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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (6 of 12) - Richard the First
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (6 of 12) - Richard the First" ***

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RICHARD THE FIRST, Second sonne to Henrie the second.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1. 1189.] [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] Richard the
first of that name, and second sonne of Henrie the second, began his
reigne ouer England the sixt day of Julie, in the yere of our Lord 1189.
in the seauen and thirteeth yeare of the emperour Frederike the first,
in the eleuenth yere of the reigne of Philip the second king of France,
and king William surnamed the Lion as yet liuing in the gouernement of

This Richard, immediatlie after the solemnities of his fathers funerals
were ended, made hast to Rouen, where he was ioifullie receiued, and
proclamed duke of Normandie, receiuing the inuesture according to the
custome, on the twentith day of Julie. [Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._] Then
studieng to set all things in good order on that side the sea, he made
search where his fathers treasure was preserued, and therevpon attached
Stephan de Turnham, who was seneschall or gouernour (as we may call him)
of Aniou, [Sidenote: Stephan de Turnham committed to prison.] and
committing him to prison, compelled him to make deliuerie of all such
summes of monie as he had hid and laid vp in certeine castels by the
commandement of the late king his father.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Polydor._] Whilest he was thus occupied, his
brother John came to him, to whom he ioifullie gaue the welcome, and
besides all other things which his father had bequeathed vnto him by his
testament in England, amounting to the value of foure thousand pounds of
yearelie rent, with the earledome of Mortaigne, [Sidenote: Isabell
daughter to the earle of Glocester married to John y^e kings brother.]
he procured a marriage for him (being now a widower) for his further
aduancement with the ladie Isabell, daughter to Robert earle of
Glocester, which earle had appointed the said John to be his heire as
before is mentioned, although Baldwine the archbishop of Canturburie
forbad the mariage, [Sidenote: She is named by diuerse authors Hauisia.
_Matth. Paris._ _R. Houed._] bicause they were coosens in the third
degree of consanguinitie. To Robert earle of Leicester also he restored
all his lands which had béene taken from him, and such persons as his
father had disherited, he restored likewise to their former rights and
possessions, howbeit those had forsaken his father, and taken part with
him against his said father, he séemed now so much to mislike, that he
remooued them vtterlie from his presence, and contrariwise preferred
such as had continued faithfull vnto his father in time of the troubles.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._] At length, king Richard remembring himselfe
of his mother quéene Elianor, who had béene separated from the bed of
hir husband for the space of sixtéene yeares, and was as yet deteined in
prison in England, wrote his letters vnto the rulers of the realme,
[Sidenote: The kings mother set at libertie.] commanding them to set hir
againe at libertie, and withall appointed hir by his letters patents, to
take vpon hir the whole gouernment of the kingdome in his absence. The
quéene being thus deliuered, and hauing now the cheefe authoritie & rule
in hir hands, rode in progresse about the realme, to sée the estate
thereof; and as she passed from place to place, she shewed gladsome
countenance to the people wheresoeuer she came, dooing also what she
could to pleasure them, that she might thereby win their good willes to
hir, and to hir sonne: but speciallie remembring by hir late experience
and tast thereof, what an irksome & most gréeuous thing imprisonment
was, she caused the gailes to be opened, and foorthwith set no small
number of prisoners at libertie by the way as she passed through the
countries, according to the verse of Virgil,
    Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.

In the meane time, king Richard concluding a league with Philip king of
France, receiued all those places againe which were taken from his
father by the same Philip, togither with his wife Adela, whom vpon
suspicion that she had beene dishonested in hir person before, without
anie sufficient proofe thereof had, he forsooke, & sent hir home with
hir dowrie, and otherwise with great and princelie gifts, most
bountifullie inriched, hauing alreadie concluded a marriage with the
ladie Berengaria, daughter to Garsias king of Nauarre, who was sent into
Sicill vnto hir sister Joane, that he might marrie hir there, as he
passed that waie towards the holie land.

Whilest these things passed thus in these parties, the christians in the
holie land dailie sent hither for aid, [Sidenote: The 2. kings of
England & France determine to go into the holie land] wherevpon the two
kings of France and England tooke counsell togither, and determined with
all conuenient speed to ioine their powers, & with ships prepared for
that purpose to saile into Syria. Hauing thus concluded, they went about
to prepare themselues of necessarie prouision for so long a iournie. Now
when king Richard had set in order his affaires in Normandie and France,
he came ouer into England, [Sidenote: At Southhampton the 21 of August
saith _Ger. Dor._ _Rog. Houed._ _Matth. Paris._] landing at Portesmouth
the 13. of August. With him also came his brother John, vnto whom he
assigned the castels of Marlebridge, Lutegareshall, Peake, Bollesour,
the honor of Wallingford, Tikehill and Eie, with the earledoms of
Mortaigne, Dorset, Sumerset, Notingham, Derbie, Deuonshire, and
Cornewall, with the earledome of Lancaster, intituling him earle of the
same, whereby he was so exalted in state and degree, that he séemed in
manner of a tetrarch, hauing as it were a fourth part of the realme in
gouernance: but yet the king held some of the castels (in those counties
and honors thus giuen to his brother) in his owne hands. Moreouer, vnto
William Marshall he gaue in marriage the daughter of Richard earle of
Chepstow, togither with the earledome which hir father possessed: and to
Gilbert Fitz Roger the sonne of Rainfrey he gaue the daughter of William
de Lancaster. After he was landed (as before ye haue heard) he hasted to
Winchester, where his mother quéene Elianor with the most part of the
English nobilitie had laine a good space to attend his comming, and
there on the euen of the assumption of our ladie, the king was by them
receiued with great ioy and triumph.

¶ Here is to be noted, that whilest the quéene and lords laie in
Winchester waiting for the kings arriuall, Geffrey Riddle the bishop of
Elie departed this life. He is named by Geruasius Dorobernensis the
proud bishop of Elie: but he might rather haue named him the rich
bishop, for he left in his cofers no small quantitie of treasure, of the
which thrée thousand and two hundred marks came to the kings part
towards the charges of his coronation. No maruell though Geruasius spake
somewhat in his dispraise, for (as he himselfe confesseth) he was no
fréend but an enimie to moonks.

But to let this passe, soone after the kings comming into England, he
was informed that the Welshmen had broken into the English marshes, and
destroyed certeine townes; to represse whose presumptuous attempts he
made towards them, but was yet staied for that time, & reuoked by his
mother. [Sidenote: His fathers treasure.] At Salisburie he found his
fathers treasure, highlie reioising, for that the summe was far greater
than he thought it would haue prooued, for besides the pretious stones,
apparell, and iewels, it was reported he had there the sum of nine
hundred thousand pounds in readie coine. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._ _Gau.
Vinsaf._ _Nic. Triuet._ The second of September saith _Ger. Dor._] With
this good hap king Richard not a little aduanced, came to London on the
first of September, where he had appointed prouision to be made for his
coronation, and so calling a councell of the Nobles of the realme, he
receiued the crowne with all due and accustomed solemnitie, at the hands
of Baldwin the archbishop of Canturburie, the third daie of September.

[Sidenote: The order of his coronatiō. _Matth. Paris._] At his
coronation, first the archbishops of Canturburie, Roan, Trier, and
Dublin, which were present, with all the other bishops, abbats, and
cleargie, apparelled in rich copes, and hauing the crosse, holie water
and censures carried afore them, came to fetch him vnto the doore of his
priuie chamber, and there receiuing him, they led him vnto the church at
Westminster, till he came before the high altar with a solemne
procession. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] In the middle of the bishops and
cleargie went foure barons, bearing candlesticks with tapers, after whom
came Geffrey de Lucie bearing the cap of maintenance, and John Marshall
next to him, bearing a great and massiue paire of spurs of gold: then
followed William Marshall earle of Striguill aliàs Pembroke, who bare
the roiall scepter, in the top wherof was set a crosse of gold: and
William de Patrike earle of Salisburie going next him, bare the warder
or rod, hauing on the top thereof a doue. Then came thrée other earles,
Dauid brother to the king of Scots, the earle of Huntington, John the
kings brother earle of Mortaigne, and Robert earle of Leicester, ech of
them bearing a sword vpright in his hand with the scabberds richlie
trimmed and adorned with gold.

The earle of Mortaigne went in the midst betwixt the other two.
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] After them followed six earles and barons,
bearing a checker table, vpon the which was set the kings scochens of
armes, and then followed William Mandeuill earle of Albemarle, bearing a
crowne of gold a great heigth before the king, who followed the same,
hauing Hugh bishop of Durham on the right hand, and Reignold bishop of
Bath on the left, ouer whom a canapie was borne: and in this order he
came into the church at Westminster, where before the high altar in the
presence of the cleargie & the people, laieng his hand vpon the holie
euangelists and the relikes of certeine saincts, [Sidenote: The king his
oth.] he tooke a solemne oth, that he should obserue peace, honour, and
reuerence to almightie God, to his church, and to the ministers of the
same all the daies of his life. Also that he should exercise vpright
iustice to the people committed to his charge, and that he should
abrogate and disanull all euill lawes and wrongfull customes, if anie
were to be found within the precinct of his realme, and mainteine those
that were good and laudable.

This doone, he put off all his garments from the middle vpwards, his
shirt excepted which was open on the shoulders, that he might be
annointed. The archbishop of Canturburie annointed him then in thrée
places, to wit, on the head, on the shoulders, and on the right arme,
with praiers in such case accustomed. After this, he couered his head
with a linnen cloth hallowed, and set his cap aloft thereon; and then
when he had put on his roiall garments and vppermost robe, the
archbishop tooke vnto him the sword wherewith he should beat downe the
enimies of the church; which doone, two earles put his shoes vpon his
feet, and hauing his mantell put on him, the archbishop forbad him on
the behalfe of almightie God, not to presume to take vpon him this
dignitie except he faithfullie meant to performe those things which he
had there sworne to performe. Wherevnto the king made answer, that by
Gods grace he would performe them. Then the king tooke the crowne beside
the altar, and deliuered it to the archbishop, which he set vpon the
kings head, deliuering to him the scepter to hold in his right hand, and
the rod roiall in his left hand, & thus being crowned he was brought
backe by the bishops and barons, with the crosse and candelsticks, and
three swords passing foorth before him vnto his seat. When the bishop
that sang the masse came to the offertorie, the two bishops that brought
him to the church, led him to the altar, and brought him backe againe.

Finallie when masse was doone, and all things ended in order as was
requisit, he was brought with solemne procession into his chamber, where
he put off his heauie rich apparell, and put on a crowne and other
garments more light and easie, and so went to dinner, whereat wanted no
store of meats & drinks, which were serued out in most princelie and
bountifull wise.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] Vpon this daie of king Richards coronation,
the Jewes that dwelt in London and in other parts of the realme, being
there assembled, had but sorie hap, as it chanced. [Sidenote: The Jewes
ment to present him with a rich gift.] For they meaning to honour the
same coronation with their presence, and to present to the king some
honourable gift, whereby they might declare themselues glad for his
aduancement, and procure his freendship towards them, for the confirming
of their priuileges & liberties, according to the grants and charters
made to them by the former kings: he of a zealous mind to Christes
religion, [Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._] abhorring their nation (and
doubting some sorcerie by them to be practised) commanded that they
should not come within the church when he should receiue the crowne, nor
within the palace whilest he was at dinner.

But at dinner time, among other that pressed in at the palace gate,
diuerse of the Jewes were about to thrust in, [Sidenote: A Jew striken.]
till one of them was striken by a Christian, who alledging the kings
commandement, kept them backe from comming within the palace. Which some
of the vnrulie people perceiuing, and supposing it had béene doone by
the kings commandement, tooke lightlie occasion thereof, [Sidenote: The
people fall vpon the Jewes and beat them.] and falling vpon the Jewes
with staues, bats and stones, beat them and chased them home to their
houses and lodgings. Héerewith rose a rumor through the citie, that the
king had commanded the Jewes to be destroied, and therevpon came running
togither, to assault them in their houses, which when they could not
easilie breake vp nor enter, by reason the same were strongly builded,
[Sidenote: Their houses are set on fire.] they set fire on them, so that
diuers houses were consumed, not onelie of the Jewes, but also of their
neighbours, so hideous was the rage of the fire. Here we see that
    Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis.

The king being aduertised of this riotous attempt of the outragious
people, sent some of his councellours, as Ranulfe de Glanuille lord
Justice, and other officers to appease the tumult: but their authoritie
was nothing regarded, nor their persuasions any whit reuerenced, but
their thretnings rather brought themselues in danger of life among the
rude sort of those that were about to spoile, rob, and sacke the houses
and shops of the Jewes: to the better accomplishment of which their
vnlawfull act, the light that the fire of those houses which burned,
gaue after it was once night, did minister no small helpe and occasion
of furtherance. [Sidenote: Jewes burnt to death.] The Jewes that were in
those houses which were set on fire, were either smoldred and burned to
death within, or else at their comming foorth most cruellie receiued
vpon the points of speares, billes, swords and gleaues of their
aduersaries that watched for them verie diligentlie.

This outrage of the furious and disordered people continued from the
middest of the one day, till two of the clocke on the other; the commons
all that while neuer ceassing their furie against that nation, but still
killing them as they met with any of them, in most horrible, rash and
vnreasonable maner. At length, rather wearied with their cruell dooings,
than satisfied with spoile, or mooued with respect of reason or
reuerence of their prince, they withdrew themselues from their riotous
enterprise, after they had executed manie vnlawfull and horrible
enormities. This great riot well deserued sore and gréeuous punishment,
but yet it passed ouer without correction, in respect of the great
number of the transgressors, and for that the most part of men for the
hatred generallie concerned against the obstinate frowardnesse of the
Jewes, liked the dooings hereof well inough, interpreting it to be a
good token, that the ioifull daie of the kings aduancement to the crowne
should be dolefull vnto the Jewes, in bringing them to such slaughter
and destruction. Finallie, after that the tumult was ceassed, the king
commanded that no man should hurt or harme any of the Jewes, and so they
were restored to peace, after they had susteined infinit damage.

¶ The occasion of this tragedie and bloudie tumult (redounding to the
Jewes great vexation and pitifull distresse, but to the satisfieng of
the peoples furious and vnbridled pronesse to crueltie) sprang
principallie from the king, who if he had not so lightlie esteemed of
the Jewes when they repaired vnto him with their present, in signe of
submission and hope of obteining their sute then purposed to be
exhibited; this hurlie burlie had not insued. For it was a violent
example & a mightie motiue to the people to maligne the Jewes; as also a
hart-gréefe to them in respect of their reiection, when the prince gaue
them so discourteous a repulse. Here therefore is to be obserued, that
the people is the princes ape, as one verie well saith. For looke
whereto he is inclined, note wherein he delighteth; the same is the
practise of the people: in consideration whereof the mightie ones of the
world haue speciall cause to haue an eie to their course of life, & to
set caueats before their actions, that the people may in them sée none
but good signes of commendable & vertuous imitation. For
    [Sidenote: _Pal. in suo sag._]
        ---- regis imago
    Vulgus, & ad mores accedere principis optat.
    Qualis enim rex est talis quoque subditus illi
    Esse solet populus, studijsque tenetur ijsdem.

[Sidenote: A councell at Pipewell.] Shortlie after, to wit, the 15. day
of September, a councell was holden at Pipewell, where the bishops and
abbats being assembled, there were in presence of the king and of the
archbishop of Canturburie elected certeine bishops and abbats to such
places as then were vacant: and amongst other, William de Longchampe the
kings chancellor was elected to the sée of Elie, [Sidenote: _Wil.
Paruus._] Geffrey the kings bastard brother vnto the archbishoprike of
Yorke, who was the 32. in number that had gouerned the same, Geffrey de
Lucie to Winchester, one Hubert Walter to Salisburie, and Richard
archdeacon of Elie, and the kings treasurer to the see of London. The
abbeies that were prouided of abbats were these, Glastenburie,
Shirborne, Persore and Feuersham. [Sidenote: The bishop of Whitherne
consecrated. _Rog. Houed._] In like manner, John the elect of Whitherne
was consecrated bishop of that see, by the hands of the archbishop of
Dublin. Also in this councell the king ordeined Hugh bishop of Durham,
and William Mandeuille earle of Albemarle, lord chéefe iustices of
England, hauing deposed Ranulfe de Glanuille from that roome.

Moreouer, the king being thus established in the estate of the kingdome,
did not forget his iournie which he had promised into the holie land,
but with all diligence made his prouision, and namelie he sought to
gather monie to furnish his charges, and so therevpon leuied a tax,
engaged, sold, and let to farme his lands, tols, customs, and other his
reuenewes, [Sidenote: _Matt. Par._] with certeine counties and offices,
so that he made an exceeding summe of monie. He also found, that Ranulfe
de Glanuille lord chéefe iustice, and other of the head magistrates had
not behaued themselues vprightlie in the administration of their
offices; so that he both deposed the said lord cheefe iustice as is
aforesaid, and almost all the shiriffes and their deputies within the
realme of England, putting them to greeuous fines for their offenses and
transgressions, and so by that meanes he got no small deale of monie.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] ¶ Here note by the waie, how William Paruus
affirmeth, that where this Ranulfe Glanuille, being a man of high
wisedome and stept into age, saw that, manie things were doone by the
new king, not so aduisedlie, nor with such foresight as they ought to
be, sought of his owne accord to be discharged of his office, that he
might the better prepare himselfe to go in that iournie to the holie
land, as by taking vpon him the crosse he had vowed in the daies of king
Henrie, and so he solemnelie renounced his office, which other (nothing
so worthie of it) did afterwards inioy.

Moreouer, the king vnderstanding that Hugh Putsey or Pudsey bishop of
Durham, being a verie aged man, had much monie, [Sidenote: The bishop of
Durham Sadberge.] he sold to him the manour of Seggesfield or Sadberge,
with the wapentake belonging to the same, and also found meanes to
persuade him to buy his owne prouince, which he did, giuing to the king
an inestimable summe of monie, [Sidenote: The bishop of Durham made an
earle.] and was therevpon created an earle by the king for the same:
wherevpon he was intituled both bishop and earle of Durham, whereat the
king would iest afterwards and saie; "What a cunning craftesman am I,
that haue made a new earle of an old bishop?"

Furthermore, the same bishop gaue to the king a thousand markes to be
made chéefe iustice of England, and that he might tarrie at home, and
not go into the holie land. And bicause he would not be reprooued of any
person, he obteined of the apostolike sée (which faileth no man that is
surcharged with white or red mettall, and would be eased) a licence for
a summe of monie to be dispensed with for that iournie. The king thus
being earnestlie bent to make commoditie of those things, for the which
he might get any monie at all, [Sidenote: The citizens of London present
monie to the King. _Polydor._ Liberties granted to London. Two
bailiffes.] the citizens of London presented vnto him a great summe
towards the furnishing foorth of his enterprise. Wherevpon to acquite
their courtesie, he granted them large priuileges, and ordeined that the
citie should be ruled by two head officers, which they should choose
amongst themselues remoueable from yeare to yeare by the name of
bailiffes. The names of the two first bailiffes chosen by force of that
ordinance, were[1] Henrie Cornehill, and Richard Fitz Reiner.

The citie before those daies euer since the comming in of William
Conquerour, and a good while before his time, [Sidenote: Port Greues.]
was gouerned by certeine officers or rulers named Port Greues (which
word is deriued of two Saxon words, as Port and Greue. By Port is meant
a towne, and by Greue a gardian or ruler, as who should saie, A kéeper
or ruler of a towne.) These rulers with[2] the lawes & customes then
vsed within this citie, were registered in a booke called (as some haue
said) Doomesdaie, but through negligence after these lawes and customes
were changed and altered, the booke was lost, so that the remembrance of
such rulers as were before the daies of this Richard the first are not
to be had. These bailiffes euer entred at Michaelmasse, and so continued
foorth their yeare.

Thus began the citie first to receiue the forme and state of a
common-wealth, and to be diuided into felowships, which they call crafts
or corporations. Such also are admitted to the fellowships of these
companies, [Sidenote: Apprentises.] as haue truelie serued as
apprentises a certeine number of yeares, as seuen at the least, vnder
which time of seruice expired, there is none made frée, nor suffered to
inioy the liberties of that citie, sauing such as are borne free,
[Sidenote: Fréemen.] that is to saie, of fréemen within the citie, of
whome at this time, it is not much materiall to make any further report.
The citie thus consisting of the said craftes or occupations, chooseth
out of the same a senat or companie of graue councellours, whom they
name Aldermen (E) changed into (A) according to the old Saxon
pronuntiation. [Sidenote: Wards.] It is also diuided into 26. tribes or
wards, of the which euerie one hath his seuerall Alderman, or ouerseer,
who haue both authoritie sufficient, and large priuileges to mainteine
the good gouernement of their portions withall. Out of the number of
these, there is another officer yearelie chosen and appointed,
[Sidenote: The Maior.] called the Maior, who ruleth all the rest.

But now to returne vnto the further dooings of king Richard before his
departure out of England towards his iournie into the land of Palestine,
commonlie called Holie land, it is said, he made such sale of things
apperteining to him, as well in right of the crowne, as otherwise,
[Sidenote: K. Richard setteth things on sale. _Ran. Higd._ _Wil.
Paruus._] that it séemed to diuerse he made his reckoning neuer to
returne againe, in so much that some of his councellours told him
plainelie, that he did not well in making things awaie so freelie, to
the dishonoring of his maiestie, and preiudice of his successour; vnto
whome he answered, "that in time of need it was no euill policie for a
man to help himselfe with his owne," and further ioined hereto these
words, "that if London at that time of néed would be bought, he would
surelie sell it, if he might méet with a conuenient merchant that were
able to giue him monie inough for it."

Another way he had also to gather riches, and that was this. He had a
licence of pope Innocent the third, to dispense with such as pleased him
within his realme, for their vowes made to go into the holie land,
although they had taken on them the crosse for that purpose, namelie
such as he should appoint to remaine behind him for the defense of his
countrie: and of these also he tooke abundantlie, and diuerse other he
compelled to fine, namelie, to the end that he might get their monie
likewise, that hereby he obteined no small summe toward the furniture of
his iournie. But both pope & prince forgat in the meane while, that
    Boni pastoris est tondere pecus non excoriare.

This yeare also in the moneth of Nouember, as Matthew Paris saith,
Johannes de Anagnia a cardinall and legat from the pope arriued here in
England, comming on land at Douer, and bicause the king was as then in
the north parts, the same cardinall was prohibited on the behalfe of the
kings mother quéene Elianor, to passe any further without the kings
commandement. And so he staied there thirtéene daies at the charges of
the archbishop of Canturburie, till the king came to those parties, by
whose wisedome a direction was taken for the quieting of the
controuersie betwixt the archbishop, and the moonkes of Canturburie, for
the chappell church of Hakington now called S. Stephans.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] In the same moneth of Nouember, by the kings
appointment, Geffrey the elect of Yorke, who was the kings brother, with
other barons and lords of Yorkeshire, [Sidenote: William king of Scots.]
receiued William king of Scotland at the water of Tweed, and from thence
with all due reuerence and honour they brought him vnto Canturburie,
[Sidenote: A councell called at Canturburie. _Polydor._ An oth. _Matth.
Paris._] where the king had called a councell of the lords of his realme
both spirituall and temporall, in the which euerie of them tooke an oth
to be true to the king, and to continue in due obedience vnder him and
his lawes, which oth also the king of Scots receiued, being there
present, and likewise king Richards brethren earle John and Geffrey the
archbishop of Yorke.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _Polydor._] The king of Scots therefore
hauing receiued this oth, and thinking the time to serue his purpose for
redéeming of those castels, which were deliuered to king Henrie as gages
for his ransome, paid now vnto king Richard ten thousand markes,
[Sidenote: Restitution made to the K. of Scots. _Wil. Paruus._] and had
restitution for the same, that is of Berwike, Roxburgh, Sterling, and
Edenburgh. But William Paruus saieth, that Edenburgh was restored to him
in the daies of king Henrie, by reason of his wife which he tooke in the
parties beyond the seas: and herewith agréeth the Scotish chronicle.
King Richard also assigned to queene Elianor his mother, the accustomed
dower, with manie lordships and honours beside, as an augmentation
thereof. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] About which time died William de
Mandeuille earle of Albemarle at Rouen, and Hugh de Putsey the nephue of
the bishop of Durham died at Aclet, and was buried at Durham. [Sidenote:
_N. Triuet._] Also Formalis archbishop of Trier died at Northampton, and
was there buried in the church of S. Andrews.

In the meane time, king Richard still desirous to furnish himselfe with
monie, deuised yet another shift, and feigned that he had lost his
seale; wherefore he commanded a new to be made, which being doone, he
caused it to be proclaimed and published in euerie countrie, [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._] that those to whome he had granted any thing by his
déed or charter, meaning to inioy the same in suretie, should not thinke
it much to come and haue it confirmed by his new seale, least afterward
the other being lost, their lawfull titles might be called into
question. Wherevpon manie that could not come to him whilest he was in
England, were glad to follow him, and saile ouer into Normandie, and
there to fine at his pleasure for the new seale, to the end that their
writings might be confirmed thereby, and made so much the more sure to
them and their successours. For the same businesse also Remigius the
prior of S. Albons, and manie other went ouer to their great costs,
charges, and trauell, after he was transported into France.

I find moreouer about the same time, that the kings brother earle John
exhibited a sore complaint against the Romane legat and other bishops,
for that the archbishop of Canturburie, after the appeale made vnto the
apostolike sea, had put his lands vnder interdiction for his mariage
made with the earle of Glocesters daughter: which when the legat heard,
he foorthwith confirmed the appeale, and released the earles lands of
the aforesaid interdiction. The same time also, the tenth part of all
the mooueable goods thorough the realme of England was leuied to the aid
of the warres in the holie land. And this collection passing vnder the
name of an almes, was extended vpon the goods as well of the spirituall
men as temporall.

After all this, K. Richard desirous to set order in the gouernment of
his realme, [Sidenote: Hugh bishop of Durham gouerneth the north parts.
_Matth. Paris._] appointed Hugh bishop of Durham to haue the rule of the
north parts as cheefe iustice from Humber northwards toward Scotland,
deliuering vnto him also the keeping of Winchester castell: the residue
of the kingdome (with the custodie of the towre) he assigned to the
gouernance of William Longchampe bishop of Elie, [Sidenote: William
Lōgchampe bishop of Elie.] whome he had made cheefe iustice of that
part, and chancellour of the realme, a man of great diligence and
knowledge in the administration of things, but verie factious and
desirous of rule, honour and riches farre aboue all measure. And with
these two he ioined in commission Hugh Bardulfe, William Marshall earle
of Chepstow, or rather Penbrooke, Geffrey Fitz-Peter, & William Brewer,
men of great honour, wisedome, and discretion.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ King Richard passeth ouer in to Normandie.] On
the fift day of December, he departed from Canturburie, and went to
Douer, there to take water, and so on the eleuenth day of December he
passed ouer vnto Calice, where he found Philip earle of Flanders readie
to receiue him, who attended vpon him till he came into Normandie,
[Sidenote: 1190.] where the king held his Christmas at Burun, [Sidenote:
_Vadum sancti Remigij._ A league betwixt y^e kings of England and
France.] and immediatlie came to an enteruiew with the French king at
Gue S. Remige, where they concluded peace togither, to be kept betwixt
them & their countries on ech part; the which was put in writing, and
confirmed with their oths and seales in the feast of saint Hilarie.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] Furthermore, about the purification of our
ladie, Elianor the quéene mother, and the ladie Alice sister to the
French king, Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, John bishop of
Norwhich, Hugh bishop of Durham, Geffrey bishop of Winchester, Reignold
bishop of Bath, William Bishop of Elie, Hubert bishop of Salisburie, and
Hugh bishop of Chester, with Geffrey the elect of Yorke and John earle
of Mortaigne the kings two brethren, by commandement of the king passed
ouer into Normandie, to commen with him before his setting forward.

¶ Some write, that now at this present, the king should ordeine or
rather confirme the bishop of Elie his chancellour to be lord chéefe
iustice ouer all England, and the bishop of Durham to be lord iustice
from Trent northwards. [Sidenote: Contention betwixt two ambitious
bishops.] But whensoeuer they were thus aduanced to such dignities,
howsoeuer they came by them, directlie or indirectlie, true it is, that
immediatlie therevpon, strife and discord did arise betwixt them: for
waxing proud and insolent, they disdained ech other, contending which of
them should bare most rule and authoritie, insomuch that whatsoeuer
séemed good to the one, the other misliked, as in cases where[3]
parteners in authoritie are equall, it often happeneth. The like hereof
is noted before betwéene the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke in
diuerse kings reignes. For the nature of ambition is to delight in
singularitie, to admit no peere, to giue place to no superior, to
acknowledge no equall. Hereto alludeth the poet verie neatlie, and
exemplifieth it in the old Romans, the order of whose actions is
continued at this day, as by the words insuing may be gathered, and
ordinarilie obserued booth here and elsewhere;
    [Sidenote: _M. Pal. in sua virg._]
                                 ---- olim
    Romulidæ orabant, iacto post terga pudore
    Plebeios, quoties suffragia venabantur,
    Cerdonúmq; animos precibus seruilibus atq;
    Turpibus obsequijs captabant, muneribúsq;
    Vt proprijs rebus curarent publica omissis;
    Pérq; forum medium multis comitantibus irent,
    Inflati vt vento folles, ac fronte superba, &c.

Moreouer, at the same time he caused his two brethren, earle John, and
Geffrey the elect archbishop of Yorke to take an oth not to returne into
England during the terme of thrée yeares next insuing, without his
consent and licence first had. This he did, foreséeing what might
happen, prouiding as it were against such practises as his brethren
might happilie attempt against him. But yet his mother quéene Elianor
procured him to reuoke that decree immediatlie, least it might seeme to
the world, that hir sonnes should stand in feare one of another.
[Sidenote: Erle John licenced to returne into England.] And so the earle
of Mortaigne was licenced to returne into England at his pleasure,
swearing an oth at his departure to obeie the kings beheast, and truelie
to serue him, according to the dutie of a good and loiall subiect. The
bishop of Elie lord chancellour and cheefe iustice of England was also
sent backe hither into this realme, to set forward things behoouefull
for the kings iournie.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Elie returneth.] In like maner the king sent to
Rome to obteine that the said bishop of Elie might be constituted the
popes legat through both the prouinces of Canturburie and Yorke, and
likewise through Wales and Ireland. Which was soone granted by the
bulles of pope Clement the third, bearing date the 5. of June. For the
which office the bishops gaue him 1500. marks, to the great offense of
the king, as he shewed afterward to cardinall Octauian that came to
visit him when he arriued in the riuer of Tiber, being vpon his iourneie
towards Messina, as after may appeare. But in the meanetime, calling
togither the lords, and peeres of those his dominions on that side the
sea, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] to wit, Normandie, Britaine, Aniou, Poitou,
and Guien, he consulted with them what number of soldiors and how many
ships it should be conuenient for him to take with him and furnish into
Asia: and herewith he did command them also to obeie Robert earle of
Leicester, whome he appointed to remaine amongst them as his lieutenant
or vicegerent of those parts during his absence.

¶ But here to leaue king Richard in consultation for matters
appertaining to his iournie, and shew brieflie what happened (by the
waie) to the Jewes, [Sidenote: _W. Paruus._] which as then dwelt heere
in England, after that king Richard was passed ouer into Normandie: ye
haue heard how after the riot against them at London, when the king was
crowned, he tooke order that they should remaine in peace vnder his
protection, and commanded that no person should in anie wise molest
them. But now after that he was gone ouer, and that the souldiers (which
prepared themselues to follow him) began to assemble in routs, the heads
of the common people began to wax wild and faine would they haue had
some occasion of raising a new tumult against the Jewes, [Sidenote: The
hatred borne to the Jewes.] whome (for their vnmercifull vsurie
practised to the vndooing of manie an honest man) they most deadlie
hated, wishing most earnestlie their expulsion out of England. Hervpon
by reason of a riot committed latelie against them, at the towne of Lin
in Norfolke, where manie of them were slaine, other people in other
parts of the realme, taking occasion hereat, as if they had béene called
vp by the sound of a bell or trumpet, arose against them in those townes
where they had any habitations, and robbed and bet them after a
disordered and most riotous maner.

[Sidenote: _Iohn Textor._] As at Stamford (on the faire day in Lent); at
Lincolne and at Yorke, in which citie after a number of them had béene
besieged certeine daies within a towre of the kings (whither they fled
for succour) one of their learned gouernours caused foure hundred of
their companie to consent to haue their throts cut one at an others
hands, [Sidenote: Fiue hundred saith _Houeden_ and _Textor_] he himselfe
cutting his wiues throt first, whose name was Anna, then his childrens,
one after another, and last of all slue himselfe onelie rather than he
would fall into the hands of the christians, that had thus long besieged
them. The rest perceiuing what their great Rabbi had doone, set fire
vpon all their goods and substance, which they had gotten into the tower
with them, and so consuming the same, would haue burnt also the residue
of their fellowes which would not agrée to the Rabbies counsell, in the
cruell murthering of themselues, if they had not taken a strong turret
hard by within that tower, and defended themselues both from the fire
and crueltie of their brethren, who had made awaie themselues in such
manner as I haue said: and that to the number of foure hundred, or (as
some write) fiue hundred at the least.

On the morow, those that were saued, called out to the people, and not
onelie shewed how and after what sort their fellowes were dispatched,
but also offered to be baptised, and forsake their Judaisme, if they
might haue their liues saued from the imminent & present danger wherein
they saw themselues to be wrapped, through the furie of the people. To
be short, this thing was granted, and they came foorth, howbeit they
were no sooner entred into the prease, but they were all slaine, and not
one man of them preserued.

