. Peters church
     at the same time, exemplified as followeth.

     [Sidenote: _R. Houed._]
     Wilhelmus rex Scotiæ deuenit homo ligius domini regis Angliæ
     contra omnes homines, de Scotia & de alijs terris suis, et
     fidelitatem ei fecit vt ligio domino suo sicut alij homines sui
     ipsi facere solent. Similiter fecit homagium Henrico filio regis
     salua fide domini regis patris sui.

     2 Omnes vero episc. abbates & clerus terræ Scotiæ & successores
     sui facient domino regi sicut ligio domino fidelitatem, de quibus
     habere voluerit, sicut alij episcopi sui ipsi facere solent, &
     Henrico filio suo & Dauid & hæredibus eorum.

     3 Concessit autem rex Scotiæ, & frater eius, & barones, & alij
     homines sui domino regi, quòd ecclesia Scotiæ talem subiectionem
     amodò faciet ecclesiæ Angliæ, qualem facere debet, & solebat
     tempore regum Angliæ prædecessorum suorum.

     4 Similiter Richardus episcopus Sancti Andreæ, & Richardus
     episcopus Dunkelden. & Gaufridus abbas de Dunfermlin. & Herbertus
     prior de Coldingham concesserunt, vt ecclesia Anglicana illud
     habeat ius in ecclesia Scotiæ, quod de iure debet habere: & quod
     ipsi non erunt contra ius Anglicanæ ecclesiæ. Et de hac
     concessione sicut quando ligiam fidelitatem domino regi & domino
     Henrico filio suo fecerint, ita eos inde assecurauerint.

     5 Hoc idem facient alij episcopi & clerus Scotiæ, per
     conuentionem inter dominum regem Scotiæ & Dauid fratrem suum &
     barones suos factam, comites & barones & alij homines de terra
     regis Scotiæ (de quibus dominus rex habere voluerit) facient ei
     homagium contra omnem hominem, & fidelitatem vt ligio domino suo
     sicut alij homines sui facere ei solent, & Henrico filio suo &
     hæredibus suis salua fide domini regis patris sui. Similiter
     hæredes regis Scotiæ & baronum & hominum suorum homagium &
     ligiantiam facient hæredibus domini regis contra omnem hominem.

     6 Præterea rex Scotiæ et homines sui nullū amodò fugitiuum de
     terra domini regis pro felonia receptabunt, vel in alia terra sua
     nisi voluerit venire ad rectum in curia domini regis & stare
     iudicio curiæ. Sed rex Scotiæ & homines sui quàm citius poterunt
     eum capient, & domino regi reddent, vel iusticiarijs suis aut
     balliuis suis in Anglia.

     7 Si autem de terra regis Scotiæ aliquis fugitiuus fuerit pro
     felonia in Anglia, nisi voluerit venire ad rectu in curia domini
     regis Scotiæ & stare iudicio curiæ, non receptabitur in terra
     regis, sed liberabitur hominibus regis Scotiæ, per balliuos
     domini regis vbi inuentus fuerit.

     8 Præterea homines domini regis habebunt terras suas quas
     habebant, & habere debent de domino rege, & hominibus suis, & de
     rege Scotiæ & de hominibus suis. Et homines regis Scotiæ habebunt
     terras suas, quas habebant, & habere debent de domino rege &
     hominibus suis. Pro ista vero conuentione & fine firmiter
     obseruando domino regi & Henrico filio suo & hæredibus suis Ã
     rege Scotiæ & hæredibus suis, liberauit rex Scotiæ domino regi
     castellum de Roxburgh, & castellum Puellarum, & castellum de
     Striueling, in manu domini regis, & ad custodienda castella
     assignabit rex Scotiæ de redditu suo mesurabiliter ad voluntatem
     domini regis.

     9 Præterea pro prædicta conuentione & fine exequendo, liberauit
     rex Scotiæ domino regi Dauid fratrem suum in obsidem & comitem
     Duncanum, & comitem Waldenum, similiter alios comites et barones
     cum alijs viris potentibus quorum numerus 18. Et quando castella
     reddita fuerint illis, rex Scotiæ & Dauid frater suus
     liberabuntor. Comites quidem & barones prænominati vnusquisq;
     postquam liberauerit obsidem suum, scilicet filium legitimum, qui
     habuerit, & alij nepotes suos vel propinquiores sibi hæredes, &
     castellis vt dictum est redditis liberabuntur.

     10 Præterea rex Scotiæ & barones sui prænominati assecurauerunt,
     quod ipsa bona fide, & sine malo ingenio, & sine occasione
     facient vt episcopi & barones & cæteri homines terræ suæ, qui non
     affuerunt quando rex Scotiæ cum domino rege finiuit: eandem
     ligiantiam & fidelitatem domino regi & Henrico filio suo quam
     ipsi fecerunt, & vt barones, & homines qui affuerunt obsides,
     Liberabunt domino regi de quibus habere voluerit.

     11 Præterea episc. comites & barones conuentionauerunt domino
     regi & Henrico filio suo, quòd si rex Scotiæ aliquo casu Ã
     fidelitate domini regis & filij, & à conuentione prædicta
     recederet, ipsi cum domino rege tenebunt sicut cum ligio domino
     suo contra regem Scotiæ, & contra omnes homines ei inimicantes.
     Et episcopi sub interdicto ponent terram regis Scotiæ donec ipse
     ad fidelitatem domini regis redeat.

     12 Prædictam itaq; conuentionem firmiter obseruandam bona fide, &
     sine malo ingenio domino regi & Henrico filio suo & hæredibus
     suos à Wilhelmo rege Scotiæ & Dauid fratre suo & baronibus suis
     prædictis, & hæredibus eorum assecurauit ipse rex Scotiæ, & Dauid
     frater eius, & omnes barones sui prænominati sicut ligij homines
     domino regis contra omnem hominem, & Henrici filij sui (salua
     fidelitate patris sui) hijs testibus, Richardo episcopo
     Abrincensi, et Iohanne Salisburiæ decano, & Roberto abbate
     Malmesburiæ, & Radulpho abbate Mundesburg, hec non alijs
     abbatibus, comitibus & baronibus, & duobus filijs suis scilicet
     Richardo & Galfrido.

These things being recited in the church of S. Peters in Yorke, in the
presence of the said kings, & of Dauid the king of Scots brother, and
before an innumerable number of other people, the bishops, earles,
barons and knights of Scotland sware fealtie to the king of England and
to Henrie his sonne, and to their heires against all men, as to their
liege and souereigne lords.

King Henrie hauing ended his businesse at Yorke with the king of Scots
and others, which likewise did homage to him there, returned to London,
in the octaues of S. Michaell, [Sidenote: A parlement at Windsor.] and
he called a parlement at Windsor, whereat were present king Henrie the
sonne, Richard archbishop of Canturburie, and other bishops of England,
Laurence archbishop of Dublin with a great number of earles and barons
of this realme. [Sidenote: Ambassadors from K. Connagh.] About the same
time the archbishop of Tuamon, and the abbat of S. Brandon, with
Laurence the chancellor of Roderike king of Connagh in Ireland were come
as ambassadours from the said Roderike, vnto king Henrie, who willinglie
heard them, as he that was more desirous to grow to some accord with
those sauage people by some freendlie order, than to war with them that
had nothing to lose: so that he might in pursuing of them seeme to fish
with an hooke of gold. Therefore in this parlement the matter was
debated, and in the end a peace concluded at the request of the said
ambassadours, [Sidenote: A tribute of ox hides] the king appointing
Roderike to paie vnto him in token of subiection, a tribute of ox hides.


     The charter of the agreement was written and subscribed in forme
     as followeth.

     [Sidenote: The tenor of the charter of the agreement.]
     Haec est finis & concordia quæ facta fuit apud Windshore in
     octauis sancti Michaelis an. Gratiæ 1175. inter dominum regem
     Angliæ Henr. secundum, & Rodericum regem Conaciæ, per catholicum
     Tuamensem archiep. & abbatem C. sancti Brandani, & magistrum L.
     cancellarium regis Conaciæ.

     1 Scilicet quòd rex Angliæ concedit prædicto Roderico ligio
     homini suo regnum Conaciæ, quamdiu ei fideliter seruiet, vt sit
     rex sub eo, paratus ad seruicium suum sicut homo suus, & vt
     teneat terram suam ita bene & in pace sicut tenuit antequam
     dominus rex Angliæ intraret Hiberniam, reddendo ei tributum &
     totam aliam terram, & habitatores terræ habeat sub se, &
     iusticiet vt tributum regi Angliæ integrè persoluant, & per manum
     eius sua iura sibi conseruent. Et illi qui modò tenent, teneant
     in pace quamdiu manserint in fidelitate regis Angliæ, & fideliter
     & integrè persoluerint tributum & alia iura sua quæ ei debent per
     manum regis Conaciæ, saluo in omnibus iure & honore domini regis
     Angliæ & suo.

     2 Et si qui ex eis regi Angliæ & ei rebelles fuerint, & tributum
     & alia iura regis Angliæ per manum eius soluere noluerint, & Ã
     fidelitate regis Angliæ recesserint, ipse eos iusticiet &
     amoueat. Et si eos per se iusticiare non poterit, constabularius
     regis Angliæ, & familia sua de terra ilia iuuabunt eum ad hoc
     faciendum, cùm ab ipso fuerint requisiti, & ipsi viderint quòd
     necesse fuerit. Et propter hunc finem reddet prædictus rex
     Conaciæ domino regi Angliæ tributum singulis annis, scilicet de
     singulis decem animalibus vnum corium placabile mercatoribus, tam
     de tota terra sua, quàm de aliena.

     3 Excepto quòd de terris illis quas dominus rex Angliæ retinuit
     in dominio suo, & in dominio baronum suorum, nihil se
     intromittet, scilicet Duuelina cum pertinentijs suis, & Midia cum
     omnibus pertinentijs suis sicut vnquam Marchat Wamailethlachlin
     earn meliùs & pleniùs tenuit, aut aliqui qui eam de eo tenuerint.
     Et excepta Wesefordia, cum omnibus pertinentijs suis, scilicet
     cum tota lagenia. Et excepta Waterfordia cum tota terra illa, quæ
     est à Waterford vsq; ad Duncarnam, ita vt Duncarnam sit cum
     omnibus pertinentijs suis infra terram illam.

     4 Et si Hibernenses qui aufugerint, redire voluerint ad terram
     baronum regis Angliæ, redeant in pace, reddendo tributum
     prædictum quod alij reddunt, vel faciendo antiqua seruicia quæ
     facere solebant pro terris suis. Et hoc sit in arbitrio dominorum
     suorum. Et si aliqui eorum redire noluerint, domini eorum & rex
     Conaciæ accipiat obsides ab omnibus quos ei commisit dominus rex
     Angliæ ad voluntatem domini regis & suam. Et ipse dabit obsides
     ad voluntatem domini regis Angliæ illos vel alios, & ipsi
     seruient domino de canibus & auibus suis singulis annis de
     præsentis suis. Et nullum omninò de quacunque terra regis sit,
     retinebunt contra voluntatem domini regis & mandatum. Hijs
     testibus, Richardo episcopo Wintoniæ, Gaufrido episcopo Eliensi,
     Laurentio Duuelinensi archiepiscopo, Gaufrido, Nicholao & Rogero
     capellanis regis, Guilhelmo comite de Essex, alijs multis.

Moreouer, at this parlement the king gaue an Irishman named Augustine,
the bishoprike of Waterford, which see was then void, and sent him into
Ireland with Laurence the archbishop of Dubline to be consecrated of
Donat the archbishop of Cassels. The same yeare, both England and the
countries adioining were sore vexed with a great mortalitie of people,
[Sidenote: A great derth.] and immediatlie after followed a sore dearth
and famine.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 22. 1176.] King Henrie held his Christmas at
Windsor, and about the feast of the conuersion of saint Paule he came to
Northampton, & after the mortalitie was well ceassed, [Sidenote: A
parlement at Northampton. _Matth. Paris._] he called a Parlement,
whereat was present a deacon cardinall intituled of S. Angelo, being
sent into England as a legat from the pope, to take order in the
controuersies betwixt the two archbishops of Canturburie[10] and Yorke.
This cardinall whose name was Hugh Petro Lion, assembled in the same
place a conuocation or synod of the bishops and cleargie, as well of
England as Scotland: in which conuocation, after the ceassing of
certeine strifes and decrées made as well concerning the state of
common-wealth, as for the honest behauiour of mans life, the cardinall
consented that (according as by the kings lawes it was alreadie
ordeined) all maner of persons within the sacred orders of the cleargie,
[Sidenote: An act against préests that were hunters.] which should hunt
within the kings grounds and kill any of his deare, should be conuented
and punished before a temporall iudge. Which libertie granted to the
king, did so infringe the immunitie which the cleargie pretended to haue
within this realme, that afterwards in manie points, préests were called
before temporall iudges, and punished for their offenses as well as the
laitie, though they haue grudged indéed and mainteined that they had
wrong therein, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] as they that would be exempted and
iudged by none, except by those of their owne order.

[Sidenote: Obedience of the Church of Scotland to the Church of
England.] Moreouer, in this councell the matter came in question
touching the obedience which the church of the bishops of Scotland did
owe by right vnto the archbishop of Yorke, whom from the beginning the
popes of Rome had constituted and ordeined to be primat of all Scotland,
and of the Iles belonging to that realme, as well of the Orkeneis as all
the other. Which constitution was obserued by the bishops of those parts
manie yeares togither, though after they renounced their obedience.
Whervpon the archbishops of Yorke (for the time being) continuallie
complained, so that these popes, Paschall the second, Calyxt the second,
Honorius, Innocentius, Eugenius the third, and Adrian the fourth, had
the hearing of the matter, and with often sending their letters, went
about to reduce them to the prouince of Yorke. But the Scots still
withstanding this ordinance, at length the matter thus in controuersie
was referred to pope Alexander, who sent the foresaid cardinall Hugh as
well to make an end of that contention, as of diuerse other: but yet he
left it vndecided.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The king of the Scots commeth to the
parlement.] William king of Scotland came personallie vnto this
parlement at Northampton, by commandement of king Henrie, and brought
with him Richard bishop of S. Andrew, and Josseline bishop of Glascow,
with other bishops and abbats of Scotland, the which being commanded by
king Henrie to shew such subiection to the church of England as they
were bound to doo by the faith which they owght to him, and by the oth
of fealtie which they had made to him, they made this answer, that they
had neuer shewed any subiection to the church of England, nor ought.
Against which deniall, the archbishop of Yorke replied, and brought
foorth sufficient priuileges granted by the forenamed popes, to prooue
the subiection of the Scotish bishops, and naimelie Glascow and Whiterne
vnto the see of Yorke. But bicause the archbishop of Canturburie meant
to bring the Scotish bishops vnder subiection to his see, he wrought so
for that time with the king, that he suffered them to depart home,
without yéelding any subiection to the church of England. The letters
which the foresaid popes did send touching this matter, were remaining
safe and sound amongst other writings in the colledge at Yorke, when
Polydor Virgil wrote the histories of England, the copies whereof in an
old ancient booke he confesseth to haue séene and read.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ Diuision of the circuits for iustices
itinerants.] But to speake further of things ordered and doone at this
parlement holden at Northampton, the king by common consent of his
Nobles and other states, diuided his realme into six parts, appointing
thrée iustices itinerants in euerie of them, as here followeth, Hugh de
Cressie, Walter Fitz Robert, and Robert Mantell, were deputed vnto
Northfolke, Suffolke, Cambridgeshire, Huntingtonshire, Bedfordshire,
Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire: Hugh de Gundeuille, William
Fitz Rafe, and William Basset were appointed to Lincolnshire,
Notinghamshire, Derbishire, Staffordshire, Warwikeshire,
Northamptonshire, and Leicestershire: Robert Fitz Bernard, Richard
Gifford, Roger Fitz Remfrey, were assigned to Kent, Surrey, Hampshire,
Sussex, Berkshire and Oxfordshire: William Fitz Stephan, Berthram de
Verdon, Thurstan Fitz Simon were ordeined to Herefordshire,
Glocestershire, Worcestershire, and Salopshire: Rafe Fitz Stephan,
William Ruffe, and Gilbert Pipard were put in charge with Wilshire,
Dorsetshire, Summersetshire, Deuonshire & Cornwall: Robert de Wals,
Ranulf de Glanuile, and Robert Pikenet were appointed to Yorkeshire,
Richmondshire, Lancashire, Copeland, Westmerland, Northumberland, and
Cumberland.

[Sidenote: The oth of the iustices.] The king caused these iustices to
sweare vpon the holie euangelists, that they should kéepe his assises
which he first had ordeined at Clarendon, and after had renewed here at
Northampton, & also caused all his subiects within the relme of England
to kéepe and obserue the same.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Moreouer at this councell, king Henrie restored
vnto Robert earle of Leicester all his lands, both on this side the sea,
and beyond, in maner as he held the same fiftéene daies before the
warre. To William de Albenie earle of Arundell, he gaue the earledome of
Sussex. About midlent, the king with his sonne and the legat came to
London, where at Westminster a conuocation of the cleargie was called,
but when the legat was set, and the archbishop of Canturburie on his
right hand as primat of the realme, [Sidenote: The presumptuous demeanor
of y^e archbishop of Yorke.] the archbishop of Yorke comming in, and
disdaining to sit on the left, where he might séeme to giue preheminence
vnto the archbishop of Canturburie (vnmanerlie inough indeed) swasht him
downe, meaning to thrust himselfe in betwixt the legat, and the
archbishop of Canturburie. And where belike the said archbishop of
Canturburie was loth to remooue, he set his buttocks iust in his lap,
but he scarslie touched the archbishops skirt with his bum, when the
bishops and other chapleins with their seruants stept to him, pulled him
away, and threw him to the ground, and beginning to lay on him with bats
and fists, the archbishop of Canturburie yeelding good for euill, sought
to saue him from their hands. Thus was verified in him that sage
sentence,
    [Sidenote: _Pub. Mim._]
    Nunquam periculum sine periculo vincitur.
The archbishop of Yorke with his rent rochet got vp, and awaie he went
to the king with a great complaint against the archbishop of
Canturburie: but when vpon examination of the matter the truth was
knowne, he was well laught at for his labour, and "that was all the
remedie he got. As he departed so bebuffeted foorth of the conuocation
house towards the king, they cried out vpon him; Go traitor that diddest
betray that holy man Thomas, go get thee hence, thy hands yet stinke of
bloud." The assemblie was by this meanes dispersed, and the legat fled
and got him out of the waie, as he might with shame enough, which is the
common panion and waiting-woman of pride, as one verie well said,
    [Sidenote: _Pub. Mim._]
    Citò ignominia fit superbi gloria.

