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´╗┐Title: Where We Live - A Home Geography
Author: Jacobs, Emilie Van Beil
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Where We Live - A Home Geography" ***

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WHERE WE LIVE


A HOME GEOGRAPHY

GENERAL EDITION


by

EMILIE V. JACOBS

Supervising Principal of the Richardson L. Wright School,
Philadelphia



PHILADELPHIA, 1913, 1914
CHRISTOPHER SOWER COMPANY
124 North Eighteenth Street



CONTENTS

                                         Page
  Foreword                                  5
  Introduction                              7

  PART ONE
     I. Our School                         11
    II. The Streets and Roads              17
   III. The Buildings                      22
    IV. The Town as a Whole                31
     V. The People                         36
    VI. Industries and Occupations         42
   VII. Animals and Plants                 46
  VIII. Transportation and Communication   50
    IX. Physiography of the Neighborhood   54
     X. Direction                          66

  PART TWO
     I. The Earth as a Whole               73
    II. The Seasons                        79
   III. The Zones                          82
    IV. North America                      93
     V. Countries of North America        100
    VI. Trips                             105



MAPS


    I. The Western Hemisphere           74-75
   II. The Eastern Hemisphere           74-75
  III. The World                           82
   IV. Surface Map of North America        96
    V. North America                      100



FOREWORD


Once upon a time as four blind men sat by the roadside they heard the
tramp of an elephant's feet, and said one to another, "Here comes an
elephant; now we shall know what he is like." The first blind man put
out his hand and touched the elephant's broad side. The second took hold
of a leg. The third grasped a tusk, and the fourth clutched the animal's
tail.

"Now do you know what an elephant looks like?" asked a friend.

"Yes," cried the first. "The elephant is broad and flat like a barn
door."

"What!" exclaimed the second. "The elephant is big and round like the
trunk of a tree."

"Not so!" cried the third. "The elephant is hard and smooth like a
polished stone."

"What are you all talking about?" cried the fourth. "The elephant is
just like a piece of rope."

Much so-called teaching of geography leads to just such incomplete and
fantastic ideas about geographical concepts. Very many children have
only vague, incomplete and incorrect conceptions of the things they see.
Like these physically and mentally blind men we are too often satisfied
with mere wordy descriptions of subjects when we might study the subject
at first hand if we would.

This little book is intended to prevent the giving of information by
description, but to suggest ways of directing attention to those things
which lie within reach of the child's senses, things which he might pass
by, things which are needed now to stimulate an intelligent interest in
his surroundings, things which are needed later for an appreciation and
enjoyment of his study of the larger facts and concepts of geography. If
the larger geographical concepts are to have accuracy and richness for
the child he must have his attention directed to his surroundings. The
trite expression "from the known to the unknown" is good pedagogy, but
there must be a "known" on which to build.

The book is based upon the author's actual experience in the class-room
studying the children at their geography tasks. It has been her
experience that the efforts of the teachers to build broad geographical
concepts were of no avail because the pupils did not have accurate
intimate knowledge of the necessary home geography upon which to build.
To correct this defect she set about collecting and classifying the
necessary material. With the use of this material she not only found
that the class teachers had much less difficulty in presenting the study
of the earth as a whole, but that an interest beyond all expectation was
apparent in the children.

The following pages are valuable more on account of the things they
suggest than for any geographical facts which they incidentally present.
The book is not a text-book on geography; it is a compendium of
suggestion on the study of the subject. It makes little effort to
present facts, but rather it tells how to gather, classify and study
facts. It is intended to be used with children during the age when they
especially delight in the making of collections, and is intended to turn
to a definite use this childish instinct.

Map study is based entirely upon the child's experiences as he makes
plans of his schoolroom, schoolhouse, streets and city. The suggestions
regarding the study of things foreign to the child are based entirely
upon his experience in the study of the types with which he has become
familiar in his study of his surroundings.

  Milton C. Cooper,
  Superintendent of District Nine, Philadelphia.



INTRODUCTION


Geographical knowledge should progress from the known to the unknown,
from the familiar to the unfamiliar. The world is the home of mankind.
We can best understand the larger world by a preliminary consideration
of our own small intimate home. We therefore begin to study geography
with an account of the child's immediate environment. The school stands
for the common home of the class. From the school we gradually widen out
our teaching to include the immediate neighborhood with its buildings,
and finally the whole town or community.

We study the various types of people whom we meet every day, and the
industries in which they engage in their efforts to obtain the three
main necessities of human life,--food, clothing and shelter. The animals
and plants sharing the world with man and contributing to his sustenance
next focus our attention.

The home neighborhood has its physiographical features distinguishing it
from other places and influencing the life of its inhabitants. The land
and water divisions in the immediate environment are studied as types,
while those not closely related to our home are reserved for
consideration as each one occurs in its local geographical place in the
course of study.

We must know something of direction in order to conveniently locate the
streets, buildings and physiographical features near our home. Finally,
we will try to realize the great size of the earth, of which our home is
but a small portion, by a consideration of the relationship of our
community to the rest of the world and to some of this world's great
diversities.

As geography is a study of cause and effect, the early lessons should be
mainly oral. Later, in order to obtain a broad knowledge of geographical
data, not one but many books should be read. This little book aims to
serve as a bridge between the oral lesson and the descriptive text-book.
The presentation of many questions leads the pupil to think out cause
and effect, and to connect his present knowledge with the realm of the
unknown. Special care has been exercised to present facts only when
facts are absolutely necessary, and only after allowing the pupil the
opportunity to first exercise his own reasoning faculties in obtaining
the information.

The excursion is an essential part of every geography course, and every
effort should be made to use this effective means of teaching.

Four types of valuable exercises may be suggested in the use of this
book:

1. The pupils may read the questions orally and give the answers orally.

2. They may read the questions silently, answering them orally.

3. They may read the questions orally and write the answers.

4. Finally, they may silently read the questions and write the answers.

All definitions have been carefully avoided as tending to hamper the
free acquisition of ideas.


  PART I

  TOPICS

   1. Our School.
   2. The Streets and Roads.
   3. The Buildings.
   4. The Town as a Whole.
   5. The People.
   6. Industries and Occupations.
   7. Animals and Plants.
   8. Transportation and Communication
   9. Physiography of the Neighborhood
  10. Direction.


  PART II

   1. The Earth as a Whole.
   2. The Seasons.
   3. The Zones.
   4. North America.
   5. Countries of North America.
   6. Trips.



PART ONE

[Illustration: THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON.]



WHERE WE LIVE--A HOME GEOGRAPHY


CHAPTER I

OUR SCHOOL


1

What is the name of our school?

Where have you seen this name?

[Illustration: A TOWN SCHOOL.]

Why was this name given to our school?

On what street or road does our school stand?

How long have you been attending this school?

See how much you have noticed as you came here each day. Tell what you
can remember of the different parts of the building which can be seen
from the street or road. Describe each of these parts:

  Walls      Roof
  Windows    Chimneys
  Doors      Fire-escape


2

As you look at the school from the outside what materials do you see
that the builders have used? Where have they needed stone, slate, glass,
tin, iron, steel, wood?

Now let us think of the garden and playground. Tell about the different
parts and the materials that have been used in making them.

What great numbers of workmen were needed before a school like ours
could be built! Who procured the stone and the slate? Whose work was
needed to obtain the iron, the steel and the tin? Who made the glass?
Which workmen shall we thank for the wood?

Can you think how the bare lot looked before the school was built? Many
men with shovels and pick-axes dug out the foundation, and numbers of
horses and wagons were needed to carry out the earth. Then came the
builders. How were so many materials brought here?


3

1. We will go outdoors together and look at the school building.

2. We will stand north of the school, south, east and west of it. Notice
the position of the parts, their number, shape, size and color.

3. As we stand at each side, see whether there are any parts which you
never noticed before or any parts which we forgot to mention yesterday.


4

[Illustration]

Look at this drawing of a school building and grounds. It is called a
plan. Before any school or church or home is built a plan must be drawn.
This is to show the workmen what to do. See how much of the ground is
used for the building. Find the garden. What are in the garden? Which is
larger, the garden or the playground? What shape is the playground? How
many doors are there to the building? In how many ways can you get into
the playground?

Try to draw a plan of your school building and yard, showing the gates,
the flagpole, the drinking fountain or pump, and any other parts you
think of. Show which door you use most.

    _Note to the Teacher._--The pupils should draw the plan upon paper
    while the teacher draws it upon the blackboard. Infinite care should
    be exercised to invest every line with its full meaning. Upon the
    proper interpretation of this first plan will depend much of the
    pupil's future ability to correctly read a map as the representation
    of a reality.


