By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue - A Treates, noe shorter than necessarie, for the Schooles
Author: Hume, Alexander
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue - A Treates, noe shorter than necessarie, for the Schooles" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

{Transcriber’s Note:

All material in parentheses () or square brackets [], including the
(_sic_) notations, is from the 1865 original. Material added by the
transcriber is in braces {}.
Irregularities in chapter numbering are explained at the end of the
editor’s Notes.}

                     OF THE

              OF THE BRITAN TONGUE

    A Treates, noe shorter then necessarie,

               for the Schooles,


                ALEXANDER HUME.

Edited from the Original MS. in the British Museum,
              HENRY B. WHEATLEY.

Published for the Early English Text Society,
by Trübner & Co., 60, Paternoster Row.

Printed by Stephen Austin.


The following Tract is now printed for the first time from the original
Manuscript in the old Royal Collection in the Library of the British
Museum (Bibl. Reg. 17 A. xi). It is written on paper, and consists of
forty-five leaves, the size of the pages being 5-3/4 in. by 3-3/4 in.
The dedication, the titles, and the last two lines, are written with a
different coloured ink from that employed in the body of the MS., and
appear to be in a different handwriting. It is probable that the tract
was copied for the author, but that he himself wrote the dedication to
the King.

The Manuscript is undated, and we have no means of ascertaining the
exact time when it was written; but from a passage in the dedication to
James I. of England, it is fair to infer that it was written shortly
after the visit of that monarch to Scotland, subsequent to his accession
to the throne of the southern kingdom, that is, in the year 1617. This
would make it contemporaneous with Ben Jonson’s researches on the
English Grammar; for we find, in 1629, James Howell (Letters, Sec. V.
27) writing to Jonson that he had procured Davies’ Welch Grammar for
him, “to add to those many you have.” The grammar that Jonson had
prepared for the press was destroyed in the conflagration of his study;
so that the posthumous work we now possess consists merely of materials,
which were printed for the first time in 1640, three years after the
author’s death.

The Dedication of this Tract is merely signed _Alexander Hume_, and
contains no other clue to the authorship. Curiously enough there were
four Alexander Humes living about the same time, and three of them were
educated at St. Mary’s College, St. Andrew’s; only two, however, became
authors, the first of whom was Minister of Logie, and wrote _Hymnes or
Sacred Songes_. There can be little doubt, however, that the present
grammar was written by the Alexander Hume who was at one time Head
Master of the High School, Edinburgh, and author of _Grammatica Nova_.

From Dr. Steven’s History of the High School, Edinburgh, and from
M’Crie’s Life of Melville, I have been enabled to extract and put
together the following scanty particulars of our author’s life:--The
time and place both of his birth and of his death are alike unknown;
but he himself, on the title of one of his works, tells us that he was
distantly connected with the ancient and noble family of Home, in the
county of Berwick. He was educated at the school of Dunbar, under the
celebrated Andrew Simson, and in due time was enrolled a student in St.
Mary’s College, St. Andrew’s, and then took the degree of Bachelor of
Arts in 1574. He came to England, and was incorporated at Oxford January
26, 1580-81, as “M. of A. of St. Andrew’s, in Scotland.”[1] He spent
sixteen years in England, partly engaged in studying and partly in
teaching. During the latter part of this term he was a schoolmaster at
Bath, as appears from Dr. Hill’s answer to him, published in 1592; and
the fact of his residence in this city is corroborated at page 18 of
the present treatise. He then returned to Scotland, having gained a
reputation for the excellence of his learning and for the power he
possessed of communicating it to others. On the dismissal of Hercules
Rollock, Rector of the High School, Edinburgh, from his office, Hume was
unanimously chosen to succeed him, and his appointment was dated 23rd
April, 1596. During his incumbency the High School underwent many
changes, and received the form which it retains to the present day. In
March, 1606, Hume resigned his office to become principal master in the
grammar school founded a short time previously, at Prestonpans, by the
munificent John Davidson, minister of the parish. The following document
gives an account of Hume’s admission to this school:--

    {Transcriber’s Note:
    In this passage, caret ^ means that the following single letter,
    or bracketed group of letters, was printed in superscript.}

  “At hadintoun y^e 25 of Junij 1606. The q^{lk} day M^r Jo^n ker
  minister of y^e panis producit y^e prēntat^one of M^r Alex^r
  hoome to be schoolm^r of y^e schoole of y^e panis foundit be M^r J^o
  Davedsone for instructioune of the youth in hebrew, greek and latine
  subscryvet be yais to quhome M^r Jo^n davedsone gave power to noiãt
  y^e man q^{lk} prēntat^one y^e prēbrie allowit and ordenit y^e
  moderator & clerk to subscrive y^e samine in y^r names q^{lk} yay
  ded. As also ordeanit y^t y^e said kirk of y^e panis suld be visited
  upon y^e eight day of Julij next to come for admissione of y^e said
  M^r Alex^r to y^e said office. The visitors wer appoyntit M^r Ar^d
  oswald M^r Robert Wallace M^r George greir M^r andro blackhall & M^r
  andro Maghye to teach.”----“At Saltprestoun July 8, 1606. The haill
  parischoners being poisit how yay lyckit of y^e said M^r Alex^r w^t
  vniforme consent being particularly inqwyrit schew y^r guid lycking
  of him and y^r willingnes to accept and receiv him to y^e said
  office Q^rupon y^e said M^r Alex^r wes admittit to y^e said
  office & in token of y^e approba^one both of visitors & of y^e
  parischonēs p^rnt both y^e ane and y^e vother tuik y^e said M^r
  Alex^r be y^e hand & y^e haill magistratis gentlemen and remanēt
  parischoners p^rnt faithfullie p^rmisit to cõcurre for y^e
  furtherãce of y^e work y^t yit restis to be done to y^e said schoole
  as also to keipt y^e said M^r Alex^r and his scholleris skaithlis
  finallie for farther authorizing of y^e said (_sic_) it wes thought
  meitt y^t y^e haill visitors & parichonēs p^rnt suld enter y^e
  said M^r Alex^r into y^e said schoole & y^r heir him teache q^{lk}
  also wes doone.” (Rec. of Presb. of Haddington).[2]

    [Footnote 1: Wood’s Fasti Oxonienses, by Bliss, I., 217.]

    [Footnote 2: M’Crie’s Life of Melville, vol. ii., p. 509.]

The school rapidly rose to distinction under Hume, but in 1615 he
relinquished his position, and accepted the Mastership of the Grammar
School of Dunbar, then in high repute, and the very same school in which
he had commenced his own education. When occupied at Dunbar, Hume had
the honour of being the first who, in a set speech, welcomed James VI.
back to his Scottish dominions, after an absence of fourteen years. The
King stopped on his way northward from Berwick on the 13th of May, 1617,
at Dunglass Castle the residence of the Earl of Home, and Hume, as the
orator of the day, delivered a Latin address.

The date of Hume’s death is not known; but he was witness to a deed on
the 27th of November, 1627; and later still, in the records of the Privy
Council of Scotland, 8th and 16th July, 1630, Mr. D. Laing tells me that
there is a memorandum of the King’s letter anent the Grammar of Mr.
Alexander Hume, “schoolmaster at Dunbar.” With regard to his private
life, we know that he was married to Helen Rutherford, and had two sons
and a daughter born to him in Edinburgh between the years 1601 and 1606.
He was the father of three more children, also two sons and a daughter,
between 1608 and 1610, in the county of East Lothian.

Hume was a master in controversy, and wrote on subjects of polemical
divinity; but his mind was principally drawn towards language and the
rules of its construction. He especially gave much of his time to the
study of Latin grammar, and feeling dissatisfied with the elementary
books which were then in use, he drew up one himself, which he submitted
to the correction of Andrew Melville and other learned friends, and
published in 1612 under the title of _Grammatica Nova_. The object he
proposed to himself was to exclude from the schools the grammar of the
Priscian of the Netherlands, the celebrated John Van Pauteren, but his
work did not give the satisfaction which he had expected. He succeeded,
however, in his wishes after many reverses, by the help of Alexander
Seton, Earl of Dunfermline, Chancellor of Scotland, and by authority
both of Parliament and of the Privy Council his grammar was enjoined to
be used in all the schools of the kingdom. But through the interest of
the bishops, and the steady opposition of Ray, his successor at the High
School, the injunction was rendered of no effect. He would not, however,
be beaten, and we find that in 1623 he was again actively engaged in
adopting measures to secure the introduction of his grammar into every
school in North Britain where the Latin language was taught.

The following is a list of our author’s works:--

A Reioynder to Doctor Hil concerning the Descense of Christ into Hell.
    By Alexander Hume Maister of Artes. 4o.

    No place of printing, printer’s name, or date, but apparently
    printed at London in 1592 or 1593. Dedicated to Robert Earl of
    Essex. Although this is the first work that I can find attributed
    to Alexander Hume, yet there is no doubt that there must have been
    a former one of which we have no record, and the title and
    contents of Dr. Hill’s book would lead us to this conclusion--“The
    Defence of the Article. Christ descended into Hell. With arguments
    obiected against the truth of the same doctrine of one Alexander
    Humes. By Adam Hyll, D of Divinity. London 1592. 4o. This little
    volume consists of two parts; 1st, the original sermon preached by
    Hill 28th February, 1589; 2nd, the reply to Hume. At p. 33, the
    end of the sermon, is this note, “This sermon ... was answered by
    one Alexander Huns, Schoolemaester of Bath, whose answere wholy
    foloweth, with a replye of the author” ... At p. 33, “The reply of
    Adam Hill to the answere made by Alexander Humes to a sermon,”

A Diduction of the true and Catholik meaning of our Sauiour his words,
    _this is my bodie_, in the institution of his laste Supper through
    the ages of the Church from Christ to our owne dayis. Whereunto is
    annexed a Reply to M. William Reynolds in defence of M. Robert Bruce
    his arguments on this subject: displaying M. John Hammilton’s
    ignorance and contradictions: with sundry absurdities following upon
    the Romane interpretation of these words. Compiled by Alexander
    Hume, Maister of the high Schoole of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Printed
    by Robert Waldegrave, Printer to the King’s Maiestie, 1602. Cum
    Privilegio Regis. 8o.

Prima Elementa Grammaticæ in usum juventutis Scoticæ digesta. Edinburgi,
    1612. 8o.

Grammatica Nova in usum juventutis Scoticæ ad methodum revocata.
    Edinburgi, 1612. 8o.

Bellum Grammaticale, ad exemplar Mri. Alexandri Humii. Edinburgi,
    excud. Gideon Lithgo, Anno Dom. 1658 8o. Several later editions.

    This humorous Grammatical Tragi-Comedy was not written by Hume,
    but only revised by him.

King James’s Progresses, collected and Published by John Adamson
    afterwards Principal of the University of Edinburgh, entitled--
    The Muses Welcome to the High and Mighty Prince James &c. At his
    Majesties happie Returne to Scotland In Anno 1617. Edinburgh 1618,

    At page 1: “His Majestie came from Bervik to Dunglas the xiij day
    of Maye, where was delivered this [latin] speach following by A.
    Hume.”--At page 16, there is also a couple of Latin verses signed
    “Alexander Humius.”

MS. in the British Museum. The present work.

MS. in the Advocates’ Library:--

    Rerum Scoticarum Compendium, in usum Scholarum. Per Alexandrum
    Humium ex antiqua et nobili gente Humiorum in Scotia, a primâ stirpe
    quinta sobole oriundum. This work is dated October 1660, and is
    therefore merely a transcript. It is an epitome of Buchanan’s
    History, and Chr. Irvine in Histor. Scot. Nomenclatura, calls it
    Clavis in Buchananum, and Bishop Nicholson (Scottish Hist. Lib.)
    praises its Latin style.

The following three works are inserted by Dr. Steven in his list of
Hume’s writings, and have been supposed to be his by M’Crie and others;
but Mr. D. Laing believes “there can be no doubt, from internal
evidence, that the true author was Alexander Hume, the poet, who became
minister of Logie, near Stirling, in 1597, and who died in December,
1609.” In Wood’s Athenæ Oxonienses, by Bliss, i., 624, it is stated that
all three of them “were printed in London in 1594, in October,” but this
must, I think, be a mistake.

Ane Treatise of Conscience, quhairin divers secreits concerning that
    subject are discovered. At Edinburgh, printed by Robert Walde-grave,
    Printer to the King’s Maiestie 1594. 8o.

Of the Felicitie of the world to come, unsavorie to the obstinate,
    alluring to such as are gone astray, and to the faithfull full of
    consolation. Edinb. 1594. 8o.

Four Discourses, of Praises unto God, to wit, 1 in Praise of the Mercy
    and Goodness of God. 2 of his justice. 3 of his Power. 4 of his
    Providence. Edinb. 1594. 8o.

