Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Cattle and Their Diseases - Embracing Their History and Breeds, Crossing and Breeding, - And Feeding and Management; With the Diseases to which - They are Subject, And The Remedies Best Adapted to their - Cure
Author: Jennings, Robert
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Cattle and Their Diseases - Embracing Their History and Breeds, Crossing and Breeding, - And Feeding and Management; With the Diseases to which - They are Subject, And The Remedies Best Adapted to their - Cure" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Historical Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell
University)



Transcriber's Note:

The spelling in this text has been preserved as in the original.
Obvious printer's errors have been corrected. A list of the
corrections can be found at the end of this e-text.

       *       *       *       *       *



CATTLE AND THEIR DISEASES

EMBRACING

THEIR HISTORY AND BREEDS, CROSSING AND BREEDING, AND
FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT; WITH THE DISEASES
TO WHICH THEY ARE SUBJECT, AND
THE REMEDIES BEST ADAPTED
TO THEIR CURE.

TO WHICH IS ADDED A LIST OF THE MEDICINES USED IN TREATING CATTLE.

BY ROBERT JENNINGS, V. S.,

PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY AND OPERATIVE SURGERY IN THE VETERINARY COLLEGE OF
PHILADELPHIA; LATE PROFESSOR OF VETERINARY MEDICINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL
COLLEGE OF OHIO; SECRETARY OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION
OF PHILADELPHIA; AUTHOR OF "THE HORSE
AND HIS DISEASES," ETC., ETC.

[Illustration: With Numerous Illustrations.]

PHILADELPHIA:
John E. Potter and Company,
617 Sansom Street.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by
JOHN E. POTTER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.



PREFACE.


A marked interest has of late years been manifested in our country
relative to the subject of breeding and rearing domestic cattle. This
has not been confined to the dairyman alone. The greater portion of
intelligent agriculturists have perceived the necessity of paying more
attention than was formerly devoted to the improvement and perfection of
breeds for the uses of the table as well. In this respect, European
cattle-raisers have long taken the precedence of our own.

The gratifying favor with which the author's former publication, "The
Horse and his Diseases," has been received by the public, has induced
him to believe that a work, similar in spirit and general treatment,
upon Cattle, would not be without interest for the agricultural
community.

In this belief, the present treatise has been prepared. The author has
availed himself of the labors of others in this connection; never,
however, adopting results and conclusions, no matter how strongly
endorsed, which have been contradicted by his own observation and
experience. In a field like the one in question, assuredly, if anywhere,
some degree of independent judgment will not be censured by those who
are familiar with the sad consequences resulting from the attempted
application of theories now universally exploded, but which in the day
and generation of their originators were sanctioned and advocated by
those who claimed to be magnates in this department.

To the following works, especially, the author acknowledges himself
indebted: American Farmer's Encyclopædia; Stephens's Book of the Farm;
Flint's Milch-Cows and Dairy Farming; Laurence on Cattle; Allen's
Domestic Animals; Youatt and Martin on Cattle; Thomson's Food of
Animals; Allen's Rural Architecture; Colman's Practical Agriculture and
Rural Economy; Goodale's Breeding of Domestic Animals; and Prof.
Gamgee's valuable contributions to veterinary science.

Particular attention is requested to the division of "Diseases." Under
this head, as in his former work, the author has endeavored to detail
the symptoms of the most common ailments of cattle in such a manner that
every farmer and cattle-owner can at once understand them, and also to
suggest such procurable remedies as a wide experience has proved to be
most efficacious.

A generous space has been devoted to the consideration of that fatal
epidemic, now generally known as "Pleuro-Pneumonia," as it has
manifested itself in Europe and this country, in the belief that a
matter of such vital importance to the stock-raiser ought to receive a
complete exposition in a work like the present. As the author's personal
experience in connection with the treatment of this peculiar disease has
been, perhaps, as large and varied as that of any American practitioner,
he is not without the hope that his views upon the matter may prove
productive of some benefit to others.

Should the present volume prove as acceptable to those interested as did
his former work, the author will be abundantly satisfied that he has not
mistaken in this instance the wants of the public.



CONTENTS.


HISTORY AND BREEDS OF CATTLE,                                         13

  THE BRITISH OX,                                                     15

  AMERICAN CATTLE,                                                    21
    The Ayrshire,                                                     23
    The Jersey,                                                       30
    The Short-Horns,                                                  32
    The Dutch,                                                        36
    The Hereford,                                                     38
    The North-Devon,                                                  41
    Native Cattle,                                                    43

  NATURAL HISTORY OF CATTLE,                                          50
    Gestation,                                                        51
    Formation of Teeth,                                               51
    Points of a Good Cow,                                             57

  THE MILK-MIRROR,                                                    61


CROSSING AND BREEDING,                                                77

  PREGNANCY,                                                          92

  TREATMENT BEFORE CALVING,                                           93


FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT,                                               97

  SOILING,                                                           118

  CULTURE OF GRASSES FOR FODDER,                                     122

  THE BARN,                                                          146

  MILKING,                                                           155

  RAISING OF CALVES,                                                 168

  POINTS OF FAT CATTLE,                                              183

  DRIVING AND SLAUGHTERING,                                          188


DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES,                                         205

    Abortion,                                                        206
    Apoplexy,                                                        215

    Black-Water,                                                     215
    Bronchitis,                                                      216

    Consumption,                                                     217
    Coryza,                                                          217
    Cow-pox,                                                         218

    Diarrhoea,                                                       219
    Dysentery,                                                       220

    Enteritis,                                                       222
    Epizoötics,                                                      224
    Epizoötic Catarrh,                                               234

    Fardel,                                                          236
    Foul in the Foot,                                                237

    Garget,                                                          237
    Gastro-enteritis,                                                238

    Hoose,                                                           238
    Hoove,                                                           239
    Hydatids,                                                        240

    Inflammation of the Bladder,                                     241
    Inflammation of the Haw,                                         241
    Inflammation of the Kidneys,                                     242
    Inflammation of the Liver,                                       242

    Laryngitis,                                                      243
    Lice,                                                            244

    Mange,                                                           244
    Murrain,                                                         246

    Navel-ill,                                                       247

    Obstructions in the Oesophagus,                                  247
    Open Joints,                                                     248
    Parturition,                                                     248
      Free Martins,                                                  251
      Cleansing,                                                     253
      Inversion of the Uterus,                                       253

    Phrenitis,                                                       254
    Pleurisy,                                                        255
    Pleuro-pneumonia,                                                256
    Pneumonia,                                                       300
    Protrusion of the Bladder,                                       302
    Puerperal Fever,                                                 302

    Quarter Evil,                                                    303

    Rabies,                                                          304
    Red Water,                                                       305
    Rheumatism,                                                      307

    Strangulation of the Intestines,                                 308

    Thrush in the Mouth,                                             308
    Tumors,                                                          308

    Ulcers about the Joints,                                         312

    Warbles,                                                         313
    Worms,                                                           315
    Worms in the Bronchial Tubes,                                    316


  SURGICAL OPERATIONS,                                               316

    Castration,                                                      316
    Tracheotomy,                                                     319
    Spaying,                                                         320

  LIST OF MEDICINES USED IN TREATING CATTLE,                         330

  DOSES OF VARIOUS MEDICINES,                                        336



ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                    PAGE
A Prize Bull,                                                         13
The Well-fed Beasts,                                                  19
An Ayrshire Bull,                                                     23
A Short-horn Bull,                                                    33
A North Devon Steer,                                                  41
Draft Oxen,                                                           45
Skeleton of the Ox,                                                   50
Teeth at Birth,                                                       52
Teeth at Second Week,                                                 52
Teeth at Three Weeks,                                                 53
Teeth at a Month,                                                     53
Teeth at Five to Eight Months,                                        53
Ten Months Teeth,                                                     53
Twelve Months Teeth,                                                  54
Fifteen Months Teeth,                                                 54
Eighteen Months Teeth,                                                55
Teeth at Two Years Past,                                              55
Teeth at Three Years Past,                                            56
Teeth at Four Years Past,                                             56
Teeth at Five Years Past,                                             56
Teeth at Ten Years Past,                                              56
A Good Milch Cow,                                                     58
Milk-Mirror (A),                                                      62
Milk-Mirror (B),                                                      63
Milk-Mirror (C),                                                      63
Milk-Mirror (D),                                                      64
Milk-Mirror (E),                                                      65
Milk-Mirror (F),                                                      66
Milk-Mirror (G),                                                      69
Milk-Mirror (H),                                                      70
Milk-Mirror (K),                                                      72
Milk-Mirror (L),                                                      74
Cow and Calf,                                                         77
Ready for Action,                                                     83
A Sprightly Youth,                                                    89
Feeding,                                                              97
The Family Pets,                                                     102
Buying Cattle,                                                       107
Calling in the Cattle,                                               112
"On the Rampage",                                                    117
Patiently Waiting,                                                   123
A Chance for a Selection,                                            129
A West Highland Ox,                                                  139
Barn for Thirty-four Cows and Three Yoke of Oxen,                    150
Transverse Section,                                                  152
Room over the Cow-Room,                                              153
The Preferable Method,                                               159
Maternal Affection,                                                  168
Frolicksome,                                                         177
Points of Cattle,                                                    185
A Frontispiece,                                                      190
Scotch Mode of Cutting up Beef,                                      195
English Mode of Cutting up Beef,                                     197
Diseases and Their Remedies,                                         205
A Chat on the Road,                                                  218
The Mad Bull,                                                        230
An Aberdeenshire Polled Bull,                                        244
Taking an Observation,                                               256
The Twins,                                                           268
A Rural Scene,                                                       285
Taking it Easily,                                                    299
Home Again,                                                          313



[Illustration]

History and Breeds


It is quite certain that the ox has been domesticated and in the service
of man from a very remote period. We are informed in the fourth chapter
of Genesis, that cattle were kept by the early descendants of Adam;
Jubal, the son of Lamech--who was probably born during the lifetime of
Adam--being styled the father of such as have cattle. The ox having been
preserved by Noah from the flood of waters, the original breed of our
present cattle must have been in the neighborhood of Mount Ararat. From
thence, dispersing over the face of the globe--altering by climate, by
food, and by cultivation--originated the various breeds of modern ages.

That the value of the ox tribe has been in all ages and climates highly
appreciated, we have ample evidence. The natives of Egypt, India, and
Hindostan, seem alike to have placed the cow amongst their deities; and,
judging by her usefulness to all classes, no animal could perhaps have
been selected whose value to mankind is greater. The traditions, indeed,
of every Celtic nation enroll the cow among the earliest productions,
and represent it as a kind of divinity.

In nearly all parts of the earth cattle are employed for their labor,
for their milk, and for food. In southern Africa they are as much the
associates of the Caffre as the horse is of the Arab. They share his
toils, and assist him in tending his herds. They are even trained to
battle, in which they become fierce and courageous. In central Africa
the proudest ebony beauties are to be seen upon the backs of cattle. In
all ages they have drawn the plough. In Spain they still trample out the
corn; in India they raise the water from the deepest wells to irrigate
the thirsty soil of Bengal. When Cæsar invaded Britain they constituted
the chief riches of its inhabitants; and they still form no
inconsiderable item in the estimate of that country's riches.

The parent race of the ox is said to have been much larger than any of
the present varieties. The Urus, in his wild state at least, was an
enormous and fierce animal, and ancient legends have thrown around him
an air of mystery. In almost every part of the continent of Europe and
in every district of England, skulls, evidently belonging to cattle,
have been found, far exceeding in bulk any now known.

As the various breeds of cattle among us were introduced into this
country from Great Britain, we propose, before going into the details of
the leading American breeds, to glance somewhat briefly at the history
of


THE BRITISH OX.

In the earliest and most reliable accounts which we possess of the
British Isles--the Commentaries of Cæsar--we learn that the ancient
Britons possessed great numbers of cattle. No satisfactory description
of these cattle occurs in any ancient author; but, with occasional
exceptions, we know that they possessed no great bulk or beauty. Cæsar
tells us that the Britons neglected tillage and lived on milk and flesh;
and this account of the early inhabitants of the British Isle is
corroborated by other authors. It was such an occupation and mode of
life as suited their state of society. The island was divided into many
little sovereignties; no fixed property was secure; and that alone was
valuable which could be hurried away at the threatened approach of the
invader. Many centuries after this, when--although one sovereign seemed
to reign paramount over the whole of the kingdom--there continued to be
endless contests among the feudal barons, and therefore that property
alone continued to be valuable which could be secured within the walls
of the castle, or driven beyond the assailant's reach--an immense stock
of provisions was always stored up in the various fortresses, both for
the vassals and the cattle; or it was contrived that the latter should
be driven to the domains of some friendly baron, or concealed in some
inland recess.

When the government became more powerful and settled, and property of
every kind was assured a proportionate degree of protection, as well as
more equally divided, the plough came into use; agricultural productions
were oftener cultivated, the reaping of which was sure after the labor
of sowing. Cattle were then comparatively neglected and for some
centuries injuriously so. Their numbers diminished, and their size also
seems to have diminished; and it is only within the last century and a
half that any serious and successful efforts have been made materially
to improve them.

In the comparatively roving and uncertain life which the earlier
inhabitants led, their cattle would sometimes stray and be lost. The
country was at that time overgrown with forests, and the beasts betook
themselves to the recesses of these woods, and became wild and sometimes
ferocious. They, by degrees, grew so numerous as to be dangerous to the
inhabitants of the neighboring districts. One of the chronicles asserts
that many of them harbored in the forests in the neighborhood of London.
Strange stories are told of some of them, and, doubtless, when
irritated, they were fierce and dangerous enough. As, however,
civilization advanced, and the forests became thinned and contracted,
these animals were seen more rarely, and at length almost disappeared. A
few of them, however, are still to be found in the parks of some of the
leading English noblemen, who keep them for ornament and as curiosities.

The color of this wild breed is invariably white, the muzzle being
black; the whole of the inside of the ear, and about one-third of the
outside, from the tips downward, red; horns white, with black tips, very
fine, and bent upward; some of the bulls have a thin, upright mane,
about an inch and a half or two inches long. The beef is finely marbled
and of excellent flavor.

At the first appearance of any person they set off in full gallop, and
at the distance of about two hundred yards, make a wheel around and come
boldly up again in a menacing manner; on a sudden they make a full stop
at the distance of forty or fifty yards, looking wildly at the object of
their surprise; but upon the least motion they all again turn round and
fly off with equal speed, but not to the same distance, forming a
shorter circle; and, again returning with a more threatening aspect than
before, they approach probably within thirty yards, when they again make
another stand, and then fly off; this they do several times, shortening
their distance and advancing nearer and nearer, till they come within
such short distance that most persons think it prudent to leave them.

When the cows calve, they hide their calves for a week or ten days in
some retired situation, and go and suckle them two or three times a day.
If any persons come near the calves they clap their heads close to the
ground to hide themselves--a proof of their native wildness. The dams
allow no one to touch their young without attacking with impetuous
ferocity. When one of the herd happens to be wounded, or has grown weak
and feeble through age or sickness, the rest set on it and gore it to
death.

The breeds of cattle which are now found in Great Britain, are almost as
various as the soil of the different districts or the fancies of the
breeders. They have, however, been very conveniently classed according
to the comparative size of the horns; the _long-horns_, originally from
Lancashire, and established through most of the midland counties; the
_short-horns_, generally cultivated in the northern counties and in
Lincolnshire, and many of them found in every part of the kingdom where
the farmer pays much attention to his dairy, or where a large supply of
milk is desired; and the _middle-horns_, a distinct and valuable breed,
inhabiting, principally, the north of Devon, the east of Sussex,
Herefordshire, and Gloucestershire; and of diminished bulk and with
somewhat different character, the cattle of the Scottish and Welsh
mountains. The Alderney, with its _crumpled horn_, is found on the
southern coast; while the polled, or _hornless_, cattle prevail in
Suffolk, Norfolk, and Galloway, whence they were first derived.

These leading breeds, however, have been intermingled in every possible
way. They are found pure only in their native districts, or on the
estate of some wealthy and spirited individuals. Each county has its own
mongrel breed, often difficult to be described, and not always to be
traced--neglected enough, yet suited to the soil and the climate; and
among small farmers, maintaining their station, in spite of attempts at
improvements by the intermixture or the substitution of foreign
varieties.

Much dispute has arisen as to the original breed of British cattle. The
battle has been sharply fought between the advocates of the middle and
of the long-horns. The short-horns and the polls are out of the lists;
the latter, although it has existed in certain districts from time
immemorial, being probably an accidental variety. The weight of
argument appears at present to rest with the middle horns; the
long-horns being evidently of Irish extraction.

[Illustration: THE WELL-FED BEASTS.]

Great Britain has shared the fate of other nations, and oftener than
they been overrun and subjugated by invaders. As the natives retreated
they carried with them some portion of their property, consisting, in
the remote and early times, principally of cattle. They drove along with
them as many as they could, when they retired to the fortresses of North
Devon and Cornwall, or the mountainous region of Wales, or when they
took refuge in the retirement of East Sussex; and there, retaining all
their prejudices, manners, and customs, were jealous of the preservation
of that which reminded them of their native country before it yielded to
a foreign yoke.

In this way was preserved the ancient breed of British cattle.
Difference of climate produced some change, particularly in their bulk.
The rich pasturage of Sussex fattened the ox into its superior size and
weight. The plentiful, but not so luxuriant, herbage of the north of
Devon produced a smaller and more active animal; while the privations of
Wales lessened the bulk and thickened the hide of the Welsh Stock. As
for Scotland, it set its invaders at defiance; or its inhabitants
retreated for a while, and soon turned again on their pursuers. They
were proud of their country, and of their cattle, their choicest
possession; and there, also, the cattle were preserved, unmixed and
undegenerated.

Thence it has resulted, that in Devon, in Sussex, in Wales, and in
Scotland, the cattle have been the same from time immemorial; while in
all the eastern coasts and through every district of England, the breed
of cattle degenerated, or lost its original character; it consisted of
animals brought from all the neighboring, and some remote districts,
mingled in every possible variety, yet conforming to the soil and the
climate.

Careful observations will establish the fact, that the cattle in
Devonshire, Sussex, Wales, and Scotland are essentially the same. They
are middle horned; not extraordinary milkers, and remarkable for the
quality rather than the quantity of their milk; active at work, and with
an unequalled aptitude to fatten. They have all the characters of the
same breed, changed by soil, climate, and time, yet little changed by
man. The color, even, may be almost traced, namely: the red of the
Devon, the Sussex, and the Hereford; and where only the black are now
found, the recollection of the red prevails.

As this volume is intended especially for the farmers of our own
country, it is deemed unnecessary in this connection to present any
thing additional under the present head, except the names of the
prominent species of British cattle. These are, commencing with the
middle horns, the North Devon, the Hereford, the Sussex, the Welsh (with
the varieties of the Pembrokeshire, the Glamorganshire, the Radnor
black, the Anglesea and some others); and the Scotch with its chief
varieties, the West Highlanders, the North Highlanders, the North
Eastern, the Fife, the Ayrshire, and the Galloways.

As to the long horns, which came originally from Craven in Yorkshire, it
may be remarked that this breed has been rapidly disappearing of late,
and has everywhere given place to better kinds. Of this species there
are--or perhaps were--two leading classes, the Lancashire and the
Leicestershire improved.

Of the short horns, the leading breeds are the Dutch, the Holderness,
the Teeswater, the Yorkshire, the Durham, the Northumberland, and some
others.


AMERICAN CATTLE.

The breeds of cattle which stock the farms of the United States are all
derived from Europe, and, with few exceptions, from Great Britain. The
highest breeds at the present time are of comparatively recent origin,
since the great improvements in breeding were only commenced at about
the period of the American Revolution. The old importations made by the
early settlers, must consequently have been from comparatively inferior
grades.

In some sections of the Union, and more particularly in New England, the
primitive stock is thought to have undergone considerable improvement;
whilst in many parts of the Middle, and especially of the Southern
States, a greater or less depreciation has ensued. The prevailing stock
in the Eastern States is believed to be derived from the North Devons,
most of the excellent marks and qualities of which they possess. For
this reason they are very highly esteemed, and have been frequently
called the American Devon. The most valuable working oxen are chiefly of
this breed, which also contributes so largely to the best displays of
beef found in the markets of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. By
means of this domestic stock, and the importations still extensively
made of selections from the short horns, and others of the finest
European breeds, the cattle, not only of New England, but of other
sections, are rapidly improving, especially in the Middle and Western
States.

A brief sketch of the principal breeds of American cattle, as well as of
the grades or common stock of the country, will be of service to the
farmer in making an intelligent selection with reference to the special
object of pursuit--whether it be the dairy, the production of beef, or
the raising of cattle for work.

In selecting any breed, regard should be had to the circumstances of the
individual farmer and the object to be pursued. The cow most profitable
for the milk dairy, may be very unprofitable in the butter and cheese
dairy, as well as for the production of beef; while, for either of the
latter objects, the cow which gave the largest quantity of milk might be
very undesirable. A union and harmony of all good qualities must be
secured, so far as possible. The farmer wants a cow that will milk well
for some years; and then, when dry, fatten readily and sell to the
butcher for the highest price. These qualities, often supposed to be
utterly incompatible, will be found united in some breeds to a greater
extent than in others; while some peculiarities of form have been
found, by observation, to be better adapted to the production of milk
and beef than others.

It is proposed, therefore, to sketch the pure breeds now found in
America.


THE AYRSHIRE.

[Illustration: AN AYRSHIRE BULL.]

This breed is justly celebrated throughout Great Britain and this
country for its excellent dairy qualities. Though the most recent in
their origin, they are pretty distinct from the Scotch and English
races. In color, the pure Ayrshires are generally red and
white, spotted or mottled, not roan like many of the short horns, but
often presenting a bright contrast of colors. They are sometimes, though
rarely, nearly or quite all red, and sometimes black and white; but the
favorite color is red and white brightly contrasted; and, by some,
strawberry-color is preferred. The head is small, fine and clean; the
face long and narrow at the muzzle, with a sprightly, yet generally mild
expression; eye small, smart and lively; the horns short, fine, and
slightly twisted upward, set wide apart at the roots; the neck thin;
body enlarging from fore to hind quarters; the back straight and narrow,
but broad across the loin; joints rather loose and open; ribs rather
flat; hind quarters rather thin; bone fine; tail long, fine, and bushy
at the end; hair generally thin and soft; udder light color and
capacious, extending well forward under the belly; teats of the cow of
medium size, generally set regularly and wide apart; milk-veins
prominent and well developed. The carcass of the pure bred Ayrshire is
light, particularly the fore quarters, which is considered by good
judges as an index of great milking qualities; but the pelvis is
capacious and wide over the hips.

On the whole, the Ayrshire is good looking, but wants some of the
symmetry and aptitude to fatten which characterize the short horn, which
is supposed to have contributed to build up this valuable breed on the
basis of the original stock of the county of Ayr, which extends along
the eastern shore of the Firth of Clyde, in the southwestern part of
Scotland.

The original stock of this country are described as of a diminutive
size, ill fed, ill shaped, and yielding but a scanty return in milk.
They were mostly of a black color, with large stripes of white along the
chine and ridge of their backs, about the flanks, and on their faces.
Their horns were high and crooked, having deep ringlets at the root--the
surest proof that they were but scantily fed; the chine of their backs
stood up high and narrow; their sides were lank, short, and thin; their
hides thick and adhering to the bones; their pile was coarse and open;
and few of them gave more than six or eight quarts of milk a day when in
their best condition, or weighed, when fat, more than from a hundred to
a hundred and sixty pounds avoirdupois, rejecting offal.

A wonderful change has since been made in the condition, aspect, and
qualities of the Ayrshire dairy stock. They are now almost double the
size, and yield about four times the quantity of milk that the Ayrshire
cows formerly yielded. A large part of this improvement is due to better
feeding and care, but much, no doubt, to judicious crossing. Strange as
it may seem, considering the modern origin of this breed, all that is
certainly known touching it is, that about a century and a half ago
there was no such breed as Ayrshire in Scotland. The question has
therefore arisen, whether these cattle came entirely from a careful
selection of the best native breed. If they did, it is a circumstance
without a parallel in the history of agriculture. The native breed may
indeed be ameliorated by careful selection; its value may be
incalculably increased; some good qualities, some of its best qualities,
may be developed for the first time; but yet there will be some
resemblance to the original stock, and the more the animal is examined,
the more clearly can be traced the characteristic points of the
ancestor, although every one of them is improved.

Youatt estimates the daily yield of an Ayrshire cow, for the first two
or three months after calving, at five gallons a day, on an average; for
the next three months, at three gallons; and for the next four months,
at one gallon and a half. This would give eight hundred and fifty
gallons as the annual average; but, allowing for some unproductive cows,
he estimates the average of a dairy at six hundred gallons a year for
each cow. Three gallons and a half of the Ayrshire cow's milk will yield
one and a half pounds of butter. Some have estimated the yield still
higher.

One of the four cows originally imported into this country by John P.
Cushing, Esq., of Massachusetts, gave in one year three thousand eight
hundred and sixty-four quarts, beer measure, or about nine hundred and
sixty-six gallons, at ten pounds the gallon; being an average of over
ten and a half beer quarts a day for the entire year. The first cow of
this breed, imported by the Massachusetts Society, for the Promotion of
Agriculture, in 1837, yielded sixteen pounds of butter a week for
several successive weeks, on grass feed only. It should be borne in
mind, in this connection that the climate of New England is less
favorable to the production of milk than that of England and Scotland,
and that no cow imported after arriving at maturity can be expected to
yield as much, under the same circumstances, as one bred on the spot
where the trial is made, and perfectly acclimated.

On excellent authority, the most approved shape and marks of a good
dairy cow are as follows: Head small, long, and narrow toward the
muzzle; horns small, clear, bent, and placed at considerable distance
from each other; eyes not large, but brisk and lively; neck slender and
long, tapering toward the head, with a little loose skin below;
shoulders and fore quarters light and thin; hind quarters large and
broad; back straight, and joints slack and open; carcass deep in the
rib; tail small and long, reaching to the heels; legs small and short,
with firm joints; udder square, but a little oblong, stretching forward,
thin skinned and capacious, but not low hung; teats or paps small,
pointing outward, and at a considerable distance from each other;
milk-veins capacious and prominent; skin loose, thin, and soft like a
glove; hair short, soft, and woolly; general figure, when in flesh,
handsome and well proportioned.

If this description of the Ayrshire cow be correct, it will be seen that
her head and neck are remarkably clean and fine, the latter swelling
gradually toward the shoulders, both parts being unencumbered with
superfluous flesh. The same general form extends backward, the fore
quarters being, light the shoulders thin, and the carcass swelling out
toward the hind quarters, so that when standing in front of her it has
the form of a blunted wedge. Such a structure indicates very fully
developed digestive organs, which exert a powerful influence on all the
functions of the body, and especially on the secretion of the milky
glands, accompanied with milk-veins and udder partaking of the same
character as the stomach and viscera, being large and capacious, while
the external skin and interior walls of the milk-glands are thin and
elastic, and all parts arranged in a manner especially adapted for the
production of milk.

A cow with these marks will generally be of a quiet and docile temper,
which greatly increases her value. A cow that is of a quiet and
contented disposition feeds at ease, is milked with ease, and yields
more than one of an opposite temperament; while, after she is past her
usefulness as a milker, she will easily take on fat, and make fine beef
and a good quantity of tallow, because she feeds freely, and when dry
the food which went to make milk is converted into fat and flesh. But
there is no breed of cows with which gentle gentleness of treatment is
so indispensable as with the Ayrshire, on account of her naturally
nervous temperament. If she receives other than kind and gentle
treatment, she will often resent it with angry looks and gestures, and
withhold her milk; and if such treatment is long continued, will dry
up; but she willingly and easily yields it to the hand that fondles
her, and all her looks and movements toward her friends are quiet and
mild.

The Ayrshires in their native country are generally bred for the dairy,
and for no other object; and the cows have justly obtained a world-wide
reputation for this quality. The oxen are, however, very fair as working
cattle, though they cannot be said to excel other breeds in this
respect. The Ayrshire steer maybe fed and turned at three years old; but
for feeding purposes the Ayrshires are greatly improved by a cross with
the short horns, provided regard is had to the size of the animal. It is
the opinion of good breeders that a high-bred short horn bull and a
large-sized Ayrshire cow will produce a calf which will come to maturity
earlier, and attain greater weight, and sell for more money than a
pure-bred Ayrshire. This cross, with feeding from the start, may be sold
fat at two or three years old, the improvement being most noticeable in
the earlier maturity and size.

In the Cross with the short horn, the form ordinarily becomes more
symmetrical, while there is, perhaps, little risk of lessening the
milking qualities of the offspring, if sufficient regard is paid to the
selection of the individual animals to breed from. It is thought by some
that in the breeding of animals it is the male which gives the external
form, or the bony and muscular system of the young, while the female
imparts the respiratory organs, the circulation of the blood, the organs
of secretion, and the like.

If this principle be true, it follows that the milking qualities come
chiefly from the mother, and that the bull cannot materially alter the
conditions which determine the transmission of these qualities,
especially when they are as strongly marked as they are in this breed.

Until, however, certain mooted questions connected with breeding are
definitively settled, it is the safest plan, in breeding for the dairy,
to adhere to the rule of selecting only animals whose progenitors on
both sides have been distinguished for their milking qualities.

It may be stated, in conclusion, that for purely dairy purposes the
Ayrshire cow deserves the first place. In consequence of her small,
symmetrical, and compact body, combined with a well-formed chest and a
capacious stomach, there is little waste, comparatively speaking,
through the respiratory system; while at the same time there is very
complete assimilation of the food, and thus she converts a very large
proportion of her food into milk. So remarkable is this fact, that all
dairy farmers who have any experience on the point, agree in stating
that _an Ayrshire cow generally gives a larger return of milk for the
food consumed than a cow of any other breed_. The absolute quality may
not be so great, but it is obtained at a less cost; and this is the
point upon which the question of profit depends. The best milkers which
have been known in this country were grade Ayrshires, larger in size
than the pure bloods, but still sufficiently high grades to give certain
signs of their origin. This grade would seem to possess the advantage of
combining, to some extent, the two qualities of milking and adaptation
to beef; and this is no small recommendation of the stock to farmers
situated as American farmers are, who wish for milk for some years and
then to turn over to the butcher.


THE JERSEY.

These cattle are now widely known in this country. Many of them have
been imported from an island of the same name in the British Channel,
near the coast of France, and they may now be considered, for all
practical purposes, as fully acclimated. They were first introduced,
upward of thirty years ago, from the channel islands, Alderney,
Guernsey, and Jersey.

This race is supposed to have been originally derived from Normandy, in
the northern part of France. The cows have been long celebrated for the
production of very rich milk and cream, but till within the last
twenty-five or thirty years they were comparatively coarse, ugly, and
ill-shaped. Improvements have been very marked, but the form of the
animal is still far from satisfying the eye.

The head of the pure Jersey is fine and tapering, the cheek small, the
throat clean, the muzzle fine and encircled with a light stripe, the
nostril high and open; the horns smooth, crumpled, but not very thick at
the base, tapering and tipped with black; ears small and thin, deep
orange color inside; eyes full and placid; neck straight and fine; chest
broad and deep; barrel hoofed, broad and deep, well ribbed up; back
straight from the withers to the hip, and from the top of the hip to the
setting of the tail; tail fine, at right angles with the back, and
hanging down to the hocks; skin thin, light color, and mellow, covered
with fine soft hair; fore legs short, straight and fine below the knee,
arm swelling and full above; hind quarters long and well filled; hind
legs short and straight below the hocks, with bones rather fine,
squarely placed, and not too close together; hoofs small; udder full in
size, in line with the belly, extending well up behind; teats of medium
size, squarely placed and wide apart, and milk-veins very prominent. The
color is generally cream, dun, or yellow, with more or less of white,
and the fine head and neck give the cows and heifers a fawn-like
appearance, and make them objects of attraction in the park; but the
hind quarters are often too narrow to work well, particularly to those
who judge animals by the amount of fat which they carry.

It should be borne in mind, however, that a good race of animals is not
always the most beautiful, as that term is generally understood. Beauty
in stock has no invariable standard. In the estimation of some, it
results mainly from fine forms, small bones, and close, compact frames;
while others consider that structure the most perfect, and therefore the
most beautiful, which is best adapted to the use for which it is
destined. With such, beauty is relative. It is not the same in an animal
designed for beef and in one designed for the dairy or for work. The
beauty of a milch cow is the result of her good qualities. Large milkers
are very rarely cows that please the eye of any but a skillful judge.
They are generally poor, since their food goes mainly to the production
of milk, and because they are selected with less regard to form than to
good milking qualities. The prevailing opinion as to the beauty of the
Jersey, is based on the general appearance of the cow when in milk--no
experiments in feeding exclusively for beef having been made public,
and no opportunity to form a correct judgment from actual observation
having been furnished; and it must be confessed that the general
appearance of the breed would amply justify the hasty conclusion.

The bulls are usually very different in character and disposition from
the cows, and are much inclined to become restive and cross at the age
of two or three years, unless their treatment is uniformly gentle and
firm.

The Jersey is to be regarded as a dairy breed, and that almost
exclusively. It would not be sought for large dairies kept for the
supply of milk to cities; for, though the quality would gratify the
customer, the quantity would not satisfy the owner. The place of the
Jersey cow is rather in private establishments, where the supply of
cream and butter is a sufficient object; or, in limited numbers, to add
richness to the milk of large butter dairies. Even one or two good
Jersey cows with a herd of fifteen or twenty, will make a great
difference in the quality of the milk and butter of the whole
establishment; and they would probably be profitable for this, if for no
other object.


THE SHORT HORNS.

No breed of cattle has commanded more universal admiration during the
last half century than the improved short horns, whose origin can be
traced back for nearly a hundred years. According to the best
authorities, the stock which formed the basis of improvement existed
equally in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Northumberland, and the adjoining
counties; and the pre-eminence was accorded to Durham, which gave its
name to the race, from the more correct principles of breeding which
seem to have obtained there.

There is a dispute among the most eminent breeders as to how far it owes
its origin to early importations from Holland, whence many superior
animals were brought for the purpose of improving the old long horned
breed. A large race of cattle had existed for many years on the western
shores of the continent of Europe. As early as 1633, they were imported
from Denmark into New England in considerable numbers, and thus laid the
foundation of a valuable stock in farming at a very early date in
Holland, and experience led to the greatest care in the choice and
breeding of dairy stock. From these cattle many selections were made to
cross over to the counties of York and Durham. The prevailing color of
the large Dutch cattle was black and white, beautifully contrasted.

[Illustration: A SHORT HORN BULL.]

The cattle produced by these crosses a century ago were known by the
name of "Dutch." The cows selected for crossing with the early imported
Dutch bulls were generally long horned, large boned, coarse animals, a
fair type of which was found in the old "Holderness" breed of
Yorkshire--slow feeders, strong in the shoulder, defective in the fore
quarter, and not very profitable to the butcher, their meat being coarse
and uninviting. Their milking qualities were good, surpassing those,
probably, of the improved short horns. Whatever may be the truth with
regard to these crosses, and however far they proved effective in
creating or laying the foundation of the modern improved short horns,
the results of the efforts made in Yorkshire and some of the adjoining
counties were never so satisfactory to the best judges as those of the
breeders along the Tees, who selected animals with greater reference to
fineness of bone and symmetry of form, and the animals they bred soon
took the lead and excited great emulation in improvement.

Importations of short horns have been frequent and extensive into the
United States within the last few years, and this famous breed is now
pretty generally diffused over the country.

The high-bred short horn is easily prepared for a show, and, as fat will
cover faults, the temptation is often too great to be resisted; and
hence it is not uncommon to see the finest animals rendered unfit for
breeding purposes by over-feeding. The race is susceptible of breeding
for the production of milk, as several families show, and great milkers
have often been known among pure-bred animals; but it is more common to
find it bred mainly for the butcher, and kept accordingly. It is,
however, a well-known fact, that the dairies of London are stocked
chiefly with short horns and Yorkshires, or high grades between them,
which, after being milked as long as profitable, feed equal, or nearly
so, to pure-bred short horns. It has been said, by very good authority,
that the short horns improve every breed with which they cross.

The desirable characteristics of the short horn bull may be summed up,
according to the judgment of the best breeders, as follows: He should
have a short but fine head, very broad across the eyes, tapering to the
nose, with a nostril full and prominent; the nose itself should be of a
rich flesh color; eyes bright and mild; ears somewhat large and thin;
horns slightly covered and rather flat, well set on; a long, broad,
muscular neck; chest wide, deep, and projecting; shoulders fine,
oblique, well formed into the chine; fore legs short, with upper arm
large and powerful; barrel round, deep, well-ribbed horns; hips wide and
level; back straight from the withers to the setting on of the tail, but
short from hips to chine; skin soft and velvety to the touch; moderately
thick hair, plentiful, soft, and mossy. The cow has the same points in
the main, but her head is finer, longer, and more tapering; neck thinner
and lighter, and shoulders more narrow across the chine.

The astonishing precocity of the short horns, their remarkable aptitude
to fatten, the perfection of their forms, and the fineness of their bony
structure, give them an advantage over most other races when the object
of breeding is for the shambles. No animal of any other breed can so
rapidly transform the stock of any section around him as the improved
short horn bull.

It does not, however, follow that the high-bred short horns are
unexceptionable, even for beef. The very exaggeration, so to speak, of
the qualities which make them so valuable for the improvement of other
and less perfect races, may become a fault when wanted for the table.
The very rapidity with which they increase in size is thought by some
to prevent their meat from ripening up sufficiently before being hurried
off to the butcher. The disproportion of the fatty to the muscular
flesh, found in this to a greater extent than in races coming more
slowly to maturity, makes the meat of the thorough-bred short horn, in
the estimation of some, less agreeable to the taste, and less profitable
to the consumer; since the nitrogenous compounds, true sources of
nutriment, are found in less quantity than in the meat of animals not so
highly bred.

In sections where the climate is moist, and the food abundant and rich,
some families of the short horns may be valuable for the dairy; but they
are most frequently bred exclusively for beef in this country, and in
sections where they have attained the highest perfection of form and
beauty, so little is thought of their milking qualities that they are
often not milked at all, the calf being allowed to run with the dam.


THE DUTCH.

This short horned race, in the opinion of many--as has been previously
remarked--contributed largely, about a century ago, to build up the
Durham or Teeswater stock. It has been bred with special reference to
dairy qualities, and is eminently adapted to supply the wants of the
dairy farmer. The cows of North Holland not only give a large quantity,
but also a very good quality, so that a yield of sixteen to twenty-five
quarts, wine measure, at every milking, is not rare.

The principles upon which the inhabitants of Holland practise, in
selecting a cow from which to breed, are as follows: She should have,
they say, considerable size--not less than four and a half or five feet
girth, with a length of body corresponding; legs proportionally short; a
finely formed head, with a forehead or face somewhat concave; clear,
large, mild and sparkling eyes, yet with no expression of wildness;
tolerably large and stout ears, standing out from the head; fine, well
curved horns; a rather short, than long, thick, broad neck, well set
against the chest and withers; the front part of the breast and
shoulders must be broad and fleshy; the low-hanging dewlap must be soft
to the touch; the back and loins must be properly projected, somewhat
broad, the bones not too sharp, but well covered with flesh; the animal
should have long curved ribs, which form a broad breast bone; the body
must be round and deep, but not sunken into a hanging belly; the rump
must not be uneven, the hip-bones should not stand out too broad and
spreading, but all the parts should be level and well filled up; a fine
tail, set moderately high up and tolerably long, but slender, with a
thick, bushy tuft of hair at the end, hanging down below the hocks; the
legs must be short and low, but strong in the bony structure; the knees
broad, with flexible joints; the muscles and sinews must be firm and
sound, the hoofs broad and flat, and the position of the legs natural,
not too close and crowded; the hide, covered with fine glossy hair, must
be soft and mellow to the touch, and set loose upon the body. A large,
rather long, white and loose udder, extending well back, with four long
teats, serves also as a characteristic mark of a good milch cow. Large
and prominent milk-veins must extend from the navel back to the udder;
the belly of a good milch cow should not be too deep and hanging. The
color of the North Dutch cattle is mostly variegated. Cows with only one
color are no favorites. Red or black variegated, gray and blue
variegated, roan, spotted and white variegated cows, are especially
liked.


THE HEREFORD.

These cattle derive their name from a county in the western part of
England. Their general characteristics are a white face, sometimes
mottled; white throat, the white generally extending back on the neck,
and sometimes, though rarely, still further along on the back. The color
of the rest of the body is red, generally dark, but sometimes light.
Eighty years ago the best Hereford cattle were mottled or roan all over;
and some of the best herds, down to a comparatively recent period, were
either all mottled, or had the mottled or speckled face.

The expression of the face is mild and lively; the forehead open, broad,
and large; the eyes bright and full of vivacity; the horns glossy,
slender and spreading; the head small, though larger than, and not quite
so clear as, that of the Devons; the lower jaw fine; neck long and
slender; chest deep; breast-bone large, prominent, and very muscular;
the shoulder-blade light; shoulder full and soft; brisket and loins
large; hips well developed, and on a level with the chine; hind quarters
long and well filled in; buttocks on a level with the back, neither
falling off nor raised above the hind quarters; tail slender, well set
on; hair fine and soft; body round and full; carcass deep and well
formed, or cylindrical; bone small; thigh short and well made; legs
short and straight, and slender below the knee; as handlers very
excellent, especially mellow to the touch on the back, the shoulder, and
along the sides, the skin being soft, flexible, of medium thickness,
rolling on the neck and the hips; hair bright; face almost bare, which
is characteristic of pure Herefords.

They belong to the middle horned division of the cattle of Great
Britain, to which they are indigenous, and have been improved within the
last century by careful selections.

Hereford oxen are excellent animals, less active but stronger than the
Devons, and very free and docile. The demand for Herefords for beef
prevents their being much used for work in their native county, and the
farmers there generally use horses instead of oxen.

It is generally conceded that the qualities in which Herefords stand
pre-eminent among the middle-sized breeds are in the production of oxen
and their superiority of flesh. On these points there is little chance
of their being excelled. It should, however, be borne in mind that the
best oxen are not produced from the largest cows; nor is a superior
quality of flesh, such as is considered very soft to the touch, with
thin skin. It is the union of these two qualities which often
characterizes the short horns; but Hereford breeders--as a recent writer
remarks--should endeavor to maintain a higher standard of
excellence--that for which the best of the breed have always been
esteemed--a moderately thick, mellow hide, with a well apportioned
combination of softness with elasticity. A sufficiency of hair is also
desirable, and if accompanied with a disposition to curl moderately, it
is more in esteem; but that which has a harsh and wiry feel is
objectionable.

In point of symmetry and beauty of form, the well bred Herefords may be
classed with the improved short horns, though they arrive somewhat more
slowly at maturity, and never attain such weight. Like the improved
short horns, they are chiefly bred for beef, and their beef is of the
best quality in the English markets, commanding the highest price of
any, except perhaps, the West Highlanders. The short horn produces more
beef at the same age than the Hereford, but consumes more food in
proportion.

The Herefords are far less generally spread over England than the
improved short horns. They have seldom been bred for milk, as some
families of the latter have; and it is not very unusual to find
pure-bred cows incapable of supplying milk sufficient to nourish their
calves. They have been imported to this country to some extent, and
several fine herds exist in different sections; the earliest
importations being those of Henry Clay, of Kentucky, in 1817.

The want of care and attention to the udder, soon after calving,
especially if the cow be on luxuriant grass, often injures her milking
properties exceedingly. The practice in the county of Hereford has
generally been to let the calves suckle from four to six months, and
bull calves often run eight months with the cow. But their dairy
qualities are perhaps as good as those of any cattle whose fattening
properties have been so carefully developed; and, though it is probable
that they could be bred for milk with proper care and attention, yet, as
this change would be at the expense of other qualities equally valuable,
it would evidently be wiser to resort to other stock for the dairy.


THE NORTH DEVONS.

[Illustration: A NORTH DEVON STEER.]

This beautiful race of middle horned cattle dates further back than any
well established breed among us. It goes generally under the simple name
of Devon; but the cattle of the southern part of the country, from which
the race derives its name, differ somewhat from those of the northern,
having a larger and coarser frame, and far less tendency to fatten
though their dairy qualities are superior.

The North Devons are remarkable for hardihood, symmetry and beauty, and
are generally bred for work and for beef, rather than for the dairy. The
head is fine and well set on; the horns of medium length, generally
curved; color usually bright blood-red, but sometimes inclining to
yellow; skin thin and orange-yellow; hair of medium length, soft and
silky, making the animals remarkable as handlers; muzzle of the nose
white; eyes full and mild; ears yellowish, or orange-color inside, of
moderate size; neck rather long, with little dewlap; shoulders oblique;
legs small and straight, with feet in proportion; chest of good width;
ribs round and expanded; loins of first-rate quality, long, wide, and
fleshy; hips round, of medium width; rump level; tail full near the
setting on, tapering to the tip; thighs of the bull and ox muscular and
full, and high in the flank, though in the cow sometimes thought to be
light; the size medium, generally called small. The proportion of meat
on the valuable parts is greater, and the offal less, than on most other
breeds, while it is well settled that they consume less food in its
production. The Devons are popular with the Smithfield butchers, and
their beef is well marbled or grained.

As working oxen, the Devons perhaps excel all other races in quickness,
docility, beauty, and the ease with which they are matched. With a
reasonable load, they are said to be equal to horses as walkers on the
road, and when they are no longer wanted for work they fatten easily and
turn well.

As milkers, they do not excel--perhaps they may be said not to
equal--the other breeds, and they have a reputation of being decidedly
below the average. In their native country the general average of the
dairy is one pound of butter a day during the summer. They are bred for
beef and for work, and not for the dairy; and their yield of milk is
small, though of a rich quality. Several animals, however, of the
celebrated Patterson herd would have been remarkable as milkers even
among good milking stock.

Still, the faults of the North Devon cow, considered as a dairy animal,
are too marked to be overlooked. The rotundity of form and compactness
of frame, though they contribute to her remarkable beauty constitute an
objection to her for this purpose: since it is generally admitted that
the peculiarity of form which disposes an animal to take on fat is
somewhat incompatible with good milking qualities. On this account,
Youatt--who is standard authority in such matters--says that for the
dairy the North Devon must be acknowledged to be inferior to several
other breeds. The milk is good, and yields more than the average
proportion of cream and butter; but it is deficient in quantity. He also
maintains that its property as a milker could not be improved without
producing a certain detriment to its grazing qualities. Distinguished
Devon breeders themselves have come to the same conclusion upon this
point. The improved North Devon cow may be classed, in this respect,
with the Hereford, neither of which has well developed milk-vessels--a
point of the utmost consequence to the practical dairyman.


NATIVE CATTLE.

The foregoing comprise the pure-bred races in America; for, though other
and well-established breeds--like the Galloways, the long horns, the
Spanish, and others--have, at times, been imported, and have had some
influence on our American stock, yet they have not been kept distinct to
such an extent as to become the prevailing stock of any particular
section.

A large proportion, however--by far the largest proportion, indeed--of
the cattle known among us cannot be included under any of the races to
which allusion has been made; and to the consideration of this class the
present article is devoted.

The term "breed"--as was set forth in the author's treatise, "The Horse
and his Diseases"--when properly understood, applies only to animals of
the same species, possessing, besides the general characteristics of
that species, other characteristics peculiar to themselves, which they
owe to the influence of soil, climate, nourishment, and the habits of
life to which they are subjected, and which they transmit with certainty
to their progeny. The characteristics of certain breeds or families are
so well marked, that, if an individual supposed to belong to any one of
them were to produce an offspring not possessing them, or possessing
them only in part, with others not belonging to the breed, it would be
just ground for suspecting a want of purity of bloods.

In this view, no grade animals, and no animals destitute of fixed
peculiarities or characteristics which they, share in common with all
other animals of the class of which they are a type, and which they are
capable of transmitting with certainty to their descendants, can be
recognized by breeders as belonging to any one distinct race, breed, or
family.

The term "native" is applied to a vast majority of our American cattle,
which, though born on the soil, and thus in one sense natives, do not
constitute a breed, race, or family, as correctly understood by
breeders. They do not possess characteristics peculiar to them all,
which they transmit with any certainty to their offspring, either of
form, size, color, milking or working properties.

But, though an animal may be made up of a mixture of blood almost to
impurity, it does not follow that, for specific purposes, it may not, as
an individual animal, be one of the best of the species. Indeed, for
particular purposes, animals might be selected from among those commonly
called "natives" in New England, and "scrubs" at the west and south,
equal, and perhaps superior, to any among the races produced by the most
skillful breeding.

There can be no objection, therefore, to the use of the term "native,"
when it is understood as descriptive of no known breed, but only as
applied to the common stock of a country, which does not constitute a
breed. But perhaps the entire class of animals commonly called "natives"
would be more accurately described as grades; since they are well known
to have sprung from a great variety of cattle procured at different
times and in different places on the continent of Europe, in England,
and in the Spanish West Indies, brought together without any regard to
fixed principles of breeding, but only from individual convenience, and
by accident.

The first importations to this country were doubtless those taken to
Virginia previous to 1609, though the exact date of their arrival is not
known. Several cows were carried there from the West Indies in 1610, and
in the next year no less than one hundred arrived there from abroad.

[Illustration: DRAFT OXEN.]

The earliest cattle imported into New England arrived in 1624. At the
division of cattle which took place three years after, one or two are
distinctly described as black, or black and white, others as brindle,
showing that there was no uniformity of color. Soon after this, a large
number of cattle were brought over from England for the settlers at
Salem. These importations formed the original stock of Massachusetts.

In 1725, the first importation was made into New York from Holland by
the Dutch West India Company, and the foundation was then laid for an
exceedingly valuable race of animals, which, subsequent importations
from the same country, as well as from England, have greatly improved.
The points and value of this race in its purity have been already
adverted to under the head of the Dutch cattle.

In 1627, cattle were brought from Sweden to the settlements on the
Delaware, by the Swedish West India Company. In 1631, 1632, and 1633,
several importations were made into New Hampshire by Captain John Mason
who, with Gorges, had procured the patent of large tracts of land in the
vicinity of the Piscataqua river, and who immediately formed settlements
there. The object of Mason was to carry on the manufacture of potash.
For this purpose he employed the Danes; and it was in his voyage to and
from Denmark that he procured many Danish cattle and horses, which were
subsequently scattered over that entire region, large numbers being
driven to the vicinity of Boston and sold. These Danish cattle are
described as large and coarse, of a yellow color; and it is supposed
that they were procured by Mason as being best capable of enduring the
severity of the climate and the hardships to which they would be
subjected.

However this may have been, they very soon spread among the colonists of
the Massachusetts Bay, and have undoubtedly left their marks on the
stock of the New England and the Middle States, which exist to some
extent even to the present day, mixed in with an infinite multitude of
crosses with the Devons, the Dutch cattle already alluded to, the black
cattle of Spain and Wales, and the long horn and the short horn--most of
which crosses were accidental, or due to local circumstances or
individual convenience. Many of these cattle, the descendants of such
crosses, are of a very high order of merit; but to which particular
cross this is due, it is impossible to say. They generally make hardy,
strong, and docile oxen, easily broken to the yoke and quick to work,
with a fair tendency to fatten when well fed; while the cows, though
often ill-shaped, are sometimes remarkably good milkers, especially as
regards the quantity which they give.

Indeed, it has been remarked by excellent judges of stock, that if they
desired to select a dairy of cows for milk for sale, they would make
their selection from cows commonly called native, in preference to
pure-bred animals of any of the established breeds, and that they
believed they should find such a dairy the most profitable.

In color, the natives, made up as already indicated, are exceedingly
various. The old Denmarks, which to a considerable extent laid the
foundation of the stock of Maine and New Hampshire, were light yellow.
The Dutch of New York and the Middle States, were black and white; the
Spanish and Welsh were generally black; the Devons, which are supposed
to have laid the foundation of the stock of some of the States, were
red. Crosses of the Denmark with the Spanish and Welsh naturally made a
dark brindle; crosses of the Devon often made a lighter or yellowish
brindle while the more recent importations of Jerseys and short horns
have generally produced a beautiful spotted progeny. The deep red has
long been a favorite color in New England; but the prejudice in its
favor is fast giving way to more variegated colors.

Among the earlier importations into this country were also several
varieties of hornless cattle, which have been kept measurably distinct
in some sections; or where they have been crossed with the common stock
there has been a tendency to produce hornless grades. These are not
unfrequently known as "buffalo cattle." They were, in many cases,
supposed to belong to the Galloway breed; or, which is more likely, to
the Suffolk dun, a variety of the Galloway, and a far better milking
stock than the Galloways, from which, it sprung. These polled, or
hornless cattle vary in color and qualities, but they are usually very
good milkers when well kept, and many of them fatten well, and attain
good weight.

The Hungarian cattle have also been imported, to some extent, into
different parts of the country, and have been crossed upon the natives
with some success. Many other strains of blood from different breeds
have also contributed to build up the common stock of the country of the
present day; and there can be no question that its appearance and value
have been largely improved during the last quarter of a century, nor
that improvements are still in progress which will lead to satisfactory
results in the future.

But, though we already have an exceedingly valuable foundation for
improvement, no one will pretend to deny that our cattle, as a whole,
are susceptible of it in many respects. They possess neither the size,
the symmetry, nor the early maturity of the short horns; they do not, as
a general thing, possess the fineness of bone, the beauty of form and
color, nor the activity of the Devons or the Herefords; they do not
possess that uniform richness of milk, united with generous quality, of
the Ayrshires, nor the surpassing richness of milk of the Jerseys: but,
above all, they do not possess the power of transmitting the many good
qualities which they often have to their offspring--which is the
characteristic of all well established breeds.

It is equally certain, in the opinion of many good judges, that the
dairy stock of the country has not been materially improved in its
intrinsic good qualities during the last thirty or forty years. This may
not be true of certain sections, where the dairy has been made a special
object of pursuit, and where the custom of raising the best male calves
of the neighborhood, or those that came from the best dairy cows, and
then of using only the best formed bulls, has long prevailed. Although
in this way some progress has, doubtless, been made, there are still
room and need for more. More attention must be paid to correct
principles of breeding before the satisfactory results which every
farmer should strive to reach can be attained.

Having glanced generally at the leading breeds of cattle in Great
Britain, and examined, more in detail, the various breeds in the United
States, the next subject demanding attention is,


THE NATURAL HISTORY OF CATTLE.

[Illustration: SKELETON OF THE OX AS COVERED BY THE MUSCLES.

1. The upper jaw-bone. 2. The nasal bone, or bone of the nose. 3. The
lachrymal bone. 4. The malar, or cheek bone. 5. The frontal bone, or
bone of the forehead. 6. The horns, being processes or continuations of
the frontal. 7. The temporal bone. 8. The parietal bone, low in the
temporal fossa. 9. The occipital bone, deeply depressed below the crest
or ridge of the head. 10. The lower jaw. 11. The grinders. 12. The
nippers, found on the lower jaw alone. 13. The ligament of the neck, and
its attachments. 14. The atlas. 16. The dentata. 17. The orbits of the
eye. 18. The vertebræ, or bones of the neck. 19. The bones of the back.
20. The bones of the loins. 21. The sacrum. 22. The bones of the tail.
23. The haunch and pelvis. 24. The eight true ribs. 25. The false ribs,
with their cartilages. 26. The sternum. 27. The scapula, or
shoulder-blade. 28. The humerus, or lower bone of the shoulder. 29. The
radius, or principal bone of the arm. 40. The ulna, its upper part
forming the elbow. 41. The small bones of the knee. 42. The large
metacarpal or shank bone. 43. The smaller or splint bone. 44. The
sessamoid bones. 45. The bifurcation at the pasterns, and the two larger
pasterns to each foot. 46. The two smaller pasterns to each foot. 47.
The two coffin bones to each foot. 48. The navicular bones. 49. The
thigh bone. 50. The patella, or bone of the knee. 51. The tibia, or
proper leg bone. 52. The point of the hock. 53. The small bones of the
hock. 54. The metatarsals, or larger bones of the hind leg. 55. The
pasterns and feet.]