5

THE INSIDE OF THE SCHOOL

As you walk from the school door to your room what do you see? Tell all
that you have noticed in the corridors, on the staircases, in the
cloak-rooms and the class-rooms.


6

We will go on a little excursion through the school today, walking along
all of the corridors and upon all of the staircases. Look especially to
see anything that you never saw before, and notice anything that you
forgot to mention in yesterday's description.


7

Answer the following questions:

1. How many stories high is our school?

2. How many class-rooms are on each floor?

3. How many other rooms are on each floor?

4. How many staircases does our school have?

5. What materials have been used in building the staircases?

6. What can be seen in the corridor nearest your room?

7. By how many doorways can the children leave the building?

8. How is your school heated and ventilated?


8

Describe everything that you can see in your class-room.


9

[Illustration: PLAN OF SCHOOL ROOM]

Look at this plan of a school-room. See if you can draw a plan of _your_
school-room.


10

Make a list of all the materials that have been used in building the
inside of your school. Remember all of the following parts:

  Floors      Windows       Corridor furnishings
  Ceilings    Doors         Class-room furnishings
  Walls       Staircases

Now write a list of the kinds of workmen who gathered together these
materials. Name as many of the kinds of workmen as you can think of who
were engaged on the inside work of the building.


11

Write a letter to anyone whom you know who has never seen our school.
Tell all about our building and the good workmen by whom it was planned
and built.



CHAPTER II

THE STREETS AND ROADS


1

On what street or road does your school stand?

On what street or road do you live?

What streets or roads do you pass on your way home?

What do you think is the finest street or road that you have ever seen
anywhere? What makes that so good a street or road?

Name a poor street or road. What could be done to improve it?


2

Why do cities and towns have streets and roads? Where are there no
streets?

Look at the country picture shown on page 19. How pretty it is! When
would it be pleasant to walk there? When would it not be so pleasant?
Why? What must be done to a road to make it into a good street? Tell
what you can of the different ways of paving, lighting and draining
streets and roads, and of the different kinds of name-signs you have
seen.

Now what can be done to make a street or road beautiful and pleasant in
warm weather?

How can boys and girls help to keep the streets and roads pleasant?

Here is a plan of some of the streets in a large city.

[Illustration: PLAN OF CITY STREETS.]


3

Draw the shape of the school lot. Now show the street or road that the
school stands upon. If you live in a town, draw the streets next to the
school. Then draw the next streets, and keep on until you have drawn the
street on which your home stands. Place a little cross to show your
home. With your pencil start from your house and make a dotted line to
show how you come to school.


4

On your plan of the neighborhood place a circle to show the grocery
store or bakery that you pass on your way to school. Make a large dot to
show the nearest store to school, and with a dotted line explain how you
would go there from school if your teacher sent you to buy ink. Make a
circle with a cross in it to show where there is a church, a bank, a
factory, or any other important building near your school. If there is a
railroad near, show it upon your plan.

[Illustration: A COUNTRY HOME.]


5

Many streets and lanes have names of trees. Some have been named after
great and good men. There are some streets with only numbers for names.
Do you know of any streets having names of these different kinds? Can
you think of any street or road that received its name for some other
reason?

Get as many pictures as you can of the streets of your town or any other
town and paste them in your note-book. Get some pictures of country
roads and paste them also in your note-book.

[Illustration: A CITY STREET.
  (Copyright, 1911, William H. Rau, Philadelphia.)]


6

In some towns the streets are nearly straight and cross each other like
the wires of a window-screen. In other towns the streets run off from
the centre of the town like the spokes of a wheel. Some streets and
roads are very crooked.

How are the streets in our town arranged? Name some of our best business
streets. Which streets have the finest homes in which people live? Name
some streets or roads with trolley lines upon them. Are our streets
paved?


7

Perhaps you live in the country where there are very few streets or none
at all. How different is your walk to school each day from that of the
city boy or girl! In town, children walk on paved streets and pass many
buildings. What kind of roads do the country children walk upon? What
buildings do they pass? A country school.

[Illustration: A MODERN COUNTRY SCHOOL.]

Do you take a pleasant road between broad fields? Do you walk through
the cool shady woods? Perhaps you run over a bridge with the clear brook
sparkling and babbling beneath. What else do you see or hear in the
country which city folks do not know in their built up towns?



CHAPTER III

THE BUILDINGS


1

What kinds of buildings do you pass on your way to school? Write a list
of all the kinds that you have ever seen.

Look at the pictures of buildings in this book and see if you know for
what each is used. How can you tell?


2

Of all the many kinds of buildings in town or country, the _houses_ are
the most important. It is more necessary to have good homes to live in
than to have the other buildings large or beautiful. What makes a good
residence? There must be enough room for the whole family. It needs
plenty of light, air, sunshine and water. It must have a good roof to
keep it dry in stormy weather. It should be well heated in the cold
winter. Tell of other things that are needed in our homes to keep the
family healthy and happy. How can you help to make your home pleasant?


3

Good _schools_, too, are very necessary. The school-house must be built
to keep the boys and girls comfortable and healthy while at work. Name
some of the things needed for a good school building.

[Illustration: A STREET SCENE IN NEW YORK.]


4

The libraries and museums also teach people. A _library_ is like a home
where many friendly teachers live. These friends will talk to you and
tell you many useful and wonderful things. Have you ever visited them at
the library? Have you ever taken any of them home with you? Is there a
library near our school?

The _museums_ are full of many interesting objects. You may see
beautiful pictures and statuary. Some have collections of pretty stones
and of stuffed animals. Curious clothing, jewelry, toys and musical
instruments used by people in distant lands are shown too. In a museum
in Portland you may see the dear little clothing worn by the poet
Longfellow when he was a tiny baby. Many books that Washington read are
kept in a museum near the city of Washington. Have you ever visited a
museum in a city? What did you see there?


5

No buildings anywhere are more beautiful than the _churches_. Are there
any churches in your neighborhood? Describe the church which you attend.


6

In town and country there are many ill people who cannot be cared for at
home. They go to _hospitals_ to be nursed back to health and strength.
The good doctors and nurses work day and night to cure the sick people.
How can well people help sick people? Where is the nearest hospital to
your home? What is it named?

[Illustration: INDEPENDENCE HALL.]


7

Almost every town has a _Town Hall_. Have you ever seen such a building?
What is it used for? Here the mayor has his office. Sometimes the Town
Hall or Court House has a high tower, or a fine dome, or a cupola. If
you have ever seen a Town Hall tell how it looked.


8

Think of the _stores_ that you have seen. How many kinds can you name?
What does each sell principally? Where are these things made? Have you
ever seen a large _factory_? What does it manufacture?

[Illustration: PITTSBURGH OBSERVATORY.]

It would be fine if all of the buildings in which folks work were sunny,
airy and clean. People employed in comfortable stores and factories are
happy and feel like working.

Alas! there are many miserable places where the workmen are crowded and
uncomfortable. The impure air makes them tired and ill. If you have seen
a good store or factory tell what helps to keep the workers comfortable
and healthy.


9

Old cities have in them many very old buildings that all Americans love.
The magnificent Capitol at Washington was built long ago. It is one of
the finest buildings in the world. It is built of white marble. In the
first picture in this book notice the beautiful dome and the great high
stairs. In Philadelphia is the dear old Independence Hall with the
Liberty Bell. Boston has the old Faneuil Hall. Here many great Americans
of long ago have spoken to the people. Are there any old historic
buildings in our neighborhood?

[Illustration: LONGFELLOW'S BIRTHPLACE, PORTLAND, MAINE.]


10

Suppose some friends travel on the railroad to visit us. At what
railroad station would the train arrive? Are there any other stations?
How are they built? Do you think they give a beautiful, clean, friendly
welcome to strangers? All stations should be pleasant and comfortable to
cheer the tired travelers that pass through them day and night. At
Denver, just outside of the station, there is a great arch stretching
across the street. It says, "Welcome," in bright letters at night and in
pretty letters in the day. The visitor is glad to see the friendly word
after a long trip.

[Illustration: OLD SOUTH CHURCH, BOSTON.]


11

When friends come from another town we like to show them the sights.
Plan a nice trip around the town. Write a list of places to which you
would take them. You must know where each place is. What could you tell
about each place?


12

One day we should visit some park. Is there any near our school? Are
there any interesting buildings or statuary in the park? Is there any
water near by?