[Sidenote: Appeales made.] After this, followed appealings, the
archbishop of Yorke appealed to Rome, and the legat also for his owne
safegard appealed the archbishop of Canturburie vnto Rome, which
archbishop submitting himselfe and his cause vnder the popes protection,
made a like solemne appeale from the legat to the pope. The legat
perceiuing that the matter went otherwise than he wished, and séeing
little remedie to be had at that present, gaue ouer his legatship as it
had béene of his owne accord, though greatlie against his will, and
prepared himselfe to depart. Neuerthelesse, through mediation of fréends
that tooke paines betwixt them, they gaue ouer their appeales on either
side, [Sidenote: The conuocation dissolued.] and dissembled the
displeasures which they had conceiued either against other, but yet the
conuocation was dissolued for that time, and the two archbishops
presented their complaints to the king, who kept his Easter this yeare
at Winchester, and about the same time or shortlie after, licenced his
sonne Henrie to saile ouer into Normandie, meaning shortlie after to go
vnto Compostella in Spaine, to visit the bodie of saint James the
apostle, but beeing otherwise aduised by his fathers letters, he
discontinued his purpose and staied at home.

The same yeare, the ladie Johan the kings daughter was giuen in marriage
vnto William king of Sicill. [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] Also the same
yeare died the lord cheefe iustice of Ireland, Robert earle of Striguill
otherwise Chepstow, then was William Fitzaldelme ordeined lord cheefe
iustice in his place, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._ _N. Triuet._] who seized
into the kings hands all those fortresses which the said earle of
Striguill held within the realme of Ireland. [Sidenote: A tribut grāted
by the Irish.] The Irishmen also paied to the king a tribute of twelue
pence yearelie for euerie house, or else for euery yoke of oxen which
they had of their owne. William earle of Arundell died also this yeare
at Wauerley, and was buried at Wimondham.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] This yeare, when it might haue beene thought
that all things were forgotten touching the rebellious attempts made
against king Henrie the father by his sons, [Sidenote: The wals of the
towne and castell of Leicester raced.] and other (as before ye haue
heard) he caused the wals both of the towne and castell of Leicester to
be raced and all such castels and places of strength as had béene kept
against him during the time of that rebellion, to be likewise
ouerthrowne and made plaine with the ground, as the castels of
Huntington, Waleton, Growby, Hey, Stutesbirrie or Sterdesbirrie,
Malasert, the new castell of Allerton, the castels of Fremingham and
Bungey, with diuers other both in England and Normandie. But the castels
of Pascie, and Mountsorell he reteined in his owne hands as his of
right, being so found by a iurie of fréeholders impanelled there in the
countrie; further he seized into his hands all the other castels of
bishops, earles and barons, both in England and Normandie, appointing
keepers in them at his pleasure. [Sidenote: Elinor the kings daughter
married to the king of Castile.] This yeare also he married his daughter
Elianor vnto Alfonse king of Castile.

[Sidenote: Gilbert Fitz Fergus.] Moreouer, Gilbert the sonne of Fergus
lord of Galloway, who had slaine his brother Uthred coosen to king
Henrie, came this yeare into England, vnder conduct of William king of
Scotland, and became king Henrie the fathers man, swearing fealtie to
him against all men: and to haue his loue and fauour gaue him a thousand
marks of siluer, and deliuered into his hands his son Duncane as a
pledge. [Sidenote: Richard earle of Poictow.] It is to be remembred
also, that in this yeare Richard earle of Poictow sonne to king Henrie,
fought with certeine Brabanders his enimies betwixt S. Megrine and
Buteuille, where he ouercame them.

¶ Here I haue thought good to aduertise the reader, that these men of
war, whom we haue generallie in this part of our booke named Brabanders,
we find them written in old copies diuerslie, as Brebazones, Brebanceni,
and Brebationes, the which for so much as I haue found them by the
learned translated Brabanders, and that the French word somewhat
yeeldeth thereto, I haue likewise so named them: wherein whether I haue
erred or not, I must submit mine opinion to the learned & skilfull
searchers of such points of antiquities. For to confesse in plaine truth
mine ignorance, or rather vnresolued doubt herein, I can not satisfie my
selfe with any thing that I haue read, whereby to assure my coniecture
what to make of them, although verelie it may be, and the likelihood is
great, that the Brabanders in those daies for their trained skill and
vsuall practise in warlike feats, wan themselues a name, whereby not
onelie those that were naturallie borne in Brabant, but such also as
serued amongst them, or else vsed the same warlike furniture, order,
trade and discipline, which was in vse among them, passed in that age
vnder the name of Brabanders. Or else I must thinke, that by reason of
some od kind of habit or other speciall cause, a certeine sort of
souldiers purchased to themselues the priuilege of that name, so to be
called Brabanceni or Brebationes (whether ye will) as hath chanced to
the Lansquenetz and Reisters in our time, and likewise to the companions
Arminaes and Escorchers in the daies of our forefathers, and as in all
ages likewise it hath fortuned amongst men of warre. Which if it so
chanced to these Brabanceni, I know not then what countriemen to make
them: for as I remember, Marchades that was a chiefe leader of such
souldiers as were knowne by that name (as after ye shall heare) is
reported by some authors to be a Prouancois.

It should séeme also that they were called by other names, as the Routs
(in Latine Ruptarij) which name whether it came of a French word, as ye
would say some vnrulie and headstrong companie, or of the Dutch word
Rutters, that signifieth a rider, I cannot say. But it may suffice for
the course of the historie to vnderstand that they were a kind of hired
souldiers, in those daies highlie estéemed, and no lesse feared, in so
much that against them and others there was an article conteined among
the decrées of the Laterane councell holden at Rome, [Sidenote: _Wil.
Paruus. lib. 3. cap. 3._] in the yeare 1179, whereby all those were to
be denounced accursed, which did hire, mainteine or any way nourish
those Brebationes, Aragonois, Nauarrois, Basques and Coterelles, which
did so much hurt in the christian world in those daies.

But to returne where we left to earle Richard, beside the aboue
mentioned victorie against those Brabanders, if we shall so take them;
he also vanquished Hamerike vicount of Limoges, and William earle of
Angolesme, with the vicounts of Ventadore and Cambanais, who attempted
rebellion against him, whome earle Richard subdued, and tooke prisoners,
with diuerse castels and strong holds which they had fortified.

[Sidenote: The departure of the legat foorth of the Realme.] About the
feast of Peter and Paule, the legat departed out of the realme, of whom
we find that as he granted to the king some liberties against the
priuileges which the cleargie pretended to haue a right vnto: so he
obteined of the king certeine grants in fauour of them and their order,
as thus.

     [Sidenote: Liberties obteined for churchmen.]
     1 First, that for no offense, crime or transgression any
     spirituall person should be brought before a temporall iudge
     personallie, except for hunting, or for some laie fee, or that
     for which some temporall seruice was due to be yéelded, either to
     the king, or some other that was cheefe lord thereof.

     2 Secondlie, that no archbishops see, nor bishops sée, nor any
     abbaie should be kept in the kings hands more than one yeare,
     except vpon some euident cause or necessitie constreining.

     3 Thirdlie, that such as slue any spirituall person, and were of
     such offense conuicted, either by euidence or confession before
     the iustice of the realme in presence of the bishop, should be
     punished as the temporall law in such cases required.

     4 Fourthlie, that spirituall men should not be compelled to fight
     in lists for the triall of any matter or cause whatsoeuer.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] It should appeare by Nicholas Triuet, that the
archbishop of Canturburie procured the bishops of Winchester, Elie, and
Norwich, thrée prelats highlie at that present in the kings fauour, to
further these grants; namelie, that such as slue any préest or
spirituall person might haue the law for it: where before, there was no
punishment for a season vsed against such offendors but onelie
excommunication. But now to leaue preests, we will passe to other
matters.

[Sidenote: The yoong K. beginneth new practises against his father.]
In this meane time, king Henrie the sonne remaining in Normandie, began
to deuise new practises how to remooue his father from the gouernment
and to take it to himselfe; but one of his seruants named Adam de
Cherehedune being of his secret counsell, aduertised king Henrie the
father thereof, for the which his maister king Henrie the sonne
    (Cereus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper)
put him to great shame and rebuke, causing him to be stripped naked, and
whipped round about the streets of the citie of Poictiers, where he then
was vpon his returne from his brother earle Richard, with whome he had
beene to aid him against his enimies. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] King
Henrie the father perceiuing the naughtie mind of his sonne, and that he
ceassed not from his wilfull maliciousnesse, thought to dissemble all
things, sith he saw no hope of amendment in him: but yet to be prouided
against his wicked attempts, he furnished all his fortresses both in
England & in Normandie with strong garisons of men, and all necessarie
munition.

About this time, the sea rose on such a heigth, that manie men were
drowned thereby. Also a great snow fell this yeare, which by reason of
the hard frost that chanced therewith, continued long without wasting
away, so that fishes both in the sea and fresh water died through
sharpenesse and vehemencie of that frost, neither could husbandmen till
the ground. A sore eclipse of the sunne chanced also the sixt ides of
Januarie. The monasterie of Westwood or Lesnos was begun to be founded
by Richard de Lucie Lord chéefe iustice. The same yeare also at
Woodstocke the king made his sonne the lord Geffrey knight.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] [Sidenote: 1177.] In the yeare 1177. king
Henrie held his Christmas at Northampton, with his two sonnes Geffrey
and John, his other two sonnes the yoong king Henrie, and Richard earle
of Poictou, were in the parts beyond the seas, as the king in Normandie,
and the earle in Gascoigne, [Sidenote: The citie of Aques or Aigues.]
where he besieged the citie of Aques, which the vicount of Aques and the
earle of Bigorre had fortified against him, but he wan it within ten
daies after his comming thither. Within the like terme also he wan the
citie of Baion, which Arnold Berthram had fortified against him, and
cōming to the vttermost frontiers of that countrie adioining to Spaine,
he tooke a castell called saint Piero which he destroied, and
constreined the Basques and Nauarrois to receiue an oth, that from
thencefoorth they should suffer passengers quietlie to come and go
through their countrie, and that they should liue in quiet and keepe
peace one with an other, and so he reformed the state of that countrie,
and caused them to renounce manie euill customes which they before that
time had vnlawfullie vsed.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 23.] [Sidenote: _Polydor._ Geoffrey the kings base
sonne made bishop of Lincolne.] Moreouer, king Henrie, to auoid further
slander, placed for bishop in the see of Lincolne a bastard son which he
had named Geffrey, after he had kept that bishoprike in his hands so
long till he had almost cleerelie destroied it. And his sonne that was
now made bishop to helpe the matter for his part, made hauocke in
wasting and spending in riotous manner the goods of that church, and in
the end forsooke his miter, and left the sée againe in the kings hands
to make his best of it.

Furthermore, the king in times past made a vow to build a new monasterie
in satisfaction of his offenses committed against Thomas the archbishop
of Canturburie: wherefore he required of the bishops and other
spirituall fathers, to haue some place by them assigned, where he might
begin that foundation. But whilest they should haue taken aduise herein,
he secretlie practised with the cardinals, and with diuerse other
bishops, that he might remoue the secular canons out of the colledge at
Waltham, and place therein regular canons, so to saue monie in his
cofers, planting in another mans vineyard. Howbeit, bicause it should
not be thought he did this of such a couetous meaning, he promised to
giue great possessions to that house, which he after but slenderlie
performed, though vpon licence obteined at the bishops hands, [Sidenote:
Préests displaced, & canons regular put in their roomes.] he displaced
the preests, and brought their roomes the canons as it were by waie of
exchange.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ Nunnes of Amesburie.] The same yeare also he
thrust the nunnes of Amesburie out of their house, bicause of their
incontinent liuing, in abusing their bodies greatlie to their reproch,
and bestowed them in other monasteries to be kept in more streightlie.
And their house was committed vnto the abbesse and couent of
Founteuered, who sent ouer certeine of their number to furnish the house
of Amesburie, wherein they were placed by the archbishop of Canturburie,
in the presence of the king and a great number of others.

[Sidenote: Philip earle of Flanders.] Philip earle of Flanders by
sending ouer ambassadours to king Henrie, promised that he would not
bestow his two néeces, daughters to his brother Matthew earle of
Bullongne, without consent of the same king: but shortlie after he
forgot his promise, & married the elder of them to the duke of Zaringes,
& the yoonger to Henrie duke of Louaine.

[Sidenote: John de Curcie.] John de Curcie lord cheefe iustice of
Ireland discomfiting a power of Irishmen, [Sidenote: The citie of Dun
taken. Roderike K. of Ulnestre vanquished.] wan the citie of Dun in
Ulnestre, where the bodies of S. Patrike and S. Colme confessors, and S.
Brigit the virgin are buried, for the taking of which citie, Roderike
king of Ulnestre being sore offended, raised a mightie host, and comming
into the field, fought with the lord cheefe iustice, and in the end
receiued & tooke the ouerthrow at his hands, although the lord cheefe
iustice at that encounter lost no small number of his men. Amongst
prisoners that were taken, the bishop of Dun was one, whom yet the lord
chéefe iustice released and set at libertie, in respect of a request and
suit made to him by a cardinall the popes legat that was there in
Ireland at that time.

[Sidenote: Viuiano a cardinall.] This cardinals name was Viuiano,
intituled the cardinall of S. Stephan in Mount Celio; he was sent from
the pope the yeare before, and comming into England, though without
licence, was pardoned vpon knowledging his fault for his entring without
the kings leaue first obteined, and so permitted to go into Scotland,
whither (as also into other the northwest regions) he was sent as legat,
authorised from the pope. Now when he had ended his businesse in
Scotland, he passed ouer into Man, and there held his Christmasse with
Euthred king of Man, and after the feast of the Epiphanie, sailed from
thence into Ireland, [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] and chanced (the same
time that the Englishmen inuaded that countrie) to be in the citie of
Dun, where he was receiued of the king & bishops of that land with great
reuerence.

The inuasion then of the Englishmen being signified to them of the
countrie aforehand they asked counsell of the legat what he thought best
to be doone in that matter; who streightwaies told them, that they ought
to fight in defense of their countrie, and at their setting forward, he
gaue them his benediction in waie of their good speed. But they comming
(as ye haue heard) to encounter with the Englishmen, were put to flight,
and beaten backe into the citie, which was herewith also woone by the
Englishmen, so that the Romane legat was glad to get him into the church
for his more safegard, and like a wise fellow had prouided afore hand
for such haps if they chanced, hauing there with him the king of
Englands letters directed to the capteins in Ireland in the legats
fauour, so that by the assistance and authoritie of the same, he went to
Dublin, [Sidenote: The legat holdeth a councell at Dublin.] and there
(in the name of the pope and the king of England) held a councell.

But when he began to practise, after the manner of legats in those
daies, somewhat largelie for his owne aduantage, in the churches of that
simple rude countrie, the English capteins commanded him either to
depart, or else to go foorth to the wars with them: whervpon he returned
into Scotland, hauing his bags well stuffed with Irish gold, for the
which it seemed he greatlie thirsted.

¶ Where we haue to note the drift of the pope and all popelings to be
far otherwise than they pretend. For who (vnlesse he will be wilfullie
ignorant) knoweth not, that he and his neuer attempt any thing, but the
same beareth the hew and colour of holinesse and honestie? Hereto tend
the sendings out of his legats and cardinals to make pacifications, to
redresse disorders, to appease tumults, & I wot not what infinit
enormities (for he must haue his ore in euerie mans bote, his spoone in
euerie mans dish, and his fingers in euerie mans pursse) but the end and
scope of all his doings consisteth in this; namelie, to set himselfe
aboue all souereigntie, to purchase and assure to himselfe an absolute
and supereminent iurisdiction, to rob Christian kingdomes, to impouerish
churches, chapels, and religious places. Our chronicles are full of
these his pranks, and here we haue one practised by a lim of his, who
(as you sée) verie impudentlie and licentiouslie preied vpon the
church-goods, and conuerted the same to his owne profit and commoditie:
which he had if not trembled, yet blushed to doo, considering that the
goods of the church are the treasurie of Christ (or at leastwise ought
to be) and that none ought to alienate or change the propertie of such
goods, as the canon law hath prouided. Besides, the wretch ought to haue
remembred that which euen the verie pagans did not forget; namelie,
    [Sidenote: _Prop. lib._]
    Haud vllas portabis opes Acherontis ad vndas,
      Nudus ad infernas stulte vehere rates.

But now to the dooings of John de Curcie, and of those Englishmen that
were with him, who did not onelie defend such places as they had woone
out of the Irishmens hands against those kings and their powers, but
also inlarged dailie more and more their frontiers, and wan the towne of
Armach (wherein is the metropolitane see of all that land) with the
whole prouince thereto belonging.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Polydor._] About the same time came
ambassadours vnto king Henrie from Alfonse king of Castile and Garsias
king of Nauarre, to aduertise him, that in a controuersie risen betwixt
the said two kings touching the possession of certeine grounds néere
vnto the confines of their realms, they had chosen him for iudge by
compromise, promising vpon their oths to stand vnto & abide his order
and decrée therein. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] Therefore they required him
to end the matter, by his authoritie, sith they had wholie put it to his
iudgement. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] Furthermore, either king had sent a
most able and valiant knight furnished with horsse and armour readie in
their princes cause to fight the combat, if king Henrie should happilie
commit the triall of their quarrell vnto the iudgement of battell. King
Henrie gladlie accepted their request, so that thervpon calling his
councellors togither, he consulted with them of the thing, and hearing
euerie mans opinion, at length he gaue iudgement so with the one, that
the other was contented to be agreeable therevnto.