After this also, the people ran to the cathedrall church, and broke into
those places where their bonds and obligations laie, by the which they
had diuerse of the kings subiects bound vnto them in most vnconscionable
sort, and for such detestable vsurie as (if the authors that write
thereof were not of credit) would hardlie be beleeued. All which
euidences or bonds they solemnelie burned in the middest of the church.
After which, ech went his waie, the souldiers to the king, and the
commons to their houses, and so was the citie quieted. This happened at
Yorke on Palmesundaie eeue, being the 17. of March: and vpon the 15. of
that moneth, those that inhabited in the towne of S. Edmundsburie in
Suffolke, were set vpon, and manie of them slaine. The residue that
escaped, through the procurement of the abbat then named Samson, were
expelled, so that they neuer had anie dwellings there since that time.

Thus were the Jewes vnmercifullie dealt with in all places in maner
through this realme, the first beginning whereof chanced at London (as
before ye haue heard) and the next at Lin, of which I thinke it good to
note some part of the maner therof, although breeflie, and so to returne
to my purpose. The occasion therefore of the tumult at Lin chanced by
this meanes: it fortuned that one of the Jewes there was become a
christian, wherewith those of his nation were so mooued, that they
determined to kill him where soeuer they might find him. And herevpon
they set vpon him one daie as he came by, through the streets: he to
escape their hands fled to the next church; but his countriemen were so
desirous to execute their malicious purpose, that they followed him
still, and inforced themselues to breake into the church vpon him.
Herewith the noise being raised by the christians that sought to saue
the conuerted Jew, a number of mariners being forreners, that were
arriued there with their vessells out of sundrie parts, and diuerse also
of the townesmen came to the rescue, and setting vpon the Jewes, caused
them to flee into their houses.

The townesmen were not verie earnest in pursuing of them, bicause of the
kings proclamation and ordinance before time made in fauour of the
Jewes: [Sidenote: The slaughter made of the Jews at Lin.] but the
mariners followed them to their houses, slue diuerse of them, robbed and
sacked their goods, and finallie set their dwellings on fire, and so
burnt them vp altogither. These mariners being inriched with the spoile
of the Jewes goods, and fearing to be called to accompt for their
vnlawfull act by the kings officers, got them foorthwith to shipboord,
and hoising vp sailes, departed with their ships to the sea, and so
escaped the danger of that which might haue béene otherwise laid to
their charge. The townesmen being called to an accompt excused
themselues by the mariners, burdening them with all the fault. But
although they of Lin were thus excused, yet they of Yorke escaped not so
easilie. For the king being aduertised of such outrage, doone contrarie
to the order of his lawes and expresse commandement, wrote ouer to the
bishop of Elie his chancellour, charging him to take cruell punishment
of the offenders.

The bishop with an armie went to Yorke, but the cheefe authors of the
riot hearing of his comming, fled into Scotland: yet the bishop at his
comming to the citie, caused earnest inquirie to be made of the whole
matter. The citizens excused themselues, & offered to proue that they
were not of counsel with them that had committed the riot, neither had
they aided nor comforted them therein an anie maner of wise. And in déed
the most part of them that were the offenders, were of the countries and
townes néere to the citie, with such as were crossed into the holie
land, and now gone ouer to the king, so that verie few or none of the
substantiall men of the citie were found to haue ioined with them.
[Sidenote: The citizens of Yorke put to their fine for slaughter of the
Jewes.] Howbeit this would not excuse the citizens, but that they were
put to their fine by the stout Bishop, euerie of them paieng his portion
according to his power and abilitie in substance, the common sort of the
poore people being pardoned, and not called into iudgement, sith the
ringleaders were fled and gone out of the waie: and thus much by waie of
digression touching the Jews.

Now to returne vnto the king, who in this meane time was verie busie to
prouide all things necessarie to set forward on his iournie; his ships
which laie in the mouth of the riuer of Saine, being readie to put off,
he tooke order in manie points concerning the state of the common-wealth
on that side, and chéefelie he called to mind, that it should be a thing
necessarie for him, to name who should succeed him in the kingdome of
England, if his chance should not be to returne againe from so long and
dangerous a iournie. [Sidenote: _Matt. West._] He therefore named (as
some suppose) his nephue Arthur, the sonne of his brother Geffrey duke
of Britaine, to be his successour in the kingdome, a yoong man of a
likelie proofe and princelie towardnesse, but not ordeined by God to
succéed ouer this kingdome.

About the same time the bishop of Elie, lord chancellour and cheefe
iustice of England, tooke vp to the kings vse, of euerie citie in
England two palfries and two sumpter horsses, & of euerie abbeie one
palfrie and one sumpter horsse, & euerie manour within the realme found
also one palfrie and one sumpter horsse. Moreouer, the said bishop of
Elie, deliuered the gouernement of Yorkeshire to his brother Osbert de
Longchampe: and all those knights of the said shire, the which would not
come to make answer to the law vpon summons giuen them, he commanded to
be apprehended and by and by cast in prison. Also when the bishop of
Durham was returned from the king and come ouer into England to go vnto
his charge, at his meeting with the lord chancellour at Elie
(notwithstanding that he shewed him his letters patents of the grant
made to him to be iustice from Trent northward) the said lord
chancellour taking his iournie to Southwell with him, [Sidenote: The
bishop of Durham restreined of libertie.] there deteined him as
prisoner, till he had made surrender to him of the castell of Windsor, &
further had deliuered to him his sonnes, Henrie de Putsey, and Gilbert
de la Ley, as pledges that he should keepe the peace against the king
and all his subiects, vntill the said prince should returne from the
holie land. And so he was deliuered for that time, though shortlie
after, and whilest he remained at Houeden, there came to him Osbert de
Longchampe the lord chancellours brother, and William de Stuteuille, the
which caused the said bishop to find sufficient suretie that he should
not thence depart without the kings licence, or the lord chancellors, so
long as the king should be absent. Herevpon the bishop of Durham sent
knowledge to the king how and in what sort he had béene handled by the

In the meane time the king was gone into Gascoigne, [Sidenote: William
de Chisi.] where he besieged a castell that belonged to one William de
Chisi, and tooke both the castell and the owner, whome he caused to be
hanged for the spoiles and robberies which he had committed vpon
pilgrims that passed by those parts toward Compostella, to visit the
bodie of saint James. After this, the king came backe vnto Chinon in
Aniou, [Sidenote: The kings nauie is set foorth.] and there tooke order
for the setting foorth of his nauie by sea, ouer which he appointed
chéefe gouernours Gerard archbishop of Aux, Bernard bishop of Baieux,
[Sidenote: Baion. Sablius, or Sabuille.] Robert de Sablius, Richard de
Camuille[4], and William de Fortz de Vlerun, commanding all those that
should passe foorth with his said nauie, to be obedient vnto these
persons as his deputies and lieutenants. Herewith they were appointed to
prouide victuals to serue all those that should go by sea for the space
of 60 daies.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] The king also made the same time certeine
ordinances to be obserued among the seafaring men which tended to this

     [Sidenote: Slaiers of men.]
     1 First, that if any man chanced to slea an other on the
     shipboord, he should be bound to the dead bodie and so throwne
     into the sea.

     2 Secondlie, if he killed him on land, he should yet be bound to
     him as before, and so buried quicke togither.

     [Sidenote: Brallers. Punishment for blouddrawers.]
     3 Thirdlie, if any man should be conuicted by lawfull witnesse,
     that he drew any weapon to strike any other, or chanced by
     striking at any man to draw bloud of him that was smitten, he
     should lose his hand.

     4 Fourthlie, if he gaue but a blowe with his fist without
     bloudshedding, he should be plunged three seuerall times ouer
     head and eares in the water.

     [Sidenote: Reuilers.]
     5 Fifthlie, if any man reuiled another, he should for euerie time
     so misusing himselfe, forfeit an ounce of siluer.

     [Sidenote: Theft and pickeries.]
     6 Sixtlie, that if anie man were taken with theft or pickerie,
     and thereof conuicted, he should haue his head polled, and hot
     pitch powred vpon his pate, and vpon that, the feathers of some
     pillow or cushion shaken aloft, that he might thereby be knowne
     for a theefe, and at the next arriuall of the ships to any land,
     be put foorth of the companie to seeke his aduenture, without all
     hope of returne vnto his fellowes.

These were the statutes which this famous prince did enact at the first
for his nauie, which sithens that time haue been verie much inlarged.
About the same time John Bishop of Whiterne in Scotland, suffragane to
the church of Yorke, ordeined Geffrey archbishop of Yorke, préest.
[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] At the same season also the election of the
same Geffrey was confirmed by pope Clement, who among other things that
he wrote to the chapiter of Yorke on his behalfe, in the end he addeth
these words: "We do therefore admonish you all, and by the apostolicall
bulles command you, that you exhibit both reuerence and honour vnto him
as vnto your prelat, that thereby you may appeare commendable both
before God and man. Giuen at Lateran in the nones of March and third
yeare of our gouernment."

Whilest these things were in dooing, there came into France legats from
the said Clement, to mooue the two kings to make all the spéed possible
towards their iourneie, bicause of the great danger wherein things stood
in Palestine, requiring present helpe. Herevpon king Richard (his men
and prouision being readie) commanded that his ships should set forward,
[Sidenote: _Polydor._ King Richard set forward on his iournie. _Rog.
Houed._] & to coast about by the streicts of Giberalterre to come vnto
Marseilles, where he appointed to méet them, and so with a chosen
companie of men he also set foorth thitherwards by land, and comming to
Tours, receiued the scrip and staffe as a pilgrime should, at the hands
of the archbishop there.

After this, both the kings of England and France met at Vizeley in the
octaues of the natiuitie of S. John Baptist, and when they had remained
there two daies they passed foorth to the citie of Lion; [Sidenote: An.
Reg. 2.] where the two kings departed in sunder, and each one kept his
iournie, the one toward Guenes, where his nauie was appointed to come to
him, and the other to Marseilles, there to méet with his fléet,
according to his appointment. [Sidenote: The English fléet staied by
contrarie winds.] But the English ships being let and staied by the way
by contrarie winds and rigorous tempests, which tossed them[5] to and
fro vpon the coasts of Spaine, could not come in any conuenient time
vnto Marseilles, [Sidenote: Twentie gallies & twelue other vessels saith
_Houed._] so that king Richard thinking long to tarrie for them, &
perceiuing they could not kéepe their appointed time, he hired ships
from all places thereabouts, and embarking himselfe and his men in the
same, [Sidenote: Vpon the seauenth day of August saith _Houeden_.] vpon
saint Laurence euen, sailed foorth towards Sicile, where he was
appointed to méet with king Philip.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] Here is to be noted, that king Richard made
not all that iourneie from Marseilles to Messina by sea, but sundrie
times comming on land, hired horsses, and rode foorth alongst the coast,
appointing with his ships and gallies where to meet him, and sometimes
he rested certeine daies togither in one place or other as at
Portdelphin, at Naples, and at Salerne, from whence there departed from
him Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, Hubert bishop of Salisburie, and
the lord Ranulfe de Glanuille, the which taking vpon them to go before,
with prosperous wind and weather in short space landed at Acon, which
was then besieged, as you shall heare hereafter.

At Rome the king came not, but being within the streame of the riuer of
Tiber, there came to him a cardinall named Octauianus, bishop of Hostia,
[Sidenote: King Richard blameth the court of Rome for couetousnesse.] to
whome be spake manie reprochfull words of the couetousnesse vsed in the
court of Rome (a vice reputed the common nursse of all mischéefes, as
one verie well noteth,
    Vbi auaritia est, habitant fermè omnia ibidem
    Flagitia, impietas, periuria, furta, rapinæ,
    Fraudes atq; doli, insidiæq; & proditiones,
    Iurgia & infandæ cædes, &c.)
Bicause they had receiued seauen hundred marks for the consecration of
the bishop of Mauns, and 1500. marks for the confirming of the bishop of
Elie the popes legat. And againe no small summe of monie they had
receiued of the archbishop of Burdeaux, when vpon an accusation brought
against him by the cleargie of his prouince he should haue béene
deposed. In the meane time whiles king Richard thus passed forward
towards Messina, the nauie that was appointed to coast about Spaine and
to méet him at Marseilles, was tossed (as before is said) with wind and
tempests, and a part thereof, that is, to wit, ten ships driuen here and
there on the coasts of Spaine, of which number nine arriued at Lisbone
and the tenth being a ship of London arriued at the citie of Sylua,
which was then the vttermost citie of Spaine, that was inhabited with

The Saracens at that time made warres against the king of Portingale, so
that the Portingales stood in néed of aid, in so much that they of Sylua
did not onelie intreat the Englishmen to staie with them for a time, but
also got grant of them to breake their ship, with the timber whereof
they might the better fortifie their towne, promising that their king
should recompense them with an other as good as theirs, and also further
satisfie them for their seruice, during the time of their abode therein
defense of that citie. Likewise of those that arriued at Lisbone there
went to the number of fiue hundred vnto saint Iranes, [Sidenote: The king
of Portingale.] where the king of Portingale then was, looking to be
assaulted by his enimies: [Sidenote: Almiramumoli king of the Saracens.]
but by the counterfet[6] death of the great K. of the Saracens named
Boiac Almiramumoli (who feared these new succours, and doubted the
sequele of his dooings, to the end he might depart with honour, he
fained himselfe dead) the king of Portingale was for that time
presentlie deliuered out of danger.

Herevpon he returned to Lisbone, where he found three score and thrée
other ships of king Richards nauie there newlie arriued, [Sidenote:
Robert de Sabuuille. Richard de Camuille.] ouer the which were chéefe
capteins Robert de Sabuuille, and Richard de Camuille: which at their
comming to land could not so gouerne their people, but that some
naughtie fellowes amongst them fell to breaking and robbing of orchards:
some also entring into the citie, behaued themselues verie disorderlie.
But yet by the comming of the king, their lewdnesse was staied; so that
he seemed not to séeke reuenge of the pilgrims, but rather with
courteous meanes to bridle their vnlawfull attempts: wherevnto the
diligence of the English capteines not a little preuailed for a while,
but yet for all that could be done on both sides, within three daies
after, a new tumult was raised betwixt the English pilgrims and the
townesmen, and diuerse hurt and killed on either part.

[Sidenote: A mutinie betwixt the Englishmen and the townsmen of
Lisbone.] Wherevpon the king caused the gates of the citie to be shut,
and all those that were come from the ships into the citie to eat and
drinke (being in number about seauen hundred) were apprehended and
committed to ward: [Sidenote: Englishmen committed to prison.] and
before they could be released, sir Robert Sabuuille and sir Richard
Camuille were glad to agree with the king, so as all former offenses
being remitted, and things taken by either part restored, the Englishmen
promised to obserue the peace against the king of Portingale and his
people; and he likewise couenanted for him and his subiects, that they
should kéepe the peace against all pilgrims that went foorth in this
voiage, and vse them like his fréends, and thus the quarell ceased.

Soone after, the English nauie departed from Lisbone, and came into the
mouth of the riuer of Taie, betwéene Caperico and Belem, where the same
daie on saint James éeue the lord William de Forzdulerun arriued also
with thrée and thirtie other ships, [Sidenote: The English ships méet
togither.] and so then they were in all about an hundred and six sailes
verie well furnished and manned, and so from thence taking their course
towards Marseilles, finallie they arriued there in the octaues of the
assumption of our ladie; and staieng there an eight daies (till they had
repaired such things about their ships as were néedfull) they set
forward againe, and came to Messina in Sicile in the feast of the
exaltation of the crosse. On the sunday following also came the French
king thither, hauing lost no small part of his nauie by tempests of

[Sidenote: They arriue at Messina.] King Richard as then remained at
Salern, and hearing that his nauie was gone towards Messina, he departed
thence on the thirteenth day of September, and hasted forth towards
Messina, passing by Melphi and Cocenza, and so at length comming to Faro
de Messina, he passed the same, [Sidenote: K. Richard arriueth at
Messina.] and on the 23. day of September arriued at Messina with great
noise of trumpets and other instruments, to the woonder of the French
king and others that beheld his great puissance and roiall behauiour now
at this comming. The same time he went vnto the French kings lodging, to
commen with him of their businesse: and immediatlie the French king
tooke the sea, in purpose to haue passed forward on his iournie but by
contrarie wind he was staied and kept backe within the hauen, wherevpon
both the kings determined to winter there, and in the meane time to
prouide themselues of alle things necessarie for their iournie, against
the beginning of the next spring. On the 30. of September he receiued
his sister the quéene of Sicile, the widow of William the late king of
that Ile, whom he placed in a strong fortresse, which he tooke the same
day and left therein a conuenient garison of men of armes and demilances
for the safegard of the place and of his said sister.

¶ But now for the better vnderstanding of the cause of such quarelling
as fell out betwixt the Englishmen and the Sicilians, yée shall
vnderstand that a little before the arriuall of the kings of England and
France in those parts, king William of Sicile was departed this life,
leauing no issue behind him. Wherevpon the lords of the Ile elected one
Tancred to their king, a bastard sonne of Roger sometime king of that
land, and grandfather to this last decessed king William. This Tancred
though he receiued king Richard verie courteouslie; yet he greatlie
trusted him not, bicause he demanded the dowrie of his sister quéene
Joane, wife to the late king William to be restored, whereas he had not
readie monie to discharge it.

[Sidenote: A chaire of gold.] Furthermore to depart with the citie of
Mount saint Angelo; with all the countrie therevnto belonging; which was
indéed assigned to hir for hir dowrie, he thought in no wise profitable:
[Sidenote: K. Richards demands for the dowrie of his sister wife to K.
William.] but king Richard did not onelie require that citie and countie
with a chaire of gold, according to the custome of that kingdome in
right of his sister, as due to hir by way of hir dowrie, but also he
required to his owne vse a table of gold conteining twelue foot in
length, and one foot and a halfe in breadth, & two tressels of gold to
beare vp the same table, with 24. siluer cups, and as manie dishes of
siluer, with a tent of silke of such largenesse that two hundred knights
might sit at meat within it: also fortie thousand measures of wheat,
with as manie of barlie, and as manie of wine, beside one hundred armed
gallies, with all furniture and vittels sufficient to serue the
gallie-men in the same for the terme of two yeares. These things he
demanded as due to him being heire to his father king Henrie,
accordinglie as was deuised by king William in his last will and
testament, which demands seemed intollerable to the said Tancred: so
that if he could haue shifted the matter, he was loth to haue heard

Moreouer, bicause pope Clement in right of the church pretended a title
to the realme of Sicile, now that king William was dead without heires,
he doubted of some practise that might be made against him betwixt king
Richard and the pope. Wherevpon he thought to prouide against all
attempts that might be made, fortifieng his townes & castels with strong
garisons, and tooke counsell with the citizens of Messina, by what
meanes he might soonest dispatch his countrie of that present danger,
and procure K. Richard to get him forward on his iournie.

Whilest these things were in hand, there was ministred to the English
men occasion of displeasure: for as it oftentimes chanceth (where an
armie is) certeine of the vnrulie souldiers within Messina vsed
themselues somewhat riotouslie, wherevpon the citizens offended
therewith, got them to armour, and chased all the souldiers out of the
citie. King Richard who laie in campe without the walles néere to the
citie, was so highlie displeased herewith, that he caused his men to
arme themselues, and to prepare ladders and other necessarie things to
assault the citie: but by the mediation of the French king & curteous
excuse of king Tancred (alledging the fault to rest onelie in a sort of
rude citizens, whome he promised to punish) the matter was taken vp, and
staied for a time, till at length it was perceiued, that the Sicilians
subtilie went about to feed king Richard with faire words, till he
should be readie to set forwards on his iournie, and so should the
matter passe without further punishment.

Herevpon king Richard, not minding to be so mocked at their hands,
approched one daie to the wals and gates with his armie in good araie of
battell to giue the assault, [Sidenote: K. Richard assalteth and entreth
the citie by force.] which was doone so earnestlie, and so well
mainteined, that finallie the citie was entred by force, and manie of
the citizens slaine, but the slaughter had béene much greater, if king
Richard had not commanded his men to spare the sword, mooued with the
lamentable noise of poore people crieng to him for mercie and grace. The
Englishmen hauing got possession of the citie pight vp the banners with
the armes of the king of England round about the wals, wherewith the
French king was sore displeased, and required that the same might be
taken downe, and his set vp: but the king of England would not so agrée.
Neuerthelesse to pacifie the French kings mood, he deliuered the citie
of Messina into the custodie of the knights Templers and Hospitalers,
till he might be satisfied of such things as he demanded of king

After this on the 8. daie of October, the two kings of England and
France, before a great number of earles, barons, and others, both of the
cleargie and temporaltie, [Sidenote: The two kings of England and France
receiue a solemne oth.] tooke their solemne othes, that the one should
defend the other, and also either others armie in this iournie, both
comming and going, without fraud or deceipt: and the like oth was
receiued by the earles and barons on both parties. Then the two kings by
aduise and consent of both their armies deuised these ordinances.

     [Sidenote: Ordinances deuised.]
     1 That all pilgrims which chanced to die in this iournie might
     dispose at their pleasure all their armour, horsses, and
     apparell, and halfe of those things which they had with them, so
     that they sent nothing home into their countries, and the other
     halfe should be at the discretion of Walter archbishop of Rouen,
     Manser bishop of Langres, of the maister of the temple, and of
     the maister of the Hospitall, of Hugh duke of Burgoigne, of Rafe
     de Coucie, of Drogo de Marlow, of Robert Sabuill, Andrew de
     Chauennie, and of Gilbert Wascoile, which should imploie the same
     towards the support of the wars in the holie land against the
     infidels as they thought most expedient.

     [Sidenote: Plaie forbidden.]
     2 That no man should plaie at anie game within the armie for
     monie, except knights and chapleins, the which should not loose
     in one daie and night aboue 20 shillings, they to forfeit an 100
     shillings so oft as they lost aboue that summe: the persons
     aforenamed to haue the same to be distributed as afore is said.
     The two kings might plaie, and command their seruants in their
     presence likewise to plaie, so that they excéeded not the summe
     of 20 shillings. And also the seruants of archbishops, bishops,
     earles and barons, by their maisters commandement might play, not
     excéeding that summe: but if anie seruants or mariners, or other
     of like degrée, were found to play without licence, the seruants
     should be whipped naked three daies round about the campe, except
     they ransomed foorth themselues, at the pleasure of the persons
     aboue named: and the mariners should be plunged ouer head and
     eares in the sea three mornings togither, after the vse of
     seamen, except they redeem that punishment, at the discretion
     likewise of the said persons: and those of other like meane
     degrées being neither knights nor chapleins should be punished as

     [Sidenote: Borrowing.]
     3 That if anie pilgrime borrowed anie thing of an other whilest
     he was on his iournie, he should be bound to paie it: but if he
     borrowed it before his setting foorth, he was not bound to answer
     it till his returne home.

     [Sidenote: Souldiers or mariners departing from their masters.]
     4 That if anie mariner or seruant, reteined in wages with anie
     man in this iournie, departed from his master without licence, no
     other person might receiue him, and if he did, he should be
     punished at the discretion of the forenamed persons.

     [Sidenote: Vittelers.]
     5 That no vitteler or other should buy any bread to sell againe,
     nor any meale within the compasse of the campe, except the same
     were brought by a stranger, neither might they buy any paast or
     other thing to sell againe in the campe, or within a league of

     6 That if anie man bought corne wherof to make bread, it was
     appointed how much he should gaine in one measure beside the

     7 That other occupiers, which vsed buieng and selling of wares,
     should gaine one penie in 10 pence, neither should anie man
     refuse anie of the kings coine, except it were broken within the

     8 That no man should buy anie flesh to sell it againe, except a
     liuing beast, which he should kill within the campe.

     9 That no man should make bread to sell, but after the rate of
     penie loaues. Wherin the penie English was appointed to go for
     foure pence Aniouine. All these ordinances with other were
     decreed and ordeined to be obserued and kept by the counsell,
     consent, and agreement of the kings of England, France, and

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] But to returne now to the dissention betwixt the
Englishmen and them of Messina: ye shall vnderstand that the tumult
being once ceassed, and diuerse of the chéefe offenders in the late
commotion put to death, king Tancred shortlie after came thither, and
sought to auoid all suspicion out of king Richards head, that he might
conceiue of him for béeing in anie wise culpable in that which his
subiects of Messina had attempted against him, and therefore hauing
recouered monie of his freends, he restored vnto king Richard the dowrie
of his sister quéene Joane, and further offered vnto him to ioine in new
alliance with him, offering his daughter in mariage vnto Arthur duke of
Britaine, the kings nephue, with a great summe of monie for hir dowrie,
if it so should please him.

King Richard accepted the offer, and so ioined in peace and affinitie
with the king of Sicile, receiuing of him twentie thousand ounces of
gold for the same mariage to be had, and an honorable dowrie assigned
foorth of the lands that belonged to the said Arthur for the said ladie
to inioy during hir life, in case she suruiued hir husband. And if it so
chanced, that by the death of either of them the mariage could not take
place, then should king Richard restore the same twentie thousand
ounces of gold againe. But beside these twentie thousand ounces of gold
thus giuen by king Tancred for the mariage of his daughter, he gaue
other twentie thousand ounces to king Richard for an acquitance and
quite claime of all manner of duties, rights, and demands, which either
he or his sister might pretend, either by reason of anie bequest,
dowrie, or anie other manner of waie.

Here is to be noted, that before this conclusion of peace was had, king
Richard prouided for his owne defense, in case that king Tancred and his
people would haue attempted force against him, in so much that he
fortified certeine places, and built a strong castell aloft vpon the top
of an hill fast by Messina, which castell he called Mategriffon. Also
whereas the admirall of Sicile called Margaret, and one Jordane del
Poine, men of great authoritie vnder king Tancred, fled out of Messina
with all their families and riches, which they had either in gold or
siluer, king Richard seized vpon their houses, their gallies, and
possessions, so that he made himselfe as strong as he could, to resist
all attempts that might be made against him by his enimies. But now to

The variance being thus appeased betwixt them, great discord chanced to
arise betwixt king Richard and king Philip, who was much offended with
king Richard, for that he had thus vsed violence against them of
Messina, and compelled king Tancred to agrée with him for monie,
[Sidenote: The lawes of Herberrough.] to the great offense and breach of
the lawes of Herberrough, sith the Sicilians verie liberallie aided and
furnished the christians armie with vittels and necessarie prouisions.
The Frenchmen also had much enuie thereat, [Sidenote: Englishmen and
Frenchmen fought.] that shortlie after vpon a small occasion they picked
a quarell against the Englishmen, and from words fell to strokes on both
sides, so that there had beene much hurt & slaughter committed,
[Sidenote: Discord in an armie the hinderer of all profitable
enterprises.] if the two kings had not doone their best to appease the
fraie begun.

But this businesse though it was quietlie as then taken vp and staied,
yet bred it such displeasure betwixt the princes and their people, that
it turned to the great hurt and hinderance of their good proceedings in
their whole enterprise, so that the occasion of a full and perfect
victorie easilie slipped out of their hands, as you shall heare

An other also of the chéefest causes of grudge betwixt the two kings
was, for that king Richard in familiar talke confessed vnto king Philip,
that he would marie the king of Nauarres daughter, and cléerelie forsake
his sister Adela: which gréeued king Philip not a little, though he
dissembled the matter for a time, and rather alledged other causes of
displeasure, wherewith to defame king Richard to the world, as one that
sought his owne commoditie in spoiling those whom he ought rather to
haue defended. But to proceed.

Whilest the English and French armies thus soiourned all the winter time
in Sicile, notwithstanding the troubles aforesaid, to the hinderance of
king Richards purposes, for the making of his prouisions readie for his
iournie, he yet caused engins to be framed, his ships to be newlie
calked, rigged and repaired of such hurts as they had receiued both in
their long voiage which they had made, and also by certeine wormes, the
which during their lieng there, had in diuerse places gnawne and eaten
them through to the great danger of their losse, and vtter decaie.
[Sidenote: Wreckes pardoned.] Moreouer at the same time he pardoned all
wrecks by sea through all his dominions, releasing for euer all his
right to the same, in such wise that euerie person making wrecke by sea,
and comming aliue to land, should haue all his goods frée and cleare to
himselfe. Furthermore he decréed, that if he chanced to perish in the
ship, then his sons and daughters, brethren or sisters, that could
prooue themselues to be next heires to him, should haue the same goods;
but if he had neither sonne nor daughter, brother nor sister, then
should the king haue those goods by waie of his prerogatiue.

This resignation made by king Richard, was confirmed by his charter
giuen at Messina in the moneth of October and second yeare of his
reigne. Also vpon a godlie repentance wherewith it did please the
mercifull God to touch his hart, he called all those prelats togither
which were then with him at Messina into the chappell of Reginald de
Moiac, [Sidenote: K. Richards confession.] & there in presence of them
all falling downe vpon his knees he confessed the filthie life which he
had in lecherous lust before that time led, and humblie receiued penance
inioined him by the same bishops, and so became a new man, fearing God,
and delighting to liue after his lawes.

[Sidenote: Abbat Joachim.] Furthermore hearing of the great fame of
abbat Joachim, he sent for him ouer into Calabria, who came to Messina,
and being asked sundrie questions by king Richard, he made woonderfull
answer thereto: as in Houeden and other writers it may appéere, which
for breefenesse I passe ouer. About the same time he gaue vnto his
nephue Otho, the sonne of his sister Maud, sometime duchesse of Saxonie,
the countie of Yorke. But although some were contented to receiue him as
their lord, and to doo homage to him, yet other refused him, alledging
that they would not renounce their fealties due to the king, till they
might sée him againe, & talke with him face to face. Wherevpon the king
changing his purpose, gaue vnto the said Otho the countie of Poictou in
steed of the said countie of Yorke, as after shall appeere.

[Sidenote: 1191.] The two kings of England and France held their
Christmasse this yeare at Messina, and still the king of England vsed
great liberalitie in bestowing his treasure freelie amongst knights and
other men of warre, [Sidenote: The large expenses of K. Richard.] so
that it was thought he spent more in a moneth than anie of his
predecessours euer spent in a whole yeare. In the moneth of Februarie he
sent his gallies to Naples, there to receiue his mother and his wife
that should be, to wit the ladie Berengaria daughter to the king of
Nauarre, and Philip earle of Flanders that came with them. But his
mother quéene Elianor and the ladie Berengaria went to Brindize in
Puglia, where they were honorablie receiued of Margaret king Tancreds
admirall. [Sidenote: The earle of Flanders.] Moreouer the earle of
Flanders comming to Naples, and finding there the gallies of king
Richard, went aboord the same, and so came to Messina, at the first
following the king of England in all things, till the French king hauing
enuie thereat, allured him awaie, and then he hoong altogither on his
sléeue. The first daie of March the king of England departed from
Messina, to go to the citie of Cathina, there to common with king
Tancred, who came thither to meet him.

[Sidenote: K. Richard talketh with king Tancred.] Here king Richard
vnderstood, that the French king had sollicited king Tancred to set vpon
the king of England and his armie, to chase them out of his realme: and
for the more easie accomplishment thereof, he had promised him his aid,
whensoeuer he would giue the aduenture. King Tancred deliuered also to
king Richard such letters as the French king had written to him
concerning this matter. Wherevpon at his returne to Messina, king
Richard shewed by his frowning countenance, that he was nothing pleased
with the French king, but sought occasions to get him out of his

The French king perceiuing it, required to vnderstand the cause of this
sudden mutation: wherevpon king Richard nothing fearing his power,
declared the truth plainelie vnto him by the mouth of the earle of
Flanders: and when the other denied the practise, he for proofe of the
thing, shewed him the same letters which king Tancred had deliuered vnto
him. The French king was not a little abashed hereat, and wist not well
what to saie, nor what excuse to make, the matter was so plaine. But yet
at length he said: "Well now I perceiue the king of England seeketh to
haue some quarell whie he may refuse to marrie with my sister. For these
are but forged matters, and no truth resteth in them."

When the king of England vnderstood this maner of answer, he replied in
this wise; "That as for the French kings sister, he might not marrie,
for as much as he was able to produce good witnesse to prooue that his
father had lien with hir and got a child of hir. And as for his priuie
procéeding and practise with Tancred, he néeded no further testimonie
than his owne hand and his seale, the partie himselfe being present who
receiued them, the messenger also being not far off that carried them
betwéene both the parties."

When the French king was throughlie informed of the first point, through
counsell of the earle of Flanders and others, he pacified himselfe, and
was contented to release the king of England of his faith giuen by oth
for the contract made with his sister Alice: in consideration of which
releasement and deliuerance, the king of England couenanted to giue
yearelie to the French king two thousand marks of starling coine for the
terme of fiue yeares togither: and at his returne home, it was agreed,
that he shuld also deliuer vnto the French king his sister the said
ladie Alice, with the towne of Gisors, and all other things which the
French king had granted to him with his said sister. On the other part,
the French king granted, that the dutchie of Britaine should apperteine
to the dominion of the dutchie of Normandie, so as the duke of Britaine
should be accompted the liege man of the duke of Normandie, and that the
duke of Normandie should answer the French king for both the dutchies,
as well of Britaine as Normandie. These agréements were ratified and
confirmed with solemne oths receiued, and charters giuen vnder their
hands and seales, vpon the 30. of March.

[Sidenote: The French king setteth foorth from Messina towards the
holie[7] land.] About this time the French king (now that the season of
the yeare was come) set forward toward the holie land, leauing king
Richard behind him in Sicile: and the two and twentith day after his
setting foorth from Messina, he arriued at the siege of Acres or Acon.
The same day also that the French king departed from Messina, queene
Elianor the mother of king Richard arriued there, bringing with hir the
ladie Berengaria the daughter of Sanctius the king of Nauarre,
[Sidenote: Quéene Elianor returneth by Rome.] and the fourth day after
quéene Elianor tooke leaue of hir sonne king Richard, and departed
homeward towards England, taking hir iournie by Rome about the businesse
of Geffrey the elect of Yorke, as to entreat the pope that he would
confirme and consecrate him archbishop, or to authorise some other to
doo it in his name. The ladie Berengaria remained behind with the kings
sister Joane quéene of Sicile.