     DIVISION. _Vertebrata_--possessing a back-bone.
     CLASS. _Mammalia_--such as give suck.
     ORDER. _Ruminantia_--chewing the cud.
     FAMILY. With horns.
     GENUS. _Bovidæ_--the ox tribe.

Of this tribe there are eight species:

     _Bos urus_, the ancient bison.
     _Bos bison_, the American buffalo.
     _Bos moschatus_, the musk ox.
     _Bos frontalis_, the gayal.
     _Bos grunniens_, the grunting ox.
     _Bos caffer_, the South African buffalo.
     _Bos bubalus_, the common buffalo.
     _Bos taurus_, the common domestic ox.


GESTATION.

The usual period of pregnancy in a cow is nine calendar months, and
something over: at times as much as three weeks. With one thousand and
thirty one cows, whose gestations were carefully observed in France, the
average period was about two hundred and eighty-five days.


FORMATION OF TEETH.

It is of the utmost importance to be able to judge of the age of a cow.
Few farmers wish to purchase a cow for the dairy after she has passed
her prime, which will ordinarily be at the age of nine or ten years,
varying, of course, according to care, feeding, &c., in the earlier part
of her life.

The common method of forming an estimate of the age of cattle is by an
examination of the horn. At three years old, as a general rule, the
horns are perfectly smooth; after this, a ring appears near the nob, and
annually afterward a new one is formed, so that, by adding two years to
the first ring, the age is calculated. This is a very uncertain mode of
judging. The rings are distinct only in the cow; and it is well known
that if a heifer goes to bull when she is two years old, or a little
before or after that time, a change takes place in the horn and the
first ring appears; so that a real three-year-old would carry the mark
of a four-year-old.

[Illustration: TEETH AT BIRTH.]

The rings on the horns of a bull are either not seen until five, or they
cannot be traced at all; while in the ox they do not appear till he is
five years old, and then are often very indistinct. In addition to this,
it is by no means an uncommon practice to file the horns, so as to make
them smooth, and to give the animal the appearance of being much younger
than it really is. This is, therefore, an exceedingly fallacious guide,
and cannot be relied upon by any one with the degree of confidence
desired.

[Illustration: SECOND WEEK.]

The surest indication of the age in cattle, as in the horse, is given by
the teeth.

The calf, at birth, will usually have two incisor or front teeth--in
some cases just appearing through the gums; in others, fully set,
varying as the cow falls short of, or exceeds, her regular time of
calving. If she overruns several days, the teeth will have set and
attained considerable size, as appears in the cut representing teeth at
birth. During the second week, a tooth will usually be added on each
side, and the mouth will generally appear as in the next cut; and before
the end of the third week, the animal will generally have six incisor
teeth, as denoted in the cut representing teeth at the third week; and
in a week from that time the full number of incisors will have appeared,
as seen in the next cut.

[Illustration: THREE WEEKS.]

[Illustration: MONTH.]

[Illustration: FIVE TO EIGHT MONTHS.]

[Illustration: TEN MONTHS.]

[Illustration: TWELVE MONTHS.]

[Illustration: FIFTEEN MONTHS.]

These teeth are temporary, and are often called milk-teeth. Their edge
is very sharp; and as the animal begins to live upon more solid food,
this edge becomes worn, showing the bony part of the tooth beneath, and
indicates with considerable precision the length of time they have been
used. The centre, or oldest teeth show the marks of age first, and often
become somewhat worn before the corner teeth appear. At eight weeks, the
four inner teeth are nearly as sharp as before. They appear worn not so
much on the outer edge or line of the tooth, as inside this line; but,
after this, the edge begins gradually to lose its sharpness, and to
present a more flattened surface; while the next outer teeth wear down
like the four central ones; and at three months this wearing off is very
apparent, till at four months all the incisor teeth appear worn, but the
inner ones the most. Now the teeth begin slowly to diminish in size by
a kind of contraction, as well as wearing down, and the distance apart
becomes more and more apparent.

[Illustration: EIGHTEEN MONTHS.]

From the fifth to the eighth month, the inner teeth will usually appear
as in the cut of the teeth at that time; and at ten months, this change
shows more clearly, as represented in the next cut; and the spaces
between them begin to show very plainly, till at a year old they
ordinarily present the appearance of the following cut; and at the age
of fifteen months, that shown in the next, where the corner teeth are
not more than half the original size, and the centre ones still smaller.

[Illustration: TWO YEARS PAST.]

The permanent teeth are now rapidly growing, and preparing to take the
place of the milk-teeth, which are gradually absorbed till they
disappear, or are pushed out to give place to the two permanent central
incisors, which at a year and a half will generally present the
appearance indicated in the cut, which shows the internal structure of
the lower jaw at this time, with the cells of the teeth, the two central
ones protruding into the mouth, the next two pushing up, but not quite
grown to the surface, with the third pair just perceptible. These
changes require time; and at two years past the jaw will usually appear
as in the cut, where four of the permanent central incisors are seen.
After this, the other milk-teeth decrease rapidly, but are slow to
disappear; and at three years old, the third pair of permanent teeth are
but formed, as represented in the cut; and at four years the last pair
of incisors will be up, as in the cut of that age; but the outside ones
are not yet fully grown, and the beast can hardly be said to be
full-mouthed till the age of five years. But before this age, or at the
age of four years, the two inner pairs of permanent teeth are beginning
to wear at the edges, as shown in the cut; while at five years old the
whole set becomes somewhat worn down at the top, and on the two centre
ones a darker line appears in the middle, along a line of harder bone,
as appears in the appropriate cut.

[Illustration: THREE YEARS PAST.]

[Illustration: FOUR YEARS PAST.]

[Illustration: FIVE YEARS PAST.]

[Illustration: TEN YEARS PAST.]

Now will come a year or two, and sometimes three, when the teeth do not
so clearly indicate the exact age, and the judgment must be guided by
the extent to which the dark middle lines are worn. This will depend
somewhat upon the exposure and feeding of the animal; but at seven years
these lines extend over all the teeth. At eight years, another change
begins, which cannot be mistaken. A kind of absorption begins with the
two central incisors--slow at first, but perceptible--and these two
teeth become smaller than the rest, while the dark lines are worn into
one in all but the corner teeth, till, at ten years, four of the central
incisors have become smaller in size, with a smaller and fainter mark,
as indicated in the proper cut. At eleven, the six inner teeth are
smaller than the corner ones; and at twelve, all become smaller than
they were, while the dark lines are nearly gone, except in the corner
teeth, and the inner edge is worn to the gum.


POINTS OF A GOOD COW.

After satisfaction is afforded touching the age of a cow, she should be
examined with reference to her soundness of constitution. A good
constitution is indicated by large lungs, which are found in a deep,
broad, and prominent chest, broad and well-spread ribs, a respiration
somewhat slow and regular, a good appetite, and if in milk a strong
inclination to drink, which a large secretion of milk almost invariably
stimulates. In such a cow the digestive organs are active and energetic,
and they make an abundance of good blood, which in turn stimulates the
activity of the nervous system, and furnishes the milky glands with the
means of abundant secretion. Such a cow, when dry, readily takes on fat.
When activity of the milk-glands is found united with close ribs, small
and feeble lungs, and a slow appetite, often attended by great thirst,
the cow will generally possess only a weak and feeble constitution; and
if the milk is plentiful, it will generally be of bad quality, while the
animal, if she does not die of diseased lungs, will not readily take on
fat, when dry and fed.

[Illustration: A GOOD MILCH COW.]

In order to have no superfluous flesh, the cow should have a small,
clean, and rather long head, tapering toward the muzzle. A cow with a
large, coarse head will seldom fatten readily, or give a large quantity
of milk. A coarse head increases the proportion of weight of the least
valuable parts, while it is a sure indication that the whole bony
structure is too heavy. The mouth should be large and broad; the eye
bright and sparkling, but of a peculiar placidness of expression, with
no indication of wildness, but rather a mild and feminine look. These
points will indicate gentleness of disposition. Such cows seem to like
to be milked, are fond of being caressed, and often return caresses. The
horns should be small, short, tapering, yellowish, and glistening. The
neck should be small, thin, and tapering toward the head, but thickening
when it approaches the shoulder; the dewlaps small. The fore quarters
should be rather small when compared with the hind quarters. The form of
the barrel will be large, and each rib should project further than the
preceding one, up to the loins. She should be well formed across the
hips and in the rump.

The spine or back-bone should be straight and long, rather loosely hung,
or open along the middle part, the result of the distance between the
dorsal vertebræ, which sometimes causes a slight depression, or sway
back. By some good judges, this mark is regarded as of great importance,
especially when the bones of the hind quarters are also rather loosely
put together, leaving the rump of great width and the pelvis large, and
the organs and milk-vessels lodged in the cavities largely developed.
The skin over the rump should be loose and flexible. This point is of
great importance; and as, when the cow is in low condition or very poor,
it will appear somewhat harder and closer than it otherwise would, some
practice and close observation are required to judge well of this mark.
The skin, indeed, all over the body, should be soft and mellow to the
touch, with soft and glossy hair. The tail, if thick at the setting on,
should taper and be fine below.

But the udder is of special importance. It should be large in
proportion to the size of the animal, and the skin thin, with soft,
loose folds extending well back, capable of great distension when
filled, but shrinking to a small compass when entirely empty. It must be
free from lumps in every part, and provided with four teats set well
apart, and of medium size. Nor is it less important to observe the
milk-veins carefully. The principal ones under the belly should be large
and prominent, and extend forward to the navel, losing themselves,
apparently, in the very best milkers, in a large cavity in the flesh,
into which the end of the finger can be inserted; but when the cow is
not in full milk, the milk-vein, at other times very prominent, is not
so distinctly traced; and hence, to judge of its size when the cow is
dry, or nearly so, this vein may be pressed near its end, or at its
entrance into the body, when it will immediately fill up to its full
size. This vein does not convey the milk to the udder, as some suppose,
but is the channel by which the blood returns; and its contents consist
of the refuse of the secretion, or of what has not been taken up in
forming milk. There are also veins in the udder, and the perineum, or
the space above the udder, and between that and the buttocks, which it
is of special importance to observe. These veins should be largely
developed, and irregular or knotted, especially those of the udder. They
are largest in great milkers.

The knotted veins of the perineum, extending from above downwards in a
winding line, are not readily seen in young heifers, and are very
difficult to find in poor cows, or those of only a medium quality. They
are easily found in very good milkers, and if not at first apparent,
they are made so by pressing upon them at the base of the perineum,
when they swell up and send the blood back toward the vulva. They form
a kind of thick network under the skin of the perineum, raising it up
somewhat, in some cases near the vulva, in others nearer down and closer
to the udder. It is important to look for these veins, as they often
form a very important guide, and by some they would be considered as
furnishing the surest indications of the milking qualities of the cow.
Full development almost always shows an abundant secretion of milk; but
they are far better developed after the cow has had two or three calves,
when two or three years' milking has given full activity to the milky
glands, and attracted a large flow of blood. The larger and more
prominent these veins the better. It is needless to say that in
observing them some regard should be had to the condition of the cow,
the thickness of skin and fat by which they may be surrounded, and the
general activity and food of the animal. Food calculated to stimulate
the greatest flow of milk will naturally increase these veins, and give
them more than usual prominence.


THE MILK-MIRROR.

The discovery of M. Guénon, of Bordeaux, in France--a man of remarkable
practical sagacity, and a close observer of stock--consisted in the
connection between the milking qualities of the cow and certain external
marks on the udder, and on the space above it, called the perineum,
extending to the buttocks. To these marks he gave the name of
milk-mirror, or escutcheon, which consists in certain perceptible spots
rising up from the udder in different directions, forms and sizes, on
which the hair grows upward, whilst the hair on other parts of the body
grows downward. The reduction of these marks into a system, explaining
the value of particular forms and sizes of the milk-mirror, belongs
exclusively to Guénon.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [A.]]

He divided the milk-mirror into eight classes, and each class into eight
orders, making in all no less than sixty-four divisions, which he
afterward increased by subdivisions, thus rendering the whole system
complicated in the extreme, especially as he professed to be able to
judge with accuracy, by means of the milk-mirror, not only of the exact
quantity a cow would give, but also of the quality of the milk, and of
the length of time it would continue. He endeavored to prove too much,
and was, as a matter of consequence, frequently at fault himself.

Despite the strictures which have been passed upon Guénon's method of
judging of cows, the best breeders and judges of stock concur in the
opinion, as the result of their observations, that cows with the most
perfectly developed milk-mirrors are, with rare exception, the best
milkers of their breed; and that cows with small and slightly developed
milk-mirrors are, in the majority of cases, bad milkers. There are,
undoubtedly, cows with very small mirrors, which are, nevertheless,
very fair in the yield of milk; and among those with middling quality of
mirrors, instances of rather more than ordinary milkers often occur,
while at the same time it is true that cases now and then are found
where the very best marked and developed mirrors are found on very poor
milkers. These apparent exceptions, however, are to be explained, in the
large majority of cases, by causes outside of those which affect the
appearance of the milk-mirror. It is, of course, impossible to estimate
with mathematical accuracy either the quantity, quality, or duration of
the milk, since it is affected by so many chance circumstances, which
cannot always be known or estimated by even the most skillful judges;
such, for example, as the food, the treatment, the temperament,
accidental diseases, inflammation of the udder, premature calving, the
climate and season, the manner in which she has been milked, and a
thousand other things which interrupt or influence the flow of milk,
without materially changing the size or shape of the milk-mirror. It
has, indeed, been very justly observed that we often see cows equally
well formed, with precisely the same milk-mirror, and kept in the same
circumstances, yet giving neither equal quantities nor similar qualities
of milk. Nor could it be otherwise; since the action of the organs
depends, not merely on their size and form, but, to a great extent, on
the general condition of each individual.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [B.]]

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [C.]]

The different forms of milk-mirrors are represented by the shaded parts
of cuts, lettered A, B, C, D; but it is necessary to premise that upon
the cows themselves they are always partly concealed by the thighs, the
udder, and the folds of the skin, which are not shown, and therefore
they are not always so uniform in nature as they appear in the cuts.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [D.]]

Their size varies as the skin is more or less folded or stretched; while
the cuts represent the skin as uniform or free from folds, but not
stretched out. It is usually very easy to distinguish the milk-mirrors
by the upward direction of the hair which forms them. They are sometimes
marked by a line of bristly hair growing in the opposite direction,
which surrounds them, forming a sort of outline by the upward and
downward growing hair. Yet, when the hair is very fine and short, mixed
with longer hairs, and the skin much folded, and the udder voluminous
and pressed by the thighs, it is necessary, in order to distinguish the
part enclosed between the udder and the legs, and examine the full size
of the mirrors, to observe them attentively, and to place the legs wide
apart, and to smooth out the skin, in order to avoid the folds.

The mirrors may also be observed by holding the back of the hand against
the perineum, and drawing it from above downward, when the nails rubbing
against the up-growing hair, make the parts covered by it very
perceptible.

As the hair of the milk-mirror has not the same direction as the hair
which surrounds it, it may often be distinguished by a difference in the
shade reflected by it. It is then sufficient to place it properly to the
light in order to see the difference in shade, and to make out the part
covered by the upward-growing hair. Most frequently, however, the hair
of the milk-mirror is thin and fine, and the color of the skin can
easily be seen. If the eye alone is trusted, we shall often be deceived.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [E.]]

In some countries cattle-dealers shave the back part of the cow. Just
after this operation the mirrors can neither be seen nor felt; but this
inconvenience ceases in a few days. It may be added that the
shaving--designed, as the dealers say, to beautify the cow--is generally
intended simply to destroy the milk-mirror, and to deprive buyers of one
means of judging of the milking qualities of the cows. It is unnecessary
to add that the cows most carefully shaven are those which are badly
marked, and that it is prudent to take it for granted that cows so shorn
are bad milkers.

Milk-mirrors vary in position, extent, and the figure which they
represent. They may be divided according to their position, into mirrors
or escutcheons, properly so called, or into lower and upper tufts, or
escutcheons. The latter are very small in comparison with the former,
and are situated in close proximity to the vulva, as seen at 1, in cut
E. They are very common on cows of bad milking races, but are very
rarely seen on the best milch cows. They consist of one or two ovals, or
small bands of up-growing hair, and serve to indicate the continuance of
the flow of milk. The period is short, in proportion as the tufts are
large. They must not be confounded with the escutcheon proper, which is
often extended up to the vulva. They are separated from it by bands of
hair, more or less large, as in cut marked F.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [F.]]

Milk-mirrors are sometimes symmetrical, and sometimes without symmetry.
When there is a great difference in the extent of the two halves, it
almost always happens that the teats on the side where the mirror is
best developed give more milk than those of the opposite side. The left
half of the mirror, it may be remarked, is almost always the largest;
and so, when the perinean part is folded into a square, it is on this
side of the body that it unfolds. Of three thousand cows in Denmark,
but a single one was found, whose escutcheon varied even a little from
this rule.

The mirrors having a value in proportion to the space which they occupy,
it is of great importance to attend to all the rows of down-growing
hairs, which diminish the extent of surface, whether these tufts are in
the midst of the mirror, or form indentations on its edges.

These indentations, concealed in part by the folds of the skin, are
sometimes seen with difficulty; but it is important to take them into
account, since in a great many cows they materially lessen the size of
the mirror. Cows are often found, whose milk-mirrors at first sight
appear very large, but which are only medium milkers; and it will
usually be found that lateral indentations greatly diminish the surface
of up-growing hair. Many errors are committed in estimating the value of
such cows, from a want of attention to the real extent of the mirror.

All the interruptions in the surface of the mirror indicate a diminution
in the quantity of the milk, with the exception, however, of small oval
or elliptical plates which are found in the mirror, on the back part of
the udders of the best cows, as represented in the cut already given,
marked A. These ovals have a peculiar tint, which is occasioned by the
downward direction of the hair which forms them. In the best cows these
ovals exist with the lower mirrors very well developed, as represented
in the cut just named.

In short, it should be stated that, in order to determine the extent and
significance of a mirror, it is necessary to consider the state of the
perineum as to fat, and that of the fullness of the udder. In a fat cow,
with an inflated udder, the mirror would appear larger than it really
is; whilst in a lean cow, with a loose and wrinkled udder, it appears
smaller. Fat will cover faults--a fact to be borne in mind when
selecting a cow.

In bulls, the mirrors present the same peculiarities as in cows; but
they are less varied in their form, and especially much less in size.

In calves, the mirrors show the shapes which they are afterwards to
have, only they are more contracted, because the parts which they cover
are but slightly developed. They are easily seen after birth; but the
hair which then covers them is long, coarse, and stiff; and when this
hair falls off, the calf's mirror will resemble that of the cow, but
will be of less size.

With calves, however, it should be stated, in addition, that the
milk-mirrors are more distinctly recognized on those from cows that are
well kept, and that they will generally be fully developed at two years
old. Some changes take place in the course of years, but the outlines of
the mirror appear prominent at the time of advanced pregnancy, or, in
the case of cows giving milk, at the times when the udder is more
distended with milk than at others.

M. Mayne, who has explained and simplified the method of M. Guénon,
divides cows, according to the quantity which they give, into four
classes: first, the very good; second, the good; third, the medium; and
fourth, the bad.

In the FIRST class he places cows, both parts of whose milk mirror, the
mammary--the tuft situated on the udder, the legs and the thighs--and
the perinean--that on the perineum, extending sometimes more or less out
upon the thighs--are large, continuous, and uniform, covering at least
a great part of the perineum, the udder, the inner surface of the
thighs, and extending more or less out upon the legs, as in cut A, with
no interruptions, or, if any, small ones, oval in form, and situated on
the posterior face of the udder.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [G.]]

Such mirrors are found on most very good cows, but may also be found on
cows which can scarcely be called good, and which should be ranked in
the next class. But cows, whether having very well developed mirrors or
not, may be reckoned as very good, and as giving as much milk as is to
be expected from their size, food, and the hygienic circumstances in
which they are kept, if they present the following characteristics:
veins of the perineum large, as if swollen, and visible on the
exterior--as in cut A--or which can easily be made to appear by pressing
upon the base of the perineum; veins of the udder large and knotted;
milk-veins large, often double, equal on both sides, and forming
zig-zags, under the belly.

To the signs furnished by the veins and by the mirror, may be added also
the following marks: a uniform, very large, and yielding udder,
shrinking much in milking, and covered with soft skin and fine hair;
good constitution, full chest, regular appetite, and great propensity to
drink. Such cows rather incline to be poor than to be fat. The skin is
soft and yielding; short, fine hair; small head; fine horns; bright,
sparkling eye; mild expression; feminine look; with a fine neck.

Cows of this first class are very rare. They give, even when small in
size, from ten to fourteen quarts of milk a day; and the largest sized
from eighteen to twenty-six quarts a day, and even more. Just after
calving, if arrived at maturity and fed with good, wholesome, moist food
in sufficient quantity and quality, adapted to promote the secretion of
milk, they can give about a pint of milk for every ten ounces of hay, or
its equivalent, which they eat.

They continue in milk for a long period. The best never go dry, and may
be milked even up to the time of calving, giving from eight to ten
quarts of milk a day. But even the best cows often fall short of the
quantity of milk which they are able to give, from being fed on food
which is too dry, or not sufficiently varied, or not rich enough in
nutritive qualities, or deficient in quantity.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [H.]]

The SECOND class is that of _good cows_; and to this belong the best
commonly found in the market and among the cow-feeders of cities.

They have the mammary part of the milk-mirror well developed, but the
perinean part contracted, or wholly wanting, as in cut G; or both parts
of the mirror are moderately developed, or slightly indented, as in cut
H. Cut E belongs also to this class, in the lower part; but it indicates
a cow, which--as the upper mirror, 1, indicates--dries up sooner when
again in calf.

These marks, though often seen in many good cows, should be considered
as certain only when the veins of the perineum form, under the skin, a
kind of network, which, without being very apparent, may be felt by a
pressure on them; when the milk-veins on the belly are well-developed,
though less knotty and less prominent than in cows of the first class;
in short, when the udder is well developed, and presents veins which are
sufficiently numerous, though not very large.

It is necessary here, as in the preceding class, to distrust cows in
which the mirror is not accompanied by large veins. This remark applies
especially to cows which have had several calves, and are in full milk.
They are medium or bad, let the milk-mirror be what it may, if the veins
of the belly are not large, and those of the udder apparent.

The general characteristics which depend on form and constitution
combine, less than in cows of the preceding class, the marks of good
health and excellent constitution with those of a gentle and feminine
look.

Small cows of this class give from seven to ten or eleven quarts of milk
a day, and the largest from thirteen to seventeen quarts. They can be
made to give three-fourths of a pint of milk, just after calving, for
every ten ounces of hay consumed, if well cared for, and fed in a manner
favorable to the secretion of milk.

They hold out long in milk, when they have no upper mirrors or tufts. At
seven or eight months in calf, they may give from five to eight quarts
of milk a day.

The THIRD class consists of _middling cows_. When the milk-mirror
really presents only the mammary or lower part slightly indicated or
developed, and the perinean part contracted, narrow, and irregular--as
in cut K--the cows are middling. The udder is slightly developed or
hard, and shrinks very little after milking. The veins of the perineum
are not apparent, and those which run along the lower side of the
abdomen are small, straight, and sometimes unequal. In this case the
mirror is not symmetrical, and the cow gives more milk on the side where
the vein is the largest.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [K.]]

These cows have large heads, and a thick, hard skin. Being ordinarily in
good condition, they are beautiful to look at, and seem to be well
formed. Many of them are nervous and restive, and not easily approached.

Cows of this class give, according to size, from three or four to ten
quarts of milk. They very rarely give, even in the most favorable
circumstances, half a pint of milk for every ten ounces of hay which
they consume. The milk diminishes rapidly, and dries up wholly the
fourth or fifth month in calf.

The FOURTH class is composed of _bad cows_. As they are commonly in
good condition, these cows are often the most beautiful of the herd and
in the markets. They have fleshy thighs, thick and hard skin, a large
and coarse neck and head, and horns large at the base.

The udder is hard, small and fleshy, with a skin covered with long,
rough hair. No veins are to be seen either on the perineum or the udder,
while those of the belly are slightly developed, and the mirrors are
ordinarily small, as in cut L.

With these characteristics, cows give only a few quarts of milk a day,
and dry up in a short time after calving. Some of them can scarcely
nourish their calves, even when they are properly cared for and well
fed.

Sickly habits, chronic affections of the digestive organs, the chest,
the womb, and the lacteal system, sometimes greatly affect the milk
secretion, and cause cows troubled with them to fall from the first or
second to the third, and sometimes to the fourth class.

Without pushing this method of judging of the good milking qualities of
cows into the objectionable extreme to which it was carried by its
originator, it may be safely asserted that the milk-mirror forms an
important additional mark or point for distinguishing good milkers; and
it may be laid down as a rule that, in the selection of milch cows, as
well as in the choice of young animals for breeders, the milk-mirror
should, by all means, be examined and considered; but that we should not
limit or confine ourselves exclusively to it, and that other and
long-known marks should be equally regarded.

There are cases, however, where a knowledge and careful examination of
the form and size of the mirror become of the highest importance. It is
well known that certain signs or marks of great milkers are developed,
only as the capacities of the animal herself are fully and completely
developed by age. The milk-veins, for instance, are never so large and
prominent in heifers and young cows as in old ones, and the same may be
said of the udder, and of the veins of the udder and perineum; all of
which it is of great importance to observe in the selection of milch
cows. Those signs, then, which in cows arrived at maturity are almost
sufficient in themselves to warrant a conclusion as to their merits as
milkers, are, to a great extent, wanting in younger animals, and
altogether in calves, as to which there is often doubt whether they
shall be raised; and here a knowledge of the form of the mirror is of
immense advantage, since it gives, at the outset and before any expense
is incurred, a somewhat reliable means of judging of the future milking
capacities of the animal; or, if a male, of the probability of his
transmitting milking qualities to his offspring.

[Illustration: MILK-MIRROR [L.]]

It will be seen, from an examination of the points of a good milch cow
that, though the same marks which indicate the greatest milking
qualities may not always indicate the greatest aptitude to fatten, yet
that the signs which denote good fattening qualities are included among
the signs favorable to the production of milk; such as soundness of
constitution, marked by good organs of digestion and respiration
fineness and mellowness of the skin and hair, quietness of
disposition--which inclines the animal to rest and lie down while
chewing the cud--and other marks which are relied on by graziers in
selecting animals to fatten.

In buying dairy stock the farmer generally finds it for his interest to
select young heifers, as they give the promise of longer usefulness. But
it is often the case that older cows are selected with the design of
using them for the dairy for a limited period, and then feeding them for
the butcher. In either case, it is advisable, as a rule, to choose
animals in low or medium condition. The farmer cannot commonly afford to
buy fat; it is more properly his business to make it, and to have it to
sell. Good and well-marked cows in poor condition will rapidly gain in
flesh and products when removed to better pastures and higher keeping,
and they cost less in the original purchase.

It is, perhaps, superfluous to add that regard should be had to the
quality of the pasturage and keeping which a cow has previously had, as
compared with that to which she is to be subjected. The size of the
animal should also be considered with reference to the fertility of the
pastures into which she is to be put. Small or medium-sized animals
accommodate themselves to ordinary pastures far better than large ones.
Where a very large cow will do well, two small ones will usually do
better; while the large animal might fail entirely where two small ones
would do well. It is better to have the whole herd, so far as may be,
uniform in size; for, if they vary greatly, some may get more than they
need, and others will not have enough. This, however, cannot always be
brought about.



[Illustration]

Crossing and Breeding


The raising of cattle has now become a source of profit in many
sections,--to a greater extent, at least, than formerly--and it becomes
a matter of great practical importance to our farmers to take the proper
steps to improve them. Indeed, the questions--what are the best breeds,
and what are the best crosses, and how shall I improve my stock--are now
asked almost daily; and their practical solution would add many thousand
dollars to the aggregate wealth of the farmers of the country, if they
would all study their own interests.

The time is gradually passing away when the intelligent practical farmer
will be willing to put his cows to any bull, simply because his services
may be had for twenty-five cents; for, even if the progeny is to go to
the butcher, the calf sired by a pure-bred bull--particularly of a race
distinguished for fineness of bone, symmetry of form, and early
maturity--will bring a much higher price at the same age than a calf
sired by a scrub. Blood has a money value, which will, sooner or later,
be generally appreciated.

The first and most important object of the farmer is to get the greatest
return in money for his labor and his produce; and it is for his
interest to obtain an animal--a calf, for example--that will yield the
largest profit on the outlay. If a calf, for which the original outlay
was five dollars, will bring at the same age and on the same keep more
real net profit than another, the original outlay for which was not
twenty-five cents, it is certainly for the farmer's interest to make the
heavier original outlay and thus secure the superior animal. Setting all
fancy aside, it is merely a question of dollars and cents; but one thing
is certain--and that is, that no farmer can afford to keep poor stock.
It eats as much, and requires nearly the same amount of care and
attention, as stock of the best quality; while it is equally certain
that stock of ever so good a quality, whether grade, native, or
thorough-bred, will be sure to deteriorate and sink to the level of poor
stock by neglect and want of proper attention.

How, then, is our stock to be improved? Not, certainly, by that
indiscriminate crossing, with a total disregard of all well-established
principles, which has thus far marked our efforts with foreign stock,
and which is one prominent reason why so little improvement has been
made in our dairies; nor by leaving all the results to chance, when, by
a careful and judicious selection, they may be within our own control.

We want cattle for distinct purposes, as for milk, beef, or labor. In a
large majority of cases--especially in the dairy districts, at least,
comprising the Eastern and Middle States--the farmer cares more for the
milking qualities of his cows, especially for the quantity they give,
than for their fitness for grazing, or aptness to fatten. These latter
points become more important in the Western and some of the Southern
States, where much greater attention is paid to breeding and to feeding,
and where comparatively slight attention is given to the productions of
the dairy. A stock of cattle which would suit one farmer might be wholly
unsuited to another, and in such particular case the breeder should have
some special object in view, and select his animals with reference to
it.

There are, however, some well-defined general principles that apply to
breeding everywhere, and which, in many cases, are not thoroughly
understood. To these attention will now be directed.

The first and most important of the laws to be considered in this
connection is that of _similarity_. It is by virtue of this law that the
peculiar characters, properties, and qualities of the parents--whether
external or internal, good or bad, healthy or diseased--are transmitted
to their offspring. This is one of the plainest and most certain of the
laws of nature. The lesson which it teaches may be stated in five
words:--Breed only from the best.

Judicious selection is indispensable to success in breeding, and this
should have regard to every particular--general appearance, length of
limb, shape of carcass, development of chest; in cattle, to the size,
shape, and position of the udder, thickness of skin, touch, length and
texture of hair, docility, and all those points which go to make up the
desirable animal.

Not only should care be exercised to avoid _structural defects_, but
especially to secure freedom from _hereditary diseases_; as both defects
and diseases appear to be more easily transmissible than desirable
qualities. There is, oftentimes, no obvious peculiarity of structure or
appearance which suggests the possession of diseases or defects which
are transmissible; and for this reason, special care and continued
acquaintance are requisite in order to be assured of their absence in
breeding animals; but such a tendency, although invisible or
inappreciable to careless observers, must still, judging from its
effects, have as real and certain an existence as any peculiarity of
form or color.

In neat cattle, hereditary diseases do not usually show themselves at
birth; and sometimes the tendency remains latent for many years, perhaps
through one or two generations, and afterward breaks out with all its
former severity. The diseases which are found hereditary in cattle are
scrofula, consumption, dysentery, diarrhoea, rheumatism, and malignant
tumors. As these animals are less exposed to the exciting causes of
disease, and less liable to be overtasked or subjected to violent
changes of temperature, or otherwise put in jeopardy, their diseases are
not so numerous as those of the horse, and what they have are less
violent, and generally of a chronic character.

With regard to hereditary diseases, it is eminently true that "an ounce
of prevention is worth a pound of cure." As a general and almost
invariable rule, animals possessing either defects or a tendency to
disease, should not be employed for breeding. If, however, for special
reasons it seems desirable to breed from one which has some slight
defect of symmetry, or a faint tendency to disease--although for the
latter it is doubtful whether the possession of any good qualities can
fully compensate--it should be mated with one which excels in every
respect in which it is itself deficient, and on no account with one
which is near of kin to it.

There is another law, by which that of similarity is greatly
modified--the law of _Variation_ or divergence.

All animals possess a certain flexibility or pliancy of organization,
which renders them capable of change to a greater or less extent. When
in a state of nature, variations are comparatively slow and infrequent;
but when in a state of domestication they occur much oftener and to a
much greater extent. The greater variability in the latter case is
doubtless owing, in some measure, to our domestic productions' being
reared under conditions of life not so uniform as, and different from,
those to which the parent species was exposed in a state of nature.

Among what are usually reckoned the more active causes of variation may
be named _climate_, _food_, and _habit_. Animals in a cold climate are
provided with a thicker covering of hair than in warmer ones. Indeed, it
is said that in some of the tropical provinces of South America, there
are cattle which have an extremely rare and fine fur, in place of the
ordinary pile of hair. The supply of food, whether abundant or scanty,
is one of the most efficient causes of variation known to be within the
control of man. A due consideration of the natural effects of climate
and food is a point worthy the careful attention of the
stock-husbandman. If the breeds employed be well adapted to the
situation, and the capacity of the soil be such as to feed them fully,
profit may be safely anticipated. Animals are to be regarded as machines
for converting herbage into money.

The bestowal of food sufficient, both in amount and quality, to enable
animals to develop all the excellencies inherent in them, and yield all
the profit of which they are capable, is something quite distinct from
undue forcing of pampering. The latter process may produce wonderful
animals to look at, but neither useful nor profitable ones, and there is
danger of thus producing a most undesirable variation, since in animals
the process may be carried far enough to produce barrenness. Instances
are not wanting, particularly among the more recent improved
short-horns, of impotency among the males and of barrenness among the
females; and in some cases where the latter have borne calves, they have
failed to secrete sufficient milk for their nourishment. Impotency in
bulls of various breeds has, in many instances, occurred from too high
feeding, especially when connected with a lack of sufficient exercise. A
working bull, though perhaps not so pleasing to the eye as a fat one, is
a surer stock-getter; and his progeny is more likely to inherit full
health and vigor.

_Habit_ has a decided influence toward producing variations. We find in
domestic animals that use--or the demand created by habit--is met by a
development or change in the organization adapted to the requirement.
For instance, with cows in a state of nature, or where required only to
suckle their young, the supply of milk is barely fitted to the
requirement. If more is desired, and the milk is drawn completely and
regularly, the yield is increased and continued longer. By keeping up
the demand there is induced, in the next generation, a greater
development of the secreting organs, and more milk is given. By
continuing the practice, by furnishing the needful conditions of
suitable food and the like, and by selecting in each generation those
animals showing the greatest tendency toward milk, a breed specially
adapted for the dairy may be established. It is just by this mode that
the Ayrshires have, within the past century, been brought to be what
they are--a breed giving more good milk upon a certain amount of food
than any other.

[Illustration: READY FOR ACTION.]

It is a fact too well established to be controverted, that the first
male produces impressions upon subsequent progeny by other males. To
what extent this principle holds, it is impossible to say. Although the
instances in which it is known to be of a very marked and obvious
character may be comparatively few, yet there is ample reason to
believe that, although in a majority of cases the effect may be less
noticeable, it is not less real; and it therefore demands the special
attention of breeders. The knowledge of this law furnishes a clue to the
cause of many of the disappointments of which practical breeders often
complain, and of many variations otherwise unaccountable, and it
suggests particular caution as to the first male employed in the
coupling of animals--a matter which has often been deemed of little
consequence in regard to cattle, inasmuch as fewer heifers' first calves
are reared, than those are which are borne subsequently.

The phenomenon--or law, as it is sometimes called--of atavism, or
_ancestral influence_, is one of considerable practical importance, and
well deserves the careful attention of the breeder of farm stock.

Every one is aware that it is by no means unusual for a child to
resemble its grandfather, or grandmother, or even some ancestor still
more remote, more than it does either its own father or mother. The same
occurrence is found among our domestic animals, and oftener in
proportion as the breeds are crossed or mixed up. Among our common stock
of neat cattle, or natives--originating, as they did, from animals
brought from England, Scotland, Denmark, France, and Spain, each
possessing different characteristics of form, color, and use, and bred,
as our common stock has usually been, indiscriminately together, with no
special object in view, with no attempt to obtain any particular type or
form, or to secure adaptation for any particular purpose--frequent
opportunities are afforded of witnessing the results of this law of
hereditary transmission. So common, indeed, is its occurrence, that the
remark is often made, that, however good a cow may be, there is no
telling beforehand what sort of a calf she may have. The fact is
sufficiently obvious, that certain peculiarities often lie dormant for a
generation or two and then reappear in subsequent progeny. Stockmen
often speak of it as "breeding back," or "crying back."

The lesson taught by this law is very plain. It shows the importance of
seeking thorough-bred or well-bred animals; and by these terms are
simply meant such as are descended from a line of ancestors in which for
many generations the desirable forms, qualities, and characteristics
have been _uniformly shown_. In such a case, even if ancestral influence
does come in play, no material difference appears in the offspring, the
ancestors being all essentially alike. From this standpoint we best
perceive in what consists the money value of a good "pedigree." This is
valuable, in proportion as it shows an animal to be descended, not only
from such as are purely of its own race or breed, but also from such
individuals of that breed as were specially noted for the excellencies
for which that particular breed is esteemed.

Probably the most distinctly marked evidence of ancestral influence
among us, is to be found in the ill-begotten, round-headed calves, not
infrequently dropped by cows of the common mixed kind, which, if killed
early, make very blue veal, and if allowed to grow up, become
exceedingly profitless and unsatisfactory beasts; the heifers being
often barren, the cows poor milkers, the oxen dull, mulish beasts,
yielding flesh of very dark color, of ill flavor and destitute of fat.

_The relative influence_ of the male and female parents upon the
characteristics of progeny has long been a fruitful subject of
discussion among breeders. It is found in experience that progeny
sometimes resembles one parent more than the other--sometimes there is
an apparent blending of the characteristics of both--sometimes a
noticeable dissimilarity to either, though always more or less
resemblance somewhere--and sometimes the impress of one may be seen upon
a portion of the organization of the offspring, and that of the other
parent upon another portion; yet we are not authorized from such
discrepancies to conclude that it is a matter of chance; for all of
nature's operations are conducted in accordance with fixed laws, whether
we be able fully to discover them or not. The same causes always produce
the same results. In this case, not less than in others, there are,
beyond all doubt, certain fixed laws; and the varying results which we
see are easily and sufficiently accounted for by the existence of
conditions or modifying influences not fully open to our observation.

It may be stated, on the whole--as a result of the varied investigations
to which this question has given rise--that the evidence, both from
observation and the testimony of the best practical breeders, goes to
show that each parent usually contributes certain portions of the
organization to the offspring, and that each has a modifying influence
upon the other. Facts also show that the same parent does not always
contribute the same portions, but that the order is at times, and not
rarely, reversed. Where animals are of distinct species or breeds,
transmission is usually found to be in harmony with the principle, that
the male gives mostly the outward form and locomotive system, and the
female chiefly the interior system, constitution and the like. Where
the parents are of the same breed, it appears that the proportions
contributed by each are governed, in a large measure, by the condition
of each in regard to age and vigor, or by virtue of individual potency
or superiority of physical endowment. This potency or power of
transmission, seems to be legitimately connected with high breeding, or
the concentration of fixed qualities, obtained by continued descent for
many generations from such only as possess in the highest degree the
qualities desired.

Practically, the knowledge obtained dictates in a most emphatic manner
that every stock-grower use his utmost endeavor to obtain the services
of the best sires; that is, the best for the ends and purposes in
view--that he depend chiefly on the sire for outward form and
symmetry--and that he select dams best calculated to develop the good
qualities of the male, depending chiefly upon these for freedom, from
internal disease, for hardihood and constitution, and, generally, for
all qualities dependent upon the vital or nutritive system. The neglect
of the qualities of the dam, which is far too common--miserably old and
inferior animals being often employed--cannot be too strongly censured.

With regard to the laws which regulate the sex of the progeny very
little is known. Many and extensive observations have been made, without
reaching any definite conclusion. Nature seems to have provided that the
number of each sex; produced, shall be nearly equal; but by what means
this result is attained, has not as yet been discovered.

It has long been a disputed point, whether the system of _breeding
in-and-in_, or the opposite one of frequent crossing, has the greater
tendency to improve the character of stock This term, in-and-in, is
often very loosely used and as variously understood. Some confine the
phrase to the coupling of those of exactly the same blood, as brothers
and sisters, while others include in it breeding from parents and
offsprings; and others still employ it to embrace those of a more
distant relationship. For the last, the term breeding-in, or close
breeding, is generally deemed more suitable.

The current opinion is decidedly against the practice of breeding from
any near relatives; it being usually found that degeneracy follows, and
often to a serious degree; but it is not proved that this degeneracy,
although very common and even usual, is yet a necessary consequence.
That ill effects follow, in a majority of cases, is not to be doubted;
but this is easily and sufficiently accounted for upon quite other
grounds. Perhaps, however, the following propositions may be safely
stated: That in general practice, with the grades and mixed animals
common in the country, _close-breeding should be scrupulously avoided_
as highly detrimental. It is better _always_ to avoid breeding from near
relatives whenever stock-getters of the same breed and of equal merit
can be obtained which are not related. Yet, where this is not possible,
or where there is some desirable and clearly defined purpose in view--as
the fixing and perpetuating of some valuable quality in a particular
animal not common to the breed--and the breeder possesses the knowledge
and skill needful to accomplish his purpose, and the animals are perfect
in health and development, close breeding may be practised with
advantage.

The practice of _crossing_, like that of close breeding, has its strong
and its weak side. Judiciously practised, it offers a means of
providing animals _for the butcher_, often superior to, and more
profitable than, those of any pure breed. It is also admissible as the
foundation of a systematic and well-considered attempt to establish a
new breed. But when crossing is practised injudiciously and
indiscriminately, and especially when so done for the purpose of
procuring _breeding animals_, it is scarcely less objectionable than
careless in-and-in breeding.

[Illustration: A SPRIGHTLY YOUTH.]

The profitable style of breeding for the great majority of farmers to
adopt, is neither to cross nor to breed from close affinities--except in
rare instances, and for some specific and clearly understood
purpose--but to _breed in the line_; that is, to select the breed or
race best adapted to fulfil the requirement demanded, whether it be for
the dairy, for labor, or for such combination of these as can be had
without too great a sacrifice of the principal requisite, and then to
procure a _pure-bred_ male of the kind determined upon, and breed him to
the females of the herd; and if these be not such as are calculated to
develop his qualities, endeavor by purchase or exchange to procure such
as will. Let the progeny of these be bred to another _pure-bred_ male of
the same breed, but as distantly related to the first as may be. Let
this plan be faithfully pursued, and, although we cannot, without the
intervention of well-bred females, procure stock purely of the kind
desired, yet in several generations--if proper care be given to the
selection of males, that each one be such as to retain and improve upon
the points gained by his predecessor--the stock, for most practical
purposes, will be as good as if thorough-bred. If this plan were
generally adopted, and a system of letting or exchanging males
established, the cost might be brought within the means of most persons,
and the advantages which would accrue would be almost beyond belief.

A brief summing-up of the foregoing principles may not be inappropriate
here.

The law of similarity teaches us to select animals for breeding which
possess the desired forms and qualities in the greatest perfection and
best combination.

Regard should be had, not only to the more obvious characteristics, but
also to such hereditary traits and tendencies as may be hidden from
cursory observation and demand careful and thorough investigation.

From the hereditary nature of all characteristics, whether good or bad,
we learn the importance of having all desirable qualities _thoroughly
inbred_; or, in other words, so firmly in each generation that the next
is warrantably certain to present nothing worse--that no ill results
follow from breeding back to some inferior ancestor--that all
undesirable traits or points be, so far as possible, _bred-out_.

So important is this consideration, that, in practice, it is decidedly
preferable to employ a male of ordinary external appearance--provided
his ancestry be all which is desired--rather than a grade, or
cross-bred animal, although the latter be greatly his superior in
personal beauty.

A knowledge of the law of variation teaches us to avoid, for breeding
purposes, such animals as exhibit variations unfavorable to the purpose
in view; to endeavor to perpetuate every real improvement gained; as
well as to secure, as far as practicable, the conditions necessary to
induce or continue any improvement, such as general treatment, food,
climate, habits, and the like.

Where the parents do not possess the perfections desired, selections for
coupling should be made with critical reference to correcting the faults
or deficiencies of one by corresponding excellencies in the other.

To correct defects, too much must not be attempted at once. Pairing
those very unlike oftener results in loss than gain. Avoid all extremes,
and endeavor by moderate degrees to attain the end desired.

Crossing, between different breeds, for the purpose of obtaining animals
for the shambles, may be advantageously practised to a considerable
extent, but not for the production of breeding animals. As a general
rule, cross-bred males should not be employed for propagation, and
cross-bred females should be served by thorough-bred males.

In ordinary practice, breeding from near relatives is to be scrupulously
avoided. For certain purposes, under certain conditions and
circumstances, and in the hands of a skillful breeder, it may be
practised with advantage--but not otherwise.

In a large majority of cases--other things being equal--we may expect in
progeny the outward form and general structure of the sire, together
with the internal qualities, constitution, and nutritive system of the
dam; each, however, modified by the other.

Particular care should always be taken that the male by which the dam
first becomes pregnant is the best which can be obtained; also, that at
the time of sexual congress both are in vigorous health.

Breeding animals should not be allowed to become fat, but always kept in
thrifty condition; and such as are intended for the butcher should never
be fat but once.

In deciding with what breeds to stock a farm, endeavor to select those
best adapted to its surface, climate, and degree of fertility; also,
with reference to probable demand and proximity to markets.

No expense incurred in procuring choice animals for propagation, no
amount of skill in breeding, can supersede, or compensate for, a lack of
liberal feeding and good treatment. The better the stock, the better
care they deserve.


PREGNANCY

The symptoms of pregnancy in its early stage were formerly deemed
exceedingly unsatisfactory. The period of being in season--which
commonly lasts three or four days, and then ceases for a while, and
returns in about three weeks--might entirely pass over; and, although it
was then probable that conception had taken place, yet in a great many
instances the hopes of the breeder were disappointed. It was not until
between the third and fourth month, when the belly began to enlarge--or,
in many cases, considerably later--and when the motions of the foetus
might be seen, or, at all events, felt by pressing on the right flank,
that the farmer could be assured that his cow was in calf.

That greatest of improvements in veterinary practice, the application of
the ear to the chest and belly of various animals, in order to detect by
the different sounds--which after a short time, will be easily
recognized--the state of the circulation through most of the organs, and
consequently, the precise seat and degree of inflammation and danger,
has now enabled the breeder to ascertain the existence of pregnancy at
as early a stage as six or eight weeks. The beating of the heart of the
calf may then be distinctly heard, twice, or more than twice, as
frequent as that of the mother; and each pulsation will betray the
singular double beating of the foetal heart. This will also be
accompanied by the audible rushing of the blood through the vessels of
the placenta. The ear should be applied to the right flank, beginning on
the higher part of it, and gradually shifting downward and backward.
These sounds will thus soon be heard, and cannot be mistaken.


TREATMENT BEFORE CALVING.

Little alteration needs to be made in the management of the cow for the
first seven months of pregnancy; except that, as she has not only to
yield milk for the profit of the farmer, but to nourish the growing
foetus within, she should be well, yet not too luxuriantly, fed. The
half-starved cow will not adequately discharge this double duty, nor
provide sufficient nutriment for the calf when it has dropped; while the
cow in high condition will be dangerously disposed to inflammation and
fever, when, at the time of parturition, she is otherwise so
susceptible of the power of every stimulus. If the season and the
convenience of the farmer will allow, she will be better at pasture, at
least for some hours each day than when confined altogether to the
cow-house.

At a somewhat uncertain period before she calves, there will be a new
secretion of milk for the expected little one; and under the notion of
somewhat recruiting her strength, in order better to enable her to
discharge her new duty--but more from the uniform testimony of
experience that there is danger of local inflammation, general fever,
garget in the udder, and puerperal fever, if the new milk descends while
the old milk continues to flow--it has been usual to let the cow _go
dry_ for some period before parturition. Farmers and breeders have been
strangely divided as to the length of this period. It must be decided by
circumstances. A cow in good condition may be milked for a much longer
period than a poor one. Her abundance of food renders a period of
respite almost unnecessary; and all that needs to be taken care of, is
that the old milk should be fairly gone before the new milk springs. In
such a cow, while there is danger of inflammation from the sudden rush
of new milk into a bag already occupied, there is almost always
considerable danger of indurations and tumors in the teats from the
habit of secretion being too long suspended. The emaciated and
over-milked beast, however, must rest a while before she can again
advantageously discharge the duties of a mother.

If the period of pregnancy were of equal length at all times and in all
cows, the one that has been well fed might be milked until within a
fortnight or three weeks of parturition, while a holiday of two months
should be granted to the poorer beast; but as there is much
irregularity about the time of gestation, it may be prudent to take a
month or five Weeks, as the average period.

The process of parturition is necessarily one that is accompanied with a
great deal of febrile excitement; and, therefore, when it nearly
approaches, not only should a little care be taken to lessen the
quantity of food, and to remove that which is of a stimulating action,
but a mild dose of physic, and a bleeding regulated by the condition of
the animal, will be very proper precautionary measures.

A moderately open state of the bowels is necessary at the period of
parturition in the cow. During the whole time of pregnancy her enormous
stomach sufficiently presses upon and confines the womb; and that
pressure may be productive of injurious and fatal consequences, if at
this period the rumen is suffered to be distended by innutritious food,
or the manyplus takes on that hardened state to which it is occasionally
subject. Breeders have been sadly negligent in this respect.

The springing of the udder, or the rapid enlargement of it from the
renewed secretion of milk--the enlargement of the external parts of the
bearing (the former, as has been said by some, in old cows, and the
latter in young ones)--the appearance of a glaring discharge from the
bearing--the evident dropping of the belly, with the appearance of
leanness and narrowness between the shape and the udder--a degree of
uneasiness and fidgetiness--moaning occasionally--accelerated
respiration--all these symptoms will announce that the time of calving
is not far off. The cow should be brought near home, and put in some
quiet, sheltered place. In cold or stormy weather she should be housed.
Her uneasiness will rapidly increase--she will be continually getting up
and lying down--her tail will begin to be elevated and the commencement
of the labor-pains will soon be evident.

In most cases the parturition will be natural and easy, and the less the
cow is disturbed or meddled with, the better. She will do better without
help than with it; but she should be watched, in order to see that no
difficulty occurs which may require aid and attention. In cases of
difficult parturition the aid of a skillful veterinary surgeon may be
required.



[Illustration]

Feeding and Management


No branch of dairy farming can compare in importance with the management
of cows. The highest success will depend upon it, whatever breed be
selected, and whatever amount of care and attention be given to the
points of the animals; for experience will show that very little milk
comes out of the bag, that is not first put into the throat. It is poor
economy, therefore, to attempt to keep too many cows for the amount of
feed one has; for it will generally be found that one good cow well-bred
and well fed will yield as much as two ordinary cows kept in the
ordinary way; while a saving is effected both in labor and room
required, and in the risks on the capital invested. If an argument for
the larger number on poorer feed is urged on the ground of the
additional manure--which is the only basis upon which it can be put--it
is enough to say that it is a very expensive way of making manure. It is
not too strong an assertion, that a proper regard to profit and economy
would require many an American farmer to sell off nearly half of his
cows, and to feed the whole of his hay and roots hitherto used into the
remainder.

An animal, to be fully fed and satisfied, requires a quantity of food in
proportion to its live weight. No feed is complete that does not contain
a sufficient amount of nutritive elements; hay, for example, being more
nutritive than straw, and grains than roots. The food, too, must possess
a bulk sufficient to fill up to a certain degree the organs of digestion
of the stomach; and, to receive the full benefit of its food, the animal
must be wholly satisfied--since, if the stomach is not sufficiently
distended, the food cannot be properly digested, and of course many of
the nutritive principles which it contains cannot be perfectly
assimilated. An animal regularly fed eats till it is satisfied, and no
more than is requisite. A part of the nutritive elements in hay and
other forage plants is needed to keep an animal on its feet--that is, to
keep up its condition--and if the nutrition of its food is insufficient
for this, the weight decreases, and if it is more than sufficient the
weight increases, or else this excess is consumed in the production of
milk or in labor. About one sixtieth of their live weight in hay, or its
equivalent, will keep horned cattle on their feet; but, in order to be
completely nourished, they require about one thirtieth in dry
substances, and four thirtieths in water, or other liquid contained in
their food. The excess of nutritive food over and above what is
necessary to sustain life will go, in milch cows, generally to the
production of milk, or to the growth of the foetus, but not in all
cows to an equal extent; the tendency to the secretion of milk being
much more developed in some than in others.

With regard, however, to the consumption of food in proportion to the
live weight of the animal, it must be taken, in common with all general
principles, with some qualifications. The proportion is probably not
uniform as applied to all breeds indiscriminately, though it may be more
so as applied to animals of the same breed. The idea of some celebrated
stock-raisers has been that the quantity of food required depends much
upon the shape of the barrel; and it is well known that an animal of a
close, compact, well-rounded barrel, will consume less than one of an
opposite make.

The variations in the yield of milch cows are caused more by the
variations in the nutritive elements of their food than by a change of
the form in which it is given. A cow, kept through the winter on mere
straw, will cease to give milk; and, when fed in spring on green forage,
will give a fair quantity of milk. But she owes the cessation and
restoration of the secretion, respectively, to the diminution and
increase of her nourishment, and not at all to the change of form, or of
outward substance in which the nutriment is administered. Let cows
receive through winter nearly as large a proportion of nutritive matter
as is contained in the clover, lucerne, and fresh grass which they eat
in summer, and, no matter in what precise substance or mixture that
matter be contained, they will yield a winter's produce of milk quite as
rich in caseine and butyraceous ingredients as the summer's produce, and
far more ample in quantity than almost any dairyman with old-fashioned
notions would imagine to be possible. The great practical error on this
subject consists, not in giving wrong kinds of food, but in not so
proportioning and preparing it as to render an average ration of it
equally rich in the elements of nutrition, and especially in nitrogenous
elements, as an average ration of the green and succulent food of
summer.

We keep too much stock for the quantity of good and nutritious food
which we have for it; and the consequence is, that cows are, in nine
cases out of ten, poorly wintered, and come out in the spring weakened,
if not, indeed, positively diseased, and a long time is required to
bring them into a condition to yield a generous quantity of milk.

It is a hard struggle for a cow reduced in flesh and in blood to fill up
the wasted system with the food which would otherwise have gone to the
secretion of milk; but, if she is well fed, well housed, well littered,
and well supplied with pure, fresh water, and with roots, or other
_moist_ food, and properly treated to the luxury of a frequent carding,
and constant kindness, she comes out ready to commence the manufacture
of milk under favorable circumstances.

_Keep the cows constantly in good condition_, ought, therefore, to be
the motto of every dairy farmer, posted up over the barn, and on and
over the stalls, and over the milk-room, and repeated to the boys
whenever there is danger of forgetting it. It is the great secret of
success; and the difference between success and failure turns upon it.
Cows in milk require more food in proportion to their size and weight
than either oxen or young cattle.

