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Title: Aether and Gravitation
Author: Hooper, William George
Language: English
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AETHER AND GRAVITATION

by

WILLIAM GEORGE HOOPER, F.S.S.



[Illustration]


London
Chapman and Hall, Ltd.
1903



INTRODUCTORY NOTES


The author in this work endeavours to solve the greatest scientific
problem that has puzzled scientists for the past two hundred years. The
question has arisen over and over again, since the discovery of
universal gravitation by Sir Isaac Newton, as to what is the physical
cause of the attraction of gravitation.

"Action at a distance" has long ceased to be recognized as a possible
phenomenon, although up to the present, the medium and method of
gravitational attraction have not yet been discovered.

It is, however, generally accepted by scientists, that the only possible
medium which can give rise to the phenomena incidental to, and
associated with the Law of Gravitation, must be the universal aether,
which forms the common medium of all phenomena associated with light,
heat, electricity and magnetism.

It is impossible, however, to reconcile gravitational phenomena with the
present conception of the universal aether medium, and a new theory is
therefore demanded, before the long-sought-for explanation will be
forthcoming.

Professor Glazebrook definitely states the necessity for a new theory in
his work on J. C. Maxwell, page 221, where he writes: "We are waiting
for some one to give us a theory of the aether, which shall include the
facts of electricity and magnetism, luminous radiation, and it may be
gravitation."

A new theory of the aether is also demanded in view of the recent
experimental results of Professor Lebedew, and Nichols and Hull of
America. It is logically impossible to reconcile a frictionless aether,
with their results relative to the pressure of light waves.

In the following pages of this work the author has endeavoured to
perfect a theory, which will bring aetherial physics more into harmony
with modern observation and experiments; and by so doing, believes that
he has found the key that will unlock the problem not only of the cause
of universal gravitation, but also other problems of physical science.
The author has taken Newton's Rules of Philosophy as his guide in the
making of the new theory, as he believes that if any man knew anything
of the rules of Philosophy, that man was Sir Isaac Newton. The first
chapter therefore deals with the generally recognized rules which govern
philosophical reasoning, the same being three in number; the fundamental
rule being, that in making any hypothesis, the results of experience as
obtained by observation and experiments must not be violated.

In applying the rules to the present theory of the aether, he found that
the theory as at present recognized violated two of the most important
rules of Philosophy, because, while aether is supposed to be matter, yet
it failed to fulfil the primary property of all matter, that is, it is
not subject to the Law of Gravitation. If aether is matter, then, to be
strictly logical and philosophical, it must possess the properties of
matter as revealed by observation and experiment.

Those properties are given in Chapter III., where it is shown that they
are atomicity, heaviness or weight, elasticity, density, inertia, and
compressibility. To be strictly logical and philosophical, the author
was compelled to postulate similar properties for the aether, or else
his hypotheses would contravert the results of all experience.

The application of these properties to the aether will be found in
Chapter IV., where the author has postulated atomicity, heaviness or
weight, density, elasticity, inertia, and compressibility for the
aether, and so brought the theory of the aether into perfect harmony
with all observation and experiments relative to ordinary matter. It
will be shown that Clerk Maxwell also definitely affirms the atomicity
of the aether, while Tyndall and Huyghens also use the term "_particles
of aether_" over and over again.

Moreover, in view of the most recent researches in electricity made by
Sir William Crookes and Professor J. J. Thomson, we are compelled to
accept an atomic basis for electricity, and as Dr. Lodge, in his _Modern
Views of Electricity_, states that "Aether is made up of positive and
negative electricity," then, unless we postulate atomicity for the
aether, we have to suppose that it is possible for a non-atomic body
(aether) to be made up of atoms or corpuscles, which conclusion is
absurd, and therefore must be rejected as illogical and unphilosophical.

After postulating atomicity for the aether, we are then able to apply
the Newtonian Law of Gravitation to it, which distinctly affirms that
"every particle of matter attracts every other particle," and so we
arrive at Thomas Young's fourth hypothesis given in the Philosophical
Transactions of 1802, where he asserts that "All material bodies have an
attraction for the aetherial medium, by means of which it is
accumulated within their substance, and for a small distance around them
in a state of greater density." He adds the significant remark that this
hypothesis is opposed to that of Newton's. With an atomic and
gravitative aether it is shown in Chapter IV. how the elasticity,
density, and inertia of the medium are brought into harmony with all
observation and experiments.

In the succeeding chapters the new theory is applied to the phenomena of
heat, light, electricity, and magnetism, and the principles enunciated
therein are then applied to solar and stellar phenomena.

One of the greatest stumbling-blocks to the discovery of the physical
cause of gravitation, apart from the unphilosophical theory of the
aether medium, lies in the fact that apparently the Law of Gravitation
only recognizes a force of one kind. Dr. Lodge refers to this phase of
the subject on page 39 of his _Modern Views of Matter_ just published.
It is here where scientists have failed to solve the problem of
universal gravitation, as there are _two_ forces at work in the solar
system and not one; that is, if we are to accept the results of
up-to-date experiments in relation to radiant light and heat as
performed by Professor Lebedew, and Nichols and Hull of America. Their
experiments conclusively prove that light waves exert a pressure upon
all bodies on which they fall, and by no reasoning can this pressure be
resolved into an attractive force.

Herschel in his _Lectures on Scientific Subjects_ definitely refers to
the existence of a repulsive force in the solar system, and asserts that
it offers the most interesting prospect of any future discovery.

The author has therefore attacked the problem of the cause of
gravitation, by trying to solve the problem of the cause of the
_repulsive_ force which has been experimentally demonstrated to exist by
Professor Lebedew and others.

In his efforts to ascertain the physical cause of the Centrifugal Force,
he has been assisted by an unknown and original essay written by an
unknown writer over twenty years ago. That unknown writer was the
author's father, who wrote an essay on the _Complementary Law of
Gravitation_, and if it had not been for that essay, the present work
would never have been attempted.

The main object of the author in Chapters VI., VII., and VIII., is to
prove beyond the possibility of contradiction, from the phenomena of
heat, light, and electricity, the existence of _two_ forces in the solar
system; and by so doing, to bring our philosophy of the aether medium,
and all gravitational phenomena, into harmony with all observation and
experiments, which at present is not the case. In seeking to do this he
found that the new theory of the aether harmonized with views given, by
Faraday and Clerk Maxwell in relation to electric and magnetic
phenomena, and by the new theory Maxwell's hypothesis of "Physical Lines
of Force" receives a definite and physical basis. In Chapter X. the
author endeavours to show what the Electro-Kinetic energy is, which term
is used by Clerk Maxwell, the term being brought for the first time into
harmony with our experience. The Electro-Magnetic Theory of Light also
receives fresh light from the new theory of an atomic and gravitating
aether.

In the succeeding chapters the theory is applied to Newton's Laws of
Motion and Kepler's Laws, and is found to harmonize with all the results
given by these laws. Such a result is a distinct advance on the
application of a frictionless aether to solar and stellar phenomena, as
it is impossible for Kepler's Laws to be reconciled in any way with our
present theory of the aether.

In the concluding chapter on the unity of the universe, certain views
are suggested as to the ultimate constitution of all matter, upon an
aetherial basis, which hypothesis practically resolves itself into an
electric basis for all matter. It is suggested that aether and
electricity are one and the same medium, both being a form of matter,
and both possessing exactly the same properties, viz. atomicity, weight,
density, elasticity, inertia, and compressibility. This view of matter
harmonizes with the most "Modern Views of Matter" as suggested by Sir
Oliver Lodge in his Romanes Lecture 1903.

The author has accepted Newton's way of spelling "_aether_" as given in
his work on _Optics_, and has given "_aetherial_" the same suffix as
"material," in order to differentiate the word from "ethereal," which is
too metaphysical a term for a material medium.

    _Nottingham_,
        _Sept._ 1903.



CONTENTS


                             CHAPTER I

                     PHILOSOPHY OF GRAVITATION

                                                                  PAGE
ART.   1. GRAVITATION                                                1
 "     2. CAUSE OF GRAVITATION                                       1
 "     3. NEWTON'S RULES OF PHILOSOPHY                               3
 "     4. FIRST RULE OF PHILOSOPHY                                   3
 "     5. SECOND RULE OF PHILOSOPHY                                  4
 "     6. THIRD RULE OF PHILOSOPHY                                   7
 "     7. APPLICATION OF RULES TO GRAVITATION                        9
 "     8. ANALYSIS OF LAW OF GRAVITATION                             9
 "     9. PRIMITIVE IMPULSE                                         10
 "    10. CENTRIPETAL FORCE                                         12
 "    11. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE                                         13
 "    12. NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION                                   15
 "    13. FORCE                                                     16
 "    14. FIRST LAW OF MOTION                                       16
 "    15. SECOND LAW OF MOTION                                      19
 "    16. THIRD LAW OF MOTION                                       20
 "    17. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER                                        22


                             CHAPTER II

                PHILOSOPHY OF GRAVITATION--(_continued_)

ART.  18. GRAVITATION ATTRACTION                                    24
 "    19. UNIVERSALITY OF GRAVITATION                               24
 "    20. DIRECTION OF THE FORCES                                   26
 "    21. PROPORTION OF THE FORCES                                  26
 "    22. LAW OF INVERSE SQUARES                                    27
 "    23. TERRESTRIAL GRAVITY                                       29
 "    24. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE                                         30
 "    25. KEPLER'S LAWS                                             32
 "    26. FIRST LAW OF KEPLER                                       33
 "    27. SECOND LAW OF KEPLER                                      36
 "    28. THIRD LAW OF KEPLER                                       37


                             CHAPTER III

                                MATTER

ART.  29. WHAT IS MATTER?                                           40
 "    30. CONSERVATION OF MATTER                                    42
 "    31. MATTER IS ATOMIC                                          42
 "    32. WHAT IS AN ATOM?                                          43
 "    33. THE ATOMIC THEORY                                         44
 "    34. KINDS OF ATOMS                                            44
 "    35. ELEMENTS OF MATTER                                        47
 "    36. THREE KINDS OF MATTER                                     47
 "    37. MATTER IS GRAVITATIVE                                     50
 "    38. MATTER POSSESSES DENSITY                                  51
 "    39. MATTER POSSESSES ELASTICITY                               51
 "    40. MATTER POSSESSES INERTIA                                  52


                             CHAPTER IV

                               AETHER

ART.  42. AETHER IS MATTER                                          54
 "    43. AETHER IS UNIVERSAL                                       58
 "    44. AETHER IS ATOMIC                                          59
 "    45. AETHER IS GRAVITATIVE                                     64
 "    46. AETHER POSSESSES DENSITY                                  71
 "    47. AETHER POSSESSES ELASTICITY                               74
 "    48. AETHER POSSESSES INERTIA                                  76
 "    49. AETHER IS IMPRESSIBLE                                     78
 "    50. AETHER AND ITS MOTIONS                                    80


                             CHAPTER V

                              ENERGY

ART.  51. ENERGY                                                    83
 "    52. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY                                    84
 "    53. TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY                                  86
 "    54. POTENTIAL ENERGY                                          87
 "    55. KINETIC ENERGY                                            89
 "    56. ENERGY AND MOTION                                         91
 "    57. CONSERVATION OF MOTION                                    92
 "    58. TRANSFORMATION OF MOTION                                  93
 "    59. MOTION AND WORK                                           95


                             CHAPTER VI

                       HEAT, A MODE OF MOTION

ART.  60. HEAT, A MODE OF MOTION                                    98
 "    61. HEAT AND MATTER                                          100
 "    62. RADIATION AND ABSORPTION                                 104
 "    63. HEAT IS A REPULSIVE MOTION                               107
 "    64. RADIANT HEAT                                             109
 "    65. DIRECTION OF A RAY OF HEAT                               111
 "    66. LAW OF INVERSE SQUARES                                   112
 "    67. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS                              114
 "    68. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS                             116
 "    69. IDENTITY OF HEAT AND LIGHT                               119


                            CHAPTER VII

                      LIGHT, A MODE OF MOTION

ART.  70. LIGHT, A MODE OF MOTION                                  122
 "    71. TRANSVERSE VIBRATION OF LIGHT                            130
 "    72. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION                                135
 "    73. THE SOLAR SPECTRUM                                       139
 "    74. DIRECTION OF A RAY OF LIGHT                              144
 "    75. INTENSITY OF LIGHT                                       145
 "    76. VELOCITY OF LIGHT                                        148
 "    77. DYNAMICAL VALUE OF LIGHT                                 150
 "    78. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT                         155


                            CHAPTER VIII

                       AETHER AND ELECTRICITY

ART.  79. ELECTRICITY, A MODE OF MOTION                            162
 "    80. ELECTRIC FIELD                                           166
 "    81. ELECTRIC INDUCTION                                       174
 "    82. ELECTRIC ENERGY                                          179
 "    83. ELECTRIC RADIATION                                       182
 "    84. LAW OF INVERSE SQUARES                                   184
 "    85. SECOND LAW OF ELECTRICITY                                186


                             CHAPTER IX

                        AETHER AND MAGNETISM

ART.  86. ELECTRO-MAGNETISM                                        192
 "    87. THE EARTH A MAGNET                                       195
 "    88. THE SUN AN ELECTRO-MAGNET                                199
 "    89. FARADAY'S LINES OF FORCE                                 203
 "    90. TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM                                    206
 "    91. SOLAR MAGNETS                                            211
 "    92. CAUSE OF ROTATION OF THE EARTH ON ITS AXIS               219
 "    93. VORTEX MOTION                                            221
 "    94. RELATIVE MOTION OF AETHER AND MATTER                     224
 "    95. VIBRATIONS IN THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT       228


                             CHAPTER X

                  AETHER AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

ART.  96. AETHER AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCE                             232
 "    97. AETHER AND CENTRIPETAL FORCE                             236
 "    98. AETHER AND NEWTON'S FIRST LAW OF MOTION                  239
 "    99. AETHER AND NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION                 244
 "   100. AETHER AND NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF MOTION                  251
 "   101. WHY PLANETS REVOLVE FROM WEST TO EAST                    253


                             CHAPTER XI

                      AETHER AND KEPLER'S LAWS

ART. 102. AETHER AND KEPLER'S FIRST LAW                            256
 "   103. AETHER AND KEPLER'S SECOND LAW                           260
 "   104. AETHER AND KEPLER'S THIRD LAW                            263
 "   105. ORBITAL MOTION OF PLANETS                                266
 "   106. ECCENTRICITY OF THE MOON'S ORBIT                         268
 "   107. THE SUN AND KEPLER'S FIRST LAW                           270
 "   108. THE SUN AND KEPLER'S SECOND LAW                          274
 "   109. AETHER AND THE PLANE OF THE ECLIPTIC                     277
 "   110. AETHER AND THE CENTRIPETAL FORCE                         282


                             CHAPTER XII

                          AETHER AND COMETS

ART. 111. WHAT IS A COMET?                                         291
 "   112. ORBITS OF COMETS                                         293
 "   113. KINDS OF COMETS                                          296
 "   114. PARTS OF A COMET                                         298
 "   115. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND COMETS                             300
 "   116. FORMATION OF TAILS                                       303


                            CHAPTER XIII

                       AETHER AND STARRY WORLD

ART. 117. STARRY WORLD                                             306
 "   118. STARS AND KEPLER'S LAWS                                  309
 "   119. AETHER AND NEBULAE                                       313
 "   120. WHAT IS A NEBULA?                                        314
 "   121. AETHER AND NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS                            317
 "   122. KINDS OF NEBULAE                                         319


                             CHAPTER XIV

                       AETHER AND THE UNIVERSE

ART. 123. THE UNIVERSE                                             323
 "   124. UNITY OF THE UNIVERSE                                    326
 "   125. CONSTITUTION OF MATTER                                   334
 "   126. QUOD ERAT FACIENDUM                                      337
 "   127. GOD AND THE UNIVERS                                      342

APPENDIX                                                           349
INDEX                                                              351



                        AETHER AND GRAVITATION



                               CHAPTER I

                       PHILOSOPHY OF GRAVITATION


ART. 1. _Gravitation._--In the realm of Science, there exists a Force or
Law that pervades and influences all Nature, and from the power of
which, nothing, not even an atom, is free.

It holds together the component parts of each and every individual
world, and in the world's revolving prevents both its inhabitants and
its vegetation from being whirled off its surface into space. It exists
in each and every central sun, and circles round each sun its associated
system of planets. It rolls each satellite around its primary planet,
and regulates the comet's mysterious flight into the depths of space,
while the pendulation of even the remotest star is accomplished by this
same force. Our own rocking world obeys the same mysterious power, that
seems to grasp the entire material creation as with the grasp of the
Infinite.

It exists in, and influences every atom, whose combinations compose and
constitute the entire material creation, or each and every orb that
bespangle the blue infinity.

As is readily seen, it weaves as it were around each and all, a
mysterious network or chain, that binds star to star, and world to
world, blending all into one entire, vast and complete unity. It decides
all their orbits and distances, regulates and controls all their
motions, from the most simple even to the more complex and intricate,
ultimately producing that wondrous and beauteous order, unity and
harmony that everywhere pervade and blend all the universe into one
grand and harmonious whole.

That Law I need hardly say is the Law of Gravitation.


ART. 2. _Cause of Gravitation._--Now the question arises, and indeed has
arisen a thousand times since the discovery of this law by Sir Isaac
Newton over two hundred years ago, as to what is the physical cause, the
true explanation of this universal attraction.

MacLaurin in his work on the philosophical discoveries of Sir Isaac
Newton says: "In all cases when bodies seem to act upon each other at a
distance, and tend towards one another without any apparent cause
impelling them, this force has been commonly called Attraction, and this
term is frequently used by Sir Isaac Newton. But he gives repeated
caution that he pretends not by the use of this term to define the
nature of the power, or the manner in which it acts. Nor does he ever
affirm or insinuate that a body can act upon another body at a distance,
but by the intervention of other bodies."

The results of modern discovery show that action at a distance, without
the intervention of any medium, as for example the sun attracting the
earth, is not the universal condition which governs all so-called
forces.

It is now recognized that light and heat are both forms of energy, and
therefore forces, using the term in the same sense that it is applied to
Gravitation.

Both light and heat are transmitted through space with finite velocity
through the intervention of a medium, the universal Aether. It is
therefore only reasonable to suppose, that if one or more particular
kinds of energy, or forces, require a medium for their transmission, why
not another force, as for example Gravitation?

Gravitation is an universal force which operates throughout the length
and breadth of the entire universe, and if there be a medium which is to
Gravitation, what the Aether is to light and heat, the question at once
confronts us, as to what are the characteristics, properties, and
qualities of that universal medium, which is to form the physical basis
of this universal attraction?

Newton himself suggested that Gravitation was due to an aetherial subtle
medium, which filled all space.

In his well-known letter to Bentley, Newton writes as follows: "That
Gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one
body can act upon another body at a distance through a vacuum, without
the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and
force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an
absurdity, that I believe no man who has any philosophical nature or
competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it."

We also know from his Queries in his book on _Optics_, that he sought
for the explanation of Gravitation in the properties of a subtle,
aetherial medium diffused over the universe.

MacLaurin on this point says: "It appears from his letters to Boyle,
that this was his opinion early, and if he did not publish his opinion
sooner, it proceeded from hence only, that he found he was not able from
experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this
medium, and the manner of its operations in producing the chief
phenomena of Nature."

Therefore, if we accept Newton's suggestion, and endeavour to trace the
physical cause of Gravitation in the qualities, properties, and motions
of this subtle aetherial medium to which he refers, we shall be simply
working on the lines laid down by Sir Isaac Newton himself.

I wish therefore to premise, that the future pages of this work will
deal with the hypothesis of this aetherial medium, by which will be
accounted for, and that on a satisfactory and physical basis, the
universal Law of Gravitation.


ART. 3. _Rules of Philosophy._--In order that we may rightly understand
the making of any hypothesis, I purpose giving some rules laid down by
such philosophers as Newton and Herschel, so that we may be guided by
right principles in the development of this new hypothesis as to the
cause of Gravitation.

The rules that govern the making of any hypotheses, so far as I can
discern, may be summed up under the three following heads--

    (1) Simplicity of conception.

    (2) Agreement with experience, observation, and experiment.

    (3) Satisfactorily accounting for, and explaining all phenomena
        sought to be explained.


ART. 4. _1st Rule. Simplicity of Conception._--From this rule we learn
that the hypothesis must be simple in conception, and simple in its
fundamental principles, and further, that the same characteristic of
simplicity must mark each step of its development.

This rule of simplicity is distinctly laid down by Sir Isaac Newton in
his _Principia_, Book 3, under the heading "Regulae Philosophandi."

In that work he writes: "Natura simplex est, et rerum causis superfluis
non luxuriat."--"Nature is simple, and does not abound in superfluous
causes of things."

He further states that: "Not more of the natural causes of things ought
to be admitted, than those which are true and suffice to explain
phenomena. In the nature of Philosophy nothing is done in vain, and by
means of many things, it is done in vain when it can be done by fewer.
For Nature is simple, and does not abound in superfluous causes."

While again in Rule 3, he adds: "Natura simplex est et sibi semper
consona."--"Nature is simple, and always agrees with itself."

Whewell also considers simplicity as a fundamental principle of all true
hypotheses. On this point he writes: "All the hypotheses should tend to
simplicity and harmony. The new suppositions resolve themselves into the
old ones, or at least only require some easy modification of the
hypothesis first assumed. In false theories the contrary is the case."

Thus, it is the very essence of philosophy to build upon a foundation of
simplicity, combined with the results of experience, observation, and
experiment. For example, if we desired to form a hypothesis as to the
cause of day and night, two hypotheses might be assigned as to the
cause.

First, that the earth revolves on its axis once a day, and so presents
each part successively to the light and heat of the sun; and second,
that the sun revolves round the earth once every 24 hours. But such an
assumption as the latter would involve the revolution of the sun through
an immense orbit at an enormous velocity, in order for the journey to be
accomplished in the time. So that it is much simpler to conceive of the
earth revolving on its axis once every 24 hours, than it is for the sun
to perform this journey in the same period. Hence the rule of simplicity
is in favour of day and night being caused by the revolving of the earth
on its axis. The same rule might be illustrated in many ways; but,
however illustrated, the principle, according to Newton, always holds
good that all effects are produced by the simplest causes, and if there
are apparently two causes to the same phenomenon, then the simpler cause
is the true and correct one. So that in the making and development of
any hypotheses of the physical cause of Gravitation, this rule of
simplicity must always be recognized; and, in conjunction with the other
rules, we must seek to make our hypotheses, so as to be able to account
and explain all phenomena sought to be explained.


ART. 5. _2nd Rule. Experience._--Newton fully recognized the necessity
of experience in Philosophy. He saw the absolute necessity of appealing
to experience, observation, and experiment, both as a basis for
philosophical reasoning, and further, for the data which were necessary
to verify particular applications of the hypotheses suggested.

In his Rules of Philosophy, referring to experience as a guide, he says:
"Hoc est fundamentum philosophiae."--"This is the basis of philosophy."

Herschel, writing on the same subject in his _Natural Philosophy_,
writes thus with regard to experience: "We have pointed out that the
great, and indeed the only ultimate source of our knowledge of nature,
and its laws, is experience. By which I mean, not the experience of one
man only, or of one generation, but the accumulated experience of all
mankind in all ages registered in books or recorded in tradition. But
experience may be acquired in two ways, either first by noticing facts
as they occur without any attempt to influence the frequency of their
occurrence, or to vary the circumstances under which they occur. This is
observation. Second, by putting in action causes and agents over which
we have no control, and purposely varying their combination, and then
noticing what effects take place. This is experiment. To these two
sources we must look as the fountains of all natural science."

Herschel further writes: "Experience once recognized as the fountain of
all our knowledge of nature, it follows, that in our study of nature and
its laws, we ought at once to make up our minds to dismiss, as idle
prejudices, or at least suspend as premature, all preconceived notion of
what might, or ought to be the order of nature in any proposed case, and
content ourselves as a plain matter of fact with what is. _To experience
we refer as the only ground for all physical enquiry._ But before
experience itself can be used to advantage, there is one preliminary
step to make which depends wholly upon ourselves."

"It is the _absolute dismissal_ and clearing the mind _of all
prejudices_ from whatever source arising, and the determination to stand
or fall by the result of direct appeal to facts in the first instance,
and to strict logical deduction from them afterwards."

From extracts like these, from such men as Newton and Herschel, it can
at once be seen that experience, and experience alone, should be the
chief fountain from whence we draw all our data to form the bases of any
hypothesis or theory. If the hypothesis formed is contradicted by the
result of any present or future observation or experiment, then such
hypothesis will either become untenable, or must be so modified as to
take in the new fact furnished by that observation and experiment.

It is a _sine quâ non_ of all true philosophy, that philosophy should
always agree with experience. To the extent that our Philosophy of
Nature fails to agree with our experience, or with the results of
observation and experiment, then to that extent it ceases to be
philosophy. It may be a hypothesis or even a theory, but certainly it is
not true Philosophy.

Now, in the elaboration and development of the theory as to the physical
cause of Gravitation, I can premise that nothing will be postulated or
supposed, unless such supposition can be directly verified by our own
observation and experiments.

Any theory or hypotheses that are contradicted by our own experience in
its widest form, will find no place in the development of this work.
Further, any present accepted theory in relation to any natural
phenomena, which is controverted by experiment, or observation, will be
rejected as untenable in the scheme of Natural Philosophy to be
submitted to the reader.

Whatever else the theory suggested may, or may not be, one thing it
certainly shall be, and that is, that it shall be strictly based upon
the Philosophical Rules as given by some of the greatest philosophers
the world has ever seen. I do not premise that the hypotheses advanced
will be strictly correct in every detail.

That would be to assume that my experience of all natural phenomena was
perfect. To the extent that our experience is limited, to that extent
our hypotheses will be limited and faulty. It would need an Infinite
mind to form a perfect theory of the philosophy of the universe, because
only an Infinite mind possesses infinite experience. A finite mind can,
however, form true philosophical conceptions of natural phenomena, if
that mind will only follow the guidance of his own experience, and be
willing to accept the teaching that always arises from the results of
that experience. In order to do this, however, it must be observed, as
Herschel points out, that all old prejudices must be put away, and the
question or problem to be considered must be viewed with an open mind.
Let me illustrate what I mean. Suppose, for example, that for two
hundred years, chalk had always been thought to be a mineral, and then,
owing to the development of the microscope, and to the increased
magnifying powers of the lenses, it was conclusively demonstrated that
chalk is made up of the shells and remains of certain organisms that
lived in the sea ages ago. Would it be philosophical to throw over the
results of the microscopical research, and, simply because for two
hundred years chalk had been thought to be a mineral, to argue, and
still retain the idea that chalk was a mineral?

Such a result would be entirely opposed to all the teaching and
principles of philosophy. In a similar way, suppose in the development
of the physical cause of Gravitation, a certain conception of the
universal Aether has to be put forth in order to account for
Gravitation, and that that conception is opposed to some of the theories
which have been held relative to the Aether medium for the past two
hundred years; but that the conception so advanced is supported by the
experiments and observation of some of the ablest scientists of the
present century, would it be philosophical to reject the newer
conception which harmonized with all experiment and observation, and
still retain the old conception of the aetherial medium; or, to accept
the newer conception of that medium, and to reject some of the ideas
included in the old conception? From a purely philosophic standpoint,
there can only be one reply, which would be in favour of the newer
conception, by which our philosophy would be brought into harmony with
our experience.

This I premise will be done in this work, and the result will be, that
for the first time, our philosophy of the aetherial medium will agree
with our experience; and, as the natural result, several outstanding
problems will be explained on a physical basis, which at the present
time cannot be satisfactorily explained except from the mathematical
standpoint.


ART. 6. _3rd Rule. Satisfactory explanation of the Phenomena sought to
be Explained._--The third rule which governs the making of any
hypothesis is, that the hypothesis formed in accordance with the first
and second rules shall satisfactorily account for all the phenomena
sought to be explained.

Newton writes on this point as follows: "No more causes of natural
things are to be admitted, than such as are true, and sufficient to
explain the phenomena." While again in his fourth rule he states: "In
experimental philosophy, propositions collected by induction from
phenomena are to be regarded as accurately true, or very nearly true,
notwithstanding any contrary hypothesis, till other phenomena occur by
which they are made more accurate, or are rendered subject to
exceptions." _Principia_, Book 3. Herschel in his _Natural Philosophy_
points out, that one of the chief requirements of any assumed hypothesis
is, that it shall be sufficient to account for the phenomena to be
explained, and that it shall be suggested by analogy.

Now the object of this work is to give a physical explanation of the
cause and working of Gravitation, and to show how, by the properties,
qualities and motions of the universal Aether, Universal Gravitation may
be accounted for on a physical basis. So that every phenomenon,
associated with, or included in the Law of Gravitation, should receive a
satisfactory physical explanation by the proposed theory.

Thus the physical cause of the centripetal and centrifugal forces should
receive for the first time a physical explanation.

Newton's Laws of Motion, in so far as they conform to his own Rules of
Philosophy, should also receive a physical explanation.

Kepler's Laws, which govern the motion of planets in their orbits,
should also receive a similar physical explanation. Indeed, all
phenomena which the Law of Gravitation explains from a mathematical
standpoint, ought to receive a physical explanation by the proposed new
conception of the Aether medium.

In addition to the outstanding physical cause of Gravitation, there are
other physical problems that yet remain to be solved; as, for example,
there is the question as to what is the relative motion of Aether to
moving matter. Does the Aether move with matter through space as
suggested by Michelson's and Morley's experiment of America, or does it
flow freely through all matter, as it is usually thought to do? I
premise I will give a satisfactory solution of this problem in due
course.

Again, in relation to the Phenomena of Light, there is still outstanding
the problem of the physical explanation as to the transverse vibration
of light. This problem will also be dealt with from the standpoint of
our new conception of the Aether. Whether it will be as satisfactorily
solved, as the physical cause of Gravitation, remains to be seen.

Further, there is also the important question yet unsolved, as to what
Matter is. Lord Kelvin and Dr. Larmor have recently given to the world
certain conceptions as to the origin of Matter, and I shall endeavour to
show that such conceptions receive confirmation and support by the
proposed new conception of the Aether.

Another problem that will be attacked and solved, will be the cause of
the Permanent Magnetism of the earth, with an answer to some of the
questions propounded by Professor Schuster at the British Association of
1892 relative to the magnetism of solar bodies.

There is certainly some physical explanation as to the cause of the
earth being a magnet, yet up to the present no satisfactory physical
theory has been given. I premise that the new conception of the Aether,
to be submitted in the after pages, will satisfactorily account, and
that on a philosophical basis, for this phenomenon.

Lastly, one of the most interesting discoveries of the present day will
receive an added confirmation and explanation in the conception of the
Aether medium to be advanced. I refer to the system of Wireless
Telegraphy that has been so successfully developed by Signor Marconi,
and I premise that new light will be thrown on that discovery by the
suggested theory of the Aether.

Now, if all these problems can be partially or wholly solved by the same
theory that is advanced to explain the physical cause of Gravitation, it
needs no further comment to show that that theory is considerably
strengthened and more firmly established.

For it is a rule in Philosophy, that the more problems any suggested
theory can solve, the greater are the claims of that theory for
acceptance by scientists generally. For, if two rival theories can solve
three and ten physical problems respectively, then, in giving a decision
as to which is the better theory, the balance of opinion would be
overwhelming in favour of that theory which could solve the ten
problems. So that, if in addition to the satisfactory explanation of the
physical cause of Gravitation, some, if not all of the other problems
can be solved, as I premise they can, by the same conception of the
Universal Aether, then it follows our third rule of Philosophy will be
more than fulfilled, and the theory so advanced will be placed upon such
a strong foundation, that it can only be overthrown by proving that it
contradicts the results of some undiscovered phenomena.


ART. 7. _Application of Rules to Gravitation._--Let us therefore apply
Newton's own Rules of Philosophy to the Law of Gravitation, and
endeavour to find out if the law, as at present understood, fully
satisfies his own Rules of Philosophy. No one can reasonably object to
subjecting the Law of Gravitation to the test of those principles which
he lays down as the fundamental Rules of Philosophy.

If it comes through the ordeal with complete success, that is, if it is
essentially simple in its conception and development, and if all its
details are fully in accord with experience, as revealed by observation
and experiment, then there will be no need to alter any of its
hypotheses or axioms. If, on the other hand, it violates any of the
rules as laid down by Newton, then, to that extent, an alteration will
be necessary, in order that the Law of Gravitation may be brought into
conformity with his own rules, and our Philosophy made to agree with our
experience and observation.


ART. 8. _Analysis of Law of Gravitation._--In order to accomplish this,
let us ask ourselves, "What are the component parts of this Law of
Gravitation?" The Law is not a simple law, but a compound one. It is
compounded primarily of three parts.

    1st. A Primitive Impulse.

    2nd. A Centripetal Force.

    3rd. A Centrifugal Force.

To these must be added the three Laws of Motion; although they are not
directly part of the Law of Gravitation, yet they are essential to its
effectiveness and completion. Without any one of these, the Law of
Gravitation would fail to account for all the phenomena that it does
account for.

If there were no Primitive Impulse, then the planets and meteors, sun
and stars would for ever remain at rest, and the Laws of Motion would
remain inoperative. If there were no Centripetal Force, then the
Centrifugal Force would hurl the planets and comets, asteroids or minor
planets away into the depths of space, never to return to their central
sun.

If there were no Centrifugal Force, then the Centripetal Force would
draw all bodies, _i. e._ all planets, etc., to their central sun, and,
instead of the planets continually revolving round the sun, there would
be but one immense solitary mass in the centre of the solar system.

If there were no Laws of Motion, with their necessary corollary the
Parallelogram of Forces, the Primitive Impulse would cease to act, and
the Law of Gravitation would again fail in its attempt to account for
those phenomena it does account for.

Thus, as it may easily be seen, Gravitation is a compound Law, depending
upon at least four hypotheses, and therefore is not essentially a simple
Force, or Law.

If, therefore, in giving a physical explanation of the cause of
Gravitation, we can reduce all these four elements of the Law into one
single physical cause, _i. e._ the Universal Aether, and show how they
may all be explained and accounted for by the properties, qualities and
motions of that physical medium, then such a result will be strictly in
harmony with the first Rule of Philosophy, as laid down by Newton and
others.

We will, therefore, proceed to consider some of these parts of the Law
of Gravitation in detail.


ART. 9. _Primitive Impulse._--This may be explained as follows. At the
creating and launching of each world, Newton supposed that there was
given to each world an impulse or tendency to fly off from the
controlling centre into space. On this matter MacLaurin writes as
follows: "If we had engines of sufficient force, bodies might be
projected from them, so as not only to be carried a vast distance away
without falling to the earth, but so as to move round the whole earth
without touching it; and, after returning to the first place, commence a
new revolution with the same force they first received from the engine;
and after the second revolution, a third, and thus revolve as a moon or
satellite round the earth for ever. If this can be effected near the
earth's surface, it may be done higher in the air, or even as high as
the moon. By increasing the force or power, a body proportionately
larger may be thus projected, and by a power sufficiently great, a heavy
body, not inferior to the moon, might be put in motion, which might
revolve for ever round the earth. Thus Sir Isaac Newton saw that the
curvilineal motion of the moon in her orbit, and of a projectile at the
surface of the earth, were phenomena of the same kind, and might be
explained from the same principle extended from the earth so as to reach
the moon, and that the moon was only a greater projectile that received
its motion in the beginning of things from the Almighty Author of the
Universe."

Now what I desire to know is, "What is the nature, the mode of
operation, and, above all, the physical cause of this Primitive
Impulse?" Is it in its nature and mode of operation a simple Force, or
Cause? Does it fulfil the condition of Newton's First Rule of
Philosophy? Permit me to suggest several lines of thought which may be
made the basis of its analysis.

Astronomers tell us that there are in existence millions of stars, and
suns, flooding immensity and space with their light and heat.

Now the question I wish to ask regarding Primitive Impulse in relation
to all these stars is this: "Was the Primitive Impulse imparted to each
sun, and star, and planet, separately and distinctly?" If so, then there
must have been just as many Primitive Impulses as there are stars and
suns and planets, and there would be according to a certain astronomer's
estimate at least 800,000,000 Primitive Impulses, which assumption is
altogether opposed to, and violates the First Rule of Philosophy.

If, on the other hand, it is affirmed that they all received their
motion at one and the same time, then I ask: "What was the physical
cause and method adopted to communicate the impulse to each one at the
same time?" If the reply is given, that it was by Universal Gravitation,
I have two objections to make to such a reply: first, that Gravitation
is altogether inoperative without the Primitive Impulse, otherwise why
was it conceived? and secondly, what is the physical cause of
Gravitation?

Again, scientists inform us that there is every reason for believing,
that stars and suns are still being formed in the universe, and that
there are certain distinctive phenomena which go to prove that
statement. Now, if that be true, and I believe it to be true, I wish to
ask if the Primitive Impulse as suggested by Newton, is applicable to
the stars and suns already in process of formation in the various
nebulae? and, if so, at what point in the star's history or development
is that Impulse applied?

Personally, I cannot conceive of the Great Creator of all things being
so lacking in inventive genius, if I may reverently use that term, as to
necessitate a separate Impulse being given to every separate star, or
sun, as each one is created or formed during the progress and
development of the universe of worlds.

I would much rather believe that which I hold to be the correct
explanation, viz. that He has given to a certain fundamental and
primordial medium, certain qualities and properties, by, and through
which are originated and perpetuated, all the motions of the heavenly
bodies already existent in the universe, or that are ever likely to be
existent throughout all time.

The question of separate Primitive Impulses for separate bodies becomes
more and more incongruous and inadmissible, as we consider it in its
application to such small bodies as meteors and planetoids. Is it not
contrary to our fundamental principles of Philosophy, that a separate
Impulse should be necessary for all small bodies that exist in their
myriads throughout the solar system, not to speak of the universe of
which that system forms a part? Such a conception as Primitive Impulse,
to each separate world, is altogether opposed to one's idea of that
simplicity and beauty which govern the universe at large, and violates
the first rule of our philosophical reasoning, and for this reason must
be rejected from the System of Philosophy to be propounded in this work.


ART. 10. _Centripetal Force._--Let us now look at the Centripetal Force,
and ask ourselves what is meant by such a force, and what is its mode of
action and working. Centripetal Force, strictly, may be defined as that
force which is always exerted towards the centre of the attracting body.

Taking the earth as an example, Newton points out, that though the
gravity of bodies arises from their gravitation towards several parts of
the earth; yet, because this power acts always towards the centre of
gravity of the earth, it is therefore called the Centripetal Force.

This force, then, is that part of the Law of Gravitation which
corresponds to the Attraction of Gravitation, and is always exerted in
that straight line from the body attracted, to the centre of the
attracting body, which joins the centres of gravity of the two bodies
concerned.

The combination and effect of the various forces included in the Law of
Gravitation are illustrated by the familiar illustration of the ball
whirled round the hand by a piece of string, or the bucket filled with
water, whirled round in the same way. Let us take the former. A piece of
string with a ball attached to one of the ends is held firmly by the
hand. An impulse or motion is imparted to the ball by the hand, that
motion being continued by the movement from the hand. The first impulse
given to the ball by the hand represents the Primitive Impulse. The
tension on the string which holds the ball to its controlling centre
represents the Centripetal Force, while the opposite force on the
string, which takes up the Primitive Impulse and continues it, is
represented by the Centrifugal Force.

The conception of the Centripetal Force is therefore simple, and
entirely in accordance with our experience as gathered from observation
and experiments. Both in the spheres of electricity, and magnetism, we
find a similar force acting, which tends towards the centre of the
attracting body, and therefore the Centripetal Force satisfies the first
two Rules of our Philosophy.

Further, it adequately accounts for certain distinctive phenomena which
occur through the Law of Gravitation, as, for example, the falling of
bodies to the earth, and therefore is entirely in harmony with all the
requirements of those principles enunciated by Newton for the successful
explanation of any phenomena. I need hardly point out, therefore, this
being so, any physical cause suggested as the explanation of Gravitation
must deal with the Centripetal Force, and be able to give a physical
explanation of the mode and manner in which the Centripetal Force
operates.

The Attraction of Gravitation or the Centripetal Force, however, being,
as its name implies, simply a drawing or pulling power to a centre, that
is, a force that is ever and ever only drawing matter to matter, or body
to body, it could not of, and by itself, accomplish those necessary
stellar and planetary motions by which are produced that universal
order, unity and harmony which characterize the universe. It is
essentially in its operations and influences, a one-sided force, ever
tending and influencing towards self, and therefore by itself would only
be a detriment and an evil; and, unless it were accompanied by some
companion or complementary and counter force, with which it acts in
union and concert, and which exactly counteracts its pulling power and
influence, it would soon draw star to star, and world to world, crashing
and heaping them together in ruinous and dire confusion. So that,
instead of the infinitude of worlds which now exist, which flash and
sparkle in the heavens, and in their intricate, elaborate, and mazy
motions move through the vast infinity like stately armies on the march,
there would only be one agglomeration of matter, a silent and solitary
mass existing in the vast abyss of space.

Therefore, as soon as Sir Isaac Newton had discovered and demonstrated
the existence of the power of Attraction, as represented by the
Centripetal Force, and its association with the universe at large, there
was seen at once the necessity of another Force, of an opposite
character, which would form the companion and complementary force to
Attraction; a repulsive, repellent force, one tending or repelling from
a centre, so as to counterbalance the influence of the Centripetal Force
which ever tends towards the centre.

To fill up the blank, there was conceived to exist what is called a
Centrifugal Force, that is, literally, a Force acting, and ever acting
from a centre, and with that Force we will now deal.


ART. 11. _Centrifugal Force._--In applying our Rules of Philosophy to
this Force, if by Centrifugal Force is simply meant that Force which is
the exact opposite of the Centripetal Force, that is, a Force which acts
from a centre, instead of to a centre, then such a Force is strictly in
harmony with, and satisfies all the conditions of the two first Rules of
Philosophy.

Not only is such a conception simple, but it is also in accordance with
experience and observation. Professor Hicks in his address to the
British Association in 1895 said: "What is called Centrifugal Force is
an apparent bodily Force directed outwards from the centre of curvature
of the body's path, and having an intensity equal to the distance from
the centre multiplied by the square of the absolute angular velocity."

In the sphere of magnetism and electricity, the operation of two equal
and opposite forces prevails. The attractive force of electricity, which
is exerted to the centre, is always accompanied by the generation and
development of a repulsive force, it being one of the fundamental rules
of electricity that equal and opposite quantities of electricity are
always generated at one and the same time. So that if the Centrifugal
Force is viewed as being simply the exact opposite of the Centripetal
Force, it fully satisfies the test when the first two rules laid down by
Newton are applied to it.

If, on the other hand, Centrifugal Force implies and embodies the idea
of continuance of the Primitive Impulse, as I believe it is supposed to
do, then to that extent it is not conformable to the principles of our
Philosophy, as embodied in the rules given by Newton.

Simply because, while it supposes a source or origin of its activity at
the first, it goes on to suppose a continuance of that activity, without
recognizing a continuing source or cause. It only recognizes and
supposes the one original impulse given at the beginning, to account for
the cause of the continually existing, and exerted power of the
Centrifugal Force. I do not for a moment suggest, that the Divine
Creator of all things, and the Ordainer and Upholder of all powers,
forces and laws could not, had He chosen to give such a force, have
given it and for ever operating. With that aspect of the question I have
nothing to do, and of it nothing to say. I am dealing, and only wish to
deal, with scientific facts, and scientific teaching from the purely
philosophical standpoint.

Such an idea of a continuing effect, without a continuing cause, is
altogether opposed to experience and observation, and is a violation of
the second Rule of Philosophy.

Look where we will, or at what we will, and not only effects and causes
are seen on every side, and in every thing, linked together inseparably,
but wherever, and in whatever phenomena there is found a continuance of
effect or effects, there is always and without exception found also a
continuing source or cause.

Wherever Nature, therefore, gives us a continuous effect of any kind or
sort, she always gives us a continuing cause, that can be both proved
and demonstrated to exist. Nowhere in Nature, amid all her powers,
principles and laws, is there to be found an effect without a cause, and
in all continuing effects, a continuing and perpetuating cause also, and
that effect exists just as long as the cause exists.

If the effect is perpetual, then the source and cause is perpetual also,
both in its existence and energy. Hence if the Centrifugal Force
embodies the idea of continuance of the Primitive Impulse, without
showing how that Primitive Impulse is continued, then such an idea is an
anomaly in the universe, is altogether opposed to the teaching of Nature
and science, and violates the most fundamental principles of our
Philosophy.

The philosophic explanation, therefore, of the Centrifugal Force, is
that Force which flows from a centre, and _which is the exact opposite
and counterpart of the Centripetal Force_. Further, as the Centripetal
Force is an attractive Force ever attracting to a centre, so the
Centrifugal Force, being its exact opposite, is a repulsive Force, which
fulfils all the laws and conditions which govern the Centripetal Force,
as it is in every phase and aspect the exact opposite, being indeed its
complement and counterpart.

Any physical explanation of the Law of Gravitation, therefore, must also
give a satisfactory physical explanation of this Force, and show its
mode of operation and working. This I premise I will do without the
faintest shadow of doubt or failure; that is, if we are to accept the
evidence of some of the most delicate experiments of modern times
relative to aetherial physics.


ART. 12. _Laws of Motion._--One of the most important factors in the
successful application of the Attraction of Gravitation to the universe
at large, are the Laws of Motion enunciated by Sir Isaac Newton. These
are three in number, and are as follows--

1st. Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in
a straight line, except in so far as it may be compelled by impressed
Forces to change that state.

2nd. Change of motion is proportionate to the impressed Force, and takes
place in the direction of the straight line in which the Force acts.

3rd. To every action there is always an equal and contrary reaction.

_Corollary._--To these must be added the first Corollary of the three
laws which is commonly known as the Parallelogram of Forces, which is as
follows: "That when a body is acted upon by two Forces at the same time,
it will describe a diagonal, by the motion resulting from their
composition, in the same time that it would describe the sides of the
parallelogram."

Now let us apply Newton's Rules of Philosophy to these laws, and see if
they fulfil the conditions laid down therein.

In the first place, there being three laws necessary to cover all the
motions involved, there is not that simplicity of conception which is a
primary factor in the making of any hypothesis. Then it will be observed
that even after postulating the three laws, Newton was unable to account
for the elliptic orbits of the planets, until he had added a Corollary
known as the Parallelogram of Forces.


ART. 13. _Force._--The question has arisen also, as to the meaning of
the term Force which Newton uses. What is a Force, its cause and mode of
operation? The idea of Force is conveyed to us by our "muscular sense,"
which gives us the idea of pressure, as for example when we push or pull
a body along the ground.

We must not, however, limit our idea of Force to that narrow circle. It
has now been fully established that Sound and Heat, Light, Magnetism,
and Electricity are Forces, and therefore capable of doing work, as will
be shown later on. Newton's use of the term Force is therefore somewhat
vague; he does not definitely say what the Force is which causes the
change of position, of the body, or of the rate of motion of that body.
That it is something to do with Gravitation is obvious, but its exact
nature or character is not revealed.

Since Newton's time we have made an advance in the definition of Force,
and have come to consider Force as a kind of energy; the application of
Force being the application of energy. Such terms as Mechanical Force,
Chemical Force, Vital Force, are therefore out of date, and in their
place the more definite ideas of energy are substituted. Instead,
therefore, of getting such terms as Transformation of Forces, we now get
Transformations of Energy. In the chapter on Energy, I hope to show that
even that is not a satisfactory solution of the definition of a Force.
If we are to make our Philosophy agree with our experience, then Force
is due to motion, and motion alone.

So that Centrifugal Force will imply a motion from the centre;
Centripetal Force a motion whose effect is ever towards the centre of
gravity of any body.


ART. 14. _First Law of Motion._--This may naturally be divided into two
parts for the purpose of applying the Rules of Philosophy.

(I) Every body continues in a state of rest, except in so far as it is
compelled by impressed Forces to change that state. To what extent is
this statement conformable to our experience and observation? If I place
a body, as for example a weight, on a table, will it remain in that
state until it is moved by some other Force? I think that it will so
remain, and to that extent the law conforms to experiment.

Wider observation, and all experience, also prove the conformity of this
part of the First Law of Motion to the second Rule of Philosophy, as all
experience testifies to the fact that a body remains at rest, until some
other power or force moves it from the position of rest. The application
of this position of rest to any of the planets is, however, very
difficult to conceive. MacLaurin, in relation to this fact, states:
"This perseverance of a body in a state of rest can only take place in
absolute space, and can then only be intelligible by admitting it." In
dealing with the physical cause of Gravitation, I hope to be able to
show that it can not only be admitted as a mathematical proposition, but
that it can be made intelligible from the physical standpoint.

The second part of the First Law of Motion may be stated as follows:
"Every body continues in a state of uniform motion in a straight line,
except in so far as it is compelled by impressed forces to change that
state."

Now what is the testimony of observation and experiment in regard to
this part of the First Law of Motion? Let us test the question by the
results of our experience. If a ball is sent rolling along the ground,
its motion is gradually reduced until it comes to rest. If the ground is
very rough indeed, as for example a ploughed field, then its speed will
be very soon reduced, and the ball quickly comes to a standstill. If,
however, the ground is smooth and level, like a well-kept cricket-field,
then the motion of the ball will be reduced more slowly, and it will
travel further before being brought to rest; while, if the ball is
thrown along a very smooth surface of ice, it will travel a much longer
distance before it is finally brought to rest.

Thus we learn, that the more we can get rid of all resistances to the
motion of any body, the greater distance will the body travel, and the
less diminution there is in the uniform motion of the body. So that, if
it were possible to obtain a medium which offered no resistance at all
to a moving body, then it would be a legitimate inference to infer that
a body in such a medium, when once set in motion, would move with
uniform motion for ever. Under such conditions, therefore, this part of
Newton's First Law of Motion is physically conceivable. The crux of the
whole matter, therefore, lies in the problem as to whether there is, or
there is not, in existence, such a thing as a frictionless medium. We
will therefore consider the problem of the existence of a frictionless
medium from the philosophical standpoint.

Professor Lodge, in _Modern Views of Electricity_, p. 331, writes: "Now,
if there is one thing with which the human race has been more conversant
than another, and concerning which more experience has been
unconsciously accumulated than about almost anything else that can be
mentioned, it is the action of one body upon another; the exertion of
Force by one body on another, the transfer of motion and energy from one
body to another, any kind of effect, no matter what, which can be
produced in one body by means of another, whether the bodies be animate
or inanimate."

"Now I wish to appeal to this mass of experience, and to ask, Is not the
direct action of one body on another across empty space, and with no
means of communication whatever, is not this absolutely unthinkable? We
must not answer the question offhand, but must give it due
consideration, and we shall find, I think, that wherever one body acts
on another body by obvious contact, we are satisfied and have a feeling
that the phenomena is simple and intelligible, and that, whenever one
body apparently acts on another body at a distance, we are irresistibly
impelled to look for the connecting medium."

Again, on p. 333 of the same work, he adds: "Remember then, that
whenever we see a thing being moved, we must look for the rope. It may
be visible, or it may be invisible, but unless there is either a push or
a pull, there can be no action."

Now, in relation to celestial phenomena, we are confronted with the fact
of bodies acting on one another, and yet apparently they do not act upon
one another by or through a medium, and to that extent according to the
above extracts, such phenomena are opposed to universal experience.
Again, we find planets and satellites moving through space with more or
less uniform speed, and yet apparently there is no physical medium that
acts upon them with either a push or a pull, as the present conception
of the Aether is that of a frictionless medium, so that experience in
its widest form seems altogether opposed to the existence of a
frictionless medium.

Again, Tait in his _Natural Philosophy_ says: "The greater masses,
planets and comets moving in a less resisting medium, show less
indications of resistance. Indeed it cannot be said that observations
upon any one of these bodies, with the exception of Encke's Comet, has
demonstrated resistance. The greater masses, planets and comets moving
in a less resisting medium, show less indications. No motion in Nature
can take place without meeting resistance due to some if not all of
these influences. _The analogies of Nature and the ascertained facts of
physical science forbid us to doubt that every one of them, every star,
and every body of every kind has its relative motion impeded by the air,
gas, vapour, medium, or whatever we choose to call the substance
occupying the space around it_, just as the motion of a rifle-bullet is
impeded by the resistance of the air."

What is the testimony of our own personal observation and experiments to
such an impossible entity as a frictionless medium? Can any of the
readers tell me of any medium, be it solid, liquid, or gaseous, that
they have ever heard of, or read of, or experimented with, that
possesses the quality of being frictionless? The answer is unanimously
in the negative. But a frictionless medium was absolutely imperative to
the success of the Newtonian aspect of the Law of Gravitation. If the
Aether had not been frictionless, then the First Law of Motion would
have been violated, and a body, as for example a planet set in motion,
would not then have moved with uniform motion, but would have been
brought to a standstill by the resistance of the Aether. Accepting
therefore experience as a guide, as we are bound to do if we wish to be
strictly philosophical, as Newton pointed out, then we are compelled to
come to the conclusion that there is no such thing in the entire
universe as a frictionless medium. Such a hypothesis is contrary to all
laws and rules of Philosophy, and to continue to advocate its claims is
to remain where we are in relation to the cause of Gravitation, and in
complete ignorance of the beauty and harmony of the wonderful physical
mechanism that underlies the whole of the universe. Of course, if
experience and observation are no guide to Philosophy, then we will let
imagination run riot, and postulate the most extravagant explanations
for the varied phenomena of the heavens. With experience of no account,
we will affirm that the moon is made of green cheese, that the earth is
flat, that the sun revolves round the moon, and a host of other absurd
hypotheses that require no correction by experience and observation. But
there, a truce to such absurd imaginations. Experience is a guide to
Philosophy, its claims are recognized by the greatest Philosopher the
world has ever known, and therefore as either experience or a
frictionless medium has to go, we will part with the frictionless
medium, and endeavour to make a hypothesis of the Aether that is in
greater harmony with our Rules of Philosophy.


ART. 15. _Second Law of Motion._--The application of Newton's Rules of
Philosophy to the Second Law of Motion is attended with greater success
than was the case with his First Law. "Change of motion," he states, "is
proportionate to the impressed Force, and takes place in the direction
of the straight line in which the Force acts."

Newton adds this explanation to his Second Law: "If a Force generates
any motion, a double Force will generate double motion, and a triple
Force triple motion, whether they are applied simultaneously or
gradually and successively. And this motion, if the body were already
moving, is either added to the previous motion, if it is in the same
direction, or subtracted from it if directly opposed to it, or is
compounded with the previous motion if the two are inclined at an
angle."

According to that, a force which presses or pushes with a four-pound
pressure per square inch, if doubled, would press with a force of eight
pounds per square inch, which fact agrees with experience. If the force
is applied gradually, then the change of motion would be gradual; if
applied suddenly, then the resultant motion would be sudden and violent.

The impressed force, therefore, always produces a definite and
corresponding effect on any moving body, however that force may be
originated, and however it may be applied. The effect so produced is
always a change of motion, or, in present scientific terms, a change of
momentum in the moving body. If the impressed force is halved, by an
alteration in the mass of the body which exerts the impressed force,
then the resultant momentum produced is halved also. If the impressed
force is doubled, through any alteration in the velocity of the body
which exerts the force, then the momentum produced in the moving body
will be doubled also. So that the impressed force is equal to the change
of momentum in the moving body upon which it is impressed.

When similar forces are impressed upon exactly similar bodies, the
velocities produced are exactly the same; but, if similar forces act on
dissimilar bodies, then the velocities produced in the different bodies
are not the same; yet the total motion produced on all bodies, according
to the Second Law of Motion, must always be proportionate to the
impressed force. So that when we compare the effect of similar forces on
different bodies, we find that there are two factors involved, viz., the
mass and velocity of the moving body. The product of these two
quantities is termed the momentum of the body.

When we apply the Second Law of Motion to the theory of aetherial
dynamics, as suggested in this work, we shall seek to show that Newton's
Second Law of Motion holds good in its application to the new theory.
With the present conception of a frictionless Aether, however, it is
philosophically impossible for the Aether to exert force on any body
that may exist in it. Because, to the extent that it is frictionless, to
that extent it ceases to possess mass. If it does possess mass, then it
cannot be frictionless. Such an assumption violates all the Rules of
Philosophy.

Yet the Aether is supposed, in some unknown manner, to possess inertia,
which property is also dependent on mass. If the Aether really possesses
inertia, then it must possess mass, and possessing mass it ceases to be
a frictionless medium. So that if it possesses mass, then it can exert
force the same as any other body, and Newton's Second Law of Motion is
applicable to it.


ART. 16. _Third Law of Motion._--Newton's Third Law of Motion reads as
follows--

"Action and re-action are equal and opposite, or, to every action there
is always an equal and contrary re-action." This law is also conformable
to experience; for, by experiment, it has been proved to hold good for
electric and magnetic action. As MacLaurin points out, the Third Law of
Motion may be extended to all sorts of powers that take place in Nature,
and belongs to attraction and repulsion of all kinds, and must not be
considered as being arbitrarily introduced by Newton.

The mutual action between any two bodies has, therefore, a double
action. Thus a piece of stretched string must be conceived as pulling at
both ends; the pull at the one end being exactly equal and opposite to
the pull on the other end.

A magnet will attract a piece of iron with a certain force, but it is
equally true that the iron attracts the magnet with an exactly equal and
opposite force. We might even extend the application of this Third Law
to a falling stone in its relation to the earth. Thus, if a stone is
dropped from a high altitude to the surface of the earth, although the
motion seems to be all in one direction, yet if the Third Law holds
good, then the earth is attracted by the stone in exactly an equal, but
opposite direction, to that in which the earth attracts the stone.

As, however, the mass of the earth is very great compared with that of
the stone, it follows that the velocity of the stone compared with the
velocity of the earth, must be very much greater, in order that the
forces shall be equal.

The application of this Third Rule of Motion to planetary and celestial
phenomena is therefore philosophical, in that its conception agrees with
experience and observation.

Thus, while it is true that the sun attracts each of the planets in his
system, it is equally true that the planets, in their turn, attract the
sun with an exactly equal and opposite force. But the velocity of motion
induced by the earth's attractive power upon the sun, would be less than
the velocity of motion induced by the sun's attractive power upon the
earth, although the two forces would be equal and opposite, simply
because force, being a compound quantity, is dependent upon the mass of
a body as well as upon its velocity.

Not only, however, is it true that the sun and all the planets jointly
attract each other, but it is equally true that the planets attract each
other also, with an exactly equal and opposite effect. Indeed, as
Gravitation is universal, it has to be conceived that there are no two
bodies existing, but what the Third Law of Motion equally applies to
those two bodies; so that equality of action and re-action is as
universal as the Law of Gravitation itself.

In coming to a conclusion with reference to Philosophy and the Laws of
Motion, I wish to say that I am strongly of the opinion that the day has
come, or will soon come, when they will pass away and give place to a
more direct and simple method of working of the great Law of
Gravitation. I look upon the Laws of Motion as part of the scaffolding
which has been used to build up the Law of Gravitation. That Law has now
been erected, and stands firm and secure in its position in the
universe. Whatever changes may take place in its scaffolding, the Law
itself will stand out with greater beauty and clearness, if we could but
see the perfected structure, apart from the props and helps which have
assisted in its successful erection and completion. As Dr. Larmor said,
in his address to the British Association, 1900: "There has even
appeared a disposition to consider that the Newtonian principles, which
have formed the basis of physical phenomena for nearly two centuries,
must be replaced in these deeper subjects by a method of more direct
description of the cause of the phenomena. The question has arisen, as
to how far the new methods of aetherial physics are to be considered as
an independent departure; or how far they form the natural development
of existing dynamical science."

I hope, therefore, to be able in this work to do something towards
clearing the completed Law from some of the outside props, which have
long hidden the simplicity, beauty and harmony of the physical working
of Gravitation from the eyes of those who feign would see its wonderful
mechanism.

In the elaboration and development, therefore, of the physical cause of
Gravitation, it will be necessary to conceive a medium, whose properties
and motions shall be able to account for all the movements of the
planets, comets, suns and stars that the Laws of Motion now account for.
Instead, however, of there being several Laws purely and simply
mathematical in their application, there will be one physical medium,
which will by its properties and motions account for--and that in a
satisfactory manner--all the motions of the heavenly bodies. That such a
medium is required in the scientific world is proved by the statement
made by Professor Glazebrook, in his work on J. C. Maxwell, page 221,
where he says: "We are still waiting for some one to give us a theory of
the Aether, which shall include the facts of electricity and magnetism,
luminous radiation, and it may be Gravitation."


ART. 17. _Summary of the Chapter._--In summing up the contents of this
chapter, we find therefrom, that there is a Universal Law in existence
that is known as the Law of Gravitation. The physical cause of this Law,
however, is unknown; Newton suggesting that it was due to the properties
of an aetherial medium that pervaded the universe.

To form a right conception of this medium, and to develop the hypotheses
of the same on strictly philosophical lines, it is essential for us to
know the rules which govern the making of any hypothesis.

Those rules, according to Newton, and other philosophers, are chiefly
three in number, and form the very essence of any philosophical
reasoning. Any departure from those rules will entail partial or entire
failure in the success of the undertaking.

The application of Newton's rules to parts of the great Law of
Gravitation show that some of those parts are not fully in harmony with
the rules which Newton laid down in his _Principia_.

Any physical theory that may be hereafter suggested as the physical
basis for the Law of Gravitation, must itself not only account for the
various forces already referred to, but must itself fulfil the Rules of
Philosophy laid down by Newton. That is to say, the conception of the
physical medium must be simple in character, its properties and motions
must agree with all our experience, as given by observation, and
experiments; and the properties and motions postulated for it must
satisfactorily account for, and explain all the phenomena that are
presented to us by the Universal Law of Gravitation.

If all this be done, then from the standpoint of strict philosophical
reasoning, the physical medium so suggested, and the theory so made,
will be incapable of being overthrown or disproved.



                              CHAPTER II

                       PHILOSOPHY OF GRAVITATION


ART. 18. _Gravitation Attraction._--The Law of Gravitation being a
compound law, and not a simple law (Art. 8), it is necessary that the
principles which govern universal attraction should now be considered.

The law which governs Gravitation Attraction may be defined as follows:
Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle
with a force whose direction is that of a line joining the centre of
their masses, whose magnitude is directly as the product of their
masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them.

This may be divided into four parts.

    (1) The Universality of Gravitation.
    (2) The Direction of the Forces involved.
    (3) The Proportion of these Forces.
    (4) The Law of Inverse Squares.

The theory of the Aether, therefore, which will be perfected in this
work, must not only satisfactorily account for the Attraction of
Gravitation on a strictly philosophical basis, but the laws, governing
the pressures or tensions of that physical medium, must harmonize with
each of the parts of the complex Law of Gravitation into which it has
been resolved.


ART. 19. _Universality of the Attractive Force._--The principle upon
which Universal Attraction rests is found in the words: "Every particle
of matter in the universe attracts every other particle." It must,
however, be admitted that this statement has never actually been proved.
The smallest body that Newton used to prove his Law of Attraction was
our satellite the moon.

Cavendish, however, in 1798, by a series of experiments, conclusively
demonstrated that the force of Gravitation existed in small bodies. He
took two small leaden balls of a certain weight, and fixed them at the
ends of a rod about six feet long, the rod being suspended by a piece of
wire in the air. Large leaden balls were then brought near the small
ones, and great care was taken to see if there were any twist in the
wire by which they were suspended. It was found that the wire had become
twisted on the approach of the large leaden balls, and thus he was able
to prove that every particle of the attracted and attracting body are
mutually concerned in the Attraction of Gravitation. There is abundant
evidence of the application of this force in relation to our earth, as
we shall see later on.

The universality of the Attraction of Gravitation is a fact that has
been proved in a thousand ways, and a thousand times. All stars and
suns, and all planets, satellites and comets and nebulae are subject to
this universal law. Astronomy teaches us that its power extends across
the vast abysses of space, and that stars situated at distances that
cannot possibly be measured, are subject to this world-wide law. Some of
the greatest discoveries in astronomical science were due to the
operations of this wonderful law, the gravitating influences of certain
planets indicating their existence, although their discovery had not yet
been made.

The discovery of Neptune through the mathematical calculations of Le
Verrier and Mr. Adams in 1846 was the crowning proof of the Law of
Gravitation. Mr. Adams in England had noticed that the planet Uranus was
being pulled out of the course by some unknown power, and so set to work
to calculate the position of the body which thus influenced the motion
of Uranus in its orbit. He located the position of the supposed
influencing body strictly by mathematical calculations, and then took
his results to the Astronomer Royal. Delay, however, occurred in the
search for the supposed new planet, and nothing was done further in the
matter for many months. Meanwhile Le Verrier in France, unknown to Mr.
Adams, had been making similar calculations with reference to the
perturbations of Uranus, and had arrived at similar results.

These results were sent to the Berlin astronomers, and the heavens were
searched for the supposed new planet. After a time, the planet was
discovered in that part of the heavens indicated by Le Verrier, and for
a time his name stood out as the sole discoverer. Gradually, however,
the claims of Adams were admitted and recognized, and to-day his claims
to participate in the honour of the wonderful achievement are generally
admitted. Thus the discovery of Neptune gave to the Law of Gravitation a
stability and proof that perhaps it had never received before.

Further evidence of the existence of the universality of the attractive
force, is to be found in a certain system of stars known as binary
stars, which revolve around each other, while they gravitate around a
common centre. Recent researches in astronomy only seek more and more to
confirm the universality and effectiveness of this grand law, that seems
to hold the entire universe in its sway.

Any medium, therefore, which is postulated as the physical cause of
Gravitation, must itself be as universal as Gravitation, in order for it
to be able to fulfil this condition of universality. We shall find, as
we proceed, that the only possible medium which can fulfil this
condition, is the universal Aether, whose qualities and properties are
already partly known and partly understood.


ART. 20. _Direction of the Forces._--The attraction of Gravitation is
always directed along the straight line which joins the centres of
masses of the attracting and attracted bodies. Thus, if the earth and
moon are taken as examples, an imaginary straight line drawn from the
centre of the earth's mass to the centre of the mass of the moon would
be the direction in which the gravitative force would be exerted. Now a
line which joins the central body to its satellite we shall see when we
come to deal with Kepler's Laws is known as the Radius Vector. Thus the
path of the attraction between the two bodies is along the Radius
Vector. It is a singular coincidence that the path of a ray of light
from the sun also coincides with the Radius Vector, as it is one of the
laws of light that the path of a ray always follows a straight line.

It must not, however, be assumed, that while the attractive power is
being exerted along any one straight line joining the centres of two
bodies, therefore the attractive power is not operative in relation to
any other part of the space, around the body. If our earth, for example,
had four moons instead of one, and they were each in different positions
in relation to the earth, then the law as to the direction of the forces
would still hold good. We have examples of this in the case of Jupiter
with his five moons, and Saturn with his eight moons. So that the
attractive force of Gravitation is again like light, it operates on all
sides equally at one and the same time. A lamp in the middle of a room
sends its light waves on every side at one and the same time, so that
while each ray has for its path a straight line, yet those rays are
emitted equally on every side. In like manner, though the direction of
the forces between two attracting bodies is that of a straight line, yet
the law of universal attraction is equally exerted on every side of the
planet at one and the same time.

In the theory of the Aether, therefore, to be developed in this work, it
will have to be demonstrated that the direction of the forces, which are
originated and transmitted by that physical medium, must philosophically
fulfil the conditions which govern the direction of the forces, as
observed in gravitational phenomena.


ART. 21. _Proportion of the Forces._--Newton proved that the attraction
is proportional to the product of the masses of the bodies concerned.

Hence it is that the sun, which is the centre of the solar system, is
capable of attracting the most remote planets, because the mass of the
sun is greater than the mass of all the planets put together. Or take
another illustration. Suppose that the sun and the earth are at equal
distances from Saturn. Now the sun's mass is about 300,000 times that of
our earth. Therefore if the earth draws Saturn through a certain
distance in one second, the sun would draw Saturn through a distance
which is 300,000 greater than the earth in the same period.

The governing principle, therefore, which decides the proportion of the
attractive forces between two bodies is mass, and not simply density or
volume. The mass of a body is a property which remains the same, as long
as the inertia of the body remains constant. Mass is really a measure of
the inertia of a body, or that property of a body by which it continues
in its state of motion or of rest.

Mass is therefore a compound quantity, being equal to volume multiplied
by density, so that if the volume of any body is halved, the density is
doubled. Thus, the proportion of the attractive force between any two
bodies ever remains the same, so long as the masses of the two bodies
remain the same. Through all the changes of volume and density of any
body, its attractive force remains constant, as long as the mass remains
constant; for the simple reason, that as the volume of a body is
increased, the density is proportionately decreased; or, as the volume
is decreased, the density is increased.

For example, the volume of the sun as compared with the volume of the
earth, is about 1,300,000 times greater, but the proportion of the
attractive forces between the two bodies, is about 324,000 to 1. This
difference is accounted for by the fact, that the density of the sun is
about one quarter the mean density of the earth, hence their masses are
in the proportion of 324,000 to 1. Thus the proportion of the attractive
forces between any two bodies is dependent upon their masses, and not
simply upon their volume or density.


ART. 22. _Law of Inverse Squares._--The Law of Inverse Squares which is
applicable to Gravitation is equally true of Sound, Light, Heat and
Electricity, the Law being that Gravitation acts inversely as the square
of distance. That is to say, if the distance of any body from the sun,
for example, be doubled, then the force of Gravitation is diminished to
one quarter of the intensity which would be exerted on the body in the
first position.

Thus the further a body is from its controlling centre, the weaker the
Attraction of Gravitation upon it becomes. Taking therefore Mercury and
the earth as examples, we find that their mean distances are
respectively 35,000,000 miles and 92,000,000, which is a proportion of
about 1 to 2-1/2. So that the intensity of the sun's attraction on the
earth is about four-twenty-fifths of what it is on Mercury, that being
the inverse square of the relative distances of the two bodies.

Now the intensity of Light and Heat received by the earth is regulated
by the same law of inverse squares, so that the earth would receive
about four-twenty-fifths the intensity of light and heat which Mercury
receives when they are both at their mean distances.

This law of inverse squares is applicable to every body which acts as a
gravitating source throughout the whole of the universe, whether that
body be small or large, and whether it be in the form of meteor,
satellite, planet, sun or star.

Each satellite, planet or sun exerts an attractive influence upon every
body that exists, that attractive influence being regulated by the
masses of the respective bodies, and decreasing inversely as the square
of the distance from the body viewed as the centre of attraction. So
that, the further the attracted body is from the attracting body, the
less is the intensity of the mutual attracting forces, though that
intensity does not vary simply as the distance, but rather as the square
of the distance, and that in its inverse ratio. Thus if we take two
masses of any kind or sort, and place them at various distances as
represented by the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, the intensity of the
attracting forces between the same masses at the relative distances will
be represented by the numbers 1, 1/4, 1/9, 1/16, 1/25, 1/36, which are
the inverse squares of the respective numbers representing their
distances. As we shall see, the same law holds good in relation to heat,
light and electricity, and indeed to all forms of energy which radiate
out from a centre equally in all directions.

There is no need to apply Newton's Rules of Philosophy to this
Attraction of Gravitation, as it has been demonstrated to exist, times
without number. Moreover its laws are exactly the same as those
governing the phenomena of sound, light, heat, and electricity, so that
apart from being proved by actual experiments in relation to the gravity
of the earth, we have a wider experience of the application of the same
ruling principles of the law in other departments of science.

The Law of Universal Attraction, which is strictly the Centripetal Force
of the compound Law of Gravitation, fully satisfies the three governing
rules of Newton's Philosophy. Not only is it simple in its conception,
but it is borne out by experience, and adequately accounts for the
distinctive phenomena which it seeks to explain. By it, astronomical
observations can be taken with a precision and certainty that defy error
or failure. The motion of a planet in its orbit can be so perfectly
calculated, that its position in space in relation to other planets can
be foretold years in advance. The theory of the Aether, therefore, which
is to be perfected in this work, must philosophically show that the
pressures or tensions of that medium, which are postulated as the cause
of Gravitation Attraction, must themselves fulfil the laws of inverse
squares, which govern light, heat, electricity and the Attraction of
Gravitation. I premise that this will be done in the theory of the
Aether to be submitted to the reader in the after pages of this work.


ART. 23. _Terrestrial Gravity._--Before passing from this phase of the
subject, I should like briefly to look at the question of the Attraction
of Gravitation from the standpoint of our own earth, as by so doing we
shall notice some facts regarding the same, hitherto unnoticed, in the
preceding articles.

Terrestrial Gravity is but a phase of Universal Gravitation. One of the
most familiar facts and phenomena of everyday life is, that when a body,
such as a stone or stick or bullet, is thrown or projected into the air,
it always falls to the earth again. This is due to the attraction of the
earth and the stone for each other. It has been proved experimentally
that if a stone and a weight are let fall from a height of 16 feet, they
would reach the earth in one second of time. Again, a feather, or cork,
or even a piece of iron would take exactly the same time falling through
the same space, provided that the feather or cork could be screened from
the resistance of the air.

The distance, however, through which a body falls in one second varies
at different parts of the earth's surface, being least at the equator,
and greatest at the North and South Poles. This is accounted for by the
fact that the polar diameter is only 7899 miles, while the equatorial
diameter is 7925 miles, thus the distance from the centre of the earth
to either pole is about 3950 miles, or 13 miles less than the equatorial
radius of the earth. Now the force of gravity decreases upwards from the
earth's surface inversely as the square of the distance from the earth's
centre of gravity, but decreases downwards simply as the distance from
the centre decreases. Thus if a ball were taken down 2000 miles, that is
half the distance to the centre, it would only weigh half-a-pound, while
if it were taken to the centre of the earth, it would have no weight at
all; while a pound weight at the equator would not weigh one pound at
the poles, because it would be nearer the centre of the earth by 13
miles.

Thus a pound weight is not always a pound weight. It varies as we carry
it to different parts of the earth's surface, depending upon its
relation to the centre of the earth for its exact weight. The point
which I wish to make perfectly clear, as it will be necessary for future
reference, is, that there is no such thing as weight apart from the
gravity of the earth; or, if we apply the principle to the solar system,
there is no gravitating force in that system apart from the gravitating
force of the central body, the sun, or the planets and other bodies
which form the solar system.

Let us look at this matter from another standpoint, in order to prove
this truth and make the same perfectly clear. If a pound weight were put
in a spring-balance, then at the surface of the earth it would weigh one
pound. Now, we will suppose that we have taken the weight to a height of
4000 miles above the surface of the earth, that is exactly double the
distance from the centre of the earth, the radius of the earth being
approximately 4000 miles. According to the law of inverse squares, the
force of Gravitation decreases inversely as the square of the distance.
The distance having been doubled, the proportion of the forces at the
two places, _i. e._ the earth's surface and 4000 miles above it, are as
1 to 1/4.

Thus at a distance of 4000 miles the weight which weighed one pound at
the earth's surface, now only weighs a quarter of a pound. At a distance
of 8000 miles, the distance would be trebled, therefore the force of
Gravitation is one-ninth, and the weight would weigh one-ninth of a
pound. If we could take the pound weight to the moon, the attractive
force of the earth would be reduced to 1-3600, as the moon is 240,000
miles distant, that is sixty times the earth's radius. The square of 60
is 3600, and if we invert that we get 1-3600, so that the weight which
weighs a pound at the earth's surface, would only weigh 1-3600 part of a
pound at the distance of the moon. This again proves, that apart from
the Attraction of Gravitation, there is no such thing as weight, and
that the weight so called of any body, such as a planet or satellite,
increases or decreases as its distance increases or decreases from its
central attracting body.


ART. 24. _Centrifugal Force._--I have already shown in Art. 10 that
the Centripetal Force and Universal Attraction are one and the same; as
the Centripetal Force always acts towards the centre, and must therefore
be in its operation and influence a gravitating or attractive power.

I have also pointed out in the same article, the necessity of another
force, which is to be the complement, and the counter part of
Gravitation Attraction. That complement and counter force was conceived
by Newton, and called by him the Centrifugal Force. The very nature of
the Centripetal Force demands and necessitates a force which in its mode
of operation is exactly the opposite of the Centripetal Force. Unless
there were such a force, a repellent and repulsive force, then instead
of there being that harmonious working of the universe that now exists,
there must inevitably be a gradual drawing together of all planets and
satellites, of all stars and suns, into one vast, solitary, and ruinous
body.

There are also other phenomena which demand a Centrifugal Force in the
universe. It is a well-known fact, that there exist between the orbits
of Jupiter and Mars, what are called planetoids, about 500 in number,
which are supposed to be the remnants of a broken or shattered world. As
may be expected from such an accumulation, they present the most
extraordinary diversities and eccentricities in the orbits that can
possibly be conceived. They are of all shapes and sizes, and besides
their orbits round the sun, have orbits among themselves. They are so
clustered together that their orbits intersect each other at numerous
points, and when in conjunction are said to suffer great perturbations,
being pulled great distances this way and that by each other's
attractive influence. It is further stated that their orbits so
intersect each other, that if they were imagined to be material rings,
they would be inseparable, and the whole could be suspended by taking
any one of them up at random. Here, then, is presented to us a kind or
order of celestial phenomena for whose well-being and effectual working
the Centripetal Force or the Attraction of Gravitation cannot possibly
account. In their case another force is demanded which shall be the
exact complement and counterpart of the Centripetal Force. There needs
therefore a force, not an imagined one, simply conceived to fill a want,
but a real Force, as real and as plainly to be understood as the
Centripetal Force. A force existing in each world just like the
Attraction of Gravitation, only the reverse of Gravitation, a repellent,
repulsive Force, acting in the reverse mode, and way, to universal
attraction. This Force must be governed by the same rules and laws that
govern the Centripetal Force, if it is to work in harmony with the same.
It must be universal in its character, having a proportion of forces
equal to the product of the masses of the two bodies which are
concerned, and its path must coincide with the path of gravitational
attraction, that is, in the straight line which joins the centres of
gravity of the two bodies. Further, and what is perhaps the most
important of all, it must act as a repelling or repulsive force which
shall be in the same proportion in regard to distance, as the law
governing Centripetal Force, that is, inversely as the square of the
distance.

Again, and briefly, there are also in existence small bodies called
meteors, which are said to exist by myriads, which float in space, and
circle round the sun. They are of all shapes and sizes, from one ounce
to a ton or even tons, thousands of them coming into contact with our
earth's atmosphere every year, especially in August and November. All of
these small bodies have orbits among themselves, and gravitate round one
another, as they revolve round the sun. Now if the orbits of the
planetoids be such an entangled mass, what must be the orbits of these
meteors? What an indescribable, unimaginable mass of labyrinthian
motions must exist among these myriads of little bodies! How they must
intersect, cross and intermingle each other's orbits! What attraction
and counter-attraction they must exert upon each other! Let me ask any
man to sit down and try to imagine how the present recognized
Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces can account for the effectual working
of these meteors. As illustrating the necessity of a real and physical
Centrifugal Force which is to be the exact counterpart of the
Centripetal Force, I would call the attention of the reader to
Herschel's view of this matter. In dealing with the phenomena of comets'
tails he writes:[1] "Beyond a doubt, the widest and most interesting
prospect of future discovery, which this study holds out to us, is, that
distinction between gravitating and levitating matter, that positive and
irrefutable demonstration in nature of a repulsive force, co-extensive
with, but enormously more powerful than the attractive force we call
gravity which the phenomena of their tails afford." I premise that this
prophecy of Herschel's will be fully demonstrated and proved in the
succeeding pages of this work. For, in the theory of the Aether that is
to be afterwards perfected, it will be philosophically proved that the
physical medium so conceived will satisfactorily account for a force or
motion from the centre of all bodies; which motions fulfil all the
conditions required by that Centrifugal Force, which is the complement
and counterpart of the Attraction of Gravitation. At the present time,
with the conception of a frictionless Aether, it is impossible to
harmonize the existence of such a force or motion with our theory of the
Aether. Yet Professor Lebedew of Moscow, and Nichols and Hull of
America, have incontrovertibly demonstrated by actual experiments the
existence of such a force. Therefore it follows, that if our present
theory of the Aether fails to agree with experimental evidence, such a
theory must be reconstructed in order that our philosophy may be made to
agree with our experiments and our experience.

[Footnote 1: _Lectures on Scientific Subjects._]


ART. 25. _Kepler's Laws._--A long time before Newton had discovered the
Law of Gravitation, Kepler had found out that the motions of the planets
were governed by certain laws, and these came to be known as Kepler's
Laws.

These laws which were given to the world by Kepler, simply represented
facts or phenomena which had been discovered by observation, as Kepler
was unable to account for them, or to give any mathematical basis for
the same.

On the discovery, however, of Universal Gravitation, Newton saw at once
that these laws were simply the outcome of the application of the Law of
Gravitation to the planets, and that they could be accounted for on a
mathematical basis by the Law of Gravitation, as they seemed to flow
naturally from that law.

Kepler's Laws are three in number and may be thus stated--

_1st Law._ Each planet revolves round the sun in an elliptic orbit, with
the sun occupying one of the Foci.

_2nd Law._ In the revolution of a planet round the sun, the Radius Vector
describes equal areas in equal times.

_3rd Law._ The squares of the periodic times of planets are proportional
to the cubes of their mean distances.

Now the question arises, whether it is possible to form a theory of the
Aether which shall satisfactorily and philosophically account for all
the phenomena associated with Kepler's Laws in their relation to the
motions of planets, satellites, or other solar bodies? On the present
conception of the Aether such a result is an absolute impossibility.
With the theory of the Aether, however, to be submitted to the reader in
this work, the result is possible and attainable. If, therefore, such a
result is philosophically proved, as I submit will be done, then we
shall have greater evidence still that the theory so propounded is a
more perfect theory than the one at present recognized by scientists
generally.


ART. 26. _Kepler's First Law._--Each planet revolves round the sun in an
elliptic orbit, the sun occupying one of the Foci.

The ancients thought that the paths of the planets around the sun were
circular in form, because they held that circular motion was perfect. A
system of circular orbits for the paths of the planets round the sun
would be very simple in its conception, and would be full of beauty and
harmony. But exact calculations reveal to us that the path of a planet
is not exactly that of a circle, as the distance of a planet from the
sun in various parts of its orbit is sometimes greater, and sometimes
less, than its mean distance.

The planet Venus has the nearest approach to a circular orbit, as there
are only 500,000 miles between the mean, and greatest and least
distances, but both Mercury and Mars show great differences between
their greatest and least distances from the sun.

If, therefore, the orbits of a planet are not exactly circular, what is
their exact shape? Kepler solved this problem, and proved that the exact
path of a planet round its central body the sun was that of an ellipse,
or an elongated circle. Thus he gave to the world the first of his
famous laws which stated that each planet revolves round the sun in an
orbit which has an elliptic form, the sun occupying one of the Foci.

Not only is the orbit of a planet round the sun elliptic in form, but
the path of the moon round the earth, or the path of any satellite, as
for example a satellite of Mars or Jupiter or Saturn, is also that of an
ellipse, the planet round which it revolves occupying one of the Foci.

It has also been found that certain comets have orbits which cannot be
distinguished from that of an elongated ellipse, the sun occupying one
of the Foci.

Now let us apply the Law of Gravitation to Kepler's First Law, and note
carefully its application.

[Illustration: Fig: 1.]

Let _A_, _B_, _C_, _D_ be an ellipse representing the orbit of the earth,
and let _S_ represent the sun situated at one of the Foci.

We will suppose that the earth is projected into space at the point _A_,
then according to the First Law of Motion, it would proceed in a
straight line in the direction of _A_ _E_, if there were no other force
acting upon the earth. But it is acted upon by the attraction of the
sun, that is the Centripetal Force which is exerted along the straight
line _S_ _A_ (Art. 20), which continues to act upon it according to the
principle already explained in Arts. 21 and 22.

Now, according to the Second Law of Motion and the Parallelogram of
Forces, instead of the earth going off at a tangent in the direction of
_A_ _E_, it will take a mean path in the direction of _A_ _B_, its path
being curved instead of being a straight line.

If the sun were stationary in space, then the mean distance, that is,
the length of the imaginary straight line joining the sun _S_ _A_ to the
earth, would remain unaltered. The Radius Vector _S_ _A_, or the
straight line referred to, would then be perpendicular to the tangent,
and the velocity of the earth round the sun would be uniform, its path
being that of a circle.

The Radius Vector _S_ _A_, however, is not always perpendicular to the
tangent _F_ _E_, and therefore the velocity of the earth is not always
uniform in its motion in its orbit, as sometimes it travels at a lesser
or greater speed than its average speed, which is about 18 miles per
second.

It has to be remembered that the sun itself is in motion, having a
velocity through space of about 4-1/2 miles per second, so that, while
the earth is travelling from _A_ to _B_ the sun is also travelling in
the direction of _S_ _B_. Thus the orbital velocity of the earth, and the
orbital velocity of the sun, together with the Centripetal Force or
universal Gravitation Attraction, are all acting in the same direction
when the earth is travelling from _A_ to _B_, that is, in the direction
of the orbit situated at _B_. This point of the orbit is known as the
perihelion, and at that point the velocity of the earth is at its
greatest, because the earth is then nearest the sun.

According to Newton, the planet when at _B_ would still have a tendency
to fly off into space owing to its Centrifugal Force, but it is held in
check by the Centripetal Force, so that instead of it flying off into
space, it is whirled round and starts off on its journey away from the
sun in the direction of _B_, _C_. The sun, however, is still continuing
its journey in the direction of _S_, _H_, so that not only is the
increased orbital velocity of the earth, which it obtained at its
perihelion, urging the earth away from the sun, but the sun itself in
its advance through space is leaving the earth behind it. The combined
effect of the two motions, the advancing motion of the sun, and the
receding motion of the earth, due to its increased orbital velocity,
drives the earth towards the aphelion, where its distance from the sun
is greatest, and its orbital velocity is the least.

By the time the planet has arrived at point _C_, its motion through
space has gradually decreased, and the Centripetal Force begins to
re-assert itself, with the result that the earth is slowly made to
proceed towards the point _D_ of the ellipse, at which point its motion
is the slowest in orbital velocity, only travelling about 16 miles per
second, while the distance of the earth from the sun is the greatest and
has increased from 91,000,000 miles at the perihelion to 94,500,000.
This point of the orbit is known as its aphelion.

After rounding this point, the orbital velocity of the earth begins to
increase again, owing to the diminishing distance of the earth from the
sun, which according to the law of inverse squares (Art. 22) gives an
added intensity to the Centripetal Force.

Thus by the combination of the Laws of Motion and the Law of Gravitation
discovered by Newton, he was able to satisfactorily account for and
explain on a mathematical basis, the reason why the earth and all the
other planets move round the sun in elliptic orbits, according to
Kepler's First Law.

In the development of the physical cause of gravitation, therefore, the
same physical medium, which accounts for that law, must also give a
satisfactory explanation of the first of Kepler's Laws.


ART. 27. _Kepler's Second Law._--This law states that the Radius Vector
describes equal areas in equal times. The Radius Vector is the imaginary
straight line joining the centres of the sun and the earth or planet.
While the First Law shows us the kind of path which a planet takes in
revolving round the sun, the Second Law describes how the velocity of
the planet varies in different parts of its orbit.

If the earth's orbit were a circle, it can be readily seen that equal
areas would be traversed in equal times, as the distance from the sun
would always be the same, so that the Radius Vector being of uniform
length, the rate of motion would be uniform, and consequently equal
areas would be traversed in equal times. Take as an illustration the
earth, which describes its revolution round the sun in 365-1/4 days. Now
if the orbit of the earth were circular, then equal parts of the earth's
orbit would be traversed by the Radius Vector in equal times. So that
with a perfectly circular orbit, one half of the orbit would be
traversed by the Radius Vector in half a year, one quarter in one
quarter of a year, one-eighth in one-eighth of a year, and so on; the
area covered by the Radius Vector being always exactly proportionate to
the time.

From Kepler's First Law, however, we know that the planet's distance
does vary from the sun, and therefore the Radius Vector is sometimes
longer and sometimes shorter than when the earth is at its mean
distance; the Radius Vector being shortest at the perihelion of the
orbit, and longest at the aphelion. We learn from Kepler's Second Law
that when the Radius Vector is shortest, that is, when the planet is
nearest the sun, it acquires its greatest orbital velocity; and when the
Radius Vector is longest, that is, when the planet is farthest from the
sun, the orbital velocity of a planet is the slowest.

Let _A_, _B_, _D_, _C_ represent the elliptic orbit of a planet, with
_S_ sun at one of the Foci, and let the triangles _A_, _S_, _B_ and _D_,
_S_, _C_ be triangles of equal area. Then, according to Kepler's Second
Law, the time taken for the Radius Vector to traverse the area _A_, _S_,
_B_ is equal to the time that the Radius Vector takes to traverse the
area _D_, _S_, _C_. So that the planet would take an equal time in going
from _A_ to _B_ of its orbit, as it would take in going from _D_ to _C_.
Thus the nearer the planet is to the sun, the greater is its orbital
velocity, and the farther it is away from the sun the slower is its
velocity, the velocity being regulated by the distance. The manner in
which the difference of velocity is accounted for by the Law of
Gravitation has already been explained in the preceding article. Thus
Newton proved that Kepler's Second Law was capable of being
mathematically explained, and accounted for, by the universal Law of
Gravitation.

[Illustration: Fig: 2.]

If, therefore, a physical cause can be given for Newton's Law of
Gravitation, then such physical cause must also be able to account for,
and that on a strictly philosophical basis, the second of Kepler's Laws
as well as the first.


ART. 28. _Kepler's Third Law._--The Third Law of Kepler gives the
relation between the periodic time of a planet, and its distance from
the sun. The periodic time of any planet is the time which it takes to
go once round the sun. Thus the periodic time of the earth is 365-1/4
days. The periodic time of Venus is 224.7 days, while that of Mars is
686.9 days.

Kepler had found out that different planets had different periodic
times; he also found out that the greater the mean distance of the
planet, the greater was the time which the planet took to perform its
journey round the sun, and so he set to work to find out the
relationship of the periodic time to the planet's mean distance.

After many trials and many failures he arrived at the right conclusion,
and at last discovered the true law which is known as Kepler's Third
Law, which states that for each and every planet, the squares of their
periodic times are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances.

For purposes of illustration let us take the earth and the planet Venus
and compare these two. The periodic time of the earth is 365 days,
omitting the quarter day. The periodic time of Venus is 224 days
approximately. Now, according to Kepler's Third Law, the square of 365
is to the square of 224, as the cube of the earth's mean distance is to
the cube of Venus's mean distance, which are 92.7 millions of miles and
67 millions of miles respectively. The problem may be thus stated--

As 365^2: 224^2:: 92.7^3: 67^3:

This worked out gives--

133,225: 50,176: 796,597.982: cube of Venus's mean distance.

So that by Kepler's Third Law, if we have the periodic time of any two
planets, and the mean distance of either, we can find out the mean
distance of the other by simple proportion.

In making astronomical calculations, the distances of the planets are
generally obtained by means of Kepler's Third Law, as the periodic time
of the planet is a calculation that may be made by astronomers with
great certainty, and when once the periodic times are found, and the
mean distance of a planet, as our earth for example, is known, the mean
distances of all the other planets in the solar system may soon be
obtained.

In like manner this Third Law of Kepler's is equally applicable to the
satellites of any planet. For example, when the periodic time of both of
Mars' satellites, Phobos and Deimos, are known, being about 8 hours and
30 hours respectively, and the distance of either is known, as Phobos
with a mean distance of 5800 miles, then the mean distance of Deimos can
easily be calculated by this law, and is found to be 14,500 miles.

As discovered by Kepler, the Third Law was simply the result of
observation. He was unable to give any mathematical basis for its
existence. The Laws as they were given to the world by Kepler were
simply three great truths which had been discovered by observation. It
rested with Newton to show how these laws could be accounted for on a
mathematical basis, and to show how they all sprang from one and the
same source, namely the universal Law of Gravitation. In his
_Principia_, he proved that all Kepler's Laws were fully expounded and
explained by his great discovery of Universal Gravitation.

Now what Newton has done for Kepler's Laws from the mathematical
standpoint, we propose to do from the physical standpoint. In the
development of the physical agency or cause of Gravitation, therefore,
among the phenomena and laws, which have to be satisfactorily accounted
for on a physical basis, are these three Laws of Kepler's just referred
to.

So that in addition to the satisfactory explanation of a physical cause
for the Laws of Motion, and the Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces, the
hypothesis of a physical cause of Gravitation must fully and
satisfactorily account for the Laws of Kepler, whose mathematical
explanation was given by Newton.