In conclusion, my acknowledgments are due to David Laing, Esq., who
has kindly suggested some corrections in the list of Hume’s works, in
addition to what is noted above.

    London, February, 1865.

       *       *       *       *       *

             To the maest excellent
            in all princelie wisdom,
             learning, and heroical
                  artes, JAMES,
                of Great Britan,
                  France, and
             Defender of the faeth,
             grace, mercie, peace,
               honoure here and
               glorie hereafter.

May it please your maest excellent M_ajestie_, I, your grace’s humble
servant, seeing sik uncertentie in our men’s wryting, as if a man wald
indyte one letter to tuentie of our best wryteres, nae tuae of the
tuentie, without conference, wald agree; and that they quhae might
perhapes agree, met rather be custom then knawlege, set my selfe, about
a yeer syne, to seek a remedie for that maladie. Quhen I had done,
refyning it, I fand in Barret’s Alvearie,[3] quhilk is a dictionarie
Anglico-latinum, that Sr. Thomas Smith,[4] a man of nae less worth
then learning, Secretarie to Queen Elizabeth, had left a learned and
judiciouse monument on the same subject. Heer consydering my aun
weaknes, and meannes of my person, began to fear quhat might betyed my
sillie boat in the same seas quhaer sik a man’s ship was sunck in the
gulf of oblivion. For the printeres and wryteres of this age, caring for
noe more arte then may win the pennie, wil not paen them selfes to knau
whither it be orthographie or skuiographie that doeth the turne: _and_
schoolmasteres, quhae’s sillie braine will reach no farther then the
compas of their cap, content them selfes with αὐτὸς ἔφη my master said
it. Quhil I thus hovered betueen hope _and_ despare, the same Barret,
in the letter E, myndes me of a star _and_ constellation to calm al
the tydes of these seaes, if it wald please the supreme Majestie to
command the universitie to censure and ratifie, and the schooles to
teach the future age right and wrang, if the present will not rectius
sapere. Heere my harte laggared on the hope of your M_ajesties_
judgement, quhom God hath indeued with light in a sorte supernatural, if
the way might be found to draue your eie, set on high materes of state,
to take a glim of a thing of so mean contemplation, and yet necessarie.
Quhiles I stack in this claye, it pleased God to bring your M_ajestie_
hame to visit your aun Ida. Quher I hard that your G_race_, in the
disputes of al purposes quherwith, after the exemple of _th_e wyse in
former ages, you use to season your moat, ne quid tibi temporis sine
fructu fluat, fel sundrie tymes on this subject reproving your
courteoures, quha on a new conceat of finnes sum tymes spilt (as they
cal it) the king’s language. Quhilk thing it is reported that your
M_ajestie_ not onlie refuted with impregnable reasones, but alsoe fel
on Barret’s opinion that you wald cause the universities mak an Inglish
gra_m_mar to repres the insolencies of sik green heades. This, quhen I
hard it, soe secunded my hope, that in continent I maed moien hou to
convoy this litle treates to your M_ajesties_ sight, to further (if
perhapes it may please your G_race_) that gud motion. In school materes,
the least are not the least, because to erre in them is maest absurd.
If the fundation be not sure, the maer gorgiouse the edifice the grosser
the falt. Neither is it the least parte of a prince’s praise, curasse
rem literariam, and be his auctoritie to mend the misses that ignorant
custom hath bred. Julius Cæsar was noe less diligent to eternize his
name be the pen then be the suord. Neither thought he it unworthie of
his paines to wryte a grammar in the heat of the civil weer, quhilk was
to them as the English gram_m_ar is to us; _and_, as it seemes noe less
then necessarie, nor our’s is now. Manie kinges since that tyme have
advanced letteres be erecting schooles, and doting revennues to their
ma_in_tenance; but few have had the knaulege them selfes to mend, or
be tuiched with, the defectes or faltes crept into the boueles of
learning, among quhom JAMES the first, ane of your M_ajesties_ worthie
progenitoures, houbeit repressed be the iniquitie of the tyme, deserved
noe smal praise; and your M_ajesties_ self noe less, co_m_manding, at
your first entrie to your Roial scepter, to reform the grammar, and to
teach Aristotle in his aun tongue, quhilk hes maed the greek almaest as
common in Scotland as the latine. In this alsoe, if it please your
M_ajestie_ to put to your hand, you have al the windes of favour in your
sail; account, that al doe follow; judgement, that al doe reverence;
wisdom, that al admire; learning, that stupified our scholes hearing
a king borne, from tuelfe yeeres ald alwayes occupyed in materes of
state, moderat in theological and philosophical disputationes, to the
admiration of all that hard him, and speciallie them quha had spent al
their dayes in those studies.

    [Footnote 3: “An Alvearie or Quadruple Dictionarie, containing
    four sundrie tongues, namelie, English, Latine, Greeke and French
    ... by Jo. Baret. _London_, 1580.” Folio. An edition was published
    in 1573, with three languages only, the Greek not being included.]

    [Footnote 4: “De recta et emendata Linguæ Anglicæ Scriptione
    Dialogus. _Lutetiæ_, 1568.” 4to.]

Accept, dred Soveragne, your pover servantes myte. If it can confer anie
thing to the montan of your Majesties praise, and it wer but a clod, use
it _and_ the auctour as your’s. Thus beseeking your grace to accep my
mint, and pardon my miss, commites your grace to the king of grace, to
grace your grace with al graces spiritual _and_ temporal.

Your M_ajesties_
  humble servant,
    Alexander Hume.


             OF THE BRITAN TONGUE;

                A TREATES, NOE



                 THE SCHOOLES.


Cap. 1.

1. To wryte orthographicallie ther are to be considered the symbol, the
thing symbolized, and their congruence. Geve me leave, gentle reader,
in a new art, to borrow termes incident to the purpose, quhilk, being
defyned, wil further understanding.

2. The symbol, then, I cal the written letter, quhilk representes to the
eie the sound that the mouth sould utter.

3. The thing symbolized I cal the sound quhilk the mouth utteres quhen
the eie sees the symbol.

4. The congruence between them I cal the instrument of the mouth,
quhilk, when the eie sees the symbol, utteres the sound.

5. This is the ground of al orthographie, leading the wryter from the
sound to the symbol, and the reader from the symbol to the sound. As,
for exemple, if I wer to wryte God, the tuich of the midle of the tongue
on the roofe of the mouth befoer the voual, and the top of the tongue on
the teeth behind the voual, myndes me to wryte it g_o_d. The voual is
judged be the sound, as shal be shaued hereafter. This is the hardest
lesson in this treates, and may be called the key of orthographie.


Cap. 2.

1. We, as almaest al Europ, borrow our symboles from the Romanes.
Quherforr, to rectefie our aun, first it behoves us to knaw their’s.
Thei are in nu_m_ber 23: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q,
r, s, t, u, x, y, and z.

2. To omit the needless questiones of their order and formes; of them,
five be vouales, ane a noat of aspiration, and all the rest consonantes.

3. A voual is the symbol of a sound maed without the tuiches of the

4. They are distinguished the ane from the other be delating and
contracting the mouth, and are a, e, i, o, u.

5. Quhat was the right roman sound of them is hard to judge, seeing now
we heer nae romanes; and other nationes sound them after their aun
idiomes, and the latine as they sound them.

6. But seeing our earand is with our aun britan, we purpose to omit
curiosities, _et_ quæ nihil nostra intersunt. Our aun, hou-be it
dialectes of ane tong, differing in the sound of them, differ alsoe in
pronuncing the latine. Quherfoer, to make a conformitie baeth in latine
and English, we man begin with the latine.

7. A, the first of them, the south soundes as beath thei and we sound it
in bare, nudus; and we, as beath thei and we sound it in bar, obex.

8. But without partialitie (for in this earand I have set my compas to
the loadstar of reason), we pronunce it better. If I am heer deceaved,
reason sall deceave me.

9. For we geve it alwaies ane sound beath befoer and behind the
consonant: thei heer ane and ther an other. As in amabant, in the first
tuae syllabes they sound it as it soundes in bare, and in the last as it
sounds in bar. Quherupon I ground this argument. That is the better
sound, not onelie of this, but alsoe of al other letteres, q_uhi_lk is
alwayes ane. But we sound it alwayes ane, and therfoer better. Ad that
their sound of it is not far unlyke the sheepes bae, q_uhi_lk the greek
symbolizes be η not α, βη not βα. See Eustat. in Homer.

10. Of this letter the latines themselfes had tuae other sounds
differing the ane from the other, and beath from this, quhilk they
symbolized be adding an other voual, æ and au. And these they called

11. The diphthong they defyne to be the sound of tuae vouales coalescing
into ane sound, quhilk definition in au is plaen, in æ obscurer as now
we pronunce it, for now we sound it generallie lyke the voual e, without
sound of the a, q_uhi_lk, notwithstanding is the principal voual in this
diphthong sound. Questionles at the first it semes to have had sum
differing sound from a, sik as we pronunce in stean, or the south in
stain. But this corruption is caryed with a stronger tyde then reason
can resist, and we wil not stryve with the stream.

14. E followes, q_uhi_lk in reason sould have but ane sound, for without
doubt the first intent was to geve everie sound the awn symbol, and
everie symbol the awn sound. But as now we sound it in quies and
quiesco, the judiciouse ear may discern tuae soundes. But because
heer we differ not, I wil acquiess. My purpose is not to deal with
impossibilities, nor to mend al crookes, but to conform (if reason wil
conform us) the south and north beath in latine and in English.

15. Af this voual ryseth tuae diphthonges, ei and eu, quhilk beath
standes wel with the definition, sect. 11.

16. Of the next, i, we differ farder, and the knot harder to louse,
for nether syde wantes sum reason. Thei in mihi, tibi, and sik otheres,
pronunce it as it soundes in bide, manere; we as it soundes in bid,

17. Among the ancientes I fynd sum groundes for their sound. Cic. epist.
fam. lib. 9, epis. 22, avoues that bini, in latin, and βίνει in Greek,
had ane sound. And Varro, with sundrie ancientes, wrytes domineis and
serveis, for dominis and servis, quhilk is more lyke the sound of bide
then bid. If this argument reached as wel to i short as i lang, and if
we wer sure how ει was pronunced in those dayes, this auctoritie wald
over-weegh our reason; but seing i, in mihi, _et_c., in the first is
short, and in the last co_m_mon, and the sound of ei uncertan, I stand
at my reason, sect. 9, q_uhi_lk is as powerful heer for i as ther for a.
They pronunce not i in is and quis, id and quid, in and quin, as they
pronunce it in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, _et_c., and therfoer not right.

18. As for o, in latin, we differ not; u, the south pronu_n_ces quhen
the syllab beginnes or endes at it, as eu, teu for tu, and eunum meunus
for unum munus, q_uhi_lk, because it is a diphthong sound, and because
they them selfes, quhen a consonant followes it, pronunce it other
wayes, I hoep I sal not need argumentes to prove it wrang, and not be
a pure voual.


Cap. 3.

1. Of a, in our tongue we have four soundes, al so differing ane from an
other, that they distinguish the verie signification of wordes, as, a
tal man, a gud tal, a horse tal.

2. Quherfoer in this case I wald co_m_mend to our men the imitation of
the greek and latin, quho, to mend this crook, devysed diphthongs. Let
the simplest of these four soundes, or that q_uhi_lk is now in use,
stand with the voual, and supplie the rest with diphthonges; as, for
exemple, I wald wryte the king’s hal with the voual a; a shour of hael,
with ae; hail marie, with ai; and a heal head, as we cal it, quhilk the
English cales a whole head, with ea. And so, besydes the voual, we have
of this thre diphthonges, tuae with a befoer, ae and ai, and ane w_i_th
the e befoer, ea. Ad to them au, howbeit of a distinct sound; as,
knaulege with us, in the south knowlege.

3. These and al other diphthonges I wald counsel the teacheres not to
name be the vouales quherof they are maed, but be the sound q_uhi_lk
they maek, for learneres wil far maer easelie take the sound from the
mouth of the teacher, then maek it them selves of the vouales

4. Of e, we have tuae soundes, q_uhi_lk it is hard to judge q_uhi_lk is
simplest; as, an el, ulna; and an el, anguilla; hel, infernus; and an
hel, calx pedis. Heer I wald com_m_end to our men quhae confoundes these
the imitation of the south, q_uhi_lk doth wel distinguish these soundes,
wryting the el, ulna, with the voual e, and eel, anguilla, with the
diphthong ee. I am not ignorant that sum symbolizes this sound w_i_th a
diphthong made of ie; eie, oculus; hiel, fiel, miel, _et_c. Here I am
indifferent, and onelie wishes that the ane be used; let the advysed
judge make choise of q_uhi_lk, for my awne paert I lyke the last best;
1. becaus eie, oculus, can not wel be symbolized ee; 2. because the
greekes expresse η be εε, q_uhi_lk, as appeares be the Ioneanes
and Doreanes, drawes neerar to α, than ε.