After this in the moneth of Aprill, on the Wednesday in the passion
weeke, king Richard (after he had finished and made an end of all
conclusions with king Tancred) did also set forward with his sister
Joane, who tooke with hir the ladie Berengaria daughter to the king of
Nauarre, affianced to him long before, as aboue is partlie mentioned.
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ 130. ships and 53. galies saith _Rog.
Houed._] His nauie consisted in thirteene mightie great ships with
triple sailes, an hundred carikes or rather hulkes, and fiftie gallies.
He was no sooner abroad in the maine sea, but a great tempest arose,
wherewith his whole nauie was sore tossed and turmoiled vp and downe the
seas, and at length driuen on the coast of Cypres, where séeking to take
harbour, & to come on land, the Cypriots would not suffer him, but
shewed countenance to driue him backe, and to resist his landing. Also
whereas six of his ships were so driuen by force of tempest from the
residue, that thrée of them perished, and three being cast vpon the
shoare of Cypres before the kings arriuall there, the souldiers and
other people in the same were compelled to come on land for sauing their
liues, where otherwise they stood in danger of drowning, the people of
the Ile assailing them in right cruell sort, slue diuerse, and tooke the
residue prisoners, and so deteined them for a certeine season.

King Richard then vnderstanding this iniurie to him doone by the
Cypriots, & perceiuing they would resist his landing, prepared himselfe
and his people to enter vpon them by force. The king of Cypres Isakius
or Cursach (whome Houeden nameth emperour of Cypres) had assembled the
most part of all the power of men that he might make (though few of them
were armed, or had any great skill in feats of warre) and caused them to
set boords, logs of wood, benches, formes, and great chests afore them,
as a defense, and as it were in steed of a wall, that by succour thereof
they might the better kéepe off their enimie from landing.

But K. Richard, so incouraged his men by his presence, & hartened them
with such comfortable words as he vttered vnto them, that rowing to the
shoare with their galies and small botes, hauing the archers afore them,
[Sidenote: The Englishmen take land & chase their enimies.] they easilie
got to land, droue their enimies backe, and so farre pursued them (being
but footmen, weatherbeaten, wearie, and weat) as conuenientlie they
might, for the shortnes of time. King Richard hauing thus got foot on
land, approched the towne of Limezun, which he with his souldiers
entred, and finding it emptie of people (which were fled awaie) but full
of riches and great plentie of victuals, as corne, wine, oile, and
flesh, he seized therevpon.

The same day also the kings sisters and the ladie Berengaria with the
residue of the kings nauie entred the hauen of Limezun. In the meane
time the king of Cypres (hauing escaped from the battell) got togither
his men which were fled and dispersed sundrie waies, and incamped within
six miles of king Richard, threatning that the next day he would
eftsoones giue battell: which when king Richard vnderstood, he caused
his people to be armed the next morning long before day, and so comming
by guides vnto the place where the Cypriots with their king were lodged,
[Sidenote: King Richard with a camisado vanquisheth the Cypriots, &
chaseth them out of their campe. _Iohn Textor._] suddenlie they assailed
them yer they had anie warning of his marching towards them, by reason
whereof they were slaine like beasts in great numbers. Howbeit, their
king and a few other escaped and fled away naked, hauing no time to put
on their apparell, his treasure, horsse, armour and standard were taken,
which standard king Richard straitwaies determined to send vnto saint
Edmunds shrine, and so did.

Having thus vanquished his aduersaries, he came backe to Limezun: and
the third day after, [Sidenote: The K. of Jerusalem and other noble men
doo fealtie vnto king Richard.] Guie king of Jerusalem and his brother
Geffrey de Lucignan with the prince of Antioch Raimond and his sonne
named also Raimond earle of Tripoli, with other noble men, arriued at
Limezun aforesaid, to visit king Richard, and to offer him their
seruices, and so became his men, in swearing fealtie to him against all
other persons whatsoeuer.

The same day the king of Cypres perceiuing himselfe vnable to resist the
great puissance of king Richards armie, sent ambassadours, [Sidenote:
The offers of the king of Cypres.] and offered to king Richard the summe
of twentie thousand marks of gold, in recompense of the monie which his
men that were drowned had about them, and also to restore those to
libertie which he had taken prisoners, and to make deliuerie to their
hands of all their goods. Furthermore he offered to go with him into the
holie land personallie, and to serue him with an hundred knights 400
light horssemen, and 500 well armed footmen, & also to deliuer to king
Richard his daughter and heire in hostage, [Sidenote: The king of Cypres
submitteth himselfe.] and to acknowledge him his souereigne lord, by
swearing to him fealtie for his kingdome, as for that which he should
confesse to hold of him.

King Richard accepted these offers, and so the king of Cypres came in
and sware fealtie to king Richard, in presence of the king of Jerusalem,
the prince of Antioch, and other barons, and promised vpon his oth then
receiued, not to depart till all things couenanted on his part were
performed. Then king Richard assigned tents for him and his to lodge in,
and appointed certeine knights and other men of warre to haue the
custodie of him. But the same day after dinner vpon repentance of that
which he had doone, he deceiued his keepers and stale awaie, sending
knowledge backe to the king that he would not stand to the couenants,
which were concluded vpon betwixt them.

King Richard seemed to like the matter well enough, and foorthwith
deliuered a part of his armie vnto the king of Jerusalem and to the
prince of Antioch, appointing them to persue the king of Cypres by land,
whilest he with one part of his gallies and Robert de Turneham with the
other might search about the coast by sea, to prohibit his passage by
water. In euerie place where they came, such ships and gallies as they
found they seized into their hands, and no resistance was made against
them, by reason the people fled to the woods and mountains, leauing the
cities, townes and castels void in all stéeds, [Sidenote: Robert de
Turneham.] where the king or the said sir Robert de Turneham with their
vessels began to appéere. When they had taken their pleasure thus
alongst the coasts, they returned againe vnto Limezun. The king of
Jerusalem and the other that went foorth by land, when they could not
spéed of their purpose, returned also, in which meane time a great
number of Cypriots came in, and submitting themselues to king Richard,
were receiued as his subiects.

[Sidenote: The king of England marieth the ladie Berengaria. She is
crowned quéene.] On the 12. daie of Maie, the ladie Berengaria daughter
to the king of Nauarre was maried according to a precontract vnto king
Richard at Limezun aforesaid in the Ile of Cypres, one of the kings
chaplins executing the order of the marriage. The same daie also she was
crowned by the bishop of Eureux, the archbishops of Apamea and Aux, with
the bishop of Baion ministring vnto him. After the solemnitie of this
marriage and coronation ended, king Richard set forward with his armie
into the countrie of Cypres, and first wan (by surrender) the citie of
Nichosia, and after the strong castell of Cherin, within the which was
the daughter of the king of Cypres, which ladie humblie yeelded hir
selfe vnto K. Richard, (who counting it reproach to be extreme with such
as submit themselues, and speciallie the female sex, according to the
old saieng,
    Pacere subiectis nobilis scit ira leonis)
had pitie of hir case, and sent hir to his wife the new quéene, willing
that she might be honorablie vsed. From thence passing forward,
[Sidenote: Castels deliuered to the king of England.] these castels were
deliuered into his hands, Baffes and Buffeuent, Den, Amur, Candace, and
afterwards all the other castels and cities, townes and places of
strength within that Ile one after an other. Finallie, hearing that the
king of Cypres was inclosed in an abbie called Cap S. Andrew, he marched
thitherwards: [Sidenote: The king of Cyprus again submitteth himselfe to
the king of England.] but when the king of Cypres heard of his approch,
he came foorth and submitted himselfe wholie into his hands. [Sidenote:
Rafe Fitz Geffrey.] The king first appointed him to the kéeping of his
chamberlaine Rafe Fitz Geffrey, and after sent him into the citie of
Tripoli, there to be kept in close prison. Who when he heard he should
be committed to close prison, and remaine in fetters, said, "that if he
laie in irons, he should shortlie end his life." Wherevnto king Richard
when he heard of it, answered: "He saith well, and therefore bicause he
is a noble man, and our mind is not to haue him dead, but onelie to be
kept safe from starting anie more awaie, and dooing new hurt, let him be
chained in giues and fetters made of siluer," and so he was.

But to procéed. After the king had set the countrie of Cypres in good
staie, [Sidenote: He arriued there on the saturdaie in Whitsunwéek,
being the saturdaie also next before the feast of S. Barnabie.
_Galfridus._ _Vinsant._] he deliuered the keeping thereof vnto Richard
de Camuille and Robert de Turneham. This doone vpon the wednesdaie in
the Whitsunwéeke he tooke the sea againe, and passed ouer to the citie
of Acres, which as then was besieged by the christian armie, as ye may
read in the description of the holie land, onelie giuing you to
vnderstand, that such was the valiancie of king Richard shewed in
manfull constreining of the citie, that his praise was greatlie bruted
both amongst the christians and also the Saracens.

Howbeit the secret enimitie betwixt him and the French king eftsoones
reuiued, by occasion of such discord as chanced betwixt Guido king of
Jerusalem, and Conrade the marques of Tire, so that parties were taken,
and whereas both the Pisans and Geneuois did offer their seruice vnto
king Richard, yet bicause the Geneuois were confederat with the French
king, who tooke part with the marques, he refused them, [Sidenote:
Pisans and Geneuois.] and receiued the Pisans, ioining himselfe with
king Guido to support him against his enimies.

Here is to be remembred, that before king Richard arriued at the siege,
he incountred on the sea a mightie great ship called a Drommond,
[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._ _Nic. Triuet._ Saphaldine the brother of
Saladine.] which one Saphaldine the brother of Saladine a prince of the
Saracens had sent, to refresh them with vittels. This ship king Richard
caused féercelie to be assailed with his gallies, and at length bowged
hir with all the vittels and prouision within the same, as wild-fire,
barels of firie serpents, armour and weapons of sundrie sorts, besides
all the mariners and men of warre, except such as were taken to mercie
and saued aliue, being about 200 in the whole, whereas there were aboord
the same ship 500 men of warre, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ _N. Triuet._]
as some write, though other haue but 800.

¶ But now to other accidents that chanced this yere. On Midsummer eeue
there was such an eclipse of the sunne, [Sidenote: An eclipse of the
sunne.] the moone being the same time 27 daies old, that for the space
of thrée houres (for so long it lasted) such darkness came ouer the face
of the earth, [Sidenote: The seuenth houre of the daie saith _Matth.
Paris._] that euen in the daie time (for this eclipse began about nine
of the clocke in the morning) the stars appeared plainelie in the

In the same moneth of June, Richard de Camuille, whome the king had left
(as ye haue heard) gouernour in Cypres, chanced to fall sicke, and
comming without licence to the siege of Acres, [Sidenote: Richard de
Camuille deceasseth.] there died. After whose death the Cypriots and
those called Griffones and Ermians reuolted from the English obedience,
and chose to them a king, one that was a moonke of the familie of
Isachus their former king: but Robert de Turneham, who after the
deceasse of Richard Camuille remained sole gouernour of the Ile,
gathered a power of men togither, and giuing battell to the new king
(whom Houeden nameth also emperour) vanquished him with his complices,
tooke him prisoner, and hanged him on a paire of galowes. The same
moneth also died Rafe Fitz Geffrey, who had the other king Isac in
custodie, and then king Richard deliuered him to the knights of the
hospitall, who sent him to the castell of Margant, there safelie to be
kept as prisoner to the vse of the king of England.

Now will we returne vnto the affaires of England and make some mention
of the dooings there. Yee shall vnderstand, that after king Richard was
set forward on his iournie, William Longchampe lord chancellour and
bishop of Elie, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] appointed (as ye haue heard)
gouernour of the realme, began to exercise his authoritie to the
vttermost, taking vpon him the state of a prince, rather than of a
subiect. He had of late (as before ye haue heard) procured such fauor at
the hands of pope Clement, [Sidenote: The Lord chancellor called the
popes legat in England.] that he was instituted by him legat of the
apostolike see here in England, so that pretending a rule both ouer the
clergie and temporaltie, and by reason that he had both the authoritie
of pope and king in his hands, he vsed the same to his most aduantage,
as well in causes ecclesiasticall as temporall, whereby he wrought manie
oppressions both against them of the clergie and temporaltie. [Sidenote:
The statelie port of the lord chancellor. _Ran. Higd._] He mainteined
such a port and countenance in his dooings, that he would ride with a
thousand horsses, by meanes whereof when he came to lie at abbeis and
other places (bringing with him such a traine) he was verie burdenous
vnto them, speciallie when he laie at their houses any space of time.

[Sidenote: A conuocation.] This man called a conuocation at Westminster,
wherein at the suit of Hugh Nouant bishop of Chester, it was decreed,
[Sidenote: Moonks of Couentrie displaced. _Polydor._ _Ran. Higd._ _Wil.
Paruus._ The occasion. _Ran. Higd._] that the moonks of Couentrie should
be displaced, and secular canons brought into that house to supplie
their roomes. Which was doone by the authoritie of the said lord
chancellour, being bribed by the foresaid bishop of Chester (as some
writers haue recorded) for displeasure which he bare to the moonks, by
reason of a fraie which they had made vpon the said bishop in their
church at Couentrie, and drawne bloud of him before the alter there, as
he alledged.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] But some haue written, that the bishop of
Chester procured a licence of the pope, to alter the state of that
church in sort aboue mentioned, which is most likelie, surmising against
the moonks, that they were most manifest and stubborne disturbers of
that peace and quietnesse which ought to remaine amongst churchmen:
[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ _Polydor._] and yet he himselfe sowed the strife
and dissention amongst them, and namelie betwéene the prior and his
couent. Moreouer, the said lord chancellour depriued such rulers of
their administrations and gouernements, as the king had appointed to
beare any high authoritie within the realme, pretending not onelie the
kings commandement, but also alleadging a reason which mooued him so to
doo, as thus, [Sidenote: The L. chancellors reason.] that he might
thereby take awaie all occasions of grudges from the people, which
otherwise might thinke, and would not sticke to saie, that they were
oppressed by the rule of manie kings in stéed of one king. [Sidenote:
The bishop of Durham. The bishop of Winchester.] He did also depriue
Hugh the bishop of Durham of all his honour and dignitie, and put the
bishop of Winchester to great trouble. Moreouer, doubting least the
Nobles of the realme would rise against him, and put him out of his
place; he sought to kéepe them lowe, and spoiled them of their monie and
substance. [Sidenote: The lord chancellors meaning to kéepe earle John
lowe.] Likewise pretending a colour of doubt, least earle John the kings
brother should attempt any thing against his brother the king now in his
absence, he sought also to kéepe him vnder. To be bréefe, he plaied in
all points the right part of a tyrant, and shewed himselfe such a one in
all respects as mainteined his title,
    [Sidenote: _Pal. in suo cap._]
    Non disceptando aut subtilibus argumentis
    Vincere, sed ferro mauult sua iura tueri,
    Pontifices nunc bella iuuant, sunt cætera nuga,
    Nec præcepta patrum nec Christi dogmata curant,
    Iactant se dominos rerum & sibi cuncta licere.

At length the king receiued aduertisement from his mother queene Elianor
of his demeanor, and that there was great likeliehood of some commotion
to insue, if spéedie remedie were not in time prouided. Wherevpon being
then in Sicile, [Sidenote: Walter the archbishop of Rouen sent into
England.] he sent Walter the archbishop of Rouen into England with
commission, to ioine in administration of the kingdome with his
chancellor the said bishop of Elie. But the archbishop comming into
England was so slenderlie interteined of the chancellour, [Sidenote: He
is little regarded of the lord chancellor.] and in effect so litle
regarded, that notwithstanding his commission and instructions brought
from the king, he could not be permitted to beare any rule. But the
chancellour deteining the same wholie in his hands, ordered all things
at his pleasure, without making the archbish. of Rouen, or any other of
counsel with him, except such as it pleased him to admit for the seruing
of his owne turne.

¶ He certeinelie beléeued (as manie other did) that king Richard would
neuer returne with life into England againe, which caused him to attempt
so manie vnlawfull enterprises, and therefore he got into his hands all
the castels and fortresses belonging to the crowne, and furnished them
with garisons of souldiers, as he thought necessarie, depriuing such
capteins of their roomes as he suspected not to fauour his procéedings.

One Gerard de Camuille had bought of the king the kéeping of the castell
of Lincolne, vnto whome also the sheriffewike of the shire was committed
for a time, but the lord chancellour, perceiuing that he bare more good
will vnto earle John the kings brother than to him (which John he most
suspected) he tooke from him the shiriffewike, & demanded also to haue
the castell of Lincolne deliuered into his hands, which Gerard refused
to deliuer, and perceiuing that the chancellor would practise to haue it
by force, he fled vnto earle John, requiring him of competent aid and

The chancellor on the other part, perceiuing what hatred diuerse of the
Nobles bare him, thought good to prouide for his owne suertie the best
that he could, and therefore sent for a power of men from beyond the
sea: but bicause he thought it too long to staie till they arriued, he
came to Lincolne with such power as he could make, [Sidenote: The lord
chancellor besiegeth the castell of Lincolne.] and besieged the castell.
Erle John the kings brother aduertised hereof, raised such numbers of
men as he might make of his freends, seruants and tenants, [Sidenote:
Earle John winneth the castels of Notingham and Tickhill.] and with
small a doo wan the castels of Notingham and Tickhill within two daies
space. This doone, he sent to the lord chancellour, commanding him
either to breake vp his siege, or else to prepare for battell. The
chancellour considering with himselfe that there was small trust to be
put in diuerse of those lords that were with him, bearing good will to
[Sidenote: The chancellor raiseth his siege with dishonour.] earle John,
and but hollow harts towards him, raised his siege and departed with

Not long after, one of his hornes was broken off by the death of pope
Clement, whereby his power legantine ceased: wherewith being somewhat
abashed, [Sidenote: The lord chancellor and earle John are agréed.] he
came to a communication with earle John, and vpon certeine conditions
made peace with him. Shortlie after the souldiers which he had sent for,
arriued in England, [Sidenote: The chancellor breaketh the agréement.]
and then he began to go from the agréement made with earle John,
affirming that he would either driue the same earle out of England, or
else should earle John doo the like to him: for it was not of sufficient
largenesse to hold them both. Howbeit, shortlie after, [Sidenote: The
lord chancellor and earle John make another agréement.] a peace was
eftsoones concluded betwixt them with condition, that if it chanced king
Richard to depart this life before his returne into England, not leauing
any issue of his bodie begotten, that then the chancellour renouncing
the ordinance made by king Richard (who had instituted his nephue Arthur
duke of Britaine to be his heire and successour) should consent to admit
earle John for king of England, contrarie to the said ordinance.

But in the meane time it was agréed, that earle John should deliuer vp
the castels of Notingham and Tickhill, Notingham to the hands of William
Marshall, and Tickhill to the hands of William Wendenall, they to kéepe
the same vnto the vse and behoofe of king Richard, that vpon his returne
he might doo with them as should please him: prouided that if it so
chanced, that he should die before he could returne from his voiage, or
that the chancellour went from the agréement now taken, then immediatlie
should the foresaid castels of Notingham and Tickhill be restored vnto
earle John.

Moreouer, the other castels of such honours as were assigned to earle
John by the king his brother, were committed vnto the custodie of
certeine persons of great trust and loialtie, as the castell of
Wallingford to the archbishop of Rouen, the castell of Bristow to the
bishop of Lincolne, the castell of the Peake to the bishop of Couentrie,
the castell of Bolesofres vnto Richard de Peake (or if he refused, then
should the bishop of Couentrie haue it in kéeping) the castell Eie was
committed to Walter Fitz Robert, the castell of Herford to Roger Bigot,
and to Richard Reuell the castell of Excester and Launston. These
persons to whom these castels were thus committed to be kept, receiued
also an oth, that they should faithfullie kéepe them to the kings
behoofe, and if he chanced to die, before he should returne, then the
same should be deliuered vnto earle Johns hands. [Sidenote: Castels
deliuered in trust to the keeping of certeine persons.] Also there were
three castels that perteined to the crowne, deliuered likewise in trust,
as the castell of Windsor vnto the earle of Arundell, the castell of
Winchester vnto Gilbert de Lacie, and the castell of Northampton vnto
Simon de Pateshull.

It was also agréed, that bishops, abbats, earles, and barons, valuasors,
and freeholders should not be disseised of their lands, goods or
chattels, otherwise than by order of the iustices or officers of the
king, so that they should be iudged in the kings courts according to the
lawfull customes and ordinances of the realme, and likewise that earle
John should cause the same orders to be obserued through all his lands.
Prouided that if any man attempted to doo otherwise vpon support or
maintenance of earle John, he should stand to be reformed by the
archbishop of Rouen if he chanced then to be in England, and by the
kings iustices, and by those that had sworne to obserue this peace: and
also earle John himselfe at their request should see such reformation to
be had.

Moreouer, it was agréed that all those castels that had bin built or
begun to be builded since the kings passage ouer towards his iournie,
should be razed, and no new made or fortified till his returne, except
in manours perteining to the kings demaine, if need required, or by his
speciall commandement, either by letters, or sufficient messengerrs.
That the shiriffewike of Lincolne, which the lord chancellour had
assigned vnto William de Stuteuille should be restored to Gerard de
Camuille, who had a daie appointed him to appéere in the kings court, to
heare what might be laid against him: and if such matter could be
prooued, for the which he ought to loose the said shiriffewike and the
castell of Lincolne, then he should depart from them by the iudgement of
the court, or else not. Neither should earle John mainteine him against
the iudgement of that court, nor should receiue any outlawes, or such as
were notoriouslie knowen for enimies to the king, and so named, nor
should suffer them to be receiued within the precinct of his liberties.

To hold, mainteine and obserue this peace, the said earle and
chancellour sware in the hand of the archbishop of Rouen with seuen
barons on either part. On the part of earle John these were the names of
them that receiued the oth: Stephan Ridell his chancellour, William de
la Mare, Robert de la Mare, Philip de Turechester, William de Kahennes,
Gilbert Basset & William de Montacute. On the chancellours part, the
earles of Arundell and Salisburie, earle Roger Bigot, and the earle of
Clare, with Walter Fitz Robert, William de Breuse, and Roger Fitz
Ramfrey. These things were concluded in this sort, the authoritie and
commandement of the king yet in all things saued and reserued: but so,
that if before his returne he should signifie his pleasure to the
contrarie of the ordinances aboue mentioned, then should the castels of
Notingham and Tickhill be restored vnto earle John, notwithstanding what
soeuer the king should command touching the same. [Sidenote: An. Reg.
3.] [Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _Polydor._] Thus was the peace concluded
eftsoones betwixt earle John and the chancellour.

[Sidenote: Geffrey the archbishop of Yorke. _Rog. Houed._] In this meane
while, Geffrey the elect archbishop of Yorke, after long suit and manie
delaies contriued, speciallie by the chancellour, obteined his pall,
being consecrated by the archbishop of Towrs, by virtue of his buls
obteined from pope Celestine. The chancellour aduertised herof, and
vnderstanding that he meant to come shortlie into England to be
installed, was in a great chafe, bicause that during the time of the
vacation, he had vsed the reuenues of that see at his pleasure, and
therefore now to forego them he was nothing contented. [Sidenote:
_Matth. Paris._] Herevpon he wrote his letters vnto Matthew de Clare
shiriffe of Kent in this forme.

     The lord chancellours letters to the shiriffe of Kent.

     Præcipimus tibi quòd si Eboracen. Electus ad aliquem portum in
     balliua tua applicuerit, aut aliquis nunciorum eius, eum retineri
     facias, donec mandatum nostrum indè receperis. Et similiter
     præcipimus, quòd omnes literas papæ aut magni alicuius viri quæ
     illic venerint, facias retineri. The English whereof is thus.

     "We command you that if the elect of Yorke shall arriue at any
     port or hauen within your bailiwicke, or any messenger of his,
     that you cause them to be arested and kept, till you haue
     commandement from vs therein. And we command you likewise, to
     stay, attach, and keepe all letters that come from the pope, or
     any other great man."

[Sidenote: _Polydor._ The death of the archbishop of Canturbury. _Io.
Textor._] Likewise, whereas Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, hauing
taken his iournie into the holie land, and arriuing there before the
king, chanced to depart this life at Tyrus, the last yeere, vpon the
feast daie of S. Edmund, the chancellour found meanes to keepe that sée
also vacant, that he might receiue the profits thereof, during the
vacation, and find meanes to be prepared to it in the end. But as
touching the sée of Yorke, although he had (as before is said) made his
hand of the reuenues belonging to the same from time to time at his
pleasure, yet now after that he heard how Geffrey had receiued the pall,
he made hauocke, wasting & spoiling all that would yeeld him anie monie,
without respect of right or wrong. Moreouer, he caused the hauens to be
watched, with commandement giuen to the townes on the sea coast, that
they should not suffer the archbishop Geffrey to take land. [Sidenote:
The archbishop arriued and is committed to ward.] At length yet he
arriued at Douer, where he was by the aforesaid Matthew de Clare first
staied, and after taken out of the abbeie by the chancellours
commandement, and committed to prison within the castell, where a Noble
man that had maried the chancellors sister was capteine.

The newes of whose imprisonment was anon bruted through the realme,
wherewith the Nobles fretted, and the commons curssed: finallie all men
detested such tyrannie in the chancellour. But namelie the kings brother
earle John stormed at the matter, and with all spéed assembled an armie
out of those places where he bare rule, increasing the number with a
power of Welshmen. There came to him the bishop of Winchester, with
manie earles and barons, also the bishop of Bath and Chester, which
latelie before had béene chéefe fauourers of the chancellour in all his
dooings: but now that the world was changed, they shewed themselues the
most earnest enimies he had, as well in words as déeds.

In an assemblie of all the bishops of England, all those were
excommunicate in solemne wise, with candels light, and other such
ceremonies, which had either giuen commandement, or were present as
partakers, to pull out of the church the archbishop of Yorke, or his
people by violence, and had imprisoned them in maner (as before yée haue
heard:) but this was after the archbishop was set at libertie, as shuld
appeare by Matthew Paris, for the chancellour repenting himselfe (though
now too late) of his cruell dealing against the archbishop of Yorke,
wherewith he had kindled such a brand against him, commanded the said
archbishop (namelie at the instant sute of the bishop of London, or
rather at the commandement of earle John, as Houeden saith) to be set at
libertie. But the displeasure once kindled in the hearts of the Nobles,
could not so easilie[8] be quenched with his deliuerie, as it was
spéedilie set on fire by his imprisonment, so that they being now in
armour, purposed to abate the pride of the chancellour, and to deliuer
the common-wealth, of such an vglie tyrant. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The
chancellour summoned to appeare.] And to begin, they summoned, and
assigned him a peremptorie day to appeare at Reading, to make answer
vnto such iniuaries as he had doone against the archbishop of Yorke, and
the bishop of Durham, sithens the departure of his souereigne lord the

At which day there came to Reading earle John, and the archbishop of
Rouen, with manie other bishops, earles, and barons, abiding there all
that day, to sée if the chancellour would appeare or no; but he came
not: wherevpon they prepared to march foorth towards London, and
therewithall set forward in like maner. He on the other side being a man
of a great courage, had gathered an armie of such strangers and other
his fréends as he could make, and therewith went foorth, and encamped
néere to Windsor, there to abide his aduersaries, and to giue them
battell, if they came forward and would abide it. But when they
approched, and he perceiued also how diuerse of his freends shranke from
him, and went to his enimies, he durst not attempt the hazard of a
field, [Sidenote: The chauncellour retireth to London.] but fled backe
to London, and there withdrew into the tower, with all his host, bicause
he durst not commit himselfe to the doubtfull fellowship of the
citizens. Through his great pride and statelie port which he mainteined,
as partlie yée haue heard, he had procured to himselfe no small hatred
amongst all degrees of men, and namelie such as by the kings appointment
ought to haue beene parteners with him in gouernement of the realme sore
repined at his presumptuous proceedings, for that he disdained (as it
séemed) to vse their aduise, or to ioine them with him in the
administration of things, so that now in time of his trouble he wist not
in whome he might put his trust.

After he was thus retired into the tower of London, earle John, the
archbishop of Rouen, and the other bishops, earles, and barons
associated togither against him, followed him at the héeles, entered the
citie, and besieged the tower on ech side. On the morrow after, being
the fourth day after the octaues of saint Michaell, they came togither
into Paules church-yard, [Sidenote: A declaration made against the lord
chancellour.] where they publikelie declared the iniurious wrongs doone
and practised by the chancellour; namelie against the archbishop of
Yorke, and the bishop of Durham. Those also that had béene appointed as
associats with him, accused him, in that he had taken vpon him to rule
and gouerne all things after his owne will, not vouchsafing to haue
their aduise or councell in such sort as had béene conuenient.

The archbishop of Rouen and William Marshall earle of Pembroke shewed
there before all the people the kings letters which he had sent from
Messina, [Sidenote: The tenor of this letter shall héereafter appeare.]
appointing that they should be associats with him in gouernment of the
kingdome; and that without the counsell and aduice of them and others
assigned thereto, he should not meddle with the rule of the land, and
that if he should doo any thing to the hinderance of the common-wealth,
or séeke to meddle with the affaires of the realme, without their good
aduise, that then he should be deposed. Héerevpon it seemed good to
earle John, and to all the bishops, earles and barons of the realme, and
to the citizens of London, there assembled, that the said chancellour
should be deposed, and so they proceeded, and deposed him in déed,
appointing the archbishop of Rouen in his place, who would not take vpon
him to doo anie thing touching the rule of the land, without consent of
his associats assigned to him, and the barons or the eschecker.

The same day, earle John, and the archbishop of Rouen, and other of the
kings iustices, [Sidenote: The citizens of London.] granted to the
citizens of London the priuilege of their communaltie; and the said
earle and archbishop, and in maner all the bishops, erls and barons of
the realme sware to mainteine the said priuilege firme and stable, so
long as should please their souereigne lord. And the citizens of London
sware to be true, and to doo their faithfull seruice vnto king Richard
and his heirs, and if he chanced to die without issue, then to receiue
earle John the brother of king Richard for their king and souereigne
lord, and therevpon sware fealtie to him against all men, sauing that
which they owed vnto his brother king Richard.

The chancellour perceiuing the multitude to be such which he had with
him in the tower, [Sidenote: The chancellour yéeldeth vp the tower.] as
the place was not able to hold them any long time, after he had remained
within it one night, he came foorth vnto earle John, and to the other
that were thus entred the citie, and now readie to besiege him, of whome
he got licence for them that were inclosed within the tower, to depart
without damage, and therewith deliuered vp the tower into the hands of
the archbishop of Rouen, with the castell of Windsor, and certeine other
castels, which he held within the realme, but not all: notwithstanding
he couenanted to make deliuerie of the residue, which yet remained in
the hands of them whome he had appointed to the kéeping of the same. And
for assurance of that couenant to be performed before he departed the
realme, he deliuered his brethren, and one that was his chamberleine, to
remaine with the lords as hostages.

This doone, he hasted to Canturburie, where he promised to receiue the
crosse of a pilgrime to go into the holie land, and to render vp the
crosse of his legatship, which he had vsurped a yeare and a halfe after
the death of pope Clement, to the preiudice of the church of Rome, and
to the detriment and great hinderance of the English church. For there
was not any church within the realme, which had not béene put to fine
and ransome by that crosse, nor any ecclesiasticall person went frée,
[Sidenote: The print of the legats crosse.] but the print of the crosse
appeared in him and his purse. From Canturburie he got him to Douer to
his brother in law, and finallie séeking means to passe ouer into
France, and doubting to be discouered, he apparelled himselfe in womans
raiment, [Sidenote: The bishop of Elie late lord chancellor disguiseth
himselfe in womans apparell.] & got a web of cloth on his arme, as
though he had beene some housewifelie woman of the countrie: but by the
vntowardlie folding and vncunning handling of his cloth (or rather by a
lewd fisherman that tooke him for an harlot) he was suspected and
searched so narrowlie, [Sidenote: He is bewraied.] that by his priuie
members he was prooued to be a man, and at length knowne, attached, and
committed to prison, after he had beene reprochfullie handled by them
that found him, and by the wiues of the towne, in such vnséemlie

Earle John would haue had him punished, and put to some open reproofe
for his passed tyrannicall dooings; [Sidenote: Earle John not y^e
bishops fréend.] but the bishops, and other of the barons, for reuerence
of his order, procured his deliuerance, with licence to passe ouer into
Normandie where he was borne. Thus was the bishop of Elie a man full of
pride and couetousnesse ouerthrowne with shame, and receiued for his hie
climing a reprochfull downefall: for none are more subiect to ruine and
rebuke, than such as be aloft and supereminent ouer others, as the poet
noteth well saieng:
    [Sidenote: _Ouid. lib. 1. de. rem. am._]
    Summa petit liuor, perflant altissima venti,
      Summa petunt dextra fulmina missa Iouis.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] In time he was deposed from his office of
being chancellour, and not without warrant, for in verie déed, king
Richard hauing receiued aduertisements from the lords and peeres of the
realme, of the chancellours presumptuous and hautie demeanour, with
wrongs offered to diuerse persons, wrote to them againe as followeth.

     A letter of king Richard directed to the States of the land for the
     deposing of the bishop of Elie from his office of lord chancellour.

     Richard king of England sendeth greeting to William Marshall, to
     Gilbert Fitz Peter, and Henrie Berdulfe, and to William Brewer,
     peeres. If it so chance that our chancellour hath not faithfullie
     handled the affaires and businesse of our realme (committed vnto
     him) by the aduise and counsell of you, and others to whome we
     haue also assigned the charge of gouernement of the same realme:
     we command you, that according to your disposition in all things
     to be doone concerning the gouernement thereof, you order and
     dispose as well for eschetes, as all other things, &c.