Further, and what is as equally important, the explanation so given must
be strictly in harmony with the Rules of Philosophy as laid down in Art.
3. That is, the explanation must be simple in character, must not be
contrary to experience or observation, and must satisfactorily account
for the laws which the hypothesis of the physical cause of Gravitation
seeks to explain. This I premise we will do as we pass from stage to
stage in the development of the theory.

I can safely premise that it will be simple in character and conception,
that it will be entirely in harmony with all experience and observation,
and that the physical cause so advanced will give as physical a basis to
Kepler's Laws as Newton's mathematical calculations gave them a
mathematical basis.

In summing up, I need hardly point out, that if all that I have premised
in this and the preceding chapter is accomplished in the after chapters
of this book, then for the first time since the discovery of Universal
Gravitation by Sir Isaac Newton, his great discovery will have received
the long-expected and long-desired physical explanation, that
explanation and cause being founded on his own Rules of Philosophy given
in his immortal _Principia_, and for the first time our Philosophy will
be brought strictly into harmony with our universal experience.



                              CHAPTER III

                                MATTER


ART. 29. _What is Matter?_--The law of Universal Attraction states that
"Every particle of matter attracts every other particle," etc., and the
question at once arises as to what is meant by the term Matter, what are
its properties and its constitution? Tait, in his _Natural Philosophy_,
gives the following as the definition: "Matter is that which can be
perceived by the senses, or is that which can be acted upon by, or can
exert force."

It has already been pointed out in Art. 13 that force is due to motion,
and that wherever we get motion of any kind or sort, there we get
energy, or what used to be termed force. The consideration of this phase
of the question will be more fully dealt with in the chapter on Energy
and Motion. Suffice to say, that all experience teaches us that force is
the outcome of motion.

Accepting this definition therefore of force, Tait's definition of
matter will read thus, if brought up to date: "Matter is that which can
be perceived by the senses, or is that which can be acted upon by
motion, or which can exert motion."

The common idea that matter can only be that which can be seen or
actually felt, is not large enough for a definition of Matter. There are
numbers of things in Nature which cannot either be seen or felt, yet
which are included in the term Matter. Let us take one or two examples.
Every one admits that nitrogen and oxygen are matter, yet I venture to
say that no one has actually seen or felt either of these gases. Both of
these gases are colourless and invisible, and are both tasteless. You
may open your mouth and inspire both gases, and yet if they are pure,
you cannot taste either of them. They are only matter, in the sense that
they appeal to our sense of force through the motion which they may
acquire.

Or again, take air, which is a mechanical mixture of several gases. Can
you see air? If it be free from vapour and smoke, air is invisible, and
on a clear day you may look for miles across the sea, or from the top of
a mountain, and yet not have your sight impeded in any way by the
atmosphere. Neither can it be felt by the sense of touch. Open and shut
your hand, and see if you can feel the air while you do so. In similar
ways it may be demonstrated that the air is tasteless. So that it is not
necessary for us to see, or feel, or taste, or even smell that which we
term Matter, in order for it to be included in that term. So long as
that which we term Matter is able to accept motion in any manner from
any body that is either moving, or in a state of vibration, and not only
accepts, but also transmits the vibratory, or the kinetic motion so
called of the moving body, then that which accepts the motion is
legitimately termed Matter.

It becomes perfectly clear, therefore, why air, aether, oxygen, and
hydrogen are termed Matter. Because they can be all acted upon by
motion, and after being so acted upon, they can exert motion upon some
other body. Heat is a form of motion, and when heat acts upon the air,
the latter is set in motion, and we have what are commonly known as
winds. It is unnecessary for me to prove that the motion of winds can be
transmitted to other matter, as we have numerous examples from our
observation and experience, in the case of windmills driven by the
motive power of the winds, and also balloons urged along by the same
cause; apart from the devastating effect produced in towns and country
by a hurricane or storm.

The point which I wish to emphasize is, that Matter, strictly defined,
is that which can be acted upon by motion, such as heat or electricity,
both being forms of motion, and which can exert the motion so derived
upon some other body.

Wherever, therefore, in the universe we find any body, whether it be
solid, liquid or gaseous, or any medium which can be acted upon by
motion, and after being so acted upon, can exert motion, that body or
medium may legitimately be included in the term Matter, although it may
be absolutely invisible to the eyes, or insensible to the sense of
touch, or taste, or smell. In the same work,[2] Tait states that in the
physical universe there are but two classes of things, "Matter and
Energy," and then goes on to give examples of both. He adds that a
stone, piece of brass, water, air, _aether_, are particles of matter,
while springs, water-power, wind, waves, heat and electric currents are
examples of energy associated with Matter.

Now I may add here, that within these two statements is to be found the
germ of the physical cause of Gravitation, together with the
satisfactory explanation of all phenomena that the universe reveals to
us, either by observation or by experiments. I purpose therefore, before
giving any detailed accounts of that medium which is to form the
physical basis for the cause of Gravitation, to look at the term Matter
in all its aspects, in order that we may get a right conception of the
universe, and of the part that Matter plays in the same.

[Footnote 2: Tait, _Natural Philosophy_.]


ART. 30. _Conservation of Matter._--The Theory of the Indestructibility
of Matter was first introduced by Lavoisier in 1789. This theory may be
thus summed up; that Matter which fills the universe is unchangeable in
quantity, so that the total quantity ever remains the same. Changes may
take place in regard to the state of the Matter, but the sum-total of
Matter throughout all the changes remains unaltered. Thus when we burn
coal, it is changed into carbonic acid by combination with the oxygen of
the atmosphere; when sugar is put into water, it simply passes from the
solid to the liquid condition. If a piece of iron or steel is allowed to
rust, the surface of the iron has entered into combination with the
oxygen and water of the atmosphere, and formed a new substance. So that
a body may change from solid to liquid, as for example from ice to
water, or from liquid to a gaseous condition, as from water to steam,
and probably from a gaseous condition to an aetherial condition as we
shall see later on, but the sum-total of Matter throughout all these
changes ever remains the same. Thus, throughout all the physical and
chemical changes that Matter may undergo in the universe, there is no
actual loss in weight or quantity. Throughout the whole realm of Nature
we do not find a single instance of the production of absolutely new
Matter. We may, and can produce new combinations of the forms of Matter.
The substance so formed by chemical combination may be different from
anything that has ever been seen or produced before, but the elements of
which it is formed must have existed in some other form before its
production.

This principle is the great underlying principle of all chemical
investigation and research, and may be proved at any time by means of
the scales or balance in the laboratory. Lavoisier first made the
experiment with the scales and proved this truth by actual
demonstration.


ART. 31. _Matter is Atomic._--The hypothesis that Matter is made up of
infinitely small particles which are termed atoms, was first proposed by
the Grecian philosophers. This hypothesis has gradually taken definite
shape, but it remained for Dalton to first put the hypothesis into a
connected form, and that form is now known as Dalton's Atomic Theory.

According to this theory, an atom of hydrogen was the lightest atom
known, but comparatively recent researches by Sir W. Crookes have shown
that there are possibly in existence minute particles which are even
lighter than an atom of hydrogen. Thus Sir W. Crookes has suggested that
there are certain particles associated with an atom of hydrogen which
are 700 times less in weight than the atom itself.

Professor J. J. Thompson has further suggested that if we could divide
an atom into a thousand parts, and could take one of those parts, we
should find that this corpuscle, as he has termed it, would be the
carrier of the charges in an electric current, so that it will be seen
that we are moving into the direction of the continuity of Matter. Let
us now look at the question as to what is meant by an atom more fully.


ART. 32. _What is an Atom?_--Clerk Maxwell's definition of an atom is,
"a body that cannot be cut in two." An atom is the smallest part of a
simple substance which can enter into combination with another element,
and is incapable of being further subdivided.

An atom of hydrogen is the smallest part of that particular gas which
can enter into combination with any other element, as oxygen, to form a
chemical compound as water, which is composed of two atoms of hydrogen
and one of oxygen.

Further, an atom of any kind or sort, retains its identity and remains
the same throughout all chemical combinations or physical changes which
it may undergo. By spectroscopic analysis, it has been ascertained, for
example, that hydrogen exists in the sun and stars, and the conclusion
is arrived at in connection therewith, that an atom of hydrogen in any
sun or star is the same as an atom of hydrogen in our atmosphere, or in
any of the compounds, as water, in which it is found. Thus it has come
to be received as an accepted fact, that every atom of any substance, as
oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, whether they exist in the earth or sun,
in meteorites or the farthest stars or nebulae, wherever they are found,
possesses the same identity and the same physical properties.

Atoms attract one another, and this atomic attraction is known as
affinity. There is not the least possible doubt that affinity is a form
of universal attraction, except that the affinity of atoms is selective.
This affinity of atoms for each other gives rise to the combination of
atoms known as molecules and chemical compounds.

_Size of Atoms._--It has been computed by Lord Kelvin and others, that
an atom may be as small as 1/50,000,000 of an inch in diameter, so that
if 50,000,000 of them were put side by side, they would just measure one
inch in length. Atoms are not all of the same size or weight. An atom of
oxygen weighs 16 times as much as an atom of hydrogen. It has been
proved by Kirchhoff and Bunsen, that the 3/1,000,000 part of a
milligramme of sodium chloride is sufficient to give a yellow colour to
a gas-jet. Faraday prepared some sheets of gold, so thin that he
estimated they only measured the 1/100 part of the length of a
light-wave. We have to remember that each sheet of gold must have
contained molecules of gold composed of atoms. What must have been the
size of the atoms therefore of which the sheet was composed?


ART. 33. _The Atomic Theory._--The Atomic Theory was revived by Dalton
in 1804, in order to account for the fact that elements unite in certain
definite proportions. From that time to the present, the theory has
grown and developed until at the present time it is looked upon as a
well-established theory. It is, however, simply a theory, and from the
very nature of the hypothesis is incapable of proof. No one has ever
seen an atom of hydrogen or oxygen, or an atom of any solid, liquid, or
gaseous matter. The Atomic Theory suggests, therefore, that there is a
limit to the divisibility of matter. All chemical experiments lend
support to the theory, and by it we are able to give an intelligible and
easy method of expression to what would otherwise be difficult phenomena
to explain.

Ancient philosophers were divided on the question of the infinite
divisibility of matter. The Epicureans were of the opinion that matter
was incapable of infinite division, and that even if we were able to
make the smallest possible division, it would be impossible for us to
reach the smallest particle termed "Atom."


ART. 34. _Kinds of Atoms._--Various forms of atoms have been conceived
by philosophers from time to time, ranging from the Hard Atom, and the
simple point-centres of Boscovitch, until we come to the more modern
Vortex Atom of Lord Kelvin, or the Strain Atom of Dr. Larmor, which will
be looked at separately. Democritus conceived a hard atom as long ago as
500 B.C., while the notion of a hard atom is not absent from the works
of Newton himself. We find that Newton suggested that the particles of
air might be hard spherical bodies, at a distance from one another of
about nine times their diameter.

The hard atom, however, seems to be refuted by spectroscopic analysis,
which reveals to us in a manner that has never been revealed before,
something of the sizes and vibrations of atoms.

From the phenomenon of heat, which is simply matter in motion, we feel
compelled to accept the fact that an atom is not a hard particle, but
that it is something which is more closely allied to the Vortex Atom, or
the Strain Atom of Dr. Larmor.

_Boscovitch Atom._--According to Boscovitch's theory, each atom is
simply an indivisible point in space capable of motion, and possessing a
certain mass whereby a certain amount of energy is required to produce a
certain change of motion. In addition to this, any two atoms could
attract or repel each other with a force depending upon their distance
apart. The Law which regulates these forces for all distances greater
than 1/1000 of an inch is an attraction varying inversely as the square
of the distance, and a repulsion for less distances.

We have, therefore, to suppose that in place of the hard atom, there is
merely a geometrical point which can exert attractive or repulsive
forces to, or from, the central point. So far as external particles are
concerned, they would behave just the same as a hard atom would do. This
conception was largely entertained in recent times by Faraday. It is
more a mathematical explanation than a physical one, but has been found
convenient in explaining what takes place in the interior of bodies in
their three states, namely: solid, liquid, and gaseous.

_Lord Kelvin's Vortex Atom._--Another hypothesis which has been
suggested for the constitution of an atom, is that known as the Vortex
Atom, which received its birth at the hands of Lord Kelvin. The
underlying principle of this Vortex Atom is, that matter may be entirely
due to the rotating parts of a fundamental medium, the Aether, which
fills all space.

The properties of vortex motion were first mathematically calculated by
Helmholtz, but it was left to Sir Wm. Thompson, now Lord Kelvin, to give
a physical idea of the Vortex Atom.

Before entering further into the question of the Vortex Atom, it may be
as well to explain how vortex smoke rings may be made.

[Illustration: Fig: 3.]

All that is required is a wooden box, about one cubic foot in size, with
a round hole perforated in one of the sides, and the opposite side
covered with a piece of linen in place of the wooden side. The bottom of
the box should then be covered with some strong solution of ammonia, and
some hydrochloric acid poured into a saucer and put into the box. The
combination of these two will cause thick clouds to form in the box, and
if the linen is sharply tapped by the hand, a ring of this cloud will be
forced through the hole on the opposite side of the box. The ring so
formed will be circular in shape, and will go sailing through the room
in which it is made.

When the hole is circular, the rings will be found circular also, but if
the hole is square, then the rings will be irregular in shape. One
remarkable characteristic about these rings is, that when two of the rings
are travelling in the same straight line, the one behind will overtake the
front one, and while so doing, the diameter of the front one is enlarged,
while that of the one behind contracts. The front one will also travel
slower, while the one behind travels faster until it has caught up the
former, and then the latter, having contracted sufficiently, will pass
through the diameter of the former as illustrated in the figure. This
alternation of contraction and expansion is continued as long as the two
rings move in the same plane and until they are destroyed. When, however,
the two rings are moving in opposite directions, and meeting each other in
the same straight line, they will repel one another, instead of attracting
each other.

Their rate of progress is gradually reduced as they approach together,
and they begin to expand and enlarge, but they never touch each other.
Another peculiar feature about the rings consists in the fact, that the
central core of air in the ring remains the same all the time the ring
is in motion through the room, so that it has the same core of air at
the end of its journey as it had when it left the box.

As Lord Kelvin pointed out, if there were no friction of the air, the
ring once created would rotate for ever. If, therefore, there were such
a thing as a perfect fluid, and there were vortex rings in it, nothing
could destroy these rings when once they were created, and this is one
of the most striking suggestions with reference to the Vortex Atom
theory of matter. It remains to be seen whether in the universe we have
such a medium as a perfect fluid.

Sir Wm. Thompson has applied the Vortex Atom theory of matter to the
Aether, but from mathematical calculation he was unable to arrive at a
satisfactory conclusion as to the Aether being composed of vortex atoms.

Another remarkable property belonging to these rings, lies in the fact
that they cannot be cut in two. It will be found that when the knife is
brought near to them, they seem to recoil from the knife. In that sense,
it is literally an atom, a thing which cannot be cut in two.

The Vortex Atom has many recommendations in its favour. Many of the most
important properties of matter are possessed by it, as for example
indestructibility, elasticity, inertia, compressibility, and its
incapability to be cut in two. Further, it may be linked with another
ring, and so give the basis to the combining properties of atomic
weights.

The Vortex Atom theory is simple in character, as it does not postulate
any extravagant hypothesis, but makes use of the Aether as the common
basis for all matter, simply stating that this property of rotation may
be the basis of all that we call matter. We shall further consider the
relation of the Vortex Atom to matter, when we deal with the
constitution of matter and the unity of the universe.


ART. 35. _Elements of Matter._--As is well known, modern chemistry has
succeeded in reducing all the complex forms of matter in Nature into a
number of simple substances, which are called elements. Of these
elements about seventy are at present known, some of which, however, are
very rare. An element therefore is a simple substance which cannot be
decomposed by any known force or process, as heat or electricity, into
other elements.

There are, however, only about fourteen of these elements that enter
largely into the constitution of the earth, the most common being oxygen
and silicon. By the use of the spectroscope, it has been proved that
many of these elements, as for example oxygen, hydrogen, sodium and
calcium, exist in the sun and stars, as well as in the most distant
nebulae. Most of the elementary bodies are to be found in a gaseous form
as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine and chlorine, though it has been found
possible to liquefy even these gases. Thus we see that matter may be
roughly divided into three states, viz. solid, liquid, or gaseous.

The condition in which the substance is found depends upon its
temperature and pressure. An example of matter in its three stages is
best shown in the case of water, where in the solid condition we have it
as ice, in the liquid condition as water, and in the gaseous condition
as steam.

By recent researches it has been found possible to liquefy gases at a
very low temperature and increased pressure, with the result that now
nearly all known gases as hydrogen, oxygen, and carbonic acid are to be
obtained in liquid form. By still more recent experiments made by
Professor Dewar, it has even become possible to liquefy the air we
breathe, with the result that at a temperature of about 270 degrees
below freezing-point and at an increased pressure, the otherwise
invisible and gaseous air may be changed into a liquid, and poured out
from one vessel into another in the same way that water can be poured
out. A vessel, however, at the ordinary temperature into which such
liquid air is poured, would be so hot compared with the coldness of the
liquid air, that as soon as the exceedingly cold liquid air came into
contact with the vessel, the comparatively hot vessel would make the
liquid air to boil.


ART. 36. _Three Divisions of Matter._--Matter has been divided into
three divisions, viz. solid, liquid, and gaseous. These divisions are
each known by characteristic qualities, which separate the one division
from another. At the same time, it is possible for matter to pass from
one division into another, as for example in the case of water, which
may exist in solid, liquid, and gaseous form. In view of the recent
researches of Sir. Wm. Crookes and Professor J. J. Thompson, it is very
probable that before long we shall have to add a fourth division to
matter, which we should have to call ultra-gaseous form, or it may
possibly be the aetherial form. If it should prove to be true that
Aether is matter, and possesses the essential qualities of matter as
suggested by Lord Kelvin, then certainly we shall have reached the
boundary of another great division of matter, and our conception of the
divisions of matter will have to be enlarged to take in that form, so
that matter would then be divided into four great divisions, viz. solid,
liquid, gaseous, and aetherial.

We will now consider the three groups as at present recognized.

_Solid._--Examples of solid bodies are common and familiar, and are
typified by such things as iron, silver, copper, and lead. The chief
characteristic of this condition of matter is that its condition or
state is fixed, and cannot be altered without the expenditure of heat or
electricity or some other form of energy.

All solid elementary substances, with the exception of carbon, can be
melted or reduced to a molten condition, although some of them require a
very high temperature to effect this reduction, as, for example,
platinum. When a still higher temperature is applied, the metals may be
vaporized, or reduced from a molten state to that of a vaporous
condition. In the case of solids, the atoms have not a free path in
which to move. It must not be thought, however, that the atoms of a
solid are motionless, as there is nothing absolutely motionless in the
universe. In the case of the solid, the molecules which compose it,
preserve their relative position and are linked together in relation to
each other by the force of Cohesion.

_Liquid._--When matter is in a liquid condition, as, for example, water
and oil, the condition of its molecules are not so fixed and stable as
they are in the solid state. The molecules can move freely about one
another, and their freedom is increased compared with their condition
when in the solid state.

As already indicated, the reduction of a solid body to a liquid or
molten state may be effected by heat. When heat is applied to a solid
body, several results follow, each of which is the outcome of the other.

1. There is an increase of temperature which is due to the increased
energy of the molecules, through the added heat.

2. There is an enlargement of the volume or size of the body, and if the
addition of heat be continued, the molecular forces which hold the
molecules together are broken down, and then the molecules, loosened
from those forces which in the solid state have bound them together,
begin to move about with greater freedom, and thus give rise to the
molten condition of metals, or liquid condition of water. Thus, it is
the heat which has set the atoms which compose the molecules in motion.
The atoms of the solid have absorbed the heat, and the heat which has
thus been absorbed has imparted vibratory energy to the atoms, which
they did not possess before. Now when a substance is in the liquid
state, the atoms of that substance have not only a vibratory motion, but
have also a translatory motion, so that they can move in and out among
one another. This is proved by the phenomenon of diffusion, where we
have the case of two different-coloured liquids, for example,
intermingling with each other, which is conclusive evidence of the
translatory motion of the atoms in liquids.

_Gaseous._--The third state in which matter is found is the gaseous
state. In this condition, the particles of matter which form the gas
have the greatest possible freedom of movement, and are able to move
about with inconceivable velocity. There is abundant evidence to prove
that gases consist of particles of matter which are perfectly free, and
are able to fly about in all directions. The simplest proof is obtained
by mixing two gases together, as, for example, when any gaseous
substance is allowed to mix with the air of a room, when we find that
the particular gas soon mixes itself thoroughly with all the air in the
room. This process of mixing is known as Diffusion, and the lighter a
gas is, the more quickly does it diffuse itself. The rate of movement of
the various particles is varied, by reason of the encounters which each
particle undergoes from time to time. Through experiments made by Joule,
he arrived at the conclusion that particles of hydrogen attained a
velocity of 6055 feet per second at 0° C., which is a velocity much
greater than that of a cannon-ball. In spite of the enormous velocity
with which a particle of hydrogen would move, there are such a large
number of particles in a single cubic inch of space, that no one
particle has an absolutely free path from the one side of the enclosed
space to the other. To this constant movement of the individual
particles is due the elasticity or pressure of gases. The outward
pressure which they exert on any body which encloses the gas is caused
by the total effect of the impact of the particles, and is proportional
to the sum of their masses multiplied into the square of their
velocities. If we halve the enclosed space, then we should double the
number of impacts in a given time, so that the number of impacts is
inversely as the volume of the gas. This is equivalent to the statement,
that the pressure of a gas varies inversely as its volume, which is
Boyle and Marriotte's Law.


ART. 37. _Matter is Gravitative._--If there is one property which is
essentially characteristic to all matter, it is that all matter is
gravitative. To this rule there is no exception, as the universal Law of
Attraction states that "every particle of matter attracts every other
particle." Thus, wherever in the whole universe there is a particle of
matter of any kind or sort, whether such matter be solid, liquid, or
gaseous, there the force of attraction will be exerted with a force
proportionate to the mass of the particle, and inversely as the square
of the distance between the attracted particles.

Gravitation, then, is a property which is essentially inherent in
matter, and any substance which is termed matter, or fulfils the
conditions that govern matter, must be gravitative, whatever other
property it may, or may not, possess. Unless this be so, we should have
a violation of the universal Law of Gravitation, which would cease at
once to be a universal law, for instead of reading "every particle of
matter attracts every other particle," we should have to say that "some
particles of matter attract some other particles," which would be a
violation of that universal law which, through the genius of Newton, has
given to the universe an unity from the philosophical standpoint that it
did not possess before.

Some matter may, or may not be elastic; it may, or may not be solid, or
liquid, or gaseous; but there is this fact regarding matter which is
absolutely undeniable, and that is, "All matter is gravitative."

That this is true of each and all kinds of matter has been proved by
direct experiment times without number, and the constant application of
the law to all forms of matter is a fact observable from the phenomena
incidental to every-day life. Astronomical observation teaches us also,
that all stars, suns, planets, satellites, and comets are subject to
this great Law of Gravitation, as indeed they must be if they are
composed of matter. That they are all composed of exactly similar
elements of which the earth is composed, has been proved again and again
by spectroscopic analysis, which teaches that hydrogen, iron, and
calcium, etc., are to be found in distant stars and nebulae, as they are
equally to be found in the composition of the earth. Thus throughout the
wide universe so far as observation and experiment can teach us, we
learn that without any exception, everything that is termed matter is
subject to this universal Law of Gravitation.


ART. 38. _Matter possesses Density._--Density is that property of matter
which decides the weight of a body per unit of volume.

The density of any substance may be shown in several ways. It may
denote, first of all, the number of molecules in a given body. Let us
take as an illustration, the case of air being forced into a vessel of a
given size, say one cubic foot capacity. We will suppose that in such a
vessel there are 1,000,000 molecules. If we pump in a quantity of air
equal to the amount it contained at first, then it is obvious that we
have doubled the number of molecules in the same vessel, and therefore
we say we have doubled the density. Not only so, but the weight of the
air in the vessel will have been doubled. Looked at from this
standpoint, density means the number of molecules in unit volume such as
a cubic inch, or cubic centimetre.

Again, as has already been shown in Art. 35, the different elements have
different atomic weights. Thus an atom of carbon weighs twelve times as
much as an atom of hydrogen, that is to say, there are twelve times as
much matter by weight in an atom of carbon as there is in an atom of
hydrogen, so that it would take twelve times as many hydrogen atoms to
weigh a pound as compared with the number of atoms of carbon. This is
only another way of stating that carbon has twelve times the density of
hydrogen. If we compare lead and silver with hydrogen in the same way,
we find that the density is 206 times and 107 times greater than that of
hydrogen.

Thus, it may be seen, that all matter possesses density, and that that
density depends partly upon its atomic constitution. If the molecule of
matter is composed of atoms whose atomic weights are very large compared
with that of hydrogen, as iron, silver, lead and gold, then the
molecules will have a much greater density, than a molecule formed of
oxygen and hydrogen, _i. e._ water. This property of the density of
matter plays a most important part in the transmission of any kind of
wave-motion.


ART. 39. _Matter possesses Elasticity._--Matter possesses elasticity.
Elasticity is that property of matter which enables all bodies to resume
their original shape, when the pressure which has caused the alteration
of shape has been removed.

For example, suppose an ivory ball be dropped upon a marble table, or
any other hard surface. It will then rebound, and rise almost to the
same height from which it was dropped. If the surface upon which it fell
was first covered with blacklead, a circular spot of lead will be found
on the ivory ball. From this fact, we arrive at the conclusion that when
the ball came into contact with the table, at the moment of contact it
was flattened, and then owing to its elasticity it rebounded into the
air again.

Now the measure of the elasticity of a body is proportionate to the
velocity of the wave-motion which it can transmit. A good illustration
of the transmission of wave-motion may be shown with a number of ivory
bagatelle or billiard balls. If eight or more of these be put in a row,
all touching each other, and a single ball be placed about an inch or so
away from the others in a straight line with them, then when the single
ball is struck with a cue against the other eight, the motion of the
single ball is transmitted by each one of the eight successively with
such rapidity, that the end ball would be set in motion in a quicker
time than a single ball would take to reach the end ball, if it had been
free to move along without encountering any opposition.

It is a fact capable of demonstration, that the smaller the particle of
matter, the greater will be its vibratory motion. Thus the particles of
air are very, very small, and consequently air is found to be very
elastic, and allows sound to be transmitted through it with
comparatively great velocity, some sounds travelling at the rate of over
1000 feet per second.

A most important factor in determining the propagation of any
wave-motion, through a gas or solid, is the relationship of the
elasticity of the gas or solid to its density. Suffice to say, that the
velocity of any wave-motion is determined by the relation of the
elasticity to the density. For example, sound, which is a wave-motion of
the air, can not only be transmitted through gaseous bodies as air, but
also through liquids and solids. Sound travels faster through solids
than through liquids, and faster through liquids than through gases. In
liquids, the relation of the elasticity to density is greater than in
air, and in solids the relation is greater still. Therefore sound
travels much faster in liquids than in gases, and faster in solids than
in liquids.

This is the reason why a train can be heard coming if the ear is put to
the railway-line, when no indication of its approach is given to the ear
by the atmosphere. Some examples of the velocities of sound through
different substances are as follows--

      Gases O. C.             Liquids.                         Solids.
         FEET                   FEET                            FEET

  Air    1090 per sec.  Water   4708 per sec. (8° C.).   Gold   5717 per sec.
  Oxygen 1040  "   "    Alcohol 4218  "   "   (20° C.).  Silver 8553  "   "


ART. 40. _Matter possesses Inertia._--Inertia is that property of
matter, by which matter cannot of itself alter, or change its state of
motion, or of rest.

Newton's first law of motion states that a body at rest remains at rest
until some force or motion acts upon it. If a stone be dropped from a
balloon, the stone does not fall because of any property which it
possesses, but because the force of gravity acts upon it. If it were
possible to eliminate this force of gravity, then if there were no other
force which could act upon the stone, it would remain suspended in
space.

The inertia of a body is equal to the mass of that body, or the amount
of matter in the body as measured by gravity, so that if a body is
halved, its inertia will be halved also, and if doubled, its inertia
will be doubled also. As the inertia of matter opposes all kinds of
motion, the amount of force required to overcome the inertia of a body
is proportionate to its mass. So that if the mass of a body is doubled,
then twice the force would be required to move it, while if the body
were halved, half the force would suffice to do it.

Inertia is possessed quite as much by a moving body as a body at rest.
The definition given points this out, as it states that matter cannot of
itself change its state of motion. If a body therefore is in motion, it
requires a certain amount of resistance to bring the body to a state of
rest, or the loss of an equal amount of energy, by friction or
otherwise, equal to the quantity which it absorbed in order for it to be
set in motion.

We get numerous examples of this property of the inertia of bodies in
our daily experience. Many of the accidents that befall people in
various ways are due to this property of the inertia of matter. A
cyclist is riding a machine down-hill, and loses control over his
machine, with the result that he runs into a wall, and is killed. Now
what has happened? The cyclist has participated in the motion of the
machine, with the result that when the machine has been suddenly
stopped, the body has been thrown forward owing to the momentum it had
acquired.

We are constantly being affected by the property of inertia of matter,
in tram and train and bus. Whenever any of these are suddenly stopped,
or suddenly started, we are thrown either backward or forward, owing to
the body either not having acquired the motion of the train, or, having
acquired it, is unable to lose its motion as quickly as the train, and
is therefore thrown forward.



                               CHAPTER IV

                             AETHER IS MATTER


ART. 42. _Aether is Matter._--The hypothesis of an Aether which fills
all space was made in order that scientists might be able to account for
certain phenomena of Light, which otherwise were difficult to account
for. Its existence is demanded not only for the phenomena of Light, and
Heat, but, in view of the comparatively recent researches of Hertz on
"Electric Waves," of Electricity also.

The Aetherial Medium is generally assumed to be that fundamental medium,
by means of which possibly all the properties of matter, and all the
phenomena of motion of the universe are to be explained. Light and Heat
have been proved to be due to the periodic wave-motion of this universal
Aether, while from the investigations and researches of such men as
Clerk Maxwell, Poynting, Thompson and Hertz, it has been proved that
electro-magnetic phenomena are due to this same medium.

Several different forms of Aether have been postulated by various
philosophers from time to time, but the only Aether that has survived,
is that which was first conceived by Huyghens to explain the phenomena
of Light, though it was Thomas Young who finally succeeded in placing
the conception of the Aether on a sound basis. Each discovery of science
has only strengthened the hypothesis and existence of the Aether, the
latest discovery, that of wireless telegraphy so successfully developed
by Signor Marconi, being attributed to the electro-magnetic properties
of this self-same Aether.

It has already been pointed out that Newton endeavoured to account for
Gravitation by the pressure of the Aether. If, therefore, Gravitation be
really due to this universal medium it becomes necessary to ask
ourselves, What are the properties and characteristic qualities of this
wonderful medium? What then is Aether, and what its properties?

It has already been pointed out in Art. 29 that Aether is matter. Such
an assumption is strictly in accordance with the Rules of Philosophy,
quoted in Chap. I.

Not only is this hypothesis a simple one, but it is also in accord with
all our experience and observation.

It is a simple supposition, because, unless Aether is assumed to be
matter, then, instead of the universe being composed of two classes of
things, matter and motion, we have to add a third class, which we call
Aether. It can be readily seen, that by the introduction of a third
class into the composition of the universe, such an addition, instead of
simplifying the constitution of the universe, adds greater complexity to
the same.

By accepting the hypothesis that Aether is matter, we do away with the
third class of essentials in the universe, and so reduce the number to
two classes. If we could go one step further, and prove that instead of
there being two classes of things in the universe, there was only one
group, and show that all material things, and all phenomena could come
under the head of either matter, or motion, then we should have reduced
the universe to the simplest conception possible. As, however, it is not
possible, at least in our present state of knowledge, for us to come to
this fundamental and simple hypothesis of unity for the entire universe,
we must accept the next simpler solution, and affirm that the universe
is composed of two classes of things, viz. matter and motion, and this
as I have already shown is a simpler classification than by putting
Aether into a class by itself, and therefore is in accord with our first
Rule of Philosophy.

Again, it is entirely in accord with our second Rule of Philosophy, as
it in no way violates the results of experiment, experience, or
observation. Look where we will, or at what we will, whatever we see,
touch, taste, or smell is termed matter. The burning sun, the glowing
star, the flying meteor, the glowing comet, the earth, our own island
home, the towering rock, the wide ocean, the running river, the green
trees of the forest, the tiny insect, the lordly elephant, all animals,
plants, and our own physical body, all are composed of matter, either in
solid, liquid or gaseous form. Therefore when we affirm that Aether is
matter, the affirmation is strictly in accordance with the elementary
principles of Philosophy, and in no way violates their rules or laws. To
affirm that Aether is not matter, is to affirm something contrary to all
experience, unless it be affirmed that Aether is motion, for which
assumption the evidence is not nearly so strong or conclusive as that it
is matter. Therefore the objector to this assumption is himself
unphilosophical, in that he postulates or supposes that the Aether is a
medium, with qualities which lie altogether outside the range of our
experience and observation.

There is a growing conviction in the minds of scientific men, that
Aether belongs to that group of things which we describe by the term
matter. Lord Kelvin in giving an address to the British Association,
1901, on "Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the
Universe," said: "We are all convinced with our President (Professor
Rucker) that _Aether is Matter_. Aether we relegate to a distinct
species of matter which has inertia, rigidity, elasticity,
compressibility, but not heaviness."

Dr. Larmor in _Aether and Matter_ writes: "Matter must be constituted of
isolated portions, each of which is of necessity a permanent nucleus
belonging to the Aether, of some such type as is represented for example
by a minute vortex ring in a perfect fluid."

Faraday in relation to this subject writes (_Exp. Res._, vol. ii.): "The
view now stated of the composition of matter would seem to involve the
conclusion that matter fills all space, or at least all space to which
Gravitation extends, _including the sun and its system_, for Gravitation
is a property of matter dependable on a certain Force, and it is this
Force which constitutes matter." As the Aether fills all space,
including the solar system, therefore, according to Faraday, "Aether
must also be Matter."

By the hypothesis that Aether is matter, with all the properties that
such a hypothesis logically gives to Aether, I venture to premise that
the third Rule of Philosophy will be fulfilled, and that there is no
phenomenon of the astronomical world, and no part of the universal Law
of Gravitation which such a hypothesis will fail to account for on a
satisfactory physical basis. For the first time a physical explanation
will be given to Newton's Laws of Motion, at least to those laws which
are strictly in accordance with the first and second Rules of
Philosophy. For the first time a physical conception will be given to
all Kepler's Laws, and what the mathematical Laws of Gravitation have
done to Kepler's Laws, in giving them a mathematical basis, the simple
hypothesis that Aether is matter, with all that is logically involved
therein, will do for the same laws from the physical standpoint. For the
first time a physical conception will be given to the Centrifugal and
Centripetal Forces, which are the complement and the counterpart of each
other, that physical conception being the outcome of the same hypothesis
that Aether is matter.

In addition to this, light is thrown upon such problems as are referred
to by Lord Kelvin (_Phil. Mag._, July 1902) in his paper on "Clouds on
the Undulatory Theory of Light," and further light is given to some
theories of Electricity advanced by such men as Faraday, Clerk Maxwell,
and Professor Thompson. I venture to think, therefore, that the
hypothesis advanced, and the conception put forward that Aether is
matter, is philosophically correct, and is warranted by the results that
arise out of such a hypothesis.

It may be thought by some that the hypothesis that I have advanced is
already conceded, and that the fact that Aether is matter is already
admitted by scientists and advanced thinkers generally. But such an idea
is only partly correct. It is already admitted by some of our most
advanced scientists that Aether is matter, but that admission is only
carried partially to its logical conclusion.

Lord Kelvin in an address to the British Association, 1901, gave
utterance to the following remarks on the relation of Aether to Matter:
"We are convinced with our President (Professor Rucker) that Aether is
Matter, but we are forced to say that the properties of Matter are not
to be looked for in Aether, as generally known to us by action resulting
from force between atoms of Matter and atoms of Aether. _Here I am_
ILLOGICAL _when I say between Matter and Aether_, as if Aether were not
Matter. Aether we relegate to a distinct species of Matter which has
inertia, rigidity, elasticity, compressibility, but NOT HEAVINESS."

From a quotation of this kind, which is from the lips of one of the
keenest intellects of the present time, I think I am justified when I
make the statement, that it is not conceded that Aether is matter, with
all that that concession logically involves. Because, as Lord Kelvin
points out, though it is admitted that Aether is matter, yet that
admission is only a qualified admission, and not one which carries with
it all the properties that essentially belong to matter, or an admission
which includes the fact that Aether is gravitative, that is, subject to
Gravitation. To be strictly logical and philosophical, in the statement
that Aether is matter, it must be conceded not only that Aether is
subject to such properties as elasticity, inertia, and compressibility,
but that it is also gravitative or possesses weight. For either Aether
is matter, or it is not matter.

It cannot be both at one and the same time. Such a conception is
altogether opposed to that simplicity which is the chief characteristic
of Nature as pointed out by Newton.

If therefore Aether be matter, then, to be strictly logical and
philosophical, it must be conceded that Aether is gravitative, as well
as having the other properties of matter, as elasticity and inertia,
etc. Unless this is conceded, then we have the anomaly in Nature of
matter, which is not matter, because it violates the very principles
which above all others decide what is matter, viz., "That every particle
of matter attracts every other particle," etc., that is, that it is
gravitative. Thus by supposing that the Aether is matter, and yet not
being gravitative, all the Rules of Philosophy are violated, as such a
hypothesis is opposed to both the first and second Rules of Philosophy,
and is contrary to all observation and experience. If Aether therefore
be matter, as is conceded by the most advanced thinkers of the time,
then it follows that the only logical and philosophical conclusion that
can be arrived at is, that it is also subject to those properties which
are the chief characteristics of all matter. These properties may be
classified as follows: atomicity, gravitation, density, elasticity,
inertia, and compressibility.


ART. 43. _Aether is Universal._--Young in his first Hypothesis on the
Aether medium states that, "A Luminiferous Aether pervades the Universe
rare and elastic in a high degree" (_Phil. Tran._, 1802).

As Young points out, this invisible and elastic Aether fills all space
and floods the universe at large. In it suns blaze, stars shine, worlds
and planets roll, meteors flash, and comets rush in their mysterious
flight. In it all material and physical things exist, for it is to them
not only the primary medium of their existence, but, just as the
infinite and ever-active energy of the Divine is to the universe in its
entirety and fulness, the exciting and stimulating spirit of its
energies and powers, so this aetherial ocean is to the material and
physical universe, the exciting and stimulating medium of all its
activities, energies, and powers; and without which, though all material
and physical things were endowed with the varied capacities of their
kind or life, yet they could neither exert nor exercise them, nor even
exhibit the simple activity of motion. Hence everywhere, where material
and physical things are, there, as the medium of their existence and
energy, the Aether is; and where the Aether is not, no material or
physical thing is, or can be. That the Aether is universal is proved by
the phenomena of light. Light-waves have a velocity of about 186,000
miles per second. Now the distance of the sun from the earth is about
92,000,000 of miles, so that light takes about eight minutes and a half
to travel from the sun to the earth.

A ray of light from the nearest fixed star takes about three and a half
years to reach the earth, while there are some stars so far away that
astronomers tell us, that though light travels with so great a velocity,
yet it would take several thousand years to reach the earth. This fact
implies that throughout boundless space there is to be found this
aetherial medium. Thus interplanetary and interstellar space is not
empty, but is filled with this ever-present, all-pervading Aether; and
not only so, but every particle of matter in the universe is surrounded
by this universal Aether, which forms the exciting and stimulating
medium of all the activities, energies, and motions of all Matter. Thus
the Aether is both universal and infinite in its extent.

Clerk Maxwell, in his paper on "Action at a Distance" (_Collected
Works_, by Niven), with reference to the universality of the Aether,
writes: "The vast interplanetary and interstellar regions will no longer
be regarded as waste places in the universe, which the Creator has not
seen fit to fill with the symbols of the manifold order of His Kingdom.
We shall find them to be full of this wonderful medium, so full, that no
human power can remove it from the smallest portion of space, or
produce the slightest flaw in its infinite continuity. It extends
unbroken from star to star, and when a molecule of hydrogen vibrates in
the Dog Star, the medium receives the impulses of those vibrations, and
transmits them to distant worlds. But the medium has other functions
besides bearing light from world to world, and giving evidence of the
absolute unity of the material system of the universe. Its minute parts
may have rotatory as well as vibratory motions, and the axes of rotation
form those lines of magnetic force which extend in unbroken continuity
into regions which no eye has seen, and which, by their action on our
magnets, are telling us in language not yet interpreted what is going on
in the hidden world from century to century." Now I premise, that in the
theory of the Aether to be submitted in this work, the physical
interpretation of this statement of Maxwell's will receive its literal
fulfilment.


ART. 44. _Aether is Atomic._--If there is one fundamental truth which is
applicable to all matter, it is, that all matter is atomic.

Professor Rucker, in his Presidential Address to the British Association
of 1901, in dealing with this question, said: "The believer in the
atomic theory asserts that matter exists in a particular state, that it
consists of parts which are separate and distinct from one another, and
as such are capable of independent movement. It is certain that matter
consists of discrete parts in a state of motion, which can penetrate
into spaces between the corresponding parts of surrounding bodies. Every
great advance in chemical knowledge during the last ninety years finds
its interpretation in Dalton's Atomic Theory."

From such an authority as this, and from the facts which he gave in his
dealing with the question, we are bound to admit that all matter is
atomic. That being granted, when the statement is made, therefore, that
Aether is matter, the only logical conclusion that can be arrived at,
with reference to the question of the atomicity of the Aether, is, that
Aether is also atomic. Unless this be conceded, we have the first and
second rules of our Philosophy violated, as an atomless Aether is
opposed to that simplicity of conception, which is an essential
requirement of all hypotheses, and is moreover contrary to that
presumptive evidence gathered from observation and experiment, which
teaches us that all matter is atomic. If it be argued, that it is
impossible to decide upon a question as to the atomicity of the Aether,
my reply is that the same argument may reasonably be applied to all
matter. But, as Professor Rucker stated, all the evidence on matter
points out and supports the theory of its atomicity, and, therefore, the
only logical and philosophical conclusion is, that Aether is atomic
also. Again, it may be suggested that we cannot see or touch an atom of
Aether, and that it is not only invisible, but apparently incapable of
being made sensible to our senses. In reply to that, as I have already
shown in Art. 31, that objection can be equally used against an atom of
hydrogen, or an atom of oxygen. Does any one doubt the existence of the
hydrogen atom or the atom of oxygen, because it is invisible to the
sense of sight, or cannot be revealed to the limited sense of touch?
Certainly not! By the same reasoning, it is just as illogical to deny
the existence of an atom of Aether because it cannot be seen or felt, as
it is to deny the existence of an atom of hydrogen or oxygen. An atom of
Aether reveals itself to the senses in the same way that an atom of
hydrogen or oxygen does, that is, by the force or energy which it
exerts. Its vibrations can be manifested to the body in the form of
heat, while the undulatory motion which the aetherial atoms transmit in
the form of light, reveal the presence of the aetherial atom to the
sense of sight. The question at once arises as to what constitutes an
aetherial atom, what are its properties and motions?

Now, in order for us to enter successfully into this speculative region,
it is essential that we should, as far as possible, conform to the Rules
of Philosophy, and endeavour to gain some conception of an aetherial
atom from the results of experience and observation. In doing this, we
are at once confronted with the difficulty, that no one has ever seen an
atom, or analyzed the properties of one. Actual experiment has revealed
nothing absolutely certain as to the ultimate character of an atom, and
if this be true of the atoms of matter, then it must also be true of an
aetherial atom. It would seem at first, therefore, that we have no
results of experiment, or observation, by which we may be guided in
formulating a right conception as to the constitution of an aetherial
atom, and therefore we are thrown simply into the regions of speculation
as to its constitution and properties.

But I venture to suggest, that there is a method which is strictly
philosophical in its application, by which we may possibly arrive at a
clear conception of an aetherial atom. All great discoveries of science
have been the outcome of applying the principle, that what is true of
the visible and seen, is true of the invisible and unseen; that what is
true of the known, is true of the unknown; that the principles and laws
which govern the small also govern the large and the great. It was thus
that Newton discovered his great Law of Gravitation, as he was able from
the falling of an apple, to rise to the application of the same
principle to our satellite the moon, and this led him on to the
discovery of the Law of Gravitation.

If, therefore, in Philosophy, the laws governing the small things are
also applicable to the great things, then the converse equally holds
good, that the laws governing great things are the reflex of the laws
which govern the small things. For example, the laws which govern the
light and heat of the sun are the same which govern the light and heat
of a candle or a glow-worm; and the laws which govern a planet or world
are the same as those which govern an atom. Thus a planet or world,
which is simply an agglomeration of atoms, may reveal to us in its
motions and laws, what are the motions and laws which govern the atomic
world.

In looking at the properties and motions of a planet, therefore, as our
earth for example, we find that a planet is a sphere, or more correctly
an oblate spheroid; that the earth or planet is a magnet possessing
polarity, having a north and south pole; that it has rotation on an
axis, in addition to translation in an orbit, and that it is subject to
the universal Law of Gravitation.

If, therefore, it holds good in Philosophy, that the small things are
the index to the greater, and that the laws governing the small things
also govern the greater, then the converse holds good, that what is true
of the large is true of the small, and that the laws governing the great
also govern the small.

So that gathering up those chief properties of the earth to which I have
already referred, and applying them to an aetherial atom, or any other
atom if necessary, we arrive at the conclusion that an atom must be
spherical in shape, must possess rotation, and must have an orbit, must
possess polarity, and also be subject to the universal Law of
Gravitation.

Here, then, we have given to us certain data by which we are enabled to
form our conception of an atom, aetherial or otherwise. The question
arises, whether, among the forms of atoms which have been devised by
scientists, any of the atoms so conceived fulfil all, or nearly all of
these requirements. We have Boscovitch's Atom, the Hard Atom of
Lucretius, and the more recent conception of the Vortex Atom of Lord
Kelvin. Of all the hypotheses in regard to the ultimate nature and
constitution of an atom, the Vortex Theory probably is the one which
offers to the mind the simplest conception of an aetherial atom.

The Vortex Ring Atom, however, which has been so fully developed by Lord
Kelvin, hardly fulfils all the requirements of an aetherial atom. In the
first place it is not spherical in shape, and I hold that to be one of
the fundamental bases of the aetherial atom. Then, in the next place it
does not, so far as I can read, possess polarity; that is, it does not
possess a north and south pole, through being a magnet in the same way
as the earth is a magnet. We must therefore look for a modification of
the vortex ring to discover the constitution of our aetherial atom, and
I venture to think that such a modification is to be found in Professor
Hill's conception of a Spherical Vortex Atom (_Phil. Trans._, 1894).

In the conception there put forward, and mathematically worked out,
Professor Hill showed that his spherical vortex atom possessed similar
properties and characteristics to the vortex rings of Lord Kelvin. So
that the spherical vortex atom would possess rotation on an axis, and it
would be a magnet, as I shall prove later on, because it rotates in an
electro-magnetic medium. It would possess elasticity, compressibility,
inertia, and, further, would possess a certain amount of mass. That mass
might be infinitely small, but nevertheless it would possess mass of an
infinitesimal order.

Further, if we are to be strictly correct, in our analogy between the
earth and the aetherial atom, its polar diameter must be shorter than
its equatorial diameter, as that is one of the facts observable
regarding the shape of our earth, so that the shape of the aetherial
atom will not be strictly spherical, but its actual shape would be that
of an oblate spheroid, being flatter at the poles, and bulging out in
the equatorial regions.

This exact analogy between the earth and an aetherial atom may not at
present seem of very great importance, but its importance will be seen
later on, when we come to deal with the phenomena of heat, light, and
electricity.

Here, then, is our conception of an aetherial atom in the rough, based
not upon any imaginative hypothesis, but rather upon that strict
conformity to observation and experience, which is the very groundwork
of all true Philosophy.

For, after all, what is the earth but an atom on a large scale? In
comparison with illimitable space, with its infinite distances, that can
alone be measured by the velocity of light, our own earth is but a speck
of dust, a very atom that helps to make up the universe, and, as such,
should teach us the shape and properties of other atoms of which the
same universe is composed.

We have therefore to conceive of the all-space-pervading Aether as being
composed of infinitesimal portions of Aether, which are nearly spherical
in shape, and ever in a state of rotation; this state of rotation
differentiating the atom of Aether from the free Aether, if such an
entity exists. So that an atom of Aether would simply be an
infinitesimal portion of the Aether in a state of rotation.

If, by any means, we could stop the rotation, we should at once destroy
the atom, in the same way that the smoke vortex ring would cease to be a
ring, if its rotation were stopped. The cessation of the rotation I,
however, believe to be impossible. So that even in the ultimate atom of
that universal medium the Aether, we have an illustration of the
combination of those two forms which are inseparably connected
throughout the whole universe, viz. matter and motion, and it is the
combination of these two that gives to the aetherial atom its form, and
its very existence, without which it has no life, and ceases to exist.

It may be necessary in the development of this work as we proceed, to
slightly modify our conception of the aetherial atom, but that
modification will rather be of a constructive character, than a
destructive one. There may also be certain objections to meet and
explain away when we deal with the phenomena of light, heat, and
electricity, and Gravitation, and the part which the aetherial atom
plays in those phenomena, but these objections I hope to meet and answer
as they arise.

The atomicity of the Aether has already been suggested by such
scientists as Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, Dr. Larmor, and Professors
Lodge and J. J. Thompson. Clerk Maxwell, in an article on "Action at a
Distance,"[3] referring to the atomicity of the Aether, writes: "Its
minute parts may have rotatory as well as vibratory motions, and the
axes of rotation may form those lines of magnetic force which extend in
unbroken continuity into regions which no eye has seen." I premise that
I will conclusively prove that this statement finds its literal
fulfilment in the theory of the Aether that will be developed in this
work.

Lord Kelvin, in several articles on "Vortex Motion" in the Philosophical
Magazines of recent years, has mathematically dealt with the Aether from
the atomic standpoint, and has endeavoured to prove that the Aether
medium is composed of vortex rings, but he was unable to come to any
satisfactory conclusion. With the theory that Aether is matter, and
therefore possesses mass, his conception is now brought within the range
of physical explanation, as well as mathematical calculation.

Dr. Larmor, in his _Aether and Matter_, has successfully applied the
principle of the atomicity to the Aether, on what is termed the
"Electron" basis. He states that an electron is nothing more or less
than "a point singularity in the electro-dynamic and optical Aether." So
that our aetherial atom is practically synonymous with Dr. Larmor's
electron. Again, Dr. Larmor, in the same work, states that "the
atomicity of electricity is coming within the scope of direct
experiment."[4] But Professor Lodge, in his _Modern Views of
Electricity_, states that "the Aether is composed of positive and
negative electricity, the combination of these two forming the Aether
medium."[5] Now, if the Aether is composed of positive and negative
electricity, and the atomicity of electricity is coming within the scope
of direct experiment, it follows as a matter of necessity that the
atomicity of Aether and the atomicity of electricity are one and the
same, and therefore the atomicity of Aether is coming within the scope
of direct experiment. Professor J. J. Thompson, who has also attacked
the problem of the atomicity of electricity, speaks of "corpuscles"
which are the actual carriers of the positive and negative electricity,
in the atoms of the various elements. These corpuscles therefore
indicate the fact that electricity has an atomic basis.

Now if there is any such identity between Aether and electricity, as
there undoubtedly is, and electricity has an atomic basis, then the
atomicity of the Aether follows as a matter of course, otherwise we
shall have a medium composed of atoms which is itself not atomic, which
conclusion is absurd and therefore unphilosophical. So that the most
recent researches into electricity confirm and establish the atomicity
of the Aether.

[Footnote 3: _Collected Works_, by Niven.]

[Footnote 4: Preface to _Aether and Matter_.]

[Footnote 5: Page 348.]


ART. 45. _Aether is Gravitative._--Young, in the _Philosophical Trans._
of 1802, in regard to this question, states in his Fourth Hypothesis:
"All material bodies have an attraction for the aetherial medium, by
means of which it is accumulated within their substance, and for a small
distance around them, in a state of greater density, but not greater
elasticity." He adds that "this fourth hypothesis is opposed to that of
Newton's."

Scientific research has justified the conception of his first three
hypotheses with respect to the universality, elasticity and vibrations
of the aetherial medium, but up to the present I am not aware that
science has accepted his fourth hypothesis.

I propose to show how, from a strictly philosophical and logical
standpoint, his fourth hypothesis is just as true as his first three
hypotheses, and that it henceforth passes out of the realm of the
hypothetical into the realms of fact and science, not only by
philosophical reasoning, but by actual experiment made by some of the
most advanced scientists of the present time.

Let us consider the question first from the standpoint of the Rules of
Philosophy. Our first Rule of Philosophy states, that any hypothesis
must be simple in connection. Now I put it to any intelligent man, and
ask him which is the simpler conception of Aether? To affirm that Aether
is matter, and therefore subject to the properties of matter, as
elasticity, density, inertia and Gravitation, or to affirm that Aether
is matter, but while it is subject to some of the properties of matter,
as elasticity, density and inertia, it is not subject to the very
property which of all properties is the most fundamental, viz.
Gravitation. There can, in my opinion, only be one answer to the
question, so that, when we affirm that Aether is matter, we are
compelled to affirm, in order to conform to the first Rule of
Philosophy, that it is gravitative also. Faraday was also of the opinion
that Aether was subject to the Law of Gravity, for, writing in
_Experimental Researches_, he states: "The view now stated of the
constitution of matter, would seem to involve the conclusion, that
matter fills all space, or at least all space to which Gravitation
extends, INCLUDING THE SUN AND ITS SYSTEM. For Gravitation is a property
of matter, dependable on a certain force, and it is this force which
constitutes matter."

Let us also test the question by our second Rule of Philosophy, and we
shall find greater evidence still for the statement that Aether is
gravitative. What do experience and observation teach us with reference
to matter? As we have already seen (Art. 37), if there is one truth that
they teach us regarding matter, it is that it is gravitative.

There is not the slightest evidence throughout the universe, as far as
our observation can lead us to form an opinion, that there is any kind
of matter which is not subject to the Law of Gravitation. Therefore to
assume that Aether is matter, and yet not to assume that it is also
subject to Gravitation, is to assume that which is directly opposed to
the most fundamental principle of all philosophical teaching and
scientific research. If Aether be matter, therefore, and yet is not
gravitative, we shall have an anomaly in an otherwise universal law, as
we shall have some kind of matter which fails to come within the scope
of the universal Law of Gravitation.

To be consistent, therefore, we must either cease to call Aether matter,
or else admit that Aether, like all other matter, is gravitative. It is
absolutely impossible to be strictly logical and admit that Aether is
matter, and not to admit that it is subject to the most universal law
that governs matter, as the Law of Gravitation distinctly states that
"every particle or atom of matter attracts every other particle." This
universal law in view of a gravitationless Aether would have to be
amended to "Some particles of matter attract some other particles." Thus
the universal Law of Gravitation ceases at once to be a universal law,
and such a result is opposed to all experience and experiment. Again,
let us apply our third Rule of Philosophy to this supposed
gravitationless Aether, and see what the result is.

Our third rule states, that any hypothesis put forward must satisfactorily
account for the phenomena sought to be explained and accounted for. The
Aether was conceived in order to explain the phenomena of light, and one
of the properties it was conceived to possess was elasticity, yet that
very conception was devoid of the most fundamental property of matter,
without which there is no elasticity, that is, that it was not atomic.

I have already shown in Art. 44, that Aether is atomic, and therefore
there is given to the Aether a structure which is capable of exhibiting
elasticity, inertia, density, and even Gravitation, while at the same
time, the conception is fully in harmony with philosophical reasoning
and Newton's Rules of Philosophy.

Let us consider the question whether Aether is, or is not gravitative,
from another aspect. For several hundred years, the physical cause of
Gravitation has been outstanding, while the world has held the
conception that Aether is a gravitationless and frictionless medium. The
earth has been rolling on in her orbit year in, year out, together with
all the other planets in their annual march round the sun, and yet
through all that time no one has been able to suggest, or give any
satisfactory or adequate physical explanation, as to what moves the
earth along.

I am fully aware that Newton suggested and proved, that it was because
of the Law of Gravitation. But I look upon that as a mathematical
explanation and not as a physical one.

Now I venture to predict this, that on the assumption of a
gravitationless medium, the physical explanation so longed for will
always be outstanding, as a gravitationless Aether is synonymous with a
frictionless medium, and so long as we admit that there is a
frictionless medium, so long will the physical cause of Gravitation, and
therefore the physical cause of all the movements of the planets and
comets, be outstanding and unexplained.

If, however, instead of being illogical in our reasoning, we become
logical, and affirm that Aether is matter, and because all matter is
gravitative, therefore Aether is gravitative; and if, instead of being
unphilosophical, we become philosophical, and affirm that because a
gravitationless Aether violates both the first and second Rules of
Philosophy, such a conception must be put away, and in its place a more
philosophical conception must be forthcoming, which is that Aether is
gravitative; then, upon such a logical and philosophical basis, I
venture to premise that the great problem which is still outstanding of
the cause of Gravitation, will remain outstanding no longer, and the
physical cause of all the movements of all celestial bodies will be put
upon a physical basis, in addition to a mathematical one.

If such a result can be arrived at by the logical and philosophical
conception of a gravitative Aether, then the three Rules of Philosophy
are fully satisfied, and the assumption of a gravitative Aether is
warranted on a strictly philosophical basis.

So that Thomas Young is strictly correct from a philosophical standpoint
in his fourth hypothesis, when he states: "That all material bodies have
an attraction for the aetherial medium, by means of which it is
accumulated within their substance and for a small distance around them
in a state of greater density but not greater elasticity." He is not,
however, correct when he states that though there is a greater density
near the body, there is not a greater elasticity, as such an assumption
is opposed to experiment and observation in relation to perfect gases,
as I shall show when dealing with the elasticity of the Aether.

Again, in view of the fact that the Aether is atomic, it can now be
easily understood how it may be subject to Gravitation. The very essence
of Gravitation is that atoms, or particles, attract each other. If there
were no particles, or atoms, it is obvious that there would be no
attraction, and therefore no Gravitation. Wherever, therefore, there are
to be found atoms of any kind or sort, whether they be atoms of
hydrogen, oxygen, silver or aetherial atoms, there the Law of
Gravitation holds good, and attraction between these atoms is to be
found. In other words, any substance which is atomic, is also
gravitative. Now Aether is atomic as has been shown, and therefore from
that standpoint it is also gravitative. It may, however, be objected
that the assumption of gravitative properties for the Aether is after
all but a speculation, and that Young's fourth hypothesis was only a
hypothesis, and that the gravitating properties of the aetherial medium
have never come within the scope of direct experiment, without which no
hypothesis can be fully accepted.

If such an argument be advanced against a gravitating Aether, then I
must differ from those scientists who advance such an objection. My
contention is that the gravitating properties of the Aether have already
been made the subject of some of the most refined and delicate
experiments that have been made during the past few years.

I refer to the experiments of Michelson and Morley of America.

For an outline and explanation of such experiments I must refer the
reader to the _Phil. Mag._ of December 1887.

Now what is the result of these experiments?

I believe it is almost unanimously conceded by all scientists, that
their experiments prove that the Aether is carried along by the earth.
Let us carefully look at this conclusion and see what it implies in
relation to the question at issue.

If the Aether is carried along by the earth, it necessarily follows that
there is some governing law or principle which holds it to the earth,
while the earth moves through space with its velocity of 68,000 miles per
hour.

Now what is that governing principle or law, which is capable of holding
such an aetherial atmosphere to its central body? If we wish to be
strictly philosophical, it is necessary, according to our second Rule of
Philosophy, that we should not go outside experience and the analogy of
Nature.

Where is there a similar analogy in Nature to that of the Aether being
carried along through space by the earth? I know of only one analogy
which can be used, and that is the analogy of the atmosphere, which is
also carried along by the earth through space, as it rushes on in its
orbit round the sun.

That being so, the question arises, what principle or law holds the
atmosphere to the earth? for, whatever be the law which governs the
atmosphere, to be consistent with the second Rule of Philosophy, we must
infer that the same law also holds the Aether in its place. There is
only one answer to the latter question, and that is the Law of
Gravitation. If it were not for that law, and the fact that the
atmosphere is subject to that law, the atmosphere would simply be swept
off from its central body, the earth, as the latter rushed through space
with its comparatively enormous velocity.

The only legitimate and philosophical conclusion that we can arrive at,
therefore, is that the Aether must be carried along with its central
body, the earth, through being acted upon by the self-same Law of
Gravitation, and for it to be so acted upon it must obviously be
gravitative. It would be unphilosophical to suggest that it was held in
its place by any other force, as that would be introducing a new force
or law into Nature, contrary to our experience in relation to an exactly
similar phenomenon of Nature.

We have therefore, it seems to me, direct proof by actual experiment
that Young's fourth hypothesis was correct, and that not only in
relation to the atomic world, but also in relation to the planetary
world, and the stellar world, all bodies exert an attractive influence
upon the surrounding Aether, by means of which the Aether is accumulated
near the surfaces of all bodies in a state of greater density, and
therefore of greater elasticity.

Let us apply this truth to the solar system, and see what we get. If it
is true that the earth exerts an attractive influence upon the
surrounding Aether by means of which it is held in its place relatively
to the earth, then it is equally true that Mercury, Venus, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune also exert gravitating or attractive
influences upon the surrounding Aether, in the same way that they do
upon their own atmospheres. So that in their cases also, the surrounding
Aether is carried along by them through space. Professor Stokes has
suggested that this is so, in order to account for the aberration of
light, as we shall see later on.

Not only so, but the sun also would have an attractive power over the
Aether by means of which its aetherial atmosphere would be carried
through space, as it moved along in its progress at an estimated rate of
17,000 or 18,000 miles per hour.

I would like to point out here, that this explanation of the effect of
the planets' attractive power over the surrounding Aether is only a
partial one, as there are other effects directly involved in the fact
that the Aether is subject to the gravitating influence of all
satellites and planets.

This is not the place, however, to go fuller into the matter, the
consideration of the subject being taken up in a later chapter.

Thus I have tried to show a gravitating Aether is strictly in accord
with the three Rules of Philosophy, for it is simple in conception, is
not contrary to experience, and by it I premise that it is possible to
explain the physical cause of Gravitation, with all that is involved in
that law.

Once more, if Aether is gravitative, then every atom and particle in the
universe, as well as every planet, and sun, and star, exert an
attractive power over the Aether, so that every atom is enveloped in an
atmosphere of Aether, in the same way that every planet, and sun, and
star is enveloped by the aetherial atmosphere.

The Aether, however, while it may flow through the spaces that exist
between the molecules of bodies, yet is held bound to those molecules in
the same way, and by exactly the same force, that holds the atmosphere
to a planet or world.

Further, if the atoms possess different masses or weights, as they do,
then each atom would possess an aetherial atmosphere proportionate to
its mass, with the result that an atom of carbon, with its atomic weight
of 12, ought to possess a denser aetherial atmosphere than an atom of
hydrogen, and so on right through the atomic scale. I need hardly point
out that this conception of the Aether in relation to atoms, and
molecules of bodies, will solve certain problems relating to the density
of Aether in connection with matter, which problem up to the present
cannot be solved by the present conception of a frictionless medium.

That problem may be stated as follows: Does the presence of matter
affect the Aether in any way, so as to load or make it denser? Professor
Lodge, in _Modern Views of Electricity_, in relation to the density of
the Aether, writes: "The neighbourhood of gross matter seems to render
Aether more dense. It is difficult to suppose that it can really
condense an incompressible fluid, but it may load it, or otherwise
modify it, so as to produce the effect of increased density."

In view of the fact that Aether is gravitative, the reply is to be found
in the Law of Gravitation, "Every particle of matter attracts every
other particle of matter, etc.," and as Aether is matter, it will be
attracted by the other matter irrespective of whether that matter be in
the atomic, molecular, or planetary or stellar form. We shall see that
this is so when we come to deal with the density of the Aether.

It may be objected in relation to this aspect of Aether, that Young also
asserted that the Aether flows as freely through matter, as the air
flows through the trees of the forest, and that such a statement
therefore contradicts his fourth proposition regarding the gravitating
properties of Aether. A little reflection will, however, put a different
construction on this objection.

Let us consider the analogy from the standpoint of experience, and see
what that analogy teaches us. From experience we learn that the air is
gravitative, but we also learn that it is possible to be moved from
place to place as winds, and that as such it can move freely between the
trees of the forest, causing their boughs and leaves to tremble and bend
beneath its energy and power.

I have yet to learn, however, that while it moves between the trees as
separate and distinct objects, such a movement militates or destroys its
gravitating properties.

Does the air cease to be any less gravitative, or subject to the Law of
Gravity, when it is subject to certain movements, which give rise to
certain currents as winds? Such an assumption is altogether opposed to
philosophical reasoning.

Whether the air is stationary or in motion, it is ever subject to the
great Law of Gravitation, and accepting that as an analogy, the apparent
contradiction between the oft-quoted simile of Young and his fourth
hypothesis is at once removed, and from analogy we learn that it is
quite possible for Aether to move between bodies because of certain
currents which may be originated by heat, light or electricity, yet at
the same time the existence of such currents does not violate its
gravitating tendency.

Young's fourth hypothesis is therefore in perfect harmony with his
oft-quoted simile, that the Aether flows through the interstices of
bodies as the wind flows through a group of trees, but like the
air-currents it does not so flow unless the currents are generated by
some form of energy, as heat or light, electricity or magnetism.

From these considerations therefore we are compelled to come to the
conclusion that Aether, like all other matter, is subject to the same
universal Law of Gravitation. If further evidence of the gravitating
tendency of the Aether were required, I would refer the reader to Lord
Kelvin's utterance on this subject.

Lord Kelvin, _Phil. Mag._, November 1899, in relation to the Aether
writes: "We are accustomed to call Aether imponderable. How do we know
that it is imponderable? If we had never dealt with air except by our
senses, air would be imponderable to us, but we know by experiment that
a vacuum glass tube shows an increased weight when air is allowed to
flow into it. We have not the slightest reason to believe that Aether is
imponderable. It is just as likely to be attracted by the sun as air is.
At all events the _onus of proof rests with those who assert it is
imponderable_. I think we shall have to modify our ideas of what
Gravitation is, if we have a mass spreading through space with mutual
attraction between its parts, without being attracted by other bodies."

We have already seen in the previous article that Faraday was of opinion
that the Law of Gravitation extended throughout the whole of the solar
system, and as Aether fills the solar system, then obviously Aether must
also be subject to the Law of Gravitation.


ART. 46. _Aether possesses Density._--That matter possesses density has
already been shown in Art. 38, and on the hypothesis that Aether is
matter, Aether must possess density also. This property has already been
postulated for the Aether, in order to account for certain phenomena in
connection with the reflection and refraction of light. Young assumed
different densities for the Aether near bodies owing to its being
attracted by those bodies (Art. 45). Reflection and refraction of light
are produced by a change of density of the Aether. It is now generally
accepted that the optical difference of bodies depends mainly on the
different densities of Aether in association with those bodies.
Professor Tyndall, in his _Lectures on Light_, writes on the density of
the Aether as follows: "The density of the Aether is greater in liquids
and solids than in gases, and greater in gases than in vacuo. A
compressing force seems to be exerted on the Aether by the molecules of
these bodies."

Apart, however, from the atomicity and gravitative properties of the
Aether, it is difficult to understand how there can be density of the
medium, and still more difficult to give a satisfactory explanation of
different degrees of density for the same medium, which some scientists
assume it to have.

If, however, all that is logically included in the statement that Aether
is matter, and therefore is atomic and gravitative, is conceded, then,
from the analogy of our own atmosphere in relation to the earth, the
density of the Aether, and different degrees of density also, is at once
put upon a logical and philosophical basis, as it is brought into
harmony with all experience and observation, and is simple in its
conception.

On the other hand, an Aether which is not atomic or gravitative cannot
possess different degrees of density, except by assuming the existence
of some unknown law of which we have no knowledge, which conception is
altogether opposed to the fundamental principles of simplicity,
observation, and experiment as laid down not only by Newton but by every
true philosopher.

Therefore, that Aether can possess different degrees of density, is only
the logical outcome of the statement that Aether is matter, seeing that
such a statement without the shadow of a doubt must at least imply that
it is gravitative.

I need hardly point out, that it is much more philosophical to be able
to account for the density of the Aether in a reasonable and
philosophical manner, than simply to postulate for the Aether certain
properties and qualities, because certain phenomena demand the existence
of such properties.

The Aether has been such a hypothetical medium, that it has been easy to
postulate for it certain properties, if certain phenomena have demanded
the existence of those properties.

Thus if the Aether were required to be elastic, then elasticity was
postulated for it; if more elastic, then greater elasticity was added.
If density were demanded, then density was postulated, and if less or
more density, less or more density was given to it.

That method of speculation may be satisfactory up to a certain point,
but no one will admit that such a method is wholly philosophical. It
will be a far better method to adopt, if, in dealing with the universal
Aether, we can make it conform to certain recognized laws and
principles, and from the application of those well-known laws, be able
to infer the exact constitution of this space-filling Aether medium.

Now the question arises, if Aether is gravitative, what effect has the
Gravitation of any body, be it an atom, or a meteor or planet, sun or
star, upon the Aether in which it moves, and which surrounds it?

That we may have some light thrown upon the matter, I would like now to
take the reader to Newton's _Optics_, in order that he may give us his
opinion as to this property of density of the Aether. In his nineteenth
query Newton (_Optics_) asks this question--

"Is not this medium much rarer within the dense bodies of the sun,
stars, planets and comets than in the empty spaces between them, and in
passing from them to great distances, doth it not grow denser and denser
perpetually, and thereby cause the gravity of those great bodies towards
one another, and of their part towards the bodies, every body
endeavouring to go from the denser parts of the medium towards the
rarer?"

Here then we have given to us an indication of what is the possible
state of things in relation to the gravitation of the Aether, and all
bodies in solar and stellar space. The only mistake that Newton made,
was in inverting the right order of comparatively dense and rarer parts
of the aetherial medium, by putting the rarer parts of the medium near
to the bodies, and supposing the denser parts to be farther away in
space.

As a matter of fact, the correct view is exactly the opposite, that is,
if we are to form our conception by following out those philosophical
rules that Newton laid down. For either the rules are right, or his
supposition is right. They cannot both be right, as his supposition is
contrary to the second Rule of Philosophy, as all experience and
observation from the analogy of Nature teach us that a medium enveloping
any body, as planet, star or sun, is densest nearest to the body,
becoming rarer the further that medium gets away from the central body.
Let us take for our illustration the best example, that experience and
observation afford, that of the atmosphere surrounding the earth. The
analogy is so perfect, that one is almost tempted to believe that the
atmosphere and the Aether are in some way intimately associated with
each other. Some years ago Lord Kelvin was of the opinion that the
Aether was but an extension of the atmosphere, though I am not certain
whether he holds that view at the present time. Clerk Maxwell, writing
in the _Phil. Mag._ in May 1861, writes: "I have deduced from this
result the relation between statical or dynamical electricity, and have
shown that the elasticity of the magnetic medium in air is the same as
that of the luminiferous medium, _if these two coexistent, coextensive,
and equally elastic media are not rather one medium_."

Now for the comparison. Both the atmosphere and Aether are matter. Both
are atomic, both are gravitative, both possess elasticity, and both
possess density. The atmosphere also possesses different degrees of
density, so does the Aether. In the case of the atmosphere, however,
experience and experiment teach us that the atmosphere is denser nearer
the earth than farther away.

When we ascend mountains, it is a matter of common knowledge that the
higher we ascend, that is the further we get from the earth, the rarer
the atmosphere becomes. When we ascend in balloons, we find that the air
becomes so rare and so light, that the blood will flow from the nose, on
account of the reduced pressure exerted on it, the pressure inside the
body being greater than that outside. Now in accordance with our second
Rule of Philosophy, if experience is to be any guide at all, then it
most conclusively teaches us that the Aether being subject to the same
laws as the atmosphere, the same results inevitably follow. Therefore
the Aether nearest the earth is denser than any layer immediately above
it, and that layer denser than the one above it, and so on for great
distances, with the result that the only conclusion we can come to in
regard to the density and rarity of Aether in relation to all
gravitating bodies is, that the densest part of the Aether is nearest to
them, and the rarest, the farthest away from them. So that while
Newton's suggestion in his nineteenth query is correct in principle, it
is incorrect in application to space.

I would like to point out here, that what is true of the earth in
relation to the density of the surrounding Aether, must also be true,
according to our second Rule of Philosophy, of every other planet, or
sun, or star. So that every planet, satellite, every sun or star has its
atmosphere, if I may so term it, of Aether, which obeys and follows the
same laws as the earth's atmosphere does.

This is a most important fact, and has a most important bearing upon the
physical cause of Gravitation as applied to each planet, and sun and
star, as I shall afterwards show.

I wish now to bring the reader into contact with a Theory of Gravitation
that was given to the world by Professor Challis of Cambridge, 1872. In
the _Philosophical Magazine_ of June of that year he writes: "I assume
that all the active forces of Nature are different modes of pressure
under different circumstances of a universal elastic Aether, which
presses always proportionately to its density."

Now what I wish to point out is, that while Prof. Challis admits the
density of the Aether, and also varying degrees of density, as he states
that the Aether presses proportionately to the density, he does not show
how that varying density is accounted for. If there is this varying
density, then there must be some underlying principle which governs the
variation in density, and I know of only one principle or law which can
regulate that variation in density, and that is that Aether is
gravitative, and being gravitative it not only possesses density, but
also variations in density.

Thus by admitting that Aether is gravitative, because it is matter, we
have at once a satisfactory explanation for the density of the Aether
and also for different degrees of density both in the atomic world, and
in the planetary and stellar world.


ART. 47. _Aether is Elastic._--In Art. 39, matter was shown to be
elastic, and on the assumption that Aether is matter, the elasticity of
the Aether, which has been postulated for it by various scientists, can
be logically and philosophically accounted for.

In view of the transmission of light through space with a definite and
finite velocity, we are compelled to regard Aether as possessing
elasticity, similar to that of an elastic solid body.

If we take the analogy of sound, we find that sound is transmitted and
propagated through matter, by waves of alternate condensation and
rarefaction, and that transmission is regulated by the relation of the
density of the medium to its elasticity. Light has been proved to be due
to the undulatory wave-motions of the Aether, and in order to account
for the transmission of the wave-motion, it is essential that the Aether
should possess the property of elasticity.

As Young points out in his First Hypothesis,[6] the Aether possesses
this property of elasticity, but with the advance of scientific
knowledge and research, the elasticity of the Aether may be said to have
passed out of the hypothetical stage, into the state of actual fact and
experiment. Both McCullagh and Fresnel have assumed this property of
elasticity for the aetherial medium in order to account for certain
phenomena of light.

Apart, however, from the atomicity of the Aether, it is exceedingly
difficult to understand how such a property can belong to it. Atoms are
exceedingly small particles, possessing the property of elasticity, or
the power to recover their original shape after distortion or change of
shape. If the Aether therefore be atomic, as is pointed out in Art. 44,
it can at once be readily understood how the Aether as a whole can
possess the property of elasticity. The atoms of the Aether must be
inconceivably small, as the light-waves travel with the enormous
velocity of 186,000 miles per second.

What must therefore be the atomic vibration which such a statement
implies? If, on the other hand, the Aether is assumed to be continuous
and non-atomic, it must be seen how exceedingly difficult it is to
account for the elasticity of the Aether, as it seems absolutely
impossible for a medium which is continuous, and non-atomic, to be able
to transmit the waves of light with a finite velocity.

Apart, therefore, from atomicity of some kind or other, elasticity of
the Aether is an assumption philosophically incorrect, as it is contrary
to that simplicity of conception laid down by Newton, and is also
contrary to all experience, and thus violates the second Rule of
Philosophy.

Aether therefore must be said to be perfectly elastic; so perfectly
elastic, that it is susceptible to the least touch of any natural thing,
so that even an atom, so small that it cannot be seen with the most
powerful microscope, yet so elastic is this Aether medium, that the
least motion or vibration of one of these atoms, though the motion did
not exceed the 20- or 40-millionth part of an inch, yet even this would
create in the aetherial ocean, Aether-waves, just as a body moving in
water creates water-waves, which, radiating from the place of their
birth, beget and create others, the process continuing until they reach
the margin of the water in which they were generated. It is precisely
so with these Aether-waves, when once generated and set in motion. They
create others, the process being continued and perpetuated; and, unless
arrested in their course, may continue until they reach the very limits
and confines of material immensity and space.

It is, perhaps, only necessary to say, regarding the perfection of the
elasticity of the Aether medium, that though it takes from 40,000 to
69,000 waves to complete the space of one inch in extent, yet it is done
with such miraculous rapidity, as to speed the distance of 186,000 miles
in the short space of a second of time; or, taking the number of
Aether-waves to complete an inch as 50,000, its elasticity is such that
it makes 50,000 × 186,000 × 12 × 5280 vibrations in one second of time.

We have already seen in Art. 39, that according to Boyle and Marriotte's
Law, the velocity of a wave-motion, as sound in the air, is determined
by the relation of the elasticity of the medium to its density. If the
temperature of the atmosphere remains the same, then the _elasticity_
varies in the same proportion as its density.

According to Art. 45, Aether is gravitative, and that fact produces
different degrees of density in the aetherial atmosphere of an atom or
planet or meteor, sun or star; that part of the Aether being densest
nearest the central body, and rarer the further we go away from that
body.

Now the question at once arises, what is the effect of the increased
density of the Aether near the body upon the elasticity of the Aether?

From the analogy of sound in air, we arrive at the conclusion that Boyle
and Marriotte's Law equally applies to the Aether, as it does to the
atmosphere of any planet. That is, if the temperature of any stratum or
layer of the Aether remains the same, then the elasticity of the
aetherial medium in that layer is proportionate to its density, so that
while the gravitating property of the Aether makes it denser nearest the
central body, the fact that the elasticity is proportionate to the
density, does not affect the transmission of any wave-motion.

[Footnote 6: _Phil. Trans._, 1802.]


ART. 48. _Aether possesses Inertia._--From Art. 40 we have seen that all
matter possesses inertia, inertia being that property of matter by which
it cannot of itself change its state of motion or of rest.

If Aether be matter, therefore, then it must also possess inertia. This
property of inertia is already postulated for Aether by scientists, and to
that extent is conformable to the Rules of Philosophy. Professor Tyndall,
with reference to the inertia of the Aether, writes: "The motion of
Aether communicated to material substances throws them into motion. It
must be therefore itself a substance. Aether is a substance endowed with
inertia, and capable, in accordance with the established laws of motion,
of imparting its motion to other substances."[7]

Again, Lord Kelvin in his Address to the British Association, 1901, on
the "Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe,"
states: "Aether we relegate to a distinct species of matter which has
inertia, etc." Aether, therefore, according to Tyndall, "is a substance
or medium endowed with inertia, and capable, in accordance with Newton's
Laws of Motion, of imparting its motion to other substances."

If, however, the Aether is frictionless, as has generally been supposed,
then it cannot possess inertia, because to the extent that a body
possesses inertia, to that extent it is opposed to being frictionless.

Inertia is really the equivalent of mass, or the amount of matter
measured by gravity, and if Aether possesses mass in any sense at all,
as it must do if it is matter, then, possessing mass or weight, it must
offer resistance to any body moving through it, and to that extent
cannot be frictionless. To suppose that the Aether is frictionless, and
yet possesses inertia, is to suppose something altogether opposed to all
the Rules of Philosophy and therefore of experience.

I have already shown that a frictionless medium is opposed to all
philosophy and experience, and is an anomaly in the universe.

On the strictly philosophical assumption that Aether is matter, and
therefore atomic and gravitative, the whole question of the inertia of
the Aether is reduced to one of common experience. It is, at least to my
mind, difficult to conceive of mass without weight or without atomicity,
and yet that is the unphilosophical position of the present state of
science in relation to the Aether. In other words, while the Aether is
supposed to possess inertia, which is dependent upon mass, as measured
by gravity, yet it is supposed not to be gravitative, that is, that the
mass of the Aether has no weight at all, and therefore is not mass,
which assumption contradicts itself. From Arts. 44 and 45, however, we
have seen, to be strictly philosophical, that Aether must be atomic and
also gravitative. It can now be easily understood how it can possess
inertia like any other matter, and is therefore capable of receiving
motion from other matter, and also of imparting that motion to other
matter.

So that, wherever there is motion of any kind in the Aether, either in
the form of vibratory motion as heat, or undulatory motion as light, or
rotatory motion as electricity, those motions will affect adjoining
matter in the same way that the motion of any other moving matter
affects any body with which it comes into contact.

From the fact that Aether possesses inertia, and is also gravitative, we
have now to alter our conception of this universal space-filling medium,
and in place of a frictionless medium, which is incapable of imparting
motion to any body, we have now to remember henceforth that the Aether
is matter, which possesses inertia, and therefore has the capacity not
only of offering resistance to any body moving through it, as a comet or
meteor, but also of imparting the motion which it may receive in any
manner to any other matter, as a planet, satellite, or sun, that may be
floating in it.

With this philosophical view of the Aether, which is entirely in harmony
with our first and second Rules of Philosophy, we shall be able to give
a physical explanation of the Law of Gravitation, as we have now a
physical medium existing in all atomic, solar, and stellar space, which
can both accept motion, and transmit that motion to other bodies. In
other words, we have a medium which can both push and pull.

[Footnote 7: _Lectures on Light._]


ART. 49. _Aether is Impressible._--Another characteristic property of
this Aether medium is, that it is as perfectly impressible as it is
elastic. So perfectly impressible, that it receives, retains, and
perpetuates for thousands of years, and for distances to human mind
incalculable, every impression given to it of light, form, colour, tint,
and shade; and that, too, with a perfect fidelity that nothing mars,
even to the least and most infinitesimal detail.

Therefore, irrespective of distance, wherever there is matter to arrest
and reflect the impressions received, there those impressions of light
(and all that in the luminosity is involved and contained) become
visible and revealed, and wherever there is power of vision to receive
and concentrate these Aether- or light-waves, there, not only luminosity
or light, but all that constitutes and is involved in that luminosity,
becomes at once visible and seen.

It is by this means we see the colour, tints, shades, and forms of suns
and planets; of stars, constellations, etc., with all the varied forms,
configurations, and movements of the celestial phenomena. Each and every
one, small or great, glittering or blazing, sun or planet, are ever
creating or generating Aether-waves, and impressing them with all the
details and particulars of their nature and existence; and these
Aether-waves ever bear upon their mystic wings the impressions received,
carrying the information given with lightning speed to the very confines
and limits of infinite space or the material universe; beyond which
exists nothing but the ever-living and active energy of the Divine, the
only unlimited, unbounded, and absolute infinitive.

It is by the interception and concentration of these waves by our
perceptive powers, aided with the giant powers of the telescope, that we
obtain the information given, or become cognizant of the nature and
existence of the varied lights, colours, tints, and shades of the
celestial bodies.

The vision, assisted by the giant power of the telescope, collects and
concentrates these Aether-waves into a perfect image of those things
that gave them birth, and by this means reveals to us the knowledge of
things afar, their existence, nature, characteristics, properties, and
powers.

Thus it is we see the solar orb, with its huge fires all aglow, obtain a
knowledge of its character and powers, see its huge spots, its quivering
fringe of flame, and high-leaping prominences, or watch its slowly
revolving form.

Thus we see the planets that around it sweep and roll; swift-footed
Mercury with his wondrous speed, and dazzling Venus with her silver
sheen; Mars the god of war with his ruddy glow, and mighty Jupiter with
his orange hue, and the yellow Saturn with her mysterious rings, the
blue Uranus, and the more distant Neptune, with all the satellites that
to it belong.

Then far far away the brilliant Sirius--the Dog Star, Cygnet, Centauri,
the Great Bear, and a thousand others.

The Pleiades and the twenty millions of suns that form our own galaxy
and the Milky Way, with all their varied colours, tints, and hues of
white, golden, orange, ruby, red and blue, green and grey, silver,
purple and yellow, buff and fawn, emerald and green, lilac and coppery.
Thus we see the distant Orion, so far away that swift-footed Light, with
its speed of more than eleven million miles per minute, has to travel
for more than thirty thousand years before it spans the gulf that
intervenes between it and us, and brings to us the news of its existence
there.

Then the spectroscope with its revealing power literally tears asunder
wave from wave, and reveals the mystic message which each doth bear, of
the distant things from which they come, of each and every sort and
kind.

Thus we know, that in the solar fires there ever burn such things as
hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, and also, in a vaporous state, aluminium,
sodium, iron, magnesium, cobalt, calcium, chromium, copper, manganese,
zinc, and others.

Thus light-waves are speeding everywhere, and from all material things.
They come from our own sun, and rush in, and flood the earth's aerial
veil, the atmosphere; and "Each little atom of matter, like a mirror,
reflects and re-reflects them as if in sport, buffeting each luminous
ray from one to another, increasing and amplifying it by an infinity of
repercussions" (Herschel), and then in their entirety and whole, like a
huge multi-mirror, so blend and mingle them that they come to earth's
surface in that soft radiance we call Light, and bathe it as in a sea
of mellowed glory.


ART. 50. _Aether: its Motions._--The question of the exact motions of
the Aether is a question which has involved the attention of scientific
men for many years, and which is at the present time receiving the
attention of some of our most advanced scientists, not only in this
country but in other countries also.

Whether the Aether in space is at rest, or is moving along with all the
bodies that float in it, so to speak, is a question of the greatest
importance to scientists and philosophers generally, as the particular
character of the motions of the Aether, which are either suggested or
ascribed to it from the analogies of Nature, are sure to have a most
important bearing not only on the motions of all the planets and
satellites, but also upon such questions as the aberration of light, and
such difficulties as presented by Lord Kelvin in his paper on "Clouds on
the Undulatory Theory of Light" (_Phil. Mag._, July 1902).

I need hardly point out that the hypothesis that Aether is gravitative,
is bound to play a most important part in the consideration and
development of this phase of the study of the universal aetherial
medium. It is not my intention, however, at this stage of the work to go
fully into the development of this aspect of the subject.

The application of this principle will be considered at the right time,
and in the right place. It is, however, generally assumed, that the
Aether is at rest in space, and that the earth, the planets, and the sun
and all stars, move through it with varying velocity, although, as Lord
Kelvin points out, such an assumption is covered with a cloud which up
to the present is "as dense as ever." Of course, if the Aether be at
rest, and the planets and other heavenly bodies move through it with
varying velocity, then the only assumption regarding the Aether is, that
it is frictionless, but, as I have shown in Art. 45, this is opposed to
all philosophical reasoning, and therefore to experience and
observation.

We have, therefore, to postulate for the Aether such motions as shall
fulfil all the Rules of Philosophy, that is, shall be simple in
conception, shall be in harmony with our experience and observation, and
which shall satisfactorily account for the phenomena sought to be
explained, that is, the universal Law of Gravitation; for it is by the
properties, combined with the motions of the Aether, that the physical
cause of Gravitation is alone to be explained.

Let us revert to the question of a stationary Aether for a moment or
two, and let us ask ourselves, where is the evidence for such an
assumption? Has the sun ever ceased to shine, or to send its light-waves
with their enormous velocity speeding through the solar system? So far
as experience and observation go, I have never read of any record of
such a fact, or that light-waves have ceased to proceed from the sun and
fill the solar system with Aether-waves.

Not only is this true of the sun, but it is equally true of every planet
and satellite, every meteor or comet, every star and sun that exist or
dwell in this aetherial medium; for, as has already been shown (Art.
49), every body emits Aether-waves, and these waves spread out in all
directions in a spherical form.

The truth is, that the universal Aether is in eternal motion, and that
motion forms the physical life of the universe. If it were possible to
destroy the motion, then the whole fabric of the universe would fall to
pieces, and the beauty, order, and harmony of the celestial mechanism
would be replaced by disorder, confusion, and ultimate ruin. Take any
analogy of Nature, and see what such an analogy teaches us. Look at any
planet, sun, or star. Do we find any one of these stationary or at rest?
Why from the smallest meteorite or satellite, to the largest star that
shines in the firmament of heaven, there is nothing but motion; each
satellite, planet, sun, and star moving on and on, ever and ever through
the countless ages of time until its course is run and its existence
ended. But rest, never! Such a thing as rest is unknown in the entire
universe, whether it be in the atomic systems of matter, or the systems
of stars and suns that form the universe of worlds.

Take another illustration--that of the ocean! Is that ever at rest, with
its unceasing wave and tidal motion? Has the reader ever stood on the
shore and seen the ocean when it has been absolutely still, or when the
tide has ceased to flow? Such a possibility is almost absurd to
contemplate. The same argument applies to the air with its regular flow
of winds. Now in regard to the aetherial and universal medium, there are
just as regular motions as the flowing of the tide round the earth, or
the revolving of a satellite round a planet, or a planet round the sun.

And what is as important, all the motions can be as satisfactorily
explained and accounted for from the physical standpoint, as the flow of
the tide, or the revolution of a planet.

Year in and year out, the motions of the Aether remain the same, governed
by the same laws and producing the same effects. Age after age, the Aether
has been moving, producing by its various motions the continuity of that
beauty, order, and harmony that govern the universe as a whole.

I have already indicated in Art. 45 the effect of Gravitation on the
Aether surrounding each satellite, or planet, or star, or sun. As each
satellite, or planet, or star moves through the universal Aether, it
takes with it its surrounding Aether as indicated in Art. 45, in the
same way that each planet or sun takes with it its own associated
atmosphere, which is held in contact with it by the self-same force of
Gravitation.

In addition to this motion of the aetherial atmosphere through space,
there are other motions of this same gravitating Aether that have to be
taken into consideration, before a complete and adequate conception of
all the motions of the Aether can be arrived at.

I do not intend, however, at this stage to go fully into such motions,
but rather wish to lead up to them from a consideration of hypotheses
put forward by such men as Rankine, Challis, Maxwell, Lord Kelvin,
McCullagh, and Helmholtz, and from a consideration of such hypotheses in
the realm of heat, light, and electricity to be able to form a
scientific conception of the proper motions of the Aether, as well as a
philosophical one.



                               CHAPTER V

                                 ENERGY


ART. 51. _Energy._--In the days of Newton, and for a long time afterwards,
all energy went by the name of "Force." Thus Newton in his Laws of
Motion refers to the action of forces on stationary or moving bodies,
and shows how the motion of any body is effected by the impressed force.
(Art 13.)

As science advanced, and scientific research was carried into the fields
of heat, light, and electricity, we find that the various forces began
to be particularized, with the result that such terms as electrical
force, magnetic force, chemical force, etc., became common and familiar
terms. As gradually it became known that one particular kind of force
was the outcome of another kind, there was given to the world such terms
as the Correlation of Forces (Grove), in which he proved that whenever
one kind of force appeared as heat or light, it was at the expense of
another kind of force, as electricity.

Of later years, however, another term has crept into Philosophy, and
instead of the term Force, which is very indistinct and indefinite in
character, there appeared the term Energy, although Force and Energy are
not exactly synonymous terms. Thus electricity, heat, and light are
forms of energy, and are convertible into one another, in the same way
that the forces were convertible. Thus we get transformations of energy
in the same way that we had transformations of force, and conservation
of energy in the same way that we had conservation of force.

Even the term Energy, however, is being replaced in the present times by
something more definite and simple, and instead of the term Energy, we
shall find, in the development of this phase of natural phenomena, that
that term is being replaced by the simple idea of motion, or modes of
motion, and that all forms of energy, as light, heat, magnetism, and
electricity, and even Gravitation itself, are due to motion of some kind
or other. We will, however, lead up to this truth by looking briefly at
the term Energy, and see what it implies and embodies.

Energy, therefore, is that property which a body possesses, by which it
is capable of doing work. Thus our ideas of work give us our conception
of energy. For example, when a weight is lifted, work is done, and a
certain amount of energy is expended in the process. Further, the amount
of work done is proportionate to the weight lifted, and the height to
which the body is raised. Work is done against resistance, so that
whenever resistance is overcome, then work is the result. For example,
suppose one pound is lifted one foot high, in opposition to the force of
gravity, then work is done, and this amount of work is known as a
foot-pound.

If a body weighs ten pounds, and is lifted ten feet, the work done is
equal to ten pounds multiplied by ten feet (10 × 10 equals 100), so that
one hundred times the amount of work has been done in comparison with
the lifting of the one pound one foot high.