5. Of i, also, our idiom receaves tuae soundes, as in a man’s wil, and
the wil of a fox. Heer, also, I wald have our men learne of the south,
for these soundes they wel distinguish, wryting wil, fil, mil, stil,
with i; and wyl, fyl, myl, styl, with y.

6. Heer I see be Barrat, in his Alvearie, that sum wald be at
symbolizing these soundes, the ane with the greek diphthong ει, and
the other with ᴉ inverted; as, rειd, equitare; bειd, manere;
rᴉd, legere; hᴉd, cavere. In this opinion I se an eye of judgement,
and therfoer wil not censure it, except I saw the auctour’s whole drift.
Onelie for my awn parte I will avoid al novelties, and content my self
with the letteres q_uhi_lk we have in use. And seeing we have no other
use of y distinguished from i, condiscend to the opinion of the south
using i for ane, and y for the other.

7. O, we sound al alyk. But of it we have sundrie diphthonges: oa, as
to roar, a boar, a boat, a coat; oi, as coin, join, foil, soil; oo, as
food, good, blood; ou, as house, mouse, &c. Thus, we com_m_onlie wryt
mountan, fountan, q_uhi_lk it wer more etymological to wryt montan,
fontan, according to the original.

8. In this diphthong we co_m_mit a grosse errour, saving better
judgement, spelling how, now, and siklyk with w, for if w be (as it sal
appear, quhen we cum to the awn place of it) a consonant, it can noe
wayes coalesse into a diphthong sound, sik as this out of controversie

9. U, the last of this rank, the south, as I have said in the latin
sound of it, pronu_n_ces eu, we ou, both, in my simple judgement, wrang,
for these be diphthong soundes, and the sound of a voual sould be
simple. If I sould judge, the frensh sound is neerest the voual sound
as we pronu_n_ce it in mule and muse.

10. Of it we have a diphthong not yet, to my knawlege, observed of anie;
and, for my awn parte, I am not wel resolved neither how to spel it, nor
name it. Onelie I see it in this, to bou, a bow. I wait not quhither I
sould spel the first buu, or the last boau. As, for exemple, if Roben
Hud wer nou leving, he wer not able to buu his aun bou, or to bou his
aun boau. And therfoer this with al the rest, hou be it in other I have
more for me, I leave to the censure of better judgement.


Cap. 4.

1. This for the vouales, and diphthonges made of them without the
tuiches of the mouth. Now followe the consonantes.

2. A consonant is a letter symbolizing a sound articulat that is broaken
with the tuiches of the mouth.

3. The instrumentes of the mouth, quherbe the vocal soundes be broaken,
be in number seven. The nether lip, the upper lip, the outward teeth,
the inward teeth, the top of the tongue, the midle tong, and roof of the
mouth. Of these, thre be, as it were, ha_m_meres stryking, and the rest
stiddies, kepping the strakes of the ha_m_meres.

4. The ham_m_eres are the nether lip, the top of the tongue, and the
midle tongue. The stiddies the overlip, the outward teeth, the inward
teeth, and the roofe of the mouth.

5. The nether lip stryking on the overlip makes b, m, p, and on the
teeth it makes f and v.

6. The top of the tongue stryking on the inward teeth formes d, l, n, r,
s, t, and z.

7. The midle tongue stryking on the rouf of the mouth formes the rest,
c, g, k, j, q, and x, and so we have 18 consonantes borrowed of the

8. These they borrow al from the greekes, saving j and v, quhilk our age
soundes other wayes then it seemes the romanes did; for Plutarch, more
then 100 yeeres after Christ, expressing the sound q_uhi_lk they had in
his tyme, symbolizes them neerar the sound of the vouales quherof they
are maed then now we sound them in latin, for in Galba he symbolizes
junius vindex, ἰόυνιος ὀύινδεξ, q_uhi_lk, if then it had sounded as
now we sound it, he sould rather have written it with _gamma_ and
_beta_, γόυνιος βίνδεξ.

9. We have in our use the sam soundes q_uhi_lk it seemes these
consonantes had in Plutarch’s dayes, as in yallou, winter. Quhilk,
seeing now they are worn out of the latin use, my counsel is that we
leave the sound of them q_uhi_lk now is in the latin use to the latines,
and take as our’s the sound q_uhi_lk they have left, and geve to the
sound, q_uhi_lk now we use in latin, the latin symbol; as, jolie jhon;
vertue is not vain; and to the soundes quhilk they have left the
symboles q_uhi_lk we have usurped to that end; as, yallou, youk;
water, wyne.

10. And heer, to put our men af their errour quho had wont to symboliz
yallou with an ȝ, and to put noe difference betueen v and w, ȝ is
a dental consonant, broaken betueen the top of the tongue and root of
the teeth; yal, a guttural sound, made be a mynt of the tongue to the
roofe of the mouth, and therfoer the organes being so far distant, and
the tuich so diverse, this symbol can be no reason serve that sound, nor
nane of that kynd.

11. As for v and w, seeing we have in our idiom, besyd the latin sound,
an other never hard in latin, as now it is pronu_n_ced, I can not but
com_m_end the wisdom of the south, q_uhi_lk gave the latin sound their
awn symbol, and took to our sound a symbol quhilk they use not. Lyke was
their wisdom in j and y; for as the latines usurped the voual i for a
consonant in their use, q_uhi_lk the greekes had not, so they usurped y,
a voual not mikle different from i, for the correspondent sound, not
used in the latin as now it is pronu_n_ced.

12. Heerfoer, for distinctiones of both sound and symbol, I wald commend
the symbol and name of i and u to the voual sound; as, indifferent,
unthankful; the symbols of j and v to the latin consonantes, and their
names to be jod and vau; as, vain jestes; and the symboles y and w to
our English soundes, and their names to be ye and we, or yod and wau;
as, yonder, wel, yallou, wool.

13. Now remaineth h, q_uhi_lk we have called a noat of aspiration, cap.
2, sect. 2, and is, in deed, noe voual, because with a consonant it
makes noe sound; as, ch; nor consonant, because it is pronu_n_ced
without the tuich of the mouth; as, ha.

14. It may affect al vouales _and_ diphthonges; as, hand, hen, hind,
hose, hurt, hail, hautie, health, heel, heifer, _etc._ But behind the
voual in our tong (so far as yet I can fynd) it hath no use. Of
consonantes, it affecteth g beyond the voual; as, laugh; p befoer the
voual; as, phason; s and t also befoer the voual; as, think, shame.
With c we spil the aspiration, tur_n_ing it into an Italian chirt; as,
charitie, cherrie, of quhilk hereafter.


Cap. 5.

1. Now I am cum to a knot that I have noe wedg to cleave, and wald be
glaed if I cold hoep for help. Ther sould be for everie sound that can
occur one symbol, and of everie symbol but one onlie sound. This reason
and nature craveth; and I can not but trow but that the worthie
inventoures of this divyne facultie shot at this mark.

2. But, contrarie to this sure ground, I waet not be quhat corruption,
we see, not onelie in our idiom, but in the latin alsoe, one symbol to
have sundrie soundes, ye, and that in one word; as, lego, legis.

3. First, to begin with c, it appeeres be the greekes, quho ever had
occasion to use anie latin word, quharein now we sound c as s, in their
tymes it sounded k; for Cicero, thei wryt Kikero; for Cæsar, Kaisar; and
Plut., in Galba, symbolizes principia, πρινκιπια.

4. This sound of it we, as the latines, also keepe befoer a, o, and u;
as, canker, conduit, cumber. But, befoer e and i, sum tymes we sound it,
with the latin, lyke an s; as, cellar, certan, cease, citie, circle,

5. Behind the voual, if a consonant kep it, we sound it alwayes as a k;
as, occur, accuse, succumb, acquyre. If it end the syllab, we ad e, and
sound it as an s; as, peace, vice, solace, temperance; but nether for
the idle e, nor the sound of the s, have we anie reason; nether daer I,
with al the oares of reason, row against so strang a tyde. I hald it
better to erre with al, then to stryve with al and mend none.

6. This consonant, evin quher in the original it hes the awne sound, we
turn into the chirt we spak of, cap. 4, sect. 14, quhilk, indeed, can be
symbolized with none, neither greek nor latin letteres; as, from cano,
chant; from canon, chanon; from castus, chast; from κυριακὴ, a church,
of q_uhi_lk I hard doctour Laurence, the greek professour in Oxfoord, a
man bothe of great learni_n_g and judgement, utter his opinion to this
sense, and (excep my memorie fael me) in these wordes: κυριακὴ ut
βασιλικὴ suppresso substantivo ὀικία domus domini est. Unde nostrum
derivatur, quod Scoti et Angli boreales recte, pronu_n_ciant a kyrk, nos
corrupte a church.

7. Yet, notwithstanding that it is barbarouse, seing it is more usual in
our tongue then can be mended befoer the voual, as chance, and behind
the voual, as such, let it be symbolized, as it is symbolized with ch,
hou beit nether the c nor the h hath anie affinitie with that sound;
1, because it hath bene lang soe used; and 2, because we have no other
mean to symbolize it, except it wer with a new symbol, q_uhi_lk it will
be hard to bring in use.

8. Now, quheras ch in nature is c asperat, as it soundes in charus and
chorus; and seing we have that sound also in use, as licht, micht; if I
had bene at the first counsel, my vote wald have bene to have geven ch
the awn sound. But as now the case standes, ne quid novandum sit, quod
non sit necesse, I not onlie consent, but also com_m_end the wisdom of
the south, quho, for distinction, wrytes light, might, with gh and
referres ch to the other sound, how be it improperlie, and this
distinction I com_m_end to our men, quho yet hes not satis attente
observed it.

9. Next cumes g, howbe it not so deformed as c; for, althogh we see it
evin in latin, and that, in one word (as is said cap. 5, sect. 2),
distorted to tuo sonndes, yet both may stand with the nature of the
symbol and differ not in the instrumentes of the mouth, but in the form
of the tuich, as the judiciouse ear may mark in ago, agis; agam, ages.

10. This consonant, in latin, never followes the voual; befoer a, o, u,
it keepes alwayes the awn sound, and befoer e and i breakes it.

11. But with us it may both begin and end the syllab; as, gang; it may,
both behind and befoer, have either sound; as, get, gist, gin, giant.

12. These the south hath providentlie minted to distinguish tuo wayes,
but hes in deed distinguished noe way, for the first sum hath used tuo
gg; as, egg, legg, bigg, bagg; for the other dg; as, hedge, edge,
bridge; but these ar not κατὰ πάντος. Gyles, nomen viri, can not be
written dgiles; nor giles doli, ggiles; nether behind the voual ar they
general; age, rage, suage, are never wrytten with dg. Quherfoer I
conclud that, seeing nether the sound nor the symbol hath anie reason to
be sundrie, without greater auctoritie, nor the reach of a privat wit,
this falt is incorrigible.

13. Here I am not ignorant quhat a doe the learned make about the
symboles of c, g, k and q, that they be al symboles, but of one sound;
but I wil not medle in that question, being besyde my purpose, q_uhi_lk
is not to correct the latin symboles, but to fynd the best use of them
in our idiom.

14. T, the last of these misused souldioures, keepes alwayes it’s aun
nature, excep it be befoer tio; as, oration, declamation, narration; for
we pronunce not tia and tiu as it is in latin. Onelie let it be heer
observed that if an s preceed tio, the t keepes the awn nature, as in
question, suggestion, _et_c.

15. Thus have I breeflie handled the letteres and their soundes, quhilk,
to end this parte, I wald wish the printeres, in their a, b, c, to
expresse thus:--a, ae, ai, au, ea, b, c, d, e, ee, ei, eu, f, g, h, i,
j, k, l, m, n, o, oa, oo, ou, p, q, r, s, t, u, ui, v, w, x, y, z, and
the masteres teaching their puples to sound the diphthonges, not be the
vouales quharof they be made, but be the sound quhilk they mak in
speaking; lykwayes I wald have them name w, not duble u nor v, singl u,
as now they doe; but the last, vau or ve, and the first, wau or we; and
j, for difference of the voual i, written with a long tail, I wald wish
to to be called jod or je.


Cap. 6.

1. Now followes the syllab, quhilk is a ful sound symbolized with
convenient letteres, and consistes of ane or moe.

2. A syllab of ane letter is symbolized with a voual onelie; as, a in
able, e in ever, i in idle, o in over, u in unitie, for a consonant can
make no syllab alane.

3. A syllab of moe letteres is made of vouales onelie, or els of vouales
and consonantes. Of onlie vouales the syllab is called a diphthong, of
quhilk we have spoaken in the vouales quherof they ar composed.