In order to keep cows in milk well and economically, regularity is next
in importance to a full supply of wholesome and nutritious food. The
animal stomach is a very nice chronometer, and it is of the utmost
importance to observe regular hours in feeding, cleaning, and milking.
This is a point, also, in which very many farmers are at fault--feeding
whenever it happens to be convenient. The cattle are thus kept in a
restless condition, constantly expecting food when the keeper enters the
barn; while, if regular hours are strictly adhered to, they know exactly
when they are to be fed, and they rest quietly till the time arrives. If
one goes into any well-regulated dairy establishment an hour before
feeding, scarcely an animal will rise to its feet; while; if it happens
to be the hour of feeding, the whole herd will be likely to rise and
seize their food with an avidity and relish not to be mistaken.

With respect to the exact nurture to be pursued, no rule could be
prescribed which would apply to all cases; and each individual must be
governed much by circumstances, both regarding the particular kinds of
feed at different seasons of the year, and the system of feeding. It has
been found--it may be stated--in the practice of the most successful
dairymen, that, in order to encourage the largest secretion of milk in
stalled cows, one of the best courses is, to feed in the morning, either
at the time of milking--which is preferred by many--or immediately
after, with cut feed, consisting of hay, oats, millet, or cornstalks,
mixed with shorts, and Indian linseed, or cotton-seed meal, thoroughly
moistened with water. If in winter, hot or warm water is far better than
cold. If given at milking-time, the cows will generally give down their
milk more readily. The stalls and mangers should first be thoroughly
cleansed.

[Illustration: THE FAMILY PETS.]

Roots and long hay may be given during the day; and at the evening
milking, or directly after, another generous meal of cut feed, well
moistened and mixed, as in the morning. No very concentrated food, like
grains alone, or oil-cakes, should be fed early in the morning on an
empty stomach, although it is sanctioned by the practice in the London
milk-dairies. The processes of digestion go on best when the stomach is
sufficiently distended; and for this purpose the bulk of food is almost
as important as the nutritive qualities. The flavor of some roots, as
cabbages and turnips, is more apt to be imparted to the flesh and milk
when fed on an empty stomach than otherwise. After the cows have been
milked and have finished their cut feed, they are carded and curried
down, in well-managed dairies, and then either watered in the
stall--which, in very cold or stormy weather, is far preferable--or
turned out to water in the yard. While they are out, if they are let out
at all, the stables are put in order; and, after tying them up, they are
fed with long hay, and left to themselves till the next feeding time.
This may consist of roots--such as cabbages, beets, carrots, or
turnips sliced--or of potatoes, a peck, or--if the cows are very
large--a half-bushel each, and cut feed again at the evening milking, as
in the morning; after which, water in the stall, if possible.

The less cows are exposed to the cold of winter, the better. They eat
less, thrive better, and give more milk, when kept housed all the time,
than when exposed to the cold. A case is on record, where a herd of
cows, which had usually been supplied from troughs and pipes in the
stalls, were, on account of an obstruction in the pipes, obliged to be
turned out thrice a day to be watered in the yard. The quantity of milk
instantly decreased, and in three days the diminution became very
considerable. After the pipes were mended, and the cows again watered,
as before, in their stalls, the flow of milk returned. This, however,
must be governed much by the weather; for in very mild and warm days it
may be judicious not only to let them out, but to allow them to remain
out for a short time, for the purpose of exercise.

Any one can arrange the hour for the several processes named above, to
suit himself; but, when once fixed, it should be rigidly and regularly
followed. If the regular and full feeding be neglected for even a day,
the yield of milk will immediately decline, and it will be very
difficult to restore it. It may be safely asserted, as the result of
many trials and long practice, that a larger flow of milk follows a
complete system of regularity in this respect than from a higher feeding
where this system is not adhered to.

One prime object which the dairyman should keep constantly in view is,
to maintain the animal in a sound and healthy condition. Without this,
no profit can be expected from a milch cow for any considerable length
of time; and with a view to this, there should be an occasional change
of food. But, in making changes, great care is requisite in order to
supply the needful amount of nourishment, or the cow will fall off in
flesh, and eventually in milk. It should, therefore, be remembered that
the food consumed goes not alone to the secretion of milk, but also to
the growth and maintenance of the bony structure, the flesh, the blood,
the fat, the skin, and the hair, and in exhalations from the body. These
parts of the body consist of different organic constituents. Some are
rich in nitrogen, as the fibrin of the blood and albumen; others
destitute of it, as fat; some abound in inorganic salts, phosphate of
lime, and salts of potash. To explain how the constant waste of these
substances may be supplied, a celebrated chemist observes that the
albumen, gluten, caseine, and other nitrogenized principles of food,
supply the animal with the materials requisite for the formation of
muscle and cartilage; they are, therefore, called flesh-forming
principles.

Fats, or oily matters of the food, are used to lay on fat, or for the
purpose of sustaining respiration.

Starch, sugar, gum, and a few other non-nitrogenized substances,
consisting of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, supply the carbon given off
in respiration, or they are used for the production of fat.

Phosphate of lime and magnesia in food principally furnish the animal
with the materials of which the bony skeleton of its body consists.

Saline substances--chlorides of sodium and potassium, sulphate and
phosphate of potash and soda, and some other mineral matters occurring
in food--supply the blood, juice of flesh, and various animal juices,
with the necessary mineral constituents.

The healthy state of an animal can thus only be preserved by a mixed
food; that is, food which contains all the proximate principles just
noticed. Starch or sugar alone cannot sustain the animal body, since
neither of them furnishes the materials to build up the fleshy parts of
the animal. When fed on substances in which an insufficient quantity of
phosphates occurs, the animal will become weak, because it does not find
any bone-producing principle in its food. Due attention should,
therefore, be paid by the feeder to the selection of food which contains
all the kinds of matter required, nitrogenized as well as
non-nitrogenized, and mineral substances; and these should be mixed
together in the proportion which experience points out as best for the
different kinds of animals, or the particular purpose for which they are
kept.

Relative to the nutrition of cows for dairy purposes, milk may be
regarded as a material for the manufacture of butter and cheese; and,
according to the purpose for which the milk is intended to be employed,
whether for the manufacture of butter or the production of cheese, the
cow should be differently fed.

Butter contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, and no nitrogen. Cheese,
on the contrary, is rich in nitrogen. Food which contains much fatty
matter, or substances which in the animal system are readily converted
into fat, will tend to increase the proportion of cream in milk. On the
other hand, the proportion of caseine or cheesy matter in milk is
increased by the use of highly nitrogenized food. Those, then, who
desire much cream, or who produce cream for the manufacture of butter,
select food likely to increase the proportion of butter in the milk. On
the contrary, where the principal object is the production of milk rich
in curd--that is, where cheese is the object of the farmer--clover,
peas, bran-meal, and other plants which abound in legumine--a
nitrogenized organic compound, almost identical in properties and
composition with caseine, or the substance which forms the curd of
milk--will be selected.

And so the quality, as well as the quantity, of butter in the milk,
depends on the kind of food consumed and on the general health of the
animal. Cows fed on turnips in the stall always produce butter inferior
to that of cows living upon the fresh and aromatic grasses of the
pastures.

Succulent food in which water abounds--the green grass of irrigated
meadows, green clover, brewers' and distillers' refuse, and the
like--increases the quantity, rather than the quality, of the milk; and
by feeding these substances the milk-dairyman studies his own interest,
and makes thin milk without diluting it with water--though, in the
opinion of some, this may be no more legitimate than watering the milk.

But, though the yield of milk may be increased by succulent or watery
food, it should be given so as not to interfere with the health of the
cow.

Food rich in starch, gum, or sugar, which are the respiratory elements,
an excess of which goes to the production of fatty matters, increases
the butter in milk. Quietness promotes the secretion of fat in animals
and increases the butter. Cheese will be increased by food rich in
albumen, such as the leguminous plants.

[Illustration: BUYING CATTLE.]

The most natural, and of course the healthiest, food for milch cows in
summer, is the green grass of the pastures; and when these fail from
drought or over-stocking, the complement of nourishment may be made up
with green clover, green oats, barley, millet, or corn-fodder and
cabbage-leaves, or other succulent vegetables; and if these are wanting,
the deficiency may be partly supplied with shorts, Indian-meal, linseed
or cotton-seed meal. Green grass is more nutritious than hay, which
always loses somewhat of its nutritive properties in curing; the amount
of the loss depending chiefly on the mode of curing, and the length of
exposure to sun and rain. But, apart from this, grass is more easily and
completely digested than hay, though the digestion of the latter may be
greatly aided by cutting and moistening, or steaming; and by this means
it is rendered more readily available, and hence far better adapted to
promote a large secretion of milk--a fact too often overlooked even by
many intelligent farmers.

In autumn, the best feed will be the grasses of the pastures, so far as
they are available, green-corn fodder, cabbage, carrot, and turnip
leaves, and an addition of meal or shorts. Toward the middle of autumn,
the cows fed in the pastures will require to be housed regularly at
night, especially in the more northern latitudes, and put, in part at
least, upon hay. But every farmer knows that it is not judicious to feed
out the best part of his hay when his cattle are first put into the
barn, and that he should not feed so well in the early part of winter
that he cannot feed better as the winter advances.

At the same time, it should always be borne in mind that the change from
grass to a poor quality of hay or straw, for cows in milk, should not be
too sudden. A poor quality of dry hay is far less palatable in the early
part of winter, after the cows are taken from grass, than at a later
period; and, if it is resorted to with milch cows, will invariably lead
to a falling off in the milk, which no good feed can afterward wholly
restore.

It is desirable, therefore, for the farmer to know what can be used
instead of his best English or upland meadow hay, and yet not suffer any
greater loss in the flow of milk, or in condition, than is absolutely
necessary. In some sections of the Eastern States, the best quality of
swale hay will be used; and the composition of that is as variable as
possible, depending on the varieties of the grasses of which it was
made, and the manner of curing. But, in other sections, many will find
it necessary to use straw and other substitutes. Taking good English or
meadow hay as the standard of comparison, and calling that one, 4.79
times the weight of rye-straw, or 3.83 times the weight of oat-straw,
contains the same amount of nutritive matter; that is, it would take
4.79 times as good rye-straw to produce the same result as good meadow
hay.

In winter, the best food for cows in milk will be good sweet meadow hay,
a part of which should be cut and moistened with water--as all inferior
hay or straw should be--with an addition of root-crops, such as turnips,
carrots, parsnips, potatoes, mangold-wurtzel, with shorts, oil-cake,
Indian meal, or bean meal.

It is the opinion of most successful dairymen that the feeding of moist
food cannot be too highly recommended for cows in milk, especially to
those who desire to obtain the largest quantity. Hay cut and thoroughly
moistened becomes more succulent and nutritive, and partakes more of the
nature of green grass.

As a substitute for the oil-cake, hitherto known as an exceedingly
valuable article for feeding stock, there is probably nothing better
than cotton-seed meal. This is an article whose economic value has been
but recently made known, but which, from practical trials already made,
has proved eminently successful as food for milch cows. Chemists have
decided that its composition is not inferior to that of the best
flaxseed cake, and that in some respects its agricultural value
surpasses that of any other kind of oil-cake.

It has been remarked by chemists, in this connection, that the great
value of linseed-cake, as an adjunct to hay, for fat cattle and milch
cows, has been long recognized; and that it is undeniably traceable, in
the main, to three ingredients of the seeds of the oil-yielding plants.
The value of food depends upon the quantities of matters it contains
which may be appropriated by the animal which consumes the food Now, it
is proved that the fat of animals is derived from the starch, gum, and
sugar, and more directly and easily from the oil of the food. These four
substances, then, are fat-formers. The muscles, nerves, and tendons of
animals, the brine of their blood and the curd of their milk, are almost
identical in composition with, and strongly similar in many of their
properties to, matters found in all vegetables, but chiefly in such as
form the most concentrated food. These blood (and muscle) formers are
characterized by containing about fifteen and a half per cent. of
nitrogen; and hence are called nitrogenous substances. They are, also,
often designated as the albuminous bodies.

The bony framework of the animal owes its solidity to phosphate of lime,
and this substance must be furnished by the food. A perfect food must
supply the animal with these three classes of bodies, and in proper
proportions. The addition of a small quantity of a food, rich in oil and
albuminous substances, to the ordinary kinds of feed, which contain a
large quantity of vegetable fibre or woody matter, more or less
indigestible, but, nevertheless, indispensable to the herbivorous
animals, their digestive organs being adapted to a bulky food, has been
found highly advantageous in practice. Neither hay alone nor
concentrated food alone gives the best results. A certain combination of
the two presents the most advantages.

Some who have used cotton-seed cake have found difficulty in inducing
cattle to eat it. By giving it at first in small doses, mixed with other
palatable food, they soon learn to eat it with relish. Cotton-seed cake
is much richer in oils and albuminous matters than the linseed cake. A
correspondingly less quantity will therefore be required. Three pounds
of this cotton-seed cake are equivalent to four of linseed cake of
average quality.

During the winter season, as has been already remarked, a frequent
change of food is especially necessary, both as contributions to the
general health of animals, and as a means of stimulating the digestive
organs, and thus increasing the secretion of milk. A mixture used as cut
feed and well moistened is now especially beneficial, since concentrated
food, which would otherwise be given in small quantities, may be united
with larger quantities of coarser and less nutritive food, and the
complete assimilation of the whole be better secured. On this subject it
has been sensibly observed that the most nutritious kinds of food
produce little or no effect when they are not digested by the stomach,
or if the digested food is not absorbed by the lymphatic vessels, and
not assimilated by the various parts of the body. Now, the normal
functions of the digestive organs not only depend upon the composition
of the food, but also on its volume. The volume or bulk of the food
contributes to the healthy action of the digestive organs, by exercising
a stimulating effect upon the nerves which govern them. Thus the whole
organization of ruminating animals necessitates the supply of bulky
food, to keep the animal in good condition.

Feed sweet and nutritious food, therefore, frequently, regularly, and in
small quantities, and change it often, and the best results may be
confidently anticipated. If the cows are not in milk, but are to come in
in the spring, the difference in feeding should be rather in the
quantity than the quality, if the highest yield is to be expected from
them during the coming season.

The most common feeding is hay alone, and oftentimes very poor hay at
that. The main point is to keep the animal in a healthy and thriving
condition, and not to suffer her to fail in flesh; and with this object,
some change and variety of food are highly important.

[Illustration: CALLING IN THE CATTLE.]

Toward the close of winter, a herd of cows will begin to come in, or
approach their time of calving. Care should then be taken not to feed
too rich or stimulating food for the last week or two before this event,
as it is often attended with ill consequences. A plenty of hay, a few
potatoes or shorts, and pure water will suffice.

In spring, the best feeding for dairy cows will be much the same as that
for winter; the roots in store over winter, such as carrots, mangold
wurtzel, turnips, and parsnips, furnishing very valuable aid in
increasing the quantity and improving the quality of milk. Toward the
close of this season, and before the grass of pastures is sufficiently
grown to make it judicious to turn out the cows, the best dairymen
provide a supply of green fodder in the shape of winter rye, which, if
cut while it is tender and succulent, and before it is half grown, will
be greatly relished. Unless cut young, however, its stalk soon becomes
hard and unpalatable.

All practical dairymen agree in saying that a warm and well-ventilated
barn is indispensable to the promotion of the highest yield of milk in
winter; and most agree that cows in milk should not be turned out, even
to drink, in cold weather; all exposure to cold tending to lessen the
yield of milk.

In the London dairies, in which, of course, the cows are fed so as to
produce the largest flow of milk, the treatment is as follows: The cows
are kept at night in stalls. About three A. M. each has a half-bushel of
grains. When milking is finished, each receives a bushel of turnips (or
mangolds), and shortly afterward, one tenth of a truss of hay of the
best quality. This feeding occurs before eight A. M., when the animals
are turned into the yard. Four hours after, they are again tied up in
their stalls, and have another feed of grains. When the afternoon
milking is over (about three P. M.), they are fed with a bushel of
turnips, and after the lapse of an hour, hay is given them as before.
This mode of feeding usually continues throughout the cool season, or
from November to March. During the remaining months they are fed with
grains, tares, and cabbages, and a proportion of rowen, or second-cut
hay. They are supplied regularly until they are turned out to grass,
when they pass the whole of the night in the field. The yield is about
six hundred and fifty gallons a year for each cow.

Mr. Harley--whose admirable dairy establishment was erected for the
purpose of supplying the city of Glasgow with a good quality of milk,
and which has contributed more than any thing else to improve the
quality of the milk furnished to all the principal cities of Great
Britain--adopted the following system of feeding with the greatest
profit: In the early part of the summer, young grass and green barley,
the first cutting especially, mixed with a large proportion of old hay
or straw, and a good quantity of salt to prevent swelling, were used. As
summer advanced, less hay and straw were given, and as the grass
approached ripeness, they were discontinued altogether; but young and
wet clover was never given without an admixture of dry provender. When
grass became scarce, young turnips and turnip leaves were steamed with
hay, and formed a good substitute. As grass decreased, the turnips were
increased, and at length became a complete substitute. As the season
advanced, a large proportion of distillers' grains and wash was given
with other food, but these were found to have a tendency to make the
cattle grain-sick; and if this feeding were long-continued, the health
of the cows became affected. Boiled linseed and short-cut wheat straw
mixed with the grains, were found to prevent the cows from turning sick.
As spring approached, Swedish turnips, when cheap, were substituted for
yellow turnips. These two roots, steamed with hay and other mixtures,
afforded safe food till grass was again in season. When any of the cows
were surfeited, the food was withheld till the appetite returned, when a
small quantity was given, and increased gradually to the full allowance.

But the most elaborate and valuable experiments in the feeding and
management of milch cows, are those made, not long since, by Mr. T.
Horsfall, of England, and published in the Journal of the Royal
Agricultural Society. His practice, though adapted more especially,
perhaps, to his own section, is nevertheless of such general application
and importance as to be worthy of attention. By his course of treatment
he found that he could produce as much and as rich butter in winter as
in summer.

His first object was to afford a full supply of the elements of food
adapted to the maintenance, and also to the produce of the animal; and
this could not be effected by the ordinary food and methods of feeding,
since it is impossible to induce a cow to consume a quantity of hay
requisite to supply the waste of the system, and keep up, at the same
time, a full yield of the best quality of milk. He used, to some extent,
cabbages, kohl rabi, mangolds, shorts, and other substances, rich in the
constituents of cheese and butter. "My food for milch cows," says he,
"after having undergone various modifications, has for two seasons
consisted of rape cake five pounds, and bran two pounds, for each cow,
mixed with a sufficient quantity of bean-straw, oat-straw, and shells of
oats, in equal proportions, to supply them three times a day with as
much as they will eat. The whole of the materials are moistened and
blended together, and, after being well steamed, are given to the animal
in a warm state. The attendant is allowed one pound to one pound and a
half per cow, according to circumstances, of bean-meal, which he is
charged to give to each cow in proportion to the yield of milk; those in
full milk getting each two pounds per day, others but little. It is dry,
and mixed with the steamed food on its being dealt out separately. When
this is eaten up, green food is given, consisting of cabbages, from
October to December, kohl rabi till February, and mangold till grass
time, with a view to nicety of flavor. I limit the quantity of green
food to thirty or thirty-five pounds per day for each. After each feed,
four pounds of meadow hay, or twelve pounds per day, is given to each
cow. They are allowed water twice a day, to the extent which they will
drink."

Bean-straw uncooked having been found to be hard and unpalatable, it was
steamed to make it soft and pulpy, when it possessed an agreeable odor,
and imparted its flavor to the whole mass. It was cut for this purpose
just before ripening, but after the bean was fully grown, and in this
state was found to possess nearly double the amount of albuminous
matter, so valuable to milch cows, of good meadow or upland hay. Bran or
shorts is also vastly improved by steaming or soaking with hot water,
when its nutriment is more readily assimilated. It contains about
fourteen per cent. of albumen, and is rich in phosphoric acid. Rape-cake
was found to be exceedingly valuable. Linseed and cotton-seed cake may
probably be substituted for it in this country.

Mr. Horsfall turned his cows in May into a rich pasture, housing them at
night, and giving them a mess of the steamed mixture and some hay
morning and night; and from June to October they had cut grass in the
stall, besides what they got in the pasture, and two feeds of the
steamed mixture a day. After the beginning of October the cows were kept
housed. With such management his cows generally yielded from twelve to
sixteen quarts of milk (wine measure) a day, for about eight months
after calving, when they fell off in milk, but gained in flesh, up to
calving-time. In this course of treatment the manure was far better than
the average, and his pastures constantly improved. The average amount of
butter from every sixteen quarts of milk was twenty-five ounces--a
proportion far larger than the average.

[Illustration: "ON THE RAMPAGE."]

How widely does this course of treatment differ from that of most
farmers! The object with many seems to be, to see with how little food
they can keep the cow alive. From a correct point of view, the milch cow
should be regarded as an instrument of transformation. The question
should be--with so much hay, so much grain, so many roots, how can the
most milk, or butter, or cheese, be made? The conduct of a manufacturer
who owned good machinery, and an abundance of raw material, and had the
labor at hand, would be considered very senseless, if he hesitated to
supply the material, and keep the machinery at work, at least so long as
he could run it with profit.

Stimulate the appetite, then, and induce the cow to eat, by a frequent
change of diet, not merely enough to supply the constant waste of her
system, but enough and to spare, of a food adapted to the production of
milk of the quality desired.


SOILING.

Of the advantages of soiling milch cows--that is, feeding exclusively in
the barn--there are yet many conflicting opinions. As to its economy of
land and feed there can be no question, it being generally admitted that
a given number of animals may be abundantly fed on a less space; nor is
there much question as to the increased quantity of milk yielded in
stall feeding. Its economy, in this country, turns rather upon the cost
of labor and time; and the question raised by the dairyman is, whether
it will pay--whether its advantages are sufficient to balance the extra
expense of cutting and feeding, over and above cropping on the pasture.
The importance of this subject has been strongly impressed upon the
attention of farmers in many sections of the country, by a growing
conviction that something must be done to improve the pastures, or that
they must be abandoned altogether.

Thousands of acres of neglected pasture-land in the older States are so
poor and worn out that from four to eight acres furnish but a miserable
subsistence for a good-sized cow. No animal can flourish under such
circumstances. The labor and exertion of feeding are too great, to say
nothing of the vastly inferior quality of the grasses in such pastures,
compared with those on more recently seeded lands. True economy would
dictate that such pastures should either be allowed to run to wood, or
be devoted to sheep-walks, or ploughed and improved. Cows, to be able to
yield well, must have plenty of food of a sweet and nutritious quality;
and, unless they find it, they wander over a large space, if at liberty,
and thus deprive themselves of rest.

If a farmer or dairyman unfortunately owns such pastures, there can be
no question that, as a matter of real economy, he had better resort to
the soiling system for his milch cows; by which means he will largely
increase his annual supply of good manure, and thus have the means of
improving, and bringing his land to a higher state of cultivation. A
very successful instance of this management occurs in the report of the
visiting committee of an agricultural society in Massachusetts, in which
they say: "We have now in mind a farmer in this county who keeps seven
or eight cows in the stable through the summer, and feeds them on green
fodder, chiefly Indian corn. We asked him his reasons for it. His answer
was: 1. That he gets more milk than he can by any other method. 2. That
he gets more manure, especially liquid manure. 3. That he saves it all,
by keeping a supply of mud or mould under the stable, to be taken out
and renewed as often as necessary. 4. That it is less troublesome than
to drive his cows to pasture; that they are less vexed by flies, and
have equally good health. 5. That his mowing land is every year growing
more productive, without the expense of artificial manure.--He estimates
that on an acre of good land twenty tons of green fodder may be raised.
That which is dried is cut fine, and mixed with meal or shorts, and fed
with profit. He believes that a reduced and worn-out farm--supposing the
land to be naturally good--could be brought into prime order in five
years, without any extra outlay of money for manure, by the use of green
fodder in connection with the raising and keeping of pigs; not
fattening them, but selling at the age of four or five months." He
keeps most of his land in grass, improving its quality and
productiveness by means of top-dressing, and putting money in his
pocket--which is, after all, the true test both for theory and practice.

Another practical case on this point is that of a gentleman in the same
State who had four cows, but not a rod of land on which to pasture them.
They were, therefore, never out of the barn--or, at least, not out of
the yard--and were fed with grass, regularly mown for them; with green
Indian corn and fodder, which had been sown broadcast for the purpose;
and with about three pints of meal a day. Their produce in butter was
kept for thirteen weeks. Two of them were but two years old, having
calved the same spring. All the milk of one of them was taken by her
calf for six weeks out of the thirteen, and some of the milk of the
other was taken for family use, the quantity of which was not measured.
These heifers could not, therefore, be estimated as equal to more than
one cow in full milk. And yet from these cows no less than three hundred
and eighty-nine pounds of butter were made in the thirteen weeks.
Another pound would have made an average of thirty pounds a week for the
whole time.

It appears from these and other similar instances of soiling, or
stall-feeding in summer on green crops cut for the purpose, that the
largely increased quantity of the yield fully compensates for the
slightly deteriorated quality. And not only is the quantity yielded by
each cow increased, but the same extent of land, under the same culture,
will carry double or treble the number of ordinary pastures, and keep
them in better condition. There is also a saving of manure. But with us
the economy of soiling is the exception, and not the rule.

In adopting this system of feeding, regularity is required as much as in
any other, and a proper variety of food. A succession of green crops
should be provided, as near as convenient to the stable. The first will
naturally be winter rye, in the Northern States, as that shoots up with
great luxuriance. Winter rape would probably be an exceedingly valuable
addition to the plants usually cultivated for soiling in this country,
in sections where it would withstand the severity of the winter.
Cabbages, kept in the cellar or pit, and transplanted early, will also
come in here to advantage, and clover will very soon follow them; oats,
millet, and green Indian-corn, as the season advances; and, a little
later still, perhaps, the Chinese sugar-cane, which should not be cut
till headed out. These plants, in addition to other cultivated grasses,
will furnish an unfailing succession of succulent and tender fodder;
while the addition of a little Indian, linseed, or cotton-seed meal will
be found economical.

In the vicinity of large towns and cities, where the object is too often
to feed for the largest quantity, without reference to quality, an
article known as distillers' swill, or still-slop, is extensively used.
This, if properly fed in limited quantities, in combination with other
and more bulky food, may be a valuable article for the dairyman; but, if
given--as it too often is--without the addition of other kinds of food,
it soon affects the health and constitution of the animals fed on it.
This swill contains a considerable quantity of water, some nitrogenous
compounds, and some inorganic matter in the shape of phosphates and
alkaline salts found in the different kinds of grain of which it is made
up, as Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, and the like. Where this forms
the principal food of milch cows, the milk is of a very poor
quality--blue in color, and requiring the addition of coloring
substances to make it saleable. It contains, often, less than one per
cent. of butter, and seldom over one and three-tenths or one and a half
per cent.--while good, saleable milk should contain from three to five
per cent. It will not coagulate, it is said, in less than five or six
hours; while good milk will invariably coagulate in an hour or less,
under the same conditions. Its effect on the system of young children
is, therefore, very destructive, causing diseases of various kinds, and,
if continued, death.

So pernicious have been the consequences resulting from the use of this
"swill-milk," as it is called, in the largest city of this country, that
the Legislature of the State of New York, at a recent session (1861-2),
interfered in behalf of the community by making the sale of the article
a penal offence.


CULTURE OF GRASSES FOR FODDER.

As has been already stated, the grasses in summer, and hay in winter,
form the most natural and important food for milch cows; and, whatever
other crops come in as additional, these will form the basis of all
systems of feeding.

The nutritive qualities of the grasses differ widely; and their value as
feed for cows will depend, to a considerable extent, on the management
of pastures and mowing-lands. Some considerations bearing upon the
subject of the proper cultivation of these leading articles of food
are, therefore, proposed in this article.

[Illustration: PATIENTLY WAITING.]

If the turf of an old pasture is carefully examined, it will be found to
contain a large variety of plants and grasses adapted for forage; some
of them valuable for one purpose, and some for another. Some of them,
though possessing a lower percentage of nutritive constituents than
others, are particularly esteemed for an early and luxuriant growth,
furnishing sweet feed in early spring, before other grasses appear; some
of them, for starting more rapidly than others, after having been eaten
off by cattle, and, consequently, of great value as pasture grasses.
Most grasses will be found to be of a social character, and do best in a
large mixture with other varieties.

In forming a mixture for pasture grasses, the peculiar qualities of each
species should, therefore, be regarded: as the time of flowering, the
habits of growth, the soil and location on which it grows best, and
other characteristics.

Among the grasses found on cultivated lands in this country, the
following are considered as among the most valuable for ordinary farm
cultivation; some of them being adapted to pastures, and others almost
exclusively to mowing and the hay-crop: Timothy, Meadow Foxtail, June or
Kentucky Blue Grass, Fowl Meadow, Rough-stalked Meadow, Orchard Grass,
Perennial Rye Grass, Italian Rye Grass, Redtop, English Bent, Meadow
Fescue, Tall Oat Grass, Sweet-scented Vernal, Hungarian Grass, Red
Clover, White or Dutch Clover, and some others.

Of these, the most valuable, all things considered, is TIMOTHY. It forms
a large proportion of what is commonly called English, or in some
sections meadow, hay, though it originated and was first cultivated in
this country. It contains a large percentage of nutritive matter, in
comparison with other agricultural grasses. It thrives best on moist,
peaty, or loamy soils, of medium tenacity, and is not well suited to
very light, sandy lands. On very moist soils, its root is almost always
fibrous; while on dry and loamy ones it is bulbous. On soils of the
former description, which it especially affects, its growth is rapid,
and its yield of hay large, sometimes amounting to three or four tons
the acre, depending much, of course, upon cultivation. But, though very
valuable for hay, it is not adapted for pasture, as it will neither
endure severe grazing, nor is its aftermath to be compared with that of
meadow foxtail, and some of the other grasses.

JUNE GRASS, better known in some sections as Kentucky Blue Grass, is
very common in most sections of the country, especially on limestone
lands, forming a large part of the turf, wherever it flourishes, and
being held in universal esteem as a pasture grass. It starts early, but
varies much in size and appearance, according to the soil; growing in
some places with the utmost luxuriance, and forming the predominant
grass; in others, yielding to the other species. If cut at the time of
flowering, or a few days after, it makes a good and nutritious hay,
though it is surpassed in nutritive qualities by several of the other
grasses. It starts slowly after having been cut, especially if not cut
very early. But its herbage is fine and uniform, and admirably adapted
to lawns, growing well in almost all soils, though it does not endure
very severe droughts. It withstands, however, the frosts of winter
better than most other grasses.

In Kentucky--a section where it attains its highest perfection and
luxuriance, ripening its seeds about the tenth of June--and in latitudes
south of that, it sometimes continues green through the mild winters. It
requires three or four years to become well set, after sowing, and it
does not attain its highest yield as a pasture grass till the sod is
even older than that. It is not, therefore, suited to alternate
husbandry, where land usually remains in grass but two or three years
before being ploughed up. In Kentucky, it is sown any time in winter
when the sun is on the ground, three or four quarts of seed being used
to the acre. In spring the seeds germinate, when the sprouts are
exceedingly fine and delicate. Stock is not allowed on it the first
year.

The MEADOW FOXTAIL is also an excellent pasture grass It somewhat
resembles Timothy, but is earlier, has a softer spike, and thrives on
all soils except the dryest. Its growth is rapid, and it is greatly
relished by stock of all kinds. Its stalks and leaves are too few and
light for a field crop, and it shrinks too much in curing to be valuable
for hay. It flourishes best in a rich, moist, and rather strong soil,
sending up a luxuriant aftermath when cut or grazed off, which is much
more valuable, both in quality and nutritive value, than the first crop.
In all lands designed for permanent pasture, therefore, it should form a
considerable part of a mixture. It will endure almost any amount of
forcing, by liquid manures or irrigation. It requires three or four
years, after soiling, to gain a firm footing in the soil. The seed is
covered with the soft and woolly husks of the flower, and is
consequently light; weighing but five pounds to the bushel, and
containing seventy-six thousand seeds to the ounce.

The ORCHARD GRASS, or ROUGH COCKSFOOT, for pastures, stands pre-eminent.
This is a native of this country, and was introduced into England, from
Virginia, in 1764, since which time its cultivation has extended into
every country of Europe, where it is universally held in very high
estimation. The fact of its being very palatable to stock of all kinds,
its rapid growth, and the luxuriance of its aftermath, with its power of
enduring the cropping of cattle, have given it a very high reputation,
especially as a pasture grass. It blossoms earlier than Timothy; when
green, is equally relished by milch cows; requires to be fed closer, to
prevent its forming tufts and growing up to seed, when it becomes hard
and wiry, and loses much of its nutritive quality. As it blossoms about
the same time, it forms an admirable mixture with red clover, either for
permanent pasture or mowing. It resists drought, and is less exhausting
to the soil than either rye grass or Timothy. The seed weighs twelve
pounds to the bushel, and when sown alone requires about two bushels to
the acre.

The ROUGH-STALKED MEADOW GRASS is somewhat less common than the June
grass, but is considered equally valuable. It grows best on moist,
sheltered meadows, where it flowers in June and July. It is readily
distinguished from June grass by its having a rough sheath, while the
latter has a smooth one, and by having a fibrous root, while the root of
the other is creeping. It possesses very considerable nutritive
qualities, and comes to perfection at a desirable time, and is
exceedingly relished by cattle, horses and sheep. For suitable soils it
should form a portion of a mixture of seeds, producing, in mixture with
other grasses which serve to shelter it, a large yield of hay, far above
the average of grass usually sown on a similar soil. It should be cut
when the seed is formed. Seven pounds of seed to the acre will make a
good sward. The grass loses about seventy per cent. of its weight in
drying. The nutritive qualities of its aftermath exceed very
considerably those of the crop cut in the flower or in the seed.

FOWL MEADOW GRASS is another indigenous species, of great value for low
and marshy grounds, where it flourishes best; and, if cut and properly
cured, makes a sweet and nutritious hay, which, from its fineness, is
eaten by cows without waste. According to Sinclair--who experimented,
with the aid of Sir Humphrey Davy, to ascertain its comparative
nutritive properties--it is superior in this respect to either meadow
foxtail, orchard grass, or tall meadow oat grass; but it is probable
that he somewhat overrates it. If allowed to stand till nearly ripe, it
falls down, but sends up innumerable flowering stems from the joints, so
that it continues green and luxuriant till late in the season. It
thrives best in mixture with other grasses, and deserves a prominent
place in all mixtures for rich, moist pastures, and low mowing-lands.

RYE GRASS has a far higher reputation abroad than in this country, and
probably with reason; for it is better adapted to a wet and uncertain
climate than to a dry and hot one. It varies exceedingly, depending much
on soil and culture; but, when cut in the blossom to make into hay, it
possesses very considerable nutritive power. If allowed to get too ripe,
it is hard and wiry, and not relished by cows. The change from a juicy
and nutritious plant to a woody fibre, containing but little soluble
matter, is very rapid. Properly managed, however, it is a tolerably good
grass, though not to be compared to Timothy, or orchard grass.

REDTOP is a grass familiar to every farmer in the country. It is the
Herd's grass of Pennsylvania, while in New York and New England it is
known by a great variety of names and assumes a great variety of forms,
according to the soil in which it grows. It is well adapted to almost
every soil, though it seems to prefer a moist loam. It makes a
profitable crop for spending, in the form of hay, though its yield is
less than that of Timothy. It is well suited to our permanent pastures,
where it should be fed close, otherwise it becomes wiry and
innutritious, and cattle refuse it. It stands the climate of the country
as well as any other grass, and so forms a valuable part of any mixture
for pastures and permanent mowing-lands; but it is, probably, rather
over rated by us.

ENGLISH BENT, known also by a number of other names, is largely
cultivated in some sections. It closely resembles redtop, but may be
distinguished from it by the roughness of the sheaths when the hand is
drawn from above downward. It possesses about the same qualities as
redtop.

MEADOW FESCUE is one of the most common of the fescue grasses, and is
said to be the Randall grass of Virginia. It is an excellent pasture
grass, forming a very considerable portion of the turf of old pasture
lands and fields; and is more extensively propagated and diffused from
the fact that it ripens its seeds before most other grasses are cut, and
sheds them to spring up and cover the ground. Its long and tender leaves
are much relished by cattle. It is rarely sown in this country,
notwithstanding its great and acknowledged value as a pasture grass. If
sown at all, it should be in mixture with other grasses, as orchard
grass, and rye grass, or June grass. It is of much greater value at the
time of flowering than when the seed is ripe.

[Illustration: A CHANCE FOR A SELECTION.]

THE TALL OAT GRASS is the Ray grass of France. It furnishes a luxuriant
supply of foliage, is valuable either for hay or for pasture, and has
been especially recommended for soiling purposes, on account of its
early and luxuriant growth. It is often found on the borders of fields
and hedges, woods and pastures, and is sometimes very plenty in
mowing-lands. After having been mown it shoots up a very thick
aftermath, and, on this account, partly, is regarded of nearly equal
excellence with the common foxtail.

It grows spontaneously on deep, sandy soils, when once naturalized. It
has been cultivated to a considerable extent in this country, and is
esteemed by those who know it mainly for its early, rapid, and late
growth, making it very well calculated as a permanent pasture grass. It
will succeed on tenacious clover soil.

The SWEET-SCENTED VERNAL GRASS is one of the earliest in spring and one
of the latest in autumn; and this habit of growth is one of its chief
excellencies, as it is neither a nutritious grass, nor very palatable to
stock of any kind, nor does it yield a very good crop. It is very common
in New England and all over the Middle States, coming into old worn-out
fields and moist pastures spontaneously, and along every roadside. It
derives its name from its sweetness of odor when partially wilted or
crushed in the hand, and it is this chiefly which gives the delicious
fragrance to all new-mown bay. It is almost the only grass that
possesses a strongly-marked aromatic odor, which is imparted to other
grasses with which it is cured. Its seed weighs eight pounds to the
bushel. In mixtures for permanent pastures it may be of some value.

HUNGARIAN GRASS, or millet, is an annual forage plant, introduced into
France in 1815, and more recently into this country. It germinates
readily, and withstands the drought remarkably, remaining green when
other grasses are parched and dried up. It has numerous succulent
leaves which furnish an abundance of sweet fodder, greatly relished by
stock of all kinds. It attains its greatest luxuriance on soils of
medium consistency and richness, but does very well on light and dry
plains.

RED CLOVER is an artificial grass of the leguminous family, and one of
the most valuable cultivated plants for feeding to dairy cows. It
flourishes best on tenacious soils and stiff loams. Its growth is rapid,
and a few months after sowing are sufficient to supply an abundant sweet
and nutritious food. In the climate of New England, clover should be
sown in the spring of the year, while most of the natural grasses do far
better when sown in the fall. It is often sown with perfect success on
the late snows of March or April, and soon finds its way down into the
soil and takes a vigorous hold with its root. It is valuable not only as
a forage plant, but as shading the ground, and thereby increasing its
fertility.

The introduction of clover among the cultivated plants of the farm has
done more, perhaps, for modern agriculture than that of any other single
plant. It is now considered indispensable in all good dairy districts.

WHITE CLOVER, often called Honeysuckle, is also widely diffused over
this country, to which it is undoubtedly indigenous. As a mixture in all
pasture grasses it holds a very high rank, as it is exceedingly sweet
and nutritious, and relished by all kinds of stock. It grows most
luxuriantly in moist grounds and moist seasons, but easily accommodates
itself to a great variety of circumstances.

With respect to the mixtures of grass-seeds most profitable for the
dairy farmer, no universal rule can be given, as they depend very much
upon the nature of the soil and the locality. The most important point
to be observed, and the one as to which, probably, the greatest
deficiency exists, is to use a large number of species, with smaller
quantities of each than those most commonly used. This is Nature's rule;
for, in examining the turf of a rich old pasture, a large number of
different species will be found growing together, while, if the turf of
a field sown without two or three species is examined, a far less number
of plants is found to the square foot, even after the sod is fairly set.
In the opinion of the most competent judges, no improvement in grass
culture is more important than this.

As an instance of what he would consider an improvement on the ordinary
mixtures for _permanent pastures_, Mr. Flint, in his "Milch Cows and
Dairy Farming," suggests the following as likely to give satisfactory
results, dependent, of course, to a considerable extent, on the nature
and preparation of the soil:

Meadow Foxtail,   flowering in May  and June,   2  pounds
Orchard Grass,        "     "   "        "      6    "
Sweet-scented Vernal, "     "  April and May,   1    "
Meadow Fescue,        "     "  May  and June,   2    "
Redtop,               "     "  June and July,   2    "
June Grass,           "     "  May  and June,   4    "
Italian Rye Grass,    "     "  June,            4    "
Perennial do.,        "     "   "        "      6    "
Timothy,              "     "  June and July,   3    "
Rough-stalked Meadow Grass,     "        "      2    "
Perennial Clover, flowering in June,            3    "
White Clover,         "     "  May to September 5-40 "

For mowing-lands the mixture would, of course, be somewhat changed. The
meadow foxtail and sweet-scented vernal would be left out entirely, and
some six or eight pounds added to the Timothy and red clover. The proper
time to lay down lands to grass in the latitude of New England is August
or September, and no grain crop should be sown with the seed.

Stiff or clayey pastures should never be overstocked, but when fed
pretty close the grasses are far sweeter and more nutritious than when
they are allowed to grow up rank and coarse; and if, by a want of
sufficient feeding, they get the start of the stock, and grow into rank
tufts, they should be cut and removed, when a fresh grass will start up,
similar to the aftermath of mowing-lands, which will be eaten with
avidity. Grasses for curing into hay should be cut either at the time of
flowering, or just before, especially if designed for milch cows. They
are then more succulent and juicy, and, if properly cured, form the
sweetest food.

Grass cut in the blossom will make more milk than if allowed to stand
later. Cut a little before the blossoming; it will make more than when
in blossom, and the cows prefer it, which is by no means an unimportant
consideration, since their tastes should always be consulted. Grass cut
somewhat green, and properly cured, is next to fresh, green grass in
palatable, nutritive qualities. Every farmer knows the milk-producing
properties of rowen, or second crop, which is generally cut before it
ripens.

No operation on the farm is of greater importance to the dairyman than
the cutting of his grass and the manner of curing hay; and in this
respect the practice over the country generally is susceptible of very
marked improvement. The chief object is to preserve the sweetness and
succulence of the grass in its natural state, so far as possible; and
this object cannot be attained by exposing it too long to the scorching
suns and drenching rains to which our climate is liable. As a general
thing, farmers try to make their hay too much.

As to the best modes of curing clover, the following, among others, is
adopted by many successful farmers: What is mown in the morning is left
in the swath, to be turned over early in the afternoon. At about four
o'clock, or while it is still warm, it is put into small cocks with a
fork, and, if the weather is favorable, it may be housed on the fourth
or fifth day, the cocks being turned over on the morning of the day in
which it is to be carted. By this method all the heads and leaves are
saved, and these are more valuable than the stems. For new milch cows in
winter scarcely any food is better. It will cause them to give as great
a flow of milk as any hay, unless it be good rowen.

INDIAN CORN makes an exceedingly valuable fodder, both as a means of
carrying a herd of milch cows through our severe droughts of summer, and
as an article for soiling cows kept in the stall. No dairy farmer will
neglect to sow an extent in proportion to the number of cows which he
keeps. The most common practice is, to sow in drills from two and a half
to three feet apart, on land well tilled and thoroughly manured, making
the drills from six to ten inches wide with the plough, manuring in the
furrow, dropping the kernels about two inches apart, and covering with
the hoe. In this mode of culture, the cultivator may be used between
the rows when the corn is from six to twelve inches high, and, unless
the ground is very weedy, no other after culture is needed. The first
sowing usually takes place about the middle of May, and this is
succeeded by other sowings, at intervals of a week or ten days, till
July, in order to have a succession of green fodder; but, if it is
designed to cut it up to cure for winter use, an early sowing is
generally preferred, in order to be able to cure it in warm weather, in
August or early in September. Sown in this way, about three or four
bushels of corn are required for an acre; since, if sown thickly, the
fodder is better, the stalks smaller, and the waste less.

The chief difficulty in curing corn cultivated for this purpose, and
after the methods just spoken of, arises from the fact that it comes at
a season when the weather is often colder, the days shorter, and the
dews heavier, than when the curing of hay takes place. Nor is the curing
of corn cut up green so easy and simple as that of the drying of stalks
of Indian corn cut above the ear, as in the common practice of topping.
The plant is then riper, less juicy, and cures more readily.

The method sometimes adopted is to cut and tie into small bundles, after
it is somewhat wilted, and then to stook upon the ground, where it is
allowed to stand, subject to all the changes of weather, with only the
protection of the stook itself. The stooks consist of bunches of stalks
first bound into small bundles, and are made sufficiently large to
prevent the wind from blowing them over. The arms are thrown around the
tops to bring them as closely together as possible, when the tops are
broken over or twisted together, or otherwise fastened, in order to
make the stook "shed the rain" as well as possible. In this condition
they remain out until they are sufficiently dried to be put in the barn.
Corn fodder is very excellent for young dairy stock.

COMMON MILLET is another very valuable crop for fodder in soiling, or to
cure for winter use, but especially to feed out during the usual season
of drought. Many varieties of millet are cultivated in this country, the
ground being prepared and treated as for oats. If designed to cut for
green fodder, half a bushel of seed to the acre should be used; if to
ripen seed, twelve quarts, sown broadcast, about the last of May or
early in June. A moist loam or muck is the best soil adapted to millet;
but very great crops have been grown on dry upland. It is very palatable
and nutritious for milch cows, both green and when properly cured. The
curing should be very much like that of clover, care being taken not to
over-dry it. For fodder, either green or cured, it is cut before
ripening. In this state all cattle eat it as readily as green corn, and
a less extent will feed them. Millet is worthy of a widely-extended
cultivation, particularly on dairy farms. Indian millet is another
cultivated variety.

RYE, as a fodder plant, is chiefly valuable for its early growth in
spring. It is usually sown in September or October--from the middle to
the end of September being, perhaps, the most desirable time--on land
previously cultivated and in good condition. If designed to ripen only,
a bushel of seed is required to the acre, evenly sown; but, if intended
for early fodder in spring, two or two and a half bushels of seed per
acre should be used. On warm land the rye can be cut green the last of
April or the first of May. Care should be taken to cut early; since, if
it is allowed to advance too far towards maturity, the stalk becomes
hard and unpalatable to cows.

OATS are also sometimes used for soiling, or for feeding green, to eke
out a scanty supply of pasture feed; and for this purpose they are
valuable. They should be sown on well-tilled and well-manured land,
about four bushels to the acre, towards the last of April or the first
of May. If the whole crop is to be used as green fodder, five bushels of
seed will not be too much for good, strong soil. They will be
sufficiently grown to cut by the first of July, or in some sections
earlier, depending upon the location.

The CHINESE SUGAR-CANE also may deserve attention as a fodder plant.
Experiments thus far made would seem to show that when properly
cultivated, and cut at the right time, it is a palatable and nutritious
plant, while many of the failures have been the result of too early
cutting. For a fodder crop the drill culture is preferable, both on
account of the larger yield obtained and because it is thus prevented
from becoming too hard and stalky.

Of the root crops the POTATO is the first to be mentioned. This produces
a large quantity of milk, though the quality is inferior. The market
value of this root is, at times, too great to allow of feeding
extensively with it, even in milk dairies, where it is most valuable as
a food for cows; still, there are locations where it may be judicious to
cultivate this root for dairy feed, and in all circumstances there is a
certain portion of the crop of unmarketable size, which will be of value
fed to milch cows or swine. It should be planted in April or May, but in
many sections in June, on good mellow soil, first thoroughly plowed and
harrowed, then furrowed three feet apart, and manured in the furrows
with a mixture of ashes, plaster of Paris, and salt. The seed may be
dropped in the furrows, one foot apart, after the drill system--or in
hills, two and a half or three feet apart--to be covered with the plough
by simply turning the furrows back, after which the whole should be
rolled with the field-roller, when it can be done.

If the land is not already in good heart from continued cultivation, a
few loads of barnyard manure may be spread, and plowed under, by the
first plowing. Used in this way it is far less liable to cause the rot,
than when it is put in the hill. If a sufficient quantity of wood-ashes
is not at hand, sifted coal-ashes will answer the purpose, and these are
said to be valuable as a preventive of rot. In this way, one man, two
boys, and a horse can plant from three to four acres a day on mellow
land.

By another method two acres a day on the sod have been planted. The
manure is first spread upon the grass, and then a furrow made by a yoke
of oxen and one man, another following after and dropping, a foot apart,
along the outer edge of the furrow on the grass. By quick work, one hand
can nearly keep up with the plow in dropping. When arrived at the end of
the piece, a back furrow is turned up to the potatoes, and a good
plowman will cover nearly all without difficulty. On the return furrow,
the man or boy who dropped follows after, covering up any that may be
left or displaced, and smoothing off the top of the back-furrows when
necessary. Potatoes thus planted have come out finely.

The cost of cultivation in this mode, it must be evident, is but
trifling, compared with the slower method of hand-planting. It requires
a skillful ploughman, a quick, active lad, and a good yoke of oxen, and
the extent of the work will depend somewhat upon the state of the turf.
The nutritive equivalent for potatoes in a hundred pounds of good hay is
319 pounds; that is, it will take 3.19 pounds of potatoes to afford the
same amount of nourishment as one pound of hay. The great value of roots
is as a change or condiment calculated to keep the animal in a healthy
condition.

[Illustration: A WEST HIGHLAND OX.]

The CARROT is somewhat extensively fed, and is a valuable root for milch
cows. This, like the potato, has been cultivated and improved from a
wild plant. Carrots require a deep, warm, mellow soil, thoroughly
cultivated, but clean, and free from weed-seed. The difference between a
very good profit and a loss on the crop depends much upon the use of
land and manures perfectly free from foul seeds of any kind. Ashes,
guano, seaweed, ground bones, and other similar substances, or
thoroughly-rotted and fermented compost, will answer the purpose.

After plowing deep, and harrowing carefully, the seed should be planted
with a seed-sower, in drills about eighteen inches apart, at the rate of
four pounds to the acre, about the middle of May. The difference
between sowing on the fifteenth of May and on the tenth of June in New
England is said to be nearly one-third in the crop on an average of
years. In weeding, a little wheel hoe is invaluable, as with it a large
part of the labor of cultivation is saved. A skillful hand can run this
hoe within a half an inch of the young plants without injury, and go
over a large space in the course of a day, if the land was properly
prepared in the first place.

The American farmer should always plan to economize labor, which is the
great item of expense upon a farm. By this is not meant that he should
strive to shirk or avoid work, but that he should make the least amount
of work accomplish the greatest and most profitable results.
Labor-saving machinery on the farm is applied, not to reduce the number
of hours of labor, or to make the owner a man of leisure--who is,
generally, the unhappiest man in the world--but to enable him to
accomplish the greatest results in the same time that he would be
compelled to obtain smaller ones.

Carrots will continue to grow and increase in size late into the fall.
When ready to dig, plow around as near to the outside rows as possible,
turning away the furrow from the row. Then take out the carrots, pulling
off the tops, and throw the carrots and tops into separate heaps on the
plowed furrows. In this way a man and two boys can harvest and put into
the cellar upwards of a hundred bushels a day.

The TURNIP, and the Swedish turnip, or ruta baga, are also largely
cultivated as a field crop to feed to stock; and for this purpose almost
numberless varieties are used, furnishing a great amount of succulent
and nutritious food, late into winter, and, if well-kept, late into
spring. The chief objection to the turnip is, that it taints the milk.
This may be remedied--to a considerable extent, if not wholly--by the
use of salt, or salt hay, and by feeding at the time of milking, or
immediately after, or by steaming before feeding, or putting a small
quantity of the solution of nitre into the pail, and milking upon it.

Turnips may be sown any time in June, in rich land, well mellowed by
cultivation. Very large crops are obtained, sown as late as the middle
of July, or the first of August, on an inverted sod. The Michigan, or
double-mould-board plow leaves the land light, and in admirable
condition to harrow, and drill in turnips. In one instance, a successful
root-grower cut two tons of hay to the acre, on the twenty-third of
June, and after it was removed from the land spread eight cords of
rotten kelp to the acre, and plowed in; after which about three cords of
fine old compost manure were used to the acre, which was sown with ruta
baga seed, in drills, three feet apart, plants thinned to eight or ten
inches in the drill. No after cultivation was required. On the fifteenth
of November he harvested three hundred and seventy bushels of splendid
roots to the acre, carefully measured off.

The nutritive equivalent of Swedish turnips as compared with good meadow
hay is 676, taking hay as a standard at 100; that is, it would require
6.76 pounds of turnips to furnish the same nutriment as one pound of
good hay; but fed in connection with other food--as hay, for
example--perhaps five pounds of turnips would be about equal to one
pound of hay.

The English or round turnip is usually sown broadcast after some other
crop, and large and valuable returns are often obtained. The Swede is
sown in drills. Both of these varieties are used for the production of
milk.

The chief objection to the turnip crop is that it leaves many kinds of
soil unfit for a succession of some other crops, like Indian corn, for
instance. In some sections, no amount of manuring appears to make corn
do well after turnips or ruta bagas.

The MANGOLD WURTZEL, a variety of the common beet, is often cultivated
in this country with great success, and fed to cows with advantage,
furnishing a succulent and nutritive food in winter and spring. The crop
is somewhat uncertain. When it does well, an enormous yield is often
obtained; but, not rarely, it proves a failure, and is not, on the
whole, quite as reliable as the ruta baga, though a more valuable crop
when the yield is good. It is cultivated like the common beet in moist,
rich soils; three pounds of seed to the acre The leaves may be stripped
off, towards fall, and fed out, without injury to the growth of the
root. Both mangolds and turnips should be cut with a root-cutter, before
being fed out.

The PARSNIP is a very sweet and nutritious article of fodder, and adds
richness and flavor to the milk. It is worthy of extended culture in all
parts of the country where dairy husbandry is pursued. It is a biennial,
easily raised on deep, rich, well-cultivated and well-manured soils,
often yielding enormous crops, and possessing the decided advantage of
withstanding the severest winters. As an article of spring feeding,
therefore, it is exceedingly valuable. Sown in April or May, it attains
a large growth before winter. Then, if desirable, a part of the crop may
be harvested for winter use, and the remainder left in the ground till
the frost is out, in March or April, when they can be dug as wanted, and
are exceedingly relished by milch cows and stock of all kinds. They make
an admirable feed at the time of milking, and produce the richest cream,
and the yellowest and finest-flavored butter, of any roots used among
us. The best dairy farmers on the Island of Jersey often feed to their
cows from thirty to thirty-five pounds of parsnips a day, in addition to
hay or grass.

Both practical experiment and scientific analysis prove this root to be
eminently adapted to dairy stock, where the richness of milk or
fine-flavored butter is any object. For mere milk-dairies, it is not
quite so valuable, probably, as the Swedish turnip. The culture is
similar to that of carrots, a rich, mellow, and deep loam being best;
while it has a great advantage over the carrot in being more hardy, and
rather less liable to injury from insects, and more nutritive. For
feeding and fattening stock it is eminently adapted.

To be sure of a crop, fresh seed must be had, as it cannot be depended
on for more than one year. For this reason the largest and straightest
roots should be allowed to stand for seed, which, as soon as nearly
ripe, should be taken out and spread out to dry, and carefully kept for
use. For field culture, the hollow-crowned parsnip is the best and most
profitable; but on thin, shallow soils the turnip-rooted variety should
be used. Parsnips may be harvested like carrots, by plowing along the
rows. Let butter or cheese dairymen give this crop a fair and full
trial, and watch its effect in the quality of the milk and butter.