By force of this commission, the lords were the bolder to procéed
against him as ye haue heard. Now after his comming into the parties
beyond the seas, [Sidenote: The bishop of Elie complaineth of his wrongs
receiued.] he ceassed not with letters and messengers to present his
complaint to the pope of Rome, and to king Richard of the iniuries
receiued at the hands of earle John and his complices. [Sidenote: The
popes letters vnto the archbishope and bishops of England.] Herevpon
pope Celestine wrote in déed to all the archbishops and bishops that
were within the realme of England, in behalfe of the said bishop of
Elie, declaring, that for so much as the king of England was gone into
the holie land to warre against the enimies of our faith, leauing his
kingdome vnder the protection of the apostolike see, he could not but
haue speciall regard to see that the state, rights and honour thereof
were preserued from all danger of decaie.

[Sidenote: Note how the pope defendeth his chaplins.] Wherefore,
vnderstanding that there had beene certeine attempts made by John erle
of Mortaigne and others, both against the king and the bishop of Elie,
that was not onelie legat of the apostolike sée, but also gouernour of
the land appointed by the king, which attempt sounded greatlie to the
reproch of the church of Rome, and danger of damage to insue to king
Richard, if remedie were not the sooner found: therefore he commanded
them by the vertue of their obedience, to excōmunicat the earle of
Mortaigne, or any other that was knowne to haue laid any violent hands
vpon the said bishop of Elie, or deteined him as captiue, or inforced
him to any oth, or else had changed the state of rule in the kingdome of
England to other forme, than king Richard had ordeined at his setting
forward towards the holie land: and that not onelie all the
councellours, authors, aiders and complices of those that had committed
such outrage, but also their lands should stand interdicted, so that no
diuine seruice should be vsed within the precinct of the same, except
penance and christning of infants. This to remaine till the said bishop
& kingdome were restored into the former estate: and that the parties
excommunicated should present themselues with letters from the bishops
vnto the apostolike see to be absolued, etc.

Herevpon also the bishop of Elie himselfe wrote vnto the bishop of
Lincolne and other, touching this matter: but the bishops did neither
any thing in accomplishment of the effect of the popes letters, nor at
his owne supplication. And therefore perceiuing small helpe to come that
waie, he sought to obteine the fauour and fréendship of earle John, and
of his mother quéene Elianor. In the meane time, the lords, barons and
prelates of the realme, after they had depriued him of all authoritie,
and banished him out of the land, ordeined the archbishop of Rouen in
fauour of the kings commission, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Rouen
chéefe gouernour of England.] to haue the chéefe rule and administration
of things touching all the affaires of the common-wealth; but yet so as
earle John had the dooings in manie points, so that he might séeme in
manner an associat with him, whereof sprang much inconuenience. For this
John being a man (as he is noted by some writers) of an ambitious
nature, was suspected to aspire vnto the kingdome: in somuch that he had
ioined with the French king, after the same king was returned foorth of
the holie land, against his brother king Richard, if his mother quéene
Elianor had not persuaded him to the contrarie.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ _Wil. Paruus._ Fiftene saith _Functius_, but
others agrée with _Houed._ as _Gerardus Mercator_ citing _Albericus_ a
moonke.] Whilest these things were a dooing, on the twelfth daie of
Julie, the citie of Acres was surrendred into the Christian mens hands,
for the Soldan Saladine (being approched néere to the siege of the
christians with a puissant armie, in hope to haue raised their siege)
when he perceiued it laie not in his power to worke any feat to the
succour of his people within the citie, and that they were so
constreined that they must néeds yéeld, he holpe to make their
composition, and promised to performe certeine couenants on their
behalfe. Herevpon, the Saracens within Acres couenanted not onelie to
deliuer the citie vnto the christians with fiue hundred prisoners of
christians which they had within the same, but also to procure that the
holie crosse should be to them deliuered, with a thousand other
christian prisoners, such as the christian princes should appoint out of
those numbers which Saladine had in his custodie, and further, to giue
them two hundred thousand Besans. And till these couenants were
performed, it was agréed, that the Saracens, which were at that present
left within the citie, should remaine as pledges, vnder condition, that
if the same couenants were not performed within fortie daies, then
should they stand at the mercie of the christian princes as touching
life and lim.

[Sidenote: The citie of Acres.] These things thus concluded, and the
citie yéelded vp into the christian mens hands, the French king vpon
enuie and malice conceiued against king Richard (although he pretended
sicknesse for excuse) departed homewards, [Sidenote: The French K.
returneth home.] setting from Acres the last day of Julie. Now then,
after the departure of king Philip, when the day approched, in the which
the Saracens should performe the couenants; or else stand to the
iudgement of life and death at the pleasure of the christian princes: it
was perceiued that the couenants would not be fulfilled according to the
agréement. For Saladine, as it well appeared, ment not to performe that
which for the safegard of his men he had vndertaken, and did but dallie
with the christians to prolong the time: wherevpon sentence was giuen
foorth, that for default in such behalfe, the Saracens remaining as
pledges should loose their heads.

Saladine hauing knowledge thereof, sent word to king Richard and to the
whole christian armie, that if his people that were in the christian
mens hands lost their heads, he would not faile but cause the heads of
all those christians which he had in captiuitie to be cut off also.
Notwithstanding which answer, on the fourteenth day of August king
Richard issued foorth of the citie, passing the vttermost ditches, and
incamped himselfe neere the armie of Saladine, who the same daie sent
rich presents vnto king Richard, requiring of him a longer day for
performance of the couenants, but that would not be granted. [Sidenote:
Saladine causeth the christian prisoners to be beheaded.] Wherefore vpon
the said deniall, Saladine caused all those christian prisoners which he
had in his hands to be beheaded on the eightéenth day of August, on
which day king Richard aduanced foorth towards the lodgings of the
Saracens, and skirmished with them verie hotlie, so that manie were
wounded and slaine on both parts: and amongst other one of king Richards
companions at all exercises named Peter Mignot lost his life there.
Furthermore, although king Richard knew that Saladine had put the
christian prisoners to death in such wise as you haue heard, yet would
not he preuent his terme appointed for the execution of the Saracens
that were in his custodie, but abiding vnto the twentith day of August,
he then caused those Saracens which fell to his lot, at the time of the
surrender of Acres, being in number about 2600. to be brought foorth of
the citie, and néere to the walles in the sight of Saladine and all his
host they had their heads chopped off. The duke of Burgoigne caused
execution to be doone within the citie vpon those which fell to the
French kings share, the number of the which rose to two thousand and
foure hundred, or thereabouts: for the whole number was reckoned to be
about fiue thousand that thus lost their liues through the inconstancie
of their prince: yet diuerse of the principall had their liues saued.
The Saracens themselues also spake much euill of Saladine for this
matter, [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] bicause that refusing to performe the
articles of couenants, he had occasioned the enimie to slea those that
had so valiantlie serued in defense of the citie, to the vttermost
ieopardie of their liues. And heere is verified that knowne verse,
    Quicquid delirant reges plectuntur Achiui.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] But now to leaue forren matters, and to returne
home into England: we find, that on the second of December, the monks of
Canturburie chose to their archbishop Reignold bishop of Bath, who
within fifteene daies after his election, departed this life, and lieth
buried at Bath. [Sidenote: Strife betwixt y^e archbishop of York and the
bishop of Durham.] Also this yeare, or (as Ger. Dor. saith) in the yeare
following, the bishop of Durham sought meanes to withdraw his subiection
from the archbishop of Yorke, for which attempt the archbishop of Yorke,
vpon trust of the popes grant, did not excommunicate the said bishop,
notwithstanding that he appealed to the popes consistorie three seuerall
times, putting his owne matter and his churches to be examined and tried
by the pope, where vpon he obeied not the excommunication: and
signifieng the cause vnto Rome, obteined such fauour, that the pope and
his cardinals reuersed the sentence, and iudged the excommunication to
be of none effect. And further they decreed, that if the archbishop of
Yorke had broken the altars and chalices, as information was giuen, in
which the bishop of Durham had celebrated after his appeale made to the
court of Rome, that then should the said bishop of Durham be acquited
from owing any subiection to the said archbishop for so long as they two
should liue togither.

True it is, that the archbishop had not onelie broken the altars and
chalices which the bishop had vsed in déed for the celebration of masse,
but also held his owne brother John earle of Mortaigne for
excommunicate, bicause he had eat and dronke in companie of the said
bishop, and would not communicate with him, till he came to receiue
absolution, and to make satisfaction for his fault. In the end the
bishops of Lincolne and Rochester, with the abbat of Peterburrow, were
appointed by the pope to haue the hearing of this matter, as iudges
authorised by his buls, who sat therevpon at Northampton, vpon S. Calixt
his day, where after they had heard both parties argue what they could
in either of their cases, they gaue a longer day, to wit, vntill the
feast of the natiuitie of saint John Baptist next after, to see if by
anie good means there might some agréement haue beene had betwixt them,
or (if that could not be) that then the popes leters should stand in
force as before, & the helpes of either part saued, as though no delaie
had béene vsed. And to this, both parties were agreeable, speciallie at
the motion of the bishop of Lincolne.

[Sidenote: Roger Lacie conestable of Chester.] This yeare also, Roger de
Lacie conestable of Chester tooke Alan de Lec and Peter de Bouencort,
and vpon despite hanged them, for that being put in trust amongst other
with the kéeping of the castels of Notingham and Tickhill, which he had
receiued into his custodie of the bishop of Elie quondam lord
chancellour, they had consented to the treason of Robert de Crokeston, &
Eudo de Duuille, which deliuered the same castels vnto John earle of
Mortaigne. The same earle of Mortaigne was highlie offended for the
death of those two persons, and therefore wasted the lands of the said
Roger which lay within the compasse of his iurisdiction.

But now touching the departure of the French king from Acres, diuerse
occasions are remembred by writers of the emulation and secret spite
which he should beare towards king Richard, and beside other alreadie
touched, one was for enterteining and reléeuing the earle of Champaigne
in such bountifull wise in his necessitie, that he was readie to forsake
the French kings seruice, and cleaue to king Richard. But howsoeuer it
came to passe, partlie through enuie (as hath béene thought) conceiued
at the great déeds of king Richard, whose mightie power and valiantnesse
he could not well abide, and partlie for other respects him moouing, he
tooke the sea with thrée gallies of the Geneuois, and returned into
Italie, and so home into France, hauing promised first vnto king Richard
at his departure out of the holie land, and after to pope Celestine at
Rome, that he would not attempt any hurtfull enterprise against the
English dominions, till king Richard should be returned foorth of the
holie land. [Sidenote: The euill dealling & breach of promise of the
French king.] But this promise was not kept, for after that he was
returned into France, he first sought to procure the foresaid erle John,
king Richards brother, to rebell against him, promising him not onelie
aid to reduce all his brothers dominions into his hands, but also to
giue his sister Adela in marriage, whom king Richard vpon suspicion of
vnchast liuing, had forsaken, as before ye haue heard. But when earle
John was dissuaded by his mother, from accepting this offer (which
otherwise as it is said he would willinglie haue receiued) king Philip
still reteined a malicious rancor in his hart, and in reuenge of old
displeasures, would haue attempted the warre against the subiects of
king Richard, if his lords would haue ioined with him: but they
considering what slander would redound hereby both to him and them for
the iniurie doone to the christian common-welth, in making warre against
him that was occupied in defense of the faith against the common enimies
of christendome, would not giue their consent thereto, and so the matter
rested, till king Richard was taken prisoner in Almaigne, and then what
followed, it shall after appeare.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ Enuious discord among the christians.] In the
meane while, the christian armie atchiued some worthie enterprises in
the holie land, though not manie, by reason of such enuious discord as
reigned amongst the chéefe gouernours. It chanced yet on the éeue of the
Natiuitie of our ladie next after the departure of king Philip, as king
Richard marched foorth towards Japh ancientlie called Joppa, that the
Soldan Saladine taking aduantage of the place, did set vpon the rereward
of the christians: [Sidenote: K. Richard discomfiteth the Saracens néere
to Port Japh.] but his Saracens (after they had fought right fiercelie
from noone till sunne setting) were so beaten backe at length, and
repelled with such losse and disaduantage, that in 40. yeares before
they had not susteined at one time greater damage. Amongst other of the
christians slaine at that encounter, was one James Dauenes, a man of
high prowesse and valiancie.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] Moreouer, king Richard wan diuerse townes and
castels out of the enimies hands, as Ascalon, Darus, and diuerse other,
and some he fortified, as Ascalon aforesaid, and Port Japh, otherwise
called Joppa. There were sundrie encounters also betwixt the Saracens
and christians, wherein king Richard and his people bare themselues so
manfullie, that the victorie for the most part continuallie rested on
their side. [Sidenote: 1192.] At one time also, hearing of a great
conueie of vittels, munitions, and other things which came from Babylon
towards Jerusalem to furnish Saladine and his armie (which conueies they
call carauannes) king Richard with a competent power of men met them on
the waie, and distressed those that were attendant vpon the safegard of
that carriage, being in number about two thousand horssemen, besides a
great multitude of footmen, and therewith tooke the carriages with foure
thousand and six hundred camels and dromedaries, besides an innumerable
sort of mules, asses, and other beasts of burthen.

¶ But to speake of all the worthie exploits atchiued by king Richard and
his valiant capteins there in the holie land against the infidels, it
would require a long treatise, and therefore here we passe them ouer.
This is to be noted, that amongst other of whom we find honorable
mention made by writers for their high valiancie shewed in those
exploits, these are named as cheefe, [Sidenote: The names of such noble
men as were famous for their valiant dooings in this voiage.] Robert
earle of Leicester, Hubert bishop of Salisburie, with the earles of S.
Paule and Dreux, beside diuerse other, as Hugh de Gourney, William de
Borrez, Walcline de Ferrers, Roger de Toonie, James de Auenes, the
bishop of Beauuois, William de Barres, William de Tarland, Drogo de
Merlo, Robert de Nealle, Henrie Fitz Nicholas, Robert de Newburg, Rafe
de S. Marie, Arnold de Bois, Henrie de Mailoc, William & Saule de Bruil,
Andrew de Chauignie, Henrie de Graie, Peter de Pratellis, Stephan de
Turneham, Baldwin Carron, Clarenbald de Mount Chablon, Manser de Lisle,
Richard de Orques and Theodorike Philip, Ferrike de Vienne, Gilbert
Malemaine, Alexander d'Arsie, Stephan de Longchamp, Seguin de Barret,
Roger de Glanuille, Raimond Fitz Prince, Bartholomew de Mortimer, Gerard
Furniuall, Rafe de Malleon, Roger de Sacie, [Sidenote: De Poole aliàs de
Stagno.] William de Poole, Hugh de Neuill, Henrie Teutch or (if ye will)
Teutonicus the kings standardbearer, with diuerse others, as well
Englishmen, Frenchmen, Normans, Poictouins, Aniouines, Britans,
Gascoignes, as other nations, of whome partlie mention is alreadie made
before in this booke, and partlie for breefenesse diuerse are omitted.

But now to returne, sure it is, that king Richard meant to haue
recouered the citie of Jerusalem, and all the holie land out of the
Saracens hands, by the assistance of almightie God: if the doubt which
he had of his brother the earle of Mortaigns practises, & the French
kings doings, which were brought to him with a greeuous report, had not
reuoked him home. [Sidenote: _Galf. Vinsaf._] For diuerse messengers
were sent dailie into the holie land, to aduertise him of such dangers
as were like to insue, if by his speedie returne the same were not
preuented. And first after Easter, there came to him the prior of
Hereford with letters from the bishop of Elie, conteining a sore
information against his brother earle John, for hauing expelled those
whom he had appointed rulers ouer the realme of England, and altered the
state of things there contrarie to the ordinances by him deuised afore
his setting forward vpon his iournie (as before ye haue partlie heard.)

Vpon receipt of which letters, he meant immediatlie at the first to haue
returned, and to haue left behind him a conuenient power of men, to wit,
thrée hundred knights or men of armes, and two thousand chosen footmen,
to abide vpon the defense of the holie land, with other christians at
his costs and charges. But yet at length he was persuaded to tarrie,
speciallie till things were set in some better staie, which were out of
order by the death of the marques of Montferrato, lord of Tire,
[Sidenote: The marques of Montferrato murthered by the Assassini.] whom
two traitorous Saracens of the kind which they name Assassini had
murthered. After whose death Henrie earle of Champaigne nephue to king
Richard married his wife, and was made king of Jerusalem, Guido
resigning to him his title, vnto whome as it were in recompense king
Richard gaue the Ile of Cypres: although some write, that the knights
Templers had bought it of him before. Thus king Richard remaining still
in the holie land, shortlie after Whitsuntide, there came an other
messenger to him, one John de Alanzon a clearke, bringing worsse newes
out of England than the prior of Hereford had brought before, which in
effect conteined, [Sidenote: Earle John purposed to seize vpon the
kingdom in his brothers absence.] that his brother earle John was alied
as a confederat with the French king, and meant through his setting on,
to seize into his possession the whole realme of England,
notwithstanding the persuasion of his mother quéene Elianor and other
his fréends to the contrarie.

Herevpon king Richard was fullie persuaded to returne home, but yet
through the admonition of certeine persons, [Sidenote: William de
Poicters K. Richards chapleine.] and namelie of one William de Poicters,
a chapleine of his, he eftsoones altered his purpose, and so remained
there, till at length through enuie and malice still increasing amongst
the Christians, he perceiued how no good purpose go forward, since that
which séemed good to some, was misliked of other; and speciallie our
writers put great blame in the French men, who either vpon disdaine or
other displeasure would not be persuaded to follow their aduise, which
were knowne best to vnderstand the state of things in those parties. And
herevpon, when the armie was aduanced to Betenoble, a place not past
foure leagues distant from Jerusalem, bicause their mind might not be
fulfilled for the besieging of Jerusalem, which they had intended to
take in hand (whereas the residue would rather that they shuld haue gone
to besiege Babylon in Aegypt, and that vpon sundrie great respects) the
Frenchmen raised their field, and returned againe to Acres in great
despite, putting the rest of the armie also (so much as in them laie) in
danger of vtter ruine and distresse.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 4.] Then king Richard and the other Christian
capteins perceiuing how the matter inclined, and giuing ouer all hope of
any more good successe, followed them. So that after they were thus
returned to Acres, king Richard still doubting least his long absence
from home might put him in danger of more losse here, than he saw hope
of present gaine to be had there, in such diuersitie of humours and
priuie malice which reigned among them, he determined fullie to depart
homewards, with no lesse purpose to returne thither againe after he had
setled things at home in such sure stay as was expedient for the suertie
of his owne estate and quietnesse of his people. [Sidenote: _Wil.
Paruus._] Herevpon being readie to enter into his ships at Acres [or as
some haue, being on his iournie homewards in Cypres] he was aduertised
that the Souldane Saladine had taken the town of Japh, slaine a great
number of the christians within it, and besieged the residue within the
castell, the which (constreined through feare) had compounded to yéeld,
if within thrée daies there came no succour.

King Richard being hereof aduertised, and turning gréef into valiancie,
with all spéed sailed backe vnto Japh, and landing there with his
people, caused his enimies to forsake the towne: but anon assembling
themselues againe togither, they turned once more to besiege it,
wherevpon he issued foorth into the fields, [Sidenote: K. Richard
rescueth Port Japh.] and fought with them sundrie daies togither, till
finallie they were content to forsake their enterprise, and to depart
thence for altogither. In these conflicts the valiant courage of King
Richard, and the worthie manhood of his souldiers right well appeared:
[Sidenote: _Rad. Niger._ _Matth. Paris._] for he brought not with him at
that time vnto Japh aboue 80 men of armes, and foure hundred other
souldiers with crossebowes, and yet with that small handfull of men, and
some aid of them that he found there in the castell, he did not onelie
bid battell to the enimies, which were numbered to 62 thousand, but also
put them to the woorsse, and caused them to flee backe, to their great
shame and confusion.

[Sidenote: Cephas. K. Richard fell sicke.] Thus Japh being deliuered out
of the enimies hands, king Richard fell sicke at a castell called
Cephas, and so remained there certeine daies, till he had recouered his
health. In which meane time the Soldane Saladine seeming to lament his
case, sent vnto him certeine of his councellors to common with him of
peace, declaring that although he well vnderstood that king Richard ment
shortlie to returne into his countrie, and that after his departure out
of the east parts, he could with small adoo recouer all that the
christians yet held within the holie land, he would neuerthelesse in
respect of king Richards high prowes, and noble valliancie, grant a
peace for a certeine time, so that not onelie Ascalon, but also all
other such townes and places as the christians had fortified or woone
since the conquest of Acres should be raced, as touching their walles,
bulworks, gates, and other fortifications.

King Richard (though he perceiued that this offer of peace tended vnto
this point cheefelie, that Saladine would thereby adnihilate whatsoeuer
the christian armie had doone in the holie land since his & the French
kings arriuall, so that by the said peace he should gaine more than by
the edge of his sword) did somewhat staie at this offer and demand, as a
thing greatlie dishonourable to the christians, to lose by treatie of
peace so much or rather more than they got by force of warres (a meere
token of faint and féeble courage) yet considering that in such
necessitie both of his departure from thence, and also of lacke of other
succors to resist the puissance of the enimies, after his comming awaie,
he iudged it best to take the offer at the enimies hands in auoiding of
some greater euill. [Sidenote: A peace concluded betwixt the Christians
& Saracens.] Herevpon therefore was a peace concluded to endure for
thrée yeares, thrée moneths, thrée wéeks, thrée daies, and three houres,
to begin at Easter next insuing. And among other articles, it was
couenanted, that the christians should haue frée passage to come and go
vnto the citie of Jerusalem, to visit the holie sepulchre there, which
was granted; so that amongst a great number of christians that
presentlie vpon this conclusion went thither, [Sidenote: Hubert bishop
of Salisburie.] Hubert bishop of Salisburie was one, who had continued
about the king during the time of all his iournie till this time.

King Richard hauing thus concluded with Saladine, tooke the sea, and
comming againe into Cypres, sent his wife queene Berengaria with his
sister Joane (late quéene of Sicile) into England by the long seas, but
he himselfe not minding to lie long on the seas, [Sidenote: K. Richard
taketh his iornie homewards.] determined to take his course into Grecia,
and so by land to passe homewards with all speed possible. Howbeit yer
he could atteine his purpose, his chance was to be driuen by tempest
into the coast of Istria, not farre from Aquilia, where he stood in some
doubt of his life. For if he had beene knowne and taken, they would
surelie haue killed him, [Sidenote: K. Richard slandered for the death
of y^e marques of Montferrato.] bicause of the slander that went of
him, as guiltie of the death of Conrade the marquesse of Montferrato,
who indéed was slaine by two of the Assassini in the citie of Tyrus,
whilest king Richard was in the holie land (as before yée haue heard.)

He therefore hauing here made shipwracke, and doubting to fall into the
hands of any person in those parts that bare good will vnto the
marquesse (against whome he had indéed shewed himselfe not freendlie in
a quarrell betwixt the said marquesse and Guido king of Jerusalem) made
the best shift he could to get away, yet knowledge being had of him,
[Sidenote: _W. Paruus._ Erle of Gorze Saltzburge.] and serch made after
him by one Meinard of Gorezein, he lost eight of his seruants, and so
came to a towne within the bishoprike of Saltzburge called Frisake,
where he was eftsoones in danger to haue beene taken againe by one
Frederike de saint Soome, who notwithstanding tooke six of his men, but
yet he himselfe with three other of his companie made shift to get away.
[Sidenote: K. Richard commeth to Vienna.] Finallie comming to Vienna in
Austrich, and there causing his seruants to prouide meat for him, more
sumptuous and fine than was thought requisit for so meane a person as he
counterfeited then to beare out in countenance, it was streightwaies
suspected that he was some other maner of man than he pretended,
[Sidenote: _Polydor._] and in fine, those that marked more diligentlie
the maner of him, perceiued what he was, and gaue knowledge to the duke
of Austrich named Leopold, being then in the citie of Vienna, what they
had seene. His page that had the Dutch toong, going about the towne to
change gold, and buy vittels, bewraied him, hauing by chance the kings
gloues vnder his girdle: wherevpon comming to be examined for feare of
tortures confessed the truth.

[Sidenote: _Ra. Niger._] The duke streightwaies caused the house where
he was lodged, to be set about with armed men, and sent other into the
house to apprehend him. He being warie that he was descried, got him to
his weapon: but they aduising him to be contented, and alledging the
dukes commandement, he boldlie answered, "that sith he must be taken, he
being a king, would yéeld himselfe to none of the companie but to the
duke alone, and therefore if it would please him to come, he would yéeld
himselfe into his hands." [Sidenote: K. Richard submitteth himselfe to
the duke of Austrich.] The duke hearing of this, spéedilie came vnto
him, whom he meeting, deliuered vp his sword, and committed him vnto his
custodie. The duke reioising of such a preie, brought him vnto his
palace, and with gentle words enterteined him, though he meant no great
good towards him, as well inough appeared in that he committed him to
the keeping of certeine gentlemen, which without much courtesie looked
streightlie inough to him for starting awaie, in somuch that they kept
him in cold irons (as some authours doo write.) [Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]
He was taken after the maner aforesaid in December vpon S. Thomas éeue,
in the yéere of our Lord 1192. and in the fourth yeare of his reigne.

[Sidenote: _Polychron._] The duke of Austrich owght the king no good
will, bicause he had cast downe his ensignes pitcht vp in a turret at
Acres, which he had woone at the verie time when that citie was
deliuered by the Saracens: [Sidenote: The cause of the displeasure
betwixt the duke of Austrich & king Richard.] for while they were in
tretie on the one side, the duke on the other, not knowing anie thing
thereof, gaue the assault vnto that part of the towne which was
appointed vnto him to besiege. And so being entred the towne, and
perceiuing that by treatie it was to be deliuered, he retired into the
turret which he had first woone and entred, and there set vp his
standard and ensignes, which king Richard (as the Dutch writers affirme)
comming thither, threw downe and trode vnder his féet.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] But Geruasius Dorobornensis declareth this
matter somewhat otherwise, as thus. After that the said citie of Acres
was rendred into the christian mens hands (saith he) diuerse lords tooke
their lodgings as they thought good, and hanged foorth their ensignes.
And as it chanced, the duke of Austrich placing himselfe in one of the
fairest palaces of all the citie, put foorth his ensigne, whereof king
Richard being warie, came thither with a companie of hardie souldiers
about him, and threw downe the dukes ensigne, so displacing him out of
that so pleasant and beautifull a lodging. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] For
this cause, and also surmizing that king Richard should be guiltie of
the death of the marques Conrade, the duke of Austrich shewed such
discourtesie towards him. But concerning the murther of the marques, the
chéefe gouernour of those Saracens called Assassini cleared king Richard
by a letter written and directed vnto the duke of Austrich in manner as

     A letter directed to the duke of Austrich, wherein king Richard is
     cleared of the death of the marquesse of Mountferrat, whereof he
     was vehementlie suspected.

     Lvpoldo duci Austriæ, Vetus de Monte salutem. Cùm plurimi reges &
     principes vltra mare Richardum regem Angliæ & dominum de morte
     marchisi inculpent, iuro per dominum qui regnat in æternum, &
     per legem quam tenemus, quòd in eius mortem nullam culpam habuit.
     Est siquidem causa mortis ipsius marchisi talis. Vnus ex
     fratribus nostris in vnam nauem de Satalei, ad partes nostras
     veniebat, & tempestas illum fortè ad Tyrum appulit, & marchisus
     fecit illum capere & occidere, & magnam pecuniam eius rapuit. Nos
     verò marchiso nuncios nostros misimus, mandantes vt pecuniam
     fratris nostri nobis redderet, & de morte fratris nostri nobiscum
     se concordaret, & noluit.

     Nec non & nuncios nostros spreuit, & mortem fratris nostri super
     Reginaldum dominum de Sidonis posuit, & nos tantùm fecimus per
     amicos nostros, quod in veritate scimus, quòd ille fecit illum
     occidere & pecuniam rapere. Et iterum alium nuncium nostrum
     nomine Edrisum misimus ad eum, quem in mare mergere voluit, sed
     amici nostri illum à Tyro festinanter fecerunt recedere, qui ad
     nos peruenit, & ista nobis nunciauit. Nos quoque ex illa hora
     marchisum desiderauimus occidere. Túncque duos fratres misimus ad
     Tyrum, qui eum apertè & ferè coram omni populo Tyri occiderunt.

     Hæc ergò fuit causa mortis marchisi, & benè dicimus vobis in
     veritate, quòd dominus Richardus rex Angliæ in hac marchisi morte
     nullam culpam habuit. Et qui propter hoc domino regi Angliæ malum
     fecerunt, iniustè fecerunt, & sine causa. Sciatis pro certo, quòd
     nullum hominem huius mundi pro mercede aliqua vel pecunia
     occidimus, nisi priùs nobis malum fecerit. Et sciatis quòd has
     literas fecimus in domo nostra ad castellum nostrum Messiat in
     dimidio Septembri, anno ab Alexandro 1505.

       *       *       *       *       *

     The same in English.

     Vetus de Monte to Lupold duke of Austrich sendeth greeting. Where
     manie kings and princes beyond the seas blame Richard king of
     England of the marques his death, I sweare by the lord that
     reigneth euerlastinglie, and by the law which we hold, that he
     was not in fault for his death. For the verie cause of the
     marques his death was such as followeth. One of our brethren in a
     ship of Satalie came towards our parties, and chanced by tempest
     to be driuen vnto Tyre, and the marques caused him to be taken
     and slaine and tooke a great portion of monie that he had in the
     ship with him. Whervpon we sent our messengers to the marques,
     commanding him to restore vnto vs the monie of our brother, and
     to compound with vs for our said brothers death, and he would

     Moreouer, he also contemned our messengers, & laid the fault of
     our brothers death vpon Reginald lord of Sidon, and we did so
     much through our freends, that we got full vnderstanding that the
     marques himselfe caused him to be slaine, and tooke his monie.
     And therefore we sent vnto him againe an other messenger named
     Edrisus, whome he would haue drowned in the sea, but our freends
     made such shift, that they procured him to depart with speed from
     Tyre, who returned to vs, and signified these things to vs for
     certeine. And from that houre euer after we had a desire to slea
     the marques: and so then we sent two of our brethren vnto Tyre,
     who openlie, & in a manner in presence of all the people of Tyre
     slue him.

     This therefore was the verie cause of the death of the marques: &
     we say to you in good sooth, that the lord Richard king of
     England, in this death of the marques was nothing culpable: and
     they that haue doone anie displeasure vnto the king of England
     for this cause, they haue doone it wrongfullie, and without anie
     iust occasion. Know ye for certeine, that we do not vse to kill
     anie man of this world for anie bribe, or for monie, except he
     haue doone to vs some harme afore time. And know ye that we haue
     made these letters in our house at our castell of Messuat, in the
     midst of September, in the yeare from Alexander the great, 1505.

¶ Thus we see how king Richard was cleared of that crime concerning the
marques his death by the tenour of this letter. And verelie it is most
like that king Richard would haue béene loth to haue communicated his
purpose vnto such a wicked kind of pagans as the Assassini were, if he
had pretended any such matter, but rather would haue sought his reuenge
by some other meanes. Now therefore to our purpose.

The newes of the taking of king Richard was anon bruted and blowne ouer
all Germanie, wherevpon the emperour Henrie the sixt, the sonne of
Frederike the first, [Sidenote: 1193.] sent in all hast vnto the duke,
persuading him to deliuer the king into his hands, being able to
susteine and abide the malice of all them that would be offended with
the taking and deteining of him prisoner, as the pope and others. The
emperour well vnderstood the wealth and riches of England, and therefore
hoped to make some good purchase by ransoming the king, if he might get
him out of the dukes hands. The duke perceiuing also the emperours
meaning, durst not well denie his request, [Sidenote: The king is
deliuered to the emperor. _Matth. Paris._] and therefore he deliuered
the king vnto them that were sent from the emperour, who couenanted to
giue vnto the said duke the summe of 6000. pounds of Cullen weight for
the hauing of the said king. The emperour thus receiuing the king at the
hands of the duke of Austrich, commanded that he should be committed to
close prison, and would not doo so much as once speake with him. This he
did, to cause the king vpon an indignation and wearinesse of that maner
of life, to make speed in offering some large masse of monie for his
libertie & deliuerance. ¶ Thus we sée how couetousnesse infected the
hearts of the mightie, and what occasion the emperour and duke did take,
to inrich themselues by the meanes of the king, whome they forced not to
impouerish, so their owne greedie worme were serued. But this hath béene
a disease not so generall as ancient, according to his words that said,
    [Sidenote: _Ouid. lib. Fast. 1._]
    Vix ego Saturno quenquam regnante videbam,
      Cuius non animo dulcia lucra forent.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] Here is to be remembred by the waie, that
about the same time, or somewhat before, [Sidenote: Two legats from y^e
pope.] in the yeare of our Lord 1192. the pope sent two legats (namelie,
Octauian bishop of Hostia, and Jordane de Fossa noua) into Normandie, to
reconcile the bishop of Elie and the archbishop of Rouen: but comming
vnto Gisors, they were staied from entring any further into the
countrie, [Sidenote: Normandie interdicted.] wherevpon they did
interdict the whole duchie of Normandie, togither with William Fitz
Radulfe lord steward of that countrie, bicause he was the man that had
so staied them. Immediatlie herevpon, queene Elianor, and the archbishop
of Rouen sent vnto those legats Hugh bishop of Durham, requiring them to
release that sentence of interdiction so pronounced against the steward
and countrie of Normandie in the kings absence, but they would not,
except they might be receiued into Normandie: howbeit, the pope being
sent vnto, released it, and caused the legats to release it also, and
yet they entred not into Normandie at all.