4. A syllab of vouales and consonantes either begin_n_es at the
voual, as al, il, el; or at one consona_n_t, as tal man; or at tuo
consona_n_tes, as stand, sleep; or els at thre at the maest, as strand,
stryp. It endes either at a voual, as fa, fo; or at one consonant, as
ar, er; or at tuo, as best, dart; or at thre at the maest, as durst,

5. Heer is to be noated, that in divyding syllabes, the consonantes, one
or moe, that may begin a syllab anie way in the middes of a word belong
to the voual following, as in que-stion, qua-rel, fi-shar, sa-fron,
ba-stard, de-scrib, re-scue.

6. It is alsoe heer to be observed in printing and wryting, that quhen a
word fales to be divyded at the end of a lyne, that the partition must
be made at the end of a syllab, soe that the one lyne end at the end of
the whol syllab, and the other begin the next lyne. As, for exemple, if
this word magistrat fel to be divided at the first syllab, it behoved to
be ma-gistrat; if at the second, it behoved to be magi-strat; but no
wayes to parte the m from the a, nor the g from the i, nor the s from t,
nor the t from r.


Cap. 7.

1. To symboliz right, the sound of the voual is first to be observed,
quhither it be a simple voual or a compound, and quhilk of them is to be
chosen, for quhilk no rule can be geven but the judgeme_n_t of the ear.

2. Next the consonantes are to be marked; and first, quhither they break
the voual befoer or behind; then quhither they be one or moe; and
lastlie, w_i_th quhat organes of the mouth they be broaken.

3. For be the organes of the mouth, quherwith the syllab is broaken, the
consonantes are discerned be quhilk the syllab must be symbolized,
quhilk we have said, cap 1, sect. 5.

4. The consonantes may differ in hammar (as we called it, cap. 4, sect
3) and stiddie, as b and d. Or they may agre in ham_m_er and differ in
stiddie, as b and v. Or they may agre in both and differ in the tuich,
as f and v, m and p, t and g.

5. The tuich befoer the voual is be lifting the ham_m_er af the stiddie;
as da, la, pa; and behind, be stryking the hammer on the stiddie; as ad,
al, ap. And quhen the hammer and the stiddie are ane, the difference is
in the hardnes and softnes of the tuich; as may be seen in ca and ga, ta
and da. But w and y maekes sae soft a mynt that it is hard to perceave,
and therfoer did the latines symboliz them with the symbol of the
vouales. They are never used but befoer the voual; as we, ye, wil, you;
behynd the voual thei mak noe consonant sound, nor sould be written, and
therfore now and vow, with sik otheres, are not [to] be written w_i_th
w, as is said befoer.

6. Of this q_uhi_lk now is said may be gathered that general, q_uhi_lk I
called the keie of orthographie, cap. 1 sect. 5, that is the congruence
of the symbol and sound symbolized; that is, that bathe must belang to
the same organes and be tuiched after the same form.

7. And, be the contrarie, here it is clere that soundes pronu_n_ced with
this organ can not be written with symboles of that; as, for exemple, a
labiel symbol can not serve a dental nor a guttural sound; nor a
guttural symbol a dental nor a labiel sound.

8. To clere this point, and alsoe to reform an errour bred in the south,
and now usurped be our ignorant printeres, I wil tel quhat befel my self
quhen I was in the south with a special gud frende of myne. Ther rease,
upon sum accident, quhither quho, quhen, quhat, _et_c., sould be
symbolized with q or w, a hoat disputation betuene him and me. After
manie conflictes (for we ofte encountered), we met be chance, in the
citie of Baeth, w_i_th a Doctour of divinitie of both our acquentance.
He invited us to denner. At table my antagonist, to bring the question
on foot ama_n_gs his awn condisciples, began that I was becum an
heretik, and the doctour spering how, ansuered that I denyed quho to be
spelled with a w, but with qu. Be quhat reason? quod the D_octour_.
Here, I beginni_n_g to lay my gru_n_des of labial, dental, and guttural
soundes and symboles, he snapped me on this hand and he on that, that
the d_octour_ had mikle a doe to win me room for a syllogisme. Then
(said I) a labial letter can not symboliz a guttural syllab. But w is a
labial letter, quho a guttural sound. And therfoer w can not symboliz
quho, nor noe syllab of that nature. Here the d_octour_ staying them
again (for al barked at ones), the proposition, said he, I understand;
the assumption is Scottish, and the conclusion false. Quherat al
laughed, as if I had bene dryven from al replye, and I fretted to see a
frivolouse jest goe for a solid ansuer. My proposition is grounded on
the 7 sectio of this same cap., q_uhi_lk noe man, I trow, can denye that
ever suked the paepes of reason. And soe the question must rest on the
assumption quhither w be a labial letter and quho a guttural syllab. As
for w, let the exemples of wil, wel, wyne, juge quhilk are sounded
befoer the voual with a mint of the lippes, as is said the same cap.,
sect. 5. As for quho, besydes that it differres from quo onelie be
aspiration, and that w, being noe perfect consonant, can not be
aspirated, I appele to al judiciouse eares, to q_uhi_lk Cicero
attributed mikle, quhither the aspiration in quho be not ex imo gutture,
and therfoer not labial.


Cap. 7. (_sic._)

1. Heer, seeing we borrow mikle from the latin, it is reason that we
either follow them in symbolizing their’s, or deduce from them the
groundes of our orthographie.

2. Imprimis, then, quhatever we derive from them written with c we sould
alsoe wryte with c, howbeit it sound as an s to the ignorant; as
conceave, receave, perceave, from concipio, recipio, percipio; concern,
discern, from concerno, discerno; accesse, successe, recesse, from
accedo, succedo, recedo, w_i_th manie moe, q_uhi_lk I com_m_end to the
attention of the wryter.

3. Also quhat they wryte w_i_th s we sould alsoe wryte with s; as
servant, from servus; sense, from sensus; session from sessio; passion,
from passio.

4. Neither is the c joined w_i_th s here to be omitted; as science and
conscience, from scientia, conscientia; ascend and descend, from
ascendo, descendo; rescind and abscind, from rescindo and abscindo.

4 (_sic_). This difference of c and s is the more attentivelie to be
marked for that wordes of one sound and diverse signification are many
tymes distinguished be these symboles; as, the kinges secrete council,
and the faithful counsil of a frende; concent in musik, and consent of
myndes; to duel in a cel, and to sel a horse; a decent weed, and descent
of a noble house. These tuo last differres alsoe in accent.

5. Lykwayes, that we derive from latin verbales in tio, sould also be
wrytten with t; as oration, visitation, education, vocation,
proclamation, admonition, _et_c.

6. Wordes deryved from the latin in tia and tium we wryte with ce; as
justice, from justitia; intelligence, from intelligentia; vice, from
vitium; service, from servitium. In al q_uhi_lk, houbeit the e behind
the c be idle, yet use hes made it tollerable to noat the breaking of
the c, for al tongues bear with sum slippes that can not abyde the tuich
stone of true orthographie.

7. C is alsoe written in our wordes deryved from x in latin; as peace,
from pax; fornace, from fornax; matrice, from matrix; nurice, from
nutrix, q_uhi_lk the south calles nurse, not without a falt both in
sound and symbol; be this we wryte felicitie, audacitie, tenacitie,

8. Lykwayes we sould keep the vouales of the original, quherin the north
warres the south; from retineo, the north retine, the south retain; from
foras, the north foran, the south forain; from regnu_m_, the north
regne, the south raigne; from cor, the north corage, the south courage;
from devoro, the north devore, the south devour; from vox, the north
voce, the south voice; from devoveo, the north devote, the south
devoute; from guerrum, the north were, the south war; from gigas,
gigantis, the north gyant, the south giaunt; from mons, montis, the
north mont, the south mount. Of this I cold reckon armies, but wil not
presume to judge farther then the compasse of my awn cap, for howbeit we
keep nearar the original, yet al tongues have their idiom in borrowing
from the latin, or other foran tongues.


Cap. 8.

1. In our tongue we have some particles q_uhi_lk can not be symbolized
with roman symboles, nor rightlie pronunced but be our awn, for we in
manye places soe absorb l and n behynd a consonant, quher they can not
move without a voual intervening, that the ear can hardlie judge
quhither their intervenes a voual or noe.

2. In this case sum, to avoid the pronu_n_ciation of the voual befoer
the l and n, wrytes it behind; as litle, mikle, muttne, eatne. Quhilk
houbeit it incurres in an other inconvenience of pronu_n_cing the voual
behind the l or n, yet I dar not presume to reprove, because it passeth
my wit how to avoid both inconveniences, and therfoer this I leave to
the wil of the wryter.

3. Sum of our men hes taken up sum unusual formes of symbolizing,
q_uhi_lk I wald wish to be reformed, yet if I bring not reason, let no
man change for my phantasie.

4. First, for peple they wryte people, I trow because it cumes from
populus; but if that be a reason, I wald understand a reason quhy they
speak not soe alsoe. Or gif they speak not soe, I wald understand quhy
they wryte not as they speak. I knawe they have the exemple of France to
speak ane way and wryte an other; but that exemple is as gud to absorb
the s in the end of everie word. Al exemples are not imitable.

5. They use alsoe to wryte logicque, musicque, rhetoricque, and other of
that sorte, with cque. If this be doon to make the c in logica, _et_c.,
subsist, quhy wer it not better to supply a k in the place of it, then
to hedge it in with a whol idle syllab; it wer both more orthographical
and easier for the learner, for c and k are sa sib, _tha_t the ane is a
greek and the other a latin symbol of one sound. In this art it is alyke
absurd to wryte that thou reades not, as to read that thou wrytes not.

6. We use alsoe, almost at the end of everie word, to wryte an idle e.
This sum defend not to be idle, because it affectes the voual before the
consonant, the sound quherof many tymes alteres the signification; as,
hop is altero tantu_m_ pede saltare, hope is sperare; fir, abies, fyre,
ignis; a fin, pinna, fine, probatus; bid, jubere, bide, manere; with
many moe. It is true that the sound of the voual befoer the consonant
many tymes doth change the signification; but it is as untrue that the
voual e behind the consonant doth change the sound of the voual before
it. A voual devyded from a voual be a consonant can be noe possible
means return thorough the consonant into the former voual. Consonantes
betuene vouales are lyke partition walles betuen roomes. Nothing can
change the sound of a voual but an other voual coalescing with it into
one sound, of q_uhi_lk we have spoaken sufficientlie, cap. 3, to
illustrat this be the same exemples, saltare is to hop; sperare to hoep;
abies is fir; ignis, fyr, or, if you wil, fier; jubere is bid; manere,
byd or bied.

7. Yet in sum case we are forced to tolerat this idle e; 1. in wordes
ending in c, to break the sound of it; as peace, face, lace, justice,
_et_c.; 2. behind s, in wordes wryten with this s; as false, ise, case,
muse, use, _et_c.; 3. behind a broaken g; as knawlege, savage, suage,
ald age. Ther may be moe, and these I yeld because I ken noe other waye
to help this necessitie, rather then that I can think anye idle symbol
tolerable in just orthographie.


Cap. 9.

1. Seing that we fynd not onelie the south and north to differ more in
accent then symbol, but alsoe one word with a sundrie accent to have a
diverse signification, I com_m_end this to him quho hes auctoritie, to
com_m_and al printeres and wryteres to noat the accented syllab in
everie word with noe lesse diligence then we see the grecianes to noat

2. Cicero, in his buik de Oratore ad Brutum, makes it a natural harmonie
that everie word pronunced be the mouth of man have one acute syllab,
and that never farther from the end then the third syllab, quhilk the
grammareanes cales to the same end the antepenult. Quhilk observation of
so noble a wit is most true in tongues q_uhi_lk he understud, the greek
and latin. But if Cicero had understud our tongue, he sould have hard
the accent in the fourth syllab from the end; as in mátrimonie,
pátrimonie, vádimonie, intóllerable, intélligences, and whole garrisones
of lyke liverie. This anie eare may if he accent the antepenult
matrímonie, or the penult matrimónie, or the last as matrimoníe.

3. Then to the purpose we have the same accentes q_uhi_lk the latin and
the greek hath, acute, circu_m_flex, and grave.

4. The acute raiseth the syllab quheron it sittes; as profésse, prófit,

5. It may possesse the last syllab: as supprést, preténce, sincére; the
penult: as súbject, cándle, cráftie; the antepenult: as diffícultie,
mínister, fínallie; and the fourth also from the end, as is said sect.
2; as spéciallie, insátiable, díligentlie. In al q_uhi_lk, if a man
change the acce_n_t, he sall spill the sound of the word.