The KOHL RABI is also cultivated to a considerable extent in this
country for the purpose of feeding stock. It is supposed to be a hybrid
between the cabbage and the turnip and is often called the
cabbage-turnip, having the root of the former, with a turnip-like or
bulbous stem. The special reason for its more extensive cultivation
among us is its wonderful indifference to droughts, in which it seems to
flourish best, and to bring forth the most luxuriant crops. It also
withstands the frosts remarkably, being a hardy plant. It yields a
somewhat richer quality of milk than the ordinary turnip, and the crop
is generally admitted to be as abundant and profitable. Very large crops
of it have been produced by the ordinary turnip or cabbage cultivation.
As in cabbage-culture, it is best to sow the seed in March or April, in
a warm and well-enriched seed-bed; from which it is transplanted in May,
and set out after the manner of cabbages in garden culture. It bears
transplanting better than most other roots. Insects injure it less than
the turnip, dry weather favors it, and it keeps well through winter. For
these reasons, it must be regarded as a valuable addition to our list of
forage plants adapted to dairy farming. It grows well on stronger soils
than the turnip requires.

LINSEED MEAL is the ground cake of flaxseed after the oil is pressed
out. It is very rich in fat-forming principles, and given to milch cows
increases the quality of butter, and keeps them in condition. Four or
five pounds a day are sufficient for cows in milk, and this amount will
effect a great saving in the cost of other food, and at the same time
make a very rich milk. It is extensively manufactured in this country,
and largely exported, but it is worthy of more general use here. It must
not be fed in too large quantities to milch cows, for it would be liable
to give too great a tendency to fat, and thus affect the quantity of the
milk.

COTTON-SEED MEAL is an article of comparatively recent introduction. It
is obtained by pressing the seed of the cotton-plant, which extracts the
oil, when the cake is crushed or ground into meal, which has been found
to be a very valuable article for feeding stock. From analysis it is
shown to be equal or superior to linseed meal. Practical experiments
only are needed to establish it. It can be procured in market at a
reasonable price.

The MANURES used in this country for the culture of the above named
plants are mostly such as are made on the farm, consisting chiefly of
barnyard composts of various kinds, with often a large admixture of
peat-mud. There are few farms that do not contain substances, which, if
properly husbanded, would add very greatly to the amount of manure
ordinarily made. The best of the concentrated manures, which it is
sometimes necessary to use, for want of time and labor to prepare enough
upon the farm, is, unquestionably, Peruvian guano. The results of this,
when properly applied, are well known and reliable, which can hardly be
said of any other artificial manure offered for the farmer's notice. The
chief objection to depending upon manures made off the farm is, in the
first place, their great expense; and in the second--which is equally
important--the fact, that, though they may be made valuable, and produce
at one time the best results, a want of care in the manufacture, or
designed fraud, may make them almost worthless, with the impossibility
of detecting the imposition, without a chemical analysis, till it
becomes too late, and the crop is lost.

It is, therefore, safest to rely mainly upon the home manufacture of
manure. The extra expense of soiling cattle, saving and applying the
liquid manure, and thus bringing the land to a higher state of
cultivation, when it will be capable of keeping more stock and
furnishing more manure, would offer a surer road to success than a
constant outlay for concentrated fertilizers.


THE BARN.

The farm barn, next to the farm house, is the most important structure
of the farm itself, in the Northern and Middle States; and even at the
South and Southwest, where barns are less used, they are of more
importance in the economy of farm management than is generally
understood. Indeed, to the eyes of a person of taste, a farm or
plantation appears incomplete, without good barn accommodations, as much
as without good household appointments--and without them, no
agricultural establishment can be complete in all its proper economy.

The most _thorough_ barn structures, perhaps, to be seen in the United
States, are those of the State of Pennsylvania, built by the German
farmers of the lower and central counties. They are large, and expensive
in their construction; and, in a strictly economical point of view, are,
perhaps, more costly than is required. Yet, there is a substantial
durability about them, that is exceedingly satisfactory, and, where the
pecuniary ability of the farmer will admit, they may well furnish models
for imitation.

In the structure of the barn, and in its interior accommodation, much
will depend upon the branches of agriculture to which the farm is
devoted. A farm cultivated in grain chiefly requires but little room for
stabling purposes. Storage for grain in the sheaf, and granaries, will
require its room; while a stock farm requires a barn with extensive hay
storage, and stables for its cattle, horses, and sheep, in all climates
which do not admit of such stocks living through the winter in the
field, as is the case in the great grazing districts west of the
Alleghanies. Again, there are wide districts of country where a mixed
husbandry of grain and stock is pursued, which require barns and
outbuildings accommodating both.

It may be well here to remark that many designers of barns, sheds, and
other outbuildings for the accommodation of farm stock, have indulged in
fanciful arrangements for the comfort and convenience of animals, which
are so complicated that when constructed, as they sometimes are, the
practical, common-sense farmer will not use them; and by reason of the
learning which is required for their use, they are altogether unsuitable
for the treatment and use which they generally receive from those who
have the daily care of the stock for which they are intended, and for
the rough usage which they experience from the animals themselves. A
very pretty and plausible arrangement of stabling, feeding, and all the
other requirements of a barn establishment may be thus got up by an
ingenious theorist at the fireside, which will work charmingly as he
dilates upon its good qualities, untried; but, which, when subjected to
experiment, will be utterly worthless for practical use. There can be
no doubt that the simplest plan of construction, consistent with an
economical expenditure of the material of food for the consumption of
stock, is by far the most preferable.

Another item to be considered in this connection, is the comparative
value of the stock, the forage fed to them, and the labor expended in
feeding and taking care of them. To illustrate: Suppose a farm to lie in
the vicinity of a large town or city. Its value is, perhaps, a hundred
dollars an acre. The hay cut upon it is worth fifteen dollars a ton, at
the barn, and straw and coarse grains in proportion, and hired labor ten
or twelve dollars a month. Consequently, the manager of this farm should
use all the economy in his power, by the aid of cutting-boxes and other
machinery, to make the least amount of forage supply the wants of his
stock; and the internal economy of his barn should be arranged
accordingly, since labor is his cheapest item, and food his dearest.
Therefore, any contrivance by which to work up his forage the
closest--by way of machinery, or manual labor--so that it shall serve
the purposes of keeping his stock, is true economy; and the making and
saving of manures are items of the first importance. His buildings and
their arrangements throughout should, for these reasons, be constructed
in accordance with his practice.

If, on the other hand, lands are cheap and productive, and labor
comparatively dear, a different practice will prevail. The farmer will
feed his hay from the mow without cutting. The straw will be stacked
out, and the cattle turned to it, to pick what they like of it, and make
their beds of the remainder; or, if it is housed, he will throw it into
racks, and the stock may eat what they choose. To do this requires but
one-third, or one-half of the labor which is required by the other mode,
and the saving in this makes up, and perhaps more than makes up, for the
increased quantity of forage consumed.

Again, climate may equally affect the mode of winter-feeding the stock.
The winters may be mild. The hay may be stacked in the fields when
gathered, or put into small barns built for hay storage alone; and the
manure, scattered over the fields by the cattle, as they are fed from
either of them, may be knocked to pieces with the dung-beetle, in the
spring, or harrowed and bushed over the ground; and with the very small
quantity of labor required in all this, such practice will be more
economical than any other which can be adopted.

In latitudes, however, in which it becomes necessary to stall-feed
during several months of the year, barns are indispensable. These should
be warm, and at the same time well ventilated. The barn should be
arranged in a manner suitable to keeping hay and other fodder dry and
sweet, and with reference to the comfort and health of the animals, and
the economy of labor and manure. The size and finish will, of course,
depend on the wants and means of the farmer or dairyman; but many little
conveniences, it should not be forgotten, can be added at comparatively
trifling cost.

The accompanying cut of a barn is given merely as an illustration of a
convenient arrangement for a medium-sized dairy, and not as being
adapted to all circumstances or situations. This barn is supposed to
stand upon a side-hill or an inclined surface, where it is easy to have
a cellar, if desired; and the cattle-room, as shown in the cut, is in
the second story, or directly over the cellar, the bottom of which
should be somewhat dished, or lower in the middle than around the outer
sides, and carefully paved, or laid in cement.

[Illustration: BARN FOR THIRTY-FOUR COWS AND THREE YOKE OF OXEN.]

On the outside is represented an open shed, _m_, for carts and wagons to
remain under cover, thirty feet by fifteen, while _l l l l l l_ are bins
for vegetables, to be filled through scuttles from the floor of the
story above, and surrounded by solid walls. The area of this whole floor
equals one hundred feet by fifty-seven. _k_, is an open space, nearly on
a level with the cow-chamber, through the door _p_. _s_, stairs to the
third story and to the cellar, _d d d_, passage next to the walls, five
feet wide, and nine inches above the dung-pit. _e e e_, dung-pit, two
feet wide, and seven inches below the floor where the cattle stand. The
manure drops from this pit into the cellar below, five feet from the
walls, and quite around the cellar. _c c c_, plank floor for cows, four
feet six inches long. _b b b_, stalls for three yoke of oxen, on a
platform five feet six inches long, _n n_, calf-pens, which may also be
used for cows in calving. _r r_, feeding-troughs for calves. The
feeding-boxes are made in the form of trays, with partitions between
them. Water comes in by a pipe, to cistern _a_. This cistern is
regulated by a cock and ball, and the water flows by dotted lines,
_o o o_, to the boxes; each box being connected by lead pipes well secured
from frost, so that, if desired, each animal can be watered without
leaving the stall, or water can be kept constantly before it. A scuttle,
through which sweepings and refuse may be put into the cellar, is seen
at _f_. _g_ is a bin receiving cut hay from the third story, or
hay-room, _h h h h h h_, bins for grain-feed. _i_ is a tunnel to conduct
manure or muck from the hay-floor to the cellar. _j j_, sliding-doors on
wheels. The cows all face toward the open area in the centre.

This cow-room may be furnished with a thermometer, clock, etc., and
should always be well ventilated by sliding windows, which at the same
time admit the light.

The next cut is a transverse section of the same cow-room; _a_ being a
walk behind the cows, five feet wide; _b_, dung-pit; _c_, cattle-stand;
_d_, feeding-trough, with a bottom on a level with the platform where
the cattle stand; _k_, open area, forty-three feet, by fifty-six.

[Illustration: TRANSVERSE SECTION.]

The story above the cow-room--as represented in the next cut--is one
hundred feet by forty-two; the bays for hay, ten on each side, being ten
feet front and fifteen feet deep; and the open space, _p_, for the
entrance of wagons, carts, etc., twelve feet wide. _b_, hay-scales. _c_,
scale beam. _m m m m m m_, ladders reaching almost to the roof. _l l l_,
etc., scuttle-holes for sending vegetables directly to the bins, _l l l_,
etc., below. _a a b b_, rooms on the corners for storage. _d_,
scuttles; four of which are used for straw, one for cut hay, and one for
muck for the cellar. _n_ and the other small squares are eighteen-feet
posts. _f_, passage to the tool-house, a room one hundred feet long by
eighteen wide. _o_, stairs leading to the scaffold in the roof of the
tool-house. _i i_, benches. _g_, floor. _h_, boxes for hoes, shovels,
spades, picks, iron bars, old iron, etc. _j j j_, bins for fruit. _k_,
scuttles to put apples into wagons, etc., in the shed below. One side of
this tool-house may be used for plows and large implements, hay-rigging,
harness, etc.

Proper ventilation of the cellar and the cow-room avoids the objection
that the hay is liable to injury from noxious gases.

[Illustration: ROOM OVER THE COW-ROOM.]

The excellent manure-cellar beneath this barn extends only under the
cow-room. It has a drive-way through doors on each side. No barn-cellar
should be kept shut up tight, even in cold weather. The gases are
constantly escaping from the manure, unless held by absorbents, which
are liable not only to affect the health of the stock, but also to
injure the quality of the hay. To prevent this, while securing the
important advantages of a manure-cellar, the barn may be furnished with
good-sized ventilators on the top, for every twenty-five feet of its
length, and with wooden tubes leading from the cellar to the top.

There should also be windows on different sides of the cellar to admit
the free circulation of air. With these precautions, together with the
use of absorbents in the shape of loam and muck, there will be no danger
of rotting the timbers of the barn, or of risking the health of the
cattle or the quality of the hay.

The temperature at which the cow-room should be kept is somewhere from
fifty to sixty degrees, Fahrenheit. The practice and the opinions of
successful dairymen differ somewhat on this point. Too great heat would
affect the health and appetite of the herd; while too low a temperature
is equally objectionable, for various reasons.

The most economical plan for room in tying cattle in their stalls, is to
fasten the rope or chain, whichever is used--the wooden stanchion, or
stanchel, as it is called, to open and shut, enclosing the animal by the
neck, being objectionable--into a ring, which is secured by a strong
staple into a post. This prevents the cattle from interfering with each
other, while a partition effectually prevents any contact from the
animals on each side of it, in the separate stalls.

There is no greater benefit for cattle, after coming into
winter-quarters, than a systematic regularity in every thing pertaining
to them. Every animal should have its own particular stall in the
stable, where it should always be kept. The cattle should be fed and
watered at certain fixed hours of the day, as near as may be. If let out
of the stables for water, unless the weather is very pleasant--when they
may be permitted to lie out for a short time--they should be immediately
put back, and not allowed to range about with the outside cattle. They
are more quiet and contented in their stables than elsewhere, and waste
less food than if permitted to run out; besides being in every way more
comfortable, if properly bedded and attended to, as every one will find
upon trial. The habit which many farmers have, of turning their cattle
out of the stables in the morning, in all weathers--letting them range
about in a cold yard, hooking and annoying each other--is of no possible
benefit, unless it be to rid them of the trouble of cleaning the
stables, which pays more than twice its cost in the saving of manure.
The outside cattle, which occupy the yard--if there are any--are all the
better that the stabled ones do not interfere with them. They become
habituated to their own quarters, as do the others, and all are better
for being, respectively, in their proper places.


MILKING.

The manner of milking exerts a more powerful and lasting influence on
the productiveness of the cow than most farmers are aware. That a slow
and careless milker soon dries up the best of cows, every practical
farmer and dairyman knows; but a careful examination of the beautiful
structure of the udder will serve further to explain the proper mode of
milking, in order to obtain and keep up the largest yield.

The udder of a cow consists of four glands, disconnected from each
other, but all contained within one bag or cellular membrane; and these
glands are uniform in structure. Each gland consists of three parts: the
_glandular_, or secreting part, _tubular_ or conducting part, and the
_teats_, or receptacle, or receiving part. The glandular forms by far
the largest portion of the udder. It appears to the naked eye composed
of a mass of yellowish grains; but under the microscope these grains are
found to consist entirely of minute blood-vessels forming a compact
plexus, or fold. These vessels secrete the milk from the blood. The milk
is abstracted from the blood in the glandular part; the tubes receive
and deposit it in the reservoir, or receptacle; and the sphincter at the
end of the teat retains it there until it is wanted for use.

This must not be understood, however, as asserting that all the milk
drawn from the udder at one milking is contained in the receptacle. The
milk, as it is secreted, is conveyed to the receptacle, and when that is
full, the larger tubes begin to be filled, and next the smaller ones,
until the whole become gorged. When this takes place, the secretion of
the milk ceases, and absorption of the thinner or more watery part
commences. Now, as this absorption takes place more readily in the
smaller or more distant tubes, it is invariably found that the milk from
these, which comes last into the receptacle, is much thicker and richer
than what was first drawn off. This milk has been significantly styled
afterings, or strippings; and should this gorged state of the tubes be
permitted to continue beyond a certain time, serious mischief will
sometimes occur; the milk becomes too thick to flow through the tubes,
and soon produces, first irritation, then inflammation, and lastly
suppuration, and the function of the gland is materially impaired or
altogether destroyed. Hence the great importance of emptying these
smaller tubes regularly and thoroughly, not merely to prevent the
occurrence of disease, but actually to increase the quantity of milk;
for, so long as the smaller tubes are kept free, milk is constantly
forming; but whenever, as has already been mentioned, they become
gorged, the secretion of milk ceases until they are emptied. The cow
herself has no power over the sphincter at the end of her teat, so as to
open it, and relieve the overcharged udder; neither has she any power of
retaining the milk collected in the reservoirs when the spasm of the
sphincter is overcome.

Thus is seen the necessity of drawing away the last drop of milk at
every milking; and the better milker the cow, the more necessary this
is. What has been said demonstrates, also, the impropriety of holding
the milk in cows until the udder is distended much beyond its ordinary
size, for the sake of showing its capacity for holding milk--a device to
which many dealers in cows resort.

Thus much of the internal structure of the udder. Its external form
requires attention, because it indicates different properties. Its form
should be spheroidal, large, giving an idea of capaciousness; the bag
should have a soft, fine skin, and the hind part upward toward the tail
be loose and elastic. There should be fine, long hairs scattered
plentifully over the surface, to keep it warm. The teats should not seem
to be contracted, or funnel-shaped, at the inset with the bag. In the
former state, teats are very apt to become corded, or spindled; and in
the latter, too much milk will constantly be pressing on the lower
tubes, or receptacle. They should drop naturally from the lower parts of
the bag, being neither too short, small, or dumpy, or long, flabby, and
thick, but, perhaps, about three inches in length, and so thick as just
to fill the hand. They should hang as if all the quarters of the udder
were equal in size, the front quarters projecting a little forward, and
the hind ones a little more dependent. Each quarter should contain about
equal quantities of milk; though, in the belief of some, the hind
quarters contain rather the most.

Largely developed milk-veins--as the subcutaneous veins along the under
part of the abdomen are commonly called--are regarded as a source of
milk. This is a popular error, for the milk-vein has no connection with
the udder; yet, although the office of these is to convey the blood from
the fore part of the chest and sides to the inguinal vein, yet a large
milk-vein certainly indicates a strongly developed vascular system--one
favorable to secretions generally, and to that of the milk among the
rest.

Milking is performed in two ways, stripping and handling. _Stripping_
consists in seizing the teat firmly near the root between the face of
the thumb and the side of the fore-finger, the length of the teat
passing through the other fingers, and in milking the hand passes down
the entire length of the teat, causing the milk to flow out of its point
in a forcible stream. The action is renewed by again quickly elevating
the hand to the root of the teat. Both hands are employed at the
operation, each having hold of a different teat, and being moved
alternately. The two nearest teats are commonly first milked, and then
the two farthest. _Handling_ is done by grasping the teat at its root
with the fore-finger like a hoop, assisted by the thumb, which lies
horizontally over the fore-finger, the rest being also seized by the
other fingers. Milk is drawn by pressing upon the entire length of the
teat in alternate jerks with the entire palm of the hand. Both hands
being thus employed, are made to press alternately, but so quickly
following each other that the alternate streams of milk sound to the ear
like one forcible, continued stream. This continued stream is also
produced by stripping. Stripping, then, is performed by pressing and
passing certain fingers along the teat; handling, by the whole hand
doubled, or fist, pressing the teat steadily at one place. Hence the
origin of both names.

[Illustration: THE PREFERABLE METHOD.]

Of these two modes, handling is the preferable, since it is the more
natural method--imitating, as it does, the suckling of the calf. When a
calf takes a teat into its mouth, it makes the tongue and palate by
which it seizes it, play upon the teat by alternate pressures or
pulsations, while retaining the teat in the same position. It is thus
obvious that handling is somewhat like sucking, whereas stripping is
not at all like it. It is said that stripping is good for agitating the
udder, the agitation of which is conducive to the withdrawal of a large
quantity of milk; but there is nothing to prevent the agitation of the
udder as much as the dairymaid pleases, while holding in the other mode.
Indeed, a more constant vibration could be kept up in that way by the
vibrations of the arms than by stripping. Stripping, by using an
unconstrained pressure on two sides of the teat, is much more apt to
press it unequally, than by grasping the whole teat in the palm of the
hand; while the friction occasioned by passing the finger and thumb
firmly over the outside of the teat, is more likely to cause heat and
irritation in it than a steady and full grasp of the entire hand. To
show that this friction causes an unpleasant feeling even to the
dairymaid, she is obliged to lubricate the teat frequently with milk,
and to wet it at first with water; whereas the other mode requires no
such expedients. And as a further proof that stripping is a mode of
milking which may give pain to the cow, it cannot be employed, when the
teats are chapped, with so much ease to the cow as handling.

The first requisite in the person that milks is, of course, the utmost
_cleanliness_. Without this, the milk is unendurable. The udder should,
therefore, be carefully cleaned before the milking commences.

Milking should be done _fast_, to draw away the milk as quickly as
possible, and it should be continued as long as there is a drop of milk
to bring away. This is an issue which cannot be attended to in too
particular a manner. If any milk is left, it is re-absorbed into the
system, or else becomes caked, and diminishes the tendency to secrete a
full quantity afterward. Milking as dry as possible is especially
necessary with young cows with their first calf; as the mode of milking
and the length of time to which they can be made to hold out, will have
very much to do with their milking qualities as long as they live. Old
milk left in the receptacle of the teat soon changes into a curdy state,
and the caseous matter not being at once removed by the next milking, is
apt to irritate the lining membrane of the teat during the operation,
especially when the teat is forcibly rubbed down between the finger and
thumb in stripping. The consequence of this repeated irritation is the
thickening of the lining membrane, which at length becomes so hardened
as to close up the orifice at the end of the teat. The hardened membrane
may be easily felt from the outside of the teat, when the teat is said
to be _corded_. After this the teat becomes _deaf_, as it is called, and
no more milk can afterward be drawn from the quarter of the udder to
which the corded teat is attached.

The milking-pail is of various forms and of various materials. The Dutch
use brass ones, which are brilliantly scoured every time they are in
use. Tin pitchers are used in some places, while pails of wood in
cooper-work are employed in others. A pail of oak, having thin staves
bound together by bright iron hoops, with a handle formed by a stave
projecting upward, is convenient for the purpose, and may be kept clean
and sweet. One nine inches in diameter at the bottom, eleven inches at
the top, and ten inches deep, with an upright handle or leg of five
inches, has a capacious enough mouth to receive the milk as it descends;
and a sufficient height, when standing on the edge of its bottom on the
ground, to allow the dairymaid to grasp it firmly with her knees while
sitting on a small three-legged stool. Of course, such a pail cannot be
milked full; but it should be large enough to contain all the milk which
a single cow can give at a milking; because it is undesirable to rise
from a cow before the milking is finished, or to exchange one dish for
another while the milking is in progress.

The cow being a sensitive and capricious creature, is, oftentimes so
easily offended that if the maid rise from her before the milk is all
withdrawn, the chances are that she will not again stand quietly at that
milking; or, if the vessel used in milking is taken away and another
substituted in its place, before the milking is finished, the
probability is that she will _hold_ her milk--that is, not allow it to
flow. This is a curious property which cows possess, of holding up or
keeping back their milk. How it is effected has never been
satisfactorily ascertained; but there is no doubt of the fact that when
a cow becomes irritated, or frightened from any cause, she can withhold
her milk. Of course, all cows are not affected in the same degree; but,
as a proof how sensitive cows generally are, it may be mentioned that
very few will be milked so freely by a stranger the first time, as by
one to whom they have been accustomed.

There is one side of a cow which is usually called the _milking
side_--that is the cow's left side--because, somehow custom has
established the practice of milking her from that side. It may have been
adopted for two reasons: one, because we are accustomed to approach all
the larger domesticated animals by what we call the _near side_--that
is, the animal's left side--as being the most convenient one for
ourselves; and the other reason may have been, that, as most people are
right-handed, and the common use of the right hand has made it the
stronger, it is most conveniently employed in milking the hinder teats
of the cow, which are often most difficult to reach on account of the
position of the hind legs and the length of the hinder teats, or of the
breadth of the hinder part of the udder. The near side is most commonly
used in this country and in Scotland; but in many parts of England the
other side is preferred. Whichever side is selected, that should
uniformly be used, as cows are very sensitive to changes.

In Scotland it is a rare thing to see a cow milked by any other person
than a woman, though men are very commonly employed at it in this
country and in England. One never sees a man milking a cow without being
impressed with the idea that he is usurping an office which does not
become him; and the same thought seems to be conveyed in the terms
usually applied to the person connected with cows--a dairy-_maid_
implying one who milks cows, as well as performs the other duties
connected with the dairy--a dairy-_man_ meaning one who owns a dairy.
There can be but little question that the charge of this branch of the
dairy should generally be entrusted to women. They are more gentle and
winning than men. The same person should milk the same cow regularly,
and not change from one to another, unless there are special reasons for
it.

Cows are easily rendered troublesome on being milked; and the kicks and
knocks which they usually receive for their restlessness, only render
them more fretful. If they cannot be overcome by kindness, thumps will
never make them better. The truth is, restless habits are continued in
them by the treatment which they receive at first, when, most probably,
they have been dragooned into submission. Their teats are tender at
first; but an unfeeling, horny hand tugs at them at stripping, as if the
animal had been accustomed to the operation for years. Can the creature
be otherwise than uneasy? And how can she escape the wincing but by
flinging out her heels?--Then hopples are placed on the hind fetlocks,
to keep her heels down. The tail must then be held by some one, while
the milking is going on; or the hair of its tuft be converted into a
double cord, to tie the tail to the animal's leg. Add to this the many
threats and scoldings uttered by the milker, and one gets a not very
exaggerated impression of the "breaking-in."

Some cows, no doubt, are very unaccomodating and provoking; but,
nevertheless, nothing but a rational course toward them, administered
with gentleness, will ever render them less so. There are cows which are
troublesome to milk for a few times after calving, that become quite
quiet for the remainder of the season; others will kick pertinaciously
at the first milking. In this last case the safest plan--instead of
hoppling, which only irritates--is for the dairymaid to thrust her head
against the flank of the cow, and while standing on her feet, stretch
her hands forward, get hold of the teats the best way she can, and send
the milk on the ground; and in this position it is out of the power of
the cow to hurt her. These ebullitions of feeling at the first milking
after calving, arise either from feeling pain in a tender state of the
teat, most probably from inflammation in the lining membrane of the
receptacle; or they may arise from titillation of the skin of the udder
and teat, which becomes the more sensible to the affection from a heat
which is wearing off.

At the age of two or three years the milking glands have not become
fully developed, and their largest development will depend very greatly
upon the management after the first calf. Cows should have, therefore,
the most milk-producing food; be treated with constant gentleness; never
struck, or spoken harshly to, but coaxed and caressed; and in
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, they will grow up gentle and quiet.
The hundredth had better be fatted and sent to the butcher. Harshness is
worse than useless. Be the cause of irritation what it may, one thing is
certain, that gentle discipline will overcome the most turbulent temper.
Nothing does so much to dry a cow up, especially a young cow, as the
senseless treatment to which she is too often subjected.

The longer the young cow, with her first and second calf, is made to
hold out, the more surely will this habit be fixed upon her. Stop
milking her four months before the next calf, and it will be difficult
to make her hold out to within four or six weeks of the time of calving
afterward. Induce her, if possible, by moist and succulent food, and by
careful milking, to hold out even up to the time of calving, if you
desire to milk her so long, and this habit will be likely to be fixed
upon her for life. But do not expect to obtain the full yield of a cow
the first year after calving. Some of the very best cows are slow to
develop their best qualities; and no cow reaches her prime till the age
of five or six years.

The extreme importance of care and attention to these points cannot be
overestimated. The wild cows grazing on the plains of South America, are
said to give not more than three or four quarts a day at the height of
the flow; and many an owner of large herds in Texas, it is said, has too
little milk for family use, and sometimes receives his supply of butter
from the New York market. There is, therefore, a constant tendency in
milch cows to dry up; and it must be guarded against with special care,
till the habit of yielding a large quantity, and yielding it long,
becomes fixed in the young animal, when, with proper care, it may easily
be kept up.

Cows, independently of their power to retain their milk in the udder,
afford different degrees of pleasure in milking them, even in the
quietest mood. Some yield their milk in a copious flow, with the
gentlest handling that can be given them; others require great exertion
to draw the milk from them even in streams no larger than a thread. The
udder of the former will be found to have a soft skin and short teats;
that of the latter will have a thick skin, with long rough teats. The
one feels like velvet; the other is no more pleasant to the touch than
untanned leather. To induce quiet and persuade the animal to give down
her milk freely, it is better that she should be fed at milking-time
with cut feed, or roots, placed within her easy reach.

If gentle and mild treatment is observed and persevered in, the
operation of milking, as a general thing, appears to be a pleasure to
the animal, as it undoubtedly is; but, if an opposite course is
pursued--if at every restless movement, caused, perhaps, by pressing a
sore teat, the animal is harshly spoken to--she will be likely to learn
to kick as a habit, and it will be difficult to overcome it ever
afterward.

Whatever may be the practice on other occasions, there can be no doubt
that, for some weeks after calving, and in the height of the flow, cows
ought, if possible, to be milked regularly three times a day--at early
morning, noon, and night. Every practical dairyman knows that cows thus
milked give a larger quantity of milk than if milked only twice, though
it may not be quite so rich; and in young cows, no doubt, it has a
tendency to promote the development of the udder and milk-veins. A
frequent milking stimulates an increased secretion, therefore, and ought
never to be neglected in the milk-dairy, either in the case of young
cows, or very large milkers, at the height of the flow, which will
commonly be for two or three months after calving.

There being a great difference in the quality as well as in the quantity
of the milk of different cows, no dairyman should neglect to test the
milk of each new addition to his dairy stock, whether it be an animal of
his own raising or one brought from abroad. A lactometer--or instrument
for testing the comparative richness of different species of milk--is
very convenient for this purpose; but any one can set the milk of each
cow separately at first, and give it a thorough trial, when the
difference will be found to be great. Economy will dictate that the cows
least to the purpose should be disposed of, and their places supplied
with better ones.


THE RAISING OF CALVES.

It has been found in practice that calves properly bred and raised on
the farm have a far greater intrinsic value for that farm, other things
being equal, than any that can be procured elsewhere; while on the
manner in which they are raised will depend much of their future
usefulness and profit. These considerations should have their proper
weight in deciding whether a promising calf from a good cow and bull
shall be kept, or sold to the butcher. But, rather than raise a calf at
hap-hazard, and simply because its dam was celebrated as a milker, the
judicious farmer will prefer to judge of the peculiar characteristics of
the animal itself. This will often save the great and useless outlay
which has sometimes been incurred in raising calves for dairy purposes,
which a more careful examination would have rejected as unpromising.

[Illustration: MATERNAL AFFECTION.]

The method of judging stock which has been recommended in the previous
pages is of practical utility here, and it is safer to rely upon it to
some extent, particularly when other appearances concur, than to go on
blindly. The milk-mirror on the calf is, indeed, small, but no smaller
in proportion to its size than that of the cow; while its shape and form
can generally be distinctly seen, particularly at the end of ten or
twelve weeks. The development of the udder, and other peculiarities,
will give some indication of the future capacities of the animal, and
these should be carefully studied. If we except the manure of young
stock, the calf is the first product of the cow, and as such demands our
attention, whether it is to be raised or hurried off to the shambles.
The practice adopted in raising calves differs widely in different
sections of the country, being governed very much by local
circumstances, as the vicinity of a milk-market, the value of milk for
the dairy, the object of breeding, whether mainly for beef, for work, or
for the dairy, etc.; but, in general, it may be said, that, within the
range of thirty or forty miles of good veal-markets, which large towns
furnish, comparatively few are raised at all. Most of them are fattened
and sold at ages varying from three to eight or ten weeks; and in
milk-dairies still nearer large towns and cities they are often hurried
off at one or two days, or, at most, a week old. In both of these cases,
as long as the calf is kept it is generally allowed to suck the cow,
and, as the treatment is very simple, there is nothing which
particularly calls for remark, unless it be to condemn the practice
entirely, upon the ground that there is a more profitable way of
fattening calves for the butcher, and to say that allowing the calf to
suck the cow at all is objectionable on the score of economy, except in
cases where it is rendered necessary by the hard and swollen condition
of the udder.

If the calf is so soon to be taken away, it is better that the cow
should not be suffered to become attached to it at all: since she is
inclined to withhold her milk when it is removed, and thus a loss is
sustained. The farmer will be governed by the question of profit,
whatever course it is decided to adopt. In raising blood-stock, however,
or in raising beef cattle, without any regard to economy of milk, the
system of suckling the calves, or letting them run with the cow, may
and will be adopted, since it is usually attended with somewhat less
labor.

The other course, which is regarded as the best where the calf is to be
raised for the dairy, is to bring it up by hand. This is almost
universally done in all countries where the raising of dairy cows is
best understood--in Switzerland, Holland, some parts of Germany, and
England. It requires rather more care, on the whole; but it is decidedly
preferable, since the calves cost less, as the food can be easily
modified, and the growth is not checked, as is usually the case when the
calf is taken off from the cow. Allusion is here made, of course, to
sections where the milk of the cow is of some account for the dairy, and
where it is too valuable to be devoted entirely to nourishing the calf.
In this case, as soon as the calf is dropped the cow is allowed to lick
off the slimy moisture till it is dry, which she will generally do from
instinct, or, if not, a slight sprinkling of salt over the body of the
calf will immediately tempt her. The calf is left to suck once or twice,
which it will do as soon as it is able to stand. It should, in all
cases, be permitted to have the first milk which comes from the cow,
which is of a turbid, yellowish color, unfit for any of the purposes of
the dairy, but somewhat purgative and medicinal, and admirably and
wisely designed by Nature to free the bowels and intestines of the
new-born animal from the mucous, excrementitious matter always existing
in it after birth. Too much of this new milk may, however, be hurtful
even to the new-born calf, while it should never be given at all to
older calves. The best course would seem to be--and such is in
accordance with the experience of the most successful stock-raisers--to
milk the cow dry immediately after the calf has sucked once, especially
if the udder is painfully distended, which is often the case, and to
leave the calf with the cow during one day, and after that to feed it by
putting the fingers into its mouth, and gently bringing its muzzle down
to the milk in a pail or trough when it will imbibe in sucking the
fingers. No great difficulty will be experienced in teaching the calf to
drink when taken so young, though some take to it much more readily than
others. What the calf does not need should be given to the cow. Some,
however, prefer to milk immediately after calving; and, if the udder is
overloaded, this may be the best course, though the better practice
appears to be, to leave the cow as quietly to herself as possible for a
few hours. The less she is disturbed, as a general thing, the better.
The after-birth should be taken from her immediately after it is
dropped. It is customary to give the cow, as soon as convenient after
calving, some warm and stimulating drink--a little meal stirred into
warm water, with a part of the first milk which comes from her, seasoned
with a little salt.

In many cases the calf is taken from the cow immediately; and before she
has seen it, to a warm, dry pen out of her sight, and there rubbed till
it is thoroughly dry; and then, when able to stand, fed with the new
milk from the cow, which it should have three or four times a day,
regularly, for the first fortnight, whatever course it is proposed to
adopt afterwards. It is of the greatest importance to give the young
calf a thrifty start. The milk, unless coming directly from the cow,
should be warmed.

Some object to removing the calf from the cow in this way, on the
ground of its apparent cruelty. But the objection to letting the calf
suck the cow for several days, as they do, or indeed of leaving it with
the cow for any length of time, is, that she invariably becomes attached
to it, and frets and withholds her milk when it is at last taken from
her. She probably suffers much more, after this attachment is once
formed, at the removal of the object of it, than she does at its being
taken at first out of her sight. The cow's memory is far more retentive
than many suppose; and the loss and injury sustained by removing the
calf after it has been allowed to suck her for a longer or shorter
period are never known exactly, because it is not usually known how much
milk the calf takes; but it is, without doubt, very considerable. If the
udder is all right, there seems to be no good reason for leaving the
calf with the cow for two or three days, if it is then to be taken away.

The practice in Holland is to remove the calf from its mother even
before it has been licked, and to take it into a corner of the barn, or
into another building, out of the cow's sight and hearing, put it on
soft, dry straw, and rub it dry with some hay or straw, when its tongue
and gums are slightly rubbed with salt, and the mucus and saliva removed
from the nostrils and lips. After this has been done, the calf is made
to drink the milk first taken as it comes from the mother. It is
slightly diluted with water, if taken last from the udder; but, if the
first of the milking, it is given just as it is. The calf is taught to
drink in the same manner as in this country, by putting the fingers in
its mouth, and bringing it down to the milk, and it soon gets so as to
drink unaided. It is fed, at first, from four to six times a day, or
even oftener; but soon only three times, at regular intervals. Its food
for two or three weeks is clear milk, as it comes warm and fresh from
the cow. This is never omitted, as the milk during most of that time
possesses certain qualities which are necessary to the calf, and which
cannot be effectually supplied by any other food. In the third or fourth
week the milk is skimmed, but warmed to the degree of fresh milk;
though, as the calf grows a little older, the milk is given cold, while
less care is taken to give it the milk of its own mother, that of other
cows now answering equally well. In some places, calves are fed on
buttermilk at the age of two weeks and after; but the change from new
milk, fresh from the cow, is made gradually, some sweet skimmed milk and
warm water being first added to it.

At three weeks old, or thereabouts, the calf will begin to eat a little
sweet, fine hay, and potatoes cut fine, and it very soon becomes
accustomed to this food. Many now begin to give linseed-meal mixed into
hot water, to which is added some skim-milk or buttermilk; and others
use a little bran cooked in hay-tea, made by chopping the hay fine and
pouring on boiling-hot water, which is allowed to stand awhile on it. An
egg is frequently broken into such a mixture. Others still take pains at
this age to have fresh linseed-cake, broken into pieces of the size of a
pigeon's egg; putting one of these into the mouth after the meal of milk
has been finished, and when it is eager to suck at any thing in its way.
It will very soon learn to eat linseed-meal. A little sweet clover is
put in its way at the age of about three weeks, and it will soon begin
to eat that also.

In this manner the feeding is continued from the fourth to the seventh
week, the quantity of solid food being gradually increased. In the sixth
or seventh week the milk is by degrees withheld, and water or buttermilk
used instead; and soon after this, green food may be safely given,
increasing it gradually with the hay to the age of ten or twelve weeks,
when it will do to put them upon grass alone, if the season is
favorable. A lot as near the house as possible, where they can be easily
looked after and frequently visited, is the best. Calves should be
gradually accustomed to all changes; and even after having been turned
out to pasture, they ought to be put under shelter if the weather is not
dry and warm. The want of care and attention relative to these little
details will be apparent sooner or later; while, if the farmer gives his
personal attention to these matters, he will be fully paid in the rapid
growth of his calves. It is especially necessary to see that the troughs
from which they are fed, if troughs are used, are kept clean and sweet.

But there are some--even among intelligent farmers--who make a practice
of turning their calves out to pasture at the tender age of two or three
weeks--and that, too, when they have sucked the cow up to that time--and
allow them nothing in the shape of milk and tender care. This,
certainly, is the poorest possible economy, to say nothing of the
manifest cruelty of such treatment. The growth of the calf is checked,
and the system receives a shock from so sudden a change, from which it
cannot soon recover. The careful Dutch breeders bring the calves either
skimmed milk or buttermilk to drink several times a day after they are
turned to grass, which is not till the age of ten or twelve weeks; and,
if the weather is chilly, the milk is warmed for them. They put a
trough generally under a covering, to which the calves may come and
drink at regular times. Thus, they are kept tame and docile.

In the raising of calves, through all stages of their growth, great care
should be taken neither to starve nor to over-feed. A calf should never
be surfeited, and never be fed so highly that it cannot be fed more
highly as it advances. The most important part is to keep it growing
thriftily without getting too fat, if it is to be raised for the dairy.

The calves in the dairy districts of Scotland are fed on the milk, with
seldom any admixture; and they are not permitted to suck their dams, but
are taught to drink milk by the hand from a dish. They are generally fed
on milk only for the first four, five, or six weeks, and are then
allowed from two to two and a half quarts of new milk each meal, twice
in the twenty-four hours. Some never give them any other food when young
except milk, lessening the quantity when the calf begins to eat grass or
other food, which it generally does when about five weeks old, if grass
can be had; and withdrawing it entirely about the seventh or eighth week
of the calf's age. But, if the calf is reared in winter, or early in
spring, before the grass rises, it must be supplied with at least some
milk until it is eight or nine weeks old, as a calf will not so soon
learn to eat hay or straw, nor fare so well on them alone as it will on
pasture. Some feed their calves reared for stock partly with meal mixed
in the milk after the third or fourth week. Others introduce gradually
some new whey into the milk, first mixed with meal; and, when the calf
gets older, they withdraw the milk, and feed it on whey and porridge.
Hay-tea, juices of peas and beans, or pea or bean-straw, linseed beaten
into powder, treacle, etc., have all been sometimes used to advantage in
feeding calves; but milk, when it can be spared, is, in the judgment of
the Scotch breeders, by far their most natural food.

In Galloway, and other pastoral districts, where the calves are allowed
to suck, the people are so much wedded to their own customs as to argue
that suckling is much more nutritious to the calves than any other mode
of feeding. That it induces a greater secretion of saliva, which, by
promoting digestion, accelerates the growth and fattening of the young
animal, cannot be doubted; but the secretion of that fluid may likewise
be promoted by placing an artificial teat in the mouth of the calf, and
giving it the milk slowly, and at the natural temperature. In the dairy
districts of Scotland, the dairymaid puts one of her fingers into the
mouth of the calf when it is fed, which serves the purpose of a teat,
and will have nearly the same effect as the natural teat in inducing the
secretion of saliva. If that, or an artificial teat of leather, be used,
and the milk be given slowly before it is cold, the secretion of saliva
may be promoted to all the extent that can be necessary; besides,
secretion is not confined to the mere period of eating, but, as in the
human body, the saliva is formed and part of it swallowed at all times.
As part of the saliva is sometimes seen dropping from the mouths of the
calves, it might be advisable not only to give them an artificial teat
when fed, but to place, as is frequently done, a lump of chalk before
them to lick, thus leading them to swallow the saliva. The chalk would
so far supply the want of salt, of which cattle are often so improperly
deprived, and it would also promote the formation of saliva. Indeed,
calves are very much disposed to lick and suck every thing which comes
within their reach, which seems to be the way in which Nature teaches
them to supply their stomachs with saliva.

[Illustration: FROLICKSOME.]

But though sucking their dams may be most advantageous in that respect,
yet it has also some disadvantages. The cow is always more injured than
the calf is benefited by that mode of feeding. She becomes so fond of
the calf that she does not, for a long time after, yield her milk freely
to the dairyman. The calf does not when young draw off the milk
completely, and when it is taken off by the hand, the cow withholds a
part of her milk, and, whenever a cow's udder is not completely emptied
every time she is milked, the lactic secretion--as before stated--is
thereby diminished.

Feeding of calves by hand is also, in various respects, advantageous.
Instead of depending on the uncertain, or perhaps precarious supply of
the dam, which may be more at first than the young animal can consume or
digest, and at other times too little for its supply, its food can, by
hand-feeding, be regulated to suit the age, appetite, and the purposes
for which the calf is intended; other admixtures or substitutes can be
introduced into the milk, and the quantity gradually increased or
withdrawn at pleasure. This is highly necessary when the calves are
reared for stock. The milk is in that case diminished, and other food
introduced so gradually that the stomach of the young animal is not
injured as it is when the food is too suddenly changed. And, in the case
of feeding calves for the butcher, the quantity of milk is not limited
to that of the dam--for no cow will allow a stranger-calf to suck
her--but it can be increased, or the richest or poorest parts of the
milk given at pleasure.

Such are, substantially, the views upon this subject which are
entertained by the most judicious farmers in the first dairy districts
of Scotland.

In those districts--where, probably, the feeding and management of
calves are as well and as judiciously conducted as in any other part of
Great Britain--the farmers' wives and daughters, or the female
domestics, have the principal charge of young calves; and they are,
doubtless, much better calculated for this duty than men, since they are
more inclined to be gentle and patient. The utmost gentleness--as has
been already remarked, in another connection--should always be observed
in the treatment of all stock; but especially of milch cows, and calves
designed for the dairy. Persevering kindness and patience, will, almost
invariably, overcome the most obstinate natures; while rough and
ungentle handling will be repaid in a quiet kind of way, perhaps, by
withholding the milk, which will always have a tendency to dry up the
cow; or, what is nearly as bad, by kicking and other modes of revenge,
which often contribute to the personal discomfort of the milker. The
disposition of the cow is greatly modified, if not, indeed, wholly
formed, by her treatment while young; and therefore it is best to handle
calves as much as possible, and make pets of them, lead them with a
halter, and caress them in various ways. Calves managed in this way will
always be docile, and suffer themselves to be approached and handled,
both in the pasture and in the barn.

With respect to the use of hay-tea--often used in this country, but more
common abroad, where greater care and attention are usually bestowed
upon the details of breeding--Youatt says: "At the end of three or four
days, or perhaps a week, or near a fortnight, after a calf has been
dropped, and the first passages have been cleansed by allowing it to
drink as much of the cow's milk as it feels inclined for, let the
quantity usually allotted for a meal be mixed, consisting, for the first
week, of three parts of milk and one part of hay-tea. _The only
nourishing infusion of hay is that which is made from the best and
sweetest hay, cut by a chaff-cutter into pieces about two inches long_,
and put into an earthen vessel; over this, boiling water should be
poured, and the whole allowed to stand for two hours, during which time
it ought to be kept carefully closed. After the first week, the
proportions of milk and hay-tea may be equal; then composed of
two-thirds of hay-tea and one of milk; and at length, one-fourth part of
milk will be sufficient. This food should be given to the calf in a
lukewarm state _at least three, if not four times a day, in quantities
averaging three quarts at a meal_, but gradually increasing to four
quarts as the calf grows older. Toward the end of the second month,
beside the usual quantity given at each meal--composed of three parts of
the infusion and one of milk--a small wisp or bundle of hay is to be
laid before the calf, which will gradually come to eat it; but, if the
weather is favorable, as in the month of May, the beast may be turned
out to graze in a fine, sweet pasture, well sheltered from the wind and
sun. This diet may be continued until toward the latter end of the third
month, when, if the calf grazes heartily, each meal may be reduced to
less than a quart of milk, with hay-water; or skimmed milk, or fresh
buttermilk, may be substituted for new milk. At the expiration of the
third month, the animal will hardly require to be fed by hand; though,
if this should still be necessary, one quart of the infusion given
daily--which, during the summer, need not be warmed--will suffice." The
hay-tea should be made fresh every two days, as it soon loses its
nutritious quality.

This and other preparations are given, not because they are better than
milk,--than which nothing is better adapted to fatten a calf, or promote
its growth,--but simply to economize by providing the simplest and
cheapest substitutes. Experience shows that the first two or three
calves are smaller than those which follow; and hence, unless they are
pure-bred, and to be kept for the blood, they are not generally thought
to be so desirable to raise for the dairy as the third or fourth, and
those that come after, up to the age of nine or ten years. Opinions upon
this point, however, differ.

According to the comparative experiments of a German agriculturist, cows
which as calves had been allowed to suck their dams from two to four
weeks, brought calves which weighed only from thirty-five to forty-eight
pounds; while others, which as calves had been allowed to suck from five
to eight weeks, brought calves which weighed from sixty to eighty
pounds. It is difficult to see how there can be so great a difference,
if, indeed, there be any; but it may be worthy of careful observation
and experiment, and as such it is stated here. The increased size of the
calf would be due to the increased size to which the cow would attain;
and if as a calf she were allowed to run in the pasture with her dam for
four or five months, taking all the milk she wanted, she would doubtless
be kept growing on in a thriving condition. But taking a calf from the
cow at four or even eight weeks must check its growth to some extent;
and this may be avoided by feeding liberally, and bringing up by hand.

After the calf is fully weaned, there is nothing very peculiar in the
general management. A young animal will require for the first few
months--say up to the age of six months--an average of five or six
pounds daily of good hay, or its equivalent. At the age of six months,
it will require from four and a half to five pounds; and at the end of
the year, from three and a half or four pounds of good hay, or its
equivalent, for every one hundred pounds of its live weight; or, in
other words, about three and a half or four per cent. of its live
weight. At two years old, it will require three and a half, and some
months later, three per cent. of its live weight daily in good hay, or
its equivalent. Indian-corn fodder, either green or cured, forms an
excellent and wholesome food at this age.

The heifer should not be pampered, nor yet poorly fed or half starved,
so as to receive a check in her growth. An abundant supply of good
healthy dairy food and milk will do all that is necessary up to the time
of her having her first calf--which should not ordinarily be till the
age of three years, though some choose to allow them to come in at two,
or a little over, on the ground that it early stimulates the secretion
of milk, and that this will increase the milking propensity through
life. This is undoubtedly the case, as a general rule; but greater
injury is at the same time done by checking the growth, unless the
heifer has been fed up to large size and full development from the
start--in which case she may perhaps take the bull at fifteen or
eighteen months without injury. Even if a heifer comes in at two years,
it is generally deemed desirable to let her run barren for the following
year, which will promote her growth and more perfect development.

The feeding which young stock often get is not such as is calculated to
make good-sized or valuable cattle of them. They are often fed on the
poorest of hay or straw through the winter, not infrequently left
exposed to cold, unprotected and unhoused, and thus stinted in their
growth. This is, surely, the very worst economy, or rather it is no
economy at all. Properly viewed, it is an extravagant wastefulness which
no farmer can afford. No animal develops its good points under such
treatment; and if the starving system is to be followed at all, it had
better be after the age of two or three years, when the animal's
constitution has attained the strength and vigor which may, possibly,
enable it to resist ill treatment.

To raise up first-rate milkers, it is absolutely necessary to feed on
dairy food even when they are young. No matter how fine the breed is, if
the calf is raised on poor, short feed, it will never be so good a
milker as if raised on better keeping; and hence, in dairy districts,
where calves are raised at all, they ought to be allowed the best
pasture during the summer, and good, sweet and wholesome food during
the winter.


POINTS OF FAT CATTLE.

Whatever theoretical objections may be raised against over-fed cattle,
and great as may be the attempts to disparage the mountains of fat,--as
highly-fed cattle are sometimes designated,--there is no doubt of the
practical fact, that the best butcher cannot sell any thing but the best
fatted beef; and of whatever age, size, or shape a half-fatted ox may
be, he is never selected by judges as fit for human food. Hence, a
well-fatted animal always commands a better price per pound than one
imperfectly fed, and the parts selected as the primest beef are
precisely the parts which contain the largest deposits of fat. The rump,
the crop, and the sirloin, the very favorite cuts,--which always command
from twenty to twenty-five per cent. more than any other part of the
ox,--are just those parts on which the largest quantities of fat are
found; so that, instead of the taste and fashion of the age being
against the excessive fattening of animals, the fact is, practically,
exactly the reverse. Where there is the most fat, there is the best
lean; where there is the greatest amount of muscle, without its share of
fat, that part is accounted inferior, and is used for a different
purpose; in fact, so far from fat's being a disease, it is a condition
of muscle, necessary to its utility as food,--a source of luxury to the
rich, and of comfort to the poor, furnishing a nourishing and healthy
diet for their families.

Fattening is a secretive power which grazing animals possess, enabling
them to lay by a store of the superfluous food which they take for
seasons of cold or scarcity. It collects round the angular bones of the
animal, and gives the appearance of rotundity; hence the tendency to
deposit fat is indicated, as has been stated, by a _roundness_ of form,
as opposed to the _fatness_ of a milk-secreting animal. But its greatest
use is, that it is a store of heat-producing aliment, laid up for
seasons of scarcity and want. The food of animals, for the most part,
may be said to consist of a saccharine, an oleaginous, and an albuminous
principle. To the first belong all the starchy, saccharine, and gummy
parts of the plants, which undergo changes in the digestive organs
similar to fermentation before they can be assimilated in the system; by
them also animal heat is sustained. In indolent animals, the oily parts
of plants are deposited and laid up as fat; and, when vigor and strength
fail, this is taken up and also used in breathing to supply the place of
the consumed saccharine matter. The albuminous, or gelatinous principle
of plants is mainly useful in forming muscle; while the ashes of plants,
the unconsumable parts, are for the supply, mainly, of bone, hair, and
horn, but also of muscle and of blood, and to supply the waste which
continually goes on.

Now, there are several qualities which are essentially characteristic of
a disposition to fatten. There have not, as yet, been any book-rules
laid down, as in the case of M. Guénon's indications of milking-cows;
but there are, nevertheless, marks so definite and well understood, that
they are comprehended and acted upon by every grazier, although they are
by no means easy to describe. It is by skillful acumen that the grazier
acquires his knowledge, and not by theoretical rules; observation,
judgment, and experience, powerful perceptive faculties, and a keen and
minute comparison and discrimination, are essential to his success.

[Illustration: POINTS OF CATTLE.]

The first indication upon which he relies, is the _touch_. It is the
absolute criterion of _quality_, which is supposed to be the keystone of
perfection in all animals, whether for the pail or the butcher. The skin
is so intimately connected with the internal organs, in all animals,
that it is questionable whether even our schools of medicine might not
make more use of it in a diagnosis of disease. Of physiological
tendencies in cattle, however, it is of the last and most vital
importance. It must neither be thick, nor hard, nor adhere firmly to the
muscles. If it is so, the animal is a hard grazer, a difficult and
obstinate feeder--no skillful man will purchase it--such a creature must
go to a novice, and even to him at a price so low as to tempt him to
become a purchaser. On the other hand, the skin must not be thin, like
paper, nor flaccid, nor loose in the hand, nor flabby. This is the
opposite extreme, and is indicative of delicateness, bad, flabby flesh,
and, possibly, of inaptitude to retain the fat. It must be _elastic_ and
velvety, soft and pliable, presenting to the touch a gentle resistance,
but so delicate as to give pleasure to the sensitive hand--a skin, in
short, which seems at first to give an indentation from the pressure of
the fingers, but which again rises to its place by a gentle elasticity.

The _hair_ is of nearly as much importance as the skin. A hard skin will
have straight and stiff hair; it will not have a curl, but be thinly and
lankly distributed equally over the surface. A proper grazing animal
will have a _mossy_ coat, not absolutely curled, but having a
disposition to a graceful curl, a semifold, which presents a waving
inequality; but as different from a close and straightly-laid coat, as
it is from one standing off the animal at right angles, a strong symptom
of disease. It will also, in a thriving animal, be licked here and there
with its tongue, a proof that the skin is duly performing its functions.

There must be, also, the full and goggle _eye_, bright and pressed
outward by the fatty bed below; because, as this is a part where Nature
always provides fat, an animal capable of developing it to any
considerable extent, will have its indications here, at least, when it
exists in excess.

So much for feeding qualities in the animal, and their conformations
indicative of this kindly disposition. Next come such formations of the
animal itself as are favorable to the growth of fat, other things being
equal. There must be _size_ where large weights are expected. Christmas
beef, for instance, is expected to be large as well as fat. The symbol
of festivity should be capacious, as well as prime in quality. But it is
so much a matter of choice and circumstance with the grazier, that
profit alone will be his guide. The axiom will be, however, as a general
rule, that the better the grazing soil the larger the animal may be; the
poorer the soil, the smaller the animal. Small animals are,
unquestionably, much more easily fed, and they are well known by
experienced men to be best adapted to second-rate feeding pastures.

But, beyond this, there must be _breadth_ of carcass. This is indicative
of fattening, perhaps, beyond all other qualifications. If rumps are
favorite joints and produce the best price, it is best to have the
animal which will grow the longest, the broadest, and the best rump; the
same of crop, and the same of sirloin; and not only so, but breadth is
essential to the consumption of that quantity of food which is necessary
to the development of a large amount of fat in the animal. Thus, a deep,
wide chest, favorable for the respiratory and circulating functions,
enables it to consume a large amount of food, to take up the sugary
matter, and to deposit the fatty matter,--as then useless for
respiration, but afterwards to be prized. A full level crop will be of
the same physiological utility; while a broad and open framework at the
hips will afford scope for the action of the liver and kidneys.