Within a while after, Philip earle of Flanders came ouer into England to
doo his deuotions at the toome of Thomas archbishop of Canturburie, of
whome the most part of men then had conceiued an opinion of such
holinesse, that they reputed him for a saint. The king met him there,
and verie fréendlie enterteined him, and bicause he was appointed
shortlie after to go ouer into the holie land to war against Gods
enimies, the king gaue him fiue hundred marks in reward, and licenced
William Mandeuile earle of Essex to go in that iourneie with other
lords, knights and men of warre of sundrie nations that were of his
dominions.

The king then returning vnto London, tooke order for the establishing of
things touching the suertie of the realme, and his owne estate.
[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] And first he appointed the custodie of such
castels as were of most importance by their situation, vnto the kéeping
of certeine worthie capteins. To sir William de Stuteuille he assigned
the custodie of Rockesburgh castell, to sir Roger de Stuteuille the
castell of Edenburgh, to sir William Neuille the castell of Norham, to
sir Geffrie Neuille the castell of Berwike, and to the archbishop of
Yorke he deliuered the castell of Scarborough, [Sidenote: Durham tower.]
and sir Roger Coniers he made capteine of the tower of Durham, which he
had taken from the bishop, bicause he had shewed himselfe an vnstedfast
man in the time of the ciuill warre, and therefore to haue the kings
fauour againe, he gaue to him two thousand marks, with condition that
his castels might stand, [Sidenote: Henrie de Pudsey] and that his sonne
Henrie de Putsey aliàs Pudsey, might enioy one of the kings manor places
called Wighton.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Oxford.] After this, the king went to
Oxenford, and there held a parlement, [Sidenote: John the kings sonne
created king of Ireland. _Polydor._ It rained blood.] at the which he
created his sonne John king of Ireland, hauing a grant and confirmation
thereto from pope Alexander. About the same time it rained bloud in the
Ile of Wight, by the space of two daies togither, so that linen clothes
that hoong on the hedges were coloured therewith: which vnvsed woonder
caused the people, as the manner is, to suspect some euill of the said
Johns gouernement.

Moreouer, to this parlement holden at Oxenford, all the chéefe rulers
and gouernours of Southwales and Northwales repaired, [Sidenote: _R.
Houed._] and became the king of Englands liege men, swearing fealtie to
him against all men. Héerevpon he gaue unto Rice ap Griffin[11] prince of
Southwales the land of Merionith, and to Dauid ap Owen he gaue the lands
of Ellesmare. Also at the same time he gaue and confirmed vnto Hugh
Lacie (as before is said) the land of Meth in Ireland with the
appurtenances, for the seruice of an hundred knights or men of armes, to
hold of him and of his sonne John by a charter which he made thereof.
Also he diuided there the lands and possessions of Ireland with the
seruices to his subiects, as well of England as Ireland, appointing some
to hold by seruice to find fortie knights or men of armes, and some
thirtie, and so foorth.

Vnto two Irish lords he granted the kingdome of Corke for the seruice of
fortie knights, and to other three lords he gaue the kingdome of
Limerike for the seruice of the like number of knights to be held of him
& his sonne John, reseruing to himselfe & to his heires the citie of
Limerike with one cantred. [Sidenote: William Fitz Adelme. Robert de
Poer. Hugh Lacie.] To William Fitz Adeline his sewer, he gaue the citie
of Wesseford with the appurtenances and seruices: and to Robert de Poer
his marshall, he gaue the citie of Waterford; and to Hugh Lacie, he
committed the safe keeping of the citie of Diueline. And these persons,
to whome such gifts and assignations were made, receiued othes of
fealtie to beare their allegiance vnto him and to his sonne for those
lands and possessions in Ireland, in maner and forme as was requisite.

The cardinall Viuian hauing dispatched his businesse in Ireland, came
backe into England, and by the kings safe conduct returned againe into
Scotland, where in a councell holden at Edenburgh, he suspended the
bishop of Whiterne, bicause he did refuse to come to that councell: but
the bishop made no account of that suspension, hauing a defense good
inough by the bishop of Yorke, whose suffragane he was.

After the king had dissolued and broken vp his parlement at Oxenford, he
came to Marleborrough, [Sidenote: Philip de Breause.] and there granted
vnto Philip de Breause all the kingdome of Limerike for the seruice of
fortie knights: for Hubert and William the brethren of Reignold earle of
Cornewall, and John de la Pumeray their nephue, refused the gift
thereof, bicause it was not as yet conquered. For the king thereof,
surnamed Monoculus, that is, with one eie, who had held that kingdome of
the king of England, being latelie slaine, one of his kinsemen got
possession of that kingdome, and held it without acknowledging any
subiection to king Henrie, nor would obeie his officers, bicause of the
losses and damages which they did practise against the Irish people,
without occasion (as they alleadged) by reason whereof the king of Corke
also rebelled against the king of England and his people, [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._] and so that realme was full of trouble.

[Sidenote: _Polychr._] The same season, quéene Margaret the wife of king
Henrie the sonne was deliuered of a man child which liued not past thrée
daies. [Sidenote: Jewes in England.] In that time there was also through
all England a great multitude of Jewes, and bicause they had no place
appointed them were to burie those that died, but onelie at London, they
were constrained to bring all their dead corpses thither from all parts
of the realme. To ease them therfore of that inconuenience, they
obteined of king Henrie a grant, to haue a place assigned them in euerie
quarter where they dwelled, to burie their dead bodies. The same yeare
was the bodie of S. Amphibulus the martyr, who was instructor to saint
Albone found, not farre from the towne of S. Albones, and there in the
monasterie of that towne buried with great and solemne ceremonies.

In the meane time, king Henrie passed ouer into Normandie, hearing that
the old grudge betwixt him & king Lewes began to be renewed vpon this
occasion, that whereas king Henrie had receiued the French kings
daughter Alice, promised in mariage vnto his sonne Richard, to remaine
in England with him, till she were able to companie with hir husband,
king Henrie being of a dissolute life, and giuen much to the pleasure of
the bodie (a vice which was grafted in the bone and therefore like to
sticke fast in the flesh, for as it is said,
    Quod noua testa capit inueterata sapit)
at least wise (as the French king suspected) began to fantasie the yoong
ladie, and by such wanton talke and companie-keeping as he vsed with
hir, he was thought to haue brought hir to consent to his fleshlie lust,
which was the cause wherefore he would not suffer his sonne to marrie
hir, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] being not of ripe yeares nor viripotent or
mariable. Wherefore the French king imagining (vpon consideration of the
other kings former loose life) what an inconuenience & infamie might
redound to him and his, bethought himselfe that
    Turpe senex miles turpe senilis amor,
and therefore déemed iustlie that such a vile reproch wrought against
him in his bloud, was in no wise to be suffered, but rather preuented,
resisted & withstood. Herevpon he complained to the pope, who for
redresse thereof, sent one Peter a préest, & cardinall intituled of
saint Grisogone as legat from him into France, with commission to put
Normandie and all the lands that belonged to king Henrie vnder
inderdiction, if he would not suffer the mariage to be solemnized
without delaie betwixt his sonne Richard and Alice the French kings
daughter. [Sidenote: The kings méet at Yurie.] The king aduertised
hereof, came to a communication with the French king at Yurie, vpon the
21. of September, and there offered to cause the mariage to be
solemnised out of hand, if the French king would giue in marriage with
his daughter the citie of Burges, with all the appurtenances as it was
accorded, and also vnto his sonne king Henrie the countrie of
Veulgesine, that is to say, all the land betwixt Gisors and Pussie, as
he had likewise couenanted.

But bicause the French king refused so to doo, king Henrie would not
suffer his sonne Richard to marrie his daughter Alice: howbeit at this
entervew of the two princes, by the helpe of the cardinall, and other
Noble men on both sides, they agreed to be freends, and that if they
could not take order betwixt them, to end all matters touching the
controuersies depending betwixt them for the lands in Auuergne and
Berrie, and for the fée of Chateau Raoul; then should the matter be put
to twelue persons, six on the one side, and six on the other,
authorising them to compound and finish that controuersie and all other
which might rise betwixt them. For the French king these were named, the
bishops of Claremount, Neuers, and Trois; and three barons, erle
Theobald, Robert, and Peter de Courtneie, the kings bretheren. For the
king of England were named the bishops of Mauns, Peregort, and Naunts;
with three barons also, Maurice de Croume, William Maigot and Peter de
Mountrabell.

At the same time also, both these kings promised and vndertooke to ioine
their powers togither, and to go into the holie land to aid Guido king
of Jerusalem, whome the Saracen Saladine king of Aegypt did sore
oppresse with continuall and most cruell war. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._ A
law.] This doone, the French king returned home, and king Henrie came to
Vernueil, where he made this ordinance, that no man should trouble the
vassall or tenant, as we may call them, for his lords debt.

After this king Henrie went into Berrie, and tooke Chateau Roux or
Raoul, and marching towards Castre, the lord of that towne came and met
him on the waie, surrendring into his hands the daughter of Rafe de
Dolis latelie before deceassed, whome the king gaue vnto Baldwine de
Riuers, with the honor of Chateau Roux or Raoul. Then went he vnto
Graundemont, where Audebert earle of March came vnto him, [Sidenote: The
purchase of the erldome of March.] and sold to him the whole countrie of
March for the summe of fifteene thousand pounds Anioun, twentie mules,
and twentie palfreis. The charters of this grant and sale made and giuen
vnder the seale of the said earle of March, bare date in the moneth of
September Anno Christi 1177. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 24.] Then did the king
receiue the fealtie and homages of all the barons and knights of the
countrie of March, after he had satisfied, contented, and paid the monie
vnto the earle according to the couenants.

[Sidenote: 1178.] The king this yeare held his Christmas at Angiers, and
meaning shortlie after to returne into England, he sent to the French
king for letters of protection, which were granted, and sent to him in
forme as followeth.

     The tenour of the French kings letters of protection.

     Lvdouicus rex Francorum, omnibus ad quos præsentes literæ
     peruenerint salutem. Nouerit vniuersitas vestra quòd nos
     recipimus in protectione & custodia nostra totam terram Henrici
     regis Angliæ charissimi fratris nostri, in cismarinis partibus
     sitam, si contigerit eum in Angliam transfretare vel peregrè
     proficisci. Ita planè, vt quādo balliui sui de terra transmarina
     nos requisierint, bona fide & sine malo ingenio eis consilium &
     auxilium præstabimus, ad eiusdem terras defensionem &
     protectionem. Actum apud Nicenas. The English whereof is thus.

     "Lewes king of France, to all those to whom these present letters
     shall come greeting. Know all ye that we haue receiued into our
     protection & custodie all the lands of Henrie king of England
     our deare brother, lieng and being in the parts of this side the
     sea, if it chance him to passe ouer into England, or to go any
     waie foorth from home, so that when the bailiues of his lands on
     this hither side the sea shall require vs, we shall helpe them
     and counsell them faithfullie and without male-engine for defense
     and protection of the same lands. Giuen at Nicens."

Shortlie after, king Henrie returned into England from Normandie, and at
Woodstocke made his sonne Geffrey knight. [Sidenote: A generall councell
summoned at Rome.] This yeare pope Alexander sent into all parts legats
to summon the bishops and prelates to a generall councell to be holden
at Rome in the beginning of the Lent in the yere next following.
Whereabout two legats came into England, the one named Albert de Suma,
who had in commission to summon them of England and Normandie: and the
other called Petro de Santa Agatha, who was appointed to summon them of
Scotland, Ireland, and the Iles about the same: wherevpon obteining
licence to passe through the king of Englands dominions, he was
constreined to sweare vpon the holie euangelists, that he should not
attempt any thing in his legatship that might be hurtfull to the king or
his realme, and that he should come and visit the king againe as he
returned homewards.

This yeare on the sundaie before the natiuitie of S. John Baptist, being
the 18 of June, after the setting of the sunne, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._]
there appeared a maruellous sight in the aire, vnto certeine persons
that beheld the same. [Sidenote: A strange sight about the moone.] For
whereas the new moone shone foorth verie faire with his hornes towardes
the east, streightwais the vpper horne was diuided into two, out of the
the mids of which diuision a burning brand sprang vp, casting from it a
farre off coles and sparks, as it had beene of fire. The bodie of the
moone in the meane time that was beneath, séemed to wrest and writh in
resemblance like to an adder or snake that had béene beaten, and anon
after it came to the old state againe. This chanced aboue a dozzen
times, and at length from horne to horne it became blacke.

In September following, the moone being about 27. daies hold, at six of
the clocke, a partile eclipse of the sunne happened, for the bodie
thereof appeared as it were horned shooting the hornes towards the west
as the moone dooth: being twentie daies old. [Sidenote: A strange
eclipse of the sunne.] The residue of the compasse of it was couered
with a blacke roundell, which comming downe by little and little, threw
about the horned brightnesse that remained, till both the hornes came to
hang downe on either side to the earthwards; and as the blacke roundell
went by little & little forwards, the homes at length were turned
towards the west, and so the blacknesse passing awaie, the sunne
receiued his brightnesse againe. In the meane time the aire being full
of clouds of diuerse colours, as red, yellow, green, and pale, holpe the
peoples sight with more ease to discerne the maner of it.

The king this yeare held his Christmasse at Winchester, [Sidenote: An.
Reg. 25.] [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] at which time newes came abroad of a
great wonder that had chanced at a place called Oxenhale, within the
lordship of Derlington, [Sidenote: 1179.] in which place a part of the
earth lifted itselfe vp on high in appearance like to a mightie tower,
and so it remained from nine of the clocke in the morning, till the euen
tide, and then it fell downe with an horrible noise, so that as such as
were thereabout, were put in a great feare. [Sidenote: A strange wonder
of the earth.] That péece of earth with the fall was swallowed vp,
leauing a great déepe pit in the place, as was to be seene many yeares
after.

¶ Touching these celestiall apparitions, the common doctrine of
philosophie is, that they be méere naturall, and therefore of no great
admiration. For of eclipses, as well such as are proper to the sunne, as
also those that are peculiar to the moone, the position is not so
generallie deliuered, as it is constantlie beléeued. For the
philosophers giue this reason of eclipses.

    [Sidenote: _M. Pal. in. Aquar._]
      ---- radios Phœbi luna interiecta repellit,
    Nec sinit in terras claram descendere lucem.
    Quippe aliud non est quàm terræ atque æquoris vmbra,
    Quæ si fortè ferit nocturnæ corpora lunæ,
    Eclipsin facit.

In somuch as obseruing them to be ordinarie accidents, they are
ouerpassed and nothing regarded. [Sidenote: _Luc. lib. 1._] Howbeit
Lucane maketh a great matter of eclipses, and of other strange sights
precéeding the bloudie battels betweene Pompeie and Cesar; intimating
hereby, that prodigious woonders, and other rare and vnaccustomed
accidents are significations of some notable euent insuing, either to
some great personage, to the common-wealth, or to the state of the
church. And therefore it is a matter woorth the marking, to compare
effects following with signes and woonders before going; since they haue
a doctrine in them of no small importance. For not manie yeares after,
the kings glorie was darkened on earth, nay his pompe and roiall state
tooke end; a prediction whereof might be imported by the extraordinarie
eclipse of the sunne, a beautifull creature, and the ornament of the
skie.

Laurence archbishop of Dublin, and Catholicus the archbishop of Tuamon,
with fiue or six other Irish bishops, and diuerse both bishops and
abbats of Scotland, passed through England towards the generall
councell, and withall tooke their oth, that they shuld not procure any
damage to the king or realme of England. There went but onelie foure
bishops out of England, to wit, Hugh Putsey, or Pudsey bishop of Durham,
John bishop of Norwich, Reignold bishop of Bath, and Robert bishop of
Hereford, beside abbats: for the English bishops firmelie stood in it,
that there ought but foure bish. onelie to go foorth of England to any
generall councell called by the pope. [Sidenote: Richard de Lucie lord
chéefe iustice of England deceasseth.] This yeare Richard de Lucie lord
chéefe iustice of England gaue ouer his office, and became a canon in
the abbeie of Westwood or Lesnos, which he had founded, and built vpon
his owne ground, endowing it with great reuenewes, and in Julie after he
died there.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Windsore.] King Henrie the father called a
parlement at Windsore, at the which was present king Henrie the sonne,
and a great number of lords, earles and barons. At this parlement, order
was taken for partition of the realme, so that it was diuided into foure
parts, certeine sage personages being allotted vnto euerie part to
gouerne the same, but not by the name of iustices, [Sidenote: Ranulfe de
Glanuille.] albeit that Ranulfe de Glanuille was made ruler of
Yorkeshire, & authorised iustice there, as he that best vnderstood in
those daies the ancient lawes and customes of the realme. [Sidenote:
Geffrey earle of Britaine son to king Henrie. Guidomer de Leons.] The
same yeare, Geffrey earle of Britaine by his fathers commandement leuied
an armie, and passing ouer into Britaine, wasted the lands of Guidomer
de Leons, and constreined him to submit himselfe vnto him.