6. The grave accent is never noated, but onelie understood in al
syllabes quherin the acute and circumflex is not. Onlie, for difference,
sum wordes ar marked with it, thus `, leaning contrarie to the acute.

7. The circumflex accent both liftes and felles the syllab that it
possesseth, and combynes the markes of other tuae, thus ˆ. Of this we,
as the latines, hes almost no use. But the south hath great use of it,
and in that their dialect differes more from our’s then in other soundes
or symboles.

8. The use of the accent wil be of good importance for the right
pronu_n_ciation of our tongue, quhilk now we doe forte, non arte, and
conforming of the dialectes, q_uhi_lk, as I have said, differes most in


Cap. 10.

1. The learned printeres uses to symboliz apostrophus and hyphen as wel
as a, b, c.

2. Apostrophus is the ejecting of a letter or a syllab out of one word
or out betuene tuae, and is alwayes marked above the lyne, as it wer a
com_m_a, thus ’.

3. Out of one word the apostrophus is most usual in poesie; as Ps. 73,
v. 3, for quhen I sau such foolish men, I grug’d, and did disdain; and
v. 19, They are destroy’d, dispatch’d, consum’d.

4. Betuene tuae wordes we abate either from the end of the former or the
beginni_n_g of the later.

5. We abate from the end of the former quhen it endes in a voual and the
next beginnes at a voual; as, th’ ingrate; th’ one parte; I s’ it, for I
see it.

6. In abating from the word following, we, in the north, use a
mervelouse libertie; as, he’s a wyse man, for he is a wyse man; I’l meet
with him, for I wil meet with him; a ship ’l of fooles, for a ship ful
of fooles; and this we use in our com_m_on language. And q_uhil_k is
stranger, we manie tymes cut of the end of the word; as, he’s tel the,
for he sal tel the.

7. This for apostrophus. Hyphen is, as it wer, a band uniting whol
wordes joined in composition; as, a hand-maed, a heard-man, tongue-tyed,
out-rage, foer-warned, mis-reported, fals-deemed.

               OF THE CONGRUITIE

                 OF OUR BRITAN


                    LIB. 2.


Cap. 1.

1. Al wordes q_uhi_lk we use to expresse our mynde are personal or

2. A personal word is q_uhi_lk admittes diversitie of person.

3. Person is the face of a word, quhilk in diverse formes of speach it
diverselie putes on; as, I, Peter, say that thou art the son of God.
Thou, Peter, sayes that I am the son of God. Peter said that I am the
son of God.

4. Quherupon person is first, second, and third.

5. The first person is of him that speakes; as, I wryte.

6. The second person is of him that is spoaken to; as, thou wrytes.

7. The third person is of him that is spoaken of; as, Peter wrytes.


Cap. 2.

1. Number is distinction of person be one and moe; and soe is singular
and plural.

2. The singular speakes of one; as, a hand, a tree, a sheep, a horse, a

3. The plural speakes of moe then one; as, handes, trees, sheep, horses,
men, tuo, three, foure, or moe, or how manie soever.

4. This difference is com_m_onlie noted with es at the end of the word
singular; as, a house, houses; a windoe, windoes; a doore, tuo doores.

5. Sum tymes it is noated be changing a letter; as, a man, men; a woman,
wemen; a goose, geese.

6. Sum tyme be changing noe thing; as, a sheep, a thousand sheep; a
horse, an hundred horse; a noute, ten noute.


Cap. 3.

1. A personal word is a noun or a verb. A noun is a word of one person
w_i_th gender and case; as, I is onelie of the first person; thou is
onelie of the second; and al other nounes are onelie the third person;
as, thou, Thomas, head, hand, stone, blok, except they be joined with I
or thou.

2. The person of a noun singular is determined or undetermined.

3. The determined person is noated with the, and it is determined either
be an other substantive; as, the king of Britan; or be an adjective; as,
the best king in Europ; or be a relative; as, God preserve the king
quhom he hath geven us.

4. The undetermined noun is noated with an befoer a voual; as, an ald
man sould be wyse; and with a befoer a consonant; as, a father sould
com_m_and his son.


Cap. 4.

1. Gender is the affection of a noun for distinction of sex.

2. Sex is a distinction of a noun be male and female, and these are
distinguished the one from the other, or both from thinges without sex.

3. The one is distinguished from the other be he and she.

4. He is the noat of the male; as, he is a gud judge; he is a wyse man;
he is a speedie horse; he is a crouse cock; he is a fat wether.

5. She is the noate of the femal sex; as, she is a chast matron; she is
a stud meer; she is a fat hen; she is a milk cowe.

6. Nounes that want sex are noated with it; as, it is a tale tree; it is
a sueet aple; it is a hard flint; it is a faer day; it is a foul way.

7. In the plural number they are not distinguished; as, they are honest
men; they are vertueouse ladies; they are highe montanes.


Cap. 5.

1. Case is an affection of a noun for distinction of person; as, the
corner stone fel on me; stone is the nominative case. The corner of a
stone hurt me; stone is the genitive case. Quhat can you doe to a stone;
stone is the dative case. He brak the stones; it is the accusative case.
Quhy standes thou stone; it is the vocative. And he hurt me with a
stone; it is the ablative case.

2. This difference we declyne, not as doth the latines and greekes, be
terminationes, but with noates, after the maner of the hebrues, quhilk
they cal particles.

3. The nominative hath no other noat but the particle of determination;
as, the peple is a beast with manie heades; a horse serves man to manie
uses; men in auctoritie sould be lanternes of light.

4. Our genitive is alwayes joyned with an other noun, and is noated with
of, or s.

5. With of, it followes the noun quhar w_i_th it is joined; as, the
house of a good man is wel governed.

6. With s it preceedes the word quherof it is governed, and s is devyded
from it with an apostrophus; as, a gud man’s house is wel governed.

7. This s sum haldes to be a segment of his, and therfoer now almost al
wrytes his for it, as if it wer a corruption. But it is not a segment of
his; 1. because his is the masculin gender, and this may be fœminin;
as, a mother’s love is tender; 2. because his is onelie singular, and
this may be plural; as, al men’s vertues are not knawen.

8. The dative is noated w_i_th to, and for; as, geve libertie evin to
the best youth and it wil luxuriat. Al men doeth for them selves; few
for a frende.

9. The accusative hath noe other noat then the nominative; as, the head
governes the bodie.

10. The vocative is the person to quhom the speach is directed; as,
quhence cumes thou Æneas.

11. The ablative is noated w_i_th prepositiones in, with, be, and sik
lyke; as, be god al thinges wer made; God w_i_th his word his warkes
began; in my father’s house are manie mansiones.


Cap. 6.

1. Al nounes that wil join with a substantive ar called adjectives; as,
gud, high, hard, sueet, sour.

2. These, and al that wil admit mare and mast, are compared be degrees;
as, sueet, more sueet, most sueet.

3. Of comparison ther be thre degrees: the positive, comparative, and
superlative, if the first may be called a degre.

4. The positive is the first position of the noun; as, soft, hard;
quhyte, blak; hoat, cald.

5. The comparative excedes the positive be more, and is formed of the
positive be adding er; as, softer, harder; quhiter, blaker; hoater,

6. The superlative excedes the positive be most, and is formed of the
positive be adding est; as, softest, hardest; quhytest, blakest;
hoatest, caldest.


Cap. 7.

1. This for the noun. The verb is a word of al persones declyned with
mood and tyme; as, I wryte, thou wrytes, he wrytes.

2. We declyne not the persones and nu_m_beres of the verb, as doth the
latine, but noat them be the person of the noun.

3. They are noated w_i_th I, thou, and he in the singular number; we,
ye, and they in the plural.

4. The nu_m_ber is noated with I and we; thou and ye; he and they.


Cap. 8.

1. The mood is an affection of the verb serving the varietie of

2. We utter the being of thinges or our awn wil.

3. The being of thinges is uttered be inquyring or avouing.

4. We inquyre of that we wald knaw; as, made God man w_i_thout synne;
and in this the supposit of the verb followes the verb.

5. We avoue that q_uhi_lk we knaw; as, God made man without sinne; and
in this the supposit preceedes the verb.

6. We utter our wil be verbes signifying the form of our wil, or
postposing the supposit.

7. We wish be wald god, god grant, and god nor; as, wald god I knew the
secretes of nature.

8. We permit the will of otheres be letting; as, let God aryse; let
everie man have his awn wyfe.

9. We bid our inferioures, and pray our superioures, be postponing the
supposit to the verb; as, goe ye and teach al nationes; here me, my God.


Cap. 9.

1. Tyme is an affection of the verb noating the differences of tyme, and
is either present, past, or to cum.

2. Tyme present is that q_uhi_lk now is; as, I wryte, or am wryting.

3. Tyme past is that q_uhi_lk was, and it is passing befoer, past els,
or past befoer.

4. Tyme passing befoer, q_uhi_lk we cal imperfectlie past, is of a thing
that was doeing but not done; as, at four hoores I was wryting; Quhen
you spak to me I was wryting, or did wryte, as Lillie expoundes it.

5. Tyme past els is of a thing now past, q_uhi_lk we cal perfectlie
past; as, I have written.

6. Tyme past befoer is of a thing befoer done and ended; as, at four
hoores, or quhen you spak to me, I had written.

7. Tyme to cum is of that q_uhi_lk is not yet begun; as, at four houres
I wil wryte.


Cap. 10.

1. A verb signifies being or doeing. Of being ther is onelie one, I am,
and is thus varyed.

2. In the present tyme, I am, thou art, he is; we are, ye are, they are.

3. In tyme passing befoer, I was, thou was, he was; we wer, ye wer, they

4. In tyme past els, I have bene, thou hes bene, he hes bene; we have
bene, ye have bene, they have bene.

5. In tyme past befoer, I had bene, thou had bene, he had bene; we had
bene, ye had bene, they had bene.

6. In tyme to cum, I wil be, thou wilt be, he wil be; we wil be, ye wil
be, they wil be.

7. Verbes of doing are actives or passives.

8. The active verb adheres to the person of the agent; as, Christ hath
conquered hel and death.

9. The passive verb adheres to the person of the patient; as, hel and
death are conquered be Christ.

10. These our idiom conjugates onelie in tuo tymes, the tyme present and
tym past; as, I wryte, I wrote; I speak, I spak; I here, I hard; I se, I
saw; I fele, I felt.

11. The other differences of tyme ar expressed be the notes of the verb
of being, or be the verb of being it self, and a participle; as, I was
wryting; I have written; I had written; I wil wryte.


Cap. 11.

1. A word impersonal is q_uhi_lk in al formes of speach keepes one face,
and this is adverb or conjunction.

2. An adverb is a word adhering mast com_m_onlie w_i_th a verb with one
face in al moodes, tymes, nu_m_beres and persones; as, I leve hardlie,
thou leves hardlie; I did leve hardlie; I have leved hardlie; I had
leved hardlie; I wil leave hardlie; leve he hardlie; God forbid he leve

3. Our men confoundes adverbes of place, q_uhi_lk the south
distinguishes as wel as the latin, and therfoer let us not shame to

4. They use quher, heer, ther, for the place in q_uhi_lk; quhence,
hence, thence, for the place from quhilk; quhither, hither, thither, for
the place to q_uhi_lk; as, quher dwel you? quhence cum you? quhither goe

5. They also distinguish wel in, into, and unto: in, they use with the
place quher; into, with the thing quhither; and unto, for how far; as,
our father, q_uhi_lk art in heavin, admit us into heavin, and lift us
from the earth unto heavin.

6. Heer, becaus sum nounes incurre into adverbes, let us alsoe noat
their differences.

7. First no and not. Noe is a noun, nullus in latin, and in our tongue
alwayes precedes the substantive quhilk it nulleth; as, noe man, noe
angle, noe god.

8. Not is an adverb, non in latin, and in our tong followes the verb
that it nulleth; as, heer not, grant not; I heer not, I grant not; I wil
not heer, I wil not grant.

9. Ane, in our idiom, and an. Ane is a noun of nu_m_ber, in latin unus;
an a particule of determination preceding a voual, as we have said cap.
3, sect. 4.

10. Thee and the. Thee is the accusative of thou; as, thou loves God,
and God loves thee. The is the determined not of a noun, of q_uhi_lk we
spak cap. 3, sect. 3.


Cap. 12.

1. Conjunction is a word impersonal serving to cople diverse senses. And
of it ther be tuoe sortes, the one enu_n_ciative, and the other

2. The conjunction enunciative copies the partes of a period, and are
copulative, as and; connexive, as if; disjunctive, as or; or discretive,
as howbe it.

3. The ratiocinative coples the partes of a ratiocination, and it either
inferres the conclusion or the reason.

4. Therfoer inferres the conclusion; as, noe man can keep the law in
thought, word, and deed: and therfoer noe man befoer the judg of the
hart, word, and deed, can be justifyed be the law.

