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Title: Van Dyck - A Collection Of Fifteen Pictures And A Portrait Of The - Painter With Introduction And Interpretation
Author: Hurll, Estelle M. (Estelle May), 1863-1924
Language: English
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                 [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF VAN DYCK
                 _Prado Gallery, Madrid_]


                         Masterpieces of Art


                               VAN DYCK

                   A COLLECTION OF FIFTEEN PICTURES

                    AND A PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER

                        WITH INTRODUCTION AND

                            INTERPRETATION



                                  BY

                           ESTELLE M. HURLL



                         BOSTON AND NEW YORK

                      HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

                    The Riverside Press Cambridge

                                 1902



             COPYRIGHT, 1902, BY HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE


The fame of Van Dyck's portraits has so far over-shadowed that of his
other works that his sacred pictures are for the most part unfamiliar
to the general public. The illustrations for this little book are
equally divided between portraits and subject-pieces, and it is hoped
that the selection may give the reader some adequate notion of the
scope of the painter's art.

ESTELLE M. HURLL.

NEW BEDFORD, MASS.,

March, 1902.

       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS AND LIST OF PICTURES


Portrait of Van Dyck (DETAIL)          (_Frontispiece_)

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

INTRODUCTION

    I.  ON VAN DYCK'S CHARACTER AS AN ARTIST

   II.  ON BOOKS OF REFERENCE

  III.  HISTORICAL DIRECTORY OF THE PICTURES OF THIS COLLECTION

   IV.  OUTLINE TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN VAN DYCK'S LIFE

    V.  LIST OF CONTEMPORARY PAINTERS

   VI.  NOTABLE ENGLISH PERSONS OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES I.

I. PORTRAIT OF ANNA WAKE

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

II. THE REST IN EGYPT

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

III. THE SO-CALLED PORTRAIT OF RICHARDOT AND HIS SON

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

IV. THE VISION OF ST. ANTHONY

Picture from Photograph by Fratelli Alinari

V. MADAME ANDREAS COLYNS DE NOLE AND HER DAUGHTER

Picture from Photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl

VI. DÆDALUS AND ICARUS

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

VII. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES I.

By Sir Peter Lely after Van Dyck. Picture from Carbon Print by Braun,
Clément & Co.

VIII. THE MADONNA OF ST. ROSALIA

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

IX. CHARLES, PRINCE OF WALES (DETAIL)

Picture from Photograph by D. Anderson

X. ST. MARTIN DIVIDING HIS CLOAK WITH A BEGGAR

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

XI. THE CRUCIFIXION

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

XII. JAMES STUART, DUKE OF LENNOX AND RICHMOND

Picture from Photograph of the original Painting

XIII. CHRIST AND THE PARALYTIC

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

XIV. PHILIP, LORD WHARTON

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

XV. THE LAMENTATION OVER CHRIST

Picture from Carbon Print by Braun, Clément & Co.

XVI. PORTRAIT OF VAN DYCK

PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY OF PROPER NAMES AND FOREIGN WORDS

       *       *       *       *       *



INTRODUCTION


I. ON VAN DYCK'S CHARACTER AS AN ARTIST.

The student of Van Dyck's art naturally classifies the painter's works
into four groups, corresponding chronologically to the four successive
periods of his life. There was first the short period of his youth in
Antwerp, when Rubens was the dominating influence upon his work. The
portrait of Van der Geest, in the National Gallery, belongs to this
time.

Then followed the four years' residence in Italy, when he fell under
the spell of Titian. This was the period of the series of splendid
portraits of noble Italian families which are to this day the pride of
Genoa. Here too belong those lovely Madonna pictures which brought
back for a time the golden age of Venetian art.

Upon his return to Antwerp, the six succeeding years gave him the
opportunity to work out his own individuality. Some noble altar-pieces
were produced in these years. Pleasant reminiscences of Titian still
appear in such work, as in the often-used motif of baby angels; but in
the subjects of the Crucifixion and the Pietà, he stands quite apart.
These works are distinctly his own, and show genuine dramatic power.

During this Flemish period Van Dyck was appointed court painter by the
Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia, Spanish Regent of the Netherlands.
In this capacity he painted a notable series of portraits, including
some of his most interesting works, which represent many of the most
distinguished personages of the time.

The last nine years of Van Dyck's life were passed in England, where
the family of Charles I. and the brilliant group of persons forming
his court were the subjects of his final series of portraits. There
were no altar-pieces in this period. At the beginning of his English
work Van Dyck produced certain portraits unsurpassed during his whole
life. The well-known Charles I., with an equerry, in the Louvre, is
perhaps the best of these. His works after this were uneven in
quality. His vitality was drained by social dissipations, and he lost
the ambition to grow. Some features of the portraits became
stereotyped, especially the hands. Yet from time to time he rose to a
high level.

A painter so easily moulded by his environment cannot justly take rank
among the world's foremost masters. A great creative mind Van Dyck
certainly had not, but, gifted assimilator that he was, he developed
many delightful qualities of his art. The combined results of his
borrowing and his own innate gifts make him a notable and indeed a
beloved figure in art history.

The leading note of his style is distinction. His men are all
noblemen, his women all great ladies, and his children all princes and
princesses. The same qualities of dignity and impressiveness are
carried into his best altar-pieces. Sentiment they have also in no
insignificant degree.

It is perhaps naming only another phase of distinction to say that his
figures are usually characterized by repose. The sense of motion which
so many of Reynolds's portraits convey is almost never expressed in
Van Dyck's work, nor would it be consistent with his other qualities.

The magic gift of charm none have understood better when the subject
offered the proper inspiration. We see this well illustrated in many
portraits of young noblemen, such as the Duke of Lennox and Richmond
and Lord Wharton.

Van Dyck's clever technique has preserved for us the many rich fabrics
of his period, and his pictures would be a delight were these details
their sole attraction. Heavy velvet, with the light playing
deliciously in the creases, lustrous satins, broken by folds into many
tints, delicate laces, elaborate embroideries, gleaming jewels--these
are the never-failing accessories of his compositions. Yet while he
loved rich draperies, he was also a careful student of the nude.
Examples of his work range from the supple and youthful torso of
Icarus to the huge muscular body of the beggar receiving St. Martin's
cloak. The modelling of the Saviour's body in the Crucifixion and the
Pietà shows both scientific knowledge and artistic handling.

Generally speaking, Van Dyck was little of a psychologist. His patrons
belonged to that social class in which reserve is a test of breeding
and thoughts and emotions are sedulously concealed. To penetrate the
mask of the face and interpret the character of his sitter was an
office he seldom took upon himself to perform. Yet he was capable of
profound character study, especially in the portrayal of men. Even in
so early a work as the so-called portrait of Richardot and his son, he
revealed decided talent in this direction, while the portrait of
Cardinal Bentivoglio, of the Italian period, and the portrait of
Wentworth, in the English period, are masterly studies of the men they
represent.

A common feature of his portraits is the averted glance of the
sitter's eyes. This fact is in itself a barrier to our intimate
knowledge of the subject, and also in a measure injures the sense of
vitality expressed in the work. It must be confessed that Van Dyck,
disciple though he was of Rubens and Titian, fell below these masters
in the art of imparting life to a figure.

In certain mechanical elements of his art Van Dyck was conspicuously
deficient. He seemed to have no ingenuity in devising poses for his
subjects. Sitting or standing, the attitude is usually more or less
artificial and constrained. The atmosphere of the studio is painfully
evident. Never by any accident did he seem to catch the sitter off
guard, so to speak, except in a few children's portraits. Here he
expressed a vivacity and charm which seemed impossible to him with
adult subjects.

In composition he is at his best in altar-pieces. In portrait groups,
as in the pictures of the children of Charles I., he apparently made
no effort to bring the separate figures into an harmonious unity. A
single figure, or half length, he placed on his canvas with unerring
sense of right proportion. Perhaps the best summary of Van Dyck's art
has been made by the English critic, Claude Phillips, in these words:
His was "not indeed one of the greatest creative individualities that
have dominated the world of art, but a talent as exquisite in
distinction, as true to itself in every successive phase, a technical
accomplishment as surprising of its kind in solidity, brilliancy, and
charm, as any that could be pointed to even in the seventeenth
century."


II. ON BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

It has been reserved for our own day to produce two superb works by
English writers on Van Dyck. The first to appear was that by Ernest
Law, "a storehouse of information," on the paintings by Van Dyck in
the Royal Collections. The second is the definitive biography by
Lionel Cust: "Anthony Van Dyck; An Historical Study of his Life and
Works." The author is the director of the English National Portrait
Gallery, and has had exceptional opportunities for the examination of
Van Dyck's paintings. His work has been done with great thoroughness
and care. The volume is richly illustrated with photogravures, and
contains complete lists of the painter's works arranged by periods.

For brief sketches of Van Dyck's life the student is referred to
general histories, of which Kugler's "Hand-book of the German,
Flemish, and Dutch School" (revised by Crowe), is of first importance.
Lübke's "History of Painting," and Woltman and Woerman's "History of
Painting," contain material on Van Dyck. A volume devoted to Van Dyck
is in the series of German monographs edited by H. Knackfuss, and may
be had in an English translation.

A critical appreciation of Van Dyck is given by Fromentin in his
valuable little book on "The Old Masters of Holland and Belgium."
Critical articles by Claude Phillips have appeared in "The Nineteenth
Century," November, 1899, and "The Art Journal" for March, 1900.


III. HISTORICAL DIRECTORY OF THE PICTURES OF THIS COLLECTION.

Frontispiece. _Portrait of Van Dyck._ Detail of a portrait of Van Dyck
and John Digby, Earl of Bristol. Painted about 1640. Formerly in the
Isabel Farnese Collection in the palace of San Ildefonso; now in the
Prado Gallery, Madrid. _Cust_, p. 285.

1. _Portrait of Anna Wake_, inscribed: "Ætat suæ 22, An 1628." Signed:
"Anton Van Dyck fecit." In the Royal Gallery at the Hague. Size: 3 ft.
8-1/2 in. by 3 ft. 2-1/2 in. _Cust_, pp. 58 and 261.

2. _The Rest in Egypt._ Painted in the Italian period for Frederick
Henry, Prince of Orange. One of several pictures of the same subject,
and generally considered the original, though the authenticity is
doubted by Signor Venturi. In the Pitti, Florence.

3. _The so-called Portrait of Richardot and his Son._ The identity of
the subject not established. Sometimes attributed to Rubens, but
accepted as Van Dyck's work by Cust. In the Louvre, Paris. Size: 3 ft.
7 in. by 2 ft. 5-1/2 in. _Cust_, pp. 76 and 134.

4. _The Vision of St. Anthony._ Painted in the Italian period.
Obtained by exchange in 1813 from the Musée National at Paris. In the
Brera Gallery, Milan. Size: 6 ft. 1 in. by 5 ft. 1/4 in. _Cust_, pp.
46 and 239.

5. _Madame Andreas Colyns de Nole and her Daughter._ Painted in
Antwerp in period from 1626 to 1632. Purchased in 1698 by the Elector
Max Emanuel of Bavaria. Munich Gallery. Size: 3 ft. 11-1/2 in. by 2
ft. 11-2/5 in. _Cust_, pp. 79 and 254.

6. _Dædalus and Icarus._ Painted about 1621 (?). Exhibited at Antwerp
in 1899. One of several paintings of the same subject. In the
collection of the Earl of Spencer, Althorp. _Cust_, pp. 61 and 241.