[Sidenote: The earle of Pieregort & others wast the K. of Englands
lands.] This yeare, whilest the seneschall of Gascoigne laie sicke, the
earle of Pieregort, and the vicount of March, and almost all the lords
and barons of Gascoigne, began to waste and destroie the lands of king
Richard. And though the seneschall manie times by messengers required a
peace, or at the least some truce, yet could he not haue any grant
thereof: [Sidenote: The seneschal of Gascoigne reuengeth iniurie.]
wherfore vpon his recouerie of health he inuaded the lands of the said
earle, tooke the castels and fortresses and some of them he fortified,
and kept to the kings vse, and some of them he raced downe to the
ground. He also inuaded the vicounts countrie, and subdued it to the
kings gouernement. [Sidenote: The king of Nauarres brother.] Shortlie
after came the brother of the king of Nauarre, with eight hundred
knights or men of armes to the seneschals aid, and so they two togither
entring into the lands of the earle of Tholouse, tooke diuerse castels
and fortresses within the same, of the which some they fortified, and
some they raced, and rode euen to the gates of Tholouse, and lodged in
maner vnder the walles of the citie.

A little before Christmas also, diuerse of those that had béene in the
holie land with king Richard, came home into England, not knowing but
that king Richard had beene at home before them, and being asked where
they thought he was become, they could say no more but that they had
seene the ship wherein he first went aboord, arriuing at Brendize in
Puglia. At length, when newes came that he was taken and staied as
prisoner, the archbishop of Rouen and other the rulers of the realme of
England, [Sidenote: The abbats of Boxley and Roberts-bridge.] sent the
abbat of Boxeley and the abbat of Roberts-bridge with all spéed into
Almaine to speake with him, and to vnderstand his state, and what his
pleasure was in all things. Who comming to Germanie, passed through the
countrie into Baierland, where at a place called Oxefer they found the
king as then on his iournie towards the emperour, to whom (as yée haue
heard) the duke of Austrich did send him. The said abbats attended him
to the emperours court, and remained there with him till the emperour
and he were accorded, in manner as after shall be shewed: and then after
Easter they returned with the newes into England.

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] Vpon report hereof order was taken for manie
things, but cheefelie for the state: in which dealings, forsomuch as
those which had the rule of the land stood in great doubt of things (for
the inconstant nature of earle John was of them much suspected) first
they caused a new oth of allegiance to be made to king Richard, and
receiued of the people. They fortified also such townes and castels as
were of importance, both with repairing the walles and other defenses
about the same, and furnishing them with men, munition and vittels. Thus
was the land brought into some order.

[Sidenote: The French king counselleth K. John to vsurpe against his
brother.] In the meane while, the French king being aduertised that king
Richard was deteined as prisoner reioised not a little thereat, and with
all speed by secret messages did send for his brother earle John, who
was readie to come at his call. And being come, he exhorted him not to
suffer so conuenient an occasion to passe, but to take the gouernement
of the realme of England now into his hands, promising him all such aid
as he could of him reasonablie require: with other like talke still
tending to the prouocation of the earle to forsake his allegiance vnto
his brother. And to say the truth, earle John was easilie persuaded so
to doo, and therefore vpon his immediat returne into England, assembled
an armie, and with the same (and such strangers as he brought with him)
began to prooue maisteries, first winning the castels of Windsore,
Wallingford, Notingham, and diuerse other, and fortifieng the same to
his owne vse and defense.

The barons of the land, iudging such vnlawfull doings not to be anie
longer suffered, first besieged the castell of Windsore, and after
preparing to leuie a greater force, did put them within in such feare,
that they yéelded vp the same, séeking to escape by flight, some into
one place, and some into an other, the which yet being apprehended were
put to worthie execution. [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] But this was not doone
without continuance of time, & without great trouble & charges to the
realme: for whereas there was a practise betwixt the French king and
earle John, that a great power of strangers, & namelie Flemings should
haue come into the realme (for whose transporting a great number of
ships were brought togither at Witsand) yet the high prouidence and
goodnesse of God disappointed their purpose. For their messengers being
taken which were sent hither into England, the treason was reuealed, and
by the queene mothers appointment (who cheefelie then ruled the land) a
great companie of knights, men of armes, and commons of the countrie,
watched the sea coasts ouer against Flanders, to keepe the enimies from
landing. They began thus to watch in the passion wéeke, and so continued
till a certeine time after Easter. Howbeit earle John came secréetlie
ouer, in hope to haue not onelie the assistance of the Welshmen and of
manie other his freends in England, but also of the Scots, howbeit, the
king of Scots would not meddle. He therefore with such Welshmen and
other as he had brought ouer, and such Englishmen as he could get to
take his part, began such attempts (as before ye haue heard) to the
disquieting of the whole realme, and great displeasure of the king.

Moreouer, beside that power of the barons which laid siege to Windsor
castell, there were Noble men also in other parts of the realme that
were readie to resist him. [Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke. Hugh
Bardolfe. William de Stuteuille.] And amongst other, Geffrey the
archbishop of Yorke, with Hugh Bardolfe one of the kings iustices, and
William de Stuteuille, assembled an armie, and comming to Doncaster,
fortified[9] the towne: but when the archbishop would haue gone forward
to besiege the castell of Tickhill, which earle John had in possession,
the other two his associats would not consent to go with him, bicause
they were seruants, and reteined with earle John. Herewith the
archbishop being sore offended, departed from them, calling them
traitors to their king, and enimies to the realme.

About the same time did the French king enter into Normandie with an
armie, & comming to the towne of Gisors, besieged it, the which one
Gilbert de Vascoll or Guascoill capteine thereof (to his high reproch)
yéelded vp vnto him, with an other castell also called Nefle, which he
had likewise in kéeping. [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] After this, the
French king entring into the countrie of Veuxine or Veulquessine, wan
diuers towns and fortresses in the same, and passing forward, tooke Val
de Rueil, and Neusburge, [Sidenote: Rouen besieged.] and finallie
comming before the citie of Rouen he laid siege thereto: [Sidenote: The
earle of Leicester.] but the earle of Leicester being gotten into the
citie before the French kings comming thither, so incouraged the
citizens, that they stoutlie standing to their defense, caused the
French king to his great dishonour to raise his field, hauing lost there
more than he wan. [Sidenote: _Polydor._] Yet to saue other townes and
castels from taking, and the countrie from destruction, the rulers of
the same procured a truce for a great summe of monie, which they
couenanted to giue, deliuering vp foure notable castels by waie of
engagement, till the summe agreed vpon should be to him contented and
dulie paid.

In the meane time, earle John as head of all the conspiratours,
perceiuing himselfe not able to atchieue his purpose as then, nor to
resist the lords and barons of the realme, being vp in armour against
him, and now growen to greater stomach, bicause they vnderstood by the
bishop of Salisburie latelie arriued, of the kings welfare, and hope of
deliuerance; and furthermore, considering that he was disappointed both
of Scots and Flemings as he had well hoped should haue come to his aid:
he tooke a truce with the lords of the kings side, by the earnest
trauell of the bishop of Salisburie, [Sidenote: Michaelmas, saith _Ger.
Dorob._] till the feast of All saincts, so as the castels of Windsore,
Wallingford, and the Peake, should remaine in the hands of his mother
queene Elianor; but the castels of Notingham and Tickhill remained still
in his owne possession, the which with such other castels as he held
within the land, he furnished with garrisons of his owne men and
freends, and then went againe ouer into France to the French king, to
purchase some new aid at his hands according to his promise.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] Here will we leaue earle John conferring with
the French king, and returne to the king of England. Vpon Palmesundaie
after that he was deliuered (or rather betraied) into the emperours
hands, he was brought before the princes and lords of the empire,
[Sidenote: The emperour chargeth king Richard with iniuries doone to the
Sicilians.] in whose presence the emperour charged him with diuerse
vnlawfull dooings: and namelie picked a quarell at him for the wrongs
and hurts doone to the Sicilians in time of his soiourning in their Ile,
as he went towards the holie land. For albeit the said emperour had
nothing as then to doo in the countrie, yet for somuch as he had latelie
recouered the Ile of Sicile out of king Tancreds hands, and was now
intituled king thereof by the pope, in right of his wife Constance, the
daughter of Roger king of Sicile, and so by reason therof seemed to be
gréeuouslie offended with him for his dooings about the recouering of
the monie from Tancred, which neuerthelesse was iustlie due vnto his
sister for her dowrie, as in the processe afore I haue alreadie
declared. [Sidenote: _W. Paruus._ _Matth. West._ The kings wisdome in
making his answere.] King Richard notwithstanding these vaine and other
friuolous obiections laid to his charge, made his answears alwaies so
pithilie and directlie to all that could be laid against him, and
excused himselfe in euerie point so not onelie greatlie commended him
for the same, but from thencefoorth vsed him more courteouslie, and
suffered that his fréends might haue accesse to him more fréelie than
before they could be permitted.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._] The pope also being aduertised of the taking of
king Richard, was much offended, that anie Christian prince, hauing
taken vpon him the defense of the Christian faith against the infidels,
should be so vsed in his returne from so godlie an enterprise: and
therefore sent both to the duke of Austrich, and to the emperour,
requiring them to set him at libertie. But the emperour declared
plainlie that he would be answered for such summes of monie as king
Richard had taken out of Sicile before he would release him or set him
at libertie.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Salisburie sent into England.] When king
Richard perceiued that no excuses would serue, though neuer so iust, but
that he must néeds paie to his couetous host some great summe of monie
for his hard interteinment, he sent the bishop of Salisburie into
England, to take order with the barons of the realme to prouide for the
paiment of his ransome, which bishop (as yée haue heard) after the peace
concluded with Saladine, went vnto Jerusalem to visit the holie
sepulchre, and now comming into Sicile, as he returned homewards, had
knowledge there how king Richard was taken prisoner in Austrich, and
remained in the emperours hands: wherevpon he turned that waie foorth,
and comming to him, was now sent into England with commission (as I haue
said) to leauie monie for the kings ransome. He landed here the twentith
day of Aprill, [Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] by whose comming the land was the
sooner brought in quiet: for the agréement which earle John tooke (as
before yée haue heard) was cheefelie procured by his meanes. For till
his comming, the castell of Windsore was not woone, the siege being but
slackelie followed by the archbishop of Rouen, who had diuerse of his
fréends within it, and therefore was not verie earnest against them.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The bishop of Elie commeth to the king.] When
the bishop of Salisburie was departed towards England, the bishop of
Elie came to the king and trauelled so earnestlie betwixt the emperour
and him, that finallie the emperour (partlie through his suit, & partlie
for that he had beene verie much called vpon by the pope and other for
his deliuerie) tooke order with him for the redéeming of his libertie,
[Sidenote: The emperor agréeth with king Richard for his ransome. _N.
Triuet._ _Matth. Paris._] and appointed what summe he should pay for his
ransome, which (as some write) was two hundred thousand markes: other
saie that it was but 140 thousand marks of the poise of Cullen weight.
But William Paruus, who liued in those daies, affirmeth it was one
hundred thousand pounds, and Roger Houeden saith an hundred thousand
marks of Cullen poise, to be paid presentlie at the kings first comming
into England, and fiftie thousand marks afterwards, that is to say,
thirtie thousand to the emperour, and twentie thousand to the duke of
Austrich, as it were in recompense of the iniurie done to him in the
holie land; where king Richard ouerthrew his ensignes: and for the same
to deliuer sufficient suerties.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ Lands assigned to king Richard.] Moreouer, we
find in Roger Houeden that the emperour amongst other the articles of
this agréement thus concluded betwixt him and king Richard, gaue and
granted, and by his letters patents confirmed vnto him these lands
hereafter mentioned, that is to saie: Prouance with the citie of Vienne,
and Viennois, the citie of Marseils, Narbon, Arles and Lion vpon the
Rhone, with the countrie vp to the Alps, and all those possessions which
belonged to the empire in Burgoine, with the homages of the king of
Aragon and of the earle of S. Giles: wherein is to be noted, that with
the precinct of the premisses thus granted to king Richard, fiue
archbishops sées, and thirtie three bishops sées are included. Howbeit
the truth is, that the emperour neuer had possession of these countries,
cities, and towns himselfe, neither would the inhabitants receiue any
person so by him appointed to their lord and gouernour, wherefore the
king made small account of that his so large grant. But after he once
vnderstood the certeintie of the summe that he should paie for his
ransome (which businesse he most attended) he sent one with letters by
and by and in great hast into England to his treasurers, requiring them
with all conuenient spéed to prouide monie, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] and
to send it to him by a day, that he might be set at libertie with spéed.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ Order taken for leuieng monie to paie the kings
ransome.] These letters being come to the quéene mother, and other that
had charge in gouernance of the realme, tooke order that all maner of
persons as well spirituall as temporall, should giue the fourth part of
their whole reuenues to them for that yeare accrewing, and as much more
of their mooueable goods, and that of euerie knights fée there should be
leuied the sum of twentie shillings. Also that the religious houses of
the orders of the Cisteaux and Sempringham should giue all their wools
for that yeare towards the kings ransome.

[Sidenote: The hard dealing of officers in the collection.] Now those
that had commission to leuie this monie, being poisoned with
couetousnesse, and incensed with a gréedie desire (than the which as the
poet saith,
    ---- nulla est hac maior Erinnys,
    Hanc memorant Acheronte satam, per tristia Ditis
    Regna truces agitare faces, &c.)
vsed much streightnesse in exacting it, not onelie leuieng it to the
vttermost value and extent of mens lands, goods, and possessions, but
after their owne willes and pleasures: so that vnder colour of the kings
commission, and letters to them directed, there séemed not a tribute or
subsidie to be raised, but by some publike proclamation all the goods
and substance of the people to be appointed as a prey to the kings
officers, whereby it came to passe, that not onelie priuate mens goods,
[Sidenote: Church iewels.] but also the chalices, iewels, and vessels
belonging to the church were turned into monie, and a farre greater
summe made than was at the first commanded, a great part of the ouerplus
being conuerted to the vse of those, through whose hands the receipt
passed. There was no priuilege nor freedome allowed to exempt any person
or place for being contributorie towards the paiment of this monie. The
order of Cisteaux that were neuer charged with any paiment before, were
now assessed more déepelie than the rest.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Norwich.] The bishop of Norwich lamenting the
iniurious dealings of the pettie officers, and pittieng the people of
the church, collected halfe the value of all the chalices within his
diocesse himselfe, and to make vp the other halfe of the whole summe, he
spared not to giue a great portion of his owne treasure. [Sidenote: The
abbat of saint Albons.] The abbat of S. Albons acquitted all those
churches within the compasse of his iurisdiction, by the gift of an
hundred marks. [Sidenote: The bishop of Chester.] But the bishop of
Chester had verie ill lucke with his collections; for hauing gathered a
great summe of monie to the kings vse, he was spoiled thereof in one
night, as he lodged neere vnto Canturburie, being vpon his iournie
towards the king. [Sidenote: Matthew de Cléere.] And bicause Matthew de
Cléere that laie in the castell of Douer was knowne to aid those that
robbed the said bishop, the archbishop of Canturburie pronounced him

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The bishop of Elie.] About this time, and on the
morrow after the natiuitie of saint John Baptist, the bishop of Elie
lord chancellour arriued in England, not shewing himselfe in any
statelie port (for he tooke vpon him neither the dignitie of chancellour
nor legat, nor yet of iustice) but onelie as a simple bishop and
messenger sent from the king. The quéene mother, the archbishop of
Rouen, and such other as had gouernment of the land, hearing of his
comming, met him at saint Albons, where he shewed to them the emperours
letters, conteining the agreement made betwixt him and king Richard, and
withall appointed certeine lords & barons to go with him at his returne
backe to the king, as Gilbert bishop of Rochester, Sifrid bishop of
Chichester, Bennet abbat of Peterborow, Richard earle of Clare, Roger
Bigot earle of Norfolke, Geffrey de Saie, and diuerse other. It was also
ordeined at this same time, that the monie gathered towards the paiment
of the kings ransome should remaine in custodie of Hubert bishop of
Salisburie, Richard bishop of London, William earle of Arundell,
Hameline earle of Warren, and of the Maior of London, vnder the seales
of the quéene mother, and of the archbishop of Rouen.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5.] ¶ But sée the hap of things, whilest ech one was
thus occupied about the aforesaid monie; [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] it
chanced that king Richard was at the point to haue béene deliuered into
the hands of his deadlie aduersarie the French king, as hereafter you
shall heare, noting by the waie the dangerous estate of princes, the
manifold distresses whereinto by sinister fate (as well as the inferior
& rascall rout of common drudges) they be driuen. For what greater
calamitie, what gréeuouser hartach, what more miserable casualtie could
haue happened vnto a bondman, than to be deliuered to and fro from the
hand of one enimie to another, to be bought and sold for monie, to stand
to the courtesies of forren foes, of a king to become a captiue?
whervnto the poet did right well allude, when he said,
    [Sidenote: _Hor. lib. car. 1. ode 10._]
    Sæpius ventis agitatur ingens
    Pinus, & celsæ grauiore casu
    Decidunt turres, feriúntq; summos
      Fulmina montes.

The emperour vpon displeasure conceiued against the bishop of Liege,
which latelie had atteined to that benefice contrarie to the emperours
pleasure, who wished the same rather to an other person, [Sidenote: The
bishop of Liege murthered.] hired certeine naughtie fellowes to go into
France, where the bishop remained for feare of the emperours malice, and
there to find meanes traitorouslie to slea him, which they accordinglie
did, by reason whereof the duke of Louaigne that was brother to the
bishop, and other of his kinsmen, vpon knowledge had thereof, meant to
haue made the emperour warre, in reuenge of that murther: insomuch that
the emperour, to haue the French kings aid against them, was minded to
haue deliuered K. Richard vnto him.

Howbeit after that the matter was taken vp, and a concord made betwixt
the emperour and his nobles, he changed his purpose also touching the
deliuering ouer of king Richard, who perceiuing that till his ransome
were paid (which would amount to the summe of an hundred & fiftie
thousand marks) he should not get libertie: and putting great confidence
in the dexteritie and diligence of Hubert bishop of Salisburie (whome he
sent as ye haue heard into England to deale for the leuieng of the same)
he thought good to aduance the same bishop to the metropolitane sée of
Canturburie, which had beene vacant euer sithence the decease of
archbishop Baldwine, that died (as ye haue heard) in the holie land.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._] Herevpon writing to the bishops of the
realme, and to the moonks of Canturburie, he required them to procéed to
the election of an archbishop for that see, and withall commended vnto
them the foresaid Hubert, as a man most sufficient and méet for that
roome. [Sidenote: Hubert bishop of Salisburie elected archbishop of
Cāturburie.] He wrote likewise to the queene to further that matter, and
easilie hereby obteined his desire. For shortlie after, the same Hubert
was elected by the bishops and moonks, which assembled togither for that
purpose. He was the 41 archbishop that gouerned that see: for although
Reginold bishop of Bath was elected before him, yet bicause he died yer
he was installed, he is not put in the number.

The king being now put in good hope of his spéedie deliuerance, sent
into England, willing his mother quéene Elianor, the archbishop of Rouen
and others, to come ouer vnto him into Almaine, [Sidenote: Hubert
archbishop of Cāturburie, lord chéefe iustice.] and in the meane time he
ordeined Hubert the archbishop of Canturburie to remaine at home as lord
cheefe iustice. After this, the emperour with the aduice of the princes
of the empire, assigned a day to king Richard, in which he should be
deliuered out of captiuitie, which was the mondaie next after the
twentith day of Christmasse. Wherevpon king Richard wrote vnto Hubert
archbishop of Canturburie in forme as followeth.

     The tenour of king Richards letters to the said archbishop.

     Richardus Dei gratia rex Angliæ, & dux Normaniæ & Aquitaniæ, &
     comes Andigauiæ, venerabili patri nostro in Christo, & amico
     charissimo Huberto eadem gratia Cantuariensi archiepiscopo
     salutem & sinceræ dilectionis plenitudinem. Quoniam certiores
     sumus, quòd liberationem nostram plurimùm desideratis, & quòd
     liberatio nostra admodum vos lætificat, scripto volumus quòd
     lætitiae nostræ participes sitis. Inde est quòd dilectioni vestræ
     dignum duximus significare, dominum imperatorem certum diem
     liberationis nostræ nobis praefixisse, in die lunæ proxima post
     vicessimum diem natiuitatis Domini, & die dominica proxima
     sequenti coronabimur de regno prouinciæ, quod nobis dedit. Vnde
     mittimus in Angliam literas domini imperatoris super hijs
     patentes, vobis & cæteris amicis nostris beneuolis. Vos autem
     interim pro omni posse vestro quos scitis nos diligere, consolari
     velitis, & quos scitis promotionem nostram desiderare. Teste
     meipso apud Spiram 22. die Septembris.

The emperour also signified by his letters to the lords of England his
resolute determination in this matter, as followeth.

     The tenour of the emperours letters to the States of England
     touching king Richard, and the day of his deliuerance, &c.

     Henricus Dei gratia Romanorum imperator, & semper Augustus,
     dilectis suis archiep. episcopis, comitibus, baronibus,
     militibus, & vniuersis alijs fidelibus Richardi illustris regis
     Anglorum gratiam suam & omne bonum. Vniuersitati vestræ duximus
     intimandum, quòd dilecto amico nostro Richardo illustri regi
     Anglorum domino vestro certum diem liberationis suæ statuimus, Ã
     secunda feria post diem natiuitatis domini in tres septimanas
     apud Spiram siue apud Berenatiam, & inde in septem dies posuimus
     ei diem coronationis suæ de regno Prouinciæ, quod ei promisimus:
     & hoc certum habeatis, & indubitatum, nostri siquidem propositi
     est, & voluntatis, præfatum dominum vestrum specialem promouere
     sicut amicum nostrum, & magnificentiùs honorare. Datum apud
     Theallusam vigilia beati Thomæ Apostoli.

Before this king Richard had sent the bishop of Elie into France vnto
his brother earle John, who preuailed so much with him, that he returned
into Normandie, and there sware fealtie vnto his brother king Richard,
and so was contented to forsake the French king. But whereas king
Richard commanded that all such castels and honours as he had giuen to
him afore time, should now be restored to him againe, as well those in
England, as the other on the further side the sea: such as had the same
castels in kéeping would not obeie the kings commandement herein,
[Sidenote: The kings commandement not obeied.] refusing to make
restitution of those places, according to the tenour & purport of the
kings writ, vnto the said earle of Mortaigne, by reason of which
refusall, he returned againe to the French king, and stucke to him.
Herevpon the French king gaue vnto him the castels of Dreincourt, and
Arques, the which ought to haue béene deliuered vnto the archbishop of
Reimes as in pledge, who had trauelled as a meane betwixt the French
king to whom he was vncle, and the king of England to whom he was
cousine, procuring a meeting for agreement to be had betwixt them at a
certeine place betwixt Vaucolur and Tulle in the borders of Lorraine.
But notwithstanding all that he could doo, matters were so farre out of
frame, and such mistrust was entred into the minds of the parties, that
no conclusion held. So that all the hope which king Richard had, was by
paiment of his ransome to redéeme his libertie, and then to shift with
things as he might. [Sidenote: 1194.] And so finallie when the monie was
once readie, or rather a sufficient portion thereof, the same was
conueied ouer into Germanie, and paiment made to the emperour of the
more part of the kings ransome, and sufficient pledges left with him for
the rest, as the archbishop of Rouen, the bishop of Bath [Baldwin Wac]
and other which were of late come out of England to see and salute the

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ King Richard released out of captiuitie.]
Herevpon king Richard, after he had beene prisoner one yeare, six
weekes, and thrée daies, was set at libertie on Candlemasse day (as most
writers agrée) and then with long and hastie iournies, not kéeping the
high waies, he hasted foorth towards England. It is reported that if he
had lingred by the way, he had béene eftsoones apprehended. For the
emperour being incensed against him by ambassadors that came from the
French king, immediatlie after he was set forward, began to repent
himselfe in that he had suffered him so soon to depart from him, and
herevpon sent men after him with all speed to bring him backe if they
could by any meanes ouertake him, meaning as then to haue kept him in
perpetuall prison.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The offers of the French K. and erle John to haue
the K. of England kept still in prison.] Some write that those
ambassadours sent from the French king, with other from earle John, came
to the emperor before king Richard was deliuered, offering in the French
kings name fiftie thousand marks of siluer, and in the name of earle
John thirtie thousand, vpon condition that K. Richard might remaine
still in captiuitie vntill the feast of S. Michaell next insuing; or
else if it might so please him, he should receiue a thousand pounds of
siluer for euerie moneth, whilest king Richard should be deteined in his
prison, or otherwise fiftie thousand marks of siluer more than the first
offer, at one entire paiment, if he would deliuer him into their hands,
or at the leastwise to kéepe him prisoner by the terme of one whole

The emperour hearing of such large offers, and yet hoping for more,
contrarie to his promise and letters patents therefore granted, proroged
the day in which king Richard should haue béene set at libertie, till
Candlemasse after, at which daie he was brought from Haguenaw vnto
Spiers, where the emperour had called a councell to intreat further of
the matter touching his redemption. Here the emperour shewed the letters
which he had receiued from the French king and earle John vnto king
Richard, who vpon sight and perusing of the same, was maruellouslie
amazed, and began to despaire of all speedie deliuerance.

Indéed the emperour sought delaies vpon a couetous desire of the monie
offered by the French king and earle John, [Sidenote: The princes that
had vndertaken for the emperor to performe the couenants.] but yet such
princes and great lords as had vndertaken for the emperour, that the
couenants and articles on his part agréed vpon in the accord passed
betwixt him and king Richard, should be in ech behalfe performed [that
is to saie, the archbishops of Ments, Cullen, and Saltzburge, the
bishops of Wormes, Spiers, and Liege, the dukes of Suaben, Austrich, &
Louain, the Palsgraue of the Rhine, and others] came to the emperour,
and reproouing him for his couetous mind, in that he deferred the
restoring of king Richard to his libertie, contrarie to the composition,
did so much preuaile, that the emperour receiuing pledges for the
paiment of the monie yet behind (as before ye haue heard) released king
Richard out of captiuitie on the second or (as Roger Houeden saith) the
fourth day of Februarie, being a dismall day and an infortunate (as they
note them in kalendars.) [Sidenote: Robert de Nouant.] And where the
king would haue left Robert de Nouant the bishop of Couentries brother
for a pledge amongst the other, he refused to be one of the number,
alledging that he was seruant to earle John. King Richard greeuouslie
offended herewith, commanded that he should be apprehended, and
committed to prison, & so he was. This Robert was one of those that came
with the letters from the French king and earle John to the emperour,
about the staieng of king Richards deliuerance.

Furthermore, king Richard the same day in which he was restored to
libertie, summoned by his letters Hugh Nouant bishop of Couentrie, to
appeare in his court, to answer such things as were to be obiected
against him, both before spirituall iudges in that he was a bishop, and
also before temporall in that he had holden and exercised a temporall
office. On the verie same day also the emperour and the princes of the
empire, sent letters vnder their hands and seales to the French king,
and to John erle of Mortaigne, commanding them immediatlie vpon sight of
the same letters, to restore vnto king Richard all those castels,
cities, townes, lands, and other things, which they had taken from him
during the time of his remaining in captiuitie, and if they refused thus
to doo, then they gaue them to vnderstand by the same letters, that they
would aid king Richard to recouer that by force, which had beene
wrongfullie taken from him.

Moreouer king Richard gaue and by his deed confirmed vnto sundrie
princes of the empire for their homage and fealtie, [Sidenote: Yéerelie
pensions giuen by the king to certeine princes of the empire.] certeine
yearelie pensions, as to the archbishop of Ments and Cullen, to the
bishop of Liege, to the dukes of Austrich and Louaine, to the marquesse
of Mountferrat, [Sidenote: Memburge.] to the duke of Meglenburge, to the
duke of Suaben the emperors brother, to the earle of Bins, to the earle
of Holland, and to the sonne of the earle of Henault, of all the which,
and other mo, he receiued homage, or rather had their promise by oth to
aid him against the French king, which French king, now that he sawe no
hope nor likelihood remaining to bring the emperour to the bent of his
bowe for the deteining of K. Richard still in captiuitie, raised a power
foorthwith, [Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ The French king inuadeth
Normandie.] & entring into Normandie (the truce notwithstanding) tooke
the towne of Eureux, with diuerse other fortresses thereabouts, and
after he had doone mischéefe inough, as it were wearied with[10] euill
dooing, he granted eftsoones to stand to the truce, and so returned

Finallie after king Richard had dispatched his businesse with the
emperour, and the princes of Almaigne, he set forward on his iournie
towards England, and hauing the emperours passeport, came to Cullen,
where he was ioifullie receiued of the archbishop, the which archbishop
attended on him till he came to Antwerpe, where king Richard tooke the
water in a gallie that belonged to Alane de Trenchmere, but in the night
he went into a ship of Rie, being a verie faire vessell, and so laie
aboord in hir all the night, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] and in the
morning returned to the gallie, and so sailed about the coast, till he
came to the hauen of Swin in Flanders, and there staieng fiue daies, on
the six day he set foorth againe, [Sidenote: He landed the 20. of March
being sundaie as _R. Houeden_[11] and _Rafe de Diceto_ write.] and at
length in good safetie landed at Sandwich the twelfe daie of March, and
the morrow after came to Canturburie where he was receiued with
procession, as Ger. Dor. saith. From thence he went to Rochester, and on
the Wednesday being the sixteenth of March, he came vnto London, where
he was receiued with great ioy and gladnesse of the people, giuing
heartie thanks to almightie GOD for his safe returne and deliuerance.

¶ It is recorded by writers, that when such lords of Almaine as came
ouer with him, saw the great riches which the Londoners shewed in that
triumphant receiuing of their souereigne lord and king, they maruelled
greatlie thereat, insomuch that one of them said vnto him; "Surelie oh
king, your people are wise and subtile, which do nothing doubt to shew
the beautifull shine of their riches now that they haue receiued you
home, whereas before they seemed to bewaile their need and pouertie,
whilest you remained in captiuitie. For verelie if the emperour had
vnderstood that the riches of the realme had bin such, neither would he
haue beene persuaded that England could haue béene made bare of wealth,
neither yet should you so lightlie haue escaped his hands without the
paiment of a more huge and intollerable ransome."

The same yeare that king Richard was taken (as before is mentioned) by
the duke of Austrich, one night in the moneth of Januarie about the
first watch of the same night, the northwest side of the element
appeared of such a ruddie colour as though it had burned, without any
clouds or other darknesse to couer it, so that the stars shined through
that rednesse, and might be verie well discerned. Diuerse bright strakes
appeared to flash vpwards now and then, diuiding the rednesse, thorough
the which the stars séemed to be of a bright sanguine colour. In
Februarie next insuing, one night after midnight the like woonder was
séene, and shortlie after newes came that the king was taken in

On the second daie of Nouember also a little before the breake of the
daie, the like thing appeared againe with lesse feare and woonder to the
people (than before) being now better accustomed to the like sight
againe. And now the same daie and selfe houre that the king arriued at
Sandwich, being the second houre of that daie, whilest the sunne shone
verie bright and cleare, there appeared a most brightsome and
vnaccustomed clearnesse, not farre distant from the sunne, as it were to
the length and breadth of a mans personage, hauing a red shining
brightnesse withall, like to the rainbow, which strange sight when manie
beheld, there were that prognosticated the king alreadie to be arriued.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ Diuerse sieges held at one time.] In this meane
while the bishop of Durham with a great armie besieged the castell of
Tickhill; and earle Dauid brother to the king of Scots, with Ranulfe
earle of Chester, and earle Ferrers, besieged the castell of Notingham,
whilest at the same present the archbishop of Canturburie with a great
power besieged Marleburgh castell, the which within a few daies was
rendred into his hands, the liues and lims of them within saued. Also
the castell of Lancaster was deliuered to him, the which the same
archbishops brother had in kéeping vnder earle John, [Sidenote: S.
Michaels mount.] and likewise the abbeie of S. Michaels mount in
Cornwall, the which abbeie Henrie de la Pomerey chasing out the moonks,
had fortified against the king, and hearing newes of the kings returne
home, died (as it was thought) for méere gréefe and feare. These three
places were surrendered to the archbishop before the kings returne, but
Tickhill & Notingham held out.

King Richard being returned into England, and vnderstanding both how the
French king made warre against him in Normandie, and that the state of
England was not a little disquieted, by the practise of his brother
earle John and his complices, speciallie by reason that diuerse castels
were defended by such as he had placed in them, he thought good with all
speed to cut off such occasions as might bréed a[12] further mischéefe.
[Sidenote: The king goeth to Notingham and winneth the castel. _Rog.
Houed._] Wherevpon he first went to Notingham, and within thrée daies
after his comming thither (which was on the daie of the Annunciation of
our ladie) he constreined them that kept the castell there in his
brothers name, to yeeld themselues simplie vnto his mercie, after they
had abidden diuerse assaults, by the which euen the first daie the vtter
gates were burnt, and certeine defenses destroied, which they had made
before the same.