There are other points, also, of much importance; the head must be small
and fine; its special use is indicative of the quick fattening of the
animal so constructed, and it is also indicative of the bones being
small and the legs short. For constitutional powers, the beast should
have his ribs extended well towards the thigh-bones or hips, so as to
leave as little unprotected space as possible. There must be no
angular, or abrupt points; all must be round, and broad, and parallel.
Any depression in the lean animal will give a deficient deposit of flesh
and fat at that point, when sold to the butcher, and thus deteriorate
its value; and hence the animal must be round and full.

But either fancy, or accident, or skill--it is unnecessary to decide
which--has associated _symmetry_ with quality and conformation, as a
point of great importance in animals calculated for fattening; and there
is no doubt that, to a certain extent, this is so. The beast must be a
system of mathematical lines. To the advocate of symmetry, the
setting-on of a tail will be a condemning fault; indeed the ridge of the
back, like a straight line, with the outline of the belly exactly
parallel, viewed from the side, and a depth and squareness when viewed
from behind,--which remind us of a geometrical cube, rather than a vital
economy,--may be said to be the indications of excellence in a fat ox.
The points of excellence in such an animal are outlined under the
subsequent head, as developed in the cutting up after slaughter.

Now, these qualities are inherent in some breeds; there may be cases and
instances in all the superior breeds, and in most there may be failures.


DRIVING AND SLAUGHTERING.

It is necessary that cattle which have been disposed of to the dealer or
butcher, or which are intended to be driven to market, should undergo a
preparation for the journey. If they were immediately put to the road to
travel, from feeding on grass or turnips, when their bowels are full of
undigested vegetable matter, a scouring might ensue which would render
them unfit to pursue their journey; and this complaint is the more
likely to be brought on from the strong propensity which cattle have to
take violent exercise upon feeling themselves at liberty after a long
confinement. They in fact, become light-headed whenever they leave the
barn or enclosure, so much so that they actually "frisk and race and
leap," and their antics would be highly amusing, were it not for the
apprehension that they may hurt themselves against some opposing object,
as they seem to regard nothing before them.

On being let out for the first time, cattle should be put for awhile
into a larger court, or on a road well fenced with enclosures, and
guarded by men, to romp about. Two or three such allowances of liberty
will render them quiet; and, in the mean time, to lighten their weight
of carcass, they should have hay for a large proportion of their food.
These precautions are absolutely necessary for cattle which have been
confined in barns; otherwise, accidents may befall them on the road,
where they will at once break loose. Even at home serious accidents
sometimes overtake them, such as the breaking down of a horn, casting
off a hoof, spraining a tendon, bruising ribs, and heating the whole
body violently; and, of course, when any such ill luck befalls, the
animal affected must be left behind, and become a drawback upon the
value of the rest, unless kept for some time longer.

Having the cattle prepared for travel, the drover takes the road very
slowly for the first two days, not exceeding seven or eight miles a day.
At night, in winter, they should be put into an open court, and supplied
with hay, water, and a very few turnips; for, if roots are suddenly
withdrawn from them,--since it is taken for granted that these have
formed a staple portion of their food,--their bellies will become
shrunken up into smaller dimensions--a state very much against favorable
appearance in market. After the first two days they may proceed faster,
say twelve or thirteen miles a day, if very fat; and fifteen, if
moderately so. When the journey is long and the beasts get faint from
travel, they should have corn to support them. In frosty weather, when
the roads become very hard, they are apt to become shoulder-shaken, an
effect of founder; and if sleet falls during the day, and becomes frozen
upon them at night, they may become so chilled as to refuse food, and
shrink rapidly away. Cattle should, if possible, arrive the day before
in the neighborhood of a distant market, and be supplied with a good
feed of roots and hay, or grass, to make them look fresh and fill them
up again; but if the market is at but short distance, they can travel to
it early in the morning.

[Illustration: A FRONTISPIECE.]

In driving cattle the drover should have no dog, which will only annoy
them. He should walk either before or behind, as he sees them disposed
to proceed too fast or to loiter upon the road; and in passing
carriages, the leading ox, after a little experience, will make way for
the rest to follow. On putting oxen on a ferry-boat the shipping of the
first one only is attended with much trouble. A man on each side should
take hold of a horn, or of a halter made of any piece of rope, should
the beast be hornless, and two other men, one on each side, should push
him up behind with a piece of rope held between them as a breeching, and
conduct him along the plank into the boat; if it have low gunwales, a
man will be required to remain beside him until one or two more of the
cattle follow their companion, which they will most readily do. From
neglecting this precaution in small ferry-boats, the first beast
sometimes leaps into the water, when it becomes a difficult task to
prevent some of the rest doing the same thing.

Whatever time a lot of cattle may take to go to a market, they should
never be _overdriven_. There is great difference of management in this
respect among drovers. Some like to proceed upon the road quietly,
slowly, but surely, and to reach the market in a placid, cool state.
Others, again, drive smartly along for some distance, and then rest to
cool awhile, when the beasts will probably get chilled and have a
staring coat when they reach their destination; while others like to
enter the market with their beasts in an excited state, imagining that
they then look gay; but distended nostrils, loose bowels, and reeking
bodies are no recommendations to a purchaser. Good judges are shy of
purchasing cattle in a heated state, because they do not know how long
they may have been in it; and to cover any risk, will give at least five
dollars a head below what they would have offered for them in a cool
state. Some drovers have a habit of thumping at the hindmost beast of
the lot with a stick while on the road. This is a censurable practice,
as the flesh, where it is thumped, will bear a red mark after the
animal has been slaughtered,--the mark receiving the appropriate name of
_blood-burn_--and the flesh thus affected will not take on salt, and is
apt to putrefy. A touch up on the shank, or any tendonous part, when
correction is necessary, is all that is required; but the voice, in most
cases, will answer as well. The flesh of overdriven cattle, when
slaughtered, never becomes properly firm, and their tallow has a soft,
melted appearance.

A few large oxen in one lot look best in a market on a position rather
above the eye of a spectator. When a large lot is nearly alike in size
and appearance, they look best and most level on a flat piece of ground.
Very large fat oxen never look better than on ground on the same level
with the spectator. An ox, to look well, should hold his head on a line
with the body, with lively ears, clear eye, dewy nose, a well-licked
hide, and should stand firmly on the ground on all his feet. These are
all symptoms of high health and good condition. Whenever an ox shifts
his standing from one foot to another, he is _foot-sore_, and has been
driven far. Whenever his head hangs down and his eyes water, he feels
ill at ease inwardly. When his coat stares, he has been overheated some
time, and has got a subsequent _chill_. All these latter symptoms will
be much aggravated in cattle that have been fed in a barn.

Cattle are made to fast before being slaughtered. The time they should
stand depends upon their state on their arrival at the shambles. If they
have been driven a considerable distance in a proper manner, the bowels
will be in a tolerably empty state, so that twelve hours may suffice;
but if they are full and just off their food, twenty-four hours will be
required. Beasts that have been overdriven, or much struck with sticks,
or in any degree infuriated, should not be immediately slaughtered, but
allowed to stand on dry food, such as hay, until the symptoms disappear.
These precautions are absolutely necessary that the meat may be
preserved in the best state.

The mode of slaughtering cattle varies in different countries. In the
great slaughter-houses at Montmartre, in Paris, they are slaughtered by
bisecting the spinal cord of the cervical vertebræ; and this is
accomplished by the driving of a sharp-pointed chisel between the second
and third vertebræ, with a smart stroke of a mallet, while the animal is
standing, when it drops, and death or insensibility instantly ensues,
and the blood is let out immediately by opening the blood-vessels of the
neck. The plan adopted in England is, first to bring the ox down on his
knees, and place his under-jaw upon the ground by means of ropes
fastened to his head and passed through an iron ring in the floor of the
slaughterhouse. He is then stunned with a few blows from an iron axe
made for the purpose, on the forehead, the bone of which is usually
driven into the brain. The animal then falls upon his side, and the
blood is let out by the neck. Of the two modes, the French is apparently
the less cruel, for some oxen require many blows to make them fall. Some
butchers, however, allege that the separation of the spinal cord, by
producing a general nervous convulsion throughout the body, prevents the
blood from flowing as rapidly and entirely out of it as when the ox is
stunned in the forehead. The skin is then taken off to the knees, when
the legs are disjointed, and also off the head. The carcass is then
hung up by the tendons of the hough on a stretcher, by a block and
tackle, worked by a small winch, which retains in place what rope it
winds up by means of a wheel and ratchet.

After the carcass has hung for twenty-four hours, it should be cut down
by the back-bone, or chine, into two _sides_. This is done either with
the saw, or chopper; the saw making the neatest job in the hands of an
inexperienced butcher, though it is the most laborious; and with the
chopper is the quickest, but by no means the neatest plan, especially in
the hands of a careless workman. In London, the chine is equally divided
between both sides; while in Scotland, one side of a carcass of beef has
a great deal more bone than the other, all the spinous processes of the
vertebræ being left upon it. The bony is called the _lying_ side of the
meat. In London, the divided processes in the fore-quarters are broken
in the middle when warm, and chopped back with the flat side of the
chopper, which has the effect of thickening the fore and middle ribs
considerably when cut up. The London butcher also cuts the joints above
the hind knee, and, by making some incisions with a sharp knife, cuts
the tendons there, and drops the flesh of the hind-quarter on the flank
and loins, which causes it to cut up thicker than in the Scotch mode. In
opening the hind-quarter he also cuts the aitch bone, or pelvis through
the centre, which makes the rump look better. Some butchers in the north
of England score the fat of the _closing_ of the hind-quarter, which has
the effect of making that part of both heifer and ox look like the udder
of an old cow. There is far too much of this scoring practised in
Scotland, which prevents the pieces from retaining--which they should,
as nearly as possible--their natural appearance.

In cutting up a carcass of beef the London butcher displays great
expertness; he not only discriminates between the qualities of its
different parts, but can cut out any piece to gratify the taste of his
customers. In this way he makes the best use of the carcass and realizes
the largest value for it, while he gratifies the taste of every grade of
customers. A figure of the Scotch and English modes of cutting up a
carcass of beef will at once show the difference; and upon being
informed where the valuable pieces lie, an opinion can be formed as to
whether the oxen the farmer is breeding or feeding possess the
properties which will enable him to demand the highest price for them.

[Illustration: SCOTCH MODE OF CUTTING UP BEEF.]

The sirloin is the principal roasting-piece, making a very handsome
dish, and is a universal favorite. It consists of two portions, the
Scotch and English sides; the former is above the lumbar bones, and is
somewhat hard in ill-fed cattle; the latter consists of the muscles
under these bones, which are generally covered with fine fat, and are
exceedingly tender. The better the beast is fed, the larger is the under
muscle, better covered with fat, and more tender to eat. The hook-bone
and the buttock are cut up for steaks, beefsteak pie, or minced
collops, and both these, together with the sirloin, bring the highest
price. The large round and the small round are both well known as
excellent pieces for salting and boiling, and are eaten cold with great
relish. The hough is peculiarly suited for boiling down for soup, having
a large proportion of gelatinous matter. Brown soup is the principal
dish made of the hough, but its decoction forms an excellent _stock_ for
various dishes, and will keep in a state of jelly for a considerable
time. The thick and the thin flank are both admirable pieces for salting
and boiling. The tail, insignificant as it may seem, makes a soup of a
very fine flavor. Hotel-keepers have a trick of seasoning brown soup or
rather beef-tea, with a few joints of tail, and passing it off for
genuine ox-tail soup. These are all the pieces which constitute the
hind-quarter; and it will be seen that they are valuable both for
roasting and boiling, not containing a single coarse piece.

In the fore-quarter, is the spare rib, the six ribs of the back end of
which make an excellent roast, and when taken from the side opposite to
the _lying_ one, being free of the bones of the spine, it makes a large
one; and it also makes excellent beefsteaks and beefsteak pie. The two
runners and the nineholes make salting and boiling pieces; but, of
these, the nineholes is much the best, as it consists of layers of fat
and lean without any bone; whereas the fore parts of the runners have a
piece of shoulder-blade in them, and every piece connected with that
bone is more or less coarse-grained. The brisket eats very well boiled
fresh in broth, and may be cooked and eaten with boiled greens or
carrots. The shoulder-lyar is a coarse piece, and fit only for boiling
fresh to make into broth or beef-tea. The nap, or shin, is analogous to
the hough of the hind-leg, but not so rich and fine, there being much
less gelatinous matter in it. The neck makes good broth; and the
sticking-piece is a great favorite with some epicures, on account of the
pieces of rich fat in it. It makes an excellent stew, as also sweet
barley-broth, and the meat eats well when boiled in it.

These are all the pieces of the fore-quarter; and it will be seen that
they consist chiefly of boiling-pieces, and some of them none of the
finest--the roasting-piece being confined to the six ribs of the spare
rib, and the finest boiling-piece, corned, only to be found in the
nineholes.

[Illustration: ENGLISH MODE OF CUTTING UP BEEF.]

The loin is the principal roasting-piece; the rump is the favorite
steak-piece; the aitch-bone, the favorite stew; the buttock, the thick
flank, and the thin flank are all excellent boiling-pieces when corned;
the hock and the shin make soup and afford stock for the various
requirements of the culinary art; and the tail furnishes ox-tail soup--a
favorite English luncheon. These are all the pieces of the hind-quarter,
and they are valuable of their respective kinds.

In the fore-quarter, the fore-rib, middle-rib, and chuckle-rib are all
roasting-pieces, not alike good; but in removing the part of the
shoulder-blade in the middle-rib, the spare-ribs below make a good
broil or roast; the neck makes soup, being used fresh, boiled; the back
end of the brisket is boiled, corned, or stewed; the leg-of-mutton piece
is coarse, but is as frequently stewed as boiled; the shin is put to the
same use as the shin and hock of the hind-quarter.

On comparing the two modes of cutting-up, it will be observed that in
the English there are more roasting-pieces than in the Scotch, a large
proportion of the fore-quarter being used in that way. The plan, too, of
cutting the loin between the rump and aitch-bone in the hind-quarter,
lays open the steak-pieces to better advantage than in the Scotch
bullock. Extending the comparison from one part of the carcass to the
other, in both methods, it will be seen that the most valuable
pieces--the roasting--occupy its upper, and the less valuable--the
boiling--its lower part. Every beast, therefore, that lays on beef more
upon the upper part of its body is more valuable than one that lays the
same quantity of flesh on its lower parts.

It is deemed unnecessary to enter into details as to the modes of
cutting-up most in vogue in this country, as there is a needlessly great
want of uniformity.

Of the qualities of beef obtained from the different breeds of cattle in
England, there is no better meat than from the West Highlanders for
fineness of grain and cutting up into convenient pieces for family use.
The Galloways and Angus, when fattened in English pastures, are great
favorites in the London market. The Short Horns afford excellent steaks,
being thick of flesh, and the slice deep, large and juicy, and their
covered flanks and nineholes are always thick, juicy, and well-mixed.
The Herefords are somewhat similar to the Short Horns, and the Devons,
may, perhaps, be classed among the Galloways and Angus, while the Welsh
cannot be compared to the West Highlanders. Taking, then, the breeds of
Scotland as suppliers of good beef, they seem to be more valuable for
the table than those of England.

There are, perhaps, not sufficient data in existence to determine the
true proportion of offal of all kinds to the beef of any given fat ox;
but approximations have been made, which may serve the purpose until the
matter is investigated by direct experiment, under various
circumstances. The dead weight bears to the live weight a ratio varying
between .571 and .605 to 1; and on applying one or the other multiplier
to the cases of the live weight, a pretty correct approximation is
reached. The tallow is supposed to be eight one-hundredths of the live
weight; so that the multiplier is the decimal .08. The hide is supposed
to be five one-hundredths of the live weight; so to obtain its weight, a
multiplier, .05, is used. The other offals are supposed to be in a
proportion of about one-fourth of the live weight; so that the
multiplier, .28, is as near as can be proposed under existing
experience.

Beef is the staple animal food of this country, and it is used in
various states--fresh, salted, smoked, roasted, and boiled. When
intended to be eaten fresh, the _ribs_ will keep the best, and with care
will keep five or six days in summer, and in winter ten days. The middle
of the _loin_ is the next best, and the _rump_ the next. The _round_
will not keep long, unless it is salted. The _brisket_ is the worst, and
will not keep more than three days in summer, and in winter a week.

In regard to the power of the stomach to digest beef, that which is
eaten boiled with salt only, is digested in two hours and forty-five
minutes. Beef, fresh, lean, and rarely-roasted, and a beefsteak broiled,
takes three hours to digest; that fresh, and dry-roasted, and boiled,
eaten with mustard, is digested in three and a half hours. Lean fresh
beef fried, requires four hours, and old hard salted beef boiled, does
not digest in less than four and a quarter hours. Fresh beef-suet boiled
takes five and a half hours.

The usual mode of preserving beef is by salting; and, when intended to
keep for a long time, such as for the use of shipping, it is always
salted with brine; but for family use it should be salted only with good
salt; for brine dispels the juice of meat, and saltpetre only serves to
make the meat dry, and give it a disagreeable and unnatural red color.
Various experiments have been made in curing beef with salt otherwise
than by hand-rubbing, and in a short space of time, and also to preserve
it from putrefaction by other means than salt. Some packers put meat in
a copper which is rendered air-tight, and an air-pump then creates a
vacuum within it, thereby extracting all the air out of the meat; then
brine is pumped in by pressure, which, entering into every pore of the
meat formerly occupied by the air, is said to place it in a state of
preservation in a few minutes. The carcass of an ox was preserved, in
France, for two years from putrefaction by injecting four pounds of
saline mixture into the carotid artery. Whether any such contrivance can
be made available for family purposes, seems doubtful.

Cattle, when slaughtered, are useful to man in various other ways than
by affording food from their flesh,--their offal of tallow, hides, and
horns, forming extensive articles of commerce. Of the _hide_, the
characteristics of a good one for strong purposes are strength in its
middle, or _butt_, as it called, and lightness in the edges, or _offal_.
A bad hide is the opposite of this--thick in the edges and thin in the
middle. A good hide has a firm texture; a bad one, loose and soft. A
hide improves as the summer advances, and it continues to improve after
the new coat of hair in autumn until November or December, when the coat
gets rough from the coldness of the season, and the hide is then in its
best state. It is surprising how a hide improves in thickness after the
cold weather has set in. The sort of food does not seem to affect the
quality of the hide; but the better it is, and the better cattle have
been fed, and the longer they have been well fed, even from a calf, the
better the hide. From what has been said of the effect of weather upon
the hide, it seems a natural conclusion that a hide is better from an ox
that has been fed in the open air, than from one that has been kept in
the barn. Dirt adhering to a hide injures it, particularly in stall-fed
animals; and any thing that punctures a hide, such as warbles arising
from certain insects, is also injurious. The best hides are obtained
from the West Highlanders. The Short Horns produce the thinnest hides,
the Aberdeenshire the next, and then the Angus. Of the same breed, the
ox affords the strongest hide; but, as hides are applied to various
uses, the cow's, provided it be large, may be as valuable as that of the
ox. The bull's hide is the least valuable. Hides are imported from
Russia and South America.

Hides, when deprived of their hair, are converted into _leather_ by an
infusion of the astringent property of bark. The old plan of tanning
used to occupy a long time; but, such was the value of the process, that
the old tanners used to pride themselves upon producing a substantial
article--which is more than can be said in many instances under modern
improved modes, which hasten the process, much to the injury of the
article produced. Strong infusions of bark make leather brittle; one
hundred pounds of skin, quickly tanned in a strong infusion, produce one
hundred and thirty-seven pounds of leather; while a weak infusion
produces only one hundred and seventeen and a half,--the additional
nineteen and a half pounds serving only to deteriorate the leather, and
causing it to contain much less textile animal solid. Leather thus
highly charged with tanning is so spongy as to allow moisture to pass
readily through its pores, to the great discomfort and injury of those
who wear shoes made of it. The proper mode of tanning lasts a year, or a
year and a half, according to the quality of the leather wanted and the
nature of the hides. A perfect leather can be recognized by its section,
which should have a glistening marbled appearance, without any white
streaks in the middle. The hair which is taken off hides in tanning, is
employed to mix with plaster, and is often surreptitiously put into
hair-mattresses.

The principal substances of which _glue_ is made are the
parings of ox and other thick hides, which form the strongest article
and the refuse of the leather-dresser. Both afford from forty-five to
fifty-five per cent. of glue. The tendons, and many other offals of
slaughter-houses, also afford materials, though of an inferior quality,
for this purpose. The refuse of tanneries--such as the ears of oxen and
calves--are better articles. Animal skins also, in any form, uncombined
with tannin, may be worked into glue.

_Ox-tallow_ is of great importance in the arts. Candles and soap are
made of it, and it enters largely into the dressing of leather and the
use of machinery. Large quantities are annually exported from Russia.
Ox-tallow consists of seventy-six parts of stearine and twenty-four of
oleine, out of one hundred parts.

The _horns_ of oxen are used for many purposes. The horn consists of two
parts: an outward horny case, and an inward conical-shaped substance,
somewhat intermediate between indurated hair and bone, called the
_fluid_ of the horn. These two parts are separated by means of a blow
upon a block of wood. The horny exterior is then cut into three portions
by means of a frame saw. The lowest of these, next the root of the horn,
after undergoing several processes by which it is rendered flat, is made
into combs.

The middle of the horn, after having been flattened by heat, and its
transparency improved by oil, is split into thin layers, and forms a
substitute for glass in lanterns of the commonest kind. The tip of the
horns is used by makers of knife-handles and of the tops of whips, and
for other similar purposes. The interior, or core of the horn, is boiled
down in water. A large quantity of fat rises to the surface; this is put
aside, and sold to the makers of yellow soap. The itself is used as a
kind of glue, and is purchased by the cloth-draper for stiffening. The
bony substance remaining behind is then sent to the mill, and, after
having been ground down, is sold to farmers for manure.

Besides these various purposes to which the different parts of the horn
are applied, the clippings which arise in comb-making are sold to the
farmer for manure, as well as the shavings which form the refuse of the
lantern-makers. Horn, as is well known, is easily rendered soft and
pliant in warm water; and by this peculiarity and its property of
adhering like glue, large plates of horn can be made by cementing
together the edges of small pieces rendered flat by a peculiar process,
as a substitute for glass. Imitation of tortoise-shell can be given to
horn by means of various metallic solutions. Horn, also, when softened,
can be imprinted with any pattern, by means of dies.



[Illustration]

Diseases and their Remedies


Under this head it is proposed to notice such diseases as are most
common among cattle, together with their symptoms, and to suggest such
treatment of the same as has been found in the practice of the author,
in the main, effective. He is aware that much more space might have been
appropriated to this head, as has been the case in other treatises of
this class; but he doubts the propriety of multiplying words about
diseases which are of very rare occurrence, deeming it more fitting to
leave such instances exclusively to the intelligent consideration of the
reliable veterinary practitioner.

For convenience of reference, the diseases here noticed have been
arranged in alphabetical order; the whole concluding with information as
to two or three operations which cannot be uninteresting to, or
unprofitable for, the reader.


ABORTION.

The cow is, more than any other animal, subject to abortion, or
slinking, which takes place at different periods of pregnancy, from half
of the usual time to the seventh, or almost to the eighth month. The
symptoms of the approach of abortion, unless the breeder is very much
among his stock, are not often perceived; or, if perceived, they are
concealed by the person in charge, lest he should be accused of neglect
or improper treatment.

The cow is somewhat off her feed--rumination ceases--she is listless and
dull--the milk diminishes or dries up--the motions of the foetus
become more feeble, and at length cease altogether--there is a slight
degree of enlargement of the belly--there is a little staggering in her
walk--when she is down she lies longer than usual, and when she gets up
she stands for a longer time motionless.

As the abortion approaches, a yellow or red glairy fluid runs from the
vagina (this is a symptom, which rarely, or never, deceives) her
breathing becomes laborious and slightly convulsive. The belly has for
several days lost its natural rotundity, and has been evidently
falling,--she begins to moan,--the pulse becomes small, wiry, and
intermittent. At length labor comes on, and is often attended with much
difficulty and danger.

If the abortion has been caused by blows or violence, whether from
brutality, or the animal's having been teased by other cows in season,
or by oxen, the symptoms are more intense. The animal suddenly ceases to
eat and to ruminate--is uneasy, paws the ground, rests her head on the
manger while she is standing, and on her flank when she is lying
down--hemorrhage frequently comes on from the uterus, or when this is
not the case the mouth of that organ is spasmodically contracted. The
throes come on, are distressingly violent, and continue until the womb
is ruptured. If all these circumstances be not observed, still the labor
is protracted and dangerous.

Abortion is sometimes singularly frequent in particular districts, or on
particular farms, appearing to assume an epizoötic or epidemic form.
This has been accounted for in various ways. Some have imagined it to be
contagious. It is, indeed, destructively propagated among the cows, but
this is probably to be explained on a different principle from that of
contagion. The cow is a considerably imaginative animal, and highly
irritable during the period of pregnancy. In abortion, the foetus is
often putrid before it is discharged; and the placenta, or after-birth,
rarely or never follows it, but becomes decomposed, and, as it drops
away in fragments, emits a peculiar and most noisome smell. This smell
seems to be peculiarly annoying to the other cows: they sniff at it and
then run bellowing about. Some sympathetic influence is exercised on
their uterine organs, and in a few days a greater or less number of
those that had pastured together likewise abort. Hence arises the
rapidity with which the foetus is usually taken away and buried
deeply, and far from the cows; and hence the more effectual preventive
of smearing the parts of the cow with tar or stinking oils, in order to
conceal or subdue the smell; and hence, too, the inefficacy, as a
preventive, of removing her to a far-distant pasture.

The pastures on which the blood or inflammatory fever is most prevalent
are those on which the cows oftenest slink their calves. Whatever can
become a source of general excitation and fever is likely, during
pregnancy, to produce inflammation of the womb; or whatever would, under
other circumstances, excite inflammation of almost any organ, has at
that time its injurious effect determined to this particular one.

Every farmer is aware of the injurious effect of the coarse, rank
herbage of low, marshy, and woody countries, and he regards these
districts as the chosen residence of red water; it may be added, that
they are also the chosen residence of abortion. Hard and mineral waters
are justly considered as laying the foundation of many diseases among
cattle, and of abortion among the rest.

Some careful observers have occasionally attributed abortion to
disproportion in size between the male and the female. Farmers were
formerly too fond of selecting a great overgrown bull to serve their
dairy or breeding cows, and many a heifer, or little cow, was seriously
injured; and she either cast her calf, or was lost in parturition. The
breeders of cattle in later years are beginning to act more wisely in
this matter.

Cows that are degenerating into consumption are exceedingly subject to
abortion. They are continually in heat; they rarely become pregnant, or
if they do, a great proportion of them cast their calves. Abortion,
also, often follows a sudden change from poor to luxuriant food. Cows
that have been out, half-starved in the winter, when incautiously turned
on rich pasture in the spring, are too apt to cast their calves from the
undue general or local excitation that is set up. Hence it is, that when
this disposition to abort first appears in a herd, it is naturally in a
cow that has been lately purchased. Fright, from whatever cause, may
produce this trouble. There are singular cases on record of whole herds
of cows slinking their calves after having been terrified by an
unusually violent thunder-storm. Commerce with the bull soon after
conception is also a frequent cause, as well as putrid smells--other
than those already noticed--and the use of a diseased bull. Besides
these tangible causes of abortion, there is the mysterious agency of the
atmosphere. There are certain seasons when abortion is strangely
frequent, and fatal; while at other times it disappears in a manner for
several successive years.

The consequences of premature calving are frequently of a very serious
nature; and even when the case is more favorable, the results are,
nevertheless, very annoying. The animal very soon goes again to heat,
but in a great many cases she fails to become pregnant; she almost
invariably does so, if she is put to the bull during the first heat
after abortion. If she should come in calf again during that season, it
is very probable that at about the same period of gestation, or a little
later, she will again abort: or that when she becomes in calf the
following year, the same fatality will attend her. Some say that this
disposition to cast her young gradually ceases; that if she does
miscarry, it is at a later and still later period of pregnancy; and
that, in about three or four years, she may be depended upon as a
tolerably safe breeder. He, however, would be sadly inattentive to his
own interests who keeps a profitless beast so long.

The calf very rarely lives, and in the majority of cases it is born dead
or putrid. If there should appear to be any chance of saving it, it
should be washed with warm water, carefully dried, and fed frequently
with small quantities of new milk, mixed, according to the apparent
weakness of the animal, either with raw eggs or good gruel; while the
bowels should, if occasion requires, be opened by means of small doses
of castor-oil. If any considerable period is to elapse before the
natural time of pregnancy would have expired, it will usually be
necessary to bring up the little animal entirely by hand.

The treatment of abortion differs but little from that of parturition.
If the farmer has once been tormented by this pest in his dairy, he
should carefully watch the approaching symptoms of casting the calf, and
as soon as he perceives them, should remove the animal from the pasture
to a comfortable cow-house or shed. If the discharge be glairy, but not
offensive, he may hope that the calf is not dead; he will be assured of
this by the motion of the foetus, and then it is possible that the
abortion may still be avoided. He should hasten to bleed her, and that
copiously, in proportion to her age, size, condition, and the state of
excitation in which he may find her; and he should give a dose of physic
immediately after the bleeding. When the physic begins to operate, he
should administer half a drachm of opium and half an ounce of sweet
spirits of nitre. Unless she is in a state of great debility, he should
allow nothing but gruel, and she should be kept as quiet as possible.
By these means he may occasionally allay the general or local irritation
that precedes or causes the abortion, and the cow may yet go to her full
time.

Should, however, the discharge be fetid, the conclusion will be that the
foetus is dead, and must be got rid of, and that as speedily as
possible. Bleeding may even then be requisite if much fever exists; or,
perhaps, if there is debility, some stimulating drink may not be out of
place. In other respects the animal must be treated as if her usual time
of pregnancy had been accomplished.

Much may be done in the way of preventing this habit of abortion among
cows. _The foetus must be got rid of immediately._ It should be buried
deep, and far from the cow-pasture. Proper means should be taken to
hasten the expulsion of the placenta. A dose of physic should be given;
ergot of rye administered; the hand should be introduced, and an effort
made, cautiously and gently, to detach the placenta; all violence,
however, should be carefully avoided; for considerable and fatal
hemorrhage may be speedily produced. The parts of the cow should be well
washed with a solution of the chloride of lime, which should be injected
up the vagina, and also given internally. In the mean time, and
especially after the expulsion of the placenta, the cow-house should be
well washed with the same solution.

The cow, when beginning to recover, should be fattened and sold. This is
the first and the grand step toward the prevention of abortion, and he
is unwise who does not immediately adopt it. All other means are
comparatively inefficient and worthless. Should the owner be reluctant
to part with her, two months, at least, should pass before she is
permitted to return to her companions. Prudence would probably dictate
that she should never return to them, but be kept, if possible, on some
distant part of the farm.

Abortion having once occurred among the herd, the breeding cows should
be carefully watched. Although they should be well fed, they should not
be suffered to get into too high condition. Unless they are decidedly
poor and weak, they should be bled between the third and fourth months
of pregnancy, and a mild dose of physic administered to each. If the
pest continues to reappear, the owner should most carefully examine how
far any of the causes of abortion that have been detected, may exist on
his farm, and exert himself to thoroughly remove them.

An interesting paper upon this subject may be found in the Veterinary
Review, vol. 1., p. 434, communicated by Prof. Henry Tanner, of Queen's
College, Birmingham, England. As it suggests a theory as to the origin
of this disease which is, to say the least, quite plausible, we transfer
the article:--

"I shall not go into any notice of the general subject of abortion, but
rather restrict my remarks to a cause which is very much overlooked, and
yet which is probably more influential than all other causes combined. I
refer to the growth of ergotized grass-seeds in our pastures.

"The action of ergot of rye (_secale cornutum_) upon the womb is well
known as an excitant to powerful action, which usually terminates in the
expulsion of the foetus. We have a similar disease appearing on the
seeds of our grasses, but especially on the rye grass, and thus we have
an ergot of the seeds of rye grass produced, possessing similar exciting
powers upon the womb to those produced by the ergot of rye.

"Two conditions are necessary for the production of this ergot upon the
seed of rye grass. The first is, the grass must be allowed to run to
seed; and the second is, that the climate must be favorable for
encouraging the development of the ergot.

"In practice, we find that on land which has been fed on during the
summer, unless it has been grazed with unusual care, much of the grass
throws up seed-stalks and produces seed. In districts where the climate
is humid and rain abundant, as well as in very wet seasons, these seeds
become liable to the growth of this ergot. Cattle appear to eat it with
a relish, and the result is that abortion spreads rapidly through the
herd. Heifers and cows, which, up to the appearance of the ergot, have
held in calf, are excited to cast their calves by consuming it in their
food. The abortion having once commenced, we know that the peculiarly
sensitive condition of the breeding animal will cause its extension,
even where the original cause may not be in operation; but their
combined action renders the loss far more serious. If we add to this the
tendency which an animal receives from her first abortion, to repeat it
when next in calf, we see how seriously the mischief becomes multiplied.

"A somewhat extended observation, added to my own experience, has led me
to the conviction that very much of the loss arising from abortion in
our cows may be traced to the cause I have named. I feel assured the
influence is even more extended than I have stated; for not only would
the foetus be thrown off in its advanced stage, but also in its
earlier growth, thus causing great trouble to breeders of high-bred
stock, the repeated turning of cows to the bull, and at most irregular
intervals.

"The remedy differs in no respect from the ordinary mode of treatment,
except that it compels a removal of the stock from the influence of the
cause. Much, however, may be done by way of prevention; and this I shall
briefly notice.

"It simply consists in keeping breeding cows and heifers upon land free
from these seeds. Grass which has been grazed during the summer, will
very generally, in a humid climate, have some of this ergotized seed;
but I have not observed it produced before the end of July, or early in
August; and I doubt its existence, to any injurious degree, up to this
time. We may, therefore, consider such ground safe up to this period. If
the breeding stock are then removed to grass land which, having been
mown for this operation is a guaranty against any seeds remaining, it
will seldom, if ever, happen that any injury will result from the
production of ergotized grass later in the season.

"I will not venture to say that such will not appear in some cases where
the grass has been cut early and has been followed by a rapid growth;
but, at any rate, we have grazing land free from this excitant from July
until September; and in the grass which has been mown late, I do not
consider that there is the least fear of ergot's being again formed in
that season. In this manner a farmer may keep grass land for his
breeding stock entirely free from ergotized grass; and, consequently, so
far as this cause is concerned, they will be free from abortion. How far
young heifers may be prejudicially influenced, before they are used for
breeding, by an excitement of the womb, appears to me to be a subject
worthy of some attention on the part of the veterinary profession."


APOPLEXY.

This is a determination of blood to the head, causing pressure upon the
brain. Animals attacked with this disease are generally in a plethoric
condition. The usual symptoms are _coma_ (a sleepy state), eyes
protruding, respiration accelerated; finally, the animal falls,
struggles, and dies.

In such cases, bleeding should be resorted to at an early period; give
in drink one pound of Epsom-salts.


BLACK WATER.

This is simply an exaggerated stage of the disease known as Red
Water,--to which the reader is referred in its appropriate place,--the
urine being darker in color in consequence of the admixture of venous
blood.

The symptoms are similar, though more acute. There is constipation at
first, which is followed by diarrhoea, large quantities of blood
passing away with the evacuations from the bowels; symptoms of abdominal
pain are present; the loins become extremely tender; and the animal dies
in a greatly prostrated condition.

The treatment does not differ from that prescribed in case of Red
Water.


BRONCHITIS.

The trachea and bronchial tubes are frequently the seat of inflammation,
especially in the spring of the year,--the symptoms of which are often
confounded with those of other pulmonary diseases. This inflammation is
frequently preceded by catarrhal affections; cough is often present for
a long time before the more acute symptoms are observed. Bronchitis
occasionally makes its appearance in an epizoötic form.

_Symptoms._--A peculiarly anxious expression of the countenance will be
observed; respiration laborious; a husky, wheezing, painful cough; on
placing the ear to the windpipe a sonorous _râle_ is heard; symptomatic
fever also prevails to a greater or less extent.

_Treatment._--Counter-irritation should be early resorted to; strong
mustard, mixed with equal parts of spirits of hartshorn and water, and
made into a thin paste, should be applied all along the neck, over the
windpipe, and to the sides, and should be well rubbed in; or, the
tincture of cantharides, with ten drops of castor-oil to each ounce,
applied in the same manner as the former, will be found equally
effective. Give internally ten drops of Fleming's tincture of aconite
every four hours, until five or six doses have been given; after which
give one of the following powders twice a day: nitrate of potash, one
ounce; Barbadoes aloes, one ounce; Jamaica ginger, half an ounce;
pulverized-gentian root, one ounce; mix and divide into eight powders.
If necessary a pound of salts may be given.


CONSUMPTION

This affection--technically known as _phthisis pulmonalis_--is the
termination of chronic disease of the lungs. These organs become filled
with many little cysts, or sacks, containing a yellowish or
yellowish-white fluid, which in time is hardened, producing a condition
of the lungs known as tuberculous. These tubercles in turn undergo
another change, becoming soft in the centre and gradually involving the
whole of the hardened parts, which, uniting with adjoining ones, soon
forms cysts of considerable size. These cysts are known as abscesses.

No treatment will be of much service here. It is, therefore, better, if
the animal is not too poor in flesh, to have it slaughtered.


CORYZA

In the spring, and late in the fall, catarrhal affections are quite
common, occurring frequently in a epizoötic form. Coryza, or nasal
catarrh,--commonly called a cold in the head,--is not very common among
cows. As its name implies, it is a local disease, confined to the lining
membrane of the nose; and, consequently, the general system is not
usually disturbed.

_Symptoms._--The animal will be observed to sneeze; the Schneiderian
membrane (membrane of the nose) is heightened in color; cough sometimes
accompanies; there is also a muco-purulent discharge from the nose.
Neglect to attend to these early symptoms frequently occasions disease
of a more serious nature; in fact, coryza may be regarded as the
forerunner of all epizoötic pulmonary disorders.

[Illustration: A CHAT ON THE ROAD.]

_Treatment._--The animal should be kept on a low diet for a few days;
the nostrils occasionally steamed, and one of the following powders
given night and morning, which, in most cases, will be all the medicine
required: nitrate of potassa, one ounce; digitalis leaves pulverized and
tartrate of antimony, of each one drachm; sulphate of copper, two
drachms; mix, and divide into eight powders. Should the disease prove
obstinate, give for two or three days two ounces of Epsom-salts at a
dose, dissolved in water, three times a day.


COW-POX.

Two varieties of sore teats occur in the cow, in the form of pustular
eruptions. They first appear as small vesicles containing a purulent
matter, and subsequently assume a scabby appearance, or small ulcers
remain, which often prove troublesome to heal. This latter is the
cow-pox, from which Jenner derived the vaccine matter.

_Treatment._--Foment the teats well with warm water and Castile-soap;
after which, wipe the bag dry, and dress with citrine ointment. The
preparations of iodine have also been recommended, and they are very
serviceable.


DIARRHOEA.

Cattle are frequently subject to this disease, particularly in the
spring of the year when the grass is young and soft. Occasionally it
assumes a very obstinate form in consequence of the imperfect secretion
of gastric juice; the _fæces_ are thin, watery, and fetid, followed by
very great prostration of the animal.

The symptoms of diarrhoea are too well known to require any detailed
description.

_Treatment._--If in a mild form, the diet should be low; give two ounces
of Epsom-salts, twice a day. In a more obstinate form, give two drachms
of carbonate of soda in the food. Oak-bark tea will be found very useful
in these cases; or one of the following powders, twice a day, will be
found very advantageous: pulverized opium and catechu, each one and a
half ounces; prepared chalk, one drachm; to be given in the feed.

Calves are particularly subject to this disease, and it often proves
fatal to them. It sometimes assumes an epizoötic form, when it is
generally of a mild character. So long as the calf is lively and feeds
well, the farmer should entertain no fear for him; but if he mopes
about, refuses his food, ceases to ruminate, wastes in flesh, passes
mucus and blood with the _fæces_, and exhibits symptoms of pain, the
case is a dangerous one.

In such an emergency, lose no time, but give two or three ounces of
Castor-oil with flour-gruel, or two ounces of salts at a dose, followed
with small draughts of oak-bark tea; or give, twice a day, one of the
following powders: pulverized catechu, opium, and Jamaca ginger, of each
half an ounce; prepared chalk, one ounce; mix, and divide into twelve
powders. Bran washes, green food, and flour-gruel should be given, with
plenty of salt.


DYSENTERY

This disease is very frequently confounded with the foregoing. A
distinction, however, exists,--since inflammation appears in this
disease, while it is absent in the former. In this affection,
inflammation of the large intestines takes place, which is attended with
diarrhoea. The _fæces_ are covered with blood; the animal rapidly
becomes prostrated, and death frequently comes to his relief.

Youatt says: "It is, however, with dysentery that the practitioner is
most loth to cope,--a disease that betrays thousands of cattle. This,
also, may be either acute or chronic. Its causes are too often buried in
obscurity, and its premonitory symptoms are disregarded or unknown.
There appears to be a strong predisposition in cattle to take on this
disease. It seems to be the winding-up of many serious complaints, and
the foundation of it is sometimes laid by those that appear to be of the
most trifling nature. It is that in cattle which glanders and farcy are
in the horse,--the breaking up of the constitution.

"Dysentery may be a symptom and concomitant of other diseases. It is one
of the most fearful characteristics of murrain; it is the destructive
accompaniment, or consequence, of phthisis. It is produced by the sudden
disappearance of a cutaneous eruption; it follows the cessation of
chronic hoose; it is the consequence of the natural or artificial
suspension of every secretion. Were any secretion to be particularly
selected, the repression of which would produce dysentery, it would be
that of the milk. How often does the farmer observe that no sooner does
a milch cow cease her usual supply of milk than she begins to purge!
There may not appear to be any thing else the matter with her; but she
purges, and, in the majority of cases, that purging is fatal.

"It may, sometimes, however, be traced to sufficient causes, exclusive
of previous disease. Unwholesome food--exposure to cold--neglect at
the time of calving--low and marshy situations--the feeding in meadows
that have been flooded, where it is peculiarly fatal--the grazing
(according to Mr. Leigh, and our experience confirms his statement) upon
the clays lying over the blue lias rock--the neighborhood of woods and
of half-stagnant rivers--the continuation of unusually sultry
weather--overwork, and all the causes of acute dysentery, may produce
that of a chronic nature; an acute dysentery--neglected, or badly, or
even most skillfully treated--may degenerate into an incurable chronic
affection. Half starve a cow, or over-feed her, milk her to exhaustion,
or dry her milk too rapidly--and dysentery may follow.

"The following will, probably, be the order of the symptoms, if they are
carefully observed: There will be a little dullness or anxiety of
countenance, the muzzle becoming short or contracted; a slight shrinking
when the loins are pressed upon; the skin a little harsh and dry; the
hair a little rough; there will be a slight degree of uneasiness and
shivering that scarcely attracts attention; then--except it be the
degeneracy of acute into chronic dysentery--constipation may be
perceived. It will be to a certain extent, obstinate; the excrement will
voided with pain; it will be dry, hard, and expelled in small
quantities. In other cases, perhaps, purging will be present from the
beginning; the animal will be tormented with _tenesmus_, or frequent
desire to void its excrement, and that act attended by straining and
pain, by soreness about the _anus_, and protrusion of the _rectum_, and
sometimes by severe colicky spasms. In many cases, however, and in those
of a chronic form, few of these distressing symptoms are observed, even
at the commencement of the disease; but the animal voids her _fæces_
oftener than it is natural that she should, and they are more fluid than
in a state of health; while at the same time she loses her appetite and
spirits and condition, and is evidently wasting away."

_Treatment._--Give one drachm of the extract of belladonna, three times
a day, dissolved in water; or calomel and powdered opium, of each one
drachm three times daily. As soon as the inflammatory stage passes by,
give one of the following three times daily, in their gruel: nitrate of
potash pulverized, gentian-root pulverized, of each one ounce;
pulverized Jamaica ginger, one half an ounce; pulverized caraway, or
anise-seed, six drachms. A bottle of porter given once or twice a day,
will be found of very great advantage.


ENTERITIS.

This is an inflammation of the external or internal coat of the
intestines, sometimes attended with violent purging, especially when it
is confined to the internal coats. Oxen in good condition are more
subject to this disease than are cows. It most frequently occurs in dry,
hot weather. It is sudden in its attacks, and often fatal in its
termination.

_Symptoms._--The animal is dull, and not disposed to move about; the
muzzle is dry, and the coat staring; the animal yields, on pressure of
the _loins_; a weak, staggering gait, when forced to move; respiration
hurried; pulse accelerated but small; eyes red, full and fiery; head
protruding; mouth, ears, and horns hot; appetite bad; rumination ceases;
the bowels become constipated; the animal moans continually, and froths
at the mouth. These symptoms violently increase as the disease advances.
The animal becomes more depressed and feeble, grinds his teeth, and
appears half unconscious, and dies in convulsions.

Of the causes of this disease, Youatt, who is almost the only authority
we have upon this subject, says: "It seems occasionally to be epidemic;
for several instances of it occur, of the same character, and in the
same district. M. Cruzel gives an illustration of this in his
description of the disease that destroyed so many cattle, in the years
1826 to 1827, in the Department _de la Nievre_. Out of two hundred and
eighteen cattle belonging to three farmers, one hundred and thirteen
were attacked by this disease, and eighty-three of them died. One farmer
in a neighboring district had nineteen head of cattle, all of which
sickened, but only three were lost. These were unusually hot summers.
The upland pasture was burnt up, or what remained of it was rendered
unusually stimulating; and the acrid plants of the marshes and low
grounds acquired additional deleterious agency.

"When isolated cases occur, they may generally be attributed to
mismanagement. Exposure to cold, or the drinking of cold water when
overheated with work; too hard work in sultry weather; the use of water
stagnant, impure, or containing any considerable quantity of metallic
salts; the sudden revulsion of some cutaneous eruption; the crowding of
animals into a confined place; too luxuriant and stimulating food
generally; and the mildewed and unwholesome food on which cattle are too
often kept, are fruitful sources of this complaint."

_Treatment._--In the early stage of the disease, give an active purge,
and follow it with ten drops of Fleming's tincture of aconite, four
times daily, for two days; then give drachm doses of the extract of
belladonna; give no food for twenty-four or forty-eight hours, according
to circumstances. Bleeding, if done early, is often beneficial.
Counter-irritants to the belly are also recommended; the best are
mustard, hartshorn, and water, mixed together--or tincture of
cantharides, with one drachm of croton-oil added to every ounce.


EPIZOÖTICS.

Diseases of this class have the same relation to the inferior animals
that epidemic diseases have to man. Of course, they assume a very
pestilential character. Scarcely a year passes away without diseases of
this nature making their appearance in some parts of the world. They
occur at all seasons of the year, but more generally prevail in the
spring and fall. The period of their duration varies from months to
years. They are, at times, mild in their attacks, and yield readily to
proper treatment; at other times, they become painful pestilences,
destroying every thing in their course.

The causes are generally sought for in some peculiar condition of the
atmosphere. The use of the milk and flesh of diseased cattle has
frequently been productive of malignant diseases in the human family.

Silius Italicus describes a fearful epizoötic, which first attacked the
dog, then the feathered biped, then horses, and cattle, and, last of
all, the human being.

     "On mules and dogs the infection first began,
     And, last, the vengeful arrows fixed in man."

Epizoötics, occurring in rats, cats, dogs, horses, and cattle, which
were followed in the succeeding years by more fearful ones which
attacked the human family, are numerously recorded. These scourges have
appeared in all ages of the world; but, as time and space will not allow
our entering upon an extended consideration of them,--however
interesting they might be to the general reader,--we shall content
ourselves by quoting, somewhat in brief, from the lectures of the late
William Youatt on these fatal maladies:--

"In the year 801, and at the commencement of the reign of Charlemagne,
an epidemic disease devastated a great portion of his dominions. This
was attributed to the villainy of the Duke of Benevento, who was said to
have employed a great many persons in scattering an enchanted powder
over the fields, which destroyed both the cattle and the food of the
cattle. M. Paulet seems inclined to give full credence to this, and says
that history offers many proofs of this destructive and diabolical
practice. He affirms that many persons were punished in Germany,
France, and, particularly, at Toulouse, for the commission of this
crime. Several of the suspected agents of these atrocities were put to
the torture and made full confession of their crime.

"Of the occurrence of these diseases from the year 800 to 1316,--an
interval of mental darkness, and of horrors and calamities of every
kind,--history records twenty cases, more or less destructive, and
extending, with greater or less devastation, over France and Germany,
Italy and England. Of these twenty, four date their origin from an
excessive moisture in the air, accompanied by almost continual rains,
and flooding the country to a considerable extent. One was supposed to
be the consequence of long-continued drought and excessive heat; one was
traced to the influence of an eclipse of the sun; another, to a comet;
and a fourth, to a most unusually stormy winter. The reader will have
the kindness to remember that we are here expressing the opinions of the
writers of the day, and by no means, our own belief of the matter.

"Of the four which trace their origin to extreme wet and its
consequences, the first occurred in France, in 820, after a long
continuance of rain; and it was equally fatal to men and cattle. The
second, which was equally fatal to both, appeared in Lorraine, in 889.
The third broke out among the cavalry of the army of Arnoul, in its
passage over the Alps, on its return to Italy. The fourth pervaded the
whole of England in 1125, and was equally fatal to the biped and the
quadruped.

"That which followed excessive heat and drought, was generally prevalent
throughout Europe, but especially so in Germany. It attacked oxen,
sheep, and pigs. It appeared in 994, and lasted six months.

"The one which was attributed to the comet, and which principally
attacked cattle, appeared in France in 943 Almost every animal perished.

"Another, that was supposed to be connected with an eclipse of the sun,
was prevalent throughout the greater part of Germany, among men and
animals, in 989.

"The disease, which was the consequence of a cold and boisterous winter,
was principally prevalent in France, in 887, and committed sad ravages
among the herds of cattle and sheep.

"Of the twelve others, of which, authors do not indicate the cause, the
first was in France, in 810, and principally among cattle. The second
was also in France, in 850, and almost depopulated the country of
cattle. The third, in 868, was common to all animals in France. The
fourth, in 870, was in the same country, and caused severe loss among
cattle. The fifth prevailed on the Rhine and in Germany, and destroyed
an almost incalculable number of cattle. The sixth attacked the horses
of the army of Arnoul in Lorraine, in 888. The seventh, in 940,
destroyed a vast number of cattle in France, Italy, and Germany. The
eighth and ninth were in France, in 941 and 942, and almost all the
cattle in the country perished. The tenth pestilence broke out in
England, in the year 1041, and frightful was its devastation among all
animals, and, particularly, horned cattle. The eleventh also devastated
our country, in 1103, and the ravages were dreadful. The twelfth was
chiefly fatal in Germany, and particularly in Gueldres, in 1149.

"These twenty pestilences occurred in the space of 506 years. Five or
six of them were most prevalent among cattle; two were almost confined
to horses; twelve included, to a greater or less degree, almost every
species of quadrupeds; and four extended to the human being. Among these
the ravages of eight were most destructive in France; as many in
Germany; and four in Italy and England.

"As far as we have hitherto proceeded, it will also appear that cattle
are more subject to these diseases than any other species of
domesticated animals, and that the pestilence is always most fearful
among them. It is also evident that the maladies which proceed from cold
or humidity are more frequent in the temperate and southern parts of
Europe than those which depend upon drought, or almost any other cause.

"The malady lingers in different countries, in proportion to its want of
power to accomplish at once all its devastation.

"After this time, there are few satisfactory accounts of these diseases
for more than five centuries. We only know that, occasionally suspending
their ravages,--or, rather, visiting new districts when they had ceased
to desolate others--they have continued to be objects of terror and
instruments of devastation, even unto the present day; and it is only
within a few years that they have been really understood, and have
become, to a certain degree, manageable."

In the United States, epizoötic diseases have been of frequent
occurrence; but, owing to the want of properly qualified veterinary
surgeons, they have not, until within a very recent period, been
properly described or understood. The day however, is fast approaching
when this void will be filled, and when epizoötic and other diseases
will be correctly noted and recorded. The necessity for this must have
been forcibly impressed upon the minds of the inhabitants of our country
from the experience of the last ten or twelve years.

Respecting the late epizoötic among cattle in Portage County, Ohio,
William Pierce, V.S., of Ravenna, thus describes the symptoms as they
appeared, in a letter to the author: "A highly-colored appearance of the
sclerotic coat of the eye, also of the _conjunctiva_ (a lining membrane
of the eyelid) and the Schneiderian membrane of the nose; a high animal
heat about the head and horns; a highly inflammatory condition of the
blood; contraction of all the abdominal viscera; hurried respiration;
great prostration and nervous debility; lameness; followed by gangrene
of the extremity of the tail, and the hind-feet; terminating in
mortification and death."

Mr. Pierce is convinced that these symptoms are produced by the
continued use of the ergot, or spur of the June grass,--the effects
being similar to those produced upon the human family by long-continued
use of ergot of rye. This disease assumes both an acute and chronic
form.

The same gentleman also says: "Ordinary observers, as well as those who
claim to be scientific, have entertained very conflicting opinions as to
its general character; some regarding it as epizoötic, others as
contagious; some attributing it to atmospheric influence, others to
foulings in the stable or yard. Others, again, attribute it to freezing
of the feet in winter. Cattle-doctors in a majority of cases, fail to
cure it. I have, however, by a simple course of treatment, effected
many signal cures. Some parties are so confident of the contagious
character of the disease that they refuse to drive cattle along a road
where it is known to exist. They even, oftentimes, wash their boots
previous to entering their barnyards, after walking over the ground
where such diseased cattle have been running.

"Caution is both proper and commendable. I do not, however, regard it as
a contagious disease, nor can it be transmitted by inoculation. The calf
is carried during the progress of the disease, and delivered in
apparently good health. The milk of the cow appears to be unaffected and
harmless. I call this disease _sphacial fever_, or _gangrenous fever_.

[Illustration: THE MAD BULL.]

"The ergot, or spur of the hay, is confined to the June grass, as far as
my observation extends; owing, probably, to its early maturity. Most
other kinds of grass are cut before the seeds have matured sufficiently
to produce the spur. I was suspicious of the foulness of the feed before
I examined any hay, and have found the spur in the hay wherever the
disease is found.

"Mr. Sanford, of Edinburgh, Ohio, purchased one half of a mow of hay
from Mr. Bassett, of Randolph, which was removed to his farm in
Randolph, eight miles distant. Of this hay, Mr. Sanford fed eleven cows
some six or eight weeks. Mr. Bassett had been feeding the same to four
cows. At about the same time, both heads began to show lameness. I
visited Mr. S. after he had lost six cows, and examined the remaining
five, four of which were lame and the other showed symptoms of the
disease. He had two other cows, one of which was loaned to a neighbor,
and the other was fed upon different hay, for convenience. The loaned
cow was returned about the first of March,--the two then running with
the ailing ones until the 24th of April, when I saw them sound and in
good health.

"I then visited Mr. Bassett's stock, which I found infected with the
same disease,--he having lost one, and the remaining three being lame,
and much debilitated. The hoofs were sloughing off. Some of the same hay
remained in the snow, which, upon examination, exhibited an abundance of
the spur. Upon inquiry, I found that no such disease existed between the
two farms, or in the neighborhood of either Mr. S. or Mr. B. The
peculiarity of this circumstance at once swept away the last vestige of
doubt from my mind. Mr. E. Chapman, of Rootstown, accompanied me, and
can vouch for the correctness of these statements.