As all weight is essentially a gravitational measure, depending upon the
intensity of gravity at the place, then, whenever a body is raised or
lifted, the work so done is done against the gravity of the earth.

Work is also done, as Newton points out in the first and second laws,
whenever we apply force to any body, either stationary or already in
motion. The results of all observation and experiments prove, that
whenever we have two bodies upon which work is being done, the amount of
work is determined by the amount of energy transferred from one body to
the other, and that the actual amount of energy gained by one is equal
to the amount of energy lost by the other.

Energy is always found in association with matter, so that matter has
sometimes been termed the Vehicle of Energy. Wherever, therefore, we
find energy of any kind or sort, there we find matter also, as the two
are inseparably connected together. Thus, wherever we have heat, we have
matter in a particular state of motion, generally understood as
vibratory motion Wherever we have light, which is also a form of energy,
we also have matter in motion, that is the Aether, in a state of
periodic wave-motion; and wherever we have electricity, we have again
matter possibly in a state of rotatory motion, as we shall see later on.
Energy, therefore, is the power which a body possesses to do work.


ART. 52. _Conservation of Energy._--The principle of the Conservation of
Energy was first enunciated by Mayer in 1842. The principle may be
defined as follows: The total amount of all the energy, as light, heat,
electricity and magnetism, Gravitation, etc., in Nature is unchangeable;
so that, according to this law, the universe possesses a store of energy
which is unchangeable in quantity throughout all time. The energy may
pass from one form to another, yet the total amount ever remains the
same. It is almost unnecessary to say, that this is a principle which,
like the conservation of matter, is incapable of absolute proof, but its
assumption has greatly helped scientific thought and speculation from
time to time. Clerk Maxwell says (_Theory of Heat_) on this point: "The
total energy of any body is a quantity which can neither be increased
nor decreased by any mutual action of the bodies, though it may be
transformed into those forms of which energy is susceptible."

The conservation of energy is inseparably connected with the
conservation of matter (Art. 30). They cannot be divided, because, if
energy is only to be found in association with matter, then if the law
of the conservation of matter falls to the ground, the principle of the
conservation of energy falls with it. Energy, therefore, like matter,
cannot be destroyed or created by any process known to man. As there is
no process known, either in the chemical or in the physical world, by
which new matter may be created by man, so, in relation to energy of any
kind or sort, there is no process known by which man can create or even
destroy the smallest form of energy that exists. If energy appears in
any body or in any particular form, it is solely because of the loss of
energy in some other body, or in some other form.

All changes of energy, therefore, are simply changes due to the
difference in form in which the energy is manifested. At one time it
will be manifested in the form of light, then of heat, then in
mechanical motion, and so on. Joule gave us some good illustrations of
this principle of the conservation of energy. He showed us how
electricity could be changed into heat, and the heat into work. When
light, which is a form of energy, is absorbed by any opaque body, it is
found that the body which has absorbed it has become hotter. The energy
of light has not been destroyed, but as its energy cannot pass through
the opaque body, it has been employed in agitating the particles and
atoms of that body, which becomes hotter in consequence.

Thus from the principle of the conservation of energy, which is in
operation not only in our planetary world, but throughout the whole of
the solar and stellar space, and indeed throughout the whole universe,
we arrive at the conclusion that the total quantity of energy throughout
the universe is unchangeable. In the evolution and development of
worlds, and in the destruction of those worlds after long periods of
time, throughout all the varied manifestations of heat, light,
electricity, and magnetism, associated with the development and
destruction of each globe, the sum-total of the energy of the universe
remains the same. Meteors may rush into the atmosphere of planets, and
be dissolved into Aether through the friction, comets may be dissolved
into their component gases as they near the sun, water may be changed
into vapour by the heat of the summer sun, vegetation may be produced
from apparently dead matter, and then that vegetation may itself decay
and return to the dust by which it had been built up, but throughout all
these processes of birth and death, of evolution and devolution, the
sum-total of active living energy which is associated with all the
phenomena, remains unalterable and unchangeable. Such is the teaching of
the great principle of the Conservation of Energy as enunciated by Mayer
and Helmholtz.


ART. 53. _Transformation of Energy._--One of the chief characteristics
of energy is, that we can transform it, and it is chiefly of use to us
because of its capability to be transformed, but in all its
transformations, the total quantity of energy remains the same. The
transformation of energy renders it necessary to the existence of all
life, and to all physical change in the universe. Mayer showed us that
all energy in the solar system primarily derives its existence from the
sun, and that all plant life and physical life owe their continued
existence to the energy which is poured out from the sun upon the
planetary worlds. So that energy is always flowing from the sun into the
surrounding space in the form of light, heat, and electricity, the
medium of its passage being the universal Aether.

This principle of transformation teaches us, that heat may be converted
into electricity; that light may be converted into heat, or electricity
may be converted into either heat or light or both. This principle of
transformation naturally follows from the principle of the conservation
of energy; because, if energy cannot be destroyed in any way, but is
made to disappear by any process, it must reappear in some other form,
and therefore has been transformed from its original state. So that,
whenever one kind of energy disappears, then it is absolutely necessary,
according to the principle of conservation of energy, that some other
kind shall be produced. There cannot be any real loss or destruction.

That leads us to the next point regarding this principle of
transformation, which is that all transformations of energy take place
in fixed proportions. When a certain quantity of coal is burned, a
certain quantity of heat, or thermal energy as it is sometimes called,
is produced, and the quantity of heat so produced is definitely
proportionate to the quantity of coal consumed.

If a certain quantity of coal were burned in a perfect steam-engine,
that is one in which there would be no loss of heat, then also a
definite amount of mechanical work would be done, which would be
strictly proportionate to the heat generated by the consumption of the
coal. So that when coal is put into an engine, the potential energy of
the coal is transformed into kinetic energy of the steam, and that is
again transformed into actual mechanical energy of the engine itself, by
which work is done in driving or pushing or pulling the train along, and
the amount of work done is proportionate to the coal consumed.
Illustrations of transformation are common, and may be seen by any
person living in a large town. Thus at any electrical station or
electric tram terminus, these transformations of various forms of energy
are very familiar sights. We have first the transformation of the coal
in the furnace into heat. This heat converts water into steam, whose
motion is communicated by proper machinery into a dynamo, the product of
which is electricity. That electricity is then conveyed along wires, and
work is done by it, by moving trams along the connected tram system, or
it may be converted into heat in the carbon filament in the car itself,
which, if heated enough, will then produce the electric light. So that
starting from the coal, we have several transformations therefrom into
the forms of heat, light, motion, and finally mechanical energy, which
results in Work. The question arises as to what is the law of
equivalence in regard to the transformation of energy. That is, if we
have a certain amount of energy of a given sort, how much of any other
sort can be produced by it? The answer is partly to be found in a
statement made by Joule in 1843, which practically embodies what is
known as the first law of Thermo-dynamics, and is as follows: "When
equal quantities of mechanical effects are produced by any means
whatever, from purely thermal sources, or lost in purely thermal
effects, then equal quantities of heat are put out of existence or are
generated, and for every unit of heat measured by raising a pound of
water one degree F. in temperature, you have to expend 772 foot-pounds
of work." From this law we learn that heat may be used to do work, but
that a certain amount of heat is always used up in the process. It can
also be demonstrated that electric currents can do work, but to generate
the currents a certain amount of work must be done.

This equivalence and transformation prevail in all forms of energy,
whether it be mechanical energy, thermal or heat energy, or electrical
energy.


ART. 54. _Potential Energy._--Energy has been divided into two classes,
which are termed respectively Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy. We
will look at the former first.

_Potential Energy_ may be briefly defined as energy of position.

Thus if we lift a body from the ground, the energy which has been
imparted to it is energy of position, or potential energy. A glacier
high up the mountain possesses potential energy, because of its
position. By the mere fact that it is situated high up the mountain, it
has a capacity for doing work by its descent, and if that descent be
very sudden, the work done will be destructive work, as it may sweep
away all houses and villages in its sudden descent. Thus, by the mere
fact of its elevation, it possesses a power of doing work, which it has
lost when it has descended. Again, work done in winding up the spring of
a clock is stored up in the form of potential energy, and gradually runs
out in the form of motion or kinetic energy.

Potential energy is really the complementary principle of kinetic
energy. That is to say, the amount of potential energy lost by any body,
is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gained by the other body, to
which the energy has been transferred. In the case of a body falling, as
the potential energy diminishes, the kinetic energy increases, but the
total amount of the two combined always remains the same. This is well
illustrated in the case of a swinging pendulum. When a pendulum is at
the highest point of its swing, its velocity or kinetic energy is zero,
but at that point its potential energy is greatest. As it descends, the
potential energy decreases, but the kinetic energy increases. When the
pendulum is at the lowest point its energy is wholly kinetic, the
potential energy being zero at that point, while it has sufficient
kinetic energy to raise it to the highest level again. Throughout the
cycle of these operations, the sum-total of the two energies always
remains the same.

Professor Tait points out, in his _Recent Advances in Physical Science_,
that the available sources of all potential energy may be divided into
four classes--

    1st. Fuel.
    2nd. Food of Animals.
    3rd. Water-power.
    4th. Tidal Water-power.

All these are different forms of potential energy. Under the head of
fuel he includes not only wood, coal, but also all forms of matter that
may be used or burnt up by heat, or dissolved by chemical agencies. Thus
zinc and lead, which are used in batteries, are merely forms of fuel.
That potential energy resides in such things as wood and coal is a
matter of common experience. All our coal-fields are stores of energy,
which received their energy when in plant form, ages ago, from the sun,
and this energy is now being used to drive our machinery, to warm our
houses, and to give light to our homes and our cities. It has been
calculated that a pound of coal would give out 14,000 heat units, which
is equal to 11,000,000 foot-pounds of work, which is also equal to the
amount of work a horse can do in five hours. Again, all food, whether it
be the food of animals, as vegetables and plants, or of man, as bread,
meat, etc., are all forms of potential energy, or energy which is stored
up in matter. All forms of food have a certain amount of energy in them,
which is used up in the body in building up waste tissue and imparting
energy to the physical frame.

Again, all forms of water-power, whether it be in the form of the
flowing river or the tidal motion of the sea, possess a large amount of
potential energy which may be used up to do mechanical work. They also
possess kinetic energy, or energy of motion. We find illustrations of
the possession of potential energy by rivers and tides, in the fact that
by their fall from a higher to a lower level they may be made to do
mechanical work, as in the case of the turning of the water-wheel by the
fall of the water, which motion is communicated to machinery, and
various forms of work are the result. In Switzerland and America
advantage is being taken of the energy of falling water to generate
electricity, by means of which villages and towns are being supplied
with electric light at a very small cost.


ART. 55. _Kinetic Energy._--Kinetic energy may be defined as energy of
motion, and is the energy which a body possesses in consequence of its
motion. A body in motion thus possesses kinetic energy, which it must
impart to some other body before it can be brought to a state of rest.
The body may be simply an atom, as a vortex atom, but if it be in
motion, as all atoms are, then it must possess kinetic energy, which may
be transferred to another atom by collision, or by some other method. As
has already been pointed out in previous articles, kinetic and potential
energy are complementary to one another, the sum-total of the two
combined always remaining the same in any cycle of work, according to
the principle of the conservation of energy. We get a good example of
this oscillation from kinetic to potential, and _vice versâ_, in the
planetary system. When the earth is farthest from the sun, its velocity,
and consequently its kinetic energy, is at its lowest point; but there
the potential energy is at its greatest. As the earth turns round in its
orbit, however, and begins to approach the sun again, its potential
energy decreases, while its kinetic energy increases with its increased
velocity. So that by the time it has reached the nearest part of its
orbit to the sun, its velocity, and consequently its kinetic energy, is
at a maximum, while the potential energy is at a minimum. Then as the
earth passes round its perihelion, the kinetic energy is used up in
assisting the earth to overcome the attraction of the sun. Thus there is
this oscillation from kinetic to potential, and from potential to
kinetic, year in and year out, as the earth performs its cycle round its
central body the sun.

Professor Tait, in the work referred to in the previous Article, gives
examples of kinetic forms of energy under the following heads--

    1st. Winds.
    2nd. Currents of Water.
    3rd. Hot Springs and Volcanoes.

It can be readily seen that winds are a form of energy, as we have
innumerable instances of the power and energy which they exert.
Advantage is taken of that kinetic energy by means of windmills, in
which the energy of the wind is imparted to the revolving sails, and
thence to the machinery, various forms of mechanical work being the
result, as, for example, the grinding of corn, or the pumping of water.
The pressure or energy of winds has even been calculated, the following
figures being examples--

VELOCITY IN MILES PER HOUR.   FORCE IN LBS. PER SQ. FOOT

           1 mile.               .005 lb. per sq. foot.
           5  "                  .123  "   "     "
          10  "                  .496  "   "     "
          15  "                 1.11   "   "     "
          20  "                 1.98   "   "     "
          30  "                 4.5    "   "     "
          40  "                 7.9    "   "     "
          50  "                12.5    "   "     "

In the case of currents of water, whether they are in the form of river
currents or ocean currents, as has already been pointed out in the
previous article, the question of potential energy, or energy of
position, is associated with their kinetic energy. Water is taken at a
certain elevation, and then allowed to fall to a lower level, and in its
fall from the high level to the lower level, its kinetic energy is used
to drive mill-wheels, and thus work is done, the kinetic energy of the
water being transformed into the motion of the machinery. This machinery
may be used to work a dynamo, and thus electric light may be generated,
or it may drive an electric motor which may perform all sorts of
mechanical work. The great underlying principle of either kinetic or
potential energy rests in the fact, that wherever we have energy of any
kind or sort, whether it be associated with water, wind, or Aether,
there we have the capacity to do work, the amount of work depending upon
the amount of energy that exists in the matter which is the vehicle of
energy.

In Art. 50 it has been indicated that the Aether possesses several kinds
of motions. From the sphere of light and heat, we learn that the Aether
possesses certain motions which are always exerted in a direction from
the central body, which gives rise to the light- and heat-waves. That
being so, it conclusively follows that the Aether possesses kinetic
energy, and therefore, possessing this energy, it also possesses the
power to do work. It must be remembered we are no longer dealing with a
frictionless medium, but with a gravitating medium, possessing mass and
inertia, and, that being so, wherever we have the Aether in motion,
there we have kinetic energy or the power to do work; and that work will
correspond to the particular kind of motion which is exerted on any body
by the aetherial motions, and will be equally subject to Newton's Laws
of Motion.


ART. 56. _Energy and Motion._--An advance, however, as to the meaning of
the term Energy has been made within recent years, which brings it more
into harmony with that simplicity of conception, and accordance with
experience which are the very foundation of all philosophy. Instead of
the term Energy, there is now being used another term to denote the
forces which form the life of the universe, and that term is the word
"Motion."

Professor Poynting says: "All energy is energy of motion" (_British
Association Report_, 1899).

Thus motion is the fundamental principle of all phenomena. If we analyze
all forms of energy with which we are familiar, we shall soon find that
they are only changes of one form of motion into another. Thus we shall
see that heat is a mode of motion, as has been proved by Tyndall, that
light is another mode of motion, and that electricity is also a mode of
motion. I need hardly point out that this advance in our conception of
energy is strictly in accord with the Rules of Philosophy. First, it is
simple in conception. When we say that a body possesses energy, whether
that energy be potential energy or kinetic energy, it does not convey to
the mind some definite concrete fact, as does the statement that a body
possesses motion. Every one, whether familiar with scientific teaching
or not, understands and is familiar with the word Motion, as it is a
common phenomenon of everyday life and experience. As Energy was simpler
in conception than Newton's term Force, so Motion is simpler in
conception than the rather vague and indefinite term Energy; therefore
when we say that all energy is energy of motion of some kind or sort, we
state that which is philosophically correct.

It is also in accord with the second Rule of Philosophy, in that it is
strictly in harmony with experience and observation. Look where we will,
or at what we will, there we find motion of some kind or other, whether
it be among the innumerable stars, or in our own solar system, or any
phenomena on the earth, or even among the world of atoms in their minute
and atomic systems. Such a thing as absolute rest, or stagnation, is
unknown in the universe. Wherever there is matter, there we find motion
of some kind or other. It may be vibratory motion as heat, or wave
motion as light, or rotatory motion as electricity, but motion of some
sort is inseparably connected with all matter. So that when we say that
all energy of the universe is the energy of motion, and motion only, we
state that which according to the second Rule of Philosophy is
absolutely correct.

Further, I wish to premise that by the use of the term modes of motion,
in lieu of energy, the third Rule of Philosophy will be fulfilled. For
if all phenomena of the universe, whether it be heat, light,
electricity, be due to different modes of motion, then Gravitation
should be explained from the physical standpoint by some kind of
aetherial motion also. This I can safely premise will be done, and in
the later chapters of this work, Gravitation will be shown to be due to
the motions of the aetherial medium which floods all space. By so doing,
all the Rules of Philosophy will be fully satisfied, and Gravitation
will then be brought into line with all the other forms of motion, as
heat, light, electricity, and magnetism, which are in themselves modes
of motion, as will be shown in subsequent articles.


ART. 57. _Conservation of Motion._--If it be true that all energy is the
energy of motion, then the principle of the conservation of energy ought
also to apply to all the modes of motion, and in its place we should
then have the principle of the conservation of the various forms of
motion. This defined would be, that the total amount of all motion in
the universe, as heat and light, electricity, magnetism, and Gravitation
also, if that be due to the motion of the Aether, is unalterable and
unchangeable.

There may be changes from one form of motion to another, from heat to
light, and light back to heat; heat into electricity, and electricity
into light or heat; from Gravitation into heat or into light, or even
into electricity; but the sum-total of the whole remains the same.

Again, as the principle of the conservation of energy is inseparably
connected with the conservation of matter, so the principle of the
conservation of all the modes of motion is also inseparably connected
with the conservation of matter. They cannot be divided, so that
wherever we get matter of any kind or sort, there we get motion of some
kind, either in the form of heat, light, or electricity, or those
aetherial motions which produce those phenomena associated with
Gravitation.

As matter cannot be destroyed by any known process to man, so motion
cannot be destroyed either. On the vortex atom theory of matter, this
principle of the conservation of any mode of motion is perfectly
intelligible, especially if added to that theory we have Dr. Larmor's
electron theory as the basis of the vortex atom. An atom in its ultimate
state is nothing more or less than Aether in rotation, and as Aether is
matter, we see that on the assumption of this atomic basis, we have even
in the atomic world an illustration of this conservation of matter and
motion, as in such an atom we have nothing but matter (_i. e._ Aether)
and motion. Carrying the idea upwards in the atomic scale, if atoms of
hydrogen or oxygen are multiples of these vortex atoms, then again we
have nothing in all the elements, or combination of the elements, but
matter and motion. Again, as all planets and satellites, suns and stars,
are but agglomerations of elements, we have still the same two classes
of things, matter and motion, and so from the most infinitesimal atom in
existence, up to the most ponderous star that exists in the universe, we
have running through them all the principle of the conservation of
motion, which is to matter the source of all its activities, energies,
and powers. Motion, therefore, might almost be said to be eternal. We
have heard from time to time of the term perpetual motion. Philosophers
have from time to time endeavoured to discover some application of this
perpetual motion, but all efforts in this direction up to the present
have proved futile. In one sense there is no such thing as perpetual
motion. In another sense, that is from the standpoint of the
conservation of all modes of motion, as motion cannot be destroyed, it
must therefore be perpetual.

It is an absolute impossibility to obtain motion except from some
antecedent energy, which is itself a form of motion. It would require
the distinctive fiat of an Almighty Creator to produce motion from
nothing, and I question whether such a result is obtainable, as I hold
that if the Creator, at any time in the history of the universe, set any
substance in motion, the source from which that motion was derived, was
His own Divine Energy, and in that sense the physical motion was not
produced from nothing. Such an assumption is altogether opposed to all
philosophical reasoning and experience. I hope to deal with the question
either in the last chapter of this book, or in another work.


ART. 58. _Transformation of Motion._--Again, if energy be the energy of
motion, and the principle of the transformations of energy holds good,
then it is equally true that all modes of motion are also transformable.
Thus heat is a mode of motion, being due to the vibration of the atoms
which go to make up any body. Light is also a mode of motion, being due,
as far as solar light is concerned, to the periodic wave motion of the
Aether. While electricity, as we shall see later on, is also due to some
form of rotatory motion. It has already been shown (Art. 54) that light
can be converted into heat, so that the periodic wave motion of light
can be transformed into the vibratory motion of heat.

Heat can also be converted into electricity, and if electricity be
rotatory motion, then the vibratory motion of heat can be transformed
into the rotatory motion of electricity. Again, as electricity can be
converted into light, the rotatory motion of electricity can thus be
transformed into the periodic wave motion of light. Thus through all the
forms of motion with which we are familiar, we find this principle of
transformation holds good, so that each form of motion may be directly
or indirectly transformed into any one of the other kinds. Whenever,
therefore, one kind of motion disappears, it is absolutely necessary,
according to the principle of the conservation of motion, that some
other kind shall be produced. There cannot be any real loss or
destruction of the motion. It may be transformed, but not lost. By the
use of proper apparatus, therefore, any form of motion with which we are
familiar may be converted into another form, and in the process not the
least quantity of any form of motion is lost. Heat may be changed into
light, and light into heat; electricity into light, and light into
electricity; heat into electricity, and electricity into heat. Indeed,
starting from any one form, any of the other modes of motion may be
produced, either directly or indirectly, and mechanical effects or work
may be produced by each and all. Then, again, the order can be reversed,
as by doing work which is simply applied motion, any of the other modes
of motion can be produced. Thus heat can be produced by friction, and if
the friction which is the outcome of muscular energy be continued long
enough, a light will be the result, in the form of fire. When certain
forms of work are done, as the turning of the handle of an electrical
machine, frictional electricity will be produced. So that not only are
all the modes of motion convertible into work, but work itself can be
transformed into the modes of motion known as heat, light, electricity,
and magnetism.

Now, if Gravitation be due to motion of the Aether, and if it is true
that all modes of motion are convertible, then the application of this
principle should also hold good in relation to Gravitation. It has been
demonstrated by Joule and others that Gravitation can be converted into
heat, light, and electricity. It can be converted first into heat. Joule
made a number of experiments to ascertain what quantity of heat is
produced by falling bodies, that is bodies under the influence of
Gravitation. From experiments he has calculated that if one lb. of water
falls through a space of 772 feet, it would raise the temperature of
the water one degree Fahrenheit--that is, the water after its fall will
be one degree hotter than when it started to fall. Here, then, we have
the exact equivalence of a certain amount of gravitational motion
expressed in terms of heat. So that, whenever motion of a falling body
produced by gravity is arrested, heat is generated, and as heat is a
mode of motion, it follows that the motion of Gravitation has been
converted into the motion of heat. Again, the motion of gravity may be
converted into that of light. This may be demonstrated as follows: Lord
Kelvin has suggested that the light and heat of the sun are maintained
by the falling into the sun of meteorites. Now the cause of the falling
of these meteorites into the sun is the Attraction of Gravitation, and
therefore if the falling of these meteorites produces light and heat, it
necessarily follows that the motion of Gravitation, whatever that may be
due to, is converted into the motion known as light and heat. Thus it
can be seen that Gravitation, looked at from the standpoint of a mode of
motion, is itself conformable to the principle of the transformation of
motion, and this is an indirect argument in favour of the fact that
Gravitation is itself due to certain motions of the universal Aether.


ART. 59. _Motion and Work._--In Art. 52 we have seen that energy is the
power which a body possesses to do work, the amount of work which a body
can perform being regulated by the amount of energy which such a body
possesses. In Art. 57 we have further seen that all energy is the energy
of motion, and that wherever we have energy of any kind or sort, whether
it be in the form of light, heat, or electricity, there we have motion
of some kind or other. That being so, we arrive at the conclusion, that
wherever in the universe we have motion of any kind or sort, whether it
be the motion of Aether, or wind, or water, there we have the power of
doing work, and the work so done will be proportionate to the motion
which the medium possesses. The amount of work that air in motion can do
has been measured, as we have already seen (Art. 55) that air which
moves at the rate of 30 miles per hour exerts a force of 4-1/2 lb. per
square foot.

The amount of work that water in motion can do has also been measured.
The carrying and erosive powers of a river depend on the rapidity of its
currents. It has been calculated that a velocity of three inches per
second will transport fine clay; eight inches per second coarse sand;
while three feet per second will transport stones as large as eggs.

If, therefore, air moving at the rate of 30 miles an hour can exert a
force of 4-1/2 lb. per square foot, what must be the force or pressure
of aetherial motion, as light-waves for example, which move with a
velocity of 186,000 miles per second? The amount of work which such an
aetherial motion can perform has actually been measured by Professor
Lebedew of Moscow, and will be dealt with in the chapter on "Light, a
Mode of Motion," when the application of the work done on a body, as a
planet for example, will also be considered. Work, therefore, can always
be done by motion against resistance. This is a fundamental principle in
the sphere of dynamics, which is incontrovertible, as all experience,
observation, and experiment teach us, that wherever we get motion of any
kind or sort, there we have the capacity or power to do work. The work
done may be either in the form of pushing a body along, or pulling a
body towards a centre. All experience and observation teach us that no
body moves (whether it be an atom, or moon, or planet, or sun, or star),
unless some other body or medium, which is in direct contact with the
moving body, exercises some pressure or pull upon the moving body. The
action is purely and simply a mechanical one. So that if this be true,
then the earth and the planets, the sun and stars, comets and meteors,
are moved through space solely because they are being pushed by some
medium, or pulled to the centre by the motions of the same medium. If
this can be proved to be true, then, as can be readily seen, our
philosophy will then be made to agree with our experience, and the
second Rule of Philosophy fully satisfied. As has already been pointed
out, there is no such thing as action at a distance, therefore the Law
of Gravitation demands a medium for its operation, production, and
continuity. Newton distinctly points this out in his Letters to Bentley,
where he says: "That one body should act upon another through empty
space without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their
action and pressure may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so
great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical
matters a faculty for thinking can ever fall into it." It has already
been pointed out (Art. 42), that the only medium which is universal is
the Aether medium, and we have therefore to look to the motions and
properties of that medium for the solution of the problem as to the
physical cause of Gravitation. That such a medium has motions which are
as regular as the tides of the sea, or the trade winds of the
atmosphere, will be proved later on, when it will be found that
Gravitation, with all that that law implies, is due, as Newton and
Challis suggested, to the pressure, properties, and motions of the
aetherial medium, which is as universal as Gravitation itself. This
being so, it is essential that we should set ourselves to find out from
the analogies of Nature, what are those properties and motions of the
Aether which give rise to the universal Law of Gravitation. This I
propose doing by a consideration of three different modes of
motion--viz. Heat, a mode of motion; Light, a mode of motion; and
Electricity, a mode of motion. I venture to premise, from a careful
consideration of these three truths, that we shall be able logically and
philosophically to arrive at the simple, yet grand truth which reveals
the physical source of all motion of the universe.



                              CHAPTER VI

                            HEAT IS MOTION


ART. 60. _Heat is Motion._--On the phenomena of Heat, Newton in his
eighteenth query in _Optics_ asks the questions: "Is not the heat of a
warm room conveyed through the vacuum by the vibrations of a much
subtler medium than air, and is not the medium the same as that medium
by which light is reflected and refracted, or by whose vibrations light
communicates heat to bodies? And do not the vibrations of this medium in
hot bodies, contribute to the intenseness and duration of their heat?
And do not hot bodies communicate their heat to contiguous cold ones by
the vibrations of this medium propagated from them into the cold ones?
And is not this medium exceedingly more rare and subtle than air, and
exceedingly more elastic and active?" Thus it can be seen that Newton
was of the opinion that heat consists in a minute vibratory motion of
the particles of bodies, and that such motion was communicated through
what he calls a vacuum by the vibrations of an elastic medium, the
Aether, which was also concerned in the phenomena of light.

One of the first experimental investigations into the real nature of
Heat was made in 1798 by Count Rumford.

While he was engaged in boring brass cannon in the arsenal at Munich, he
was struck with the degree of heat which the brass gun acquired, and
with the still more intense heat which the metallic chips, which were
thrown off, possessed. Of the phenomena he says: "The more I meditated
on these phenomena, the more they appeared to me to be curious and
interesting. A thorough investigation seemed even to bid fair to give us
a farther insight into the hidden nature of Heat." Rumford therefore set
himself to find out by actual experiments what the nature of Heat was.
For this purpose he constructed a cylinder, and mounted it so that it
could be made to rotate by horse-power. At the beginning of the
experiment the thermometer stood at 60° Fahrenheit, and after
half-an-hour, when the cylinder had made 900 revolutions, the
temperature was found to be 130° Fahrenheit, so that there had been an
increase in the temperature of the cylinder of 70° Fahrenheit. The
experiment was again repeated in another form with similar results.
Rumford in dealing with the results of his experiments said: "It appears
to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any
distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communicated, in
the manner the Heat was excited and communicated, in these experiments,
except it be Motion."

Only a year later, Davy gave to the world some results of experiments
which he had performed, by which he had arrived at a similar conclusion
to that of Rumford, viz. that "Heat is motion of some kind." His
experiment consisted of rubbing two pieces of ice together, and by so
doing showed the ice could be melted. He then caused two pieces of metal
to be rubbed together, keeping them surrounded by ice, and still he
found that the two pieces of metal when rubbed together, produced heat,
and melted the ice. He therefore rightly concluded that heat was
produced by friction, and of the experiment adds: "A motion or vibration
of the corpuscles of bodies must necessarily be generated by friction.
Therefore we may reasonably conclude that this motion or vibration is
Heat. Heat then may be defined as a peculiar motion, probably a
vibration of the corpuscles of bodies tending to separate them. It may
with propriety be called a repulsive motion. Now bodies exist in
different states, and those states depend upon the action of the
attractive and of the repulsive powers on their corpuscles, or in other
words, on their different quantities of repulsion and attraction." It
was not, however, till 1812 that Davy confidently stated that "The
immediate cause of the phenomena of Heat is motion, and the laws of its
communication are precisely the same as the laws of the communication of
motion."

The question therefore confronts us, if heat be motion, what is the
particular character of that motion? Is it a vibratory motion as Davy
suggested, or is it similar to the undulatory wave motion of light? I
need hardly point out, that we have evidence in favour of the hypothesis
that light is due to some form of periodic wave motion in the Aether,
the hypothesis being that known as the undulatory theory. We have also
similar evidence in favour of the hypothesis, that heat is also due to
some form of motion of the same aetherial medium. Indeed, it can be
shown that heat possesses all the properties of light, and is subject to
the same laws, with the exception that it cannot affect the sense of
sight.

Heat, then, is due to some motion in the universal aetherial medium,
that not only fills all space, but also forms an atmosphere around every
atom or particle of matter that exists in the universe, and that motion
is generally known as a vibratory or backward and forward motion.

Heat, then, may be said to be due to the vibrations of the Aether that
surrounds all atoms and molecules, and of which those very atoms are
composed, that is if we accept the aetherial constitution of all matter.
So that, whenever a body, whether it be an atom or a molecule, or a
planet or sun or star, is heated in any way whatever, such bodies excite
waves in the surrounding Aether, and these waves travel through the
Aether towards us from the heated body with the velocity of light. When
these waves fall upon any other body, they become more or less absorbed
by the body on which they fall, and cause corresponding vibratory
motions in the same, which give rise to the phenomenon of heat in that
particular body.

It has to be remembered that nothing definite is actually known as to
the character of this vibratory motion. It is called a vibratory motion
because it possesses a periodic vibratory movement, but as to its exact
character, that has not yet been discovered. I hope, however, to
indicate what the motion is that produces heat before the completion of
this work.


ART. 61. _Heat and Matter._--If it be true that heat is due to the
vibrations of the aetherial medium, the question now arises, as to how a
body may become heated, and by so doing be transformed into the three
stages in which matter is found. We have already seen (Art. 36), that
matter may be found in three forms, viz. solid, liquid, and gaseous, and
that all these different forms of matter are composed of minute parts
called atoms. In the case of the solid, the atoms are held closely
together by some strong attractive power, termed cohesion; in the case
of the liquid, the atoms have a greater freedom; while in the gaseous
form they have a greater freedom of movement than when in either the
liquid or the solid state. According to Young's Fourth Hypothesis (Art.
45), we find that all matter, and therefore all atoms have an attraction
for the Aether, by means of which it is accumulated within their
substance, and for a small distance around them in a state of greater
density, and therefore of greater elasticity. In other words, as Aether
is gravitative, every atom possesses an atmosphere of Aether in the same
way that the earth has its atmosphere of air; and further, the aetherial
atmosphere of each atom is densest nearest to the atom, gradually
getting rarer and rarer the further the atmosphere recedes from the
nucleus or centre, the elasticity or pressure being always proportionate
to the density. Professor Challis, in his Dynamical Theory of Light and
Heat, states that all the forces in Nature are different modes of
pressure under different circumstances of the universal Aether, and as
heat is a Force, and therefore a mode of motion, that also must be due
to some form of pressure due to the vibrations of the Aether.

Professor Challis[8] on this point says: "According to this theory, the
atoms of any substance are kept in position of equilibrium by attractions
and repulsions resulting from the dynamical action of the vibrations of
the Aether which have their origin at the atoms. Each atom is the centre
of vibration propagated equally from it in all directions, and that part
of the velocity of the vibration which is accompanied by change of density
(of the Aether) gives rise to a repulsive action on the surrounding
atoms. This action is the repulsion of heat, which keeps the individual
atoms asunder."

With all these facts before us, we are now in a position to account for
the changes of matter which take place when heat is applied to either
a solid or a liquid body. We have already seen (Art. 36) that it is by
the application of heat that matter in its solid form is changed into a
liquid, and from a liquid into a vaporous or gaseous form. It is now for
us to endeavour to form a mental picture as to how this is done.

For example, let us take an iron ball, and apply heat to it, either by
putting it in a furnace or suspending it in some way over an intense
heat. As the heat, which is vibratory motion of the Aether, begins to be
absorbed by the iron ball, it sets the atoms which compose the ball in
motion, urging them to separate, and thus cause the iron ball to expand
and increase in volume. As greater heat is absorbed, so greater motion
among the atoms is the result. So that the motion of heat is tending
all the time to expand the body, while they are held together by the
attraction of cohesion, whatever that may be. As the heat is further
increased, the iron ball begins to assume a liquid or molten form, its
atoms beginning to move about with greater freedom, though held together
by a decreased attractive power. In this condition we now say that it is
in the molten state. Now during all this time, what has the Aether been
doing, or what part has it played in the expansion and changing of the
solid to a liquid? We have to remember, from Art. 60, that wherever
there is motion of any kind or sort, there we have a capacity to do
work, and that the aetherial motion which we term heat is no exception
to this rule. We are now no longer dealing with a frictionless medium,
but with a medium which possesses weight, because it is gravitative, and
consequently possesses inertia also. So that whenever the Aether is set
in motion by flame or heat, its motion would be transmitted by waves of
some kind to the iron ball. These periodic waves, acting upon the mass
of the ball, attack the molecules of the ball and begin to set them in
motion. It is supposed that they are already in motion, as nothing is
absolutely cold, and the motion of the aetherial waves imparts a greater
motion still to the molecules, with the result that the agitation
becomes greater and greater, until at length the agitation becomes so
great, that the molecules break away from the power of attraction that
holds them together, and so begin to move about with greater freedom and
with greater rapidity. It is this state which we call molten. Now if
Aether be frictionless, as has hitherto been supposed, and if heat be
due to the vibratory motions of Aether, the problem confronts us, as to
how the motion of a frictionless medium can do work in expanding a body,
and urging the molecules of a body further and further apart. If the
Aether be frictionless, then the waves of Aether known as aetherial heat
waves ought to pass between the atoms as water passes through a sieve,
or wind passes through a forest. Yet it is assumed that the vibratory
motions of a hot body are caused by vibrations of the periodic waves of
the Aether, which act upon the molecules of the body; and, in order for
such an assumption to be consistent with the results, the only possible
conception that can be accepted of the Aether, is that it is
gravitative, and consequently possesses mass and inertia, and therefore
has a capacity not only to accept motion, but also to transmit motion to
another body, and impart the motion which it has accepted to a colder
body.

By imparting such motion, it increases the motion of the cold body, and
gradually changes its state from a solid to a liquid condition. Here,
then, from the realm of heat we have another argument in favour of the
fact that Aether is gravitative, and therefore possesses mass and
inertia.

In the experiment of reducing the iron ball from a liquid state, so to
speak, to a vaporous condition, we have practically a continuation of
the same process, only that greater heat or greater aetherial motion is
required, and whereas in the previous experiment the molecules of the
ball were acted upon, in this case the atoms are more directly acted
upon by the Aether waves. In all these processes it suggests itself to
me that the aetherial atmosphere must take its share in the expansion
and transformation of the liquid form into a gaseous form, or the solid
into a liquid form. Taking the analogy of our atmosphere in its relation
to the earth, we know that when heat is absorbed by it, it expands, the
result being that a greater pressure is exerted by the expanding
atmosphere, than would be exerted if it remained at the same temperature
all the time. If, therefore, each atom has an aetherial atmosphere,
which is capable of expansion, then the effect of the absorbed aetherial
motion of the heat waves on each atomic atmosphere must be to expand it,
and thus there will be a pressure _away from_ the atom, because of the
increased elasticity acquired by the heated aetherial atmosphere. So
that the expansion of the liquid is due to the increased elasticity of
the aetherial atomic atmosphere, which has been expanded by heat, and
which exerts an increased pressure on neighbouring atoms, thus seeking
to push them farther away from each other. There are other motions of
the atoms themselves in addition to this to be considered, but I am now
seeking to show only the effect of the aetherial atmosphere of each atom
upon the neighbouring atoms. This would give each atom a larger sphere
of freedom in which to move, and that state would then be called a
gaseous and not a liquid one. This assumption of the part which the
aetherial atmosphere plays in the expansion of a body is therefore in
agreement with Professor Challis' theory of heat already referred to, in
which he states that heat gives rise to aetherial vibrations which act
repulsively on the neighbouring atoms. In further confirmation of the
existence of these aetherial atmospheres that exist around atoms, I
would like to draw the attention of the reader to a theory of heat given
to the world by Rankine, _Phil. Mag._, 1851. His theory is known as the
"Hypothesis of Molecular Vortices."

He assumed that "each atom of matter consists of a nucleus or central
point, enveloped by an elastic atmosphere, which is retained in its
position by attractive forces, and that the elasticity due to heat
arises from the centrifugal force of those atmospheres revolving or
oscillating about their nuclei or centres."

Now in this assumption we find that he admits that each atom has an
atmosphere, such atmosphere evidently being an aetherial one, and in
that case the hypothesis would agree with the statement in Art. 46, that
every atom possesses an aetherial atmosphere. He further points out that
the atmosphere is retained in its position by attractive forces. This is
also in harmony with the hypothesis given in Art. 45, which proves that
Aether is gravitative, and therefore the atmosphere of the atom would be
held in its position by the attractive force of Gravitation, as
suggested by Young in his Fourth Hypothesis.

Further, he goes on to show that the elasticity of the atomic atmosphere
is proportionate to its density, which is also in conformity with the
statement made in Art. 47, and is also in accordance with Boyle's Law.
Then he goes on to prove that the quantity of heat in a body is measured
by the molecular revolutions of the vortices.

He does not clearly define the exact character of those molecular
vortices, but I take it to mean that each atmosphere is in a state of
revolution around its atomic centre, in the same way that the atmosphere
of a planet is in a state of revolution around its central body.

Such an assumption is entirely in harmony with experience, as there is
an analogy for its assumption from the planetary system; and if an atom
is a world in miniature, as I believe it to be, then the atmosphere of
the atom ought to revolve around its central nucleus in the same way
that the atmosphere of a planet revolves around its nucleus or central
body.

He then deals with temperature, and with the pressure of gases caused by
heat, showing the relation of elasticity and pressure to temperature in
a table of results given in the _Phil. Mag._ for 1851. I must refer the
reader to the paper itself for fuller details. Thus from one of the
greatest thinkers of modern times we have further testimony to the
hypothesis that Aether is matter and is therefore gravitative, and
because of its gravitating tendency, it forms around every atom and
molecule elastic envelopes or atmospheres, whose pressure is always
proportionate to their density.

[Footnote:8 _Phil Mag._, 1859.]


ART. 62. _Radiation and Absorption._--We have already seen (Art. 31)
that all matter is made up of atoms and molecules, each of which is
surrounded by its atmosphere of Aether. By means of the Aether, motion
in the form of light and heat may be transmitted from one atom and
molecule to another. The transmission of heat from one body to another
is termed Radiation, while the acceptance of heat is termed Absorption.
Tyndall defines Radiation as "the communication of molecular motion from
the heated body to the Aether in which it is immersed,"[9] and
Absorption, therefore, would be the acceptance of motion by the body
from the Aether. So that in Radiation, the atom, molecule, or body parts
with motion to the Aether, while in Absorption it gains motion from the
Aether.

Now in order for us to understand this theory of Radiation and
Absorption, it will be well for us if we look at a similar effect in the
sphere of music and sound. Let us suppose that we have two tuning-forks
of the same pitch, placed on a table at a distance of a foot from each
other. If we set one of the forks vibrating, the waves which it radiates
through the air will fall upon the other one, and will also set it in
vibration, because they are of the same period or size as those waves
which it would itself give off when sounded. Thus while one is losing
its motion, the other is gaining it, or while one is radiating motion,
the other is absorbing motion. This can readily be proved by stopping
the vibration of the first fork, when it will be found that the second
fork is now giving out a similar note to the first, although it was
silent at the commencement. Thus we have here an example of radiation
and absorption of sound, the success of the experiment depending upon
the fact that both forks shall have the same pitch. Again, it must be
noted, that if we have two tuning-forks both of which are of the same
pitch, and both vibrating at the same time, then, while one is radiating
sound and consequently losing motion to the other, yet at the same time
it is absorbing motion from the other. Because, if fork A can transfer
motion to fork B, the latter can equally transfer its motion to fork A,
and when both are vibrating together, each is the recipient of part of
the other's motion, while at the same time giving off motion in the form
of sound waves itself. So that the power of a fork to radiate sound
waves equals its power to absorb sound waves. If now we apply this
simile to the atomic and molecular world, we shall be able to form a
mental picture as to what takes place in radiation and absorption.

All atoms and molecules are ever in a state of ceaseless motion, ever
moving, never still. All are creating Aether waves which move away with
the velocity of light. If, in the transmission of the waves by the
Aether, they fall upon another atom which can emit a wave of similar
length, in the same way that two tuning-forks emitted sound waves of the
same length, then the atom upon which the waves strike will be set in
vibration, as the second tuning-fork was set in vibration by the first.
We shall look again at the principle of wave motion in the next chapter.
Further, from the simile of the two forks, which absorb sound at the
same time that they radiate sound, we learn that an atom or body
radiates heat waves at the same time that it is absorbing heat waves.
Suppose that we have two bodies at equal temperatures, it must not be
thought that the radiation or absorption has ceased, for, according to
the simile used, they both still continue to vibrate and emit the
aetherial heat waves; but where we get equality of temperatures, there
we get equality of radiation and absorption. Before this equality of
temperatures, however, is reached, the hotter body will radiate more
heat waves than it absorbs, while the colder body will absorb more heat
waves than it emits. All bodies, whatever their temperature, are
incessantly radiating heat waves. This may be proved experimentally with
proper apparatus, as for example with an instrument known as the
thermopile. When, however, the total heat waves radiated out by a body
are less than it absorbs, the body gets gradually colder, and the
temperature decreases. So long as this is continued, so long will the
body continue to get colder and colder, until it arrives at the same
temperature as the surrounding bodies, at which point the total heat
waves radiated out will equal the total heat waves absorbed, and at that
point the temperature of the body will remain constant.

This aspect of temperature was first introduced by Prevost of Geneva in
1792, in an article in which he tried to explain the radiation from a
cold body. According to his reasoning, a body is not simply regarded as
radiating heat when its temperature is falling, or absorbing heat when
it is rising.

What he tried to make clear was, that both radiation and absorption were
going on at one and the same time; the radiation depending upon the body
itself, but the absorption depending upon the nature of the body. While
radiation and absorption are thus reciprocal, which implies that a good
radiator is a good absorber, and a bad radiator is a bad absorber, it
does not follow that all bodies radiate and absorb alike.

The capacity of bodies to radiate and to absorb differ considerably. Dr.
Franklin made several simple experiments to prove the relative powers of
radiation and absorption with several pieces of cloth. These were put
out on the snow, and exposed to the heat of the sun. He found that the
pieces which were dark in colour sank deepest into the snow, while those
which were lightest in colour sank the least. From this he inferred that
the darkest pieces were the best absorbers, and therefore the best
radiators, while the light-coloured cloths were the worst absorbers, and
therefore the worst radiators.

Radiation, therefore, may be said to be the propagation of a wave motion
through the Aether; and, as all motion is a source of power or energy,
we have in the radiation of heat from one body to another by the
aetherial waves, the transmission of a motive power capable of doing
work, either internal work as increasing the temperature of the molecule
or body, or external work as separating the atoms, or driving them
further apart. It can readily be seen that if the Aether were
frictionless, as has generally been supposed, the Aether could not have
any motive power at all, and therefore could not transmit heat from one
body to another. Professor Tyndall[10] on this point says, referring to
the cooling of a red-hot ball: "The atoms of the ball oscillate in a
resisting medium, which accepts their motion and transmits it on all
sides with inconceivable velocity." Now in the previous quotation given
in this article from the same authority, he states that the atoms are
immersed in the Aether. So that evidently in his opinion the Aether and
the resisting medium are one and the same. So that our assumption of the
gravitative property of the Aether is perfectly in accord with Professor
Tyndall's conception of the Aether, in so far as it concerns the
propagation of heat waves; and, as will be shown later on, heat and
light waves are due to the same physical agent--that is, the Aether;
therefore, wherever we get heat and light, there, according to Professor
Tyndall's statement, we must have a resisting medium, and as Aether
fills all space, the resisting medium must fill all space. This is
perfectly in accord with our assumption that the Aether is gravitative
and possesses inertia--that is, the capacity to receive and to impart
motion, and being gravitative it possesses mass or weight, which is the
very quality necessary for the existence of a resisting medium.

[Footnote 9: _Heat, a Mode of Motion._]

[Footnote 10: _Heat, a Mode of Motion._]


ART. 63. _Heat is a Repulsive Motion._--Whatever be the particular
character of the vibratory motion of the Aether termed heat, there is
one fact regarding the same that is very patent and obvious to all; and
that is, that the vibratory motion of heat is essentially a repulsive
motion, or a motion from a centre and not one to a centre.

Professor Davy points this out (Art. 60) where he says of heat, "It may
with propriety be called a repulsive motion," while Professor Challis
(Art. 61) states that "Each atom is the centre of vibrations propagated
from it equally in all directions, which give rise to a repulsive action
on the surrounding atoms. This action (he adds) is the repulsion of heat
which keeps the individual atoms asunder."

There have been many experiments undertaken which go to prove that a
repulsive action between atoms and molecules is produced by heat. It has
been demonstrated that certain coloured rings, known as Newton's rings,
change their shape and position when the glasses between which they
appear are heated, thus indicating the presence of a repulsive power due
to the increased heat. If we consider the change of state that heat
induces in matter, as, for example, from solid to a liquid, or liquid to
a gaseous form, we are compelled to admit that heat possesses an
expanding and therefore a repulsive motion. It is almost an universal
law that heat expands and cold contracts, and the greater the heat
absorbed, the greater the expansion. In the case of a solid being
converted into a liquid, a much greater heat or repulsive motion is
required to separate the particles, on account of the power of cohesion
being greater in the solid than in the liquid. As Professor Tyndall[11]
states when dealing with the stability of matter from the molecular
standpoint: "Every atom is held apart from its neighbour by a force of
repulsion. Why then do not the mutually repellent members of the group
part company? The reason of this stability is that _two_ forces, the one
attractive and the other repulsive, are in operation between every two
atoms, and the position of every atom is determined by the equilibration
of these two forces. The points at which attraction and repulsion are
equal to each other is the atom's position of equilibrium. When the
atoms approach too near each other, repulsion predominates and drives
them apart; when they recede to too great a distance, attraction
predominates and draws them together." If, therefore, there are TWO
forces at work in the atomic world, viz. attraction and repulsion, then
the question arises, Can that repulsive power be increased in any way,
and if so, by what means? Such repulsive motion, as experiment and
experience teach us, can be increased, and such increase may be derived
from the absorption of heat which gives rise to increased atomic motion,
and so to increased aetherial motion away from the atom, by which the
repulsive action of one atom upon another is increased. Thus an atom's
repulsive power may be increased by heat; the greater the heat absorbed,
the greater the repulsive power that any atom or body exerts upon a
neighbouring atom or body. We can therefore understand how it is, that a
body when changed from a solid to a liquid condition occupies a larger
space in the latter condition than in the former; or why a body when
changed from a liquid to a gaseous condition occupies a still larger
volume in the latter than in its previous condition. The expansion in
both cases is essentially the result of the increased repulsive motion
that has been imparted to its atoms or molecules by the increased heat,
and this increased repulsive power has overcome the attractive power of
the atoms or molecules, with the result that they have been driven
further and further apart, until, in the gaseous state, the atoms may
be very far apart indeed. Wherever, therefore, we have heat of any kind,
there we have a repulsive motion, such motion being proportionate to the
heat radiated, that is, the aetherial waves propagated by the body. If,
therefore, in the atomic world we find a repulsive motion, which is due
to the vibratory motions of the Aether generated by heat, the question
now confronts us, as to whether in the solar system, and indeed all
through the universe, there is not the same repulsive motion from a
central body due to the wave motions of the Aether termed Heat.

May we not find in the repulsive power of heat in the atomic world, an
indication of that very power for which we are seeking in the solar
system--that is, a Centrifugal Force or motion which is the exact
opposite of the Centripetal Force or attractive power of Gravitation?
For if heat be a repulsive motion at all, then to be strictly logical it
must be equally repulsive in relation to large masses, the sun and the
planets for example, as it is in the atomic world, otherwise we have a
phenomenon in Nature which contradicts itself, which assumption would be
contrary to the simplicity which is to govern our philosophy, and also
contradictory to experience, which is the primary factor of
philosophical reasoning. Now what are the facts with reference to the
sun, which is the central body of our solar system, and the source of
all light and heat in that system? We will look at this aspect of the
question under the heading of Radiant Heat.

[Footnote 11: _Heat, a Mode of Motion._]


ART. 64. _Radiant Heat._--The source of all light and heat, not only of
our earth, but also of all the other planets, is to be found in the sun.
We have therefore to deal, not with an atom which is generating heat
waves on every side, but with a globe about 860,000 miles in diameter,
and with a circumference of over 2,700,000 miles. This huge orb consists
of a central body, molten or partly solid, with a temperature so hot
that it is almost impossible to conceive its intensity. The quantity of
heat emitted by the sun has been ascertained by Sir John Herschel from
experiments made at the Cape of Good Hope, and by M. Pouillet in Paris.

Sir John Herschel found that the heating power of the sun when it was
directly overhead was capable of melting .00754 of an inch of ice per
minute. According to M. Pouillet the quantity was .00703 of an inch,
which is equal to about half-an-inch per hour. From these results it has
been calculated that if the direct heat of the sun were received upon a
block of ice one mile square, 26,000 tons would be melted per hour by
the heat which would be absorbed. Again, as Herschel[12] puts it:
"Supposing a cylinder of ice, 45 miles in diameter, to be continually
darted into the sun with the velocity of light, the heat given off
constantly from the sun by radiation would be wholly expended in
liquefaction on the one hand, while on the other, the actual temperature
at the sun's surface would undergo no diminution." Sir John Herschel
further says: "All the heat we enjoy comes from the sun. Imagine the
heat we should have to endure if the sun were to approach us, or we the
sun, to a point the one hundred and sixtieth part of the present
distance. It would not be merely as if 160 suns were shining on us all
at once, but 160 times 160 suns according to the rule of inverse
squares--that is, 25,600. Imagine a globe emitting heat 25,600 times
fiercer than that of an equatorial sunshine at noonday, with the sun
vertical. In such a heat there is no solid substance we know of which
would not run like water, boil, or be converted into smoke or vapour."

Lockyer points out that the heat radiated from every square yard of the
sun's surface is equal to the amount of heat produced by the burning of
six tons of coal on that area in one hour. Now the surface of the sun
may be estimated at 2,284,000,000,000 square miles, and there are
3,097,600 square yards in each square mile; what therefore must be the
number of tons of coal which must be burnt per hour to represent the
amount of heat radiated from the sun into space? The approximate result
may be calculated by multiplication, but the figures arrived at fail to
give any adequate conception of the actual result.

From these facts it may be seen that the sun has a temperature far
exceeding any temperature that can be produced on the earth by
artificial means. All known elements would be transformed into a
vaporous condition if brought close to the sun's surface. It may readily
be seen, therefore, that the sun is constantly sending forth an
incessant flood of radiant heat in all directions, and on every side
into space. Now if heat be motion, and be primarily due to the vibratory
motion of Aether, what must be the volume and the intensity of the
aetherial waves, known as heat waves, generated by the sun? When we
remember its ponderous mass, with its volume more than 1,200,000 times
that of our earth, its huge girth of more than 2-1/2 millions of miles,
and this always aglow with fire the most extensive known--fires so
intense that they cover its huge form with a quivering fringe of
flames which leap into space a distance of 80,000 miles, or even
100,000 miles, or over one-third of the distance of the moon from the
earth,--remembering all these facts, what must be the volume and
intensity of the aetherial heat waves which they generate and send upon
their course into space on all sides! What a very storm of energy and
power must there be in this aetherial atmosphere which exists around the
sun's huge form, and with what volume of power must the aetherial heat
waves speed away from so great a generating source! Some idea as to
their velocity of motion may be gained by the fact, that these aetherial
heat waves traverse the distance of 92,000,000 miles between the sun and
our earth in the short space of 8-1/2 minutes. With such a velocity of
motion as that, and with the fact before us that all motion is a source
of energy or power, what must be the energy possessed by these heat
waves! There must, therefore, be a power in these aetherial heat waves
which is strictly proportionate to their intensity and flow. So that,
whenever they come into contact with any body, as a planet, as they flow
outwards from the sun, they must exert a power upon such a planet which
is directed _away_ from the sun, and therefore act upon that planet by
the energy of their motion away from the sun, the source of the
aetherial heat waves. Therefore, not only in the atomic world is heat a
repulsive motion, but equally in the solar world, which is but an atomic
world on a large scale, the same principle prevails, and the effect of
radiant heat is essentially a repulsive, that is, a centrifugal motion,
as it is always directed from the central body, the sun.

Further, it can be shown that the repulsive power of heat in the solar
system has already received the attention of scientists, especially in
France. This will be seen more fully when we come to deal with the
phenomena of comets' tails. One remarkable feature about comets' tails
is, that they are always directed away from the sun, and various
hypotheses have been advanced to account for that fact. Among them is
the hypothesis of M. Faye, in which he assumes that there is a repulsive
force which has its origin in the heat of the sun. This repulsive force
is not propagated instantaneously, but the velocity of propagation is
the same as that of a ray of light. By means of this repulsive power due
to the heat of the sun, M. Faye explains how it is that the tails of
comets are always turned away from the sun. Here, then, we have an
indication of the existence of this repulsive force of heat which we are
considering--a repulsive power which finds its source in the aetherial
waves, which give rise to the phenomena of Heat, and to which we must
look for the ultimate source of that repulsive power or Centrifugal
Force which is to form the complementary power to the attractive force
of Gravitation.

[Footnote 12: _Lectures on Scientific Subjects._]


ART. 65. _Direction of Ray of Heat._--The question as to the path which
a ray of heat takes may best be attacked by finding out what is the path
which a ray of light takes in its progress through the Aether. When we
come to deal with light, we shall find that it has been experimentally
proved that the path of a ray of light is that of a straight line
through space; so that if we have any body emitting light, the rays of
light will proceed from that body in straight lines, with decreasing
intensity, according to the law of inverse squares, the same as
Gravitation.

It can readily be shown, that wherever there is light there is heat. For
example, the radiant heat from the sun proceeds through space along with
the light from the sun, and when one set of waves, the light waves for
instance, are intercepted, the heat waves are also intercepted. Or, to
take another illustration, when the sun is eclipsed, we feel the sun's
heat as long as any portion of the sun is visible, but as soon as the
sun is totally eclipsed, then the light waves disappear, and with it the
heat waves. From this we can readily see, that not only do the heat and
light waves from the sun proceed in the same straight line, but that
they also travel at the same rate through space, at the rate of 186,000
miles per second. Then again the common lens, which is so familiar to
every one, will prove the same fact by concentrating the rays of light
to a focus, and by so doing will produce sufficient heat to burn a piece
of paper, or even set fire to wood. If, therefore, the path of a ray of
light be that of a straight line, proceeding from the luminous or
lighted body, and the path of a ray of heat coincides with the path of a
ray of light, the path of the ray of heat must also be in the direction
of a straight line from the heated or luminous body, which, as we shall
see in a subsequent article, also decreases in intensity according to
the law of inverse squares the same as Gravitation Attraction.

Professor Tyndall, on the direction of a ray of heat,[13] states his
opinion on the matter as follows: "A wave of Aether starting from a
radiant point in all directions in a uniform medium constitutes a
spherical shell, which expands with the velocity of light or of radiant
heat. A ray of light or a ray of heat is a line perpendicular to the
wave, and in the case here supposed, the rays would be the radii of the
spherical shell." From this it can be seen that a ray of light or heat
corresponds to what is known as the radius vector of a circle (Art. 20),
and therefore a ray of light and heat takes exactly the same path
through space (if we consider the sun as the source of the light and
heat) as the path of the attractive power of Gravitation. Collecting,
therefore, our results from the preceding articles of this chapter, we
learn that heat is due to vibrating wave motion of the Aether, and that
that motion is a motion which is always directed from the central body
which is the source of the heat; and further, that this motion amounts
to a repulsive motion acting in an opposite direction to the attractive
power of gravity or to the centripetal force of Gravitation. What is
more remarkable still, the path of a ray of heat corresponds with, and
takes up exactly the same direction through space, whether it be atomic
space, solar space, or interstellar space, as the attractive force of
Gravitation.

Looking at the subject from the standpoint of the solar system, with the
sun as the central body, we see that while we have the sun, which acts
as the controlling centre of the particular system of planets, holding
all the planets in their orbits by its attractive power, yet at the same
time it is also the source of all light and heat. Now heat being due to
the wave motion of the aetherial medium, such motion being always
exerted from the central body, we arrive at the only legitimate
conclusion that can be arrived at, viz. that the sun is also the source
of a repulsive motion, which motion coincides with the path that the
attractive power of Gravitation takes, that is, along the radius vector
of the circle, as shown in Art. 20.


ART. 66. _Law of Inverse Squares applied to Heat._--The law of inverse
squares which governs not only the Law of Gravitation Attraction (Art.
22), but also electricity and light, is equally applicable to the
phenomena of heat, so that we say the intensity of heat varies inversely
as the square of the distance. Thus, if we double the distance of any
body from the source of heat, the amount of heat which such a body
receives at the increased distance is one-quarter of the heat compared
with its original position. If the distance were trebled, then the
intensity of the heat would be reduced to one-ninth; while if the
distance were four times as great, the intensity of the heat would only
be one-sixteenth of what it would receive in its first position. This
may be proved from experiments as given by Tyndall in his _Heat, a Mode
of Motion_.

Let us apply the law of inverse squares in relation to heat to the solar
system, and see what the result gives. In our solar system, we have the
sun as the central body, the source of all light and heat, with the
eight planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune, describing orbits around the central body, and at the same time
receiving from it the light and heat which the sun is ever pouring
forth into space. The mean distance of Mercury from the sun is about
36,000,000 miles, while that of the Earth is about 92,000,000 miles, so
that reckoning the distance of Mercury as unity, the distance of the
Earth is a little more than 2-1/2 times that of Mercury from the sun.
Now the square of 2-1/2 is 25/4, and that inverted gives us 4/25, so
that according to the law of inverse squares, the intensity of heat at
the Earth's distance from the sun is 4/25 of what the intensity of heat
is at the mean distance of Mercury. Again, the mean distance of Mars is
141,000,000 miles, while the mean distance of Saturn is 884,000,000
miles, and taking Mars' distance from the sun as unity, the distance of
Saturn would be represented by 6-1/4. Now the square of 6-1/4 is
(25/4)^{2} which gives 625/16 and the inverse of that is 16/625, so that
the intensity of heat at the distance of Saturn's mean distance from the
sun, in comparison with the intensity of heat at Mars' mean distance,
would be about 16/625; or in other words, the heat received by Saturn
would be only 16/625 of the intensity of heat received by the planet
Mars. In Art. 63 we have seen that heat is a repulsive motion, being a
wave motion of the Aether which is propagated from the heated and
central body, which in this case is the sun. Therefore, according to the
law of inverse squares from the standpoint of heat, we find in the solar
system a repulsive motion, due to the wave motion of the Aether, which
is always exerted away from the sun in the same path that the
centripetal force takes, and which like that force diminishes in
intensity inversely as the square of the distance. So that, wherever the
centripetal force, or the attractive force of Gravitation, is diminished
on account of the increased distance from the sun, the repulsive motion
due to heat is also diminished in exactly the same proportion and along
exactly the same path. If at any point in the solar system the
attractive force is doubled, then according to our repulsive theory of
heat, and the law of inverse squares, the repulsive motion is also
doubled. If the attractive force is halved, then the repulsive motion is
halved also, the repulsive motion being always and at all places exactly
proportional to the increase or decrease of the attraction of
Gravitation.

[Footnote 13: _Heat, a Mode of Motion._]


ART. 67. _First Law of Thermodynamics._--The Law of Thermodynamics is
based on two fundamental truths which have reference to the conversion
of Heat into Work, and Work into Heat. In Art. 54 we have already seen
that energy in the form of heat, light, electricity and magnetism is
capable of being converted into other forms of energy, while in Art. 59
we have seen that Joule gave us the exact relation in foot-pounds
between heat and work. He showed that when 1 lb. of water fell through
772 feet its temperature was raised one degree Fahr. Thus the principle
underlying the first law of thermodynamics states, that whenever work is
spent in producing heat, the amount of work done is proportionate to the
quantity of heat generated; and conversely, whenever heat is employed to
do work, a certain amount of heat is used up, which is the equivalent of
the work done. This principle is also in accord with the conservation of
Energy and Motion (Arts. 52 and 57), which assert that whenever energy
or motion disappears in one form, it is manifested in some other form.
Thus, from the first law of thermodynamics, we learn that wherever we
have heat we have the power to do work, and the amount of work so done
is proportionate to the heat used up. Heat, then, has a capacity to
perform work, and that power is known as the mechanical equivalent of
heat. Both Mayer of Germany, and Dr. Joule of Manchester, have worked
out this problem, and have given us the mechanical value of heat. By
experiments Mayer found out that a quantity of heat sufficient to raise
1 lb. of water one degree Fahr. in temperature was able to raise a
weight 771.4 lb. one foot high. Dr. Joule of Manchester, after making a
number of experiments which lasted over many years, came to the
conclusion that the mechanical equivalent of a unit heat was 772
foot-pounds, a unit of heat being the quantity of heat which would raise
1 lb. of water one degree Fahr. So that if a 1-lb. weight fell from a
height of 772 feet, an amount of heat is generated which would raise 1
lb. of water one degree Fahr.; and conversely, to lift 1 lb. 772 feet
high, one degree Fahr. of heat would be consumed.

Now if this law of thermodynamics is true, it must not only be true in
relation to terrestrial heat, or heat produced by artificial means on
our earth, but it must equally hold good in relation to the solar
system; and not only the solar system, but equally true throughout all
the systems of worlds that flood the universe. So that wherever we get
heat in the universe, in the solar system for example, there, according
to our first law of thermodynamics, we should have the capacity to do
work of some kind or other. That work may take either the form of
expanding a body, as the atmosphere of a planet for example, or it may
take a mechanical form, that is, actually moving a body by the increased
pressure due to aetherial heat waves generated by the sun. We have
already seen in Art. 64, on Radiant Heat, what a store of heat the sun
has. For thousands and millions of years the sun has been pouring forth
its heat rays into space, and yet its temperature does not seem to be
diminished. The great Carboniferous or coal period of past geological
times is an indication of the heat and light of the sun, which it must
have radiated out millions of years ago; and year by year, these
aetherial heat waves are still being poured forth by the sun on every
side into space, so that no matter where a planet may be in its orbit,
there it may be the recipient of these aetherial heat waves which break
upon its surface. Now if there be this quantity of heat existing in the
sun, and heat according to the first law of thermodynamics has a
mechanical value, which is that it can push or lift a body through
space, the question arises, as to what is the mechanical value of this
heat of the sun? Are we to suppose that if one unit of heat can lift 1
lb. 772 feet, the millions and millions of units of heat which are
constantly being poured out of the sun into space are doing no work at
all? Such an assumption is not only contrary to that simplicity which
governs our Philosophy, but is entirely opposed to experience, which is
the very foundation of all philosophical reasoning. If, therefore,
experience is to be any guide at all, we are compelled to come to the
conclusion that the heat poured forth into space does do work on the
bodies, as comets, meteors, planets, upon which the aetherial heat waves
fall. The problem is, what is the character of the work done? I have
already indicated part of the work, viz. in the expansion of the
atmosphere of the planets. Then there is also the reception of the heat
by the animal and vegetable life of the planet, but these do not account
for all the motive power of the aetherial waves, which break upon the
planet or its atmospheres.

The true solution of the first law of thermodynamics, in its relation to
the solar system, seems to me to be found in the fact already stated in
Art. 63, viz. that heat is a repulsive motion, and the law of
thermodynamics confirms that statement, and shows that the work done on
a planet by the aetherial heat waves is that of pushing it, or urging it
by their very energy and motion away from their controlling centre, the
sun. This would practically amount to a repulsive force which had its
home in the sun, and this conception would bring our Philosophy into
harmony with our experience, which teaches us that wherever there is
heat there is the capacity of doing work, the amount of work being
proportionate to the heat generated and consumed.


ART. 68. _Second Law of Thermodynamics._--This law was enunciated by
Sadi Carnot in 1824, when he wrote an essay on the Motive Power of Heat.
Previous to the time of Carnot no definite relation seems to have been
suggested between work and heat; Carnot, however, discovered what were
those general laws which govern the relation between heat and work. In
arriving at his conclusion, he based his results on the truth of the
principle of the conservation of energy already referred to (Art. 52).

Carnot started his reasoning on the assumption that heat was matter, and
therefore indestructible. The two great truths in relation to heat and
work, enunciated by Carnot, are known as, first, a Cycle of operations;
and, secondly, what he termed a Reversible Cycle. In order to be able to
reason upon the work done by a heat-engine, say a steam-engine for
example, Carnot stated we must imagine a cycle of operations, by which,
at the end of such operations, the steam or water is brought back to
exactly the same state in which it was at its start. He calls this a
cycle of operations, and of it he says, that only at the conclusion of
the cycle are we entitled to reason upon the relation between the work
done and the heat spent in doing it. His other idea of the reversible
cycle implies that an engine is reversible when, instead of using heat
and getting work from it, the engine may be driven through the cycle of
operations the reverse way, that is, by taking in work, it can pump back
heat to the boiler again. Carnot showed that if you can obtain such a
reversible engine, it is a perfect engine. All perfect engines, that is
all reversible engines, will do exactly the same amount of work with the
same amount of heat, the amount of work being strictly proportionate to
the amount of heat consumed. I need hardly point out that the reversible
engine, or the perfect engine of Carnot, is only the ideal one, as there
is no engine in which all the heat is converted into work, as a great
deal of the heat is radiated away and not converted into work at all.
Again, working from the standpoint that heat is matter, Carnot reasoned
that in the heat-engine the work is performed, not by the actual
consumption of heat, but by its transportation from a hot body to a cold
one. Thus, by the fall of heat from a higher to a lower temperature,
work could be done in the same way that work could be done by allowing
water to fall from a higher to a lower level. The quantity of water
which reaches the lower level is exactly the same as that which leaves
the higher level, as none of the water is destroyed in the fall. He
argued, therefore, that the work produced by a heat-engine was produced
in a similar manner, the quantity of heat which reaches the condenser
being supposed to be equal to that which left the source. Thus the work
was done by the heat flowing from a hot body to a cold one, and, in
doing this work, it lost its momentum like falling water, and was
brought to rest. One of the most important points noted by Carnot is
the necessity that, in all engines which derive work from heat, there
must be two bodies at different temperatures, that is, a source and a
condenser, which correspond to a hot and cold body, so that there may be
the passage of heat from the hot to the cold body. In order to get work
out of heat it is absolutely necessary to have a hotter and a colder
body. From this reasoning we learn, therefore, that work is obtained
from heat by using up the heat of the hotter body, part of which is
converted into actual work, while part is absorbed by the colder body.
So that wherever we have two bodies at different temperatures, according
to the second law of thermodynamics, there we have the power of doing
work by the transmission of heat, from the body of higher to the one of
lower temperature.

That Carnot ultimately came to believe in the dynamical theory of heat,
is proved by the following passage taken from his notes on the Motive
Power of Heat: "It would be ridiculous to suppose that it is an emission
of matter, while the light which accompanies it could only be a
movement. Could a motion produce matter? No! undoubtedly, it can only
produce a motion. Heat is then the result of motion. It is plain then
that it could be produced by the consumption of motive power, and that
it could produce this power. Heat is then simply motive power, or rather
motion which has changed its form. It is a movement among the particles
of bodies. Wherever there is a destruction of motive power, there is at
the same time production of heat in quantity exactly proportional to the
quantity of motive power destroyed. Reciprocally, whenever there is
destruction of heat there is production of motive power."

Let us apply this principle to the solar system, and endeavour to find
out whether in that system we have, in relation to the heat thereof,
either a cycle of operations or a reversible cycle. We have again to
consider the sun as the source of all light and heat in the solar
system, radiating forth on every side, year by year, the countless units
of heat which go to form the continuance of all planetary life and
existence. One of the problems that has confronted scientific men for
many years is this, Where does the sun get its supply of heat from? When
we remember the incessant loss of heat which the sun suffers through its
radiation of heat into space, we are compelled to ask, How is that
supply maintained, and how has it been kept up through the countless
ages of the past? Several suggestions have been made, and several
theories advanced to account for the fact. Mayer, of Germany, suggested
that the heat is partly maintained by the falling into the sun of
meteors, which, like comets, pursue a path through the heavens, and are
subject to the attractive influence of the sun. In the combustion of
these meteorites, or meteors, he contended there were the means by which
the light and heat of the sun might be maintained. Whatever theory,
however, may be suggested as to the maintenance and the source of the
continuity of the sun's heat, I do not think it has been suggested by
any scientist that the heat emitted and radiated by the sun is ever
returned in any way back to the sun from infinite space, whether by
reflection or by any other method. So far as I can learn, there are no
facts in connection with the solar system which would lead us to make
that assumption. On the contrary, experience and experiment teach us
that radiation implies loss of heat, and that the body, which so
radiates, ultimately becomes cold, unless its internal heat is kept up
by some means or other. So that the terms introduced by Carnot in the
second law of thermodynamics, viz. that of a Cycle of Operations and of
a Reversible Cycle, do not apply to the solar system, and the solar
system, viewed from the standpoint of a machine, with the sun as the
source of the heat, does not represent a perfect engine, that is, all
the heat is not used up in doing work, some of it being radiated out
into space. Wherever, however, the heat, that is the aetherial heat
waves generated by the sun, comes into contact with a planet, as
Mercury, Venus, or Jupiter, then, in accordance with Carnot's reasoning,
work is done. Carnot points out that, in order for work to be done, we
must have a source and a condenser, that is, two bodies at different
temperatures, a hot body and a cold one. Now these conditions of work
are satisfactorily fulfilled in the solar system, and as a result work
is performed. We have the sun with its huge fires, and its intensity of
heat, representing the source or the hot body, while every planet and
every meteor and comet, that come under its influence, represent the
cold body, and between the two work is always going on. That work is
represented by the repulsive power of heat, which I have already
indicated, so that, viewed from Carnot's standpoint with relation to the
motive power of heat, we find that there are in the solar system those
conditions which govern work, and by which, from a mechanical
standpoint, work is performed; further, that work takes the form of a
repulsive power on every planet or other body upon which the aetherial
heat waves fall. Therefore, from the second law of thermodynamics we
have another proof of this repulsive power of heat already indicated and
referred to in Art. 63.


ART. 69. _Identity of Heat and Light._--We have seen from the preceding
articles of this chapter, that heat is due to a periodic wave motion of
the Aether, and in the succeeding chapter we shall also see that light
is due to some kind of periodic wave motion in the Aether. So that not
only heat, but light also, it would appear, is due to certain periodic
wave motions that are set up in the Aether by the vibrations of hot or
luminous bodies. The question therefore arises, how many wave motions
are there in the Aether? Are there different wave motions which in one
case produce light, and in the other case produce heat, or are light and
heat both produced by the same set of aetherial waves? The identity of
light waves with heat waves is manifested by the fact that wherever we
get light we get heat, as can be proved in many ways. One of the
simplest proofs is found in the common lens or burning-glass, by which
the light waves are brought to a focus, and as a result, heat is
manifested. Although there is this close identity between light and heat
waves, yet there must be some distinction between the heat and light
waves, because while light waves affect the eye, heat waves do not.
There is actually a difference between the two kinds of waves, and that
difference is one of period or length. It must not, however, be thought
that there are really two classes or sets of waves in the Aether, one of
which could be called light waves, and the other heat waves, but rather
the same wave may be manifested in two different forms because of its
different wave lengths. In one case the waves may affect the eye, and we
have the sensation of sight, but in the other case they affect the body,
and we experience the sensation of warmth. An analogy from the waves of
sound may make these facts much clearer. We know that sound travels
about 1100 feet per second. If, therefore, we have a bell which vibrates
about 1100 times per second, we should have a wave one foot long. If it
vibrated 100 times per second the waves would be 11 feet long, while if
it vibrated only 11 times per second, the waves would be 100 feet long.
Now the impression made upon the ear depends upon the number of
vibrations the bell makes per second, and from the rate of vibration we
get the idea of pitch. If the vibrations are very rapid, then we get a
note of high pitch, and if the vibrations are slow, then we get a note
of low pitch. A note of high pitch, therefore, will correspond to waves
of short length, while a low note will correspond to waves of a greater
length; so that the greater the rapidity with which a sounding bell
vibrates, the shorter will be the length of the sound waves which it
generates, and _vice versâ_. The range of the ear however for sound
waves is limited, so that if the vibrations be too rapid or too slow,
the ear may not be able to respond to the vibrations, and so no distinct
impression of the sound will be conveyed to the brain. It need hardly be
pointed out, that both the very short and long waves are of exactly the
same character as those of a medium length, which the ear can detect,
the only difference being one of rapidity. We do not therefore suggest
that in the case of sound, where the vibrations lie outside the compass
of the ear, those which lie outside are not sound waves, or that they
are different from those which lie within the compass of the ear, and
which the ear can detect. Whether the sound waves are long or short,
whether they can be detected by the ear or not, we still say that all
are sound waves, and that all are due to the vibrations of the sounding
body, which vibrations are transmitted through the air, in waves, that
fall upon the tympanum or drum of the ear, and set that vibrating, which
vibrations are transmitted to the auditory nerve and so give rise to the
sensation of hearing. In a similar manner, every atom and every particle
of matter, every planet, every sun and star, is constantly in a state of
vibration, sending off aetherial waves on every side. Nothing in Nature
is absolutely cold, nothing is absolutely still. Therefore all matter,
whether in the atomic form, or in the planetary or solar world, is
constantly generating aetherial waves, which travel from their source or
origin with the velocity of light. If these aetherial waves so generated
fall within certain limits, then they affect the eye, and we get the
sensation of sight. To do this they must vibrate 5000 billion times per
second, and if they fail to do this, they fail to give rise to the
sensation of sight. If the aetherial waves fall below this limit, then
they affect the body, and give rise to the sensation of heat. For it
must be remembered, that as the ear has a certain compass for sound
waves, which may vary in different individuals, so the eye has also a
certain compass for aetherial waves, with the result that some waves may
be too slow or too rapid to affect the eye, and consequently fail to
give rise to the sensation of sight. When that is so, the sensation of
warmth helps us to detect these longer waves, so that the longer waves
would warm us and make their presence felt in that manner. We shall see
in the next chapter that there are both shorter and longer waves, which
may be detected in other ways. From these facts it can be readily seen,
that we have a common origin for both light and heat, and that they are
both due to periodic waves in the Aether, and therefore all the laws
that govern heat should also govern the phenomena of light. Further, if
heat possesses a dynamical value, and if there be such a truth as the
motive power of heat, then there ought equally to be a motive power of
light; and further, if heat possesses a repulsive motion, then because
of the identity of light and heat, light should equally possess this
repulsive power, because it is due to similar periodic wave motions in
the Aether. With regard to the same laws governing both light and heat,
we shall see that this fact also holds good. We have already seen (Art.
66) that the intensity of heat is inversely as the square of the
distance, and we shall also see in the succeeding chapter that the same
law holds good in relation to light. We have seen (Art. 65) that the
path of a ray of heat is that of a straight line; we shall see in the
succeeding chapter that the path of a ray of light is that of a straight
line also.

Indeed, there is no law applicable to heat which is not applicable to
light. The law of reflection and refraction of heat equally holds good
in relation to light; and further, Professor Forbes has shown that heat
can be polarized in a similar manner to the polarization of light. This
last fact is considered the most conclusive argument as to the identity
of light and heat, and proves that the only difference between the two
is simply the difference corresponding to the difference between a high
note and a low note in sound. That being so, I hope to be able to show
that as heat possesses a dynamical value, so light equally possesses a
dynamical value, and that as heat is a repulsive motion, then light must
equally possess a similar repulsive motion, that motion always being
directed from the central body, being caused by the same agency, viz.
the waves of the Aether, the common source of both light and heat. I
purpose to address myself to this subject in the following chapter,
which I have termed Light, a Mode of Motion.



                              CHAPTER VII

                        LIGHT, A MODE OF MOTION


ART. 70. _Light, a Mode of Motion._--No subject has in the past received
greater attention from philosophers and scientists than that involved in
the question as to "What is Light?" Indeed, it may truthfully be said,
that even to-day its exact character is not positively known. That it is
due like heat to some periodic wave motion in the Aether is known, but
the exact character of that wave motion has yet to be determined. As in
the case of heat, so in the case of light, there have been two theories
which have contended with each other for supremacy in endeavouring to
answer the question as to "What is Light?" Those two theories are known
as the Emission or Corpuscular Theory, and the Undulatory or Wave
Theory. The corpuscular theory was introduced and developed by Newton in
his work on _Optics_, which ranks second only to the _Principia_ as a
work revealing masterly research and scientific genius. Newton supposed
that a luminous or lighted body actually emitted minute particles, which
were shot out from the body with the velocity of light, that is, at the
rate of 186,000 miles per second. These minute particles he termed
corpuscles. In the work just referred to regarding this matter, he asks
the question, "Are not rays of light very small bodies emitted from
shining substances?" These small particles or corpuscles were supposed
by him to actually strike the retina of the eye, and so produce the
sensation of Sight, in the same way that odorous particles entering the
nostril, come into contact with the olfactory nerves and produce the
sensation of Smell. In order, however, to account for certain phenomena
of light, he was compelled to postulate an aetherial medium to fill all
space, in which his luminous corpuscles travelled, and which would
excite waves in that medium. In his eighteenth query on this point he
asks: "Is not the heat of a warm room conveyed through the vacuum by the
vibration of a much subtler medium than air, and is not this medium the
same with that medium by which light is reflected or refracted, and by
whose vibrations light communicates Heat to bodies, and is put into fits
of easy reflection and easy transmission?" The corpuscular theory,
however, received its death-blow when, in competition with the wave
theory of light, as developed by Young, it was found that the latter
theory satisfactorily accounted for certain phenomena as the refraction
of light, which the corpuscular theory did not adequately account for.
Even while Newton was developing his theory, Huyghens, a contemporary of
Newton, was developing another theory which is now known as the
undulatory or wave theory. Huyghens drew his conclusions from the
analogy of sound. He knew that sounds were propagated by waves through
the air, and from the region of the known, endeavoured to carry the
principle into the region of the unknown, a strictly philosophical
method, and one in accordance with the second Rule of Philosophy. He
supposed that light, therefore, like sound, might be due to wave motion,
but if it were wave motion, there must have been a medium to propagate
the waves. In order to account for this wave motion, he supposed all
space to be filled with a luminiferous Aether, which would be to his
light waves what air is to sound waves. In this conception he was
supported by Euler the mathematician, and in 1690 he was able to give a
satisfactory explanation of the reflection and refraction of light, on
the hypothesis that light was due to wave motion in the Aether. It was
not, however, till the advent of Thomas Young, that the undulatory or
wave theory reached its perfection, and finally overthrew its competitor
the corpuscular theory. Young made himself thoroughly acquainted with
wave motion of all kinds, and applied his knowledge and experience to
the phenomena of light, and from the analogies so obtained, he gradually
built up the undulatory theory, and gave to it a foundation from which
it has not yet been moved. Young made use of the same aetherial medium
in order to propagate the wave motion of light in the same way that
Huyghens did. From that conception, the Aether has been gradually
perfected, until we have the conception which has been presented to the
reader in Chapter IV., in which I have endeavoured to show that this
aetherial medium is matter, but infinitely more rarefied and infinitely
more elastic, but notwithstanding its extreme rarefaction and
elasticity, it possesses inertia, because it is gravitative. It is this
Aether, then, that is concerned in the propagation of light, and is the
universal medium which is to light what air is to sound. Young,
therefore, having applied himself to the wave motion of sound, from such
researches was able to explain the physical cause of colour, and that
phenomenon termed interference.

We will therefore look at wave motion, in order to understand the wave
theory of light.

Now in all wave motion, whether it be water waves or sound waves, that
which is propagated or conveyed from place to place is energy, or
motion. If a stone is thrown into water, a series of concentric circles
of waves are generated, which spread out with increasing size, but
decreasing power or motion, regularly on all sides. The water, however,
does not move away from the generating source. There is a motion of the
water, but it is simply a wave motion, so that the propagation of a wave
is the propagation of motion, rather than the transference of the actual
water which constitutes the wave. In the case of sound waves, we have
again an illustration of the same principle. For example, suppose we
strike a bell, and so set the particles of that bell in a state of
vibration. These vibrations give the air in contact with the bell a
forward movement, and then, owing to the elasticity and inertia of the
air, a backward movement is set up, with the result that a series of
waves are set in motion from the bell on every side, which gradually
diminish in intensity the farther they recede from the generating body.
According to the wave theory, therefore, we have to picture all heated
and luminous bodies in a state of vibration, and the atoms of such
luminous bodies imparting the vibrations to the atoms of the Aether, in
the same way that the atoms of a bell impart their vibrations to the
atoms of the air in contact with it. These vibrations are then
propagated through the Aether in waves, which, entering the eye, impinge
or strike upon the retina at the back of the eye, and being transmitted
to the brain give rise to the sensation of sight. It must not be
forgotten that the waves of Aether, as pointed out in Art. 64 in
relation to heat, really form spherical shells which radiate out in all
directions from the central body which gives rise to them. Thus it can
be seen, that all points in the spherical wave which are at equal
distances from the vibratory or luminous body, must possess the same
intensity, and possess equal lighting powers. Light, therefore, like
heat, is due to a periodic wave motion set up in the Aether by the
vibrating atomic motion of heated or luminous bodies. It must be also
noticed, that if we could see the air through which the sound waves are
passing, we should see that each atom or particle of the atmosphere was
vibrating to and fro in the direction of propagation. If, however, we
could see an atom of Aether in vibration, accepting the principle that
Aether is atomic, we should see that each aetherial atom is not
vibrating in the direction of propagation, but across the line in which
the wave is travelling. Thus the vibration of the air is said to be
longitudinal, but the vibrations of the Aether are transversal. An
illustration of the transverse motion of a light wave may be obtained by
taking a rope and imparting to it a series of undulations by shaking it
up and down, when it will be observed that the wave motion of the rope
is transverse to the straight line in which it is propagated. The
physical explanation of the transverse vibration of light will be dealt
with in a subsequent article.

Now the question suggests itself to our mind, as to what effect the
atomicity of the Aether has upon the undulatory theory of light. Does it
establish it upon a firmer basis, or does it in any way destroy its
truth as a theory? I venture to think that the atomicity of the Aether
in no sense destroys any part of the undulatory theory of light, but
rather tends to confirm and establish it upon a logical and
philosophical basis.

For instance, as has been pointed out in Art. 47, in order for the
undulatory theory to have any existence at all, it is essential that the
Aether should possess the property of elasticity. But how the Aether
possessed the property of elasticity while at the same time it was
frictionless, and therefore possessed no mass, has been a problem that
has taxed the ingenuity and resources of scientists for a century past,
and up to the present is a problem which still remains unsolved. Now,
however, with our atomic Aether, it is just as easy to conceive Aether
transmitting a wave as it is for air to transmit sound waves, or water
to transmit water waves.

Tyndall, in his _Lectures on Light_, seems to have appreciated the
difficulty, and to avoid confusion, again and again refers to a
_particle_ of Aether. While Huyghens himself in speculating upon the
elasticity of the Aether in his _Traité de la Lumière_, 1678, makes a
suggestion as to its origin, which practically amounts to the fact that
the aetherial atom which gives rise to this elasticity is the core or
centre of a vortex ring. Thus it can be seen that the elasticity of the
Aether, so essential to the undulatory theory, is a problem that cannot
be solved apart from recognizing the hypothesis of an atomic Aether.

Then, again, in the undulatory theory of light, the density of the
Aether around molecules of bodies has to be taken into consideration to
account for such phenomena as the refraction and reflection of light,
but, as we have seen in Art. 46, such a property as density is
inconceivable in connection with a medium which is neither atomic and
possesses no mass. On the assumption, however, of an atomic and
gravitative Aether, the difficulty is at once solved, and the density of
the Aether, and different degrees of density are at once placed upon a
logical and philosophical basis. So that in relation to the elasticity
and density of the Aether upon which the transmission and reflection of
wave motion depend, an atomic and gravitative Aether establishes and
confirms the undulatory theory.

There is also another aspect of the subject that is worthy of notice. I
refer to the effect of an atomic and gravitative Aether upon Newton's
corpuscular theory of light. Newton's corpuscular theory failed in not
being able to account for the relative velocity of light in rare and
denser media, and if by an atomic Aether in conjunction with the
undulatory theory, the phenomenon can be accounted for, as I believe it
can, then our aetherial vortex atoms are analogous to Newton's
corpuscles. This distinction will, however, have to be made, viz. that
Newton supposed his luminous corpuscles to be emitted by the luminous
body, whereas in the conception of our aetherial atoms, we conceive them
to be stationary relatively in space, and only subject to those
vibrations and oscillations that give rise to the aetherial waves
recognized in the undulatory theory.

It would indeed be a consummation to be desired, if, by an atomic
Aether, it can be proved that Newton's Corpuscular Theory was made to
harmonize with the Undulatory Theory, and that it can be I am profoundly
convinced. Professor Preston is also of this view, for in his _Theory of
Light_, writing on this subject, he says, page 19: "In conclusion, we
may state that we believe an ingenious exponent of the emission theory,
by suitably framing his fundamental postulates, might fairly meet all
the objections that have been raised against it."

We will now apply the hypothesis of an atomic and gravitating Aether to
Huyghens' principle of wave propagation, and see if this atomicity in
any way destroys that principle, or whether it simplifies and confirms
it.

Let us briefly review our conception of the Aether before making the
application. In the first place, because Aether is gravitative, we
learned from Art. 45 that it surrounds all bodies in the universe, from
the smallest atom to the largest sun or star in the firmament of heaven.
Our sun, then, which is to our system the source of all its light, will
be surrounded by what are practically spherical aetherial envelopes or
shells which decrease in density as they recede from the sun (Art. 46).
These aetherial shells are, according to our conception, made up of
minute aetherial spherical vortex atoms possessing polarity and rotation
(Art. 43), and these atoms will be closer together the nearer they are
to the central body, because of the increased density of the Aether due
to the attractive influence of the sun. Thus, when a wave motion is set
up in the Aether around the sun by the intense atomic activity of that
incandescent body, each atom of that aetherial spherical shell or
envelope participates in the motion or impulse received, at one and the
same time, so that the wave is transmitted from envelope to envelope, by
the elasticity of the aetherial atoms which compose the envelope or
shell. Thus the light wave is always spherical in form, or nearly so, as
the rotational and orbital motion of the sun affect the exact shape of
the aetherial envelope as we shall learn more fully later on.

Further, the wave front always takes the form of a sphere, as the waves
are radiated out from the luminous body in all directions, and we shall
learn, in the next article, that the vibrations are always in the wave
front, that is, take place on the surface of each of these envelopes,
and these vibrations are also transverse to the propagation of the wave.
As these aetherial envelopes extend right into space, the wave is
transmitted from envelope to envelope by means of the aetherial atoms
with the velocity of 186,000 miles per second, but as each succeeding
envelope possesses a larger surface than the preceding one, the
intensity of the light is proportionally decreased. The surface of such
envelope is always proportionate to the square of the radius, the other
quantities remaining equal. So that the intensity of the light waves,
which are coincident with the surface of each spherical envelope, will
always vary inversely as the square of the distance from the luminous
body, which agrees with the law of inverse squares that governs light
and heat.

[Illustration: Fig: 4.]

We have considered the wave motion as a whole, that is, we have viewed
it from the standpoint of the whole of the aetherial elastic envelope.
Now we will look at the subject from the atomic standpoint, and see if
it is in accordance with Huyghens' principle of wave propagation.

We will suppose that an undulatory movement is started by a luminous
body at point _A_ situated in the Aether, and surrounded by that medium.
_A_ may represent a part of any luminous body, as the sun or star, while
_B_ _C_ and _B'_ _C'_ represent a segment of the aetherial envelopes
already referred to, which exist around the sun. We will further suppose
that the small dots surrounding the luminous body represent the
aetherial atoms forming the envelope, which transmit the impulse or
energy received from the atomic vibrations of the luminous body. As each
aetherial atom is moved or pushed forwards, each atom directly in
contact with it accepts and transmits the impulse. But each of these
atoms stands in relation to those in front of them, as they did in
relation to the first row of atoms, so to speak, and therefore exert a
corresponding impulse on the front row.

But the third row stands in relation to the fourth row as the second row
did to the third, and so on to infinity. Thus each atom being surrounded
by other atoms may be looked on as the centre of a new wave system, so
that every particle of the wave system is itself a centre of a new wave
system which is transmitted in all directions. As these innumerable and
minute wave systems co-operate with one another, they form a principal
wave system which is coincident with the surface of the spherical
envelope, part of which is represented by _B_ _C_. Then if we conceive of
all the aetherial atoms in part of the principal wave system _B_ _C_, as
themselves becoming the centre of wave propagation, by their wave
systems the principal wave will be transmitted further on into space to
another aetherial envelope _B'_ _C'_, which represents part of another
principal wave, which again is coincident with the surface of one of the
spherical aetherial envelopes. So that by the action of the aetherial
atoms which exist on all sides of the luminous body, the aetherial wave
can be transmitted from atom to atom in more or less spherical form.

Now let us compare this explanation of the transmission of light by an
atomic Aether with the celebrated Huyghens' principle which is thus
enunciated. "When an undulatory movement propagates itself through an
elastic medium, every _particle_ imitates the movement of the particle
first excited. But every particle stands in relation to the adjoining
ones in exactly the same relation that the first particle did to its
neighbours, and consequently must exert upon those surrounding it,
exactly the same influence as the first did. Every vibratory particle is
therefore to be regarded as if it were the originally excited particle
of the wave system; and as the innumerable and simultaneous elementary
wave systems co-operate with one another at each instant, we obtain
exactly that principal wave system by which the elastic medium appears
at any moment to be moved." Now here, in this statement, we have the
definite term _particles_ used several times by Huyghens. But in the
generally accepted theory of the Aether, such a term is unknown and
unrecognized, with the obvious result that the definite and simple
statement of Huyghens loses all its simplicity and meaning. Replace,
however, the non-atomic Aether as at present recognized, by an atomic
and gravitating Aether, and then Huyghens' exposition or principle
stands out in all its simplicity and clearness, and finds in an atomic
Aether its literal fulfilment and complete verification.