7. _Portrait of Charles I._ Supposed to be a copy by Sir Peter Lely
from the original, which was painted about 1636, and destroyed in the
fire at Whitehall in 1697. Not impossibly, however, the original
painting itself, given by the king to the Prince Palatine. In the
Dresden Gallery. Size: 4 ft. by 3 ft. 2 in. _Cust_, pp. 105 and 264.

8. _The Madonna of St. Rosalia._ Painted in 1629 for the Confraternity
of Celibates in the Hall of the Jesuits, Antwerp. On the suppression
of the order in 1776 it was purchased by the Empress Maria Theresa.
Now in the Imperial Gallery, Vienna. Size: 9 ft. 1 in. by 6 ft. 11 in.
_Cust_, p. 250.

9. _Charles, Prince of Wales._ Detail of a group of the three children
of Charles I., painted in 1635. Probably painted for the queen, and
presented by her to her sister Christina of Savoy. In the Royal
Gallery, Turin. _Cust_, pp. 110 and 266.

10. _St. Martin dividing his Cloak with a Beggar._ Painted in the
Italian period. Presented to the Church of Saventhem by Ferdinand de
Boisschot, Seigneur de Saventhem. Taken by the French to Paris in 1806
and returned in 1815. A copy of this picture is in the Imperial
Gallery, Vienna, but the original is in the church of Saventhem.
_Cust_, pp. 32 and 240.

11. _The Crucifixion._ Painted in 1628 for the church of St. Augustine
at Antwerp. Taken by the French to Paris in 1794 and restored in 1815.
Now in the Antwerp Museum. Size: 3 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. _Cust_,
pp. 61 and 248.

12. _James Stuart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond._ Painted about 1633.
Formerly belonged to Lord Methuen at Corsham. Now in the Marquand
collection at the Metropolitan Art Museum, New York. Size: 4 ft. 3/4
in. by 6 ft. 11-5/8 in. _Cust_, pp. 117-278.

13. _Christ and the Paralytic. Painted at Genoa._ In Buckingham
Palace. Size: 3 ft. 10-1/2 in. by 4 ft. 9 in. _Cust_, pp. 46 and 237.

14. _Philip, Lord Wharton._ Inscribed in the lower left corner with
the painter's name; in the lower right corner, "Philip, Lord Wharton,
1632, about y^e age of 19." Purchased from the Duke of Wharton's
collection in 1725 by Sir Robert Walpole, and thence it passed in 1779
to the collection of Catherine II. of Russia. In the Hermitage
Gallery, St. Petersburg. Size: 4 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. _Cust_, pp.
121 and 286.

15. _The Lamentation over Christ._ Painted about 1629 for the church
of the Béguinage at Antwerp. Now in the Antwerp Museum. Size: 9 ft. 11
in. by 7 ft. 4 in. _Cust_, pp. 66 and 248.


IV. OUTLINE TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN VAN DYCK'S LIFE.

_Compiled from Lionel Cust's_ Anthony Van Dyck, _to which the
references to pages apply._

1599. Antoon Van Dyck born March 22, in the house "der Berendaus,"
Antwerp (p. 4).

1601. Removal of Van Dyck family to house number 46 in street De Stat
Gent (p. 4).

1607. Death of Van Dyck's mother (p. 4).

1609. Van Dyck among the apprentices of the painter Hendrick van Balen
(p. 6).

1613. Portrait of an old man (p. 7).

1618. Admitted to the freedom of the Guild of St. Luke, Antwerp,
February (p. 8). Entered Rubens' studio (p. 15).

1620. An order from the Jesuits for thirty-nine pictures designed by
Rubens and completed by Van Dyck (p. 14).

Visit to England and service for King James I. (p. 23), and return to
Antwerp (p. 24).

1621. Departure for Italy, Oct. 3 (p. 25), arriving at Genoa, Nov. 21.

1622. Departure from Genoa, February, to Rome; thence to Florence (p.
26); thence to Bologna (p. 27); thence to Venice (p. 27); Mantua (p.
27). Death of Van Dyck's father, Dec. 1 (p. 55).

1623. Return to Rome (p. 27); thence to Genoa (p. 28).

1623-1625. In Genoa.

1624. Journey to Palermo for portraits and other pictures (p. 49).

1625. Crucifixion, with St. Francis, St. Bernard, and the donor,
painted for church of S. Michele de Pagana, near Genoa (p. 48).

1626. Probable date of return to Antwerp (p. 55).

1626 or 1627. Probable visit to England (pp. 56, 57, and 85).

1627. Death of Van Dyck's sister Cornelia (p. 58).

1628, March 3. Date of Van Dyck's will (p. 58).

1628. St. Augustine in Ecstasy completed for church of St. Augustine,
Antwerp (p. 61).

1629. Purchase of Rinaldo and Armida by Charles I. (p. 85).

1630. Crucifixion for church of St. Michel, Ghent (p. 63). Portrait of
Anna Maria de Camudio, wife of Ferdinand de Boisschot (p. 75).

1631. Elevation of Cross for church of Notre Dame at Courtray (p. 64).
Appointment as court painter to Isabella Clara Eugenia, regent of the
Netherlands (p. 73).

1630, 1631. Portraits of Philippe le Roy, Seigneur de Ravels and his
wife (p. 78).

1631. Portrait of Marie de Medici (p. 81).

1631? Visit to Holland and acquaintance with Franz Hals (pp. 81-83).

1632. Arrival in England (p. 87), and knighthood conferred, July 5 (p.
88).

1634. Double portrait of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria (p. 102).
Visit to Antwerp and purchase of property there (p. 90). Visit to
Court of Brussels and portraits of regent, Prince of Savoy, and Prince
Gaston, duc d'Orléans, and others (p. 91).

1635. Return to Antwerp, thence to England (p. 96). Famous portrait of
Charles I. with horse and equerry (now in Louvre), sent to France as
gift to queen mother (p. 105). Group of three children of Charles I.,
now in Turin (p. 109).

1636. Portrait of Charles I., full length, at Windsor Castle (p. 105).

1637. Group of five children of Charles I. (p. 111).

1639 or 1640. Marriage with Mary Ruthven (p. 142).

1640. In Antwerp in October, magnificently entertained by Academy of
Painting (p. 143).

1641. In Paris, in January, seeking commission for decorations of
Louvre (p. 144). In London, in May, and portrait of Princess Mary and
Prince William (p. 144). In Antwerp, in October, planning for
residence there (p. 145). In Paris, in November, on business. Return
to London. Birth of daughter, Dec. 1. Death, Dec. 9 (p. 145).


V. LIST OF CONTEMPORARY PAINTERS.

_Flemish_:--

Franz Snyders, 1579-1657.
Peter Paul Rubens, 1577-1640.
Gaspard de Craeyer, 1582-1669.
Jacob Jordaens, 1594-1678.
Justus Sustermans, 1597-1681.
David Teniers, 1610-1690.

_Spanish_:--

Pacheco, 1571-1654.
Herrera, 1576-1656.
Zurbaran, 1598-1662.
Velasquez, 1599-1660.
Cano, 1601-1676.
Murillo, 1618-1682.

_French_:--

Simon Vouet, 1582-1641.
Poussin, 1594-1655.

Eustache Le Sueur, 1617-1655.
Charles Le Brun, 1619-1690.

_Italian_:--

Guido Reni, 1575-1642.
Francesco Albani, 1578-1660.
Domenichino, 1581-1641.
Guercino, 1591-1666.
Sassoferrato, 1605-1685.
Carlo Dolci, 1616-1686.

_Dutch_:--

Franz Hals, 1584-1666.
Gerard Honthorst, 1590-1656.
Jan van Goypen, 1596-1656.
Albert Cuyp, 1605-1691.
Rembrandt, 1606-1669.
Jan Lievens, 1607-after 1672.
Gerard Terburg, 1608-1681.
Salomon Koning, 1609-1668.
Adrian van Ostade, 1610-1685.


VI. NOTABLE ENGLISH PERSONS OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES I.

WRITERS:--

Ben Jonson, 1573 or 1574-1637.
Robert Herrick, 1591-1674.
George Herbert, 1593-1632.
Edmund Waller, 1605 or 1606-1687.
Sir William Killigrew, 1605-1693.
Sir John Suckling, 1608 or 1609-1641 or 1642.
John Milton, 1608-1674.
Thomas Killigrew, 1611-1682.
John Evelyn, 1620-1706 (author of "Memoirs").

_Architect_:--

Inigo Jones, 1572-1653.

_Royalists_:--

Archbishop Laud, 1573-1644/5.
Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, 1586-1646.
George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, 1592-1628.
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, 1593-1641.

_Parliamentarians_:--

John Pym, 1584-1643.
Sir John Eliot, 1592-1632.
John Hampden, 1594-1643.
Oliver Cromwell, 1599-1658.
Lord Thomas Fairfax, 1611 or 1612-1671.



I

PORTRAIT OF ANNA WAKE


The city of Antwerp was at one time famous for its commercial and
industrial interests, and it was besides an important centre of art.
Here in the seventeenth century lived the two foremost Flemish
painters, Peter Paul Rubens, and Anthony Van Dyck. The Flemish
industries had chiefly to do with the making of beautiful things.
Among them were tapestries in rich designs and many colors, used for
wall hangings. The Flemish weavers were also skilled in making fabrics
of silk and velvet. Most famous of all were their laces, patiently
wrought by hand, on pillows, and unrivalled throughout the world for
delicacy of workmanship. Glass and porcelain were also among their
industrial products. In Antwerp, too, was the printing establishment
of Plantin, from which issued many learned works in French and Latin.

Among refined people like these, who not only loved beautiful things
but could afford to buy them, the art of painting was highly esteemed.
There was every encouragement for a young artist to pursue this
calling. Rubens was already a great painter when Van Dyck began his
art studies, and the older man gave the younger much helpful advice.
At his friend's suggestion Van Dyck travelled several years in Italy,
where he was inspired by the works of the Italian masters of the
preceding century. Returning at length to his native city, he set up a
studio of his own, and soon became a favorite portrait painter among
the rich and fashionable classes. Not a few of his sitters were
foreign sojourners in the Netherlands, especially the English. The
lady of our illustration is quite plainly of this nationality, though
she is dressed according to the Flemish modes.

It appears that an English merchant named Wake was established in
Antwerp at this time, and it is supposed that this may be his
daughter. There are also reasons for connecting the portrait with one
of a certain English baronet named Sheffield, who was likewise in
Belgium in this period. Miss Anna Wake, we may conclude, had married
into the Sheffield family when this portrait was painted. These names,
however, are mere guesses, and, even if they were verified, would tell
us no more of the lady's story than we can gather from the picture.
Her life was probably not of the eventful kind which passes into
history. The luxuries of her surroundings we may judge from her rich
dress and jewels; the sweetness of her character is written in her
face.

She shows us perhaps more of her inner life than she intends. Her fine
reserve would naturally shrink from any sort of familiarity. Yet as
she stands quietly before the portrait painter, left, as it were, to
the solitude of her own thoughts, her spirit seems to look out of the
candid eyes.

[Illustration: PORTRAIT OF ANNA WAKE
_Royal Gallery, The Hague_]

Her dignity and self-possession make her seem older than the
twenty-two years with which the inscription on the portrait credits
her. But the face is that of one who has just passed from maidenhood
to young womanhood. Life lies before her, and with sweet seriousness
she builds her air castles of the future. Thus far she has been
carefully guarded from the evil of the world, and her heart is as pure
as that of "the lily maid of Astolat." For social triumphs she would
care nothing, though her beauty could not fail to draw an admiring
throng about her. Vanity and coquetry are altogether foreign to her
nature. She is, rather, of a poetic and dreamy temperament. Perhaps it
is the fragile quality of her beauty which gives an almost wistful
expression to the face. She is like a delicate flower which a chill
wind would blast.