When we visit our town park we should remember that it belongs to us,
for a public park belongs to all of the people. Do you not like to have
the things that belong to you as good, as useful and as beautiful as
possible? Do you want your home to look sweet and clean and comfortable,
or dirty, careless and unpleasant? Do you want your clothing to be
strong, neat and pretty, or torn and dirty? We should all take pride in
having the things we own just as good as possible. When you are in the
street, the school, any public building, or in a park, say to yourself,
"This is mine." Then look around and see whether you like the way it
looks. Think how you can help to keep it looking well or make it look
even better.

[Illustration: WINTER SCENE IN FAIRMOUNT PARK.]

How can boys and girls help keep the grass, the paths, the flower-beds,
the trees and the buildings beautiful? Where does the money come from to
pay the caretakers of the park?

Some people visit the park only in spring, summer or autumn. We all love
the park in those seasons. Many do not know how beautiful the bare trees
look in winter with their gray or brown branches. There is no more
exquisite sight in the world than to see these trees coated with
glistening ice out to the tiniest twig, or to see them ridged with
pearly white snow. It is a merry sight to see the jolly coasters and
skaters.


13

Copy the list of buildings given below and mark each kind that you have
seen. Tell where you saw it, of what it was built, or for what it was
used.

  Residence    School                 Museum
  Store        Church                 Car-barn
  Bank         Hospital               Library
  Factory      Railroad station       Office
  Stable       Government building    Garage
  Dairy        Barn                   Ice House

What building is shown on the cover of this book?



CHAPTER IV

THE TOWN AS A WHOLE


1

Think of the times when you have walked or ridden about our town.

What rivers did you see?

[Illustration: CAPITOL AT HARRISBURG.]

Which buildings did you think were very beautiful?

What was each used for?

What buildings have we that are very helpful to the people?

What interesting places have you visited in your neighborhood?

What other places would you like to visit?


2

PREPARATION FOR A TRIP TO SOME HILLTOP, OBSERVATORY, TOWER OR
ROOF-GARDEN FROM WHICH AN EXTENSIVE VIEW CAN BE HAD

What place shall we visit? Why? Draw a plan to include the school and
the place to be visited.

How far must we go? Shall we ride or walk? In what direction shall we
go?

When we are up high we can look over the whole neighborhood. First, try
to find our school. In what direction shall we need to face? Then let us
notice what lies between us and our school. See if you can find any park
or large building which you know. Try to find the street or road upon
which your home stands. Then look beyond our school for any other
familiar building or park, and look for your home if you did not see it
before. Notice how far the town stretches and try to see what cuts it
off or bounds it.

Next we shall turn and look in the opposite direction. What direction
will that be? Find any familiar places. How can you know which are
homes, schools, churches or factories? See how far the town extends and
what cuts off or bounds it on this side.

In what other directions shall we look? Again we shall notice the
familiar and unfamiliar places and the town boundaries.


3

THE TRIP


4

Was the neighborhood view like you expected? What surprised you? What
did we see most of? Make a list of all the places you remember seeing.
Think of each view separately; north, south, east and west. Tell of
anything you saw as you looked in each direction. Why could we see so
much? How could we see even farther?


5

Do we live in a large city, a small town or in the country? What is the
name of our town or the nearest town? Who first settled in the place
which has grown to be a town? It is hard for us to believe that two
hundred and fifty years ago there were no houses, churches, schools,
streets or roads where we now live. All this land was wild country,
mostly woods. The early settlers were strong and brave men. They had to
cut down the forests and build their first homes of rough logs. Then
they planted fields with corn, wheat and vegetables. They killed the
wild animals for food, using the skins for clothing. As soon as
possible the settlers tried to build a small plain church and a
school-house.

[Illustration: CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. From a "Thistle" Print.
  (Copyright, Detroit Publishing Co.)]

[Illustration: COLUMBUS'S SHIP.]

Now we have our fine towns which have grown from the early work of these
first sturdy settlers. All of the people should love our dear home town
and try to make it beautiful, healthful and comfortable. We should love
our neighbors and treat them all like brothers and sisters. If we are
true to our village or our dear town we will be kind and fair to all,
rich and poor, Americans and foreigners, white and colored people. That
is one way of showing our thankfulness for our comfortable homes.



CHAPTER V

THE PEOPLE


1

Think of the many buildings which you see as you look over the
landscape. There are people living in nearly all of those houses. Just
think of the many, many people who live here. How many are there? How
many schools have we in the town? How many people go to your school?

Most of these people look much alike, but some are very different in
appearance. Name some of the different kinds of people whom you have
seen. How do you distinguish a negro and Chinaman or Mongolian from a
white person or Caucasian? Tell about their hair, skin or any other
peculiar features.

Each kind of people is called a race. The pictures show some of the
races we often see--Caucasian, Mongolian and negro. The Chinese and
Japanese are called Mongolians.


2

THE INDIANS

The Indians lived at this place which is now our home long before there
were any white people here or any towns at all. Where these many
buildings now stand there was wild country, fields and woods. Under the
trees stood the Indian wigwams made of skins and branches. The early
settlers came to this country from far across the ocean. After William
Penn landed with his companions he began at once to make friends with
the Indians. As the red men were living upon the land, Penn thought that
it was only fair and honest to buy from them the land that the English
people wanted for their homes. The Indians could not use money, so he
gave them blankets and other presents which pleased them very much. The
Indians promised William Penn to live in peace with the white men and
they kept their promise for many years.

[Illustration: AN INDIAN FAMILY.]

Most of the white people who came in those early days to other parts of
our land did not act in this noble way. When they wanted land on which
to build their homes they drove the Indians away, killing many of them.
Thus these unjustly treated Indians became the enemies of the white men,
and often treated them very cruelly in return. Let us remember that the
Indians were the first owners of this land of ours and that they should
be treated as William Penn showed us, with kindness and justice.

[Illustration: INDIAN CHIEF.]

Those wild Indians of long ago had many noble traits. They were strong
and brave and fearless.

    Read in some of your school books about Indians and their homes.


3

THE NEGROES

There were no negroes in this country till many years after Columbus and
the other white men began to settle here. Some white men went far across
the sea to Africa. They stole the negroes away from their homes, carried
them to their ships and sailed back to this country. Then these white
men sold the negroes to other men for money. The poor colored men had to
work terribly hard as slaves and received no pay for their work. At last
they were freed by Abraham Lincoln and others who helped him.

[Illustration: NEGRO.]

The negroes have much that is fine in their character. Even when they
were slaves they often grew to love their masters so dearly that they
would do anything in the world, even give up their lives, for their
masters. We should always remember that God made the negro as well as
the white man. Fair-minded people will try to be honest, kind and just
to everyone.


4

THE CHINESE

[Illustration: CHINESE MANDARIN AND SERVANT.]

Many Chinamen have come to our country from their distant homes in
China. Their country is so crowded, and it is so hard to earn a living
there, that most of the people are very poor.

The Chinese living in our country are peaceful and quiet. They work very
hard in their laundries and other places of business; yet there are many
white people so cruel and thoughtless as to ridicule a Chinaman whenever
they see one. These white people should remember that God made the
Chinaman and that he is a stranger here in our country. Is it not even
worse to ill-treat a stranger than one who is at home? The color of our
skin and hair is not very important. It matters far more whether we are
honest, loving, industrious and fair-minded.

Not all of the white people living around us were born in this country.
Where did your parents and grandparents live when they were children?
Do you know any people who came from distant lands? Where were their
first homes? Find out how many of the parents of your schoolmates came a
long journey over the water to reach our land.

Yes, we have people from many foreign countries. Some are English,
Irish, Scotch or French. Then there are the Germans, Italians, Russians
and others. From what country did each of these people come?

Here they are all living together, people from all over the great wide
world. Our homes stand side by side. We work and play together. Truly we
are brothers and sisters, for we are all children in the great human
family. It matters not from what distant land our people may have come,
we should all be bound together like one family by human love and
kindness.



CHAPTER VI

INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS


1

Which members of your family work? Why do they work? For what is the
money they earn spent? Think which of these things are absolutely
necessary to keep us alive.

We all need _food_.

We all need _clothing_.

We all need _homes or shelter_.

Without these provisions we should die.

How do we get our food, our clothing and our homes? How did people get
them when there were no stores and no money? Do you know of any people
who were compelled to get things in this way?

    In a school reader, read about how primitive people lived.


2

THE SOIL

We have two kinds of food, vegetable food, which grows from the ground,
and animal food. Name some foods of each kind. All plants grow out of
the earth or soil. The soil is necessary to produce our animal food
also. The meat we eat comes from sheep, cows, chickens and other
animals. These animals all live on vegetable food. Without good soil
there would be no grass nor hay. No grass would mean no food for cows
and sheep. So we see that all of our food really comes from the soil.

Our clothing, too, is dependent upon the soil. The cotton plant grows up
out of the ground. The wool comes from the sheep, which eats grass which
grows from the ground.