In conclusion on this point, viz. that light is a mode of aetherial
motion, let us endeavour to form a mental picture of our atomic and
aetherial world. We have to remember that every particle and atom of
matter in existence are ever vibrating, and by their vibrations are ever
creating and generating Aether waves in the aetherial medium. These
waves, begetting others, the process is continued until they are either
intercepted and brought to rest by other matter, or else speed away
until they reach the boundary of space.

Now it is scarcely necessary for me to say, that if one atom can create
and generate these Aether waves, a thousand atoms can create them in
greater abundance still, and millions of atoms in even still greater
abundance, and so on in proportion to the quantity or bulk of the matter
vibrating. Further, as it is with quantity, so will it be with
intensity, or activity of vibration. The more intensely an atom
vibrates, the more intense would be the movement of the generated Aether
waves, and the intensity would be in exact proportion to the intensity
of the motion of the atoms vibrating. In regard to the power of atomic
motions or vibrations, those are the greatest and most intense in energy
or motion, which are produced by combustion or burning. The chemical
activity by which the burning is brought about arouses and excites the
atoms of matter subject thereto, into an intensity of motion, thousands,
it may be millions of times greater than can be produced by any other
known means. Therefore it can be readily seen, that the Aether waves
generated by this means will be greater and more abundant, both in their
volume and intensity, than the Aether waves produced merely by a cold
body. For example, take a candle at night-time when the light has
disappeared; look at it and feel it. Though its atoms are all in motion,
generating Aether waves which are impressed with its own particular form
and colour, yet it can scarcely be seen even at a short distance; but
light it, and what a change takes place! We can both see it, and are
enabled by its light to see other things also. By the power of
combustion, its atoms have been excited into greater energy or motion,
generating and speeding Aether waves on every side, and these Aether
waves being reflected and re-reflected by the atoms of the air, and the
walls of the house, give light to all that are in the house. I must now
ask the reader to refer to Art. 64 on Radiant Heat, in order that we may
recall facts regarding the heat of the sun. Remembering the intensity
of the heat of the sun as calculated by Herschel and others, and
remembering that the sun is 1,200,000 times larger in volume than our
earth, the question naturally suggests itself to our mind, what must be
the volume and intensity of the light waves as they flow from the sun
into space? What a storm of fury and of motion must there be within the
aetherial atmosphere around the sun, and with what volume and power must
these light waves speed away from so mighty a source! Some idea may be
gained from the fact that they speed away to the distant Neptune, a
distance of nearly three thousand millions of miles, and impart to that
planet the energy of light and heat which to the planet forms the
physical source of all its life and activities. Thus from the sun, the
centre of the solar system, there are ever being poured forth into space
these aetherial light waves. The solar fires are ever glowing, and their
flames ever burning, robing the solar disc with its quivering fringe, or
madly leaping on every side to a distance of one hundred thousand miles,
and by their madness lashing the aetherial atmosphere into fury,
creating aetherial waves, myriads upon myriads, and sending them with
lightning speed across the intervening space. As swift-footed messengers
they come, the bearers of life and beauty to distant planets. They come
to this our island home in space, these aetherial light waves, like rich
argosies freighted with the treasures of light, of life, of beauty, and
of glory, and the transmission of this life and beauty is effected by
the incessant wave motion generated in the Aether by the central body of
our solar system, the sun. Let us therefore endeavour to form a mental
picture of this aetherial wave motion with its transverse vibrations.


ART. 71. _Transverse Vibration of Light._--In the previous article we
saw that the vibration of light was transverse to the line of
propagation. If we could see the particles of air which are vibrating
when sound waves are produced, we should find that each particle or atom
is vibrating backwards and forwards in the direction of propagation.

In the case of an aetherial atom, however, which, according to our own
theory, participates in the vibration, we have to try to conceive of
each atom as vibrating across the line of propagation. So that if _A_
_B_ represents a ray of light proceeding from a luminous body, as the
sun (Fig. 5), then the vibration must be across the line, as up and down
and across that line as shown in the figure, each phase of the vibration
being at right angles to the line of propagation--that is, to _A_ _B_.
How can we form a physical conception of this phenomenon? There must be
some physical explanation to it, for if it be an effect there must be a
cause for its existence and production. Up to the present, however, no
physical explanation has been forthcoming, so that for over 200 years a
frictionless medium has failed to account for, or to explain, the
transverse vibration of light as suggested by Fresnel.

If, therefore, by the hypothesis of an atomic and gravitative Aether, we
succeed in accomplishing a result that a frictionless Aether has failed
to accomplish, then the explanation will be a most important factor in
proving the atomicity and consequent gravitative property of the Aether.

Let us therefore revert to our hypothesis of the Aether as given in Art.
45. From that we learn, because Aether is atomic, it is also
gravitative, and therefore forms around every atom and molecule, every
satellite, planet, sun and star, an aetherial atmosphere--such aetherial
atmosphere being doubtless proportionate to the mass of the atom or
molecule or planet as the case may be, in accordance with the Law of
Gravitation. We shall consider this view of the subject later on.

[Illustration: Fig: 5.]

Thus we learn that every particle of matter, and every body in the
universe has its aetherial atmosphere so to speak, to which it is held
bound by the universal Law of Gravitation. In the case of a satellite
or planet or sun or star, that atmosphere will be more or less spherical
in shape, decreasing in density as it recedes from the attracting body.
As we saw in the previous chapter, Tyndall stated that the waves of
light really formed spherical shells which surrounded the luminous body.
In the conception of an atomic and gravitating Aether we can form a
physical conception of these aetherial shells, which can be pictured as
elastic envelopes, or rather series of envelopes surrounding each
particle of matter, and also surrounding each satellite, planet, sun,
and star; each envelope getting gradually less and less dense as the
distance from the central body is increased.

Now we learn from experiments that the vibration is always in the wave
front, but the wave front is coincident with the surface of each
aetherial spherical shell, therefore the vibration must be in, and
coincide with, the surfaces of the spherical shells that are formed
around every body in the universe.

We are now, however, dealing specially with one body which is the source
of light, viz. the sun, and have therefore to picture the sun as being
surrounded by these aetherial elastic envelopes, which gradually get
less and less dense as they recede from it. What, therefore, will be the
effect of the heat of that body as it is poured forth into space? We
have already learned (Art. 63) of the untold quantity of heat that is
continually being poured forth into space from the sun with its diameter
of 856,000 miles, and its circumference of over 2-1/2 million miles.
What intense activity it must generate in the Aether near its surface!
and what must be the direct effect of that heat upon the aetherial
elastic envelopes or shells which surround it?

Perhaps the answer can be best illustrated by a simple experiment. Let
us take an ordinary toy balloon, with its elastic envelope, and fill it
moderately full with air, and observe what the effect on it is when we
put it near the fire. Gradually, as heat is imparted to the air in the
balloon, the air which is also elastic expands, with the result that the
envelope of the balloon is extended, and its size enlarged. Now withdraw
it from the fire and note what happens.

As the air inside gets cold again, the elastic envelope of the balloon
gradually shrinks, until it has been reduced to its former size. What
has been taking place during this experiment with regard to the elastic
envelope and the atoms thereof? May we not say that there has been a
vibration or oscillation, among the particles which go to make up the
elastic envelope, that forms the surface of the balloon? Certainly there
has been some form of motion, and that motion took first the form of an
expansion, and then contraction of the individual particles; and we have
only to conceive of this process being repeated quickly and
continuously, to form a mental picture of what takes place in any
aetherial elastic envelope or shell that surrounds the sun.

The illustration is not, however, perfect, because we have made the
source of heat to be outside instead of inside the elastic envelope, as
is the case with the sun and its aetherial atmosphere or envelope. We
will therefore slightly modify the experiment, and take two balloons,
_A_, _B_, one smaller than the other, and put the smaller one _A_ into
the interior of the larger one, inflating the smaller one, so that it
can be situated in the middle of the larger one, the latter having twice
the diameter of the smaller one, as in the diagram (Fig. 6). To the neck
of the smaller balloon _A_ we will attach an india-rubber tube which
ends in a closed bulb _C_. We have now the two balloons inflated. Let us
press the bulb _C_ and notice what happens. The effect will be exactly
the same as it was when we brought the balloon in contact with the heat
of the fire in the first experiment--that is, the elastic envelope will
be again expanded. As soon as we take the pressure from the bulb _C_ the
envelope, being elastic, seeks to recover its original position, with
the result that it springs back to its original size. If we pressed the
bulb _C_ 20 times per minute, we should get 20 vibrations of the
particles of the envelopes per minute, and if we pressed it 1000 times
per minute, we should get 1000 vibrations among the particles of the
elastic envelope, so that the number of vibrations would correspond to
the number of times we pressed the bulb. Now how did this vibration
reach the elastic envelope of the balloon _B_ from the balloon _A_?

[Illustration: Fig: 6.]

The reply is, by means of the particles, or atoms of air that exist
between the two surfaces of the balloons, and that transmission would
take the form of a wave propagated from particle to particle, so that we
might put dots on the right side of _A_ to represent the atoms of air
which transmit the wave from _A_ to _B_.

But the vibration which takes place in the surface of the envelope of
the outer balloon is _across_ this line of propagation, because as the
wave proceeds from _A_ to _B_, the elastic envelope expands and
stretches always _across_ the line of propagation--that is, it stretches
up and down, left and right, as it is expanded outwards, so that the
vibration or oscillation of the particles always takes place in the
surface of the elastic envelope across the line of propagation. Let us
therefore apply the result of this simple experiment to our solar system
and the Aether, and see if it can be made to explain the transverse
vibration of light. Let _A_ represent the sun (Fig. 7) and _B_ an
aetherial elastic envelope surrounding the sun. In this case we dispense
with the bulb _C_, as the sun possesses within itself the power to
generate heat, and so to produce the required expansion of the elastic
aetherial envelopes _B_, _G_, _H_, etc.

[Illustration: Fig: 7.]

Instead, however, of having air particles between _A_ and _B_, we will
put in their place our aetherial atoms which we have conceived according
to Art. 44. These surround the sun, represented by _A_, forming elastic
spherical shells or envelopes. As the sun radiates its heat into space,
it urges the aetherial atoms against each other, with the result that
they transmit the energy from atom to atom, or particle to particle,
till they come to the elastic aetherial envelopes of _H_, _G_, _B_.

The effect on _B_, or on any other aetherial envelope, is to expand it
outwardly, and thus set the atoms of which it is composed into
vibration. The wave, which is now an aetherial wave travelling with a
velocity of 186,000 miles per second, may be represented by the line _D_
_E_. But while it is travelling from _D_ to _E_ the same energy is being
radiated out in all directions, so that a wave reaches the whole surface
of the elastic envelope _B_ at the same time, with the result that the
whole of the shell or envelope is set in vibration as it expands
outwardly.

Thus the vibration is always in the wave front, and the wave front is
always coincident with the surface of one of these envelopes, and as
these aetherial envelopes are themselves formed by aetherial atoms, the
wave is spread outwardly from any central point in a spherical form as
proved by experiment. Not only, therefore, is the vibration in the wave
front, but it is always transverse to the line of propagation, for the
simple reason that the surface of the spherical shell or envelope is
always at right angles to the radius vector or straight line which joins
any centre to the surface of a spherical envelope.

As soon as the aetherial atom which forms the spherical aetherial
envelope has reached the limit of its expansion, it seeks to recover its
former position because of its elasticity, with the result that the
whole envelope contracts again, and arrives at its original position in
space ready to accept motion again and transmit it onwards in the same
manner as before.

Thus, by the acceptance of an atomic and gravitating Aether, we may form
a physical conception of one of the greatest problems in optical
phenomena, viz. the transverse vibration of light which always takes
place in the wave front, and across the line of propagation. Whether
this explanation is exactly correct in detail, or not, I am convinced
that the true physical explanation of the problem is to be found in an
atomic and gravitating Aether, as hitherto a frictionless Aether has
failed even to suggest to any scientist how such a transverse vibration
can take place.


ART. 72. _Reflection and Refraction._--A ray or wave of light is said to
be reflected when it meets with an obstacle which opposes its free
passage and turns it back. We have illustrations of this law of
reflection in the case of water waves striking against a breakwater, or
a sound wave striking against the wall of a room. In either case the
wave is turned back, and reflection is the result. A ray or a wave of
light is said to be refracted when, in passing from one medium into
another, it is turned from the straight path in which it was going
before it entered the refracting medium. An illustration of the
refraction of light is to be found in the case of the glass lens, so
often used to converge the light waves into one focus. We have up to the
present dealt with only two theories of light, the Corpuscular theory
and the Undulatory or Wave theory. We have seen how both harmonize with
Huyghens' principle, and the question arises as to whether both can be
made to harmonize with the phenomena of reflection and refraction.

In the Corpuscular theory we have luminous particles emitted by luminous
bodies. These particles we have learned are practically synonymous with
our aetherial atoms.

In the Wave theory it is impossible to conceive of a wave without
conceiving of particles which transmit the wave; even Huyghens refers to
particles of Aether, and so does Tyndall in his _Notes on Light_.

In the Electro-magnetic theory of light we have again to think of atoms,
which are termed electrons by Dr. Larmor and Sir William Crookes; while
Professor J. J. Thompson calls them corpuscles.

So that in all three theories we have the same fundamental idea of
atoms, either expressed or imagined, underlying all the three theories.
Now what is the property of the Aether on which all reflection and
refraction is based? Is it not the property of density? Fresnel assumes
that reflection and refraction of light are dependent upon different
degrees of density of the Aether associated with any body, and has given
a mathematical formula, which decides the index of refraction, such
formula being entirely dependent upon the relative density of the Aether
in association with the refracting medium.

But with a frictionless medium, it is an absolute impossibility to
conceive of different degrees of density of the Aether in association
with matter.

If the Aether does possess different degrees of density which decide the
refractive index of the substance, then of a certainty there must be
some law to govern and decide the density, and that law can only be the
Law of Gravitation.

As Young points out in his Fourth Hypothesis, every particle of matter
has an attraction for the Aether by which it is accumulated around it
with greater density. Now on the basis of our conception of a
gravitative Aether, every atom and molecule, and indeed every body in
the universe, possess aetherial atmospheres, which possess varying
degrees of density, the denser layers being nearest to the nucleus of
the atom or molecule as the case may be, the elasticity of each layer or
envelope being always proportionate to its density.

When we apply the corpuscular theory to the reflection of light we find
that it satisfactorily accounts for the phenomenon.

According to Newton's corpuscular theory, each luminous particle travels
in a straight line through a homogeneous medium. When, however, it comes
almost into contact with a reflecting surface, which in our case we
conceive to be a layer of one of the aetherial elastic envelopes
surrounding the atoms or molecules of the reflecting body, then,
according to Newton, the light particle is repelled, or reflected by the
medium; the angle of reflection or repulsion being always equal to the
angle of incidence. So that the emission theory harmonizes with the wave
theory in regard to reflection.

When, however, we come to deal with the refraction of light, the
corpuscular theory apparently breaks down, and it was in relation to
this phase of the phenomena of light that the undulatory theory
overthrew the corpuscular theory.

According to the corpuscular theory, when a luminous particle or
corpuscle is nearing the surface of a denser medium, as glass or water,
it was attracted by the denser medium, with the result that the velocity
of the particle in the denser medium was greater than its velocity in
air. But direct experiments prove exactly the opposite, as it is found
that when light passes from a rare into a denser medium, the velocity of
light in the denser or more refracting medium is less than it was in the
air. Here then was a test to decide the respective merits of the two
theories. As the undulatory theory was able to give a satisfactory
explanation of the phenomenon, the corpuscular theory was rejected, and
the undulatory theory was accepted. Now the question suggests itself, as
to whether it is possible to reconcile the two theories in relation to
the refraction of light by our conception of an atomic and gravitative
Aether. I believe it is possible. Let us look at the case for a moment.
We have, according to our theory of the Aether, to conceive of all atoms
and molecules, of all planets and suns and stars, being surrounded by
aetherial elastic atmospheres, or envelopes, which, like the atmosphere
in association with the earth, are always the densest nearest the
nucleus of the atom, getting gradually less and less dense the further
they recede from the central point. Further, according to our theory,
with regard to the elasticity or pressure of these elastic envelopes,
they exert a pressure proportionate to their density. So that the nearer
the aetherial atmosphere or envelope is to the central point or nucleus
of the atom, the greater will be the elasticity or pressure.

Now what I wish to call the reader's special attention to is, that the
pressure in each and every case of the aetherial elastic envelopes which
surround the central nucleus, is always directed _away from_ the central
point, and here it seems to me is the solution of the difficulty which
Newton failed to solve. For when a luminous corpuscle enters any medium,
assuming it to do so, it would have to overcome the pressure due to the
increased elasticity of the denser aetherial envelopes, and as the two
motions, viz. that of the incident ray, and the pressure due to the
elasticity of the elastic envelope, would be in opposition to each
other, the result would be that the luminous corpuscle, if it entered
the medium at all, would be retarded and not accelerated as suggested by
Newton, and such a result is perfectly in harmony with experiment. So
that by our theory of an atomic and gravitating Aether, it seems to me
that it now becomes possible to reconcile the two theories.

There is another difficulty that the emission theory had to contend
with, and that was, how was it possible for the same surface of any
substance to reflect and refract a corpuscle at one and the same time?
Newton overcame this difficulty by suggesting, from the results of his
observations on certain coloured rings, that each particle had what he
called certain phases or fits, of easy reflection or refraction, so that
at certain times they would be refracted, and at other times they would
be reflected.

Boscovitch has suggested that the fits were due to the fact that each
luminous corpuscle possessed polarity; which, by rotating, alternately
offered their different sides to the refractive and reflecting surfaces,
so that sometimes they would be reflected or repelled, and at other
times attracted or refracted.

A similar hypothesis has also been suggested by Biot. Now if such a
hypothesis will satisfactorily account for the fact that the same medium
will reflect or refract the luminous corpuscles, as the case may be,
then in our aetherial atom we have the very conditions which would
satisfy both Boscovitch and Biot's hypothesis. For one of the properties
that we suggested regarding our aetherial atom was, that it possessed
rotation like our own earth, and that it also possessed polarity.

The harmonizing of the two theories, therefore, seems to rest upon the
atomicity or non-atomicity of the Aether.

It is absolutely certain that the electro-magnetic theory of light
demands the recognition of some form of atomicity for the Aether. For if
light be really an electro-magnetic phenomena, as has been proved by
Maxwell and experimentally demonstrated by Hertz, then, in view of the
fact that the atomicity of electricity is coming within the scope of
direct experiment as asserted by Dr. Larmor, unless we accept atomicity
of the Aether in some way, we shall be in the unphilosophical position
of having the Aether of space not being composed of atoms, while the
electricity associated with that Aether in some unknown way is composed
of atoms. In other words, we shall have a non-atomic body composed of
atoms, which conclusion is absurd. Therefore, from the electro-magnetic
theory of light, we are again compelled to postulate atoms of some kind
for the Aether.

If there are electrical atoms in association with the Aether, then they
must be of two kinds, positive and negative, as it is impossible to find
positive electricity disassociated from negative. Therefore, from the
electro-magnetic theory of light we get further evidence of the polarity
of the aetherial atom, by which Newton's fits of easy reflection or
refraction may be physically conceived.

I am convinced, that with the hypothesis of an atomic and gravitative
Aether as suggested by Young in his Fourth Hypothesis, all three
theories of light in relation to the phenomena of reflection and
refraction can be harmonized. I wish only to point out the direction in
which to look for the solution, and must leave it to scientists to work
out the problem.


ART. 73. _The Solar Spectrum._--When a ray or beam of solar light is
passed through a prism, it is broken up or decomposed into its
constituent parts. This is called dispersion, and conclusively proves
that the light from the sun is not a simple, but a compound colour. We
have illustrations of this decomposition of pure white light in the
rainbow, where the colours of the sunlight are revealed against the sky
with clearness and precision. A simple experiment to prove that the
solar light is a compound one may be made by boring a small hole in a
shutter, and then allowing the sunlight that passes through the hole to
fall upon a prism, such as the pendant of a candelabrum. When this is
done, then on the opposite wall of the room will be seen, not one
colour, but seven colours, ranged in the following order: Red, Orange,
Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet. This is termed the Visible
Spectrum.

It may be asked, What is the cause of the various colours in the
spectrum? We have already seen that light is due to a wave motion of the
Aether, and it can be demonstrated that the various colours of light are
due to different wave lengths. Colour is to light what pitch is to
sound. As has been shown in Art. 62, the pitch of a note depends upon
the number of air waves which strike upon the tympanum of the ear in a
given time. The more rapid the vibration, the higher the note. The more
rapidly a sounding body vibrates, the shorter will be the length of each
wave. If a violinist wants to produce a note of higher pitch, he presses
his finger on the string, thereby shortening it, and by so doing
increases the rapidity of vibration, and raises the pitch of the note.
Now the colours of the spectrum are to the eye what the notes are to the
ear. The aetherial waves which produce the red colour are slower in
their vibrations, and are longer than those which produce the orange
colour. Those which produce the orange colour are of slower vibrations,
and longer than those which produce the yellow colour, and so on through
all the other colours; until we get to the violet and to the
ultra-violet, or invisible violet rays, which are the most rapid in
their vibrations, and consequently their wave lengths are the shortest
of the whole group. It has been ascertained that it takes about 39,000
waves of red light to measure an inch if placed end to end. Now light
has a velocity of 186,000 miles per second. If this is reduced to
inches, we find that there are 11,784,960,000 in that distance. Let us
therefore multiply this number by 39,000, and we shall then find how
many waves of red light must enter the eye to produce the sensation of
red colour. That number is 459,613,440,000,000, so that all these waves
enter the eye in one second of time, and must strike the retina of the
eye in order to produce the sensation of redness. In the same way, the
number of waves that must strike the retina of the eye to produce the
sensation of violet can be determined. It takes about 57,500 waves of
violet to measure an inch, so that a violet wave is only 1/57000 part of
an inch in length. All the other colours of the spectrum which lie
between the violet and the red waves gradually get longer and longer in
their wave lengths, and slower and slower in their vibrations, until at
the red end of the spectrum and beyond it we have the longest waves,
which are from 1/39000 part of an inch in length to 1/10000 part of an
inch.

The seven colours seen in the spectrum are called the Visible Spectrum.
There are, however, rays of light beyond both ends of the spectrum which
do not affect the optic nerves of the eye, and therefore are invisible
to sight. The rays in the spectrum which lie beyond the red are termed
ultra-red rays, while those beyond the violet are called ultra-violet
rays. It can be proved the former are rich in heating power, while the
latter possess great chemical power. By means of an instrument known as
the thermo-electric pile, or thermopile, the various heating power of
the whole spectrum, visible and invisible, can be determined.

Let us look for a moment at these invisible or dark rays. Strictly
speaking, all light is invisible, as we cannot see light itself, we can
only see it by reflection. We have seen that light is due to a wave
motion in the Aether, but we cannot see that wave motion, neither can we
see the Aether itself, so that it is not strictly correct to call a ray
visible or invisible. We have, however, accepted the terms in relation
to the rays of the spectrum, to distinguish between the invisible or
obscure rays of the spectrum and the visible rays. It was Sir W.
Herschel who first discovered the existence of these invisible waves. He
passed a thermometer through the various colours of the solar spectrum,
and then noted the temperature of each colour. He did not, however, stop
at the limit of the visible spectrum, but experimented with his
thermometer beyond its limits, and then found that beyond the red rays
there were other rays, the ultra-red rays, which possessed greater
heating power than any other rays of the spectrum. Thus his experiments
proved, that side by side with the luminous or light waves, there were
other rays, which, though they possessed greater heating power, yet were
not able to excite the optic nerve, and so produce the sensation of
sight.

From these facts we learn that the solar spectrum may be divided into
three parts--

1. The red or ultra-red end of the spectrum which possesses the greatest
heating power.

2. The central part, yellow and green, which is the greatest in luminous
power or light waves.

3. The violet or ultra-violet end, which possesses great chemical or
actinic power as it is sometimes termed.

We have already seen (Art. 69) that the same aetherial waves which give
rise to heat, also give rise to light, and that the only physical
difference between heat and light is, that the waves which cause the
phenomena of heat are of slower period, and of greater length, than
those which cause the phenomena of light. From the solar spectrum we
learn that there are a third class of Aether waves, which are of more
rapid vibration, and therefore shorter in length than either the
aetherial heat waves or the aetherial light waves. As already stated,
these are called chemical or actinic waves, because they possess a
greater chemical power than either the heat or the light waves that form
the central part of the spectrum.

Now this question suggests itself to us in relation to these chemical
waves. What are these so-called chemical waves that are produced in the
aetherial medium by the activity and heat of the sun? It must be
remembered that the aetherial waves which give rise to both light and
heat, and also these chemical waves, are first set in motion by the sun,
at least as far as our solar system is concerned. We are perfectly
conversant with the phenomena and characteristics of both heat and
light. We are able to exactly determine what their particular effect
will be on matter, and to describe that effect in a perfectly
straightforward manner. The same, however, cannot be said of these
so-called chemical waves that lie chiefly in the violet and ultra-violet
end of the solar spectrum. What, then, is a chemical wave, its
particular nature, and its exact properties? That we know it can
decompose certain compounds, as Carbonic Acid Gas, CO_2, and so give
rise to chemical decomposition, has been proved by Professor Tyndall and
others, but I have never yet seen any record of any attempt to find out
what these chemical waves are. There may have been such attempts made to
discover their origin and character, but I have not seen any such
record. I purpose, therefore, to offer an explanation as to the
character and origin of these chemical or actinic waves, which I hope to
prove by philosophical reasoning. We have already seen (Arts. 54 and 59)
that both heat and light are convertible, or can be transformed into
electricity, so that the same aetherial wave motion which can produce
light can also produce heat, and that in its turn can produce
electricity. Thus we learn that there is a very close identity between
light, heat, and electricity; indeed it can be demonstrated that the
same aetherial wave motion which produces electricity can produce the
other two.

Lorentz,[14] in an article on "The Identity of Light Vibrations with
Electric Currents," states that "the vibrations of light are themselves
electric currents." Now if this is true, and I believe it to be true, as
I hope to prove later on from Clerk Maxwell's works, then it necessarily
follows, that wherever we get aetherial light waves, we must at the
same time also get aetherial electric waves. If that be so, then in the
solar spectrum we ought to have revealed to us, not only indications of
the presence of the heat and light vibrations, but equally so the
presence of electric waves. This, I believe, is actually the case, and
the electric waves are the so-called chemical waves in the violet and
ultra-violet end of the spectrum. I think that we shall find sufficient
arguments and analogy to support this hypothesis, as we look further
into the matter. One of the greatest scientists of the past century,
Clerk Maxwell, has given to the world the genesis of what he termed the
Electro-Magnetic Theory of Light, in which he proved that light was
nothing more nor less than an electro-magnetic phenomenon. He pointed out
that the same Aether which was concerned in the propagation of light and
heat through space, must therefore be equally concerned in the
propagation of electric displacements in the free Aether; as he states,
it would be philosophically wrong to assume that there was one aetherial
medium for light, and another for electric phenomena. If, therefore,
there is such a theory as the Electro-Magnetic Theory of Light, and
there undoubtedly is, as has been proved by the researches of Hertz on
electric waves, then it follows, either that light waves are themselves
electric currents, as suggested by Lorentz, or that the light waves are
directly associated with electric waves in the same way that they are
associated with heat waves. So that the only difference between them
would be one of period of vibration and of length, the electric waves of
the Aether being of greater rapidity and therefore of shorter length
than either the light or heat waves. The only conclusion, therefore,
that it seems possible to come to regarding these chemical waves is,
that they are the electric waves of the spectrum. Thus, in the solar
spectrum, there are three classes of waves indicated by the various
colours, and beyond the limits of these colours, viz. (1) Thermal or
Heat waves in the red or ultra-red end of the spectrum; (2) Luminous or
Light waves at the middle of the spectrum; and (3) Electric or Chemical
waves in the violet or ultra-violet end of the spectrum. Now in looking
at this hypothesis from the standpoint of our Rules of Philosophy, I
venture to assert that all the three rules are satisfactorily fulfilled,
and that being so, the hypothesis advanced is philosophically correct.
In the first place, such a conception that the chemical waves or violet
waves are really electric waves is simple in its hypothesis, and so
fulfils our first Rule of Philosophy. It is simple, because it puts in
the place of unknown chemical waves, a certain kind of aetherial waves
with whose action we are definitely familiar, and whose origin and
effect can be satisfactorily accounted for, as proved by Hertz. Chemical
waves are not simple in conception, because we do not know exactly what
they are, or how they are originated. Besides, as Newton points out,
there is nothing superfluous in Nature. If one cause can effect the
desired end, as electric waves, then another cause as chemical waves is
superfluous and unnecessary. Further, in our hypothesis of the electric
character of these chemical waves, we have a solution which
satisfactorily fulfils the second Rule of our Philosophy. Experience and
experiment teach us, that there are electric waves constantly being
generated in a thousand ways. Indeed, it is an absolute impossibility to
perform the simplest act of ordinary life, as brushing a hat, or wiping
the boots on a mat, cutting an orange, or any other act of simple
everyday life, but that these aetherial electric waves are generated.
But as for these so-called chemical waves, experience has little to say
about them, and experiment still less. If we decompose water, dividing
it up into two gases, Oxygen and Hydrogen, we do it by passing a current
of electricity through the water. If we want to decompose or split up a
binary compound, as HCl, into its two elements, Hydrogen and Chlorine,
then we can do it by electricity--that is, by the decomposing action of
these electric waves. In all these experiments and results we know
definitely what we are doing, and what the effect will be. There is no
vagueness about the terms used. When we speak of chemical action we look
to a definite source for that action, and we do not say that such action
is produced by chemical waves, but rather by electricity. So that all
experience teaches us, and all experiments made by such men as Faraday,
Davy, Maxwell, and Hertz confirm the statement, that these aetherial
electric currents can accomplish all that the so-called chemical waves
accomplish, and that being so, the third Rule of our Philosophy is also
fulfilled, as we have in the aetherial electric waves a satisfactory
explanation for the fact which we seek to explain, viz. the character
and origin of the chemical waves that exist in the violet end of the
spectrum. Thus, we learn, that not only is the sun the source of all
heat and light, in that it gives rise to the vibrations of the Aether
which are propagated through it in waves, but that it is also the source
of all electric waves in the solar system, in that electric currents are
primarily due to the wave motion set up in the Aether, those electric
waves also traversing space with the velocity of light.

[Footnote 14: _Phil. Mag._, 1867.]


ART. 74. _Direction of Ray of Light._--In Art. 65 it was shown that the
direction of a ray of heat was that of a straight line from the heated
or luminous body from which the Aether waves proceeded. We have also
seen in Art. 69 that the aetherial waves which give rise to the
phenomena of heat are identical with those that give rise to light, so
the direction of a ray of light must also be that of a straight line
proceeding from the luminous body. A ray of light is a line
perpendicular to the Aether waves which are propagated through space in
concentric spheres from the luminous body, which, by its atomic
vibrations, gives rise to the light waves. It must, however, be
remembered that rays have no physical existence, for it is the waves
that are propagated, and not the ray, which simply indicates the
direction that the light takes, this truth being known as the
rectilineal propagation of light. That light proceeds in straight lines
may be proved in several ways. For example, we cannot see round corners,
which would be possible if light took a curved path instead of a
straight one. A better proof, however, may be obtained by making a small
hole in the window-shutter, and allowing the sunlight to pass into the
darkened room. The beam of light which passes into the room will then be
seen to take a straight course, its presence being revealed by the
particles of dust that float about the room.

Another conclusive proof that light proceeds in straight lines is to be
found in the fact, that all images formed on any screen by the rays of
light after passing through a small hole are inverted. For example,
suppose we have a window-shutter with a small hole in it, while in the
garden fronting the window there stands a tree. Now if the rays of light
which pass from the tree through the hole in the window-shutter are
allowed to fall upon a screen in the darkened room, it will be found
that the image is inverted.

This is accounted for by the fact, that the rays cross each other at the
hole, and proceeding in straight lines, form an inverted picture on the
screen. It can further be proved, that the path of a ray of light
through space as it proceeds from the sun is also that of a straight
line. Whenever there is a solar eclipse we have light so long as we can
see the smallest part of the sun's surface. The instant, however, that
we have a total eclipse, at that instant the whole of the light of the
sun is shut off, and for a brief space there is darkness, until the
planet which is causing the eclipse has passed on in its orbit and the
sun's surface reappears again. Now if light did not proceed in straight
lines, such an event as a total eclipse would be impossible; because, if
the light proceeded in curved lines instead of straight ones from the
sun, then even when the planet which causes the eclipse got directly
between the earth and the sun, the rays of light being curved instead
of straight would bend round the eclipsing planet, and so would not all
be intercepted, and thus such an event as a total eclipse would be an
impossibility. From this we learn, therefore, that the path of a ray of
light as it proceeds from the sun through space is that of a straight
line, and that the path corresponds to the radius vector of a circle,
which is also the path that the centripetal force takes.

Viewing the matter from the standpoint of the solar system, we find the
sun, which is the centre of that system, exerting an attractive force
along the radius vector of all the orbits of the planets, with a force
which decreases in intensity inversely as the square of the distance. At
the same time, being the source of all light, it is constantly
propagating into space aetherial light waves with a velocity almost
inconceivable; which also decrease in exactly the same ratio as the
attractive power of the sun decreases. If, therefore, it can be shown
that there is such a truth as the dynamical value of light, in the same
way that it has been shown that there is a dynamical value of heat, then
it follows, that not only is the sun the centre of an attractive power
which proceeds in straight lines, but it is equally the centre of a
power whose influence and motion are exerted along exactly the same path
as the centripetal force, but in an opposite direction, that is, away
from the sun. I hope to be able to show that the aetherial light waves
do possess such a dynamical value, and if that is accomplished, then not
only from the realm of heat, but also from the realm of light, we shall
have conclusive evidence of a power or motion whose influence is
directed away from the sun, which, therefore, would correspond to a
centrifugal force--that is, a force or motion directed from a central
body as the sun.


ART. 75. _Intensity of Light._--The intensity of light diminishes with
the distance from the luminous body, according to the same law that
governs sound, and heat, and electricity. We have already seen (Art. 67)
that the intensity of heat diminishes inversely as the square of the
distance, so that if the same law holds good for light that holds good
for heat, then, according to the law of the inverse squares, if we
double the distance from the luminous body, the intensity of light is
only 1/4 of what it was in its first position. If the distance be
trebled, then the intensity will be decreased 1/9. This can easily be
proved by the following experiment: Suppose we have a lighted lamp, and
at a distance of 1, 2 and 3 feet respectively, we have three square
surfaces. It can then be demonstrated that the light which falls on the
square 1 foot away, if allowed to fall upon the square 2 feet away,
would cover four times the area of the first square; and if allowed to
fall on the square 3 feet away, it would cover nine times the area.
Therefore the intensity of the light on the square 2 feet away, covering
four times the area, would only be 1/4 of what it is on the square 1
foot away, while the intensity of light on the square 3 feet away, which
covers nine times the area, would only be 1/9 of the intensity received
by the first square.

If the difference in the distances therefore be represented by the
figures 1, 2, and 3 feet respectively, the intensity would be
represented by the figures 1, 1/4, 1/9. The decrease in the intensity of
light is really a decrease in motion. The intensity of a note in sound
depends upon the vibration of the particles of air, while the intensity
of light also depends upon the vibrations of the aetherial atom.

If, therefore, we get a decrease in the vibration of the aetherial atom,
the further we get from the luminous body, it can be readily seen that
the intensity of light really implies a decrease of motion.

Now let us apply the law of inverse squares in relation to light to the
solar system. We have the sun with its huge form all aglow with fires,
as the source of all light to the planetary worlds that revolve around
it. Year in and year out, for many ages past, the sun has been pouring
out its light into space on every side, lighting up the planets or other
bodies that revolve round it on that side only which is presented to the
sun. Thus Mercury, at its distance of about 36,000,000 miles, obtains a
light from the sun which is of far greater intensity than the light
which Venus receives, while Venus receives a light of greater intensity
than the light which the Earth receives, and the Earth receives light of
greater intensity than any of the planets outside its orbit in the solar
system, as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune. This decrease in
the intensity of light is according to the inverse square of the
distance from the central body, the sun. So that if we have one planet
at twice the distance from the sun, as compared with another planet, the
intensity of light at that distance will be only 1/4 of the intensity
received by the nearer planet. This decrease of the intensity of light,
however, may be compensated for by a difference in the constituents of
the planets' atmosphere, by means of which it may be possible that the
outermost planets enjoy climatic conditions similar to our own.

Now we have proved, in the previous chapter, that heat is a repulsive
motion, and as the same aetherial waves give rise to the phenomena of
light, then it ought to follow that light has equally a repulsive power
on the planets with which it comes into contact. If that can be proved,
and I submit that it can, then from the phenomena of light, we learn
that there is a force, or rather a motion, ever proceeding from the sun
in straight lines, as shown in the previous Art., which decreases in
power or intensity inversely as the square of the distance. So that not
only is the sun the centre of an attractive Force, the Centripetal
force, or the attractive Force of Gravity, which proceeds in straight
lines through space, decreasing in intensity inversely as the square of
the distance, but at the same time it is also the centre of a motion,
that is, the aetherial wave motion of light, which takes exactly the
same path as Gravitation Attraction, and which is subject to exactly the
same laws. Unlike Gravitation Attraction, however, its power and motion
is ever directed away from the central body, the sun; and if such motion
exerts any power on any planet with which it comes into contact, that
power or motion can only be a repulsive motion in the same way that heat
is a repulsive motion. Assuming, therefore, that light, through the
medium of the aetherial waves, does exert this repulsive motion, then,
according to the law of inverse squares, it can be seen that if a
planet's distance be doubled, the repelling power of the aetherial light
waves would be decreased 1/4, while at the same time the attractive
power of the centripetal force would be decreased 1/4 also. If, on the
other hand, the planet's distance from the sun be reduced to 1/2 of its
former distance, then the repelling power of the aetherial light waves
would be increased four times, but contemporaneously with the increase
there would be an increase in the attractive power of gravity, which
would exactly counterbalance the increased repelling power of the light
waves. So that in assuming that there is this repelling power in the
light waves, there are thus two forces in existence in the solar system
(which is a type of all other systems), or rather two motions, as all
forces resolve themselves into motions of some kind, one motion ever
tending from the central body, that is, the motion of the aetherial
light waves, and the other tending to the central body, that is, the
force of gravity, which we shall see later on is also a motion of the
Aether, whose influence is ever towards the central body, be it a sun,
star, or planet. These two motions, therefore, are subject to the same
law, viz. that their power or intensity is not only directed in straight
lines from the central body, but their intensity is regulated exactly by
the same law of inverse squares. If the repelling motion be doubled,
then the attractive motion or power would be doubled also; if the
repelling motion be quadrupled or halved, then the attractive force of
gravity would be quadrupled or halved in the same way, the two forces
being exactly increased or decreased in the same ratio according to the
law of inverse squares.


ART. 76. _Velocity of Light._--The transmission of light is not
instantaneous, as it requires time for its propagation through space,
from the luminous body which gives rise to all light, as the sun for
example, until it reaches the body which it lights up. The velocity of
the light waves, however, is so great, that it is almost impossible to
give any comparative idea of their rate of transmission. The velocity of
the light waves was first established by Roemer, a Danish astronomer, in
1675. He ascertained the velocity of light by observations made on the
satellites of Jupiter. His methods of reasoning can easily be understood
by reference to the following diagram.

[Illustration: Fig: 8.]

Let _S_ represent the sun, and _A_ and _B_ the orbit of the earth round
the sun; _C_ _E_ _D_ part of Jupiter's orbit round the sun; while _D_
_E_ _F_ represents the orbit of Jupiter's satellite. When the earth,
Jupiter, and the satellite are in a straight line with each other, the
satellite suffers an eclipse through passing into the shadow thrown by
Jupiter. Now Roemer found that there was a difference in the time of the
eclipse when the earth was at _B_, that is, when it was nearest to
Jupiter, and when it was at _A_, which is that part of the earth's orbit
furthest away from Jupiter. That difference was accounted for by the
fact, that when the earth was at _A_ the light had to travel further
from Jupiter than when the earth was nearest to Jupiter, that is at
point _B_. Thus, when the earth was nearest to Jupiter, the light had a
shorter journey to travel than when it was furthest from Jupiter. The
difference, he found, was about 16 minutes, and he reasoned that this
difference was caused by the light having to cross the earth's orbit
from _B_ to _A_, in its longer journey, than when it only had to reach
the earth at _B_. The mean distance of the earth from the sun, that is,
the radius of the earth's orbit, is about 92-1/2 million miles, so that
the diameter of the earth's orbit is about 185,000,000 miles, and if it
takes about 16 minutes for light to traverse this distance, we find that
light has a velocity, according to Roemer, of 192,500 miles per second.
The result, however, arrived at by Roemer was not generally accepted at
that time, and it was not till 1728 that Bradley discovered what is
known as the Aberration of Light, and from that discovery proved that
light was not transmitted instantaneously through space, but that it was
transmitted with finite velocity; and that that velocity corresponded
fairly well with the velocity given by Roemer. Bradley, in his
astronomical observations, noticed that some of the fixed stars, so
called, did not appear to be really fixed, but that they described small
circles in the heavens each year. This fact greatly perplexed him, until
at last he hit upon the true solution by taking into account the motion
of the earth in its orbit, together with the fact that light had a
finite velocity. This result showed that the light from the stars
travelled with the same velocity as that which travelled from Jupiter's
satellites. The Aberration of Light, as his discovery was termed, may be
illustrated in the following way--Suppose that you are standing still,
and that it is raining, the rain descending vertically on the umbrella
that you hold up to cover you. As soon as you begin to walk, the
rain-drops will apparently begin to slant, and if the walk is changed
into a run, the greater apparently will be the slanting direction that
the rain-drops take. In the same way, the rays of light from a star
would fall vertically upon the earth if it were motionless, but as the
earth is moving through space with varying velocity, it gives to the
rays of light a slanting direction. By calculating the speed of the
earth, and ascertaining the exact slanting direction of the rays, the
velocity of light may be ascertained. This Bradley did, and showed that
it coincided almost with the result arrived at by Roemer. Various other
means have been adapted to test the results arrived at by these two
astronomers. Fizeau, in 1849, was able to measure the velocity of light
by using, not planetary or stellar distances, but by simply using
distances in the city of Paris; while Foucault, in 1860, devised a
method of measuring the velocity of light in air or any other medium.
The results arrived at by these men leave no doubt as to the exact speed
of light, which may now be reckoned to have a velocity of 186,000 miles,
or 300,000,000 metres per second. Notwithstanding this great speed at
which light travels, the nearest stars are so far off that their light
takes about 3-1/2 years to reach the earth, while scientists tell us
that some of the most distant stars are so remote, that their light
takes thousands of years to reach our earth, travelling at the rate of
186,000 miles per second. From considerations like these we get a dim
conception of the almost illimitable extent of the universe. Now let us
try to understand what this rate of motion really means. We have to
remember that light is caused by wave motions in the Aether, so that we
have here a wave motion which is travelling through the Aether at the
enormous rate already quoted. Light takes about 8-1/2 minutes to travel
from the sun to the earth, a distance of 92,000,000 miles. Our fastest
trains do not travel 80 miles an hour, and if a train left the sun and
continued its journey through space at that rate, it would take over 130
years before it reached our earth, while the light would perform the
journey in 8-1/2 minutes. We have some idea of the velocity of a train
travelling at 80 miles an hour; what, however, must be the velocity of a
wave motion which travels 22,500 times as fast? In Art. 56 we have seen
that all energy is the energy of motion, and therefore wherever we get
motion of any kind or sort, there we must have energy accompanying it,
or the power to do work. We have here, then, a source of energy in the
aetherial waves known as light waves, with their enormous velocity which
is almost inconceivable and illimitable. What must be the energy which
exists in space due to the wave motion of the Aether? We have to
remember on this point that we are no longer dealing with a frictionless
medium, but that we are dealing with matter, only in a far more rarefied
and far more elastic form than ordinary matter, but nevertheless matter
just as air is considered matter, and, being matter, its very motion
imparts to the light waves a power and a force which make them capable
of doing work. The kind of work done will be considered later on, when
we deal with the dynamical value of light. That we do not feel the power
and energy of the light waves is due to the well-known fact that their
power is broken by the activity of the atmospheric particles, each of
which, in their myriads, is ever moving with great velocity, and
therefore bombard the light waves, as they endeavour to strike the
earth. Thus the aetherial light waves are broken up and shattered, and
fall to the earth not with their full energy or power, but in a blended
form, or with that reflected energy which we call light. If they were to
come unbroken and unchecked upon us, and on the earth, in the same way
that they apparently do upon our satellite the moon, we doubtless should
experience very different effects of their energy and power due to their
enormous velocity.


ART. 77. _Dynamical Value of Light._--We have already learned (Art. 68)
that heat possesses a dynamical value, such value being measured by
Joule, and its equivalent in foot-pounds being exactly ascertained. We
have further seen (Art. 69, on the identity of light and heat), that the
same aetherial waves which produce heat are also concerned in the
production of light. If, therefore, the aetherial waves which give rise
to heat possess a dynamical action and equivalent, it follows that light
must also possess a dynamical action and equivalent, and such action
should be capable of being expressed in terms of foot-pounds. Clerk
Maxwell has recorded the exact dynamical equivalent of light. On this
matter he writes:[15] "If in strong sunlight the energy of light which
falls upon a square foot is 83.4 foot-pounds per second, the mean energy
of one cubic foot of sunlight is about .0,000,000,882 of a foot-pound,
and the mean pressure on a square foot is .0,000,000,882 of a pound
weight." We have here then the exact dynamical equivalent, according to
Maxwell, of a cubic foot of sunlight near the earth's surface, and of
the pressure exerted by light on a body with which it comes into
contact.

Again, Lord Kelvin[16] has measured the exact dynamical equivalent of a
cubic mile of sunlight, both near the surface of the sun and then near
the surface of the earth, and in a note adds that the relation of the
two values is as 46,000 to 1. So that if the dynamical value of a cubic
mile of sunlight near the earth's surface be represented by unity, then
the value of a cubic mile of sunlight near the sun's surface would be
46,000 times greater, while he further adds that it would take 4140
horse-power every minute, as the amount of work required to generate the
energy existing in a cubic kilometre of light near the sun, a kilometre
being equal to about 1093 yards.

Professor Challis[17] stated in 1872 that "Light is to be ranked with
the physical forces, and its dynamical action is equally to be ascribed
to the pressure of the Aether." Now I want to put this question to the
reader: If light possesses this dynamical action, that is, if it
possesses a motive or driving power, what must be the exact effect of
the dynamical action of the light waves from the sun upon all the
planets and meteors that revolve round it? We know that the sun is
324,000 times the mass of our earth, and that it has a diameter of about
856,000 miles and a circumference of over two million and a half miles.
What, therefore, must be the energy of the aetherial light waves that it
speeds on their way through space on every side? Stokes,[18] in regard
to the mechanical energy of Light, states that "the amount of energy
poured forth into space corresponds in round numbers to 12,000
horse-power per square foot," and that every square foot of the sun's
surface supplies energy at the above rate. The number of feet in the
sun's surface can be approximately determined. Roughly, there are
2,284,000,000 square miles of surface on the sun's huge form, and there
are 27,878,400 square feet in a mile. By multiplying these two numbers
we can ascertain the exact number of square feet on the surface of the
sun. If, therefore, every square foot possesses a mechanical value equal
to 12,000 horse-power, what must be the mechanical equivalent of the
sun's radiation of light that it pours forth into space?

I want to call the attention of the reader to another fact, and that is,
that light always proceeds in straight lines from the sun (Art. 76), and
therefore if there be any mechanical action in light at all, that action
must be one which is always directed from the sun in straight lines. Now
experience universally teaches us, that if a body is pushed, and pushed
with such a force as has been indicated, then that body not only moves,
but moves in the direction that the supposed horses would push. I have
already shown (Art. 76) that the path of light is that of a straight
line corresponding to the path of the attractive force of gravity;
therefore these horses must ever push in a direction _from_ the sun
along the same path that the sun's attractive power takes. In other
words, the mechanical action of these supposed horses will be a
repulsive one, that repulsion being due to the dynamical action of the
light waves upon the body that they come into contact with. If this is
correct, then not only is heat a repulsive motion, as stated in Art. 63,
but light is equally the possessor of a repulsive motion, because its
action is ever directed from the sun. We might continue to follow the
supposed horses as they continued their course through space, and we
should find that their energy decreased inversely as the square of the
distance, partly because the further they proceeded into space the
larger the area would be they would have to cover, and therefore their
energy would be decreased proportionately.

Professor Stokes, in the same work[19] already referred to, in
continuation of the same idea, states: "At the distance of the earth the
energy received would correspond to about one horse-power for every
square of 5 feet, on that side of the earth's surface facing the sun,
supposing the rays to fall perpendicularly." That being so, we can
exactly calculate in horse-power the energy received from light on that
side of the earth facing the sun, at its distance of 92,000,000 miles.
The area of the earth's surface is, roughly, 200,000,000 × 5280 square
feet, and if the energy received is equal to one horse-power for every 5
square feet, then the amount of energy received by the earth on that
side facing the sun would be equal to 200,000,000 × 5280 × 1/2 × 1/5
horse-power. This power, it must be remembered, is ever directed _away
from_ the sun, and upon that side of the planet that faces the solar
orb. So that we have virtually a repulsive force ever directed against
the earth, estimated by Professor Stokes to be equal to the estimated
horse-power.

This assumption of the repulsive power of light brings the phenomena of
light into harmony with that of heat, because we have already seen (Art.
63) that heat is essentially a repulsive motion, as indicated by Davy,
Rumford and others; and, as heat and light both have a common origin,
then light should possess a repulsive power also.

As further proof of this statement, let me again quote from Clerk
Maxwell. In the quotation already given in this Art. we have seen that
the pressure of sunlight on a square foot is equal to 83.4 lb. He adds
the following words to those already quoted: "A flat body exposed to
sunlight would experience this pressure on its illuminated side only,
and would therefore be repelled from the side on which the light falls."

Now if more conclusive proof of the correctness of the argument I am
advancing were required, I do not think it could be given from any
greater authority than that just quoted. Coming from the pen of one of
the most brilliant scientists that the past century has known, I venture
to think the opinion will be received with that due weight which it
demands.

This statement of Clerk Maxwell's has received, however, definite and
experimental proof from Professor Lebedew of Moscow University, and by
Nichols and Hull of America. The former has given, in the _Annalen der
Physik_ for November 1901, the results of his experiments in relation to
the pressure of light. The following are the results: He proved, 1st,
that the incident beam of light exerts pressure both upon an absorbing
and a reflecting body; 2nd, that the pressure of light is proportionate
to the amount of incident energy, and is independent of the colour of
light; 3rd, that the pressure of light corresponds with the forces of
radiation as calculated by Maxwell.

About the same time, Nichols and Hull of America were engaged upon
experiments relating to the pressure of light waves, and their results
were published in the November _Physical Review_, 1901. Thus, from two
separate and independent sources, Maxwell's equations as to the pressure
which light waves exert upon any body on which they fall received
definite experimental confirmation.

The repulsive power of the light waves receives further confirmation from
that theory known as the electro-magnetic theory, which supposes light to
be nothing more or less than an electro-magnetic phenomenon; that is to
say, it is directly or indirectly due to the action of electric currents.

As already indicated, Lorentz was of the opinion that the light waves
were themselves electric currents, and whether this is the actual fact
or not, certainly it is true that the electro-magnetic theory of light
is no mere fable or myth, but that it ranks as one of the most advanced
and correct hypotheses in regard to light that has ever been given to
the world. According to that theory, which we shall look at
subsequently, we find that the aetherial medium is not only the medium
for the light waves, but that it is also the medium which conveys and
carries the electric currents through space, and even through all
matter. Further, from that theory we shall have good reasons for
assuming that the aetherial light waves are either themselves electric
currents, or closely identified with them, in the same way that the
light waves are identified with heat waves. If these facts should be
found to hold good relative to the identity of aetherial light waves and
the aetherial electric waves, then it can very readily be seen that such
a hypothesis gives added weight to the repulsive power of light. One of
the very commonest facts regarding electricity and its currents is, that
wherever we get electricity, we not only get attraction, but there is
always associated with that attractive force a repulsive force, which is
equal in amount to the attractive force. So that if, wherever we get
electric currents, we find associated with those currents a repulsive
force, then, in view of the electro-magnetic theory of light, it should
also follow that on that hypothesis we ought also to find a repulsive
power in light. From the dynamical aspect of light on the bases of facts
given to the world by such men as Professor Stokes, Clerk Maxwell, Lord
Kelvin, and Professor Lebedew, we are compelled, therefore, to come to
the conclusion that light does possess such a repulsive force, such
force being due to the dynamical action of the aetherial light waves.

Thus we learn from the dynamical action of light, that not only is the
sun the centre of an attractive force, but that it is equally the centre
of a repellent or repulsive power or motion; which repulsive power
always follows the path of the radius vector, and diminishes with an
intensity which is inversely as the square of the distance. What we have
to ask ourselves therefore is, whether the repulsive power of light is
the Centrifugal Force that we are trying to discover? In Art. 24 we
found out what were the necessary characteristics of the Centrifugal
Force, which is to form the companion law to the attractive law of
gravity, or the Centripetal Force. We there saw that this centrifugal
law must be universal in character; that it must coincide with the path
of the centripetal force; that it must also be subject to the same law
of intensity, viz. the law of inverse squares; and further, that the
force must be proportional to the product of the two masses concerned.
We find in the repulsive power of light three at any rate of these
conditions fulfilled. Light is universal because Aether is universal.
It is always subject to the law of inverse squares, and what is more,
its repelling power coincides exactly with the path which the
centripetal force takes, that is, the radius vector. We have not,
however, discovered that light fulfils the remaining necessary
condition, which is, that the repelling powers of light emitted by any
two bodies are equal to the product of their masses. So that until this
is done, it cannot be said that the aetherial light waves form the
centrifugal force or motion from a central body that we are seeking for.
But while that may be true, yet if light be not the centrifugal motion,
it certainly indicates in what direction we are to look for that force,
and that is to the Aether, whose periodic waves give rise to the
phenomena of light. For, after all, light is due to aetherial wave
motion, and, therefore, while light from certain standpoints may be
conceived to be the cause of other phenomena, yet primarily the real
cause of all phenomena which are due to light are due to the aetherial
waves which themselves give rise to the phenomena of light. Thus light
acts as a guide-post to us, pointing out the direction we should take in
order to find out the real centrifugal force or motion, and as plainly
as it possibly can, it indicates to us that the true solution of our
centrifugal motion that we are seeking for is to be found, and alone
found, in that universal aetherial medium which, by its vibrations and
wave motions, gives rise to that which we term Light. In conclusion of
this point, it may be pointed out that Professor Challis[20] also took
this view of light, as he distinctly states that "Light is to be ranked
with the physical forces, and its dynamical action is equally to be
ascribed to the pressure of the Aether," and then proceeded to show how
repulsion could be exerted on atoms by the periodic wave motion of the
Aether.

[Footnote 15: _Magnetism and Electricity._]

[Footnote 16: _Phil. Mag._, 1902.]

[Footnote 17: _Ibid._, 1872.]

[Footnote 18: _Burnet Lectures._]

[Footnote 19: _Burnet Lectures._]

[Footnote 20: _Phil. Mag._, 1872.]


ART. 78. _The Electro-Magnetic Theory of Light._--We have seen (Art.
71) that light is due to a periodic wave motion of the Aether, and we
have previously seen that heat is also due to a periodic wave motion of
the Aether. Thus in the phenomena of light and heat, Aether is the
medium in which the energy of light is stored, and by which it is
transmitted in its passage from a luminous body, as the sun, until it
comes into contact with a planet or satellite from which it is
reflected, thus giving rise to light and heat. When, however, we come to
deal with electro-magnetic phenomena, which are the results and effects
produced by electricity and magnetism, we find certain phenomena similar
to those that we find in relation to light and heat. Thus, when light is
emitted by a luminous body, a certain amount of energy is given out by
that body, and if such light is absorbed by another body, the latter
becomes heated, a clear proof that it has received energy or motion from
some outside source. From the time it left the luminous body till it
reached the lighted or absorbing body, it must have existed as energy,
that is, motion in the Aether. As we have already seen, Newton thought
that the transference of energy was accomplished by the actual
transference of certain small corpuscles or atoms given out by the
luminous body, which conveyed the energy of the one body to the other.
According to the wave theory of light, however, we find that the
transference of energy is accomplished by a wave motion in the Aether,
which is periodic both in time and space, by which wave motion the
energy is transferred from the luminous to the illuminated body. Now
every one is familiar with the effects of magnetism and electricity in
some form or other, and such familiarity teaches that various kinds of
work may be done by electricity. If an electric current be generated and
allowed to flow through any circuit, as the ramifications, for example,
of an electric-tram system, it can readily be seen that by the action of
the current large masses or bodies as trams may be moved. To generate
the current requires the expenditure of energy, and for the tram to be
moved requires the transmission of that energy from the generating
station till it reaches the body to be moved. By what means is such
energy transmitted? because if it disappears at one place and reappears
at another, it must have passed through a medium during the interval. It
has been demonstrated that the medium which conveys the current from
place to place is the Aether, so that as light is transmitted through
space by the Aether, in a similar manner electric currents are
transmitted through space also by the same medium. The discoverer of
this great truth was Clerk Maxwell, and it was from the consideration of
electro-magnetic phenomena that he was able to lay the foundation of
that theory known as the Electro-Magnetic Theory of Light. In paragraph
781 of his greatest work[21] he says: "In several parts of this treatise
an attempt has been made to explain electro-magnetic phenomena by means
of mechanical action from one body to another by means of a medium
occupying space between them. The undulatory theory of light also
assumes the existence of a medium. We have now to show that the
properties of the electro-magnetic medium are identical with those of
the luminiferous medium." He then points out that, "to fill all space
with a new medium, whenever any new phenomenon is to be explained, is by
no means philosophical"; and further adds, that "If it should be found
that the velocity of propagation of electro-magnetic disturbances is the
same as the velocity of light, and this not only in air, but in other
transparent media, we shall have strong reasons for believing that light
is an electro-magnetic phenomena." In the wave theory of light we have
seen (Art. 70), that two properties are necessary to any medium before
it is capable of transmitting wave motion of any kind. Those two
properties are elasticity and inertia. Water possesses these properties,
and so can transmit ocean waves; air also possesses these properties,
and so can transmit sound waves; and Aether, being matter, also
possesses these properties (Arts. 47 and 48), and is therefore capable
of transmitting light waves. The elasticity is essential in order for
the medium to store up energy, and also to enable it to resume its
original shape after deformation, while the inertia is necessary in
order that the medium may transmit the impulse, and oscillate to and fro
until the impulse received has been passed on. This elasticity and
inertia may be well illustrated by the bending of a lath or cane. If we
pull one end down, holding the other end quite still, we shall see that
the lath oscillates to and fro until gradually it comes to rest. The
elasticity of the lath allows it to be pulled out of its original
position, and also enables it to rebound, while its inertia causes it to
swing back again past its original position. Both combined together
cause it to swing backwards and forwards till its energy is used up. If
such a series of springs could be set in motion at equal intervals of
space and time, we should then have a good illustration of a wave
motion.

What analogy, may be asked, is there in electro-magnetic phenomena to
correspond to this elasticity and inertia of the Aether, so essential to
the propagation of light? Let us look at the familiar illustration of
charging a Leyden jar. In charging a Leyden jar with electricity a
certain amount of energy is spent, work is done, and the result is found
in the electrified state of the jar. That which has actually been
accomplished is the storing up of energy in the Aether around the jar.
This storing up of energy is analogous to pulling aside the lath, and is
the making use of the elasticity of the Aether, in order to produce a
tendency to recoil. When the jar is discharged, which is analogous to
letting go the lath, the Aether seeks to recover its former condition by
discharging the energy it received. In these operations the elasticity
of the Aether is called into play. After the jar is discharged, however,
the recoil of the Aether produces a current, and the inertia of the
current causes it to overshoot its original position, and for an instant
the charge of the jar is reversed. The current now flows backwards in
the same way that the lath returned back, and charges the jar as at
first. This discharging and recharging continue backward and forward, so
to speak, until all the energy which was originally given to the jar has
been expended, and it resumes its normal condition. In this experiment
the elasticity and inertia of the Aether have both been called into
play, so that we see in this electrical experiment a similar
illustration of the elasticity and inertia of the Aether, as manifested
in the undulatory or wave theory of light. The question now arises, what
are the corresponding properties as given by Maxwell in his
electro-magnetic theory? In Art. 782 he writes: "In the theory of
electricity and magnetism adopted in this treatise two forms of energy
are recognized--the electro-static and the electro-kinetic--and these
are supposed to have their seat, not merely in the electrified or
magnetized bodies, but in every part of the surrounding space where
electric or magnetic force is observed to act. Hence our theory agrees
with the undulatory theory in assuming the existence of a medium which
is capable of becoming a receptacle of two forms of energy." Faraday, in
his _Experimental Researches_, paragraph 3075, in referring to the
character of magnetic phenomena external to the magnet, writes: "I am
more inclined to the notion that in the transmission of force there is
such an action external to the magnet, than that the effects are merely
attraction and repulsion at a distance. Such a function may be a
function of the Aether if it should have other uses than simply the
conveyance of radiations" (light and heat). From this extract we learn
that Faraday was also of the opinion that the Aether around a magnet or
any electrified body was directly concerned in the propagation of the
electric and magnetic forces, these forces according to Maxwell being of
two kinds. From the illustration of the charging and discharging of the
Leyden jar, we learn that aetherial electrical waves can be produced by
electric means, and from the alternate charging and recharging of the
jar we learn that these aetherial waves travel to and from the jar with
a periodic wave motion. Here, therefore, we have an aetherial wave
motion which is produced wholly by electricity, and yet which answers
our definition of a wave motion of light, in that it is periodic both
in time and space, and in that aetherial wave motion Maxwell states that
two forms of energy are called into play, which he calls Electro-Static
and Electro-Kinetic. These correspond respectively to the elasticity and
inertia in the older theory of the wave motion of light. It was upon
this basis that Maxwell built up his electro-magnetic theory. Even this
theory does not tell us what is the exact character or nature of the
periodic wave motion of the Aether. All it tells us is, that the
electro-magnetic wave motion of the Aether is the same in nature and
character as the wave motion which produces light and heat. Thus it
shows that light and electricity have a common origin, and proves that
light is nothing more or less than an electro-magnetic phenomenon.
Maxwell gave a number of proofs in support of his theory. He showed that
the velocity of the electro-magnetic waves was almost identical with the
velocity of light waves, his results being as follows--

  VELOCITY OF ELECTRO-MAGNETIC            VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN
             WAVES.                         METRES PER SEC.

  Weber      310,740,000 metres per sec.   Fizeau    314,000,000
  Maxwell    288,000,000   "       "       Foucault  298,360,000
  Thompson   282,000,000   "       "


From these figures it can readily be seen that the velocity of an
aetherial wave, generated by electric means, is approximately the same
as an aetherial wave generated by a luminous body. Thus one of the most
important results of Maxwell's theory was to show that electro-magnetic
disturbances produced in the Aether by an electrified or magnetic body
might be propagated through space with a velocity equal to that of
light.

It was left, however, for Professor Hertz to place the electro-magnetic
theory of light upon a sure and certain foundation. The results are to
be found in his work on _Electric Waves_, translated by Professor Jones,
1893.

In his paper on "The Velocity of Propagation of Electro-dynamic Action,"
he gave definite and experimental proof of the hitherto theoretical fact
that the velocity of the electric waves in air was exactly the same as
that of light, whereas he found that in wires the ratio was not the
same, being 4 to 7. This was afterwards found out to be an error by some
experiments made at Geneva, when it was discovered that the propagation
in wires was the same as in the air. Among his experiments Hertz
succeeded in producing very short electric waves of 30 centimetres in
length, that is, about one and one-fifth of an inch. According to
Maxwell's theory, such a wave ought to behave exactly as a beam of
ordinary light does. Hertz proved that this was the case, and published
his proofs in his paper on "Electric Radiation." In that paper he showed
how such electric radiation was propagated in straight lines, like
light, and that it could also be refracted and reflected. Thus he gave
to Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory experimental demonstration, and
placed it on a solid and immovable foundation. In summing up the results
of this theory, we learn, therefore, that Hertz has conclusively proved
that electric and magnetic effects are propagated through the Aether
which fills all space with the same velocity that light is propagated.
Further, he has conclusively proved the identity between light and
electricity, and shown that electric and light radiations are
essentially one and the same, and that they are both propagated by
periodic wave motions of the Aether. Further, he has proved that the
velocity of the propagation of light is the same as that of the
electro-magnetic waves, and that these waves obey all the laws that
govern light and heat. We have here, therefore, experimental proof of
the identity between electricity and light, and in Art. 69 we have also
proved the identity of light and heat, so that we have now experimental
proof that light, heat and electricity are all due to the periodic wave
motions and vibrations of the universal Aether, which not only fills all
space, but which surrounds every atom and every particle of matter
throughout the whole universe. Having established, therefore, the
identity of heat, light and electricity, and having proved that they are
all due to the periodic wave motions or vibrations of the universal
Aether, it must follow as a matter of necessity that wherever in
interplanetary or interstellar space we find light or heat waves we must
also find electricity. We have already seen that aetherial light waves
flood all space, both interplanetary and interstellar space, so that in
view of the identity of the aetherial light waves and aetherial electric
waves, it follows that the aetherial electric waves flood all space in
the same way, and at the same time. Wherever, therefore, we find the
light waves, there we find the electric waves also; and it will be
impossible to find the one without the other. Thus, throughout all
space, and indeed throughout the universe, light waves will not be found
apart from electric waves. They are as incapable of being dissociated as
are light and heat waves. Now we have already seen (Art. 64), so far as
the solar system is concerned, that the sun is the generator of all
light and heat, and that these light waves speed from the sun on every
side with a velocity of 186,000 miles per second. From the identity of
light and electric waves, therefore, given to us by the electro-magnetic
theory of light, it must follow that the sun is equally the source and
generator of the electric waves. Not only so, but as the light waves
flood all solar space, these electric waves, being identical with the
light waves, must flood the solar system also. Thus we learn from
Maxwell's theory as developed by Hertz, that not only is the sun the
generator of light and heat waves which are poured forth into space
continually with a velocity almost inconceivable, but at the same time
the sun is pouring forth into space electric waves which travel outwards
in spherical shells in the same way as light waves do, and with a
similar intensity, as we shall see in the next chapter. Now let me ask
the reader to ponder over the fact given to us by this electro-magnetic
theory in its relation to the solar system, and endeavour to find out
what such an application teaches us. Let it be remembered that we are
looking for a Centrifugal force or motion, that is, a motion from a
centre, which is to be the exact counterpart of the Centripetal force,
_i. e._ motion to a centre; and further, that the Centrifugal motion
must be a repulsive motion acting in the opposite way to the attractive
power of the Centripetal force, that is, the attractive power of
gravity. We have seen (Art. 77) that light possesses a repulsive power.
We have now only to prove that electricity or the aetherial electric
waves have a repulsive motion, which will be the easiest of all to
prove, and then we shall have proved beyond the possibility of
contradiction, the existence of that repulsive force referred to by
Herschel in Art. 24, which is to form the complementary and counterpart
of the attractive power of gravity. If it can be proved that electricity
does possess such a power, that is, a repulsive power, ever acting from
a centre, then in view of the identity of light, heat and electricity,
the correctness of the views we have advanced as to the repulsive power
of light and heat will be proved beyond the shadow of a doubt, otherwise
Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of light is a fable and a myth, and
Hertz' experiments were never performed. Further, if all
electro-magnetic phenomena are due to the same aetherial medium which
gives rise by its wave motions to light, heat and electricity, then we
shall have discovered a medium which throughout the universe can by its
wave motions transmit and propagate both repulsions and attractions,
that is, the aetherial medium which is to be the physical cause of
Universal Gravitation. In order to further develop and establish this
point we will now consider the subject of Electricity as a Mode of
Motion.

[Footnote 21: _Mag. and Elec._]



                              CHAPTER VIII

                         AETHER AND ELECTRICITY


ART. 79. _Electricity, a Mode of Motion._--The question as to What is
Electricity? is one of the greatest problems of modern times. In view of
the electro-magnetic theory of light, however, science is able to give a
better definition as to what electricity is, than it was able to do
previous to the introduction of the theory by Maxwell, and its practical
establishment by Hertz.

If that theory teaches us anything at all with regard to the nature of
electricity, it teaches us that electricity is due to certain motions of
the universal Aether, that not only fills all so-called Space, but
surrounds all particles and atoms of all Matter.

The question has been asked by various scientists, "Is Aether
Electricity, or, in other words, are Aether and Electricity one and the
same?" Let us look at the question from the standpoint of the analogy
from the phenomena of light and heat. As we have already seen (Art. 61),
heat is due to a particular kind of motion of the universal Aether,
generally known as vibratory motion, which motion is communicated to the
Aether by a luminous or heated body.

So that we learn that heat at any rate has an aetherial basis, as it is
a particular kind of aetherial motion. From Art. 70 we learn also that
light is due to an undulatory or wave motion in the Aether; the waves,
however, in this case being shorter, and of more rapid vibration than
those waves which give rise to heat.

Thus light and heat both have an aetherial basis, being due to
vibrations of that medium. From these analogies, therefore, we come to
the conclusion that electricity and magnetism have an aetherial basis,
and are also due to certain kinds of motion in the Aether.

That motion may be rotatory motion or vibratory motion, as the case may
be, but whatever definition we give of electricity, we cannot as yet say
definitely that Aether is electricity.

We may assume, and indeed prove, that Aether has an electrical and
magnetic basis, in the same way that it has a thermal or heat basis, or
a luminiferous or light basis; but while we admit such a hypothesis, we
cannot admit as yet that Aether and electricity are one and the same
thing. It is not within the province of this work, however, to prove
what electricity is, or show the relation of Aether to all the various
forms of electricity with which we are conversant, but I think I may
venture to make this statement, that all forms of electricity, whether
it is electro-static, that is electricity at rest, or current
electricity, or electro-magnetism, are due to certain forms of motion
of the universal Aether, in the same way that light and heat are also
particular forms of motion of the same medium. I need hardly point out
that it is an absolute impossibility for me to deal with such a subject
as Electricity in all its details and various aspects in one chapter; so
that I shall have to assume that the reader is familiar with some of the
elementary truths of the subject.

At the same time, I will endeavour to make clear most of the technical
terms used as we proceed. From the Electro-Magnetic theory of light,
therefore, we learn that Aether has an electrical or electro-magnetic
basis, so that, wherever we get Aether, there we have the bases and
conditions which will produce all the phenomena with which we are
conversant in the sphere of electricity. Given the required motions in
the Aether necessary to produce any particular form of electricity, then
that form is produced as soon as the motions of the Aether are generated
by any charged or electrified body. Produce a circular current in any
way in the Aether, and you will have a circular current of electricity;
produce radiations from a radiating body, and you will get electric
radiations which speed away with the velocity of light.

This phase of the Aether is entirely in harmony with Dr. Larmor's
Hypothesis of Electrons, which has already been referred to in Art. 44.
Dr. Larmor in his work indicates that electricity has an atomic basis,
and further states that "the atomicity of electricity is coming within
the scope of direct experiment."[22]

Now, if electricity, as I have indicated, be due to certain motions in
the Aether, then it can easily be seen that postulating atomicity for
electricity will be the same as postulating atomicity for the Aether.
Dr. Larmor[23] definitely and clearly states, "that each electron has an
effective mass of aetherial origin, which forms part, and may be the
whole, of the mass of matter to which it is attached;" and again points
out (p. 64) that "an electron is nothing more than a point singularity
or pole in the electro-dynamic and optical Aether." Thus we see that Dr.
Larmor's hypothesis as to the atomicity of electricity is a further
proof of the atomicity of Aether, and is also in harmony with the
electro-magnetic theory of light.

Now in dealing with electricity as a mode of motion, it will be
necessary to show that electricity is also a form of energy in the same
way that heat and light are forms of energy.

If it can be demonstrated that electricity is a form of energy, then it
can easily be demonstrated that work can be done by it, and that that
work may take a mechanical form in the same way that the energy of heat
and light may produce mechanical results. Clerk Maxwell has given us, in
his greatest work, his conception of the two kinds of energy due to
electricity and magnetism. On the subject he writes: "In the theory of
Electricity and Magnetism accepted in this treatise, two forms of energy
are recognized, the Electro-Static and Electro-Kinetic (paragraphs 630
and 636), and these are supposed to have their seat not merely in
electrified or magnetized bodies, but in every part of surrounding
space, wherever electric or magnetic force is observed to act. Hence our
theory agrees with the undulatory theory of light in assuming the
existence of a medium which is capable of becoming susceptible to two
forms of energy."[24] The question has arisen many times as to what is
meant by the terms Electro-Static and Electro-Kinetic energy used by
Maxwell, and various hypotheses have been advanced to explain the same.

Electro-static energy is said to be that phase of electricity in which
we deal with stresses set up in the Aether by an electrified body at
rest, whether that body be small or large. It further deals with the
process of induction, that is, the action of an electrified body upon
another body, such action taking place through the medium between the
two bodies. Electro-kinetic energy is the energy due to electricity in
motion. On this point Maxwell says: "A conducting circuit in which the
current has been set up has the power of doing work in virtue of the
current, for it is really and truly energy. It appears, therefore, that
a system containing an electric current is a seat of energy of some
kind; and, since we can form no conception of electric current except as
a kinetic phenomenon, its energy must be kinetic energy, that is to say,
the energy which a moving body has in virtue of its motion." (Arts. 551
and 552.)

It is not our purpose to deal with the electro-kinetic form of energy
referred to by Maxwell in this chapter. We shall deal with that form of
energy due to electricity in the succeeding chapter. We will consider
first the effect of the electro-static energy in relation to
electrified bodies, but I wish it to be distinctly understood, that in
all the different kinds of electric phenomena manifested, the Aether
plays the chief part, and without it, none of the phenomena observed
could be produced; because, what Aether is to light and heat, so it is
to electricity, being that medium which by its motions propagates and
gives rise to all electrical phenomena.

This being so, we have now to apply some of the facts taught us by
electricity, and especially by the electro-magnetic theory of light, to
our solar system, with the hope that we shall find further evidence of a
Centrifugal Force which is physical in character, and whose action can
be traced throughout the whole realm of space. Let us, in starting to
apply some of the truths already learned, recall some of the facts
concerning light, its production and its propagation. We recall the fact
that light is produced by the action of the sun upon the Aether, giving
rise to waves which speed away from the generating source with a
velocity of 186,000 miles per second. We further remember that Hertz has
definitely proved that these light waves are identical with
electro-magnetic waves, as they ought to be if the Aether possesses an
electrical basis, as Dr. Larmor and Professor Lodge suggest.

In order that there may be no mistake on this point, let me quote from
one of Hertz' papers, where, in his conclusion, he says: "The
experiments described appear to me, at any rate, eminently adapted to
remove any doubt of the identity of light, radiant heat, and
electro-magnetic wave motion." Now, what I want to point out regarding
this fact is this. If the sun gives rise to the aetherial light waves,
and these light waves are identical with electro-magnetic waves as
proved by Hertz, then the sun must either be an electrified body or else
a magnet.

It must be one or the other, because, if it were not, we should then
have an anomaly in Nature of a body emitting electro-magnetic waves
which is itself neither electrified nor a magnet. Therefore, according
to our second Rule of Philosophy, such a body would be incapable of
giving rise to these waves, as such a result would be contrary to
universal experience and experiment.

We know that the earth is a magnet, but up to the present it has never
been proved that the sun is a magnet, although, as I shall show later
on, Lord Kelvin and others have suggested such a possibility. If we
assume that the sun is a magnet, our grounds for assumption would not be
so strong at this point, and our reasons so philosophical, as they are
if we assume that the sun is an electrified body.

We have philosophical reasoning to prove that the sun is an electrified
body in the fact that it emits or gives rise to electro-magnetic waves
in the Aether, and no other hypothesis can be made other than that the
sun is an electrified body, in order to prove the connection between the
two.

Thus we affirm that the sun is an electrified body, which like any
other electrified body is capable of generating electric waves, and
speeding them through the Aether with similar velocity to that of light.
Not only so, but, like any other electrified body, it must have its
electric field and possess the ability to electrify any other body by
induction, that may happen to be in its electric field, as we shall see
later on.

Further, being an electrified body, the electric density will be
greatest near the sun's surface, and this fact fully accords with our
statement in Art. 45, that Aether is gravitative. As pointed out in that
Art., if Aether be gravitative, it must be densest nearest to the
attracting body; and, as Aether has an electric basis, then with the
denser Aether there must be an increased electric density, which can
only happen provided the sun is an electrified body.

Sir G. Stokes was also of this opinion, for in his Burnet Lectures on
Light he writes (p. 212): "There is nothing, therefore, unreasonable
in supposing that the sun may be a permanently charged body."

So that all the reasoning that has led to this result seems to harmonize
and confirm each several hypothesis which has been advanced. There can
be little doubt, therefore, that the sun is an electrified body, and it
is for us now to carry out this fact to its logical and philosophical
conclusion, by applying all the truths which circle round it to the
solar system, when we shall find greater confirmation of the statement
just advanced than any we have yet adduced.

According to Professor Young of America, the sun is not only an
electrified body, but is also the abode of living and sentient beings.
This astronomer has suggested that the sun is the centre of electric
force, and that converging streams of Electricity are ever flowing to it
as a centre; but on meeting with the atmosphere they give rise to
brilliant discharges, which thus gives the appearance of a solid
incandescent body.

Now, whether this hypothesis is correct or not, it is absolutely
certain that the sun is an electrified body, as it gives rise to
electro-magnetic waves in the Aether, as philosophically proved by
direct experiments.

[Footnote 22: _Aether and Matter_, p. 8.]

[Footnote 23: _Ibid._, p. 64.]

[Footnote 24: _Magnetism and Electricity_, by C. Maxwell, Art. 782.]


ART. 80. _Aether and Electric Fields._--Before proceeding to apply some
of the facts of Electricity to the solar system, let us find out what is
meant by an Electric Field. An electric field is to an electrified body,
what a thermal or heat field is to a heated body, or a luminous or
lighted field is to a luminous body. If a lamp, for example, be lighted,
its light waves spread out on every side, and extend for a considerable
distance unless impeded by such obstacles as the wall of a room.

The extent to which the light waves reach and flow might well be called
the lighted or luminous field, and in that field the effect of the
aetherial light waves would be manifested and seen.

Now, in a similar manner, when any body is electrified, the electric
waves spread out on every side of the electrified body, and the extent
to which the waves spread out form what is known as an electric field.

So that an electric field may be defined as any region or space in which
electric energy is manifested by means of the aetherial electric waves,
and across which induction may take place.

[Illustration: Fig: 9.]

Thus, for example, let _E_ be an electrified body (Fig. 9), then it will
generate electric waves which will speed from the body with a velocity
equal to that of light. If the body be a sphere, then the waves will be
spherical in shape, and will proceed from the generating source in the
shape of concentric spheres as indicated in the figure. Before
proceeding any further, it is necessary that we should look at the
electric field from the physical aspect, with a view to discover
something of what takes place therein. As has already been indicated,
all electric phenomena are due to motions of the universal Aether.

It was left for Faraday to give us a true conception of an electric
field, and for Maxwell to perfect that conception and give us a physical
aspect of the same. Faraday conceived that stretching out from a magnet
or electrified body through space, that is, through the Aether, were
what he called "Lines of Force," and that these lines of force indicated
not only the direction of the magnetic and electric forces, but also
their intensity or power.

Where the lines of force were closest together, there the electric or
magnetic energy was the greatest and most intense; and where they were
the farthest apart, there the field was weakest in energy. An
illustration of the magnetic lines of force may be obtained by placing a
piece of paper over a magnet, and then strewing iron filings over the
same, when it will be seen that the iron filings will arrange themselves
in certain curved lines, which Faraday called Magnetic Lines of Force.
In this way Faraday mapped out the lines of force, relative not only to
single magnets, but also to magnets with poles placed in various
positions relatively to poles of other magnets.

Now as there are lines of force which reveal the intensity and direction
of the magnetic energy, so there are lines of force radiating out from
electrified bodies which reveal the intensity and power of the electric
field. The electric lines of force are radial, and are shown in the
figure (Fig. 9) by the straight lines _D_ _F_, _D_ _H_, _D_ _K_.

If an electrified pith ball, for example, be hung up in a room, then the
lines of force, which extend from the ball, indicate the stress in the
Aether surrounding the pith ball, so that if a hair be placed across
these lines of force, any movement of the pith ball will be indicated by
the motion of the hair.

It was Clerk Maxwell, however, who gave to the world a true physical
conception of Faraday's Lines of Force, in his paper on "Physical Lines
of Force."[25]

In the opening words of that paper he writes as follows: "We cannot help
thinking that in every place where we find these lines of force, some
physical state or action must exist in sufficient energy to produce the
actual phenomena." Maxwell then went on to show what these physical
actions were, which took place in the dielectric--that is, the medium
surrounding the electrified body which we now know to be the Aether.

This electric field, he pointed out, was "in a state of stress, which
consisted of pressures or tensions different in different directions at
the same part of the medium. The relation of these forces were
threefold, and consisted in the most general type of stress of three
pressures or tensions in directions at right angles to each other."

Thus, in Maxwell's opinion, the existence of a medium, which by its
physical character was able to exert energy on material bodies, was one
of the fundamental hypotheses of his theory as to the physical character
of Faraday's Lines of Force.

This physical medium was to be capable of certain motions, and both
electric and magnetic forces were produced by its motions and its
stresses. Maxwell's conception, however, of the physical lines of force
was more or less hypothetical, and up to the present, as far as I can
learn, has not received that authority from science that such a
hypothesis requires to make it an accepted theory in science.

But what I venture to point out is, that with the view of the aetherial
medium that is submitted in this work, Maxwell's hypothesis remains a
hypothesis no longer, and that the hypothetical character of his theory
ceases to exist. For, by our conception of an atomic and gravitative
Aether, we are able to see that his physical lines of force are indeed
physical, and that his brilliant hypothesis now receives a true physical
foundation which otherwise it would not receive from a frictionless
Aether.

There is nothing, I venture to predict, in Maxwell's hypothesis which
cannot be accounted for on a truly physical basis, by the conception of
the Aether as given in this work. So that when Faraday saw in his mind's
eye lines of force traversing space, he saw by his imagination that
which was actually the real state of affairs, and when Maxwell enlarged
the conception by giving to those lines of force a definite atomic and
cellular structure, he, too, but anticipated the real nature and
character of the Aether as given in Chapter IV., which theory is the
direct outcome of Newton's philosophical rules, and the result of
discarding everything that is not in accordance with experience and
observation. Thus the lines of force which exist and surround a magnetic
or electrified body are as real as ocean currents, or the waves of the
sea, in that they are the manifestations of the motions of the universal
Aether, which is as truly matter as air or water.

Let us look at the analogy which exists between the lines of force and
the gravitative Aether, and we shall see that a gravitative Aether fully
agrees with the conception of an electric Aether as revealed to us by
the lines of force in an electric field.

As is well known, the lines of force are closer together in that part of
the electric field where the intensity of the field is greatest; and the
intensity of a field being greatest at the surface of an electrified
body, the lines of force are therefore closer together nearest to the
surface of such a body than further away.

Now according to Art. 45 Aether is gravitative, therefore the Aether
nearest the surface of a body is densest, and the aetherial atoms are
therefore more pressed upon than the layer immediately above it. Such a
result is exactly what should happen provided that Aether has an
electric basis, and that Aether is gravitative. For, in Art. 45, we have
seen that because Aether is gravitative, therefore it must possess
various degrees of density, being densest nearest the surface of an
attracting body.

In electricity we find a similar phenomenon which corresponds to
aetherial density, which is known as Electric Density, by which term is
meant the amount or quantity of electricity spread over a certain area
or surface. If we double the quantity of electricity on that given
surface, then we double the density, and we say that the electric
density is doubled, while if we halve the quantity of electricity, then
we say the electric density is halved, and so on.

But this is exactly what happens in the case of aetherial density, as
proved in Art. 46. We have only to picture the number of aetherial atoms
being doubled on a given area, and at once the physical conception of
electric density is furnished, if we remember that Aether has an
electric basis as suggested by Maxwell and proved by Hertz. Thus we see
at once why it is the lines of force should be closer together nearer
the electrified body than farther away.

_Electric Potential._--There is another aspect of the electric field
that I wish to call the reader's attention to, and that is the Electric
Potential of such a field.

Electric potential is to electricity what temperature is to heat, or
pressure is to any medium of different densities. We have already seen,
according to the laws of thermodynamics, that heat will flow from a
higher temperature to a lower one, with the result that work is done. In
the case also of water at two different levels, work can also be done by
the water flowing from a higher to a lower level.

A similar thing happens in electricity; where we have two conductors or
two parts of an electrical fluid at different potentials, electricity
will flow from the place of higher potential, until the potentials are
equalized, in the same way that the temperature of two bodies at
different temperatures would be equalized by the flow of heat.

So that electric potential agrees with our conception of a gravitative
Aether in that, being gravitative, it is denser in those parts nearest
to the attracting body than farther away, and as the elasticity or
pressure is proportionate to the density (Art. 47), therefore we learn
that the electric potential of the Aether, and the thermal condition of
the Aether, if I may use such a term, both agree and coincide with the
density and elasticity of the Aether.

Any equipotential surface which represents a particular aetherial
density, would also correspond with a particular elasticity or pressure
of the Aether, while it would further correspond with a particular
temperature, if such a term is applicable to the Aether.

_Equipotential Surfaces._--The fact that in an electric field there are
different points at different potentials, leads us to the truth that in
an electric field there are also equipotential surfaces; that is to say,
there are surfaces where the electric density or the aetherial density
are equal at all points on such a surface. If, for example, _E_ be an
electrified body (Fig. 9), and _A_ _A'_, _B_ _B'_, represent equipotential
surfaces around the body, then all the points on _A_ _A'_ would be of
equal potential--that is, of equal energy, or pressure.

We have to remember that _A_ _A'_, _B_ _B'_, are sections of a sphere, so
that when the body as _E_ is a sphere, then the equipotential surfaces
are spheres also. This agrees with Art. 77, in which we saw that the
pressure around any body due to aetherial density also possessed
equipotential surfaces.

It could equally be shown that there were equipotential surfaces so far
as the phenomena of heat and light are concerned, as these also are
subject to the same laws. Having now very briefly considered the meaning
of the Electric Field, Electric Potential, Electric Density, and
Equipotential Surfaces, we are now in a position to apply these facts to
our solar system, at least as far as the sun is concerned.

In the foregoing Art. we arrived at the conclusion that the sun was an
electrified body, therefore, in accordance with all experiment and
observation, it, too, must have an electric field. Not only must it have
an electric field; but that field must possess different potentials,
possessing a higher potential the nearer the field gets to the sun, and
a lower potential the farther away the field is.

Further, around the sun there must also exist not imaginary but real
physical lines of force which indicate the electric and magnetic forces,
and which are made real by the atomic character of the Aether that
surrounds it; and those lines of force would be closer together the
nearer they got to the sun on account of the electric density of the
electric Aether, which coincides with the density of the Aether from the
gravitative standpoint. There would also be aetherial equipotential
spheres, or rather oblate spheroids around the sun, as the sun is not
strictly a sphere, its polar diameter being less than its equatorial
diameter.

[Illustration: Fig: 10.]

Let us therefore endeavour to picture the sun under these conditions as
the centre of our solar system. Let _S_ be the sun (Fig. 10), and the
lines _A_ _A'_, _B_ _B'_, _C_ _C'_, etc. represent Equipotential
Surfaces, Fig. 11 being a vertical section and Fig. 10 being an
equatorial section. In Fig. 11 the sections of the equipotential
surfaces would be vertical, while in Fig. 10 the sections of the
equipotential surfaces would be horizontal, while the electric lines
of force would be radial, as all electric radiations take place in
straight lines, as we shall see was proved by Hertz, later on. We
will suppose that the sun is stationary, as the question of the
movement of the sun, both axially and through space, will be
considered in a subsequent article.

[Illustration: Fig: 11.]

Then the question arises, How far does the sun's electric field extend?
That is rather a difficult question to answer, but the correct answer
would be, "As far as the sun's light extends, so far does the sun's
electric field extend." From the electro-magnetic theory of light we
know that wherever there are light waves, there are electro-magnetic
waves, though at the present moment we are only dealing with the
electric aspect of those waves.

We know that the aetherial light waves reach at least as far as Neptune,
a distance of 2,750,000,000 miles, therefore we know that the sun's
electric field must also extend to that distance. How much further in
space it extends we cannot tell, because the data on which to form a
basis is inadequate.

[Illustration: Fig: 12.]

Thus we learn that the sun's electric field extends east and west for
that enormous distance, but we cannot say that it extends the same
distance north and south. Now why is that? The first reason I should
give is the well-known experiment of a revolving body, by which we learn
that when a body is revolving, as the sun for example, the atmosphere
around it would seek to extend itself east and west, owing to the
Centrifugal Force so called. But a better reason than that will be found
from an analogy of a magnetized body. Faraday has shown in his drawings
illustrating lines of force, that if a spherical body is magnetized, the
magnetic lines of force extend in circles east and west, but go out into
space in almost straight lines north, and south as the preceding figure
shows.

Therefore, accepting Faraday's experiment as the basis for our
conception of the magnetic lines of force in the sun's electric field,
we come to the conclusion that the electric field around the sun extends
east and west, while the lines of force, north and south, are more or
less radial into space as depicted in the figure.

Throughout the whole of the field, the electric potential, at different
distances from the sun, would differ in accordance with all experiment
and observation. The greatest electric potential would therefore be
nearest the sun's surface, and would be greatest in the equatorial
regions of the sun, in accordance with a well-known rule which
determines electric density and electric potential on conductors.

As we proceed from the sun's surface east and west into space, we should
pass equipotential surfaces of different potentials. Thus the pressure
on every point of equipotential surfaces would be regulated by the
electric density of the Aether, which would coincide with the actual
aetherial density at that point; and as the aetherial density is the
measure of its elasticity or pressure, so the electric potential would
correspond with the elasticity or pressure at the same point.

Thus it is possible to map out the electric field east and west by
ever-increasing and widening circles which would be at lower potential
the further they receded from the sun. So that by carrying out the
electro-magnetic theory of light to its logical conclusion, we are able
to bring the whole of the solar system into line with electric
phenomena; and, as we proceed, we shall see that all other facts
relating to electricity, and magnetism also, are equally as applicable
thereto, otherwise this theory of light must fall to the ground.

That this conception of the universal Aether in its application to solar
space is not extravagant may be proved from the writings of Prof.
Tyndall and Clerk Maxwell. Tyndall, writing on the subject of Faraday's
Lines of Force, says:[26] "The aspect of these curves so fascinated
Faraday that the greater part of his intellectual life was devoted to
pondering over them. He invested the space through which they run with a
kind of materiality, and the probability is that the progress of
science, by connecting the phenomena of magnetism with the luminiferous
Aether, will prove these 'Lines of Force,' as Faraday loved to call
them, to represent a condition of this mysterious substratum of all
radiant action."

While Clerk Maxwell,[27] writing on "Action at a Distance," says: "These
Lines of Force _must not be regarded as mere mathematical abstractions_.
They are the _directions in which the medium is exerting tension like
that of a rope_, or rather like that of our own muscles." I therefore
premise, that both these statements will find a literal fulfilment in
the conception of the Aether advanced and perfected in this work.

[Footnote 25: _Phil. Mag._, 1861.]

[Footnote 26: Tyndall on _Light_.]

[Footnote 27: _Collected Papers_, by Niven.]


ART. 81. _Aether and Induction._--We have seen in the preceding Arts.
that the sun is an electrified body, possessing an electric field, which
field possesses different intensities at different distances from its
surfaces.

If such be the case, the question at once confronts us, as to what is
the effect of such an electrified body with its electric field upon all
the planets which revolve around it; for, if its electric field extends
as far as Neptune, then all the planets and meteors, that revolve
around the sun, must revolve in the sun's electric field.

Such a question can best be answered from the consideration of
experiments and theories advanced first by Faraday, who gave to the
world his theory of Induction, which we shall now consider.

Let _A_ be an electrified body (Fig. 13), and _C_ be a body not
electrified, but situated within the electric field of _A_. Then it can
be experimentally proved, that _C_ will also become an electrified body
by induction. As is well known, there are two kinds of electricity,
Positive and Negative. We will suppose _A_ to be charged with positive
electricity. Then it can be proved that _C_ will also be charged with
negative electricity on the half nearest to _A_, while the other half
will be charged with positive electricity.