5. Because inferres the reason; as, I wil spew the out, because thou art
nether hoat nor cald.


Cap. 13.

1. A distinction is quherbe sentences are distinguished in wryting and
reading. And this is perfect or imperfect.

2. A perfect distinction closes a perfect sense, and is marked with a
round punct, thus . or a tailed punct, thus ?

3. The round punct concludes an assertion; as, if Abraham was justifyed
be workes, he had quherof to glorie.

4. The tailed punct concludes an interrogation; as, sal we, quha are
dead to syn, leve to it?

5. The imperfect distinction divydes the partes of a period, and is
marked with tuoe punctes, the one under the other, thus : and is red
with half the pause of a perfect punct; as, al have synned, and fallen
from the glorie of god: but are justifyed frelie be his grace.

6. The com_m_a divydes the least partes of the period, and is pronunced
in reading with a short sob.

7. The parenthesis divydes in the period a sentence interlaced on sum
occurrences q_uhi_lk coheres be noe syntax w_i_th that q_uhi_lk
preceedes and followes; as, for exemple of beath, and to conclud this

  Bless, guyd, advance, preserve, prolong Lord (if thy pleasur be)
  Our King _and_ Queen, and keep their seed thy name to magnifie.

       *       *       *       *       *


The foregoing Tract is one of great interest, not only on account of its
intrinsic merit, but also for the racy style of writing adopted by its
author. We find him continually garnishing his language with such
idiomatic and colloquial expressions as the following:--“Quhae’s sillie
braine will reache no farther then the compas of their cap” (page 2);
and again, “but will not presume to judge farther then the compasse of
my awn cap” (p. 20). He observes of the printers and writers of his age
that they care “for noe more arte then may win the pennie” (p. 2), and
on the same page he says, “quhiles I stack in this claye,” which appears
to be equivalent to our term “stuck in the mud.” At p. 3 he says, “and
it wer but a clod;” at p. 14, “neither daer I, with al the oares of
reason, row against so strang a tyde;” and again, on p. 18, we find
reason under another aspect, thus, “noe man I trow can denye that ever
suked the paepes of reason.”

It seems that the expression, _Queen’s English_, is by no means of
modern date, as we have it as the _king’s language_ at p. 2.

Hume laments, in his Dedication, the uncertainty of the orthography
prevailing at the time he writes, and yet we find him spelling words
several different ways, even within the compass of a single sentence,
without being able to lay the blame upon the printers; thus we find him
writing ju_d_gement on p. 11, ju_d_ge p. 8, and ju_d_g p. 33, but juge
p. 18; and there are numberless other instances that it would be tedious
to enumerate. Again, the author uses a mixture of Scotch and English, so
we have sometimes ane and sometimes one; nae on page 1 and noe on p. 2;
mare and mast, and more and most, even in the same sentence (p. 30); and
two is spelt in three different ways, tuae, tuo, and tuoe.

Our author’s stay in England appears to have drawn his attention to the
differences between the two languages of Scotland and England, which he
distinguishes as North and South. He certainly shows, in some instances,
the greater correctness of the Scotch with regard to the spelling of
words derived from the Latin; as, retine instead of retain, corage
instead of courage, etc. (p. 20), in which words the redundant letters
that we Southerners have introduced are thrown out. He is, however, by
no means partial, and gives us praise when he thinks we deserve it.

  Page 9. The arguments in favour of the sound given by the English
  Universities to the Latin _i_ are curious: it is stated to have its
  value in the Greek ει; but the author seems to have been in error as
  to the English sounding mihi and tibi alike, or our pronunciation must
  have changed since his time.

  P. 10. The author speaks of the letter _y_ as being used by the South
  for the sound now symbolized by _i_ with a final _e_ following the
  succeeding consonant, as _will_ with an _i_, and _wile_ with a _y_ in
  place of the _i_ and final _e_; thus in the same way he spells write,

  P. 11 (7). He gives food, good, blood, as examples of the same sound,
  thus inferring that the English pronounced the two latter so as to
  rhyme with food.

  P. 11 (8). He objects to the use of _w_ for _u_ in the diphthongal
  sound of _ou_, and therefore spells _how_, _now_, etc., _hou_, _nou_.

  P. 11 (10). It is difficult here to see what the pronunciation of
  _buu_ would be, which the author gives as the sound of bow (to bow).
  Probably the sound he meant would be better represented by _boo_.

  P. 13 (12). The author here recommends the distinction both of sound
  and symbol of _j_ and _v_ as consonants, and _i_ and _u_ as vowels,
  and proposes that we should call _j_ _jod_ or _je_, and _v_ _vau_ or
  _ve_, and not single _u_, “as now they doe” (p. 16), and _w_ he would
  call _wau_ or _we_, and moreover he places them in his alphabet on the
  same page. If this proposal was originally his own, it is curious that
  the name _ve_ should have been adopted, though not the _we_ for _w_.
  Ben Jonson points out the double power of _i_ and _v_ as both
  consonant and vowel, but he does not attempt to make them into
  separate letters as Hume does.

  P. 15 (12). He gives as an anomaly of the South that while the _d_ is
  inserted before _g_ in hedge, bridge, etc., it is omitted in age,
  suage, etc. He does not see that the short vowel requires a double
  consonant to prevent it from being pronounced long.

  P. 21 (6). He disputes the possibility of a final _e_, separated from
  a preceding vowel by a consonant, having any effect whatever in
  altering the sound of the preceding vowel, and recommends the use of a
  diphthong to express the sound required; as, hoep for hope, fier for
  fire, bied for bide, befoer for before, maed for made, etc. He
  uniformly throughout follows this rule.

  P. 22 (5). Hume here accents difficultie on the antepenultimate
  instead of the first syllable.

  P. 23 (7). He puts down outrage as an instance of two distinct words
  joined by a hyphen, which is the derivation given by Ash in his
  dictionary, in strange obliviousness of the French word _outrage_.

  P. 27 (1, 6). _T_ is omitted after _s_ in the second person singular
  of the verb, and so no distinction is made between the second and the
  third persons; thus, thou wrytes, and at p. 32 thou was, and thou hes.

  P. 29 (7). The supposition that the apostrophe ’s as a mark of the
  possessive case is a segment of his, a question which has been lately
  revived, is here denied.

  P. 34. In this last chapter on Punctuation, which the author styles
  “of Distinctiones,” no mention whatever is made of the “semicolon,”
  though it occurs frequently in the MS., as, for instance, p. 30, cap.
  6. This stop, according to Herbert, was first used by Richard Grafton
  in _The Byble_ printed in 1537: it occurs in the Dedication. Henry
  Denham, an English printer who flourished towards the close of the
  sixteenth century, was the first to use it with propriety.

  P. 34 (6). The explanation of the mode of pronouncing the comma “with
  a short _sob_” is odd.[5]

    [Footnote 5: It will be here as well to mention that as the
    punctuation in the MS. is extremely unsystematic, it has been
    dispensed with whenever the meaning was confused by it.]

The author continually uses a singular verb to a plural noun; for
instance, “of this we, as the latines, hes almost no use” (p. 22),
though on p. 20 he writes, “in our tongue we have some particles.”

With regard to the Manuscript, there are two corrections in it worth
noting. At p. 10 (6), in the phrase, “the auctours _whole_ drift,” the
word had been originally written _hael_, but is marked through, and
_whole_ substituted for it in the same handwriting. At p. 21 (4), the
word _frensh_ has been inserted before _exemples_, but has been
afterwards struck through.

The numbering is wrong in three places, but it has not been corrected.
At p. 8 there are no sections 12 and 13, at pp. 17, 19, there are two
cap. 7, and at p. 19 there are two sections 4.


[The words in the present Tract that really required to be glossed are
but few; I have, however, inserted in the following list most of the
variations from ordinary modern usage, in order that it may serve as an

Af = of, p. 9.
  Af = off, p. 12.
Ald = old, pp. 3, 21, 28.
Amangs = amongst, p. 18.
Ane = a, one.
Angle = angel, p. 33.
Auctoritie = authority, pp. 22, 29.
Aun = own, pp. 2, 3, 7, 8, 11, 15.
Awn = own, pp. 11, 18, 20, 30, 31.
Awn = proper, pp. 9, 11, 13, 15.
Awne = proper, p. 14.
Awne = own, p. 10.

Baeth = both, pp. 8, 34.
Bathe = both, p. 17.
Be = by.
Britan = British.

Cald = cold, pp. 30, 33;
  caldest, p. 30.
Cales = calls, pp. 10, 22.
Chirt = a squirt, or a squeeze through the teeth, pp. 13, 14.
    See Ruddiman’s Glossary to G. Douglas (_chirtand_).
Cold = could, p. 20.
Coples = couples, p. 33.
Corage = courage, p. 20.
Crouse = brisk, p. 28.
Cum = come, pp. 11, 31;
  cumes = comes, p. 29.

Devore = devour, p. 20.
Devote = devout, p. 20.
Distinctiones = punctuation, p. 34.
Doon = done, p. 21.
Doting = giving, p. 3.

Earand = errand, p. 8.
Evin = even, p. 29.

Faer = fair, p. 28.
Falt = fault, pp. 15, 20.
Fand = found, p. 1.
Fele = feel, p. 32.
Felles = lowers, p. 22.
Finnes = fineness, p. 2.
Fontan = fountain, p. 11.
Foran = foreign, p. 20.
Frelie = freely, p. 34.

Geve = give, pp. 7, 8, 9, 12, 28, 29.
Gif = if, p. 21.
Glim = glimpse, p. 2.
Gud = good, pp. 2, 18, 21, 28, 29.

Hael = hail, p. 10.
Hald = hold, p. 14;
  haldes, p. 29.
Hame = home, p. 2.
Hard = heard, pp. 2, 3, 13, 14, 22, 32.
Hart = heart, p. 33.
Heal = whole, p. 10.
Heer = hear, p. 33.
Here = hear, pp. 31, 32.
Hes = has, pp. 3, 14, 15, 19, 22, 32.
Hes = hast, p. 32.
Hes = have, pp. 20, 22.
Hoat = hot, pp. 18, 30, 33;
  hoater, p. 30.
Hoores = hours, p. 31.

Ida, Scotland or Edinburgh, p. 2.
Incurre, _v._ = to run into. Lat. _incurro_, pp. 20, 33.

Ken = know, p. 21.
Kep, _v._ = to intercept, p. 14.
Kepping = receiving in the act of falling, p. 12. _Jamieson._
Knau = know, p. 2.
Knaulege = knowledge, pp. 3, 10;
  knawlege, pp. 11, 21.
Knaw = know, pp. 7, 30;
  knawe, p. 21;
  knawen = known, p. 29.

Laggared = loitered or rested, p. 2.
Lang = long, pp. 9, 14.
Leave = live, p. 32.
Leve = live, pp. 32, 34.
Leving = living, p. 11.
Louse = loose, p. 9.
Lykwayes = likewise, p. 19.

Maer = more, pp. 2, 10.
Maest = most, pp. 1, 2, 16.
Man = must, p. 8.
Mare = more, p. 30.
Mast = most, pp. 30, 32.
Meer = mare, p. 28.
Middes = middle, p. 16.
Mikle = much, pp. 13, 18, 19, 20.
Mint = aim, pressure, p. 18.
Minted = attempted, p. 15.
Moat, probably _moot_, discussion, chat, etc., p. 2. A.S. _mót_.
Moe = more, pp. 16, 19, 21, 27.
Moien = means for attaining an end, p. 2. _Jamieson._ Fr. _moyen_.
Mont = mount, p. 24.
Montan = mountain, pp. 3, 11, 28.
Mynt = aim, pp. 12, 17.

Nae = no, pp. 1, 8.
Nane = none, p. 13.
Noat, _v._ = note, pp. 19, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33.
Noat = note, pp. 7, 13, 28, 29;
  noate, p. 28;
  noates = notes, p. 29.
Nor = than, p. 3.
Nor, God nor, p. 31.
    This most probably means God comfort or nourish us, connected with
    _norice_, a nurse, and _norie_, a foster-child. There is also a
    substantive _nore_ in Chaucer, meaning comfort. _Norne_ is to
    entreat, ask (see _Alliterative Poems_ Glossary), and may have
    something to do with this expression, but it is hardly so probable
    as the above.
Noute = black cattle, p. 27;
    connected with _neat_, as in neat-cattle, neat-herd.
Nulleth = negatives, p. 33.
Nurice = nurse, p. 19.

Of = off, p. 23.
Ones, at ones = at once, p. 18.

Paen = trouble, p. 2.
Paert = part, p. 10.
Peple = people, pp. 20, 29.
Phason = pheasant (?), p. 13.
Pover = poor, p. 3.
Punct = stop, p. 34.