The cheefe of them that were within this castell to defend it were
these, William de Vendeuall conestable there, Roger de Mountbegun, Rafe
Murdach, Philip de Worceter and Ranulfe de Worceter, brethren. The morow
after the surrender was made, the king went to Clipstone, [Sidenote: The
forest of Shirewood.] and rode into the forrest of Shirewood, where he
had neuer béene before, the view whereof pleased him greatlie. The
castell of Tickhill was likewise at the same time yéelded vnto the
bishop of Durham, who receiued it to the kings vse, and them that kept
it as prisoners, without anie composition, but standing simplie to the
K. mercie. For although those that had these castels in keeping, were
sufficientlie prouided of all necessarie things for defense, yet the
sudden comming of the king (whom they thought verelie would neuer haue
returned) put them in such feare, that they wist not what to make of the
matter, and so (as men amazed) they yéelded without anie further
exception. [Sidenote: The castel of Tickhill yéelded. _Rog. Houed._] The
bishop of Durham bringing those prisoners with him which had yéelded vp
this castell of Tickhill, came to the king the 27 daie of March, the
verie daie before that Notingham castell was giuen ouer.

[Sidenote: Strife betwixt y^e archbishops for carieng of their crosses.]
Moreouer, this is to be remembred, that during the siege of Notingham,
contention arose betwixt the two archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke,
about the carriage of their crosses. For Hubert archbishop of
Canturburie comming thither, had his crosse borne before him; the
archbishop of Yorke (hauing no crosse there at all) was verie sore
offended, that anie other should go with crosse borne before him in his
diocesse, and therfore complained hereof to the king. But the
archbishop of Canturburie mainteined that he had not doone anie thing
but that which was lawfull for him to doo, and therevpon made his
appeale to Rome, that the pope might haue the hearing and iudging of
that controuersie betwixt them.

In the meane time, after the king had got the castells of Notingham and
Tickhill into his hands (as ye haue heard) he called a parlement at
Notingham, where the quéene mother sat on the right hand of him, and the
archbishops of Canturburie & Yorke on the left, with other bishops,
earles and barons according to their places. [Sidenote: Officers
discharged.] On the first daie of their session was Gerard de Camuille
discharged of the office which he had borne of shiriffe of Lincolne, and
dispossessed both of the castell & countie. And so likewise was Hugh
Bardolfe of the castell and countie of Yorke, and of the castell of
Scarbourgh, and of the custodie and kéeping of the countrie of
Westmerland, the which offices being now in the kings hands, [Sidenote:
Lieutenantships set on sale.] he set them on sale to him that would giue
most. Hereof it came to passe, that where the lord chancellour offered
to giue fiftéene hundred markes before hand, for the counties of Yorke,
Lincolne and Northampton, and an hundred markes of increase of rent for
euerie of the same counties, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorks offer.]
Geffrey archbishop of Yorke offered to the king thrée thousand markes
aforehand, onelie for the countie of Yorke, and an hundred markes
yearelie of increase, and so had the same committed to his regiment.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Chester.] Moreouer in this parlement, the king
demanded iudgement against his brother John, and Hugh Nouant the bishop
of Couentrie and Chester, for such traitorous and most disloiall
attempts as they had made against him and his countries, and iudgement
was giuen that both the said earle and bishop should haue summons giuen
them peremptorilie to appeare, and if within fortie daies after, they
came not to answer such plaints as might be laid against them, then
should earle John forfeit all that he had within the realme, and the
bishop should stand to the iudgement of the bishops, in that he was a
bishop, and to the temporall lords in that he had béene the kings

[Sidenote: A subsidie.] In this parlement also, in the kalends of
Aprill, the king procured a subsidie to be granted to him, to wit, two
shillings of euerie plough land through England, which maner of subsidie
by an old name is called Teemen toll, or Theyme toll. He also commanded
that euerie man should make for him the third part of knights seruice,
accordinglie as euerie fée might beare, to furnish him foorth into
Normandie. He demanded of the moonks Cisteaux, all their wooles for the
same yeare. But bicause that seemed an ouer greeuous burthen vnto them,
they fined with him, as after shall appeare. The fourth day of this
parlement, by the kings permission manie greeuous complaints were
exhibited against the archbishop of Yorke, [Sidenote: The archbishop of
Yorke accused.] for extortion and other vniust vexations, which he had
practised: but he passed so little thereof, that he made no answer vnto
their billes.

[Sidenote: Gerard de Camuille charged with felonie and treason.]
Moreouer through the procurement of the lord chancellour, Gerard de
Camuille was arreigned for receiuing théeues, and robbers, which had
robbed certeine merchants of their goods, that were going to the faire
of Stamfort; also they appealed him of treason for refusing to stand to
his triall by order of the kings lawes at commandement of the kings
iustices, bearing himselfe to be earle Johns man, and aiding the same
earle against the king. But all these accusations he flatlie denied, and
so his aduersaries put in pledges to follow their suit, and he put in
the like to defend himselfe by one of his fréeholders.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots commeth to sée the king of England.] The
same daie king Richard receiued the king of Scots at Clipstone, comming
now to visit him, and to reioise with him for his safe returne home
after so long a iournie, and so manie passed perils. After they had
spent the time a certeine space in ioy and mirth, the fourth of Aprill
at their being togither at Malton, the king of Scots required of king
Richard to haue restored to him the counties of Northumberland,
Cumberland and Westmerland, with the countie of Lancaster also, the
which in right of his predecessors belonged to him (as he alledged.)

[Sidenote: A parlement.] King Richard assembling a parlement of the
Nobles of his realme at Northampton, about sixtéene daies after that the
Scotish king had made this request, gaue him answer that by no means he
might as then satisfie his petition: for if he should so doo, his
aduersaries in France would report that he did it for feare, and not for
any loue or hartie fréendship. [Sidenote: A grant made to the king of
Scots what allowance he should haue when he came to England.] But yet
king Richard in the presence of his mother quéene Elianor, and the lords
spirituall and temporall of his realme togither at that present
assembled, granted and by his déed confirmed vnto the said king of
Scots, and to his heires for euer, that whensoeuer he or any of them
should come by summons of the king of England vnto his court, the bishop
of Durham, and the shiriffe of Northumberland should receiue him at the
water of Twéed, and safe conduct him vnto the water of These, and there
should the archbishop of Yorke, and the shiriffe of Yorke be readie to
receiue him of them, and from thence giue their attendance vpon him vnto
the borders of the next shire.

It was also granted to the said king, that he should be attended from
shire to shire by prelats and shiriffes, till he came to the kings
court, also from the time that the king of Scotland should enter this
realme of England, he should haue dailie out of the kings pursse for his
liuerie an hundred shillings, and after he came to the court, he should
haue an allowance dailie for his liuerie, so long as he there remained,
thirtie shillings and twelue manchet wastels, twelue manchet simnels,
foure gallons of the best wine, and eight gallons of houshold wine, two
pound of pepper, foure pound of cumin, two stone of wax, or else foure
links, and fortie great and long colpons of such candels as are serued
before the king, and foure and twentie colpons of other candels that
serue for the houshold. And when he should returne into his countrie
againe, then should he be conueied with the bishops and shiriffes from
countie to countie, till he come to the water of Twéed, hauing an
hundred shillings a day of liuerie, &c: as is before appointed. The
charter of this grant was deliuered vnto William king of Scots in the
towne of Northampton, in Easter wéeke, by the hands of William bishop of
Elie lord chancellour, in the yeare of our lord 1194, and in the fift
yeare of king Richard his reigne.

[Sidenote: A councell holden at Winchester.] After this, on the fiftéenth
day of Aprill, king Richard hauing the said king of Scots in his
companie came to Winchester, where he called a councell, and there in
open assemblie he highlie commended all those of the Nobilitie, that in
his absence had shewed themselues faithfull, and resisted his brother,
and such other his complices, which had as disloiall persons rebelled
against him. Here he also proclaimed his said brother, and all those
that tooke his part, traitours to the crowne, and tooke order for the
punishment of them, that (being of their faction) could by any means be

Furthermore, to put awaie as it were the reproofe of his captiuitie and
imprisonment (by the reuiuing of his noblenesse, which he had in high
    ---- pretio nam dignior omni est
    Nobilitas, hæc non emitur nec venditur auro)
[Sidenote: The king crowned anew.] he caused himselfe to be eftsoones
crowned by the archbishop Hubert, on the 18 of Aprill, at Winchester,
and so shewed himselfe as a new crowned king (in hope of good successe
and better lucke to follow) in the presence of the said king of Scots,
[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The king of Scots beareth one of the swords
before the king of England.] who bare one of the thrée swords before
him, going in the middle betwixt two earles, that is to saie, Hamelin
earle of Warren going on his right hand, and Ranulfe earle of Chester on
his left. The canapie vnder the which he went was borne vp also by foure
earles, Norffolke, Lislewight, Salisburie, and Ferrers. The bishop of
Elie lord chancellour went on the right hand of the king, and the bishop
of London on the left. [Sidenote: The citizens of London.] At dinner
also the citizens of London serued him in the butterie by reason of two
hundred marks which they had giuen the king that they might so doo,
notwithstanding the claime and challenge made by the citizens of
Winchester, the which serued him in the kitchin.

The archbishop of Yorke was commanded that he should not be present at
the coronation, least some tumult might arise about the hauing of his
crosse borne afore him, to the displeasure of the archbishop of
Canturburie, who stood in it, that no prelat within his prouince ought
to haue any crosse borne before him, himselfe excepted.

[Sidenote: A parlement called.] After this, he called a parlement, by
vertue whereof he reuoked backe and resumed into his hands all patents,
annuities, fées, and other grants (before his voiage into the holie
land) by him made, or otherwise granted or alienated. And bicause it
shuld not seeme that he vsed a méere violent extortion herein, he
treated with euerie one of them in most courteous wise, bearing them in
hand, that he knew well they ment not to let foorth their monie to him
vpon vsurie, but would be contented with such reasonable gaine and
profit, as had béene raised to their vse in time of his absence of those
things which they held of him by assignation in way of lone, so that now
the same might be restored to him againe, sith he ment not to sell them,
but to let them foorth as it were to farme for the time, as all men
might well vnderstand, considering that he could not mainteine the port
of a king without receipt of those profits which he had so let foorth.
With these gentle words therefore mixed with some dreadfull allegations,
he brought them all into such perplexitie, [Sidenote: The bold courage
of the bishop of Lincolne.] that not one of them durst withstand his
request, nor alledge that he had wrong doone to him, except Hugh the
bishop of Lincolne, who sticked not to saie, that the king in this
demand did them and the rest open iniurie. [Sidenote: The bishop of
Durham lost his earledome.] The bishop of Durham lost his earledome, and
was constreined to content himselfe with his old bishoprike, and to
leaue the dignitie of an earle, or at the leastwise the possessions
which he had bought of the king before his setting forward into the
holie land.

Thus the king recouered those things for the which he had receiued great
summes of monie, without making any recompense, where the most part of
the occupiers had not receiued scarselie a third part of the principall
which they had laid foorth. For no sufficiencie of grant, patent, or
other writing to any of them before made, did any thing auaile them.
[Sidenote: K. Richards practises. The moonks Cisteaux.] Moreouer, where
he had borrowed a great summe of monie of the merchants of the staple,
he wrought a feat with the moonks of the Cisteaux order to discharge
that debt. He told these moonks that being constreined with vrgent
necessitie, he had borowed that monie of the merchants beyond the sea,
vpon confidence of their good beneuolence, and therefore he required
them to extend their liberallitie so farre toward him, as to deliuer so
much wooll in value, as should discharge that debt. To be short, the
moonks being ouercome with the kings words, threatning kindnesse vpon
them, fulfilled his request. Moreouer not satisfied herewith, he leuied
a taske throughout the realme, exacting of euerie hide of land two
shillings, according to the grant made to him at Notingham: and the same
was generallie gathered, as well of the spirituall mens lands as of the

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The king of Scots maketh suit for
Northumberland.] The king of Scots vnderstanding that the bishop of
Durham had giuen ouer and resigned the earledome of Northumberland into
the kings hands, thought good once againe to assaie if he might compasse
his desire, and herewith he began his former suit afresh, offering to
king Richard fiftéene thousand markes of siluer for the whole earledome
of Northumberland with the appurtenances, as his father earle Henrie did
hold the same before. The king taking counsell in the matter, agreed
that he should haue it for that monie, excepting the castels: but the
king of Scots would haue castels and all, or else he would not bargaine.

Finallie, after he had sundrie times mooued this suit for the hauing of
the lands vnto which he pretended a title, and could get nothing of king
Richard but faire words, putting him as it were in hope to obteine that
he required at his next returne out of France, vpon the 22 daie of
Aprill being fridaie, he tooke leaue of the king, and returned towards
his countrie, not verie ioifull, in that he could not obteine his suit.
King Richard in this meane while caused all those prisoners that were
taken in the castels of Notingham, Tickhill, Marleburgh, Lancaster[13],
and S. Michaels mount, which were of any wealth to be put in prison,
[Sidenote: Mainprise.] that they might fine for their ransoms. The
residue he suffered to depart vpon suerties, that were bound for them
in an hundredth marks a peece, to be forth comming when they should be

Now the king (after he had gathered a great portion of monie, and
ordeined diuerse things for the behoofe of the common-wealth, thereby to
satisfie the harts of the people) prepared himselfe to saile into
Normandie. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] But first he reconciled the
archbishop of Yorke, and the bishop of Elie lord chancellour, aswell for
the apprehension & imprisoning of the archbishop at Douer, as for the
dishonourable expulsion of the chancellour out of England, in such wise
that the chancellour should vpon reasonable summons giuen to him by the
archbishop, sware with the hands of an hundred préests with him, that he
neither commanded nor willed that the archbishop should be apprehended.
The controuersie betwixt the two archbishops about the bearing of their
crosses, the king would not meddle withall, for (as he said) that
perteined to the pope. Yet the archbishop of Canturburie complained to
king Richard of the iniurie doone to him at that present by the
archbishop of Yorke, presuming within his prouince to haue his crosse
borne before him. At length when the kings prouision was once readie for
his voiage into Normandie, he came to Douer, and hearing that the French
king had besieged the towne of Vernueil, and that the same was in danger
to be taken, he tooke the sea togither with his mother quéene Elianor on
the ninth daie of Maie, [Sidenote: The king transporteth ouer into
France.] and transporting ouer into Normandie, arriued at Harfléet with
an hundred great ships fraught with men, horsses and armour.

The French king hearing of king Richards arriuall, and that he was
comming with a great power to the succour of them within Vernueil, and
was alreadie incamped néere to the towne of the Eagle, [Sidenote: The
French king raiseth his siege from Vernueil.] he plucked vp his tents in
the night before Witsundaie, and leauing the siege, departed from
thence, and tooke a certeine small fortresse by the waie as he marched,
wherein he left a few souldiers to keepe it to his vse. King Richard
herewith entring into the French dominions, sent three bands of
souldiers towards Vale de Ruell, and went himselfe vnto Loches, and
besieging that castell wan it within a short time. [Sidenote: _N.
Triuet._] The Normans also recouered the citie of Eureux out of the
French mens hands, but those that were sent vnto Ruell, and had besieged
the castell there an eight daies without any gaine, hearing that the
French king was comming towards them, departed thence, & came backe to
the kings campe, wherevpon the French king comming to Ruell raced it to
the ground, bicause his enimie should not at anie time in winning it
nestle there to the further damage of the countrie.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] About the same time, Robert earle of Leicester
issuing foorth of Rouen in hope to worke some feat to the damage of the
Frenchmen, as he rode somewhat vnaduisedlie in the lands of Hugh
Gourney, [Sidenote: The earle of Leicester taken prisoner.] fell within
danger of his enimies, who tooke him prisoner, and a few other that were
in his companie. The French king after this came with his armie into the
coasts of Touraine; and marched neere Vandosme, and there incamped,
whereof king Richard being aduertised, drew néere to Vandosme, meaning
to assaile the French king in his campe, who hauing knowledge thereof
dislodged with his armie earlie in the morning, and fled awaie (to his
great dishonour) in all hast possible. The king of England with his
people following in chase of the Frenchmen slue manie, and tooke a great
number of prisoners, amongst whome was the French kings chéefe
treasurer. Also the Englishmen tooke manie wagons and sumpters laden
with crossebowes, armour, plate, apparell, and the furniture of the
French kings chapell. This chanced about 37 daies after his fléeing in
the night from Vernueil, of which two flights of the French king (in
manner as ye haue heard) we find these verses written:

    Gallia fugisti bis, & hoc sub rege Philippo,
      Nec sunt sub modio facta pudenda tuo.
    Vernolium sumit testem fuga prima, secunda
      Vindocinum, noctem prima, secunda diem.
    Nocte fugam primam rapuisti, manè secundam,
      Prima nictus vitio, víq; secunda fuit.

    France, twice thou fledst, while Philip reign'd,
      the world dooth know thy shame,
    For Vernueil witnesse beares of th' one,
      next Vandosme knowes the same.
    The first by night, the next by day,
      thy heart and force doo showe,
    That first through feare, and next by force,
      was wrought thine ouerthrowe.

[Sidenote: Geffrey de Rancon. The earle of Engolesme. The king of Nauars
brother.] In this meane while certeine rebels in Guien, as the lord
Geffrey de Rancin[14] or Rancon, and the earle of Engolesme with their
complices, vpon confidence of the French kings assistance, sore
disquieted the countrie. Howbeit, the sonne of the king of Nauarre, and
brother to Berengaria the quéene of England, entring into Guien with an
armie, wasted the lands of both those rebels, till he was called home by
reason of his fathers death which chanced about the same time.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.] Shortlie after Geffrey Rancin died, and king
Richard comming into his countrie, wan the strong castell of Tailleburge
by surrender, which apperteined to the same Geffrey with others, and
then going against the other rebels, [Sidenote: Engolesme woone.] he wan
the citie of Engolesme from him by force of assault. All which time the
French king stirred not, by reason that there was some communication in
hand for a truce to be taken betwixt him and king Richard, which by
mediation of certeine bishops was shortlie after concluded, to endure
for twelue moneths. [Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Wil. Paruus._] The bishop of
Elie was chéefe commissioner for the king of England, and this truce was
accorded about Lammas, and serued to little purpose, except to giue
libertie to either prince to breath a little, [Sidenote: _Polydor._] and
in the meane time to prouide themselues of men, munition, ships & monie,
that immediatlie after the terme was expired, they might with greater
force returne to the field againe, for they had not onelie a like desire
to follow the warres, but also vsed a like meane and practise to leuie

[Sidenote: Great exactions.] For whereas they had alreadie made the
temporaltie bare with often paiments, and calling them foorth to serue
personallie in the warres, they thought best now to fetch a fleece from
the spiritualtie and churchmen, considering also that they had béene by
reason of their immunitie more gentlie dealt with, and not appointed to
serue themselues in anie maner of wise. [Sidenote: The colour pretended
in leuieng of monie.] To colour this exaction which they knew would be
euill taken of manie, they bruted abroad, that they leuied this monie
vpon purpose, to send it into the holie land, towards the paiment of the
christian souldiers, which remained there vpon defense of those townes,
which yet the Saracens had not conquered. King Richard therfore comming
to Towrs in Touraine, required a great summe of monie of the cleargie in
those parts, and the like request he made throughout all those his
dominions, on that further side of the sea. King Philip for his part
demanded likewise intollerable tithes and duties of all the churchmen in
his territories, and those that had the gathering of that monie serued
their owne turne, in dealing most streightlie with sillie préests,
making them to paie what they thought good, though sometime beyond the
bounds of equitie and reason.

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ Inquisitions taken by a iurie of sundrie
matters.] In September, the iustices itinerants made their circuits
thorough euerie shire and countie of this realme, causing inquisitions
to be taken by substantiall iuries of plées of the crowne both old and
new, of recognisances, of escheats, of wards, of mariages, of all maner
of offendors against the lawes and ordinances of the relme, and of all
other transgressors, falsifiers, and murtherers of Jewes; of the
pledges, goods, lands, debts, and writings of Jewes that were slaine,
and of other circumstances touching that matter. Likewise of the
accompts of shiriffes, as to vnderstand what had béene giuen towards the
kings ransome, how much had béene receiued, and what remained behind to
receiue. Also of the lands that belonged to erle John, and what goods he
had, and what he held in demaine, in wards, escheats, and in gifts, and
for what cause they were giuen. Furthermore, of his fautors and
partakers, which had made fines with the king, and which not, with manie
other articles touching the same earle. [Sidenote: Vsurers.] Also of
vsurers, and of their goods being seized, of wines sold contrarie to the
assise, of false measures, and of such as hauing receiued the crosse to
go into the holie land, died before they set forward. Also of grand
assises that were of an hundred shillings land or vnder, and of
defaults, and of diuerse other things, the iurats were charged to
inquire, and present the same.

The iustices also were appointed to cause the manours, farmes and lands
which the king held in demaine, or by wards and escheats, to be surueied
by a substantiall iurie, and to take order for the conuerting of them to
such vse, as the king might be answered of the gaines rising by the same
at the farmers hands. [Sidenote: Iewes.] Also, the Iewes were appointed
to inroll all their debts, pledges, lands, houses, rents and
possessions. [Sidenote: Iustices, shiriffes and other officers.]
Moreouer, inquisition was taken of iustices, shiriffes, bailiffes,
conestables, foresters and other officers belonging to the king, to
vnderstand in what maner they had behaued themselues in taking and
seizing of things into their hands, and of all such goods, gifts and
promises had and receiued by occasion of leasure made of the lands of
earle John and his fautors, and who receiued the same, [Sidenote: Hubert
archbishop of Canturburie lord chéefe iustice.] and what delaie was
granted by commandement of Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, then lord
chéefe iustice.

In this meane time, whilest these inquisitions were thus taken in
England, king Richard comming foorth of Poictou into Aniou, [Sidenote:
Officers driuen to fine for their offices.] caused all the bailiffes and
officers of that countrie, and also of Maine, to fine with him for their
offices. [Sidenote: The king offended with the lord chauncellor.] After
this, when he came downe into Normandie, he séemed in shew to be
offended with his chancellour the bishop of Elie, about concluding of
the truce with the French king (where as ye haue heard he was cheefe
commissioner) misliking greatlie all that was doone therein, and
therefore he tooke the seale from him, and caused a new seale to be
made, commanding to be proclaimed thorough all his dominions, that
whatsoeuer had béene sealed with the old seale, should stand in no
force, both for that his chancellor had wrought more vndiscreetlie than
was conuenient; [Sidenote: A new seale.] and againe, bicause the same
seale was lost, when Roger Malus Catulus his vicechancellour was
drowned, who perished, among other by shipracke, néere to the Ile of
Cypres, before the king arriued there, being as then on his iournie into
the holie land. Therefore all men had commandement to come to this new
seale, that they might haue their charters and writings confirmed.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ The king returneth into England. He granteth
the English men licence to tournie.] Furthermore, whilest the truce yet
lasted, king Richard sailed ouer into England, where he caused turnies
to be exercised in diuerse places, for the better training vp of
souldiers in feats of warre, that they might growe more skilfull and
perfect in the same, when they should come to the triall of their
forces, whereby he raised no small summes of monie for granting license
to his subiects so to tournie. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ Fines paid for
licence to exercise turnements.] Euerie earle that would tournie, paid
to him for his licence twentie marks, euerie baron ten marks, and euerie
knight hauing lands, did giue foure marks, and those that had no lands
two marks, to the great damnifieng of the people; hauing learned the
common lesson, and receiued the ordinarie rule followed of all, and
neglected of none; namelie,
    [Sidenote: _Mal. Pal. in suo sap._]
    ---- opus est nummis vel morte relictis,
    Vel sorte inuentis, vel quauis arte paratis,
    Quippe inopem mala multa pati contingit vbíq;,
    Nec sine diuitijs fas cuiquam ducere vitam
    Fœlicem, &c.

The charter of this grant was deliuered by the king vnto William earle
of Salisburie, to haue the kéeping thereof: but Hubert Walter the
archbishop of Canturburie, and lord chéefe iustice, bade his brother
Theobald Walter collector of the monie, for the scraping and raking
togither whereof, in huge sums, he put the former shifts of extortion
and exaction in practise.

     The tenour of the charter concerning the turnements before

     Richard by the grace of God king of England, duke of Normandie
     and Aquitaine, and earle of Aniou, to the reuerend father in
     Christ, Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, and primat of all
     England, sendeth greeting. Know ye that we haue granted
     turnaments to be kept in England in fiue steeds, to wit, betwixt
     Sarisburie and Wilton, betwixt Warwike and Kenelworth, betwixt
     Stanford and Warmeford, betwixt Brackley and Nixburgh, betwixt
     Blie & Tickhill, so that the peace of our land be not broken, nor
     yet our iustices authoritie diminished, nor any damage doone to
     our forrests. Prouided that what earle soeuer will turney there,
     shall giue to vs twentie markes, a baron ten marks, a knight
     that hath lands foure marks and he that hath no lands shall giue
     two marks.

     Moreouer, no stranger shall be admitted to turney there, wherevpon
     we command you, that at the daie of the turnieng, ye haue there two
     clarkes, and two of our knights to receiue the oth of the earles
     and barons, which shall satisfie vs of the said summes of monie,
     before the turnieng begin, and that they suffer none to turnie,
     till (before) they haue made paiment, and haue caused to be entred
     how much & of whom they haue receiued: and ye shall take ten marks
     for this charter to our vse, whereof the earle of Salisburie, and
     the earle of Clare, and the earle of Warren are pledges. [Sidenote:
     Bishops towne.] Witnesse myselfe, at Ville Leuesche, the two and
     twentith of August.

Furthermore, ordinances were made and set foorth for the safe keeping of
the peace, so that such as would turney, neither by the waie in comming
or going, or whilest the turnieng lasted, should violentlie take any
thing to serue their necessarie vses, without paieng therefore to the
owner according to the woorth, nor should doo iniurie to any man in any
manner of wise. But now to the other dooings of king Richard, [Sidenote:
I thinke he came not ouer at all into England at this time, but rather
sent his mind vnto the archbishop.] who made no long abode in England at
this time, but shortlie returned into Normandie, bicause he heard that
king Philip had an armie readie leuied. Wherefore meaning to buckle with
him vpon occasion offered, he made the more hast, and being landed
there, approched vnto the borders of the French dominions, incamping
himselfe with his armie in the field, to wait for the time that the
truce should be expired, least the enimie should in any exploit preuent
him. In like manner king Philip hauing with him earle John king Richards
brother, kept his souldiers and men of warre in a readines with him, to
worke any feat that should be thought expedient assoone as the truce
should end.

[Sidenote: 1195.] Whilest both these kings were thus bent to powre out
their malice, and to ease their stomachs with dint of sword, [Sidenote:
Messengers from the pope.] there came messengers from the pope,
exhorting him vnto peace and quietnesse, but his exhortation little
auailed. For they regarding it little or nothing, immediatlie as the
truce was expired, got them abroad into the field, [Sidenote: Isoldune.]
& king Richard drew towards Isoldune, a towne situat in the confines of
Berrie, whither it was reported that the French king meant to come: and
there staid for him a whole day togither. But the French king hearing
that king Richard was there to looke for him, thought it best not to
come there at all. Wherefore king Richard went the next daie vnto a
castell called Brison, and tooke it vpon his first approch. Then went he
to a towne called Nouencourt and perceiuing the same to be strong and
well manned, tooke not in hand to assaile it till the third daie after
his comming thither, at what time he so inclosed the same round about
with diligent watch and ward, that a cat could not haue escaped out of
the place, neither by daie nor night, but that she should haue béene
espied. [Sidenote: Nouencourt yéeldeth to K. Richard. Albermarle
besieged. _Matt. West._ _Polydor._] They within being put in feare
herewith, yeelded vp the towne the daie next following, in which meane
time the French king besieged Albemarle.

Herevpon king Richard, hauing left a garrison of souldiers in
Nouencourt, came to raise the enimie from his siege, & setting vpon the
Frenchmen, there began a sharpe fight: but the Englishmen being wearie
with trauell of their passed iournie, and hauing rashlie entred into the
battell, were not able to indure the Frenchmens violence, so that (not
without great losse) they were constreined to retire with swift flight,
or (to saie the truth) to run awaie a maine pase. The French king hauing
thus chased his enimies, returned to assault Albemarle, woone the
castell by force, and the towne by composition, permitting the garrison
there to depart with all their armour. This doone, he ruinated the
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The earle of Leicesters offer for his ransome.]
castell flat to the ground. Robert earle of Leicester offered to the
French king a thousand marks sterling for his ransome, and to quite
claime to him and his heires for euer all the right which he had to the
castell of Pascie, with the appurtenances, and to get a confirmation
thereof for him both of the pope, and of the king of England: but for
that the warre still lasted, the French king tooke a respite in
answering this offer, neuerthelesse afterwards in the yeare next
insuing, he tooke it, and so the earle was set at libertie.

Not long after this foresaid repulse, the king of England hauing
refreshed his souldiers with some rest after their great trauell, went
to Million, [Sidenote: Million won and rased.] and giuing assault to the
towne wan it at the first brunt, and made it plaine with the earth.
[Sidenote: A motion for peace.] Then was a motion made for peace betwixt
the two kings, being now wearied with long wars: whereof when earle John
was aduertised, who (as it should séeme by some writers) hauing tarried
with the French king till this present, began now to doubt least if any
agréement were made, he might happilie be betraied of the French king by
couenants that should passe betwixt them: he determined therefore with
himselfe to commit his whole safetie to his naturall brother, and to no
man else, perceiuing that the French king made not so great accompt of
him after the losse of his castels in England, as he had doone before.

Herevpon comming to his brother king Richard, "he besought him to pardon
his offense, and though he had not dealt brotherlie towards him, yet
that he would brotherlie forgiue him his rebellious trespasse, adding
furthermore, that whereas he had not heretofore beene thankefull for his
manifold benefits which he had receiued at his hands, yet he was now
most sorie therefore, and was willing to make amends: wherewith he
acknowledged the safegard of his life to rest in him, for the which he
was bound to giue him thanks, if he would grant thereto." The king
mooued with his words, made this answer (as it is said) that he pardoned
him indéed, but yet wished that he might forget such iniuries as he had
receiued at his hands, which he doubted least he should not easilie doo.
[Sidenote: Earle John returneth to the king his brother, and is
pardoned.] Herewith erle John being yet put in good hope of
forgiuenesse, sware to be true euer after vnto him, and that he would
endeuour himselfe to make amends for his misdeeds past, [Sidenote: _Wil.
Paruus._ _R. Houed._ _Matth. Paris._] and so was shortlie after restored
vnto his former degree, honour and estimation in all respects.

But by some writers it should appeare, that earle John, immediatlie vpon
conclusion of the first truce, came from the French king, and submitted
himselfe to his brother, and by mediation of the quéene their mother was
pardoned, receiued againe into fauour, and serued euer after against the
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._] French king verie dutifullie, séeking by new
atchiued enterprises brought about (to the contentation of his brother)
to make a recompense for his former misdemeanor, reputing it meere
madnesse to make means to further mischeefe; for
    ---- stultum est hostem iritare potentem,
    Atq; malum maius tumidis sibi quærere verbis.
[Sidenote: _R. Houed._] But at what time soeuer he returned thus to his
brother, this yeare (as Roger Houeden saith) he was restored to the
earledoms of Mortaigne in Normandie, and Glocester in England, with the
honour of Eie (the castels onelie excepted) and in recompense of the
residue of the earledoms which he had before inioied, togither with
certeine other lands, his brother king Richard gaue vnto him a yeerelie
pension amounting to the summe of eight thousand pound of Aniouin monie.
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ _Wil. Paruus._ _Matth. Paris._ _Polychron._] ¶
Now here to staie a while at matters chancing here about home, I will
speake somewhat of the dooings of Leopold duke of Austrich, who as one
nothing mooued with the pestilence and famine that oppressed his
countrie in this season, but rather hauing his hart hardened, began to
threaten the English hostages that they shuld loose their liues, if king
Richard kept not the couenants which he had vndertaken to performe by a
day appointed. [Sidenote: Baldwin de Betun.] Wherevpon Baldwin Betun one
of the hostages was sent by common agréement of the residue vnto king
Richard, to signifie to him their estate. King Richard willing to
deliuer them out of further danger, sent with the same Baldwin his
coosen, the sister of Arthur duke of Britaine, and the daughter of the
emperour of Cypres, to be conueied vnto the said duke of Austrich, the
one, namelie the sister of Arthur to be ioined in marriage with the
dukes sonne, and the other to continue in the dukes hands to bestow at
his pleasure.

[Sidenote: Duke Leopold catcheth a fall beside his horsse and dieth of
the hurt.] But in the meane time, on saint Stephans day, duke Leopold
chanced to haue a fall beside his horsse, and hurt his leg in such wise,
that all the surgions in the countrie could not helpe him, wherevpon in
extreame anguish he ended his life. And whereas before his death he
required to be absolued of the sentence of excommunication pronounced
against him by the pope (for apprehending of king Richard in his
returning from his iournie made into the holie land) he was answered by
the cleargie, that except he would receiue an oth to stand to the
iudgement of the church for the iniurie doone to king Richard, and that
vnlesse other of the Nobilitie would receiue the like oth with him if he
chanced to die (whereby he might not fulfill that which the church
héerein should decrée) that yet they should see the same performed, he
might not otherwise be absolued.

Wherefore he tooke the oth, and the Nobles of his countrie with him, and
therewithall released the English pledges, remitted the monie that yet
remained behind of his portion aforesaid, and immediatlie therewith
died. After his deceasse, bicause certeine péeres of the countrie
withstood the performance of the premisses, his bodie laie eight daies
longer aboue ground than otherwise it should haue doone, for till such
time as all the pledges were perfectlie released, it might not be
buried. Also Baldwin de Betun approching neere to the confines of
Austrich, when he heard that the duke was dead, returned with the two
ladies vnto his souereigne lord king Richard. Thus (as ye haue heard)
for feare of the censures of the church were the pledges restored, and
the residue of the monie behind released.