The costume interests us as a study of bygone fashions, and is painted
with exquisite care for detail. The pointed bodice is as stiff as a
coat of mail, like that so long in vogue at the court of Spain.
Perhaps the Spanish occupation of the Netherlands may have brought the
corset with it. Certainly it is not conducive to an easy carriage;
only a graceful figure like this could wear it without awkwardness.
The slashed sleeves are made full, and tied at the elbows with bows.
The wide collar and cuffs are edged with beautiful Flemish lace
points. The feather fan and the strings of pearls about the throat
and wrists might form a part of any modern costume. It strikes us,
however, as a very singular fashion for a lady to wear a large seal
ring on the thumb.

We notice how simply the hair is dressed, brushed loosely from the
face and knotted at the back, with a jewel gleaming at one side.
Compared with the elaborate coiffures worn by great ladies in some
historical periods, this style is delightfully artistic. Altogether
the entire manner of dressing is perfectly suited to the wearer.



II

THE REST IN EGYPT


We often read in history of the rejoicing throughout a kingdom over
the birth of a prince: messengers are sent from place to place to
proclaim the glad news, congratulations and gifts follow, every
possible care is taken for the nurture and protection of the precious
young life.

The story of the childhood of Jesus reads somewhat like that of a
prince, in spite of his lowly surroundings. Though he was born in a
manger, a herald angel announced the glad tidings of his coming.
Though the people of Bethlehem took no note of the event, a multitude
of the heavenly host sang "Glory to God in the highest, on earth
peace, good-will to men." Wise men from the East made a long journey
to find the young child. The lore of the stars had taught them that he
was a king, and they brought gifts worthy of royalty, gold, and
frankincense, and myrrh.

It was these visitors who were the innocent cause of the child's first
danger. In seeking him out they had gone to King Herod at Jerusalem,
asking, "Where is he that is born King of the Jews?" These inquiries
made the monarch very uneasy. He had no mind to lose his crown. To
prevent the appearance of any possible rival he determined upon
summary measures. "He sent forth and slew all the children that were
in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and
under." By this terrible massacre he thought to do away with the child
Jesus.

But the Prince of Peace was protected by stronger guards than ever
surrounded the cradle of an earthly prince. A warning message was sent
to save the child from the impending danger. "The angel of the Lord
appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young
child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I
bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him."

"When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and
departed into Egypt."[1] The journey was long and wearisome, but the
mother Mary was young, and strong in courage, and Joseph was a sturdy
defender. As for the babe, what mattered it to him whether he slept in
a manger, or under the trees by the wayside? He was safe in his
mother's arms.

[Footnote 1: St. Matthew, chapter ii., verses 13, 14.]

What adventures befell them by the way we do not know, but we like to
imagine the incidents of the journey. There is a tradition that angel
play-fellows came from time to time to amuse the child Jesus. When
Mary and Joseph were forced to pause a little while for food and rest,
the lonely places were filled with these glad presences.

[Illustration: THE REST IN EGYPT
_Pitti Gallery, Florence_]

This is the legend illustrated in our picture. Under the spreading
branches of a great tree, Mary has found a comfortable seat on a
grassy bank, and Joseph rests behind her. The little child stands on
his mother's knee, clinging to her dress for support, while her arms
hold him firm. A band of infant angels play on the flower-strewn grass
in the open space in front. With joined hands they circle about as in
the figure of a dance or game. The music for their sport is furnished
by a heavenly choir, hovering in the upper air and singing the score
from an open book.

The leader of the dance is evidently the beautiful angel who pauses
opposite the Christ-child. Resting on the right foot he draws back the
left, poising on his toe, in an attitude of exquisite grace. With his
left hand he waves a salute to the infant Christ. His right hand
clasps that of a companion angel to form an arch beneath which troop
the whole jocund company. It is good sport, and the players scamper
gleefully along. A single angel stops to gaze ardently towards the
Christ-child.

The mother looks on at the game with queenly dignity. A smile hovers
on her lips, as if the eagerness of the little leader pleased her. As
for Joseph, his glance is directed towards the tree-tops. Perhaps his
senses are not fine enough to discern the spirit company, but he is
well content with the happiness of mother and child.

From the safe pedestal of his mother's knee the child Jesus watches
every motion of the angels with breathless interest. The angel leader
seems to beckon him to join them, and he is almost ready to go. Yet
the firm hands hold him back, and he is glad to cling to his mother's
dress. A circle of light about his head is the halo, or symbol of his
divine origin.

The picture is an important record of our painter's travels in Italy.
It was here he imbibed from the old Italian masters the tender and
devotional spirit which animated their sacred works. Titian was the
special object of his admiration, and he painted a number of Madonna
pictures which show the influence the Venetian painter had upon his
art. The circle of dancing angels recalls the cherub throng of
Titian's Assumption.[2]

[Footnote 2: See Chapter XII. in volume on Titian in the Riverside Art
Series.]



III

THE SO-CALLED PORTRAIT OF RICHARDOT AND HIS SON


A gentleman has brought his little boy to our painter's studio for a
portrait sitting. Father and son are close friends and understand each
other well. On the way they have talked of the picture that is to be
made, and the boy has asked many questions about it. It is rather a
tedious prospect to an active child to have to sit still a long time.
But his father's companionship is his greatest delight, and it is a
rare treat to both to have a whole morning together. Besides, they
have a book with them, a new publication from the Plantin printing
press, and the father has promised to read something to him.

The two are richly dressed for the event, the father in black with a
fur mantle, and the boy in white satin embroidered with gold. The man
wears the stiff quilled ruff of the period, the boy a round collar of
soft lace. It is not every day in the year that a little boy is
allowed to wear his best satin doublet, and the child feels the
gravity of the occasion. We may suppose that these are people of
distinction, and that on certain great occasions the boy accompanies
his father to court. Perhaps, too, as the eldest son of the house, he
is sometimes given a seat at a great banquet, or is brought into the
tapestried hall to meet an honored guest. It is at such times that he
would be dressed as in the picture. In our own day a child's finery
brings to mind dancing classes and parties, but in these far away
times it is associated only with stately ceremonies.

The painter has led his guests to a place near a window, where,
looking over their shoulders, one sees a bit of pleasant country. The
man draws the boy towards him and lays one hand on the child's
shoulder. At the painter's bidding, the little fellow puts his right
arm akimbo, imitating the attitude in some of the portraits of the
studio. The pose suits perfectly the quaint dignity of the little
figure.

It is a proud moment for the boy. It makes him almost a man to be
treated as an equal by his father. Not for worlds would he do anything
to spoil the picture; he feels the responsibility of carrying out his
part well. He regards the painter with solemn eyes, watching intently
every motion of the pencil.

There is a gleam of humor in the father's eyes as he too looks in the
same direction. He is a man of large affairs, we are sure. His high
forehead shows rare mental powers, and he has the judicial expression
of one whose counsel would be worth following. Yet there is that in
his face which shows the quiet tastes of the scholar. With his boy
beside him and a book in his hand, he is content to let the great
world go its way. Nevertheless he is something of a courtier, as his
station in life requires, a distinguished figure in any great company.
The face is one of striking nobility of character. He is a man in
whom we could place great confidence.

[Illustration: THE SO-CALLED PORTRAIT OF RICHARDOT AND HIS SON
_The Louvre, Paris_]

Two qualities of the portrait give it artistic value, life-likeness,
and character. The figures almost seem to speak to us from the canvas,
and we feel a sense of intimacy with them, as if we had actually known
them in real life. Indeed there is very little in the picture to make
it seem foreign to our own surroundings. The stiff ruff is the most
distinctly old-fashioned feature. The man's closely cut pointed beard
is such as has long been called the "Van Dyck beard." The painter wore
his own trimmed in the same way, which seems at one time to have been
equally the fashion in England and on the continent.

We remark in the picture the excellent characterization of the hands.
In later days when the painter was busier, he often assigned this part
of the work to assistants. They did not try to reproduce the hand of
the portrait sitter, but painted this feature from a model. Now this
man's hand is plainly his own; it is of a character with the face,
strong and sensitive.

The landscape view is an important element in the picture. If we
compare our illustration with others which have no such setting, we
shall better understand its value. An enclosed space sets a more or
less definite limit to the imagination. A glimpse of the country, on
the other hand, suggests wide spaces for the fancy to explore. It will
also be noticed that this light spot in the upper right corner
balances well the white costume of the boy in the lower left corner.

The portrait group of our illustration has long borne the title of
Jean Grusset Richardot and his Son. This Richardot was a celebrated
Flemish diplomat of the sixteenth century, and president of the Privy
Council of the Low Countries. As he died in Van Dyck's boyhood, his
portrait could not have been made by our painter directly from life.
Nor can we believe with some that years after the diplomat's death Van
Dyck copied from some old picture the likeness seen here. A portrait
painted in this way would not have the vitality of our illustration.
We are therefore obliged to consider the picture nameless; but our
enjoyment of its good qualities is by no means less keen.



IV

THE VISION OF ST. ANTHONY


St. Anthony of Padua was a Franciscan friar of the thirteenth century,
celebrated for his piety and eloquence. He was a Portuguese by birth,
and early in life determined to be a Christian missionary. His first
labors were in Africa, but being seized by a lingering illness, he
returned to Europe and landed in Italy. Here he came under the
influence of St. Francis of Assisi, who was just establishing a new
religious order. The rules were to be very strict: the members could
possess nothing of their own, but were to beg their food and raiment
of fellow Christians. They were to mingle with the people as brothers,
hence _friars_,[3] ministering to their bodily needs, and advising,
comforting, and admonishing in higher concerns. What sort of a habit
they wore we may see in our picture. There was a long dark brown tunic
made with loose sleeves, and having a sort of hood attached. The
garment was fastened about the waist with a knotted rope. By this
strange girdle the wearer was continually reminded that the body is a
beast to be subdued by a halter.

[Footnote 3: From the French frère.]

On account of his learning, St. Anthony became a teacher of theology.
He was connected successively with the universities of Bologna,
Toulouse, Paris, and Padua, and with this last city his name has ever
since been associated. At length, however, he forsook all other
employments and devoted himself wholly to preaching among the people.

These were troublous times in Italy, when the poor were cruelly
oppressed by the rich. St. Anthony espoused the cause of those who
were wronged, and denounced all forms of tyranny. His influence was a
great power among the people, and many stories are told of his
preaching. It is related that one day, as he was explaining to his
hearers the mystery of the Incarnation, the Christ-child appeared to
him as in a vision.

It is this story which the painter had in mind in our picture: St.
Anthony kneels before the mother and babe in an ecstasy of devotion.
An open book lies on the ground beside him, as if he had been conning
its pages when the vision broke upon him. The landscape surroundings
are especially appropriate, for St. Anthony was fond of out-of-door
life. His sermons were often given in the open air, and it is said
that he sometimes preached to the fishes. He delighted to point out to
his hearers the beauties of nature, the whiteness of the swan, the
mutual charity of the storks, and the purity and fragrance of the
lilies.

[Illustration: THE VISION OF ST. ANTHONY
_Brera Gallery, Milan_]

The poetic refinement of his nature is indicated in his face. He is
young and handsome, with the gentle expression which used to win the
hearts of his hearers. There is little here to show the more
forcible elements of his character. The tonsured head is the common
mark of membership in religious orders.

The Christ-child bends forward to caress the saint's face with his
tiny hand. He is a loving little fellow, not particularly pretty,
except in his infantine plumpness, yet the face is full of innocent
sweetness. A mysterious light shines above his head, the emblem of
divinity. The good friar does not presume to touch the holy child, but
folds his hands reverently across his breast. His eyes are lifted with
the rapt look of the visionary.