[Illustration: Fig: 13.]

Now how has this result been brought about? According to Faraday's
theory the particles of air, the dielectric, between _A_ and _C_ play a
most important part in the process. As a matter of fact, each atom or
particle of air is polarized, as the process of separating the two kinds
of electricity is termed, so that every atom has one half of it covered
with positive electricity, and the other half with negative electricity.

For example, let _A_ and _C_ be the same brass balls with the particles
of air between them, _A_ being the positively charged ball and _C_ the
unelectrified ball, the shaded parts representing positive electricity
and the unshaded parts negative electricity.

Then _A_ will act inductively on the unelectrified ball _C_ through the
medium of the particles of air _d_, _e_, _f_, _g_, _h_. The electrified
ball _A_ will act first on the layer of particles next to it, attracting
their negative electricity and repelling the positive according to the
well-known law that "Unlike electricities attract, like electricities
repel each other."

The positive electricity in the first layer then acts in the particles
of the next layer in the same way, and thus the inductive action is
transmitted through the particles, from layer to layer, until we come to
the last layer of particles next to the ball _C_.

As the half of each atom or particle nearest to _C_ is positively
electrified, then the half of the ball _C_ nearest to the layer becomes
negatively electrified, while the half further away is positively
electrified. Thus we say that _C_ has become electrified by induction
through the polarization of the particles of air which lie between the
two bodies. Faraday on this point says: "Thus induction appears to be
essentially an action of contiguous particles, through the
intermediations of which the Electric Force, originating at a certain
place, is propagated or sustained at a distance, appearing there as a
Force of the same kind exactly equal in amount, but opposite in its
direction and tendencies."[28]

While again he states:[29] "Induction appears to consist in a certain
polarized state of particles into which they are thrown by the
electrified body sustaining the action, the particles assuming positive
and negative parts which are symmetrically the lines of Inductive
Force." Thus in the case of any electrified body, acting on an
unelectrified body at a distance, it has to be definitely understood
that _the action at a distance_ is alone communicated and propagated by
the dielectric or medium which exists between the two bodies. Though in
the case of Gravitation it has been mathematically assumed, that action
at a distance is possible, yet experimentally and physically such an
assumption is philosophically incorrect, as all experience and
experiment go to prove that there is no such thing as action at a
distance manifested, except such action is propagated through the
intervening medium, as stated and proved by Faraday.

In order to bring Gravitation, therefore, into line with our experience,
it will have to be demonstrated that it, too, is the result of the
action of the intervening medium, that is, the Aether, which is a result
we are being led up to.

We have already seen that the sun is an electrified body, possessing an
electric field, and as all electrified bodies can act on other bodies in
their field inductively, then a similar result should happen in the
solar system, that happens in any electrical experiment on induction,
with the result that all the planets should become electrified bodies by
induction, such action taking place, as Faraday points out, through the
medium which divides the sun and the planets, that is, the Aether.

Of course with a frictionless and non-atomic Aether such a result would
be an impossibility, but with our conception of an atomic and
gravitative Aether the result is now attainable. We have therefore to
think of the sun, the centre of the solar system, being an electrified
body, and for illustration we will suppose it to be a positively charged
body.

All around the sun is the atomic Aether, which is polarized in the same
way that the particles of air were polarized; that is, the two kinds of
electricities in the aetherial atom are separated, the negative being on
that side nearest to the sun, and the positive on the side further away.
In this way the whole aetherial medium would be polarized, and any body
in the field would be electrified by induction, with the result that the
side nearest the sun would be negatively charged, and the opposite side
positively charged.

Thus let _S_ (Figs. 10 and 11) be the sun, and the circles represent
equipotential surfaces, then one half of every surface would be
negatively electrified and the other half positively electrified, that
is, assuming the sun to be a positively electrified body.

If _M_ represents Mercury, _V_ represents Venus, and _E_ represents the
Earth (Fig. 10), then it can readily be seen that all these would be
negatively electrified on the side facing the sun; and, as they rotate
on their axes, each part of the planet would be positively and
negatively electrified once each day.

We are assuming that the medium is at rest, but according to our
conception in Art. 44, all the aetherial atoms are in rotation on their
axes, in the same way that the earth rotates on its axis, so that each
of these aetherial atoms would present different parts of its surface to
the sun as it rotates on its axis; but, as that does not affect the
principle of induction, such a fact need not now be fully considered.

Let us now ask, What is the result of all the planets becoming
electrified bodies in the same way that the sun is an electrified body?
Arguing from experience, we come to the conclusion that each planet must
also possess its electric field, which also must have its lines of
force, its different potentials at different distances, and its
equipotential surfaces. So that Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune all have their electric fields,
with their own lines of force, and with their equipotential surfaces.

If we carry the analogy further still, then it can also be proved that
the Earth, and those planets which have moons or satellites, also act
inductively on their satellites, with the result that they too become
electrified bodies, with their own smaller electric fields and lines of
force. This may seem at first sight a little confusing, but the
confusion will gradually disappear if we will look at it carefully for a
moment or two. Let us endeavour to picture the solar system from this
new standpoint, and map out the equipotential surfaces, which this idea
suggests. Let _S_ represent the sun (Fig. 14), the initials of all the
planets and satellites representing the various planets; then we get the
following plan of the solar system with the various equipotential
surfaces shown by the circular lines.

We are now supposed to be looking down on all the solar system from
above it, so to speak, so that we should be looking at what we call the
North Poles of the sun and planets.

[Illustration: Fig: 14.]

Thus we see that the equipotential surfaces around the sun are huge
circles which stretch out as far as Neptune or even beyond, but within
those circles we find each of the planets revolving round the sun, each
with its own equipotential spheres, which are circles also, while around
the various planets are the satellites, from the moon of our Earth, to
the two satellites of Mars, five of Jupiter, eight of Saturn, each with
its own lines of force and electric fields.

Of course we must not forget that all these revolve round the sun, and
the question may suggest itself to the reader's mind, if such a result
is possible. I shall prove later on, that according to Maxwell such an
event is possible, but at present we will consider them stationary.

Now let us see how such a conception compares with our hypothesis of a
gravitative Aether. If Aether be gravitative, then the sun must have an
attraction for the Aether, and its aetherial field would stretch out
into space as far as Neptune at least.

So that it can readily be seen that the aetherial field of the sun's
attractive power coincides with the electric field which the sun
possesses as an electrified body. Again, if Aether be gravitative, then
all the planets must also have an aetherial field, which will be
co-extensive with their electric field also. The same principle applies
to each of the satellites, with the result that they too will possess an
aetherial field which will be equal in extent and limit to their
electric field.

As the satellites revolve around their primary planet taking their
electric fields with them, so the planets with their associated
satellites revolve around the sun taking their electric and aetherial
fields with them. Thus we get a glimpse, though at this point very
shadowy and indistinct, of those motions of the universal Aether, which
help to constitute the harmony, beauty, and order of the universe. We
have seen, therefore, that as the sun is an electrified body, so all the
planets and satellites are electrified bodies also, each possessing its
own field, with all that such a field implies.

We shall find that such a conception is borne out by experience and
observation, when we come to deal with the Earth as a magnet; because we
shall afterwards learn that the Earth is an electro-magnet, possessing
its magnetic field, which is co-existent and equipollent with its
electric field.

[Footnote 28: _Exp. Res._, 1297, 1298.]

[Footnote 29: Par. 1298.]


ART. 82. _Energy of the Field._--We have seen in Art. 79 that every
electrified body has an electric field. We have further learned, in
carrying the electro-magnetic theory of light to its logical conclusion,
that all the planets and satellites together with the sun must be
electrified bodies, each possessing its electric field.

We have now to determine the effect of such a truth from its dynamical
aspect upon the bodies within the field, that is to say, we have to
consider the energy of such electric fields, and endeavour to find out
the effect of such energy upon other bodies within that field.
Maxwell,[30] in his introduction to a paper on "The Dynamical Theory of
the Electro-magnet Field," writes on the matter thus: "It appears
therefore that certain phenomena in electricity and magnetism lead to
the same conclusion as those of optics, namely, that there is an
aetherial medium pervading all bodies and modified only in degree by
their presence; that the parts of this medium are capable of being set
in motion by electric currents and magnets; that this motion is
communicated from one part of the medium to another by forces arising
from the connection of these parts; that under the action of these
forces, there is a certain yielding depending upon the elasticity of
these connections; and that therefore energy in two different forms may
exist in the medium, the one form being the actual energy of motion of
its parts, and the other being the potential energy stored up in the
connections in virtue of their elasticity."

The two forms of energy he gives us in his work on _Magnetism and
Electricity_, where, in the quotation already given in Art. 79, he
states them to be electro-static and electro-kinetic energy, while in
paragraph 792 of the same work he adds: "The intrinsic energy of the
medium is half electro-static and half electro-kinetic, that is, half is
due to electricity and half is due to magnetism."

We are, however, only dealing at this point with the electro-static
energy in the electric field, as we shall deal with the electro-kinetic
energy in the following chapter.

We have, therefore, to conceive of an electrified body generating
electric or electro-magnetic waves, which speed away from the generating
source on every side with the velocity of light. Now we have already
seen that the aetherial waves which give rise to heat and light possess
a repulsive power, that is, they exert a pressure on the body with which
they come into contact.

If, therefore, in the electric field there is this energy manifested as
proved by Maxwell, and that energy takes partly the form of a pressure
as stated by Maxwell, then we have in the electro-static energy of the
electric field, another indication of that centrifugal force for which
we are looking, and whose existence was so satisfactorily demonstrated
to Herschel by the phenomena of comets' tails.

That there is this pressure in an electric field was conclusively proved
by Maxwell, and experimentally demonstrated by Professor Lebedew (Art.
77). Maxwell distinctly states on this point, "that the combined effect
of the electro-static and electro-kinetic stresses is a pressure equal
to 2 P. in the direction of the propagation of the waves," that is, away
from the electrified or charged body.

He continues: "Thus, if in strong sunlight the energy of light which
falls on one square foot is 83.4 foot-pounds per second, the mean energy
in one cubic foot of sunlight is about .0,000,000,882 of a foot-pound,
and the mean pressure on a square foot is .0,000,000,882 of a pound
weight. A flat body exposed to sunlight would experience this pressure
on its illuminated side only, and would therefore be _repelled_ from the
side on which the light falls."[31]

This pressure only gives the result due to the pressure of one cubic
foot of sunlight. What must be the pressure, therefore, due to the whole
of the sunlight received by the flat body from the sun? The total
pressure, whatever it may be, would be equal to 2 P. according to
Maxwell, and half of that is due to electricity, and half due to
magnetism. Now such a result is entirely in harmony with the conception
of the Aether as given in this work. For, if Aether possess an electric
basis as suggested by Maxwell, and it is also gravitative as suggested
in Art. 45, then it must follow, as pointed out in a previous Art., that
throughout the field there is a varying difference in the potential of
the field; the potential being regulated by the electric density, that
density being equivalent to the aetherial density. Further, as the
elasticity of the medium which regulates the pressure is proportional to
the density, so the pressure must decrease, as the elasticity
decreases--that is, as the electric potential decreases, or the electric
density is diminished. Therefore, if the sun be an electrified body,
ever generating electro-magnetic waves which speed away from it on every
side, then, whenever any of these waves come into contact with a planet
or comet, that planet or comet would be repelled from the sun by the
pressure of these electro-magnetic waves to which the sun gives rise in
its electric or electro-magnetic field.

Thus we again come to the conclusion that the sun is not only the centre
of a centripetal force due to Gravitation, and subject to certain laws,
whose physical cause is unknown, but it is equally the centre and source
of a centrifugal force, in that it is an electrified body, and gives
rise to electric waves which produce a pressure on any body upon which
they fall, in the sun's electric or aetherial field. It has only to be
demonstrated, therefore, that this centrifugal force satisfactorily
fulfils all the laws required as laid down in Art. 24, that is, that its
course is along the same path as the Centripetal Force of Gravitation,
that it is subject to the same law of intensity, which is inversely as
the square of the distance; and further (what is the most important at
this stage), that the combined effect of the pressure of two bodies is
equal to the product of their masses, then we shall have discovered that
which we set out to discover, viz. a complementary force to the
attractive force of Gravitation.

Unlike the centripetal force, however, the centrifugal force will be
purely a physical one, due to a purely physical medium, the Aether,
whose properties and motions can be accounted for on a physical, and not
on a hypothetical basis.

Further, as the planets are also electrified bodies (Art. 81), they too
will possess an electric field, and will generate electric waves, which
will also exert a centrifugal force upon all bodies upon which the waves
fall. So that, like the sun, the planets are not only the centre of a
centripetal force, which ever acts towards their centre; but they are
also the centre of a centrifugal force, due to the aetherial electric
waves to which they give rise in the Aether.

The application of the same principle may be extended to every satellite
that exists in the solar system, and indeed to every particle and atom
of matter that exist throughout the universe, for wherever we find the
Aether, there we find this centrifugal force, which is due to the
electric aetherial waves generated by the atom or particle of matter, or
by any combination of atoms, as a meteor, satellite, planet, sun or
star.

[Footnote 30: _Collected Papers_, by Niven.]

[Footnote 31: _Magnetism and Electricity_, Arts. 791 and 793.]


ART. 83. _Electric Radiation._--We learn, therefore, that the sun,
together with every planet and satellite in the solar system, is the
centre of a centrifugal force, which is due to the radiation of electric
waves by an electrified body. We have now to prove that this force
fulfils all the laws required, in order for it to become the
complementary law to the Centripetal Force of Gravitation. We will first
show that this centrifugal force which proceeds from the electrified
body is radiated out into space in straight lines with the velocity of
light and radiant heat.

As we have already seen, it was due to the genius of Hertz to show the
identity between electric radiation and radiant light and heat. In his
paper on Electric Radiation he says:[32] "I have succeeded in producing
distinct rays of electric force, and in carrying out with them the
elementary experiments which are commonly performed with light and
radiant heat." We have seen in Arts. 65 and 76 that radiant heat and
light are propagated in straight lines, so that, according to Maxwell's
electro-magnetic theory, a ray of electric radiation should also be
propagated in straight lines.

This Hertz proved, and gave his results in his paper "On the Action of a
Rectilinear Oscillation upon a Neighbouring Circuit," in which he fully
demonstrated that when electric action takes place between two charged
bodies, the electric force is radiated out into space in straight lines
in the same way that light and radiant heat are radiated. In his paper
on "The Finite Velocity of Electro-magnetic Actions," he showed that the
velocity of the electro-magnetic waves was the same as that of light. In
the summary of this paper (paragraph 3) he states: "There are many
reasons for believing that the transverse waves of light are
electro-magnetic waves; a firm foundation for this hypothesis is
furnished by showing the actual existence in free space of
electro-magnetic transverse waves which are propagated with a velocity
akin to light."

Again, in his paper on "Electric Radiation," he not only showed how the
radiation was propagated in straight lines, like light, but also proved
that while it was reflected by metals, the electric beam was able to
pass through doors and stone walls, and adds, "that it was with
astonishment that one saw the electric beam appear inside a closed room
after its passage through the door."

Thus Hertz has shown that both electric and magnetic effects are
propagated through the Aether with finite velocity, and that that
velocity is exactly the same as the velocity of light. He further proved
that this propagation takes place in straight lines, in the same way
that radiant heat and light are propagated. This being so, it is
necessary for us to apply these truths to the solar system, with a view
to find out what such a result teaches us.

We have seen in a preceding article, that the sun is an electrified
body; therefore it, too, must generate these electro-magnetic waves, and
radiate them into space on every side with the velocity of light. Let us
try to picture the scene. Let _S_ represent the sun, and the circle
round it represent the equipotential spheres which exist round the sun.
(See Figs. 10 and 11.) As the intensity of the electric force is greater
nearer the sun than further away, these equipotential surfaces will be
closer nearer the sun than further away.

Then let the straight lines which radiate out from the sun represent the
path of an electric ray. It can be easily seen that these electric rays
cut the equipotential surfaces at right angles, as they pass from the
centre of the sun outwards into space. Now these lines not only
represent the path which the electric ray takes in its journey through
space, but exactly coincide with the electric lines of force as
conceived by Faraday. This great thinker and experimentalist not only
conceived lines of magnetic forces existing in the dielectric or medium
between two electrified bodies, which in this case is the Aether, but
also conceived lines of electric force which started at a conductor, or
an electrified body, and radiated out into space.

Thus a line of electric force has a definite direction, and always
starts from an electrified body. If it were possible to move a planet
along one of these lines of force, its path would be that of a straight
line. If on the other hand a planet moved at right angles to one of
these lines of force, that is, along the surface of an equipotential
sphere, then no work would be done against the electric force, as on
such a sphere the electric force would be of the same intensity.

So that from Hertz' experiments it can be demonstrated, that if there be
any electric force existent in the Aether, due to the action of the sun
upon the Aether, then such a force is directed along the path of a
straight line into space with the velocity of light, which, as already
pointed out, is the path taken by a ray of radiant heat and light, and
coincides with the path taken by the centripetal force.

It has been demonstrated that such electric force is accompanied by a
repulsive force, or more correctly a pressure, so that here we have
further evidence of the existence of a centrifugal force which finds its
generating source in the sun, which is also the centre of the attractive
force of Gravitation in the solar system.

The application of Hertz' experiments may be made not only to the sun,
but also to every planet and satellite that exists in space with the
same result; and, further, may be extended to every particle and atom
that exists throughout the universe. For, according to Art. 43, we have
learned that Aether is universal, and we have seen that it is
gravitative, and have learned from the electro-magnetic theory of light
that it has an electro-magnetic basis. Therefore, to be thoroughly
consistent, we must not stop in the application of this principle at any
point in the whole universe.

Either the whole principle is of universal application, or it ceases to
be a universal law. Therefore, if there is this centrifugal force
operating along a straight line from the centre of an electrified body,
such centrifugal force must be in its application universal, in order to
be complete, and in order to satisfactorily form the counterpart of the
centripetal force which is also universal, and operates along the
straight line joining the centres of gravity of any two bodies.

[Footnote 32: Hertz on _Electric Waves_.]


ART. 84. _Law of Inverse Squares._--We have learned therefore from the
preceding Arts., that the solar system may be looked upon as an electric
field, with the sun as the electrified body occupying the centre. We
have also seen that there is a centrifugal force in all electric fields,
which is due partly to electric waves, and partly to the magnetic waves
of the Aether.

It will be interesting to find out, what law governs the intensity of
this force in any part of the field, or at a given distance from the
central body. We have seen (Art. 66) that the law governing the
intensity of heat at any distance from the sun, is the law of inverse
squares. Further, from Art. 75 we have also learned that light is
subject to the same law of inverse squares, as indeed it should be, if
it be due to one and the same medium, the Aether.

If, therefore, electricity is also due to certain motions of the
aetherial medium originated by the action of an electrified body as the
sun, in the same way that light and heat waves are originated, then it
ought to follow that the repulsive power of electricity is also subject
to the same law of inverse squares. As a matter of fact, that is exactly
the state of affairs, so that we find the intensity of the repulsive power
in the Aether from any central body, due to the electric waves, or the
pressure due to the wave motions of the electric Aether, in relation to
that body, is governed and controlled by the same law that governs light
and heat.

It may be suggested that such a coincidence is not a very strong
argument, as all forces emanating from a central body are subject to the
same law of inverse squares. In reply to that, I should like to point
out, that even that objection only strengthens the conception of the
Aether that we are endeavouring to complete. Our contention is, that all
physical forces, whether they be light, heat, electricity, magnetism or
Gravitation, are all due to the motions of the aetherial medium; which
motions may be generated by a heated or luminous or electrified body,
and are radiated from such a body in waves of concentric spherical form,
and are all subject to the laws of inverse squares.

So that the fact of the intensity of the centrifugal force due to the
repulsive power of electricity falling into line with the law governing
light and heat is, to my mind at any rate, only a clearer proof of the
one common origin of all the physical forces. The law of inverse squares
in relation to electricity may be thus stated. The Centrifugal or
Repulsive Force between two charged electrified bodies acts inversely as
the square of the distance between them.

This law was proved by Coulomb by means of an instrument known as
Coulomb's Torsion Balance, and I must refer the reader to any work on
electricity for a full establishment of this law. Suffice to say, that
it has been experimentally demonstrated that the law holds good in
relation to the phenomena of electricity; and, wherever we get the two
kinds of electricity present in any medium or conductor, owing to the
polarization of its particles, there we have this law operating in
relation to the intensity of the repulsions of the two bodies directly
concerned.

We have already learned that the sun is an electrified body, and from
that hypothesis we have arrived at the conclusion that the earth and all
the other planets are electrified bodies. This being so, it naturally
follows that the intensity of the centrifugal force between any two of
these bodies, as the sun and the earth for example, or the sun and
Jupiter, is subject to the law of inverse squares; and that the
repulsion of the sun and the earth for each other is always regulated by
their distance, being inversely as the squares of the distance between
them.

Thus, if the distance between the sun and any planet is reduced to
one-half, which is an exaggerated view, the intensity of the centrifugal
force is increased four times; if the distance be doubled the force is
reduced to four times its former intensity, and so on.

Whatever the distance may be between the sun and any of the planets, if
that distance be increased or decreased, then the intensity of the
centrifugal force due to electric waves is increased or decreased in
accordance with the law of inverse squares. This agrees with the
centripetal law of Gravitation, as the Attraction of Gravitation is also
subject to the same law of inverse squares, and, as we have seen (Art.
83), its path coincides with the path of centrifugal force, as it
pursues the path represented by the straight lines joining the two
bodies.

So that, whenever, and wherever, at any point in space in relation to
the central body, the sun, the intensity of the attractive force is
increased according to the law of inverse squares by the distance from
the central body being diminished, at exactly the same time and in
exactly the same manner, the repulsive force due to aetherial electric
waves is also increased. If the attractive force is doubled, then the
repulsive force is doubled. If the attractive force is halved, the
repulsive force is halved. If the attractive force is lessened
gradually, then the repulsive force is lessened gradually; and if
quickly, by the quicker motion of the planet through space, then the
repulsive motion is also increased with a quicker motion.

Further, like the repulsive power of light and heat, the repulsive power
of electricity takes exactly the same path as the attractive power of
Gravitation.

Thus we learn that the sun is the centre of two forces: first, a
centrifugal force due to the pressure of the aetherial medium which is
ever directed away from the sun, and which may either be produced by
electric or thermal or light waves; and second, it is the centre of a
centripetal force known as the Law of Gravity, whatever that may be due
to. Further, the centrifugal force is also subject to the same law of
intensity as the centripetal force, and moreover takes exactly the same
path which the centripetal force takes.

So that we have only to prove that they both agree in another
particular, viz. that their power is regulated by the product of their
masses, and then we shall have discovered a real physical force, which
is the exact complement and counterpart of the centripetal force due to
gravity.


ART. 85. _Second Law of Electricity. (Product of Masses.)_--We have now
to prove that the centrifugal force exerted by any electrified body
operates upon another electrified body in the same proportion and with
exactly the same force which governs the centripetal force. From Art. 21
we learn that the centripetal force which is exerted by one body upon
another is equal to the product of their masses. In order, therefore,
for any centrifugal force to be the exact counterpart of that force, it
too must be subject to the same law of proportion, that is, the
repulsive force between any two bodies must be equal to the product of
their masses.

We have shown that there is a repulsive force exerted by the Aether from
the phenomena of heat, light, and electricity, and that that repulsive
force or energy fulfils every condition required by a centrifugal force
or motion, with the exception of the part referring to the fact that
such a force must be proportionate to the product of their masses. What
we were unable to accomplish, however, from the phenomena of heat or
light we are now able to accomplish from the phenomena of electricity.

For in the phenomena of electricity we find a law which runs thus: "The
force of repulsion" (which is the part of electricity we are now dealing
with) "between two electrified bodies is equal to the quantities of
electricity with which the body is charged." This law was established
and proved by Coulomb by means of a delicate instrument known as the
Torsion Balance, with which he also established the law of inverse
squares.

It will be seen at a glance that there is a slight difference between
stating the law of proportion with reference to the centripetal force,
and the centrifugal force or motion. In the former we state the
proportion is equal to the product of the masses, while in the latter we
say that the proportion is equal to the product of the quantities of
electricity.

In the one case we deal with the mass of the body, whether it be atom,
molecule, planet or star; in the other case we deal with quantities of
electricity. At first sight it may seem that there is little, if any,
connection between the two laws, but a careful reflection of the
hypotheses laid down with regard to the aetherial medium will show that
there is not only a close connection between these two laws of
proportion, but also that the law governing the repulsive power of the
aetherial electric waves is the direct outcome of the law of proportion
governing the centripetal force. Let us restate our case in regard to
the aetherial medium.

We have learned that the Aether is gravitative, and that it also has an
electro-magnetic basis is proved from Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory
of light. Let me ask the reader this question therefore. If the Aether
be gravitative, what must be the rule governing the extent and density
of the aetherial atmosphere surrounding any planet or sun or other body?
If the Law of Gravity teaches us anything at all, it distinctly teaches
us that the gravitating power of any body is regulated by the mass of
the body, as the law states that the attraction is proportionate to the
product of the masses. It states nothing about volume or condition of a
body.

The exact size or state of a body has no direct result bearing on
gravitation attraction; the underlying principle being that the
attractive force is dependent on the mass, and only on the mass of a
body. So that if the volume of any body, whether atom, planet, satellite
or sun, be doubled, its attractive power remains the same, simply
because the mass of the whole body remains the same. Mass, we are told
by mathematicians, is equal to the volume multiplied by the density, and
whenever we increase the volume of a body we decrease the density, the
total mass of the body remaining the same.

If the volume be doubled, then the density of the body would be halved,
and _vice versâ_, but through all the changes of volume and density that
may arise from the addition of heat or diminution of heat, the total
mass of a body always remains the same. Looked at from the atomic
standpoint, taking hydrogen as unity, an atom of oxygen would always
weigh sixteen times an atom of hydrogen, and this principle applies
throughout the whole realm of the atomic world. Further, the same
principle or law, that the mass is equal to the volume multiplied by the
density, is true of the planetary or even the stellar world. Thus the
great regulating principle of the attractive force of gravity is mass,
and not volume, or density, or any other condition.

Now as Aether is subject to the attractive force of gravity, the extent
of the aetherial field, and the density of the Aether near the surface
of any body, must be subject to the same law regarding mass. That is,
the aetherial atmosphere of any atom, or molecule, or satellite, or
planet, or star is dependent upon the mass of the atom, the molecule, or
the planet, or the star as the case may be.

Thus an atom of oxygen would have a larger or denser aetherial
atmosphere than an atom of hydrogen, exactly proportionate to their
respective masses. A planet whose mass was represented by 1,000,000 tons
would have twice the quantity of Aether around it, compared to a planet
weighing only 500,000 tons, and so on, the aetherial atmosphere always
being proportionate to the mass of the planet, or the satellite, or the
sun, or the star. The fact which we learn from these considerations is
that the quantity of Aether, which is attracted by any body, is always
proportionate to the mass of the body attracting it.

But we have learned from Art. 78 that Aether has an electro-magnetic
basis, and that the density of the Aether is co-equal with electric
density, so that the quantity of Aether which is attracted and held
bound by any body is really equal to the quantity of electricity that
such a body is covered with, or is charged with. If the quantity of
Aether around any body is doubled because its mass is doubled, then the
quantity of electricity is also doubled, but as long as the mass remains
unaltered, the quantity of electricity held bound by that mass remains
unaltered also. The area of the mass may be doubled, and in that case
the density of the electricity would be halved, but as long as the mass
remained the same, the quantity of electricity would remain the same
also. So that we learn from this reasoning that the mass of a body, and
quantities of electricity on that mass, are always proportionate to each
other, because of the fact that Aether is gravitative, and also has an
electro-magnetic basis.

If we wanted further evidence of the hypothesis that has just been
advanced, such evidence is to be found in the hypothesis suggested by
Faraday as to the electro-chemical equivalents of all elements.
According to this hypothesis every element has its exact
electro-chemical equivalent, or definite quantities of electricity are
to be found in association with each and every particular atom of each
element. Writing on the subject in his _Exp. Res._, par. 852, he says:
"The theory of definite electro-chemical action appears to me to touch
upon the absolute quantity of electricity or electrical power belonging
to different bodies. Although we know nothing of what an atom is, yet we
cannot resist forming some idea of a small particle which represents it
to our mind, and though we cannot say what electricity is, so as to be
able to say whether it is a particular matter or matters, or mere motion
of ordinary matter, yet there is immensity of facts which justify us in
believing that the atoms of matter are in some way endowed or associated
with electrical powers to which they owe their most striking qualities,
and amongst them their chemical affinity." Further, in Art. 857, he
states: "I can have no doubt that, assuming hydrogen as 1, and
dismissing small fractions for the simplicity of expression, the
equivalent number or atomic weight of oxygen is 8, of chlorine 36, of
bromine 78.4, and of lead 103.5, etc., notwithstanding that a high
authority doubles several of these numbers."

Then, writing upon the definite relationship of these equivalents in
compounds, he states (Art. 835): "Electro-chemical equivalents are
always consistent, that is, the same number which represents the
equivalent of a substance _A_ when it is separating from a substance _B_
will also represent _A_ when separating from a third substance _C_. Thus
8 is the electro-chemical equivalent of oxygen, whether separating from
hydrogen, tin, or lead; and 103.5 is the electro-chemical equivalent of
lead, whether separating from oxygen, or chlorine, or iodine."

Here, then, from the pen of one of the greatest thinkers and
experimentalists of modern times we have confirmatory evidence that the
mass of any body is practically synonymous with the quantity of
electricity associated with that body. For if the principle is true in
its application to atoms, it is true in its application to molecules;
and if it is true in relation to molecules, it is equally true in
relation to small bodies composed of molecules. And if it holds good in
relation to small bodies, the principle is equally true in its
application to larger bodies, as the earth, and therefore is of
universal application and proves the statement already made, that the
masses of bodies and quantities of electricity in association with that
mass are always proportionate to each other.

We are now in a position to compare the proportion of the centripetal
and centrifugal forces. The attractive power of the former, between two
bodies, is equal to the product of their masses; the repulsive power of
the latter is equal to the product of the quantities of electricity
bound to them, and that, as we have seen, is regulated by the respective
mass of each body. Let us apply this fact to the solar system and see
how it works.

Taking the mass of the earth as unity, we find that the mass of the sun
is 324,000 greater, so that the attractive power of the two bodies would
be represented by the product of the two numbers; but because the sun is
that number of times greater, its aetherial and, therefore, its electric
field would be so many times greater, with the result that the
proportion of the repulsive forces between the two bodies would be
exactly the same as the attractive forces between the two bodies, that
is, if the mean distance remains the same.

In the same way, it can be shown that the attractive forces between the
earth and Jupiter exactly equal the repulsive forces between the two
planets at their mean distance, or the attractive forces between any two
planets or satellites are exactly counterbalanced by the repulsive power
of the centrifugal force at their mean distances.

Thus the centrifugal force of every body is the exact opposite of its
centripetal force at their mean distance, because the laws governing the
centrifugal force are the exact counterpart of the laws governing the
centripetal force. A comparison of the two will prove this. From Arts.
20, 21, and 22 we have seen that the centripetal force is exerted along
the straight lines joining the attracting bodies, that the intensity of
the attracting body is inversely as the square of the distance, while
the total force is proportionate to the product of their masses.

From the phenomena of light, heat, and electricity, we learn that the
centrifugal force due to aetherial pressure is exerted along straight
lines, that the intensity is inversely as the square of the distance,
while the total force between two bodies is equal to the product of the
quantities of electricity, which are regulated by the product of their
masses.

Thus, if every planet and satellite could be conceived to be motionless
in space, and these two forces could be set in operation without
producing rotation or translation in space, which is impossible, then
every planet and satellite would occupy, by the joint exercise of these
two forces, the same position in relation to the sun represented by
their mean distances, as long as the solar system existed as a separate
system in the realm of aetherial space. We have therefore discovered by
strict philosophical reasoning, based on Newton's Rules of Philosophy, a
real tangible centrifugal force existing throughout the universe;
because it is entirely due to the pressure of an universal Aether, whose
operation is ever directed from a central body, which force was
indicated by Herschel, and its existence to his mind was demonstrated by
the repulsion exhibited in connection with the tails of comets.

We have now to go a step further, and show that the same pressure also
includes the magnetic phenomena, as indicated by Clerk Maxwell, and that
magnetic phenomena are also due to the aetherial medium, and then we
shall have linked together in one common medium the majority of the
forms of energy, as light, heat, electricity and magnetism, with which
we are familiar.

If it be demonstrated that these two forces, the centrifugal force and
the centripetal force, can conjointly account for all the motions of the
celestial bodies, then we shall have conclusive evidence that one of the
forces is physical and due to the pressure of a physical medium. After
that it will be comparatively easy to show that the centripetal force is
also due to the same aetherial medium, and then we shall have
accomplished that which we set out to accomplish, viz. the establishment
of a physical cause for universal Gravitation, which physical cause is
alone to be found in the pressures, tensions and motions of an universal
Aether.



                               CHAPTER IX

                          AETHER AND MAGNETISM


ART. 86. _Electro-magnetism._--We have now to look at the relation of
magnetism to electricity, or, in other words, to prove the identity that
exists between magnetism and electricity. In Art. 78 we have proved the
identity between electricity and light, so that if we can now prove the
identity between electricity and magnetism, then, wherever we get
aetherial light waves, we must also get aetherial electro-magnetic
waves.

As the light waves due to the vibrations of the Aether are practically
universal in extent, then it must follow, if the identity of the light
waves with electro-magnetic waves is established, that the universality
of electro-magnetic waves is established also, with the natural result,
that, wherever we get these electro-magnetic waves, there we shall have
the conditions by which all electro-magnetic phenomena are produced.

Now it can be demonstrated by actual experiment that wherever we get a
circular current of electricity, there we have magnetic phenomena
manifested. The two are inseparably connected, and it is impossible to
obtain the one without the other. For example, suppose we have a wire
conveying a current of electricity and make it into a coil as in Figure
15, what is the result? The result is, that the coil of wire has
actually been converted into a magnet.

It will attract iron filings that are brought near it, and also
magnetize an iron bar placed in the centre of the coils, and convert
that into a magnet. Indeed, there is nothing which can be done by an
ordinary bar magnet which cannot be done by a coiled wire conveying an
electric current.

From this and similar experiments it can be demonstrated that wherever
we get a circular current of electricity, there, associated with that
current, are all the phenomena incidental to and associated with the
ordinary bar magnet. This leads us to the truth discovered by Ampère,
that magnetism is nothing more or less than electricity in rotation, or
that it is due to a whirl of electricity circulating round the molecule
of any body. From certain experiments which he made in relation to the
mutual action of two circuits on each other, with currents flowing
through them, he came to the conclusion that the magnetism of the
molecule of each magnet is due to electric currents circulating round
it.

The question arises as to what effect our new theory of the Aether has
upon Ampère's theory: does it confirm it, or does it destroy it? We have
learned that every atom has its aetherial atmosphere, so to speak, which
is bound to the atom by the Law of Gravitation (Art. 45). We have also
learned that Aether has an electrical basis, as proved by Maxwell and
Hertz, so that we learn that every atom has really an aetherial electric
atmosphere in association with it. We have only to conceive of this
atmosphere being set in rotation either by the rotation of the atom or
molecule itself, or by outside agencies, and we have at once a physical
interpretation of Ampère's theory of magnetism in the rotation of electric
currents around the atom, such currents being due to the circulating or
rotating motion of the Aether which surrounds the atom or molecule.

[Illustration: Fig: 15.]

Thus we learn from experiment, and from Ampère's theory also, that
magnetism is directly associated with circulating currents of
electricity, and that wherever we get currents of electricity
circulating round any atom or body, there we get all the phenomena
associated with magnetism. That is to say, we shall have such phenomena
as magnetic fields, magnetic lines of force, magnetic induction, and the
production of permanent magnets by electricity.

Further, with reference to the identity of electricity and magnetism,
Faraday has conclusively proved their relation to each other; and I
would strongly advise any reader who desires further light on the
subject to carefully read paragraphs 3265-3269 in his _Experimental
Researches_, where he will find experiments which place the identity of
electricity and magnetism beyond the possibility of doubt. In paragraph
3265 he writes: "The well-known relation of the electric and magnetic
forces may be thus stated. Let two rings in planes at right angles to
each other represent them. If a current of electricity be sent round the
ring _E_ in the direction marked, then lines of magnetic force will be
produced. As these rings represent the lines of electro-dynamic force
and of magnetic force respectively, they will serve for a standard of
comparison."

"I have elsewhere called the electric current or the line of
electro-dynamic force an axis of power having contrary forces exactly
equal in amount in contrary directions (517). The line of magnetic force
may be described in precisely the same terms, and these two axes of power
considered as right lines are perpendicular to each other," etc.

[Illustration: Fig: 16.]

Again in 3267 he adds: "Like electric currents or lines of force, or
axes of power when placed side by side attract each other. This is well
known and well illustrated when wires carrying such currents are placed
parallel to each other. But like magnetic axes of power or lines of
force repel each other. The parallel case to that of electric currents
is given by placing two magnetic needles side by side with like poles in
the same direction."

Then in 3268 he shows that these effects are not merely contrasts, but
they are contrasts which coincide when the two axes of power at right
angles to each other are considered. Then in 3269 he adds: "The mutual
relation of the magnetic lines of force and the electric axis of power
has been known since the time of Oersted and Ampère," and further states
he is of the opinion that "the magnetic lines have a physical existence
the same as the electric lines," and having that opinion, asks whether
"the lines have a dynamic condition analogous to the electric axis to
which they are so closely and inevitably associated, or whether they
consist in a state of tension of the Aether round the electric axis, and
may therefore be considered as static in their nature." Thus Faraday
proved the intimate and close relationship that existed between the
electric current and the circles which represent the magnetic force in
association with that current; and, what is more noticeable, he asks
whether such magnetic results are due to a state of tension in the
Aether around the axis of the electric current, evidently being of the
opinion that the Aether played an important part in the phenomena of
magnetism, as well as in electricity, as other parts of his writings
abundantly show.

If, therefore, there is this close identity between electricity and
magnetism, then in view of the fact that all electricity is due to the
motions of the universal Aether, it must follow that all magnetism is
also due to motions of the same aetherial medium, which is as universal
as it is invisible.

What these motions are has already been indicated by previous statements
in this article, being comprised of circular or rotatory motions of the
aetherial electric medium about any body, whether that body be an atom,
planet, or sun or star. Such a conclusion as this is perfectly in
harmony with Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of light, as the
conclusion that he arrived at in that theory was, that the light waves
were identical in nature and character with electro-magnetic waves
produced by an electro-magnetic source.

Up to the present we have only dealt with the electric character of
those waves, and have therefore now to deal with the magnetic character
of the same. So that throughout the whole realm of space, and indeed
wherever there is Aether, there we have the conditions which give rise
to magnetic phenomena, such as those already indicated.

It matters not whether it be in the atomic systems whose combinations
comprise all material forms of life with which we are familiar, or
whether it is in the systems of planets that revolve around their
central sun, or whether it be in the constellations that fill the
universe, wherever we find the Aether, there we find the conditions in
that Aether which will produce all the results ordinarily produced by
magnetism, or with which magnetism is associated, and it is to the
application of these phenomena to our solar system that we will now turn
our attention.


ART. 87. _The Earth a Magnet._--If there is any fact in relation to a
planet that holds good, it is that the earth, with which planet we are
more intimately associated than any other, is a magnet.

This truth was clearly explained by Dr. Gilbert about the year 1600 in
his work on "De Magnete." Not only has the earth geographical North and
South poles, but it has also magnetic North and South poles, and indeed
has all the phenomena incidental to a magnet, such as magnetic dip and
magnetic lines of force, as we shall see later on.

We know, however, that the earth is simply one of a system of planets,
which revolves with all the others of that system round its central body
the sun; and the question arises, whether the earth is the only one out
of all the planets that is actually a magnet. Suppose it is affirmed
that the earth is the only planet which is a magnet. On what basis would
such a statement be made? The only ground for making such a statement
that I can see is, that we have never lived on Mars or Jupiter or
Saturn, or any of the other planets, and therefore been unable to
experiment on them, which reason is totally insufficient and inadequate
for such a conclusion.

If philosophy simply dealt with the results attained by such limited
reasoning, then the progress of science would be retarded, and would be
limited and confined to actual experience obtained on our own planet and
in relation only to that planet. But philosophy is not satisfied with
such a narrow and limited outlook, but drawing its conclusions from
actual experience on our own planet, in accordance with the rules of
philosophy, it seeks to apply such experience gained to the explanation
of phenomena of other planets which also revolve round the sun.

By such reasoning we learn that all the other planets have North and
South geographical poles like our earth, although we have never actually
trodden on those planets, or discovered the poles. We also learn that
Mars possesses climatic conditions probably similar to our own earth, as
there are certain changes on the surface around the poles, which by
analogy we assume to be caused by increase and decrease of snow during
the Arctic winter and summer of Mars respectively.

The analogy between our earth and the other planets is very full and
complete, as the following results show. Our earth has an atmosphere, so
have all the rest of the planets. The earth revolves on its axis from
West to East, so do all the rest. The earth possesses two geographical
poles, so do all the other planets. The earth revolves round the sun in
an orbit of elliptic form, so do the other planets. The earth fulfils
all the laws of motion as given by Newton, and all the other planets do
the same. The earth fulfils all Kepler's laws, and this is also true of
all the others. Indeed, the only difference apparently that exists at
present between the earth and all the other planets is, that our earth
is a magnet, while at present it is not conceded that all the others are
magnets.

Now such a conclusion I venture to say is altogether opposed to every
rule of philosophy. For if experience be any guide in philosophy, then
according to experience and observations made in respect to the only
planet that we can actually experiment on, it most conclusively follows,
that not only the earth, but every planet, and indeed every satellite
that revolves round its primary planet, is a magnet; otherwise the rule
of philosophy which permits us to formulate hypotheses based on
experience is entirely violated, and ceases at once to be an universal
rule.

So that either the earth is not a magnet, or else, being a magnet by our
second Rule of Philosophy, all the other planets are magnets also. This
conclusion has already been arrived at by Lord Kelvin, who in writing in
his _Popular Lectures_[33] on the subject says: "If it is true that
terrestrial magnetism is a necessary consequence of the magnetism and
the rotation of the earth, other bodies comparable in these qualities
with the earth, and comparable also with the earth in respect to
materials and temperature, such as Venus and Mars, must be magnets,
comparable in strength with the earth; and they must have poles similar
to the earth, North and South poles on the North and South sides of the
equator. It seems probable also that the sun, because of its great mass
and its rotation in the same direction as the earth's rotation, is a
magnet, with polarities on the North and South sides of the equator,
similar to terrestrial North and South magnetic poles." Further, such a
conclusion is entirely in harmony with the view of the solar system
revealed in Art. 81, where we saw that each planet was an electrified
body having its own electric field, with its lines of force, being
capable of giving rise to all the phenomena associated with electricity.
So that if we combine that view of the subject with the view that we are
now coming to, we arrive at the conclusion that each planet and
satellite, and indeed all bodies that move or revolve in space, are
electro-magnets giving rise to magnetic waves in the Aether, which
assumption is fully consistent with the electro-magnetic theory of light.

We must now go one step further and apply a similar line of reasoning to
the sun, when we shall arrive at exactly the same result that Lord
Kelvin arrived at, according to the previous extract. All planets
possess an atmosphere, the sun also possesses an atmosphere. All planets
revolve on their axes from West to East, so does the sun. All planets
possess a North and South pole the same as the sun.

The equatorial diameter of every planet is greater than its polar
diameter, and the same truth applies to the sun. It is hotter at the
equatorial regions of every planet, and this truth also applies to the
sun. Now, if the sun agrees with all the planets in these respects, then
we may philosophically conclude that it agrees with them in another
respect, viz. that the sun is also a magnet possessing its own magnetic
field, which is co-equal and co-extensive with its aetherial electrical
field. We have already seen that the sun is an electrified body,
possessing its electric field, with its electric lines of force.
Therefore the sun is also a magnet, or, to speak more correctly, it is
an electro-magnet, and as such gives rise to electro-magnetic waves.

The conclusion to which we have come, that the sun is an electro-magnet,
can be arrived at from an altogether different method of reasoning, and
as that different method of reasoning will tend to confirm the statement
made, I will just indicate it, and then leave it for fuller development
in another article.

It is a matter of common knowledge to all students, that the magnetism
of the earth varies in several important particulars from time to time.
The magnetic poles of the earth do not always occupy the same place in
relation to the geographical poles, so that the magnetic force varies as
regards intensity or magnitude. The reasons of the variations have never
been satisfactorily accounted for, though various hypotheses have been
suggested as a solution from time to time.

There is, I believe, only one satisfactory solution to the problem, and
that is, that the sun is an electro-magnet, and this conclusion may be
arrived at by strictly adhering to Newton's rules of Philosophy. For we
have learned that any hypothesis put forward to account for any
phenomena, must be simple in character, must agree with experience and
observation, and, lastly, must satisfactorily account for the phenomena
sought to be explained.

Here then are the variations in time of the magnetic force of the earth,
the variations in intensity, and in the inclination of the magnetic
axis, together with other variations. What solution shall we offer to
such a problem? The only philosophical solution that can be suggested
lies in the statement that the sun is an electro-magnet. Such statement
is simple in conception, does not violate our experience or observation,
as we find a similar revolving body, the earth, which is a magnet; and
further, such a statement I premise will satisfactorily account for the
whole of the variations and changes in relation to the magnetic forces
of the earth. We shall see that this is so when we consider more fully
the sun as an electro-magnet. Therefore, apart altogether from any
previous analogies, we can philosophically arrive at the conclusion that
the sun is an electro-magnet, as well as all the planets.

That being so, it will possess its magnetic field, its magnetic lines of
force, and be capable of bringing into operation in the solar system all
the phenomena or effects associated with any ordinary magnet that we may
experiment with on the earth.

[Footnote 33: _Popular Lectures_, Vol. II.]


ART. 88. _The Sun an Electro-magnet._--If the sun is an electro-magnet,
as stated in the previous article, then it is necessary for us to apply
the phenomena of magnetism to it in order to ascertain what effect such
application will have on the solar system as a whole.

[Illustration: Fig: 17.]

The first thing that we will look at is the magnetic field which is
always associated with every magnet. The magnetic field may be defined
as that region or space around every magnet in which the magnetic force
acts or is in operation. An illustration of a magnetic field may easily
be obtained by taking a bar magnet and bringing near to it a magnetized
needle, when it will be found that the needle will set itself in various
positions relative to the magnet, on account of the lines of force which
exist in the field. Thus let _A_ _B_ (Fig. 17) be a bar magnet with its
North pole at point _A_ and South pole at point _B_. If a number of
freely suspended needles be hung above it, as shown in the figure, they
assume the positions indicated there. It will be seen that at the North
and South poles the needles hang vertical, while midway between the two
poles there is no dip of the needle, as it is parallel to the bar
magnet; while between the place of no dip and the place of vertical dip,
which is directly over each pole, the dip gradually changes, becoming
more and more vertical as it gets nearer to the pole. If the bar magnet
be a strong one, then its magnetic field will be manifested at a great
distance; and any magnetized needle brought into the field will be,
affected by the same, and will tend to set itself along the lines of
force.

As already stated in Art. 80, it was Faraday who originated the term
"Lines of Force," and gave to the world some idea of the motions of the
aetherial medium, which plays so important a part in electro-magnetic
phenomena. A visible manifestation of these lines of force which gather
round every magnet may be made by strewing iron filings over a piece of
glass, underneath which are several bar magnets, when it will be found
that the iron filings will set themselves in well-defined lines or
curves, which Faraday termed "Lines of Force."

[Illustration: Fig: 18.]

As the bar magnets are placed in different positions, North pole to
North pole, or North to South, and so on, the iron filings will change
the figures assumed, indicating in, each case the effect of the lines of
force of each magnet upon one another. The iron filings strewed over the
magnet are magnetized by induction, with the result that the North pole
of one filing attracts the South pole of the next one to it, and this is
continued along the whole of one line of force, as revealed by the united
iron filings. Faraday believed in the real physical existence of these
lines of force, and that belief has been perfected by Clerk Maxwell in two
papers which he wrote on "Physical Lines of Force," which will be
considered in another article. We will simply deal with them at present
as indications of the existence of the magnetic forces in the medium
surrounding any magnet.

Let us apply these facts to the solar system and see what the
application yields. We have the sun revolving in the Aether medium
represented by the circle _S_ in Fig. 19. Then we have the lines of
force extending in curved lines _E._ and _W._, but in almost straight
lines North and South. We will suppose the axis of the sun to be
vertical for the sake of simplicity. It may be asked, how far will these
lines of force stretch out into space? The reply is that they stretch
and extend throughout the whole solar system, and far away into the
depths of space, though with ever-decreasing intensity according to the
law of inverse squares. Wherever the aetherial light waves are
manifested, there the electro-magnetic waves, with all that they imply,
are manifested also. We know that the light waves are existent at least
as far as Neptune, a distance of 2800 millions of miles, therefore at
least to that extent the electro-magnetic waves are manifested; and
wherever the electro-magnetic waves to which the sun has given birth are
manifested, there we have the existence of the electro-magnetic field,
which is co-existent and co-extensive with the electric field of the
sun. Further, wherever we get the magnetic field, there we get the lines
of force which are as real as air or ocean currents, and are caused, as
Maxwell indicated (Art. 44), by the motions of the atomic Aether.
Wherever these lines of force are closest together, there the intensity
of the magnetic force is at its greatest.

[Illustration: Fig: 19.]

By actual experiment, it can be demonstrated that the lines of force are
closest together nearest to the magnet, and therefore applying that fact
to the solar magnetic field, the lines of force should be closest
together nearest to the surface of the sun, which is exactly what we
have already learned. For if Aether be gravitative, then it will be
densest nearest to the sun than further away, and the vortex atoms which
represent our aetherial atoms will be pressed more closely together near
to the surface than further away.

We have learned that Aether has an electro-magnetic basis, and it is
that very fact which gives rise to the existence of these lines of
force. So that the magnetic phenomena as indicated in the lines of force
conceived by Faraday harmonize with the fact that the sun is an
electro-magnet; and that Aether, which has an electro-magnetic basis, is
also gravitative, with the result that the lines of force are closest
together nearest the surface of the sun, where the magnetic force is
greatest in its intensity and power.

Now let us apply the principle of the experiment to the solar system by
bringing a magnet into a magnetic field, and let us see what the result
is. We have learned from the experiment, that if a magnet is moved along
any one of the lines of force the dip of the magnet changes, gradually
changing from a horizontal to a perpendicular position in accordance
with its relation to the two poles of the magnet. From the previous
article we have come to the conclusion that not only is the earth a
magnet, but that all the other planets are magnets also, so that if any
of these are brought into the magnetic field of the sun, then the
magnetic axis of the planet, which corresponds to the needle in our
experiment, must assume a certain dip in relation to the sun, setting
itself along those lines of force which are in the immediate
neighbourhood of the planet.

Let us place the earth, for example, at a distance of 90 millions of
miles from the sun in the magnetic equator, or that line which exactly
divides the magnetic field into two equal halves. According to our
experiment, the magnetic axis will now be exactly parallel with the axis
of the sun, that is, exactly vertical, pointing North and South, as seen
in position 1 in Fig. 19. But suppose that the earth is to the North of
the magnetic equator of the field, what happens then? The result will be
that the magnetic axis of the earth will dip towards the magnetic North
pole of the sun (position 2, Fig. 19), while if the earth be to the
South of the magnetic equator, its axis will dip in the opposite
direction (position 3), the magnetic axis setting itself in each case
along the lines of force which exist in the Aether in that region or
space. Thus it can be seen at a glance, that if the earth changes its
position at any time in its orbit in relation to the magnetic equator,
such a change will effect the total dip of the magnetic axis. In other
words, the magnetic poles which indicate the position of the magnetic
axis will not occupy the same position in relation to the geographical
North and South poles, sometimes appearing to the East and sometimes to
the West, and at other times being coincident with the same as it moves
to the North or South of the magnetic equator of the sun's
electro-magnetic field.

We have to remember, also, that the earth is constantly varying its
distance in relation to the sun, being at a distance of ninety and a
half millions of miles at its perihelion, or that part of its orbit
nearest to the sun; while it is ninety-four and a half millions of miles
at its aphelion, or that part of its orbit furthest away from the sun.
This implies that as it proceeds from that point in space furthest away
from the sun, and approaches a point nearer to the sun, it will pass
into places of greater magnetic intensity, with the result that the
intensity of the electro-magnetic waves is increased; and the magnetism
of the earth is accordingly affected by that fact.

When we come to deal with the earth as a magnet more directly, we shall
see that all the variations of terrestrial magnetism may be
satisfactorily explained by the fact that the sun is, as we have
indicated in this article, an electro-magnet, possessing its magnetic
field with its lines of force, and therefore able to give rise to all
the phenomena incidental to and associated with any ordinary magnet.


ART. 89. _Aether and Faraday's Lines of Force._--We have now to face the
question of the physical character of the Lines of Force conceived by
Faraday. We have seen in Fig. 18 illustration of these lines of force,
which are manifested by the iron filings in the neighbourhood of a
magnet, and the question suggests itself to the mind, as to what is the
relation of the Aether to those lines of force? Does the Aether play any
part in their existence, and if so what?

Faraday was of the opinion that the Aether did play some part in the
existence of the lines, and that they were no mere hypothetical lines,
but were caused by the actual physical state or condition of the
aetherial medium, which existed around every magnet and every
electrified body. On this point he says, Art. 3263:[34] "To acknowledge
the action in curved lines seems to me to imply at once that the lines
have a physical existence. It may be the vibration of the hypothetical
Aether, or a state of tension of that Aether equivalent to either a
dynamic or static condition."

Par. 3277: "I conceive that when a magnet is in free space, there is
such a medium, magnetically speaking, around it. That a vacuum has its
own magnetic relations of attractions and repulsions is manifest from
former experimental results (2787). What that surrounding magnetic
medium deprived of all material substance may be, I cannot tell, perhaps
the Aether."

It was, however, left for Clerk Maxwell to develop the idea as to their
physical character, and this he did in his paper on "Physical Lines of
Force," _Phil. Mag._, 1861. He had previously written a paper on
"Faraday's Lines of Force," delivered to the Cambridge Phil. Society in
1855 and 1856, but his more matured conception of Faraday's Lines of
Force was given in the later article.

What Maxwell did was to conceive a physical theory of electricity and
magnetism, by which electrified and magnetized bodies could act upon
each other by means of the stress or strain of some medium, which
existed in the space surrounding these bodies. Now Faraday looked upon
electro-static and magnetic induction as always taking place along
curved lines. These lines may be conceived as atoms or molecules
starting from the poles of a magnet, and acting on all bodies in the
electro-magnetic field. These atoms or molecules, joined together in a
definite manner, tend to shorten in the direction of their length, that
is to say, there is a tension along the lines of force while at the same
time they swell out laterally or sideways. Thus there is a tension along
the lines of force, and a pressure at right angles to them owing to
their bulging out sideways. Maxwell used as an illustration of the
tension and pressure, the contraction and thickening of a muscle. As the
fibres of the muscle contract, and the arm or leg is drawn up, the
muscle swells in its centre outwardly, and so thickens. Thus there would
be a tension along the muscle, and a pressure at right angles to it,
which would cause any body placed on it to move away from it, owing to
the pressure of the contracted muscle.

In the conception of an aetherial atom (Art. 44) drawn purely from
observation of the shape of the earth, we came to the conclusion that
the aetherial atom was a spherical vortex atom, or, to be more correct,
that it was an oblate spheroid with its polar diameter, so to speak,
shorter than its equatorial diameter, and further, that the aetherial
atom possessed polarity.

Now if we can conceive of these aetherial vortex atoms being joined
together, North pole to South pole, and revolving round their axes, we
shall then have an exact image of Maxwell's physical conception of
Faraday's Lines of Force.

We know that when any liquid body is caused to rotate rapidly about its
axis, it will expand laterally and contract longitudinally in the
direction of the axis; and it was on this analogy that Maxwell worked
out his physical conception of the lines of force. Maxwell's fundamental
idea was, that in a magnetic field there is a rotation of the molecule
ever going on about the lines of force. For example, let _A_ _B_ be a
magnet, and _A_ _C_ _B_ be a line of force composed of spherical vortex
atoms joined end to end, that is, each North pole (assuming the vortex
atoms to be magnets) being directly associated with the South pole of
the one next to it, and _vice-versâ_ (Fig. 20).

Thus it can be readily seen that there will be a tension along the line
of force, while there will be a pressure at right angles to it owing to
the lateral expansion, partly due to the rotation of the vortex atom,
and partly due to the attraction of the vortices for each other in the
direction of the line of force.

Maxwell in his paper says: "It appears therefore that the stress in the
axis of the line of magnetic force is a tension like that of a rope."
Further, he adds: "Let us now suppose that the phenomena of magnetism
depend upon the existence of the tension in the direction of the lines
of force, combined with a hydrostatic pressure, or in other words, a
pressure greater in the equatorial than in the axial direction. The next
question is, What mechanical explanation can we give of these
inequalities of pressure in a fluid or mobile medium? The explanation
which most readily occurs to the mind is, that the excess of pressure in
the equatorial direction arises from the centrifugal force of the
vortices or eddies in the medium, having their axes in the direction
parallel to the lines of force." He adds: "A medium of this kind filled
with molecular vortices, having their axes parallel, differs from an
ordinary medium in having different pressures in different directions."

[Illustration: Fig: 20.]

He then goes on to develop the idea in relation to different intensities
of the magnetic field. I must, however, refer the reader to the paper
itself for fuller details. In his greatest work,[35] writing on this
subject, he says: "I think we have good evidence for the opinion that
some phenomenon of rotation is going on in the magnetic field, that this
rotation is performed by a great number of very small portions of
matter, each rotating on its own axis, being parallel to the direction
of the magnetic force, and that the rotations of these different
vortices are made to depend on one another by means of some kind of
mechanism."

From the foregoing extracts taken from Maxwell's writings, we learn that
the constitution of the Aether, as given in Art. 44, exactly coincides
with, and satisfactorily fulfils the conditions that he lays down with
reference to his physical conception of the lines of force around a
magnet or electrified body.

So that the theory of Maxwell is not merely hypothetical, as is
suggested by scientists, but exactly describes the conditions and state
of the atomic Aether medium which surrounds all magnets. We have,
however, seen that the sun is a magnet, and therefore it possesses
around it on every side, the same as any other magnet, these aetherial
lines of force composed of infinitesimal vortices, or mere whirling
points which correspond to an aetherial atom.

These aetherial lines of force stretch out into space on every side of
the sun, and in fact form concentric magnetic shells around the sun;
which magnetic shells coincide with the equipotential surfaces of the
Aether viewed merely from the point of elasticity and density of the
medium. We learn by experiment, that these lines are closest together
nearest to the magnet, which fact agrees with the statement that Aether
is gravitative, and therefore the Aether would be densest nearest the
sun. That is, the atoms would be pressed closer together, so that the
lines of force of which these atoms are composed ought also to be closer
together at the surface of the magnet, which we find by experiment is
the case. As the sun is an electro-magnet, therefore, it possesses these
magnetic lines of force on all sides, forming a series of magnetic
shells. We have now arrived by the aid of Maxwell's theory to a physical
conception of the Aether from a magnetic standpoint, which fully agrees
with our physical conception of the Aether which was arrived at by
purely philosophical reasoning, based on Newton's Rules of Philosophy.

Thus we are able to combine into one whole by our conception that Aether
is matter, and therefore atomic and gravitative, not only Faraday's
Lines of Force, but also Maxwell's physical conception of the same,
apart from the solutions given to the other problems of science by the
self-same conception, which solutions will be dealt with in their proper
order.

As further evidence of Maxwell's belief in the physical existence of
Faraday's Lines of Force, let me again quote from his paper on "Action
at a Distance,"[36] already referred to in Art. 43. He writes: "Its
minute parts may have rotatory as well as vibratory motions, and the
axes of rotation form those lines of Magnetic Force which extend in
unbroken continuity into regions which no eye has seen.... These lines
must _not be regarded as mere mathematical abstractions_. They are the
directions in which the medium is exerting tension like that of a rope,
or rather like that of our own muscles."

[Footnote 34: _Exp. Res._]

[Footnote 35: _Magnetism and Electricity._]

[Footnote 36: _Collected Works_, by Niven.]


ART. 90. _Terrestrial Magnetism._--We have already seen that the earth
is a magnet, and like any other magnet will therefore possess its
magnetic field with its magnetic lines of force. The earth's magnetic
field is co-existent and co-equal with its electric field (Art. 80), and
that is co-existent with the earth's aetherial atmosphere which is held
bound to the planet by the force of gravity.

How far the earth's magnetic field reaches, is impossible to say, but we
know that it extends at least as far as 260,000 miles, the distance of
the moon; as we find that this satellite of the earth is affected very
considerably by the electro-magnetic attractive power of the earth. Any
body which is placed in the earth's magnetic field is affected by the
lines of force which exist in the magnetic field; for wherever the field
exists, there the lines of force exist also.

These lines of force, which are associated with the earth, extend
therefore into space, and any body such as the moon would become a
magnet, if not already one by the process known as magnetic induction,
which physical process is well illustrated in the action of a magnet
upon iron filings strewed over it as in the illustration (Art. 88).

An experiment which well illustrates the inductive power of the earth's
magnetism, may be made by placing a poker in one of these lines of
force, whose direction can be found at any part of the earth's surface
by means of proper instruments. When the poker is so placed, it will be
seen that it has actually become magnetized by the magnetism of the
earth, and it is itself able to attract iron filings or small needles.
These lines of force of the earth are closer together nearest to the
earth's surface than further away in space, and congregate around the
North and South magnetic poles, where they are greatest in number in a
given area, and there the magnetic intensity is the greatest.

Faraday, writing on the terrestrial lines of force, says: "The lines of
force issue from the earth in the northern and southern parts with
different but corresponding degrees of inclination, and incline to, and
coalesce with each other over the equatorial parts. There seems reason
to believe that the lines of magnetic force which proceed from the earth
return to it, but in their circuitous course they may extend through
space to a distance of many diameters of the earth, to tens of thousands
of miles."[37]

From this extract it will be seen that Faraday was of the opinion that
the lines of force extended beyond the atmosphere of the earth into the
Aether, which statement is confirmed by other parts of his writings;
though he was not able to give any physical explanation of how these
lines extended beyond the atmosphere on account of the doubtful
constitution and character of the Aether, although in another part of
his work he definitively refers to the magnetic character of space.

In writing on the magnetic character of space he says:[38] "From such
experiments, and also from general observations and knowledge, it seems
manifest that the lines of magnetic force can traverse pure space, just
as gravitating force does, and as static electric forces do (1616), and
therefore space has a magnetic character of its own, and one that we shall
probably find hereafter to be of the utmost importance in natural
phenomena." With the view of the Aether presented in this work, viz. that
Aether is matter, though in an infinitely more rarefied and elastic form,
we can now see the physical cause of the lines of force with which by his
imagination he filled all space.

Again, from the conception of the Aether presented to the reader in Art.
45, we learn that around any body in space there are existing aetherial
concentric spheres or shells which are equipotential surfaces, or
surfaces of equal pressure, and that these surfaces coincide with the
electric equipotential surfaces, as shown in Art. 80.

Not only so, but they coincide with the magnetic shells which the lines
of force actually form around a circular and globular magnet, as the
earth. For it must not be forgotten that these lines of force exist
equally on all sides of the earth, and therefore really form a spherical
shell, or to speak more correctly an aetherial electro-magnetic shell,
which is an oblate spheroid in shape, partaking of the shape of the
earth or other planet which the lines of force surround.

If these shells were divided into two equal halves, the line so dividing
them would be called the magnetic equator, and on that line any magnet
would set itself in a horizontal position, so that all round the earth
on the magnetic equator would correspond to a line of no dip. At the
magnetic poles, a magnet would set itself vertically, or at an angle of
90°, and between these two parts, the place of no dip, and that of 90°,
the dip gradually changes as illustrated in the figure. Again, in
relation to the magnetism of the earth we find that there are certain
variations in the magnetic force, which not only influence the dip at
any place, but also the intensity at that place. The variations in
Magnetic Force are chiefly three--

    1st. Diurnal Variations.
    2nd. Annual Variations.
    3rd. Secular Variations.

Let us look at these three variations from the standpoint of the
magnetic lines of force which exist around the earth, and around every
planet. In relation to the variations of the magnetic forces upon the
surface of the earth, Faraday points out that these variations are
caused by the action of the sun's rays upon the terrestrial lines of
force. He uses the following figure to illustrate his meaning. Let _H_
be the sun, _E_ the earth--

[Illustration: Fig: 21.]

He writes as follows: "If the magnetic and astronomical poles of our
earth be supposed to be coincident, then North and South poles will also
represent the North and South magnetic poles, and the different curves
cutting the earth will sufficiently represent a course of magnetic lines
as they occur at, or about, the surface of the earth. _H_ represents the
sun, and _a_ the place immediately underneath it, which is also
coincident with the magnetic equator. Point _a_ will be a line of no
dip, while at point _b_ there will be dip. This dip will be increased by
the action of the sun's rays, because the atmosphere under the influence
of the sun's rays has expanded the air, and has thus acquired a power to
affect the lines of magnetic force."

"All the lines passing through the heated and expanded air will, because
of its being a worse magnetic conductor, tend to open out, and the mass
of heated air will as a whole assume the condition of diamagnetic
polarity (2923). The case may be more simply stated for the facility of
recollection by saying, that the effect of the sun is to raise the
magnetic circles over the equatorial and neighbouring parts from their
normal position, in doing which the North and South dip are
simultaneously affected and increased."

Thus it can readily be seen that every day as the earth turns round on
its axis, and presents each side of the globe successively to the rays
of the sun, there should be a gradual change in the intensity of the
terrestrial magnetism. In Art. 2925, Faraday points out that the maximum
of dip would be when the sun was at its zenith or directly overhead.
With reference to the Annual Variation, Faraday points out (2882) that
if the axis of the earth were perpendicular to the plane of its orbit,
the intensity and direction of the magnetic forces might be considered
constant, but (2883) as the axis of the earth's rotation is inclined 23°
to the plane of the ecliptic, the two hemispheres will become
alternately warmer and colder than each other, and then a variation in
the magnetic condition may arise. The consideration of this annual
variation is further considered by Faraday in the subsequent paragraphs
to those already quoted, and I must refer the reader to them for fuller
details; I wish simply to indicate the possible explanation of the
terrestrial magnetism, in so far as that explanation is in conformity
with the aspect of the Aether submitted in Chapter IV.

With regard to secular variations Faraday points out (2880) that the
temperature of the air at the equatorial parts of the earth is greater
than in latitudes north and south, and as an elevation of temperature
diminishes the conducting power of magnetism, so the proportion of force
passing through those parts ought to be less, and that passing through
the cooler parts, greater, than if the temperature were at the same
degree over the whole surface of the globe.

Now with our definite conception of the aetherial lines of force
traversing space, and existing on all sides of the earth, these
suggestions of Faraday's obtain an increased value in relation to the
varying intensity of terrestrial magnetism, and will account for the
variations in a satisfactory manner from the aetherial standpoint, if
taken in conjunction with the electro-magnetic character of the Aether.
Of course, what applies to the earth equally applies to all the other
planets, as they also are magnets according to Art. 87, so that they
will also possess their magnetic fields, with their own lines of force,
and their variations in intensity and magnetic dip.

Hitherto we have only considered the problem of the earth and all the
other planets, as magnets, from the stationary standpoint, and the
problem faces us as to what effect the movement of the earth and all
other planets through the Aether will have upon their magnetic fields,
and their lines of force. Now from Clerk Maxwell's mathematical
calculations, we learn that the movement of any magnetic body through
space will practically have no effect upon the relation of the field,
and the lines of force to the moving magnet; that is to say, the
magnetic field and the lines of force move with the earth and the
planets through space, as they journey round the sun with their varying
velocity. Maxwell has conclusively proved that the mathematical
equations for moving bodies in relation to their magnetic lines of
force, and induction, are exactly the same as the equations for
stationary bodies, and if this be true, then it follows that the
physical conditions for both stationary and moving bodies are the same.

On this point Maxwell writes: "By its motions this (moving) matter
carries with it its lines of force, and electricity and magnetism may be
regarded as free ends of these lines. Hence when both causes act
together there can be no relative motion of true magnetism with
reference to surrounding matter," etc.

"Under these circumstances electricity and magnetism move with the
matter in which they are present as if they were indestructible and
adhered firmly to the parts thereof." So that from Maxwell's equations
and statements we learn that the magnetic lines of force around every
planet, and every satellite in space, move with the planets in their
orbits round the sun. But as these magnetic lines of force are composed
of aetherial atoms, as already indicated, it follows that the Aether
which is associated with each planet and held bound to it by the
so-called force of gravity moves with the planet also.

This result is entirely consistent with our experience and observation,
as we shall see later on. We find that the atmosphere, which is also
gravitative, moves with the earth, and therefore from experience we are
compelled to arrive at the conclusion that the Aether which is also
gravitative moves with each planet, and this result is confirmed by
mathematical calculations given by Clerk Maxwell, and is in perfect
harmony with the same.

Here then is the key to one of the problems that has been the subject of
investigation and research for many years past, and one which is at the
present time occupying the attention of some of our most advanced
scientists, viz. the relation of the Aether to moving matter.

That problem was solved by Maxwell from an electric and magnetic
standpoint, and his result was that the Aether, which we now know to be
the source of all electricity and magnetism, moves with the moving
matter. What is more, this result has been confirmed by actual
experiment made by Michelson and Morley in America, which experiment
conclusively proves that Maxwell's result is physically correct, and
that the Aether does move through space with its associated planet, and
therefore its magnetic field and its lines of force move with it because
of the electro-magnetic character of the Aether.

[Footnote 37: Art. 2850, _Exp. Res._]

[Footnote 38: Art. 2757, _Exp. Res._]


ART. 91. _Solar Magnets._--We have now to attack the problem as to the
cause of all the satellites and planets, together with the sun, being
electro-magnets. What is the continuing and ever-acting cause which
makes all planetary bodies, including the sun, their centre, to be
permanent magnets? According to the Rules of Philosophy there are two
causes which would be simple in conception, which are suggested by
experiment and observation, and both causes would satisfactorily account
for all the planets being magnets.

The first cause suggested to our minds is, that in view of the fact that
the sun is an electro-magnet, and therefore possesses a magnetic field
with its aetherial line of force, all the planets may become magnets by
the process of magnetic induction, which process has already been
illustrated by the action of the iron filings placed over the magnet.
Such a hypothesis would fulfil all the Rules of Philosophy, as it would
be simple in conception, would not violate experience, and would
satisfactorily account for the fact sought to be explained.

But such a hypothesis would be based upon the assumption that the sun
was an electro-magnet, and then we should have to find out the cause of
that fact also. Hence the hypothesis that the planets are magnets,
because they are situated in the magnetic field of the sun, is not a
satisfactory solution of the whole problem, as it fails to account for
the fact that the sun is also an electro-magnet. We must therefore seek
for another solution of the problem, which, while fulfilling all the
Rules of Philosophy as laid down in Art. 3, will also account for the
sun being an electro-magnet, as well as every planet, satellite, meteor,
or any other body that exists in space. If we can ascertain such a cause
by philosophical reasoning, then we may say we have satisfactorily
solved the problem as to the cause of all planetary and stellar bodies
being electro-magnets.

If, at the same time, we can solve other outstanding problems by the
solution thus offered, then such solution is more likely to be correct
than if it simply solved the problem of solar magnetism. The only other
solution that can possibly present itself to our minds, as to the cause
of all magnetism in any planet, sun, or star, is the explanation which
has already been given in Art. 86 on electro-magnetism.

In that article we learned that magnetism was really due to the circular
motion of an electric current; and that, whenever and wherever we had an
electric current moving or revolving with a circular motion, there we
should always have those conditions which would give rise to an
electro-magnet. As long as the current continued to flow in its circular
course, so long would there be those conditions which would give rise to
permanent magnetism.

Now in the solar system we find that there are these magnets, which have
been in existence for millions of years. We also learn from the
electro-magnetic theory of light that Aether has an electro-magnetic
basis, which gives rise to electro-magnetic waves when disturbed, or set
in motion by any heated or luminous body. It can readily be seen,
therefore, that we have only to set this electro-magnetic Aether in
circular motion around any planet or sun, and we have at once a circular
current of electricity flowing round that planet or sun, which would
give rise to those conditions by which any body within its influence may
be formed into a magnet.

Our hypothesis, therefore, to explain the reason why all the planets and
the sun are magnets, is that the electro-magnetic Aether moves round the
sun or planet or satellite as the case may be, thus giving rise to
currents of electricity around the planet or sun, and so forming those
conditions in the Aether by which the permanency of any planetary or
stellar magnetism may be maintained and perpetuated.

In other words, to put it plainly and tersely, each aetherial atmosphere
revolves round the planet, subject to certain limitations, in the same
way that the aerial atmosphere turns round with the earth, as that
planet revolves on its axis. At first sight, such an assumption may seem
impossible, but a little careful consideration will show not only the
possibility of such a cause, but will establish it, as the only
reasonable and philosophical explanation for the phenomena we are
seeking to explain, viz. the electro-magnetism of all celestial bodies.

There is nothing extravagant in this assumption, as we already have a
similar illustration in the case of the atmosphere which goes round with
the earth as it revolves on its axis. We have only to extend the same
principle a little further, viz. to the aetherial atmosphere, and we at
once get the true physical conception of the hypothesis suggested to
explain the magnetism of all celestial bodies. We have already learned
that Maxwell has proved that the equations for moving magnetic bodies
are the same as those for stationary bodies, from which we came to the
conclusion that the electric and magnetic field of any planet goes with
that planet as it revolves on its axis in its journey round the sun.

I would like to ask the reader to try to conceive of any electric or
magnetic field traversing space in association with any planet or sun
which is revolving on its axis, while that electric or magnetic field
does not revolve either partially or wholly with the revolving body. The
field can only be stationary relatively to the planet or sun, as it
revolves with the planet or sun on its axis.

There may be, as there doubtless are, conditions governing that
revolution, as is the case with the atmosphere moving and revolving with
the planet, but it is an absolute impossibility for Maxwell's equations
relating to moving magnetic bodies to be carried to their logical
conclusion, without affirming some such hypothesis as we have affirmed
in relation to the cause of all solar magnetism.

Let me at once point out, this solution has already been offered by one
whose name has been referred to several times. I refer to Professor
Challis. Let us see what he has to say as to the cause of the earth's
magnetism. In dealing with this subject, and writing in the _Phil.
Mag._, 1872, par. 42, he states: "With respect to all magnetism which
has a cosmical origin, the view I now take is that it is due to
gyrations of the Aether, produced by the impulses which it receives from
the motions of the constituent atoms of the bodies of the solar system.
The gyrations may either be immediately generated by the rotations of
the bodies about their axes, or directly result from disturbances of the
Aether caused by their motions of translation. This impressed motion
will be converted into circulatory or gyratory motion. Such circulatory
motion will necessarily partake of the motion of translation of the
bodies which generate them, so as to have always the same geometrical
relation to these bodies provided their motion be uniform."

In paragraph 46 he continues: "From what has been already argued (42),
the motions impressed on the Aether by the earth in consequence of its
rotatory or orbital motions result in circulating motions which would be
steady motions, having always the same geometrical relation to the
position of the earth's centre."

Again, Ampère and Faraday were also of the opinion that the magnetism of
the earth was due to the circulation of electric currents round it, for
in par. 446, _Exp. Res._, Faraday states: "Assuming with Ampère that the
magnetism of the earth is due to electric currents circulating round it,
parallel to the equator."

I think it will be seen from these extracts that the hypothesis
suggested for all planetary and stellar magnetic bodies is thus
confirmed by Professor Challis, and by Faraday and Ampère. Professor
Challis in these passages clearly and definitely points out that there
are circulatory motions in the Aether, which motions are produced by the
rotation of the earth or other body on its axis, and that these circular
motions of the aetherial medium always maintain the same geometrical
shape relative to the earth's centre. So that we have only to combine
with his hypothesis the electro-magnetic basis of the Aether, and we at
once get the circulating currents of electricity constantly flowing
round the heavenly bodies, which produce and give rise to the permanent
magnetism of those bodies.

If we desired still further confirmation as to the circulating motions of
the Aether caused by a rotating body, we find it in the writings of
Herschel, who in relation to this matter asks:[39] "What is the law of
density of the resisting medium which surrounds the sun? Is it at rest or
in motion? If the latter, in what direction does it move? Circularly round
the sun, or traversing space? If circularly, in what plane? Supposing the
neighbourhood of the sun to be filled with material fluid, it is not
conceivable that the circulation of the planets in it for ages should not
have impressed upon it some degree of rotation in their own direction, and
this may preserve them from the extreme effects of accumulated
resistance!" Words like these from one of the most searching intellects of
the last century are well worthy of our consideration, and the suggested
effect on the Aether caused by the continued rotation of the earth gives
us the key not only to the problem of celestial magnetism, but also to the
other outstanding scientific problems.

For example, there is the problem of the relation of moving matter to
the Aether around it which still remains unsolved. The physical cause of
the rotation of the earth, and all other celestial bodies upon their
axes, with unceasing regularity, still remains to be discovered. The
physical explanation as to the reason why the earth moves round the sun
in its orbit according to Kepler's Laws, has yet to be determined, and,
lastly, there is the relation of the magnetic vibration to the electric
vibration in connection with the electro-magnetic theory of light still
to be solved.

Now, presuming that all these can be solved by the philosophical
hypothesis, that the electro-magnetic Aether circulates round each
planet and sun and star, that revolves in space, then we are justified
in our conclusion that such is the true cause of all electro-magnetism
that exists in connection with planetary and stellar bodies. I venture
to premise that all these problems can be solved by the simple solution
here given, and will prove that this solution adequately accounts for
all the other phenomena referred to.

Before proceeding to do this, we will endeavour to prove this hypothesis
by an altogether different method of reasoning, in order to confirm the
statements made in this article. Let us therefore endeavour to form a
complete view of the physical state of the solar system, and for the
sake of simplicity we will suppose it to be at rest in space. We shall
deal with the effect of its motion upon its own planetary system, when
we explain Kepler's Laws.

We have, therefore, the Sun in the centre (see Fig. 14) of the system,
with Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune revolving round the sun at their respective distances, which are
subject to variations owing to certain causes which can be
satisfactorily explained. But circulating round the sun, in the same
direction as the rotation of the sun on its axis, we have the
electro-magnetic Aether, with its wide-spreading flow and extensive
electro-magnetic field. In like manner, we have each planet with its
aetherial electro-magnetic field, which also circulates round each
planet in the same direction as the planet revolves, that is, from west
to east, and in the same direction as the sun's electro-magnetic field
revolves.

Thus we have to picture the whole of the solar system in a state of
regular and harmonious rotation, while each planet adds to the harmony
of the rotation by itself rotating in its own aetherial electro-magnetic
field, while all rotate in the same direction, viz. from west to east.

Of course there are several objections that can be raised to such a
hypothesis, and those objections will be briefly dealt with in a
subsequent article, but I venture to think that this hypothesis is the
true philosophical explanation of a problem which has formed one of the
greatest outstanding difficulties in regard to the Aether medium for
many years, that problem being the relative motion of the Aether and
Matter. Lord Kelvin, in an article in the _Phil. Mag._ for July 1901,
entitled "Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Light," refers to this
very difficulty, and states there are two clouds over the present
undulatory theory of light, one of which has reference to the difficulty
of conceiving a body like the earth or any planet rushing through the
Aether without subjecting the Aether to enormous laceration, and
concludes by saying that "we must still regard this cloud as very
dense." Here, then, is the key to the solution of the problem.

The earth does not rush through the Aether, but the Aether being
gravitative, it is associated with and bound to each planet, and
accompanies that planet in its journey though space, rotating with it in
the same way that the atmosphere does, as we shall prove later on.

This conception is fully in accord with our hypothesis as to the
physical explanation of the cause of the electro-magnetic character of
all the heavenly bodies, and indeed is the only physical solution that
can adequately account for all the varied phenomena hitherto unexplained
in connection with the celestial mechanism.

From the foregoing statements, we are now in a position to consider the
term Electro-Kinetic Energy, as used by Clerk Maxwell. What does he mean
by Electro-Kinetic Energy? Let us see what he has to say about the term
himself.

In par. 636 of his _Magnetism and Electricity_ he writes: "According to
our hypothesis we assume kinetic energy to exist wherever there is
magnetic force, that is, in general, in every part of the field. This
energy exists, therefore, in some kind of motion of the matter in every
portion of space;" while again, in par. 569, he states: "The electric
current cannot be conceived except as a kinetic phenomenon." Even
Faraday speaks of the electric current as "something progressive, and
not a mere arrangement" (_Exp. Res._ 283).

Then again in par. 552 he writes: "It appears, therefore, that a system
containing an electric current is a seat of energy of some kind, and,
since we can form no conception of an electric current except as a
kinetic phenomenon, its energy must be kinetic energy, that is to say,
the energy which a moving body has in virtue of its motion."

Here, therefore, according to Clerk Maxwell, the kinetic energy of an
electro-magnetic field is nothing more or less than the energy which a
moving body possesses in virtue of its motion. Any other explanation of
kinetic energy would be opposed to all the Rules of Philosophy; for
experience in its widest form incontrovertibly proves that all kinetic
energy is associated, and alone associated, with a moving body;
therefore in all electro-magnetic fields there is this kinetic energy
ever being manifested. We have, however, learned that the solar system
forms a huge electro-magnetic field, traversed by lines of force, as
Maxwell and Faraday suggested. Therefore, in the solar system, there
must be this kinetic energy due to the motion of a moving body, which is
the electro-magnetic Aether.

We have, however, just arrived at the conclusion that in the solar
system there is ever going on a circulatory or rotatory movement of the
electro-magnetic Aether forming currents around each electro-magnet. On
the hypothesis of an atomic and gravitating Aether we have, therefore, a
medium or body continually circulating, which medium possesses inertia
and momentum, and it is philosophically possible for such a rotating
medium to possess kinetic energy. So that our explanation of this term,
as used by Clerk Maxwell, is, that this kinetic energy is indeed due to
the momentum of the moving Aether. Such a hypothesis is strictly
philosophical, and literally fulfils the statements made by Clerk
Maxwell himself in the paragraphs already referred to.

A remarkable feature about this hypothesis lies in the fact, that it is
the very hypothesis that Von Helmholtz suggested as the explanation of
the term. He came to the conclusion that the kinetic energy was due to
the momentum of the moving Aether. But with a frictionless Aether such a
hypothesis, although correct, was philosophically untenable. In view of
the theory of the Aether presented in this work, however, both Clerk
Maxwell's and Von Helmholtz's statements find their literal and perfect
fulfilment. So that in an atomic Aether, which is gravitative because
atomic, and rotatory because it is gravitative, combined with its
electro-magnetic basis as proved by Hertz, we find for the first time a
correct philosophical explanation of one of the most puzzling terms used
by Maxwell in his greatest work on _Magnetism and Electricity_. This
solution alone ought to stamp the theory of an atomic and gravitating
electro-magnetic Aether with that authority that is always associated
with the names of two such great thinkers and experimentalists as those
just mentioned.

The fact that the Aether is held bound to a planet has already been
suggested by Sir G. Stokes to account for the aberration of light
already referred to. In the _Phil. Mag._, July 1845, he writes: "I shall
suppose that the earth and the planets carry a portion of Aether along
with them, so that the Aether close to the surface is at rest relatively
to the earth, while its velocity alters as we recede from its surface,
till at no great distance it is at rest in space." Sir G. Stokes does
not, however, say how the Aether is held bound to the earth, and apart
from an Aether which is gravitative, no satisfactory explanation can be
given. Further, it is noticeable, that he suggests that the other
planets also carry part of the Aether associated with them along with
each planet as it pursues its journey. It would be distinctly
unphilosophical to assume that the earth was the only planet that
carried its aetherial field with it. So that by following Sir G. Stokes'
suggestion, we practically arrive at the same conclusion in relation to
the motions of the Aether that we have already arrived at from magnetic
phenomena.

With this view of the case we are now in a position to answer a question
asked by Professor Schuster at the British Association in 1892. He
asked, "Is not every large rotating mass a magnet?" and added, "If it
is, the sun must be a powerful magnet. The comets' tails, which eclipse
observations show stretching out from the sun in all directions,
probably consist of electric discharges." Now, in relation to this
question, the answer is that every rotating body in the Aether is
undoubtedly an electro-magnet. Thus, not only is the sun an
electro-magnet, but every planet and satellite, and every meteor that
rotates in the electro-magnetic Aether, is converted into a magnet,
partly by that rotation, and partly by the currents induced in the
Aether by that rotation. We shall also find when we come to deal with
the phenomena of comets' tails, that Professor Schuster is also right as
to their cause, and that they are due to electro-magnetic repulsions
originated in the Aether by the sun, which is an electro-magnet.

[Footnote 39: _Outlines of Astronomy_, Herschel.]


ART. 92. _Cause of Rotation of the Earth on its Axis._--If there is one
fact true in relation to the earth as a planet, it is that the earth
rotates on its axis every 24 hours. Day in and day out, for centuries
past, this revolution has taken place as the earth journeys in its
annual path round the sun.

Not only does the earth rotate on its axis, but every other planet
rotates on its axis in varying times, as the following table shows--

                  HRS.  MIN.  SEC.

    Mercury        24     5     0
    Venus          23    24     0
    The Earth      23    56     4
    Mars           24    37    23
    Jupiter         9    55     0
    Sarturn        10    14    23
    Uranus          ?
    Neptune         ?

Further, the sun also rotates on its axis in a period of 26 days. Here,
then, are certain phenomena in connection with the solar system, for
which up to the present no explanation as to the physical cause of
rotation has ever been offered. Surely there is some physical cause, to
account for such a rotation, and if there be a physical cause, then the
problem to be solved is--find the physical cause to account for the
continuous and ever-recurring rotation of all the planets and the sun on
their axes, which shall be so effective and continual that, year in and
year out, the rotation of all the planets may be continued as observed.
In solving this problem we have to revert to our reason why the earth is
a magnet. In Art. 91 we learned that the earth and all the other
planets, and indeed all stellar bodies, were electro-magnets, because
the electro-magnetic Aether was constantly circulating round them.

If, by accepting this explanation, we can at the same time solve the
problem of the rotation of the planets, and the sun, on their axes, then
we shall have further evidence that our hypothesis is the correct one.
Now let me ask, What is the effect of an electric current continually
circulating round any magnet in the same way that the electro-magnetic
Aether continually circulates round the earth, which is a magnet?

To find out what the effect is, we must resort to experiment. Professor
Lodge, in his _Modern Views of Electricity_, shows us the effect of any
circulating current of electricity revolving round a magnet. In his
chapter on Electro-Magnetism he writes as follows: "How does a current
act on a magnetic pole? Two currents attract or repel each other, two
poles attract or repel each other, but a current and a pole exert a
mutual force which is neither attraction nor repulsion. It is a rotatory
force. They tend neither to approach nor to recede, they tend to revolve
round each other." "A singular action this and at first sight unique"
(p. 135). "The two things will revolve round each other for ever. This
affords and has afforded a fine field for the perpetual motionist, and
if only the current would maintain itself without a sustaining power,
perpetual motion in fact would be attained."

Faraday has shown by experiment the action of a current on the magnet,
and _vice versâ_. Faraday, in his description of an electro-magnetic
apparatus for the exhibition of rotatory motion, shows how the rotation
of a current round a magnet, and a magnet round a current, may be
experimentally proved. With the apparatus used he shows that the current
of electricity may be made to revolve round the pole of the magnet in
the direction dependent on the pole used, and further, illustrates how
the magnet may be made to revolve round the current. (Plate 4, Fig. 5,
_Exp. Res._)

Thus we learn that wherever we have a current constantly circulating
round a magnet, there we have the conditions by which, according to
Professor Lodge, perpetual motion may be obtained, that is to say, the
two will revolve round each other as long as the current is maintained.
Here then we find in space those very conditions by which perpetual
motion may be obtained.

We find the electro-magnetic Aether constantly circulating round the
planetary magnets, with the result that not only will the current
continue to revolve around the planet, but the planet will continue to
revolve upon its axis as it revolves round the current. In fact we get
in space an example of perpetual motion. We know that the rotation of
the earth on its axis has been in existence for several thousand years,
and therefore we have a right to assume that it revolved on its axis
through the untold ages of past geological times as revealed by the
strata, and rocks of pre-historic ages. Thus the motion must have
continued, so far as the earth is concerned, at least 100,000,000 years,
accepting that period as the age of the earth, but no physical reason so
far as I know has ever been assigned for such continued rotation.

If, therefore, it be true that the joint action of a current and a
magnet is a rotatory one, then, seeing that in all planetary and stellar
space we have both these conditions of matter, that is, the
electro-magnetic aetherial current, constantly circulating round an
electro-magnet, we have, in space, the conditions by which perpetual
rotation may be maintained. We have therefore presented to us in that
joint action, the true cause of the continued rotation of the earth on
its axis, and therefore of all the planets on their axes, together with
the sun on its axis; and, if we carry the principle into the stellar
world, we can philosophically come to the conclusion that the same
conditions prevail there that prevail in the solar system, with the
result that we have now a physical cause which fully satisfies all Rules
of Philosophy to account for certain phenomena which up to the present
have never yet been accounted for from the physical standpoint. Thus in
solving the problem of the earth's rotation on its axis, we find greater
confirmation in the view presented in a previous article as to the
circulating motion of the electro-magnetic Aether around any and every
body in space. We shall deal again with the relation of a current and a
magnet, when we come to the physical explanation of Kepler's Laws.


ART. 93. _Vortex Motion._--From Art. 91 we have seen that the
electro-magnetic Aether possesses a circulating or rotatory motion
around each central body, and because of this rotatory motion, the body
is at once converted into a magnet. We have also seen that Professor
Challis believed in the circulatory or rotatory motion of the Aether, as
also did Ampère.

Thus we are led back by scientific experiment and philosophical
reasoning to the conception of vortex motion with which the world was
familiar in the days of Kepler, Descartes, Huyghens and Bernoulli. There
is this difference, however, that whereas the vortex motion of those
philosophers was to displace and do away with Gravitation, the
circulatory or rotatory Aether suggested by electro-magnetic phenomena
is to supplement, confirm and establish more firmly than ever the true
powers and laws of Gravitation Attraction.

Before passing, it will be as well to briefly glance at the conception
of vortex motion as suggested by Kepler and Descartes and others.
Whewell on this matter in his _Inductive Sciences_ states that "Kepler
assumed that a certain force or virtue resided in the sun by which all
bodies within his influence were carried round him. He illustrated the
nature of the force in various ways, comparing it to light, and to the
magnetic power which it resembles in the circumstances of operating at a
distance, and also of exercising a feebler influence as the distance
increases." "Another image to which he referred suggested a much more
conceivable kind of mechanical action by which the celestial motions
might be produced, viz. a current of fluid matter circulating round the
sun, and carrying the planets with it like a boat in a stream." Whewell
adds: "A Vortex fluid constantly whirling round the sun, kept in this
whirling motion by the sun itself, and carrying the planets round the
sun by its revolution, as a whirlpool carries straws, could be readily
understood, and though it appears to have been held by Kepler that this
current and Vortex were immaterial, he ascribes to it the power of
overcoming the inertia of bodies, and of putting them and keeping them
in motion."

Now, as we have seen, the electro-magnetic Aether is not immaterial but
material, as it is matter possessing mass and inertia, the same as any
other matter, as Tyndall and Lord Kelvin stated (Chap. IV.). Thus the
objection to Kepler's immaterial vortices is met and overcome by our
conception of the Aether (Chap. IV.). Descartes, as Whewell points out,
asserted, "that a vacuum in any part of the universe is impossible. The
whole universe must be filled with matter, which must be divided into
equal angular parts. This matter being in motion, the parts are
necessarily grounded into a spherical form, and the corners thus rubbed
off, forming a second or subtle matter. There is besides a third kind of
matter, of parts more coarse and less fitted for motion. The first part
makes the luminous bodies as sun and stars, the second part is the
transparent substance of the skies, and the third part is the material
of opaque bodies as the earth, planets and comets. We may suppose that
the motion of these parts takes the form of revolving circular currents
or vortices. By this means the first matter will be collected to the
centre of each vortex, while the second or subtle matter surrounds it,
and by its centrifugal effect constitutes light. The planets are carried
round the sun by the motion of the vortex, each planet being at such
distance from the sun as to be in a part of the vortex suitable to its
solidity and mobility. The satellites are in like manner carried round
their ordinary planets by subordinate vortices."