¶ All this was both pleasant and profitable for king Richards soules
helth (as may be thought) bicause he tooke occasion therof to amend his
owne former life, by considering how much he might be reprehended for
his sundrie faults committed both against God and man. A maruellous
matter to heare, how much frō that time forward he reformed his former
trade of liuing into a better forme & order. [Sidenote: White moonks.]
Moreouer, the emperour gaue to the Cisteaux moonks 3000 marks of siluer,
parcell of king Richards ransome, to make siluer censers in euerie
church throughout where they had any houses: but the abbats of the same
order refused the gift, being a portion of so wrongfull and vngodlie a
gaine. At which thing, when it came to the knowledge of K. Richard, he
greatlie maruelled at the first, but after commended the abbats in their
dooings, and cheeflie for shewing that they were void of the accustomed
gréedinesse of hauing, which most men supposed them to be much infected

[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ Hugh Nouāt bishop of Couentrie restored to his
sée.] King Richard this yeare pardoned Hugh Nouant bishop of Couentrie
of all his wrath and displeasure conceiued toward him, and restored to
him his bishoprike for fiue thousand marks of siluer. But Robert Nouant
the same bishops brother died in the kings prison at Douer. [Sidenote:
The archbishop of Yorke.] Also whereas the archbishop of Yorke had
offended king Richard, he pardoned him, and receiued him againe into
fauour, with the kisse of peace. Wherevpon the archbishop waxed so
proud, that vsing the king reprochfullie, he lost his archbishoprike,
the rule of Yorkeshire which he had in gouernment as shiriffe, the
fauour of his souereigne, and (which was the greatest losse of all) the
loue of God. For
    [Sidenote: _M. Pal. in suo sag._]
    Nemo superbus amat superos, nec amator ab illis,
    Vult humiles Deus ac mites, habitatq; libenter
    Mansuetos animos procul ambitione remotos,
    Inflatos verò ac ventosos deprimit idem,
    Nec patitur secum puro consistere olympo.

[Sidenote: Pope Celestine. The archbish. of Canturburie is made y^e
popes legat.] Moreouer, through the kings request, pope Celestine this
yeare made the archbishop of Canturburie legat of all England by his
buls directed to him, bearing date at his palace in Rome called Lateran
the fifteenth kalends of Aprill, in the fourth yeare of his papasie.
Furthermore, the pope wrote to the English cleargie, giuing them to
vnderstand that he had created the said archbishop of Canturburie his
legat, commanding them so to accept him: [Sidenote: A trinitie of
officers in vnitie of person.] by vertue of which letters, the
archbishop Hubert being now both archbishop of Canturburie, legat of the
apostolike sée, and lord chéefe iustice of England, appointed to hold a
councell at Yorke, and therefore gaue knowledge by the abbat of Binham
in Northfolke, and one maister Geruise, vnto the canons of Yorke, and to
the archbishops officials of his purposed intention.

The said canons and officials well considering of the popes letters,
which were deliuered vnto them by the messengers, signified for answer,
that they would gladlie receiue him as legat of the apostolike sée, but
not as archbishop of Canturburie, nor as their primat. Herewith he came
to Yorke vpon saint Barnabies daie being sundaie, and was receiued with
procession. On the morrow after, he held a court of plees of the crowne,
of assises, and such other matters touching the king. On the next day
being Tuesday, he entred into the monasterie of saint Maries in Yorke,
and deposed the abbat, bicause of his infirmitie of bodie, at the
request of the moonks, but the abbat appealed to the popes consistorie.
[Sidenote: A synod holden at Yorke.] Then he assembled the cleargie in
the church of Saint Peter in Yorke, and there held a synod for
reformation of things amisse in the church, and amendment of manners in
the cleargie, so that diuerse decrées were made, the which for
bréefenesse we omit to speake of in particular. This yeare also, the
said archbishop Hubert caused all men throughout the realme of England
to receiue an oth of obseruing the kings peace, and to sweare that they
should not be robbers, nor abbettors of robbers, nor in any wise
consenting vnto them, but should doo what in them might lie to apprehend
all such offendors, and to discouer them to the kings officers to be
apprehended, and to pursue them vpon hew and crie to the vttermost of
their powers, and those that withdrew themselues from such pursuit,
should be apprehended as partakers with the offendors.

[Sidenote: The emperor sendeth to the king.] About this time the
emperour sent to king Richard, requiring him in no wise to conclude any
peace with the French king, but rather to inuade his dominions,
promising to aid him all that he might. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.] But king
Richard, to vnderstand further of the emperours mind herein, [Sidenote:
The bishop of Elie is sent to the emperour.] sent ouer his chancellour
the bishop of Elie vnto him in ambassage. In the meane time the warre
was still continued betwixt him and the French, by the which they were
commonlie put to the worse, and king Richard inuading their borders, did
much hurt in wasting the countries on each side. The French king was at
one time so narrowlie chased, that as he would haue passed a bridge that
laie ouer the water of Saine, he was in danger of drowning by the fall
of the same vnder him, but yet at the length he escaped, and got to the
further side.

[Sidenote: The 2 kings talke togither.] After this, the two kings came
to a communication togither, in the which a motion was made, that Lewes
the French king his sonne and heire should haue the sister of Arthur
duke of Britaine in marriage, and that king Richard in consideration
thereof should surrender vnto them and to their heires the townes of
Gisors, Bademont, with the countrie of Veulquessine or Veuxine le
Normant, Vernon, Iuerie and Pascie; and further should giue vnto them
twentie thousand marks of siluer. On the other side it was mooued, that
the French king should resigne vnto king Richard all that he could
demand in the countie of Engeulesme, and should restore vnto him the
counties of Albemarle and Augie, with the castell of Arkes, and all
other castels which he had taken in Normandie, or in any partie during
these last warres. But there was a respit taken for the full concluding
and assuring of these conditions, till the octaues of All saints, that
king Richard might vnderstand the emperours pleasure, without whose
consent he might not conclude any thing concerning that matter, bicause
he had sent such word vnto him by the lord chancellour, who at this time
was attendant in his court.

In the meane time, the emperour being aduertised of the whole matter,
and of the articles afore mentioned, gaue knowledge to king Richard by
the bishop of Elie at his returning backe, that this forme of peace
nothing liked him, but rather made directlie to his discontentment: the
which least he might séeme to saie without sufficient ground of reason,
he alledged, that it should sound to king Richards dishonour, if he
surrendred and gaue vp anie thing that he had not in possession.
[Sidenote: The emperor dissuadeth the king from agréeing to the peace.]
And to encourage him to recouer those things which had beene taken from
him, the emperour pardoned him of the seauentéene thousand marks of
siluer, which yet remained behind due to him for the kings ransome.
Howsoeuer the matter passed, the two kings met not in the octaues of All
saints, according to the appointment, although they were come, and
approched verie néere to the place where they should haue communed
togither: but through the dissimulation of the Frenchmen, they departed,
without seeing one an other, and immediatlie began the warre as
fiercelie as at anie time before.

[Sidenote: The warre is begun afresh.] The French king tooke the towne
of Diep, which king Richard had latelie repared, and burned it, with the
ships that harbored in the hauen: after this, commming to Isoldun, he
wan the towne and besieged the castell. [Sidenote: The hast which king
Richard made.] But king Richard aduertised thereof, came with quicke
spéed (making of thrée daies iournie but one) and entred into the
castell of Isoldun to defend the same against his aduersaries: and
foorthwith there resorted such numbers of men vnto him, when they heard
how he was besieged, that the French king doubting how to retire from
thence in safetie, made suit first to haue licence to depart, and after
when that would not be granted, he required at the leastwise to talke
with the king of England about some agréement.

[Sidenote: The 2 kings againe talke togither of peace.] Wherevnto king
Richard condescended, and so comming togither, they concluded vpon a
truce to indure from that daie, being saturdaie next after the feast of
saint Nicholas, vnto the feast of saint Hilarie next insuing, and then
to méet againe néere vnto Louiers with their councels, that they might
grow by some reasonable way vnto a finall peace and concord. [Sidenote:
1196.] And according to this article, shortlie after the same feast of
S. Hilarie, they met at Louiers, where finallie they were accorded to
conclude a peace on these conditions, [Sidenote: The conditions of peace
concluded betwixt the two kings. _Matth. Paris._ _Matth. West._] that
the French king should release to the king of England Isoldun, with the
countrie about, woon by him sith the beginning of these wars; likewise,
all the right which he had in Berrie, Auuergine, and Gascoigne, and the
countie of Albemarle. On the other part, the king of England should
resigne Gisors, and certeine other places, and namelie Veuxine or
Veulquesine vnto the king of France.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _Matth. Paris._] Herevpon were suerties also
bound for performance, and the forfeiture of fiftéene thousand marks
assigned to be paid by the partie that first brake the peace. Shortlie
after, the French king repenting him selfe of the agreement, began to
make a warre anew, so that king Richard seized into his hands all the
goods and[15] possessions which belonged to the abbats of the order of
the great monasterie of Clunie, and of saint Denise & la Charitie, which
had become suertie for the French king in the summe of 1500 marks
aforesaid. [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The earle of Albemarle departed this
life.] This yeare died William de Forz earle of Albemarle, in whose
place succéeded Baldwine de Betun by the kings gift, and married the
countesse of Albermarle.

[Sidenote: Otho sonne to the duke of Saxonie.] There was a motion also
made for a marriage betwixt the lord Otho, sonne to Henrie duke of
Saxonie, king Richards nephue by his sister, and the ladie Margaret,
daughter to the king of Scots, so as they should haue inioied the
countries of Lothian, Northumberland, and the countie of Caerleill with
the castels. [Sidenote: Lawnes.] For the conclusion of which marriage,
the archbishop of Canturburie was sent about Christmas to commune with
the king of Scots: but bicause the Scotish quéene was then conceiued of
child, hir husband (in hope that God would send him a sonne) refused to
stand vnto the aboue mentioned couenants.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Paruus._ _Ran. Higd._ The abbat of Caen sent into
England.] At this time king Richard sent the abbat of Caen (who was also
the elect of Durham) into England, to take an accompts of those that had
the receipts of the kings monie: for this abbat had informed the king,
that his receiuers and officers here in the realme dealt not iustlie in
making their accompts, [Sidenote: Fraudulent dealing in officers.] but
both deceiued the king, and oppressed his people, in exacting more than
was due, and concealing that which they ought to stand accomptable for.
The king supposing his words to be true, or at least likelie so to be,
and that in reforming such vntruth in his officers, it should be both
profitable to him, and well liked of the people, sent this abbat ouer
with commission, to be as it were his generall auditour.

Howbeit, Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, which was gouernour of the
realme in causes both temporall and spirituall (by reason he had the
kings authorise as his vicegerent, & therefore sufficientlie
countenanced, & also the popes as his legat authorised) did somewhat
stomach the matter, in that it should be thought he did suffer such
abuses in the kings officers, and not reforme them. But he held him
content and said little, sith the abbat shewed him the kings commission
to doo that which he went about, although he brought it not to passe.
For whereas he came ouer in lent, and gaue out commandements, that all
such as had any thing to doo in receipt of the kings monie, should
appeare before him after Easter, he tarried not to see Easter himselfe,
but was called into another world by the stroke of death, there to
render accompts for his owne acts here in this life committed.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._ _Wil. Paruus._ _Matt. Paris._ _Ran. Higd._ William
Fitz Osbert.] At the same time there was another person in London called
William with the long beard, (aliàs Fitz Osbert) which had likewise
informed the king of certeine great oppressions and excessiue outrages
vsed by rich men against the poore (namelie the worshipfull of the
citie, the Maior and Aldermen) who in their hoistings, when any tallage
was to be gathered, burdened the poore further than was thought reason,
to ease themselues; [Sidenote: The foule disorder in the citizens of
London.] wherevpon[16] the said William being a seditious person, and of
a busie nature, ceassed not to make complaints. Now bicause the king
gaue eare vnto him at the first, he tooke a boldnesse thereof, & drawing
vnto him great routs of the poorer sort of people, would take vpon him
to defend the causes of those that found themselues greeued with the
heauie yoke of richmen and gentlemen. He was somewhat learned, and verie
eloquent: he had also a verie good wit, but he applied it rather to set
dissention betwixt the high estates and the low, than to anie other good
purpose. [Sidenote: The vnnaturall ingratitude of Fitz Osbert.] He
accused also his owne brother of treason, who in his youth had kept him
to schoole, & beene verie good and beneficiall brother vnto him, bicause
now he would not still mainteine him with monie to beare out his
riottous port. Moreouer, he declared to the king, that by extortion and
briberie of certeine men of great wealth, he lost manie forfeits and

Manie gentlemen of honour sore hated him for his presumptuous attempts
to the hindering of their purposes: but he had such comfort of the king,
that he little passed for their malice, but kept on his intent, till the
king being aduertised of the assemblies which he made, commanded him to
ceasse from such dooings, that the people might fall againe to their
sciences and occupations, which they had for the more part left off, at
the instigation of this William with the long beard, so named of the
long heare of his beard, [Sidenote: Why he ware his long berd. _Matth.
Paris._] which he nourished of purpose to seeme the more graue and
manlike, and also as it were in despite of them which counterfeited the
Normans (that were for the most part shauen) and bicause he would
resemble the ancient vsage of the English nation. [Sidenote: _Fabian._]
The kings commandement in restraint of the peoples resort vnto him, was
well kept a while, but it was not long yer they began to follow him
againe as they had doone before.

Then he tooke vpon him to make vnto them certeine collations or sermons,
taking for his theme, Haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus saluatoris,
that is to saie: [Sidenote: His oration to the people.] Ye shall draw in
gladnesse waters out of the founteins of your sauiour. And hereto he
added, "I am (said he) the sauiour of poore men; ye be the poore, and
haue assaied the hard hands and heauie burdens of the rich: now draw ye
therefore the healthfull waters of vnderstanding out of my wels and
springs, and that with ioy. For the time of your visitation is come: I
shall part waters from waters, by waters I vnderstand the people, and I
shall part the people which are good and méeke, from the people that are
wicked and proud, and I shall disseuer the good and euill, euen as light
is diuided from darknesse."

[Sidenote: _Ger. Dor._] By these and such persuasions and means as he
vsed, he had gotten two and fiftie thousand persons, readie to haue
taken his part, as appeared after by a roll of their names found in his
kéeping, besides diuerse instruments of iron to breake vp houses, and
other things seruing to such like purposes. So that he brought the
commoners into a great liking of him: but the rich and wealthie citizens
stood in much feare, so that they kept their houses, in armes, in doubt
to be robbed and murthred by him in the night season.

The archbishop of Canturburie (vnto whome the rule of the realme
chéefelie belonged) being aduertised hereof, sent for the greatest
number of the citizens, and vsing them with gentle words, persuaded them
to deliuer pledges, the better to assure him, that no such thing should
chance, which was suspected of manie, though he was loth to conceiue any
such opinion of them. They being ouercome with his courteous words, gaue
vnto him pledges.

[Sidenote: He is called before the archbishop of Canturburie lord chéefe
iustice or president of the realme.] After this, when the foresaid
William ceased not to make congregations of the people, at length the
archbishop sent a commandement vnto him, that he should appeare before
him and other of the councell, at a certeine prefixed daie, to answer to
such things as might be laid to his charge. To be short, he did so at
the time appointed, but with such a rout of the common people about him,
that the archbishop durst not pronounce against him, but licenced him to
depart for that time, giuing him soft and gentle words. Howbeit,
certeine persons were then appointed by the said archbishop and other of
the councell to watch him sometime, when he should haue no great
companie about him, and then to apprehend him.

Amongst those that were thus commanded to attach him, were two burgesses
of the citie, who hauing espied a conuenient time for the execution of
their purpose, set vpon him to haue take him, but he getting an ax,
defended himselfe manfullie: and in resisting slue one of them,
[Sidenote: He fléeth into the church of S. Marie Bow.] and after that
fled into the church of S. Marie Bow, kéeping the same not as a place of
sanctuarie, but as a fortresse: in somuch that by the help of such as
resorted vnto him, he defended it against his aduersaries, till with
fire and smoke they constreined him to come foorth, and all those that
were there with him: [Sidenote: His concubine.] amongst them also was
his concubine, who neuer left him for any danger that might betide him.

The people regarding the danger of their pledges, came not out to aid
him, as it was much doubted they would haue doone. Wherefore being thus
attached, he was brought foorth, and comming out of the church, the
sonne of that burgesse whome he had slaine (as you haue heard) strake
him verie sore into the bellie with a knife, in reuenge of his fathers
death. After this, he was had to his arraignment before the archbishop,
sitting within the towre, and being condemned, was from thence drawne
with horsses to the place of execution called the Elmes, [Sidenote: He
is executed.] and there hanged on a gibet, with nine of his adherents,
which had defended the church against the kings power: [Sidenote: _Wil.
Paruus._ _Matth. Paris._] and yet for all this, the grudge ceassed not,
but the common people raised a great slander vpon the archbishop,
[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie is euill spokē of for y^e death
of William Fitz Osbert.] both for causing him to be taken out of the
church, where he claimed priuilege of sanctuarie, and also for putting
him to death, who was innocent (as they alledged) and not giltie of
those crimes that were laid against him: who sought onelie the defense
of poore people against extortioners, and such as were wrong dooers.

This rumor rose so fast, that at length (by bruting abroad, that
certeine miracles should be wrought by a chaine, [Sidenote: An old
whormonger, and a new saint.] wherein he was bound in time of his
imprisonment) he was taken for a saint. The place also where he
suffered, was visited by women, and other superstitious folks, as a plot
of great holinesse, till at length the archbishop caused it to be
watched, to the end that no such foolishnesse should be vsed there. In
fine, the opinion which the people had thus fondlie conceiued of his
vertue and innocencie, was by little and little remooued out of their
heads, when his acts were more certeinelie published: as the sleaing of
a man with his owne hands, and the vsing of his concubine within Bowe
church, during the time of his being there. Also the archbishop accursed
a préest, which had first brought vp the false report and fained fable
of the miracle wrought by the chaine, whereby the occasion of idolatrie
was first giuen, and might easilie haue béene continued, if the
archbishop had not béene the wiser man, and by such means repressed the
rumour. ¶ So that we are to note by this example the force of
counterfeit holinesse and feigned harmelesnesse in hypocrits,
           ---- qui pelle sub agni
    Vipereum celant virus morésq; luporum;
    Et stolidos ficta virtutis imagine fallunt.

But now to return vnto the dooings of king Richard in France. Ye haue
heard how a peace was concluded (as some haue written) but the same
continued not long: for the French king séeming to repent himselfe of
that he had doone (as is aforesaid) brake the peace, and raising a
power, besieged Albemarle; at length wan it, and raced it downe to the
ground, then king Richard gaue vnto him thrée thousand marks of siluer
for the ransome of his knights and yeomen, or demilances (as I may call
them) that were taken in that fortresse. After this, the French king wan
Nouencourt, and earle John tooke the castell of Gamages.

[Sidenote: The erledome of Poictou.] About the same time also king
Richard gaue vnto his nephue Otho the earledome of Poictou. Which I haue
thought good to note out of Roger Houeden, [Sidenote: John Bouchet his
dout.] to remooue the doubt of Iohn Bouchet, who in the third part of
his annales of Aquitaine, maruelleth at an old panchart or record which
he had séene, by the tenour whereof it appeared, that this Otho
intituled himselfe duke of Aquitaine and earle of Poictou, being in his
castell of Monstereulbonin neere to Poictiers, in the yeare a thousand,
one hundreth, ninetie nine, in presence of Geffrey de Lusignen, and
others, and granted vnto a certeine person the office of cutting the
monie in the mint of that towne, as by the same panchart it further

The sight whereof brought the said Bouchet into a great perplexitie,
considering that no chronicle which he had either seene, or heard of,
made mention of any Otho that shuld be duke of Aquitaine, or erle of
Poictou, either before that time, or after. Where againe it was euident
to him, that queene Elianor the mother of king Richard, as then liuing,
named hir selfe dutchesse of Aquitaine, and countesse of Poictou; &
likewise king Richard intituled himselfe duke of Aquitaine, and earle of
Poictou, euer after he had fianced the earle of Barcelons daughter, as
by diuerse records both of the mother and the sonne he had séene perfect
notice. At length yet he gesseth (and that trulie) that it should be
this Otho, to whom the mother and sonne had assigned the dutchie of
Aquitaine and countie of Poictou, for the maintenance of his estate, he
holding the same till the yeare 1199, in the which he was made emperour
by king Richards good helpe, as after shall be shewed more at large.

[Sidenote: Ranulph erle of Chester tooke his wife the dutchesse of
Britaine prisoner.] About this time also as the countesse of Britaine,
the mother of duke Arthur came into Normandie to haue spoken with king
Richard, Ranulph earle of Chester hir husband meeting hir at
Pountourson, tooke hir as prisoner, and shut hir vp within his castell
at S. James de Beumeron: and when hir sonne Arthur could not find means
to deliuer hir out of captiuitie, he ioined with the king of France, and
made great hauocke in the lands of his vncle king Richard, wherevpon the
king gathered a mightie armie, and inuading Britaine with great force,
cruellie wasted and destroied the countrie.

[Sidenote: A dearth.] Here is also to be noted, that in this seuenth
yeare of king Richard, a great dearth chanced through this realme of
England, and in the coasts about the same. [Sidenote: The death of the
earle of Salisburie.] Also about the same time died William earle of
Salisburie, the sonne of earle Patrike, whose daughter and heire king
Richard gaue in marriage, togither with the earledome of Salisburie,
vnto his base brother, surnamed Long Espée.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ _Matth. Paris._] It chanced moreouer about the
same time, that earle John the kings brother, with certeine capteins of
such hired souldiors as some call Brabanceni; others, the Routs; and the
French histories name them Costereaux, or Coterels, went abroad to
atchiue some enterprise against the bishop of Beauuois, and other
Frenchmen, which had doone much hurt to king Richards subiects in those
parties. The chéefe leaders of those Routs or Costereaux, which went
foorth with earle John, [Sidenote: Marchades & Lupescaro.] and serued
vnder him at that time, were two Prouancois, Marchades & Lupescaro.
These riding foorth into the countrie about Beauuois made hauocke in
robbing and spoiling all afore them.

Anon as Philip the bishop of Beauuois, a man more giuen to the campe
than to the church, had knowledge hereof, thinking them to be a méet
preie for him, with sir William de Merlow and his sonne, and a great
number of other valiant men of warre, came foorth into the fields, and
encountring with the enimies, fought verie stoutlie. [Sidenote: The
bishop of Beauuois taken prisoner.] But yet in the end the bishop, the
archdeacon, and all the chéefe capteins were taken: the residue slaine
and chased. After this, earle John and the foresaid capteins passed
foorth, and wan the towne of Millie, and so returned.

Earle John and Marchades presented the two prelats with great triumph
vnto K. Richard earlie in the morning, lieng yet in his bed; as those
that were knowne to be his great enimies, saieng to him in French; "Rise
Richard, rise, we haue gotten the great chantour of Beauuois, and a good
quier man (as we take it) to answer him in the same note, and here we
deliuer them vnto you to vse at your discretion." The king séeing them,
smiled, and was verie glad for the taking of this bishop, for that he
had euer found him his great aduersarie: and therefore being thus taken
fighting in the field with armour on his backe, thought he might be bold
in temporall wise to chastise him: sith he (not regarding his calling)
practised to molest him with temporall weapons: wherevpon he committed
him to close prison all armed as he was.

It chanced soone after, that two of his chaplins came vnto the king to
Rouen, where this bishop was deteined, beseeching the king of licence to
attend vpon their maister now in captiuitie: vnto whome (as it is of
some reported) the king made this answer; "I am content to make you
iudges in the cause betwixt me and your maister, as for the euils which
he hath either doone, either else gone about to doo vnto me, let the
same be forgotten. This is true, that I being taken as I returned from
my iournie made into the holie land, and deliuered into the emperours
hands, was in respect of my kinglie state, vsed according therevnto
verie fréendlie and honourablie, till your maister comming thither (for
what purpose he himselfe best knoweth) had long conference with the
emperour. After which, I for my part in the next morning tasted the
fruit of their ouernights talke, being then loden with as manie irons as
a good asse might not verie easilie haue borne. Iudge you therefore,
what maner of imprisonment your maister deserued at my hands, that
procured such ease for me at the emperours hands."

The two chaplins had their mouths stopped with these words thus by the
king vttered, and so departed their waies. The bishop being still
deteined in prison, procured suit to be made to the pope for his
deliuerance: but the pope, being truelie informed of the matter, and
wiselie considering that the king had not taken the bishop preaching,
but fighting, and kept him prisoner rather as a rough enimie, than as a
peaceable prelat, would not be earnest with the king for his
deliuerance, but rather reprooued the bishop, in that he had preferred
secular warfare before the spirituall, and had taken vpon him the vse
of a speare in stéed of a crosier, an helmet in steed of a miter, an
herbergeon in stéed of a white rochet, a target for a stoale, and an
iron sword in lieu of the spirituall sword: and therefore he refused to
vse any commandement to king Richard for the setting of him at libertie.
But yet he promised to doo what he could by waie of intreating that he
might be released.

It is reported by some writers, that the pope at first, not
vnderstanding the truth of the whole circumstance, should send to king
Richard, commanding him by force of the canons of the church to deliuer
his sons the bishop and archdeacon out of their captiuitie. To whom the
king sent their armour with this message written in Latine, [Sidenote:
_Genes. 37._] "Vide an tunica filij tui sit an non," that is, "See
whether these are the garments of thy sonnes or not:" alluding to the
saieng of those that caried Josephs coate to Jacob. Which when the pope
saw, he said: "Naie by S. Peter, it is neither the apparell of my
sonnes, nor yet of my brethren: but rather they are the vestures of the
children of Mars:" and so he left them still to be ransomed at the kings
pleasure. The bishop thus séeing no hope to be deliuered without some
agréement had betwixt the two kings, became now through irkesomenesse of
his bonds, an earnest mediatour for peace, whereas before he had beene
an extreme stirrer vp of war. Such a schoolemaister is imprisonment, &
plucker downe of loftie courages. But to proceed.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.] About the same time the archbishop of Rouen put
all the countrie of Normandie vnder sentence of interdiction, [Sidenote:
Normandie interdicted by y^e archbishop of Rouen.] bicause king Richard
had begun to fortifie a castell at Lisle Dandelie, vpon a péece of
ground which the archbishop claimed to apperteine vnto his sée. The
matter was brought before the pope, who perceiuing the intent of king
Richard was not otherwise grounded vpon any couetous purpose to defraud
the church of hir right, but onelie to build a fortresse in such place
as was most expedient for defense of the countrie about, to preserue it
from inuasion of the enimies; he counselled the archbishop not to stand
against the king in it, but to exchange with him for some other lands:
which was doone, and the interdiction by the pope released. [Sidenote:
The bishop of Elie departed this life.] The bishop of Elie lord
chancellour, being sent about this businesse towards Rome, departed this
life by the way at Poictiers, in Januarie.

But the bishops of Durham & Lisieux that were sent with him, passed
forward, and comming to Rome, informed the pope of the matter, who tooke
order with the bishops (as before is mentioned.) The king gaue to the
church in Rouen in recompense, his milles which he had in Rouen, so that
the said church should paie the almes of old time appointed to be giuen
for the same. He gaue to the said church likewise the towne of Diepe,
and the towne of Bussels, so that the church should likewise paie the
almes assigned foorth of the same, being the summe of 372 pounds of
Aniouine monie: also the manour of Louers, and the forrest of Alermound
with the deere and the appurtenances. But now to other dooings.

About the same time, or not long before, whereas there had beene long
contention betwixt the kings of England, and the earles of S. Giles for
the earldome of Tholouse, [Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ The king and the
earle of Tholouse agréed.] king Richard by way of aliance fell now at an
appointment with the earle Raimond that held those lands; for whereas
the countesse Constance wife to the said Raimond earle of Tholouse and
aunt to king Philip was now departed this life, king Richard concluded a
mariage betweene the said earle and his sister Joane quéene of Sicile,
sometime wife to William king of Sicile, so that being thus ioined in
aliance with the said earle of Tholouse on the one side, [Sidenote:
_Matt. Paris._ The earle of Flanders alied with K. Richard. _Iacob.
Meir._ _Les annales de France._] he procured a league also with Baldwine
earle of Flanders on the other, vnto whom he gaue fiue thousand markes
in reward, vpon condition, that he should couenant not to grow to any
agréement with the French king without his consent. Likewise Reginold
the earle of Bolongne, that was sonne to earle of Chateau Marline, alied
himselfe with them against the French king, and so did Baldwine earle of
Guines with diuerse other.

Thus King Richard by such aliance hauing his part greatlie strengthened,
prepared himselfe to the warre more earnestlie than before, and tooke
order with the earle of Flanders, that they should inuade the French
dominions in two seuerall quarters both at one time, as the earle by
Flanders, & he himselfe by Normandie, according to the appointment
betwixt them deuised. [Sidenote: _Iacob. Meir._ _Wil. Paruus._ Towns won
by the earle of Flanders.] The earle preparing an armie, first wan the
towne of Dowaie, and then besieged saint Omers, and wan it after fiue
weekes siege: wherevpon they of Aire yeelded to him; shortlie after he
entred into Artois, & besieged the citie of Arras.

At the same time king Richard marching towards Gisors, wan in his waie
the castell of Corselles, & destroied it; [Sidenote: Gisors besieged.]
that doone, he came to Gisors, and besieged the towne, wasting all the
countrie round about him where he came. The French king being thus
troubled with the inuasion of his enimies in two seuerall places at one
present time, sent certeine bands of his souldiors towards Arras to
kéepe the earle of Flanders plaie, whilest he himselfe went against king
Richard: and comming vnto Gisors, found it streictlie besieged of the
same king, so that he wist not well how to enter the towne. But yet at
length faigning to giue battell to king Richard (who vpon desire to
receiue it, came abroad into the field) the French king rushed foorth
with all his whole force to make towards the towne, [Sidenote: The
French king entreth into Gisors.] & so got into it, though not without
great losse and damage of his people.

King Richard not meaning to breake vp his siege from before the towne,
(notwithstanding the French king had entred it) staied a certeine time
of purpose to win it, knowing the gaine to be the greater, and his name
more famous, if he might atchiue his purpose, now that his aduersarie
was within it, but when he saw it would not be, [Sidenote: K. Richard
raiseth his siege.] he raised his siege, and departed towards Cleremont,
spoiling all the countrie by his forrais as he went, so that he wan
great pillage, wherewith his souldiers were loden and made verie rich.

[Sidenote: Hugh de Cheaumount taken prisoner.] It chanced, that in a
skirmish Hugh de Chaumount was taken prisoner, one that was of the
French kings priuie councell; and king Richard appointed him to the
kéeping of Robert Ros, who charged one of his seruants named William de
Spinie with the custodie of him. But the said Hugh corrupting his kéeper
the foresaid William with rewards, (whereof it is said,
    [Sidenote: _Ouid. in 3. Art. am. ep. 16._]
         ---- acceptissima semper
    Munera sunt, author quæ pretiosa facit)
escaped out of the castell of Bonneuille, where he was within ward, to
the great displeasure of king Richard, [Sidenote: Robert Rosse put to
his fine for an escape.] who caused Robert Ros to paie for a fine, the
summe of twelue hundred marks, which the prisoner should haue paied for
his ransome: and further, commanded William de Spinie to be hanged for
his disloiall dealing.

King Philip, after that the king of England was remooued from Gisors (as
before yée haue heard) assembled a great host, and with banner
displaied, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] entred into Normandie, and wasted
the countrie from Newburge to Beaumont le Rogier, and that doone,
returned into France, licencing his men to returne vnto their homes.
[Sidenote: _Nic. Treuet._ The French kings request for a combat.] About
the same time, he sent vnto king Richard, requiring him to appoint fiue
champions, and he would appoint other fiue for his part, which might
fight in lists, for triall of all matters in controuersie betwixt them,
so to auoid the shedding of more giltlesse bloud. [Sidenote: K. Richards
answer.] King Richard accepted the offer, with condition, that either
king might be of the number, that is, the French king one of the fiue
vpon the French part; & K. Richard one of the fiue vpon the English
part. But this condition would not be granted. [Sidenote: 1197.]
Herevpon when shortlie after it was signified to king Richard, that
ships vsed to come out of England to saint Valerie with victuals,
[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] which were sold and conueied awaie vnto the
French K and other his enimies, he rode to saint Valeries, and set the
towne on fire, [Sidenote: Ships burnt, and mariners hanged.] and such
ships of England as he found there he also burnt, and hanged the
mariners by the necke, diuiding the graine and other victuals which were
found in the same ships amongst his owne souldiors.

[Sidenote: _Les annales de France._] About the same time he got the
fauour of them of Champaigne and of the Britons, and William Crespine
also was constreined to deliuer vnto him the castell of Auge, but the
French king recouered it by siege, whilest king Richard entring into
Aluergne wan diuerse castels there, to the number of ten out of king
Philips hands. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.] In the meane time the earle of
Flanders made sore war against the French king for his part, and
training the same king within streits, so that he was almost inclosed on
ech side, he constreined him to agrée to such composition as pleased the
same earle to appoint, but afterwards the French king refused to stand
to the couenants of that agréement, and so the warre continued betwixt
them as before.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ One yeare & 4 moneths saith _Wil. Paruus._] At
length king Richard and the French king concluded vpon an abstinence of
warre to indure from the feast of S. Hilarie for one whole yere,
purposing in the meane time to make a finall peace and agréement. In
which season Baldwine earle of Flanders came into England to doo his
deuotions vnto the shrine where Thomas the archbishop laie buried at
Canturburie. [Sidenote: Griffin king of Wales departed this life.] The
same yeare also somewhat before this time, Rise ap Griffin king of Wales
departed this life, after whose death there fell discord betwixt his
sonnes for the succession, till the archbishop Hubert went to the
marshes of that countrie and made an agréement betwixt them. Not long
after, Roger the brother of Robert earle of Leicester, elected bishop of
saint Andrews in Scotland, receiued the order of préesthood, and was
consecrated bishop by the hands of the bishop of Aberdine.