    At p. 18 the author gives his reasons for making use of the guttural
    _qu_ in the place of the labial _w_. The following are the words in
    which it is thus used:--
Quha = who, pp. 2, 3, 34.
Quhae = who, pp. 1, 10;
  quhae’s = whose, p. 2.
Quhaer = where, p. 2.
Quhar = where, p. 29.
Quharein = wherein, p. 14.
Quharof = whereof, p. 16.
Quhat = what, pp. 2, 8, 15, 17, 18, 28.
Quhatever = whatever, p. 19.
Quhen = when, pp. 2, 9, 11, 23, 31.
Quhence = whence, pp. 29, 32.
Quher = where, pp. 2, 14, 20, 32.
Quheras = whereas, p. 14.
Quherat = whereat, p. 18.
Quherbe = whereby, pp. 11, 34.
Quherfoer, quherforr = wherefore, pp. 7, 8, 10, 15.
Quherin = wherein, pp. 20, 22.
Quherof = whereof, pp. 29, 34.
Quheron = whereon, p. 22.
Quherupon = whereupon, pp. 8, 27.
Quherwith = wherewith, p. 2.
Quhil, quhiles = while, p. 2.
Quhilk = which.
Quhither = whether, pp. 11, 17, 18, 20, 32.
Quho = who, pp. 12, 14, 15, 18, 22.
Quhom = whom.
Quhy = why, pp. 20, 21, 29.
Quhyte = white, p. 30;
  quhiter, p. 30;
  quhytest, p. 30.
Quod = quoth, p. 18.

Rease = rose, p. 18.
Red = read, p. 34.
Regne = reign, p. 20.
Retine = retain, p. 20.
Ryseth = ariseth, p. 9.

Sa = so, p. 21;
  sae = so, p. 17.
Sal = shall, pp. 9, 11, 23, 34.
Sall = shall, pp. 8, 22.
Shaued = showed, p. 7.
Shour = shower, p. 10.
Sib = related, p. 21.
Sik = such, pp. 1, 2, 8, 9, 11, 17, 29.
Sillie = wretched, poor, p. 2.
    probably an invented word, the intention of the author being to
    oppose skew or askew to ορθος, straight. It has been suggested
    that it may be intended for sciagraphy, σκιαγραφία, also spelt
    sciography; but this is improbable, as the meaning of that word,
    viz., the art of shadows, including dialling, is so inappropriate
    in this passage, p. 2.
Sould = should, pp. 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 22, 28, 29.
Spering = inquiring, p. 18.
Spil = destroy, spoil(?), p. 13;
  spill, p. 22.
Spilt = corrupted, spoilt(?), p. 2.
Stack = stuck, p. 2.
Stean = stone, p. 8.
Stiddie = anvil, pp. 12, 17.
    “And my imaginations are as foul
    As Vulcan’s stithy.”
          _Hamlet_, Act iii., sc. 2.

Strang = strong, p. 14.
Sum = some, pp. 8, 9, 10, 21, 34.
Supposit = subject, pp. 30, 31.
Syllab = syllable, pp. 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22;
  syllabes, p. 8.
    Ben Jonson spells this word _syllabe_ in his English Grammar.
Syne = since, p. 1.

Tal = tale, p. 9.
Tal = tail, p. 9.
Tale = tall, p. 28.
Trow = believe, pp. 13, 18.
Tuae = two, pp. 1, 8, 9, 10, 22, 23.
Tuelfe = twelve, p. 3.
Tuich = touch, pp. 7, 13, 15, 17;
  tuiches, p. 11.
Tuiched = touched, pp. 3, 17.
Tuich stone = touchstone, p. 19.
Tyme passing befoer = imperfect tense, pp. 31, 32.
Tyme past befoer = pluperfect tense, pp. 31, 32.
Tyme past els = perfect tense, pp. 31, 32.

Vadimonie = recognisance, p. 22. Lat. _Vadimonium._
Voce = voice, p. 20.

Waet = know, p. 14.
Wait = know, p. 11.
Wald = would, pp. 1, 2, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 20, 21, 30, 31.
Warkes = works, p. 29.
Weer = war, p. 3.
Were = war, p. 20.
Whither = whether, p. 2.
    The author in this place uses the letter _w_ instead of _qu_,
    although at p. 18 he is so strenuous against its use.
Wrang = wrong, pp. 2, 9, 11.

Ye = yea, p. 14.
Yeld = yield, p. 21.

Early English Text Society.

_Report of the Committee, January, 1865._

The close of the first year of the Society’s operations affords the
Committee the welcome opportunity of congratulating the members on the
Society’s success. Instead of two Texts, which the first Circular to the
Society suggested might perhaps be issued, the Committee have been
enabled to publish four, and these four such as will bear comparison, as
to rareness and intrinsic value, with the publications of any of the
longest established societies of the kingdom. The _Arthur_ was edited
for the first time from a unique MS., wholly unknown to even the latest
writers on the subject, and exhibits our national hero’s life in a
simpler form than even Geoffrey of Monmouth, or Layamon. The _Early
English Alliterative Poems_, though noticed long ago by Dr. Guest and
Sir F. Madden, for their great philological and poetical value, had been
inaccessible to all but students of the difficult and faded MS. in the
British Museum: they have been now made public by the Society’s edition,
with their large additions to our vocabulary, and their interesting
dialectal formations. The _Sir Gawayne_, from the same MS., could only
have been had before in Sir Frederick Madden’s rare and costly edition,
printed by the Bannatyne Club. And the _Lauder_ has restored, as it
were, to Scotland, a Poet whose name had found no place in the standard
History of Scottish Poetry, and the Biographical Dictionaries.

Though the Society started late in the past year, these four Texts were
published within a fortnight of its close; and before that time the
first Text for the second year was in the printer’s hands. The Committee
pledge themselves to continue their exertions to render the Texts issued
worthy of the Society, and to complete the issue of each set within the
year assigned to it. They rely with confidence on the Subscribers to use
their best endeavours to increase the list of Members, in order that
funds may not be wanting to print the material that editors place at
their service. The aim of the Committee is, on the one hand, to print
all that is most valuable of the yet unprinted MSS. in English, and, on
the other, to re-edit and reprint all that is most valuable in printed
English books, which from their scarcity or price are not within the
reach of the student of moderate means.[6] Those relating to KING ARTHUR
will be the Committee’s first care; those relating to our Language and
its Dialects the second; while in due proportion with these, will be
mixed others of general interest, though with no one special common
design. The Committee hope that no year will pass without the issue of
one Text in the Northern dialect, as well in acknowledgment of the
support that the Society has received in Scotland, as to obviate the
hitherto limited circulation of the works of the early Scotch writers
among students south of the Humber.

    [Footnote 6: “A vast mass of our early literature is still
    unprinted, and much that has been printed has, as the late Herbert
    Coleridge remarked, ‘been brought out by Printing Clubs of
    exclusive constitution, or for private circulation only, and
    might, for all that the public in general is the better for them,
    just as well have remained in manuscript, being, of course,
    utterly unprocurable, except in great libraries, and not always
    there.’ It is well known that the Hon. G. P. Marsh, the author of
    ‘The Origin and History of the English Language,’ could not
    procure for use in his work a copy of ‘Havelok’ for love or money;
    and the usual catalogue-price of ‘William and the Werwolf,’ or
    ‘The Early English Gesta Romanorum,’ etc., etc., is six guineas,
    when the book should be obtainable for less than a pound.
    Notwithstanding the efforts of the Percy, Camden, and other
    Societies and Printing Clubs, more than half our early printed
    literature--including the Romances relating to our national hero,
    Arthur--is still inaccessible to the student of moderate means;
    and it is a scandal that this state of things should be allowed to
    continue.... Those who would raise any objection to these
    re-editions--as a few have raised them--are asked to consider the
    absurdity and injustice of debarring a large number of readers
    from the enjoyment of an old author, because a living editor has
    once printed his works, when the feeling of the editor himself is
    well expressed in the words of one of the class, ‘You are heartily
    welcome to all I have ever done. I should rejoice to see my books
    in the hands of a hundred, where they are now on the shelves of
    one.’”--_Extract from the first Prospectus._]

The publications for 1864 are:--

1. Early English Alliterative Poems in the West Midland Dialect of the
    fourteenth century (ab. 1320-30 A.D.). Edited for the first time
    from a unique MS. in the British Museum, with Notes and Glossarial
    Index, by Richard Morris, Esq.                                16_s._

2. Arthur. Edited for the first time from the Marquis of Bath’s MS.
    (ab. 1440 A.D.), by F. J. Furnivall, Esq., M.A.                4_s._

3. Ane compendious and breve Tractate, concernyng ye office and dewtie
    of Kyngis, Spirituall Pastoris, and temporall Jugis; laitlie
    compylit be William Lauder. Reprinted from the edition of 1556, and
    edited by Prof. Fitz-Edward Hall, D.C.L.                       4_s._

4. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight. Edited by R. Morris, Esq., from the
    Cottonian MS., Nero, A x. (ab. 1320-30 A.D.)                  10_s._

The publications for the present year (1865) will comprise Texts from at
least four unique MSS., two of which will be edited for the first time.

5. Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue, a treates
    noe shorter then necessarie, be Alexander Hume. Edited for the first
    time from the MS. in the British Museum (ab. 1617 A.D.), by Henry B.
    Wheatley, Esq.                                                 4_s._

6. Syr Lancelot du Lak. Edited from the MS. in the Cambridge University
    Library (15th century), by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A.
                                                        [_In the Press._

7. Morte Arthure: the Alliterative Version. Edited from Robert
    Thorntone’s MS. (ab. 1440 A.D.) at Lincoln, by the Rev. F. C.
    Massingberd, M.A.

8. Various Poems relating to Sir Gawayne. Edited from the MSS. by
    Richard Morris, Esq.

9. Merlin, or the Early History of Arthur. Edited for the first time
    from the MS. in the Cambridge University Library (ab. 1450 A.D.), by
    F. J. Furnivall, Esq. Part I.

Also, the following, if the amount of subscriptions will justify the
Committee in issuing them:--

Animadversions uppon the Annotacions and Corrections of some
    imperfections of Impressiones of Chaucer’s Workes reprinted in 1598,
    by Francis Thynne. Edited from the MS. in the Bridgewater Library,
    by Henry B. Wheatley, Esq.

The Story of Genesis and Exodus in English verse of about 1300 A.D. To
    be edited for the first time from the unique MS. in the Library of
    Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge, by F. J. Furnivall and R. Morris,

The Harrowing of Hell. To be edited from the MS. in the Bodleian
    Library, by R. F. Weymouth, Esq.

The following is a list of Texts, which it is proposed to print (among
others) in future years:--

The Romance of Arthour and Merlin. To be edited from the Auchinleck MS.
    (ab. 1320-30 A.D.)

Mirk’s Duties of a Parish Priest. To be edited for the first time from
    the MSS. in the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries (ab. 1420
    A.D.), by E. Peacock, Esq.

The Romance of William and the Werwolf. To be edited from the unique MS.
    in the Library of King’s Coll., Cambridge.

The Gospel of Nicodemus in the Northumbrian Dialect. To be edited for
    the first time from Harl. MS. 4196, &c., Cotton-Galba E ix., by R.
    Morris, Esq.

The Romance of Melusine. To be edited for the first time from the unique
    MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Syr Thomas Maleor’s Mort d’Arthur. To be edited from Caxton’s edition
    (1485 A.D.) with a new Preface, Notes, and a Glossary.

The Arthur Ballads.

The Romance of Sir Tristrem. To be edited from the Auchinleck MS.

The English Charlemagne Romances. To be edited from the Auchinleck MS.

The Early English Version of the Gesta Romanorum. To be edited from the
    MSS. in the British Museum and other Libraries.

The two different Versions of Piers Plowman, in parallel columns.

Gawain Douglas’s Æneis. To be edited from the Cambridge MS. by Professor
    Fitz-Edward Hall, D.C.L.

The Romance of Kyng Horn. To be edited from the MS. in the Library of
    the University of Cambridge.

Roberd of Brunne’s Handlyng Synne, a treatise on the sins, and sketches
    of the manners, of English men and women in A.D. 1303. To be
    re-edited from the MSS. in the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries
    by F. J. Furnivall, Esq., M.A.

Cursor Mundi, the best dialectal version. To be edited from the MS. by
    Richard Morris, Esq.

The History of the Saint Graal or Sank Ryal. By Henry Lonelich, Skynner
    (ab. 1440 A.D.). To be re-edited from the unique MS. in the Library
    of Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge, by F. J. Furnivall, Esq., M.A.

Dan Michel’s Ayenbite of Inwyt, the most valuable specimen of the
    Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D. To be edited from the MS. in the British
    Museum by Richard Morris, Esq.