St. Anthony's biographers tell us how he loved to recite the old Latin
hymn by St. Fortunatus, beginning,--

    O Gloriosa Domina
    Excelsa super sydera.
    [O most glorious Lady
    Exalted above the stars.]

We may fancy that in the ecstasy of this vision these lines now rise
to his lips. The last stanza expresses the sum of his adoration:--

      Gloria tibi Domine
      Qui natus es de Virgine
      Cum Patre et sancto Spiritu
      In sempiterna saecula.
    [Glory to thee, O Lord,
    Who wast born of a Virgin,
    With the Father and Holy Spirit
    For eternal ages.]

It is easy to see from a comparison of this picture with the Rest in
Egypt that it was painted at about the same time. We at once
recognize the mother and child of the other illustration, and note the
similarity in pose. We may imagine the Madonna bending forward and
holding the babe a little lower on her lap, and we should have the
grouping as it is here.

In their pictures of the Madonna, the old painters tried to express
their highest ideals of womanhood. The mother Mary represented to them
all that is strongest and sweetest in a woman's character. So this
Madonna by Van Dyck is a gracious and queenly figure modelled upon the
stately Virgin of Titian.

The linear composition of the picture is carefully planned; the basis
is the pyramidal form. From the top of the Virgin's head diverge the
two oblique lines which enclose the diagram. The mantle fluttering
behind the mother's shoulder balances the part of St. Anthony's tunic
which lies on the ground.

We may well believe that the painter took especial pleasure in working
on this picture, because he himself bore the name of the good St.
Anthony.



V

MADAME ANDREAS COLYNS DE NOLE AND HER DAUGHTER


In the time of Van Dyck there was living in Antwerp a family of
ancient lineage who bore the name of Colyns de Nole. For three
centuries there had been sculptors among the men of this name. The
talent had been handed down from father to son through the several
generations, and sometimes there were two or three of the family
working together in the art. The old churches of Antwerp contained
some fine specimens of their work.[4]

[Footnote 4: A full account of the several members of this family is
given in the _Biographie Nationale_, published by the Royal Belgian
Academy of Science, Literature and Fine Arts, Brussels, 1899.]

Andreas Colyns de Nole was of nearly the same age as Van Dyck, and a
worthy representative of his famous family. He was the sculptor of the
beautiful monument of Henry van Balen in the Church of St. Jacques,
and of a Pietà in the Church of Notre Dame. The sculptor and the
painter became good friends, and it was a natural consequence that the
latter should paint the portrait of his friend and of his family. He
made two companion pictures, one of the sculptor, and the other of his
wife and the little daughter.

The lady is seated in an arm-chair, letting her placid glance stray
across the room. There is a little touch of weariness in her manner,
as if she were glad to sit down for a few moments' rest. She is a busy
housewife and mother, with many domestic duties on her mind. In her
strong, capable way she has long borne the family burdens. The face is
full of motherly sweetness; the expression is patient and serene, as
of one well schooled in the lessons of life. This is indeed the
"virtuous woman" whose price the wise man of old set "far above
rubies."

"She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of
kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth
not the bread of idleness. Her children arise up, and call her
blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her."[5]

[Footnote 5: Proverbs, chapter xxx., verses 26-28.]

The child is as like the mother as possible in features. Her round
face is quaintly framed in a close lace-trimmed cap. She is a shy
little creature, and is rather afraid of the strange painter. So she
keeps as far as possible in the shelter of her mother's big sleeve.
The hour drags wearily by. The studio is a dull place, and the
sunshine without very inviting. The child pulls impatiently at her
mother's arm, and, as the painter speaks, she looks timidly around,
wondering what he will think of such a rude little girl.

[Illustration: MADAME ANDREAS COLYNS DE NOLE AND HER DAUGHTER
_Munich Gallery_]

The artist is secretly much amused by the small young lady's
behavior. He has a shrewd insight into children's thoughts, and
sympathizes with their moods. He does not try to persuade her to sit
for him, but he catches her pose just as she stands here. The mother,
too, is wise enough to let the child alone, and the picture is made as
we see it.

As we compare it with the former illustration of the man with his
little boy, it is amusing to see the contrast between the two
children. The boy has such a grave sense of responsibility, while the
girl cares nothing for the portrait. She would doubtless think the boy
very tiresome.

We are apt to think of the children of past centuries as altogether
different beings from those of our own day. With few toys and books
and pictures such as we have now, they must have been, we fancy, very
sedate little creatures. A child portrait like this in our
illustration dispels these false ideas. This little daughter of a
seventeenth-century sculptor is as full of life and spirits as any
child of to-day. Barring her quaint dress and foreign tongue she would
be at home with children of her own age in any period or country.

The lady's dress is in a style similar to that which we have already
studied in the portrait of our first illustration. The stiff bodice,
with the long pointed front and square neck, the broad lace-trimmed
collar, the large sleeves, and the wide cuffs turned back from the
wrist, are details common to the two pictures. This costume, however,
is somewhat less elegant than that of the English lady and more
suggestive of every-day wear in the home. The collar is less
elaborate, and not stiff; the neck is entirely covered with soft white
material, fastened at the throat with a small brooch. A seal ring
adorns each hand, worn on the index finger.

We recognize the pillar in the background as a common setting in Van
Dyck's portraits. The taste of this time was rather artificial in such
matters, and inclined to stateliness. There is here no vista beyond
the pillar, no glimpse into another apartment, but the space is, as it
were, completely walled in.



VI

DÆDALUS AND ICARUS


In the distant past which we call the age of fable lived the cunning
craftsman Dædalus of Athens. One of his most curious inventions was a
labyrinth which he constructed for Minos, the king of Crete. Having at
length displeased this king he resolved to flee from the island with
his son Icarus. It was impossible to escape by way of the sea without
detection, but Dædalus was not discouraged.

                        "Land and wave,
    He cried, deny me way! But Heaven above
    Lies open! Heaven shall bear me home!"[6]

So saying he began to fashion some wings with which he might fly away.
Feathers of different lengths were bound together with thread and wax,
and shaped into arched pinions like those of a bird. As he worked, the
boy Icarus stood by watching his father, and sometimes handling the
feathers with his meddlesome fingers.

[Footnote 6: All the quotations are from Ovid's _Metamorphoses_, Book
viii., translated by Henry King.]

At last the final touch was given, and Dædalus, fastening the wings to
his body with wax, made a short trial flight. The invention was a
success; the artist rose triumphant in the air. Then he taught his
boy the use of the wings, warning him of every possible mishap:--

    "'Midway keep thy course, he said,
    My Icarus, I warn thee! if too low,
    The damps will clog thy pinions; if too high,
    The heats relax them. Midway hold thy flight.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                    By mine
    Thy course direct.' And many a precept more
    He gave, and careful as he bound the wings
    Upon the shoulders of the boy, his cheeks
    Were wet with tears, and in the task his hands
    Paternal trembled."

Our picture illustrates this point in the story. Dædalus has just
fastened the wings upon his son and is giving the final directions.
The old man's face is full of anxiety, as he implores the lad not to
fly too high. Icarus listens to the advice with a shade of impatience,
pouting a little, like a wilful child who chafes under restraint. He
points forward, as if to show that he understands his orders. Already
the slender figure is poised for flight; he is eager to be off. In
another moment he will rise into the air, dropping his garment as he
ascends. A light breeze flutters the soft plumes of the wings and
blows the loose curls about the boy's head. His youthful beauty,
almost feminine in type, contrasts finely with the strong furrowed
countenance of the father.

[Illustration: DÆDALUS AND ICARUS
_Collection of the Earl of Spencer, Althorp_]

The story goes on to tell how the two started off together, the father
leading the way.

                        "And, as the mother bird
    When first her offspring from the nest essays
    The air, he hovered anxious, cheering on
    The boy to follow, and with fatal art
    Enjoining thus or thus his wings to ply
    As he example gave."

For a while all went well, and they had covered a long distance, when
Icarus,--

                                            "Elate
    With that new power, more daring grew, and left
    His guide, and higher, with ambitious flight
    Soared, aiming at the skies!"

This was the very danger against which Dædalus had warned his son.

                                "Upon his wings
    The rays of noon struck scorching, and dissolved
    The waxen compact of their plumes:--and down
    He toppled, beating wild with naked arms
    The unsustaining air, and with vain cry
    Shrieking for succour from his sire!
    The sea that bears his name received him as he fell."

Dædalus, having buried his son on the island of Icaria, proceeded on
his way and came at last to Sicily, where he lived to finish some
important works of architecture.

Our illustration shows some phases of Van Dyck's art with which we are
least familiar. He rarely interested himself in mythological stories,
though such subjects were common among his contemporaries. The painter
has caught in this case the essential spirit of the myth. There are
few of his pictures also in which he expressed so well the sense of
motion. The inclination of the body of Icarus, the poise of the
wings, and the gesture of the right hand all contribute admirably to
this end.

Here, too, we see how carefully he studied the nude figure, and how
well he understood the principles of modelling. The foreshortening of
the right arm and hand of Icarus is a clever piece of technical
workmanship. The composition is well planned to fill the canvas.



VII

PORTRAIT OF CHARLES I

(_By Sir Peter Lely, after Van Dyck_)


Charles I of England was the second king of the Stuart dynasty, whose
despotic tendencies made the seventeenth century a memorable period in
history. He ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five, and began
at once to assert his belief in the divine right of kings. Indignant
at the restraints which Parliament set upon his power, he dissolved
this body and ruled alone.

For more than ten years he governed England in his own way, and during
this time his court was conducted with great magnificence. The palace
at Whitehall was the scene of many brilliant entertainments and lavish
hospitalities.

Charles was an ardent lover of music, literature, and painting, and in
his gallery was a collection of pictures remarkable for his time. He
was particularly proud of the ceiling decorations of his Banqueting
Hall, furnished by Rubens. He interested himself also in the
manufacture of tapestries, and secured for England Raphael's cartoons
for the Vatican tapestries, hoping thereby to raise the artistic
standard of the home production.[7]

[Footnote 7: See Chapter III. of volume on _Raphael_ in the Riverside
Art Series.]

It was a crowning proof of his good taste that early in his reign he
appointed Van Dyck the court painter. The Flemish painter was
thereupon made Sir Anthony Van Dyck, and remained in the royal service
until his death in 1641. It was the king's intention to have the walls
of the Banqueting Hall decorated by Van Dyck, but this plan was never
carried out. As it was, however, the court painter is said to have
made, during his nine years' residence in England, no less than
thirty-six portraits of the king, and twenty-five of the queen,
Henrietta Maria, besides many pictures of their children, singly or in
groups. His studio was a favorite resort of the royal pair, who used
to come in their barge, by the way of the Thames, to his house at
Blackfriars. The painter would receive them with the manners of a
prince. Musicians played for their entertainment, and the conversation
turned on questions of art.

In this constant intercourse, Van Dyck came to know well the face of
his royal patron. It was not really a handsome face, as we see when we
analyze the features in our illustration. The forehead is high but not
broad, the nose large and not classically modelled, and the thick lips
and weak curves of the mouth are not hidden by the upturned mustache.
The shape of the face is long and narrow beyond good proportion, but
this defect is relieved by the chestnut hair, which falls in long
waving locks over the shoulders, and makes a broad frame for the
face.

[Illustration: PORTRAIT OF CHARLES I.
_Dresden Gallery_]

All these details, however, escape our attention when we look at the
portrait for the first time. We are chiefly impressed by the kingly
presence of the man. There is an indefinable suggestion of nobility in
his bearing, an expression of grave dignity in his countenance. The
eyes are almost melancholy, the glance is averted and remote. The
consciousness of his royal birthright gives an air of aloofness to the
figure.