[Sidenote: The moone eclipsed.] The 18. day of August, the moone was
eclipsed, which was séene of king Henrie and his companie as he rode all
that night towards Douer there to méet the French king, [Sidenote: The
French K. commeth a madding to visit the archbishop Beckets toome.] who
was comming towards England to visit the toome of archbishop Thomas
Becket as he had before time vowed. He landed at Douer the 22. day of
August. There came ouer with him Henrie duke of Louaine, Philip earle of
Flanders, Baldwin earle of Guines, earle William de Mandeuille, and
diuerse other earles, lords, barons and knights; whome king Henrie was
readie to receiue at the water side, and the morow after brought them
with great honor to Canturburie, where they were with due reuerence and
vnspeakeable ioy receiued of archbishop Richard, and diuerse other
bishops there assembled togither with the couent of Christes-church, and
an infinit multitude of Nobles and gentlemen. [Sidenote: The French word
is Muis.] The French king offered vpon the toome of the said archbishop
Thomas, a rich cup of gold; and gaue to the moonks there an hundred tuns
of wine to be receiued yearelie of his gift for euer at Poissie in
France. Further he granted to the same moonks, that whatsoeuer was
bought in his dominions of France to their vse, should be free from
toll, tallage, and paieng any maner of excise for the same. These grants
he confirmed with his charter thereof, made & deliuered to them by the
hands of Hugh Putsey, son to the bishop of Duresme that was his
chancellor. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] King Lewes hauing performed his vow,
and receiued manie rich gifts of king Henrie, returned home into
France, and shortlie after causing his sonne to be crowned king,
resigned the gouernment to him (as by some writers appeareth.)
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Cadwallon prince of Wales.] About the same
time, Cadwallon prince of Wales, being brought before the king to make
his answer to diuerse accusations exhibited against him, as he returned
toward his countrie vnder the kings safe conduct, was laid for by his
enimies, and slaine, to the kings great slander, though he were not
giltie in the matter. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 26.] [Sidenote: _R. Houed._]
[Sidenote: 1180] After this, King Henrie the father held his Christmasse
at Notingham, and William king of Scotland with him.

[Sidenote: Discord betwixt the French K. and his nobles.] The same yeare
fell discord betwixt the yoong king of France, and his mother and
vncles, hir brethren, earle Theobald and earle Stephan, who thinking
themselues not well vsed, procured king Henrie the sonne to ioine with
them in fréendship, and to go ouer into England to purchase his fathers
assistance in their behalfe against their nephue. Who being come ouer to
his father, informed him of the whole mater, and did so much by his
earnest suit therin, that before the feast of Easter, his father went
ouer with him into Normandie, and immediatlie vpon their arriuall in
those parts, the old French quéene, mother to the yoong king Philip,
with their brethren the said earles, and manie other Noble men of France
came vnto him, and concluding a league with him, deliuered hostages into
his hands, and re-ceiued an oth to follow his counsell and aduice in all
things.

Herevpon king Henrie assembled a great armie, in purpose after Easter to
inuade the French kings dominions: but before any great exploit was
made, he came to an enteruew with the new king of France, betwixt Gisors
and Treodsunt, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] where partlie by gentle words,
and partlie by threatnings which king Henrie vsed for persuasion, the
French king released all his indignation concerned against his mother
and vncles, and receiued them againe into his fauour, couenanting to
allow his mother for euerie day towards hir expenses seuen pounds of
Paris monie, during his father king Lewes his life time; and after his
death, she should enioy all hir dower, except the castels which king
Philip might reteine still in his hands. [Sidenote: The earle of
Flanders does homage to the king of England.] Also at this assemblie,
king Henrie the father in the presence of the French king, receiued
homage of Philip earle of Flanders, and granted to him for the same a
thousand markes of siluer, to be receiued yearelie out of the checker at
London, so that in consideration thereof he should find fiue hundred
knights or men of armes, to serue the king of England for the space of
40. daies, when soeuer he should haue warning giuen vnto him.

Moreouer, the two kings at this assemblie concluded a league togither,
and whereas certeine lands were in controuersie betwixt them, as the fée
of Chateau Raoul, and other small fees, if they could not agree among
themselues concerning the same, either of them was contented to commit
the order thereof, and of all other controuersies betwixt them vnto six
bishops, to be chosen indifferentlie betwixt them, the one to choose
thrée, and the other thrée.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ Tailbourg woone.] In this yeare, or (as the
annales of Aquitaine say) in the yeare last passed, Richard earle of
Poictou subdued the strong fortresse of Tailbourg, which was iudged
before that time, inexpugnable: but earle Richard oppressed them that
kept it so sore with streight siege, that first in a desperate mood they
issued foorth, and assailed his people verie valiantlie, but yet
neuerthelesse they were beaten backe, and forced to retire into their
fortresse, which finallie they surrendred into the hands of earle
Richard, who caused the wals thereof to be raced. The like fortune
chanced to diuers other castels and fortresses that stood in rebellion
against him within a moneth space.

Tailbourg belonged vnto one Geffrey de Rancin, who of a proud and loftie
stomach practising rebellion against duke Richard, [Sidenote: _Matth.
Paris._] tooke this enterprise in hand, and when he had atchiued the
same to his owne contentation, he passed ouer into England, and was
receiued with great triumph, pompe & magnificence.

[Sidenote: _W. Paruus._ The forme of the kings coine changed.] About the
same time, the forme of the kings coine was altered and changed, bicause
manie naughtie and wicked persons had deuised waies to counterfeit the
same, so that the alteration thereof was verie necessarie, but yet
gréeuous and chargeable to the poore inhabitants of the realme.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 27.] [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] [Sidenote: 1181.] King
Henrie the father, whilest he was at Mauns after Christmasse made this
ordinance, that euerie man being worth in goods to the value of an
hundred pounds Aniouin, should keepe one horsse able for seruice in the
wars, and complet armour for a knight or man of armes, as we may rather
call them. Also that such as had goods woorth in value from 40. pounds
to 25. of the same monie, should at the least haue in his house for his
furniture an habergeon, a cap of stéele, a speare, and a sword, or bowe
and arrowes. Furthermore he ordeined, that no man might sell or laie to
gage his armour and weapon, but should be bound to leaue it to his next
heire. When the French king and the earle of Flanders were aduertised
that king Henrie had made this ordinance amongst his subiects, they gaue
commandement that their people should be armed after the like manner.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] This yeare after Candlemasse, Laurence
archbishop of Dublin came ouer to the king into Normandie and brought
with him the son of Roderike king of Conagh, to remaine with him as a
pledge, for performance of couenants passed betwixt them, as the paiment
of tribute and such like. The said archbishop died there in Normandie,
wherevpon the king sent Geffrey de Haie one of his chapleins, and
chapleine also to Alexius the popes legat into Ireland, to seize that
archbishops sée into his hands. He also sent John Lacie conestable of
Chester, and Richard de Peake, to haue the citie of Dublin in kéeping,
which Hugh Lacie had in charge before and now was discharged, bicause
the king tooke displeasure with him, for that without his licence he had
maried a daughter of the king of Conagh, according to the manner of that
countrie.

This yeare also, Geffrey the kings bastard sonne, who was the elect of
Lincolne, and had receiued the profits of that bishoprike, by the space
of seuen years, and had his election confirmed by the pope in the feast
of the Epiphanie at Marlebridge, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] in presence of
the king and bishops renounced that preferment, of his owne free will.
Within a while after the pope sent a streit commandement vnto Richard
archbishop of Canturburie, either to cause the same Geffrey by the
censure of the church to renounce his miter, or else to take vpon him
the order of préesthood. Wherefore vpon good aduice taken in the matter
with his father and other of his especiall fréends, iudging himselfe
insufficient for the one, he was contented to part with the other; and
therevpon wrote letters vnto the said archbishop of Canturburie, in
forme as followeth.

     A letter of Geffrey the kings base sonne elect of Lincolne to
     Richard archbishop of Canturburie,

     Venerabili patri Richardo Dei gratia Cantuariensi archiepiscopo
     apostolicæ sedis legato, Galfridus domini regis Angliæ filius &
     cancellarius salutem & reuerentiam debitam ac deuotam. Placuit
     maiestati apostolicæ vestræ iniungere sanctitati, vt me certo
     temore vocaretis ad suscipendum ordinem sacerdotis, &
     pontificalis officij dignitatem. Ego verò considerans quamplures
     episcopos maturiores ac prouectiores prudentia & ætate vix tantæ
     administrationi sufficere, nec sine periculo animarum suarum sui
     officium pontificatus ad perfectum explere, veritus sum onus
     importabile senioribus mihi imponere iuniori: faciens hæc nō ex
     leuitate animi, sed ob reuerentiam sacramenti. Habito itaque
     tractatu super eo cum domino rege patre meo, dominis fratribus
     meisque rege & Pictauensi & Britannorum comitibus: episcopis
     etiam Henrico Baiocensi, Frogerio Sagiensi, Reginaldo Batoniensi,
     Sefrido Cicestrensi, qui præsentes aderant, aliter de vita &
     statu meo disposui, volens patris mei obsequijs militare ad
     tempus, & ab episcopalibus abstinere: omne it que ius electionis
     inde & Lincolnensem episcopatum spontaneè, liberè, quieté, &
     integrè, in manu vestra pater sancte resigno, tam electionem quàm
     episcopatus absolutionem postulans à vobis, tanquam Ã
     metropolitano meo, & ad hoc ab apostolica sede specialiter
     delegate. Bene vale.

The king for his maintenance, now after he had resigned his bishoprike,
gaue him 500. markes of yearelie rent in England, and as much in
Normandie, and made him moreouer lord chancellor.

This yeare also after Easter, the kings of England and France came to an
enteruew togither, at a place in the confines of their countries called
by some writers Vadum Sancti Remigij, on a mondaie being the 17. of
April, in which assemblie of those two princes, the knights templers and
hospitallers presented to them letters directed from pope Alexander vnto
all christian princes, [Sidenote: The danger of the holie land.]
aduertising them of the danger wherein the holie land stood at that
present, if spéedie remedie were not the sooner prouided. Wherefore he
exhorted them to addresse their helping hand towards the releefe
thereof, granting vnto all such as would enterprise to go thither in
person (to remaine there vpon defense of the countrie against the
infidels) great pardon, as to those that did continue there the space of
two yéeres, pardon of penance for all their sins, except theft,
extortion, roberie, and vsurie; in which cases restitution was to be
made, if the partie were able to doo it; if not, then he should he
absolued as well for those things as for other. And those that remained
one yeare in those parties were pardoned of halfe their whole penance
due for all their sinnes. And to those that went to visit the holie
sepulchre, he also granted great pardon, as remission of their sinnes,
whether they came thither or peraduenture died by the waie. He also
granted his frée indulgence vnto those that went to warre against the
common, the professed and open enimies of our religion in the holie
land, as his predecessors the popes Vrbanus and Eugenius had granted in
time past: and he receiued likewise their wiues, their children, their
goods and possessions vnder the protection of S. Peter and the church of
Rome.

The two kings hauing heard the popes letters read, and taken good aduice
thereof, promised by Gods fauour shortlie to provide conuenient aid for
reléefe of the holie land, and of the christians as yet remaining in the
same. This was the end of their communication for that time, and so they
departed, the French king into France, and the king of England into
Normandie.

In the meane time, by the king of Englands appointment, William king of
Scotland went ouer into Normandie, and by the aduice and good admonition
of king Henrie, he granted licence vnto two bishops of his realme of
Scotland, to wit, Aberdene and saint Andrewes, to returne into Scotland,
whome he had latelie before banished, and driuen out of his realme.
Moreouer, as king Henrie laie at Harfléet readie to saile ouer into
England, discord fell betwixt the king of France and the erle of
Flanders, so that the king of England at desire of the French king
returned backe, and came vnto Gisors, where the French king met him, and
so did the earle of Flanders, betwixt whome vpon talke had in the matter
depending in controuersie, he made a concord, and then comming downe, to
Chirburge he and the king of Scots in his companie passed ouer into
England, landing at Portesmouth the 26. of Julie.

The king now being returned into England, [Sidenote: An ordinance for
armour.] ordeined a statute for armour and weapon to be had amongst his
subiects heere in this realme, which was thus. Euerie man that held a
knights fée should be bound to haue a paire of curasses, an helmet, with
shield and speare; and euerie knight or man of arms should haue as manie
curasses, helmets, shields and speares as he held knights fées in
demaine. Euerie man of the laitie hauing goods or reuenues to the value
of sixteene marks, should have one paire of curasses, an helmet, a
speare, and a shield. And euerie free man of the laitie hauing goods in
value worth ten marks, should haue an habergeon, a steele cap, & a
speare; and all burgesses, and the whole communaltie of frée men should
haue a wambais, a cap of steele, and a speare.

Further it was ordeined, that euerie man thus bound to haue armour,
should be sworne to haue the same before the feast of S. Hilarie, and to
be true vnto king Henrie Fitz-empres, in defense of whome and of his
realme they should kéepe with them such armour and weapon, according to
his precept and commandement thereof had and made. And no man being
furnished with such armour, should sell, pledge, or otherwise alien the
same, neither may his lord by any means take the same from him, either
by waie of forfeiture, by destresse or pledge, nor by any other means:
and when any man died, hauing such armour, he shall leaue it to his
heire, and if his heire be not of lawfull age to weare it into the
field, then he that hath the custodie of his bodie shall haue the
armour, and find an able man to weare it for him, till he come to age.

If any burgesse of any good towne haue more armour than he ought to haue
by this statute, he shall sell it or giue it to some man that may weare
it in the kings seruice. [Sidenote: Jewes might haue no armour.] No Jew
might haue armour by this statute: but those that had anie, were
appointed to sell the same to such as were inhabitants within the
realme, for no man might sell or transport anie armour ouer the sea,
without the kings licence. For the better execution of which ordinance,
it was ordeined, that inquests should be taken by sufficient iurors,
what they were that were able to haue armour by their abilitie in lands
and goods. Also the K. would, that none should be sworne to haue armour,
except he were a frée man of birth and bloud.

[Sidenote: _Matt Paris._] The same yeare, the king being at Waltham,
assigned an aid to the maintenance of the christian souldiers in the
holie land, that is to wit, 42. thousand marks of siluer, and fiue
hundred marks of gold. [Sidenote: The decesse of Hugh earle of Chester.
_Ran. Higd._] Hugh Bosun otherwise called Keuelocke the sonne of Ranulfe
the second of that name earle of Chester, died this yeare, and was
buried at Léeke. He left behind him issue by his wife, the countesse
Beatrice daughter of Richard Lacie lord iustice of England, a sonne
named Ranulfe, who succéeded him, being the first erle of Chester, &
third of that name after the conquest. Besides this Ranulfe he had foure
daughters by his said wife; to wit, Maud married to Dauid earle of
Angus, Huntington and Galloway; Mabell coupled with William Daubignie
earle of Arundell, Agnes married to William Ferrers earle of Derbie, and
Hauise ioined with Robert Quincie earle of Lincolne.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Yorke deceasseth.] The 21. of Nouember,
Roger archbishop of Yorke died, who (when he perceiued himselfe in
danger of death by force of that his last sicknesse) deliuered great
summes of monie vnto certeine bishops and other graue personages to be
distributed amongst poore people: but after his death, the king called
for the monie, and seized it to his vse, alleadging a sentence giuen by
the same archbishop in his life time, that no ecclesiasticall person
might giue any thing by will, except he deuised the same whilest he was
in perfect health: yet the bishop of Durham would not depart with foure
hundred marks which he had receiued to destribute amongst the poore,
alledging that he dealt the same awaie before the archbishops death, and
therefore he that would haue it againe, must go gather it vp of them to
whom he had distributed it, which he himselfe would in no wise doo. But
the king tooke no small displeasure with this vndiscréet answer,
insomuch that he seized the castell of Durham into his hands, and sought
means to disquiet the said bishop by diuerse maner of waies.

[Sidenote: 1182.] The king held his Christmasse this yeare at
Winchester, [Sidenote: The K. passeth ouer into Normandie.] and
afterwards sailed ouer into Normandie, bicause he heard that the king
his sonne was gone to his brother in law king Philip, and began to
practise eftsoones new trouble, which was true indéed: [Sidenote: The K.
& his sonne eftsoones reconciled.] but yet at length he came backe, and
was reconciled to his father, and tooke an oth, that from thenceforth he
would neuer swarue from him, nor demand more for his maintenance but an
hundred pounds Aniouin by the daie, and ten pounds a day of the same
monie for his wife. His father granted this, and also couenanted, that
within the tearme of one yeare he would giue him the seruices of an
hundred knights. Neuerthelesse all this did little amend the matter, for
though he set a new copie of countenance therevpon, yet he reteined his
old peruerse purpose in his discontented mind, hauing learned that
    Qui nescit fingere nescit regere.
After this, king Henrie the father as a mediator betwixt the king of
France, and the earle of Flanders touching controuersies betwixt them
did so much in the matter, that he set them at one for that time.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] About the same season, king Henrie the father
sent William de Mandeuille earle of Albemarle, and other ambassadors
vnto the emperour Frederike, [Sidenote: The duke of Saxonie.] to intreat
for his sonne in law the duke of Saxonie, that he might be againe
restored into his fauor, which could not be obteined: for he was
alreadie condemned to exile, but yet thus much to pleasure the king of
England the emperour granted, that so manie as went with him out of
their countrie, might returne againe at their pleasure, and that his
wife the dutches Maud the K. of Englands daughter, should inioy hir
dowrie, and be at libertie, whether she would remaine vpon it, or follow
hir husband into exile, therefore when the daie came that he must depart
out of his countrie, he set forward with his wife and children, and a
great number of the Nobles of his countrie, and finallie came into
Normandie, where he was right ioifullie receiued of his father in law
king Henrie.

Shortlie after his comming thither, he gaue licence to the Noble men
that were come thither with him, to returne home, and then he himselfe
went into Spaine to visit the bodie of S. James the apostle. [Sidenote:
The duchesse of Saxonie deliuered of a sonne. Ranulfe Poer slaine.] His
wife being great with child, remained with hir father in Normandie, and
at Argenton she was deliuered of a sonne. This yeare the Welshmen slue
Ranulfe Poer shirife of Glocestershire. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 29. 1183.]
King Henrie held his Christmasse at Caen, with his thrée sons, Henrie
the king, Richard earle of Poictow, and Geffrey earle of Britaine. There
was also Henrie duke of Saxonie, with his wife and their children,
besides the archbishops of Canturburie and Dublin, with other bishops
earles and barons in great number.

