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Title: Science in the Kitchen.
Author: Kellogg, Mrs. E. E.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Michigan State University Libraries



      Images of the original pages are available through the
      Michigan State University Libraries. See
      http://digital.lib.msu.edu/cookbooks/image.cfm?TitleNo=42&image=001



SCIENCE IN THE KITCHEN.

A Scientific Treatise on Food Substances and Their Dietetic Properties,
together with a Practical Explanation of the Principles of Healthful
Cookery, and a Large Number of Original, Palatable, and Wholesome Recipes.

by

MRS. E. E. KELLOGG, A.M.

Superintendent of the Sanitarium School of Cookery and of the Bay View
Assembly School of Cookery, and Chairman of the World's Fair Committee
on Food Supplies, for Michigan

1893



PREFACE.

The interest in scientific cookery, particularly in cookery as related
to health, has manifestly increased in this country within the last
decade as is evidenced by the success which has attended every
intelligent effort for the establishment of schools for instruction in
cookery in various parts of the United States. While those in charge of
these schools have presented to their pupils excellent opportunities for
the acquirement of dexterity in the preparation of toothsome and
tempting viands, but little attention has been paid to the science of
dietetics, or what might be termed the hygiene of cookery.

A little less than ten years ago the Sanitarium at Battle Creek Mich.,
established an experimental kitchen and a school of cookery under the
supervision of Mrs. Dr. Kellogg, since which time, researches in the
various lines of cookery and dietetics have been in constant progress in
the experimental kitchen, and regular sessions of the school of cookery
have been held. The school has gradually gained in popularity, and the
demand for instruction has become so great that classes are in session
during almost the entire year.

During this time, Mrs. Kellogg has had constant oversight of the cuisine
of both the Sanitarium and the Sanitarium Hospital, preparing bills of
fare for the general and diet tables, and supplying constantly new
methods and original recipes to meet the changing and growing demands of
an institution numbering always from 500 to 700 inmates.

These large opportunities for observation, research, and experience,
have gradually developed a system of cookery, the leading features of
which are so entirely novel and so much in advance of the methods
heretofore in use, that it may be justly styled, _A New System of
Cookery_. It is a singular and lamentable fact, the evil consequences of
which are wide-spread, that the preparation of food, although involving
both chemical and physical processes, has been less advanced by the
results of modern researches and discoveries in chemistry and physics,
than any other department of human industry. Iron mining, glass-making,
even the homely art of brick-making, and many of the operations of the
farm and the dairy, have been advantageously modified by the results of
the fruitful labors of modern scientific investigators. But the art of
cookery is at least a century behind in the march of scientific
progress. The mistress of the kitchen is still groping her way amid the
uncertainties of mediæval methods, and daily bemoaning the sad results
of the "rule of thumb." The chemistry of cookery is as little known to
the average housewife as were the results of modern chemistry to the old
alchemists; and the attempt to make wholesome, palatable, and
nourishing food by the methods commonly employed, is rarely more
successful than that of those misguided alchemists in transmuting lead
and copper into silver and gold.

The new cookery brings order from out the confusion of mixtures and
messes, often incongruence and incompatible, which surrounds the average
cook, by the elucidation of the principles which govern the operations
of the kitchen, with the same certainty with which the law of gravity
rules the planets.

Those who have made themselves familiar with Mrs. Kellogg's system of
cookery, invariably express themselves as trebly astonished: first, at
the simplicity of the methods employed; secondly, at the marvelous
results both as regards palatableness, wholesomeness, and
attractiveness; thirdly, that it had never occurred to them "to do this
way before."

This system does not consist simply of a rehash of what is found in
every cook book, but of new methods, which are the result of the
application of the scientific principles of chemistry and physics to the
preparation of food in such a manner as to make it the most nourishing,
the most digestible, and the most inviting to the eye and to the palate.

Those who have tested the results of Mrs. Kellogg's system of cookery at
the Sanitarium tables, or in their own homes through the instruction of
her pupils, have been most enthusiastic in their expressions of
satisfaction and commendation. Hundreds of original recipes which have
appeared in her department in _Good Health_, "Science in the Household",
have been copied into other journals, and are also quite largely
represented in the pages of several cook books which have appeared
within the last few years.

The great success which attended the cooking school in connection with
the Bay View Assembly (the Michigan Chautauqua), as well as the uniform
success which has met the efforts of many of the graduates of the
Sanitarium school of cookery who have undertaken to introduce the new
system through the means of cooking classes in various parts of the
United States, has created a demand for a fuller knowledge of the
system.

This volume is the outgrowth of the practical and experimental work, and
the popular demand above referred to. Its preparation has occupied the
entire leisure time of the author during the last five or six years. No
pains or expense has been spared to render the work authoritative on all
questions upon which it treats, and in presenting it to the public, the
publishers feel the utmost confidence that the work will meet the
highest expectations of those who have waited impatiently for its
appearance during the months which have elapsed since its preparation
was first announced. PUBLISHERS.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


    FOODS
      Properties of food
      Food elements
      Uses of food elements
      Proper combinations of food
      Proper proportion of food elements
      Condiments
      Relation of condiments to intemperance
      Variety in food
      Table topics.


    THE DIGESTION OF FOODS
      The digestive organs
      The digestion of a mouthful of bread
      Salivary digestion
      Stomach digestion
      Intestinal digestion
      Other uses of the digestive fluids
      Absorption
      Liver digestion
      Time required for digestion
      Dr. Beaumont's table made from experiments on Alexis St. Martin
      Hygiene of digestion
      Hasty eating
      Drinking freely at meals
      Eating between meals
      Simplicity in diet
      Eating when tired
      Eating too much
      How much food is enough
      Excess of certain food elements
      Deficiency of certain food elements
      Food combinations
      Table topics.