The king stands beside a table, resting one hand on the broad rim of
the hat which lies there, and holding his gloves in the other. He
wears the mantle of the Order of the Garter, ornamented on the left
side with the six-pointed silver star, in the centre of which is the
red cross of St. George. From a broad blue ribbon about the neck is
suspended a gold medallion. This is the "George," the image of the
warrior saint, represented on horse-back in his encounter with the
dragon.

The attempt of Charles to govern England without a Parliament proved a
sad failure. He set his own authority above all laws, and persistently
disregarded the rights of the people. At last he became involved in so
many difficulties that he was obliged to reassemble the two houses.
Then followed the long struggle between the king and the Parliament,
which resulted in the Civil War. The supporters of the Crown
represented chiefly the upper classes, and were called Cavaliers. The
Parliamentarians were for the most part Puritans, and were men of
fervent piety.

There were six years of fighting, beginning with the battle of
Edgehill, and culminating in the Parliamentary victory at Naseby.
Charles was tried and condemned as a "tyrant, traitor, murderer, and
public enemy." On the 30th of January, 1649, he was executed in front
of Whitehall Palace, walking to the scaffold with the same kingly
dignity which he had shown throughout his life. "I go," said he, "from
a corruptible to an incorruptible crown, where no disturbance can take
place." His body was laid among others of England's royal dead at
Windsor.

The picture reproduced in our illustration is not thought to be the
original work of Van Dyck's hand, for that precious painting was
destroyed by a fire in the Palace of Whitehall. It was a fortunate
circumstance that while it was still in existence, Sir Peter Lely,
court painter to Charles II., made a fine copy of it, which is now in
the Dresden Gallery. A competent critic (Lionel Cust) tells us that
the Dresden picture is so excellent that "it is difficult to believe
it to be other than an original by Van Dyck."

AUTHORITIES.--Green: _A Short History of the English People;
D'Israeli: Commentaries on the Life and Reign of Charles I._



VIII

THE MADONNA OF ST. ROSALIA


On the summit of Monte Pellegrino, in the island of Sicily, stands a
colossal statue of St. Rosalia. Like the old Greek statue of Victory
on the island of Samothrace,[8] or to use a modern instance, like the
statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island in New York harbor, St. Rosalia
serves as a beacon to mariners. The Sicilians hold the saint in great
reverence, and celebrate her memory in two annual festivals. From the
eleventh to the fifteenth of July are horse-races, regattas,
illuminations, and all sorts of gayeties in her honor. In September
there is a solemn procession to her chapel.

[Footnote 8: See Chapter XV. in the volume on _Greek Sculpture_ in the
Riverside Art Series.]

St. Rosalia was a Sicilian maiden of noble family, the niece of
William II., called the Good. Being both rich and beautiful, she had
many suitors for her hand, but she rejected them all. At the age of
fifteen she renounced the pomps and vanities of the world, and devoted
herself to a life of meditation. She retired secretly to a cavern on
Mt. Heirkte, and here she passed her solitary life. It was not until
five hundred years after her disappearance that her hiding-place was
discovered. There they found her lying in her grotto, as if she had
just fallen asleep, and on her head was a wreath of roses with which
the angels had crowned her. The body was carried in triumph to
Palermo, and she became the patron saint of her native city.

This was in the early part of the seventeenth century,[9] and the
story of the new saint's life immediately became the subject of art.
Van Dyck painted for a church in Antwerp a series of pictures of St.
Rosalia, from which our illustration is taken. The maiden saint kneels
on the steps of a throne to receive a wreath of roses from the
Christ-child. An angel attendant behind her holds a basket of roses.
St. Peter and St. Paul add dignity to the scene.

[Footnote 9: The date of her disappearance is given as 1159.]

As we see at once, this is not an actual incident from the life of St.
Rosalia. The aim of the picture is devotional. It is as if we were
given a glimpse into the court of heaven, where the saints of all ages
gather about the Christ-child's throne.

St. Peter is seen at the Madonna's left, gazing at some little cherubs
who hover in mid air with sprays of flowers. We know him by the
mammoth key he carries in his left hand, a symbol of his authority in
spiritual concerns. The reference is to the words of Jesus when Peter
declared him to be the Christ: "I will give unto thee the keys of the
kingdom of heaven."[10] He seems here a very old man, and one who has
suffered many persecutions in the master's cause.

[Footnote 10: St. Matthew, chapter xvi., verse 19.]

[Illustration: THE MADONNA OF ST. ROSALIA
_Imperial Gallery, Vienna_]

St. Paul stands at the right of the throne, leaning on his sword in an
attitude of meditation. The sword has been chosen as this apostle's
emblem because of his allusion in the Epistle to the Ephesians to the
"sword of the spirit."[11] The books lying on the pavement at his feet
are his various writings.

[Footnote 11: Ephesians, chapter vi., verse 17.]

According to tradition the Apostle Paul was a man of mean stature and
insignificant appearance. Regardless of this fact, however, the old
artists always tried to make him as grand and noble as possible, that
his outward appearance might correspond to the grandeur of his
character. There was a certain old Italian painter named Masaccio, who
set the fashion, as it were, for the ideal portrait of St. Paul.[12] A
hundred years later Raphael imitated this figure, and again a century
later, Van Dyck repeated it in the picture before us. If we compare
our illustration with a print of Raphael's picture of St. Cecilia we
shall see the resemblance.[13] Even the pose is the same in the two
cases. The grand head with the full beard reminds us of the Greeks'
conception of their god Zeus.[14]

[Footnote 12: In the fresco of the Carmine Church, Florence.]

[Footnote 13: See Chapter IX. of the volume on _Raphael_ in the
Riverside Art Series.]

[Footnote 14: See Chapter I. of the volume on _Greek Sculpture_ in the
Riverside Art Series.]

St. Rosalia is a beautiful young woman, richly dressed in a brocaded
mantle, and with wavy hair falling over her shoulders. Her attitude is
very humble, and she lifts her face to the Christ-child's with sweet
adoration. The little fellow seems delighted with his task, and leans
forward eagerly, to offer the saint the crown of roses. Is it for me?
she seems to ask, as she lays one hand upon her breast and timidly
holds out the other.

On the step beside her is a human skull, across which lies a stalk of
lilies. The flowers are an Easter emblem, and symbolize the
Resurrection. The skull is the token of death. Thus are we taught the
victory over death through the purity of the spiritual life.

The grotto of St. Rosalia has become a church which is the object of
many a pious pilgrimage. It is for this that the name of the mountain
was changed from Heirkte to Monte Pellegrino, which means the Pilgrim
Mountain.

We have already seen (Chapters II. and IV.) how much Van Dyck owed to
Titian in the rendering of sacred subjects. Here the Madonna's high
throne beside the marble pillars, and the cherubs in mid air are
striking reminiscences of Titian's Pesaro Madonna.[15]

[Footnote 15: See Chapter XIV. in the volume on _Titian_ in the
Riverside Art Series.]



IX

CHARLES, PRINCE OF WALES

(_Detail of Children of Charles I._)


The Prince Charles of our picture was the son of Charles I. and
Henrietta Maria, and bore the title of the Prince of Wales. He was
born on the morning of May 29, 1630, and there was great rejoicing in
the royal household that he was a fine strong baby. The king at once
rode in state to St. Paul's Cathedral to give thanks for the birth of
an heir. While the procession was on its way a bright star appeared in
the noonday sky. This was hailed as a good omen, and an epigram was
composed on the occasion:--

    "When to Paul's Cross the grateful King drew near,
    A shining star did in the heavens appear.
    Thou that consultest with bright mysteries
    Tell me what this bright wanderer signifies?"
    "Now there is born a valiant prince i' the west,
    That shall eclipse the kingdoms of the east."

A month later the baby's baptism was celebrated with great solemnity
in the chapel at St. James. The famous Laud, Bishop of London,
officiated, and the sponsors were Louis XIII. of France, Marie de
Médicis, and the Elector Palatine, all represented by proxies. There
were wonderful christening presents, among them a jewel of great
value brought by the old Duchess of Richmond.

The new-born prince did not grow into a pretty baby. Even his mother,
who would naturally wish to praise him, wrote to a friend in France
that he was "so ugly she was ashamed of him." "But," she added, "his
size and fatness supply the want of beauty. I wish you could see the
gentleman, for he has no ordinary mien; he is so serious in all that
he does that I cannot help deeming him far wiser than myself." A few
years later the child became a pretty boy, with a fine figure, brown
complexion, and large, bright black eyes. His mouth, however, remained
very ugly.

The prince's earliest years were passed happily, and no one could have
foreseen the stormy experiences through which he must pass before he
should inherit the throne of his father. The king and queen were
devoted to each other and to their children. There was a younger boy,
Prince James, and three sisters, to complete the family circle.[16] It
is pleasant to imagine them at play in the royal nursery.

[Footnote 16: That is, Princess Mary, Princess Elizabeth, and Princess
Anne. Prince Henry was only an infant when the family circle was
broken up, and Princess Henrietta was not born until 1644, while the
Civil War was actually in progress.]

The young Prince of Wales had for his governor the Earl of Newcastle.
We read of a letter written at the age of eight and addressed to this
nobleman.

[Illustration: CHARLES, PRINCE OF WALES
_Royal Gallery, Turin_]

The contents refer wittily to the governor's advice about taking
medicine:--

"My lord,

"I would not have you take too much phisike for it doth always make me
worse; and I think it will doe the like with you. I ride every day,
and am ready to follow any other directions from you. Make haste back
to him that loves you,

                                                     "Charles P."

We see from this that the boy was early taught to ride, and was
doubtless trained in all manly sports. In the Stuart household dogs
were the favorite pets, and the young Charles seems always to have
been accompanied by one, now a collie, now a spaniel, now a great
boarhound. The queen had a peculiar fancy for dwarfs, which were in
this period common playthings of royalty. Little Geoffrey Hudson,
eighteen inches high, was an important member of the court, having
been presented to Henrietta Maria in a huge pie.[17]

[Footnote 17: As we read in Scott's novel, Peveril of the Peak.]

In our picture Prince Charles is about five years old. At this age, in
our modern fashions, a boy is dressed quite differently from a girl.
Here, however, the little prince's finery and his round lace cap
somewhat belie his manliness. Yet his short hair cut in a straight
fringe across the forehead is his boy's prerogative. The wide lace
collar was worn by men as well as boys, as we may see in the portraits
of the king and of the Duke of Lennox. We speak of it to-day as a
"Van Dyck collar."

The child has a winning face, with large round eyes and a mouth which
the flattering painter has shaped like a Cupid's bow. Though the
expression is perfectly child-like, there is a certain dignity in the
pose of the head, which makes the boy appear mature beyond his years.
Evidently Van Dyck meant everybody to know that this was a prince.

Prince Charles's happy boyhood came to an end at the breaking out of
the Civil War. Though he was then only twelve years of age, he and his
brother, Prince James, followed their father to the battlefield,
suffering cold and hunger and even the dangers of the enemy's bullets.
At the age of sixteen, the Prince of Wales joined his mother in Paris.
Upon the execution of his father he at once assumed the title of King
Charles II., and in the following year was crowned at Scone in
Scotland at the age of twenty-one. Putting himself at the head of the
Scottish army, he advanced into England, and was completely defeated
by Cromwell. After nine years of exile he was recalled to England and
restored to the throne. Thus did the innocent baby prince of our
picture become the Merry Monarch of the Restoration, whose court was a
disgrace in English history.

Our illustration is a detail of a larger picture containing a group of
three children, Prince Charles, with Princess Mary and Prince James,
Duke of York.