Froissart’s Chronicles translated out of Frenche into our maternall
    Englyshe Tonge, by Johan Bourchier Knight, Lord Berners. To be
    edited by Henry B. Wheatley, Esq.

Skelton’s Translation of Diodorus Siculus, oute of freshe Latin, that is
    of Poggius Florentinus, containing six books. To be edited for the
    first time from the unique MS. in the Library of Corpus Christi
    Coll., Cambridge.

Sir David Lyndesay’s Monarche. Edited by Prof. Fitz-Edward Hall, D.C.L.,
    from the first edition by Jhone Skott.

Some of the earliest English Dictionaries, as--
    Abecedarium Anglico-latinum, by Richard Huloet (1552); and Baret’s
    Alvearie or Quadruple Dictionarie, to be edited from the editions of
    1573 and 1580 by Henry B. Wheatley, Esq.

The Subscription is £1 1_s._ a year, due in advance on the 1st of
January, and should be paid either to the Society’s Account at the Union
Bank of London, 14, Argyll Place, W., or by Post Office Order to the
Hon. Secretary, 53, Berners Street, London, W.; to whom Subscribers’
names and addresses should be sent.

The Committee wish to draw the attention of the Subscribers to the fact
that the Society’s Account has been transferred from the London and
Birmingham Bank to the Regent Street Branch of the Union Bank of London.

The Committee invite offers of voluntary assistance from those who may
be willing to edit or copy Texts, or to lend them books for reprinting
or for re-reading with the original MSS.

The Honorary Secretary’s Cash Account is annexed.

_Abstract of the Income and Expenditure of the_ EARLY ENGLISH TEXT
SOCIETY _for the Year ending December 31st, 1864._


1864.                                               £   _s._ _d._
One hundred Subscriptions, at 1_l._ 1_s._         105    0    0
Forty-five ditto (through Agents), at 1_l._        45    0    0
Two Subscriptions, at 1_l._ 1_s._                   2    2    0

                                                 £152    2    0


1864.                                £   _s._ _d._
Printing Account (Austin)--
  Alliterative Poems                62    7    6
  Arthur                             8   14    0
  Lauder’s Tractate                 15   14    0
  Sir Gawayne                       35   16    0
  3,500 Prospectuses                 5    5    0
  Packing, Postage, &c., of
    Alliterative Poems and Arthur    1   16    6
                                   129   13    0
    Less Discount                    6    9    0
                                                  123    4    0
Petty Expenses--
  Purchase of Books for Re-editing                  5   18    0
  Stationery, &c.                                   0   18    6
  Postages (Circulars, &c.)                         4    4    6
  Deduction on Country Cheque                       0    0    7
  Balance in the hands of the Hon. Secretary        0   13    0
  Balance at the Bankers                           17    3    5
                                                 £152    2    0

We have examined this Account with the Books and Vouchers, and certify
that it is correct.





(_With power to add Workers to their number._)


HENRY B. WHEATLEY, ESQ., 53, Berners Street, London. W.


14, Argyll Place, W.

THE ROYAL LIBRARY, Windsor Castle.

ADAMS, Dr. Ernest, Victoria Park, Manchester.
ALEXANDER, George Russell, Esq., Glasgow.
ALEXANDER, John, Esq., 43, Campbell Street, Glasgow.
AMHURST, Wm. A. Tyssen, Esq., Didlington Park, Brandon, Norfolk.
ASHER & CO., Messrs., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden. W.C. (10 sets.)
ATKINSON, Rev. J. C., Danby Parsonage, Grosmont, York.
AUFRECHT, Professor, 12, Cumin Place, Grange, Edinburgh.
AUSTIN, Stephen, Hertford.

BACKHOUSE, John G., Esq., Blackwell, Darlington.
BAIN, J., Esq., Haymarket.
BAKER, Charles, Esq., 11, Sackville Street, W.
BEARD, James, Esq., The Grange, Burnage Lane, near Manchester
BLACKMAN, Frederick, Esq., 4, York Road. S.
BLADON, James, Esq., Albion House, Pont y Pool.
BOHN, Henry G., Esq., York Street, Covent Garden, W.C.
BOSWORTH, Rev. Professor, D.D., 20, Beaumont Street, Oxford.
BRADSHAW, Henry, Esq., King’s College, Cambridge.
BUXTON, Charles, Esq., M.P., 7, Grosvenor Crescent, S.W.

CHAPPELL, William, Esq., 30, Upper Harley Street. W.
CHEETHAM, Rev. S., King’s College, London. W.C.
CLARK, Rev. Samuel, The Vicarage, Bredwardine, Hereford.
CLARK, E. C., Esq., Trinity College, Cambridge.
COHEN, A., Esq., 6, King’s Bench Walk, Temple, E.C.
COLERIDGE, Miss Edith, Hanwell Rectory, Middlesex.
COLERIDGE, J. Duke, Esq., Q.C., 1, Brick Court, Temple, E.C.
COSENS, Frederick, Esq., Larkbere Lodge, Clapham Park.
COWPER, J. Meadows, Esq., Davington, Faversham.
CRAIK, Professor George L., 2, Chlorina Place, Belfast.
CRAIK, George L., Esq., Glasgow.

DAVIES, Rev. John, Walsoken Rectory, near Wisbeach.
DE LA RUE, Warren, Esq., Bunhill Row.
DE LA RUE, Wm. Frederick, Esq., 110, Bunhill Road, E.C.
DICKINSON, F. H., Esq., Kingweston House, Somerton, Somerset.
DODDS, Rev. James, St. Stephen’s, Glasgow.
DONALDSON, David, Esq., Free Normal Seminary, Glasgow.
D’ORSEY, Rev. A. J., B.D., 8, Lancaster Terrace, Regent’s Park. N.W.
DOWDEN, Edward, Esq., 8, Montenotte, Cork.
DUBLIN, Right Rev. Richard C. Trench, Archbishop of, Dublin.
DYKES, Rev. J. Oswald, Free St. George’s Church, Edinburgh.

EARLE, Rev. J., Swanswick Rectory, Bath.
EISDELL, Miss S. L., Colchester.
EUING, William, Esq., 209, West George Street, Glasgow.

FIELD, Hamilton, Esq., New Park Road, Brixton Hill.
FREETHY, Mr. Frederick, Working Men’s College, London.
FRY, Danby P., Esq., Poor Law Board, Whitehall.
FRY, Frederick, Esq., Wellington Street, Islington.
FURNIVALL, F. J., Esq., 3, Old Square, Lincoln’s Inn., W.C.

GEE, William, Esq., High Street, Boston.
GIBBS, Captain Charles, 2nd Regiment, Devonport.
GIBBS, H. H., Esq., St. Dunstan’s, Regent’s Park.
GLEN, W. Cunningham, Esq., Poor Law Board, Whitehall.
GOLDSTÜCKER, Professor, 14, St. George’s Square. N.W.
GORDON, Rev. Robert, 14, Northumberland St., Edinburgh.
GUILD, J. Uylie, Esq., Glasgow.

HALES, J. W., Esq., Christ’s College, Cambridge.
HALKETT, Samuel, Esq., Advocates’ Library, Edinburgh.
HALL, Professor Fitz-Edward, D.C.L., 18, Provost Road, Haverstock
  Hill. N.W.
HAMLEN, Charles, Esq., 27, Virginia Street, Glasgow.
HANSON, Reginald, Esq., 43, Upper Harley Street. W.
HEATH, N., Esq., Rector, The Academy, Alloa.
HODGSON, Shadworth H., Esq., 45, Conduit Street, Regent’s Street. W.
HOOPER, Rev. Richard, Aston Upthorpe.
HORWOOD, Alfred S., Esq., New Court, Middle Temple. E.C.
HOWARD, Hon. Richard E., D.C.L., Stamp Office, Manchester.


JACKSON, E. Steane, Esq., Walthamstow House, Essex.
JOHNSON, W., Esq., Eton College, Windsor.
JONES, C. W., Esq., Gateacre, near Liverpool.
JONES, E. B., Esq., 62, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury.
JONES, Thomas, Esq., Chetham Library, Manchester.

KING, W. Warwick, Esq., 29, Queen Street, Cannon Street West. E.C.

LAING, David, Esq., Signet Library, Edinburgh.
LAMONT, Colin D., Esq., Union Bank of Scotland, Greenock.
LECKIE, Thomas, Esq., M.D., 60, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park. W.
LEIGH, John, Esq., 26, St. John’s Street, Manchester.
LODGE, Rev. Barton, Colchester.
LONDON LIBRARY, St. James’s Square. S.W.
LUARD, Rev. Henry Richard, 4, St. Peter’s Terrace, Cambridge.
LUSHINGTON, E. L., Esq., Park House, Maidstone.

MACDONALD, George, Esq., 12, Earles Terrace, Kensington. W.
MACDOUALL, Professor Charles, LL.D., Queen’s College, Belfast.
MACKENZIE, John Whitefoord, Esq., 16, Royal Circus, Edinburgh.
MACMILLAN, A., Esq., Bedford Street, Covent Garden. W.C.
MADDEN, Sir Frederick, K. H., British Museum. W.C.
MANCHESTER, The Duke of.
MORRIS, Richard, Esq., Christ Church School, St. George’s East. E.
MUIR, John, Esq., 16, Regent’s Terrace, Edinburgh.
MULLER, Professor Max, 64, High Street, Oxford.
MURDOCH, James Barclay, Esq., 33, Lyndoch Street, Glasgow.

NAPIER, George W., Esq., Alderley Edge, near Manchester.
NASH, D. M., Esq., 21, Bentinck Street, Manchester Square. W.
NEAVES, Lord, 7, Charlotte Square, Edinburgh.
NICHOL, Professor, University, Glasgow.
NICHOLS, John Gough, Esq., 25, Parliament Street, Westminster.
NORRIS, Edwin, Esq., 6, Michael’s Grove, Brompton. S.W.

OGLE, Messrs. Maurice & Co., Glasgow.

PAINE, Cornelius, Jun., Esq., Surbiton Hill, Surrey.
PANTON, Rev. George A., Crown Circus, Dowanhill, Glasgow. (2 sets.)
PARKER, H. T., Esq., 3, Ladbroke Gardens. W. (10 sets).
PEILE, John, Esq., Christ’s College, Cambridge.
PERCEVAL, Charles Spencer, Esq., 64, Eccleston Square. S.W.
PRIAULX, Osw. De Beauvoir, Esq., 8, Cavendish Square. W.

RAINE, Rev. James, York.
REILLY, Francis S., Esq., 22, Old Buildings, Lincoln’s Inn. W.C.
RICHARDSON, Sir John, Lancrigg, Grasmere.
ROSSETTI, Wm., Esq., 160, Albany Street. N.W.
RUSKIN, John, Esq., Denmark Hill, Camberwell (10 sets).

ST. DAVID’S, Right Rev. Connop Thirlwall, Bishop of, Abergwili Palace,
SION COLLEGE, President and Fellows of, London Wall.
SKEAT, Rev. Walter W., Christ’s College, Cambridge.
SLATTER, Rev. John, Streatley Vicarage, Reading.
SMITH, Charles, Esq., Faversham.
SMITH, J. Guthrie, Esq., Glasgow.
SPRANGE, A. D., Esq., 12, Princes Street, Bayswater. W.
STEPHENS, Professor George, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
STEVENSON, Rev. Prof., D.D., 37, Royal Terrace, Edinburgh.
STEWART, Alexander B., Esq., Glasgow.
STRATHEARN, Sheriff, County Buildings, Glasgow.

TENNYSON, Alfred, Esq., D.C.L., Faringford, Isle of Wight.
TRÜBNER, Nicholas, Esq., 60, Paternoster Row (19 sets).
TUCKER, Stephen, Esq., 11, St. Petersburgh Place. W.
TYSSEN, John R. D., Esq., Didlington Park, Brandon, Norfolk.

WARD, Harry, Esq., British Museum. W.C.
WATTS, Thomas, Esq., British Museum. W.C.
WEDGWOOD, Hensleigh, Esq., 1, Cumberland Place, Regent’s Park.
WEYMOUTH, R. F., Esq., Portland Grammar School, Plymouth.
WHEATLEY, Henry B., Esq., 53, Berners Street. W.--_Hon. Sec._
WILLIAMS, Sydney, Esq., 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C.
  (2 sets.)
WILLIAMSON, Stephen, Esq., 13, Virginia Street, Glasgow.
WILSON, Edward J., Esq., 6, Whitefriars Gate, Hull.
WRIGHT, W. Aldis, Esq., Trinity College, Cambridge.

YOUNG, Alexander, Esq., 38, Elm Bank Crescent, Glasgow.

STEPHEN AUSTIN, Printer, Hertford.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue - A Treates, noe shorter than necessarie, for the Schooles" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.