It would almost seem from this quotation that we had adopted purely and
simply Descartes' and Kepler's ideas _in toto_, whereas the truth is
that the hypothesis of a rotating electro-magnetic Aether has been
arrived at by following Newton's own Rules of Philosophy, and by
discarding everything not in harmony with experience and experiment.

Further, Descartes was unable to give, or explain the ellipticity of the
orbits of planets, and had to assume that there were elliptic vortices.
When we come to deal with Kepler's Laws, and their physical
interpretation, the correct solution of this problem will be given from
a purely experimental and philosophical standpoint, and in a way and
manner never suggested by Descartes or any other believer in the theory
of vortices as then known and understood. Indeed there is no objection
to the theory of vortices, which cannot be satisfactorily explained by a
rotating electro-magnetic Aether, as we shall see when we deal with
Newton's Laws of Motion and Kepler's Laws.

Both Liebnitz and Huyghens were believers in the theory of vortices, and
the fact that Huyghens' undulatory theory of light stands to-day as an
accepted theory, is conclusive evidence that he was a philosopher of the
highest order, and his adhesion to the theory of vortices proves that he
was convinced that there was some truth in it.

It is a result greatly to be desired, therefore, if it can be
demonstrated, that in the Aether there is this rotatory motion
continually going on around every planet, satellite, sun or star;
because it will then join together, in perfect harmony, two great
theories in relation to celestial phenomena, that contended with each
other for supremacy for very many years.

It will prove that, after all, men like Kepler, Descartes, Huyghens, and
Bernoulli had caught glimpses of the great truth which was partly
revealed by celestial phenomena, and that it was only for lack of data
that they were unable to successfully compete with Newton's mathematical
genius, by which he was able to bring his Law of Gravitation safely
through the conflict with the simpler conception of aetherial vortex
motion. Of course certain objections will have to be met and answered
before this aspect of aetherial dynamics can be expected to supplant the
more cumbrous and somewhat intricate mathematical laws of motion, but I
shall prove later on, that all these objections can be answered from a
satisfactory standpoint.

So that if a modified form of aetherial vortex motion can be
successfully demonstrated to exist in the electro-magnetic Aether, then
we shall see the conflict that waged about two hundred years ago,
brought to a satisfactory issue, in the union of the two greatest
philosophic theories for the explanation of celestial phenomena that the
world has ever seen.

From that union, therefore, there will then emerge a truer, simpler, and
yet grander conception of the motions of the universe, which, when
perfected by abler minds, will be as perfect a theory as human
intelligence and philosophy can make it. So that, what an atomic and
gravitative Aether has done for Newton's corpuscular theory of light, in
showing that it can be united and combined with the undulatory theory,
and by such combination, for the first time, such phenomena as the
transverse action of light can be probably demonstrated and explained,
together with other phenomena relating to reflection and refraction of
light, the enlarged conception of a rotating electro-magnetic Aether will
do for the two great theories that vied with each other for supremacy
for so many years. Thus it will be shown that the philosophers like
Kepler, Descartes, and Huyghens, the former of whom has stamped his name
on the three laws that bear his name to-day, and the latter who gave us
the inception of the very theory that overthrew Newton's theory of
light, had after all a more or less true philosophic conception of the
physical mechanism of the solar system and of the universe at large.


ART. 94. _Relative Motion of Aether and Matter._--There is hardly any
subject of greater importance which is engaging the attention of
scientists at the present time, than the question as to what is the
relative motion of Matter to the Aether in which it moves.

I venture to premise the successful solution of the problem will be
accompanied with the greatest advance to science that has been known for
a long time. The problem to be solved may be stated thus: "Does the
Aether surrounding a planet or sun or any body in space move with that
body, or does it allow the body to pass through it?"

Up to the present, opinions on the subject have been varied and
conflicting. Some scientists hold that the planetary and other bodies in
space pass through the Aether without disturbing it, while others hold
that part of the Aether is carried along by the moving planet. Fresnel
assumed that the surrounding Aether was carried along by the earth, so
that all relative phenomena would be the same as if the earth were at
rest. Fizeau, from experiments which he conducted on running water, also
came to the same conclusion.

With the old idea of a frictionless medium, some of the present accepted
theories are altogether untenable, because, if Aether is frictionless,
how can it be carried along with the moving body, unless it is held
bound to that body? and how can it be held bound to that body if it is
frictionless?

The whole view of the Aether is, however, changed by the conception of
the Aether put forward in Chapter IV. Aether is Matter, and being matter
it is also gravitative, and therefore is just as much subject to the Law
of Gravitation as any other kind of matter, as Young stated in his
Fourth Hypothesis (Art. 45).

We will therefore attack the problem of the relative motion of the earth
and the Aether around it from this new standpoint. In order to be
strictly philosophical, we must base our hypothesis and conception on
experience and observation. Where in the whole of planetary phenomena do
we find similar conditions which exist between the Aether and the earth?
Such conditions are alone to be found between the atmosphere and the
earth. The analogy between the atmosphere and the earth, and the Aether
and the earth is very striking, as the following comparisons will prove.

The atmosphere (when pure) is invisible, so is the Aether. The
atmosphere is atomic, the Aether is also atomic. Both are subject to the
same laws of elasticity and density, and both are gravitative, according
to our conception of the Aether. Now what is the effect of any large
revolving body on a liquid or gaseous medium surrounding that revolving
body?

If experience is any guide, we learn that the motion of the revolving
body is either partially or entirely transmitted to the liquid or
gaseous medium surrounding such a body. So far as our experience teaches
us anything, it teaches us that to that rule there is no exception, and
no experiment can be devised of any body revolving in water or a gaseous
medium as air, without that body imparting its rotation to the water or
the air. The atmosphere in relation to the earth is no exception to this
rule. We know that the earth has an equatorial circumference of about
24,000 miles, and that it revolves on its axis once every day, so that
at the equator the surface of the earth is whirling round in space at
the rate of 1000 miles per hour.

Try to conceive what the result would be if the atmosphere were
stationary at the earth's surface in the equatorial regions. It would
mean that any body on its surface would be whirled round at that rate,
while the atmosphere, being stationary, would exert a power equal to a
wind travelling at the rate of 1000 miles per hour.

Under the influence of such a hurricane, nothing could exist on the
surface of the earth at the equator, if the earth revolved on its axis
and the atmosphere did not participate in that motion. But the
atmosphere is gravitative, and being gravitative, it is not only held
bound to the earth as it revolves on its axis in its onward rush through
space, but accepts the revolving motion of the earth, with the result
that as the earth revolves on its axis, the atmosphere revolves also.

Thus a balloon at the equator if allowed to rise several hundred feet
above the surface could remain comparatively stationary if held by a
rope to overcome its tendency to rise, whereas such an event would be
impossible if the atmosphere failed to receive only half of the motion
of the earth's surface, as it would still have a power equal to that of
a wind blowing at the rate of 500 miles an hour. If, however, we come
further north, or go further south, then we find that the surface of the
earth does not have the same velocity as at the equator, with the result
that the atmosphere has not the same velocity either; consequently it
would travel slower in the temperate regions than in the equatorial
regions, and slower still at the poles than in the temperate regions.

We know by experiment what the effect of increased velocity has upon any
whirling body; it tends to enlarge the body at those parts where the
velocity is the greatest, the consequence being that the bulging out of
the atmosphere would be greatest at the equator. We find a similar
result in the shape of the earth, where the equatorial diameter is
greater than the polar diameter, because of the centrifugal force being
greatest in the equatorial regions.

We have, therefore, to apply these facts to the aetherial medium which
surrounds all planetary and stellar bodies in the same way as the
atmosphere does; and which, being also gravitative, is equally subject
to the same laws of motion. We have seen, therefore, that not only does
the earth revolve on its axis, but that the atmosphere revolves on its
axis also, and that the velocity of its revolution is greatest in the
equatorial regions, the atmosphere spreading or bulging out in those
parts more than in any other part of the earth's surface.

Let us suppose that the atmosphere extends 200 miles above the earth,
and that there we come to the pure Aether of universal space. In view of
the fact that Aether is Matter, and therefore gravitative, it is
reasonable and logical to conclude that exactly the same result follows
in relation to the atmosphere and the Aether at that height, as follows
in relation to the earth and the atmosphere 200 miles beneath.

Unless this view is accepted, we should then have our second Rule of
Philosophy violated, as we should have matter revolving in more rarefied
matter, and failing to impress upon that rarefied condition of matter
the motion either partially or wholly which it itself possesses; and
such a result being contradictory to all experience cannot be admitted
from a philosophical standpoint.

Therefore, the only solution is, that the rotating atmosphere imparts
some of its motion to the aetherial atmosphere, which in its turn
rotates, and that that rotation is governed by exactly the same
conditions as govern the relation that exists between the earth and the
atmosphere. Therefore the Aether in space associated with each planet or
satellite or sun or star, rotates with the rotating body, and that
rotation imparts to the Aether a greater bulging out in the equatorial
regions of the aetherial atmosphere than in any other part thereof. It
is interesting in relation to this point to note Herschel's view of the
effect of the rotation of any body upon the Aether. In his _Outlines of
Astronomy_, in a note, p. 358, he states: "Supposing the neighbourhood
of the sun to be filled with a material fluid; it is not conceivable
that the circulation of planets in it for ages should not have impressed
upon it some degree of rotation in their own direction, and this may
preserve them from the effects of accumulated resistance."

In this way we arrive at the conception of the motions of the Aether
suggested by Prof. Challis from the magnetic character of the earth,
which he thought were due to aetherial currents circulating around it,
and we learn that such physical conception of the Aether fully agrees
with the explanation of celestial bodies being electro-magnets; because,
we have only to add to our rotating Aether that which it has been proved
to possess, viz. an electro-magnetic basis, and we have at once the
currents of electricity circulating round the earth and other planetary
or solar bodies, by which is obtained the true explanation of the
permanent magnetism of all celestial bodies.

Now to some minds unconversant with scientific research and knowledge,
such a supposition may seem to be incredible, but that incredibility may
disappear, when I say that the fact that the Aether is bound to the
earth, and goes along through space with it, has actually been proved by
some of the most delicate and successful experiments that have been made
in recent times: experiments of which Lord Kelvin has stated that he can
find no error or flaw in them. I refer to the scientific experiments of
Michelson and Morley of America. For full particulars of these
experiments I must refer the reader to the _American Journal of
Science_, 1886, vol. 31, or to the _Phil. Mag._, vol. 44.

The conclusion which is arrived at from their experiments is, that the
Aether is carried along with the earth as it rushes on its journey
through space. Of course such a result is altogether opposed to the
ordinary conception of a frictionless medium, and indeed to any
conception of the Aether except to that submitted in this work, which is
also in harmony with Young's Fourth Hypothesis (Art. 45).

So that Michelson's and Morley's experiment is a direct experimental
demonstration of the fact that Aether is gravitative, and because it is
gravitative, it is carried along with the earth, as that planet journeys
through space. It further conclusively proves that not only is the
Aether carried along with the earth, but that the Aether circulates
round the earth in the same way that the atmosphere circulates round the
earth.

This result naturally follows from the experiment, because, if it were
carried along by the earth and yet did not rotate with the atmosphere,
then we should have a result opposed to all experience and experiment,
as these teach us that when a body revolves in a medium which is held
bound to that body by Gravitation, the medium so held bound participates
in the rotation of the revolving body.

So that in Michelson's and Morley's experiment we have experimental
evidence of the fact, already stated, that the Aether circulates round the
earth, and therefore, in view of the electro-magnetic character of the
Aether, this circulation results in the production of magnetism in all the
planets, and other bodies around which it circulates.

Thus not only does the Aether circulate round the earth, but it also
circulates around every other planet, and not only round every other
planet, but equally so around every sun and star, as stated in Art. 91.

These results are perfectly consistent with philosophical reasoning, and
any other result would be inconsistent with the analogies presented to
us by the phenomena of the Aether in relation to our earth as
ascertained by experiments made by the scientists referred to. Thus for
the first time the experiment is brought into harmony with our
Philosophy, which up to the present has not been the case, a result
which at once stamps the experiment with that validity of truth and fact
which will ultimately win for it universal acceptance and favour.

We are now in a position to answer some queries regarding the motions of
the Aether asked by Herschel in his work on _Astronomy_, p. 345. These I
give with the answers opposite.


              QUERIES.             |          ANSWERS.
                                   |
  1. What is the law of density    |  The Law of Gravitation
     of the resisting medium which |  (Art. 45).
     surrounds the sun?            |
                                   |
  2. Is it at rest or in motion?   |  In motion.
                                   |
  3. If the latter, in what        |  Rotates round the sun.
     direction does it move?       |
                                   |
  4. Circularly round the sun      |  Both, as it circulates round
     or traversing space?          |  the sun while that body
                                   |  traverses space.
                                   |
  5. If circularly, in what        |  The plane of the ecliptic.
     plane?                        |


ART. 95. _Physical Explanation of the Vibration in the Electro-Magnetic
Theory of Light._--In Art. 78 we learned that light was an
electro-magnetic disturbance in the Aether which was propagated through
the Aether, with a finite velocity; and from this we gathered that light
waves were nothing more or less than electro-magnetic waves, which were
radiated from the sun, out into the Aether on every side.

We were unable, however, at that time to give a definite physical
conception of the aetherial vibrations, or of the relation of the
various types of vibration to each other. Since, however, the
development of the Aether from the electric and magnetic standpoint,
which has led us up to the fact that the Aether possesses a circulating
motion round the sun (Art. 91), the solution of the problem appears
probable. I am of the opinion that the physical conception of the
various vibrations to each other is now within the region of
possibility, and in this article I wish to endeavour to give what seems
to me to be a correct and philosophical explanation of this part of the
electro-magnetic theory of light, the physical conception of which up to
the present has not been generally understood.

The explanation may, or may not, be fully complete, but even if it be
not perfectly correct, I am convinced that it will ultimately lead to a
satisfactory physical explanation of this part of Maxwell's Theory of
Light. In forming a conception as to the physical character of the
vibrations in the electro-magnetic theory, we have to remember that
there are three distinct vibrations, or motions, concerned in this
theory.

[Illustration: Fig: 22.]

    1st. There is the direction of propagation.

    2nd. There is the direction of the electric vibration which is
         at right angles to the direction of propagation.

    3rd. There is the direction of the magnetic vibration or
         motion which is at right angles to both of the other two.

Now we have seen that the direction of propagation of any aetherial
light ray, is that of a straight line from the sun corresponding to the
radius vector (Art. 76). We have also seen that the front of a light
wave is really that of a spherical shell (Art. 71).

We have also learned that the electric and the magnetic vibrations are
in the wave front, so that these two vibrations, which are at right
angles to each other, are to be found on the surface, so to speak, of
each aetherial spherical shell, that surrounds the sun with
ever-decreasing density, and ever-decreasing elasticity.

Let us try to picture the actual fact by an illustration. Let _S_ be the
sun, with concentric spherical aetherial shells surrounding it (Fig.
22). Then _S_ _A_ and _S_ _C_ will be rays of light being radiated out
from the sun, and the magnetic and electric vibrations have to be both
at right angles to the line of propagation and in the wave front; the
wave front being represented by the circular lines showing the section
of the concentric shells running north and south.

Now how can we picture these two motions at right angles to each other,
and yet both at right angles to the line of propagation? First, let us
take three straight lines and see how this may be done (Fig. 23).

Let _A_ _B_, _A_ _S_ be two straight lines at right angles to each
other, and _A_ _C_ another straight line at right angles to both. This
can only be done by making _A_ _C_ perpendicular to the plane of the
paper, and can be illustrated by supposing that it represents a pencil
or pen placed upright on the paper, the point of the pencil being at
point _A_. If this be done, then not only will _A_ _B_ and _A_ _C_ be at
right angles to each other, but both will be at right angles to _A_ _S_,
which corresponds to the line of propagation.

[Illustration: Fig: 23.]

Now refer to Fig. 22, and we shall see that the line _A_ _B_ and the
boundary of the shell will practically correspond. So that any section
of a spherical wave front will always be at right angles to the ray of
light. But we have learned from Art. 89 that these sections of the
aetherial spherical shell are really identical with Faraday's Lines of
Force, with the result that along any line which stretches from the
North pole of the sun to the South pole, there will ever be an electric
vibration, which is put into motion by the elasticity of the aetherial
vortex atoms. So that on every side of the sun there is ever going on
this electric vibration, along the lines of force which correspond to a
section of the aetherial shell, the surface of which really constitutes
the wave front.

Therefore it can readily be seen, that, as these lines are at right
angles to the propagation of the ray of light, the electric vibration is
at right angles to the lines of propagation, and is thus in accordance
with the result demanded by Maxwell's theory.

We have now to give a physical conception of the magnetic vibration or
motion of the Aether, and this has to be at right angles to both the
electric vibration and the line of propagation.

In Art. 91 we have learned that the Aether possesses a rotatory motion, by
which it rotates round the central body of the solar system, the sun. So
that if we take any point, for example, in the path of the ray as _S_{1},
_S_{2}, _S_{3}, and _S_{4}, situated upon some definite equipotential
surface or lines of force, and if we will imagine those lines to rotate
round the sun, as the sun rotates on its axis, then in time the points
will have described half the circle, and will come to the position on the
right of the sun indicated by the same Nos. _S_{1}, _S_{2}, _S_{3},
_S_{4}. Thus there has been an aetherial motion at right angles to the
electric motion, as the Aether circulates round the sun, because this
motion may be represented as taking place from west to east of the sun,
while the electric vibration takes place from north to south, or
transverse to the line of propagation.

We have, however, learned that the Aether has an electro-magnetic basis,
and therefore the rotation of the Aether gives rise to electro-magnetic
currents; hence the motion west to east is really the motion of
electro-magnetic currents which circulate round the sun. As these are at
right angles to the line of propagation, and we have seen that they are
at right angles to the electric vibration, it follows that all three are
at right angles to each other, which is in accordance with the
requirements as laid down by Maxwell.

We have considered these vibrations, first, from the view of the solar
system as a whole in its relation to the universal Aether; but the same
principle holds good if considered from the aetherial atomic standpoint.
For if we take a line of force, composed as it is of aetherial vortex
atoms, and suppose them to be rotating, we know that by that rotation
there will be a tension due to that rotation, and Maxwell has shown this
tension is due to magnetism, as in his standard work he says: "This
magnetic force is the effect of the Centrifugal Force of the Vortices."

So that by postulating a rotatory movement for the Aether around the
sun, as we have done in Art. 92, we have not only solved the problem of
all planetary and solar magnetism, but we have also solved the problem
of the relative motion of the Aether and the earth, and also given for
the first time (though it may be in an incomplete form) a physical
explanation of that part of the electro-magnetic theory of light, which
has hitherto been unexplained from the purely physical standpoint.

Such results, therefore, supported as they are by the direct experiment
of Michelson and Morley of America, justify us in concluding that the
conception of a rotating Aether is not only philosophically correct, but
is in actual accord with experimental investigation and research, as
indeed it ought to be.



                               CHAPTER X

                  AETHER AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION


ART. 96. _Centrifugal Force._--Before proceeding to apply some of the
principles and laws which govern the electro-magnetic aetherial medium
to solar and stellar phenomena, it will be as well just to review the
conception of our new aetherial Centrifugal Force, so that we may form a
right view of it in its completeness and entirety.

In Art. 11 we premised that there was in existence another force, which
was the exact opposite of the centripetal force, and that this force was
the complementary and counterpart of the centripetal force or
Gravitation Attraction; and further, that this force was due to the
motion of the universal Aether which filled all space.

In Art. 13 we saw that all force resolved itself into energy of some
kind, the same being due either to potential energy, _i. e._ energy of
position, or to kinetic energy, which is the energy belonging to matter
actually in motion. From Art. 56 we learned that all energy was energy
of motion, so that all force resolves itself into motion of some kind.

Thus our term Centrifugal Force really implies, and demands, a motion of
the Aether which is ever directed away from the centre of gravity of any
body, whether that body be an atom or molecule, satellite or planet, sun
or star. From the phenomena of heat we have seen that there exists a
repulsive motion, due to the aetherial medium, which is ever exerted
from the central body of any atomic, planetary or stellar system, that
repulsive motion being due to the pressure of the universal Aether,
which not only surrounds all atoms, but also surrounds all other bodies
in the universe.

From the phenomena of light we have also seen that the Aether possesses
a repulsive or centrifugal motion, which is also due to the pressure of
the same Aether as mathematically proved by Maxwell, and experimentally
proved by Prof. Lebedew, and Nichols and Hull of America. Further, from
the phenomena of electricity, we have also seen that there exists this
centrifugal motion, due to the pressure of the same aetherial medium,
which pressure is ever directed away from the electrified body, as the
sun or planets.

So that from these three phases of the universal Aether, that is, from
its thermal or heat manifestation, its luminiferous or light
manifestation, and its electro-magnetic manifestation, we get
irrefutable evidence of the existence of a centrifugal motion, which
motion is ever directed away from the central body; and the result of
that motion takes the form of a pressure upon any body with which the
motion comes into contact.

Again, it was premised, that such a centrifugal force or motion must
fulfil all the laws which governed the centripetal force or motion.

First, it had to be universal (Art. 19). Second, it had to follow
exactly the same path as the centripetal force or motion, which was that
of a straight line joining the centre of gravity of two bodies, as for
example the earth and the sun (Art. 20). Third, the centrifugal force or
motion must be equal to the product of the masses, in the same way that
the centripetal force was governed by such a law (Art. 21). Fourth, its
intensity was to be governed by the law of inverse squares, the same as
the centripetal force or Gravitation Attraction was governed (Art. 22).

Now all these conditions are satisfactorily fulfilled, and have been
shown to be satisfactorily fulfilled, from the phenomena of heat, light,
and electricity in their relation to the universal Aether. For in Art.
43 we saw that the Aether was universal, and therefore if the
centrifugal motion is produced and originated by the Aether, then such
motions must be as universal as that medium, which under qualifying
conditions gives rise to these motions.

From Arts. 65 and 76 we have learned that the path of this centrifugal
motion is that of a straight line, and follows exactly the same path
that the centripetal force of gravity takes. In Art. 85 we learned that
the centrifugal force between any two bodies was equal to the product of
their masses, which is exactly the same as the centripetal force that
exists between any two bodies; and, lastly, from the phenomena of heat,
light, and electricity we learned that the intensity of this centrifugal
motion due to aetherial pressure was inversely as the square of the
distance, which is the law governing the intensity of its counterpart,
the centripetal force. Thus we have learned that there is in existence
throughout universal space, a physical force or motion due to a physical
medium, the universal Aether, which force or motion is the exact
opposite of the centripetal force or Gravitation Attraction, which may
be stated as follows--

Every particle in the universe repels every other particle with a force
whose direction is in the line joining the centres of gravity of the two
bodies, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses,
and inversely as the square of the distance between them, at their mean
distances.

We shall see that it is by the conjoint working of these two forces, the
Centripetal and Centrifugal, in combination with other motions of the
Aether, that the harmonious working of the whole celestial mechanism is
maintained and perpetuated. In confirmation of the existence of the
centrifugal force, I should like to draw the attention of the reader to
certain phenomena relative to the solar system, which phenomena violate
the centripetal force as at present recognized, and can alone be
accounted for by the existence of another force or motion existing in
space, such as the centrifugal motion already proved and demonstrated.

We know that the law governing the centripetal force, or Gravitation
Attraction, is regulated by the product of the masses of the two
attracting bodies. So that if there were three bodies in space whose
masses are respectively represented by 2, 3 and 100, the proportion of
the attractive force of gravitation between the largest and the other
two, would be 200 (100 × 2) and 300 (100 × 3) respectively. So that if
the centripetal force, or the Attraction of Gravitation, is the only
governing force in the universe, then it naturally follows that the two
bodies, between which the attractive force is greater, will be closer
together than the two bodies between which the attractive force is less.

Thus the two bodies, whose product of their masses is represented by
300, will, according to the Law of Gravitation, be closer together than
the two bodies, the product of whose masses is represented by only 200.
Unless this is so, we should have a violation of the Law of Gravitation,
and it would at once cease to be a law.

Let us therefore apply the centripetal force, or Gravitation Attraction,
to the solar system, and see how it works out. The law strictly defined
is given in Art. 18, from which we learn that the attractive force
between two bodies is as the product of their masses. Now what are the
masses of some of the bodies in the solar system?

We find that the sun, with its diameter of 865,000 miles, is about
324,000 times greater in mass than our earth, so that it would take
about 324,000 bodies of the size and density of our earth to equal a
body of the size and density of the sun. It has been calculated,
however, by Von Asten, from observations made on comets by the planet
Mercury, that the mass of Mercury is about 1/24 of the mass of the
Earth. Therefore the mass of the sun must exceed the mass of Mercury
324,000 × 24 = 7,776,000; the exact relation according to Von Asten is
7,636,440. Again, the planet Jupiter, with its diameter of 85,000 miles
and its density of 1·38, is only 1/1048 part of the mass of the sun, so
that it would take about 1048 Jupiters to equal the mass of the sun,
therefore Jupiter must weigh about 7400 times the mass of Mercury.

If the mass of Mercury, therefore, be represented by 1, the mass of the
Earth would be represented by 24, the mass of Jupiter by 7400, and the
mass of the sun by 7,636,400. So that the attractive forces between the
planets as regards their masses only will be represented numerically as
follows--

    Sun and Mercury    7,636,400 × 1      =       7,636,400.

    Sun and Earth      7,636,400 × 24     =     190,008,000.

    Sun and Jupiter    7,636,400 × 7,400  =  56,435,360,000.

Thus we see that the attractive force between the sun and the earth
exceeds 24 times the attractive force between the sun and Mercury, while
the attractive force of gravity between the sun and Jupiter is 7400
times greater than the attractive force between the sun and Mercury,
relative to their masses.

Therefore, according to the Law of Gravity, as regards the masses of
bodies, Jupiter and the sun should be nearer together than Mercury and
the sun, because their attractive powers are greater, and the earth and
the sun should be nearer together than Mercury and the sun, because
their joint attractive powers are also greater. In the same way it can
be proved that all the other planets whose masses are greater than
Mercury ought, according to the Law of Gravity in regard to masses only,
to be nearer to the sun than what Mercury is, simply because the total
attractive forces between any two are greater than the attractive force
between Mercury and the sun.

The respective masses of the planets compared with the sun, taking the
mass of the sun as unity, are as follows--

    Jupiter  1/1,048  of mass of sun.

    Saturn   1/3,529     "  "

    Neptune  1/18,520    "  "

    Uranus   1/22,020    "  "

    Earth    1/324,439   "  "

    Venus    1/397,000   "  "

    Mars    1/2,994,790  "  "

    Mercury 1/7,636,440  "  "

Therefore, if the total attractive force of gravity is equal to the
product of the masses of any two bodies, then the planets ought to be in
the following order in relation to their distance from the sun: Jupiter,
first, followed by Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, Earth, Venus, Mars and
Mercury; that being the order in which the attractive power of gravity
is regulated by their respective masses.

Yet the very opposite is nearly the case, as we find that some of the
further planets, as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, possess greater
masses than any of the nearer planets; so that here we have a distinct
violation of the Law of Gravitation Attraction, which states that the
attraction between any two bodies is directly as the product of their
masses, because we find certain bodies with greater attracting powers
further away from the sun, than other planets possessing less attracting
powers, because of their smaller masses. I cannot recall having ever
read of any explanation which has been given for such an anomaly, and
indeed this apparent violation admits of no other explanation than the
conception of the dual character of the so-called Law of Universal
Gravitation, which includes a repelling or repulsive force or motion,
such motion being due to the pressure of the universal Aether.

Thus in the light of the centrifugal motion, combined with the fact that
Aether is gravitative, by which each body possesses an aetherial
atmosphere and electrical equivalent proportionate to its mass, it can
be demonstrated within a reasonable limit how it is that such planets as
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, possessing aetherial atmospheres and
electrical equivalents proportionate to their masses, revolve in orbits
round the sun at much greater distances than Mercury, Venus, the Earth,
or Mars. This explanation will follow as we consider the Centrifugal
Force and the Centripetal Force in their relation to Newton's Laws of
Motion.


ART. 97. _Centripetal Force._--We have now to apply the Centripetal
Force, together with the new Aetherial Centrifugal Force, to the solar
system, and show that by their conjoint working taken in conjunction
with the motions of the Aether, all celestial phenomena may be
satisfactorily explained on a physical basis, in a similar way that
Newton proved the same result from the mathematical standpoint.

We saw in Art. 10 that the centripetal force was really none other than
the Attraction of Gravitation, in that it always acted to a centre, and
in no other way, and therefore by the centripetal force for the present
we must understand is meant the attractive power of Gravitation.

Afterwards, when it has been demonstrated that the centripetal force and
the new aetherial centrifugal force can account for all celestial
phenomena, then we shall be in a position to show what the physical
cause of the centripetal force is.

Let us again refer to the centripetal force, so that we may see exactly
what its governing conditions are. In Art. 18 we learned that this force
might be thus expressed: "Every particle of matter in the universe
attracts every other particle with a force whose direction is that of a
line joining their centres of gravity, and whose magnitude is directly
as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the
distance between them." Now we have seen from the previous Art. that the
centrifugal force due to the pressure of the Aether medium is the exact
counterpart of this, in every way, so that if we combine the two, we get
the complete statement of the universal law which governs all matter,
and which we may define as follows--

"Every particle in the universe attracts and repels every other
particle in the universe with a force whose direction is that of a line
joining their centres of gravity, and whose magnitude is directly as the
product of their masses, and inversely as the square of the distance
between them." This complete law, however, only holds good when the two
forces are in equilibrium.

With this conception of the universal law which governs all matter, the
harmony and stability of the universe becomes possible from the physical
standpoint. Apart from this conjoint working of the two forces or
motions, a physical explanation of Universal Gravitation is impossible,
as with one force operating only throughout the universe, ultimate
stability is inconceivable, and the harmony of the spheres might at any
time be suddenly destroyed.

With this conception of the universal law which governs all matter, the
great Law of Gravitation is brought into harmony with all experience and
observation. Look where we will, or at what we will, there we find
forces possessing a dual character, as we have already seen proved.
Professor Tyndall, as we have already learned (Art. 63), definitely
states that the stability of atomic systems is preserved by the
existence and operation of _two forces, one attractive and the other
repulsive_, and what is true of the atomic world is equally true of
solar or stellar worlds. Thus for the first time in this respect, our
philosophy agrees with our experience, and the true relation of the
centrifugal force or motion to the centripetal force is made manifest.
So that, wherever in the solar system the centripetal force or
Gravitation Attraction operates, there, with exactly equal intensity and
power, the aetherial centrifugal force operates, at the respective mean
distances of the planets and satellites, where the two forces are in
equilibrium.

If it were possible to conceive of a stationary solar system, then, by
the conjoint working of the two forces, it would be equally possible to
conceive of perfect stability and harmony existing between the
respective planets and satellites of that system while stationary.

Such a conception is altogether impossible in the present state of
Philosophy, as the stability of the system, with the old view of the
Centrifugal Force, is entirely dependent upon the motions of the
respective bodies in that system; and if such orbital motions could be
stayed, then the only physical conception possible would be, that every
planet and satellite, planetoid and meteor within the attractive force
of the central body, the sun, would be slowly but surely drawn to a
fiery death, as they would all ultimately be attracted and swallowed up
by the sun.

Thus we learn, that while the sun is the centre of a centripetal force,
which ever operates far and wide throughout space, it is equally the
centre of a repulsive or centrifugal force or motion which also operates
co-extensively and co-equally with the former.

Not only so, but every planet and satellite, nay every particle and
every atom, while it is the centre of a centripetal force, is also the
centre of a repulsive force, as pointed out by Professor Tyndall, which
force is due in each and every case to the pressure of the aetherial
atmosphere which surrounds the atom or molecule, satellite or planet.
Thus the physical conception of heat in its effect on molecules having a
repulsive force (Art. 63) is confirmed, and that that force is due to
the pressure of the Aether is also confirmed by subsequent
investigations into the phenomena of light and electricity, by which we
have arrived at our physical conception of the Universal Centrifugal
Force.

So that we have now a physical conception of the experiment performed by
Nichols and Hull of America, and by Professor Lebedew of Russia, in
which they conclusively demonstrated the existence of the pressure of
aetherial light waves, which proves beyond the possibility of doubt the
existence of this physical centrifugal force. Every atom and molecule,
therefore, is the centre of two forces, which co-exist together, and
every meteor and satellite and every planet is also the centre of the
same two forces, and this we shall find in its application to planetary
phenomena will have a most important bearing on the physical conception
of those phenomena. Thus it is the Aether medium, by its energy of
motions, that constitutes the companion and complementary force to
Gravitation Attraction, and which, as we shall see later, is the medium
which forms the physical basis of that attraction also. It is, then, by
the combined and harmonious working of these two co-equal, co-existent,
and co-extensive forces that worlds roll and rush, sweep and swing, move
and rotate about their respective centres; and, by these two forces
working in perfect harmony, that that order and stability are produced,
which everywhere pervade the universe of worlds, and form them in their
entirety into one grand, ultimate, and harmonious system.

To develop and prove this fact, by explaining their manner and mode of
working, we shall now proceed to consider Newton's Laws of Motion, and
their relation to the aetherial medium, and by so doing shall be able to
show the unmistakable reality and complete efficiency of this physical
conception of the Aether medium, which forms the physical basis of all
universal motion and phenomena.


ART. 98. _Newton's First Law of Motion._--We will now apply the
centrifugal and centripetal forces to Newton's Laws of Motion, and
endeavour to form a physical conception of the same from the aetherial
standpoint. Before doing so, we must recall some of the statements made
in Art. 14 with reference to the First Law of Motion.

It will be remembered that we divided the First Law of Motion into two
parts: 1st, "Every body continues in a state of rest except in so far as
it is compelled by impressed forces, _i. e._ impulses or motions, to
change that state." This we saw agreed with our experience, and
therefore was philosophically correct, and must hold good in its
application to the centrifugal and centripetal forces of the Aether in
their effect upon any body in space.

Let us proceed to apply the First Law of Motion to the planetary world.
We have seen in the previous Art. so far as the distances of the planets
are concerned in their relation to the sun, that the Law of Gravity is
violated, and that planetary distance is not regulated by the law
governing the centripetal force of Gravitation, otherwise the planets
possessing the largest masses would be nearer to the sun than those
possessing smaller masses.

The question arises, as to whether there is any law which governs
planetary distance, by which the distance of any planet was regulated at
the birth or creation of the solar system. It has been assumed by some
scientists that planetary density is the regulating factor which
determines the relative distance of the respective planets from their
central body, the sun, but such an assumption is not consistent with
scientific data. For we find that Venus, with a density of 4.81 compared
with water, occupies a nearer position than the Earth with a density of
5.66, whereas the reverse should be the case if the density of a planet
were the deciding factor in regulating a planet's distance.

Again, we find Saturn, which possesses a density of .75, occupying a
nearer position to the sun than Uranus, which possesses a density of
1.28; so that here again, if density were the regulating factor which
decided planetary distance, such a law is violated. According to the
various densities of the planets, the respective positions of the
planets in relation to the sun would be as follows: The nearest planet
would be Mercury, which possesses a density of 6.85. This would be
followed by the Earth, with a density of 5.66. Then Venus would come
next, with a density of 4.81, followed by Mars, with a density of 4.01.
After these we should have Jupiter, whose density is 1.38, with Uranus,
whose density is 1.28, followed by Neptune possessing a density of 1.15,
and Saturn would take Neptune's place, as it possesses the least density
of all, its density being only .75. So that it is manifest, that density
cannot be the governing condition, as has been proved in the previous
article.

Now, if all the planets ever formed part of the sun, and they were
hurled off into space by the centrifugal motion of the Aether, then
there certainly would be some law which governs the relative distance of
the various planets; but as far as we can see, there is no such law, as
a law which is violated ceases to be a law, so that the law of masses or
densities of a planet, governing their distances, has no place in the
solar system.

This leads up to the question as to whether the planets ever did form
part of the sun, as is generally supposed; and, in view of the fact that
there is no law by which planetary distances are regulated, we are
compelled to come to the conclusion that each planet and satellite once
existed in an aetherial condition in space, and that it was by the
condensation of that Aether, that each planet was formed; and that, at
its birth, each planet occupied the relative distance from the sun which
it occupies to-day.

At first sight this may appear startling, but I would ask the reader how
he can account otherwise for the great irregularity which exists in the
distances of the planets in their relation to the sun, as every known
law which governs masses and density seems to be altogether set at
defiance.

I hope to prove later on, that all matter has an aetherial origin, and
if that be correct, then the origin of a planet briefly outlined can be
accepted without violating the results of experience or experiment, and
to that extent will be philosophically correct.

Dr. Larmor speaks of the aetherial constitution of matter, and refers to
the views of Faraday and Davy in support of such a theory, while Lord
Kelvin has referred to the same principle in an article on the
"Condensation of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe"
(_Phil. Mag._, July 1902). So that if it be possible for Aether to be
condensed, and so form the nucleus of a planet or satellite, then,
seeing that the Aether is universal, any planet or satellite or meteor
may be formed in any part of the solar system; and the process has only
to be continued, until we have planets of various sizes at various
distances from the central body, the sun.

Here, therefore, at any rate, is a physical hypothesis which will
satisfactorily account for all the different distances of the various
planets. Apart from some such hypothesis, I fail to see how we can
account for the irregularity that exists between planetary distances,
when viewed from the standpoint of their masses and their densities.

Further, such a conception is entirely in harmony with the view of the
dual character of the motions or powers of the aetherial medium, that
would co-exist with the evolution and development of the planet. For, as
the planet was evolved and developed from the aetherial medium which
surrounded it on every side, two motions would be developed and grow
with it--the centrifugal force or motion, and the centripetal motion of
the Aether, or the attractive force known as Gravity. Thus, through all
the growth and development of a planet, these two powers, the
centripetal force and the centrifugal force, would be co-equal and
co-existent.

The same truth applies to the sun or any other body in the universe; so
that, if a planet, as the Earth, was formed in the beginning at its mean
distance of 92,700,000 miles, then the joint centripetal motions
produced by the Earth and sun in the Aether, would always equal the
joint centrifugal motions produced by the same two bodies, simply
because the two laws are the exact opposite of each other both in regard
to intensity, distance, and magnitude.

Thus the Earth would always occupy its relative position in relation to
the sun that it occupies to-day, as long as the two aetherial forces or
motions, the centripetal and the centrifugal, exist. With this brief
outline of a planet's history, we are now in a position to form a
physical picture of the solar system when it first existed in the
beginning.

We find the sun then occupying its centre. At various distances, we find
the various planets situated without any regard to their relative masses
or densities, as the following table shows. (The mass of sun is taken as
unity.)

                MEAN DISTANCE.    MASS.      DENSITY.

    Mercury       35,900,000   1/7,636,440     6.85

    Venus         67,000,000    1/397,000      4.81

    Earth         92,700,000    1/324,439      5.66

    Mars         141,000,000   1/2,994,790     4.01

    Jupiter      482,000,000     1/1,048       1.38

    Saturn       884,000,000     1/3,529        .75

    Uranus     1,780,000,000     1/22,020      1.28

    Neptune    2,780,000,000     1/18,520      1.15

Now, in order for any of these planets to fulfil Newton's First Law of
Motion, the sun, which occupies the centre of the solar system, must be
assumed to have no rotatory or orbital motion of its own; because, so
long as it has a rotatory motion on its axis, or an orbital motion of
its own through space, so long will even the first part of Newton's
First Law of Motion be inapplicable to the solar system.

But if the sun can be assumed to possess at some point in its history no
orbital motion, or rotatory motion on its axis, then the physical
interpretation of the first law of motion can be physically conceived,
and a planet at rest will remain at rest relatively to its central body,
the sun, for ever.

Let us take the sun and Mercury as an example of the effect of the two
motions operating in the aetherial medium. We will consider first the
effect of the centrifugal motion. The sun, with its huge form, occupies
the centre of the solar system, while Mercury has its mean distance
about 36,000,000 miles away.

The solar fires are intensely burning, and every atom and every particle
composing them are excited thereby into the most intense activity, and
by their energy of motion create myriads upon myriads of waves in the
surrounding Aether, which flow away on every side with the velocity of
light.

With such velocity are they generated, that they speed across the
distance of 36,000,000 miles which exist between Mercury and the sun in
the short time of about three minutes, and if it were not for the
aetherial and aerial atmosphere of the planet, would fall upon the
surface of Mercury with an intensity of heat that would scorch up all
vegetable life, if any existed thereon.

Now let us for a moment ignore the existence of the centripetal force,
and then in that light view the influence of the electro-magnetic Aether
waves upon Mercury. We have seen that when aetherial light waves come
into contact with any body, they exert a pressure upon that body (Art.
77), so that under the influence of the centrifugal force only, Mercury
would be borne away from its central body, the sun, with a power and
energy of motion entirely dependent upon the intensity of the
electro-magnetic Aether waves which give rise to the centrifugal force.

Thus Mercury would be carried away from the sun, far far away into the
depths of space, with ever-decreasing rapidity, the rapidity of its
motion through space being entirely dependent upon the intensity and
energy of the Aether waves; and, as that intensity varies inversely as
the square of the distance from the central body, the sun, so the
impelling and repelling energy of the Aetherial waves would vary
inversely as the square of the distance from the central body.

Thus the motion of Mercury or any other planet through space would not
be uniform, but would gradually decrease, and such a result is perfectly
in harmony with all experience and experiment in relation to moving
bodies on this earth.

This effect of the Aetherial electro-magnetic light waves upon a planet
is in harmony with Newton's nineteenth query in _Optics_, and is indeed
the physical illustration of that query in its corrected form which we
have already referred to in Art. 46, where Newton says: "Doth it
(Aether) not grow denser and denser, etc.; every body endeavouring to go
from the denser parts of the medium towards the rarer?"

That the Aether does grow denser and denser nearer to a body we have
already seen in Art. 46, and now we learn that a body, when under the
influence of the centrifugal force only, would pass from the denser
parts of a medium to the rarer parts, as suggested by Newton. We will
now suppose that Mercury has been repelled, by the pressure due to the
aetherial waves generated by the sun, to the distance of Neptune, a
distance of 2,780,000,000 miles; and that at this point the centrifugal
force is cancelled, and in its place is put the centripetal force of
Gravitation. What will be the effect upon Mercury then? At first sight
the effect will be exceedingly slight, but slowly, yet surely, the
attractive power of the sun would begin to make itself manifest, and we
should find Mercury retracing its path along exactly the same straight
line that it had taken in its outward journey.

Not only so, but its motion would be accelerated just in the same
proportion that it had decreased on its outward journey. On and on
through the intervening space the planet would rush, and if there were
no centrifugal force in existence, the planet would ultimately rush into
the central body, the sun, and being swallowed up by it, would maintain
for a time the heat thereof.

Let us now view the case from the conjoint working of these forces, or
motions, the centripetal and centrifugal, and we shall see, that under
certain conditions it is possible to conceive physically of a planet
being in a state of rest as stated in Newton's First Law of Motion, and
also remaining in that state of rest, until it is compelled by other
forces or motions to change that state. Mercury is now situated at its
mean distance of about 36,000,000 miles. At the same instant let both
the centrifugal and the centripetal forces or motions be applied to it,
and to the sun. What is the result of such application? Will the planet
move nearer the sun, which we are supposing to be perfectly at rest, or
will it be urged further away? The effect is nil! for the simple reason,
that when we set in motion the centripetal force of Gravitation, at
exactly the same time we set in motion an exactly opposite force which
is the exact complement and counterpart of the other, so that they
exactly counterbalance each other, and Mercury under the influence of
both forces still retains its mean position of 36,000,000 miles; and,
until we either set the sun rotating, or give it a motion of its own
through space, Mercury would remain at its distance of 36,000,000 miles
comparatively at rest. The same reasoning may be applied to all the
other planets, in relation to their mean distances, with the result that
they too would remain in a comparative state of rest, so long as they
were only under the influence of the two forces or motions, viz. the
centrifugal and centripetal.

Each of these, being the exact complement and counterpart of the other,
when applied together to any planet of any size or mass or density, at
any distance, fails to affect the distance of that planet in its
relation to the sun, but simply establishes it in that distance, subject
to certain regulations dependent upon other motions of the sun, and the
aetherial medium in which they exist. Thus we learn, that if, in the
beginning, Mercury were formed at a distance of 36,000,000 miles, it
would for ever remain at that distance; and the same is true of the
other planets at their mean distances, no matter what their mass or
density may be; and that, according to the first law of motion, the
planet would remain in a state of rest until compelled by other forces
or motions to change that state, when it would continue moving with
uniform motion so long as the motive power applied was uniform.

If, however, the motive power applied was not uniform, then the result
would be an increase or decrease of the planet's motion, just in
proportion to the increase or decrease of the motive power. This result
is in perfect harmony with our statement in Art. 15, and is in
accordance with observation and experience.


ART. 99. _Second Law of Motion._--According to Newton's Second Law of
Motion, "Change of motion is proportional to the impressed force, and
takes place in the direction in which the force is impressed."

From a consideration of this Law (Art. 15) we saw that the impressed
force was a compound quantity, being regulated by the mass of the moving
body which exerted the impressed force, and that it was also
proportionate to the velocity of the moving body; so that if either of
these quantities are changed, the total impressed force would be changed
also.

We have now to show that our aetherial medium agrees with this second
law of motion in so far as the second law of motion agrees with
experience and experiments. To do this, we must review our conception of
the universal Aether, and remember that Aether is matter, and being
matter, it is atomic and gravitative, possessing density, elasticity,
inertia, and kinetic energy, the same as any other moving matter.

In this Aether medium we have, according to this conception, something
that can both push and pull, or exert force upon any body with which it
comes into contact. Further, the inertia and kinetic energy of the
Aether at any part of space will be regulated by its mass in that
particular part, and if its mass is denser in some parts than others,
that part of the aetherial medium possessing the greatest mass will also
possess the greatest capacity for impressing force upon any body that
exists in the medium. Now we have learned from Art. 45 that Aether being
gravitative, it is denser nearer to the sun, getting gradually less and
less dense, the further it recedes from the central body, except where
it is bound or associated to some other planet or satellite, and there
it gradually gets denser, for the same reason that it is denser nearer
to the sun. As, therefore, the Aether gets gradually less dense as it
recedes from the sun, the density of the Aether at the mean distance of
Mercury, 35,900,000 miles, would not be so great as near the sun's
surface; while the density of the aetherial medium at the distance of
Venus, 67,000,000 miles, would be less than the density of the aetherial
medium at the distance of Mercury. This principle may be applied right
through the sun's aetherial electro-magnetic field, until we come to the
mean distance of Neptune, which is 2,780,000,000 miles, and there the
density of the Aether would be less than at any other part of the
aetherial electro-magnetic field around the sun.

So that the mass of the Aether at Mercury, which is equal to the number
of aetherial atoms per unit volume, is greater than the mass at Venus.
Thus the impressed force which the aetherial medium at the mean distance
of Mercury can exert upon any body in its neighbourhood, is greater than
the impressed force which the Aether can exert upon any body at the
distance of Venus, because of its decreased mass at that distance. In
the same way it can be proved that the impressed force which the
electro-magnetic Aether exerts on any body at the distance of Venus, is
greater than the impressed force which the Aether exerts upon a body at
the mean distance of the Earth. So that at the respective mean distances
of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the
electro-magnetic Aether, if in motion, would exert less force at each
of the mean distances of these planets exactly proportionate to the
decreased mass and decreased velocity of the Aether.

Now what is the motion which the Aether possesses, so far as the sun is
concerned? because, upon the particular kind of motion which it
possesses will depend the direction in which the impressed force will be
exerted according to the second law of motion.

In Art. 98 we supposed the sun and planets to be stationary in the solar
system, each planet being at its respective mean distance, from which it
cannot move owing to the equality of the two forces. Now give to the
central sun from whence the electro-magnetic Aether waves flow, a
rotatory motion on its own axis, which it really possesses, as it
rotates on its axis once in every twenty-six days nearly, and this will
give to the Aether medium a circular or rotatory motion. This circular
or rotatory motion the Aether has already been proved to possess (Art.
91, where we learned that all solar magnets were caused by
electro-magnetic aetherial currents constantly circulating round them).
So that the Aether will actually possess two motions: 1st, a radial
motion due to the Aether waves generated by the sun, which are radiated
out into space with the velocity of light; and 2nd, a circular or
rotatory motion. This result is in perfect harmony with our hypothesis
as to the cause of the electro-magnetism of the sun (Art. 91, where we
saw that solar magnetism was due to electric currents circulating round
the various planets), and we have proved that the Aether has an
electro-magnetic basis; thus the rotatory Aether currents and the
rotatory electro-magnetic currents are due to one and the same medium.

Now what will be the effect of these circular or rotatory Aether
currents on the bodies situated within their field? It must be
remembered that we are no longer dealing with a frictionless medium, but
with a medium which possesses inertia and kinetic energy the same as any
other moving matter. Therefore, as soon as it is set in motion, it will
impress its motions upon all planets that come under its control and
influence, with the result that as the impressed force is ever directed
in a circular form, the planet will be pushed along through space by the
moving Aether, and the path it describes will be circular also.

Thus the actual result of the rotatory electro-magnetic Aether currents
will be, that all dependent and associated planets under their influence
will be carried by them around the central body which generates the
Aether currents. So that they will literally and truly have an orbit,
and the circle they describe will be, in its size and circumference,
regulated by the mean distance of each planet, which mean distance will
form the radius of the circular orbit.

Further, as we shall see later, if the sun were always stationary, and
had no orbital motion of its own, then the orbit of each planet would
always be circular, each planet always occupying its mean distance from
the sun, because at that mean distance the centripetal and centrifugal
forces are equal.

That the actual path of any planet is a circle has been proved by Sir W.
R. Hamilton. Tait, in his _Natural Philosophy_, on this point writes
(Art. 38): "The Hodograph for the motion of a planet or comet is always
a circle, whatever be the form and dimensions of the orbit." This path
has been termed the Hodograph. So that we have in the circling
electro-magnetic Aether currents a physical explanation for the
Hodograph of any planet.

In applying the rotatory Aether currents to the various planets, and in
endeavouring to find out the quantity of the force impressed upon the
various planets at their mean distances, by those currents, we have to
take into consideration, as we have already seen, two facts, viz. the
mass of the Aether at any point in space, and the velocity of the Aether
at the same point. We will first take the effect of the difference in
mass. We have seen that at the distance of Mercury from the sun the
density of the Aether is greater than at the distance of Venus, and that
the density at Mars is greater than the aetherial density at the Earth,
the aetherial density decreasing the further the Aether recedes from the
sun.

What, therefore, is the effect of the decreased density of the Aether on
each planet? Even supposing the velocity of the moving Aether is the
same at the respective mean planetary distances, which it is not, the
total impressed force at the respective mean planetary distances will
gradually be decreased upon the various planets, proportionate to the
decrease in the mass and density of the Aether.

So that on Mercury, which is pushed along by a denser electro-magnetic
Aether than Venus, the impressed force, according to Newton's Second Law
of Motion, will be greater than the impressed force exerted by the
moving electro-magnetic Aether on Venus; and, consequently, Mercury
should have a greater velocity through space than Venus, due partly to
the difference of the aetherial mass and density, by which the impressed
force or motive power that acts upon Mercury is produced.

In the same way, Venus should have a greater velocity through space than
Mars, and Mars a greater velocity than the Earth. The same principle, when
applied to the outer planets, equally holds good; with the result, that
the greater the mean distance, the less the orbital velocity of each
planet, due partly to the decreased aetherial density at the increased
distance from the sun. But this is only part of the cause. Not only is
there a decrease in density of the Aether, as the distance from the sun
is increased, but there is also a decrease in the velocity of the moving
Aether, with the result that the Aether at the distance of Mercury,
possesses a greater angular velocity than at the distance of Venus.

It may be at once asked, How do we know that? Well, Philosophy alone can
give us the key, and Philosophy tells us to base our theories and
hypotheses on experience and experiment. Now what does experiment and
experience teach us as to the effect of a body revolving in any medium
upon that medium? If experience teaches us anything at all, it teaches
us that the further away any medium is from the revolving body, the less
is the angular velocity of that medium at that distance, while the
nearer the medium is to the revolving body, the greater is the angular
velocity.

This applies in each and every case, whether the medium is either fluid
or gaseous, and I will challenge the reader to perform any experiment on
any solid body rotating in a fluid or gaseous medium, and prove by that
experiment that the angular velocity of the outermost part of the fluid
or gaseous medium is equal to the angular velocity of the medium
directly associated with the body, or even at a short distance from it.

But we have most conclusive evidence of the fact that a solid body does
not communicate all its rotational surface motion to the medium directly
in contact with that body in the case of the earth revolving on its
axis, surrounded by an atmosphere. If the principle held good anywhere
in relation to a revolving body, viz. that the whole of the rotational
velocity is communicated to the medium surrounding the body, it should
certainly hold good at the surface of the body where the two media, the
solid and gaseous media, meet.

If a solid body fails to impart all its rotational velocity to the
medium there, then it will certainly fail to impart its full rotational
velocity to the enveloping medium 100 miles away, and fail still more at
a distance of 1000, and still more at a distance of 100,000,000, and so
on proportionate to the distance.

What, then, is the effect of the rotational velocity of the surface of
the earth on the atmosphere near to it? We know that the velocity of the
surface of the earth is greatest at the equator, as at that place the
circumference of the earth is about 25,000 miles, but the further we get
away from the equator, and the nearer we get to the North and South
poles, the velocity of the surface decreases, simply because the
circumference of the earth decreases.

Or, to reverse the statement, the velocity of the surface of the earth
is least at the poles, but increases the nearer we get to the equator.
It is also familiar knowledge that there are currents of cold air ever
moving from the North and South poles to the equatorial regions near the
surface of the earth. Thus the cold air currents, in passing from the
North and South poles, are ever passing over surfaces which are
increasing in velocity as they journey on their way to the equator. This
of course occurs all round the earth, so that the earth is continually
revolving in these currents, and if the rotational velocity of the
surface of the earth were wholly imparted to the air directly over its
surface, then the currents would be always flowing due North and South.

If, however, the earth fails to impart all its rotational velocity to
the atmosphere, or the atmosphere fails to pick up the whole of the
rotational velocity at once, then the result will be that the atmosphere
as it passes over the surfaces of greatest velocity will lag behind,
because its rotational velocity will be less than the velocity of the
earth's surface.

Now this is exactly what does happen in regard to the atmosphere, with
the result, that instead of getting winds blowing due north and south,
we get what are known as Trade Winds, which blow north-east in the
northern hemisphere and south-east in the southern hemisphere. Here then
we have direct experimental proof on a large scale of the very principle
I have stated, viz, that a medium surrounding any rotating body does not
move through the whole of its extent with the same velocity as its does
at the surface. Thus it can be seen that the velocity of the rotating
Aether will be greatest at the surface of the sun, but its angular
velocity will decrease the further the medium recedes from the sun.

The same principle can easily be proved from an electrical standpoint;
for if we consider the Aether currents as electric currents, no one
would think of suggesting that the intensity of the currents was the
same at a distance of several million miles away, as it is near the
source of the currents, which in this case may be looked upon as the
sun, because at its surface we have the greatest electric potential
(Art. 80).

So that we see from this reasoning, that not only is there a decreased
mass of the Aether at the distance of Venus, compared with Mercury, but
there is also a decreased velocity in the rotatory electro-magnetic
Aether currents, with the result that the impressed force exerted upon
Venus is less than the impressed force exerted upon Mercury, and
therefore Venus should move slower through space than Mercury, which is
exactly what happens, as Mercury has an orbital velocity of 29 miles per
second, while Venus has an orbital velocity of 22 miles per second.

As the angular velocity decreases in proportion as the distance
increases, it follows that at the respective mean distances not only of
Venus, but also of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the
capacity of the Aether to exert its impressed force upon the various
planets will decrease as the distance increases, with the result that
the farther a planet is from the sun, the less force will the Aether
currents exert upon that planet, with the result that its orbital
velocity should decrease as the distance increases, and this is
perfectly in accordance with planetary phenomena.

Here, then, we have at once a physical basis for Newton's Second Law of
Motion, the results of which are entirely in harmony with observation
and experiment, and whose conception fully satisfies all the Rules of
Philosophy; as it is simple in conception, fully agrees with observation
and experiment, and satisfactorily explains the Second Law of Motion
sought to be explained.

Thus we find that from the physical standpoint, as well as from the
mathematical standpoint, "Change of motion is proportional to the
impressed force, and takes place in the direction in which the force is
impressed," that is, in a circular direction.

We have therefore arrived at exactly the same result that Newton arrived
at, except that he had to introduce a third factor, viz. the
Parallelogram of Forces, while we have produced the result by a simpler
method, which, according to his own rules, is more philosophical, as all
effects are produced by the simplest causes, as Newton himself stated in
Rule 1. Thus it is the rotatory electro-magnetic Aether currents that
urge the planets round the sun; and, as will be shown later, it is the
same Aether currents in combination with the other motions that give
rise to the physical cause of Kepler's Laws. It is the electro-magnetic
Aether currents that produce the regular decrease in the velocity of the
planets in their orbits, because of the regular decrease of the mass and
velocity of the Aether currents themselves.

We have now a physical cause as well as a mathematical explanation of
the decrease of the velocity of a planet in its orbit, which physical
cause is in perfect harmony with all philosophical rules. The following
table shows the gradual decrease in the velocity of each planet as the
various planets recede from the sun--

                   MEAN            PERIOD OF     VELOCITY IN
                 DISTANCE.        REVOLUTION.    ORBIT PER HOUR.

    Mercury      35,900,000         87.9 days

    Venus        67,000,000        224.7             77.000

    Earth        92,700,000        365.2             66.500

    Mars        141,000,000        686.9             53.000

    Jupiter     482,000,000      4,332.6             28.744

    Saturn      884,000,000     10,759.              21.221

    Uranus    1,780,000,000     30,687.              14.963

    Neptune   2,780,000,000     60,127.              11.958


ART. 100. _Aether and Third Law of Motion._--We have seen (Art. 16) that
action and reaction are equal and opposite, and that it is true of the
centripetal force in its application to all matter throughout the
universe. If, therefore, the centrifugal force is the exact opposite of
the centripetal force, then the Third Law of Motion should equally hold
good in relation to that force also.

We have, therefore, to form a physical conception of the application of
the third law of motion, as it relates to the centrifugal force. As we
have already learned, this force is due to the universal
electro-magnetic Aether, which being gravitative, surrounds all atoms
and molecules that may exist throughout the whole universe. It can
readily be seen, therefore, that if the Aether surrounds every atom and
molecule, then each atom repels another atom or molecule when the two
forces are in equilibrium with exactly the same intensity with which the
atom and molecule attract each other.

But the centrifugal force in each case is due to the pressure of the
Aether, which presses always proportionately to the density of the
Aether surrounding the atom or molecules, as suggested by Professor
Challis.

The mean density, however, of each atomic or molecular atmosphere is
regulated solely by the mass of the atom or planet, therefore the
pressure exerted by one atom on another is proportionate to the mass of
each atom, and to that extent is strictly in accordance with the law
which governs the proportion of the forces between the two atoms or
molecules. If, therefore, we have two atoms, A and B, of different
masses, then it is true that while A exerts a pressure on B, which
pressure takes the form of a repulsion, at the same time B exerts a
pressure on A which is equal and opposite in its character and
intensity, and in each case the pressure is due to the aetherial medium
which surrounds each atom or molecule.

When the atoms are equal in mass, then the resultant motion produced on
each atom would be exactly equal, but when the masses vary, the
resultant motion produced on each atom would vary also, though the
momentum in each case would be exactly equal and opposite, as momentum
is a compound term dependent partly upon the mass of the body concerned.

In Art. 16 we saw that when this third law was applied to planetary
phenomena, not only did the sun attract all the planets, but all the
planets attracted the sun with equal and opposite forces, and the
planets also attracted each other with equal and opposite forces. In the
same way it can be proved, that as the sun repels all the planets by the
pressure exerted by the aetherial centrifugal force on those planets,
the planets repel the sun with an exactly equal and opposite force at
their mean distances. In Newton's conception, however, of the third law
of motion, there was simply mathematical data to deal with, by which the
law was shown to apply to the planetary and stellar world. In the case,
however, of the centrifugal motion, we have a definite physical medium,
which by its motions produces the pressure on the planets or suns that
exist in space, which pressure forms the physical centrifugal force that
forms the counterpart of Gravitation Attraction.

Let us look at this phase of the case in detail, and by so doing help to
establish and confirm the physical existence of the force or motion
referred to. We have learned from Chapter IV. that as Aether is
gravitative, it surrounds all satellites and planets, suns and stars
that exist in the universe.

We have also learned from Art. 86 that Aether has an electro-magnetic
basis, as mathematically proved by Maxwell and experimentally proved by
Hertz. Thus we came to the conclusion that each satellite and planet,
sun and star, was an electrified body (Art. 81), or an electro-magnet
(Art. 88), possessing its own electric or electro-magnetic field.

We also learned that in every electro-magnetic field there was a
pressure which was ever directed away from the body that generated the
electro-magnetic waves. Now, as every satellite and planet, sun and
star, is a generator of these waves according to our theory, it follows
that every satellite and planet, sun and star, is the centre of a
centrifugal force, which centrifugal force is regulated by the mass of
the satellite, planet, sun or star which gives rise to the centrifugal
force or motion.

Now, in relation to all electro-magnetic action, it can be
experimentally demonstrated, that action and reaction are equal and
opposite, so that if we have two electrified or magnetized bodies, then
the joint forces of attraction or repulsion between them are equal and
opposite. This being so, when we apply the same law of action and
reaction to the planets' influence on each other, it follows that the
same law must hold good in relation to them.

So that if we compare the repulsive powers of two planets on each other
in the solar system, say the Earth and Jupiter, then, according to the
third law of motion, the repulsive action of Jupiter on the Earth is
exactly equal and opposite to the repulsive action of the Earth on
Jupiter. If we compare the Earth and the sun, the repulsive action of
the sun on the Earth is exactly equal and opposite to the repulsive
action of the Earth on the sun, that action or force being caused
directly by the electro-magnetic Aether waves, which are generated by
each electric, or electro-magnetic body.

Thus, as the third law of motion is true of the centripetal force,
whether in relation to the atomic world, or in relation to the solar
system, or even to the universe at large, seeing that the centrifugal
force is the exact counterpart in every way of the centripetal force,
exactly fulfilling all the laws which govern it, it follows as a matter
of absolute necessity that the third law is also applicable to its
complement or counterpart also, or else it would cease to be the
complement and counterpart of the centripetal force.


ART. 101. _Why Planets revolve from West to East._--In Art. 99 we have
seen that the revolution of the planets around the sun is produced and
maintained by the electro-magnetic Aether currents, which are generated
by the axial motion of that electro-magnetic body. There is, however,
another effect produced, and another scientific fact which can be
accounted for by the circulating motions of the Aether medium, viz. that
the orbital direction of each and all the planets would not only be in
the same direction, but they would also be in the same direction as the
sun's rotation on its axis.

So that, whichever way the sun turns upon its axis, that way, and that
alone, should be the orbital direction of all the planets in which they
are circled round the sun by the circulating electro-magnetic Aether
currents. It is the sun's axial motion that partly gives to the Aether
currents their circling motion, and it is the circling motion of the
Aether currents that gives rise to the orbital motion of the planets,
literally carrying them round the sun by their kinetic energy and power.

Therefore, if this be true, whichever way the sun turns upon its axis,
that will be the direction in which the Aether currents must circle
round the sun, and in that direction the planets should travel in their
orbits. As must readily be seen, it is the inevitable result of the
established working of the electro-magnetic Aether currents. If the sun
rotated on its axis from east to west, then the electro-magnetic Aether
currents would also travel in the same direction, from east to west, and
the planets would then revolve round the sun from east to west.

If the sun, however, rotates on its axis from west to east, then, if
there are such electro-magnetic Aether currents in existence, as those
we have already proved to exist, they, too, would travel from west to
east, and as a natural result the planets, which are carried round the
sun by the currents, would also possess the same orbital motion, that is
from west to east.

As is well known, the sun rotates on its axis from west to east,
therefore the Aether currents also rotate from west to east, with the
result that the orbital directions of all the planets should also be in
the same direction, from west to east. Now, as is well known, all the
planets without exception, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, all travel round the sun from west to east.

Here, then, we have indisputable evidence of the existence and mode of
working of the electro-magnetic aetherial currents, whose action alone
can produce the phenomena with which we are so familiar, and for which
there must be some physical cause. I am not aware that any reason or
explanation either mathematical or otherwise has ever been given, or
even suggested, as to the cause of the phenomena which we have just
endeavoured to explain.

Indeed, there can be no other physical explanation of the fact, that all
the planets revolve round the sun in the same direction that the sun
rotates on its axis, than the one here given, viz. that the cause is to
be found, and alone found, in the circulating electro-magnetic Aether
currents which are generated in the Aether by the electro-magnetic body,
the sun. Again, in order to confirm the existence of these Aether
currents that exist in space, not only those generated by the sun, but
also by all the other electro-magnetic bodies, as all the planets (Art.
88), we will consider the working of the same upon the satellites of
those planets which possess them.

The Earth we know has one satellite, the moon, Mars has two satellites,
Phobos and Deimos, Jupiter has five satellites, Saturn has eight
satellites, while up to the present Uranus has been found to possess
four, and Neptune one. There is, however, little doubt but that both
Uranus and Neptune possess more than those already discovered, as it is
inconceivable that Jupiter and Saturn, which are nearer to the sun,
should possess a greater number of satellites by which the nights of the
respective planets are illuminated, while the further planets, which
need the increased lighting, because of the decreased intensity of the
aetherial light waves at the increased distance, possess apparently a
less number of satellites, and therefore less illumination for their
respective nights.

But what have these satellites to teach us as to the existence of the
electro-magnetic aetherial currents that circulate round the planets? We
have to apply a similar course of reasoning to the planets, as we have
done in the case of the sun. If the sun is an electro-magnetic body, by
its axial rotation it generates rotating Aether currents, and those
Aether currents partake of the same rotation as the revolving body, that
is, from west to east. In a like manner each planet, being an
electro-magnet, generates electro-magnetic aetherial currents which also
possess the same rotation as the planetary body which gives rise to
them.

So that if the planets rotate on their axes from east to west, the
Aether currents will also rotate from east to west, but if the rotation
of each planet is from west to east, then the rotation of the Aether
currents associated with each planet will also be from west to east,
with the result that each satellite will be carried round its primary
planet by the circulating Aether currents in exactly the same way as the
planet rotates on its axis.

Now if this is the case, then we have further evidence of the existence
of the circulating electro-magnetic Aether currents, not only those
associated with the sun, but those also associated with each of the
planets, as explained in Art. 91. It might have been urged in the case
of the planet's revolution round the sun being in the same direction as
the sun's axial action, that such a fact was merely a coincidence, but
such an objection loses its force if it is proved that the same
principle or truth when applied to other bodies equally holds good. When
we come to analyze the direction of the satellites round their primary
planets, we find that each satellite has an orbital motion, or is
carried round its central and controlling planet by that planet's Aether
currents in exactly the same direction that the planet rotates on its
axis, viz. from west to east. So that we have in the orbital direction
of the satellites, as we have also in the orbital direction of the
planets, conclusive evidence of the existence and mode of working of the
Aether and of the electro-magnetic currents generated in that aetherial
medium by the electro-magnetic bodies which rotate in it.



                               CHAPTER XI

                        AETHER AND KEPLER'S LAWS


ART. 102. _Aether and Kepler's First Law._--In Art. 26 we learned that
according to the First Law of Kepler, each planet revolves round the sun
in an elliptic orbit, with the sun occupying one of the foci.

We also saw that that elliptic orbit was produced according to Newton by
the conjoint working of the centripetal and centrifugal forces in
association with the three Laws of Motion, to which laws had to be added
a corollary, which is termed the Parallelogram of Forces, before the
First Law of Kepler could be fulfilled.

In making any hypothesis as to the physical cause of Kepler's Laws, if
it can be shown that the same aetherial medium that gives rise to the
centrifugal force, also gives rise to the centripetal force, and that
the same medium by its rotatory motions also fulfils the three laws of
motion, and gives a satisfactory physical explanation of all Kepler's
Laws; then, according to our three Rules of Philosophy, we shall have
found a physical medium which, by its motions and pressures and
tensions, can give rise to all the phenomena exhibited in the celestial
mechanism. Such a physical explanation will be philosophically correct,
in that it is simple in its conception, is entirely in harmony with
observation and experiment, and satisfactorily accounts for, and that on
a physical basis, all the phenomena associated with the whole of the
celestial mechanism.

We have therefore to apply the motions of the Aether medium to the solar
system, and by so doing reveal the physical explanation of all Kepler's
Laws, in the same way that Newton revealed their correctness from the
mathematical standpoint. Let us review the conception of the solar
system as given in Art. 99, so that we may be able to proceed from that
physical conception of a stationary solar system to a moving system.

Thus we see the sun in a stationary system occupying exactly the centre
of that system. The solar energies are in full play, generating
electro-magnetic Aether waves which are radiated forth into space with
the velocity of light. Then, as there is given to the sun a rotatory
motion on its axis, that rotatory motion imparts to the gravitating
aetherial medium a circulatory or rotatory motion which spreads out
through space with ever-increasing intensity.

By their radiating motion the Aether waves would repel all planets from
their central body, the sun, if they were not counterbalanced by the
centripetal force; and the two forces, the centrifugal and the
centripetal forces, find their equilibrium at the mean distance of each
planet, thus fixing and regulating permanently the distance and orbit of
each planetary world.

At the same time, the rotatory motion of the electro-magnetic Aether
currents, according to the second law of motion, would act on the
planets by their kinetic or moving energy, and so circle them round the
sun, their controlling centre. As long as the sun was quite stationary,
while still possessing a rotation on its axis, if such a thing were
possible, so long would the conception of the ancients be fulfilled, and
the rotation of all the planets would be strictly circular in form, and
their orbits would be that of a circle only, as proved by Sir W. R.
Hamilton (Art. 99).

[Illustration: Fig: 24.]

But, as is well known, the sun itself possesses an orbital motion of its
own, so that, while all the associated planetary system is revolving
round it, the sun with all that system is being carried along through
space in an orbit which is also elliptic in form, as we shall see later
on.

According to Herschel, the sun is moving towards the constellation of
Hercules with a velocity of about 18,000 miles per hour, and the problem
to be faced is, what is the effect of the sun's orbital velocity upon
the circular motion of the planets? By solving that problem, we shall
arrive at a physical conception for the first time of Kepler's Laws, and
shall see that the first of Kepler's Laws is solved simply by giving an
orbital velocity to any central body, the result of which will be that
the circular form of any planet's orbit will be changed from the
circular into one of elliptic form.

Let me ask the reader to perform a very simple experiment to confirm
this fact. Take a piece of string and a lead pencil, and start to draw a
circle on a piece of paper (Fig. 24). When, however, one quarter of the
circle has been drawn, viz. _D_ _F_, move the end of the piece of string
representing the centre of the circle along the paper, as represented in
the diagram, from _A_ to _B_. The result will be that the pencil will
now travel parallel with the moving centre for a time from _F_ to _G_,
and then, when the centre is brought to rest again, the other part of
the half ellipse _G_ _H_ may be completed. In the same way, by reversing
the motion, the other half of the ellipse may be completed. So that it
is possible for an ellipse to be formed simply by moving the central
point of a circle, and the motion of that central point will change the
form of a circle into an ellipse. It is something like this that takes
place in the planetary world, with this difference, that the central
point which represents the sun does not return from one focus to
another, but continues to journey on through space, with the result that
the orbit of any planet is not strictly an ellipse, as we shall see
later on. We have, then, the sun occupying the centre of the solar
system, with all the planets revolving round it. We will take the sun
and the Earth as examples. Let _S_ in the diagram represent the sun, and
_E_ the Earth at its mean distance of 92,000,000 miles away (Fig. 25).

[Illustration: Fig: 25.]

The Earth we know is moving with a velocity of about 64,800 miles per
hour around the sun, or an average velocity of 18 miles per second, so
that while the Earth is moving 64,800 miles through space to perform the
half-circle, _E_ _D_ _C_, the sun is also travelling 18,000 miles
towards the point _D_.

What, therefore, is the effect of this onward movement of the sun
towards the Earth as it tries to complete the half-circle _E_ _D_ _C_?
We have seen that the centrifugal force due to the pressure of the
electro-magnetic Aether waves is exactly equal to the centripetal force
exerted by the sun on any planet, and if that be so, it can be readily
seen that as the sun journeys towards the point _D_ of the Earth's
orbit, it tends to approach nearer and nearer the Earth. Thus the
intensity of the aetherial pressure owing to the decreased distance will
be greatly increased, and the effect of the increased pressure of the
Aether upon the planet will be to push it away from the sun, so that the
two forces may be equalized, and its mean distance, which is definitely
fixed, be maintained as far as possible.

The result will be that, instead of the Earth describing the half-circle
_E_ _D_ _C_, it actually describes the part of the ellipse _E_ _F_ _C_.
Thus it can be seen that while the sun is travelling through space, it is
at the same time giving rise to the electro-magnetic Aether waves, which,
by their repelling power, repel the Earth from the sun in the direction
that the sun is travelling, and hence the half-circle is elongated into
that part of the elliptic orbit known as the perihelion, which is that
part of the orbit where the distance of any planet from the sun is the
least.

[Illustration: Fig: 26.]

The repelling power of the Aether waves is not, however, sufficient to
overcome altogether the centripetal force in conjunction with the
Earth's motion, with the result that when the Earth arrives at _F_, its
distance is only 91 million miles, that being the least distance between
the sun and the Earth. We shall see the result of this decreased
distance when we deal with Kepler's Second Law.

We will now proceed to notice the effect of the sun's orbital velocity
upon that part of the Earth's orbit which includes the aphelion, or that
part in which the Earth occupies a position of the greatest distance
from the sun. Proceeding on the same method of reasoning, if the sun
were stationary, with the Earth being circled round it by the
electro-magnetic Aether currents, then the path described by the Earth
would be that of a circle, being represented by the half-circle _C_ _G_
_E_ (Fig. 26).

But it has to be remembered that while the Earth is being circled round
the sun by the rotatory electro-magnetic Aether currents, the sun is
still travelling on towards _S_ _F_ at the rate of 18,000 miles per
hour, while the Earth is travelling in almost an opposite direction
towards _C_ _G_, so that by the time the Earth has got to _G_, which we
will suppose is one quarter of its ellipse, the sun has travelled
millions of miles in that time.

Thus it can readily be seen, that by the time the Earth has got to its
aphelion, it is at its furthest distance from the sun, simply because
the sun has been travelling onwards through space all the time, while
the Earth has been receding from it; and as the motion of the Earth has
been in an opposite direction, the mean distance has been exceeded, and
instead of the Earth being now at its mean distance from the sun, its
distance is now 94,500,000 miles. At that part of its orbit, its orbital
velocity is at a minimum, because the rotating Aether currents have
there a decreased flow and a decreased mass and density, and therefore
possess a decreased kinetic energy or motive power.

Thus by the rotating Aether currents working in conjunction with the
centrifugal and centripetal forces, can be accounted on a physical basis
the first of Kepler's Laws in a manner which is strictly philosophical,
as the explanation is simple in conception, does not violate experience
or experiment, and satisfactorily accounts for, on a physical basis, the
law which it is required to explain.

If we consider the rotating Aether currents as purely currents of
electricity, then exactly the same results follow. For, as we shall see
later, Professor Lodge in his _Modern Views of Electricity_ proves that
electricity possesses both inertia and momentum, and if electricity
possesses these properties, then it also possesses the requisite
properties to enable the currents to propel or push any planet around
its central body, or a satellite round its primary planet. Therefore the
same course of reasoning that applies to the rotating Aether currents,
equally applies to the currents of electricity that circulate round each
satellite, planet, and sun and star, and by that circulation gives rise
to the electro-magnetism associated with each body, while at the same
time they supply the kinetic energy which enables any dependent or
associated body to be propelled round their controlling centre.


ART. 103. _Second Law of Kepler._--According to Kepler's Second Law
(Art. 27), we learn that the radius vector, which is the imaginary
straight line joining any planet to the sun, describes, or sweeps over,
equal areas in equal times. So that, while Kelper's First Law describes
the path which a planet takes in revolving round the sun, the Second Law
shows how the velocity of that planet varies in different parts of its
orbit.

While, however, there is a difference in the velocity of any planet at
various points in the orbit, there is still a proportion existing
between its various velocities, in that equal areas are covered in equal
times. We have now to apply the hypothesis of our rotatory Aether
currents, in conjunction with the centripetal and centrifugal forces, in
order to see whether the Second Law of Kepler can be explained on a
physical basis, in the same way that Newton explained it from the
mathematical standpoint.

We have again to conceive the sun as the centre of two equal but exactly
opposite forces, and also possessing a rotatory motion on its axis, with
the electro-magnetic Aether currents ever circulating round it. If the
sun were stationary, it will be manifest at once that Kepler's Second
Law would be literally and strictly fulfilled, for in that case the
orbit of all the planets would be perfect circles, and the motion of
planets in their orbits would be perfectly uniform, and therefore equal
areas would be covered by the radius vector in equal times. Thus any
quarter of the orbit would be described in exactly a 1/4 of a year, 1/12
in 1/12 of a year, 1/40 in 1/40 of a year, and so on, the time being
exactly proportional to the proportion of the area covered by the radius
vector.

The area covered would always be uniform, because the radius vector
would always be uniform in length. But, as we have seen in the previous
article, the distance of a planet from the sun, that is, the length of
the radius vector, is not uniform, as the Earth is nearer to the sun at
perihelion, and further away at aphelion, its distance gradually
changing as it passes from each of these points to the other.

Now what is the effect of the decreased distance upon the circulating or
rotatory Aether currents? We have already seen (Art. 99) that the closer
these Aether currents are to the central body, the sun, the greater is
their velocity and the greater their mass, so that the total impressed
force which they exert over any planet is greater the nearer that planet
is to the sun. This is proved by the fact that Mercury has a greater
orbital velocity than Venus, Venus than the Earth, the Earth than Mars,
and so on right through the whole of the planetary system. In view of
these facts, let us again consider the effect of the sun not being
stationary, but having an orbital velocity of its own through space.
Thus let the sun be at _S_ and the Earth be at point _D_ of its orbit
(Fig. 25).

The circulating Aether currents are ever acting upon the Earth, carrying
it round the sun with them, while at the same time the centripetal force
is pulling it towards the sun with a certain intensity, but the
centrifugal force is repelling the Earth with exactly the same
intensity, and if the sun remained motionless the two forces would
exactly balance each other, while the Earth would describe the
half-circle _E_ _D_ _C_. But while the Earth is moving towards the
point _D_ with a velocity of 64,000 miles per hour, the sun is also
moving at the velocity of about 18,000 miles per hour towards that
point.

Thus the repelling power of the radiating electro-magnetic Aether waves
has to overcome, not only its exact counterpart, the centripetal force,
but also the onward motion of the sun as it rushes on its course through
space. This the centrifugal force is unable to do, with the result that
the distance is gradually lessened, and instead of the Earth describing
the arc _E_ _D_, it describes the arc _E_ _F_, at which point its
distance is at the minimum, or about 91 millions of miles.

Or, to put the same fact in another way. When the Earth is at _E_, the
centripetal force and the orbital velocity of the Earth and the sun are
acting conjointly, with the result that they overcome the centrifugal
force, and the distance is gradually decreased. This decreased distance
means an increased aetherial density and an increased velocity of the
aetherial currents, with the result, that as the distance is decreased,
the orbital velocity of the Earth is gradually increased, so that by the
time the Earth gets to _F_, at its perihelion, it has now acquired its
greatest orbital velocity, and is carried round the sun by the
electro-magnetic Aether currents at its maximum velocity.

Now let us look at the Earth being circled round the sun by the
electro-magnetic Aether currents as it goes on to perform the other half
of the orbit. In this case we have the orbital motion of the sun and the
centrifugal force working conjointly, with the result that together they
overcome the centripetal force, and the Earth is repelled and carried
beyond its mean distance. Let _S_ represent the sun, the Earth being at
point _C_ of its orbit, after passing round its perihelion, and at this
decreased distance it is carried along by the circulating and denser
Aether with its maximum velocity (Fig. 26).

Now while the Earth is going on to describe the half-circle _C_ _G_ _E_,
the sun is still pursuing its journey at the rate of about 18,000 miles
per hour, only this time in a direction away from the Earth. As, however,
the Earth has not yet regained its mean distance of 92,000,000 miles,
the centrifugal force is still greater than the centripetal force, so
that the centrifugal force is urging the planet away from the sun with
greater intensity than the centripetal force is attracting it, as the
two forces are only in equilibrium at the mean distance of the Earth.

Thus, as stated, the orbital motion of the sun and the centrifugal
forces are now working conjointly together, with the result that the
Earth is repelled gradually further and further from its central body,
until it reaches its maximum distance of 94,500,000 miles. While,
however, the distance is gradually being increased, it is passing into a
part of the Aether possessing not only a decreased mass, but also a
decreased velocity, with the result that the motive power or kinetic
energy of the aetherial currents at the increased distance is gradually
lessened, and as a natural result the velocity of the Earth is also
decreased; so that by the time the Earth has got to its furthest
distance from the sun, its orbital velocity is slowest, because of the
decreased momentum of the aetherial currents.

Thus we can account for the difference of velocity of a planet in its
orbit by the same electro-magnetic Aether currents working in
conjunction with the sun's orbital motion, and that upon a strictly
physical basis. This result is in perfect harmony with Kepler's Second
Law, which states that equal areas are described by the radius vector in
equal times. Newton proved that by the Law of Gravitation Attraction he
could account for this second law, as well as all the others, and as we
have not destroyed that law, but perfected it by giving it its exact
complement and counterpart, the same mathematical reasoning that applies
to the centripetal force must equally apply to the centrifugal force,
and if it is true that the centripetal force works harmoniously with the
second of Kepler's Laws, then it is equally true that the centrifugal
force does also, as the two are inseparably and indisputably united
together in the atomic Aether. We have, however, a physical basis for
this centrifugal force, and we have an equal physical basis for the
centripetal force, as we shall see later, and therefore, by the conjoint
working of these two forces taken in conjunction with the orbital motion
of the sun, we have now a physical conception for the first time of
Kepler's Laws, as well as a mathematical conception, that physical
conception being derived from the pressure and motions of the universal
Aether.


ART. 104. _Aether and Kepler's Third Law._--In Art. 28 we saw that
according to the Third Law of Kepler, the square of the periodic time
was proportionate to the cube of the mean distance of that planet from
its controlling centre. Newton proved that this Third Law was
mathematically correct, and that it could be mathematically accounted
for by the existence and operation of the universal Law of Gravitation.
As the centrifugal force is the exact opposite of that force in
intensity, proportion and mode of operation, it follows that
mathematically the centrifugal force also bears the same relation to the
Third Law that the centripetal force does.

We have, however, a physical basis for the centrifugal force, and it is
with the physical conception of this Third Law rather than with its
mathematical character that we are now dealing. Kepler by his Third Law
showed that the chief regulating factor in the orbital velocity of a
planet was its mean distance from the sun.

The great regulator of the velocity of any planet in its orbit is
simply planetary distance, and planetary distance alone. If there were
no other law which operated in the solar system than the centripetal
force, or the attractive force due to gravity, then such factors as mass
and density of a planet ought to play a most important part in the
orbital velocity of a planet, as the centripetal force directly
recognizes the influence of mass, that is, volume and density, but says
nothing about mean distances. This fact unmistakably points to the
existence, and demands the operation, of another force, which shall
explain, and that on a physical as well as a mathematical basis, how it
is that the mean distance of a planet from any centre regulates the
orbital velocity of that planet.

The only real and true conception of such a force is to be found in the
radiating waves and circulating motions of the aetherial medium, which
waves, like water waves, increase in their radial outflow and extent
with a regular decreasing intensity, and at the same time decrease in
their angular velocity as they recede from the sun. With such a regular
decrease of kinetic energy, there must necessarily be imparted to the
planets, as their mean distance is increased, a decreased velocity of
motion, with the natural result, that the further a planet is from the
sun, the less will be its orbital velocity, and that in a regular and
uniform proportion as the distance is increased.

Now let us view the matter for a moment in its application to the solar
system, and by so doing show the simplicity of the explanation, and at
the same time give added proof to the existence and operation of the
circulating aetherial currents that exist in space. Let us again picture
the solar fires burning in all their fierceness and intensity, every
atom and particle of the sun being thrown thereby into the most intense
state of activity, and by their energy of motion creating
electro-magnetic Aether waves in their myriads, which speed away from
the sun on every side.

Under their influence, all subordinate worlds would be carried away into
space, were it not for the complementary Law of Gravitation Attraction,
that is, the centripetal force. But to every planet, by the operation of
some governing and determining principle, a mean distance has been
given, and at that mean distance the two forces find their equilibrium;
and by their conjoint and co-equal working hold each planet at that mean
distance with a power that cannot be broken. Each power or force may be
modified under certain conditions, as shown in the two preceding
articles; but, whether the planet be repelled further away, or attracted
nearer to the sun, through the onward motion of the sun, the two forces
ever seek to maintain their equilibrium, and to place the planet at its
mean position assigned to it in the solar system.

The nearer that mean position is to the sun, the greater is the velocity
of the aetherial currents which circulate round the sun; and the greater
their mass, volume for volume, on account of the increasing density of the
Aether, the nearer it is to the sun. The effect of this increased
velocity, and the increased mass of the circulating Aether currents, is to
impart to planets nearest to the sun the greatest orbital velocity; while,
the greater the distance, the less will be the orbital velocity of the
planet. That this is exactly in accordance with observation and
experience may be proved by considering the respective mean distances
and orbital velocities of the various planets.

Mercury, with a mean distance of 35,900,000 miles, is circled round the
sun at the enormous rate of about 108,000 miles per hour, accomplishing
its entire journey in the short period of 88 days. Venus, whose mean
distance is about 67,000,000 miles, is carried round the sun at the
reduced rate of 78,000 miles per hour, completing her orbit in the
increased time of 224 days. Our own Earth, at the still further
increased mean distance of 92,000,000 miles, performs her journey at the
reduced velocity of 64,000 miles per hour, accomplishing the journey
round the sun in a period of 365 days.

Thus, the further we get from the sun, the slower becomes the movement
of a planet in its orbit, and the longer it takes to complete its
revolution round its controlling centre. Mars, at the increased distance
of 141,000,000 miles, possesses a reduced velocity of 54,000 miles per
hour, and completes its orbit in the increased duration of 686 days. So
the decrease of velocity goes on, as the planets increase their mean
distance from the sun, as the following figures show--

                 MEAN DISTANCE.   PERIOD OF   ORBITAL VELOCITY
                                  REVOLUTION.     PER HOUR.

    Jupiter       482 millions    4,332 days    28,000 miles
    Saturn        884    "       10,759  "      21,600   "
    Uranus      1,780    "       30,687  "       1,800   "
    Neptune     2,780    "       60.127  "         900   "

The relation of this decrease of velocity to the mean distance is
exactly determined by Kepler's Third Law, in which he states that the
square of the periodic time is proportionate to the cube of the mean
distance. That this is true has already been proved in Art. 28.

In conclusion on this point, let me ask the reader to try to conceive
any other physical explanation for this decrease of orbital velocity as
the mean distance is increased, than the one given here, namely, the
decrease in the velocity and mass of the radiating and circulating
Aether currents, and if such attempt is made, I premise that its only
result will be utter failure. No other physical conception to account on
a physical basis for all Kepler's Laws can be given or conceived, than
that which finds its origin in the universal electro-magnetic Aether,
which by its pressures, tensions and motions gives rise to all the
phenomena incidental to, and associated with, planetary and stellar
phenomena.

Therefore, inasmuch as all the laws of motion, and all Kepler's Laws can
be accounted for by a gravitating and rotatory Aether medium, those
facts alone, apart from the explanation of other phenomena associated
with light and heat, would stamp the circulating Aether medium as the
physical cause of all the motions and phenomena associated with the
whole of the celestial mechanism.


ART. 105. _Orbital Motions of Satellites and Planets._--According to
Kepler's First Law, the Earth and all the other planets move round the
sun in orbits which are in the shape of an ellipse. Not only, however,
is the first law true of planetary motion, it is equally true of the
motions of all satellites moving round their primary planets. I wish,
however, to point out, and prove in an indisputable manner, that
Kepler's First Law does not sufficiently explain and determine the exact
orbit of any satellite as it revolves around its primary planet, or even
of any planet as it revolves around the sun.

Simply because, if any satellite or planet is to perform a perfect
ellipse as it revolves around its central body, that central body must
only move for a time and must then come to rest, or partly return in its
journey in order for a perfect ellipse to be formed, as shown in a
previous figure. Now we know from observation that such a thing as rest
in space by any planet, or by the sun, is absolutely unknown in the
celestial mechanism.

From Art. 92 we learned that the electro-magnetic Aether currents not
only circulate round the sun, but they also circulate round each planet.
Thus we found there were electro-magnetic Aether currents circulating
round each planet, while those planets themselves were circled round the
sun by the Aether currents generated by the sun; the planetary Aether
currents in their turn propel the satellites round their primary
planets. It can easily be seen, therefore, that such phenomena as rest
and return of a planet in its journey are physical impossibilities, for
either the circulating Aether currents would have to cease circulating,
or would have to return upon themselves in some inconceivable manner.

Thus there is ever going on this conjoint motion, so to speak, of the
sun's aetherial currents which circle all the planets round that body,
and the planetary aetherial currents which circle all the satellites
round their central body, and it is the effect of the conjoint working
of these currents on the planets and satellites to which I wish to call
the reader's attention.

Let us in starting represent the earth's orbit by a perfect ellipse _A_
_B_ _C_ _D_, with the sun occupying one of the foci _S_ (Fig. 27). We
will suppose that the earth is at point _A_ of its orbit and is being
circled round the sun with uniform velocity. As it is circled round the
sun by the sun's aetherial currents, at the same time its satellite the
moon is being circled round the earth by the electro-magnetic Aether
currents which circulate round that planet. We will represent the orbit of
the moon by part of a smaller circle _D_ _E_ _F_, and suppose the moon to
be at point _D_ of that orbit. The mean distance of the moon from the
earth is about 240,000 miles, so that the diameter of the orbit is 480,000
miles, therefore the circumference of the orbit is 480,000 × 3.1416, which
gives us about 1,500,000 miles.

[Illustration: Fig: 27.]

That distance is traversed in about 28 days, so that the moon's average
velocity in its orbit, as it is circled or pushed round the earth, is
about 2200 miles per hour. While, therefore, the moon is travelling 2200
miles, the earth in its journey round the sun has travelled about 64,800
miles in the same time. So that by the time the moon has travelled half
its orbit, that is, from _D_ to _F_, which would take about 14 days, the
earth has also travelled in its orbit 64,800 × 24 × 14 = 21,772,800
miles, with the result, that instead of the moon arriving at point _F_,
which it would do if the earth were stationary, it really arrives at a
point about 21,772,800 miles in front of that point.

In a similar way, while the moon goes on to describe the other half of
the orbit, the earth still proceeds on its journey, so that at the end
of 14 days it is again 21,772,800 miles further on, with the result,
that the centripetal force (by which the moon is attracted to the earth)
keeps it at the distance of 240,000 miles according to Kepler's Second
Law as explained in Art. 103.

The moon, therefore, completes its orbit about 21,772,800 miles further
on than it would do if the earth were stationary. The effect of this
continual progress of the earth on the moon's orbit as it describes its
orbit round the sun is seen in the diagram. As the moon revolves round
the earth thirteen times in one year, it performs thirteen revolutions
round that planet; but it cannot be said that these orbits are perfect
ellipses, as the earth is ever being circled round its central body, the
sun. Even this diagram does not accurately represent the orbital motion
of the moon through space, as it assumes that the earth returns to the
same point in space from whence it started. This, however, is incorrect,
as we have to remember that the sun has also an orbital velocity of
18,000 miles per hour, so that while the earth has performed one
revolution in its orbit, the sun has actually progressed through space
to the extent of 18,000 × 24 × 365 = 157,680,000 miles.

When we come to deal with the sun's motion through space, we shall see
that this distance only represents a fraction of the sun's orbit, as it
can be philosophically proved, that if the sun moves at all, it, too,
obeys Kepler's Laws; and therefore, according to his First Law, it also
describes and possesses an orbit of its own. So that by the time the
earth has made its annual revolution round the sun, the whole system has
been carried 157,680,000 miles through space, and therefore the earth
does not complete a perfect ellipse, but its orbital motion round the
sun will be represented by a similar kind of diagram to the one which
represents the orbital motions of the moon, or any other satellite round
its central body.