AUTHORITY.--Strickland: _Queens of England_.



X

ST. MARTIN DIVIDING HIS CLOAK WITH A BEGGAR


St. Martin was born during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the
Great, and was the son of a Roman soldier. He himself entered the army
at an early age, and was sent into Gaul with a regiment of cavalry.
Among his comrades he was loved for his mildness of temper and his
generosity.

It happened that he was stationed in the city of Amiens, during a
winter of unusual severity. There was great suffering among the poor,
and many perished with cold and hunger. St. Martin was riding one day
through the city gate, when he passed a naked beggar shivering on the
pavement. Immediately he drew rein, and spoke pityingly to the poor
creature. The young soldier was wearing over his coat of mail a long
mantle. Slipping this garment from his shoulders he divided it with
his sword, giving half to the beggar. That same night, as he slept, he
had a vision of Jesus clad in the portion of his mantle. And Jesus,
turning to the angels who accompanied him, said, "My servant Martin
hath done this."

After a time St. Martin left the army, to devote himself wholly to a
religious life. He became the Bishop of Tours, and was noted for his
deeds of mercy and charity. It was always his delight to clothe the
poor. Once while he was standing at the altar of the cathedral, he
turned and threw his priestly garment over a beggar, with the same
impulsive generosity which had led him to divide his military cloak.
He was zealous also in uprooting all forms of heathenism, and cast
down many temples of idols.

He lived to a good old age, and died among the scenes of his labors.
The legend relates that as he lay in his last illness he prayed his
brethren to move him where he might see more of heaven than of earth.
His face shone as it had been glorified, and the voices of angels were
heard singing.[18] In Tours from that day to this his memory is piously
cherished. Every child in the street loves to tell the story of the
gallant soldier who shared his cloak with the beggar.

[Footnote 18: The life of St. Martin is related with much circumstance
in the _Golden Legend_. See Caxton's translation in the _Temple
Classics Edition_, vol. vi., p. 142. Mrs. Jameson gives a brief
account of the same in _Sacred and Legendary Art_, p. 705.]

This is the story in our picture. St. Martin rides forward on a
splendid white charger, accompanied by other horsemen. At the corner
of the gateway two beggars await them. The older one hobbles forward
on his knees, supported by crutches. Though he is a miserable object,
he is fairly protected from the cold by a long garment. His companion
is perfectly naked, a huge muscular fellow seated on some straw. He is
just turning about to make way for the cavalcade, when the knight
draws rein.

[Illustration: ST. MARTIN DIVIDING HIS CLOAK WITH A BEGGAR
_Church of Saventhem_]

The horse arches his neck proudly and stamps impatient at the delay.
The rider on St. Martin's right looks across with surprise. But the
young knight serenely proceeds in his generous act. Already his cloak
has slipped from his figure and hangs only from his left shoulder.
Grasping it with his left hand half way down its length, he raises his
sword to sunder it at this place.

The lower end has fallen across the beggar's right arm. At its warm
touch, the man, overwhelmed with gratitude, abashed perhaps by the
goodness of his benefactor, hides his face with his upraised left arm.
It is as if the knightly purity of the compassionate face above him
has revealed the man to himself in his loathsome degradation.

The young soldier is clad in a tunic of mail which sets off to perfect
advantage the lithe figure. Over his short curls is worn a jaunty cap
with a long feather; he is a veritable fairy prince. The boyish face
accords well with the legend, which relates that he was only a youth
when the incident occurred. It is said that no one ever saw St. Martin
angry, or sad, or gay; he was always sweet, and serious, and serene.
This, too, is precisely as we see him in the picture. The good deed
done, we may fancy the young cavalier riding on his way, as if nothing
had happened.

The beautiful horse of the picture is one which appears in many of Van
Dyck's works. There is a tradition that the original was Rubens's
gift to the painter when he set out for Italy. Van Dyck has built his
picture on a diagonal plan, such as the older painter Rubens often
used. The main line of the composition runs from the head of the man
in the upper left corner, to the beggar in the lower right corner. The
lifted sword and the falling mantle form the connecting lines across
the canvas.

The feast of St. Martin is celebrated on the eleventh of November, in
that short season of warm weather which brightens the autumn. It is
for this that the French call the week "St. Martin's little summer."
Every year, at this time, pious pilgrims visit the quiet cells, in the
limestone cliff by the riverside, where the good bishop used to retire
for prayer.



XI

THE CRUCIFIXION


The life of our Lord, which began in the Bethlehem manger, culminated
on the cross of Mount Calvary. In our picture we see the Man of
Sorrows in his last moments of suffering. How it came about that he
was crucified is fully related by the four evangelists.[19]

[Footnote 19: St. Matthew, chapters xxvi. and xxvii.; St. Mark,
chapters xiv. and xv.; St. Luke, chapters xxii. and xxiii.; St. John,
chapters xviii. and xix.]

For three years he had gone about among the people, healing the sick,
comforting the sorrowing, and preaching the good tidings of the
kingdom. His blameless life was a constant reproach to hypocrites and
evil doers. The priests were jealous of his popularity and hated him
for his rebukes. As the feast of the Passover drew near, they sought
how they might kill him.

Judæa was at that time a province of the great Roman empire, and the
civil authority was vested in the governor, Pontius Pilate, and a body
of Roman soldiery. The Romans, however, did not interfere much with
the affairs of the Jews, and there was little trouble in carrying out
a plot. A formal charge against Jesus was made by false witnesses,
and he was arrested as a common criminal. After being examined by the
high priest, he was led to the governor for trial. "And they began to
accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation and
forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying that he himself is Christ,
a king."

Pilate now took him within his palace for a private interview, and
could find no fault with him. Nor did King Herod, to whom the case was
referred, differ from the governor as to the prisoner's innocence.
Pilate therefore appealed to the people in behalf of Jesus, but a
multitude of angry voices shouted, "Crucify him!" "Crucify him!" "And
so, Pilate, willing to content the people ... delivered Jesus ... to
be crucified." He was crucified, as we know, between two thieves, and
over his cross was the superscription written by Pilate, in three
languages, "This is Jesus, the King of the Jews."

Seven times, while he hung upon the cross, did the suffering Saviour
speak aloud. "Father, forgive them," was his first exclamation, "for
they know not what they do." His next words were to the thief on one
side, who begged to be remembered when Jesus should come into His own:
"This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise," was the reply. Then his
thoughts turned lovingly to his mother, who stood with John by the
cross. "Woman, behold thy son," he said to her, indicating John. Then
turning to John, he added, "Behold thy mother." A moment of agony
followed, when he cried, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
After this, he said, "I thirst," and a soldier held to his lips a
sponge wet with vinegar. As the end drew near came the words, "It is
finished," and at last, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit."

[Illustration: THE CRUCIFIXION
_Antwerp Museum_]

In Van Dyck's picture we see nothing of the surroundings of the
Crucifixion--the Roman soldiers, the curious crowd, the sorrowing
friends, or the crucified thieves. Only the solitary figure of Jesus,
nailed to the cross, is lifted against the strange dark sky. For three
hours, as we read, there was darkness over all the land, followed
immediately, after the death of Jesus, by a great earthquake. This is
the moment when the storm-clouds are gathering over the face of the
sun, causing its light to gleam luridly through the thick covering.
The cross is rudely built of two beams in the form which is called a
Latin cross. A fluttering scroll at the top of the upright beam
carries the accusation "The King of the Jews."

The garments of Jesus had been stripped from his body and divided
among four soldiers. He now hangs naked upon the cross save a small
strip of cloth knotted about his loins, the loose ends hanging at one
side. The body is somewhat slender and delicately modelled, but firm
and supple as of one in the fulness of manhood. The hair falls in
dishevelled locks about the face, and a mysterious light shines above
the head.

As we look at the picture, each one must decide for himself what
moment in the great drama is illustrated. From the expression of
suffering on the countenance we judge that the end is approaching.
From the lifted face and open mouth we see that the sufferer communes
with his Father.

The Crucifixion is the saddest subject a painter could choose, yet
notwithstanding this, it has been one of the most important subjects
in Christian art. Van Dyck painted it many times, and expressed, as we
see here, a deep sense of the tragic nature of the scene. Yet he
always avoided those harrowing details which make some of the pictures
of the older masters too painful to contemplate. For this reason his
crucified Christ has been chosen as the model for the Crucifixion
scene in the Passion Play at Ober-Ammergau.

We may see how wide was the range of our artist's gifts, which
extended from such joyous pictures as the Rest in Egypt to a theme so
solemn as the Crucifixion.



XII

JAMES STUART, DUKE OF LENNOX AND AFTERWARDS OF RICHMOND


James Stuart, Duke of Lennox, was one of the most prominent personages
at the English court. His uncle was a cousin and trusted friend of
King James I., and the relations between the nephew and Charles I.
were even closer. Immediately upon taking a degree at Cambridge, the
young nobleman entered the royal service as Gentleman of the King's
Bedchamber. He was just thirteen years of age, and a born courtier.
"His courtesie was his nature, not his craft," quaintly says one
historian. While still in his minority, he visited France, Italy, and
Spain. When Van Dyck came to England, he became at once one of the
painter's most frequent sitters.

Our illustration is one of the first of the series of portraits of the
Duke of Lennox, and shows him at the age of twenty. The young man
stands with his hand on the head of a favorite greyhound, and turns
his pleasant face to ours with a smile. He wears the habit of the
Order of the Garter. This "most noble and illustrious Order" was
instituted by King Edward III. under the patronage of St. George. It
consisted of the sovereign and twenty-five "companions" banded
together, like the knights of Arthur's Round Table, for the
advancement of ideal manliness. The ceremony of investiture was very
solemn, each part of the costume being placed in turn on the elect
knight, when he knelt to take the vows. We note in the picture the
same details which we saw in the portrait of Charles I., the mantle
with the great silver star, and the gold medal, or "George," on the
blue ribbon. One part of the costume not to be seen in the other
picture is the garter, worn on the left leg "between the knee and the
calf," as the old directions read.

The garter was, indeed, originally the most important emblem of the
entire garb. It symbolized to the wearers that "as by their Order,
they were join'd in a firm League of Amity and Concord, so by their
Garter, as by a fast Tye of Affection, they were obliged to love one
another." The garter was blue, fastened with a gold buckle, and on it
was inscribed the motto, "Honi soit qui mal y pense" [Evil to him who
evil thinks]. A miniature representation of the garter encircles the
cross in the centre of the star, and also forms a border of the
"George" medallion.

From the broad lace collar to the high-heeled shoes with their huge
rosettes, the young man of the picture represents the height of the
prevailing fashion. His hair is carefully curled in the manner of the
Cavaliers. He is in fact the impersonation of the court life of the
period. It is pleasant to fancy the graceful youth moving through the
stately figures of the court dances.

[Illustration: JAMES STUART, DUKE OF LENNOX AND RICHMOND
_Metropolitan Art Museum, New York_]

It was five years after this portrait was painted that the Duke of
Lennox married Mary, the daughter of the first Duke of Buckingham.
Then followed the troubles in Scotland caused by the king's persistent
attempt to force the liturgy of the Church of England upon the people.
Lennox now showed himself a stanch adherent of the Crown, and upheld
the royal cause in the face of the bitter opposition of the Scotch.
His enemies thought him very haughty and severe in his manner, but his
probity and sincerity seem not to have been questioned.