Even our homes could not be built without products from the earth or
soil. Think how much wood is used in the construction of a house. The
trees which grow in the soil give us all the wood. Much iron, steel,
copper, brass and nickel are used in our homes. Stones and bricks form
part of many houses. All of these things come out of the earth. What a
wonderful thing is the soil! Out of it come our food, our clothing and
our shelter!

    In one of your books read the wonderful story of how we obtain a
    loaf of bread.


3


Write a list of all the kinds of work you can think of which people do.

Copy this list of industries and place a cross beside the ones at which
any persons you know work:

  Mining                 Printing and bookmaking
  Weaving                Iron and steel work
  Shipbuilding           Glass-blowing
  Lumbering              Pottery making
  Brickmaking            Meat packing
  Farming                Dairying
  Manufacturing foods    Manufacturing clothing
  Ice cutting            Manufacturing furniture

Which are town industries? Which are country industries?


4

Would you like to go to-morrow to visit a factory in which some food or
clothing is manufactured? Look at the map of the town. Find your school.
Find the factory. How far must we go and in what direction? What is the
name of the place we will visit? Notice all of the things made there.
Try to remember all of the materials needed at the factory, and find out
where these materials come from. Try to remember just how the articles
are made. Find out what will be done with the things that are
manufactured. Notice the number and kinds of machines used. See how many
workmen are employed.


5

AFTER THE TRIP

Write a letter to a friend in another class telling all about your
visit. Mention these points:

1. Where you went.

2. What was made.

3. How it was made.

4. The materials used.

5. The machinery.

6. The workmen.

7. The usefulness of the factory.

8. The care and skill of the workmen.

9. Anything else interesting about the trip.


6

Every town and every village is a workshop. There are many workmen here
that do good, careful work. Some of the goods of our town may be sent
thousands of miles away to other people who need them. The country
people, too, do much useful work. Name some of the things which our
workmen do for other people living at a distance from us.

    Read about the manufacture of the articles which you saw being made
    at the factory.


7

There are many workers in the world who do not make things with their
hands. Most of their work is done with their minds, though, of course,
their hands help too. Name some of these. What kind of work does each of
the following do?

  Teacher    Lawyer    Minister
  Doctor     Author    Banker



CHAPTER VII

ANIMALS AND PLANTS


1

There are many other living creatures in the world besides people. Write
a list of all the kinds of animals that you have ever seen.

[Illustration: AMERICAN BUFFALO.]

Some of these animals live near the homes of men. They are tame. Men
take care of them and see that they get food. Many of these animals are
very useful to us. Write a list of these tame animals. At the top of the
list write _Domestic Animals_. Of what use is each of the following
animals when alive? Which are useful after they are killed? Of what use
to man is each one?

  Horse    Pig    Chicken
  Cow      Dog    Duck
  Sheep    Cat    Pigeon.

    Read about how our meat is supplied to us.


2

Write a list of all the _wild animals_ you remember ever having seen.
Where did you see them? How were they prevented from harming people?
Where was the natural home of these animals? How did they get their
food? How do they now get their food?

[Illustration: RACCOON.]

Some of these animals so closely resemble the domestic animals that they
are said to belong to the same family. Read the names of the animals
belonging to the same family and tell in what way they resemble each
other. Tell which are domestic and which are wild.

THE CAT FAMILY

  Cat    Lion    Tiger    Leopard

[Illustration: TIGER.]

THE DOG FAMILY

  Dog    Fox    Wolf

THE HORSE FAMILY

  Horse    Zebra

THE COW FAMILY

  Cow    Buffalo

Describe some of these wild animals:

  Elephant    Fox
  Squirrel    Wolf
  Bear        Deer

There are also many fish, birds and insects.

Paste in your notebook any pictures of animals.


3

Take a trip to the Zoological Gardens and see these animals.

[Illustration: LEOPARD.]


4

Which domestic or wild animals are useful to us in obtaining food,
clothing and shelter?


5

PLANTS

We cannot live without food, clothing and shelter. Let us see how plants
help us to obtain these three great necessities.

Write a list of all the plants that you can name.

Draw a line under each that is useful for _food_.

Draw two lines under each that is useful for _clothing_.

Draw three lines under each that is useful in making or furnishing our
_homes or shelter_.

[Illustration: ELK.]

Of what use are the plants that are not underlined? Are they beautiful?
How dull the world would be without flowers!

We have:

1. Food plants.

2. Clothing plants.

3. Shelter plants.

4. Ornamental plants.



CHAPTER VIII

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION


1

Think of the foods that you had on your dinner table yesterday. Where
did each come from? How did it get here? Was there anything which came
from our own neighborhood, and which did not have to take a long journey
either to the factory where it was manufactured or to the store where it
was sold?

Examine the clothing you are wearing. Of what material is each article
made? Where did the materials come from? Where were they manufactured?
Which had to come a long journey before it reached your home?

Look around the school-room and name the materials which had to travel a
long distance before we could have them for our use.

Imagine trying to get our food, our clothing and our shelter materials
right near our school. How much could we be sure of having?


2

Perhaps you have seen products being brought into the city. You may have
seen the milk trains unloading their many shining cans. Surely you have
seen the freight cars with their signs painted on the outside telling
that they are refrigerator cars, or coal cars, or other kinds of cars.
What do they carry?

Most of the things we need are brought here on trains. Where is there in
our neighborhood a freight railroad station? Is it near our school?

Some products are taken from the country to the town in wagons. You have
seen the big hay wagons which go a long way from some farm to take food
for the city horses.

[Illustration: CHINESE TRANSPORTATION.]

How else are products carried? Coffee, rubber, pepper, chocolate and
much silk are brought here from distant lands in ships. If you go to the
harbor of a large city you can see hundreds of busy men unloading the
big steamers.


3

Ships and railroads carry not only foods but people too. There are many
ways of carrying people and products. These are some of the ways:

1. On the backs of animals, as horses, camels, elephants.

2. In wheelbarrows.

3. In wagons.

4. In automobiles.

5. In trolley cars.

6. In railroad trains.

7. On boats, or ships.

8. In sleighs.

9. On bicycles.

10. In airships.

[Illustration: TRANSPORTATION IN ARABIA.]

In which of these ways have you traveled? Can you tell what power is
used in each case?

In order to travel safely and quickly we need more than something in
which to carry the people and products. We must have good wagon roads,
well built railroads, tunnels through the mountains, and bridges over
the rivers. Lighthouses are necessary to warn the vessels of the rocks
at night or in the storms.


4

When people need things from a distance they cannot always go all the
way to the place and bring back the products or articles. It is quicker
and easier to send messages asking for what is needed. How would your
mother send an order to the butcher for meat if she did not wish to go
for it? How could a farmer send a message to the city ordering new milk
cans and strawberry boxes? How do messages come to your house?

In olden days the persons had to carry all of their messages for
themselves or send them by other persons. The messenger would often run
for miles without resting so as to deliver the letters as soon as
possible. At last the people decided to give all of their letters to a
postman who would ride on horseback from place to place with the mail.
Stagecoaches were next used. It took a week for a coach to go as far as
a train can go now in a few hours. Our mail is now carried from one
place to another by trains or vessels, and then the letter carriers
deliver it at our city houses or to our town post office or rural
mail-box.

The quickest way to send a message is by cable, telegraph, telephone or
wireless message. Over the electric wires or through the air the words
are flashed for miles in a few minutes.



CHAPTER IX

FAMILIAR SURFACE FEATURES

  1. Hill and plain.         3. River
  2. Mountain and valley.    4. Ocean
      5. Island and peninsula.

    _Note to the Teacher._--Consider at this time only such familiar
    features as belong to the children's immediate environment in or
    very near their neighborhood. Defer the study of the other land and
    water forms until later, as suggested in the Introduction. For
    further details of these features, see Chapters I and IV in Part II.


1

HILL AND PLAIN

Some streets and roads are flat and level. Others slope like _hills_.
Can you name a street which is level, and one that slants or slopes?
Which road is easier to walk on? Why? Do you prefer the level or the
sloping street when roller-skating? Why? Which is the best when you are
coasting?

You may have noticed that some of the fields in the park or in the
country are nearly flat. Other fields lie on slopes or hills. We call
the flat part of the land a _plain_, whether it is in the city or in the
country. The sloping part of the land forms a hill. Have we mostly hills
or plains in the streets of our city?


2

Some plains and some hills are covered with trees. If you were in the
woods, surrounded by trees, how would you know whether you were on a
plain or on a hill?

[Illustration: HILLS AND VALLEYS.]