ART. 106. _Eccentricity of Orbit of Moon._--From astronomical
observation we learn, that all the satellites and planets do not possess
uniformity of motion, as they are carried round their controlling
centres by the circulating aetherial currents, because the respective
controlling centres themselves move through space. The result is, that
the orbit of any satellite or planet is not always of the same size, but
constantly varies, sometimes having a larger circumference than at other
times, and sometimes a smaller circumference.

This change in the size of the orbit of a satellite or planet is known
as the eccentricity of the orbit, which eccentricity is constantly
changing, being sometimes greater and sometimes less. We will look at
this truth in its relation to the moon first, and then consider the same
principle in its relation to the earth and other planets later on. For
the purpose of illustration, we will consider the earth as being circled
round the sun by the electro-magnetic Aether currents in a closed orbit,
_A_ _B_ _C_ _D_, which forms a perfect ellipse, the sun occupying one of
the foci _S_ (Fig. 28), the earth occupying a position in the orbit
represented by point _C_, with the moon being circled round the earth by
that planet's aetherial currents. As we have already seen in Art. 103,
according to Kepler's Second Law, at this point the earth is furthest
from the sun, being now at a distance of 94-1/2 millions of miles, and
therefore its orbital velocity will be slowest at that part of its
orbit.

If it were absolutely at rest in space, and simply revolving on its own
axis, then the result would be that the moon would be circled round the
earth in an orbit _M_ _C_ _F_ which is perfectly circular in form; but, as
the earth is being carried along slowly through space by the circulating
Aether currents, this onward movement changes the circular orbit into an
orbit of elliptic form.

[Illustration: Fig: 28.]

The eccentricity of the moon's orbit when the earth is at its aphelion,
or furthest from the sun, is now at a minimum, for the simple reason
that the earth is proceeding slowly through space, owing to the
decreased kinetic energy of the aetherial currents at the increased
distance.

So that, at this point of the earth's orbit, the difference between the
two axes of the moon's orbit will be the least, and its orbit at that
point will be the nearest approach to that of a circle. But, as we have
already seen, as soon as the earth leaves this part of its orbit, and
begins to get nearer to the sun, it passes into a part of the aetherial
medium possessing greater kinetic energy, with the result that its own
velocity is accelerated. Now what is the effect of this increased
acceleration of the earth on the eccentricity of the orbit of the moon?

The earth's rotation on its axis remains unaltered during this
increasing orbital velocity, consequently the aetherial currents
generated by the earth will remain uniform, and the moon will still be
circled round the earth in the same period of about 28 days. But while
the time of the moon's revolution remains unaltered, the orbit that she
has to describe is now increased owing to the increased orbital
velocity of its central body, with the result, that by the time the
earth gets to that part of its orbit represented by point _D_, it is
then two millions of miles nearer to the sun than at point _C_, and will
be circled round the sun by the aetherial currents at a much greater
rate. Therefore, the eccentricity of the moon's orbit is increased just
in proportion to the increased velocity of the earth in its orbit round
the sun. By the time the earth has arrived at point _A_, when it is only
a distance of about 91 millions of miles from the sun, it reaches the
minimum distance, and is circled round at the decreased distance with
its maximum velocity.

At this point, therefore, the eccentricity of the orbit of the moon will
be at its greatest, and, if one revolution could be represented by an
ellipse _E_ _G_ _H_, then that ellipse would be more elongated, and the
difference between the two axes of the moon's orbit would be greater
than at any other point of the earth's orbit.

Thus it can readily be seen that the eccentricity of the moon's orbit is
primarily due to the different velocities of the central body, in this
case the earth, as that body is carried round its central body, the sun.
Where the earth's motion is slowest, there the eccentricity of the
moon's orbit will be at a minimum; but where the earth's velocity is
greatest, there the eccentricity of the moon's orbit will be at a
maximum.

Between this minimum and maximum velocity of the earth in its orbit
there is the constant increase or decrease in the eccentricity of the
orbit of the moon; the eccentricity increasing as the orbital velocity
of the central body increases, and decreasing as the orbital velocity of
the earth decreases. A further fact has, however, to be taken into
consideration, which is that the primary body about which the moon
revolves is itself subject to the same eccentricity of its orbit, and
for similar reasons, as we shall see later on. So that when the
eccentricity of the earth's orbit is at its greatest, then the moon's
orbit will possess its greatest possible eccentricity, and as the
eccentricity of the earth's orbit is dependent upon the orbital velocity
of the sun, so the greatest possible eccentricity of the moon's orbit is
indirectly connected and associated with the sun's motion through space,
which motion will now be considered.


ART. 107. _The Sun and Kepler's First Law._--We have learned in the
previous articles that Kepler's Laws not only apply to planetary motion,
but are equally applicable to the motion of all satellites as they
revolve round their respective planets.

The question now confronts us, as to whether Kepler's Laws are equally
true in their application to the sun? Now the sun is one of the host of
stars that move in the vast infinity of space, and if it can be proved
that Kepler's Laws hold good in relation to one star, as they do in
relation to all planets and satellites, then such a result will have a
most important bearing upon the motions of other stars, and we shall be
able to determine with some degree of exactness what are the motions and
orbits by which all the stars in the universe are governed.

Sir Wm. Herschel first attacked the question as to whether the sun, like
all the other stars, was in motion, and if in motion, what was the shape
of its orbit, and the laws which governed its orbital velocity.

We know that the sun is the centre of the solar system, and the question
to be considered is, whether that system is circled round a controlling
centre while the sun is at rest in space, simply possessing its one
axial rotation, or whether, like every planet and satellite, it is
subject to two motions, an axial rotation and an orbital velocity
through space. Further, if it possesses an orbital velocity through
space, what is the cause of that orbital velocity?

It was due to the genius of Sir Wm. Herschel to first solve this
problem, and by careful research he was able to determine that the sun,
with all its attendant planets, was indeed moving through space.

Not only did he discover this fact, but he also found out the direction
in which the whole of our solar system was moving, as well as the
velocity with which the general movement was performed. Herschel proved
that the onward march of the solar system was in the direction of the
constellation of Hercules, and that the velocity of the march of this
system exceeds five miles per second, or 500,000 miles per day.

Thus we learn that the whole of our solar system, comprising the sun,
with all its planets with their attendant satellites which circle round
each planet, and the asteroids or minor planets, are bound together by
the two forces, the centripetal and the centrifugal, while the system as
a whole is urged on its way by some force or power through the realms of
space.

What that power is we shall try to find out as we consider the
application of Kepler's Laws to this onward movement of the sun. If,
then, the sun is moving through space with this enormous velocity, the
question arises as to what is the shape of the path or orbit which it
describes? Sir Wm. Herschel attacked this question from a mathematical
standpoint, and came to a certain conclusion, as we shall see. We will,
however, attack the problem solely from the philosophical standpoint, by
applying to it the Rules of Philosophy given in our first chapter, and
we will then see whether our result is in harmony with the conclusions
arrived at by Sir Wm. Herschel.

Now what has experience and observation to tell us regarding the orbit
which any body moving in space assumes? Take, for example, our moon as
illustrating the movement of all satellites, and our earth as
illustrating all planetary motion.

What does observation teach us as to the orbits which these bodies
describe? If it teaches us anything at all, it teaches us that every
satellite and planet moves with varying velocity in a varying orbit
around some central body. So far as our observation goes, then, in
relation to planetary motion, or the motion of satellites, we learn that
every body which moves in space fulfils Kepler's First Law, and
describes an orbit round a central body, that body occupying one of the
foci.

Thus, wherever we get any body moving in space, if there be any truth in
philosophy which is based on experiment and observation, that body ought
also to move in similar elliptic orbits, and be subject to exactly
similar conditions governing those orbits. But we have learned that the
sun moves through space with a velocity of about five miles per second,
therefore it follows, philosophically, that the sun must also move
around some other central body, and the path of such movement is that of
an elliptic orbit, with the central body around which it moves occupying
one of the foci.

In other words, the sun obeys the first of Kepler's Laws, the same as
all the planets and satellites do. Suppose, for a moment, that it is
denied that the sun moves in an elliptic orbit! What path would it
pursue in place of that? Would the path be that of a straight line
towards the constellation of Hercules? Such an assumption would be
altogether unphilosophical, as it is contrary to all experience and
observation, and is therefore untenable.

Before such an assumption can be made, it must be proved that every
planet and satellite moves in a straight line, and not till that has
been done can it be assumed that the sun moves in a straight line, or
indeed in any other path than that stated in the first of Kepler's Laws.

This conclusion is in perfect harmony with the conclusion arrived at by
Herschel, for in his work on _Astronomy_, in Arts. 292, 295 and 297, he
points out that the sun's path is elliptic in form, and that Kepler also
showed the sun fulfilled the first of his laws, and described an orbit
which was in the shape of an ellipse. We have therefore philosophically
arrived at the conclusion that the sun moves in an elliptic orbit, and
to do so it must move round some central body, which is to the sun what
the sun is to the planets, and what the planets are to the satellites.

It is impossible to conceive of the sun moving in an elliptic orbit,
and yet not moving around some central body, as we should have a
celestial phenomenon altogether opposed to all experience and
observation. For we have already seen that the central body is just as
important a factor to the elliptic orbit as the planet itself, because,
without the central body there cannot possibly be any elliptic orbit.
Where then in the universe is the central body around which the sun
revolves? What is its distance away from the sun? What is its size?
These are questions that philosophy alone cannot answer, as there is no
law, so far as I can see, that regulates the size and distance of the
central body in proportion to the size and distance of the planets or
satellites.

If there were, then it would be possible for philosophy to apply such a
law or rule. That there is a central body around which the sun revolves
is as true as the fact that there is a central body about which each
planet revolves, or each satellite revolves, and it remains for the
practical astronomer, or the mathematician, to endeavour to discover the
exact part of the heavens in which it is situated, and ascertain its
distance and possibly its size. What will be the effect of the existence
of this central body of the sun upon the solar system? One effect will
be to do away with that isolation that up to the present has apparently
existed with regard to our solar system and stellar space.

Instead of the solar system being a solitary system that moves through
space subject to apparently no law, and moved by apparently no physical
power, that system, through the influence and effect of the aetherial
currents originated by that central body, will be linked to other parts
of the universe, and will become a part of one harmonious whole, its
physical connection being made manifest and plain in the self-same
electro-magnetic Aether medium that forms the connecting medium between
the satellites and planets, or the planets and the sun.

Another result will be, that as the sun is a star, we shall be able to
apply the self-same principles and laws of Kepler to the stellar world
in exactly the same way that we have done to the solar system. Thus, by
bringing all stellar phenomena under the influence of Kepler's Laws, we
shall be able to philosophically give an unity to the universe, and
show, within rational limits, how such unity may be physically
conceived, which result will be an advance upon any physical conception
of the universe hitherto manifested or revealed. Further, by accepting
the first of Kepler's Laws in relation to the sun, and admitting the
existence of a central body, we shall be able then to apply the second
of Kepler's Laws, and by so doing shall be able to give a physical
explanation of two scientific facts which up to the present have never
been physically explained, viz. the physical conception of the plane of
the ecliptic, and a physical explanation of the eccentricity of the
earth's orbit, which is but the result of the application of Kepler's
Second Law to the sun's orbital motion around its central body.


ART. 108. _The Sun and Kepler's Second Law._--We will now proceed to
apply the second of Kepler's Laws to the orbital motion of the sun, and,
in so doing, shall find we are able to give at the same time a physical
explanation of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.

In order to obtain a physical conception of the sun's orbital motion
according to Kepler's First Law, it is essential that we should consider
the effect of the existence of a central body around which the sun
revolves; or, to put the matter into another form, we will ask the
question as to what is the physical cause of the sun revolving round
that central body?

Let us look at the case for a moment. Here, according to astronomical
observation, we find a certain phenomenon which takes the form of a huge
body 865,000 miles in diameter moving through space with a velocity of
nearly 500,000 miles per day. What then is the physical cause of the
movement of this large sphere?

Certainly there must be some physical cause, or else we have a violation
of all experience, which indisputably teaches us that no body moves
unless it is either pushed or pulled. We have, however, done away with a
pulling power so far as the cause of the actual revolution of bodies
around a central body is concerned, and in its place have substituted a
medium that pushes or carries them round each central body. For over 200
years the scientific world has accepted a pulling power, that is, an
attractive power, solely as the cause of the movements of celestial
bodies, with the result that the physical cause of all the motions of
planets and satellites has been outstanding and undiscovered.

It would, therefore, be unphilosophical to revert to the old conception
of a gravitating attractive power as the sole cause of the sun's orbital
motion through space. If we desire to know what is the cause of its
revolution round that central body, then we must seek to find the same
from the result of observation and experience in other directions.

We have learned from Art. 102 that the orbital motion of the moon is
caused by the electro-magnetic Aether currents that circulate round its
central body, the earth. By the same means every satellite is circled
round its central body also. We have also learned from Art. 99 that the
earth is carried round the sun by the circulating and rotating
electro-magnetic Aether currents, and that these same currents also form
the physical cause of the revolution of all the other planets round
their central body, the sun.

Thus we arrive at the fact that wherever there is a body moving in
space, it is moving solely because it is pushed along, or carried round
its controlling centre by the rotating Aether currents. But we have just
learned that the sun is moving through space, and that it describes an
elliptic orbit around some central body in accordance with Kepler's
First Law. So that the only philosophical conclusion that we can
possibly arrive at in relation to the orbital motion of the sun is, that
such motion is caused by similar electro-magnetic Aether currents whose
circulating motion is partly caused by the rotation of that central
body.

Thus we are led up to the philosophical conclusion, that it is the
aetherial currents of the central body around which the sun revolves,
that produce, and alone produce, the onward motion of the sun through
space. Any other conclusion must be unphilosophical, and therefore
untenable. We have, therefore, to conceive of the sun's central body
generating and giving rise to electro-magnetic aetherial currents that
extend through space to the limits at least of the solar system, and
these aetherial currents, acting upon the sun's huge form by their
kinetic energy, carry it with all its associated worlds through infinite
space.

There is nothing extravagant in this conception, when we remember that
the solar system has been moving on and on through infinite space year
after year, and yet it never seems to get appreciably nearer to the
other stars, but I hope to show the reason of this by strictly
philosophical reasoning later on. With this conception of the sun in its
relation to its central body we are now in a position to consider the
application of Kepler's Second Law upon the sun's orbital motion, and
its resultant effect upon the orbit of our earth and all the other
planets.

From Kepler's Second Law we know that equal areas are described by the
radius vector in equal times, and if the first law of Kepler is at all
applicable to the sun, then it must follow that if the sun has an orbit,
and moreover an elliptic orbit as stated by Kepler himself, then, as a
natural result, the radius vector of the sun must move over equal areas
in equal times.

The physical explanation of Kepler's Second Law was given in Art. 103,
and there is no need to traverse the same ground again. It is,
therefore, true that the sun moves faster in certain parts of its orbit
than in others, being urged through space at its greatest velocity when
it is nearest its controlling centre, and slowest when farthest away
from that controlling centre.

Herschel, in his work on _Astronomy_, states: "The motion of the sun will
be such that equal areas are thus swept over by the revolving radius
vector in equal times in whatever part of the circumference of the ellipse
the sun may be moving." He, however, suggested that the earth forms a
focus of the sun's ellipse, a suggestion which is unphilosophical, it
seems to me, as we might equally suggest that the earth revolves round the
moon, which is contrary to all observation. Thus the sun is not carried
uniformly through space by the aetherial currents of its central body,
because it is nearer to that central body at certain times; its velocity
being regulated by its distance from that body, the same being increased
as the distance is decreased, and decreased as the distance increases.

Now if this reasoning be correct, and if the sun really moves round a
central body and is subject to Kepler's Second Law, then that increase
and decrease of distance will be made manifest in the increase and
decrease of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.

So that if the eccentricity of the earth's orbit should vary from
century to century, then we have conclusive evidence that the sun obeys
the first and second of Kepler's Laws, and therefore that it revolves
around a controlling centre of its own. From observation we find that
this is exactly what is happening, and that at the present time the
eccentricity of the earth's orbit is gradually diminishing, and in about
24,000 years the orbit will be very nearly a circle.

Now, from what was stated in Art. 106, we know that the moon's orbit
will be nearly a circular orbit when the earth is farthest from the sun,
and that then its orbital velocity is at a minimum.

In order for this result to be produced, the earth must reach that part
of its orbit known as aphelion, where the distance from its controlling
centre is greatest, so that the eccentricity of the moon's orbit is
always an indication of the position of the earth in its relation to the
sun. When the eccentricity of the moon's orbit is decreasing, the
earth's distance from the sun is increasing, but when the eccentricity
of the moon's orbit is increasing, then the earth's distance from the
sun is decreasing.

Now if we apply this analogy to the eccentricity of the earth's orbit,
we shall be able to obtain some idea of the relation of the sun to its
central body. We find then that the eccentricity of the earth's orbit is
decreasing, therefore, arguing from analogy, we arrive at the conclusion
that the sun's distance from its controlling centre is increasing, and
that its orbital velocity is decreasing.

If it be true that in 24,000 years the earth's orbit will be nearly
circular, then it follows that in 24,000 years the sun will be at that
part of its orbit corresponding to the aphelion of the orbit of the
earth, that is, its distance from its controlling centre will then be at
a maximum. After that the eccentricity of the earth's orbit will begin
to increase, and will continue to increase for about 40,000 years,
according to some scientists, which implies that the sun will then have
started from its aphelion point, so to speak, and will begin its return
journey towards its central body, gradually getting nearer and nearer.
As it gets nearer its orbital velocity will be proportionately
increased, with the result that the eccentricity of the earth's orbit
will increase also. From a consideration of the movement of the major
axis of the earth's orbit, which is moving forward at the rate of 11°
per year, we are told that a whole revolution will be made in 108,000
years.

We have here, then, an indication of the time that the sun takes to
revolve round its central body, because the time of the whole revolution
of the eccentricity of the orbit should correspond with one complete
revolution of the sun around its central body. So that from a
consideration of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, we are not only
able to demonstrate that the sun satisfactorily fulfils the first and
second of Kepler's Laws, but, conversely, we are able to give a
satisfactory physical explanation of the cause of the eccentricity of
the earth's orbit, which explanation is again primarily to be found in
the universal Aether medium.


ART. 109. _Plane of the Ecliptic and Zodiacal Light._--As already
pointed out, another phenomenon which can be physically accounted for by
the sun's orbital motion through space around its central body, is that
celestial plane known as the Plane of the Ecliptic.

What then is the Plane of the Ecliptic whose physical explanation we are
to attempt? We know that the moon revolves round the earth as the earth
revolves round the sun, while the sun is pursuing its way through space.
It has been found also, that all these motions of these different bodies
take place on one level, so to speak; that is to say, they do not go up
or down in space, but straight on.

So straight do they move, that their path has been likened to the level
of the ocean, on which a ship may sail for thousands of miles, always
keeping the same level and even course. On some such ocean as this in
space all the planetary systems and solar systems seem to move, ever
moving on and on with the same uniformity of level through infinite
space. Further, this plane of the ecliptic is to the celestial sphere
what the sea-level is to the earth. The height of a mountain on the
earth is stated to be so much above the sea-level.

In a similar way astronomers say that a star is a certain height above
the plane of the ecliptic. What then is the physical explanation of this
scientific term? We will lead up to it by first considering the effect
that rotation has upon a liquid body.

It has been demonstrated that if a mass of oil is placed in a
transparent liquid of the same density, so long as the oil is perfectly
at rest, its shape will be that of a sphere which will float about in
the liquid, but as soon as the oil is made to rotate by means of a piece
of wire, then the spherical shape is changed into that of an oblate
spheroid.

Further, the faster it is made to rotate, the more it will bulge out, so
that its equatorial diameter will greatly exceed its polar diameter. The
same principle may be illustrated by making a hoop to revolve rapidly on
its axis, when a similar effect of bulging out will be produced.

Now let us apply this principle to the earth with its electro-magnetic
Aether currents circulating round it, and ask what is the effect of the
rotation first upon the earth, and then upon the rotating Aether
currents?

It is a matter of common knowledge that the effect of rotation upon the
earth when it was in a fluid state was to make its equatorial parts
bulge out as it rotated, with the result that as it solidified the
equatorial diameter exceeded the polar diameter by 26 miles.

If, therefore, the result of rotation upon the earth when in its fluid
state was to make it spread out greater in the equatorial regions than
in any other part of its surface, what must be the effect of a similar
rotation upon the rotatory Aether currents? It can easily be seen that
the rotation of these currents will be to make them spread out into
space in a region which corresponds to the equatorial regions of the
earth, so that the rotating Aether currents will be congregated more in
the equatorial regions of the earth than in any other part of the
earth's surface. The further also they extend into space the less depth
they will have, gradually tapering off, as shown in the illustration,
where _E_ represents the earth and _B_ _C_ the Aether currents (Fig. 29).

Any body, therefore, situated within the sphere of their influence would
be carried round the earth by the currents, and the currents would be to
them their governing and controlling level.

So that the moon, which is held bound to the earth by the two opposite
and equal forces, would always be carried around the earth by those
electro-magnetic Aether currents, and outside of those currents it could
not pass. But the earth is only 8000 miles in diameter, therefore if the
currents gradually tapered off as suggested, by the time the aetherial
currents reached the distance of the moon, their depth would not exceed
2000 or 3000 miles.

The diameter of the moon is, however, only 2160 miles, so that the
rotating Aether currents would practically form an ocean in which the
moon would swim, and one constant level on which it revolves in space.
Wherever the earth was carried by the aetherial currents of the sun,
there the aetherial currents of the earth would carry the moon, its mean
distance by the conjoint working of the two co-equal forces having been
permanently fixed.

[Illustration: Fig: 29.]

So that it can be readily seen, as regards the moon, that the earth's
aetherial currents form the plane on which it revolves around the earth.
Now in exactly the same way it can be proved that it is the sun's
aetherial currents which form the plane or level on which all the
planets revolve or are carried around their central body. We have only
to enlarge our conception and the same result follows. Instead of
dealing with a body 8000 miles in diameter, we are now dealing with a
body 865,000 miles in diameter, and as this huge body is more or less in
an incandescent state, the aetherial currents will therefore be
proportionate in intensity and flow to its size and atomic activity.

Instead, therefore, of the aetherial currents which circulate round the
sun only extending a quarter of a million of miles, their energy and
flow extend far away into space, even beyond the greatest distance of
Neptune, a distance of 2,800,000,000 miles. The same truths apply here,
however, as in the case of the earth and the moon. The aetherial
currents which circulate round the sun congregate together, and possess
their greatest depth nearest to the equator, while the further away they
recede, the less and less depth they possess, with a decreased intensity
and decreased kinetic energy. These Aether currents will be to all the
planets, therefore, what the earth's aetherial currents will be to the
moon, being to them the ocean level on which they alone can move, and by
which they are carried round their central body.

Thus these currents will form for all the planets the level in infinite
space upon which they float, and from which they cannot pass. Let us
further consider the movements of these currents in space, and we shall
find further confirmation of this fact by so doing. Astronomers tell us
that it takes light about three and a half years to reach us from the
nearest star. By calculation, therefore, we find that the nearest star
to our system is about 205,000,000,000,000 miles away, that being about
the distance that light travels in three and a half years.

The diameter of the sun is about 865,000 miles, so that the distance of
the nearest star is 240,000,000 times the diameter of the sun. We could
therefore put 240,000,000 of our solar systems in the space that exists
between us and the nearest star. How is it, then, that all the planets
as they revolve round the sun do not float up and down in the space that
extends between us and the nearest star?

I can give no other answer, and can see no other possible physical
explanation than the one already given, which is, that they are bound to
the sun by the two co-equal forces, the centrifugal and centripetal
forces, and while so bound are carried round the sun by the
electro-magnetic aetherial currents which extend out into space. It has
to be remembered that the aetherial electro-magnetic currents
circulating round the earth are situated within the aetherial currents
which circulate round the sun, therefore the plane of the moon's orbit
will coincide more or less with the plane of the earth's orbit. We have
now only to go one step further to get our complete conception of the
plane of the ecliptic.

In Arts. 107 and 108 we learned that the sun was subject to Kepler's 1st
and 2nd laws, and as a natural result we came to the conclusion that it,
too, was circled round some central body. We have only to apply a
similar course of reasoning to the sun and its central body as we have
to the moon and the earth, and the earth and the sun, and then we arrive
at our physical conception of the plane of the ecliptic, which is due to
the aetherial currents that circle round the sun, while that body is
carried round some other central body.

Thus by the circulating Aether currents, originated and outflowing from
their respective sources, each source being immutably fixed and bound to
each other by the two equal and complementary forces, can be accounted
for, the uniformity of position and plane of the various orbits of the
various satellites, planets, and the sun, as they move in one great
plane, termed the Plane of the Ecliptic.

It could not be otherwise than it is, and thus another celestial
phenomenon can be accounted for on a real tangible basis by accepting
the existence of those aetherial currents which form the physical basis
of all the celestial mechanism.

If further evidence were required of the existence of these rotating
Aether currents round the sun, such evidence is found in that phenomenon
of the solar system known as the Zodiacal Light, of which up to the
present no physical explanation has been forthcoming. In the conception
of the atomic and gravitating Aether which rotates round the sun, I
venture to premise will be found the physical solution of this
phenomenon also.

I will refer the reader to an extract taken out of _Outlines of
Astronomy_, by Herschel (Art. 894), so that we may see what his
conception of the zodiacal light was, and we will see how far his
explanation is in conformity with our hypothesis of an atomic,
gravitating and rotatory Aether medium.

He writes: "We shall conclude this chapter by the mention of two
phenomena, which to me indicate the existence of some slight degree of
nebulosity about the sun itself, and even to place it in the list of
nebulous stars. The first is that called the Zodiacal Light, which may
be seen any very clear evening soon after sunset, about the months of
March, April and May, as a cone or lenticularly-shaped light extending
from the horizon obliquely upwards, and following generally the course
of the ecliptic, or rather that of the sun's equator. The apparent
angular distance of its vertex from the sun varies, according to
circumstances, from 40° to 90°, and the breadth of its base
perpendicular to its axis from 8° to 30°. It is extremely faint and
ill-defined, at least in this climate, though better seen in tropical
regions, but cannot be mistaken for any atmospheric meteor or aurora
borealis. It is manifestly in the nature of a _lenticularly-formed
envelope surrounding the sun_, and extending beyond the orbits of
Mercury and Venus, and nearly, perhaps quite, attaining that of the
earth, since its vertex has been seen fully 90° from the sun's place in
a great circle. It may be conjectured to be no other than the _denser
part_ of that medium which we have some reason to believe resists the
motions of comets; loaded perhaps with the actual materials of the tails
of millions of those bodies of which they have been stripped in their
successive perihelion passage. If its particles have inertia, they must
necessarily stand with respect to the sun in the relation of separate
and independent minute planets, each having its own orbit, plane of
motion, and periodic time."

Let me call the reader's special attention to one or two statements of
Herschel's given in this extract, in order to see how these statements
harmonize with the view of the Aether submitted in this work. In the
first place he states its shape is that of a lenticularly-formed
envelope surrounding the sun, and extending beyond the orbits of Mercury
and Venus, and probably to our earth. This harmonizes with the shape of
the aetherial envelope as given in Art. 70. Then Herschel states it may
be the denser part of that medium which we have reason to believe
resists the motions of comets. That is exactly what it is, though
Herschel failed to show why it should be the denser part of the Aether,
as we have seen is the case, on account of its being gravitative. I will
also prove later on, that Herschel was right with regard to the
resistance of the motion of comets through it. Then he refers to its
particles probably possessing inertia, as though he had anticipated the
atomicity of the Aether, and assuming that atomicity, he was compelled
to postulate inertia also as we have done in Art. 48.

Lastly, he points out that each separate particle must have its own
plane of motion, its own orbit, and its periodic time. Now this view
fully coincides with that laid down in this article, where we have
learned that the rotating Aether has its own plane of motion, that plane
being the Plane of the Ecliptic, and as every particle or atom has its
allotted place in the rotating Aether, then, as Herschel points out, the
particle must have its own orbit, and plane of motion, and also its own
periodic time. If, therefore, we had desired fuller confirmation of this
atomic gravitating Aether, we could not have wished for more conclusive
proof than that given by one of the greatest philosophical astronomers
of the last century. We shall see later that Herschel also had a clearer
view of cometary phenomena, and of the forces which played a part in
those phenomena, than any of his contemporaries, when we deal with the
origin and motions of all comets. Thus from Herschel we learn that the
zodiacal light is caused by the atomic, gravitating, and rotatory Aether
as that aetherial medium revolves round the sun, while at the same time
every atom of the medium is itself in a state of rotation on its axis,
as it performs its journey in its own orbit and in its own plane of
motion.


ART. 110. _Centripetal Force._--We have now to consider what is the
physical cause of that part of the compound Law of Gravitation known as
the Centripetal Force. As we have already learned (Art. 10), this force
is really none other than the Attractive Force of Gravitation, in that
its mode of operation always acts towards the centre of the attracting
body, and hence was called by Newton the Centripetal Force.

The centripetal force is, however, the exact counterpart and complement
of the centrifugal force, in the same way that the latter is the exact
counterpart of the former, as we have already learned that the
centrifugal force operates along the same path, and that it is subject
to the same law of proportion, being equal to the product of the masses
of a body (Art. 85), and further, that its intensity is inversely as the
square of the distance (Arts. 66, 74 and 84).

We have, however, discovered that the physical cause of the centrifugal
force is due to the pressure of the electro-magnetic Aether (Art. 96).
If, therefore, the physical cause of that law which is the complement
and counterpart of Gravitation Attraction is to be found, and alone
found, in the pressure and motions of the electro-magnetic Aether, then
it is only logical and reasonable to infer that the physical cause of
the Attraction of Gravitation is to be found in the same
electro-magnetic Aether. That the Attraction of Gravitation is to be
found in this medium is now an accepted hypothesis among scientists.
Because, unless the physical cause of Gravitation Attraction is to be
found in this electro-magnetic Aether, then, in order to account for
that attraction, we should have to postulate the existence of another
medium in space, in lieu of the Aether, which would be to the
centripetal force what the Aether is to the centrifugal force. This
would be distinctly unphilosophical, as it would be a violation of the
first two rules of our philosophy, in that it would not be simple in its
conception, and that such a hypothesis would imply the existence of two
media which would occupy the same planetary and interstellar space at
one and the same time, and this is a violation of all experience in its
widest form.

Therefore the physical cause of Gravitation must be sought for in the
same medium which gives the physical cause of the companion force, and
that medium is the electro-magnetic Aether. Professor Preston in his
_Theory of Light_ is of this opinion. In Art. 327 he writes: "To account
for the propagation of heat and light, that is, of radiant energy, we
have postulated the existence of a medium filling all space. But the
transference of the energy of radiant heat and light is not the only
evidence we have in favour of the existence of an Aether. Electric,
magnetic and electro-magnetic phenomena and Gravitation itself point in
the same direction."

Professor Lodge, in his _Modern Views of Electricity_, is even more
explicit in his statement of the case. On page 338 he states:
"Gravitation is explainable by differences of pressure in the medium
(_i. e._ the Aether) caused by some action between it and matter not
yet understood." Further, Newton himself suggested that the physical
cause of Gravitation Attraction was to be found in that aetherial medium
which pervaded all space.

If, therefore, we attempt to explain the physical cause of Gravitation
Attraction by the tensions of the universal Aether, we shall not only be
dealing with the subject from a philosophical standpoint, but we shall
solve the problem in that direction in which Professors Preston and
Lodge and other scientists have suggested we are to seek for the
solution. Professor Curry, in his _Theory of Electricity and Magnetism_,
page 406, states: "If we regard the luminiferous Aether, as defined by
Von Helmholtz's equations, as the given medium or transmitter of
so-called gravitating action, we are then able on the one hand to
interpret its longitudinal oscillations as gravitational waves
propagated through space with the given enormous velocity, and on the
other hand, to form some conception of the mysterious force of
Gravitation itself, for we can then conceive it as a medium stress
arising from a certain type of Aether oscillations, its longitudinal
ones, that pervade entire space."

Now in order for us to lead up to the physical cause of the centripetal
force, we must recall some of the facts already given with regard to
planetary and solar space. Thus we have learned that the sun is an
electro-magnet possessing its own magnetic field, with its lines of
force (Art. 88). We have also learned that all the planets are
electro-magnets, each possessing its own field with its lines of force
(Art. 91).

We have further seen that the cause of all this electro-magnetism is due
to the fact that electric currents are continually circulating round
each body, and by their conjoint action with the magnets there are
produced the electro-magnetic fields that are associated with each body
in the solar system. From this hypothesis we arrived at the conclusion,
that wherever there was Aether, there we found electricity, because of
the electro-magnetic basis which Aether possesses. This result is fully
confirmed by Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of light (Art. 78), which
has been so fully experimentally demonstrated by Hertz. Indeed, in the
minds of several scientists there is a growing conviction that Aether
and Electricity are possibly one and the same substance.

Professor Lodge, in the work already referred to, in relation to this
hypothesis, writes in the preface to that book: "Crudely, one may say
that as heat is a form of energy, so electricity is a form of Aether, or
a mode of aetherial manifestation." And again: "A rough and crude
statement adapted for popular use is that _Electricity and Aether are
identical_. But that is not all that has to be said, for there are two
opposite kinds of electricities, and there are not two Aethers. But
there may be two aspects of one Aether, just as there are two sides to a
sheet of paper."

As, therefore, we learn that Aether has an electro-magnetic basis, and
that electricity is a mode of aetherial manifestation, we have therefore
to consider one of the most fundamental laws of electricity, and note
its application to solar and planetary space.

It is one of the fundamental laws of electricity, that equal and
opposite quantities of electricity are always generated at one and the
same time. Faraday's well-known ice-pail experiment proved this. It is
an absolute impossibility for one kind of electricity to be generated
without an equal quantity of the opposite kind being produced, although
it is not strictly correct to use the term generated or produced in
relation to electricity, as electricity cannot really be produced by any
process whatever.

Another way of stating this law is, that the total induced charge on any
body is always equal and opposite to the inducing charge. So that if we
look upon the sun as an electrified body (Art. 80) surrounded by the
aetherial envelopes or shells, then we can conceive of the inductive
action of the sun upon any planet as taking place along the tubes of
force in the Aether, which tubes are sections of the spherical envelopes
that surround it. But this inductive action implies the existence of the
very law already enunciated, viz. that equal and opposite quantities are
always generated at one and the same time, and before that law can
become operative in relation to the Aether, it must be postulated that
the Aether possesses a dual character, that is, it possesses a positive
and negative electrical basis.

This view of the Aether has already been developed by Dr. Larmor in his
Electron Basis of the Aether, as in that hypothesis he postulates both
positive and negative electrons. In his _Aether and Matter_ he writes,
page 3: "It assumes that the mass of each sub-atom is proportional to
the absolute number of electrons, positive and negative, that it
carries, and that the effective interatomic forces are entirely or
mainly electric." Further, Professor Lodge on this point writes:[40] "We
now proceed a step further and analyze the Aether into two constituents,
two equal opposite constituents, each endowed with inertia and each
connected to the Aether by elastic ties. The two constituents are called
positive and negative electricity respectively, and of these two
electricities we imagine the Aether to be composed." Again, later on, p.
349 of the same work, he adds: "Is Aether electricity then? I do not say
so, but that they are connected there can be no doubt. What I have to
suggest is, _that positive, and negative electricity together may make
up the Aether_."

Now, accepting this as correct, and I will prove that it is correct later
on, from experiments performed by Faraday, we can see how the inductive
action of the sun may be transmitted through space, and how that inductive
action will effect any body in its electrical field, such inductive action
always taking place through the polarization of the atomic Aether, and
taking the form of an attractive power which is exerted towards the
centre of the attracting body.

Further, this inductive action will be subject to the same laws of
electricity as the centrifugal force is, which is the repulsive power
due to the pressure of the Aether. Therefore the inductive action of the
sun upon any body will, according to the laws of electricity, act
inversely as the square of the distance (Art. 84), and will be directly
as the product of the charges on the two attracting bodies, which we
have seen according to Art. 85 is equal to the product of their masses.
Not only will this inductive action apply to the sun, but it will
equally apply to all planets, satellites and stars that exist in the
heavens, each of these bodies according to Art. 80 being an electrified
body possessing its electric field and lines of force radiating out into
space.

Thus we arrive at the conclusion, that each body in the solar system is
not only the centre of a centrifugal force due to the pressure of the
electro-magnetic Aether, but that it is also the centre of an attractive
force due to the existence of the positive and negative elements of the
Aether, and of their attractive power for each other.

This attractive power is also subject to exactly the same laws that the
centrifugal force is subject to in regard to intensity, proportion, and
the direction which it takes. So that we have now two centripetal forces
existing in space, which exactly correspond with each other, viz.
Gravitation Attraction and the attraction due to Electrical Induction.
The cause of one, however, is known, being due to the inductive
influence of the various electrified bodies that exist in space, which
inductive influence can be traced through the whole of the atomic Aether
that exists between the two bodies, whereas the cause of the centripetal
force or Gravitation Attraction is unknown. According to the Rules of
Philosophy, therefore, it will be much simpler if we replace our
Gravitation Attraction, whose cause is unknown, by the inductive power
of the various bodies, the physical cause of which lies in the
electro-magnetic Aether, or the dielectric as Faraday called it. In
other words, we are compelled to come to the conclusion that the
centripetal force, or Gravitation Attraction so called, is an electrical
phenomenon, which finds its physical cause in the same universal Aether
that the centrifugal force does.

Unless this view of the attraction of Gravitation is accepted, we should
have two forces operating between all bodies, both operating at exactly
the same time, in exactly the same direction, and with exactly the same
intensity, and this phenomenon according to Newton would be
unphilosophical. In Art. 4 we learn that Newton in the first rule states
that "Nature is simple, and does not abound in superfluous causes of
things." And again: "In the nature of Philosophy nothing is done in vain;
and by means of many things, it is done in vain when it can be done by
fewer." Here then we have apparently two forces which act in the same
molecular or planetary or interstellar space, at one and the same time.
Therefore if this be true, Nature does abound in a superfluous cause,
because we have two forces in existence where one will suffice, and one
of them therefore exists in vain. So that it will be philosophical if we
do away with one of the causes, and replace the two causes by only one.
Now which shall be done away with--the electrical attraction which is due
to a physical medium, the electro-magnetic Aether, or the Gravitation
Attraction, that is caused by some virtue of a body of which we have no
knowledge, which is transmitted through space in a way that we cannot
understand, and acts upon distant bodies in a manner altogether outside
our usual experience and observation? There can only be one answer. If
either of the two forces has to be done away with, it must be the
mysterious, intangible, unphilosophical attraction of Gravitation, which
must be replaced by the philosophical and known attraction of electricity,
which can be traced to a physical medium, the electro-magnetic Aether that
joins atom to atom, molecule to molecule, satellite to planet, planet to
sun, and sun to star, and so gives unity to the universe of worlds. From
philosophical considerations, therefore, we are compelled to come to the
conclusion that the attraction of gravity and electrical attraction are
one and the same.

Faraday arrived at this conclusion and performed certain experiments to
confirm that conclusion, but he was unable to experimentally prove the
truth. It does not follow, however, that because he failed to
experimentally establish the connection, therefore the conclusion is
wrong. In his _Experimental Researches_ he writes, par. 2705, "On the
possible relation of gravity to electricity":--"First of all, a body
which was to be allowed to fall, was surrounded by a helix, and then its
effect in falling sought for." This experiment Faraday states produced
negative results (par. 2706). "A solid cylinder of copper was introduced
into the helix, and carefully fastened to it, and this compound
arrangement was allowed to fall." "The result of this experiment may be
classified as doubtful. It gave very minute, but remarkable indications
of a current in the galvanometer, and the probability of these being
related to gravity appeared the greater, when it was found, in raising
the helix or core, similar indications of contrary currents appeared."
In par. 2717 Faraday thus sums up: "Here end my trials for the present.
The results are negative. They do not shake my strong feeling of the
existence of a relation between gravity and electricity, though they
give no proof that such a relation exists." Here then we have expressed
the strong conviction of the relation that undoubtedly exists between
gravity and electricity by one of the greatest scientists that has ever
lived, and I believe that it is a fact that he was engaged upon
experiments to prove his conviction about the time of his death.

We will now endeavour to trace the action of the Law of Gravitation in
its compound working, in its application to the atomic Aether that fills
all space, and by its gravitating property surrounds all bodies situated
in that space. We are dealing no longer with a frictionless medium,
which is incapable of accepting and transmitting motion of any kind or
sort, but we are now dealing with a medium composed of atoms, which can
give rise to pressures and tensions, or repulsions and attractions from
any one part of space to another.

If we can prove that an atomic Aether can give rise to these pressures
and tensions from one body to another, and those pressures and tensions
harmonize with, and satisfactorily account for, the phenomena sought to
be explained, then we shall have succeeded in making our philosophy
agree with our experience, and such a result as action at a distance
will for ever disappear from the mental conception of all men, as it has
long disappeared from the pages of philosophical and scientific works,
though that disappearance was not accompanied with a satisfactory
solution of the problem.

Let us, therefore, consider these pressures and tensions, or so-called
repulsions and attractions that exist in this electro-magnetic Aether
from the atomic standpoint, and by so doing try to realize how it is
that one body, as the sun, acts upon another body, as the earth, through
the intervening medium, the Aether. We can either consider it from the
material standpoint, that is, by considering the Aether as matter, pure
and simple, or by viewing it from the electrical standpoint, which may
be considered from Clerk Maxwell's physical conception of an electric
field. We will briefly consider it from the latter standpoint. Our
conception of an aetherial atom was that of a spherical vortex atom
possessing polarity and rotation on an axis. We must, however, make the
distinction between the two kinds of aetherial atoms that Clerk Maxwell
first indicated in his paper on Physical Lines of Force, _Phil. Mag._,
1861, and that Dr. Larmor has worked out in his _Aether and Matter_ from
the electron standpoint, viz. that the Aether is composed of positive
and negative electrons. Or we can accept Professor Lodge's theory, that
Aether is made up of positive and negative electricity. We are compelled
to accept the hypothesis of two kinds of aetherial or electrical atoms,
whatever they may be called, in view of the teaching of electricity,
that positive and negative electricity are always to be found in
association, and in combination, wherever electricity exists. We have
proved that electricity is to be found throughout the realm of space
(Art. 78); therefore in all planetary and stellar regions electricity is
present. Thus it exists in the so-called space between the sun and
planets, and between the planets and satellites, forming around them all
spherical shells, that become less and less dense as they recede from
the central body. Now it is by the action of these positive and negative
electrical atoms, that the attraction of one body is transmitted across
space from the sun to the earth, or from the earth to the sun, or from
the earth to Jupiter, or from Jupiter to any of the planets, the action
always taking place along the line joining the centres of gravity of the
bodies, _i. e._ the radius vector, and with a force equal to the
quantities of electricity in association with those bodies (Art. 85),
and with an intensity that always acts inversely as the square of the
distance. Thus the inductive action of any sun, planet or satellite, or
any other planet or satellite, can be mentally traced from atom to
atom, across the intervening space, that is filled with the atomic
Aether, between any two attracting bodies. So that, if the sun attracts
the earth, it attracts it by and through the motions and properties of
the electro-magnetic Aether that is made up of positive and negative
electricity, and that attraction, being produced by a physical medium
which is as real and tangible as air or water, is brought into harmony
with our experience and observation, as no body pushes or pulls another
body, be it what it may, unless both bodies are joined together by some
medium which transmits the push or the pull. Professor Lodge, in his
_Modern Views of Electricity_, has illustrated from an electrical
standpoint how the pressure and tension in any electrical field may be
transmitted from particle to particle, or atom to atom. He supposes that
a positive atom of electricity rotates in one direction while a negative
atom rotates in the opposite direction. In any electric field these
atoms are so associated with each other, that when one atom revolves, it
makes the other to revolve in the opposite direction, with the result,
that the spin or rotation is transmitted through the medium at a speed
dependent upon the density of the medium.

For fuller details of the description I must refer the reader to the
work already referred to. What I wish to call the reader's attention to
is, that the tension and pressure in this field is not transmitted
across a vacuum, in some unknown way, but is transmitted solely by a
physical medium. The action is direct, and is produced, and alone
produced, continued, and perpetuated by a physical medium which is
composed of atoms of negative and positive electricity. So that if one
body _A_ acts upon another body _B_, it acts upon _B_ solely and
entirely by the action of the atoms which form the magnetic lines of
force, and the equipotential surfaces around the electrified body, and
that action can be traced mentally step by step across the intervening
space that may exist between the two bodies. It is in an exactly similar
manner, that the Attraction of Gravitation, which we conceive to be the
same as electrical attraction, is transmitted from body to body in the
atomic, molecular, planetary or stellar world. In each and every case,
the pressure and tensions, which are inseparably connected, are
transmitted by the atoms of the electro-magnetic Aether, that is, by the
positive and negative atoms of electricity of which, according to
Professor Lodge and Dr. Larmor, the Aether is composed. So that, if the
sun acts on the earth, by the centrifugal force, it acts on it solely
through and by the pressures which are originated in the atomic Aether
by the central body. If the sun attracts the earth, by the centripetal
force, that action can also be traced to the tensions that are
originated among the atoms of the electro-magnetic Aether. There is
nothing mysterious about the phenomenon in either case, as by accepting
this view of an atomic Aether with its dual character of positive and
negative electricity, the action may be traced mentally from point to
point across the so-called intervening space that exists between any two
bodies. In each and every case, wherever the centripetal or centrifugal
force acts, the action is direct, because it is caused by a physical
medium, which physical medium is in direct contact with each body acted
upon, and also fills the space between those bodies. With this view of
the centripetal force of Gravitation, our Philosophy is made to agree
definitely with our experience, which teaches us beyond contradiction,
that no body moves, unless it is either pushed or pulled by a physical
medium. Unless this view of the centripetal force is accepted, we shall
have to stumble on in darkness as to the physical cause of the
centripetal force, and mentally accept the unphilosophical proposition,
that a body can act on another in a way that we cannot understand, and
by means which lie outside our experience and observation, and this
hypothesis, as Newton and Herschel pointed out, is distinctly an
unphilosophical proposition.

[Footnote 40: _Modern Views of Electricity_, p. 221.]



                              CHAPTER XII

                           AETHER AND COMETS


ART. 111. _Comets. What are Comets?_--In addition to the planets and
asteroids which revolve around the sun, there are also other bodies
termed Comets, which revolve round the solar orb.

Unlike the planets, however, they do not all keep to the plane of the
ecliptic, but approach to, and recede from the sun at all angles to that
plane, as well as in that plane itself. Comets are supposed to be huge
masses of gaseous matter, in a more or less condensed condition. That
they are not composed of absolutely solid matter is proved by the fact
that it is possible to see the stars through the gaseous matter of which
they are composed.

How the gaseous matter of which these comets are formed is originated,
or how it is formed in solar or stellar space, has, I believe, up to the
present never been explained, and indeed, with the idea of a
frictionless Aether, I fail to see how any physical explanation of the
origin and development of a comet can be satisfactorily given. With the
conception of the Aether, however, that is put forward in this work,
viz. that Aether is matter in its most rarefied and attenuated form,
which can be condensed into a gaseous condition, with such a conception
of the universal aetherial medium, the origin and development of gaseous
matter from this Aether becomes a physical possibility.

Lord Kelvin, in the _Philosophical Magazine_, July 1902, on the
"Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe," has
already suggested the possibility of the condensation of the Aether, but
with the old idea of a frictionless Aether, that is, an Aether which
does not possess mass, such a hypothesis is improbable. Because, if the
Aether becomes condensed at all, it must be condensed into gaseous and
solid matter, and all experiments and observation teach us that both
these forms of matter possess mass and weight.

Therefore, if the frictionless Aether, which possesses no mass and
weight, is to be condensed into gaseous or solid matter, there must come
a period in the process of condensation when it must pass out of the
condition of possessing no mass and no weight, into the condition of
possessing mass and weight, which assumption is altogether opposed to
those Rules of Philosophy based upon experiment and observation.

Aether can only pass into a gaseous or solid condition, in which
condition it will possess mass and weight, on the assumption that in the
aetherial condition it possesses the same properties, only in a modified
form, which it possesses after the process of condensation has taken
place. In a similar way that air can pass out of its gaseous condition
into a liquid condition, or any gas can pass out of its gaseous into a
liquid condition, so Aether, on the conception as given in Chapter IV.,
can pass out of its aetherial and rarefied condition into that form of
matter which is known as gaseous. We shall deal with this aspect of
Aether more fully when we come to deal with the Nebular Hypothesis, as
the same principle underlies that hypothesis as underlies the origin and
development of comets.

Thus, comets may be formed at any time in interstellar space out of the
Aether that exists there, provided the conditions of its formation are
to be found there. Then, as they are gradually formed, they would, like
any other bodies, come more directly under the influence of any large
bodies, as the sun, and be attracted by them.

This conception of the origin and development of a comet will also
account, and that on a logical and philosophical basis, for another fact
which is associated with cometary phenomena. I refer to the fact of the
expulsion of gaseous matter out of the head of a comet as it nears the
sun, which expulsion will be dealt with in the article on "Parts of a
Comet."

Another problem that might be solved by this conception of a comet lies
in the question, as to whether comets shine by their own light?

If comets are really formed of condensed Aether, as I believe them to
be, then, as light is due to a periodic wave motion of the Aether, as
soon as the Aether (of which the comets' tails, for example, were
formed) was made to vibrate with that rapidity sufficient to produce
light waves in the surrounding Aether, the tails would then shine by
their own light, in exactly the same way that any other body emits light
waves, as soon as its aetherial vibrations reach the rapidity necessary
to produce the waves of light, which vibrations would lie between 2000
to 8000 billions per second.

The number of the comets that exist in the solar system cannot be
ascertained with any degree of accuracy, but the total probably extends
into millions. They are of all sizes, from those which possess diameters
of several miles, to those extending over thousands of miles. They also
possess orbits, with which we will now deal.


ART. 112. _Orbits of Comets._--As has already been pointed out, comets
perform their journey round the sun, not only in the plane of the
ecliptic, but also at all angles relatively to that plane. In this
respect they differ from the orbits of planets and satellites, which
perform their journey in orbits situated wholly in the plane of the
ecliptic (Art. 109).

There is another important difference between the orbits of the comets
and those of the planets. In the case of the latter the orbit is that of
an ellipse, while in the case of the comet the orbit may be either that
of a parabola or a hyperbola, which may be looked upon as elongated
ellipses open at one end. There are, however, some comets whose orbits
are perfectly elliptical, and whose return may be calculated with a fair
amount of accuracy.

These are known either as Short Period Comets, as represented by Faye's
Comet, Encke's and De Vico's; or Long Period Comets, as represented by
the comets of 1811, 1844, and 1858. In the case of all these, as their
return to our solar system can be determined, it follows that they must
revolve around the sun in some sort of a closed orbit, probably that of
an exceedingly elongated ellipse.

There are, however, other comets which appear once, or it may be several
times only, and then disappear out of the solar system for ever. Now the
question arises, as to whether the orbits of the comets which are so
variable can be explained by the motions of the Aether which we have
already ascribed to it? We have seen (Art. 109) how it is possible to
account physically for the plane of the ecliptic from the motions of the
Aether, and how it is that all the planets move within that plane, but
here we have a phenomenon of a different kind, as observation distinctly
teaches us that the comets do not move in, or keep within the plane of
the ecliptic, but gravitate round the sun at all angles to that plane.

In order for us, therefore, to be able to account, and that on a
philosophical basis, for this fact, we must revert to our conception of
the sun in its relation to the solar system. In Art. 88 we learned that
the sun was an electro-magnet possessing its electro-magnetic field, and
generating electro-magnetic waves which were radiated forth from it on
every side. From Art. 89 we learn that an electro-magnetic body
possesses lines of force, and that these lines of force take various
directions as they are generated by the body, as proved by Faraday's
illustrations. Further, a moving electro-magnet, as the sun for example,
carries its lines of force with it, as proved by Maxwell.

Now these lines of force extend not only east and west, but also north
and south, as depicted in Fig. 29.

Hitherto we have only dealt with the lines of force proceeding from the
sun equatorially, which lines form the plane of the ecliptic. We have,
now, to take into consideration those lines which extend out into space,
north and south of that plane. These are not so curved as the others, but
are more inclined to be straight, or less curved, as they are really
parts of large curves which extend much further outwards into space.

The orbits of the Short or Long Period Comets can be explained by the
fact that they perform their journey more or less in the plane of the
ecliptic, though in some cases at a much greater angle than that of any
of the planets. Provided, however, they remain within the influence of
the electro-magnetic field of the sun, there is then a physical
explanation as to their orbital motion round the sun, in a similar way
to the orbital motion of the planets, though at greater angles to the
plane of the ecliptic.

For we have to remember, that wherever the electro-magnetic waves of the
sun's electro-magnetic field extend, there we have also the rotation of
that field round its central body, though with a continually decreasing
intensity, as already pointed out. Wherever, therefore, we get rotatory
Aether currents, due to the rotation of the electro-magnetic field,
there we get the conditions which would enable any kind of gaseous or
material body to be circulated round the sun. The case, however, of
comets which do not return has to be viewed from a different standpoint.
Here it seems to me we are dealing with masses of condensed Aether that
come within the inductive influence of the electro-magnetic waves of the
sun, as that body moves through space with its velocity of about 500,000
miles per day. We have to conceive of this condensed Aether situated
north and south of the plane of the ecliptic, and situated probably
millions of miles away. As the sun moves onward in its journey through
space, carrying its electro-magnetic field with it, then, by the
inductive action of the sun, the comet would be attracted by that body,
and so would be gradually drawn towards it.

Under this inductive influence it would rush towards the sun, until,
approaching very close to it, it would be repelled by the
electro-magnetic waves or centrifugal force of that body, and be hurled
again by their repulsive energy far far away into space to the north or
south of the plane of the ecliptic. As it was moving away from the syn,
north or south of the ecliptic, the sun would be moving onwards through
space in the plane of the ecliptic, which would practically be at right
angles to the motion of the comet, so that by the time the comet had
receded far into the depths of space, the sun with its electro-magnetic
field would have moved on also in a direction at right angles to the
comet's motion.

The effect of the sun's orbital motion would be, that it would be unable
to again exert sufficient inductive power upon the comet to bring it
within its inductive influence once more. For example, suppose there is
a mass of Aether condensing at point _A_ in interstellar space situated
some millions of miles north of the plane of the ecliptic, which is
represented by the straight lines _B_ _C_. The sun is moving in the
direction towards the part of space represented by point _B_. We will
suppose that when the sun is near point _C_ the mass of Aether at point
_A_ is too far away to be appreciably influenced by the inductive action
of the sun. But as the sun moves towards point _F_, then the condensed
Aether, which practically forms the body of the comet, will come within
its influence and be drawn towards the sun, at an angle to the plane of
the ecliptic.

[Illustration: Fig: 30.]

By the time the body of the comet has reached the sun, it will have
acquired a momentum which enables it to rush past the sun, and then it
will be repelled by the electro-magnetic waves in the direction of _F_
_G_, which is still at an angle to the plane of the ecliptic; but its
motion, combined with the repulsive power of the electro-magnetic waves,
is carrying it outside the sphere and influence of the sun's
electro-magnetic field. At the same time the sun is proceeding onwards
through space, leaving the comet far behind, so that by the time the
comet has reached the confines of the solar system, it has either passed
under the influence of another star, or has become further condensed to
form a meteor, which begins to circle around the largest and nearest
body. I do not assert that this hypothesis is strictly correct, but it
seems to me that only on some such hypothesis can the appearance and
apparent loss of irregular comets be explained.


ART. 113. _Short Period Comets and Long Period Comets._--We have seen in
the previous article, that some Comets revolve round the sun in closed
orbits of exceeding great eccentricity, and the return of these may be
calculated with certainty. There are about two dozen comets which revolve
around the sun, and which return at intervals lying between three years
and 76 years.

This class of comets may be divided into two kinds, which are known as
Short Period Comets and Long Period Comets respectively. The following
table gives a list of the chief of the Short Period Comets, together
with some particulars relating to time of revolution, etc.:--

    COMETS.          PERIOD OF         PERIHELION         APHELION
                    REVOLUTION.         DISTANCE.         DISTANCE.

    Encke's    ...  3-1/4 years.    32,000,000 miles.   387,000,000 miles.
    De Vico's  ...  5-1/2   "      110,000,000   "      475,000,000   "
    Biela's    ...  6-1/2   "       82,000,000   "      585,000,000   "
    D'Arrest's ...  6-1/2   "
    Faye's     ...  7-1/2   "      192,000,000   "      603,000,000   "
    Halley's   ... 76-3/4   "       56,000,000   "    3,200,000,000   "

Encke's Comet was discovered by Professor Encke of Berlin, and named
after him. It revolves in an ellipse of great eccentricity, as proved by
the fact that when nearest to the sun, it is inside Mercury's orbit, but
when furthest away from the sun, it passes beyond the orbit of Mars,
reaching almost to the orbit of Jupiter. One of the most remarkable
facts about this comet is, that it has done more to establish the
existence of that resisting medium around the sun, whose existence we
have demonstrated, than any other comet. Encke found on its periodical
return that its mean distance was gradually getting less, and in order
to account for this, he supposed that it was due to the existence of a
resisting medium which enveloped the sun, and extended some distance
into space.

This conclusion has been supported in recent years by Von Asten, a
German mathematician, who has supported the theory of a resisting
medium. On this point Herschel writes in his _Outlines of Astronomy_,
Art. 577: "This is evidently the effect which would be produced by a
resistance experienced by the comet from a very rare aetherial medium
pervading the regions in which it moves; for such resistance, by
diminishing its actual velocity, would diminish its centrifugal force.
Accordingly, this is the solution proposed by Encke, and at present
generally received."

So that we have in Encke's Comet another proof of the existence of that
aetherial medium, which is not frictionless, but has the power to oppose
any body which moves through it, when that body moves in an opposite
direction to its own motions.

Another Short Period Comet worthy of notice is that of Biela, named
after M. Biela, its discoverer. This comet had a period of six and a half
years, and reappeared at several successive intervals until about the
year 1845, when it seems to have been broken or split up into two parts.
In December 1845 the comet divided into two parts, which travelled
parallel to each other for a long distance. During this separation, very
singular changes were observed to be taking place in both the original
comet and its offshoot.

Both had a nucleus, and both had tails, which were parallel to each
other. The comets continued to travel together until the 15th March
1846, when the new comet began to fade away, until, on the 24th March,
the old comet only was visible, while in April both had disappeared
entirely. A similar phenomenon was again observed at its next passage in
1852, but since then Biela's Comet has entirely disappeared. It is
suggested by astronomers, that the comet has become condensed, and
broken up, forming a shoal of meteors.

Support is lent to this theory by the fact that in November 1872, when
the earth was passing through space and had arrived at that part of its
orbit which intercepted the orbit of Biela's Comet, instead of the comet
being seen, the earth came into contact with a swarm of meteors, and
this is accepted as evidence that Biela's Comet was condensed far away
in the colder regions of interplanetary space into a more solid form of
matter, known as meteors. One of the more famous of the short period
class of comets is that known as Halley's Comet, which has a period of
about 76 years. This comet has been seen in its return journey to the
sun about 25 times. It was named after its discoverer, Edmund Halley. He
was led to identify this comet with that of 1531 and 1607, and thus to
conclude that it had a period of 75 or 76 years. He therefore predicted
its reappearance in 1759. As the year approached, its arrival was
eagerly looked for, to see if the prediction would be verified.

It was thought, however, by a certain astronomer named Clairaut, that
the larger planets, as Saturn and Jupiter, might interfere with its
orbital motions, and after careful calculations a difference of 618 days
was allowed, which brought its anticipated reappearance down to April
1759. It actually reappeared in March of that year. Its next
reappearance was fixed to take place about November 1835. The comet
became visible on 5th August 1835, and continued to be seen till April
1836, when it again disappeared.

As the reappearance of the comet was calculated by the application of
the Newtonian Law of Gravitation, such a result only gave added
confirmation to the application of that law to cometary bodies.

Of the Long Period Comets there are several known. That of 1858 has a
period, it is thought, of 2000 years. The 1811 comet has a period of
3000 years, while that of 1844 has a period of over 10,000 years. All
these comets move in orbits of such great size that their return is
improbable. One of the characteristic features about Long Period Comets
is their great brilliancy and size.

The 1858 comet, known as Donati's Comet, was first seen by that
astronomer at Florence in June. It was invisible, however, to the naked
eye, as it only appeared through the telescope like a faint cloud of
light, gradually getting brighter and brighter. Toward the end of August
it began to show signs of developing a tail, and became visible to the
eye on August 29th. During September and October it greatly increased in
size and brilliancy, and was plainly visible in the western heavens.
After October 10th it was only visible in the southern hemisphere,
gradually decreasing in brightness. It was seen till March 1859, when it
disappeared, and will probably not return till the year 3858, as its
period of revolution is about 2000 years.

Donati's Comet passed between the earth and many stars, which could be
seen very distinctly through its tail. One of the stars was Arcturus,
and, though some of the densest parts of the comet passed over it, yet
the star could be seen all the time, thus conclusively proving that the
head and tail of a comet are only composed of gaseous matter, probably
condensed Aether, as suggested in Art. 111.


ART. 114. _Parts of a Comet._--A comet may be divided into three parts:
1st, Nucleus; 2nd, Head or Coma; and 3rd, Tail.

The nucleus is the central part of the head or coma, and is generally
the brightest part of the whole comet. On the theory that a comet is due
to the condensation of Aether, the nucleus would represent the first act
in the process of condensation, as there would have to be some centre of
condensation, and that centre would be represented by the nucleus.
Further, the process of condensation would assume a spherical form, as
the conception of our aetherial atom is that of a sphere or an oblate
spheroid. As the process of condensation went on, the layers that would
be produced would form a kind of envelope around the point of
condensation, with the result that the nucleus would ultimately consist
of a large mass of gaseous matter, made up of layer upon layer of
condensed Aether around some central point, which formed the nucleus.

This hypothesis agrees with observed phenomena, because, when we deal
with the tails of comets, we shall see that the tail is simply formed by
the reverse process to that of condensation, as in the case of cometary
tails the gaseous envelopes so formed will be thrown off (either through
heat generated by friction, or by the increased heat as the comet nears
the sun), which are then repelled away from the sun by the centrifugal
force. Herschel,[41] referring to the nucleus, states, paragraph 559:
"An atmosphere free to expand in all directions would envelop the
nucleus spherically," while in his Reflection on Halley's Comet, he
states, Art. 570, "1st, That the matter of the nucleus of a comet is
powerfully excited and dilated into a vaporous state by the action of
the sun's rays, escaping in streams and jets at those points of its
surface which oppose the least resistance. 2nd, That the process chiefly
takes place in that portion of the nucleus which is turned towards the
sun, the vapour escaping in that direction. 3rd, That when so emitted,
it is prevented from proceeding in the direction originally impressed
upon it, by some force directed _from_ the sun, drifting it back and
carrying it out to vast distances behind the nucleus forming the tail."

When we come to deal with the question of the formation of the tail, we
shall find that every reflection made by Herschel is satisfactorily
fulfilled by the conception of a gravitating and condensing Aether.
Before considering the tail, however, we will deal with the head or
coma.

The head or coma is that part of the comet which exists round the
nucleus. It is less bright than the nucleus, and oftentimes appears as a
shadowy mass of light. Herschel, in his 4th Reflection, states that "a
considerable part of the vapour actually produced remains in the
neighbourhood of the nucleus forming the head or coma." So that the head
of a comet is simply the vaporised part of the nucleus which is produced
by the increased heat of the sun, in the same way that water would be
vaporised by the addition of heat, the vapour in that case being thrown
off in the form of steam.

This formation of the head is but a continuation of the reversal of the
process of condensation, which originally gave existence to the mass of
matter termed the comet. The diameter of this head or coma often extends
to thousands of miles. The head of the 1811 comet was 540,000 miles in
diameter, while that of the 1843 was 112,000 miles. As the nucleus is
formed of a series of envelopes, so the head also consists of a series
of envelopes.

The comet of 1858 constantly threw off these envelopes, which were first
expelled _towards_ the sun, and then repelled away _from_ the sun,
forming the tail. The matter forming the head and the nucleus is
perfectly transparent, as stars have been seen through the matter which
forms those parts. Herschel,[42] paragraph 558, states "that whenever
powerful telescopes have been turned on these bodies, they have not
failed to dispel the illusion which attributes solidity to that more
condensed part of the head which appears to the naked eye, though it is
true that in some a very minute stellar point has been seen indicating
the existence of a stellar body."

_Tails._--The tail of a comet is that part which flows from the head,
and is afterwards repelled by the repulsive power of the sun into space.
We shall deal with this repulsive power, whose existence we have already
demonstrated, and the part which it plays in the formation of a comet's
tail, in the next article. The tail of a comet is oftentimes considered
to be the comet itself, rather than a part of the same, but as the tail
is the most distinctive feature of a comet, and is the part most visible
to the naked eye, there has arisen the popular but mistaken idea of
identity between the tail and the comet itself.

Tails are of all kinds. There are some which are short, while others are
long. Then we have comets with single tails, or double, and in some
cases even multiple tails. Occasionally comets appear which have no
tails at all. The comet of 1744 had six tails, which spread out in the
shape of a large fan.

One of the most remarkable features of tails is their abnormal length,
which oftentimes reaches into millions of miles. The comet of 1843 had a
tail 112,000,000 miles long. Another feature about the tails of comets
is that they are always directed _away_ from the sun. Up to the present
I believe no satisfactory explanation has been given of this fact, but
with the conception of the rotating Aether as given in Art. 94, we shall
for the first time be able to give a satisfactory physical explanation
of that phenomenon. In addition to this, the formation of cometary tails
of all shapes receives a physical explanation, when taken into account
with the fact that the sun is an electro-magnet, possessing its
electro-magnetic field, and its lines of force, as described in Art. 88.

[Footnote 41: _Outlines of Astronomy._]

[Footnote 42: _Outlines of Astronomy._]


ART. 115. _Centrifugal Force and Comets' Tails._--In order to account
for the existence of the tails of comets, various repulsive forces have
been introduced from time to time into the solar system, so that the
phenomena of cometary tails might be satisfactorily accounted for.

It has been felt by every astronomer that some repulsive force, which
had its origin in the sun, was absolutely necessary to explain the
existence of the tails, and as no real force could be demonstrated to
exist, recourse had to be made to repulsive forces of a more or less
hypothetical nature. The necessity of this repulsive force is nowhere
more plainly indicated than by Sir J. Herschel in his _Lectures on
Scientific Subjects_, where, dealing with the phenomena of comets'
tails, he writes: "They have furnished us with a proof, amounting to
demonstration, of the existence of a repulsive force directed from the
sun, as well as that great and general attractive force which keeps
planets in their orbits."

In the same work, referring to the comet of 1680, he writes: "This comet
was perhaps the most magnificent ever seen. It appeared from November
1680 to March 1681. In its approach to the sun it was not very bright,
but began to throw out its tail when about as far from the sun as the
earth. It passed its perihelion on December 8th, and when nearest to the
sun was only about 1/10 part of the sun's diameter from the surface. No
wonder it gave evidence of violent excitement, coming from the cold
region outside planetary space. Already, when arrived even in our
temperate regions, it began to show signs of internal activity. The head
had begun to develop and the tail to elongate, till the comet was for a
time lost sight of. No human eye beheld the wondrous spectacle which it
must have offered on December 8th. Only _four days_ afterwards, however,
it was seen again, and the tail, whose direction was reversed, and which
observe could not possibly be the same tail, its tail had already
lengthened out to the extent of about 90 millions of miles, so that it
must have been shot out with immense force in a direction _from_ the
sun."

The reader will have observed it took from November 10th to December
8th, or 28 days, to fall to the sun for the same distance, and that with
all the velocity it had on November 10th to start with. Herschel sums up
the matter thus: "Beyond a doubt, the widest and most interesting
prospect of future discovery which their study (comets' tails) holds to
us, is, that distinction between gravitating and levitating matter, that
positive and unrefutable demonstration of the existence in nature of a
repulsive force co-extensive with, but enormously more powerful than the
attractive force we call gravity, which the phenomena of their tails
afford."

Thus the philosophic mind of Herschel saw in the existence of cometary
tails, the irrefutable evidence of the existence of a repulsive force,
not of a hypothetical character, but as real as the existence of gravity
itself. Various attempts have been made to define that repulsive force
which was thus demanded, and the same force has been ascribed by
scientists to the repulsion due to heat, to light, and also to
electricity.

Several French scientists have suggested that the repulsive force was
due to the heat of the sun. M. Roche was one of those who stated that
the phenomena of cometary tails was due to the repulsive power of heat,
which found its origin in the heat of the sun. M. Faye, another French
scientist, states that the repulsive force had its origin in the heat of
the sun. By a series of experiments he demonstrated that there was a
repulsive power in all heat waves, which gave his theory that
experimental support that any theory must possess to make it permanent.

Now in Art. 63 it was shown that heat does possess a repulsive power,
but that that power is rather due to the electro-magnetic Aether whose
vibrations produce the heat waves, than to the repulsion of heat; so
that, indirectly, the assumption of both these French scientists, that
the repulsive power of heat gave rise to the tails of comets, is
correct. Then again it has been suggested that the repulsive power is
produced by the pressure of the light waves. Professor Lebedew suggested
this after he had experimentally proved that light waves did possess a
repulsive power (_Annalen der Physik_, November 1901). It can easily be
seen, as pointed out in Art. 70, that, inasmuch as light is due to the
vibrations of the Aether, they too possess this repulsive power, and
therefore Professor Lebedew's suggestion as to the nature of the
repulsive power is correct, as the real centrifugal force is really due
to an aetherial pressure.

Whether, therefore, we consider it from the standpoint of heat, or light
or electricity, it ultimately resolves itself into the same aetherial
medium which is at once the common source of all these forces. Again, it
has been suggested that the repulsive power is electrical or
electro-magnetic, and this view is receiving more support than either of
the others from modern scientists.

Herschel suggested that the repulsive power was electrical, while
Bredichin has worked out a very careful theory as to the effect of
electrical repulsion upon different elements that are found in the
comets' tails, with a view to explain the different shapes of the tails.
But whether the force is looked at from the standpoint of heat, light or
electricity, it ultimately resolves itself into the motions of the
Aether, which gives rise by its different vibrations and motions to all
the three forms of energy referred to.

When we also take into account the fact that Aether is gravitative, and
therefore denser nearer to the sun than further away, and that it is
also rotating round the central body the sun (Art. 91), then we have at
once every condition necessary to explain all the various kinds of
cometary tails, and also for the remarkable fact that the tail is always
turned away from the sun, which is simply due to the effect of the
rotating Aether with its outflowing electro-magnetic waves upon the
gaseous matter of the comet. Thus from the phenomena of comets' tails,
we have again arrived at the conclusion of the existence of that
centrifugal force, whose origin and continuity are to be found in the
electro-magnetic Aether which surrounds the sun, and which by its
electro-magnetic waves gives rise to pressure on all bodies upon which
they fall.


ART. 116. _Formation of Tails._--With the conception of the formation of
the comet advanced in Art. 111, viz. that it is nothing more or less
than Aether in a state of condensation, and remembering the explanation
given of the parts of the comet, as the nucleus, and head or coma, we
are now in a position to give a philosophical account of the formation
of the tails of comets, which will satisfactorily fulfil all the Rules
of Philosophy. In addition to the facts already referred to in the
previous articles of this chapter, we must also recall our conception of
the Aether as given in Chapter IV., remembering that it gets denser
nearer the sun, and that it is not frictionless; therefore, when a body
is urged through it, friction is produced, and heat is generated.

We must also remember that the Aether is rotating round the sun as that
body proceeds through space. We have, therefore, to picture the
condensed mass of Aether situated out in the cold interstellar space,
gradually coming under the influence of the sun, as that body rushes on
its journey through space with a velocity of 500,000 miles per hour.

Slowly, but surely, the mass of condensed Aether begins to respond to
the attractive power of the sun, and to move through space towards the
sun. So long as it is moving towards the sun, it is encountering and
having to overcome the resistance of the Aether.

At first this resistance is very feeble, owing to the decreased density
of the Aether, but as it proceeds on its journey it is constantly
passing into denser parts of the aetherial electro-magnetic field around
the sun. The result is, that as the resistance is increased, so there is
greater friction between the matter of the comet and the atomic Aether
in space, and, in consequence, heat is generated.

In addition to the generated heat, the comet is all the while passing
into regions of greater intensity of heat. In both cases, the effect is
only manifested on that side of the comet which is approaching the sun;
for, if there be any friction at all, it will only be on that half of
the comet which encounters the Aether, so to speak, while the same part
will receive the added heat, as the distance between the comet and the
sun is decreased. As can readily be seen therefore, this added heat acts
only upon the half of the comet which is advancing, and which faces the
sun, and as the effect of heat is always to vaporise, so the effect on
the nucleus of the comet is to vaporise the condensed aetherial matter,
and this vaporised aetherial matter is thrown off in layers which are
partly spherical in form, the layers always being expelled in the first
instance _towards_ the sun, on account of that centrifugal motion which
has its birth in the nucleus of the comet.

This explanation fully establishes and confirms the first and second
Reflections of Herschel as given in Art. 114, and, moreover, is itself
established by the very phenomena which comets present in their approach
to the sun. As soon, however, as the vaporised matter is expelled from
the nucleus towards the sun, it is met by the centrifugal motion of the
electro-magnetic Aether which proceeds _from the sun_, and this pressure
of the aetherial waves on the advancing comet acts as a repelling power,
literally repelling the vaporised matter from the sun, and thus giving
rise to the existence of its tail.

This explanation fully confirms the third Reflection of Herschel
referred to in Art. 114, and is itself also confirmed by actual
observation. During all this time, however, the comet has been
approaching the sun with a decreased velocity, for its velocity has been
minimised by the resistance it has had to overcome in its approach to
the sun. As soon, however, as it reaches the sun, it is whirled round
that body by the rotating Aether medium, as the intensity of its
rotation is greatest nearest the sun, with a velocity which often
exceeds thousands of miles per hour.

Having passed its perihelion, in view of the physical existence of our
centrifugal motion, let us now ask ourselves what ought to happen to the
comet? Previous to its perihelion, the comet's motion and the
centrifugal motion due to the pressure of the Aether were in opposition,
but after passing the perihelion, the comet's motion and the centrifugal
motion will be acting conjointly, with the result that the motion of the
comet would be accelerated. Now this is exactly what observation teaches
us does happen in regard to comets, when they have passed their
perihelion passage.

As Herschel pointed out with reference to the comet of 1680 (Art. 114),
it took 28 days to fall to the sun, but only took four days to cover the
_same_ distance, after it had passed the sun and rounded the perihelion.
So that we have here, as Herschel stated, an irrefutable evidence of the
existence of the repulsive power whose existence we have demonstrated.

Again, there is another fact which has to be taken into consideration in
regard to the tails of comets. Observation teaches us that their tails
are invariably turned _from_ the sun, though why they always are so
turned away is an unsolved problem, apart from some real or hypothetical
repulsive power. We have, however, to further remember that the
electro-magnetic Aether around the sun is ever rotating with that body,
and carrying with it in its rotation all associated planets and meteors.

This rotation of the Aether plays a most important part in the phenomena
stated. Whether the comet is approaching the sun, or receding from the
sun, it is still subject to the influence of this rotatory Aether
medium. The result will be that the lighter particles of the vaporised
matter will be acted upon more powerfully than the heavier parts, so
that even when the comet is receding from the sun, after it has passed
the perihelion, the lighter parts which go to form the tail will be more
under the influence of the repelling Aether waves than the heavier
parts, as the nucleus, as suggested by Bredichin.

Thus the natural result will be that the tail will still be directed
away from the sun even when it is receding from that body. Gradually,
however, as the comet recedes, it passes out of the denser Aether, where
the intensity of motion and vibration are greatest, to those slower
parts of the sun's aetherial field where they are less intense.

The effect of this is soon made manifest on the tail and head of the
comet. The process which took place as it approached the sun is now
exactly reversed, as it is now passing out of a denser into a more
rarefied medium, where its motions and vibrations are less intense. The
tail, therefore, appears to be drawn back to the head, while the head
will itself gradually contract into the nucleus, as it recedes further
and further into space. If the comet be situated within the plane, or
nearly the plane of the ecliptic, then it is possible for it to return
again, and go through the same process, unless it is captured on its
outward journey by some of the large outer planets, as Jupiter. If,
however, their planes do not coincide with the plane of the ecliptic,
then it is very possible that they will not reappear again, but pass on
to some other stellar system. Thus we can explain on a strictly
philosophical basis one of the most interesting, and yet one of the most
mysterious phenomena associated with our solar system, from the simple
yet truly philosophical assumption that Aether is matter, in conjunction
with all that that assumption logically involves.



                              CHAPTER XIII

                      AETHER AND STARS AND NEBULAE


ART. 117. _The Starry World._--In addition to the planets and comets
that are found in the heavens, there are other bodies, countless in
their number, which we know as stars. Who has not looked up into the
heavens on some clear night, and noticed how the vault of heaven was
spangled over with points of light, each point representing a huge sun
that exists in far-off space? For it must be remembered that every star
is a sun, which, reasoning by analogy, is the centre of a stellar
system, just in the same way that our sun is the centre of our solar
system. Like our sun, all stars shine by their own light, and the
quality of that brilliancy decides the magnitude of the star, the
magnitude being indicative of the relative brilliancy of a star rather
than its size. So that stars are divided into groups according to their
magnitude, the magnitudes ranging from the first to the sixteenth, and
even beyond. Those of the first magnitude are more brilliant than those
of the second, those of the second more brilliant than those of the
third, each magnitude decreasing in relative brilliancy as the number
which indicates the magnitude increases. There are about sixteen
different degrees of magnitude, in which are classified the millions of
stars that exist in infinite space, but only stars up to the sixth
magnitude are visible to the naked eye, the telescope revealing those
which lie beyond. The total number of stars visible to the naked eye are
about 6000, half of which are visible in each hemisphere.

About 20 stars comprise the group of the first magnitude, which include
all the brightest stars visible, as Sirius, Canopus, Alpha, Arcturus,
Rigel, and Capella.

Those of the second magnitude number about 65, and include the brighter
stars to be found in the constellation known as the Great Bear. Stars of
the third magnitude number about 200, of the fourth magnitude about 400,
of the fifth magnitude 1100, and of the sixth magnitude about 3200.

With the aid of the telescope about 13,000 stars of the seventh
magnitude are revealed to us, and 40,000 of the eighth magnitude, while
of the ninth magnitude over 140,000 are revealed by the telescope. As
the power of the telescope is increased, so the number revealed is
increased also, until by the time we have reached stars of the
fourteenth magnitude, at least 20,000,000 are revealed to us.

If we look into the heavens on a clear moonlight night, we shall further
see that here and there are groups of stars clustered together. These
clusters are termed constellations, and are named after some object
which the arrangement of the stars seemed to suggest. Thus every one is
familiar with that constellation known as the Great Bear, or the
"Plough," so called because of its resemblance to a plough.

The brightest stars of each constellation are named after the letters of
the Greek alphabet, the brightest being called Alpha, the next in
brilliancy Beta, and so on, right through the Greek alphabet. For
example, the seven stars in the Great Bear are known as Alpha, Beta,
Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, and Eta.

The constellations are grouped into two divisions, known as the Northern
and Southern constellations respectively.

The visible Northern constellations are 25 in number, and include the
following well-known groups--

    Ursa Major          The Great Bear.
    Ursa Minor          The Little Bear.
    Draco               The Dragon.
    Hercules            Hercules.
    Cygnus              The Swan.
    Lyra                The Lyre.

The visible Southern constellations are 18 in number, and include such
groups as--

    Cetus               The Whale.
    Orion               Orion.
    Canis Major         The Great Dog.
    Canis Minor         The Little Dog.
    Corona Australis    The Southern Crown.
    Crux Australis      The Southern Cross.

_Variable Stars._--Not only are the stars of different magnitudes, but
the brilliancy of some of them changes from time to time. This class of
stars is known as variable stars, and has received the attention of
modern astronomers for many years, in order that the cause of their
variation might, if possible, be ascertained. The periods of variation
differ in length, ranging from a number of days to 60 or 70 years.

One of the most interesting of variable stars is that known as Omicron
Ceti, whose period of change is about 331 days. Its brilliancy varies
from one of the second magnitude to one of the tenth.

Beta Persei is another well-known variable star. This star shines as one
of the second magnitude for 2 days and 13 hours, and then suddenly loses
its light, and in less than 4 hours becomes a star of the fourth
magnitude. Its brilliancy then increases again, and in a similar time it
regains its former brilliancy.

The conclusion that has been arrived at in regard to the cause of the
variation of these stars is, that in each case the diminution of light
is due to the existence of dark bodies, probably planets, which revolve
round the central star.

This hypothesis was confirmed by Professor Vogel about 1889 by means of
spectroscopic results.

Another interesting fact about stars is that they shine with various
colours. The colours of stars are as various as the colours of the
rainbow, and range through the whole spectrum, of red, orange, yellow,
green, blue, indigo, violet, and white. What is more remarkable is the
fact that the colours of the stars seem to change through great periods
of time. If we turn to ancient records we learn that Sirius was red
then, but is now green, while Capella was also red, but is now pale
blue.

_Double and Multiple Stars._--Many stars when looked at through powerful
telescopes are found to be double, triple, quadruple, and even multiple,
although when looked at by the naked eye, they seem to be single in
appearance.

An example of a double star is to be found in the constellation of Lyra.
A moderate telescope reveals this as a double star, while a still more
powerful telescope reveals the strange fact that each apparently single
star which forms the double is itself double, so that we have in this
constellation a system of four stars, in which each pair revolves round
a point situated between them.

Several thousand double stars are known altogether, while the motions of
several hundreds of them have been detected with powerful telescopes.
Some of the double stars are as follows--Zeta Hercules, Eta Coronae
Borealis, Gamma Coronae Borealis, Beta Cygni, Alpha Centauri.

The colours of some of the double stars are very beautiful. Some are
yellow and blue; others, yellow and purple, while others are orange and
green. Some of the double stars are only optical doubles, that is to
say, they apparently seem close together, while as a matter of fact they
are immense distances from each other, the apparent doubleness being due
to the fact that they are more or less in the same line of vision. Real
double stars, where the component stars are situated close together, are
known as physical doubles, to distinguish them from the optical doubles.

_Binary Stars._--Another class of double stars are known as Binary
Stars. This class of stars is composed of two stars which revolve around
each other in regular orbits, and are among some of the most interesting
objects in the heavens. About 1000 Binary stars are known altogether.
Their motions, however, are very slow, and only in a comparatively few
cases have the dimensions of their orbits been ascertained. Some of the
Binary stars are Zeta Hercules, which has a period of about 36 years;
Eta Coronae Borealis, which has a period of 43 years; while the
brightest star, Sirius, is also a Binary star, with a period of about 50
years.

_The Milky Way._--The Milky Way is the name given to that band of light
which stretches across the sky at night-time, and forms a zone or belt
that completely circles the celestial sphere.

This belt of light has maintained from the earliest ages the same
relative position among the stars, and, when resolved by powerful
telescopes, is found to consist entirely of stars scattered by millions
across the expanse of the heavens.

The whole zone or belt is composed of nothing but stars, whose average
magnitude, according to Herschel, is about the tenth.

Stars of all magnitudes are, however, found in this zone.

Of the brightest stars, about twelve are found in this region, while the
majority of stars of the second, third, and fourth magnitudes are also
found in or near it.

The great majority of star clusters are also found along the course of
the Milky Way, while many of the irresolvable nebulae seem to congregate
near the poles of this starry region.

The Milky Way is divided in one part of its course by a stream of stars,
which seems to branch off as a separate stream, thus dividing it into
two parts.

All these facts seem to point to the conclusion that the stars of the
universe, instead of being scattered about haphazard in the space, form
a ring or layer, of which the thickness is very small compared with its
length and breadth.

Our own solar system, according to Herschel, occupies a place somewhere
about the middle of the thickness of the zone, and near the point where
it divides into two parts.

Recent observations go to show that there is a tendency of the sun's
apex to drift along the edge of the Milky Way, and this drift seems to
point to a plane of motion of the sun, nearly coinciding with the plane
of the Milky Way.


ART. 118. _Stars and Kepler's Laws._--We have learned in a previous
chapter that the sun is the centre of a system which comprises a retinue
of planets, with their attendant satellites, together with a number of
asteroids or minor planets, with the addition of meteors and comets to
complete the system.

Now if the sun is a star, then, according to our First and Second Rules
of Philosophy, every star ought also to be the centre of a stellar
system and the centre of two aetherial motions, that is, the Centrifugal
and Centripetal forces, due to the pressures and tensions of the Aether
medium. Further, every stellar system would be composed of exactly
similar bodies to those which compose our solar system, as planets with
their attendant satellites, together with meteors and comets; the whole
of the stellar planets being bound to the central body by the
combination of the two aetherial motions, and kept revolving round the
central star by the rotating electro-magnetic Aether currents.

Such a hypothesis is entirely philosophical, as it is simple in
conception, and fully agrees with our experience in relation to the only
star of which we have any complete knowledge.

It is unthinkable to conceive of a star existing in so-called space, and
constantly radiating out its light and heat for no purpose at all. All
Nature teaches us that there is not a single thing in existence but what
has a definite purpose, and a definite place to fill in the universe.
Even the aetherial atoms, which form the foundation stones of the
universe, have their own purpose to fulfil in the glorious scheme of the
Universe conceived by the Eternal Infinite; and to suppose that a star
has no purpose to fulfil, no task to perform, is to suppose something
altogether opposed to the teaching of all Philosophy. Why even man, with
his finite wisdom, would not be so foolish, so unwise, as to make a
star, and set it in the firmament of heaven for no purpose at all! Are
we therefore to suppose that the Divine Creator of all things possesses
less wisdom than the creatures which He Himself hath made? Such an
assumption would be a reflection not only on the wisdom of an All Wise
Being, but would also be a reflection on our own ideas of philosophical
reasoning.

Therefore the conclusion that we are compelled to come to, in relation
to the millions of stars that exist in interstellar space, is that every
star is the centre of a stellar system, and the centre of two aetherial
motions due to the pressures and tensions of the electro-magnetic
Aether; while rotating round each star are the ever-circulating
electro-magnetic Aether currents, which form the medium by which all the
stellar planets with their attendant satellites are ever made to revolve
around that central body which supplies them with their light and heat.
Some such conclusion as this Sir John Herschel arrived at, for in his
_Treatise of Astronomy_, Art. 592, he writes: "Now for what purpose are
we to suppose such magnificent bodies scattered through the abyss of
space? Surely not to illuminate our nights, which an additional moon of
the 1/1000 part of our own moon would do much better. He must have
studied astronomy to little purpose who can suppose man to be the only
object of the Creator's care, or who does not see in the vast and
wonderful apparatus around us, provisions for other races of animated
beings. The stars, doubtless, are themselves suns, and may perhaps each
in its sphere be the presiding centre around which other planets or
bodies may be circulating."

Further, with reference to the stability of each of these stellar
systems, it is essential that the existence of a physical centrifugal
force should be recognized, in order that the unity and harmony of the
spheres should be maintained.

Professor Challis points this out very conclusively in the _Phil. Mag._
of 1859, where, writing on this point, he states: "It may also be
remarked, that if the Law of Gravity be absolute, there is no security
for the stability of a system of stars, whether the system be a Milky
Way or a nebulous cluster. For, however small the mutual attraction
between the constituent bodies may be, in the course of ages it must
produce a general movement towards the centre or densest region. But the
form of the Milky Way and of certain nebulae seems to present an utter
contradiction to any such tendency." With the conception, however, of a
physical centrifugal force or motion due to the pressure of a physical
medium, the stability of even the Milky Way may be physically conceived
and understood.

Again, when we consider the sun as a star, we find that it has two
motions of its own, one of rotation on an axis, and the other of
translation in an orbit, such rotation being due to the fact that it is
a magnet and has ever circulating round it electro-magnetic Aether
currents (Art. 91). By inference, therefore, we arrive at the fact that
every star is a magnet, as suggested by Professor Schuster, and
possesses rotation on an axis, such rotation being due to exactly the
same cause as produces the rotation of any other planetary or solar body
(Art. 92). Not only has each star a rotation on its axis, but it must
also possess translational motion in an orbit, and that orbital motion
must be due to exactly a similar cause as that which produces the
orbital motion of the sun. Are there any indications given by
astronomical observations which lead us to the conclusion that stars do
possess such orbital motions? The answer is unanimously in the
affirmative; for, although all the stars and the constellations retain
apparently the same relative position to each other, yet they are all in
motion. The actual translational motion of the stars is termed proper
motion, and has been calculated with more or less success in relation to
many of the stars nearest to us. There are other motions of the stars
known as apparent motions, which are easily noted by any observer. These
apparent motions are due to the rotation of the earth on its axis, and
its orbital motion round the sun.

Nothing is more certain, however, than that careful astronomical
observations have revealed the fact that stars have actual orbital
motions of their own through space. In many cases the orbital velocity
has been approximately ascertained.

Halley discovered proper motions of certain stars as far back as 1715,
when he found out, by comparing different observations, that Sirius,
Arcturus, and Aldebaran had moved during the period which had elapsed
since the respective observations were taken.

More recent observations tend to confirm the fact that stars have indeed
proper motions, due to their actual translation through space. It has
been ascertained, for example, that Arcturus is travelling at least 54
miles per second.

The proper motion of the stars, however, only gives us an indication of
their relative motion through so-called space. It does not tell us
whether the star is apparently receding from the earth, or approaching
it.

Dr. Vogel has ascertained by a special system of photography in relation
to the spectra of stars, that Rigel has a velocity away from the earth
of nearly 39 miles per sec., Aldebaran of 30 miles per sec., and Capella
of 15 miles per sec., while the Pole star is apparently approaching the
earth at a rate of nearly 16 miles per sec.

Now if all the stars move through space with varying velocities, as
spectroscopic and telescopic observations seem to suggest, the question
naturally confronts us as to what is the particular kind of orbit which
each star completes? Is the orbit that of an ellipse, or a circle, or a
parabola?

That it must have some kind of orbit is obvious from the proper motions
exhibited by the several stars. We have already learned from Arts. 107
and 108 that the sun possesses an orbit, which orbit fulfils the first
and second of Kepler's Laws.

If therefore the sun, as representing all stars, is subject to Kepler's
Laws, then, according to our Second Rule of Philosophy by which we base
our hypotheses on our experience, we are compelled to come to the
conclusion that every star which possesses any motion at all through
space must also be subject to Kepler's Laws, and therefore must each
possess a controlling centre around which they severally revolve. Kepler
himself was of the opinion that the stars were subject to the laws which
go by his name, and this view of the subject was also accepted by Sir
William Herschel.

Thus from philosophical considerations we affirm that each star, while it
is itself the centre of a starry system, is also dependent upon and
associated with some other body, to which it is held bound by the
electro-magnetic Aether, and around which it is made to revolve by the
circulating electro-magnetic currents associated with that central body.
So that by philosophical reasoning we are led to view the whole of the
innumerable stars that flood interstellar space, not as so many individual
and isolated units, that have no relation to each other, but rather as
parts of one great system, which in its entirety may form in its ultimate
unity one harmonious whole, a universe.

As we come to consider star clusters and nebulae, we shall see how this
idea of unity seems to be manifested throughout all celestial phenomena.


ART. 119. _Aether and Nebulae._--In addition to the host of stars that
flood the infinite space, there are other celestial bodies that meet the
gaze of the astronomer as the telescope is turned upon the heavens.

These bodies, which are glowing masses of gaseous matter, are termed
Nebulae. The word Nebulae signifies a cloud, but they are not clouds in
the same sense as we apply that term to masses of vapour that exist in
our own atmosphere. Sir Wm. Herschel did more towards the discovery of
nebulae than perhaps any other astronomer, either before his time or
since. His labours in the direction were completed and enlarged by his
son, Sir John Herschel, who surveyed the Southern heavens in a way that
had never been accomplished before.

The result of the combined labours of the two Herschels has placed
information of the nebulae at our disposal which is invaluable. Several
thousands of different nebulae are now known to us, and as the telescope
is improved and its powers increased, fresh nebulae are being added to
the number. Like stars, nebulae vary not only in size, but also in
colour, shape, and even in the materials of which they are composed.
They also vary in brightness, the light from some being much fainter
than the light from others.