In 1641, he was created Duke of Richmond, and in the same year was
appointed to the high office of Lord Steward of the Household.
Throughout the civil war he served his royal master with untiring
faithfulness, devoting a large part of his fortune to the cause of the
Crown. When Charles was held a prisoner in Hampton Court, it was this
friend who cheered the period of his confinement. When at last, after
the execution of the king, the royal remains were buried at Windsor,
the Duke of Richmond was one of the four noblemen who sorrowfully bore
the pall to the grave. He died in the prime of manhood, in 1655.

A more loyal follower no king could have, yet, notwithstanding his
zeal, the Duke of Lennox and Richmond failed to exert any great
influence upon history, because he lacked the necessary judgment and
decision of character. His portrait certainly does not indicate any
special intellectual promise in the young man. Yet the face is so
refined, the expression so winning, that none can help feeling the
singular charm of the personality. Van Dyck understood well how to
impart an air of distinction to a figure, and when, as in this case,
he had a favorable subject, he was especially successful.

To lovers of dogs the greyhound is no unimportant part of our picture.
The painter has expressed with much insight the character of this
beautiful and high-bred creature. The muzzle is pressed affectionately
to the master's side, and the eyes are fixed upon the beloved face
with an expression of intense devotion. There is a tradition that this
animal once saved the duke's life by rousing him from sleep at the
approach of an assassin.

In the making up of the composition, the dog's figure describes a
diagonal line on the left, which balances a similar diagonal on the
other side made by the duke's placing his arm akimbo. Thus the general
diagram of a pyramid is suggested as the basis of the grouping.

AUTHORITIES.--Robert Vaughn: _The History of England under the House
of Stuarts_; L. von Ranke: _The History of England in the Seventeenth
Century_; Warwick's _Memoirs_; Doyle's _Official Baronage of
England_.



XIII

CHRIST AND THE PARALYTIC


It was a part of our Lord's ministry among men to restore to health
the body as well as the soul. He was often moved with compassion by
the disease and suffering which he saw as he went about Galilee or
passed through the streets of Jerusalem. St. John, the evangelist
(chapter v.), relates an incident which took place at a pool called
Bethesda near a sheep market in Jerusalem.

There were here five porches in which lay "a great multitude of
impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the
water." It seems that at certain intervals the waters of the pool were
troubled, as if moved by some unseen agency. It was believed that the
first person stepping in thereafter would be healed of any disease he
might have.

"And a certain man was there, which had an infirmity thirty and eight
years. When Jesus saw him lie, and knew that he had been now a long
time in that case, he saith unto him, Wilt thou be made whole? The
impotent man answered him, Sir, I have no man, when the water is
troubled, to put me into the pool: but while I am coming, another
steppeth down before me. Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed,
and walk. And immediately the man was made whole, and took up his bed,
and walked."[20]

[Footnote 20: There was another case of Christ's healing a paralytic,
but as on that occasion the sick man's bed was let down through the
roof into a house, the incident does not fit the picture so well as
that of Bethesda.]

This is the incident illustrated by our picture. Jesus has already
brought the paralytic to his feet, and now sends him on his way. Two
other men complete the group, but take no part in the conversation.
One is a disciple, perhaps John, who accompanies the Master, the other
is a spectator peering curiously over the paralytic's shoulder.

The restored paralytic carries under one arm a rug, which has been
clumsily rolled into a bundle. This is the sort of "bed" used among
the poor of Eastern countries. He is but half clad in a garment which
slips from his shoulders, showing his emaciated form. The face is
sharpened by suffering; he is altogether a strange and repulsive
figure. Like the beggar who lay in St. Martin's path he represents a
degraded class of humanity.

He leans now towards his unknown friend in a pitiable effort to
express his gratitude. The eyes have a look of dumb devotion like
those of a faithful dog. He lays one hand humbly upon his breast.
Jesus turns to the poor creature with an expression of infinite
compassion. He reads the man's heart with his searching glance. Thanks
he does not need; his first care is to send the man forth to begin
life anew.

[Illustration: CHRIST AND THE PARALYTIC
_Buckingham Palace_]

The head of the Saviour is painted after the ideal portrait which has
been handed down from generation to generation since the early days of
Christianity. The oval face with classical features, the full beard,
the long hair parted in the middle, such are the familiar features
which we have all come to associate with the person of Jesus. Yet
notwithstanding this general similarity in the many pictures of
Christ, every great artist has brought out something different in the
face.

It was Titian's peculiar glory to show the intellectual side of our
Lord's character as no other Italian had done. Van Dyck, with
characteristic admiration for the great Venetian, followed his
example. If we compare our illustration with Titian's Christ of the
Tribute Money[21] we shall see how closely the former imitates the
latter. Yet, as no man of imagination can copy exactly another's work,
Van Dyck's ideal of Christ is less ascetic than Titian's and somewhat
more benign. In both pictures the pure countenance of the Saviour is
sharply contrasted with the coarse face beside him.

[Footnote 21: See Chapter VIII. of the volume on _Titian_ in the
Riverside Art Series.]

We are interested to read on in St. John's narrative the sequel of the
story illustrated in our picture. It happened to be the Sabbath day,
and, as the restored paralytic passed through the city, the Jews said
unto him: "It is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed."

"He answered them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take
up thy bed, and walk. Then asked they him, What man is that which said
unto thee, Take up thy bed, and walk? And he that was healed wist not
who it was: for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in
that place.

"Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple and said unto him, Behold,
thou art made whole: sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee.
The man departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus, which had made
him whole."



XIV

PHILIP, LORD WHARTON


Philip, Lord Wharton, was an English nobleman of nearly the same age
as the Duke of Lennox, and the two were painted by Van Dyck at about
the same time. In both young men are apparent the same signs of gentle
birth and breeding, a dignity of bearing, and a repose of manner
characteristic of their class. That they were quite different in
essential character, however, we shall presently see.

Lord Wharton was the fourth baron of his family and the second of the
name Philip. He succeeded to his title as he was entering his teens,
and at the age of nineteen he had become one of the most attractive
figures at the court of Charles I. In this year he married Elizabeth,
the daughter of Sir Rowland Wandesford. It was in honor of this
occasion that the portrait of our illustration was painted.

Of a lover so handsome and graceful, the promised bride may well have
been proud. His dress is rich and picturesque: the jacket is of violet
velvet, the mantle of yellow satin, and the costume is set off by
delicate laces at the throat and wrists. These were days when the men
vied with women in fondness for finery.

Lord Wharton was at this time on terms of friendly intimacy with the
king and queen. It was a flattering mark of royal favor when the king
presented the young courtier with two full-length portraits of himself
and of Queen Henrietta, painted by Van Dyck. Perhaps the artistic
tastes they had in common formed the bond of friendship between them.
Lord Wharton, it appears, admired Van Dyck's portrait work almost as
much as King Charles. On his second marriage, five years later, he
employed the artist to paint a number of family portraits. He prized
these so highly that he built a gallery specially for them in his new
house at Winchendon.

The time soon came when more strenuous questions occupied him. The
contest between the king and the Parliament brought every Englishman
to a parting of the ways. Lord Wharton was a Puritan, and took a
decided stand on the side of Parliament. His personal relations with
the king were outweighed by his sense of patriotic duty.

At the breaking out of the war he entered the Parliamentary army,
serving successively as colonel of a regiment of foot, and as a
captain of a troop of horse. He took part in the battle of Edgehill,
and was brought into considerable prominence at this time. In a famous
speech made soon afterwards, he charged the king's nephew, Prince
Rupert, with gross "inhumanity and barbarousness" during the course of
the battle. Evidently where his mind was made up, Lord Wharton was a
strong partisan.

[Illustration: PHILIP, LORD WHARTON
_Hermitage Gallery, St. Petersburg_]

Of this we should suspect nothing from our portrait. It is hard to
imagine that this beardless young courtier, so suave and amiable in
appearance, will ten years later be fighting sternly against his king.
Here his thoughts seem to be wholly romantic: his eyes have the dreamy
expression of an expectant lover. His is surely a knightly soul
unstained by worldliness. The face is of that perfect oval admired by
artists as the highest standard of beauty. Taste and refinement are
the most striking qualities one reads in it; the mouth is the most
individual feature, small and modelled in delicate curves. Yet with
all its sweetness, those firmly closed lips suggest tenacity of
opinion and strength of will.

As the event proved, Lord Wharton was a man of uncompromising
political opinions. He was at one time committed to the Tower on a
charge of contempt of the House. In his long and active life he saw
England pass through many changes. He was an old man when the last of
the Stuart kings (James II.) fled from England, leaving a vacant
throne. Macaulay tells us of the Whig nobleman's speech in the meeting
of the Lords which resulted in the invitation to William and Mary of
Orange to take the government. He knew how to be fair as well as
severe, and a still later speech is recorded when he opposed the
Abjuration Bill.[22] He died at the age of eighty-five in 1698.

[Footnote 22: This bill provided that no person should sit in either
house of Parliament or hold any office without making declaration that
he would stand by William and Mary against James and his adherents.]

There are other portraits by Van Dyck more vigorous than this, but
none perhaps more charming. As we have seen in the portrait of the
Duke of Lennox, the painter was nowhere more successful than in
portraying the young courtier. We recognize the pose, with one arm
akimbo, as a favorite device of Van Dyck. While in some cases it seems
artificial, here it appears to be an attitude which the young man
assumed of his own accord.

On his left arm he carries a tall shepherd's staff; it may be that he
has sometime played a pastoral part in some masque. His costume,
however, does not accord with such a part, and it is more likely that
the staff is held merely to give some use to the left hand. We note in
another illustration that the man called Richardot holds a book, with
his hand in a similar position.

The texture painting of Lord Wharton's costume is skilfully rendered,
and a rich satin hanging behind him throws a part of the figure into
relief. On the other side is a glimpse of landscape lighting the
composition pleasantly with a distant view.

Authorities.--Macaulay: _History of England_; Doyle's _Official
Baronage of England_.



XV

THE LAMENTATION OVER CHRIST


A great company of people had followed Jesus to his crucifixion,
including not only his enemies, but his friends. The beloved disciple
John was accompanied by Mary. "And many women were beholding afar off,
which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him; among which
was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the
mother of Zebedee's children.

"When the even was come there came a rich man of Arimathea named
Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple. He went to Pilate and
begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be
delivered. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a
clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb which he had hewn
out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the
sepulchre and departed."[23]

[Footnote 23: St. Matthew, chapter XXVII., verses 55-60.]

During all this time two at least of the original company of women had
lingered near while the body of Jesus was taken from the cross and
made ready for burial. They were the mother Mary and Mary Magdalene.
Even after Joseph's task was done and he had gone his way, they
remained "sitting over against the sepulchre."

It is not unnatural to suppose that they may have had some share in
the preparation of the body. Nicodemus, as we learn elsewhere, had
brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, which it was the custom of the
Jews to use in burial.[24] Both men must have been glad of the presence
and help of the faithful women.

[Footnote 24: St. John, chapter XIX., verse 39.]

Poets and painters have dwelt much on these sad moments, supplying
from the imagination the details omitted in the narrative. The women
must at times have been unable to restrain their tears; natural grief
must have its way. Then might the men have left them awhile alone with
their dead, as they busied themselves with their task.

It is some such idea as this which inspired the painting of our
illustration. The mother Mary supports the head of her son upon her
bosom; Mary Magdalene stoops to kiss the lifeless hand; St. John
approaches at one side with a mantle.

The body of Christ, wrapped in a cloth, has been laid upon a rock in a
cavern. The agony of his cruel death is past, and the face is calm as
of one who sleeps. The figure is, as we have seen it on the cross,
robust and well knit. Only the nail prints in hands and feet show the
manner of his dying. On the ground beside him is a basin with a
sponge, surrounded by tokens of the crucifixion, the crown of thorns,
the nails, and the superscription.