Some hills look very different from others. Some slope very gradually,
while some are very steep. Some hills have city streets on them. Others
have great fields of grass for cows to graze upon. Still others are
planted with corn, wheat, rye or vegetables. There are wooded hills
covered with trees. How do we know that all of these very different
forms are hills?

In the same way plains vary greatly. While some have been made into city
streets, others are large, flat, grassy fields, with streams sometimes
flowing through them. Some plains are covered with forests. Others are
planted with grain and vegetables. How can you know when you see a plain
if there are so many different kinds?


3

Look through the pictures in this book and decide which show hills and
which show plains. Which is easier for a farmer to plow, a hill or a
plain? Why?

If you were sent upon an errand, would you choose to go by way of a
hilly road or by a level one? Which is the pleasantest place for a
summer home, upon a hill or upon a plain?

How must a driver help his horses when they are pulling a heavy load up
or down a hill?


4

MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS

Some hills are so very, very high that they have been called
_mountains_. What are our neighboring mountains named? Have you ever
been to the top of one of these mountains? Describe the beautiful view
from the summit. Did you see any wild creatures along the way? Tell
about any trees and other plants that you noticed.

When people build homes in mountain regions they generally place them in
the low land between the high mountains. Why? This lower land is called
a _valley_. The people in the valley town can often look beyond the
fields and see the mountains rising high and steep beyond. Some
mountains are covered with trees. At places you may see great bare,
rough rocks on the mountain side. The scenery is very beautiful. There
are often streams and broad rivers down in the valley.

[Illustration: THE UPPER DELAWARE.]

Many lumbermen work on the mountains. Why do they cut down the trees?
The mountains give the miners work too. The men go far into the mines to
bring out the useful minerals. Are there any mines in the mountains
near our home? What do the miners take from these mines?

[Illustration: AN OCEAN STEAMSHIP.
  (Copyright, 1911, William H. Rau, Philadelphia.)]


5

RIVERS

What _river_ flows near our home? Have you ever seen it? Where were you
when you saw it? How did it look? What did you notice along its banks?
What was on the river? Was there any way of crossing over to the
opposite bank?

Did you see where the boats land? Men have built many wharves on the
banks of the rivers. If you stand on the wharf, you may see great
ferry-boats crowded with people. Back and forth these boats go, carrying
the people from one side of the river to the other.

Sometimes great steamers come up the river. They have carried people,
food and clothing on a long journey. Some boats are loaded with coal or
lumber. There are many pretty sailboats and rowboats too. In some you
will see fishermen. They bring the fish back for the city people to eat.

Before the city was built there was beautiful country all along the
banks. If you travel up the river, leaving the city far behind, you will
see some fine scenery. Perhaps you will pass beautiful woods. Some of
the trees bend over the river as if they were looking at their
reflections in the clear water. At places there are broad fields where
the cows come down to drink the cool water. Farther up there are hills
or mountains rising far above the banks. You will notice that the river
is growing narrower and narrower until it is but a small stream. If you
go down the river again, you will see that it gradually widens as it
flows on to the mouth.


6

Most cities get their water supply from a nearby river. Do you know
where the water in your bath-room comes from? When you take a drink in
our school-yard what water are you swallowing? How does this water get
to our home and school? Pipes run under the streets from the river to
all the buildings of the town. There are big pumping stations on the
river bank to pump the water out of the river through pipes to the
houses. Millions of gallons of water are pumped each day into the homes,
schools, mills and factories. For what is this water used?

[Illustration: PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEWARK, N. J.]


7

Plants need more than good soil to make them grow. They will wither and
die unless they have plenty of rain to keep the earth soft and moist.
There are many places in the world where no trees, nor grass, nor plants
of any kind can grow. This is because there is no water to wet the
earth.

We all know that clouds bring the rain; but how do the clouds get the
water? Whenever there is water on the earth, as in the rivers, the air
is continually drawing up the moisture in tiny invisible drops. This
moisture rises in the air and forms clouds. When the clouds get very
heavy, down comes the water which we call rain. In cold weather it is
changed into snow.

[Illustration: ELEPHANT IN THE "ZOO."]

Where there is no moisture there can be no rain, for the air cannot draw
up moisture to form clouds. Where there are many rivers there has been
much rain, and the soil is kept fertile. Plants will grow in it. Do you
see how our food, our clothing and our shelter are dependent upon
rainfall? Do you see how we are kept alive by rivers?


8

Think of the many, many uses of rivers. There are thousands of useful
rivers in the world.

What are the three great necessities of human life? How do rivers help
us to get _food_ and _clothing_ and to build our _homes_ and make them
comfortable?

SOME USES OF RIVERS

1. Water supply; washing and drinking.

2. Water power; flour, textile and planing mills.

3. Commerce; transportation.

4. Life; fish, plants.

5. Fertility of soil, rainfall.

6. Beauty of scenery.


9

Look at the map of our neighborhood. See the lines that represent the
river. Notice how it bends. Does it show where bridges cross it?


10

THE OCEAN

Have you ever stood on the beach and watched the big waves roll in? The
great _ocean_ stretches away as far as you can see. It seems to meet the
sky. The weaves roll and break, and roll and break from morning till
night forever. Where there are rocks along the shore the ocean dashes
against them. The sparkling snowy spray then leaps high into the air
with a boom and a swish!

    _Note to the Teacher._--See the details for studying about the
    oceans in Part II, Chapter I.


11

ISLANDS AND PENINSULAS

[Illustration: THE OCEAN.]

As you sail up the river you may see large portions of land lying right
out in the water. There are pieces of land lying out in the ocean too.
The water lies around them on all sides. We call such portions of land
_islands_. If you were standing on the shore how could you go to an
island which you saw out in the water? How could you get there if you
had no boat? Some islands are joined to the shores by bridges.

Many islands are no larger than this room. Others are so large that it
would take days to travel around them. Whether they are large or small
they have water entirely around them.

[Illustration: PART OF A ROCKY ISLAND.]

Some of us have been to a large island that has been built up into a
city. When the New York boys and girls want to leave their city they
must either go in a boat, or over a bridge, or through a tunnel far
under a river. Why? When you visit Atlantic City your train goes over a
bridge into the city. Why?


12

Look at some pictures of islands and notice how many kinds there are.
Some are all wooded. Others are covered with fields. Notice one that is
rocky and steep, and another that is level and built into a city.

Some islands are so large as to have many cities built upon them, and
there are many farms and dense woods besides upon the same islands. Some
have many rivers flowing through them.

If you were on a large island, how could you prove that it was an
island? If you wanted to leave it, how could you do so? Notice on the
map of our neighborhood whether a river with islands in it is shown.


13

Sometimes a piece of land has water flowing only part way around it. If
you take a boat and try to go all around it, you will come to a place
where the boat cannot go because there is land there. This land that is
nearly an island, but does not have the water completely around it, is
called a _peninsula_. Where have you seen a peninsula?



CHAPTER X

DIRECTION


A LESSON IN THE SCHOOL YARD AT NOON TIME

Face the sun. We are facing the south. Does the sun always lie south of
us? Where was it early this morning when it arose? That was east. Where
will it be at sunset? That is west. Move your hand to show the sun's
daily journey from east to south to west. The sun is south of us only at
noon time.

[Illustration]

Face your shadow. Now the sun is behind you. What direction is back of
you? You are facing north. Look at the shadows of the school, of the
fence, of the pole, and of all the other children. They are all falling
to the north. Can you make your shadow fall east or west or south? Why
not? When only will shadows fall north? Can you think of any time when
the shadows would fall east or west? Could they ever fall south? Why
not?


2

Draw this diagram on the yard pavement, and mark the parts that are
north, south, east and west. Stand at the middle of the cross. Face
north. What is behind you? What direction is at your right side and
which is at your left side? Learn these words:

"When I face the north the south is behind me; the east is at my right
hand and the west is at my left hand."

If you pass a weather vane on your way home, see if you can read the
letters on it and find out what they mean.


3

With soft chalk draw a line on your desk with one end toward the north
and one end toward the south. Mark N for north and S for south. Draw a
line across the middle of it, and mark E for east and W for west.

What is north of you, south of you, east of you and west of you?

In what direction from you is your teacher's desk?

On what side of you are the blackboards? On which side are the windows?

Walk toward the north, toward the east, toward the south, toward the
west.

Which boy or girl is north of you? Which pupil is west of you?

What is south of your room? What is east of it?

On what side of your room is the corridor? On which side is the street?
On which side is the school yard?

What is north of your teacher's desk? What is south of your teacher's
chair? What is west of the table? What is east of the windows?


4

[Illustration: POINTS OF THE COMPASS.]