"He hooted at my opinions, asserting that he understood the disease, and
that it was caused by the freezing of the feet. He has since, however,
abandoned that idea, and honestly 'acknowledged the corn.' This ergot is
regarded by some as a parasitic fungus, formed in other grains, an
abundant vegeto-animal substance, and much disposed to putrefaction. We
appear to be in the dark regarding its real composition. The little
which has been written upon the subject, appears to be founded upon
hypothesis, and that the most obscure. The articles to which I refer may
differ in quality or property to a considerable extent, and we may
forever remain in the dark, unless chemical investigation be instituted.

"In this particular disease, there appears to be singularity in the
symptoms through all its various stages, which is likely to originate in
the peculiarity of the cause which produces them. The effects and
symptoms arising from the continued use of the ergot of rye, as
manifested in the human system, have been but briefly hinted at by
authors, and, probably, some of them are only reasonable conjectures.
All they say is, that it produces violent headache, spaculation in the
extremities, and death. Hitherto, its effects upon the inferior animal
have been subjected to no investigation, and its peculiarity in the
symptoms, differing from like phenomena by other causes, may yet be
demonstrated. I am not alone in my opinion of this disease. I have taken
counsel of those whose judgment cannot be questioned. Whatever
difference of opinion exists is attributable to a want of investigation,
and it will continue to exist until this singular phenomenon is clearly
accounted for. Every opinion should be thoroughly criticized till facts
are obtained. Every man's opinion is sacred to himself, but we should
yield to conviction.

"Two classes of this disease are exhibited: one, of irritation, and the
other, of debility; one, an acute, the other, a chronic form. The point
at which it assumes the chronic form is between congestion and
gangrene. By close observation we can discover these to be different and
higher degrees of the same disease. All subsequent degrees are dependent
upon the first.

"The first symptom, or degree, is, probably, an attack upon the
systematic circulation, produced by a certain medicinal and deleterious
property existing in the ergot, and communicated to the blood through
the absorption of the tongue. This is more evident from the fact that
the digestive organs retain their normal condition till the last stages
of the chronic form. The blood in the first two stages is healthy, and
the peculiar influence is only apparent in the subsequent stages; as
evidenced by the fact that the muscles and general good appearance, as
well as life itself, last longer than could be possible, if this
deleterious influence were exhausted upon the digestive organs and the
blood, in its first stages. And, as we suppose that fever and congestion
constitute an attack upon the red blood, which is exhibited by hurried
pulsation, we might rationally infer that the next degree would be
gangrene of the globule, causing sloughing, the same as if it were
carried to the muscles, or surface. This sloughing of the globule would
be the same as if exhibited on any other part of the organization, for
the fibrin is identical with muscle, as albumen is identical with the
white of an egg; and since congestion is the forerunner of gangrene at
the extremities, or on the surface, so fever and quick pulsation are the
forerunners of congestion of the blood. Gangrene cannot ensue without
obstruction in the blood-vessels; and congestion cannot take place
without obstruction in that which sustains the globule. As gangrene,
then, is the first stage of decomposition of animal matter, so is
congestion the first stage of decomposition of the globule; and as
mortification is death in the organized body, so is congestion death in
the organized globule.

"It appears evident that this disease, in all its forms and degrees of
intensity, seeks vent or release; in other words, Nature conflicting
with it, throws it off its track, or balance, and offers means of
escape, or shows it a door by which it may make its exit. In the first
stage of the disease, the dermoid (skin) tissues make the effort. In the
inflammatory, the serous, and the congestive, the mucous gangrene seeks
vent; if obtained, mortification is prevented; if not, mortification
directly supervenes, and death terminates the case.

"In the case to which I refer, observation confirms my opinion that
absolute mortification without vent determines the gangrene of the
blood, and is hardly curable; but that gangrene's finding vent
determines it to be curable, and the recovery highly probable."


EPIZOÖTIC CATARRH.

Catarrh frequently assumes an epizoötic form of a very virulent
character, originating spontaneously and extending over a large section
of country at or about the same time. A cold spring succeeding a mild
winter, is peculiarly productive of malignant catarrh. This is one of
the most distressing and fatal diseases to which cattle are subject.

_Symptoms._--The animal appears dull, and unwilling to move about,
staggering when forced to do so; obstinate costiveness is usually one of
the earliest symptoms, succeeded by diarrhoea, which is equally
difficult of management; sometimes, however, diarrhoea is present
from the first; the animal loses flesh rapidly; the coat is staring;
appetite is lost; tumors form about the head, neck, back, and joints,
which appear to be filled with air, and upon pressure cause a
crepitating sound; saliva flows from the mouth, becoming very fetid as
the disease progresses. The animal always dies of putrefaction.

_Treatment._--This disease should be treated early, or not at all. Good
nursing is very essential. When costiveness is present, give Barbadoes
aloes, one ounce; croton-oil, ten drops; mix together; or give one pint
of linseed-oil, to which add from ten to twenty drops of castor-oil. If
the bowels are not open in twenty-four hours, give four ounces of
sulphate of magnesia every six hours until they are opened. Follow this
with tincture of aconite, ten drops in water, every four hours, until
the fever has abated.

Bleeding has been recommended by some writers; but the author has failed
to experience any benefit from resorting to it, but, on the contrary,
has seen much injury result from the use--or, rather, the abuse--of the
lancet. He is, indeed, inclined to attribute much of the fatality
attending this disease to indiscriminate blood-letting.

When much debility exists, the animal should be sustained by tonics and
stimulants. One ounce of nitric ether and half an ounce of tincture of
opium, given in a little water, will be found beneficial. It should be
given twice a day. Pulverized gentian-root, one ounce; Jamaica ginger,
half an ounce; pulverized cloves, half an ounce; mixed, and divided into
four powders, one to be given at night and at morning; will be found
useful, in place of the opium and ether.


FARDEL.

This disease is properly known by the name of clue-bound. The manyplus,
or omasum (third stomach), frequently becomes so choked up with food
that it is hard and dry, and the operation of the digestive organs is
very seriously impaired. The animal eats voraciously, for a time, but
stops suddenly and trembles; the countenance assumes a peculiarly
haggard appearance; there is a wild expression of the eye; a foaming at
the mouth; a tendency to pitch forward, and at times a falling
head-foremost to the ground. Occasionally, the symptoms are very active,
speedily terminating in death. There are few diseases of a
constitutional character in which the stomach is not, more or less,
sympathetically involved.

"Toward the end of September, 1746, a great number of cows died at
Osterwich, in the principality of Halberstadt. Lieberkuhn, a celebrated
physician,--there were no veterinary surgeons at that time,--was sent to
examine into the nature of the disease, which was supposed to be one of
the species of murrain that was then committing such ravages among the
cattle in various parts of the Continent. There were none of the tumors,
or pestilential buboes, that, in an earlier or later period of the
malady, usually accompanied and characterized murrain; but upon
inspection of the dead bodies, considerable peritoneal inflammation was
found; the first and second stomachs were filled with food, but the
third stomach was the palpable seat of the disease; its leaves were
black and gangrened. The mass contained between the leaves was black,
dry, and so hard that it could scarcely be cut with a scalpel. It
intercepted the passage of the food from the first two stomachs to the
fourth; and this latter stomach was empty and much inflamed. Neither the
heart, nor the lungs, nor the intestines exhibited any trace of disease.
Twelve cows were opened, and the appearances were nearly the same in all
of them."

_Treatment._--Give one and a half pounds of Epsom-salts, dissolved in
three pints of water; or one quart of potash, three times daily,
dissolved in water, will be found useful in this disease.


FOUL IN THE FOOT.

This is caused by hard or irritating substances making their way in
between the claws of the foot, causing inflammation, and sometimes
ulceration, in the parts. The pasterns swell, and the animal becomes
lame.

The foot should be thoroughly washed, and all foreign substances
removed. A pledget of tow, saturated with tar and sprinkled with
powdered sulphate of copper, should be inserted between the claws. This
usually requires but one or two applications.


GARGET.

This is a hard, knotty condition of the udder, which sometimes follows
calving, in consequence of the sudden distention of the bag with milk;
and the inflammation which supervenes causes a congealed or coagulated
condition of the milk to take place, of which, if neglected, suppuration
and abscesses are the result.

_Treatment._--Let the calf suck the dam as speedily as possible, and, if
the hardness is not then removed, foment the udder with warm water;
after which, wipe it dry, and apply to the entire surface melted lard as
hot as the animal will bear. This is, generally, all that is required,
the most obstinate cases yielding to it. If abscesses form, they should
be lanced.


GASTRO-ENTERITIS.

This disease--otherwise known as wood-evil, or moor-ill--arises from
eating the buds of oak, young ash, and other trees, which are of a very
highly stimulating or irritating character. As the intestinal canal is
liable to inflammatory action from irritant substances admitted into it,
animals are found to become diseased from eating too freely of these
vegetable substances.

_Symptoms._--Loss of appetite and suspended rumination; mouth hot; skin
dry; pulse from sixty to seventy; swelling and pain of the belly;
obstinate constipation; fæces hard and covered with blood; urine of a
strong odor, highly colored, and voided with difficulty.

_Treatment._--The animal should be bled, and a strong purgative
administered, followed by aconite and belladonna, as in enteritis.
Injections of Castile-soap and water should be freely used; the
application of the mustard, hartshorn, and water to the belly will also
be found very beneficial.


HOOSE.

This disease--known also as catarrh--is occasionally the sequence of
coryza, but more frequently it arises from an impure atmosphere;
consequently, in cow-houses where animals are crowded together in
numbers, it is most frequently found. Scanty provender, and of an
inferior quality, is among the exciting causes of hoose, producing, as
it does, a debilitated state of the system, which, upon exposure of the
animal to cold, or wet, hastens the disorder. Some breeds of cattle are
peculiarly liable to this disease, which, if not arrested in its early
stage, runs on, involving the lungs, and frequently terminating in
consumption. Of all our domestic animals, neat cattle are most subject
to pulmonary diseases. This is attributable to the neglect and exposure
which are far too often their lot. Butchers will testify that a large
portion of all cattle slaughtered have abscesses and other diseases of
the lungs.

_Symptoms._--Loss of appetite; muzzle dry; coat rough, or staring;
respiration quickened; horns hot; ears, nose, and legs cold; husky
cough; pulse from sixty to seventy, small and thready; bowels frequently
constipated.

_Treatment._--Give one ounce of the following powders every six hours,
until the bowels are opened: Barbadoes aloes, one and half ounces;
nitrate of potassa, half an ounce; ginger, six drachms; mix and divide
into six powders. Setons in the dewlap are often of great benefit.


HOOVE.

Hoove, or blown, so common, and often so speedily fatal in cattle, is
the result of fermentation in the _rumen_, or paunch, in consequence of
the animal's having eaten large quantities of wet grass, luxuriant
clover, turnips, etc. An accumulation of gas is the result of this
fermentation, which greatly disturbs the haunch and left side of the
belly, causing much pain to the animal, and frequently threatening
suffocation.

_Treatment._--Drench the animal with one ounce of spirits of hartshorn
in one quart of water, the object being to neutralize the gas which is
present in the rumen; or, two ounces of table salt dissolved in one
quart of water will be found very effectual. If these do not speedily
give relief, an active purge should be given. Injections of soap and
water should be freely used. If the case still proves obstinate, and the
life of the animal is threatened, the paunch should be punctured. For
this purpose, the trochar--an instrument specially adapted--should be
used; but, in the absence of an instrument, an ordinary pocket-knife may
be employed, taking care not to make a large opening. The proper point
to operate is midway between the last rib and the prominent point of the
hip-bone, about twelve inches from the centre of the back or loins. Few
cases have a fatal termination where this operation has been properly
performed.


HYDATIDS.

Worms in the brain occasionally occur, causing great uneasiness to the
animal and generally proving fatal.

The symptoms are, loss of appetite; suspended rumination; a fevered
condition of the system; horns and ears hot; respiration disturbed; coat
staring, etc. No course of treatment will prove efficacious in this
disease.

Pressure on the brain may occur from an accumulation of water, tumors,
bruises, etc., in the cranial case. In either case, the same effects are
produced as are observed in apoplexy.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER.

Inflammation of the bladder generally accompanies inflammation of the
kidneys, though it is sometimes found disconnected and alone. It is
occasionally caused by calculous concretions in the bladder,--which
should be removed,--causing very acute abdominal pain to the animal. She
makes frequent efforts to stale, passing but a few drops of urine at a
time. The pulse is full and rapid; mouth clammy; nose dry; eyes
bloodshot; appetite lost; moaning, and walking with a staggering gait.

_Treatment._--Inject into the bladder one quart of tepid water, and from
one to two ounces of tincture of opium mixed together. Give internally
one of the following powders every hour until relieved; nitrate of
potassa, one ounce; tartrate of antimony, and pulverized digitalis
leaves, each one drachm; mix, and divide into six powders. Mucilaginous
draughts should be freely given.

Rupture of the bladder sometimes occurs, but there are no symptoms by
which it may be known; and, if there were, no service could be rendered
in the way of repairing the injury; the animal must die.


INFLAMMATION OF THE HAW.

The ox, like the horse, has a membrane of semilunar form in the inner
corner of the eye, which is capable of being thrown over the entire
eyeball, for the purpose of cleansing the eye from any foreign substance
which may get into it. This membrane is commonly called the haw, and is
susceptible of attacks of inflammation, which cause it to swell,
frequently even closing up the eye.

_Treatment._--Give a dose of physic, and, if the animal is plethoric,
extract a little blood from the vein on the same side as the affected
eye. Apply to the eye either of the following washes: tincture of opium,
one ounce; rain-water, one pint; or, tincture of aconite, one drachm, to
one pint of water. Bathe two or three times a day.


INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS.

This disease--sometimes called nephritis--occurs occasionally in cattle
in consequence of their eating bad or unwholesome food, or of the abuse
of diuretics, etc.

The symptoms are very insidious in their approach. The loins are very
tender upon pressure; the urine is voided in small quantities. As the
disease advances, the symptoms become more marked and acute. The animal
is dull, and feeds daintily; the evacuation of urine is attended with
increased pain, and the urine is highly colored and bloody; the nose is
dry; the horns, ears, and extremities are cold; respiration hurried; the
pulse full, hard, and throbbing.

_Treatment._--Give one pint of linseed-oil and ten drops of castor-oil,
mixed together; follow this with small doses of salts once a day, for
three or four days; give injections of water, one half a gallon to two
ounces of tincture of arnica. Mustard applications to the loins are also
very useful.


INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER.

Diseases of the liver are of very common occurrence,--a fact with which
all beef-butchers are familiar. Perhaps no organ in the animal economy
is so liable to disease. The obscurity of the symptoms and the good
condition of the animal prevent its discovery, as a general thing,
during its lifetime. When, however, the disease assumes an active
form,--known as the yellows, jaundice, or inflammation of the
liver,--the symptoms are more readily detected.

_Symptoms._--A yellowish color of the eye will be observed; skin, urine,
etc., highly colored; soreness, on pressure, on the right side; loss of
appetite; dullness; constipation of the bowels, etc.

_Treatment._--Calomel is the most reliable medicine known to
practitioners for diseases of the liver. Its abuse, however, has brought
it into disrepute. Yet, as with ordinary care it may be advantageously
used, we will prescribe it as that upon which the most dependence is to
be placed, and in doing so, will endeavor to have it used safely.
Bleeding has been recommended: but the author has never found any
benefit resulting. Give Epsom-salts, in doses of four ounces each, every
night, with one scruple of calomel, until the animal is relieved.
Mustard and water should be frequently applied to the right side, and
well rubbed in.


LARYNGITIS.

This disease is of rare occurrence in cattle. In it, the mucous membrane
lining the larynx is in a very irritable condition; the least pressure
upon the parts affected causes intensely excruciating pain; the
respiration becomes quick, painful, and laborious; the animal often
appears to be hungry, yet does not eat much, in consequence of the pain
occasioned by the act of swallowing.

_Treatment._--Apply to the throat externally strong mustard, mixed, with
equal parts of aqua ammonia and water, to a thin paste, every hour,
until it produces an effect upon the skin; sponging the parts each time
with warm water before applying the mustard. The animal should not be
bled. Give upon the tongue, or in drink, half-drachm doses of nitrate of
potassa, every three or four hours, until relief is obtained. If
suffocation threatens, the operation of tracheotomy is the only resort.

[Illustration: AN ABERDEENSHIRE POLLED BULL.]

Cloths saturated with cold water, wrapped around the neck so as to cover
the larynx, frequently afford relief. A purgative will also be found
useful.


LICE.

Cattle are very subject to lice, particularly when they are neglected,
half-starved, and in poor condition. Good care and good feeding--in
connection with the treatment recommended in mange, to which the reader
is referred--will comprise all that is requisite.


MANGE.

Mange, or leprosy, is one of the most unpleasant and difficult diseases
to manage of all the ailments to which cattle are subject requiring the
nicest care and attention to render it easy of cure. An animal badly
nursed will not, under the most skillful treatment, quickly recover. Its
causes are in the main, due to poor food, which produces a debilitated
condition of the system, and in connection with a want of cleanliness,
causes a development of the _acari_, or minute insects, exciting very
great irritation upon the skin and causing the cow to rub herself
against every object with which she comes in contact. The hair falls
off; a scurfy appearance of the skin is perceptible; and the animal is
poor in condition and in milk. The great trouble in treating this
disease springs from its contagious character; for, no sooner is the
animal, oftentimes, once free from the _acari_ than it comes in contact
with some object against which it has previously been rubbing, when the
_acari_ which were left upon that object are again brought in contact
with the animal, and the disease is reproduced. If, immediately after
the proper applications are made, the animal is removed to other
quarters, and not allowed to return to the former ones for six or eight
weeks, there is, generally speaking, but little trouble in treating the
disease.

Take the animal upon a warm, sunny day, and with a scrubbing-brush
cleanse the skin thoroughly with Castile-soap and water; when dry, apply
in the same manner the following mixture; white hellebore, one ounce;
sulphur flower, three ounces; gas-water, one quart; mix all well
together. One or two applications are, generally, all that will be
required. Give internally one of the following powders in the feed,
night and morning: flowers of sulphur, two ounces; black antimony, one
ounce; nitrate of potassa, one ounce; mix, and divide into eight
powders.


MURRAIN.

This is one of the most malignant diseases to which cattle are liable.
Fortunately, however, true murrain is comparatively rare in this great
stock-raising country.

The entire system seems to partake of the disease. The first indication
of its approach is a feverish condition of the system, attended with a
frequent and painful cough; the pulse is small, hard, and rapid. As the
disease advances, the respiration becomes disturbed; the flanks heave;
vesicular eruption is observed upon the teats, mouth, and feet; the
horns are cold; the animal is sometimes lame; constipation and,
sometimes, diarrhoea are accompanying symptoms; _fæces_ black and
fetid; the eyes weep and become much swollen; great tenderness along the
spine; a brown or bloody discharge from the nose and mouth; the animal
moans incessantly, grinds his teeth, rarely lies down, but to get up
again quickly; finally, the breath becomes very offensive; tumors make
their appearance in various parts of the body, which, in favorable
cases, suppurate, and discharge a fetid matter.

_Treatment._--Give one fourth of a pound of Epsom-salts, with one drachm
of Jamaica ginger, twice a day, for two or three days. A bottle of
porter, twice a day, will be found serviceable. Very little medicine is
required internally in this disease, but much depends upon good nursing.
External applications are chiefly to be depended upon. A solution of
chloride of lime should be applied to the eruptions, or a solution of
the chloride of zinc, twenty grains to an ounce of water; or, of
sulphate of zinc, two drachms to a pint of water; or pulverized
charcoal applied to the parts will be found useful.


NAVEL-ILL.

Inflammation of the navel in calves occasionally occurs, causing
redness, pain, and sudden swelling in the part affected. This disease,
if not promptly attended to, speedily carries off the creature.

_Treatment._--Foment the part well with warm hop-tea; after which, the
application of a cloth, well saturated with lead-water and secured by
bandages, should be applied. Internally, doses of Epsom-salts, of two
ounces each, dissolved in half a pint of water, should be given until
the bowels are acted upon. After the inflammation has subsided, to
counteract the weakness which may follow, give a bottle of porter two or
three times a day.


OBSTRUCTIONS IN THE OESOPHAGUS.

Choking in cattle is of common occurrence, in consequence of turnips,
potatoes, carrots, or other hard substances, becoming lodged in the
oesophagus, or gullet.

These obstructions can sometimes be removed by careful manipulations
with the hand; but, where this can not be accomplished, the flexible
probang should be employed. This is a long India-rubber tube, with a
whalebone stillet running through it, so as to stiffen it when in use.
This instrument is passed down the animal's throat, and the offending
substance is thus pushed down into the stomach.


OPEN JOINTS.

Opening of the joint generally results from accidents, from puncturing
with sharp substances, from kicks, blows, etc. These injuries cause
considerable nervous irritation in the system, and sometimes cause
lock-jaw and death.

_Treatment._--Close up the wound as speedily as possible. The
firing-iron will sometimes answer the purpose very well. The author
depends more upon the application of collodion--as recommended in his
work upon "The Horse and His Diseases" for the same trouble--than upon
any other remedy. It requires care in its application, in order to make
it adhere firmly. Shoemakers'-wax, melted and applied, answers a very
good purpose.


PARTURITION.

In natural labor--as has been suggested in a former part of this
work--the aid of man is rarely required in bringing away the calf. But
it not infrequently happens that, from malformation or wrong
presentation, our assistance is required in order to deliver the animal.

The brute force, which has been far too often heretofore resorted to,
should no longer be tolerated, since the lives of many valuable animals
have been sacrificed by such treatment. Very often, by gentle
manipulation with the greased hand, the womb can be so dilated as to
afford a comparatively easy exit for the _foetus_.

If, however, the calf is presented wrong, it must be pushed back and
placed in its proper position, if possible. In natural labor, the
fore-legs, with the head lying between them, are presented; in which
position--unless deformity, either in the _pelvis_ of the cow, or in the
_foetus_, exists--the calf is passed with little difficulty, and
without assistance. It sometimes happens that the head of the foetus
is turned backward. When this happens, the attendant should at once
strip himself to the waist, bathe his arms, and hands with a little
sweet-oil, or lard, and introduce them into the _vagina_, placing a cord
around both fore-feet, and then, pushing them back, search for the head,
which is to be brought forward to its proper position. The feet are next
to be brought up with it. No force should be used, except when the cow
herself makes the effort to expel the calf; otherwise, more harm than
good may be done.

A case of this kind recently occurred in the author's practice, being
the third within a year. The subject was a cow belonging to William
Hance, Esq., of Bordentown, New Jersey. After she had been in labor for
some twenty hours, he was called upon to see her. Upon inquiry, he found
that several persons had been trying, without success, to relieve her.
She was very much prostrated, and would, doubtless, have died within two
or three hours, had no relief been afforded. The legs of the _foetus_
protruded as far as the knees; the head was turned backward, and with
the body, pressed firmly into the _vagina_, so that it was impossible to
return it, or to bring the head forward. The operation of embryotomy
was, therefore, at once performed, by cutting away the right shoulder,
which enabled the operator, with the aid of his appropriate hooks, to
bring the head forward, when the calf came away without further
trouble,--the whole operation not requiring fifteen minutes. The
_uterus_ was then washed out, and the animal placed in as comfortable a
position as possible, and a stimulating draught given, composed of two
ounces of nitric ether, one ounce of tincture of opium, and a half pint
of water. This was followed with a few doses of Fleming's tincture of
aconite, ten drops in a little water, every few hours. In a few days the
animal had entirely recovered.

Occasionally, the head comes first, or the head and one leg. In such
cases, a cord should be slipped around the jaw and leg, and these then
pushed back, so as to allow the other leg to be brought up. When this
cannot be done, the _foetus_ can, in most cases, be removed in the
original position.

Breech, side, back, and other presentations sometimes occur; in all of
which instances, the _foetus_ must be turned in such a position that
it can be brought away with as little trouble as possible. When this
cannot be accomplished, the only resort is embryotomy, or cutting up of
the _foetus_, which operation can only be safely performed by the
qualified veterinary surgeon.

Since writing the above, another case has occurred in the author's
practice. The cow--belonging to Samuel Barton, Esq., near Bordentown,
New Jersey--had been in labor some eighteen hours; upon an examination
of the animal, the calf was found to be very much deformed, presenting
backwards,--one of the hind-legs having been pulled off by the person or
persons assisting her previous to the author's arrival. Finding it
impossible to deliver her in the usual way, embryotomy was in this
instance employed. By this means, after taking out the intestines,
lungs, etc., of the _foetus_, and cutting away its hind-quarters, the
fore-parts were brought away. The head presented a singular appearance;
the under jaw was so twisted as to bring the front teeth on the side of
the face; the spinal column or back-bone, was turned twice around,
resembling a spiral string; the front legs were over the back; the ribs
were much contorted; the hind-parts were as much deformed; and, taken
altogether, the deformity was the most singular which has been brought
under the author's observation.

FREE MARTINS.--It has long been supposed by stockbreeders, that if a cow
produce twins, one of which is a male and the other a female, the female
is incapable of producing young, but that the male may be a useful
animal for breeding purposes. Many instances have occurred when the twin
sister of a bull has never shown the least desire for the male.

This indifference to sexual commerce arises, doubtless, from the
animal's being but imperfectly developed in the organs of generation.
This fact has been established by the investigations of Mr. John Hunter,
who had three of these animals slaughtered for anatomical examination.
The result is thus reported: "The external parts were rather smaller
than is customary in the cow. The _vagina_ passed on, as in the cow, to
the opening of the _urethra_, and then it began to contract into a small
canal, which passed on into the division of the _uterus_ into the two
horns; each horn passed along the edge of the broad ligament laterally
toward the _ovaria_.

"At the termination of these horns were placed both the ovaries and the
testicles. Both were nearly of the same size, which was about as large
as a small nutmeg. To the _ovaria_, I could not find any Fallopian
tube.

"To the testicles were _vasa deferentia_, but they were imperfect. The
left one did not come near the testicle; the right one only came close
to it, but did not terminate in the body called the _epididymis_. They
were both pervious and opened into the _vagina_, near the opening of the
_urethra_.

"On the posterior surface of the bladder, or between the _uterus_ and
the bladder, were the two bags, called _vesiculæ seminales_ in the male,
but much smaller than they are in the bull. The ducts opened along with
the _vasa deferentia_. This animal, then, had a mixture of all the
parts, but all of them were imperfect."

Well-authenticated cases have, however, occurred where the female has
bred, and the offspring proved to be good milkers. There are several
instances on record of cows' giving birth to three, four, and even five
calves at a time. There were on exhibition, in 1862, at Bordentown, New
Jersey, three free martins, two sisters and a brother, which were
beautiful animals. These were from a cow belonging to Mr. Joab Mershon,
residing on Biles Island, situated in the Delaware River, a short
distance above Bordentown. They were calved November 1st, 1858, and were
therefore nearly four years of age. They had never shown the least
desire for copulation. Their aggregate weight was 4300 pounds.

We extract the following from the London Veterinarian, for 1854:--"A
cow, belonging to Mr. John Marshall, of Repton, on Wednesday last, gave
birth to _five, live healthy calves_, all of which are, at the time I
write, alive and vigorous, and have every appearance of continuing so.
They are all nearly of a size, and are larger and stronger than could be
supposed. Four of them are bull-calves.

"The dam is by no means a large one, is eleven years old, of a mongrel
breed, and has never produced more than one offspring at any previous
gestation. I saw her two days after she had calved, at which time she
was ruminating, and did not manifest any unusual symptoms of exhaustion.
I may mention that the first four calves presented naturally; the fifth
was a breech-presentation."

CLEANSING.--The _placenta_, or after-birth, by which the _foetus_ is
nourished while in embryo, should be removed soon after calving.
Generally, it will come away without any assistance. This is what is
called "cleansing after calving." When, however, it remains for some
time, its function having been performed, it becomes a foreign body,
exciting uterine contractions, and therefore injurious. The sooner,
then, it is removed, the better for the animal as well as the owner. To
accomplish this, the hand should be introduced, and, by pulling gently
in various directions, it will soon yield and come away. Should it be
allowed to remain, it rapidly decomposes, producing a low, feverish
condition of the system, which greatly interferes with the general
health of the animal.

INVERSION OF THE UTERUS.--The _uterus_ is sometimes turned inside out
after calving. This is, generally, the result of debility, or severe
labor. The _uterus_ should be replaced as carefully as possible with the
hands, care being taken that no dirt, straw, or other foreign substance
adheres to it. Should it again be expelled, it would be advisable to
quiet the system by the use of an anæsthetic, as chloroform, or--which
is much safer--chloric ether. As soon as the animal is under the
influence of this, the _uterus_ may be again replaced. The
hind-quarters should be raised as high as possible, in order to favor
its retention. The animal should have a little gruel and a bottle of
porter given to her every five or six hours, and the _vulva_ should be
bathed frequently with cold water.


PHRENITIS.

Inflammation of the brain is one of those dreadful diseases to which all
animals are liable. It is known to the farmer as frenzy, mad staggers,
etc.

The active symptoms are preceded by stupor; the animal stubbornly stands
in one position; the eyes are full, red, and fiery; respiration rapid;
delirium soon succeeds; the animal, bellowing, dashes wildly about, and
seems bent on mischief, rushing madly at every object which comes in its
way.

The causes of this disease are overwork in warm weather, a plethoric
condition of the system, and too stimulating food. Prof. Gamgee, of the
Edinburgh Veterinary College, relates a case resulting from the presence
within the external _meatus_ of a mass of concrete cerumen, or wax,
which induced inflammation of the ear, extending to the brain.

_Treatment._--As this is attended with considerable risk, unless it is
taken prior to the frenzied stage, bleeding almost to fainting should be
resorted to, and followed by a brisk purge. Take one ounce of Barbadoes
aloes, and ten to fifteen drops of Croton-oil; mix the aloes with one
pint of water and the oil, using the mixture as a drench. One pound of
Epsom-salts will answer the purpose very well, in cases where the aloes
and oil cannot be readily obtained. Application of bags of broken ice to
the head, is very beneficial. Spirits of turpentine, or mustard,
together with spirits of hartshorn and water should be well rubbed in
along the spine, from the neck to the tail.


PLEURISY.

This is an inflammation of the _pleura_, or the serous membrane which
lines the cavity of the chest, and which is deflected over the lungs.
Inflammation of this membrane rarely occurs in a pure form, but is more
generally associated with inflammation of the tissue of the lungs. If
this disease is not attended to at an early period, its usual
termination is in hydrothorax, or dropsy of the chest. The same causes
which produce inflammation of the lungs, of the bronchia, and of the
other respiratory organs, produce also pleurisy.

_Symptoms._--The respiration is quick, short, and painful; pressure
between the ribs produces much pain; a low, short, painful cough is
present; the respiratory murmur is much diminished,--in fact, it is
scarcely audible. This condition is rapidly followed by effusion, which
may be detected from the dullness of the sounds, on applying the ear to
the lower part of the lungs. The febrile symptoms disappear; the animal
for a few days appears to improve, but soon becomes weak, languid, and
often exhausted from the slightest exertion.

_Treatment._--The same treatment in the early stage is enjoined as in
inflammatory pneumonia, which the reader will consult--counter-irritation
and purgatives. Bleeding never should be resorted to. When effusion
takes place, it is necessary to puncture the sides with a trochar, and
draw away the fluid, giving internally one of the following purges three
times a day: rosin, eight ounces; saltpetre, two ounces, mix, and divide
into eight powders. Half-drachm doses of the iodide of potash,
dissolved in water, to be given three times daily, will be found useful
in this disease.


PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.

This disease, as its name implies, is an inflammatory condition of the
lungs and the _pleura_, or the enveloping membrane of the lungs and the
lining membrane of the chest. It is sometimes called contagious,
infectious, and epizoötic pleuro-pneumonia,--contagious or infectious,
from its supposed property of transmission from the diseased to the
healthy animal.

[Illustration: TAKING AN OBSERVATION.]

A contagious character the author is not ready to assign to
it,--contagious, as he understands it, being strictly applicable to
those diseases which depend upon actual contact with the poison that it
may be communicated from one animal to another. This does not
necessarily imply the actual touching of the animals themselves; for it
may be communicated from the poison left in the trough, or other places
where the diseased animal has been brought in contact with some object,
as is often the case in glanders in the horse; the matter discharged
from the nose, and left upon the manger, readily communicating that
disease to healthy animals coming in contact with it. Contagious
diseases, therefore, travel very slowly, starting, as they do, at one
point, and gradually spreading over a large district, or section of
country.

This disease is, however, regarded by the author as infectious; by which
term is meant that it is capable of being communicated from the diseased
to the healthy animal through the medium of the air, which has become
contaminated by the exhalations of poisonous matter. The ability to
inoculate other animals in this way is necessarily confined to a limited
space, sometimes not extending more than a few yards. Infectious
diseases, accordingly, spread with more rapidity than contagious ones,
and are, consequently, more to be dreaded; since we can avoid the one
with comparatively little trouble, while the other often steals upon us
when we regard ourselves as beyond its influence, carrying death and
destruction in its course.

The term by which this disease is known, is a misnomer. Pleuro-pneumonia
proper is neither a contagious, nor an infectious disease; hence, the
denial of medical men that this so-called pleuro-pneumonia is a
contagious, or infectious disease, has been the means of unnecessarily
exposing many animals to its poisonous influence.

In the _Recuéil de Médécine Vétérinaire_, for 1833, will be found a very
interesting description of this fatal malady. The author, M. Lecoy,
Assistant Professor at the Veterinary School of Lyons, France, says:
"There are few districts in the _arrondissement_ of Avesnes where more
cattle are fattened than in that of Soire-le-Chateau. The farmers being
unable to obtain a sufficient supply of cattle in the district, are
obliged to purchase the greater part of them from other provinces; and
they procure a great number for grazing from Franche Comté. The cattle
of this country are very handsome; their forms are compact; they fatten
rapidly; and they are a kind of cattle from which the grazer would
derive most advantage, were it not that certain diseases absorb, by the
loss of some of the animals, the profits of the rest of the herd.
Amongst the diseases which most frequently attack the cattle which are
brought from the North, there is one very prevalent in some years, and
which is the more to be dreaded as it is generally incurable; and the
slaughter of the animal, before he is perceptibly wasted, is the only
means by which the farmer can avoid losing the whole value of the beast.

"This disease is chronic pleuro-pneumonia. The symptoms are scarcely
recognizable at first, and often the beast is ill for a long time
without its being perceived. He fattens well, and when he is slaughtered
the owner is astonished to find scarcely half of the lungs capable of
discharging the function of respiration. When, however, the ox has not
sufficient strength of constitution to resist the ravages of disease,
the first symptom which is observed is diminution, or irregularity of
appetite. Soon afterwards, a frequent, dry cough is heard, which becomes
feeble and painful as the disease proceeds. The dorso-lumbar portion of
the spine (loins) grows tender; the animal flinches when the part is
pressed upon, and utters a peculiar groan, or grunt, which the graziers
regard as decisive of the malady.

"Quickly after this, the movements of the flanks become irregular and
accelerated, and the act of respiration is accompanied by a kind of
balancing motion of the whole body. The sides of the chest become as
tender as the loins, or more so; for the animal immediately throws
himself down, if pressed upon with any force. The elbows become, in many
subjects, more and more separated from the sides of the chest. The pulse
is smaller than natural, and not considerably increased. The muzzle is
hot and dry, alternately. The animal lies down as in a healthy state,
but rumination is partially or entirely suspended. The _fæces_ are
harder than they should be; the urine is of its natural color and
quantity; the mouth is often dry; and the horns and ears retain their
natural temperature.

"This first stage of the disease sometimes continues during a month, or
more, and then, if the animal is to recover, or at least, apparently so,
the symptoms gradually disappear. First of all, the appetite returns,
and the beast begins to acquire a little flesh. The proprietor should
then make haste and get rid of him; for it is very rare that the malady,
however it may be palliated for a while, does not reappear with greater
intensity than before.

"In most cases, the disease continues to pursue its course toward its
termination without any remission,--every symptom gradually increasing
in intensity. The respiration becomes more painful; the head is more
extended; the eyes are brilliant; every expiration is accompanied with a
grunt, and by a kind of puckering of the angles of the lips; the cough
becomes smaller, more suppressed, and more painful; the tongue protrudes
from the mouth, and a frothy mucus is abundantly discharged; the breath
becomes offensive; a purulent fluid of a bloody color escapes from the
nostrils; diarrhoea, profuse and fetid, succeeds to the constipation;
the animal becomes rapidly weaker; he is a complete skeleton, and at
length he dies.

"Examination after death discloses slight traces of inflammation in the
intestines, discoloration of the liver, and a hard, dry substance
contained in the manyplus. The lungs adhere to the sides and to the
diaphragm by numerous bands, evidently old and very firm. The substance
of the lungs often presents a reddish-gray hepatization throughout
almost its whole extent. At other times, there are tubercles in almost
every state of hardness, and in that of suppuration. The portion of the
lungs that is not hepatized is red, and gorged with blood. Besides the
old adhesions, there are numerous ones of recent date. The pleura is not
much reddened, but by its thickness in some points, its adhesion in
others, and the effusion of a serous fluid, it proves how much and how
long it has participated in the inflammatory action. The trachea and the
bronchia are slightly red, and the right side of the head is gorged with
blood.

"In a subject in which, during life, I could scarcely feel the beating
of the heart, I found the whole of the left lobe of the lungs adhering
to the sides, and completely hepatized. In another, that had presented
no sign of disease of the chest, and that for some days before his death
vomited the little fodder which he could take, the whole of that portion
of the oesophagus that passed through the chest was surrounded with
dense false membranes, of a yellowish hue, ranging from light to dark,
and being in some parts more than an inch in thickness, and adhering
closely to the muscular membrane of the tube, without allowing any
trace to be perceived of that portion of the mediastinal pleura on which
this unnatural covering was fixed and developed.

"The cattle purchased in Franche Comté are brought to Avesnes at two
periods of the year--in autumn and in the spring. Those which are
brought in autumn are much more subject to the disease than those which
have arrived in the spring; and it almost always happens that the years
in which it shows itself most generally are those in which the weather
was most unfavorable while the cattle were on the road. The journey is
performed by two different routes,--through Lorraine and through
Champagne,--and the disease frequently appears in cattle that have
arrived by one of these routes. The manner in which the beasts are
treated, on their arrival, may contribute not a little to the
development of the malady. These animals, which have been driven long
distances in bad weather, and frequently half starved, arrived famished,
and therefore the more fatigued, and some of them lame. Calculating on
their ravenous appetite, the graziers, instead of giving them wholesome
food, make them consume the worst that the farm contains,--musty and
mouldy fodder; and it is usually by the cough, which the eating of such
food necessarily produces, that the disease is discovered and first
developed.

"Is chronic pleuro-pneumonia contagious? The farmers believe that it is,
and I am partly of their opinion. When an animal falls sick in the
pasture, the others, after his removal, go and smell at the grass where
he has lain, and which he has covered with his saliva, and, after that,
new cases succeed to the first. It is true that this fact is not
conclusive, since the disease also appears in a great number of animals
that have been widely separated from each other. But I have myself seen
three cases in which the cattle of the country, perfectly well before,
have fallen ill, and died with the same symptoms, excepting that they
have been more acute, after they have been kept with cattle affected
with this disease. This circumstance inclines me to think that the
disease is contagious; or, at least, that, in the progress of it, the
breath infects the cow-house in which there are other animals already
predisposed to the same disease. I am induced to believe that most of
the serious internal diseases are communicated in this manner, and
particularly those which affect the organs of respiration, when the
animals are shut up in close, low, and badly-ventilated cow-houses."
[_Rec. de Méd. Vét. Mai, 1833._]

No malady can be more terrible and ruinous than this among dairy-stock;
and its spread all over the country, together with its continuance with
scarcely any abatement, must be attributed to the combination of various
causes. The chief are: _first_, the very contagious or infectious nature
of the disorder; _second_, inattention on the part of Government to the
importation and subsequent sale of diseased animals; and, _third_, the
recklessness of purchasers of dairy or feeding cattle.

This disease may be defined as an acute inflammation of the organs of
the chest, with the development of a peculiar and characteristic poison,
which is the active element of infection or contagion. It is a disease
peculiar to the cattle tribe, notwithstanding occasional assertions
regarding observations of the disease among horses, sheep, and other
animals,--which pretended observations have not been well attested.

The infectious, or contagious nature of this virulent malady is
incontestibly substantiated by an overwhelming amount of evidence, which
cannot be adduced at full length here, but which may be classified under
the following heads: _first_, the constant spreading of the disease from
countries in which it rages to others which, previously to the
importation of diseased animals, had been perfectly free from it. This
may be proved in the case of England, into which country it was carried
in 1842, by affected animals from Holland. Twelve months after, it
spread from England to Scotland, by means of some cattle sold at
All-Hallow Fair, and it was only twelve months afterward that cattle
imported as far north as Inverness took the disease there. Lately, a cow
taken from England to Australia was observed to be diseased upon
landing, and the evil results were limited to her owner's stock, who
gave the alarm, and ensured an effectual remedy against a wider spread.
Besides, the recent importation of pleuro-pneumonia into the United
States from Holland appears to have awakened our agricultural press
generally, and to have convinced them of the stubborn fact that our
cattle have been decimated by a fearfully infectious, through probably
preventable, plague. A letter from this country to an English author
says: "Its (pleuro-pneumonia's) contagious character seems to be settled
beyond a doubt, though some of the V.S. practitioners deny it, which is
almost as reasonable as it would be to deny any other well-authenticated
historic fact. Every case of the disease is traceable to one of two
sources; either to Mr. Chenery's stock in Belmont (near Boston,
Massachusetts), into which the disease was introduced by his importation
of four Dutch cows from Holland, which arrived here the 23d of last May;
or else to one of the three calves which he sold to a farmer in North
Brookfield, Massachusetts, last June."

_2dly._ Apart from the importation into countries, we have this certain
proof--to which special attention was drawn several years ago--that
cattle-dealers' farms, and public markets, constitute the busy centres
of infection. Most anxious and careful inquiries have established the
proposition that in breeding-districts, where the proprietors of
extensive dairies--as in Dumfries, Scotland, and other places--abstain
from buying, except from their neighbors, who have never had diseases of
the lungs amongst their stock, pleuro-pneumonia has not been seen. There
is a wide district in the Vicinity of Abington, England, and in the
parish of Crawford, which has not been visited _by_ this plague, with
the exception of two farms, into which market-cattle had been imported
and thus brought the disease.

_3dly._ In 1854 appeared a Report of the Researches on Pleuro-Pneumonia,
by a scientific commission, instituted by the Minister of Agriculture in
France. This very able pamphlet was edited by Prof. Bouley, of Alfort,
France. The members of the commission belonged to the most eminent
veterinarians and agriculturists in France. Magendie was President;
Regnal, Secretary; besides Rayer, the renowned comparative pathologist;
Yvart, the Inspector-General of the Imperial Veterinary Schools;
Renault, Inspector of the Imperial Veterinary Schools; Delafond,
Director of Alfort College; Bouley, Lassaigne, Baudemont, Doyére, Manny
de Morny, and a few others representing the public. If such a
commission were occasionally appointed in this country for similar
purposes, how much light would be thrown on subjects of paramount
importance to the agricultural community!

Conclusions arrived at by the commission are too important to be
overlooked in this connection. The reader must peruse the Report itself,
if he needs to satisfy himself as to the care taken in conducting the
investigations: but the foregoing names sufficiently attest the
indisputable nature of the facts alluded to.

In instituting its experiments, the commission had in view the solving
of the following questions:--

_1stly._ Is the epizoötic pleuro-pneumonia of cattle susceptible of
being transmitted from diseased to healthy animals by cohabitation?

_2dly._ In the event of such contagion's existing, would all the animals
become affected, or what proportion would resist the disease?

_3dly._ Amongst the animals attacked by the disease, how many recover,
and under what circumstances? How many succumb?

_4thly._ Are there any animals of the ox species decidedly free from any
susceptibility of being affected from the contagion of pleuro-pneumonia?

_5thly._ Do the animals, which have been once affected by a mild form of
the disease, enjoy immunity from subsequent attacks?

_6thly._ Do the animals, which have once been affected by the disease in
its active form, enjoy such immunity?

To determine these questions, the commission submitted at different
times to the influence of cohabitation with diseased animals forty-six
perfectly healthy ones, chosen from districts in which they had never
been exposed to a similar influence.

Of these forty-six animals, twenty were experimented on at Pomeraye, two
at Charentonneau, thirteen at Alfort, and eleven, in the fourth
experiment, at Charentonneau.

Of this number, twenty-one animals resisted the disease when first
submitted to the influence of cohabitation, ten suffered slightly, and
fifteen took the disease. Of the fifteen affected, four died, and eleven
recovered. Consequently, the animals which apparently escaped the
disease at the first trial amounted to 45.65 per cent., and those
affected to 21.73 per cent. Of these, 23.91 per cent. recovered, and
8.69 per cent. died. But the external appearances in some instances
proved deceptive, and six of the eleven animals of the last experiment,
which were regarded as having escaped free, were found, on being
destroyed, to bear distinct evidence of having been affected. This,
therefore, modifies the foregoing calculations, and the numbers should
stand thus:--

15 enjoy immunity,  or  32.61 per cent.
10 indisposed,      "   21.73    "
17 animals cured,   "   36.95    "
 4 dead,            "    8.98    "

Of the forty-two animals which were exposed in the first experiments at
Pomeraye and Charentonneau, and which escaped either without becoming
affected, or recovering, eighteen were submitted to a second trial; and
of these eighteen animals, five had, in the first experiment, suffered
from the disease and had recovered; five had now become affected; and
four had been indisposed. The four animals submitted to the influence
of contagion a third time, had been affected on the occasion of the
first trial. None of the eighteen animals contracted the disease during
these renewed exposures to the influence of contagion.

From the results of these experiments, the commission drew the following
conclusions:--

_1stly._ The epizoötic pleuro-pneumonia is susceptible of being
transmitted from diseased to healthy animals by cohabitation.

_2dly._ All the animals exposed do not take the disease; some suffer
slightly, and others not at all.

_3dly._ Of the affected animals, some recover and others die.

_4thly._ The animals, whether slightly or severely affected, possess an
immunity against subsequent attacks.

These are the general conclusions which the commission deemed themselves
authorized to draw from their experiments. The absolute proportion of
animals which become affected, or which escape the disease, or of those
which die and which recover, as a general rule, cannot be deduced from
the foregoing experiments, which, for such a purpose, are too limited.
The commission simply state the numbers resulting from their
experiments. From these it transpires that forty five of the animals
became severely affected with pleuro-pneumonia, and twenty-one per cent.
took the disease slightly, making the whole sixty-six per cent. which
were more or less severely attacked. Thirty-four per cent. remained free
from any malady. The proportion of animals which re-acquired their
wonted appearance of health amounted to eighty-three per cent., whereas
seventeen per cent. died. Many minor points might be insisted on, but it
is sufficient here to say, that the most careful analysis of all facts
has proved to practical veterinarians, as well as to experienced
agriculturists, and must prove to all who will calmly and
dispassionately consider the point, that pleuro-pneumonia is
pre-eminently an infectious, or contagious disease.

[Illustration: THE TWINS.]

_Symptoms._--From the time that an animal is exposed to the contagion to
the first manifestation of symptoms, a certain period elapses. This is
the period of incubation. It varies from a fortnight to forty days, or
even several months. The first signs, proving that the animal has been
seized, can scarcely be detected by any but a professional man; though,
if a proprietor of cattle were extremely careful, and had pains-taking
individuals about his stock, he would invariably notice a slight shiver
as ushering in the disorder, which for several days, even after the
shivering fit, would limit itself to slight interference in breathing,
readily detected on auscultation. Perhaps a cough might be noticed, and
that the appetite and milk-secretion diminished. The animal becomes
costive, and the shivering fits recur. The cough becomes more constant
and oppressive; the pulse full and frequent, usually numbering about
eighty per minute at first, and rising to upwards of one hundred. The
temperature of the body rises, and all the symptoms of acute fever set
in. A moan, or grunt, in the early part of the disease indicates a
dangerous attack, and the _alae nasi_ (cartilages of the nose) rise
spasmodically at each inspiration; the air rushes through the inflamed
windpipe and bronchial tubes, so as to produce a loud, coarse
respiratory murmur; and the spasmodic action of the abdominal muscles
indicates the difficulty the animal also experiences in the act of
expiration. Pressure over the intercostal (between the ribs) spaces, and
pressing on the spine, induce the pain so characteristic of pleurisy,
and a deep moan not infrequently follows such an experiment. The eyes
are bloodshot, mouth clammy, skin dry and tightly bound to the
subcutaneous textures, and the urine is scanty and high-colored.

Upon auscultation, the characteristic dry, sonorous _râle_ of ordinary
bronchitis may be detected along the windpipe, and in the bronchial
tubes. A loud sound of this description is, not infrequently, detected
at the anterior part of either side of the chest; whilst the respiratory
murmur is entirely lost, posteriorly, from consolidation of the lungs. A
decided leathery, frictional sound is detected over a considerable
portion of the thoracic surface. As the disease advances, and gangrene,
with the production of cavities in the lungs, ensues, loud, cavernous
_râles_ are heard, which are more or less circumscribed, occasionally
attended by a decided metallic noise. When one lobe of the lungs is
alone affected, the morbid sounds are confined to one side, and on the
healthy side the respiratory murmur is uniformly louder all over.

By carefully auscultating diseased cows from day to day, interesting
changes can be discovered during the animal's lifetime. Frequently, the
abnormal sounds indicate progressive destruction; but, at other times,
portions of the lungs that have been totally impervious to air, become
the seat of sibilant _râles_, and gradually, a healthy respiratory
murmur proves that, by absorption of the materials which have been
plugging the tissues of the lungs, resolution is fast advancing. Some
very remarkable cases of this description have been encountered in
practice.

Unfortunately, we often find a rapid destruction of the tissues of the
lungs, and speedy dissolution. In other instances, the general symptoms
of hectic, or consumption, attend lingering cases, in which the
temperature of the body becomes low, and the animal has a dainty
appetite, or refuses all nourishment. It has a discharge from the eyes,
and a fetid, sanious discharge from the nose. Not infrequently, it
coughs up disorganized lung-tissue and putrid pus. Great prostration,
and, indeed, typhus symptoms, set in. There is a fetid diarrhoea, and
the animal sinks in the most emaciated state, often dying from
suffocation, in consequence of the complete destruction of the
respiratory structures.

_Post mortem_ appearances.--In acute cases, the cadaverous lesions
chiefly consist in abundant false membranes in the trachea, or windpipe,
and closure of the bronchial tubes by plastic lymph. The air-vesicles
are completely plugged by this material, and very interesting specimens
may be obtained by careful dissection, in the shape of casts of the
bronchial tubes and air-vesicles, clustered together like bunches of
grapes. On slicing the lungs in these cases, hepatization is observed,
presenting a very peculiar appearance, which is, in a great measure, due
to the arrangement of the lung-tissue in cattle. The pulmonary lobules
are of a deep-red or brown color, perfectly consolidated, and
intersected or separated, one from the other, by lighter streaks of
yellowish-red lymph, occupying the interlobular, areolar tissue. In the
more chronic cases, the diseased lobes and lobules are found partly
separated from the more healthy structures.

This occurs from gangrene, and putrefactive changes, or in some
instances, from the ulcerative process, so constantly observed in the
segregation of dead from living tissues. Abscesses are not infrequently
found in different parts of the lungs. Sometimes circumscribed, at
others connected with bronchial tubes, and not infrequently
communicating with the pleural cavity. True empyema is not often seen;
but, at all times, the adhesions between the costal and visceral pleura
are extensive, and there is much effusion in the chest. In dressed
carcasses of cows that have been slaughtered from pleuro-pneumonia, even
though the disease has not been far advanced, it will be found that the
butcher has carefully scraped the serous membrane off the inner surface
of the ribs, as it would otherwise be impossible for him to give the
pleura its healthy, smooth aspect, from the firm manner in which the
abundant false membranes adhere to it. The diseased lungs sometimes
attain inordinate weight. They have been known to weigh as much as sixty
pounds.

_Treatment._--The veterinary profession is regarded by many who have
sustained heavy losses from pleuro-pneumonia, as deeply ignorant,
because its members cannot often cure the disease. Persons forget that
there are several epidemics which prove equally difficult to manage on
the part of the physician, such as cholera, yellow fever, etc. The
poison in these contagious, epizoötic diseases is so virulent that the
animals may be regarded as dead from the moment they are attacked. Its
elimination from the system is impossible, and medicine cannot support
an animal through its tardy, exhausting, and destructive process of
clearing the system of so potent a virus. All antiphlogistic means have
failed, such as blood-letting and the free use of evacuants.
Derivatives, in the form of mustard-poultices, or more active blisters,
are attended with good results. Stimulants have proved of the greatest
service; and the late Prof. Tessona, of Turin, strongly recommended,
from the very onset of the disease, the administration of strong doses
of quinine. Maffei, of Ferrara, states that he has obtained great
benefit from the employment of ferruginous tonics and manganese in the
very acute stage of the malady, supported by alcoholic stimulants.
Recently, the advantages resulting from the use of sulphate of iron,
both as a preventive and curative, have been exhibited in France. It
would appear that the most valuable depurative method of treatment yet
resorted to is by the careful use of the Roman bath. Acting, like all
other sudorifics in cases of fever and blood diseases, it carries off by
the skin much of the poison, without unduly lowering the vital powers.

_Prevention._--The rules laid down in Denmark, and indeed in many other
places, appear the most natural for the prevention of the disease. If
they could be carried out, the disease must necessarily be stopped; but
there are practical and insuperable difficulties in the way of enforcing
them. Thus, a Dr. Warneke says, prevention consists in "the avoidance of
contagion; the slaughter of infected beasts; the prohibition of keeping
cattle by those whose cattle have been slaughtered, for a space of ten
weeks after the last case occurring; the disinfection of stalls vacated
by slaughtering; the closing of infected places to all passing of
cattle; especial attention to the removal of the dung, and of the
remains of the carcasses of slaughtered beasts; and, finally,
undeviating severity of the law against violators."

Dr. Williams, of Hasselt, suggested and carried out, in 1851, the
inoculation of the virus of pleuro-pneumonia, in order to induce a mild
form of the disease in healthy animals, and prevent their decimation by
the severe attacks due to contagion. He met with much encouragement, and
perhaps more opposition. Didot, Corvini, Ercolani, and many more
accepted Dr. Williams's facts as incontestable, and wrote, advocating
his method of checking the spread of so destructive a plague.

The first able memoir which contested all that has been said in favor of
inoculation, appeared in Turin, and was written by Dr. Riviglio, a
Piedmontese veterinary surgeon. This was supported by the views of many
others. Prof. Simonds wrote against the plan, and, in 1854, the French
commission, whose report has been before mentioned, confirmed, in part,
Riviglio's views, though, from the incompleteness of the experiments,
further trials were recommended.

Inoculation is performed as follows: A portion of diseased lung is
chosen, and a bistoury or needle made to pierce it so as to become
charged with the material consolidating the lung, and this is afterward
plunged into any part, but, more particularly, toward the point of the
tail. If operated severely, and higher up, great exudation occurs, which
spreads upward, invades the areolar tissue round the rectum and other
pelvic organs, and death soon puts an end to the animal's excruciating
suffering. If the operation is properly performed with lymph that is not
putrid, and the incisions are not made too deep, the results are limited
to local exudation and swelling, general symptoms of fever, and gradual
recovery. The most common occurrence is sloughing of the tail; and in
London, at the present time, dairies are to be seen in which all the
cows have short-tail stumps.