Here would king Henrie the father, that his son the king should receiue
homage of his brethren Richard earle of Poictow, and Geffrey earle of
Britaine. The earle of Britaine did not staie at the matter, but the
earle of Poictow refused, alledging that it was not conuenient so long
as their father liued, to acknowledge any superioritie to their brother:
for as the fathers inheritance was due to the eldest sonne, so he
claimed the lands which he held due to him in right of his mother.
[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] This deniall so much offended his brother the
king, that afterwards when Richard would haue doone homage, he would not
receiue it, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] whervpon Richard departed from the
court in great displeasure, & comming into Poictow, began to fortifie
his castels & townes, that he might be in readinesse to stand vpon his
safegard, if his father or brethren should come to pursue him. King
Henrie the sonne followed him, set on by the earles and barons of
Poictow, which for the sharpe and cruell gouernement of earle Richard,
hated him mortallie. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Againe on the other side,
the fauourable courtesie, séemelie personage, and other noble qualities
which they saw in the yoong king, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ War betwixt
the brethren.] moued them to take part with him against Richard, and
shortlie after their brother Geffrey came with a great armie in aid of
his brother the king, in so much that earle Richard not knowing how to
shift off the present danger, sent to his father for aid, who being
verie sorie in his mind to sée such vnnaturall dealing among his sonnes,
gathered an armie and set forward.

He had a little before trauelled to set them at one, in somuch that
where earle Richard held a castell named Clareualx, which after the
fathers deceasse ought to remaine vnto king Henrie the son, vpon his
complaint thereof made, the father did so much with the earle, that he
surrendered it into his fathers hands. [Sidenote: The father séeketh to
appease the quarell betwixt his sonnes.] Immediatlie after all the three
sonnes came to Angers, and there sware to be obedient vnto their fathers
will, and to serue him against all men: whervpon he appointed them a
daie to meet at Mirabell, where the barons of Guien should also be, vnto
whom king Henrie the sonne had sworne to aid them against earle Richard.
Herewith was earle Geffrey sent vnto them to persuade them to peace and
quietnesse, and to come vnto Mirabell according to king Henrie the
fathers appointment: [Sidenote: Earle Geffrey dealeth vnfaithfullie.]
but in stéed of persuading them to peace (contrarie to his oth so
oftentimes receiued) he procured them to pursue the warre both against
his father and his brother earle Richard: and no maruell, for
    Malè sarta gratia nunquam benè coalescit.

King Henrie the sonne remaining with his father, shewed outwardlie that
he wished for peace, but his meaning was all contrarie, and so obtained
licence of his father to go vnto Limoges, that he might labour to reduce
both his brother Geffrey, and the barons of Guien vnto quietnesse. But
such dissembling was put in practise by king Henrie, that when the
father followed with an armie, and came vnto Limoges, in stéed of
receiuing him with honor, as it had béene their duties to haue doone,
they shot at him, and pearsed through his vppermost armor, so that both
he and his sonne Richard were constreined to depart. Howbeit afterwards
he entered that citie, and comming foorth of it againe to talke with his
sonnes, those within Limoges eftsoones rebelled, so that certeine of
them within, shot the horsse whereon king Henrie the father rode into
the head. And if it had so chanced, that the horsse in casting vp his
head had not receiued the blow, the arrow had light in the kings brest,
to the great danger & perill of his person. Neither did his sonnes the
king and his brother Geffrey go about to sée such an heinous attempt
punished, but rather séemed to like well of it, and to mainteine those
most malicious enimies of their souereigne lord and father, for they
ioined with them against him, although king Henrie the sonne made
countenance to be willing to reconcile his brother and the barons of
Guien to his father by waie of some agréement: [Sidenote: The disloiall
dissembling of the yoong king.] but his double dealing was too manifest,
although indeed he abused his fathers patience for a while, who was
desirous of nothing more than to win his sonnes by some courteous
meanes, and therefore diuerse times offered to pardon all offenses
committed by his enimies, at the suit of his sonne the king, who in déed
offered himselfe now and then as an intreatour, but that was onelie to
win time that his brother with such Brabanders and other souldiers as he
had with him in aid, beside the forces of the barons of Guien, might
worke the more mischéefe against their father and their brother earle
Richard, in wasting and destroieng their countries that stood stedfast
on their side.

In the meane time Richard the archbishop of Canturburie, and diuerse
other bishops and abbats both of England and Normandie assembled
togither at Caen, and in the abbeie church of S. Stephan pronounced the
sentence of excommunication against all those that did hinder and
impeach their purpose, which was to haue peace and concord concluded
betwixt the king and his sonnes, the same sonnes onlie out of the said
sentence excepted.

Diuerse shiftes were made by king Henrie the sonne, and his brother
earle Geffrey also to get monie for the paiment of their souldiers, as
spoiling of shrines, and such like. But at length when things framed not
to their purpose, and that the harme which they could doo against their
father was much lesse than they wished, if power had béene answerable to
their willes, [Sidenote: King Henrie the sonne falleth sicke.] king
Henrie the sonne through indignation and displeasure (as some write)
fell into a gréeuous sicknesse in a village called Mertell, not farre
from Limoges, where his father laie at siege.

At the first he was taken with an extreame feuer, and after followed a
sore flixe. Now perceiuing himselfe in danger of death, and that the
physicians had giuen him ouer, [Sidenote: He sendeth to his father.] he
sent to his father (better late than neuer) confessing his trespasse
committed against him, and required of all fatherlie loue to come & sée
him once before he died. But for that the father thought not good to
commit himselfe into the hands of such vngratious persons as were about
his sonne, he sent his ring vnto him in token of his blessing, and as it
were a pledge to signifie that he had forgiuen him his vnnaturall doings
against him. The son receiuing it with great humilitie, kissed it, and
so ended his life in the presence of the archbishop of Burdeaux and
others, on the day of saint Barnabie the apostle. He died (as some
write) verie penitent and sorowfull.

[Sidenote: His repentance before his death.] And whereas in his life
time he had vowed to make a iourneie into the holie land against Gods
enimies, and taken vpon him the crosse for that intent, he deliuered it
vnto his familiar freend William Marshall to go thither with it in his
stead. Moreouer when he perceiued present death at hand, he first
confessed his sinnes secretlie, and after openly before sundrie bishops
and men of religion, and receiued absolution in most humble wise.
[Sidenote: A strange kind of superstitious deuotion, if this report of
our author be true.] After this, he caused his fine clothes to be taken
from him, and therewith a heare cloth to be put vpon him, and after
tieng a cord about his necke, he said vnto the bishops and other that
stood by him; "I deliuer my selfe an vnworthie and greeuous sinner vnto
you the ministers of God by this cord, beséeching our Lord Jesus Christ,
which pardoned the théefe confessing his faults on the crosse, that
through your praiers and for his great mercies sake it may please him to
be mercifull vnto my soule;" wherevnto they all answered, "Amen."
[Sidenote: He is drawne out of his bed, a thing vnlike to be true.] Then
he said vnto them, "Draw me out of this bed with this cord, and laie me
on that bed strawed with ashes" (which he had of purpose prepared) and
as he commanded so they did: and they laid at his feet and at his head
two great square stones. Thus being prepared to die, he willed his bodie
after his deceasse to be conueied into Normandie, and buried at Rouen.
[Sidenote: His death.] And so after he had receiued the sacrament of the
bodie and bloud of our Lord, he departed this life as afore is said,
about the 28. yeare of his age.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._] His bodie after his death was conueied towards
Rouen, there to be buried accordinglie as he had willed: but when those
that had charge to conueie it thither were come vnto the citie of Mauns,
the bishop there and the cleargie would not suffer them to go any
further with it, but committed it to buriall in honourable wise within
the church of saint Julian. Whereof when the citizens of Rouen were
aduertised, they were sore offended with that dooing, and streightwaies
sent vnto them of Mauns, requiring to haue the corps deliuered,
threatening otherwise with manie earnest oths to fetch it from them by
force. Wherefore king Henrie, to set order in this matter, commanded
that the corps of his sonne the king should be deliuered vnto them of
Rouen to be buried in their citie, as he himselfe had willed before his
death. [Sidenote: The bodie of the yong king lastlie buried at Rouen.]
And so it was taken vp and conueied to Rouen, where it was eftsoones
buried in the church of our ladie.

¶ Thus ended this yoong king in his floorishing youth, to whome through
his owne iust deserts long life was iustlie denied, sith he delighted to
begin his gouernement with vnlawfull attempts, as an other Absolon
against his owne naturall father, seeking by wrongfull violence to pull
the scepter out of his hand. He is not put in the number of kings,
bicause he remained for the more part vnder the gouernance of his
father, so that he rather bare the name of king as appointed to reigne,
than that he may be said to haue reigned in déed. So that héere by the
waie a notable obseruation dooth occurre and offer it selfe to be noted
of vs; namelie, that euen princes children, though borne to great
excellencie, and in high degree of dignitie, are to consider with
themselues, that notwithstanding their statelie titles of souereigntie,
they haue a dutie to discharge vnto their parents, which if it be
neglected, and that in place thereof disobedience is substituted, God
himselfe (when politike lawes prouide not to punish such offenses) will
take the cause in hand, & will powre vengeance vpon such vngratious
children. For he will be true of his word both in blessing and curssing,
in blessing the dutifull child with long life and happie daies, and in
curssing the obstinate and froward with short life and vnfortunate
daies, according to the tenure of his law. If this man had liued in the
old Romans time, when aged persons were so reuerenced and honoured (much
more parents) he had beene cut off in the prime of his disobedience, and
present death had beene inflicted vpon him as a due and deserued reward;
which Iuuenal noteth excellentlie well in these words,
    [Sidenote: Iuuen. sat 13.]
    Credebant hoc grande nefas, & morte piandum,
    Si iuuenis vetulo non assurrexerat, & si
    Barbato cuicunq; puer, licèt ipse videret
    Plura domi farra, & maioris glandis aceruos,
    Tam venerabile erat præcedere quattuor annis,
    Primáq; par adeò sacræ lanugo senectæ.

[Sidenote: Limoges rendred to king Henrie.] King Henrie (after his sonne
the king was thus dead) inforced his power more earnestlie than before
to winne the citie and castell of Limoges which he had besieged, and at
length had them both surrendered into his hands, with all other castels
and places of strength kept by his enimies in those parts, of the which
some he furnished with garisons, and some he caused to be laied flat
with the ground.

There rose about the same time occasion of strife and variance betwixt
King Henrie and the French king, about the enioieng of the countrie
lieng vpon Gisors, [Sidenote: Veulquesine.] called Veulquesine, on this
side the riuer of Hept, which was giuen vnto king Henrie the sonne, in
consideration of the marriage betwixt him and queene Margaret the French
kings sister. For the French king now after the death of his brother in
law king Henrie the sonne, required to haue the same restored vnto the
crowne of France: but king Henrie was not willing to part with it.
[Sidenote: The kings of England and France talke togither.] At length
they met betwixt Trie and Gisors to talke of the matter, where they
agréed that quéene Margaret the widow of the late deceased king Henrie
the son, should receiue yearelie[12] during hir life 1750 pounds of
Aniouin monie at Paris, of king Henrie the father and his heires; in
consideration whereof she should release and quit claime all hir right
to those lands that were demanded, as Veulquesine and others. Shortlie
after, Geffrey erle of Britaine came to his father, and submitting
himselfe, was reconciled to him, and also to his brother Richard earle
of Poictow. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 30.] Also I find that king Henrie at an
enteruiew had betwixt him and the French king at their accustomed place
of meeting betwixt Trie and Gisors on saint Nicholas day, did his homage
to the same French king for the lands which he held of him on that side
the sea, which to doo till then he had refused. The same yeare king
Henrie held his Christmas at the citie of Mauns.

[Sidenote: 1184.] When the king had set the French king and the earle of
Flanders at agréement for the controuersie that chanced betwixt them
about the lands of Vermendois, he passed through the earle of Flanders
countrie, and comming to Wisand, tooke ship and sailed ouer into
England, landing at Douer the tenth day of June, with his daughter the
dutches of Saxonie, [Sidenote: The duchesse of Saxonie deliuered of a
sonne.] who was afterwards deliuered of a sonne at Winchester, and hir
husband the duke of Saxonie came also this yeare into England, and was
ioifullie receiued and honourable interteined of the king his father in
law.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Colen.] And whereas the archbishop of Colen
came ouer into England this yeare to visit the toome of Thomas late
archbishop of Canturburie, the king trauelled to make an agréement
betwixt him and the Saxonish duke touching a certeine variance depending
betwixt them, wherin the king did so much, that the archbishop forgaue
all iniuries past, and so they were made fréends. [Sidenote: Hugh
Nouant.] Also by the counsell of the same archbishop the king sent Hugh
Nouant archdeacon of Liseux and others, ambassadours from him vnto pope
Lucius, that by his helpe there might be made some waie to obteine a
pardon for the said duke, and licence for him to returne into his
countrie. Those that were sent demeaned themselues so discréetly in
dooing their message, that the emperour comming where the pope then was,
that is to say, at Verona in Italie, at the earnest suit of the said
pope was contented to release all his euill will which he bare towards
the duke, [Sidenote: The duke of Saxonie pardoned and reuoked out of
exile.] pardoned him for all things past, and licenced him now at length
to returne home into his countrie, his condemnation of exile being
cléerlie reuoked.

[Sidenote: Death of Noble men.] There died this yeare sundrie honorable
personages, as Simon earle of Huntington son to Simon earle of
Northampton, after whose decease the king gaue his earledome vnto his
brother Dauid, or (as Radulfus de Diceto saith) bicause the said Simon
died without issue, the king gaue the earledome of Huntington vnto
William king of Scots sonne to earle Henrie that was sonne to king
Dauid. Also the earle of Warwike died this yeare, and Thomas Fitz
Bernard lord chéefe iustice of the forests, which roome Alaine de Neuill
had inioied before him. Now after the death of this Thomas Fitz
Bernard, [Sidenote: The gouernement of the forests diuided.] the king
diuided his forests into sundrie quarters, and to euerie quarter he
appointed foure iustices, two of the spiritualtie, and two knights of
the temporaltie, beside two generall wardens that were of his owne
seruants, to be as surueiers aboue all other foresters of vert and
venison, whose office was to sée that no disorder nor spoile were
committed within any grounds of warren contrarie to the assises of
forests. Diuerse prelates died this yeare also, as foure bishops, to
wit, Gerald surnamed la Pucelle bishop of Chester, Walran bishop of
Rochester, Joceline of Salisburie, and Bartholomew of Excester.

Besides these, diuerse abbats, & on the 16. of Februarie died Richard
archbishop of Canturburie in the 11. yeare after his first entring into
the gouernment of that sée. His bodie was buried at Canturburie. He was
noted to be a man of euill life, and wasted the goods of that church
inordinatlie. It was reported that before his death there appeared to
him a vision, which said; "Thou hast wasted the goods of the church, and
I shall root thée out of the earth." Wherevpon he tooke such a feare,
that he died within eight daies after. Then Baldwin who before was
bishop of Worcester succéeded him, he was the 40. archbishop that had
ruled the church of Canturburie. The king and bishops procured his
election not without much adoo: for the moonks pretending a right
thereto, were sore against it. It is reported of him, that after he was
made a white moonke, he neuer eat flesh to his liues end. On a time an
old woman met him, and asked him if it were true that he neuer eat any
maner of flesh; "It is true said he." "It is false quoth she, for I had
but one cow to find me with, and thy seruants haue taken hir from me."
Wherevnto he answered, "that if it so were, she should haue as good a
cow restored to hir by Gods grace, as hir owne was." The same time also
Margaret the wife of the late deceased king Henrie the son, returned
into France to hir brother king Philip, and was after ioined in marriage
with Bela king of Hungarie.

But after long digression to returne againe to our purpose. The king
being aduertised of the destruction and spoile which the Welshmen dailie
did practise against his subiects, both in their persons and substance,
assembled a mightie armie, and came with the same vnto Worcester,
meaning to inuade the enimies countries. But Rées ap Griffin fearing his
puissance thus bent against him and other the leaders of the Welshmen,
came by safeconduct vnto Worcester, and there submitting himselfe, sware
fealtie to the king, and became his liegeman, promising to bring his
sonne and nephues vnto him as pledges. But when (according to his
promise) he would haue brought them, they refused to go with him, and so
the matter rested for a time.

After this, king Henrie held his Christmasse at Windsore, [Sidenote:
Heraclius patriarch of Jerusalem.] and the same yeare Heraclius the
patriarch of Jerusalem, and Roger master of the house of S. Johns of
Jerusalem came into England, to make suit vnto king Henrie for aid
against the Saracens that dailie wan from the christians, townes and
holds in the holie land, taking and killing the people most miserablie,
as in the description of the holie land may more plainelie appeare,
where the dooings of Saladine the Saracen are touched. The patriarch
made earnest request vnto the king, proffering him the keies of the
citie of Jerusalem, and of the holie sepulchre (with the letters of
Lucius the third then pope of Rome) charging him to take vpon him the
iournie, and to haue mind of the oth which before time he had made.

[Sidenote: A councell at Clerkenwell.] The king deferred his answer for
a time, and calling a councell of his lords togither at Clerkenwell, on
the 15. of Aprill, asked their aduice in this matter: who declared to
him, that as they tooke it, he might not well depart so far out of his
realme and other dominions, leauing the same as a prey to his enimies.
And whereas it was thought by some, that he might appoint one of his
sonnes to take vpon that iournie, yet bicause they were not as then
within the realme, it was iudged that in their absence there was no why
it should be so decréed.

[Sidenote: Baldwin archbishop of Canturburie exhorteth men to go to
warre against the Saracens.] Howbeit in the meane time vpon licence
granted by the king, that so manie might go as would, Baldwin the
archbishop of Canturburie preached, and exhorted men to take vpon him
the crosse so effectuallie, that a great number receiuing it, fullie
purposed to go on in that iournie. At length the king gaue answer to the
patriarch, excusing himselfe in that he could go, for he declared that
he might not leaue his land without keeping, being in danger to remaine
as a prey to the robberie and spoile of the French men: [Sidenote: Fiue
thousand marks saith _Geru. Dor._ _Ran. Higd._] but he offered to giue
large summes of gold and siluer to such as would take vpon them that
voiage. With this answer the cardinall was nothing pleased, and
therefore said: "We séeke a man and not monie: euerie christian region
well neere sendeth vs monie, but no countrie sendeth vs a prince; and
therfore we require a prince that néedeth monie, and not monie that
needeth a prince." But the king still alledged matter for his excuse, so
that the patriarch departed from him comfortlesse, and greatlie
discontented in his mind: whereof the king hauing knowledge, and
intending somewhat to recomfort him with sweet and pleasant words,
followed him to the sea side. But the more the king thought to satisfie
the patriarch with words, the more wroth and discontented he shewed
himselfe to be; [Sidenote: The words of the patriarch to the king.] in
so much that at the last he said vnto him, "Hitherto hast thou reigned
gloriouslie, but hereafter shall thou be forsaken of him, whom thou at
this time forsakest. Consider of him, and remember what he hath giuen
thée, and what thou hast yéelded to him againe, how first thou wast
false to the king of France, and after sluedst archbishop Becket, and
now lastlie thou forsakest the protection of Christes faith."