Draw a plan of your desk. Mark north, south, east and west upon it. Hang
it up with north at the top. Draw a plan of your schoolroom. Mark the
north, south, east and west. Hang up the plan with north at the top.

Look at the plan of the town. We call it a map. North is at the top.
Find the rivers. At which side of the city are they?

Look at a plan of the entire school floor with all of the rooms and the
corridor. How shall we hang it?


5

Men have made plans of the city, the country, and the whole world. These
plans which show the land and water are called maps. On all maps north
is usually at the top.

Look at the map of the whole world. How can you tell which part means
land and which means water? What direction is at the top of the map, at
the bottom, at the right side, and at the left side?


6

See where we find the north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west.



PART TWO



CHAPTER I

THE EARTH AS A WHOLE


1

[Illustration]

Long ago wise men found out that the great earth on which we live is not
flat, but round like a ball. It is so very large, and we see so small a
part of it at one time, that it looks flat to us. Take a piece of paper
and tear out a small hole. Hold the hole over your globe so that a small
part of the surface shows through. Does the small piece of the globe
look very curved?

These men noticed ships sailing away across the water. When the ships
were far away the lower part of the boat could not be seen. More and
more disappeared till only the tops of the masts could be seen; and at
last they were gone too. If you make a little paper boat and let it sail
flat across your desk and then try it over the globe, you can see how
this proves that the earth is not flat.

Did you ever see an eclipse of the moon? The big curved shadow was the
earth's shadow. Why was the shadow round?

A globe shows the shape of the earth.


2

Look at all of the globes and maps in the room. Find how the land and
the water are shown. Can you see any islands, any peninsulas? A tiny dot
may mean the whole city with hundreds of homes, factories and other
buildings. Do you remember how we looked down on our town from a great
height and saw the many houses? Just think of a tiny dot meaning all of
our town.

[Illustration: WESTERN HEMISPHERE]

[Illustration: EASTERN HEMISPHERE]


3

How are the rivers drawn? Think of the great wide flowing river with its
wharves and its boats. It flows on for miles and miles. Some day all
of its water will reach the ocean. This little black line means all of
that great broad river.

Why do we have such tiny things to represent such great things?

See this land called North America. It would take five days and nights
in a fast express train to travel straight across it.


4

We can cut the globe in half and make a flat picture of the two parts as
they look when placed side by side.

Another name for the globe is sphere. "Hemi" means "half," so each half
of the globe is called a "hemisphere."

One half is called the Eastern Hemisphere and the other half the Western
Hemisphere.

In the Western Hemisphere we have the Western Continent, which is
America. This Western Continent is made of two grand divisions, North
America and South America. Why are they so named? We live in North
America. Find our city and the river nearest to it. North America was
joined to South America by a narrow strip of land called the _Isthmus of
Panama_. Look at the map and think why millions of dollars have been
spent through many years to cut through this isthmus. Now vessels can
pass through this Panama Canal.

Look at the map of the Western Hemisphere and notice what it contains
besides the Western Continent of America. There is more water than land.
This water forms the great oceans.

Perhaps you have been to Atlantic City or some other seashore place and
have seen the Atlantic Ocean. Do you remember the big waves which rolled
in on the sandy beach and the pretty white-caps far out? Did you see the
big nets drawn in full of hundreds of fish? Perhaps you bathed in the
ocean and got your mouth full of water. It did not taste like the water
we drink, for it was salty. All of the water of the ocean is salt water,
but the water of rivers is fresh.

The oceans are very large. It would take us five or six days and nights
on a great steamer to cross to the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. In
what direction should we go?


5

On the western side of America there is another great ocean, the Pacific
Ocean. It has salt water like the Atlantic Ocean, and it also is
constantly in motion with great waves.

North of North America, in the intensely cold region, is the Arctic
Ocean. Great masses of ice called icebergs and ice floes are floating
through this ocean.

Far south of South America is the Antarctic Ocean. It does not touch
South America. It too is in a cold part of the world.


6

Do you know of any people who came here from England, Ireland, France,
Germany, Italy or Russia? Their homes were in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Eastern Hemisphere has a great mass of land called the Eastern
Continent. The Eastern Continent is composed of three grand divisions,
Europe, Asia and Africa.

Find the great island named Australia. That is sometimes called the
Australian Continent because it is so large.


7

The same oceans which are in the Western Hemisphere extend into the
Eastern Hemisphere. Can you name them? The Eastern Hemisphere also
contains the Indian Ocean, which is not in the Western Hemisphere.


8

1. How can people go from North America to Europe?

2. How do the Chinese, whose home is in Asia, come to America?

3. Nearly all of the rubber which we use for automobile tires,
overshoes, erasers, and hundreds of other articles comes from South
America. Over what ocean does it come?

4. On what ocean did Peary sail on his journey to the North Pole?

5. When Amundsen searched for the South Pole, he started from an island
near Australia. On what oceans did he sail?

6. When the first negroes were brought here from Africa over what ocean
did they come?

7. What ocean trip is shortest from Africa to Asia?

8. Of what use is the ocean?

9. Which ocean can we reach most quickly from our home? How long would
it take us to get to this ocean?

10. How long would it take us to reach the Pacific Ocean?

    "Behold the sea, ... splendid and strong, yet beautiful as the rose
    or the rainbow; full of food, nourisher of man, purger of the world,
    creating a sweet climate."--_Emerson_.



CHAPTER II

THE SEASONS


1

What kind of weather are we having now? What kind will we have in July,
in December, in April, in October?

What do we call the warm season? What is the cold season? What are the
mild seasons? How many seasons have we?


2

What kind of clothing do we need in winter?

What work in your home is different in winter from what is done in
summer? What season gives the school janitor most work? Why?

If you live in the country you have seen how different it looks in
winter time and in summer time. Tell how. In what ways do the town
streets and country roads differ in winter and in summer?

Name some winter and some summer sports and games.

There are certain kinds of industries which can be engaged in only in
summer and some only in winter. Decide which of the following are summer
and which are winter industries, and which require work in more than
one season:

  Ice cutting    Building
  Farming        Preserving
  Lumbering      Fishing


3

What season do we have when the warm summer is over, and before the cold
winter has set in? How do the city streets look then? How do you think
the farm looks then?

Autumn or fall is a busy time on the farm. The last of the vegetables
must be taken in and stored away for the winter. The ripe apples and
nuts must be gathered too. The corn is brought in from the fields and
stored in the barns for the winter food of the farm animals.


4

After the long cold winter is over the days grow gradually milder and
warmer until spring has come. Are you glad when spring comes? Why?

In your schoolroom you can tell when spring is here. How pleasant the
air feels as it blows in through the window! It seems to kiss us with
its warm breath. You can hear the birds chirping as if they were happy.
Perhaps a bee will buzz into the room. Many of the children will bring
to school the dainty little spring flowers, anemones, blood root,
hepatica, violets and buttercups.

Out in the country all nature is busy. The tree buds are swelling and
bursting. The grass and flowers are springing up. The birds are building
their nests. The farmer is ploughing and planting his fields.



CHAPTER III

THE ZONES


1

All parts of the earth do not have seasons such as we have. If we should
travel north we should find the climate growing colder and colder. After
a long time we should come to a region of intense cold. The ground would
be covered with ice and snow all the year through, both winter and
summer. This most northern part of the earth is called the North Pole.
The region around it is the North Frigid Zone. There is a South Pole and
a South Frigid Zone as cold as the northern one. You can see where they
are on the diagram.

If we start from here and take a trip south we find it constantly
growing warmer. At last we come to a place where it is extremely warm in
both summer and winter. That region is called the Torrid Zone because
"torrid" means "hot." This hot zone extends right around the middle part
of the earth. The very hottest part through the middle is the Equator.
Notice on the drawing that we live in a zone between the very cold
region, or Frigid Zone, and the very warm region, or Torrid Zone. Our
zone is called the North Temperate Zone. We have here spring, summer,
autumn and winter. Our weather is seldom so cold as in the Frigid Zones,
nor so warm as in the Torrid Zone. Our spring and autumn are mild or
temperate.

[Illustration: World map]

[Illustration: THE ZONES.]

Find the South Temperate Zone. Its climate is just like ours. What
seasons do they have there? What zone lies north of it and which south
of it?

Copy the diagram of the zones in your note-book.


2

THE TEMPERATE ZONE--OUR ZONE

Most of the people of the world live in one of the Temperate Zones, and
most of the great cities are in these zones. People can work better here
where we do not have either intensely hot or intensely cold weather all
of the time. There are two Temperate Zones, the North Temperate Zone
and the South Temperate Zone. In which do we live?