Dr. Williams and others have gone too far in attempting to describe a
particular corpuscle as existing in the lymph of pleuro-pneumonia. All
animal poisons can be alone discovered from their effects. In structure
and chemical constitution, there is no difference, and often the most
potent poisons are simple fluids. The Belgian Commission, appointed to
investigate the nature and influence of inoculation for
pleuro-pneumonia, very justly expressed an opinion that Dr. Williams had
not proved that a specific product, distinguished by anatomical
characters, and appreciable by the microscope, existed in this disease.

The all-important question, "Is inoculation of service?" has to the
satisfaction of most been solved. The Belgian and French commissions,
the observations of Riviglio, Simond, Herring, and many others, prove
that a certain degree of preservative influence is derived by the
process of inoculation. It does not, however, arrest the progress of the
disease. It certainly diminishes to some extent--though often very
slightly so--the number of cases, and, particularly, of severe ones.
This effect has been ascribed to a derivative action, independent of any
specific influence, and, indeed, similar to that of introducing setons
in the dewlap.

In London, some dairymen have considerable faith in inoculation, though
its effect is uncertain, and the manner of its working a mystery. The
best counsel, in the premises, which can be given to the keeper of dairy
stock is, to select his own animals from healthy herds, and strictly to
avoid public markets. In many instances, a faithful observance of these
injunctions has been sufficient to prevent the invasion of this terrible
disease. [Gamgee.]

The existence of this disease in the United States was not generally
known until the year 1859, when Mr. Chenery, of Belmont, near Boston,
Massachusetts, imported several cows from Holland, which arrived in the
early part of the spring of that year. Some of the animals were sick
when they arrived, but the true nature of the disease was not at that
time suspected. Several of them were so bad that they were carried in
trucks to Mr. Chenery's barn. Some two months passed away before the
character of the disease was discovered.

Upon the facts becoming known, the citizens of Massachusetts became
panic-stricken, as the disease was rapidly spreading over that State. An
extra session of the Legislature was speedily convened, when a Joint
Special Committee was appointed, to adopt and carry out such measures as
in their judgment seemed necessary for the extirpation of this monster,
pleuro-pneumonia.

The Committee met in the Hall of the House of Representatives, Thursday,
May, 31, 1860, to receive evidence as to the contagious or infectious
character of the disease, in order to determine concerning the necessity
of legislative action.

Mr. Walker, one of the commissioners appointed by the Governor, made the
following statement: "The disease was introduced into North Brookfield
from Belmont. Mr. Curtis Stoddard, a young man of North Brookfield, went
down, the very last of June, last year, and purchased three calves of
Mr. Chenery, of Belmont. He brought these calves up in the cars to
Brookfield. On their way from the depôt to his house, about five miles,
one of the calves was observed to falter, and when he got to his house,
it seemed to be sick, and in two or three days exhibited very great
illness; so much so, that his father came along, and, thinking he could
take better care of it, took the calf home. He took it to his own barn,
in which there were about forty head of cattle; but it grew no better,
and his son went up and brought it back again to his own house. In about
ten days after that, it died. His father, who had had the calf nearly
four days, in about a fortnight afterward observed that one of his oxen
was sick, and it grew worse very fast and died. Two weeks after, a
second also sickened, and died. Then a third was attacked and died, the
interval growing wider from the attack of one animal to that of another,
until he had lost eight oxen and cows. Young Stoddard lost no animal by
the infection,--that is, no one died on his hands. Prior to the
appointment of this Commission, about the first of November,--for
reasons independent of this disease, which I don't suppose he then knew
the nature of,--he sold off his stock. He sold off eleven heifers, or
young animals, and retained nine of the most valuable himself; which
shows that he did not then know any thing was the matter with them.

"These nine were four oxen, and five young cattle. The four he took to
his father's, three of the others to his uncle's, and the remaining two
to his father-in-law's; distributing them all among his friends,--which
furnishes another proof that he did not suppose he was doing any
mischief. He disposed of his herd in that way. From this auction, these
eleven animals went in different directions, and wherever they went,
they scattered the infection. Without a single failure the disease has
followed those cattle; in one case, more than two hundred cattle having
been infected by one which was sold at Curtis Stoddard's auction, when
he was entirely ignorant of the disease.

"When the commission was appointed, they went and examined his cattle,
and were satisfied that they were diseased,--at least, some of them.
They examined his father's herd, and found that they were very much
diseased; and when we came to kill Curtis Stoddard's cattle, seven of
the nine head were diseased. Two were not condemned, because the law
says, 'Cattle not appearing to be diseased, shall be appraised.'
Nevertheless, it proved that these animals were diseased; so that his
whole herd was affected.

"In regard to Leonard Stoddard's cattle, he lost fourteen of his animals
before the commissioners went to his place. They took eighteen more, all
of which were diseased,--most of them very bad cases,--indeed, extreme
cases. That left eight heads, which were not condemned, because not
appearing to be diseased. Here I remark, that when this disease is under
the shoulder-blade, it cannot be detected by percussion. The physicians
did not say that the animal was not diseased, but that they did not see
sufficient evidence upon which to condemn. Such animals were to be paid
for, upon the ground of their not appearing to be diseased.
Nevertheless, it is proper to state that the remaining eight which were
not condemned, were suspected to be diseased, and we told Mr. Stoddard
that we had the impression that they were diseased, notwithstanding
appearances. He said, 'There is a three-year-old animal that has never
faltered at all. She has never manifested the slightest disease. If you
will kill her, and she is diseased, I shall make up my mind that I have
not a well animal in my stalls.' We killed the animal, and found her to
be badly diseased.

"Thus, the first two herds were all infected by the disease; and in the
last of Curtis Stoddard's oxen which we killed, we found a cyst in the
lungs of each. One of these lungs is now in this building, never having
been cut open, and medical men can see the cyst which it contains. I
have said in what manner Mr. Curtis Stoddard's cattle spread the
infection.

"In regard to Mr. Leonard Stoddard's: in the first place, he kept six or
eight oxen which he employed in teaming. He was drawing some lumber, and
stopped over night, with his oxen, at Mr. Needham's. Needham lost his
whole herd. He lost eight or ten of them, and the rest were in a
terrible condition. Seven or eight more were condemned, and his whole
herd was destroyed, in consequence of Mr. Stoddard's stopping with him
over night. Mr. Stoddard sold an animal to Mr. Woodis of New Braintree.
He had twenty-three fine cows. It ruined his herd utterly. Seven or
eight animals died before the commissioners got there. Mr. L. Stoddard
also sold a yoke of cattle to Mr. Olmstead, one of his neighbors, who
had a very good herd. They stayed only five days in his hands, when
they passed over to Mr. Doane. In these five days they had so infected
his herd that it was one of the most severe instances of disease that we
have had. One third were condemned, and another third were passed over
as sound, whether they were so, or not. They did not appear to be
diseased. The cattle that were passed from Mr. Stoddard through Mr.
Olmstead to Mr. Doane, were loaned by Mr. D. to go to a moving of a
building from Oakham to New Braintree. They were put in with twenty-two
yoke of cattle, and employed a day and a half. It has since been proved
that the whole of these cattle took the contagion. They belonged to
eleven different herds, and of course, each of these herds formed a
focus from which the disease spread. Now, in these two ways the disease
has spread in different directions.

"But, when the commissioners first commenced, they had no idea that the
disease extended further than those herds in which there were animals
sick. Hence, their ideas and the ideas of those who petitioned for the
law, did not extend at all to so large a number of herds as have since
been proved to be diseased, because they only judged of those who
manifested disease. As soon as we began in that circle, we found a
second circle of infection, and another outside of that; and by that
time it had branched off in various directions to various towns. It
assumed such proportions that it was very evident that the commissioners
had not the funds to perform the operations required by the law. The law
confines the commissioners to one operation,--killing and burying. No
discretionary power is given at all. The commissioners became entirely
dissatisfied with that condition of things, because other measures
besides merely killing and burying, are quite as necessary and
important. When they arrived at that point and discovered to what extent
the infection had spread, they stopped killing the herds, and I believe
there has not been a herd killed for twenty days.

"The policy was then changed to circumscribing the disease, by isolating
the herds just as fast as possible and as surely as possible. A man's
herd has been exposed. There is no other way than to go and examine it,
and take the diseased animals away. Then he knows the animals are
diseased, and his neighbors know it. That has been the business of the
commissioners for the last twenty days; and the facts that they have no
discretionary power whatever, and that they were entirely circumscribed
in their means, and that it was hard for the farmers to lose their stock
and not be paid for it,--induced them to petition the Governor, in
connection with the Board of Agriculture, for the calling of a session
of the Legislature, to take measures for the extinction of the disease."

In response to a question, "Whether any animals that had once been
affected, had afterward recovered?"--the same gentleman stated that
instances had occurred where cattle had been sick twice, and had,
apparently, fully recovered; they ruminated readily, and were gaining
flesh. Upon examination, however, they were pronounced diseased, and,
when killed, both lungs were found in a hopeless case, very badly
diseased.

Dr. George B. Loring, another of the commissioners, stated that eight
hundred and forty-two head of cattle had, at that time, been killed, and
that, from a careful estimate, there still remained one thousand head,
which should either be killed, or isolated for such a length of time as
should establish the fact that they had no disease about them. Twenty
thousand dollars and upwards had already been appraised as the value of
the cattle then killed.

As to disinfecting measures, the farmers who had lost cattle were
requested to whitewash their barns thoroughly, and some tons of a
disinfecting powder were purchased for the advantage of the persons who
wished to use it. An early application was advised, that the barns might
be in readiness for hay the then coming season.

The practice adopted by the commissioners was, to appraise the cattle
whenever a herd was found which had been exposed, and a surgeon was
appointed to pass judgment upon the number of diseased animals. After
that judgment, the remaining animals that were pronounced sound were
killed and passed to the credit of the owner, after an appraisement made
by these persons. The fair market-prices were paid, averaging about
thirty-three dollars a head. At the time of the meeting of the
committee, some seventy cattle had died of the disease.

An examination was made of some of the animals killed, and the following
facts obtained:--

Case 1.--This cow had been sick for nineteen days; was feeble, without
much appetite, with diarrhoea, cough, shortness of breathing, hair
staring, etc. Percussion dull over the whole of the left side of the
chest; respiration weak. Killed by authority. Several gallons of serum
were found in the left side of the chest; a thick, furzy deposit of
lymph over all the _pleura-costalis_. This lymph was an inch in
thickness, resembling the velvety part of tripe, and quite firm. There
was a firm deposit of lymph in the whole left lung, but more especially
at its base, with strong adhesions to the diaphragm and
_pleura-costalis_ near the spine. The lung was hard and brittle, like
liver, near its base. No pus. Right lung and right side of chest
healthy.

Case 2.--This cow was taken very sick, January 30th. In fourteen days,
she began to get better. April 12th, she is gaining flesh, breathes
well, hair healthy, gives ten quarts of milk a day, and in all other
respects bids fair for a healthy animal hereafter, except a slight
cough. Percussion dull over base of the left lung, near the spine, and
respiration feeble in the same regions.

Autopsy.--Left lung strongly adherent to diaphragm and costal pleura;
the long adhesions well smoothed off; _pleura-costalis_ shining and
healthy. Also, the surface of the lung, when there were no adhesions,
sound and right; all the lung white, and free for the entrance of air,
except the base, in which was a cyst containing a pint or two of pus.
Loose in this pus was a hard mass, as large as a two-quart measure,
looking like marble; when cut through its centre, it appeared like the
brittle, hardened lining in case 1. It appeared as though a piece of
lung had been detached by suppuration and enclosed in an air-tight cyst,
by which decomposition was prevented. The other lung and the chest were
sound. It is to be inferred, as there were adhesions, that there had
been pleurisy and deposit of lymph and serum, as in case 1, and that
Nature had commenced the cure by absorbing the serum from the chest, and
the lymph from the free pleural surface, and smoothed off every thing to
a good working condition. The lump in the cyst was brittle and
irregular on its surface, as though it was dissolving in the pus. No
good reason can be given why Nature should not consummate the work which
she had so wisely begun.

Case 3.--This cow had been sick fourteen days; was coughing and
breathing badly; percussion dull over both chests and respiration
feeble. Killed.

Autopsy.--Both chests filled with water; deposits of lymph over all the
_pleura-costalis_, presenting the same velvety, furzy appearance as in
Case 1. Both lungs were hardened at the base, and the left throughout
its whole extent, and firmly adherent to diaphragm and costal pleura,
near the spine. The right lung had nearly one-third of its substance in
a condition for the entrance of air; but this portion, even, was so
compressed with the water, that a few hours longer would have terminated
the case fatally without State aid. This case had not proceeded far
enough for the formation of the cyst or pus.

In Mr. Needham's herd, about twenty-eight days intervened between the
first and second case of disease, instead of about fourteen, as in Mr.
Olmstead's.

Case 4.--A nice heifer, in fair condition, eating well, only having a
slight cough. Percussion dull over base of the left lung.

Autopsy.--Base of left lung adherent to diaphragm and costal pleura;
lung hardened. On cutting into base, found ulceration and a head of
Timothy grass, four or five inches long. Animal in every other way well.

Case 5.--This cow was taken, January 1st, with a cough, difficulty of
breathing, and the other symptoms of the disease, and continued sick
till March 1st. On taking her out, April 12th, to be slaughtered, she
capered, stuck up her tail, snuffed, and snorted, showing all the signs
of feeling well and vigorous.

Autopsy.--Right lung firmly adherent to diaphragm and costal pleura,
near the spine. Base of lung hardened, containing a cyst with a large
lump, of the size of a two-quart measure, floating in pus; outside of
the lump was of a dirty yellow-white, irregular, brittle, and cheesy;
the inside mottled, or divided into irregular squares; red like muscle,
and breaking under the finger, like liver. Costal pleura smooth,
shining; adhesions where there was motion; card-like and polished; no
serum; lung apparently performing its functions well, except for a short
distance above the air-tight cyst, where it was still hardened. It would
seem as though Nature was intending to dissolve this lump, and carry it
off by absorption. She knows how, and would have done it, in the opinion
of the writer, had she been allowed sufficient time.

Case 6.--Was taken December 18th, and was very sick; in three weeks she
was well, except a cough, quite severe, and so continued till about the
first of March, when she coughed harder and grew worse till seven days
before she was killed, April 12th, when she brought forth a calf, and
then commenced improving again.

Autopsy.--Right lung adherent to diaphragm and costal pleura. At its
base, was a flabby, fluctuating cyst. In cutting into it, the lump was
found to be breaking up by decomposition, and scenting badly. Every
thing else normal. Was not the cyst broken through by some accident,
thus letting in the air, when she grew worse? Would she not, probably,
have overcome this disagreeable accident, and recovered, in spite of it?
This cow's hair did not look well, as did that of those in which the
cyst was air-tight; but still she was beginning to eat well again, and
appeared in a tolerable way for recovery.

Case 7.--This heifer had coughed slightly for six weeks, but the owner
said he thought no one going into his herd would notice that any thing
was the matter with her.

[Illustration: A RURAL SCENE.]

Autopsy.--Slight adhesions of lung to diaphragm. Near these adhesions
are small cysts, of the size of a walnut, containing pus and cheesy
matter; about the cysts a little way the lung was hardened, say for half
an inch. There were several cysts, and they appeared as though the
inflammation attacked only the different lobes of the lungs, leaving
others healthy between,--Nature throwing out coagulable lymph around the
diseased lobe, and forming thereby an air-tight cyst, cutting around the
diseased lobe by suppuration, so that it could be carried off by
absorption.

In the herd to which this animal belonged, nine days after the first cow
died, the second case occurred. First cow was sick five weeks. The time
of incubation could not have been over six weeks,--probably not over
three weeks. Of these cows, one improved in eight weeks, the other in
three weeks.

Case 8.--This cow had been sick three weeks. Killed.

Autopsy.--Large quantities of serum in left chest; lung adherent, and
hardened at base. On cutting into the hardened lung, one side of the
lump was found separated from the lung, with pus between the lines of
separation, and the forming coat of the cyst outside of the pus; the
other side of the lump was part and parcel of the hardened lung which
had not yet had time to commence separation. The costal pleura was
covered with organized lymph to the thickness of an inch, with the usual
characteristics. The right chest contained a small quantity of serum,
and had several small, hardened red spots in that lung, with some
tender, weak adhesions; but most of the right lung was healthy.

Case 9.--Sick four weeks. Killed.

Autopsy.--Right lung hardened at base; adherent to diaphragm and costal
pleura; lump separated on one side only. Cyst beginning to form, outside
of separation; pus between cyst and lump, but in a very small quantity.

These two cases settle the character of the lump, and the manner of the
formation of the cyst; the lump being lung and lymph, cut out by
suppuration,--the cyst being organized, smoothed off by suppuration,
friction, etc.

Case 10.--Killed. Hair looked badly; but the cow, it was said, ate, and
appeared well. This case, however, occurred in a herd, of which no
reliable information, in detail, could be procured.

Autopsy.--Base of lung hardened, adherent to diaphragm; containing a
cyst, in which was a lump, of the size of a quart measure, but little
pus. This lump had air-tubes running through it, which were not yet cut
off by suppuration; and in one place, the cyst was perforated by a
bronchial tube, letting in the external air to the lump, which was
undergoing disorganization, and swelling badly. When cut into, it did
not present the red, mottled, organized appearance of those cases with
air-tight cysts.

Quite a number of other cases were examined, but these ten present all
the different phases. One or two cases are needed of an early stage of
the disease, to settle the point, whether, in all cases, the primary
disease is lung fever, and the pleurisy a continuation, merely, of the
primary disease; together with some six or eight cases, during five,
six, seven, eight months from attack, and so on till entire, final
recovery. Some cases were sick almost a year since, and are now
apparently quite well; perhaps all the lump and pus are not yet gone.
Many practitioners think that no severe case will ever recover, and some
think that none ever get entirely well. Others, however, can see no
reason why, as a general rule, all single cases should not recover, and
all double cases die.

The disease was the most fatal in Mr. Chenery's (the original) herd,
although it was the best-fed and the warmest-stabled. He attributed the
fatality, in part, to a want of sufficient ventilation. The other herds,
in which all the fatal cases occurred in two hours, consisted,
originally, one of forty-eight head, of which thirteen died, or were
killed, to prevent certain death; of twenty-three head, of which seven
died; of twenty-two head, of which eight died; of twenty-two head, of
which eight also died; and of twenty-one head, of which four died. A
little less than thirty per cent., therefore, of these herds died.

This estimate excludes the calves. Most of the cows which had not calved
before being attacked, lost their calves prematurely. The probable time
of incubation, as deduced from those Massachusetts cases, is from two to
three weeks; of propagation, about the same time; the acute stage of the
disease lasting about three weeks.

The author's attention was first directed to this disease, upon its
appearance in Camden and Gloucester counties, New Jersey, in the year
1859, at about the same time it made its advent in Massachusetts. The
singularity of this coincidence inclined him for the time to regard the
disease as an epizoötic--having its origin in some peculiar condition of
the atmosphere--rather than as a contagious, or infectious disease,
which position was at that time assumed by him.

This opinion was strengthened by the fact, that no case occurring in New
Jersey could be traced to a Massachusetts origin, in which State it was
claimed that the disease never had existed in this country previous to
its introduction there. It was, therefore, denied by the veterinary
surgeons in the Eastern States, that the disease in New Jersey was the
true European pleuro-pneumonia, but it was called by them the swill-milk
disease of New York City, and it was assigned an origin in the
distillery cow-houses in Brooklyn and Williamsburg.

In 1860 it found its way across the Delaware River into Philadelphia,
spreading very rapidly in all directions, particularly in the southern
section of the county, known as The Neck,--many of the dairymen losing
from one third to one half of their herds by its devastating influence.
In order to save themselves--in part, at least--from this heavy loss,
many of them, upon the first indications of the malady, sent their
animals to the butcher, to be slaughtered for beef. In 1861 the disease
found its way into Delaware, where its ravages were severely felt. So
soon, however, as it became known that the disease was infectious or
contagious, an effort was made to trace it to its starting-point; but,
in consequence of the unwillingness of dairymen to communicate the fact
that their herds were affected with pleuro-pneumonia, all efforts proved
fruitless. In 1860 the disease found its way up the Delaware to
Riverton, a short distance above the city of Philadelphia. A
cattle-dealer, named Ward, turned some cattle into a lot, adjoining
which several others were grazing. The residents of this place are
chiefly the families of gentlemen doing business in the city, many of
whom lost their favorite animals from this destructive malady.

The first case occurring at this place, to which the author's attention
was called, was a cow belonging to Mr. D. Parrish, which had been
exposed by coming in contact with Ward's cattle, had sickened, and died.
An anxiety having been manifested to ascertain the cause of the death,
the author made an examination of the animal, which, upon dissection,
proved the disease to be a genuine case of the so-called
pleuro-pneumonia. This examination was made August 20th, 1860, at the
time of the Massachusetts excitement. Two cows, belonging to Mr. Rose,
of the same place, had been exposed, and both had taken the disease.
His attention having been called to them, he placed them under the
author's treatment, and by the use of diffusible stimulants and tonics,
one of these animals recovered, while the other was slaughtered for an
examination, which revealed all the morbid conditions so characteristic
of this disease.

The next case was a cow belonging to Mr. G. H. Roach, of the same place,
which had been grazing in a lot adjoining that of Mr. Parrish. This cow
was killed in the presence of Charles Wood, V.S., of Boston, Mass., and
Arthur S. Copeman, of Utica, N. Y., who was one of a committee appointed
by the New York State Agricultural Society for the purpose of
investigating the disease. Both of these gentlemen having witnessed the
disease in-all its forms, as it appeared in Massachusetts, were the
first to identify this case with those in that State.

Upon opening the cow, the left lung was found to be completely
consolidated, and adhered to the left side, presenting the appearance
usual in such cases. As she was with calf, the lungs of the foetus
were examined, disclosing a beautiful state of red hepatization.

The author's attention was next called to the herd of Mr. Lippincott, a
farmer in the neighborhood, who had lost several cattle by the disease;
but as he had been persuaded that treatment was useless, he abandoned
the idea of attempting to save his stock in that way. From Riverton it
soon spread to Burlington, some ten miles farther up the river, where it
carried off large numbers of valuable cattle, and it continued in
existence in that neighborhood for some time.

The disease was not then confined to these localities alone, but has
spread over a large extent of country,--and that, too, prior to its
appearance in Massachusetts, as will be shown by extracts from the
following letters, published in the _Country Gentleman_:--

"We have a disease among the cattle here, I will class it under these
names,--congestion of the lungs, terminating with consumption, or dropsy
of the chest. Now, I have treated two cases; one five years since, as
congestion,--and the first is still able to eat her allowance, and give
a couple of pails of milk a day,--and the other, quite recently. The
great terror of this disease is, that it is not taken in its first
stages, which are the same in the cow as in the man--a difficulty in
breathing, which, if not speedily relieved, terminates in consumption or
dropsy. I have no doubt that consumption is contagious; but is that a
reason why every one taken with congestion should be killed to check the
spread of consumption? So I should reason, if I had pleuro-pneumonia in
my drove of cattle.                                      J. BALDWIN.

     "NEWARK, N. J., June 11, 1860."

"I notice that a good deal of alarm is felt in different parts of the
country about what is called the cattle-disease.

"From the diagnosis given in the papers, I have no doubt this is
pleuro-pneumonia, with which I had some acquaintance a few years ago. If
it is the same, my observation and experience may be of some service to
those suffering now.

"It was introduced into my stock, in the fall of 1853, by one of my own
cows, which, in the spring of that year, I had sent down to my brother
in Brooklyn, to be used during the summer for milk. She was kept
entirely isolated through out the summer, and in November was sent up
by the boat. There were no other cattle on the boat at the time, nor
could I learn that she had come in contact with any in passing through
the streets on her way to the boat; and she certainly did not, after
leaving it, until she mingled with her old companions, all of whom were
then, and long afterward, perfectly well. After she had been home about
two weeks, we noticed that her appetite failed, and her milk fell off:
she seemed dull and stupid, stood with her head down, and manifested a
considerable degree of languor.

"Soon her breathing became somewhat hurried, and with a decided catch in
it; she ground her teeth; continued standing, or, if she lay down, it
was only to jump up again instantly. Her cough increased, and so, too, a
purulent and, bloody discharge from her nostrils and mouth. The
excrement was fetid, black, and hard.

"In this case, we twice administered half a pound of Epsom-salts, and
afterward, a bottle of castor-oil. Very little, but a temporary effect
was produced by these doses.

"The symptoms all increased in intensity; strength diminished; limbs
drawn together; belly tucked up, etc.; until the eight day, when she
partly lay, and partly fell down, and never rose again.

"In a _post-mortem_ examination, the lungs were gorged with black, fetid
blood; the substance of them thickened and pulpy. The pleura and
diaphragm also showed a good deal of disease and some adhesion. This
cow, on her arrival here, was put in her usual place in the stable,
between others. She remained there for two or three days after she was
taken sick, before we removed her to the hospital.

"In about three weeks from the time she died, one and then the other of
those standing on either side of her were attacked in the same way, and
with but two days between. This, certainly, looks very much like
contagion; but my attention had not before been called to this
particular disease, and to suppose inflammation or congestion of the
lungs contagious was so opposed to my preconceived notions, that I did
not even then admit it; and these animals were suffered to remain with
the others until their own comfort seemed to require the greater liberty
of open pens.

"One of them was early and copiously bled twice, while Epsom-salts were
administered, both by the stomach and with the injective-pump. The other
we endeavored to keep nauseated with ipecacuanha, and the same time to
keep her bowels open by cathartic medicine. All proved to be of no
avail. They both died,--the one in ten, the other in thirteen days.
Before these died, however, others were taken sick. And thus, later, I
had eight sick at one time.

"The leading symptoms in all were the same, with minor differences; and
so, too, was the appearance after death, on examination.

"Of all that were taken sick (sixteen) but two recovered; and they were
among those we did the least for, after we had become discouraged about
trying to cure them. In all the last cases we made no effort at all, but
to keep them as comfortable as we could. In one case, the acute
character of the disease changed to chronic, and the animal lived six or
eight weeks, until the whole texture of the lungs had become destroyed.
She had become much emaciated, and finally died with the ordinary
consumption.

"At the time the first case appeared, I had a herd of thirty-one
animals, all valuable Ayrshires, in fine condition and healthy. In all
the first cases, I had a veterinary surgeon of considerable celebrity
and experience, and every ordinary approved method of treatment was
resorted to and persevered in. The last cases--as before intimated--we
only strove to make comfortable.

"After I had paid the third or fourth forfeit, I began to awake up to
the idea that the disease was, in a high degree, contagious, whether I
would have it so or not; and that my future security was in prevention,
and not in remedy. I therefore separated all the remaining animals; in
no instance having more than two together, and generally but one in a
place.

"All were removed from the infected stalls, and put into quarantine.
Isolated cases continued to occur after this for some weeks, but the
spread of the disease was stayed; nor did a single case occur after
this, which we did not think we traced directly to previous contact.

"It is impossible to account for the first case of which I have spoken.
But, as the cow in that case was put into a sale-stable in New York
while waiting for the boat,--though there were no cattle then
present,--yet I have supposed it not unlikely that diseased animals had
been there, and had left the seeds of the disease.

"But, account for this case as we may,--and I have no doubt it is
sometimes spontaneous,--I feel convinced it is very highly contagious;
and that the only safety to a herd into which it has been introduced, is
in complete isolation,--and in this I feel as convinced that there is
safety. My cattle were not suffered to return to the barnyard or to any
part of the cattle-barns, except as invalids were sent to 'the hospital'
to die, until late the next fall, _i.e._, the fall of 1854. In the mean
time, the hay and straw had all been removed; the stables, stalls, cribs
and all thoroughly scrubbed with ashes and water, fumigated, and white
washed with quicklime. I have had no case since, and am persuaded I
should have avoided most of those I had before, if I had reasonably
admitted the evidence of my senses in the second and third cases.
                                             E. P. PRENTICE.
     MOUNT HOPE, June 14th, 1860."

The author's experience with the disease, during the last year in New
Jersey, proves the efficacy of remedial agents when applied in the early
stages of the disease. Late in the spring of 1861, Mr. J. E. Hancock, of
Burlington County (residing near Columbus, N. J.), purchased some cattle
in the Philadelphia market, which, after they were driven home, he
turned in with his other stock. Soon after this purchase, one of the
animals sickened and died. This was in August; after which time Mr. H.
lost eight cows,--having, at the time of the death of the last animal,
some five others sick with the same disorder.

The author was called in, December 8th, 1861, and the five animals then
placed under his treatment. On the 12th of December, in the same year,
one of these cows, at his suggestion, was killed, which, upon the
_post-mortem_ examination, beautifully illustrated the character of the
disease. The right lung was comparatively healthy; the left one
completely hepatized, or consolidated, and so enlarged as to fill up the
left cavity of the chest to it's utmost capacity. This lung weighed
thirty pounds. There was no effusion in the chest, but there was
considerable adhesion of the _pleura-costalis_ and _pleura-pulmonalis_.
All the other tissues appeared to be healthy.

To the remaining animals, was administered the following: aqua ammonia,
three drachms; nitric ether, one ounce; pulverized gentian-root, half an
ounce; mixed with one quart of water, and drenched three times a day.
The last thing at night was given a teaspoonful of phosphate of lime,
mixed in a little feed, or in gruel. Setons, or rowels, in the dewlap
are also very beneficial. Under this treatment they all did well.

Soon after the introduction of the disease into this herd, it found its
way to the herd of William Hancock, a brother of the former gentleman,
who had an adjoining farm. In this herd one cow died, and the disease
was found by the author developed in four more cows and two oxen, all of
which--with a single exception--did well under the above treatment. The
disease afterward showed itself in the herd of John Pope, half a mile
distant, who lost nine animals by it.

Thursday, December 19th, was selected for the purpose of making an
examination of the Hancock herds; but, after some ten or twelve animals
had been examined and all pronounced tainted with the disease, the
owners concluded to stop the investigation, expressing themselves
dissatisfied with the result, as not one of the animals examined had
shown any symptoms of disease. In order to convince them of the
correctness of the diagnosis, a cow was selected and destroyed, which
the Hancocks believed to be in perfect health. Upon opening the animal,
several small patches of hepatized lung were brought into view. Upon
making a longitudinal section of the lump, as both were involved, they
presented a red, speckled appearance. All the other tissues were
healthy. The symptoms in these cases were quite different from any which
had been previously seen in an experience of three years with the
disease in and about Philadelphia, inasmuch as they were not preceded by
cough; in fact, cough did not appear in many of the animals at any time
during the progress of the disease. The animals looked, ate, and milked
well, previously to the development of the disease, so that the owners
were thrown completely off their guard by these deceptive symptoms of
health. Knowing the uncertain character of this disease, and wishing to
stay its ravages, a suggestion was made by the author as to the
propriety of having the entire herd killed for beef. This was done the
more readily, as the sale of the meat is legalized in Europe, it being
regarded as uninjured, and therefore wholesome meat. This suggestion was
acted upon, and thus these two farms were rid of this dreadful scourge
at one blow.

Mr. A. Gaskill, of Mount Holly, N. J., purchased a cow from one of the
Hancocks, for his own family use, which was sent to Mr. Frank
Lippincott's to pasture and turned in with Mr. L.'s own herd. Soon
after, this cow sickened and died. This was soon followed by the loss of
six of Mr. L.'s own cattle,--three oxen, two cows, and one steer. From
this herd, it was communicated to the Widow Lippincott's, who occupied a
neighboring farm; as also to Mr. Cleavenger's, who lost four animals;
and to Mr. Smith's, who had, at one time, seven animals sick; and from
Cleavenger's to Noaknuts, who lost two cows. Some two or three cows,
belonging to Mr. Logan, in the same neighborhood, got upon the road and
broke into Mr. Lippincott's pasture, mixing with his herd. As soon as
Mr. Logan was informed of the fact, he isolated these cows by enclosing
them in a pen at some distance from his other cattle; but they managed
to break out, and mingled with his other stock. It could scarcely be
expected that his herd could escape the disease, considering the
exposure to which they had been subjected. The disease manifested itself
in the herds of several other farmers in the country, but space will not
allow a more extended notice of the subject.

The treatment which has been found most successful in this country is as
follows, all of which has been tested by the author upon various
occasions: In the acute, inflammatory stage of the disease, give ten
drops of Flemming's tincture of aconite in water, every four hours,
until a change takes place; follow this with aqua ammonia, three
drachms; nitric ether, one ounce; pulverized gentian-root, one half an
ounce; water, one quart. Drench three times a day, and give, late in the
evening, a tablespoonful of phosphate of lime, in a little feed, or
drench with gruel. Put setons, or rowels in the dewlap, so as to have a
dependent opening.

This course has been found very advantageous. Or, the following will be
found quite satisfactory; nitrate of potash, two drachms; camphor, half
a drachm; tartrate of antimony, half a drachm; mix, and give in a little
gruel, night and morning. Or, the following: Glauber-salts, four ounces;
water, one pint; give twice a day. A gill of cold-drawn castor-oil,
added to the above, would be beneficial. Continue until the bowels are
freely opened. The following has also been found efficacious: sulphate
of magnesia, eight ounces; nitrate of potash and pulverized Jamaica
ginger-root, of each one ounce. Repeat as often as may be required.
Apply externally the following ointment to the sides; biniodide of
mercury, four drachms; castor-oil, half an ounce; lard, four ounces; mix
for use.

Preventive measures.--1st. The complete isolation of all herds in which
the disease has made its appearance. 2d. Such animals as show symptoms
of the disease should be placed under proper treatment. 3d. In England,
it is recommended that animals recovering from the disease should be
fattened and slaughtered for beef, as they are not safe even after their
apparent recovery. 4th. All animals beyond medical treatment should be
killed and buried; recompense in part, at least, being made to the
owners. 5th. No animal, healthy or diseased, should be allowed to run at
large upon the public highway so long as the disease may exist in its
neighborhood.

[Illustration: TAKING IT EASILY.]

The united action of all those interested would soon rid the country of
a disease which has smitten all Europe.

The author takes this occasion to acknowledge the receipt of two very
ably written articles upon this subject, which, in consequence of their
length and the comparatively limited space allotted, he is reluctantly
compelled to omit. One is from the pen of R. McClure, V.S., and the
other from Isaiah Michener, V.S. For the benefit his readers, however,
he desires to make a single extract from the last-named communication,
without being considered as endorsing the opinion advanced therein:--

"I am inclined to favor the hypothesis that pleuro-pneumonia is produced
by animalculæ, and that these enter the lungs by myriads, and thereby
set up irritation and inflammation, which lead to all the phenomena and
pathological conditions which are to be found upon dissection. This is
my opinion of the cause of the malignant pleuro-pneumonia which has
existed in the United States for the last seven years."

After writing the foregoing, the author was informed that this disease
had made its appearance in Mr. Logan's herd, already mentioned as
exposed. He was called to visit the herd of Mr. G. Satterthwaite, who
likewise lost two cows, and had two cows and a calf sick at the time of
sending for him.


PNEUMONIA.

There are two conditions of the lungs known as pneumonia,--one, the
inflammatory, and the other, the congestive stage. The former may follow
an attack of bronchitis, or it may have a spontaneous origin. The
congestive is generally the result of cold suddenly applied to an
overheated animal, causing a determination of blood to the lungs, which
sometimes causes death by suffocation.

_Symptoms._--The disease is preceded by a shivering fit; dry skin;
staring coat; clammy mouth; short cough; Schneiderian membrane (of the
nose) very much reddened; respiration hurried or laborious. In the
congestive stage, upon applying the ear to the sides, no sound will be
detected; While in the inflammatory stage, a crackling or crepitating
sound will be distinctively heard.

_Treatment._--In the congestive stage, plenty of pure air will be
necessary. Bleed freely; and give in drench one pound of Glauber-salts,
with two drachms of Jamaica ginger. Nothing more will be required by way
of treatment.

In the inflammatory stage, bleeding should seldom be resorted to, except
where the animal is in full condition. Apply the following blister to
the sides, well rubbed in: oil of turpentine, one ounce; croton-oil,
twelve drops; aqua ammonia, half an ounce; linseed-oil, four ounces; mix
all together. Give internally one pound of salts in drench, and follow
with one of the following powders every four hours: nitrate of potash,
one ounce; tartrate of antimony and pulverized digitalis leaves, of
each, one drachm; mix all together, and divide into eight powders. Or
the following may be given with equal advantage: nitrate of potash, one
and a half ounces; nitrate of soda, six ounces; mix, and divide into six
powders; one to be given in wash or gruel every six hours.


PROTRUSION OF THE BLADDER.

This sometimes occurs during the throes in difficult cases of
parturition in cows, and the aid of a skillful veterinary surgeon is
requisite to replace the inverted bladder.


PUERPERAL FEVER.

This disease--milk fever, or dropping after calving--rarely occurs until
the animal has attained mature age. The first symptoms make their
appearance in from one to five or six days after parturition. It appears
to be a total suspension of nervous function, independent of
inflammatory action, which is suddenly developed, and, in favorable
cases, as suddenly disappears. It is called dropping after calving, from
its following the parturient state.

_Symptoms._--Tremor of hind legs; a staggering gait, which soon
terminates in loss of power in the hind limbs; pulse rises to sixty or
eighty per minute; milk diminishing in quantity as the disease
progresses; the animal soon goes down, and is unable to rise, moans
piteously; eyes set in the head; general stupor; and slow respiration.

_Treatment._--This disease, though generally regarded as a febrile
disorder, will not yield to the general practice of taking blood, as a
large majority of the cases so treated die. The bowels must be opened,
but the veins never. Give Epsom-salts, one pound; Jamaica ginger, two
ounces; dissolve in warm water, one quart, and drench. The author
usually gives with good effect, some five or six hours after the salts,
two ounces of nitric ether and one ounce of tincture of opium, in half a
pint of water. Rub well in, along the back and loins, the following:
strong mustard, three ounces; aqua ammonia and water, each one and a
half ounces. Some modifications in the treatment of this disease, as
well as of most others, will be necessary under certain circumstances,
which can only be determined by the veterinary practitioner.


QUARTER EVIL.

In some sections of the country, this disease--known by the other names
of black quarter, and joint murrain--is quite common among young cattle,
and is generally fatal in its termination. There is little or no warning
of its approach. The first animals in a herd to be attacked are
generally those in a full, plethoric condition.

_Symptoms._--The joints suddenly become swollen, and so painful as to
produce severe lameness, particularly in the hind parts. General
irritative fever exists in the system, attended with great tenderness of
the loins; the head is poked out; eyes red and bulging; the roots of the
horns, as well as the breath, are hot; the muzzle dry, and nostrils
expanded; pulse rises to seventy or eighty, full and hard; respiration
is hurried; the animal is constantly moaning, and appears to be
unconscious of surrounding objects; the swelling of the limbs extends to
the shoulder and haunch; the animal totters, falls and dies in from
twelve to twenty-four hours.

_Treatment._--Early bleeding is requisite here, to be followed by active
purgatives; after which, give one of the following powders every half
hour: nitrate of potassa, two ounces; tartrate of antimony and
pulverized digitalis, of each one and a half drachms; mix, and divide
into eight powders. These should not be renewed. Cold linseed tea should
be freely given.


RABIES.

Hydrophobia in cattle is the result of the bite of a rabid dog, from
which bite no animal escapes. The effects produced by the wound made by
the teeth of such an animal, after the virus is once absorbed into the
circulation of the blood, are so poisonous that all treatment is
useless. The proper remedies must be instantly applied to prevent this
absorption, or the case is utterly hopeless. Among men, nine out of
every ten bitten by rabid dogs escape the terrible effects resulting
from this dreadful disorder, without resorting to any applications to
prevent it. It is a well-established fact, that men, when bitten by
dogs, are generally wounded in some part protected by their clothing,
which guards them from the deleterious effects of the saliva which
covers the teeth, and which, at such times, is deadly poison. The teeth,
in passing through the clothing, are wiped clean, so that the virus is
not introduced into the blood; hence the comparatively few cases of
rabies occurring in man. When, however, the wound is made upon an
exposed surface, as the flesh of the hand, or of the face, this fatal
disease is developed in spite of every precaution, unless such
precautions are immediately taken. For this reason, cattle when bitten,
do not escape the disease.

_Symptoms._--The animal separates itself from the rest of the herd,
standing in a kind of stupor, with the eyes half-closed; respiration
natural; pulse quickened; temperature of body and limbs natural; the
slightest noise agitates, causing the eyes to glare and exciting
bellowing; the bark of a dog produces the most violent effects; the
animal foams at the mouth and staggers as it walks; if water is
offered, the muzzle is plunged into it, but the victim cannot drink; in
making the effort, the most fearful consequences are produced. The
animal now seeks to do mischief,--and the quicker it is then destroyed,
the better.

_Treatment._--This must be applied quickly, or not at all. The moment an
animal is bitten, that moment the wound should be searched for, and when
found, should be freely opened with a knife, and lunar caustic, caustic
potash, or the permanganate of potash at once applied to all parts of
the wound, care being taken not to suffer a single scratch to escape.
This, if attended to in time, will save the animal.


RED WATER.

This disease derives its name from the color of the urine voided in it.
It is one of the most common complaints of horned cattle, and one of the
most troublesome to manage.

_Symptoms._--Respiration hurried; rumination ceases; a high degree of
fever presented; the animal moans, arches the back, and strains in
passing the urine, which is tinged with blood, or presents the
appearance of pure blood. Prof. Gamgee, of the Edinburgh Veterinary
College, says: "The cause is almost invariably feeding on turnips that
have grown on damp, ill-drained land; and very often a change of diet
stops the spread of this disease in the byre. Other succulent food,
grown under similar circumstances, may produce the same symptoms,
tending to disturb the digestive organs and the blood-forming process.

"In the course of my investigations as to the cause of various
cattle-diseases, and of red water in particular. I have found that it
is unknown on well-drained farms and in dairies where turnips are used
only in a moderate degree. The lands of poor people furnish the roots
most likely to induce this disorder; and I can confirm the statement of
the late Mr. Cumming, of Elton, who, in his very interesting essay upon
this subject, says, particularly in reference to Aberdeenshire, that it
is 'a disease essentially attacking the poor man's cow; and to be seen
and studied, requires a practice extending into the less favorably
situated parts of the country. On large farms, where good stock is well
kept, and in town dairies, where artificial food is used to supplement
the supply of turnips, it is seldom now seen.'

"_Symptoms._--General derangement attracts the dairyman's attention,
and, upon observing the urine which the animal has voided, it is seen to
be of a red, or of a reddish brown, or claret color; sometimes
transparent, at others clear. The color increases in depth; other
secretions are checked; the animal becomes hide-bound, and the milk goes
off. Appetite and rumination are suspended; the pulse becomes extremely
feeble and frequent, though--as in all debilitating, or anæmic,
disorders--the heart's action is loud and strong, with a decided venous
pulse, or apparent regurgitation, in the large veins of the neck.

"In some cases, if even a small quantity of blood be withdrawn, the
animal drops in a fainting state. In red water, the visible mucous
membranes are blanched, and the extremities cold, indicating the languid
state of the blood's circulation and the poverty of the blood itself.
Constipation is one of the most obstinate complications; and many
veterinary surgeons--aware that, if the bowels can be acted on, the
animal is cured--have employed purgatives in quantities far too large,
inducing at times even death. Occasionally, diarrhoea is one of the
first, and not of the unfavorable, symptoms."

_Treatment._--Give one pint of linseed-oil; clysters of soap and water
should be freely used; and give plenty of linseed-tea to drink. When the
urine is abundant, give one ounce of tincture of opium, with one drachm
of powdered aloes, three times, at intervals of six or eight hours.


RHEUMATISM.

This is a constitutional inflammatory affection of the joints, affecting
the fibrous tissue and serous, or synovial membrane. It is caused by
exposure to cold and wet; being quite common in low, marshy sections.

_Symptoms._--Loss of appetite; upon forcing the animal to move, every
joint seems stiffened; nose dry; coat staring; constipation is also an
attendant symptom; the joints, one or more, become swollen and painful.
This may be regarded as a metastic, or shifting disease; first one part,
and then another, seems to be affected.

_Treatment._--Mild purgatives should be used; one-half-ounce doses of
colchicum-root pulverized will be found useful; one-ounce balls of
pine-tar may also be given with advantage. As a local application, the
author has found nothing to equal kerosene oil, one pint, to two ounces
of aqua ammonia, well rubbed in, two or three times a day.


STRANGULATION OF THE INTESTINES.

This disease in cattle,--popularly styled Knot, or Gut-tie,--in
consequence of the peculiar arrangement of the abdominal viscera, is of
very rare occurrence. When, however, it does occur, the symptoms
accompanying are those of inflammation of the intestines.

No kind of treatment will be successful, and the poor brute must suffer
until death comes to its relief.


THRUSH IN THE MOUTH.

Aptha, or thrush in the mouth, is a vesicular disease of the mouth,
sometimes occurring as an epizoötic. It is often mistaken for
blain,--inflammation of the tongue, or black tongue,--and usually occurs
in the winter, or early in the spring. It appears in the form of
vesicles, or pustules all over the mouth, occasionally extending to the
outside of the lips. These pustules break, discharging a thin, sanious
fluid, leaving minute ulcers in their places.

This disease yields readily to treatment, when it is properly applied.
Three ounces of Epsom-salts, once a day for three or four days, should
be given in drench; wash the mouth well with a solution of alum,
tincture of myrrh, or vinegar and honey, and it will disappear in a few
days.


TUMORS.

These enlargements so common in cattle, have been so admirably
described, in the Veterinarian for 1843, by John Ralph, V.S.,--who has
been so successful in the treatment of these morbid growths, that the
benefit of his experience is here given. He says: "Of all the
accidental productions met with among cattle, with the exception of
wens, a certain kind of indurated tumor, chiefly situated about the head
and throat, has abounded most in my practice.

"The affection often commences in one of the thyroid glands, which
slowly but gradually increases in size, feels firm when grasped, and
evinces very little tenderness. Generally the attendant is alarmed by a
snoring or wheezing noise emitted by the animal in respiration, before
he is aware of the existence of any tumefaction. This continues to
increase, embracing in its progress the adjacent cellular and muscular
tissues, and frequently the submaxillary and parotid glands. It becomes
firmly attached to the skin through which an opening is ultimately
effected by the pressure of pus from the centre of the tumor.

"The swelling often presents an irregular surface, and various centres
of maturation exist; but the evacuations only effect a partial and
temporary reduction of its bulk, in consequence of the continued
extension of the morbid growth and ulcerative process which often
proceed towards the pharynx, rendering respiration and deglutition still
more difficult, until at length the animal sinks from atrophy or
_phthisis pulmonalis_.

"In the early part of my practice, having been frustrated in my attempts
to establish healthy action in these ulcers, and referring to the works
that I had on surgery for information, I concluded that they bore some
resemblance to cancer in the human being, and determined to attempt
extirpation. Subsequently, numerous cases have occurred in which I have
successfully carried that determination into effect. I have had some
instances of failure, which failure always arose from some portion of
the morbid growth having been left.

"In the first stage, I have reason to believe that the tumor may be
dispersed by the general and topical use of the iodurets. After the
suppuration, I have tried them in vain.

"As soon as the nature of the tumor is clearly developed, I generally
attempt its removal, and, when most prominent by the side of the larynx,
I proceed in the following manner:--Having cast the beast, turned the
occiput toward the ground, and bolstered it up with bundles of straw, I
proceed to make an incision through it, if the skin is free, parallel
with, and over, and between the trachea and _sterno-maxillaris_,
extending it sufficiently forward into the inter-maxillary spaces. If I
find it firmly attached to the apex of the tumor, I then enclose it in a
curvilinear incision and proceed to detach the healthy skin to beyond
the verge of the tumor.

"Its edges being held by an assistant, the knife is directed downwards
through the subcutaneous parts, and all those that exhibit the slightest
change from healthy structure are removed.

"By tying any considerable blood-vessel before dividing it, and by using
the handle of the scalpel and the fingers in detaching the portion of
the parotid gland towards the ear the hemorrhage was always
inconsiderable.

"The wound is then treated in the ordinary way; except that detergents
and even antiseptics are often needed to arouse healthy action, and the
addition of some preparation of iodine is often made to the digestive.
In directing the constitutional treatment, our chief aim must be to
support the animal system with plenty of gruel until rumination is
restored.

"I need not note that the operation should be performed after the animal
has fasted some hours.

"As the success of the operation depends on an entire removal of the
diseased parts, and as the submaxillary and parotid glands, with
important branches of nerves and blood-vessels, are often enveloped
therein, we must not hesitate to remove the former, nor to divide the
latter. It has occasionally happened that a rupture has been made in the
oesophagus, or pharynx, during the operation. In that case, a portion
of the gruel with which the animal is drenched escapes for a few days;
but I always found that the wound healed by granulation, without any
particular attention.

"The weight of these tumors varies from a few ounces to some pounds. One
that I removed from a two-year-old Galloway bullock, weighed six pounds
and a quarter. A considerable portion of the skin that covered it was
excised and included in the above weight. It comprehended one of the
parotid glands, and I had to divide the trunk of the carotid artery and
jugular vein.

"This affection may be distinguished from parotiditis and other
_phlegmasiæ_ by the action of constitutional disturbance, and heat, and
tenderness, and by the lingering progress it makes. I was once called to
a bull laboring under alarming dyspnoea that had gradually increased.
No external enlargement was perceptible; but on introducing my hand into
the mouth, a large polypus was found hanging from the _velum palati_
into the pharynx, greatly obstructing the elevation of the epiglottis
and the passage of food. After performing tracheotomy, to prevent
suffocation, I passed a ligature around its pedicle in the way suggested
by the old anatomist, Cheselden.

"A section of one of these tumors mostly displays several abscesses,
with matter varying in consistency and often very fetid, enclosed in
what seems to me to be fibro-cartilaginous cysts, the exterior of which
sometimes gradually disappears in the surrounding more vascular abnormal
growth. Osseous matter (I judge from the grating of the scalpel upon it)
occasionally enters into the composition of the cysts.

"I have treated this affection in cattle of the Long-horned,
Short-horned, Galloway, and Highland breeds; and from the number of
bulls in this class of patients, have reason to conclude that they are
more liable to it than the female.

"About twelve months ago, I examined the head of a cow, on the right
facial region of which there existed an enormous tumor, extending from
the eye to the lips, and which I mistook during life for a periosteal
enlargement. On cutting into it, my mistake was evident. There was
scarcely a trace of the original bones beneath the mass; even those
forming the nasal sinuses on that side were replaced by a formation much
resembling the cysts before alluded to, and full of abscesses. The
progress of the disease was decisively marked in the inferior rim of the
orbital cavity, where the osseous matter was being removed, and the
morbid structure deposited."


ULCERS ABOUT THE JOINTS.

Occasionally, the joints assume a tumefied appearance, generally
ulcerating, and causing painful wounds.

_Treatment._--The application of one part of alum to two parts of
prepared chalk, powdered and sprinkled upon the parts, is usually all
that is required.


WARBLES.

It has been a prevalent opinion among farmers, that warbles are so many
evidences of the good condition of their cattle. It must, however, be
borne in mind that the warbles are the _larvæ_ of the _oestrus bovis_,
which is said to be the most beautiful variety of gad-fly. This fly,
judging from the objects of its attack, must be particularly choice in
its selection of animals upon which to deposit its eggs, as it rarely
chooses those poor in flesh, or in an unhealthy condition. From this
circumstance, probably, has arisen the opinion above-mentioned.

[Illustration: HOME AGAIN.]

These warbles--or _larvæ_ of the _oestrus bovis_--so nearly resemble
bots in the horse--or _larvæ oestrus equi_--that, were it not for
their increased size, they might readily be mistaken the one for the
other. There is, however, one other difference, and that is in the rings
which encircle the body; those of the former being perfectly smooth,
while those of the latter are prickly, and from one third to one half
smaller.

The author was called, in the year 1856, to see the prize cow, Pet,
belonging to James Kelly, of Cleveland, Ohio, whose extraordinary yield
of butter and milk had been reported in the _Ohio Farmer_, a short time
previous to his visit. This animal was found by him in rather poor
condition; the causes of which he could only trace to the existence of
these worms, comfortably located, as they were, beneath the animal's
hide, and forming small tumors all along the spinal column, each being
surrounded by a considerable quantity of pus. A number of these were
removed by means of a curved bistoury and a pair of forceps, since which
time--as he has been informed--the animal has rapidly improved,
regaining her former good condition.

Some may urge that this is an isolated case; but an examination of
cattle for themselves, will convince them to the contrary. It may be
added, that two other cows, belonging to the same gentleman, were also
examined at the same time,--one of them being in good condition, and the
other, out of condition. From the back of the latter several of these
insects were removed, since which time she also has much improved. The
former was entirely free from them. These cows were all kept in the same
pasture, received the same care, and were fed on the same food, and at
the same time; and as the removal of these larvæ has been productive of
such beneficial results, have we not a right to infer that these insects
are injurious?

If we go further and examine, in the spring of the year, all cattle
which are subject to them, instead of finding them in the fine
condition which one would naturally expect,--considering the abundance
of fresh young grass whose vigorous life they may incorporate into their
own,--they are out of condition, and out of spirits, with a laggard eye,
a rough coat, and, in some cases, a staggering gait, as though their
strength had failed in consequence.

How shall such attacks be prevented? During the months of August and
September this gad-fly is busily engaged in depositing its eggs. Some
are of the opinion that they are placed on the hairs of the animal;
others, that the skin is perforated, and the egg deposited in the
opening, which would account for the apparent pain manifested by cattle
at and after the time of such deposit. Be this as it may, it is certain
that the maggot works its way into the muscular fibre of the back, and
depends upon the animal's blood for the nourishment which it receives.

The author has been informed, by persons in whom he ought to have
confidence, that the _free use of the card_, during the above-named
months, is a specific protection against the attacks of the _oestrus
bovis_. He repeats this information here, not without diffidence; since
so large a majority of stock-owners evince, by their lack of familiarity
with the practical use of this convenient and portable instrument, an
utter disbelief in its reliability and value.


WORMS.

Cattle are not so subject to worms proper as are the other domestic
animals; nor, when these parasites do exist, is any injurious effect
apparent, except it be in the case of young calves of a weakly
constitution. Worms are most commonly located in the small intestines,
and cause there considerable irritation, and consequently, general
emaciation, or at least a tendency to it.

The cause, however, is easily removed by administering doses of sulphate
of iron, one-half drachm each, in molasses once or twice a day.


WORMS IN THE BRONCHIAL TUBES.

Inflammation of the bronchial tubes is often caused by worms of the
_strongylus_ species. Upon examination after death, the bronchial
passages are completely blocked-up by these hangers-on.

_Symptoms._--A rough, staring coat; hide-bound; painful cough;
respiration hurried, etc.

_Treatment._--But little can be done by way of treatment in this
disease. The administration of small doses of spirits of turpentine has,
in some instances, proved successful.


SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

CASTRATION.

The period most commonly selected for this operation is between the
first and third months. The nearer it is to the expiration of the first
month, the less danger attends the operation.

Some persons prepare the animal by the administration of a dose of
physic; but others proceed at once to the operation when it best suits
their convenience, or that of the farmer. Care, however, should be taken
that the young animal is in perfect health. The mode formerly practised
was simple enough:--a piece of whip-cord was tied as tightly as possible
around the scrotum. The supply of blood being thus completely cut off,
the bag and its contents soon became livid and dead, and were suffered
to hang, by some careless operators, until they dropped off, or they
were cut off on the second or third day.

It is now, however, the general practice to grasp the scrotum in the
hand, between the testicles and the belly, and to make an incision in
one side of it, near the bottom, of sufficient depth to penetrate
through the inner covering of the testicle, and of sufficient length to
admit of its escape. The testicle immediately bursts from its bag, and
is seen hanging by its cord.