The king was stirred with these words, and said vnto the patriarch,
"Though all the men of the land were one bodie, and spake with one
mouth, they durst not vtter such words against me." "No woonder (said
the patriarch) for they loue thine and not thée; that is to say, they
loue thy temporall goods, and stand in feare of thée for losse of
promotion, but thy soule they loue not." And when he had so said, he
offered his head to the king; saieng, "Doo by me euen as thou diddest by
archbishop Becket, for all is one to me, either to be slaine heere in
Europe of a wicked christian, or in the holie land by a Saracen, for
thou art woorse than a Saracen, and thy people follow the prey and
spoile and not a man." The king kept his patience, and said, "I may not
go out of my land, for if I should, mine owne sonnes would rise and
rebell against me." "No maruell (said the patriarch) for of the diuell
they came, and to the diuell they shall." And thus he departed from the
king in great displeasure. [Sidenote: Rash iudgement in an holie
father.] ¶ Thus haue some written: but by others it appeareth that the
patriarch remained here till the king went ouer into Normandie himselfe,
in companie of whom the patriarch went also (as after shall appear.)

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ John the kings sonne made king of Ireland. _Ger.
Dor._] This yeare the last of March, king Henrie made his sonne John
knight, and shortlie after sent him ouer into Ireland, of which countrie
he had made him king. At his comming into Ireland, he was honourablie
receiued of the archbishop of Diueline, and other noble men that had
béene sent thither before him. The king allowed him great abundance of
treasure, but he hauing learned that
    Non minor est virtus quàm quærere parta tueri,
keeping it in his coffers (as one now come into a strange place, and not
knowing what he shuld want) would not depart with it so fréelie amongst
his souldiers and men of warre as they looked for: by reason whereof
their seruice was such, that in diuerse conflicts he lost manie of his
men, and at length was driuen through want of conuenient aid, to returne
againe into England, hauing appointed his capteins and souldiers to
remaine in places most expedient for the defense of that countrie. ¶ But
héereof yée may read more at large in the historie of Ireland.

[Sidenote: An earthquake.] On the mondaie in the wéeke before Easter,
chanced a sore earthquake thorough all the parts of this land, such a
one as the like had not beene heard of in England sithens the beginning
of the world. For stones that laie couched fast in the earth, were
remooued out of their places, stone houses were ouerthrowne, and the
great church of Lincolne was rent from the top downwards.

[Sidenote: The king and the patriarch passe ouer into France.] The day
next after this terrible woonder, the king and the patriarch with the
bishop of Durham and a great sort of other Noble men of this realme,
passed the seas from Douer to Wissand, and so rode foorth towards
Normandie, where immediatlie vpon his comming thither he raised a power,
[Sidenote: The kings message to his sonne earle Richard.] and sent word
to his sonne Richard earle of Poictou (which had fortified the townes
and castels of Poictou against him, and taken his brother Geffrey
prisoner) that except he deliuered vp into his mothers hands the whole
countrie of Poictou, he would surelie come to chastise him with an iron
rod, and bring him vnder obedience smallie to his ease. [Sidenote: Erle
Richard obeieth his father.] Vpon this message earle Richard being
somewhat better aduised, obeied his fathers commandements in all points,
rendring vp into his mothers hands the earldome of Poictou, and comming
to his father as an obedient sonne, shewed himselfe readie to serue him
at commandement with a glad and willing mind. Soone after this, and
about the seauenth houre of the day, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ Particular
and not generall, saieth _Ger. Dor._] the sunne suffered a generall
eclipse, so that no part of it appeared, and therewith followed great
thunder with lightning and sore tempest, with the violence whereof both
men and beasts were destroied, and manie houses burned.

Shortlie after this the kings of England and France met and communed
togither for the aiding of them in the holie land, and they promised
indéed to send thither both men and monie: but the patriarch made small
account thereof, for he was much deceiued of that which he hoped to haue
brought to passe, which was, either to haue got the king of England, or
one of his sonnes, or some other man of great authoritie with him into
the holie land: but bicause that would not be, he departed from the
court verie sorrowfull and sore displeased, so that it may be thought,
that then (and not before his departure out of England) he spake his
mind so plainlie vnto the king (as before yee haue heard.)

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 32.] Moreouer, about this time king Henrie obteined
of pope Vrbane the third, that he might crowne which of his sonnes it
should please him king of Ireland, in token of which grant and
confirmation, the said pope sent vnto him a crowne of peacocks feathers,
after a feat maner wouen in with gold.

[Sidenote: 1186.] This yeare the king held his Christmasse at Danfrount,
and shortlie after came to a communication with the French king, at the
which he tooke a solemne oth that he would deliuer the ladie Alice the
French kings sister (whome he had as yet in his custodie) vnto his sonne
Richard erle of Poictou in mariage. For the which mariage to be had and
solemnized, the French king granted to deliuer vnto the said Richard the
towne of Gisors, with all that which his father king Lewes promised vnto
king Henrie the sonne (latelie deceassed) in marriage with quéene
Margaret the wife of the same Henrie, receiuing an oth thereto, neuer to
make anie claime or chalenge to the same towne and lands.

[Sidenote: King Henrie returneth into England. _Ger. Dor._ Hugh prior of
Witham made bishop of Lincolne.] King Henrie (after he had thus
concluded and finished his affaires with the French king) returned backe
into England in Maie, and then was Hugh prior of Witham instituted
bishop of Lincolne after that the see there had béene void and without
any lawfull gouernour almost the space of seauenteene yeares. This Hugh
was reputed a verie godlie and vertuous man. Before him Walter Constance
was nominated to that sée, but bicause he was made archbishop of Rouen
before he was inuested in the church of Lincolne, he is not accounted in
number of the bishops of Lincolne.

Moreouer king Henrie shortlie after his returne at this time into
England, assembled a great armie, and went with the same to Caerleill,
in purpose to haue entred Galloway, and there to haue chastised Rouland
lord of that countrie, who was sonne to Uthred the sonne of Fergus, for
the iniuries doone to his coosine germains, namelie to Duncane sonne to
Gilbert, who was sonne to the same Fergus, in spoiling him and the
residue (after the deceasse of the said Gilbert) of their parts of
inheritance, vsurping the whole to himselfe. But as the king was now
readie to inuade his countrie, Rouland came to him, and vsed such
meanes vnder pretense of satisfaction, that he made his peace with the
king, who therevpon brought backe his armie, and did no more at that
time.

[Sidenote: Hugh Lacie slaine.] About the same time came newes to the
king, that Hugh Lacie was slaine in Ireland by an Irish gentleman that
was his confederate (or rather by a labourer, as in the Irish historie
you may read) whereof the king was nothing sorie, bicause the same Hugh
was growne to so high degrée of puissance in that countrie, that he
refused to obeie the kings commandement when he sent for him.

¶ It is to be noted, that when king Henrie had conquered the most part
of Ireland, and set the countrie in some good order, and after his
comming from thence, such capteines as he left there behind him, were
not idle, but still did what they could to inlarge the confines which
were committed to their gouernance: [Sidenote: Hugh Lacies diligence to
inlarge his possessions in Ireland.] but amongst them all this Hugh
Lacie was the chéefest, in somuch that after the death of Richard earle
of Striguile, the king made him gouernour of the countrie in place of
the said earle, by reason whereof he so inlarged his possessions, that
within a while he became dreadfull, not onelie to the enimies, but also
to his associats, as to such English capteins as were abiding in Ireland
vpon gard of the English frontiers. For if any of them disobeied his
commandement, he would not sticke to chastise them at his pleasure, so
that by such meanes he seemed rather to conquer the countrie to his owne
vse, than to the kings. Wherein he dealt not so directlie or discréetlie
as he might; for,
    Homines volunt allici non impelli.

He had also ioined himselfe in mariage with a daughter of the king of
Unlester, not making king Henrie priuie to the same. Wherevpon the king
hauing sundrie informations presented to him of such his presumptuous
demeanour, commanded him by his letters to returne home, and come before
his presence, which to doo (as before I haue said) he refused, by reason
whereof he confirmed the suspicion which was conceiued of him, to rise
vpon no vaine coniectures, [Sidenote: King Henrie not sorie for the
death of Lacie.] and therefore the euill that came to him was nothing
lamented of king Henrie, who with good cause was highlie offended
towards him for the contempts and considerations aforesaid.

[Sidenote: The death of Geffrey the kings sonne.] This yeare Geffrey the
kings son who was earle of Britaine died at Paris, and was buried in the
same citie, leauing behind him (besides two daughters) one onlie sonne
as then in his mothers wombe, of whom she was deliuered in the night of
the feast of Easter next insuing hir husband's death: he was named
Arthur, and succeeded his father in the earledome of Britaine. His
fathers death was occasioned (as men iudge) by a fall which he caught at
a iournie, for he was sore bruised therewith, and neuer had his health,
but finallie fell into a flix and so died.

About this season pope Vrbane wrote vnto Baldwin archbishop of
Canturburie, granting him licence to build a church at Alkinton, in
honour of S. Stephan and Thomas Becket now reputed a martyr, and that
the fourth part of the offerings which came to the box of Thomas the
martyr should be assigned to the vse of the moonks, & an other fourth
part to the buildings of that church, and an other fourth part to be
giuen to the poore, and the other fourth part remaining he might reserue
to himselfe to bestow at his pleasure. But within a while after, at the
suit and supplication of the prior and couent of Canturburie (who liked
nothing of the former partition) the pope sent letters of prohibition to
the said archbishop, that he should ceasse from building of the fore
mentioned church, bicause the building thereof would be preiudiciall to
the church of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: The ladie Ermengard the vicount Beaumonts daughter, maried to
William king of Scots.] About the same time also king Henrie gaue his
coosen the ladie Ermengard (who was daughter to Richard Vicount
Beaumont) in marriage vnto Willam king of Scotland, causing the
archbishop of Canturburie to ioine them togither in the bond of
matrimonie within the chappell at Woodstocke, where he kept great cheere
in honour of that marriage for the space of foure daies togither.
[Sidenote: Castell of Edenbourgh.] And further he gaue at the same time
vnto the king of Scots the castell of Edenbourgh: and the king of Scots
streitwaies gaue it vnto his wife the forsaid Ermingard, as a portion of
hir dower, augmented with an hundred pounds of lands by the yeare, and
40. knights fées.

The French king required to haue the custodie of the infant Arthur,
heire to Geffrey earle of Britaine: but king Henrie would in no wise
grant thereto. [Sidenote: Ambassadours sent to the French king.]
Wherefore he sent Walter archbishop of Rouen, William de Mandeuille
earle of Albemarle, and Ranulfe de Glandeuille lord cheefe iustice of
England to the French court, to talke with king Philip about that
matter, so that king Philip hauing heard them, was contented to staie
from attempting force till the feast of S. Hilarie. [Sidenote: Sir
William de Walles.] But in the meane time it chanced, that one sir
Richard de Walles a knight of the realme of France went about to
fortifie a castell in a village that belonged to him called Walles,
situated betwixt Trie & Gisors. Wherevpon Henrie Vere (constable of
Gisors vnder William earle of Albemarle) was nothing content therwith,
and therefore got a companie togither, & went foorth to disturbe the
worke. Vpon this occasion the seruants of the said sir Richard de Walles
came foorth, and encountred with him in the field, in somuch that Rafe
the sonne of sir Richard de Walles was slaine, and the residue that were
with him fled, many of them being sore beaten and wounded.

[Sidenote: The king of Englands subiects arested in Frāce.] When the
French king was informed hereof, he caused all the kings of England his
subiects, that could be found within his countries and dominion of
France to be apprehended, and their goods seized. [Sidenote: The French
subiects arested in Normandie.] The stewards, bailifes, & officers then
of king Henrie, did the like by the French kings subiects that chanced
to be at that present within the king of Englands countries, on that
further side of the sea. But within a little while after, the French
king set the English subiects at libertie, and so likewise did the K. of
Englands officers release the French subiects.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 33. 1187.] At this time king Henrie held his
Christmasse at Gilford, [Sidenote: Octauianus a cardinall.] and shortlie
after came one Octauianus a subdeacon cardinall, and Hugh de Nouant from
the court of Rome, sent as legats from pope Vrbane into Ireland, that
they might crowne earle John the kings sonne king of that land.
[Sidenote: King Henrie passeth ouer into Normandie.] But king Henrie
made a delaie therein, taking the legats with him into Normandie,
whither he sailed at the same time, and landing at Wissand, he went from
thence into Normandie, and shortlie after came to a communication with
the French king, at a place called Vadum Sancti Remigij where after much
talke they could not agrée, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] by reason the French
king demanded things vnreasonable, and so they departed without any
thing concluded [sauing a truce] till after Whitsuntide.

[Sidenote: Jerusalem taken.] About the same time, the citie of Jerusalem
was taken by Saladine the chéefe prince of the Saracens. Wherevpon much
conference was had among the christian princes for the succoring of
those christians, which as yet held and defended other péeces in the
holie land, so that by publishing of the popes buls, manie tooke on them
the crosse: and amongst other Richard the sonne of king Henrie (without
anie licence obteined of his father) receiued the same, vowing to go
thither out of hand, and to fight against Gods enimies to the vttermost
of his power.

In the meane time the grudge still increased betwixt king Henrie and
Philip the French king, partlie for one cause, and partlie for an other,
[Sidenote: Out of the annales of France written by Nicoll Gallis.]
but speciallie one cheefe occasion was for that earle Richard deferred
the dooings of his homage vnto king Philip for the dutchie of Poictou,
which by his fathers appointment he now inioied and held. The French
king to preuent his enimies, immediatlie vpon the expiring of the truce
raised a power, and entring into the dominions belonging to king Henrie,
wasted the countrie till he came vnto Chateu Raoul: about which castell
also he foorthwith planted his siege.

When king Henrie was aduertised hereof, he raised his power also, and
togither with his sonne earle Richard came with all spéed to succour his
people, and to saue his castell from the hands of his enimies. Now when
he approched néere vnto the place, he pitcht downe his tents ouer
against the one side of the French campe, and earle Richard on the
other, so that they were readie to assaile the French king on both sides
at once, but before they came to ioine battell, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._]
by the mediation of a cardinall (as some write) or (as other saie)
through meanes made by the earle of Flanders, the matter was taken vp.
For earle Richard through persuasion of the said earle of Flanders came
to the French king, and agréed with him, before that his father king
Henrie was resolued of any such matter for his part, so that he was now
in a maruellous perplexitie, & almost to séeke what was best to doo, as
a man fearing his owne suertie, by reason of mistrust which he had in
his sonne Richard; but yet at the length through humble suit made by his
said sonne vnto the French king, [Sidenote: A truce granted.] a truce
was granted by the space of two yeares.

Earle Richard, after the matter was thus taken vp, went into France with
the French king, of whom he was so honoured whilest he was there, that
they kept one table at dinner and supper in the daie time, and was (as
was said) one bed serued them both to sléepe on in the night.

In the meane time king Henrie hearing of all this, fell into great
suspicion whereto this great familiaritie betwixt the French king and
his sonne would tend, and doubting the likeliest, sent for him to
returne vnto him. [Sidenote: Erle Richard giueth his father faire
words.] But earle Richard perceiuing his father to mistrust his
loialtie, gaue faire words, and promised to returne with all conuenient
spéed. Howbeit he ment an other matter, and so departing from the French
court, came to Chinon, [Sidenote: He seizeth vpon his fathers treasure.]
where he got into his hands a great portion of his fathers treasure that
was kept there, against the will of him that had the custodie of it, and
taking it thus awaie with him, he began to fortifie his castels and
townes within his countrie of Poictou, and clearlie refused to come
backe to his father for a time, although at length forsaking the
counsell of naughtie men, he turned home vnto him, and humblie submitted
himselfe, in such wise as to his dutie apperteined. And for the more
assurance therof, he renewed his fealtie, in receiuing an oth vpon the
holie euangelists. Which doone, king Henrie went into Britaine with an
armie, and woone the castell of Mountreleis by siege, which one Henrie
de Lions, and one Guinemer his brother had gotten into their hands,
after the deceasse of Geffrey earle of Britaine.

This yeare the twentie of October, the citie of Chichester was almost
wholie consumed to ashes by mischance of fire. The head church with the
bishops palace, and the houses of the canons were burnt euen downe to
the ground. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 34. 1188.] After this king Henrie held
his Christmasse at Caen, from whence he went to Harfleet, [Sidenote:
King Henrie returneth into England.] and there taking the sea passed
ouer into England. The French king hearing by and by of his departure,
assembled a great armie, and threatned to destroie the countrie of
Normandie, and other lands on that side the sea, except king Henrie
would deliuer into his hands the towne of Gisors, with the
appurtenances, or cause his sonne Richard earle of Poictou to take to
wife his sister Alice, according to his promise.