Some plants grow best in the Temperate Zones, while others live best in
the Torrid Zone. Scarcely any grow in the Frigid Zones. Name all the
plants you can think of that live in our zone. These plants grow during
the summer and rest or die when winter comes.

SOME PLANTS OF THE TEMPERATE ZONES

  Poplar      Fruit trees
  Maple       Wheat
  Chestnut    Corn
  Oak         Cotton
  Walnut      Farm vegetables
  Pine        Familiar garden plants

None of these plants can grow well in either the intense cold of the
Frigid Zones or the great heat of the Torrid Zone.


3

Many animals live better in our zone than in any other zone. They need
temperate climate.

SOME ANIMALS OF THE TEMPERATE ZONES

  Horse      Squirrel
  Cow        Bear
  Sheep      Wolf
  Pig        Rabbit
  Cat        Fox
  Dog        Deer
  Zebra      Buffalo
  Giraffe    Goat

Which are domestic and which are wild animals? Describe each and tell
how it is useful to man.

[Illustration: ZEBRA.]


4

THE HOT ZONE

If we take a long trip to the south we find it growing warmer and warmer
until at last we have reached a land where it is warm all the year
through. This is the Torrid Zone.

The plants do not rest nor die in winter there, for there is no cold
weather. These plants keep right on growing through the year. Many of
the trees grow very, very high and have tremendous leaves.

In some cities there are large greenhouses where the Torrid Zone plants
are raised. The temperature must be kept as warm there as in the Torrid
Zone. These are some of the Torrid or Hot Zone plants:

  Palm      Rubber    Giant ferns
  Coffee    Bamboo    Banana

[Illustration: IN THE TORRID ZONE.]

In the forests of the Hot Zone the trees grow very close together. The
sunlight cannot shine through. It is impossible to walk through these
forests without first chopping out a pathway with a hatchet.


5

In these forests live many of the fierce animals which you have seen in
cages in the Zoological Gardens or at the circus.

SOME ANIMALS OF THE TORRID ZONE

  Monkey     Elephant
  Camel      Snake
  Lion       Parrot
  Tiger      Rhinoceros
  Leopard    Wild Cat

Describe these and tell of what use they are.

[Illustration: A TROPICAL JUNGLE.]

Why are some of the buildings in the Zoological Gardens so warm?


6

The Torrid Zone was the first home of the negroes before they were
brought to America. There are many negroes and Indians living in the
Hot Zone now. Many are but half-civilized. Some are savage. As they do
not need large warm homes like ours, some live in small huts made of the
branches of trees, earth and straw. A few of these homes together make a
village. These people get their food by hunting in the forest and
fishing in the rivers and ocean. They also eat the fruits that grow wild
in the forests. There are some cities in the Torrid Zone, but none of
them are very large. These towns have been built mostly by the civilized
white people. The streets are often shaded with beautiful palm trees.
The buildings are generally small, as the people live and work out of
doors as much as possible.


7

WHAT THE TEMPERATE AND TORRID ZONES DO FOR EACH OTHER

The people living in the Torrid Zone send to us Temperate Zone people
many useful things that do not grow here. These are some of them:

  Cocoanuts    Chocolate
  Bananas      Pepper
  Coffee       Palm leaves
  Rubber       Mahogany

In return the Temperate Zone people send to the Torrid Zone inhabitants
things that they do not have. In the Hot Zone there are no large
factories in which to manufacture goods, so we send there:

  Farm tools     Guns
  Woven goods    Knives
  Books          Clothing


8

THE COLD ZONES

[Illustration: AN ESKIMO FAMILY.]

At the most northern part of the earth and at the most southern part are
regions of intense cold. The earth is entirely covered with ice and snow
all of the year. The water is filled with masses of floating ice and
snow. Our coldest winter days are not nearly so cold as the climate of
the North and South Frigid Zones. It is even hard to tell which is land
and which is water.

Of course no trees, nor grass, nor plants, nor animals, nor people of
any kind can live in that intense cold. At the parts near the Temperate
Zones, where it is slightly warmer, there are some very small dwarfed
trees not more than a foot or two high, and perhaps a little moss. It is
here that the Eskimos live; but most of the North Frigid Zone and the
South Frigid Zone is a stretch of frozen whiteness on all sides, with no
living thing of any kind. During the summer the sun never sets, so that
there is twilight all night. In winter the sun never rises above the
horizon, so there are months of darkness.

[Illustration: ESKIMO BOY.]

These frozen lands are the regions through which so many brave explorers
have traveled trying to find the most northern part called the North
Pole, and the most southern part, the South Pole. Many of these
fearless men have never returned from the Frigid Zones. They have
starved or been frozen to death.

At last, after trying for twenty-seven years, Robert E. Peary, an
American, reached the North Pole on April 6, 1909. All Americans are
very proud of this brave, determined, fearless man, who would not stop
until he had done what he set out to do.

Roald Amundsen, a brave Norwegian, reached the South Pole on December
14, 1911, after suffering many hardships.


9

Peary has written a book in which he tells about his travels. Up in the
north he met the Eskimos, who belong to the Indian family. They live in
snow houses in the winter. In summer, which is also very cold, they live
in skin tents. These Eskimos dress in warm furs. They have no schools
nor churches, but they are a kind and peaceful people. They are very
good to the white explorers in the north.

The Eskimo travels mostly on foot, but carries loads on sledges drawn by
dogs. The Eskimo's dogs are his best friends. Without them he could not
manage to carry home the animals he kills for food and clothing. He also
uses boats which he makes of skins.

Many of the Frigid Zone animals are covered with heavy fur. Why?

SOME FRIGID ZONE ANIMALS

  Dog         Polar Bear    Seal
  Reindeer    Whale         Penguin


10

WHAT THE FRIGID AND TEMPERATE ZONES DO FOR EACH OTHER

Men go to the Frigid Zones and catch seals and other animals and bring
back the skins for the Temperate Zone people.

The whale, which lives in the ocean of the Frigid Zone, is also very
useful. From it we get the whalebone, oil and also a fertilizer to help
our farm crops to grow. Great quantities of whale meat are eaten by some
people of the Temperate Zones.

The Eskimos of the Frigid Zone are glad to have from the Temperate Zones
manufactured articles like pans, knives and guns.


11

1. What different kinds of people have you ever seen?

2. Why are the Temperate Zone people more civilized than the Frigid Zone
people?

3. Name some animals of each zone.

4. In which zones is it best to live? Why?

5. As you sit at your desk point toward the North Pole, toward the South
Frigid Zone, the North Frigid Zone, the South Temperate Zone, the
Equator, the South Pole, the Torrid Zone.



CHAPTER IV

NORTH AMERICA


1

Find where we live on the map of North America. Locate our home on all
of our maps and globes.

North America is a very large portion of land. You could sail along its
shores for thousands of miles. At its widest part you could not cross it
in a fast express train in less than five days and nights. There are
thousands of cities in this great grand division, for there are millions
of people here. Most of them are white or Caucasian. There are also many
Indians, negroes, Eskimos and Mongolians.

Much of the land is dense forest, and much is fertile farm land. A small
part has so few rivers and such a scarcity of rainfall that the land is
dry and arid. Little grows upon it but coarse grass and cactus. This
region is called a _desert_.


2

North America stretches far up north into the North Frigid Zone and far
south into the Torrid Zone, but most of it lies in the North Temperate
Zone. What plants and animals live in North America? It is separated
from Asia by a narrow strip of water called Behring Strait. How did
North America used to be connected with South America? Why is the
separation called a canal and not an isthmus?


3

[Illustration: BARNEGAT LIGHTHOUSE.]

Three great oceans wash the shores of North America. Name them. The
coast line is very irregular. Notice on the map that at places part of
the ocean extends far into the land, forming _gulfs_ and _bays_. Hudson
Bay, Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of St. Lawrence are all parts of which
ocean? The waves are not so high in the bays and gulfs as in the open
ocean. The land keeps off some of the wind. Vessels that are waiting to
be laden with cargo lie in these sheltered gulfs and bays. Why?

At many places along the shore the land juts out into the ocean in
_capes_. Many of these points of land have special names. Look on the
map for them. There are light houses built on most of these capes to
warn the ships in the dark and in the storms to keep away from the
dangerous rocks and shore. A cape is often a pleasant place for a summer
home. There is so much water around it that the sea breezes sweep across
it and make it delightfully cool.


4

Do you remember how we spoke of the river with its many boats and
steamers? There are hundreds of rivers in North America flowing for
miles until at last they reach the ocean.