The careless or brutal operator now firmly ties a piece of small string
around the cord, and having thus stopped the circulation, cuts through
the cord, half an inch below the ligature, and removes the testicle. He,
however, who has any feeling for the poor animal on which he is
operating, considers that the only use of the ligature is to compress
the blood-vessels and prevent after-hemorrhage, and, therefore, saves a
great deal of unnecessary torture by including them alone in the
ligature, and afterwards dividing the rest of the cord. The other
testicle is proceeded with in the same way and the operation is
complete. The length of the cord should be so contrived that it will
immediately retract, or be drawn back, into the scrotum, but not higher,
while the ends of the string hang out through the wound. In the course
of about a week, the strings will usually drop off, and the wounds will
speedily heal. There will rarely be any occasion to make any
application to the scrotum, except fomentation of it, if much swelling
should ensue.

A few, whose practice cannot be justified, seize the testicle as soon as
it escapes from the bag, and, pulling violently, break the cord and tear
it out. It is certain that when a blood-vessel is thus ruptured, it
forcibly contracts, and very little bleeding follows; but if the cord
breaks high up, and retracts into the belly, considerable inflammation
has occasionally ensued, and the beast has been lost.

The application of _torsion_--or the twisting of the arteries by a pair
of forceps which will firmly grasp them--has, in a great degree,
superseded every other mode of castration, both in the larger and the
smaller domesticated animals. The spermatic artery is exposed, and
seized with the forceps, which are then closed by a very simple
mechanical contrivance; the vessel is drawn a little out from its
surrounding tissue, the forceps are turned around seven or eight times,
and the vessel liberated. It will be found to be perfectly closed; a
small knot will have formed on its extremity; it will retract into the
surrounding surface, and not a drop more of blood will flow from it; the
cord may then be divided, and the bleeding from any little vessel
arrested in the same way. Neither the application of the hot iron, nor
of the wooden clamps, whether with or without caustic, can be necessary
in the castration of the calf.

A new instrument was introduced in France, some few years since, for
this purpose, called the _acraseur_,--so constructed as to throw a chain
over the cord, which is wound up by means of a screw working upon the
chain, and at the same time the cord is twisted off. No bleeding
follows this method of operating.

This instrument is constructed upon the same principle as the _acraseur_
for use in the human family, for the removal of hemorrhoids, etc., the
dimensions of the two only varying.

The advantages resulting from the use of this instrument over all other
methods are, that the parts generally heal within a week,--the operation
is not so painful to the animal,--it is less troublesome to the
operator,--also to the owner of the animal,--and lastly, it is a safer
and more scientific operation. Its success in France soon gave it a
reputation in England, and recently it has been introduced by the author
into this country, and with the best results. Contractors, hearing of
the success attending this new mode of operating, have visited him from
all parts of the country to witness its performance, and not one has
returned without leaving an order for this instrument,--so well
convinced have they been of its decided superiority over all other
methods.


TRACHEOTOMY.

In consequence of the formation of tumors about the throat in cattle,
from inflammation of the parotid gland, blain, etc., so characteristic
of this species of animals, it sometimes becomes necessary to perform
this operation in order to save their lives. It never fails to give
instant relief.

After the animal has been properly secured,--which is done by an
assistant's holding the nose with one hand, and one of the horns with
the other,--the operator draws the skin tight over the windpipe with the
thumb and fingers of his left hand; then, with the scalpel in his right,
cuts through the skin, making an incision about three inches long,
dissecting up the skin on each side, which brings the _trachea_, or
windpipe, in full view. He then cuts out a piece of the cartilaginous
rings, about two inches long and about half an inch wide. This simple
operation has saved the lives of very many valuable animals. The wound
readily heals, and seldom leaves any perceptible blemish, if the work is
properly performed.


SPAYING.

To secure a more uniform flow and a richer quality of milk, cows are
sometimes spayed, or castrated. The milk of spayed cows is pretty
uniform in quality; and this quality will be, on an average, a little
more than before the operation was performed. In instances where the
results of this operation have been carefully noted,--and the operation
is rarely resorted to in this country, in comparison with the custom in
France and other continental countries,--the quality of the milk has
been greatly improved, the yield becoming regular for some years, and
varying only in accordance with the difference in the succulence of the
food.

The proper time for spaying is about five or six weeks after calving, or
at the time when the largest quantity of milk is given. There seems to
be some advantages in spaying for milk and butter dairies, where
attention is not paid to the raising of stock. The cows are more quiet,
never being liable to returns of seasons of heat, which always more or
less affect the milk, both in quantity and quality. They give milk
nearly uniform in these respects, for several years, provided the food
is uniformly succulent and nutritious. Their milk is influenced like
that of other cows, though to a less extent, by the quality and
quantity of food; so that in winter, unless the animal is properly
attended to, the yield will decrease somewhat, but will rise again as
good feed returns. This uniformity for the milk-dairy is of immense
advantage. Besides, the cow, when old and inclined to dry up, takes on
fat with greater rapidity, and produces a juicy and tender beef,
superior, at the same age, to that of the ox.

The following method of performing this operation is sanctioned by the
practice of eminent veterinary surgeons in France:--

Having covered the eyes of the cow to be operated upon, she is placed
against a wall, provided with five rings firmly fastened and placed as
follows: the first corresponds to the top of the withers; the second, to
the lower anterior part of the breast; the third is placed a little
distance from the angle of the shoulder; the fourth is opposite to the
anterior and superior part of the lower region; and the fifth, which is
behind, answers to the under-part of the buttocks. A strong assistant is
placed between the wall and the head of the animal, who firmly holds the
left horn in his left hand, and with his right, the muzzle, which he
elevates a little. This done, the end of a long and strong-plaited cord
is passed, through the ring which corresponds to the lower part of the
breast, and fastened; the free end of the cord is brought along the left
flank, and through the ring which is below and in front of the withers.
This is brought down along the breast behind the shoulder and the angle
of the fore-leg in order to pass it through the third ring; then it must
be passed around against the outer angle of the left hip, and fastened
after having been drawn tightly to the posterior ring, by a simple
bow-knot.

The cow being thus firmly fixed to the wall, a cord is fastened by a
slip-noose around her hocks, to keep them together in such a manner that
she cannot kick the operator, the free end of the cord and the tail
being held by an assistant. The cow thus secured cannot, during the
operation, move forward, nor lie down, and the operator has all the ease
desirable, and is protected from accident.

The operator next--placed opposite to the animal's left flank, with his
back turned a little toward the head of the animal--cuts off the hair
which covers the hide in the middle of the flanks, at an equal distance
between the back and hip, for the space of thirteen or fourteen
centimetres in circumference (the French _centimetre_ is rather more
than thirty-nine one hundredths of an inch); a convex bistoury is
placed, opened, between his teeth, the edge out, the joints to the left;
then, with both hands, he seizes the hide in the middle of the flank,
and forms of it a wrinkle of the requisite elevation, running lengthwise
of the body. The assistant seizes with his right hand the right side of
this wrinkle; the operator takes the bistoury and cuts the wrinkle, at
one stroke, through the middle; the wrinkle having been suffered to go
down, a separation of the hide is presented, of sufficient length to
admit the introduction of the hand; the edges of the hide are separated
with the thumb and fore-finger of the left hand, and in like manner the
abdominal muscles are cut through, for the distance of a centimetre from
the lower extremity of the incision made in the hide,--the _iliac_
slightly obliquely, and the _lumbar_ across; a puncture of the
peritoneum, at the upper extremity of the wound, is then made with the
straight bistoury; the buttoned bistoury is then introduced, and moved
obliquely from above to the lower part, up to the termination of the
incision made in the abdominal muscles.

The flank being opened, the right hand is introduced into the abdomen,
and directed along the right side of the cavity of the pelvis, behind
the paunch, and underneath the rectum, to the matrix; after the position
of these viscera is ascertained, the organs of reproduction, or ovaries,
are searched for, which are at the extremity of the matrix; when found,
they are seized between the thumb and fore-finger, detached completely
from the ligaments which keeps them in their place, and by a light pull,
the cord and the vessels, the uterine or Fallopian tube, are separated
at their place of union with the ovarium, by means of the nails of the
thumb and fore-finger, which present themselves at the point of touch,
thus breaking the cord and bringing away the ovary.

The hand is again introduced into the abdominal cavity, and the
remaining ovaries brought away in like manner. A suture is then placed
of three or four double threads, waxed at an equal distance, and at two
centimetres, or a little less, from the lips of the wound, passing it
through the divided tissues; a movement is made from the left hand with
the piece of thread; having reached that point, a fastening is made with
a double knot, the seam placed in the intervals of the thread from the
right, and as the lips of the wound are approached, a fastening is
effected by a simple knot, with a bow, care being taken not to close too
tightly the lower part of the seam, in order to allow the suppuration,
which may be established in the wound, to escape. The wound is then
covered up with a pledget of lint, kept in its place by three or four
threads passed through the stitches, and the operation is complete.

It happens, sometimes, that in cutting the muscles before mentioned, one
or two of the arteries are severed. Should much blood escape, a ligature
must be applied before opening the peritoneal sac; since, if this
precaution is omitted, blood will escape into the abdomen, which may
occasion the most serious consequences.

For the first eight days succeeding, the animal should have a light
diet, and a soothing, lukewarm draught; if the weather should be cold,
cover with a woollen covering. She must be prevented from licking the
wound, and from rubbing it against other bodies. The third day after the
operation, bathe morning and evening about the wound with water of
mallows lukewarm, or anoint it with a salve of hog's lard, and
administer an emollient glyster during three or four days.

Eight days after the operation, take away the bandage, the lint, the
fastenings, and the thread. The wound is at that time, as a general
thing, completely cicatrized. Should, however, some slight suppuration
exist, a slight pressure must be used above the part where it is
located, so as to cause the pus to leave, and if it continues more than
five or six days, emollients must be supplied by alcolized water, or
chloridized, especially in summer. The animal is then to be brought back
gradually to her ordinary nourishment.

In some cows, a swelling of the body is observable a short time after
having been spayed, attributable to the introduction of cold air into
the abdomen during the operation; but this derangement generally ceases
within twenty-four hours. Should the contrary occur, administer one or
two sudorific draughts, such as wine, warm cider, or a half-glass of
brandy, in a quart of warm water,--treatment which suffices in a short
time to restore a healthy state of the belly,--the animal at the same
time being protected by two coverings of wool.

The only precaution, in the way of management, to be observed as a
preparative for the operation is, that on the preceding evening not so
copious a meal should be given. The operation should also be performed
in the morning before the animal has fed, so that the operator may not
find any obstacle from the primary digestive organs, especially the
paunch, which, during its state of ordinary fullness, might prevent
operating with facility.

The advantages of spaying milch-cows are thus summed up by able French
writers: First, rendering permanent the secretion of milk, and having a
much greater quantity within the given time of every year; second, the
quality of milk being improved; third, the uncertainty of, and the
dangers incident to, breeding being, to a great extent, avoided; fourth,
the increased disposition to fatten even when giving milk freely, or
when, from excess of age or from accidental circumstances, the secretion
of milk is otherwise checked; fifth, the very short time required to
produce a marketable condition; and sixth, the meat of spayed cattle
being of a quality superior to that of ordinary cattle.

This operation would seem to have originated in this country. The London
Veterinary Journal of 1834 contains the following, taken from the United
States Southern Agriculturist:--"Some years since, I passed a summer at
Natchez, and put up at a hotel there, kept by Mr. Thomas Winn. During
the time that I was there I noticed two remarkably fine cows, which were
kept constantly in the stable, the servant who had charge of the horses,
feeding them regularly three times a day with green guinea grass, cut
with a sickle. These cows had so often attracted my attention, on
account of the great beauty of their form, and deep red color, the large
size of their bags, and the high condition in which they were kept, that
I was at length induced to ask Mr. Winn to what breed of cattle they
belonged, and his reasons for keeping them constantly in the stable in
preference to allowing them to run in the pasture, where they could
enjoy the benefit of air and exercise, and at the same time crop their
own food, and thereby save the labor and trouble of feeding them? Mr.
Winn, in reply to these inquiries, stated that the two cows which I so
much admired were of the common stock of the country, and he believed,
of Spanish origin; but they were both spayed cows, and that they had
given milk either two or three years. Considering this a phenomenon (if
not in nature at least in art), I made further inquiries of Mr. Winn,
who politely entered into a very interesting detail, communicating facts
which were as extraordinary as they were novel. Mr. Winn, by way of
preface, observed that he, in former years, had been in the habit of
reading English magazines, which contained accounts of the
plowing-matches which were annually held in some of the southern
counties of England, performed by cattle, and that he had noticed that
the prizes were generally adjudged to the plowman who worked with spayed
heifers; and although there was no connection between that subject and
the facts which he should state, it was, nevertheless, the cause that
first directed his mind into the train of thought and reasoning which
finally induced him to make the experiments, which resulted in the
discovery of the facts which he detailed, and which I will narrate as
accurately as my memory will enable me to do it, after the lapse of more
than twenty years. Mr. Winn's frequent reflections had (he said) led him
to the belief "that if cows were spayed soon after calving, and while in
a full flow of milk, they would continue to give milk for many years
without intermission, or any diminution of quantity, except what would
be caused by a change from green to dry, or less succulent food." To
test this hypothesis, Mr. Winn caused a very good cow, then in full
milk, to be spayed. The operation was performed about one month after
the cow had produced her third calf; it was not attended with any severe
pain, or much or long continued fever. The cow was apparently well in a
few days, and very soon yielded her usual quantity of milk, and
continued to give freely for several years without any intermission or
diminution in quantity, except when the food was scarce and dry; but a
full flow of milk always came back upon the return of a full supply of
green food. This cow ran in the Mississippi low grounds or swamp near
Natchez, got cast in deep mire, and was found dead. Upon her death, Mr.
Winn caused a second cow to be spayed. The operation was entirely
successful. The cow gave milk constantly for several years, but in
jumping a fence stuck a stake in her bag, that inflicted a severe wound,
which obliged Mr. Winn to kill her. Upon this second loss, Mr. Winn had
two other cows spayed, and, to prevent the recurrence of injuries from
similar causes with those which had occasioned him the loss of the first
two spayed cows, he resolved to keep them always in the stable, or some
safe enclosure, and to supply them regularly with green food, which that
climate throughout the greater part of, if not all, the year enabled him
to procure. The result, in regard to the last two spayed cows, was, as
in the case of the first two, entirely satisfactory, and fully
established, as Mr. Winn believed, the fact, that the spaying of cows,
while in full milk, will cause them to continue to give milk during the
residue of their lives, or until prevented by old age. When I saw the
last two spayed cows it was, I believe, during the third year that they
had constantly given milk after they were spayed. The character of Mr.
Winn (now deceased) was highly respectable, and the most entire
confidence could be reposed in the fidelity of his statements; and as
regarded the facts which he communicated in relation to the several cows
which he had spayed, numerous persons with whom I became acquainted,
fully confirmed his statements."

In November 1861, the author was called to perform this operation upon
the short-horn Galloway cow, Josephine the Second, belonging to Henry
Ingersoll, Esq., of this city. This cow was born May 8th, 1860. The
morning was cold and cloudy. About ten o'clock the cow was cast, with
the assistance of R. McClure, V.S., after which she was placed under the
influence of chloric ether. He then made an incision, about five inches
in length, through the skin and walls of the abdomen, midway between the
pelvis bone and the last rib on the left side, passing in his right
hand, cutting away the ovaries from the Fallopian tubes with the
thumbnail. The opening on the side was then closed by means of the
interrupted suture. The animal recovered from the influence of the
anæsthetic in about fifteen minutes, when she was allowed to rise, and
walk back to her stall.

Upon the morning of the second day succeeding the operation, the animal
was visited and found to be in good spirits, apparently suffering very
little pain or inconvenience from the operation, and the wound healing
nicely.

Since that time, he has operated upon some twenty cows, all of which,
with a single exception, have thus far proved satisfactory.

Several of these cows are under the direction of a committee from the
Philadelphia Society for promoting Agriculture, whose duty it is to have
a daily record kept of each cow's yield of butter and milk, for one year
from the time of spaying. Their report will be perused by the
agricultural community with much interest.

The author's own experience will not justify him in speaking either in
favor of, or against, this operation; as sufficient time has not as yet
elapsed to satisfy him as to its relative advantages and disadvantages.
He, however, regards the operation as comparatively safe. The French
estimate the loss at about fifteen per cent., and the gain at thirty per
cent. Of those upon which he has operated, not a single animal died.



A LIST OF MEDICINES USED IN TREATING CATTLE.


The medicines used in the treatment of the diseases of cattle, are
essentially the same as those in vogue for the diseases of the human
being and the horse,--the only difference being in their combination and
the quantities administered.

ABSORBENTS.--Medicines which destroy acidities in the stomach and
bowels; such as chalk, magnesia, etc.

ALTERATIVES.--Medicines which restore the healthy functions of
secretion, by gradually changing the morbid action in an impaired
constitution. Those in most common use are Æthiops mineral, antimony,
rosin, sulphur, etc., which form the principal ingredients in all
condition-powders, and are chiefly useful in diseases of the skin, such
as hide-bound, mange, surfeit, etc.

ALTERATIVE POWDER.--Sulphur pulverized, one pound; black antimony, one
half a pound; nitrate of potassa, four ounces; sulphate of iron, one
half a pound; linseed meal, one pound; mix well; dose, one half an
ounce, night and morning.

ANTACIDS.--Agents which neutralize, by their chemical action, acids in
the stomach; as ammonia, carbonate of potassa, chalk, lime-water,
magnesia, and soda.

ANTHELMINTICS.--Remedies used for the expulsion of worms from the
stomach and intestines. These may act chemically or by their cathartic
operation. The most reliable are Æthiops mineral, nux vomica,
preparations of mercury, wormwood, etc.

ANTHELMINTIC POWDERS.--Nux vomica, in one half-drachm doses, two or
three times daily, to an ox or cow; for calves, the dose must be
diminished, according to age.

ANTIDOTES.--Medicines which neutralize the effects of poisons by a
chemical union, forming an insoluble compound, or a mild, harmless one.
Alkaline solutions are antidotes for the mineral acids; as soap in
solution, a simple remedy, and always at hand. Lard, magnesia, and oil
are antidotes for poisoning by arsenic; albumen,--in the form of the
white of an egg,--milk, etc., for corrosive sublimate, and other
mercurial preparations.

ANTISEPTICS.--Medicines which prevent putridity in animal substances,
and arrest putrefaction, when already existing. These are used both
externally and internally. The chief specifics of this class are the
acids, alcohol, ammonia, asafoetida, camphor, charcoal, chloride of
lime, cinchona, ether, and opium.

ANTISPASMODICS.--Medicines which exert their power in allaying
inordinate motions or spasms in the system, arising from various causes,
such as debility, worms, etc. Those most generally in use are ammonia,
asafoetida, camphor, cinchona, ether, lactacarium, mercury, and opium.

ANTISPASMODIC DRAUGHT.--Tincture of opium, one ounce; nitric ether, two
ounces; water, one-half pint. Mix for drench; if repeated, it should be
followed by a purgative, as soon as the spasms have subsided. Or, use
the following: sulphuric ether, one to two ounces; water, one-half pint
Mix for drench; repeat every hour, if necessary.

AROMATICS.--Medicines possessing a grateful, spicy scent, and an
agreeable, pungent taste; as anise-seed, cardamoms, cinnamon, cloves,
ginger, etc. They are principally used in combination with purgatives,
stomachics, and tonics.

ASTRINGENTS.--Medicines which serve to diminish excessive discharges, as
in diabetes, diarrhoea, etc. The principal agents of this class are
the acids, alum, chalk, lime-water, opium, and the sulphate of copper,
lead, iron, or zinc.

ASTRINGENT POWDER.--Opium, one drachm; prepared chalk, half an ounce;
Jamaica ginger, six drachms. Mix, and divide into four powders; one to
be given every hour, in a little flour gruel. Or, the following: opium,
one drachm; catechu, two drachms; prepared chalk, one ounce. Mix, and
divide into four powders; to be given as before.

CARDIACS.--Cordials--so termed, from their possessing warm and
stimulating properties--given to invigorate the system.

CATHARTICS.--Medicines--also known as purgatives--which cause free
evacuations of the bowels. The only purgatives used by the author in his
cattle practice, as a general rule, are aloes, cream of tartar,
Epsom-salts, lard and linseed-oil. These answer all the indications,
where purgatives are useful; indeed, no better purgative for cattle can
be found than Epsom-salts, combined with a carminative or aromatic drug,
such as ginger.

CAUSTICS.--Substances which burn or destroy parts, by combining with
them and causing their disorganization; used to destroy unhealthy
action, or morbid growths, such as foul ulcers, foul in the foot, warts,
etc. The most powerful remedial of this class is actual cauterization
with a red-hot iron; caustic potash, lunar caustic, nitrous and
sulphuric acids, permanganate of potash, etc., are also used.

CORDIALS.--Best brandy, three ounces; orange peel, one drachm; tepid
water, one pint. Mix all together, for one dose. Or, this for a single
dose: ale, one pint; Jamaica ginger, two drachms. Or, the following,
also a single dose: allspice, three drachms; ginger, one drachm; caraway
seeds, two drachms.

DEMULCENTS.--Mucilaginous medicaments, which have the power of
diminishing the effects of stimulating substances upon the animal
system. Of this class, garden rue, or marsh-mallow, gum-arabic, and
gum-tragacanth are the most useful.

DETERGENTS.--Agents which remove foulness from ulcers.

DETERGENT POWDER.--Prepared chalk, two ounces; alum, one ounce. Mix; to
be sprinkled on the part, after washing with Castile-soap and water.
This powder is also an admirable application for foot-rot in sheep.

DIAPHORETICS.--Agents which increase the natural discharge through the
pores of the skin, and in some animals induce perspiration.

DIGESTIVES.--Medicines which promote suppuration.

DIGESTIVE OINTMENT.--Mix together equal portions of spirits of
turpentine and lard. Or, mix together with a gentle heat the following:
Venetian turpentine, one ounce; lard, one ounce; pulverized sulphate of
copper, two drachms. Or this, mixed: rosin, two ounces; spirits of
turpentine, one ounce; red precipitate, one-half an ounce; lard, two
ounces.

DIURETICS.--Medicines that stimulate the action of the kidneys, and
augment the secretion of urine. These are very useful in swellings of
the legs, or body. Take of nitrate of potash and rosin, each six
drachms; mix, and divide in three powders; one to be given daily. Or,
the following: spirits of turpentine, half an ounce; Castile-soap, one
ounce; Jamaica ginger, one drachm; opium, one drachm. Mix: and divide in
two balls; one to be given each day.

EMOLLIENTS.--Medicines which relax the lining tissues, allay irritation,
and soften the parts involved,--generally of a mucilaginous, or oily
character. Lard, linseed meal, and marsh-mallows are chiefly used.

LITHONTRIPTICS.--Medicines possessing the power of dissolving _calculi_,
or stones in the urinary passages; composed principally, according to
the researches of modern chemists, of lithic or uric acid. The
preparation most successfully employed by the author in such cases is
muriatic acid, in doses of from one to two drachms, in a pail of water,
once or twice a day.

NARCOTICS.--Medicines that stupefy, and produce sleep. Belladonna,
camphor, hyoscyamus and opium, are among the narcotics in common use.

NAUSEANTS.--Agents which cause loss of appetite, and produce the
sensation of vomiting, without affecting it. For this purpose, aloes,
tartrate of antimony, white hellebore, etc., are used.

PARTURIENTS.--Agents which act upon the uterus. In cases of difficult
parturition, or calving, resort is occasionally had to them. Ergot of
rye is the most powerful.

REFRIGERANTS.--Cooling applications, which reduce the temperature of the
blood and body; as cold water, ether, lead-water, etc.

RUBEFACIENTS.--Medicines which gently irritate the skin, producing
redness on white surfaces. Of this class, are aqua ammonia, creosote,
mustard, turpentine, etc.

SEDATIVES.--Agents which depress the vital energies, without destroying
life; as aconite, digitalis, hellebore, hydrochloric acid, hyoscyamus,
opium, and tartrate of antimony.

TONICS.--Medicines which increase the action of the muscular system,
giving strength and vigor to the animal. These are among the most useful
remedies known to man, and are beneficial in all cases of debility,
toning up the stomach, and improving the appetite and condition of the
animal.

TONIC POWDER.--Pulverized gentian-root, one ounce; Jamaica ginger, one
half an ounce; anise-seed, six drachms. Mix, and divide in eight
powders; one to be given night and morning.

TRAUMATICS.--Medicines which excite the healing process of wounds; as
aloes, friar's balsam, myrrh, rosin, sulphate of copper or zinc, tar,
etc.

TRAUMATIC LOTION.--Mix tincture of aloes, one ounce; tincture of myrrh,
two ounces. Or, melt together, tar, one ounce; rosin, two ounces; lard,
four ounces. Or, mix sulphate of zinc, one drachm; rain-water, one half
pint. Or, use the following, the celebrated friar's balsam; benzoin, in
powder, four ounces; balsam of Peru, two ounces; Socotrine aloes, one
half ounce; rectified spirits, one quart. Digest for ten or twelve days;
then filter for use.



DOSES OF VARIOUS REMEDIES USED IN CATTLE PRACTICE.


ACONITE.--[_Monk's hood_; _Wolf's bane_.] An active poison. Used as a
sedative in tincture; ten to twenty drops in water.

ÆTHIOPS MINERAL.--[_Hydrargyri Sulphuretum._] One to two drachms.

ALCOHOL.--A stimulant; three to six ounces.

ALLSPICE.--[_Pimento berries._] Aromatic; two to four drachms.

ALOES.--Cathartic and tonic; tonic dose, one half to one
drachm--cathartic, one to two ounces.

ALUM.--[_Alumen._] Irritant, astringent, and sedative; two to four
drachms.

AMMONIA.--[_Aqua ammonia_; _Liquor ammonia_; _Hartshorn_.] Principally
used in combination with mustard, as an external irritant, and
internally, as a diffusible stimulant; two to six drachms. Of carbonate
of ammonia, three to six drachms.

ANISE-SEED.--[Fruit of the _Pimpinella Anisum_.] One to two drachms.

ANTIMONY.--[_Sulphate of Antimony._] Used in condition-powders; one to
three drachms. Muriate of antimony. [_Oil, or butter, of antimony._]
Caustic; very good in foul in the foot. Tartarized antimony. [_Tartar
emetic._] One to four drachms. The author, in the last instance, varies
from the dose prescribed by veterinary authors, never giving it in more
than one-half-drachm doses, believing its action thus more certain and
satisfactory.

ASAFOETIDA.--Stimulant; two to four drachms.

AXUNGE.--[_Hog's Lard._] Ointment, principally; may be used as purgative
in doses of from one to one and a half pounds.

BALSAM OF PERU.--Stimulant, and tonic; two to four drachms.

BELLADONNA.--[_Deadly Nightshade._] Narcotic, anti-spasmodic, and
irritant poison; one to two drachms.

BENZOIN.--[_Gum Benjamin._] Ointment; see Traumatics.

CALOMEL.--[_Hydrargyri Chloridum._] One half to one drachm.

CAMOMILE.--[_Anthemis._] Stomachic, carminative, and tonic; one to two
ounces.

CAMPHOR.--[_Camphora Officinarum._] Narcotic and irritant; in small
doses, sedative and stimulant; one to four drachms.

CANTHARIDES.--[_Spanish Flies._] Internally, stimulant and diuretic;
twenty to thirty grains. Externally, vesicant; used in form of ointment,
or tincture.

CARAWAY.--[Fruit of the _Carum Carisi_.] Used chiefly for flavoring
purposes.

CARDAMOMS.--[Fruit of the _Elettaria Cardamomum_.] Used to communicate
an agreeable flavor to other medicines.

CATECHU.--[_Acacia Catechu._] Astringent, and antiseptic; three to six
drachms.

CHALK.--[_Carbonate of Lime_; _Calcis Carbonas_.] Two to three ounces.

CHARCOAL.--[_Carbo Ligni._] Antiseptic; one half to one ounce.

CINCHONA.--[_Peruvian Bark._] Astringent and tonic; one to two ounces.

COPPER, SULPHATE OF.--[_Blue Vitriol._] Tonic and astringent; two to
four drachms.

CREOSOTE.--[_Creosotum._] A sedative, anodyne, astringent, narcotic, and
irritant poison; fifteen to twenty drops.

CROTON OIL.--[_Crotonis Oleum._] Internally, as a cathartic, six to ten
drops in linseed-oil; externally, as a counter-irritant.

DIGITALIS.--[_Fox Glove._] Sedative and diuretic; one to two scruples.

EPSOM-SALTS.--[_Sulphate of magnesia._] Cathartic; one pound, combined
with ginger.

ERGOT.--[_Spurred rye._] Parturient; two to six drachms.

ETHER.--Stimulant, narcotic, and anæsthetic; one to two ounces.

GENTIAN.--[Root of _Gentiana lutea_.] Stomachic and tonic; one to two
ounces.

GINGER.--[_Zengiber officinale._] Stomachic, carminative, and slightly
tonic; one to two ounces.

GUM-ARABIC.--[_Gummi Acaciæ._] Demulcent and emollient; one to two
ounces.

GUM-TRAGACANTH. Same action and same doses as the former.

HELLEBORE.--[_Helleborus._] Irritant poison, and sedative; twenty to
thirty grains.

HYOSCYAMUS.--[_Henbane._] Narcotic, anodyne, and anti-spasmodic; ten to
twenty grains.

IODINE.--[_Iodineum._] Internally, as a tonic; two to three scruples;
also as a tincture, and in ointments for reducing enlargements of the
soft tissues.

IRON, SULPHATE OF.--[_Ferri Sulphas_; _Green Vitriol_, _Coppera_.]
Irritant, astringent, and tonic; two to four drachms.

KOOSSO. Anthelmintic; two to four drachms.

LIME, CHLORIDE OF.--Antiseptic; dose internally, one to two drachms.

LINSEED OIL.--Cathartic; one pint.

LUNAR CAUSTIC.--[_Nitrate of Silver._] Used as a caustic.

MAGNESIA.--[See EPSOM-SALTS.]

MARSH-MALLOW.--[_Altheæ Radix._] Demulcent and emollient; principally
used for poultices and fomentations.

MURIATIC ACID.--[_Hydrochloric Acid_; _Spirit of Salt_.] Tonic,
irritant, and caustic; dose internally, one to two drachms.

MUSTARD.--[_Sinapis._] Counter-irritant; used principally as an external
application.

MYRRH.--Stimulating tonic to unhealthy sores; seldom used internally.

NITRIC ACID.--[_Aqua fortis._] Astringent and tonic; one to two drachms
in water. Used also as a caustic.

NUX VOMICA.--[Seeds of _Strychnos_.] In large doses, a deadly poison; in
medicinal doses, a powerful tonic and anthelmintic; one half to one
drachm.

OPIUM.--[_Papaver Somniferum._] Narcotic, sedative, anodyne, stimulant,
and anti-spasmodic; two to four drachms.

POTASH, CARBONATE OF.--[_Potassæ Carbonas._] Antacid and diuretic; three
to six drachms.

POTASH, CAUSTIC.--[_Potassa fusa._] Used only as a caustic.

POTASSA, PERMANGANATE OF.--Used externally as a caustic.

ROSIN.--Diuretic; two to three ounces.

SALT, COMMON.--[_Chloride of Sodium._] Irritant, cathartic, stimulant,
and antiseptic; one to one and a half pounds.

SALTS, GLAUBER.--[_Sulphate of Soda._] Cathartic and diuretic; one to
one and a half pounds.

SALTPETRE.--[_Nitrate of Potassa._] Diuretic, febrifuge, and
refrigerant; one half to one ounce.

SUBLIMATE, CORROSIVE.--[_Protochloride of Mercury._] Seldom used
internally; externally, caustic and stimulant.

SULPHUR.--[_Brimstone._] Stimulant and laxative; three to four ounces.

SULPHURIC ACID.--Irritant, caustic, and astringent; two to three
drachms.

TARTAR, CREAM OF.--[_Potassæ Tartras._] Cathartic; three to four ounces.

TURPENTINE.--Stimulant, anthelmintic, diuretic, and laxative; one to two
ounces.

ZINC, SULPHATE OF.--[_White Vitriol._] Astringent and tonic; one to two
drachms.



NEW AND LATE BOOKS

FURNISHED BY THE

Publishers of this Volume.


MAILING NOTICE.--_Any books on the following list will be sent, post
paid, to any address, on receipt of price._ _Address_ THE PUBLISHERS OF
THIS VOLUME. See title page.

HISTORICAL AND SECRET MEMOIRS OF THE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE. A secret and
truthful history of one of the most remarkable of women, uniting all the
value of absorbing facts with that of the most exciting romance.
Translated from the French of M'lle Le Normand, by JACOB M. HOWARD, Esq.
2 vols. in one. Cloth. Price $1 75.

MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF MARIE ANTOINETTE. An instructive work--one of
the most intensely interesting ever issued from the American press--the
events of which should be familiar to all. By MADAME CAMPAN. With
Biographical Introduction by M. DE LAMARTINE. 2 vols. in one. Cloth.
Price $1 75.

MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. Affording a complete and
authentic history of the unfortunate Mary, with materials and letters
not used by other authors, making up a volume of rare interest and
value. By MISS BENGER. With portrait on steel. 2 vols. in one. Cloth.
Price $1 75.

MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENS OF FRANCE. Written in France, carefully compiled
from researches made there, commended by the press generally, and
published from the Tenth London Edition. It is a truly valuable work for
the reader and student of history. By MRS. FORBES BUSH. 2 vols. in one.
Cloth. Price $1 75.

MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE OF ANNE BOLEYN, QUEEN OF HENRY VIII. In the records
of biography there is no character that more forcibly exemplifies the
vanity of human ambition, or more thoroughly enlists the attention of
the reader than this--the Seventh American, and from the Third London
Edition. By MISS BENGER. With portrait on steel. Cloth. $1 75.

HEROIC WOMEN OF HISTORY. Containing the most extraordinary examples of
female courage of ancient and modern times, and set before the wives,
sisters, and daughters of the country, in the hope that it may make them
even more renowned for resolution, fortitude, and self-sacrifice than
the Spartan females of old. By HENRY C. WATSON. With Illustrations.
Cloth. $1 75.

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HISTORY OF LOUIS NAPOLEON, EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH. An
impartial view of the public and private career of this extraordinary
man, giving full information in regard to his most distinguished
ministers, generals, relatives and favorites. By SAMUEL M. SCHMUCKER,
LL. D. With portraits on Steel. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE AND REIGN OF NICHOLAS I., EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. The only complete
history of this great personage that has appeared in the English
language, and furnishes interesting facts in connection with Russian
society and government of great practical value to the attentive reader.
By SAMUEL M. SCHMUCKER, LL. D. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE AND TIMES OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. A concise and condensed narrative
of Washington's career, especially adapted to the popular reader, and
presented as the best matter upon this immortal theme--one especially
worthy the attention and admiration of every American. By SAMUEL M.
SCHMUCKER, LL. D. With Portrait on steel. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE AND TIMES OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON. Incidents of a career that will
never lose its singular power to attract and instruct, while giving
impressive lessons of the brightest elements of character, surrounded
and assailed by the basest. By SAMUEL M. SCHMUCKER, LL. D. With Portrait
on steel. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE AND TIMES OF THOMAS JEFFERSON. In which the author has presented
both the merits and defects of this great representative hero in their
true light, and has studiously avoided indiscriminate praise or
wholesale censure. By SAMUEL M. SCHMUCKER, LL. D. With Portrait. Cloth.
$1 75.

LIFE OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. Furnishing a superior and comprehensive
record of this celebrated Statesman and Philosopher--rich beyond
parallel in lessons of wisdom for every age, calling and condition in
life, public and private. By O. L. HOLLEY. With Portrait on steel and
Illustrations on wood. Cloth. $1 75.

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIFE OF DANIEL WEBSTER. The most copious and
attractive collection of personal memorials concerning the great
Statesman that has hitherto been published, and by one whose intimate
and confidential relations with him afford a guarantee for their
authenticity. By Gen. S. P. LYMAN. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE AND TIMES OF HENRY CLAY. An impartial biography, presenting, by
bold and simple strokes of the historic pencil, a portraiture of the
illustrious theme which no one should fail to read, and no library be
without. By SAMUEL M. SCHMUCKER, LL. D. With Portrait on steel. Cloth.
$1 75.

LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS. A true and faithful
exposition of the leading incidents of his brilliant career arranged so
as to instruct the reader and produce the careful study which the life
of so great a man deserves. By H. M. FLINT. With Portrait on steel.
Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. (In both the English and
German languages.) As a record of this great man it is a most desirable
work, admirably arranged for reference, with an index over each page,
from which the reader can familiarize himself with the contents by
glancing through it. By FRANK CROSBY, of the Philadelphia Bar. With
Portrait on steel. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE OF DANIEL BOONE, THE GREAT WESTERN HUNTER AND PIONEER. Comprising
graphic and authentic accounts of his daring, thrilling adventures,
wonderful skill, coolness and sagacity under the most hazardous
circumstances, with an autobiography dictated by himself. By CECIL B.
HARTLEY. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE OF COLONEL DAVID CROCKET, THE ORIGINAL HUMORIST AND IRREPRESSIBLE
BACKWOODSMAN. Showing his strong will and indomitable spirit, his bear
hunting, his military services, his career in Congress, and his
triumphal tour through the States--written by himself; to which is added
the account of his glorious death at the Alamo. With Illustrations.
Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE OF KIT CARSON, THE GREAT WESTERN HUNTER AND GUIDE. An exciting
volume of wild and romantic exploits, thrilling adventures, hair-breadth
escapes, daring coolness, moral and physical courage, and invaluable
services--such as rarely transpire in the history of the world. By
CHARLES BURDETT. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE OF CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH, THE FOUNDER OF VIRGINIA. The adventures
contained herein serve to denote the more noble and daring events of a
period distinguished by its spirit, its courage, and its passion, and
challenges the attention of the American people. By W. GILMORE SIMMS.
With Illustrations. Price $1 75.

LIFE OF GENERAL FRANCIS MARION, THE CELEBRATED PARTISAN HERO OF THE
REVOLUTION. This was one of the most distinguished men who figured on
the grand theatre of war during the times that "tried men's souls," and
his brilliant career has scarcely a parallel in history. By CECIL B.
HARTLEY. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE OF GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON, THE CELEBRATED PATRIOT AND STATESMAN.
The character here shown as firm in will, clear in judgment, rapid in
decision and decidedly pronounced, sprung from comparative obscurity to
the highest gift within the power of the American people, and is
prolific in interest. By ALEXANDER WALKER. $1 75.

LIFE AND TIMES OF GENERAL SAM HOUSTON, THE HUNTER, PATRIOT, AND
STATESMAN. It reminds one of the story of Romulus--who was nurtured by
the beasts of the forest till he planted the foundations of a mighty
empire--and stands alone as an authentic memoir. With Maps, Portrait,
and Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIVES OF THE THREE MRS. JUDSONS, THE CELEBRATED FEMALE MISSIONARIES. The
domestic lives and individual labors of these three bright stars in the
galaxy of American heroines, who in ministering to the souls of
heathens, experienced much of persecution. By CECIL B. HARTLEY. With
steel Portraits. Cloth. $1 75.

LIFE OF ELISHA KENT KANE, AND OF OTHER DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN EXPLORERS.
A narrative of the discoverers who possess the strongest hold upon
public interest and attention, and one of the few deeply interesting
volumes of distinguished Americans of this class. By SAMUEL M.
SCHMUCKER, LL. D. With Portrait on steel. Cloth. $1 75.

THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF PAULINE CUSHMAN, THE CELEBRATED UNION SPY AND
SCOUT. Stirring details from the lips of the subject herself, whose
courage, heroism, and devotion to the old flag, endeared her to the Army
of the Southwest. By F. L. SARMIENTO, Esq., Member of the Philadelphia
Bar. With Portrait on steel and Illustrations on wood. Cloth. $1 75.

JEFFERSON DAVIS AND STONEWALL JACKSON: THE LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF
EACH. Truths from the lives of these men, both of whom served their
country before the war, and afterwards threw themselves into the cause
of the South with unbounded zeal--affording valuable historic facts for
all, North and South. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

CORSICA, AND THE EARLY LIFE OF NAPOLEON. Delicately drawn idyllic
descriptions of the Island, yielding new light to political history,
exciting much attention in Germany and England, and altogether making a
book of rare character and value. Translated by Hon. E. JOY MORRIS. With
Portrait on steel. Cloth. $1 75.

THE HORSE AND HIS DISEASES: EMBRACING HIS HISTORY AND VARIETIES,
BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT, AND VICES. A splendid complete, and reliable
book--the work of more than fifteen years' careful study--pointing out
diseases accurately, and recommending remedies that have stood the test
of actual trial. To which is added "RAREY'S METHOD OF TRAINING HORSES."
By ROBERT JENNINGS, V. S. With nearly one hundred Illustrations. Cloth.
$1 75.

SHEEP, SWINE, AND POULTRY. Enumerating their varieties and histories;
the best modes of breeding, feeding, and managing; the diseases to which
they are subject; the best remedies--and offering the best practical
treatise of its kind now published. By ROBERT JENNINGS, V. S. With
numerous Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

CATTLE AND THEIR DISEASES. Giving their history and breeds, crossing and
breeding, feeding and management; with the diseases to which they are
subject, and the remedies best adapted to their cure; which is added a
list of remedies used in treating cattle. By ROBERT JENNINGS, V. S. With
numerous Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

HORSE TRAINING MADE EASY. A new and practical system of Teaching and
Educating the Horse, including whip training and thorough instructions
in regard to shoeing--full of information of a useful and well-tested
character. By ROBERT JENNINGS, V. S. With numerous Illustrations. Cloth.
$1 25.

600 RECEIPTS WORTH THEIR WEIGHT IN GOLD. An unequalled variety in kind,
the collection and testing of which have extended through a period of
thirty years--a number of them having never before appeared in print,
while all are simple, plain, and highly meritorious. By JOHN MARQUART,
of Lebanon, Pa. Cloth. $1 75.

500 EMPLOYMENTS ADAPTED TO WOMEN. Throwing open to womankind productive
fields of labor everywhere, and affording full opportunity to select
employments best adapted to their tastes--all the result of over three
years' constant care and investigation. By Miss VIRGINIA PENNY. Cloth.
$1 75.

EVERYBODY'S LAWYER AND BOOK OF FORMS. The simplicity of its
instructions, the comprehensiveness of its subject, and the accuracy of
its details, together with its perfect arrangement, conciseness,
attractiveness and cheapness make it the most desirable of all legal
hand-books. By FRANK CROSBY, Esq. Thoroughly revised to date by S. J.
VANDERSLOOT, Esq. 608 pp. Law Style. $2 00.

THE FAMILY DOCTOR. Intended to guard against diseases in the family; to
furnish the proper treatment for the sick; to impart knowledge in regard
to medicines, herbs, and plants; to show how to preserve a sound body
and mind, and written in plain language, free from medical terms. By
Prof. HENRY TAYLOR, M. D. Profusely Illustrated. Cloth. $1 75.

THE AMERICAN PRACTICAL COOKERY BOOK. A faithful and highly useful guide,
whose directions all can safely follow, making housekeeping easy,
pleasant, and economical in all its departments, and based upon the
personal test, throughout, of an intelligent practical housekeeper.
Illustrated with Fifty Engravings. Cloth. $1 75.

MODERN COOKERY IN ALL ITS BRANCHES. Designed to interest and benefit
housekeepers everywhere by its plain and simple instructions in regard
to the judicious preparation of food, and altogether a work of superior
merit. By Miss ELIZA ACTON. Carefully revised by Mrs. SARAH J. HALE.
With many Illustrations and a copious Index. Cloth. $1 75.

THIRTY YEARS IN THE ARCTIC REGIONS. The graphic narrative of Sir John
Franklin, the most celebrated of Arctic Travellers, in which Sir John
tells his own story--unsurpassed for intense and all-absorbing
interest--sketching his three expeditions, and that part of the fourth
now shrouded in mystery to the world. Cloth. $1 75.

EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES DURING FOUR YEARS' WANDERINGS IN THE WILDS
OF SOUTHWESTERN AFRICA. Important and exciting experiences, full of wild
adventure and instructive facts, which seem to possess a mysterious
charm for every mind, and in which the spirit of intelligent and
adventurous curiosity is everywhere prominent. By CHARLES JOHN ANDERSON.
With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

LIVINGSTONE'S TRAVELS AND RESEARCHES IN SOUTH AFRICA. Given in the
pleasing language of Dr. Livingstone, and rich in the personal
adventures and hair-breadth escapes of that most indefatigable
discoverer and interesting Christian gentleman--making a work of special
value. By DAVID LIVINGSTONE, LL. D., D. C. S. Profusely Illustrated.
Cloth. $1 75.

TRAVELS AND DISCOVERIES IN NORTH AND CENTRAL AFRICA. Recounting an
expedition undertaken under the auspices of H. B. M.'s Government,
exhibiting the most remarkable courage, perseverance, presence of mind,
and contempt of danger and death, and immensely important as a work of
information. By HENRY BARTH, Ph. D., D. C. L., etc. With Illustrations.
Cloth. $1 75.

ELLIS' THREE VISITS TO MADAGASCAR. Written in Madagascar, while on a
visit to the queen and people, in which is carefully described the
singularly beautiful country and the manners and customs of its people,
and from which an unusual amount of information is obtainable. By Rev.
WILLIAM ELLIS, F. H. S. Profusely Illustrated. Cloth. $1 75.

ORIENTAL AND WESTERN SIBERIA. A Stirring narrative of seven years'
explorations in Siberia, Mongolia, the Kirghes Steppes, Chinese Tartary,
and part of Central Asia, revealing extraordinary facts, showing much of
hunger, thirst, and perilous adventure, and forming a work of rare
attractiveness for every reader. By THOMAS WILLIAM ATKINSON. With
numerous Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

HUNTING SCENES IN THE WILDS OF AFRICA. Thrilling adventures of daring
hunters--Cummings, Harris, and others--among the Lions, Elephants,
Giraffes, Buffaloes, and other animals--than which few, if any works,
are more exciting. With numerous Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

HUNTING ADVENTURES IN THE NORTHERN WILDS. A tramp in the Chateaugay
Woods, over hills, lakes and forest streams, at a time when millions of
acres lay in a perfect wilderness, affording incidents, descriptions,
and adventures of extraordinary interest. By S. H. HAMMOND. With
Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

WILD NORTHERN SCENES; OR, SPORTING ADVENTURES WITH THE RIFLE AND THE
ROD. Affording remarkably interesting experiences in a section where the
howl of the Wolf, the scream of the Panther, and the hoarse bellow of
the Moose could be heard--presenting a racy book. By S. H. HAMMOND. With
Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

PERILS AND PLEASURES OF A HUNTER'S LIFE; OR, THE ROMANCE OF HUNTING.
Replete with thrilling incidents and hair-breadth escapes, and
fascinating in the extreme, while depicting the romance of hunting. By
PEREGRINE HERNE. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

HUNTING SPORTS IN THE WEST. An amount of novelty and variety, of bold
enterprise and noble hardihood, of heroic daring and fierce encounters,
which seem to be much more entertaining by the quiet fireside than they
would be to the one going through them in the forest or field. By CECIL
B. HARTLEY. With numerous Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

FANNY HUNTER'S WESTERN ADVENTURES. Vividly portraying the stirring
scenes enacted in Kansas and Missouri during a sojourn of several years
on the Western Border, and fully representing social and domestic
affairs in frontier life--containing curious pictures of character. With
Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

WONDERFUL ADVENTURES, BY LAND AND SEA, OF THE SEVEN QUEER TRAVELLERS WHO
MET AT AN INN. Revelations of a singular and unusually entertaining
character, in which the most terrible circumstances and mysterious
occurrences are faithfully and forcibly placed before the reader. By
JOSIAH BARNES. Cloth. $1 75.

NICARAGUA; PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE. Setting forth its history, the
manners and customs of its inhabitants, its mines, its minerals, and
other productions, and throwing light upon a subject of very great
importance to the masses of our people. By PETER F. STOUT, Esq., late U.
S. Vice-Consul. Cloth. $1 75.

FEMALE LIFE AMONG THE MORMONS; OR, MARIA WARD'S DISCLOSURES. Romantic
Incidents, bordering on the marvelous, which show the evils, horrors,
and abominations of the Mormon system--the degradation of its females,
and the consequent vices of its society. By MARIA WARD, the Wife of a
Mormon Elder. With Illustrations. 40,000 copies sold. Cloth. $1 75.

MALE LIFE AMONG THE MORMONS. Detailing sights and scenes among the
Mormons, with important remarks on their moral and social economy; being
a true transcript of events, viewing Mormonism from a man's standpoint,
and forming a companion to the preceding volume. By AUSTIN N. WARD.
Edited by MARIA WARD. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

PIONEER LIFE IN THE WEST. Describing the adventures of Boone, Kenton,
Brady, Clark, the Whetzels, the Johnsons, and others, in their fierce
encounters with the Indians, and making up a work of the most
entertaining and instructive character for those who delight in history
and adventure. With numerous Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

THRILLING STORIES OF THE GREAT REBELLION. Fearful adventures of
soldiers, scouts, spies, and refugees; daring exploits of smugglers,
guerillas, desperadoes, and others; tales of loyal and disloyal women;
stories of the negro, and incidents of fun and merriment in camp and
field. By Lieut. CHARLES S. GREENE, late of the U. S. Army. With
Illustrations in Oil. Cloth. $1 75.

HISTORY OF THE WAR IN INDIA. Furnishing the complete history of British
India, together with interesting and thrilling details which have
scarcely a parallel in the world's history, to which is added a memoir
of General Sir HENRY HAVELOCK. By HENRY FREDERICK MALCOLM. Illustrated
with numerous Engravings. Cloth. $1 75.

OUR BOYS. Personal experiences of the author while in the army,
presenting the richest and raciest scenes of army and camp life ever
published, and portraying various events in all their originality. By A.
F. HILL, of the Eighth Pennsylvania Reserves. With Portrait on Steel,
and characteristic Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

OUR CAMPAIGNS. The marches, bivouacs, battles, incidents, camp life, and
history of a regiment during its three years' term of service in the
war, together with a sketch of the Army of the Potomac under Generals
McClellan, Burnside, Hooker, Meade, and Grant. By E. M. WOODWARD, Adj't
Second Penna. Reserves. Cloth. $1 75.

MARGARET MONCRIEFFE, THE BEAUTIFUL SPY. An exciting story of Army and
high life in New York, in 1776, presenting facts and historic names, and
showing the mutual attachment between Aaron Burr and Margaret
Moncrieffe, as well as the influence of the latter upon the former in
the more important events of his life. By CHARLES BURDETT. Cloth. $1 75.

SIX NIGHTS IN A BLOCK HOUSE; OR, SKETCHES OF BORDER LIFE. Feats of hero
hunters and thrilling exploits among the Indians; furnishing the names
of hunters well known in western history, and showing the most exciting
drama of border warfare, and, as a whole, the most intensely interesting
and instructive work upon Indian life now offered the public. BY HENRY
C. WATSON. With 100 Engravings. Cloth. $1 75.

THRILLING ADVENTURES AMONG THE EARLY SETTLERS. A series of desperate
encounters with Indians, daring exploits of Texan Rangers, incidents of
guerilla warfare, fearful deeds of desperadoes and regulators of the
west, and graphic delineations of hunting and trapping well worthy
universal preservation. By WARREN WILDWOOD, Esq. More than 200
Engravings. Cloth. $1 75.

THRILLING INCIDENTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. Events which are among the most
striking and important in our national annals, covering the Revolution,
the French War, the Tripolitan War, the Indian Wars, the War of 1812,
and the Mexican War--all of which are of great usefulness to the student
and general reader. By the author of "The Army and Navy of the United
States." With Three Hundred Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

SCOUTING EXPEDITIONS OF THE TEXAN RANGERS. Operations which occurred
during some of the prominent events of the Mexican war, together with
sketches of the celebrated partisan chiefs, Hays, McCulloch, and Walker,
whose courage, sagacity, and remarkable exploits should be familiar to
all Americans. By SAMUEL C. REID, Jr., late of the Texan Rangers, and
Member of the Louisiana Bar. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

THE BATTLE-FIELDS OF THE REVOLUTION. The most brilliant points in the
history of the Revolutionary war, recounting the principal battles,
sieges, and other important events--the whole interspersed with numerous
characteristic anecdotes. By THOMAS Y. RHOADS. With many Illustrations.
Cloth. $1 75.

THRILLING ADVENTURES AMONG THE INDIANS. In which are enumerated the most
remarkable incidents of the early Indian Wars, which abound in dangers,
vindictiveness, endurance, heroism, gratitude, treachery, stoicism, and
revenge, and in which there is much to fascinate the reader, and store
the inquiring mind. By JOHN FROST, LL. D. With more than 300
Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

THE HERO GIRL, AND HOW SHE BECAME A CAPTAIN IN THE ARMY. The highly
dramatic story of Molly Pitcher who, having lost her husband at the
battle of Monmouth, gallantly stepped forward, took his place at the
cannon, and continued serving it until the battle ended--after which the
rank of Captain was conferred on her by Gen. Washington. By THRACE
TALMON. With Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

MRS. PARTINGTON'S KNITTING WORK, AND WHAT WAS DONE BY HER PLAGUY BOY
IKE. In which all will see the acid and sugar, and spirit and
water--forming an intellectual punch, of which all can partake without
headache or heartache. Wrought by the old lady herself. With
characteristic Illustrations, including a portrait of the old lady in
specs, surrounded by the Partington family. Cloth. $1 75.

WAY DOWN EAST; OR, PORTRAITURES OF YANKEE LIFE. Embodying some of the
raciest stories of the "Down Easter" ever published by this humorous
author--containing much of genuine wit and attractive thought. By SEBA
SMITH, the original Major Jack Downing. With several rich and original
Illustrations. Cloth. $1 75.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note:

Summarized here are the corrections applied to the text.

List of Illustrations:
    "Frolicksome" was spelled "Frolicsome" as opposed to the illustration

In color, the pure Ayrshires are generally red
    "Ayrshires" was printed as "Aryshires"

Some packers put
meat in a copper which is rendered air-tight
    "meat" was printed as "meal"

The principal substances of which _glue_ is made
    "substances" was printed as "subtances"

degeneracy of acute into chronic dysentery
    "disentery" was printed as "dystentery"

It most frequently
occurs in dry, hot weather.
    "frequently" was printed as "freqently"

acquired additional deleterious agency
    "acquired" was printed as "accquired"

and have found the spur in the hay wherever the
disease is found.
    "disease" was printed as "diesase"

differing from like phenomena by other causes
    "phenomena" was printed as "phenonema"

until this singular
phenomenon is clearly accounted for
    "phenomenon" was printed as "phenonemon"

embryotomy was
in this instance employed
    "embryotomy" was printed as "emrbyotomy"

The diseased lungs
sometimes attain inordinate weight.
    "diseased" was printed as "direased"

supported by alcoholic
stimulants.
    "alcoholic" was printed as "alcholic"

When cut into, it did
not present the red, mottled, organized appearance of those
cases with air-tight cysts.
    "present" was printed as "prevent"

It comprehended
one of the parotid glands
    "comprehended" was printed as "comprehened"

drawn tightly to the posterior ring, by a simple
bow-knot.
    "knot" was printed as "not"

must be supplied by alcolized
water
    "alcolized" was printed as "alcotized"





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Cattle and Their Diseases - Embracing Their History and Breeds, Crossing and Breeding, - And Feeding and Management; With the Diseases to which - They are Subject, And The Remedies Best Adapted to their - Cure" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home