[Sidenote: King Henrie passeth againe into Normandie.] When king Henrie
was aduertised hereof, he turned with all speed into Normandie, that he
might prouide for timelie resistance, if the French king came forward to
inuade his dominions. [Sidenote: _Polydor._ Heauie newes from the east
parts.] About the selfe same time came newes out of the holie land, that
Saladine after the winning of Jerusalem, pursued his victorie with such
successe, that he had taken from the christians the more part of all
other towns and strengths within the land. These newes were nothing
pleasant to the christian princes, and namelie the two kings Henrie and
Philip seemed sorowfull for the same, [Sidenote: An enteruiew betwixt
the two kings.] and therefore came to an enterview togither on the 21.
day of Januarie betwixt Trie and Gisors, where the archbishop of Tire
was present through whose earnest exhortation the two kings were made
freends, [Sidenote: The two kings receiue the crosse. The French wear
red crosses, The English white, The Flemings gréene.] and the same day
receiued the crosse at his hands in purpose to make a iourneie togither
against those Saracens that had doone such iniuries to the christian
name. And for a difference that one nation might be knowne from an
other, the French king and his people tooke vpon them to weare read
crosses, the king of England and his subiects white crosses: but the
earle of Flanders and his men ware gréene.

Herewith they departed asunder, each one repairing to their countries to
prouide their armies, and make them in readinesse to set forward by a
day towards this necessarie iournie. King Henrie comming to Chinon, by
aduise of his councell, [Sidenote: An aid granted to them in the Holie
Land. _Wil. Paruus._] ordeined that euerie one of his subiects should
yeeld a tenth part of his reuenues and mooueable goods for that yeare
towards the aid of them in the holie land (corne of that yeares growth
excepted, and also all armour, horsses, bookes, apparell, ornaments of
chappels, and pretious stones, which should not come in the rate of
goods now taxed, nor be charged with this paiment.) Moreouer those
knights and men of warre that were appointed to go in this iourneie
paied nothing, but had that monie also towards their furniture, which
were gathered of their tenants and farmers, howbeit burgesses and others
that tooke vpon them the crosse without license of their lords, paied
his tenth, so that none of them went free.

[Sidenote: Good orders and discipline instituted.] There were also good
orders deuised, both for the aduancement of Gods glorie, and the releefe
of the common-wealth, as that no man should sweare in any outragious
maner, that no man should plaie at cards, dice or tables, and that no
maner of person after Easter should weare any costlie furs or cloth of
scarlet, nor that men should vse to haue their tables serued with more
than two dishes of meat at one meale, nor should haue their apparell
cut, iagged, or laced: and further, that none of them should take any
women foorth with them in this iourneie, except such a landresse, of
whome there might not growe anie suspicion of wanton life. It was also
ordeined, that the monie of such as died in this iournie, should go
towards the finding and maintenance of their seruants and of poore
people, and towards the aid of the christians in the holie land.
Moreouer, the pope granted that all those that went foorth in this
iournie, repenting and confessing their sinnes, should be absolued and
pardoned of the same. [Sidenote: The king returneth into England.] The
king hauing thus taken for his businesse in the parts on the further
side the sea, came now ouer into England againe, landing at Winchelsey
on a Saturday the thirtith day of Januarie, [Sidenote: A council holden
at Gaitington. _Ger. Dor._] and calling a councell togither at
Gaitington, which is eight or nine miles from Northampton, he there
declared what orders he had taken for his iournie into the holie land.
Wherevpon the bishops of Norwich and Lincolne, and a great number of
other people tooke vpon them the crosse at the preaching of the
archbishop of Canturburie, and the bishop of Rochester.

[Sidenote: A tenth leuied.] This doone, king Henrie tooke order also for
the leuieng of the tenth, as well here in England, as he had doone in
the parts subiect to him on the further side the sea. He also sent Hugh
bishop of Durham, and other both spirituall and temporall persons,
[Sidenote: The king of Scots.] vnto William king of Scots, to gather the
tenth likewise within his countrie, but he met them betwixt Wark and
Brightham, and would not suffer them to enter into Scotland, but he
offered to giue vnto the king of England in recompense of the tenths,
and for to haue againe his castels, the summe of 5000. marks of siluer,
which could not be accepted. The French king likewise gathered the
tenths in his countrie towards this intended iournie. [Sidenote: The
good meaning of the two kings disappointed. _Polydor._] But by the
working of some wicked spirit (as we may well thinke) which enuied the
aduancement or the christian common-wealth, that good meaning of the two
kings was broken and disappointed: for the peace latelie concluded
betwixt them continued not long vnuiolated.

The French writers impute the fault thereof vnto English men, and the
English writers laie it to French men. The French writers say, that
earle Richard the son of king Henrie in breach of the league, [Sidenote:
Reimond earle of Tholouze.] made warre vpon Reimond earle of Tholouze.
The English writers reproue the French king as a wicked man, in that he
should of purpose breake the peace and moue warre against king Heurie,
to withdraw him from going to make warre against the Saracens, to the
which enterprise, he was wholie bent and inclined. Such is the maner of
manie writers, who more affectionat to the loue of their countrie than
to the truth, doo not obserue the law of histories in their writings,
but rather inueie one against another in a bralling and reprouing maner.

¶ Examples hereof are more than by any possibilitie may be remembred,
and namelie for breuitie sake George Bucchanan in the 8. booke of his
Scotish historie verie reprochfullie speaketh of Richard Grafton (a
right reuerend man whiles he liued and of entier name also being dead)
charging him with ignorance, and the report of a shamelesse lier. Whose
case, bicause it is not so conuenient to be handled in this place as els
where, we will remit to the reigne of* Edward the third, [Sidenote: *
Where he shall be fellie & sufficientlie answered.] in whose time John
Balioll was king of Scots, cleere him (as well as we can) from a Scotish
slander. Another example also we haue, and that most notorious, of
Gabriel Prateolus the Jesuit, who hauing neuer beene in England, nor yet
vnderstanding the English toong, blusheth not to say that the
translation of the English bible hath in it a thousand faults. O
singular and insufferable impudencie, when men passe not what they vomit
and cast vp out of a full gorge surfetting with malice and rancour! But
what shall we say,
    [Sidenote: _Horat. in art. poet._]
    Omne superuacuum pleno de pectore manat.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The nobles of Poictou rebell against earle
Richard.] In deed (as Roger Houeden and other doo witnes) the foresaid
earle Reimond, and also Aimer earle of Angolesme, Geffrey de Racon, and
Geffrey de Lusignan, with the most part of all the nobles of Poictou,
made warre against earle Richard, and he held tacke against them all,
and in the end ouercame them. Amongst other of earle Reimonds part whom
he tooke, [Sidenote: Peter Seille] was one Peter Seille, by whose
counsell earle Reimond had taken diuerse merchants of Poictou that were
subiects to earle Richard, & doone manie other displeasures to him and
to his countrie, wherefore earle Richard kept this Peter in verie close
prison, and would not put him to his ransome: in somuch that earle
Reimond tooke two of the king of Englands knights, sir Robert Poer, and
sir Richard Fraser, as they were returning from Compostella, where they
had béene to visit the bodie of S. James, but they were quicklie set at
libertie by the French kings commandement, for the reuerence of S. James
whose pilgrims they were.

[Sidenote: Erle Richard inuadeth the earle Tholouze lands.] After this,
earle Richard entred with a great armie into the lands of earle Reimond,
wasted the same, and tooke by siege a castell of his situate néere vnto
Tholouze, called Moisac: whereof the French king hearing, sent out of
hand to the king of England, requiring to know if the damages doone by
his sonne earle Richard vnto him & his people in Tholouze, were doone by
his commandement, for the which he demanded restitution. Herevnto the
king of England answered, that his sonne earle Richard did nothing in
that behalfe, either by his knowledge or commandement: but that as he
had signified to him by the archbishop of Dublin, what soeuer he did
therin, was doone by the counsell of the French king himselfe.

Howsoeuer this matter went, certeine it is, that king Philip taking
weapon in hand, [Sidenote: Annales de France.] vpon a sudden entred into
Berrie, and tooke from king Henrie Chasteau Raoull, Brezancois,
Argenton, Mountrichard, Mountresor, Vandosme, Leprose, Blanc en Berrie,
Culan and Molignon. Wherfore king Henrie (who was at this[13] time in
England about to prepare an armie to go therewith into the holie land)
when he heard thereof, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The archbishop of
Canturburie with the bishops of Chester, saith _Ger. Dor._] with all
spéed he sent Baldwin archbishop of Canturburie, and Hugh bishop of
Durham ouer into France, to appease the French kings displeasure with
courteous words and reasonable persuasions if it might be: but when that
could not be brought to passe, he sailed ouer into Normandie himselfe,
with an armie of Englishmen and Welshmen, landing with the same at
Herflue the 10. daie of Julie, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] after he had
beene sore tossed by a cruell tempest that rose as he was on the sea, to
the great danger of his person, & all that were with him.

Now after his comming to land, he repaired vnto Alencon, increasing his
power by gathering vp souldiers and men of warre out of Normandie and
other his countries on that side the sea. [Sidenote: Chateau Roux it is
called in the French annales: but y^e chronicles of Aniou name it
Chasteau Raoul, and rightlie as I thinke.] In the meane time his sonne
Richard earle of Poictou entred into Berrie with a mightie armie, and
the French king deliuering Chateau Raoull vnto the keeping of sir
William de Berres returned into France, so that earle Richard spoiled
and wasted the lands of those earls and barons which tooke the French
part exceedinglie. The French king kept him as yet within France, and
durst not come foorth now after the ariuall of king Henrie, but manie
enterprises were atchiued by the capteines on both sides. Philip bishop
of Beauuois inuading the frontiers of Normandie, burned Blangeuille,
belonging to the earle of Augi, and the castell Albemarle (that belonged
to William de Mandeuille, whereof he bare the title of earle) and wasted
the countrie round about. The French king also came to the towne of
Trow, and burned it, and tooke 40. men of armes there, but the castell
he could not win. On the other part, Richard earle of Poictou tooke a
strong place called Les Roches, beyond Trow towards Vandosme, [Sidenote:
Sergeants.] with 25. men of armes, and 60. yeomen.

About this time king Henrie sent ambassadours vnto the French king, as
Walter the archbishop of Rouen, John bishop of Eureux, and William
Marshall, to require restitution for the damages doone to him and his
people. And furthermore, that if the French king refused to make
restitution, then had they in commandement to declare defiance against
him. Wherevnto the French king answered, that he would not giue ouer to
make warre till he had Berrie, and the countrie of Veuxin or Veulgesine
wholie in his possession. Wherefore king Henrie with a mightie armie (on
the tuesdaie after the feast of the decollation of S. John) entred into
the realme of France, and burned manie townes and villages, approching
the same day néere to the towne of Maunt, where the French king was
thought to be. Now as it chanced, William de Berres and Drogo de Merlo
encountred with Richard earle of Poictou and William de Mandeuille earle
of Albemarle, so that William de Berres was taken by earle Richard, but
by negligence of them that should haue taken héed to him, escaped awaie
vpon his pages horsse. The morrow after also, earle Richard departed
from his father towards Berrie, [Sidenote: The Welshmen.] and vpon the
thursdaie the Welshmen burned manie villages, with the castell of
Danuille that belonged to Simon Daneth, and tooke manie rich preies and
booties. Also William Mandeuille earle of Albemarle burned a place
called saint Clare, that was belonging vnto the demaine of the French
king.

But see, when the English were fullie bent to prosecute the warres (with
all extremitie) now in hand, there came messengers vnto king Henrie from
the French king, requiring him that he would grant a peace to be had
betwixt them, with promise that if he would condescend therevnto, that
he should receiue by waie of restitution all that the French king had
now taken from him in Berrie. [Sidenote: The two kings come to a
treatie.] Herevpon they came to a communication betwixt Trie & Gisors,
and when they could not agrée, [Sidenote: An elme cut downe.] the French
king caused a great elme standing betwixt those two places to be cut
downe, at which the kings of England and France were accustomed to méet
when they treated of matters in controuersie betwixt them, swearing that
from thencefoorth there should neuer be anie more méetings holden at
that place.

Afterward, when the earle of Flanders and the earle of Blois with
diuerse other earles and barons of the Realme of France, laid their
armor aside, [Sidenote: A commendable protestation and worthie to be
noted.] protesting openlie that they would not put on the same againe to
make warre against any christian, till they should returne from their
iournie which they had vowed into the holie land, the French king
destitute of men to serue him, made sute once againe to king Henrie,
that they might méet and talke of peace, which was hardlie granted, and
so they met on the morrow after saint Faithes daie, or the seauenth of
October, [Sidenote: Castellium.] at Chattellon, where they entreated of
a forme of peace, so that the French king should haue restored all that
he had taken within the countries belonging to king Henrie, and likewise
Richard earle of Poictou should deliuer vp vnto the earle of saint Giles
(otherwise called earle of Tholouse) all that he had taken from him
since the breach of the last truce. But when king Henrie would not
deliuer the castell of Pascie in pledge to the French king, they
departed in sunder (as before) without any thing concluded. The king of
France after this tooke the castell of Paluell.

[Sidenote: An other treatie betwixt the two kings.] Vpon the eightéenth
day of August the two kings came againe togither about a new treatie of
peace betwixt Bonsemblance and Sukennie, where the French king offered
king Henrie, to restore to him all that he had taken by his last warres
if his sister Alice might be ioined in marriage with Richard erle of
Poictou, now eldest sonne aliue to king Henrie, and that all king
Henries subiects might doo homage and sweare fealtie to the same
Richard. But king Henrie after the old prouerbe, Ictus piscator sapit,
hauing bought his experience with the féeling of smart, & bearing in
memorie the iniuries done to him by his sonne Henrie, after such his
aduancement to kinglie degrée, would not grant the French kings request
herein. Wherevpon a further mischeefe happened, for his sonne earle
Richard (taking displeasure that his father should denie him that
honour, which made altogither for his more assurance to succeed him as
king) fell from his said father manifestlie, [Sidenote: Erle Richard
reuolteth from his father to serue the French king.] and became the
French kings man, dooing homage to him also without consent of king
Henrie, for all those lands that belonged to his said father on that
further side the sea. The French king for his homage and fealtie gaue
him Chateau Raoull and Ysoldun, with all the honour thereto belonging.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] ¶ Some write, that the cheefest cause which
mooued king Henrie to refuse to ioine his sonne earle Richard and the
ladie Alice, daughter vnto the French king in marriage togither, was,
for that he was linked in the cumbersome chaine of hot burning loue with
the same ladie, and therefore he sought all the shifts of excuses &
delaies that might be imagined; so that it appeared he had no mind to
part with hir. The truth was (as writers affirme) he had alreadie
persuaded hir to satisfie his lust, insomuch that he liked hir so well,
that he ment to be diuorsed from his wife quéene Elianor, and to marrie
this yoong ladie, which if he might bring to passe, and haue children by
hir, he purposed to disherit those which he had by Elianor, and to make
the other which he should haue by Adela his legitimat and lawfull
heires. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] Yet before they departed from this
communication, a truce was taken to endure till the feast of S. Hilarie.
And Henrie bishop of Alba a cardinall that was sent from the pope to end
this controuersie betwixt these two mightie princes, accursed Richard
earle of Poictou, for that by his meanes the troubles rose and were
continued betwixt them.

[Sidenote: Beuerley burnt.] The towne of Beuerley, with the church of
saint John the archbishop, was in maner wholie consumed with fire, on
the 20. of September. [Sidenote: William de Sempringham decesseth.] Also
the same yeare died William of Sempringham, the author and first founder
of the religious order of Sempringham. [Sidenote: Gilbert de Ogerstan.]
Moreouer Gilbert de Ogerstan a knight templer put in trust by king
Henrie, with others, to gather the tenths towards the reléefe of the
holie land, was prooued to vse falshood in the receipt, and so was
deliuered vnto the maister of the temple at London to be punished
according to the statutes of his order. Also this yere in the vigill of
S. Laurence, [Sidenote: A strange apperance in the aire.] there was
séene at Dunstable by diuerse persons a figure of the crosse verie long
and large in the aire, with the shape of a crucifix thereon, and
streames of bloud to their sight seemed to run out of the wounds of the
feet, hands and sides. This strange appearance continued in sight from
noone till almost night.

¶ Some will deeme this a meere fable, and saie it sauoureth of grosse
superstition and idolatrie, wherevpon they will conclude that no such
fragments poudered with papistrie should be inserted into a chronicle.
But (to auoid all suspicion of iustifieng the fansies of men) note you
this, that in the ecclesiasticall historie, no small number of things no
lesse strange and true than this seemeth vaine and false, are recorded;
yea euen touching the verie crosse. But considering that this our age is
verie nice and deintie in making choise of matter pleasing their owne
humor we will not wade too farre in this kind of argument, which we know
may as soone offend as it is taken, as a thorne may pricke, or a netle
sting when it is touched. Neuerthelesse, we would not wish that the
forme of a thing should be quite condemned for some scandalous peoples
pleasures, whome nothing will please, vnlesse it come out of their owne
drieuat or casket of conceits.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 35. 1189.] King Henrie held his Christmas at Saumur
in Aniou, but manie of his earles and barons were gon from him, and
tooke part with the French king, and with his sonne Richard earle of
Poictou. Now when the day was come, in which the truce expired, the
Britains (which had a charter of couenants of the French king and earle
Richard, that if they concluded any peace with king Henrie, the Britain
should be partakers in the same) entred into the confines of those
countries which still continued their due obedience towards king Henrie;
spoiling and wasting the same on each side with barbarous crueltie.
[Sidenote: A legat.] At which time also a legat came from the pope named
John de Anagnia, who assaied both by courteous meanes and also by
threats and menacings to reduce the parties vnto peace and concord:
insomuch that by his procurement they met this yeare after Easter néere
vnto Fiert Bernard, twise within a few daies togither, to trie if by
talke they might sort to some reasonable conditions of agreement.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] The last time of those their meetings was in
the Whitsunwéeke, at what time the French king required not onelie to
haue his sister Alice deliuered vnto earle Richard for wife, according
to the former couenants, but also some assurance giuen vnto the same
earle Richard, that he should inherit his fathers lands after his
deceasse. Also he required that earle John might take vpon him the
crosse to passe ouer into the holie land also; for otherwise earle
Richard would not go. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] Howbeit king Henrie would
in no wise consent to any of these demands: but yet as some write, he
offered thus much vnto king Philip, that if he could be so content, his
sonne John should marrie his sister Alice, and inioy with hir all such
things as he demanded in preferment of his sonne Richard, and that in
more large maner than he had requested the same; But king Philip would
none of that.