5

There are many high hills, some so very high as to be called
_mountains_. There is a chain of these mountains called the Eastern
Highlands along the eastern part of North America. They extend for many
miles north and south. The scenery in this region is very beautiful. The
mountains are covered mostly with forests of pine, spruce, oak, maple,
chestnut and other trees. These are cut down for lumber. In the wilder
parts of these forests live squirrels, rabbits, bears and snakes. At
places the trees have been cut down to make room for fields of grain.

[Illustration: SURFACE MAP OF NORTH AMERICA.]

The mountains are full of useful minerals. Great quantities of coal and
iron are mined in the Eastern Highlands.


6

The highest mountains in North America are the Western Highlands in the
western part. One great chain or range extends the entire length of
North America from the Arctic Ocean down into South America. Great
forests grow on these mountains. In many places are huge masses of rock
on which nothing grows, so this range has been called the Rocky
Mountains. It is always bitter cold at the top of some of these
mountains because they reach so high. Even in summer they are capped
with snow. Nowhere in the world can more magnificent scenery be found.

West of the Rocky Mountains is the Pacific Mountain System.

Gold and silver are mined in the Western Highlands. In the wild parts of
the forests, where no people live, deer, wolves and bears may be found.


7

The low land between the mountains we call _plains_ or _valleys_. There
is a Great Central Plain which reaches from the Eastern Highlands to the
Western Highlands. There are many rivers in this valley. The Mississippi
and the Missouri Rivers are the largest.


8

You remember how rivers make rainfall and fertile soil. The Great
Central Plain has some of the best farm land in the world. In the
northern cold part hardly anything grows, but in the central part great
quantities of corn, grain, fruits and vegetables are raised. In the
south the plantations or farms raise sugar cane, cotton, tobacco, rice
and coffee.

[Illustration: SHEEP ON THE PLAINS.]

On the western plains great herds of thousands of sheep and cattle are
raised.

In the Great Central Plain are hundreds of cities where the farm
products are sold. Here, too, the farmers buy the farm tools and
machinery which they need. In the city mills the wheat is ground into
flour and the logs from the forests are sawed into planks or made into
furniture. The cattle and sheep are killed and the meat prepared for our
use.


9

East of the central part of the Great Central Plain are five of the
largest lakes in the world. When you are in a boat in the middle of any
one of them you cannot see the land on any side. They are called the
Great Lakes. Their names are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and
Ontario. They are all joined together, and from the last a large river
runs into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It has the same name as the gulf.

There are many other smaller lakes in North America where the land is
low and the water from the rivers and streams fills up the hollows.
Nearly all have fresh water like the rivers. A very few, like Great Salt
Lake, contain salt water.



CHAPTER V

COUNTRIES OF NORTH AMERICA


1

North America contains several different countries. Each is under a
separate government. These countries are United States, British America,
Danish America, Mexico and Central America. Each country has its own
ruler and its own laws. Each has a special flag and its own kind of
money and postage stamps.


2

THE UNITED STATES

We live in the best one of these countries, for we have the best ways of
obtaining our food, our clothing and our shelter. Our climate is good,
for we are in the North Temperate Zone. Our soil is very fertile. The
Great Central Plain of North America passes through the central part of
the United States. We raise fruits, vegetables, corn, wheat, rice and
sugar for food. We have immense ranches for raising cows and sheep too.
Our clothing is supplied by the thousands of sheep we raise and from the
cotton we grow here. The Western and Eastern Highlands pass through our
country.

[Illustration: North America]

We have a great quantity of lumber, stone, coal and iron for making our
comfortable homes. In what part of the country is each of these
products obtained? Why? Right in our own United States is found nearly
everything that is necessary to make us comfortable and happy.

[Illustration: COTTON FIELD.]

We have hundreds of towns with homes, factories, schools, hospitals and
churches. Over every public building floats our beautiful flag, the
Stars and Stripes.

Our laws are made in the capital, which is named Washington, after
George Washington, our first president. Find Washington on the map. How
long would it take to go to Washington from our home? It is a beautiful
city. The Capitol building is one of the finest in the world. The
President of the United States lives in the White House.

Alaska, in the north-west, and the island of Porto Rico, in the
south-east, belong to the United States. We own other islands in other
parts of the world.


3

_British America_ is our next neighbor on the north. It includes all of
the Dominion of Canada and the Island of Newfoundland. It belongs to
England or Great Britain in Europe.

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN GOAT.]

The Great Central Plain and the Western Highlands pass through it, and
yet it is not a rich country with many people like the United States.
Can you tell why?

There are large crops of fruit and grain in the southern part only of
British America. In this part only are there any large cities. The few
people in the northern part go there to hunt the animals for furs and to
find gold. Many whales live in the cold waters of the Atlantic Ocean and
Hudson Bay. Are they of use to man?


4

_Danish America_ is the name given to the two islands Greenland and
Iceland, because they belong to Denmark, a country of Europe.

Greenland lies in which zones? What kind of climate has it? A few white
people and some Eskimos live in the southern part. The northern part has
no life at all.

What do you know of the people, the plants and the animals of this
region?

In what zone is Iceland? Why is the climate very cold? Many fish are
caught in the ocean around Iceland. The people on the island are able to
raise little but grass to feed their sheep and cattle.

There are many mountains in Iceland. Some of them send out steam and
melted rock and are called _volcanoes_.


5

_Mexico_ is our southern neighbor. This country has a president and a
government somewhat like ours.

Both Indians and white people live in Mexico. The climate is so warm in
the valleys that the people living there cannot work so hard as they do
in the United States. So they do not have large factories and many fine
schools, hospitals and libraries as we have. Why do they not build these
on the mountains where the climate is pleasant?

They have large plantations where they raise rubber, sugar, cotton,
coffee, tobacco and fruit and many cattle.

The great Western Highlands extend down through Mexico, and silver,
copper and coal are mined in them. Some of these mountains are
volcanoes. What does this mean?


6

Central America is still warmer than Mexico. It is entirely in what
zone? The plants and animals are much like those of Mexico.


7

The West Indies consist of many islands. The largest are Cuba, Haiti,
Jamaica and Porto Rico. Which belongs to the United States? These
islands have a warm climate. What do you think is raised on the
plantations by the white people and negroes?

The West Indies separate a part of the ocean from the main Atlantic
Ocean. This smaller part is called the _Caribbean Sea_. Notice what
countries it touches.



CHAPTER VI

TRIPS


1

Suppose you were to sail from New York City to Iceland.

1. What would you take with you that the people would be glad to get?

2. What kind of clothing would you need for the trip?

3. Over what water would you sail?

4. In what direction would you go?

5. What countries would you pass?

6. How could you tell when you were getting near Iceland?

7. What would you see in Iceland?

8. Could you bring back to the people at home anything useful?


2

Let us go to visit the Panama Canal, keeping our vessel close to the
shore all the way.

1. What clothing shall we need? Why?

2. What countries shall we pass? What islands, peninsulas and capes?

3. On what water shall we sail?

4. What would the people be glad to have from our country?

5. Where could we stop to get some coffee, rubber and bananas to bring
back?


3

Plan a trip along the Pacific Ocean.

1. Where will you start?

2. Where will you go?

3. What will you see at the place from which you start and at the end of
the trip?

4. What interesting places will you pass?


4

Let us cross our country by train from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific
Coast.

1. How long shall we be on the train?

2. Describe the scenery as we go west.

3. What rivers shall we cross?

4. What kinds of industries could we visit on the way across?


5

How far can a boat sail if it starts in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to go
as far west as possible?


6

A trip up the Mississippi River.

1. How would the climate change?

2. What name is given to this part of the land through which the river
flows?

3. What scenes could we expect to see on the shores of the river?

4. What products would the boats we pass be carrying?



  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                  |
  | Transcriber's notes                                              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                                                                  |
  | Obvious spelling/typographical and punctuation errors have been  |
  | corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within |
  | the text and consultation of external sources.                   |
  |                                                                  |
  | Inconsistent hyphenations have been retained:                    |
  | school-room/schoolroom, school-house/schoolhouse,                |
  | note-book/notebook.                                              |
  |                                                                  |
  | On page 19 in Chapter II an apparent printing error              |
  | interchanging the section heading "5" and the first line of the  |
  | following text has been corrected.                               |
  |                                                                  |
  | Re the question at the end of Chapter III: the cover of the 1913 |
  | edition shows a statue of a man, possibly William Penn,          |
  | surrounded by silhouettes of the six continents. The cover of    |
  | the 1914 general edition shows the dome of the Capitol at        |
  | Washington (cf the frontispiece) in place of the statue.         |
  |                                                                  |
  | The original book was published at Philadelphia by the           |
  | Christopher Sower Company, 124 North Eighteenth Street. The      |
  | copyright date was 1913 and 1914.                                |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+





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