[Illustration: THE LAMENTATION OVER CHRIST
_Antwerp Museum_]

We see in the Madonna the same stately and beautiful woman who carried
her babe on the journey to Egypt. Her veil is now drawn well over her
head, entirely concealing her hair. She has borne the cares of life
with courage, and the years have touched her face but lightly. Even in
the hour of anguish she lifts her eyes to heaven with resignation, yet
one hand is extended with a gesture which seems to implore mercy.

Mary Magdalene is a much younger woman. She has peculiar reason for
her devotion to Jesus, for he saved her from a strange fate.[25] Her
impulsive and loving nature is now overwhelmed with grief. Her rich
costume is in disorder, and her hair falls in loose locks over her
shoulders. Her lovely face is very sad. Half kneeling, she presses her
lips to the wound in the left hand. Her attitude and manner are full
of humility, as if she felt herself unworthy to approach too near.

[Footnote 25: St. Luke, chapter VIII., verse 2.]

St. John regards the group with gentle sympathy. He is spoken of as
"the disciple whom Jesus loved," so intimate was the relation between
them. To his care Jesus intrusted the Mother Mary, and he now remains
near as one of the few most deeply bereaved. He is very young, with a
sensitive face and delicately cut features.

The subject of the picture is one which Van Dyck treated in several
compositions. The Flemish title is "Nood Godes," the suffering of God.
The Italians call it the Pietà, which means, compassion. One of the
most celebrated works of art devoted to the theme is the marble group
in Rome by Michelangelo.[26] Van Dyck must have seen this work on his
visit to the Eternal City, and was no doubt inspired in some measure
by its grandeur. We notice that in his picture the Mother extends her
left hand in a gesture similar to that of the marble figure.

[Footnote 26: See Chapter VI. in the volume on _Michelangelo_ in the
Riverside Art Series.]



XVI

PORTRAIT OF VAN DYCK


The painter Van Dyck was the son of a rich merchant of Antwerp, and
lacked no opportunities for the training of his artistic gifts. He was
fortunate also in meeting ready appreciation wherever he went. In
Italy, in Flanders, and finally in England, his paintings were highly
valued. His life was passed amid luxurious surroundings, in the
society of noblemen and princes. His was a brilliant and successful
career.

Our portrait frontispiece was painted during his residence in England,
when he was about forty years of age. He is described as short in
stature, with a slender figure. His hands were long, with the straight
sensitive fingers of the artist. He had a fresh delicate face, with
well-cut features, and light chestnut-colored hair, which he wore
long, like the English Cavaliers. The upturned mustache and small
pointed beard were also fashionable among the English nobility, as we
infer from the portrait of Charles I.

The face has the characteristic qualities of the artistic nature, the
high forehead, the dreamy eyes, and the pensive expression. The head
is lifted a little, in an imaginative pose. We should know this man at
once for a poet or a painter.

It must be confessed that we do not find much strength of character in
the face. Van Dyck indeed lacked the nobler qualities of manliness,
and was decidedly worldly in his tastes. He lived in princely
magnificence in his house at Blackfriars, spending money lavishly. A
biographer tells how "he always went magnificently Drest, had a
numerous and gallant Equipage, and kept so noble a Table in his
Apartment that few Princes were more visited or better serv'd."

To maintain this expensive establishment the painter was obliged to
devote his mornings to hard work in his studio. The nights were spent
in banquets and revelry. Naturally his health gave way under the
strain of this double life. While he still cherished ambitious
projects for greater works of art, he sickened and died in London at
the age of forty-two.

Two years before this he had married an English lady, Mary Ruthven,
and they had one child, a daughter.

Our frontispiece is a detail of a double portrait representing, in
half-length figures, the painter and a patron, John Digby, Earl of
Bristol.



PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY OF PROPER NAMES AND FOREIGN WORDS

The Diacritical Marks given are those found in the latest edition of
Webster's International Dictionary.

EXPLANATION OF DIACRITICAL MARKS.


A Dash (¯) above the vowel denotes the long sound, as in fāte, ēve,
     tīme, nōte, ūse.
A Dash and a Dot (-̇) above the vowel denote the same sound, less
     prolonged.
A Curve (˘) above the vowel denotes the short sound, as in ădd, ĕnd,
     ĭll, ŏdd, ŭp.

A Dot ( ̇) above the vowel a denotes the obscure sound of a in pȧst,
     ȧbāte, Amĕricȧ.

A Double Dot (¨) above the vowel a denotes the broad sound of a in
     fäther, älms.

A Double Dot (..) below the vowel a denotes the sound of a in ba̤ll.

A Wave (~) above the vowel e denotes the sound of e in hẽr.

A Circumflex Accent (^) above the vowel o denotes the sound of o in bôrn.

A dot (.) below the vowel u denotes the sound of u in the French language.

N indicates that the preceding vowel has the French nasal tone.

G and K denote the guttural sound of ch in the German language.

th denotes the sound of th in the, this.

ç sounds like s.

c̵ sounds like k.

ṣ̱ sounds like z.

ḡ is hard as in ḡet.

ġ is soft as in ġem.


Amiens (ä-mĕ-ăN').

Andreas (än-drā'äs).

Anne (ăn).

Anthony (ăn'tō-nĭ).

Antwerp (ănt'wērp).

Arimathea (Ărĭmȧthē´ȧ).

Assisi (ä-sē'sē).

Astolat (ăs'tṓ-lăt).

Athens (ăth'ĕnz).


Bedloe (bĕd'lō).

Belgium (bĕl'jĭ-ŭm).

Bentivoglio (bĕn-tē-vōl'yō).

Bethesda (bĕ-thĕz'dȧ).

Bethlehem (Bĕth'lēhĕm).

Biographie Nationale (bḗ-ṓ-grä-fē' nä-sḗ-ṓ-näl').

Blackfriars (blăk'frī-ẽrz).

Bologna (bō-lōn'yȧ).

Bristol (brĭs'to̯l).

Brussels (brŭs'ĕlz).

Buckingham (bŭk'ĭng-ȧm).


Cæsar (sē'zȧr).

Calvary (kăl'vȧ-rĭ).

Carmine (kär'mē-nā).

Cavaliers (kăv-ȧ-lērz').

Caxton (kăks'tŭn).

Cecilia (sē-sĭl-ĭ-á).

Colyns de Nole (kṓ-lăŃ dẽ nōl).

Constantine (kŏn'stȧn-tīn).

Cromwell (Crŏm'wĕll).

Crowe (krō).

Cupid (Cū'pĭd).

Cust, Lionel (kŭst lī'ō-nĕl).


Dædalus (dĕd'ȧ-lŭs or dē'dȧ-lŭs).

Digby (dĭg'bĭ).

D'Israeli (dĭz-rā'lĭ).

Doyle (doil).

Dresden (drĕz'de̯n).


Edgehill (ĕj'hĭl).

Egypt (ē'jĭpt).

Elizabeth (ḗ-lĭz'ȧ-bĕth).

Ephesians (ē-fē'zhȧnz).

Eugenia (ū-jē'nĭ-ȧ).


Flanders (flăn'dẽrz).

Florence (Flôr'ĕnce).

Fortunatus (Fôrtūnā'tŭs).

Franciscan (frăn sĭs'kȧn).

_frère_ (frăr).

Fromentin (frṓ-mŏN-tăN').


Galilee (găl'ĭ-lē).

Genoa (jĕn'ō-ȧ).


Hampton (hămp'to̯n).

Heirkte (hīrk'tē).

Henrietta Maria (Hĕnrĭĕt'tȧ Mȧrī'ȧ).

Herod (Hĕr'o̯d).

Honi soit qui mal y pense (ŏn-ē' swä kē mäl ē päNs).

Hudson, Geoffrey (hŭd'so̯n jĕf'frī ).


Icaria (ī-kā'rĭ-ȧ).

Icarus (ĭk'á-rŭs).

Italy (ĭt'ȧ-lĭ).


Jacques (zhäk).

Jameson (jā'mĕ-sŭn).

Jerusalem (Jĕrū'sȧlĕm).

Joses (jō'sēz).

Judæa (jū̇ dē̇'ȧ).


Knackfuss (knäk'f[=oo]s).

Kugler (kōōg'lẽr).


Laud (la̤d).

Lely (lē'lĭ).

Lennox (Lĕn'no̯x).

Louvre (l[=oo]'vr).

Lübke (lụb'ke̯).


Macaulay (mȧ-ka̤'lĭ).

Madonna (Mȧdŏn'nȧ).

Magdalene (Măg'dā̇-lē̇n).

Masaccio (mä-sät'chō).

Médicis, Marie de (mä-rē' dẽ mā̇-dḗ-sēs').

Metamorphoses (Mĕtȧmôr'phōsēs̱).

Michelangelo (mē-kĕl-än'jā̇-lō).

Minos (Mī'nŏs).


Naseby (nāz'bĭ).

Netherlands (nĕth'ẽr-lȧndz).

Newcastle (nū'kȧsl).

Nicodemus (nĭk-ō-dē'mŭs).

Nood Godes (nōt gō'dĕs).

Notre Dame (nō'tr däm).


Ober-Ammergau (ō'bẽr ām'mẽrgow).

Ovid (ŏv'ĭd).


Padua (Păd'ūȧ).

Palatine (păl'ȧ-tīn).

Palermo (Pȧlẽr'mō).

Paradise (Păr'ȧdīse).

Parliamentarians (pär-lĭ-mĕn-tā'rī-ȧnz).

Pellegrino, Monte (mōn'tā̇ pĕl-lā̇-grē'-nō).

Pesaro (pā-sä'rō).

Peveril (Pĕv'e̯rĭl).

Phillips, Claude (kla̤d fil'ĭps).

Pietà (pē̇ ā̇ tä').

Plantin (pläN-tăN).

Pontius Pilate (pŏn'shĭ-ŭs pī'lā̇t).

Portuguese (pōr'tū-gēz).

Puritans (pū'rĭ-tȧnz).


Raphael (rä'fā-ĕl).

Reynolds (rĕn'o̯lz).

Richardot, Jean Grusset (zhäN grụs-sā' rē-shär-dō').

Richmond (Rĭch'mo̯nd).

Rosalia (rō-zā'lĭ-ȧ).

Rubens (r[=oo]'bĕnz).

Rupert (r[=oo]'pe̯rt).

Ruthven (Rūth'vĕn).


Samothrace (săm'ṓ-thrās).

Scone (sk[=oo]n).

Sheffield (shĕf'ēld).

Sicilians (sĭ-sĭl'ĭ-ȧnz or sĭ-sĭl'yȧnz).

Sicily (sĭs'ĭ-lĭ).

Strickland (Strĭck'lȧnd).

Stuart (Stū'ȧrt).


Thames (tĕmz).

Titian (tĭsh'ȧn).

Toulouse (t[=oo]-l[=oo]z').

Tours (t[=oo]r).


Vän Bälĕn.

Van der Geest (vän dār gāst).

Van Dyck (văn dīk).

Vatican (văt'ĭ kȧn).

Vaughn (va̤n).

Venetian (vḗ-nē'shȧn).

von Ranke (fṓn rän'ke̯).


Wake (wāk).

Wandesford, Rowland (wŏnz'fo̯rd rō'lȧnd).

Warwick (wa̤r'ĭk).

Wentworth (Wĕnt'wo̯rth).

Wharton (Wha̤r'to̯n).

Winchendon (Wĭn'chĕndo̯n).

Windsor (wĭn'zo̯r).

Woerman (w[=oo]r'män).

Woltman (Wŏlt'män).


Zebedee (Zĕb'ĕdēē).

Zeus (zūs).

       *       *       *       *       *





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