Thus how soeuer it was, whilest the one demanded that which the other
thought no reason to grant, they departed without concluding any
agréement, so that king Philip hauing got by this meanes a good occasion
to further his enterprises, [Sidenote: King Phillip entereth into the
countrie of Maine.] with all his whole puissance entred into Maine,
where he destroied a great part of that countrie, and approched to the
citie of Mauns, where king Henrie as then laie, in purpose to besiege
it; But king Henrie being warned of his comming set the suburbs on fire,
bicause his enimies should haue no succour in them. Howbeit the flame of
the fire was by force of the wind driuen so directlie into the citie,
that what with heat and assault of the enimie, the king being without
any store of souldiers to defend it longer, was constreined to forsake
it. Herewith he was so mooued that in departing from the citie, he said
these words of his sonne Richard to himselfe: [Sidenote: The words of
king Henrie in his displeasure towards earle Richard.] "Sith thou hast
taken from me this daie the thing that I most loued in this world, I
will requite thee, for after this daie, I shall depriue thée of that
thing which in me should most please thée, euen mine owne hart."

[Sidenote: Mauns yéelded to the French king. _Wil. Paruus._] Being thus
driuen to leaue the defaced citie of Mauns, he repaired vnto Chinon, the
citizens whereof being left destitute of aid, yéelded themselues to the
French king, who taking a great pride in his dooings for that victorie,
passed ouer Loire, and wan the citie of Towrs, wherein he placed a
garison, and so hauing sped his businesse with good successe, brought
home his armie laden with preies & booties. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] King
Henrie being thus put to the worsse, and not perceiuing anie readie
meane how to recouer his losses, began to despaire in himselfe, and
therefore of necessitie thought it best to séeke for peace, [Sidenote:
The earle of Flanders séeketh to agrée the parties. _Matth. Paris._] but
his suit was in vaine: for the enimie hauing now the aduantage, would
not grant to agrée vpon any reasonable conditions.

At the last Philip the earle of Flanders and William archbishop of
Reimes, with Hugh duke of Burgoine, came to king Henrie to moue waies of
agréement, and to conclude the same betwixt him on the one partie, and
the French king and earle Richard on the other partie. Earle Richard had
the Britaines and them of Poictou confederate with him vnder such
conditions, as he might not agrée with his father, vnlesse they might be
comprised in the agréement. [Sidenote: A peace concluded.] At length
they agreed vpon conditions, not altogither aduantageable to the king of
England, yet in the end, Chateau Raoul was restored to king Henrie with
all that had béene taken from him since the time that the French king &
he tooke vpon them the crosse: on the other part king Henrie did homage
to the French king, which, in the beginning of this warre he had
surrendred and renounced. [Sidenote: Thirtie thousand to the K. and
twentie to the barons of France, saith _Ger. Dor._] He was bound also to
paie to the French king 20. thousand markes for the aid which earle
Richard had receiued of him: moreouer to resigne and acquite vnto the
French king, all that which either he or his predecessours held or
possessed within Aluergue. Other articles there were which king Henrie
agréed vnto some against his will, as the deliuerie of the ladie Alice
or Adela, and such other, which (as not much materiall) we passe ouer.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ At Gisors saith _Ger. Dor._] This peace was
concluded not farre from Towrs, in a place appointed conuenient for both
the kings to méet in, about the feast of the apostles Peter and Paule.
And (as writers record) there chanced great thunder and lightening at
the verie time when the two kings came to enteruiew and talke togither,
[Sidenote: Strange thunder & lightning.] so that the thunderbolt did
light betwixt them two: & yet (notwithstanding such thunder &
lightening) the aire was cleare and nothing troubled. The two kings
parted a sunder through feare thereof for that day, and on the next day
the like chance happened, greatlie to the terrour of them both. Which
mooued king Henrie the sooner to condescend to the agreement.

Moreouer this is not to be forgotten, that when all matters were quieted
and accorded amongst them, King Henrie required to haue all their names
deliuered vnto him in writing, which had promised to take part (and were
ioined as confederates) with the French king and earle Richard. This was
granted, and when the roll was presented vnto him, he found his sonne
John the first person that was named in that register, wherewith he was
so troubled and disquieted in his mind, that comming to Chinon he felt
such gréefe hereof, that he curssed euen the verie daie in which he was
borne, and as was said, gaue to his sonnes Gods cursse and his, the
which he would neuer release, although he was admonished to doo it both
of sundrie bishops and other religious and godlie men. Thus saith
Houeden.

Howbeit, it is not like that earle Richard at this time had procured his
brother John to be confederate with him in his rebellious dealings, but
rather bicause earle Richard had some suspicion, least his father would
make John his heire and successour in the kingdome, it might be a
policie wrought by the French king and earle Richard, to alienate his
fathers mind from the said John.

¶ These euils were estéemed to fall vnto king Henrie by the iust
iudgement of God, for that being admonished diuerse waies, as well by
diuine reuelation, as by the wholesome aduise of graue men, as Hugh
bishop of Lincolne and others, he would not reforme his licentious
appetite of heaping vp sinne vpon sinne, but still wallowed therein to
his owne destruction. Wherevpon being brought to such an extremitie as
ye haue heard, he was taken with a greeuous sicknesse, which bringing
him to vtter desperation of recouering of health, he finallie departed
this life, though more through verie anguish and gréefe of his late
losse and troubles susteined, than by the force of his bodilie disease
(as writers haue affirmed.) [Sidenote: King Henrie departeth this life.]
But howsoeuer it was, he ended his life the sixt of Julie in the 61.
yeare of his age, and after he had reigned 34. yeares, nine moneths, and
two daies, [Sidenote: 1189.] which was in the yeare after the birth of
our sauiour 1189. and of the creation of the world 5155. His bodie was
buried at Founteuerard, which is an abbeie situate not farre from the
towne of the eagle within the dutchie of Alanson.

Immediatlie vpon his death, those that were about him, applied their
market so busilie in catching and filching awaie things that laie readie
for them, that the kings corps laie naked a longtime, till a child
couered the nether parts of his body with a short cloke, [Sidenote: His
surname whereof it came.] and then it séemed that his surname was
fulfilled that he had from his childhood, which was Shortmantell, being
so called, bicause he was the first that brought short clokes out of
Aniou into England. As his sonne Richard met the corps going towards the
buriall, suddenlie there issued bloud out of the dead bodies
nosthrilles, which was taken for a signification that it abhorred the
presence of so wicked a son, which in his life time had so persecuted
the father. [Sidenote: A strange maner of fight betwixt fishes.] His
death was signified by a maruellous strange woonder, for a few daies
before he died, all the fishes in a certeine méere or poole in
Normandie, leapt foorth on land in the night season, and fought togither
with such a noise, that a great multitude of men came running thither
to behold the woonder, and could not find on fish aliue in the meere.

[Sidenote: The issue of Henrie the second. His sonnes. His daughters.]
He had issue by his wife quéene Elianor (as may appeare by that which
alreadie is rehearsed) foure sonnes, Henrie, Richard, Geffrey, and John,
besides two other that died yoong, as some authors haue recorded: also
three daughters, Maud, married vnto Henrie the duke of Saxonie; Elianor
the wife of Alfonse the eight of that name king of Castile, and Joane
giuen in marriage vnto William king of Sicill. [Sidenote: His base
sons.] He had also two bastard sonnes by a concubine, the one named
William, & the other Geffrey. [Sidenote: The constitution of his bodie.]
He was of bodie fleshie and strong, and could abide verie patientlie the
displesures both of cold and heat, he had a large head, a broad breast,
a broken voice, and was furthermore verie spare of diet, cheefelie
bicause he would not be too fat; and therefore when he was at quiet
without any trouble of warres, he would exercise himselfe in hunting or
trauelling abroad. [Sidenote: His stature.] He was of a good stature and
verie well-formed, of a comelie countenance, partlie red heared, with
graie eies, of wit quicke, and of a perfect good memorie, so that he
would long remember those things which he had either read, heard, or
seene. [Sidenote: His qualities and conditions of mind.] He was stout of
stomach, and more constant in time of aduersitie than in time of
prosperitie, except at the time of his death, when being destitute in
maner of all his fréends, he shewed himselfe almost in despaire. He was
liberall towards all men, oftentimes giuing rewards to his souldiers
ouer and besides their wages.

[Sidenote: _Radulphus de Diceto._] Moreouer, of nature he was pitifull
towards the poore, as it well appeared by diuerse his charitable deeds;
as for example. When in the yeare 1176. there was a great dearth &
scarsitie of bread in the parts of Aniou & Maine, he fed euerie daie
with sufficient sustenance ten thousand persons, from the begining of
Aprill, till the time that new corne was inned: and what prouision
soeuer was laid vp in garners, cellers and storehouses, for the kings
necessarie vses, he caused the same to be imploied towards the reléefe
of religious houses, and poore people. He tooke of his subiects but
sildome times any great tributes. He was verie expert in feats of warre,
and right fortunate therein. He praised his capteins and men of warre
when they were dead, and lamented their losse more than he shewed to
loue them when they were aliue. And this did he of policie, that they
might vnderstand that they should be honoured after death, and therefore
feare it the lesse. He was somwhat learned, and also knowne to be wise.

[Sidenote: _Radulphus de Diceto._] His care to haue iustice dulie
ministred in his realme was exceeding great, insomuch that finding how
the shirifes were rather inclined to seeke their owne gaine, than to
deale vprightlie with his subiects, he appointed other officers to haue
a regard to their dooings, as if they had béene controllers, that they
knowing how there were such appointed to haue a sound ouersight in their
dealings, might be the more circumspect in their duties. He ordeined
also punishments for hunters in forrests and grounds of warren, either
by fining them, or by imprisonment.

Moreouer, he ordeined that murtherers should suffer death by hanging:
and so for other transgressours he appointed other kinds of punishments,
as some to be condemned to exile, and other to losse of lims, &c.:
according to the qualitie of the offense committed. And to haue the
lawes dulie executed, and iustice vprightlie ministred on all hands, he
was so carefull that he tried all orders of men, in placing them in
roomes of iustice. And lastlie, trusting to find among the cleargie such
as would not be corrupted with bribes, nor for respect of feare or
freendship decline from right iudgement, [Sidenote: Bishops chosen
principall iustices.] he chose foorth the bishops of Winchester, Elie
and Norwich to be principall iustices of the relme, so as they might end
and determine all matters, except in certeine cases reserued to the
hearing of the prince himselfe.

[Sidenote: The vices of K. Henrie.] His vices were these, as they are
remembred. In time of aduerse fortune no man could shew himselfe more
courteous, gentle, méeke, and promising more largelie than he would. But
when fortune once began to smile, no man was more sharpe, hard to deale
with, nor more redie to breake his promise and faith. He was also
partlie noted of couetousnesse: for although he was liberall towards
souldiers and strangers, yet was he streict inough towards his owne
people, and namelie towards his sonnes, which caused them to estrange
themselues and their good wils from him. He was not so zealous toward
the execution of right and equitie as to the furtherance of his owne
priuat commoditie.

[Sidenote: His incontinencie.] He was out of measure giuen to fleshlie
lust, and satisfieng of his inordinate concupiscence. For not contented
with the vse of his wife, he kept manie concubines, but namelie he
delited most in the companie of a pleasant damsell, whom he called the
Rose of the world (the common people named hir Rosamund) for hir passing
beautie, propernesse of person, and pleasant wit, with other amiable
qualities, being verelie a rare and péerlesse péece in those daies.
[Sidenote: Rosamund his concubine.] He made for hir an house at
Woodstocke in Oxfordshire, like a labyrinth, with such turnings and
windings in & out as a knot in a garden called a maze, that no creature
might find hir nor come to hir, except he were instructed by the king,
or such as were secret with him in that matter. But the common report of
the people is, that the quéene in the end found hir out by a silken
thread, which the king had drawne after him out of hir chamber with his
foot, and dealt with hir in such sharpe and cruell wise, that she liued
not long after. She was buried in the nunrie of Goodstow beside Oxford,
with these verses vpon hir toome:
    Hîc iacet in tumulo, Rosa mundi non Rosa munda,
    Non redolet sed olet, quæ redolere solet.
The meaning whereof may be found in Graftons large chronicle, page 77.
in an English septenarie.

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._] Long time after the death of this damsell, in
the said abbeie was shewed a cofer, that sometimes was hirs, of the
length of two foot, in the which appeared giants fighting, startling of
beasts, swimming of fishes, and flieng of foules, so liuelie, that a man
might woonder at the fine deuise thereof.

Moreouer, king Henrie was noted not to be so fauourable to the liberties
& fréedoms of the church as he might haue béene. For besides the
persecuting of the foresaid Thomas archbishop of Canturburie, he would
not suffer the legats sent from the pope, to enter within the bounds of
his dominion, till they had sworne that they should doo nothing
preiudiciall to the customes of his kingdome, neither by prescribing
orders, nor any other maner of act or meanes. [Sidenote: His negligēce
in aiding the Christians against the Saracens.] He was thought to be
negligent in aiding the christian commonwealth in the holie land. For
though he had appointed twice or thrice to go thither in person, yet
being letted by light occasions, he staied at home, and sent small
reléefe thither, though he was earnestlie called vpon for the same. His
estimation was such amongst forren princes, that Philip king of France
being newlie entred into the gouernement of that realme after his
fathers deceasse, committed[14] himselfe and his kingdome to the
disposition and order of king Henrie, as if he had béene regent of his
realme, and gouernour of his person.

There liued in the daies of this king Henrie the second, diuerse
honourable personages and capteins of great fame, for their approued
valiancie and experience in warlike enterprises, as Robert earle of
Leicester, Hugh bigot earle of Northfolke, Reignold earle of Cornewall,
Robert Ferreis earle of Darbie, Richard Lacie, Roger Mowbray, Rafe de
Fulgiers, Humfrey Bohun conestable of England, Ranulfe Glandeuille,
William Vesey, & Bernard de Ballioll. [Sidenote: _Bale._] Also there
flourished in his time here in this land, men of singular learning in
arts and sciences, as Nicholas Breakespeare, Serlo surnamed Grammaticus,
William Rheualensis, Adam de Euesham, Thomas of Munmouth, Adelbertus
Leuita, Geruasius Cicestrensis, Odo Cantianus, Ealred Rhieuellensis,
Johannes Sarisburiensis, Clemens Lanthoniensis, Walter Daniell, Robert
Knought aliàs Camtus, Robert Folioth, William Ramsey, Senatus Brauonus,
Robert the Scribe, Odo Miremouth, Hugh of Reading, Richard of Douer,
William of Peterburough, Cicerciensis, Bartholomew Iscanus, and Gilbert
de Sempringham, with others.

¶ And here to make an end with this high and mightie prince Henrie the
second, I haue thought good to make you partaker of an epitaph, which
we find in Matthew Paris and others written of him as followeth.

     Epitaphium in Henricum secundum regem mortuum & hîc sepultum

    Rex Henricus eram, mihi plurima regna subegi,
      Multiplicíq; modo dúxq; comésq; fui,
    Cui satis ad votum non essent omnia terræ
      Climata, terra modò sufficit octo pedum.
    Qui legis hæc, pensa discrimina mortis, & indè
      Humanæ specula conditionis habe.
    Quod potes instanter operare bonum, quia mundus
      Transit, & incautos mors inopina rapit

       *       *       *       *       *

     Aliud.

    Tvmuli regis superscriptio breuis exornat,
      Sufficit hic tumulus, cui non suffecerat orbis,
         Res breuis est ampla, cui fuit ampla breuis.

       *       *       *       *       *

     An epitaph vpon king Henrie the second dead and heere intoomed.

    Of late king Henrie was my name,
      which conquerd manie a land,
    And diuerse dukedoms did possesse,
      and earledoms held in hand.
    And yet while all the earth could scarse
      my greedie mind suffice,
    Eight foot within the ground now serues,
      wherein my carcase lies.
    Now thou that readest this, note well
      my force with force of death,
    And let that serue to shew the state
      of all that yeeldeth breath.
    Doo good then here, foreslowe no time,
      cast off all worldlie cares,
    For brittle world full soone dooth faile,
      and death dooth strike vnwares.

       *       *       *       *       *

     An other.

    Small epitaph now serues, to decke
      this toome of statelie king:
    And he who whilome thought whole earth
      could scarse his mind content,
    In little roome hath roome at large,
      that serues now life is spent.

¶ Here may be thought that the reigne of the Normans and French men ouer
the realme of England tooke end, a hundred twentie two yeares after the
comming in of the Conquerour; for those that reigned after this Henrie
the second, we may rightlie estéeme to be Englishmen, bicause they were
borne in England, and vsed the English toonge customes, and maners,
according to the nature and qualitie of the countrie.


     Thus farre the succession and regiment of the Frenchmen ouer this
     Iland; namelie, Stephan of Bullongne and Henrie the second.



Transcriber's notes

There are no footnotes in the original. The original spelling and
punctuation have been retained, with the exception of obvious errors
which have been corrected by reference to the 1587 edition of which
the original is a transcription.

[1] Original reads 'withcraft'; corrected to 'witchcraft'.

[2] Original reads 'vpon summons giuen vnto him him'; corrected to
    'vpon summons giuen vnto him'.

[3] Original reads 'M. Triuet.'; corrected to 'N. Triuet.'.

[4] Original reads 'Poloydr'; corrected to 'Polydor'.

[5] Original reads 'Fench'; corrected to 'French'.

[6] Original reads 'againt'; corrected to 'against'.

[7] The passage referred to is in this reign, An. Reg. 19, 1173.

[8] Original reads 'thorugh'; corrected to 'thorough'.

[9] Original reads 'euenth'; corrected to 'seuenth'.

[10] Original reads 'Cauturburie'; corrected to 'Canturburie'.

[11] Original reads 'Griffiin'; corrected to 'Griffin'.

[12] Original reads 'yearelelie'; corrected to 'yearelie'.

[13] Original reads 'at this this'; corrected to 'at this'.

[14] Original reads 'commmitted'; corrected to 'committed'.





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