It has been estimated by Huggins that the light received from a nebula
will not exceed the light of a sperm candle looked at from a distance of
a quarter of a mile. It is thought by some astronomers that the light
received from a nebula is indicative of the stage of development to
which it has arrived. Where the light is faint, the nebulae are in their
first stages of formation, and where it is brighter it is indicative of
a more advanced stage of development. Thus nebulae may consist of
nebulous matter in various stages of condensation, but they are not yet
in that condition which corresponds to the condition supposed to exist
in our sun.

Nearly all the nebulae lie outside the Milky Way, so that it would seem
as if in ages past all the nebulae that had ever existed in this starry
zone had passed out of their nebulous condition and been further
condensed into suns or stars, as they are called. Astronomical
observations teach us that there are very few nebulae indeed to be seen
in this starry highway, the part of the heavens which are richest in
them lying far beyond the confines of this zone. For many years certain
aggregations of luminous points in the heavens were supposed to be
nebulae, but by the aid of more powerful telescopes they have now been
resolved into clusters of stars. One of these clusters is the cluster in
Hercules, while another is the great nebula of Orion. In the case of the
former, situated in the constellation of Hercules, we find a great
number of very small points of light grouped together in a more or less
globular form. When looked at through a small telescope, this object
looks like a nebula, but looked at through Lord Rosse's, or some other
great telescope, it becomes at once resolved into an immense number of
separate points of light, each one representing a star, there being
between one and two thousand altogether in this constellation.

Clusters of stars are usually globular in form, though some are
irregular in outline. The latter are generally rich in stars, with a
less condensation of stars towards the centre. Sir Wm. Herschel
considered the irregular clusters as being in a less advanced stage of
condensation, as he was of the opinion that all groups ultimately tended
to clusters which were globular in form. Before dealing with the
different kinds of true nebulae we will now consider the question as to
"What are Nebulae?"


ART. 120. _What are Nebulae?_--The question which presents itself to the
mind of all astronomers when they have viewed the wondrous nebulae that
exist in far-off space is, "What are Nebulae?" This question is so
closely identified with the question as to "What is Matter?" that the
solution of the one will give us the key to the solution of the other.
It is now generally admitted, that nebulae are composed of a glowing
mass of gaseous matter, that gaseous matter being partly composed of the
gas Hydrogen. Dr. Huggins in 1864 first made the discovery of the
existence of Hydrogen in certain nebulae by means of the spectroscope,
which distinctly revealed certain lines that proved the existence of
Hydrogen in the nebulae.

In the spectra of some of the nebulae, that of 31 Andromeda, for
example, there are no dark lines shown, but only a continuous band of
bright light, which would seem to indicate that there was no glowing
gaseous matter in that nebula at all. But accepting the fact that the
nebulae are composed of glowing gaseous matter, the problem confronts us
as to where this gaseous matter comes from.

If, as spectrum analysis seems to teach us, there are nebulae in various
stages of formation, there must be a period in their history of
development when they had an origin. What, then, is the origin of a
nebula, and what the physical explanation of that origin? From optical
phenomena we learn that all space is not empty, but filled with the
Aether which is universal (Art. 42). What is the relation, then, of this
glowing nebulous matter to this universal Aether? If it be suggested
that there is no relation, then we are in the unphilosophical position
of having to admit, either that the nebulous matter of which the nebulae
are composed never had any origin, or that it had its origin in some
unknown and still undiscovered medium which exists in space. But both of
these hypotheses are unphilosophical, as the former is contrary to all
experience, while the latter is opposed to that simplicity of conception
by which we only postulate one medium, the Aether, to fill all space.

Thus we are led to the conclusion, that the gaseous matter, be it
hydrogen or nitrogen, must have some relation to the electro-magnetic
Aether that is so universal in its extent. Already this relationship has
been dealt with by one who has done more for the development of
aetherial physics than any other scientist. Lord Kelvin, in his paper
"On the Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the
Universe,"[43] has solved this relationship, though in so doing he has
had to depart somewhat from the idea of an incompressible Aether. In
that paper he writes as follows: "If we consider Aether to be matter, we
postulate that it has rigidity enough for the vibrations of light, but
we have no right to say that it is absolutely incompressible. We must
admit that sufficiently great pressure could condense the Aether in a
given space, allowing the Aether in the surrounding space to come in
towards the ideal shrinking surface." In another part of the paper,
dealing with the same question, he writes: "In regions where the density
was greater than in neighbouring regions, the density would become
greater still; in places of less density, the density would become less,
and large regions would quickly become void or nearly void of atoms.
These large void regions would extend so as to completely surround
regions of greater density." He then points out, that as soon as this
density becomes something like the density of the atmosphere, then
collisions would take place between the particles, and continues: "Each
collision would give rise to a train of waves in the Aether. These waves
would carry away energy, spreading it out through the void Aether of
infinite space. The loss of energy thus taken away from the atoms would
reduce large condensing clusters to the conditions of a gas in
equilibrium under the influence of its own gravity, rotating like our
sun or moving at moderate speed as in spiral nebulae. Gravitational
condensation would at first produce rise of temperature, followed later
by cooling, ultimately freezing, giving solid bodies, collision between
which would produce meteoric stones such as we see them."

Here then we have a definitive relationship between Aether and nebulae
given to us from one of the keenest intellects of the present time, but
in order for that relationship to become strictly philosophical, the
conception of the Aether as advanced in this work must be accepted. For
with the present conception of a frictionless Aether, such a hypothesis
is altogether untenable, because it supposes something that is contrary
to all experience and observation.

On the basis of a condensing frictionless Aether into any kind of solid
body, be it nebula, meteor, sun or star, we have to suppose that it is
possible for a medium (the Aether, which is outside the Law of
Gravitation according to the present theory) to be condensed into a
body, that is, a nebula or meteor which is subject to the Law of
Gravitation; and the question arises, at what point in the history of
its condensation does this frictionless Aether pass out of the condition
of having no weight, to the condition when it has weight; or, in other
words, from the condition when it is outside the Law of Gravitation, to
the condition when it comes under the Law of Gravitation?

No satisfactory solution can possibly be offered to such a problem.
Therefore one of two results must follow, either that the Aether is not
frictionless, but possesses weight; or, that the condensation of the
Aether is not possible. With the theory of Aether presented in this
work, the whole question receives a simple and philosophical solution.
As Aether is matter, it is therefore atomic; and being atomic, it is
subject to the Law of Gravitation; and therefore, possessing mass and
weight, it can readily pass into other forms of matter, and with such a
conception Lord Kelvin's hypothesis becomes not only possible but
probable. So that it is exceedingly probable that nebulae are nothing
more nor less than condensed Aether, the same as comets were suggested
to be condensed Aether. It may be asserted that such a hypothesis lacks
that experimental evidence which is so necessary for its establishment,
but I hope to show in the last chapter that Faraday has given the world
that very experimental evidence which will place this hypothesis upon a
firm and solid foundation, and enable it to pass out of the region of
the hypothetical into the region of fact and experiment.

According to our hypothesis, therefore, nebulae are simply condensations
of the electro-magnetic Aether that exists in interstellar space, and
the various spectra of the different nebulae indicate the stage of
development to which the process has arrived. Where the spectra are
bright, and continuous, and free from any dark lines, there we have
simply the Aether in its very first stage of condensation; and where we
have the dark lines appearing, such lines indicate a more advanced stage
to which the process has arrived.

[Footnote 43: _Philosophical Magazine_, July 1902.]


ART. 121. _Nebular Hypothesis._--The Nebular Hypothesis was first
introduced by Kant in his work on the _History of the Earth and Theory
of the Heavens_.

In that work he attempted to explain the origin of the universe on
purely mechanical lines. Laplace, a French mathematician, about the same
time came to similar conclusions as Kant had done, and published his
views in his work on _Exposition du Système du Monde_, and later on in
his more famous work the _Mécanique Céleste_.

A feature common to both these theories rested in the fact, that they
supposed that all material bodies which exist in the universe once
existed in a nebulous condition, and that they were formed out of this
nebulous matter. Further, that this nebulous matter gradually condensed,
and as it condensed, a rotational motion was imparted to them, which
rotation quickened as the condensation was continued.

Then, as the rotation was accelerated, portions were flung off by the
centrifugal force, and these portions of nebulous matter gradually
condensed, forming the various planets of the system. As these
condensed, they, in their turn, parted with some of their nebulous
matter through the repulsive energy of the centrifugal force, and these
secondary parts gave origin to the various satellites that exist round
the planets.

Now, while the general principle involved in the nebular hypothesis is
true, yet the conception according to Laplace is not verified by fact,
as we learn that Uranus and Neptune are still in a state of
self-luminosity, while their density is the smallest of all the planets.
From this we should infer that the two outermost planets are the
youngest planets of our solar system, but according to Laplace's theory,
they ought to be the oldest, as they would have been flung off first by
the parent body as it rotated; and therefore, being flung off first,
should be in a more advanced stage of development than any of the inner
planets. M. Faye has suggested a remedy for this defect in the theory.
He supposes that the nebulous matter out of which the planets were
formed, was not flung off by the central body the sun, but that each
planet was formed at different centres of condensation within the
nebular mass that existed in space. This would, undoubtedly, meet the
difficulty already referred to, and solves the problem as to how the
various planets were formed at different distances in space.

Further, such a solution is in perfect harmony with all the Rules of
Philosophy. It is much more simple to conceive of Aether condensing at
various points in what originally was the solar nebula, than it is to
conceive of Aether condensing and shrinking towards one central point,
and yet while condensing and shrinking, portions were flung off into
space which would form the planet. A greater objection has to be met,
when we come to deal with the origin of all the meteors and minor
planets that exist in their numbers in the solar system. In relation to
their origin, it is much easier to conceive of portions of the Aether
condensing at different centres of condensation, than to suppose that
each portion of aetherial matter that originally formed the meteor, or
asteroid, was flung off as a separate portion from the central body.

With the conception of an atomic and gravitating Aether, the Nebular
Hypothesis, therefore, for the first time is placed upon a sound and
philosophical basis, because the condensation of Aether, which is matter
and possesses mass, admits of the origin of other matter from it which
also possesses mass, together with other properties, as elasticity,
density, compressibility and inertia.

When there is added to the atomic Aether the conception of a rotatory
aetherial atom, as was indicated in Art. 44, we have at once a source
from whence the rotation of the whole mass may be derived. Thus, as the
condensation continued, and the nucleus or central part of the body was
gradually formed, the rotation would be accelerated, because of the
inherent energy which would exist in the condensed part. Further, as the
condensation continued, the body so formed would be more or less
spherical in form, as the conception of our aetherial atom was
spherical, and when we conceive of the primary point of condensation, we
have to think of a large number of spherical atoms coming together; and,
as all the motions of the Aether which give rise to light, heat,
electricity and magnetism, and which now include gravitation, are
spherical in their operations, so their effect upon any condensing
Aether would take a spherical form. Thus such bodies as nebulae, comets,
asteroids, satellites, planets and suns should possess bodies more or
less of a spherical form, subject to certain qualifying conditions, as
rotation and orbital velocity, and this is in harmony with observation
and experience. For we shall find that even in the case of nebulae, we
have globular, ring or annular nebulae, and elliptic nebulae, while in
the case of comets, the nuclei and coma are more or less spherical.
Further, it is a familiar fact that the shape of all asteroids,
satellites, planets, and even the sun is spherical or that of an oblate
spheroid, which latter is simply due to its rotational velocity on its
axis.

Thus the principle involved in the nebular hypothesis receives its
confirmation in the atomic and gravitating Aether, and with certain
modifications of the different hypotheses advanced, is capable of
uniting all those hypotheses that have ever been put forth in this
direction into one perfect and harmonious whole.

Again, the condensation of the Aether, composed as it is of its atoms,
ever in a state of rotation, does away with the Primitive impulse which
was objected to in Art. 9. For in that article it was shown that the
conception of a primitive impulse as conceived by Newton was
unphilosophical, in that its conception was not simple, and failed to
satisfactorily account for observed phenomena. With the hypothesis,
however, of a rotatory aetherial atom, we have at once those conditions
which at any time, in the history of the universe, may give rise to
those conditions by which a body may be set rotating not only on its
axis, but also revolving around some central body, as the process of
condensation is continued.

So that in the primordial and universal electro-magnetic Aether that
exists in all space, we get those conditions which will not only give
rise to the phenomena of light, heat, magnetism and electricity, but
also those properties, qualities and motions by which are produced,
maintained and perpetuated, the various bodies that exist in the Aether,
which is at once the physical source and cause of the bodies.


ART. 122. _Kinds of Nebulae._--Nebulae may be classified into the
following groups--

    1. Irregular Nebulae.
    2. Ring and Elliptical Nebulae.
    3. Spiral or Whirlpool Nebulae.
    4. Planetary Nebulae.

_Irregular Nebulae._--Of this class the most conspicuous are those in
the constellations of Orion and Andromeda. So clearly defined are they,
that they are oftentimes seen by the naked eye on a clear night, and are
often mistaken for comets.

The great nebula in Orion is one of the most noticeable objects in the
heavens. It is noted for its size and brilliancy, and also for the
successful observation which it has been subjected to from time to time.
This large nebula is situated in that part of Orion which is occupied by
several stars known as the Sword Handle. These multiple stars are known
by the name of Theta. Around these multiple stars is to be seen the
nebula, as though the multiple stars really were enveloped by the nebula
extending for a great distance out into space. It is of a faint bluish
colour, with the central parts possessing the greatest brilliancy. The
suggestion arises in our mind as to whether the nebulae are in any ways
indicative of the presence of the electro-magnetic aetherial field that
each star undoubtedly possesses. We learned in Art. 88 that the sun is
an electro-magnet, and that it possesses its electro-magnetic field. We
have also seen in Art. 109 that the zodiacal light, which is to be
observed in connection with our solar system, is really indicative of
the presence of that electro-magnetic field, as it rotates round the
central body. Now, if an observer were situated out in space, where the
nebula of Orion is situated, and could look at our system with
telescopes equally as powerful as those we possess, would not our sun
present an equally nebulous light to them because of the presence of its
electro-magnetic field?

Conversely, if every star possesses an electro-magnetic aetherial field,
as they undoubtedly do, then it seems only reasonable to infer that that
electro-magnetic field possesses a nebulosity which corresponds with our
zodiacal light. The fact that the spectra of the nebulae are continuous,
revealing no dark lines, seems to indicate the purity of some of the
nebulae, and that therefore they are free from all known elements.

So that spectroscopic results seem to confirm this hypothesis, as the
pure Aether that would surround every star, or multiples of stars, would
certainly not reveal any dark lines by means of the spectroscope. Such a
hypothesis, as to the real nature of a nebula, is entirely in harmony
with the theory of the Aether presented in Chapter IV., because being
gravitative it will surround each star or multiples of stars, and
therefore be denser nearest to those stars, and being atomic, there will
be a certain amount of nebulosity manifested by the denser parts of the
medium, as is the case in our own solar system.

_Ring or Elliptical Nebulae._--These forms of nebulae are so named from
their ring-shaped appearance, sometimes being known as Annular Nebulae.
The elliptical nebulae are usually classed with them, as they are
supposed to be similar kinds of nebulae looked at edgeways. The best
known of this class is that found in the constellation of Lyra, and
known as 57M, which is the number of the star in Messier's catalogue of
stars. It is small but well-defined, so that it looks more like a flat
oval solid ring than a nebula.

The central part is not entirely dark, but is filled up with a hazy
light. Another annular nebula is that situated to the south-west of
Lambda Scorpii. Sir J. Herschel[44] writes of it thus: "It is a delicate
but well-defined annulus. The field is crowded with stars, two of which
are nebulae. A beautiful delicate ring of a faint ghost-like appearance,
about 40" in diameter, in a field of about 150 stars, of 11 and 12
magnitude and under."

Of the elliptical nebulae the best known is the one in the constellation
of Andromeda, which goes by the name of 31M. It is visible on a clear
night, and can be seen by the naked eye as a hazy light. There are
several other elliptical nebulae, lying to the north-west of this great
nebula.

_Planetary Nebulae._--The planetary nebulae represent a number of minute
objects visible in the heavens. They look like globes of a
bluish-coloured gas and are sometimes mistaken for small stars. Sir J.
Herschel writes about them as follows: "Planetary nebulae are very
extraordinary objects. They have, as their name implies, a resemblance
to planets, presenting discs, round or slightly oval, some being quite
sharply defined, terminating in others a little hazy or softened at the
border. They are comparatively rare objects, not more than 25 having
been observed, and of these nearly three-quarters are in the southern
hemisphere. Their disc is circular or slightly elliptic, with sharp,
clear, and well-defined outline, having exactly the appearance of a
planet with the exception only of its colour, which is full blue,
varying somewhat upon green. M. Arago has surmised that they may
possibly be envelopes shining by reflected light from a solar body
placed in their centre, invisible to us because of its excessive
distance."

The suggestion which arises to our mind in view of the atomic and
gravitating Aether is, that the planetary nebulae are exactly what their
names imply, that is, nebulous matter around planets. We have already
learned that each satellite and planet possesses an electro-magnetic
field, which field takes more or less the shape of a spherical form, so
that if there are planets existing in the far-off systems in space, as
we are compelled to believe that there are, then they too would possess
an electro-magnetic field, which would be composed of spherical
envelopes surrounding the several planets. These planets would shine by
reflected light, as suggested by M. Arago.

The possession by the planet of the nebulous matter, which we have
already suggested is composed of the denser parts of the Aether around
the planet, would give to the planet a nebulous appearance which would
satisfactorily account for the term already given. They would indeed be
what Sir John Herschel suggested they were, viz, planetary nebulae.

_Spiral Nebulae._--The Spiral, or Whirlpool Nebulae, are remarkable
objects, and were first discovered by Lord Rosse with his six-foot
telescope. One of the best examples of the spiral nebulae is that known
as 51M. Small telescopes show this as two clusters, one of them being
surrounded by a ring, at a distance, which is divided into two parts.
Lord Rosse, however, found it to be really a spiral nebula, the ring
running into a series of spiral coils of nebulous matter, the outlying
parts being connected with the main part by curved bands.

Huggins has found that the spectrum of this nebula is not gaseous. Other
examples of this class are 99M and 33M. What these spiral or whirlpool
nebulae are, is unknown, but, on the hypothesis of a condensing and
gravitating Aether which is in a state of rotation, the spiral nebulae
can be easily pictured. For, as the condensation goes on, rotation will
set in, and if we can picture such a phenomenon taking place in a plane
which is at right angles to the line of vision, then we should have a
full view of a nebula which would present a spiral form. Indeed, there
is no phenomenon in connection with nebulae that cannot be physically
explained by a condensing, gravitating and rotatory Aether; and as
Aether is universal, the same properties will apply to it in distant
space as they do in the solar system; and apart from a gravitating and
rotatory electro-magnetic Aether, the phenomena of our own solar system
cannot be physically conceived or explained.

Therefore, if such an Aether can explain the phenomena associated with
our own system, it ought also to explain, and that to the fullest
extent, all phenomena incidental to and associated with the innumerable
systems that flood the universe at large.

[Footnote 44: _Outlines of Astronomy._]



                              CHAPTER XIV

                           UNITY OF UNIVERSE


ART. 123. _The Universe._--In the preceding chapters we have endeavoured
to deal with some of the principal phenomena that help to give a
mechanical conception to the entire Universe.

It now remains for us to show, in this last chapter, how, underlying all
the physical structure of the Universe, there is one fundamental and
primordial medium, in which all the forms of matter and motion find
their ultimate unity.

The Universe literally means one ultimate whole, though that whole may
be compounded of many parts, the very essence of the term embodying the
idea of a complete unity which runs throughout its whole physical
structure.

Apart from some such hypothesis as will be suggested in this chapter,
that ultimate unity is incapable of a physical or mechanical conception.
In Art. 29 we learned that the Universe was composed of two classes of
things, matter and motion, while in Art. 30 we learned that the sum
total of matter according to the law of the conservation of matter ever
remains the same; while further, in Art. 53, according to the law of the
conservation of energy, the sum total of energy ever remains the same.
We have also learned that the two are indissolubly united, so that
wherever we found matter, whether that matter was in its atomic,
molecular, planetary or stellar form, there, as its necessary complement
and counterpart, was the ever-present and unceasing motion, in one or
other of its many forms. Thus, throughout the entire Universe, we find
the same two essentials ever working in unison and harmony.

Nowhere in the realm of infinite space is there such a phenomenon as
rest or absolute death. The ideal that seems to be the key of the
Universe, is that continuity of motion which science teaches us is so
inseparably connected with all matter. Grouped, however, here and there
throughout the Universe are modifications of this aetherial matter,
termed molecules, satellites, planets, suns, or stars, which
modifications are, however, not so real and abiding as the
electro-magnetic Aether from which they receive their physical origin.

The physical character of the universe is progressive. Even in its
ultimate unity there is no such thing as stagnation or standing still;
for, while in some parts of the Universe new stars and suns and planets,
yea, even new systems are being evolved out of the primordial Aether, in
other parts of the Universe old stars and suns, with all their attendant
planets and satellites, are passing on towards that final end, when they
themselves will be again resolved into the original form of matter from
which they were first made. This assertion is in perfect harmony not
only with science, but also with revelation. For even revelation teaches
us that all the stars shall grow old as doth a garment, and as a vesture
shall they be folded up (Heb. i. 11), and that (out of their ruins) a
new heaven and a new earth shall be created and the former shall not be
remembered (Isaiah lxv. 17).

Thus amid all the modifications of that which is the real physical basis
of all matter, we find indissolubly associated with each and all of the
varied forms and modifications certain motions which are analogous to
each other. In the aetherial atom itself, so infinitesimal in its
proportions that even our imagination is almost strained in our attempt
to conceive it, yet even here we have rotation and translation in an
orbit, such rotation and translation being due to the motions of the
electro-magnetic Aether. Then in the gaseous forms of matter into which
these atoms may be condensed, we find the same two essentials, of matter
and motion, of rotation and translation in an orbit, always working
harmoniously together, through the motions of the selfsame Aether, which
gives rise to the attraction and repulsions of the atoms.

Then following the principle into the planetary world, and taking the
planet Saturn with its ring of satellites as an example, we find again
the same two factors ever working in unison and in harmony, with their
incessant rotation and translation in an orbit, forming a complete and
perfect unity in themselves, such unity being due to the pressures and
tensions of the Aether combined with its rotatory character. Then going
a step further, we find a number of planets, with or without satellites,
all rotating around one central body, that rotation and translation
again being due to the motions of the rotating electro-magnetic Aether,
combined with its pressures and tensions.

For millions of years, so far as we can tell, this solar system of ours
has been moving through space as one complete unit.

Then out in stellar space there are millions of such systems, each
distinct and perfect in themselves, each of which is made up of exactly
similar parts to our solar system, these innumerable systems being
doubtless joined together by the same electro-magnetic Aether, forming
one larger and grander unity, known as a constellation. Then these
constellations, increasing in their number, are again joined together,
and form a still larger unity called a Galaxy; and galaxy being joined
to galaxy, constellations to constellations, we get such an ocean of
suns and stars like that known as the Milky Way, the ultimate whole
revealing in all its beauty and harmony the unison of the two
essentials of matter and motion. It may even be that all the oceans of
suns and stars, that exist in far-off space, are joined together by one
common bond, the universal electro-magnetic Aether by its two
complementary motions, the centripetal and the centrifugal, the whole
forming one ultimate unity which we call the Universe, having for its
centre one common point or central orb, which indeed forms the centre of
gravity of the entire Universe.

Thus the key to the physical conception of the Universe is to be found,
and alone found, in that beauty of order, and harmony of motion, which
are so inseparably associated with the varied forms of matter,
graduating through a series of units or atoms, each with its dual nature
complete in itself, through a series of minor entities termed elements,
which in their aggregations form meteorites, satellites, planets, suns
and stars, and systems of stars and oceans of suns and stars, until all
are united into one ultimate unity where all are blended into one
complete and perfect whole; the whole of the universal fabric being held
together in its mechanical order and beauty by the electro-magnetic
Aether. Then in the very centre of the Universe there dwells that
Supreme Being whom we call God, who is at once the one real fountain and
source of all the light and life of the Universe itself. For it is His
universal Spirit that moulds and fashions the plastic matter into the
many forms which it assumes, and uses the various modes of motion, as
heat, light, electricity and magnetism, as instruments to build up and
erect in all their beauty and harmony the innumerable systems that flood
immensity and space.

For if there be a centre of gravity to an atomic system, and a centre of
gravity to a planetary system, and a centre of gravity to a solar
system, then there is also a centre of gravity to a group of systems,
even to a constellation, or a galaxy; otherwise our philosophy relative
to the centres of gravity of masses fails in its application to wider
phenomena of an exactly similar kind.

Thus, if there is a centre of gravity to a galaxy, even to the Milky Way
itself, then, going one step further, with a faith that laughs at
scientific data and leaps beyond the narrow bounds of pure reasoning, we
affirm that there must even be a centre of gravity to the entire
Universe. Now let me ask the reader, What can be more fitting, more
appropriate, more reasonable than to infer that the centre of gravity of
the Universe is to be found in that celestial orb or orbs where the
throne of God exists and endures, and where ultimately there will be
congregated together in perfect felicity the spirits of just men made
perfect, not only from our insignificant planet, but all the spirits of
all beings from all the planets which in their almost infinite number
are circled round their central suns by the electro-magnetic Aether? It
is there, in these bright orbs, with their vision and powers
spiritualized, quickened and intensified, that all perfected spirits
shall look out into space, with increasing wonder, upon the birth and
decay of worlds, the evolution and devolution of planets and systems and
constellations, and shall watch the continuation and working out of that
grand and glorious plan, which alone finds its perfection and its
ultimate fulfilment in the wisdom, and power, and glory of the Eternal
Spirit of the Living God.

To see if this conception of the Universe is borne out by scientific
data, we will now address ourselves more particularly to those
fundamental truths which underlie the unity of the Universe.


ART. 124. _The Unity of the Universe._--The Unity of the Universe is a
dream which has passed before the imagination of many philosophers in
by-gone times, and has been a fruitful source of speculation to
old-world, as well as more modern philosophers. The researches of such
living scientists as Sir William Crookes, Professor J. J. Thomson and
others, have, however, made this dream come within the range of
practical research and direct experiment. Professor J. J. Thomson
believes that it is possible to break off from an atom, a part which is
only 1/1000 part of the whole, and these infinitesimal parts he has
called corpuscles, which he considers are the carriers of the electric
current.

If, therefore, it can be philosophically proved that the hypothesis of
an atomic, gravitating, and condensing Aether can satisfactorily account
for the physical existence of all atoms, and therefore of all matter,
the dream of old-world philosophers will be helped on its way to a
successful realization.

We have already suggested, that nebulae are formed out of the
condensation of the electro-magnetic Aether that fills the Universe; and
as that nebula, according to the Nebular Hypothesis, ultimately resolves
itself into a sun, or planet, or satellite, as the case may be, it
follows that the condensation of this electro-magnetic Aether forms the
basis of all the various elements, as Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and the
other seventy elements of which those bodies are composed. Thus the
conclusion that we are compelled to come to in regard to the ultimate
nature of matter, in its primordial condition, is, that all matter which
exists in its varied forms throughout the entire Universe finds its
physical origin and source in the universal electro-magnetic Aether,
which is itself atomic, and possesses all the essential properties of
matter.

With the conception of the Aether as advanced in this work, this
hypothesis is perfectly philosophical and logical. For the conception is
simple, in that it supposes one form of matter to spring out of another
form, that is, from an aetherial form to gaseous, in a similar manner to
that in which a gaseous form changes into a liquid form, that is, by
condensation, or a closer drawing together of the aetherial elastic
envelopes that surround each atom; each particular gas, as Hydrogen,
Nitrogen, or Oxygen, representing different quantities of aetherial
condensations, as will be seen in the next article.

The aetherial constitution of matter has received recognition from the
hands of such scientists as Lord Kelvin and Dr. Larmor. The latter, in
his _Aether and Matter_, writes on the subject as follows (page 7):
"Matter must be constituted of isolated portions, each of which is of
necessity a permanent nucleus or singularity in and belonging to the
Aether, of some such type as is represented for example by a minute
vortex ring in a perfect fluid, or a centre of permanent strain in a
rotational elastic medium." And again on the same page he adds: "It is
incumbent on us to recognize an aetherial substratum of matter, in so
far as this proves conducive to simplicity and logical consistency in
our scheme of physical relations, and helpful towards the discovery of
hitherto unnoticed ones."

Dr. Larmor, as has already been pointed out in Art. 44, speaks of his
aetherial atoms as electrons, which are of two kinds, negative and
positive, and of these he states (page 97): "Each electron has an
effective mass of aetherial origin, which forms part, and may be the
whole of the mass of the matter to which it is attached."

Here, then, we have definite statements as to the hypothesis of all
matter having a definite aetherial origin. If, therefore, it can be
proved experimentally that matter does possess this aetherial basis,
then the hypothesis will pass out of the region of speculation into the
region of fact and science.

The question, therefore, suggests itself to our mind, as to whether
among all the experiments that have ever been performed by any
scientist, there are any which will conclusively confirm and establish
the hypothesis as to the aetherial origin of all matter. In my opinion
there are such experiments, which have been given to the world by such
eminent scientists as Faraday and Sir Humphry Davy. Before, however, the
value of their experiments can be rightly understood and valued, we
shall have to ask ourselves another question, and that is, "What is the
relation of Aether to electricity?" Upon the correct answer to this
question depends the application of Faraday's experiments to the
hypothesis of the aetherial constitution of all matter, and therefore of
the great underlying principle of the unity of the Universe.

Is there any relation therefore between Aether and electricity? If so,
what is that relation, and to what extent does it hold good? Professor
Lodge, in his preface to _Modern Views of Electricity_, asks a similar
question. "Electricity," he states, "has been thought to be a form of
energy, it has been shown to be a form of Aether. There remains the
question, What is Aether?"

While again he writes: "A rough and crude statement adopted for popular
use is that electricity and Aether are identical. But that is not all
that has to be said, for there are two opposite kinds of electricities,
and there are not two Aethers. But there may be two aspects of one
Aether, just as there are two sides to a sheet of paper."

That there is a definite relation between Aether and electricity is as
certain as there is a definite relation between electricity and light.
In order to find out how far the relationship and identity between
Aether and electricity extend we will review our conception of the
Aether as given in Chapter IV. According to the conception advanced in
that chapter, on the hypothesis that Aether was matter, we
philosophically came to the conclusion that Aether was atomic, and
therefore gravitative. Because it was gravitative, it possessed density,
and varying degrees of density; and having mass, it possesses the
property of inertia the same as any other matter; and was also elastic.

We have now to add to these properties that of compressibility, which
property we have ascribed to it from philosophical considerations when
dealing with comets, and nebulae, and the origin of planets and
satellites. Now, if there is any identity between Aether and
electricity, then it follows that that identity will be more or less
manifested, as we find electricity possessing more or less of the
properties which have been ascribed to the electro-magnetic Aether. For,
if we find two apparently different substances, or entities, possessing
exactly the same properties, and occupying the same space at one and the
same time, then the only logical conclusion that we can come to is, that
these two apparently different substances are not two substances, but
one.

We have already proved that they both occupy exactly the same space,
that is, they occupy the planetary and interstellar regions of space,
and fill indeed the entire Universe. The electro-magnetic theory of
Light (Art. 78) indisputably proves this. We will therefore find out if
electricity possesses the properties which have already been ascribed to
the Aether. The first property, and indeed the fundamental property, of
Aether is that it is atomic, and upon the atomicity of the medium
depends the whole of the theory as worked out in relation to heat,
light, electricity and so-called gravitational phenomena. Is there
anything about electricity that can suggest the hypothesis that
electricity is atomic? The answer is unquestionably in the affirmative.
Many of the greatest scientists of the past and present century have
believed and worked at the hypothesis of the atomic character of
electricity, and none more so than Dr. Larmor in his _Aether and Matter_
and Professor J. J. Thomson.

Now what is Dr. Larmor's opinion as to the atomicity of electricity?
These are some of his statements quoted in the work. In the very first
words of his preface he writes:[45] "The following essay was originally
undertaken mainly as a contribution towards the development of the
standpoint which considers electricity, as well as the matter, to be
constituted on an atomic basis." He continues: "Since Faraday's work on
Electrolysis, the notion of the atomic constitution of electrification
in its electro-chemical aspect has never been entirely absent." While
later on he adds: "Thus, for example, the present view of the atomic
character of electricity, which is at length coming within the scope of
direct experiment, has been in evidence with gradually increasing
precision ever since theoretical formulations were attempted on the
subject."

We are, however, possibly indebted to Professor J. J. Thomson for the
most direct experimental evidence as to the atomic nature of
electricity, for, as is well known to scientists, he has discovered what
he termed corpuscles, in association with electricity, which he makes
the carriers of the charges involved in electrical phenomena.

Here, then, we have one proof of the identity that exists between Aether
and electricity, in that while they both fill the same space, they are
both equally atomic; Dr. Larmor's ultimate atom, as we have already
seen, being known as positive and negative electrons. Aether, we also
learned, was gravitative (Art. 45), but we have since learned that
gravitation is itself an electrical phenomenon, in that both the
centripetal and centrifugal forces are due to the repulsions and
attractions or pressure and tension of this electro-magnetic Aether.

So that when we affirm that Aether is gravitative, we do but affirm it
is subject to the laws of electricity, which govern all electrical
phenomena, and therefore we might just as truly affirm that electricity
is gravitative, because such an affirmation is simply another way of
saying that electricity gives rise to the attractions and repulsions
incidental to, and associated with, all electrical phenomena. Here,
again, we have further evidence of the identity that exists between
Aether and electricity.

Then we learned that Aether possessed density, and also different
degrees of density, and the question arises as to whether there is
anything corresponding to this property in electricity. As a matter of
fact, this very property of density is itself recognized and known to
all scientists by the term Electric Density, the electric density being
always proportionate to the charge of electricity on a given area.

We learned also in Art. 79 that aetherial density and electrical density
were identical in relation to solar and planetary space; so that,
wherever there was the denser Aether, there was also the denser
electricity, the density of the one increasing or decreasing exactly in
the same ratio as the other increased or decreased. From aetherial and
electrical density, therefore, we have another proof of the close
identity that exists between Aether and electricity.

Again, we learned (Art. 48) that Aether possessed inertia. Here at
least, it may be thought, we shall find the first point of difference
between the two entities. Surely such an intangible, aetherial
manifestation as electricity cannot possess inertia. Let us see what
Professor Lodge has to say on the subject. In the chapter on electrical
inertia he writes (p. 89, par. 365 of _Modern Views of Electricity_): "A
current does not start instantaneously: it takes a certain time, often
very short, to rise to its full strength; and when started it tends to
persist, so that if its circuit be suddenly broken, it refuses to stop
quite suddenly, and bursts through the introduced insulating partition
with violence and heat. It is this ram or impetus of the electric
current which causes the spark seen on breaking a circuit; and the more
sudden the breakage, the more violent is the spark apt to be. We shall
understand them better directly; meanwhile they appear to be direct
consequences of the inertia of electricity; and certainly if electricity
were a fluid possessing inertia it would behave to a superficial
observer just in this way."

From these statements we learn then that electricity does possess
inertia, although there are other phenomena of electricity that would
destroy the hypothesis. But undoubtedly an electric current possesses
momentum, and it is philosophically impossible to associate momentum
with any body that does not possess inertia, as one of the factors of
momentum implies mass, even though it be a mass of an infinitesimal
form, and mass is the very essence of the property of inertia (Art. 40).

Dr. Larmor, in the work already referred to, dealing with the subject
of electric inertia, explains that it is concentrated at the nucleus of
the electron (p. 230), while on p. 202 he states: "Each electron as it
is moved by the aetherial displacement belonging to the radiation,
resists with its own definite inertia."

Apart from this evidence, the philosophical evidence already adduced in
Chapter X. is altogether in favour of the fact that electricity
possesses inertia. So that we may say that, though the evidence as to
the identity of electrical and aetherial inertia is not fully complete,
the balance of opinion lies in favour of the identity rather than
otherwise. See _Appendix A_.

It can further be demonstrated that electricity possesses elasticity the
same as the Aether does. The charge and discharge of a Leyden jar are
conclusive evidence of the elasticity associated with electrical
phenomena, while further proof is to be found in the fact that Dr.
Larmor attributes elasticity to his electrons, such elasticity being of
a rotational type.

The identity, therefore, that exists between Aether is now almost
complete. We have now only to prove that both are compressible, and the
identity is fully established. This will be done by reference to certain
of Faraday's experiments before the conclusion of this article. As we
have established, logically, the identity that exists between Aether and
electricity, the question arises now as to whether they are not one and
the same medium. If they are not one and the same medium, then we are in
the distinctly unphilosophical position of having to admit that all
interplanetary and interstellar space are filled at one and the same
time by two different media, and such an assumption is directly opposed
to all observation and experience.

Therefore, to be strictly philosophical, one of these media must be done
away with, and we may either assert that interplanetary and interstellar
space is filled with electricity, or else it is filled with Aether, as
it is much simpler to conceive of space being filled with one medium,
than it is to suppose it to be filled with two media, which are
absolutely identical in all their characteristic properties and
functions. Both can give rise to exactly the same kind of phenomena,
whether they are the phenomena of heat, light, electricity, or
magnetism, and even gravitation itself. So that, if Science wishes to be
distinctly philosophical in her statements in future, it will be
necessary, it seems to me, to do away either with the Aether, or with
the electricity, and as the latter is the better known entity, I am of
the opinion that Science will retain the electric conception of space
and matter, and do away with the aetherial, as being altogether
unnecessary. See _Appendix B_.

Thus are we led to the conclusion that electricity is itself a form of
matter, as indeed it must be if it is atomic, as suggested by Dr. Larmor
and Professor Thomson.

Professor Lodge, on p. 9 of the work already referred to, states:
"Electricity in this respect behaves just like a substance;" and again,
p. 313, he writes: "We cannot assert that it is a form of matter,
neither can we deny it; on the other hand, we certainly cannot assert
that it is a form of energy, and I should be disposed to deny it. It may
be that electricity is an _entity per se, just as matter is an entity
per se_."

Whether electricity be a form of matter or not, as I believe it
undoubtedly is, we have arrived at the fact, in view of the identity
between Aether and electricity, that, wherever the one is present, the
other is present also. So that if it can be demonstrated by direct
experiment that matter can be changed into its equivalent quantities of
electricities, or that equivalent quantities of electricities could
produce their equivalent forms of matter, then the electrical basis of
matter, and consequently the aetherial basis of matter, are proved
beyond contradiction, and we are thus led one step nearer to the
ultimate unity of the Universe, which unity is to be found in the
universal electro-magnetic Aether, which is identical with universal
electricity. For if Aether be the basis of all modes of motion, as heat,
light, and gravitation, and it is identical with electricity, it follows
that electricity is equally the basis of all the varied phenomena, and
if to that we add the constitution of matter itself, then we are within
sight of the medium in which the ultimate unity of the Universe is to be
found.

This view of the subject has already been dealt with by a German
scientist, Professor Vogt, in his book on _The Nature of Electricity and
Magnetism_, a book, however, which is not translated into English. In
that work I believe he shows the possibility of all matter having its
origin in electricity; and if that be so, then that theory is really
identical with an aetherial basis of matter, seeing that Aether and
electricity philosophically seem to be one and the same medium. Let us
therefore turn to Faraday's experiments, and see what they teach us on
the subject of the electrical basis of matter, and therefore the
aetherial basis at the same time.

In paragraph 852 of his _Experimental Researches_ Faraday writes: "The
theory of definite electro-chemical action appears to me to touch upon
the absolute quantity of electricity, or electrical power, belonging to
different bodies. Although we know nothing of what an atom is, yet we
cannot resist forming some idea of a small particle which represents it
to our mind, and though we cannot say what electricity is, so as to be
able to say whether it is a particular _matter or matters_, or mere
motion of ordinary matter, yet there is immensity of facts which justify
us in believing that the atoms of matter are in some way endowed or
associated with electrical powers to which they owe their most striking
qualities, and amongst them their chemical affinity. As soon as we
perceive, through the teaching of Dalton, that chemical powers are
(however varied the circumstances in which they are exerted) definite
for each body, we learn to estimate the relative degree of Force which
resides in such bodies; and when upon that knowledge comes the fact that
electricity, which we appear to be capable of loosening from its
habitation for a while, or conveying from place to place, whilst it
retains its chemical Force, can be measured out, and being so measured,
is found to be as definite in its action as any of those portions which,
remaining associated with the particles of matter, give them their
chemical relation, we seem to have found a link which connects the
proportion of that belonging to the particles in their natural state."

Then in paragraph 855 he writes as follows: "It seems a probable and
almost a natural consequence, that the quantity which passes is the
equivalent of, and therefore equal to, that of the particles separated,
_i. e._ that if the electrical power which holds the elements of a grain
of water in combination (or which makes a grain of oxygen and hydrogen,
in the right proportions, unite into water when they are made to
combine) could be thrown into the condition of a current, it would
exactly equal the current required for the separation of that grain of
water into its elements again."

Further, in Art. 857, he states, "I can have no doubt that, assuming
hydrogen as 1, and dismissing small fractions for the simplicity of
expression, the equivalent number or atomic weight of oxygen is 8, of
chlorine 36, of bromine 78.4, of lead 103.5, of tin 59, etc.,
notwithstanding that a very high authority doubles several of these
numbers." Then, writing upon the definite relationship of
electro-chemical equivalents, he states, Art. 835: "Electro-chemical
equivalents are always consistent; _i. e._ the same number which
represents the equivalent of a substance _A_, when it is separating from
a substance _B_, will also represent _A_ when separating from a third
substance _C_. Thus 8 is the electro-chemical equivalent of oxygen,
whether separating from hydrogen or tin or lead; and 103.5 is the
electro-chemical equivalent of lead, whether separating from oxygen or
chlorine or iodine."

So that from Faraday's experiments we learn definitely that the
electro-chemical equivalents coincide with and agree with the ordinary
chemical equivalents according to Dalton's theory. From these
experimental results of Faraday's we therefore learn that Faraday was of
the opinion that each atom had a definite and certain quantity of
electricity associated with it; and if this be true, then, in view of
the identity of Aether with electricity, it follows that each atom must
have definite and certain quantities of Aether associated with each
atom. So that through Faraday's experimental researches we are again led
to the hypothesis enunciated by Lord Kelvin in his paper "On the
Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe," viz.
that all matter has an aetherial, that is, an electrical basis, and that
it is by the condensation of this electricity, and combinations of the
condensational particles, that all the various elements are formed which
compose the infinite variety of forms that constitute the entire
Universe. Here, then, it seems to me, we have the evidence which gives
to the aetherial Nebular Hypothesis (Art. 121) that experimental
evidence which places that hypothesis upon a firm and philosophical
foundation, and conclusively proves that it is possible for Aether out
in the colder regions of interstellar space to be condensed into masses
of gaseous matter, which form nebulae, and other masses in the cold
regions of interplanetary space to condense and form comets and meteors.

[Footnote 45: _Aether and Matter._]


ART. 125. _Physical Constitution of Matter._--In Art. 31 we learned that
all matter was made up of minute parts called atoms. When these atoms
enter into combination with each other, they form the smallest particles
of elementary substances as well as compound bodies, these particles or
bodies being termed molecules.

A molecule, therefore, may consist of any number of atoms of the same
element, or may be formed of the union of the atoms of two different
elements. In the preceding article we have learned that the atom of
hydrogen or carbon, however, is divisible, at least theoretically if not
experimentally, as we came to the conclusion that all atoms are composed
of infinitesimal aetherial atoms, which are synonymous with atoms of
electricity.

Whether we shall ever be able to experimentally prove the existence of
such an atom remains to be seen, though Dr. Larmor states that the
atomicity of electricity is coming within the scope of direct
experiment; while the researches of Professors Crookes and J. J. Thomson
have undoubtedly given direct evidence of the existence of corpuscles,
which are part of the atoms of the various elements.

When we try to conceive, however, of the manner in which the various
elements can be formed from one primary medium, that is, the Aether or
electricity, we find it difficult to arrive at a simple physical
conception of the process involved.

We are indebted to Professor J. J. Thomson for what is practically the
only simple physical conception of the method in which various elements
may be formed from that medium, which gives unity to the whole of the
universe. In the Adams Prize Essay of 1883 Professor Thomson indicated a
theory based on the vortex atom (Art. 43) which satisfactorily accounted
for the various laws which governed gaseous matter, and also showed how
the varied chemical combinations might be physically conceived as being
produced from one primary medium.

In this theory we have to conceive of the vortex atom as possessing a
hollow core, while in our conception of an aetherial atom (Art. 43) we
conceived it as being more of a spherical or globular form than
ring-shaped. We have, then, to consider the atom of any element as being
composed of a vortex ring of various thickness, the thickness of the
ring being an indication of its atomic weight.

Each vortex ring must also be conceived as itself being composed of a
number of aetherial atoms, or atoms of electricity, the number of such
atoms being proportionate to the respective atomic weights of the
various elements. Dr. Larmor suggests that a vortex ring may have this
constitution in his work on _Aether and Matter_.

According to Professor J. J. Thomson, then, any vortex ring, which we
have supposed to be constituted of aetherial atoms, or atoms of
electricity, may unite with any other vortex ring, thus producing a
vortex ring of double density, which would possess double the
electricity of the unit vortex ring. If we united three vortex rings,
then the result would be an atom of threefold the density and strength
of the unit vortex ring.

We might conceive of four or any number of these rings uniting together
to form a separate element, and then each element would simply be a
multiple of the unit vortex ring, and so possess regular multiples of
the atoms of electricity, each multiple representing a distinct element.

We will now let Professor Thomson speak for himself on the matter, and
will describe the theory in his own words, always keeping in mind the
hypothesis that the unit vortex ring is itself composed of a definite
number of atoms of electricity or electrons, as proved by Faraday. See
_Appendix C_.

In the work already referred to, Professor Thomson states: "We may
suppose that the union or pairing in this way of two vortex rings of
different kinds is what takes place, when two elements of which these
vortex rings are atoms combine chemically; while, if the vortex rings
are of the same kind, this process is what occurs when atoms combine to
form molecules. Now let us suppose that the atoms of different chemical
elements are made up of vortex rings, all of the same strength, but that
some of these elements consist of only one ring, others of two rings
linked together, others of three loops, and so on. Then if any of these
rings combine to form a permanent combination, the strength of all the
primaries in the system so formed by the combination must be equal."

"Thus an atom of one element may combine with another atom of the same
kind, to form a molecule of that substance consisting of two atoms.
Again, three of these atoms may combine, and form a system consisting of
three primary elements, but the chance of their doing so is small
compared with the chance of two pairing; so that the number of systems
of this kind will be small compared with the number of the systems
consisting only of two atoms. We might have systems of four atoms, but
the number would be small compared with the number of systems that
consist of three atoms."

"Now, suppose that an atom of one element is to combine with an atom of
another. Suppose, to fix our ideas, that the atom consisting of two
vortex rings linked together, is to combine with an atom consisting of
one vortex ring; then, since, for the stability of connection, the
strength of all the primaries which form the components of the compound
must be equal, the atom consisting of two links must unite with
molecules containing two atoms of the one with one link. Thus the
compound formed will be the simplest combination, consisting of one of
the atoms which consist of two vortex rings linked together with two of
the atoms consisting of only one vortex ring. Similarly, if an atom
consisting of three vortex rings linked together were to combine
directly with atoms consisting of only one vortex ring, the compound
formed would consist of the three linked atoms with three of the others,
and so on for all the combinations of atoms formed by any number of
vortex rings linked together. This suggests that the elements, called by
the chemists monads, dyads, triads and so on, consist of one, two, etc.
vortex rings linked together, for then we should know that a dyad could
not combine with less than two atoms of a monad to form a stable
compound, or a triad with less than three, and so on, which is just the
definition of the terms monad, dyad, triad."

"On looking at chemical combination from this point, we expect to find
that such compounds as Hydrochloric acid, where one atom of Hydrogen has
only to meet one atom of Chlorine; or water, where one atom of Oxygen
has only to meet two atoms or a molecule of Hydrogen, would be much more
easily and quickly formed than a compound such as ammonia gas, to form
which an atom of Nitrogen has to find itself close to three atoms of
Hydrogen at once."

"It is the case, I believe, in direct combination, that simple compounds
are formed more quickly than compound ones. We might call the ratio of
the number of links in the atom of any element, to the number in the
atom of Hydrogen, the Valency of the element. Thus the compounds H-CL,
H-I, H-F, show that the atoms of Chlorine, Iodine, Fluorine have the
same number of links as the atom of Hydrogen, so that the valency of
each of these elements is unity. From the compound H_{2}O we infer that
the atom of Oxygen consists of twice as many links as the atom of
Hydrogen. The compound H_{2}S indicates that the atoms of Sulphur have
twice as many links as the atom of Hydrogen."

"The molecules CO_{2} and Marsh Gas have each three primaries
represented by C-O-O and C-H-H respectively. According to the view we
have taken, atomicity corresponds to complexity of atomic arrangement,
and the elements of high atomicity consist of more vortex rings than
those whose atomicity is low."

"Thus high atomicity corresponds to complicated atomic arrangement, and
we should expect to find the spectra of bodies of low atomicity much
simpler than those of high. This seems to be the case, for we find that
the spectra of Sodium, Potassium, Lithium, Hydrogen, Chlorine, which are
all monad elements, consist of comparatively few lines."

Here then, on the vortex theory of matter, especially when that vortex
theory is given an electric basis, as is the case in Dr. Larmor's
electron theory, we have a thinkable and logical explanation of the
physical and chemical properties of matter, by which all elements and
compounds may be formed from the primordial aetherial or electric atom.
As all Nature is composed of about seventy elements, and it has been
conclusively demonstrated that an atom of Hydrogen is the same all over
the universe, no matter whether it exists on this planet, or in some
distant star or nebula, we arrive at the conclusion that all the other
elements are exactly the same in their properties and qualities wherever
they are found. If, therefore, we couple Faraday's experiments and
results as to the electro-chemical equivalents of all atoms, with this
theory of Professor J. J. Thomson's, then we are again compelled to come
to the conclusion that the unity of the universe in all its
universality, and infinite variety of forms and modes of matter, is to
be found, and alone found, in the universal Aether, which is co-existent
and coextensive with electricity.


ART. 126. _Quod Erat Faciendum._--Before concluding this work let us
briefly review the whole of the theory submitted herein to the reader.

That which was to be done consisted primarily in ascertaining the
physical cause of Gravitation, by which would be accounted for on a
philosophical basis all the phenomena incidental to and associated with
the Law of Gravitation. Such phenomena included the physical cause of
the Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces, the physical cause of Kepler's
Laws, together with a physical conception of the application of Newton's
Laws of Motion to all solar and stellar bodies. In addition to this,
there were other outstanding problems in physics that it was premised
would receive either a partial or an entire physical explanation. It was
premised, for example, that the problem of the relative motion of Aether
and matter would be solved, that the cause of the permanent magnetism of
the earth would be revealed, and the great problem of the constitution
of matter attacked, together with the unity of the universe which arose
from that conception.

In order, however, for any theory to be philosophical in its initial
stages, the rules of some of the greatest philosophers which govern the
making of any hypotheses were briefly outlined, and were found to
resolve themselves into three divisions.

The first rule dealt with the general simplicity of Nature's mode of
working, and therefore the general simplicity which must govern our
hypotheses in perfecting any theory as to the cause of all phenomena,
gravitational or otherwise.

The second rule showed that the only sound basis from whence we could
derive all our data upon which to speculate and reason, lay in our
experience of all natural phenomena. Whatever else we might do, or not
do, it was absolutely necessary, if we wished to be perfectly
philosophical in our conclusions, that we should not traverse the direct
results of observations and experiments.

The third rule laid down was the obvious axiom, that the theory so
perfected by logical reasoning must satisfactorily account for and
explain all the phenomena sought to be explained.

Now I wish to submit the whole theory as propounded in this work in its
completion and in its entirety to the reader, and to ask him if the
Rules of Philosophy have not been adhered to throughout the whole work?
Can any theory be more simple than the one submitted in this work, by
which we have endeavoured to account for all, and even more, than was
premised in the opening chapters?

The very simplicity of the fundamental hypothesis that Aether is matter,
in all its properties and qualities, has been the chief obstacle to the
retardation of its earlier discovery.

Any proposition more simple, more easy of comprehension, is, to my mind,
difficult of conception. Why, children in our homes and schools may be
taught the truth, and grasp it in its concrete form, and that is the
highest test of the simplicity of any hypothesis.

Thus the first Rule of Philosophy is satisfied and fulfilled in the
initial hypothesis, and I venture to affirm that the same simplicity has
characterized the development of the theory throughout its entire
progress. Step by step, simple facts and simple truths which are known
to any ordinary student have been shown to have a wider and more
universal application than even the writer dreamed of, when he started
out on his voyage of discovery in philosophical research.

When we consider the second Rule of Philosophy in its application to our
theory, we find that experience, as revealed by observation and
experiment, is fulfilled to the minutest detail. The simple hypothesis
that Aether is matter, fulfils to the very fullest extent all
requirements demanded by the experience of all the scientists and
experimentalists that the world has ever known. To assert that Aether is
not matter is to assert a proposition contrary to all the accumulated
experience of the past generations. Therefore, if Aether is matter, then
its fundamental qualities must be those which belong to and are
associated with all matter, those qualities being atomicity, gravity,
density, elasticity, inertia, and compressibility.

The objector to this statement is himself violating the chief rule of
all philosophy, in that he is going contrary to the tenor and teaching
of his own experience. Then, following out the second rule step by step
we arrive at the one grand central truth, that electricity is also a
form of matter, and that all the forces of the entire universe are but
different modes of motion, different vibrations of the universal
electro-magnetic Aether; while all the varied bodies that exist are
themselves but different manifestations in a gaseous, liquid, or solid
form of the same electro-magnetic substance.

Thus, step by step, we have tried to build up a theory of the physical
cause of all phenomena, which will satisfactorily account for those
phenomena, and even for the structure of the universe itself, from the
mechanical standpoint, and by so doing have fulfilled the third Rule of
our Philosophy as enunciated by Newton and others.

So that by the conception that Aether is matter, in its primordial
state, we have more than fulfilled all that was premised should be done.

Thus the long-sought-for and long-expected cause of Gravitation,
together with the cause of the two complementary forces, is found in the
simple statement that Aether is matter, with all that is logically
included therein. Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws of Motion also receive
a physical explanation in the same universal electro-magnetic Aether.

In addition to the solution of these problems, the transverse vibrations
of light has received for the first time a physical conception, and a
physical explanation, even admitting that that explanation may not be
perfect in detail.

The origin of the permanent magnetism of the earth has also received a
physical explanation through the motions of this same electro-magnetic
Aether, while certain theories in relation to electricity given to the
world by Ampère, Weber, Faraday, and Clerk Maxwell have found their
consummation in this atomic electro-magnetic medium.

Further, astronomical hypotheses in relation to comets and nebulae are
not untouched by the theory of a compressible and condensing atomic
Aether. Indeed, there is not a phase of natural phenomena which is not
affected in some way or other by the philosophical result arrived at
that Aether is matter in its original state. Therefore, we claim,
however imperfectly it may have been done, that not only have the Rules
of Philosophy been fulfilled, but that the theory so advanced has
accomplished more than even we in our wildest imagination hoped and
dreamed for it.

Look at the problem of the Aether how we may, the advantages of the
theory of an atomic electro-magnetic Aether far surpass and outweigh the
advantages of a frictionless medium, which in some unknown way possesses
mass and inertia, although the conception of such properties themselves
disproves the existence of such a frictionless medium.

After all, how much of this theory is there which is entirely new or
absolutely original? Age after age, men have had exactly similar dreams,
and seen similar visions. In the old Grecian days similar views were
expressed by their philosophers; and, even in the philosophy of less
civilized countries, many of the suggested hypotheses found their place
in a more or less perfect form.

Analyze the whole theory from its initial stages to the last chapter,
and we shall find, with the exception of one or two features, that every
hypothesis first had its origin in the mind of some of the greatest
thinkers and philosophers that the world has ever known.

Take several hypotheses as examples. The hypothesis that Aether is
atomic was suggested by such men as Newton, Huyghens, Descartes,
Challis, Clerk Maxwell, and others.

That Aether is gravitative has been suggested by Young, Grove, Faraday,
and Lord Kelvin. Huyghens, Fresnel, and Young postulated different
degrees of density for the Aether, while Stokes and McCullagh have
affirmed and proved different degrees of elasticity of the medium.

The inertia of the medium has received experimental evidence from
Tyndall, Maxwell, Faraday, Lodge, and others, and its compressibility
has received the adherence of men like Faraday, Maxwell, and Lord
Kelvin.

Then, when we come to deal with the causes of the forces involved in
gravitational phenomena, we find that exactly similar hypotheses in
regard to the Centrifugal Force have been postulated by Herschel,
Bredichin, M. Faye, and Lebedew; while Faraday, Gauss and others have
suggested the close relationship that exists between electrical and
gravitational phenomena.

The physical explanation of Kepler's Laws was suggested by Kepler
himself, while Huyghens, Bernoulli, Descartes, and many of their
contemporaries believed in the existence of some kind of vortices.

The unity of the universe has been a dream of philosophers for
generations past, and that dream is now crystallized in the definite
conception of an atomic universal electro-magnetic medium, while the
electrical basis of matter receives the support of such men as Crookes,
J. J. Thomson, Larmor and Vogt.

Thus we learn that all the dreams and thoughts, all the hypotheses and
postulates of old-world as well as present-day philosophers find their
consummation and ultimate realization in one universal, atomic,
electro-magnetic medium.

If this fact does not stamp the theory with that authority which is
undeniably associated with the names of some of the scientists quoted,
then all the greatest men in the scientific world have lived and toiled,
thought and dreamed in vain, while the priceless gems of their
imagination and research are treated as worthless and valueless.

Again, what shall we say of the discoveries of to-day?

What is the key to the greatest scientific discovery of modern times,
viz. wireless or aetherial telegraphy, which is girdling the earth with
its mysterious communications? Is not the key to that discovery to be
found in this universal electro-magnetic medium?

Whence come the X-rays, Rontgen rays, and other light rays with their
adaptability to human suffering, if they come not from this same
electro-magnetic medium? their adaptability to human suffering being
dependent upon the intimate and close relationship that exists between
the physical body and the electro-magnetic medium.

Where is the key to the principle underlying the gramophone, the
phonograph and the telephone, if it be not in this self-same atomic and
easily impressible medium?

Nay! let us go further, and ask ourselves where is the key to be found
for the many marvellous effects of so-called spirit phenomena? Who can
read F. W. Myer's _Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death_,
and not feel that we are standing on the threshold of the unseen world?

Already men are asking themselves the meaning of the strange sensations
which they receive from unseen sources; already men's spirits are
vibrating in unison with vibrations that come from the unseen world; and
to-day we see spiritual phenomena as through a glass darkly, and the
question arises, what is the medium of all this communication, of all
these vibrations?

Is there no medium at all which forms the medium of communication? To
assert that would be to assert something opposed to all experience and
therefore would be unphilosophical.

May not then the theory of an atomic universal electro-magnetic medium
help us on in our groping and searching after light in this direction?
Who will uplift the veil? Already we peer almost into the spirit world.
A little more light, a little more truth, and then there will burst
forth upon the hearts and minds of men the grandest and most glorious
truth that Nature can reveal of her Creator, and then men shall come to
know and understand the place that God holds in the Universe, such truth
being advanced on its way by an atomic, universal electro-magnetic
Aether which is as truly matter as our own bodies.


ART. 127. _God and the Universe._--To the superficial reader it may
appear at first sight, that the theory of the Aether suggested in this
work leaves no place in the Universe for the operations and existence of
an Infinite and living Spirit, a God. It may be objected, that if all
matter and all modes of motion find their physical origin in one common
and primordial medium, the electro-magnetic Aether, where is the
necessity for the existence of an Eternal and Infinite Spirit?

At first sight there appears some force in the objection, but it loses
its point when we come to view the Universe from the standpoint of
spirit phenomena. The purpose of the writer in this work has been to
deal with natural phenomena only, purely from the philosophical and
scientific standpoint. Spirit phenomena (which is equally as real and
obvious as natural phenomena) have no part or place in a work which
deals with scientific facts and data, but demand and will receive in a
future work equal consideration and philosophic treatment. A man must
indeed be lacking in vision who cannot see behind all things the
evidence of a richer and fuller truth than that which merely lies on the
surface, or who fails to read and learn the greatest truth that circles
the Universe in its ultimate unity, which indisputably points to the
existence of an Eternal and ever-living Spirit, a God. I affirm that
there is no scientific truth, even including the law of the conservation
of matter and motion, which has been enunciated in this work, but what
is reconcilable with the existence of an Eternal and Infinite Spirit;
and although such a statement may seem a paradox, yet I am convinced
that before many more years have passed, the reconciliation of natural
with spiritual phenomena will be an accomplished fact. The fool to-day
may say in his heart, there is no God, but ere long not only religion,
but Science herself, shall expose his lack of wisdom and his folly.

For all things derive their existence primarily, with all the energies
and powers they possess, from God. Look where we will, or at what we
will, from the smallest atom or molecule up to the most stupendous
world, or myriads of worlds that roll and sparkle in the blue infinity,
in each and all we see the indisputable evidence of the existence of a
mysterious spirit, or power, that controls and governs them. A spirit or
power that we cannot see, but which is so indisputably evidenced that
its existence cannot be denied. For example, we see forms of many kinds,
some of which are simple entities of themselves, while others are
complex and made up of many parts, but while each part is inseparably
connected with the other, yet each part is itself distinct from the
others in nature and substance. The whole combined forms a complete
mechanism or organism, and, like all mechanisms of human make, not only
needs a controlling and governing power, but also evidences a maker.
Even the laws of Nature and modes of motion, whether it be heat, light,
electricity, or magnetism, are, however, unable of themselves to control
the mechanism, and therefore prove themselves to be but the servants of
an infinite Intelligence, a GOD.

Thus, behind and beyond all we see, in every living form, there is the
evidence of a hidden spirit, which is the governing and controlling and
sustaining power, and without which the organism ceases to be an
organism. A spirit which animates the mechanism, and uses its activities
and powers as it wills for its own purposes and ends. This spirit or
power we call its life, which gives to the form its existence, together
with all that it possesses, as its powers, activities, energies and
productions, for all are but the effects of the hidden life. If this
mysterious something, termed its life, becomes in any way separated from
the mechanism or organism, then as a distinct and separate organism it
ceases to be; and though the mechanism may still exist for a time, yet
all its powers are gone, while the organism, robbed of its very life,
begins slowly to decay.

We cannot see this power; we cannot find it We may search for it, rend
and tear part from part, only to find that it baffles all our skill, and
laughs at our endeavours to discover the secret of its existence. We
know that it is there, just as truly as we know that in these forms of
ours, these living stoves, these perfect mechanisms called our bodies,
there exists and dwells a spirit, a living, conscious, self-acting and
controlling power. A spirit which we know is not the mechanism itself,
and which by experience and observation we know to be distinct from the
organism. It is this mysterious spirit which controls and governs all
our acts, that rules and reigns as king of our bodies, and makes the
physical mechanism, with all its wondrous parts, obey and do its
bidding. That this is so, that the spirit is distinct from the body, and
is the controlling and governing principle within us, is evident in a
thousand ways. If, however, that spirit departs from the mechanism of
our bodies, then the controlling and governing influence is gone; and
the mechanism, robbed of its life, ceases to work, ceases to fulfil its
functions, and ceases to exist in that particular form.

Just as it is with ourselves, so it is with the Universe. For look where
we will, from the smallest atom to the great aggregation of atoms, as
our earth, or even to the more stupendous orbs of heaven, the working of
a secret and mysterious power or spirit meets our gaze. A spirit or
power that is not the form or the mechanism, but is separate and
distinct from the mechanism, while at the same time it is inseparably
connected with each and all. For everything that we see, from an atom to
the Universe itself, is a perfect mechanism, or complexity of
mechanisms. The entire Universe is one vast, intricate, and elaborate
piece of mechanism, beginning with the simple aetherial atom, ranging
through all the atomic systems, graduating by successive steps through
compound substances, which, in their aggregations, form meteors,
satellites, planets, suns, and stars; until the ultimate whole is
reached, where everything is blended into one vast whole; a perfect,
infinite, complex mechanism, a Universe.

Now if philosophy teaches anything at all regarding mechanisms of human
invention, it indisputably teaches that every machine or mechanism that
has ever been made, implies the existence of a maker, and that the maker
possessed intelligent attributes, as reason, judgment, perception, and
imagination. For example, stand before some elaborate machine of human
invention, as a lace machine, and watch the working of that machine in
all its details. It is composed of many parts, each of which is perfect
in itself. Each part may be distinct in nature and purpose, yet each and
all are inseparably and unitedly connected with each other, and all work
harmoniously together for the accomplishment of a definite and specific
end, that is, the production of a lace curtain of exquisite design and
pattern. As we watch the machine and its workings, we see therein the
evidence of the existence of a spirit or power that gave it its birth. A
spirit or mind that made and formed the machine, that constituted,
arranged, and gave it its governing and controlling power; fitted and
ordered every part, gave to each part its allotted task, and moulded all
to the harmonious fulfilment of the definite end and purpose he had in
view.

Thus in the machine we see evidence of contrivance and design, of method
and arrangement, of conception, perception and judgment, which are all
the effects and outflowings of intelligence which belong, and alone
belong, to mind; and therefore we say, "The machine was made, and there
was and must have been a maker." So universally is this fact accepted,
that any one who seriously challenged the statement, or dared to deny
it, would be at once pitied as insane or laughed at as a fool. Thus all
experience proves, and philosophy testifies, that wherever we get a
machine or mechanism of any kind or sort, there must have been a living,
conscious being or person, who is distinct from and outside of the
machine. He made it, and therefore must have existed before it, in order
to make it. Wherever, therefore, we find a mechanism that bears the
marks of intelligence and design, of judgment, perception and
conception, it is only logical and philosophical to infer, that such a
mechanism equally evidences the existence of an intelligent being. The
more intricate and elaborate the mechanism, the greater the ingenuity
displayed, the more complex and perfect the design, the more harmonious
the working, the greater will be the wisdom, the more profound the
judgment, the keener the perception, the more perfect the understanding,
and the vaster, nobler, and more sublime the order of Being who
originated and made it. This being so, according to philosophical
reasoning, let us glance at the Universe in all its fulness and oneness,
and we shall see the indisputable evidence of the existence of an
Infinite Being, who made, controls and governs the infinite Universe.

In the atomic world we get an illustration of the perfect mechanism that
underlies all atomic systems. Our conception of an aetherial atom was
based upon the analogy of our own planet, and there is every reason to
believe that the little world in which all atoms live and move and have
their being, is analogous to a planetary or solar system, in which we
find the two essentials of matter and motion ever associated together,
to form a larger and more complete mechanism. For atoms are not simply
mere points; they possess real dimensions, with a determinate and fixed
form, differing in their relative weights, and in the amount of motion
or force with which each is endowed. The very fact that they possess
atomic weights which are unalterable throughout the long periods of time
that mark the history of the Universe, and that they combine in definite
and fixed proportions, indisputably evidence the fact that they but do
the bidding of an Eternal and Infinite Spirit, a God. Thus each
molecule, or atomic system forms a perfect mechanism in itself, with its
own centre of gravity, and subject to the same laws of repulsion and
attraction, or pressures and tensions--due to the vibrations and motions
of the universal electro-magnetic Aether.

In each of the planetary systems we get an illustration of the same
perfect mechanism, which is indicative of all systems whether large or
small; each system being characterised by the same beauty of order and
harmony of motion which are equally characteristic of atomic systems.

Our own solar system, composed as it is of many parts, of thousands of
meteors and comets, of numbers of satellites and planets, all revolving
around one common centre, also forms a complete and perfect mechanism in
itself. For millions and millions of years this perfect mechanism has
been harmoniously working together in all its parts, as it moves in all
its unity through the realms of infinite space. Yet through all the
unknown ages of the past, such a phenomenon as disorder in the working
of any part of the system is inconceivable and unknown. Out in stellar
space there are, however, innumerable systems, similar to our own solar
system, each distinct and perfect in itself; each being made up of
similar parts, as meteors, comets, satellites, planets, and central sun.
These systems are, however, united together into one vast aggregation of
worlds, having one common controlling centre of their own, and by their
unity form a constellation, a larger and grander mechanism. Throughout
the whole constellation there is the same order, and harmonious working
of part with part, that characterise the solar system. Then these
constellations increasing in their aggregations form a still larger
complexity of systems, called a Galaxy; and galaxy being added to
galaxy, constellation to constellation, there is formed by such union,
an ocean of suns and stars like our own Milky Way, the ultimate whole
being characterised by the same mechanical order and harmonious working
that characterise the solar system. It may even be, that there are
numbers of these oceans of suns and stars existing in infinite space,
all bound together by one common bond, the universal electro-magnetic
Aether, and forming one vast ultimate whole, a Universe; with all its
oceans of suns moving around one central Orb or mass of Orbs called the
Throne of GOD.

Thus the whole Universe is a mechanism, complete and perfect in every
detail, and forming a system, so great, so grand, so sublime, so
magnificent that it puts all mechanisms of human origin to shame and
scorn. Now, if a mechanism of human invention evidences the existence of
intelligence and mind, and proves itself to be the production of a
living, sentient, conscious, and intelligent being, how much more,
incomparably more, does the Universe with its infinite complexity
evidence a Maker also; and that Maker must be as infinitely greater in
wisdom, knowledge, perception and judgment as the Universe is infinitely
greater in mechanical perfection than any mechanism of human origin.

The Universe is God's teaching in symbol and in type. It is His great
picture-book, where in living form He has portrayed Himself, and all
that belongs to Him--His nature, character, wisdom; His greatness,
glory, and His power. The Universe is a temple, where He sits enshrined
in the things His own hands have made, and where those who have eyes to
see, and hearts to learn and understand, may adore and worship Him.

Thus is it true that "the heavens declare the glory of God," _i. e._ the
character of God, His infinite wisdom, His infinite knowledge, His
profound judgment, and His eternal righteousness; while the firmament
showeth His handiwork. "Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto
night showeth (His) knowledge."

"The Lord by wisdom hath founded the earth, by understanding hath He
established the heavens."

"He hath made the earth by His power. He hath established the world by
His wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by His discretion."

"Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth,
and the heavens are the work of Thy hands; they shall perish, but Thou
remainest; and they all shall wax old, as doth a garment; and as a
vesture shalt Thou fold them up, and they shall be changed; but Thou art
the same, and Thy years shall not fail."

To prove the validity of these statements from a scientific and
philosophic standpoint, and to show the harmony that exists between the
natural and the Divine revelation as given in the Word of God, will form
the subject of a future work.



                              APPENDIX A


According to Sir Oliver Lodge the fact that electricity possesses mass
or inertia has now passed out of the hypothetical stage into the realm
of fact and experiment. In his Romanes Lecture recently published, he
states, page 4: "My first thesis is that an electric charge possesses
the most fundamental and characteristic property of matter, viz. mass or
inertia; so that if any one were to speak of a milligramme or an ounce
or a ton of electricity, though he would certainly be speaking
inconveniently, he might not necessarily be speaking erroneously."

Now in view of the identity that exists between Aether and electricity,
as proved by Hertz' experiments, the only logical conclusion that can be
arrived at is, that Aether must also possess mass and inertia. So that
the most recent experiments in relation to electricity confirm the
theory of the Aether presented in this work, viz. that it also possesses
mass and inertia, otherwise we should have a massless medium being
composed of electrons which possess mass, and that would be a violation
of all experience, and therefore an unphilosophical statement.



                              APPENDIX B


The hypothesis of electricity being the fundamental basis of all matter
made in the last chapter on the "Unity of the Universe," receives
confirmation from Sir Oliver Lodge in his _Modern Views of Matter_,
where he writes, page 13: "The fundamental ingredient of which, in this
view, the whole of matter is made up, is nothing more or less than
electricity, in the form of an aggregate of an equal number of positive
and negative electric charges. This, when established, will be a
unification of matter such as has through all the ages been sought; it
goes further than had been hoped, for the substratum is not an unknown
and hypothetical protile, but the familiar electric charge."



                              APPENDIX C


The hypothesis that all elements have definite quantities of electricity
in them, or a definite number of electrons, as suggested on page 335,
receives added weight by the testimony of Sir Oliver Lodge in the work
already referred to. Writing on the subject, he says: "It is a
fascinating guess that the electrons constitute the fundamental
substratum of which all matter is composed. That a grouping of say 700
electrons, 350 positive and 350 negative, interleaved or interlocked in
a state of violent motion so as to produce a stable configuration under
the influence of their centrifugal inertia and their electric forces,
constitutes an atom of hydrogen. That sixteen times as many, in another
stable grouping, constitute an atom of oxygen. That some 16,000 of them
go to form an atom of sodium; about 100,000 an atom of barium; and
160,000 an atom of radium."

From these extracts, taken from _Modern Views of Matter_, the author
claims that the theory of the Aether presented to the reader in _Aether
and Gravitation_ receives added confirmation and support.


                        *    *    *    *    *



                                ERRATA


The author regrets that Professor J. J. Thomson's name has been
incorrectly spelled in several places.



                                INDEX


Aberration of light, 69, 149, 218

Absorption, 104-6

Acceleration, 239

Actinic rays, 141

Action at a distance, 96, 174, 176
  and re-action, 20, 251

Adams' discovery of Neptune, 25

Aether is matter, 54-8
  is atomic, 59-67
  is gravitative, 64-9
  density of, 69, 71, 136, 243
  elasticity of, 74-7
  inertia of, 76, 330
  its motions, 80
  compressibility of, 291, 315
  waves, 79-80

Aetherial basis of matter, 326

Affinity, chemical, 43

Aldebaran, 312

Aluminium, 79

Ampère, 192

Ampère's theory of magnetism, 193

Andromeda, 314

Annual magnetic variation, 208

Annular nebulae, 320

Aphelion of earth, 36

Arago, M., 321

Arcturus, 312

Areas, Kepler's law of, 36

Asten, Von, 234, 296

Asteroids, 31

Atmosphere, 68, 73, 102, 225

Atom, vortex, 45, 46, 61
  what it is, 43
  electron, 63
  Boscovitch, 61
  hard, 61
  size of, 43

Attraction, electrical, 2, 286
  of gravitation, 13, 24, 31
  magnetic, 195


Balance, Torsion, 187

Bernoulli, 221, 341

Beta Persei, 308

Biela's comet, 296-7

Binary compound, 143
  stars, 25, 309

Biot, 138

Boscovitch atoms, 44, 138

Boyle and Marriotte's law, 76, 103

Bradley's discovery of aberration, 149

Bredichin on comets' tails, 302

Brilliancy of stars, 307, 309

British Association Report, 57, 59


Calcium, 79

Canis major, 307
  minor, 307

Capella, 312

Carbon, 48

Carboniferous period, 115

Carnot on heat, 116-18

Cassini, 307

Cause and effect, 14
  of gravitation, 1, 282-9

Cavendish experiment, 24

Centauri, 79

Centre of gravity, 325

Centrifugal force, 9, 13, 15, 30, 236-8

Centripetal force, 9, 12, 282

Cetus, 307

Chalk, 6

Challis, Prof., 74, 96, 100, 107, 151, 155,
214, 227, 311

Chemistry, 47, 336

Coal, 86, 88

Clairaut, 297

Clusters of stars, 314

Cohesion, 48

Colour, 138

Colours of stars, 308
  seven primary, 139

Comets, 291
  attracted by planets, 298
  condensation of, 292

Comets and meteors, 297
  short period, 293-4
  long period, 293-4
  tails of, 298-9
  orbits of, 293
  nucleus of, 298-9
  coma, 298-9

Compressibility of aether, 291, 315

Condensation of gases, 47

Conservation of matter, 42
  of energy, 84
  of motion, 92

Constellations, 307

Corollary, 15

Corona Borealis, 309

Corpuscles, 42, 64, 136

Corpuscular theory of light, 122

Correlation of forces, 83

Coulomb Torsion balance, 185, 187

Crookes, Sir William, 42, 136, 326, 341

Current, electric, 163
  magnetic, 192

Currents, 90

Curry, Prof., 284

Cycle of operations, 114, 116

Cygnus, 307


Dalton's atomic theory, 42

Davy, 99, 107

Day and night, 4

D'Arrest's comet, 296

Deimos, 38

Democritus, 44

Density of matter, 51
  of aether, 69
  electric, 170
  of earth, 242
  of sun, 27
  of planets, 242

Descartes, 221-2, 341

Dewar, Prof., 47

Diameter of earth, 29
  polar, 29
  equatorial, 29
  of sun, 280
  of planets, 29

Dielectric, 168, 175

Diffusion, 49

Dip, magnetic, 199

Distances of stars, 280

Diurnal variations, magnetic, 209

Dog star (Sirius), 306

Donati's comet, 298

Double stars, 308

Draco, 307

Dynamical equivalent of heat, 114
  value of light, 150

Dynamics, laws of thermo-, 114-18

Dynamo, 87, 90


Ear, 120

Earth, mass of, 235, 242
  a magnet, 196-8
  size of, 29
  rotation of, 219
  orbit of, 276
  periodic time of, 251
  gravity of, 29
  shape of, 29
  distance from sun, 242, 251
  velocity in orbit, 251

Eccentricity of orbits, 268, 276

Eclipse, 145, 148

Ecliptic, plane of, 277-9

Elasticity, 46
  of matter, 51
  of aether, 74

Electric current, 154
  potential, 170
  induction, 175
  radiation, 182
  density, 170
  energy, 179
  field, 166, 179
  lines of force, 173

Electricity, 64, 162
  two kinds of, 175
  positive, 175
  negative, 175
  laws of, 184
  theories of, 162

Electrons, 136, 163

Electro-static, 158, 164
  kinetic, 158, 164
  kinetic energy, 217
  magnetism, 192-5
  magnets, 199
  magnetic theory of light, 229
  chemical equivalents, 189, 333

Elements of matter, 47

Ellipse, 34
  Kepler's discovery of, 34

Elliptical nebulae, 320

Emission theory of light, 122

Encke's comet, 293, 296
  resisting medium, 228

Energy, 83, 84
  what it is, 83
  conservation of, 84
  transformation of, 86
  potential, 87
  kinetic, 89, 164
  radiant, 109
  electrical, 179
  and motion, 91

Engine, Carnot's heat, 116

Envelopes of comets, 298

Epicureans, 44

Equal areas, 36
  times, 36

Equator, N. and S. Poles, 29
  magnetic, 202
  terrestrial, 29

Equipotential surfaces, 171

Equivalents, electro-chemical, 189, 333

Euler, 123

Exchanges, theory of, 105

Experience, 4

Experiments of Rumford, 98
  of Michelson and Morley, 67, 227
  of Lebedew, 302
  of Nichols and Hull, 153
  of Hertz, 165
  of Faraday, 65, 285
  of M. Faye, 302
  of Joule, 114


Falling stone, 21, 29

Faraday, 45, 175, 220
  on matter, 56
  on Lines of Force, 168, 200, 203-5
  on magnetic space, 208
  on gravitation, 287
  on electricity, 332
  on induction, 176

Faye, M., 111, 302, 319

Faye's comet, 293, 296

Field, electric, 179
  magnetic, 199

Fizeau, 149, 224

Fluids, 48

Food, 89

Forbes, 121

Force, 16, 19, 90
  centrifugal, 9, 13, 236
  centripetal, 9, 12, 282
  lines of, 200

Forces, direction of the, 26
  proportion of the, 26

Foucault, 149

Franklin, 106

Fresnel, 75, 131

Frictionless medium, 17, 131, 136, 224

Fundamental medium, 54


Galaxy, 325, 346

Gaseous nebulae, 313

Gases, condensation of, 47
  liquefaction of, 47
  kinetic theory of, 49

Glazebrook, Prof., on aether and gravitation, 22

Globular clusters of stars, 314

Gravitation, law of, 61, 65
  universal, 24
  intensity of, 27
  law of proportion, 26
  cause of, 1, 282
  and binary stars, 25

Gravity, centre of, 325

Great Bear, 307

Grove, 83


Halley's comet, 296-7

Hamilton, Sir W. R., 247

Head of comets, 298

Heat is motion, 98
  a mode of motion, 107
  radiant, 109
  dynamical equivalent of, 116
  effects of, 107
  nature of, 98
  radiation of, 109
  transformation of, 87

Heat engine, Carnot's, 116
  of sun, 109
  and matter, 100
  and work, 114
  refraction of, 121

Helmholtz, Von, 45, 86

Hercules, 257, 271, 307

Herschel, Sir J., 3, 4, 7, 226, 228, 281, 299, 301, 310, 321
  Sir W., 109, 271-2, 313

Hertz, 138, 159, 182

Hicks, Prof., 13

Hodograph of planets, 247

Hot springs, 90

Huggins, 313-14

Huyghens, 54, 123, 125, 128

Hydrogen, 40, 42, 44, 60, 93, 314, 333

Hypotheses, 3, 338


Ice, 42

Identity of heat and light, 119
  light and electricity, 156, 160, 165
  aether and electricity, 331

Imponderable, 71

Impressed force, 20

Impressible aether, 78

Induction, electric, 174-5
  magnetic, 199
  Faraday's theory of, 175

Inertia of matter, 52
  of aether, 330

Intensity of light, 28, 146
  of heat, 28, 113
  of electricity, 184
  of gravity, 28

Iron, 42
  expansion by heat, 101
  contraction by cold, 102


Joule, 85, 114

Jupiter, 26, 68
  mass of, 235
  satellites of, 149, 178
  rotation of, 219
  orbital velocity of, 251, 265
  size of, 235
  distance from sun, 242, 251
  density of, 242
  and comets, 305


Kant, 317

Kelvin, Lord, 43, 71, 77, 80, 95, 216, 227
  on aether, 56-7
  on vortex atom, 63
  on compressible aether, 291, 315
  on light, 151

Kepler's laws, 32
  first, 33, 256-9
  second, 36, 260-2
  third, 37, 263-5
  on vortex motion, 221-2

Kinetic energy, 89
  electro, 217

Kirchhoff, 43


Laplace, 317
  nebular hypothesis, 317

Larmor, Dr., 22, 44, 56, 63, 93, 163
  on electrons, 284
  on aetherial physics, 22, 327-9

Lavoisier, 42

Law of gravitation, 24
  of inverse squares, 27

Laws of electricity, 184
  of light, 145
  of heat, 113
  of motion, 9, 15, 233

Lead, 88, 333

Lebedew, 32, 76, 153

Le Verrier, 25
  discovery of Neptune, 25

Leyden jar, 157

Liebnitz, 223

Light, 75
  a mode of motion, 122
  corpuscular theory of, 123
  undulatory theory of, 123, 136
  electro-magnetic theory of, 156
  path of a ray of, 144
  intensity of, 145
  reflection of, 136
  refraction of, 135
  aberration of, 149
  composition of, 139
  velocity of, 148
  zodiacal, 277
  transverse vibration of, 130

Lines of force, electric, 173
  magnetic, 201-3

Liquefaction of gases, 47

Liquid air, 47

Liquids, 48

Little Bear, 307
  Dog, 307

Lockyer, 109

Lodge, Dr., 219
  on aether density, 69
  on aether, 284, 289, 328, 332
  on electric inertia, 330
  on electricity, 64, 69, 284, 285
  on force, 17
  on gravitation, 283

Lorentz on light, 154

Lyra, 307


MacLaurin, 2, 10, 17

Magnesium, 79

Magnet, 21

Magnets, bar, 199
  moving, 211

Magnetic axis, 202
  field, 199
  lines of force, 200
  shells, 205
  equator, 202
  induction, 199
  variation, 208
  molecules of, 193
  polarity, 194

Magnetism of earth, 207-12
  of planets, 211
  cause of solar, 211
  Ampère's theory of, 193

Mars, 68, 79
  a magnet, 196
  rotation of, 219
  size of, 236
  orbital velocity of, 251
  satellites of, 178
  orbit of, 33

Mass, 27, 53, 187
  of earth, 235, 242
  of planets, 235, 242
  of sun, 190

Matter, elements of, 40
  properties of, 42, 50
  and motion, 41, 322
  conservation of, 42
  divisibility of, 44
  four states of, 48
  aetherial basis of, 48, 333
  physical constitution of, 334

Maxwell, J. C., 43, 73, 85, 151, 211
  on physical lines of force, 168, 203-5, 288
  on aether, 59, 206
  on magnetism, 205
  on electro-kinetic energy, 180, 217
  on aether, 58

Mayer, 84, 86, 114, 118

McCullagh, 75

Mechanical energy, 87

Medium, Descartes on a, 221
  Kepler on a, 222

Mercury, 68, 79
  a magnet, 196
  rotation of, 219
  eccentricity of orbit, 33
  mass of, 242
  orbital velocity of, 251

Meteorites, 95, 118

Meteors, 31, 85, 118

Michelson and Morley, 7, 67

Milky way, 79, 309, 314

Molecules, 44

Momentum, 20

Moon, 61

Motion of stars, 310
  planetary, 253
  of sun, 274
  of aether, 80
  and work, 95
  modes of, 92, 122, 163
  first law of, 15, 16, 239
  second law of, 19, 244
  third law of, 20, 251

Multiple stars, 308


Natural philosophy, 4

Nebulae and aether, 313
  structure of, 314
  spiral, 322
  annular, 320
  elliptical, 320
  planetary, 321
  spectrum of, 314
  irregular, 319

Nebular hypothesis, 317

Nebulous stars, 311

Neptune, 68
  discovery of, 25
  mass of, 235
  orbital velocity of, 251, 265
  distance from sun, 242
  a magnet, 196

Newton's coloured rings, 107
  _Optics_,72, 98, 122
  letter to Bentley, 2, 96
  Rules of Philosophy, 3
  _Principia_, 3, 7, 38
  emission theory, 123
  law of gravitation, 24
  atoms, 44
  on aether, 98

Nichols and Hull, 32, 153


Ocean, 81, 90

Operations, cycle of, 114

_Optics_, Newton's, 2, 122

Orbital motions of planets, 266

Orbit of earth, 33
  of Venus, 33

Orbits of satellites, 34
  of planets, 33-4, 266
  moon, 267
  stars, 310
  sun, 270

Origin of sun's heat, 95

Orion, 79, 307, 314, 319

Oxygen, 40, 44, 60, 93


Parallelogram of forces, 15

Pendulum, 88

Periodic times, 37

Perpetual motion, 93, 220

_Phil. Mag._, 58, 67, 71, 73, 74, 80

_Phil. Trans._, 58, 62, 64, 75

Philosophy, Rules of, 3

Phobos, 38

Physical lines of force, 203-6

Pitch of Sound, 105, 120, 139

Plane of ecliptic, 277-9

Planetoids, 31

Planets, minor, 31
  origin of, 240
  orbits of, 33, 266
  electrified bodies, 177
  masses of, 242
  relative distances of, 242
  orbital velocities of, 251
  periodic times of, 251

Platinum, 48

Pleiades, 79

Polarization, 176

Potential energy, 87

Potential, electric, 170
  magnetic, 194

Pouillet, M., 109

Poynting, 91

Pressure, aetherial, 181

Preston, Prof., 283

Prevost, theory of exchanges, 105

Primitive impulse, 9, 10, 12, 319

_Principia_, Newton's, 3, 7, 38-9, 122

Properties of matter, 42


Quantity of sun's heat, 109

Query, 18-19
  _Optics_, 72, 122


Radiant heat, 109
  energy, 115

Radiation, 104

Radius Vector, 26

Rankine, 103

Rays, actinic, 141
  dark heat, 140
  infra-red, 141
  ultra-violet, 140
  Rontgen, 341
  X, 341

Rectilinear propagation of light, 144
  of heat, 111

Reflection, 160

Refraction, 160

Relative motion of aether and matter, 224-6

Resistance to motion, 17

Resisting medium, 228

Reversible cycle, 116, 118

Rings, vortex, 45

Rival theories, 8

Rivers, 89-90

Roemer, and velocity of light, 148

Rotation of earth, 219
  of planets, 219
  of sun, 246

Rotatory motion, 93

Rucker, Prof., 59

Rules of Philosophy, 3
  first, 3
  second, 4
  third, 3, 7

Rumford, 98

Running water, 95


Satellites of Mars, 38, 178
  Jupiter, 149, 178
  Uranus, 254
  Neptune, 254

Saturn, 26-7, 68
  mass of, 235, 242
  orbital velocity of, 251, 265
  rotation of, 219
  density of, 242
  a magnet, 196
  satellites of, 178

Schuster, Prof., 8, 218, 311

Sirius, 306, 308-9

Sodium, 43

Solar system, motion of, 257, 271
  spectrum, 79, 139
  magnetism, 211

Sound, 75
  waves, 104, 120

Space, interstellar, 310, 313

Spectroscope, 47, 79

Spectrum analysis, 50, 139

Spiral nebulae, 322

Stars, fixed, 58
  number of, 11, 306
  binary, 309
  distances of, 280
  magnitude of, 306, 309
  colour of, 79, 308
  motion of, 310-11
  nebulous, 320
  proper motions of, 312
  variable, 307
  double, 308
  clusters of, 314
  orbits of, 310
  are magnets, 307

Stokes, Sir G., 69, 152, 218

String, 21

Sun, diameter of, 280
  constitution of, 79
  a magnet, 164, 198-9
  mass of, 190
  heat of, 109
  motions of, 270
  orbital velocity of, 35
  rotation of, 246
  centre of two forces, 186


Tails of comets, 300, 304
  straight, 300
  curved, 301
  multiple, 300

Tait, Prof., 18, 40-1, 88, 247

Telescope, 79

Temperature, 104-5

Terrestrial magnetism, 207-12
  gravity, 29

Theory, atomic, 44
  rules for making, 3
  undulatory, 123
  of exchanges, 105

Thermodynamics, first law of, 87, 114
  second law of, 116

Thomson, J. J., Prof., 43, 326, 335

Tidal water-power, 88

Tides, 89, 96

Torsion balance, 185

Trade winds, 96, 249

Transformation of energy, 86
  of motion, 93

Transverse vibration of light, 130

Tuning-fork, 104

Tympanum, 120

Tyndall on radiation, 104, 106
  on light, 71
  on Lines of Force, 174
  on aether, 77
  on atoms, 106
  on aether waves, 112


Ultra-violet rays, 140
  red rays, 140

Unity of universe, 322-9

Universal gravitation, 24
  aether, 58

Universe, 313, 322, 347

Uranus, 68
  mass of, 235
  density of, 242
  orbital velocity of, 265
  a magnet, 196

Ursa Major, 307
  Minor, 307


Vapour, 49

Variation, magnetic, 209-11

Velocity of light, 148
  of electric waves, 182
  of heat waves, 148
  of falling bodies, 21
  of wave motion, 76

Velocity, angular, 250

Venus, 33, 68, 79
  a magnet, 197
  mass of, 235
  rotation of, 219
  orbital velocity of, 251
  periodic time of, 251

Vibration, atomic, 75

Vibrations, transverse, 130
  longitudinal, 130
  of sound, 123

Vibratory motion, 91

Vogel, Prof., 308, 312

Vogt, Prof., 332

Volume of sun, 27

Von Asten, 234, 296

Vortex theory, 92, 337
  motion, 221-4
  atom, 93, 126, 337
  rings, 125, 337

Vortices, molecular, 103


Water waves, 124
  currents, power of, 95
  composition of, 141
  power, 88

Wave front, 128
  motion, 124, 160

Wave lengths, 120
  envelope, 112

Waves, chemical, 141
  sound, 104, 120, 124
  light, 126
  heat, 141
  electric, 159
  spherical, 112
  electro-magnetic, 165

Weight, 29, 69, 84
  variation of, 29
  pound, 30

Whewell, 3, 221

Winds, 81, 90
  energy of, 90
  trade, 225

Work, 96
  and energy, 84
  from heat, 116


Young, Thomas, 54, 64, 67, 123
  on aether, 58
  fourth hypothesis, 70
  Prof., of America, on electric space, 166


Zinc, 88

Zodiacal light, 277-9


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                    LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LTD.



                        *    *    *    *    *



Transcriber's note:

   ART. 41 is missing from the book.

   In several instances changed S, W, E into italics to be
   consistent with the rest of the book.

   Page 194: Fixed typographical error for demonstated

   Changed Figure captions so that all are of the form
   "Fig: number."

   Left unknown/misspelled word protile in appendix b

   Page 148: ... and the Index, The surname of Ole Christensen
   Rømer is spelled multiple times Roemer and once as Römer in
   the index. Changed Römer to the English spelling "Roemer."





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