[Sidenote: Weights and measures.] This yeare it was ordeined that
measures of all manner of graine should conteine one quantitie
throughout the realme, that is to saie, one resonable horsselode, and
that the measures of wine and ale with all maner of liquors should be of
one iust quantie according to the diuersitie of the liquor: also that
weights should be of like rate throughout the relme, and that cloth
should conteine two yards in breadth within the lists, of perfect
goodnesse throughout, as well in the middest as by the sides, and that
one manner of yard should be vsed through the relme. It was also
ordeined that no merchants within the realme should hang any red or
blacke clothes before their windowes, nor set vp any pentises or other
thing whereby to darken the light from those that came to buy their
cloth, so as they might be deceiued in choosing thereof.

Also it was enacted that there should be foure or six substantiall
honest men chosen in euerie towne, and likewise in shires, with the head
officers of cities and boroughes, which had a corporation, to see that
the assises aforesaid were truelie kept, and that if anie were found to
be offending in the premisses, to cause their bodies to be attached and
commited to prison, and their goods to be seized to the kings vse: and
if those that were chosen to haue regard thereto, were tried to be
negligent, so that by others, and not by them any offenders chanced to
be conuicted before the iustices, then should the regarders be put to
their fines, for the negligent looking to their offices.

[Sidenote: 1198.] King Richard held his Christmasse this yeare at Roan,
and Hubert the archbishop of Canturburie legat of the apostolike sée,
named lord chéefe Justice of England, was about the same time in the
marshes of Wales at Hereford, and there receiued into his hands the
castels of Hereford, Bridgenorth and Ludlow, remoouing those that had
the same in kéeping, and appointing others in their roomes. Afterwards
comming by Couentrie, [Sidenote: Moonks placed againe in the church of
Couentrie.] he placed the moonks againe in the cathedrall church of that
citie, by commandement of pope Celestine, and chased out the secular
canons, which the bishop Hugh Nouant had brought into the same church
when he remooued the moonks.

[Sidenote: Messengers from the stats of Germanie.] In the Christmasse
wéeke also there came messengers to Rouen from the archbishops of Cullen
and Mentz, and from other states of the empire, which declared vnto king
Richard, that all the princes of Germanie were appointed to assemble at
Cullen, the two & twentith of Februarie, about the choosing of a new
emperour, in place of the late deceassed Henrie: and therefore they
commanded him by force of the oth and league in which he was bound to
the emperour and empire, that all excuse of deniall or occasions to the
contrarie ceasing and set apart, he should make his repaire vnto Cullen
at the aforesaid day, to helpe them in choosing of some worthie
personage that might and was able to haue the empire. King Richard
doubting to put himselfe in danger, bicause he had not discharged all
the debts due for his ransome, staied at home, but yet he sent diuerse
noble men thither, and did so much in fauour of his nephue Otho, that by
the helpe of the foresaid two archbishops of Cullen and Mentz, the same
Otho was elected emperour. But of this matter more shall be said

[Sidenote: Three hundred knights of men of armes to be found.] Moreouer,
about the same time king Richard required by the archbishop of
Canturburie his chéefe iustice, an aid of 300 knights to be found by his
subiects of England, to remaine with him in his seruice for one whole
yeare, or else that they would giue him so much monie, as might serue to
reteine that number after the rate of thrée shillings a daie of English
monie for euerie knight. [Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolne.] Whereas all
other were contented to be contributors herein, onelie Hugh bishop of
Lincolne refused, and spake sore against the archbishop that moued the
matter. But how soeuer that request tooke place, king Richard (as we
find) leuied this yeare a subsidie of fiue shillings of euerie hide of
land within the realme, two commissioners, that is to say, one of the
spiritualtie, & a knight of the temporaltie, being appointed as
commissioners in euerie shire, with the assistance of the shiriffe, and
others, to sée the same assessed & rated after an hundred acres of land
to the hide of land, according to the custome.

[Sidenote: The moonks of Christes church send to the pope, complaining
of their archbishop.] The same yeare also the moonks of the house of the
holie Trinitie, otherwise called Christes church in Canturburie,
exhibited their complaint vnto pope Innocent, that their archbishop
Hubert (contrarie to his order and dignitie) exercised the office of
high iustice, and sate in iudgement of bloud, being so incumbred in
temporall matters, that he could not haue time to discharge his office
touching spirituall causes: [Sidenote: The pope sendeth to the king.]
wherevpon the pope sent vnto king Richard, admonishing him not to suffer
the said archbishop to be any longer troubled with temporall affaires,
but to discharge him thereof, and not to admit any spirituall person
from thencefoorth vnto any temporall administration.

He further prohibited by vertue of their obedience, all manner of
prelats and men of the church, that they should not presume rashlie to
take vpon them any maner of secular function or office. Whervpon the
archbishop was discharged of his office of chéefe iustice, and Geffrey
Fitz Peter succéeded in gouernement of the realme in his stéed.
¶ Geruasius Dorobernensis saith, that the archbishop resigned that
office of his owne accord, and that not till after his returne from the
marshes of Wales, where he had ouerthrowne the Welshmen, and slaine fiue
thousand of them. Which victorie other ascribe vnto Geffrey Fitz Peter,
which Geffrey (as the said Dorobernensis saith) succeeded the archbishop
in the office of lord cheefe iustice, but not vntill August, in the
tenth yeare of the kings reigne.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.] In this yeare, immediatlie vpon the expiring of
the truce which was taken till haruest might be ended, the warre betwixt
the two kings of England & France began eftsoones to be pursued with
like earnestnesse as before: wherevpon manie encounters chanced betwixt
the parties, with taking of townes and fortresses, as commonlie in such
cases it happeneth. Twise the French king was put to the worsse, once in
September betwixt Gamages and Vernon, where he was driuen to saue
himselfe by flight, loosing twentie knights, and thréescore seruitors or
yomen, which were taken, besides those that were slaine: and againe, in
the same moneth on Michaelmasse euen betwixt Curseilles and Gisors, at
what time he came to succour Curseilles, bringing with him 400 knights,
besides seruitors, and a great multitude of commons. But the castell was
woone before he could approch it.

King Richard being aduertised of his comming, hasted foorth to méet him,
and giuing the onset vpon him, forced him to flée vnto Gisors, where at
the entring of the bridge there was such preasse, that the bridge brake,
so that amongst other, [Sidenote: King Philip almost drowned.] the king
himselfe with his horsse and all fell into the riuer of Geth, and with
much adoo was releeued, and got out of the water, no small number of
right hardie and valiant gentlemen being taken at the same time, which
put themselues forward to staie the Englishmen, till the king was
recouered out of the present danger. To conclude, there were taken to
the number of an hundred knights, [Sidenote: Seuen score saith _R.
Houed._ _Matth. Paris._ _R. Houed._] and two hundred barded horsses,
besides seruitors on horssebacke, and footmen with crossebowes. Amongst
other prisoners these are named, Matthew de Montmorancie, Gales de
Ports, Iollen de Bray, and manie other also innumerable. King Richard
hauing got this victorie, wrote letters thereof vnto the archbishops,
bishops, abbats, earles and barons of his realme, that they might praise
God for his good successe.

¶ A notable example to all princes that haue the conquest ouer their
enimies, to referre the happie getting thereof to God, and to giue
praise vnto him who giueth victorie vnto whom it pleaseth him. Which the
Psalmograph saw verie well, and therefore ascribed all the issue of his
prosperous affaires to God, as may well be noted by his words, saieng
    [Sidenote: _Eob. Hess. in Psal. 144._]
                 ---- ab illo
    Munior, hic instar turris & arcis erat,
    Dura manus in bella meas qui format & armat,
    Ad fera qui digitos instruit arma meos.

Now will we staie the proceedings of the king of France at this time,
and make no further relation thereof for a while, till we haue touched
other things that happened in England at the same season. And first ye
shall vnderstand, that Hugh Bardolfe, Roger Arundell, and Geffrey
Hachet, to whom as iustices, the counties of Lincolne, Notingham, Yorke,
Derbie, Northumberland, Westmerland, Cumberland, and Lancaster were
appointed for circuits, held not onelie plées of assises, and of the
crowne, [Sidenote: Inquisitions taken.] but also tooke inquisitions of
escheats, and forfaitures of all maner of transgressions, and of
donations of benefices, of marriages of widowes and maids, and other
such like things as apperteined to the king, whereby any aduantages grew
to his vse, the which for tediousnesse we passe ouer. These things were
streightlie looked vnto, not without the disquieting of manie.

Herewith came an other trouble in the necke of this former, to diuerse
persons within the realme, through inquiries taken by the iustices of
the forrests: for Hugh Neuille, Hugh Waley, and Heruisius Neuill,
appointed iustices itinerants in that case, were commanded by the king
to call before them archbishops, bishops, earles, barons, knights, and
fréeholders, with the reeue, and foure of the substantiall men of euerie
towne or village, to heare and take knowledge of the kings commandement,
[Sidenote: Ordinances of forrests.] touching the ordinances of forrests,
the which were verie straight in sundrie points, so that whereas before
those that offended in killing of the kings deere were punished by the
purse, now they should loose their eies and genitals, as the lawe was in
the daies of king Henrie his grandfather: and those that offended in
cutting downe woods or bushes, or in digging and deluing vp of turues
and clods, or by any other maner of waie made waste and distruction in
woods or grasse, or spoile of venison, within the precinct of the
forrests, contrarie to order, they should be put to their fines.

[Sidenote: Préests to be arrested offending in forrests.] He gaue
commandement also, that it should be lawful to the forresters to take
and put vnder arrest, as well préests and those of the cleargie, as
temporall men, being found offendors in forrest grounds and chases.
Manie other ordinances were decréed touching the preseruation of
forrests, and the kings prerogatiue, aduantages and profits rising and
growing by the same, as well for sauing of his woods and wasts, as in
pannage and agistements, greatlie to the restraint of them that might
vsurpe or incroch vpon the grounds within the compasse of his forrests.

Ye haue heard before, how the moonks of Canturburie did send to exhibit
a complaint to the pope, for that their archbishop tooke vpon him to
deale in exercise of matters belonging to a temporall man, [Sidenote:
_Ger. Dor._] and not to such a one as had rule ouer the spiritualtie:
but this was not the cause that did gréeue them so much, as that he went
forward with the erection of that church at Lameth, which his
predecessor archbishop Baldwine had first begun at Haketon, now called
S. Stephans (as before ye haue heard) and after was driuen through the
importunate suit of the moonks to leaue off, and race that which he had
there begun, to obeie the popes pleasure: [Sidenote: The church of
Lameth.] and after laid a new foundation at Lameth.

The moonks of Canturburie therefore still fearing least that church
should greatlie preiudice such rights and liberties, as they pretended,
namlie in the election of their archbishop, would neuer rest, but still
complained and followed their suit in most obstinate maner in the court
of Rome, as well in the daies of the said Baldwine, as now against
Hubert, (when he tooke in hand to continue the worke according to the
purpose of his predecessour the said Baldwine, which was to haue
instituted a colledge there, and to haue placed secular canons in the
same) and such was the earnest trauell of the moonks herein, that in the
end now after the deceasse of pope Celestine, they found such fauour at
the hands of pope Innocent his successor, that the same Innocent
directed his letters of cōmandement to the archbishop, and other bishops
of this land, [Sidenote: The pope cōmandeth the church of Lameth to be
raced.] to destroie and race the same foundation, as a péece of worke
derogatorie to the sée of Canturburie, and verie preiudiciall to the
estate of holie church.

The archbishop at the first trusted to be borne out by the king (who was
highlie offended with the moonks for their presumptuous dealing) and
therefore refused to obeie the popes commandement. The king in deed
stomached the matter so highlie, that he sent letters vnto the moonks by
no worsse messengers than by Geffrey Fitz Peter, and Hugh Fitz Bardolfe
his iustices, signifieng to them not onelie his high displeasure for
their presumptuous proceedings in their suit without his consent, but
also commanding them to surceasse, and not to procéed further in the
matter by virtue of any such the popes letters, which they had purchased
contrarie to the honour and dignitie of his crowne and realme. Moreouer,
he wrote to the bishops, commanding them to appeale; and to the
archbishop, forbidding him in any wise to breake downe the church which
he had so builded at Lameth.

[Sidenote: The presumtuous stoutnesse of the moonks.] The shiriffe of
Kent also was commanded to seize into his hands all the tenements and
possessions that belonged to the moonks (a frie of satan and as one
saith verie well of them and the like leuen of lewdnesse,
    ---- sentina malorum,
    Agnorum sub pelle lupi, mercede colentes
    Non pietate Deum, &c.)
who neuer the lesse were so stout in that quarell, that they would not
prolong one daie of the time appointed by the pope for the racing of
that church. Herevpon the king for his part and the bishops in their
owne behalfes wrote to the pope. Likewise the abbats of Boxeley, Fourd,
Stratford, Roberts-bridge, Stanlie, and Basing Warke, wrote the matter
to him: and againe the pope and the cardinals wrote to the king, to the
archbishops, and bishops: and so letters passed to and fro, till at
length the pope sent a Nuncio of purpose, to signifie his full
determination, as in the next yeare it shall be shewed at full.

[Sidenote: Welshmen vanquished. _Ger. Dor._ ascribeth this victorie vnto
Hubert archb. of Canturburie and saith there were slaine about 500 of
the enimies.] About the same time Geffrey Fitz Peter, lord cheefe
iustice of England, raised a power of men, and went into Wales to
succour the tenants of William de Brause, which were besieged of the
king, or rather prince of that countrie, named Owen, the brother of
Cadwalaine, [Sidenote: Mauds castle.] in Mauds castell: but the lord
chéefe iustice comming to the reskue of them within, gaue battell to the
aduersaries, and vanquishing them slue three thousand of them, and
seauen hundred of those that were taken prisoners and wounded. And all
the while the warres continued in France, the losse for the most part
still redounded to the Frenchmen. Earle John burnt Newburg, and tooke
eighteene knights of such as were sent to the reskue.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester.] The earle of Leicester with a small
companie came before the castell of Pascie, which (although the
Frenchmen held it) did yet of right belong vnto the said earle. The
souldiors within issued foorth, and being too strong for the earle,
caused him to flee, for otherwise he had béene taken. But returning on
the morrow after with more companie about him, and laieng ambushes for
the enimie, he approched the said castell, and trained the Frenchmen
foorth till he had them within his danger, and then causing his men to
breake out vpon them tooke an eightéene knights, and a great multitude
of other people. [Sidenote: Marchades.] Also Marchades with his rout of
Brabanders did the Frenchmen much hurt, in robbing and spoiling the

About this season the archbishop of Canturburie went ouer into Normandie
to speake with king Richard, and at the French kings request he passed
into France, to common with him of peace, which the French king offered
to conclude, in restoring all the townes and castels which he had taken
(Gisors onelie excepted) and touching the possession and title thereof,
he was contented to put the matter in compremise, to the order and award
of six barons in Normandie to be named by him; and of six barons in
France which king Richard should name. But king Richard would not thus
agrée, except the earle of Flanders and others which had forsaken the
French king to take his part, might be comprised in the same peace. At
length yet in Nouember, there was truce taken betwixt the two kings till
the feast of S. Hilarie next insuing.

In the meane time pope Innocent the third, vnderstanding in what present
danger things stood in the holie land, and on the other side,
considering what a weakening it was vnto christendome, to haue these two
kings thus to warre with mortall hatred one against the other:
[Sidenote: A truce taken betwixt the two kings.] he thought it stood him
vpon to trauell betwixt them, to bring them vnto some peace and
agreement. Héerevpon he dispatched one Peter the cardinall of Capua into
France, as legat from the sée of Rome, vnto the two foresaid kings, to
instruct them in what present danger the state of the christians in Asia
presentlie stood, so that without the aid of them and of other christian
princes, it could not be holpen, but needs it must come to vtter ruine,
and the Saracens yer long to be possessed of the whole. Therefore both
in respect hereof, and also for the auoiding of the further wilfull
spilling of christian bloud in such ciuill[17] and vngodlie warre, he
besought them to staie their hands, and to ioine in some fréendlie band
of concord, whereby they might with mutuall consent bestow their seruice
in that necessarie and most godlie warre, wherein by ouercomming the
enimies of Christ, they might looke for worthie reward at his hands,
which is the frée giuer of all victories.[18]

[Sidenote: 1199.] The cardinall comming into France, and dooing his
message in most earnest wise, was present at the interuiew appointed
betwixt the two kings in the feast of S. Hilarie, but yet could not he
bring his purpose to full effect: [Sidenote: _R. Houed._ A truce
concluded for fiue yeares.] onelie he procured them to take truce for
the term of fiue yeares, farther he could not get them to agrée. ¶ The
fault by authors is ascribed aswell to king Richard, as to king Philip:
for king Richard being first euill vsed, and put to hinderance,
determined either to vanquish, or neuer to giue place.

This forbearance from warre was concluded and taken in the yeare 1199
after the incarnation, and tenth of king Richards reigne. But
immediatlie after, there arose matter of new displeasure betwixt these
two kings to kéepe their minds in vre with secret grudges, though by
reason of the truce they outwardlie absteined from declaring it by force
of armes. [Sidenote: Contention about the choosing of the emperour.] It
chanced that in the election of a new emperour, the electors could not
agrée, one part of them choosing Otho duke of Saxonie, nephue to king
Richard by his sister Maud, and another part of them naming Philip duke
of Tuscaine, and brother to the last emperour Henrie.

King Richard (as reason was) did procure what fauour he could to the
furtherance of his nephue Otho: and king Philip on the contrarie part,
did what he could in fauour of the foresaid Philip. At length Otho was
admitted by the pope to end the strife: but yet the grudge remained in
the harts of the two kings: Philip finding himselfe much gréeued in that
he had missed his purpose, and Richard being as little pleased for that
he had woone his so hardlie, and with so much adoo. And thus matters
passed for that yeare.

[Sidenote: _R. Houed._ The popes letters to the king for the church of
Lameth.] In the beginning of the next, the popes Nuncio came with
letters, not onlie to the archbishop and bishops of England, but also to
the king himselfe, signifieng the popes resolute decree touching the
church and colledge of Lameth to be broken downe and suppressed.
Wherevpon the king and archbishop (though sore against their willes)
when they saw no waie longer to shift off the matter, yéelded to the
popes pleasure: and so the archbishop sent his letters to Lameth, where
the 21 daie of Januarie they were read, and the 27 daie of the same
moneth was the church cast downe, & the canons which were alreadie these
placed, had commandement to depart from thence without further delaie.
[Sidenote: The moonks borne out by the pope.] Thus the moonks in dispite
of the king and archbishop had their willes, but yet their vexation
ceassed not, for the king and archbishop bearing them no small euill
will, for that they had so obteined their purpose contrarie to their
minds and intents, molested them diuerse waies, although the moonks
still vpon complaint to the pope, were verie much releeued, and found
great freendship both with him and likewise with his court. ¶ So that it
may be obserued that these dishclouts of the popes kitchen haue in all
ages, since their first quickening béene troublesome and mutinous,
sawcie and insolent, proud[19] and malapert. But,
    [Sidenote: _M. Pal. in suo sag._]
    Proh pudor! hos tolerare potest ecclesia porcos,
    Cùm sint lasciui nimiùm, nimiúmq; superbi,
    Duntaxàt ventri, veneri somnóq; vacantes?

In this meane time, king Richard being now at rest from troubles of
warre, studied busilie to prouide monie, meaning to make a new voiage
into the holie land. Therefore finding himselfe beare of treasure, by
reason of the French warres had emptied his cofers, [Sidenote: A tax.
Fiue shillings of euerie plough land, as saith _Matt. Westm._] he set a
great tax vpon his subiects, and by that meanes, hauing recouered a
great summe, he builded that notable strong castell in Normandie, vpon
the banke of the riuer of Saine, [Sidenote: Chasteau Galiard built.]
named Chateau Galiard: which when it was finished he fell a iesting
thereat and said; "Behold, is not this a faire daughter of one yeares
growth." The soile where this castell was builded, belonged to the
archbishop of Rouen, for which there followed great strife betwixt the
king and the archbishop, till the pope tooke vp the matter (as before ye
haue heard.)

After this, he determined to chastise certeine persons in Poictou, which
during the warres betwixt him and the French king, had aided the
Frenchmen against him: wherevpon with an armie he passed foorth towards
them, but by the waie he was informed, that one Widomer a vicount in the
countrie of Britaine, had found great treasure: [Sidenote: Images of an
emperour and of his wife & children all of fine gold. The annales of
Aquitaine.] and therefore pretending a right thereto by vertue of his
prerogatiue, he sent for the vicount, who smelling out the matter, and
supposing the king would not be indifferent in parting the treasure,
fled into Limosin, where although the people were tributaries to the
king of England, yet they tooke part with the French king.

[Sidenote: Chalus Cheuerell. _R. Houed._] There is a towne in that
countrie called Chalus Cheuerell, into which the said vicount retired
for safegard of himselfe, and then gaue the townesmen a great portion of
treasure, to the end they should defend him and his quarell for the
rest. King Richard still following him, as one that could not auoid his
fatall ordinance, hasted into the confines of Limosin, fullie
determining either to win the towne by force, if the inhabitants should
make resistance, or at leastwise, to get into his hands the preie, which
he so earnestlie pursued. [Sidenote: K. Richard besiegeth Chalus.] At
his first approch he gaue manie fierce assaults to the towne, but they
within hauing throughlie prouided aforehand for to defend a siege, so
resisted his attempts, that within thrée daies after his comming, he
ceassed to assaile the towne, meaning to vndermine the walles, which
otherwise he perceiued would verie hardlie be gotten; considering the
stoutnesse of them within, and withall, the naturall strength and
situation of the place it selfe.

Herevpon therefore on the 26 of March, whiles he (togither with capteine
Marchades) went about vnaduisedlie to view the towne (the better to
consider the place which waie he might conueie the course of his mine)
they came so farre within danger, [Sidenote: He is wounded.] that the
king was stricken in the left arme, or (as some write) in the shoulder,
where it ioined to the necke, with a quarell inuenomed (as is to be
supposed by the sequele.) [Sidenote: _Ra. Niger._] Being thus wounded,
he gat to his horsse, and rode home againe to his lodging, where he
caused the wound to be searched and bound vp, and as a man nothing
dismaid therewith, continued his siege with such force and assurance,
that within 12 daies after the mishap, the towne was yéelded vnto him,
although verie little treasure (to make any great accompt of) was at
that time found therein.

In this meane season, the king had committed the cure of his wound to
one of Marchades his surgions, who taking in hand to plucke out the
quarell, drew foorth onelie the shaft at the first[20], and left the
iron still within, and afterwards going about most vnskilfullie to get
foorth the head of the said quarell, he vsed such incisions, and so
mangled the kings arme, yer he could cut it, [Sidenote: The king
despaired of life.] that he himself despaired of all helpe and longer
life, affirming flatlie to such as stood about him, that he could not
long continue by reason of his butcherlie handling. To be short féeling
himselfe to wax weaker and weaker, preparing his mind to death, which he
perceiued now to be at hand, [Sidenote: He ordeineth his testament.] he
ordeined his testament, or rather reformed and added sundrie things vnto
the same which he before had made, at the time of his gooing foorth
towards the holie land.

Vnto his brother Iohn he assigned the crowne of England, and all other
his lands and dominions, causing the Nobles there present to sweare
fealtie vnto him. [Sidenote: _R. Houed._] His monie, his iewels, and all
other his goods mooueable he willed to be diuided into thrée parts, of
the which Otho the emperor his sisters sonne to haue one, his houshold
seruants an other part, and the third to be distributed to the poore.
Finallie remembring himselfe also of the place of his buriall, he
commanded that his bodie should be interred at Fonteurard at his fathers
feet, [Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._] but he willed his heart to be conueied
vnto Rouen, and there buried, in testimonie of the loue which he had
euer borne vnto that citie for the stedfast faith and tried loialtie at
all times found in the citizens there. His bowels he ordeined to be
buried in Poictiers, as in a place naturallie vnthankefull and not
worthie to reteine any of the more honorable parts of his bodie.

Moreouer he caused the arcubalistar that wounded him, to be sought out,
whose name was Barthram de Garden[21], or Peter Basill (for so he named
himselfe as some write) who being brought before the king, [Sidenote:
_Rog. Houed._] he demanded wherein he had so much offended him, that he
should so lie in wait to slea him, rather than Marchades, who was then
in his companie, and attendant on his person? The other answered boldlie
againe, saieng; "I purposed to kill thee, bicause thou sluest my father,
and two of my brethren heretofore, and wouldest also now haue slaine me,
if I had happened to fall into thy hands. Wherefore I intended to
reuenge their deaths, not caring in the meane time what became of my
selfe, so that I might in anie wise obteine my will of thée, who in such
sort hast bereft me of my freends." The king harkening vnto his words,
and pondering his talke by good aduisement, [Sidenote: A notable example
of forgiuing an enimie. _Matth. Paris._] fréelie pardoned him, and
withall commanded that he should be set at libertie, and thereto haue an
hundred shillings giuen him in his pursse, and so to be let go.
Moreouer, he gaue strait charge that no[22] man should hurt him, or séeke
any reuenge for this his death hereafter. Thus the penitent prince not
onelie forgaue, but also rewarded his aduersarie. Howbeit after his
deceasse, Marchades getting him into his hands, first caused the skin to
be stripped off his bodie, and after hanged him on a gibit.

[Sidenote: King Richard departed this life.] At length king Richard by
force of sicknesse (increased with anguish of his incurable wound)
departed this life, on the tuesdaie before Palmesundaie, being the ninth
of Aprill, and the xj. daie after he was hurt, in the yeare after the
birth of our Sauiour 1199. in the 44 yeare of his age, and after he had
reigned nine yeares, nine moneths, and od daies: he left no issue behind
him. [Sidenote: His stature & shape of bodie. _Gal. Vinsaf._] He was
tall of stature, and well proportioned, faire and comelie of face, so as
in his countenance appeared much fauour and grauitie, of haire bright
aborne, as it were betwixt red and yellow, with long armes, and nimble
in all his ioints his thighes and legs were of due proportion, and
answerable to the other parts of his bodie.

[Sidenote: His disposition of mind.] As he was comelie of personage, so
was he of stomach more couragious and fierce, so that not without cause,
he obteined the surname of Cueur de lion, that is to saie, The lions
hart. Moreouer he was courteous to his souldiors, and towards his
fréends and strangers that resorted vnto him verie liberall, but to his
enimies hard and not to be intreated, desirous of battell, an enimie to
rest and quietnesse, verie eloquent of speech and wise, but readie to
enter into ieopardies, and that without feare or forecast in time of
greatest perils.

[Sidenote: The vices that were in king Richard.] These were his vertuous
qualities, but his vices (if his vertues, his age, and the wars which he
mainteined were throughlie weied) were either none at all, or else few
in number, and not verie notorious. He was noted of the common people to
be partlie subiect vnto pride, which surelie for the most part foloweth
stoutnesse of mind: of incontinencie, to the which his youth might
happilie be somewhat bent: and of couetousnesse, into the which infamie
most captieins and such princes as commonlie follow the warres doo
oftentimes fall, when of the necessitie they are driuen to exact monie,
as well of fréends as enimies, to mainteine the infinit charges of their

Hereof it came, that on a time whiles he soiourned in France about his
warres, which he held against K. Philip, [Sidenote: Fulco a préest.]
there came vnto him a French préest whose name was Fulco, who required
the K. in any wise to put from him thrée abhominable daughters which he
had, and to bestow them in marriage, least God punished him for them.
Thou liest hypocrite (said the king) to thy verie face, for all the
world knoweth that I haue not one daughter. I lie not (said the préest)
for thou hast thrée daughters, one of them is called pride, the second
couetousnesse, and the third lecherie. With that the king, called to him
his lords & barons, and said to them; "This hypocrite heere hath
required me to marrie awaie my thrée daughters, which (as he saith) I
cherish, nourish, foster and mainteine, that is to say pride,
couetousnesse, and lecherie. And now that I haue found out necessarie &
fit husbands for them, I will doo it with effect, and seeke no more
delaies. I therefore bequeath my pride to the high minded templers and
hospitallers, which are as proud as Lucifer himselfe. My couetousnesse I
giue vnto the white moonks, otherwise called of the Cisteaux order, for
they couet the diuell and all. My lecherie I commit to the prelates of
the church, who haue most pleasure and felicitie therein."

[Sidenote: Baldwine & Hubert archbishops of Canturburie.] There liued in
the daies of this king Richard, men of worthie fame amongst those of the
cleargie, Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, and Hubert who succeeded
him in that sée, also Hugh bishop of Lincolne, a man for his worthinesse
of life highlie to be commended. Moreouer, William bishop of Elie, who
though otherwise he was to be dispraised for his ambition and pompous
hautinesse, yet the king vsed his seruice for a time greatlie to his
profit and aduancement of the publike affaires. Also of learned men we
find diuerse in these daies that flourished here in this land, as
Baldwine of Deuonshire that came to the bishop of Worcester in this
kings time, and after his deceasse, he was aduanced to the gouernment of
the archbishops sée of Canturburie, who wrote diuerse treatises, namelie
of matters perteining to diuinitie. [Sidenote: _Iohn Bales._] Daniell
Morley well seene in the Mathematicals, Iohn de Hexam, and Richard de
Hexham two notable historicians; Guilielmus Stephanides a moonke of
Canturburie, who wrote much in the praise of archbishop Becket. Beside
these, we find one Richard, that was an abbat of the order
Premonstratensis, Richard Diuisiensis, Nicholas Walkington, Robert de
Bello Foco, an excellent philosopher, &c. ¶ See Bale in his third

In martiall renowme there flourished in this kings daies diuerse noble
capteines, as Robert earle of Leicester, Ranulfe de Fulgiers, two of the
Bardulphes, Hugh and Henrie, thrée Williams, Marshall, Brunell, and
Mandeuill, with two Roberts, Ros and Sabeuile. [Sidenote: A great
derth.] Furthermore, I find that in the daies of this king Richard, a
great derth reigned in England, and also in France, for the space of
three or foure yeares during the wars betwéene him & king Philip, so
that after his returne out of Germanie, and from imprisonment, a quarter
of wheat was sold at 18 shillings eight pence, no small price in those
daies, if you consider the alay of monie then currant.

Also immediatlie after, that is to say, in the yeare of our Lord, a
thousand, one hundred, nintie six, which was about the seuenth yere of
the said kings reigne, [Sidenote: A great mortalitie of people. _Wil.
Paruus._] there followed a maruellous sore death, which dailie consumed
such numbers of people, that scarse there might be found any to kéepe
and looke to those that were sicke, or to burie them that died. Which
sickenesse was a pestilentiall feuer or sharpe burning ague. The
accustomed manner of buriall was also neglected: so that in manie places
they made great pits, and threw their dead bodies into the same, one
vpon an other. For the multitude of them that died was such, that they
could not haue time to make for euerie one a seuerall graue. This
mortalitie continued for the space of fiue or six months, and at length
ceassed in the cold season of winter.

[Sidenote: Two sunnes.] In the octaues of Pentecost before this great
death, in the first houre of the day, there appeared two sunnes, the
true sunne & another, as it were a counterfeit sunne: but so
apparentlie, that hard it was to the common people, to discerne the one
from the other. The skilfull also were compelled by instruments to
distinguish the one from the other: in taking their altitudes and
places, whereby in the end they found the new apparition, as it were, to
wait vpon the planet, and so continued by the space of certeine houres.
At length when the beholders (of whom Wil. Paruus that recorded things
in that age was one) had well wearied their eies in diligent marking the
maner of this strange appearance, the counterfeit sunne vanished awaie.

¶ This strange woonder was taken for a signification of that which
followed, that is to say, of war, famine and pestilence: or to say the
truth, it betokened rather the continuance of two of those mischiefs.
For warre and famine had sore afflicted the people before that time, and
as yet ceassed not: but as for the pestilence, it began soone after the
strange sight, whereof insued such effect, as I haue alreadie rehearsed.

     Thus farre king Richard.

Transcriber's notes

There are no footnotes in the original. The original spelling and
punctuation have been retained, with the exception of obvious errors
which have been corrected by reference to the 1587 edition of which
the original is a transcription.

[1] Original reads 'where'; corrected to 'were'.

[2] Original reads 'whith'; corrected to 'with'.

[3] Original reads 'were'; corrected to 'where'.

[4] Original reads 'be Camuille'; corrected to 'de Camuille'.

[5] Original reads 'which tossed them them'; corrected to
    'which tossed them'.

[6] Original reads 'connterfet'; corrected to 'counterfet'.

[7] Original reads 'holié'; corrected to 'holie'.

[8] Original reads 'easile'; corrected to 'easilie'.

[9] Original reads 'forfied'; corrected to 'fortified'.

[10] Original reads 'wearie dwith'; corrected to 'wearied with'.

[11] Original reads 'Houden'; corrected to 'Houeden'.

[12] Original reads 'a might bréed as'; corrected to 'as might bréed a'

[13] Original reads 'Lancastsr'; corrected to 'Lancaster'.

[14] Original reads "de' Rancin"; corrected to "de Rancin".

[15] Original reads 'aud'; corrected to 'and'.

[16] Original reads 'wherepon'; corrected to 'wherevpon'.

[17] Original reads 'eiuill'; corrected to 'ciuill'.

[18] Original reads 'victories,'; corrected to 'victories.'.

[19] Original reads 'insolent,ro ud'; corrected to 'insolent, proud'.

[20] Original reads 'at he first'; corrected to 'at the first'.

[21] Original reads 'be Garden'; corrected to 'de Garden'.

[22] Original reads 'that no no'; corrected to 'that no'.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (6 of 12) - Richard the First" ***

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