    COOKERY
      Evils of bad cookery
      The principles of scientific cookery
      Fuels
      Making fires
      Care of fires
      Methods of cooking
      Roasting
      Broiling or grilling
      Baking
      The oven thermometer
      Boiling
      The boiling point of water
      How to raise the boiling point of water
      Action of hot and cold water upon foods
      Steaming
      Stewing
      Frying
      Evaporation
      Adding foods to boiling liquids
      Measuring
      Comparative table of weights and measures
      Mixing the material
      Stirring
      Beating
      Kneading
      Temperature
      Cooking utensils
      Porcelain ware
      Granite ware
      Galvanized iron ware
      Tests for lead
      Adulterated tin
      Table topics.

    THE HOUSEHOLD WORKSHOP
      Description of a convenient kitchen
      The kitchen furniture
      Cupboards
      A convenient kitchen table
      The kitchen sink
      Drainpipes
      Stoves and ranges
      Oil and gas stoves
      The "Aladdin Cooker"
      Kitchen utensils
      The tin closet
      The dish closet
      The pantry
      The storeroom
      The refrigerator
      The water supply
      Test for pure water
      Filters
      Cellars
      Kitchen conveniences
      The steam cooker
      The vegetable press-The lemon drill
      The handy waiter
      The wall cabinet
      The percolater holder
      Kneading table
      Dish-towel rack
      Kitchen brushes
      Vegetable brush
      Table topics.

    THE GRAINS, OR CEREALS, AND THEIR PREPARATION
      General properties of grains
      Cooking of grains
      The double boiler
      Table showing amount of liquid, and time required for cooking
        different grains
      Grains for breakfast-Grains an economical food
      Wheat
      Description of a grain of wheat
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Pearl wheat
        Cracked wheat
        Rolled wheat
        Boiled wheat
        Wheat with raisins
        Wheat with fresh fruit
        Molded wheat
      Finer mill products of wheat
      _Recipes_:
        Farina
        Farina with fig sauce
        Farina with fresh fruit
        Molded farina
        Graham grits
        Graham mush
        Graham mush No. 2
        Graham mush No. 3
        Graham mush with dates
        Plum porridge
        Graham apple mush
        Granola mush
        Granola fruit mush
        Granola peach mush
        Bran jelly
      The oat, description of
      Oatmeal
      Brose
      Budrum
      Flummery
      Preparation and cooking of oats
      _Recipes_:
        Oatmeal mush
        Oatmeal fruit mush
        Oatmeal blancmange
        Oatmeal Blancmange No. 2
        Jellied oatmeal
        Mixed mush
        Rolled oats
        Oatmeal with apple
        Oatmeal porridge
      Barley, description of
      Gofio
      Scotch milled or pot barley
      Pearl barley
      Suggestions for cooking barley
      _Recipes_:
        Baked barley
        Pearl barley with raisins
        Pearl barley with lemon sauce
      Rice, description of
      Rice paddy
      Preparation and cooking of rice
      _Recipes_:
        Steamed rice
        Boiled rice
        Rice with fig sauce
        Orange rice
        Rice with raisins
        Rice with peaches
        Browned rice
      Rye, description of
      Rye meal
      Rye flour
      _Recipes_:
        Rolled rye
        Rye mush
      Maize, or Indian corn, description of
      Suggestions for cooking corn
      _Recipes_:
        Corn meal mush
        Corn meal mush with fruit
        Corn meal cubes
        Browned mush
        Samp
        Cerealine flakes
        Hulled corn
        Coarse hominy
        Fine hominy or grits
        Popped corn
      Macaroni, description of
      Semolina
      Spaghetti
      Vermicelli
      To select macaroni
      To prepare and cook macaroni
      _Recipes_:
        Homemade macaroni
        Boiled macaroni
        Macaroni with cream sauce
        Macaroni with tomato sauce
        Macaroni baked with granola
        Eggs and macaroni
      Table topics.

    BREADSTUFFS AND BREAD-MAKING
      The origin of bread
      Chestnut bread
      Peanut bread
      Breadstuffs
      Qualities necessary for good bread
      Superiority of bread over meat
      Graham flour
      Wheat meal
      Whole-wheat or entire wheat flour
      How to select flour
      To keep flour
      Deleterious adulterations of flour
      Tests for adulterated flour
      Chemistry of bread-making
      Bread made light by fermentation
      The process of fermentation
      Fermentative agents
      Yeast
      Homemade yeasts
      How to keep yeast
      Bitter yeast
      Tests for yeast
      Starting the bread
      Proportion of materials needed
      Utensils
      When to set the sponge
      Temperature for bread-making
      How to set the sponge
      Lightness of the bread
      Kneading the dough
      How to manipulate the dough in kneading
      How many times shall bread be kneaded
      Dryness of the surface
      Size of loaves
      Proper temperature of the oven
      How to test the heat of an oven
      Care of bread after baking
      Best method of keeping bread
      Test of good fermented bread
      Whole-wheat and Graham breads
      Toast
      Steamed bread
      Liquid yeast
      _Recipes_:
        Raw potato yeast
        Raw potato yeast No. 2
        Hop yeast
        Boiled potato yeast
        Boiled potato yeast No. 2
      Fermented breads
      _Recipes_:
        Milk bread with white flour
        Vienna bread
        Water bread
        Fruit roll
        Fruit loaf
        Potato bread
        Pulled bread
        Whole-wheat bread
        Whole-wheat bread No. 2
        Miss B's one-rising bread
        Potato bread with whole-wheat flour
        Rye bread
        Graham bread
        Graham bread No. 2
        Graham bread No. 3
        Raised biscuit
        Rolls
        Imperial rolls
        French rolls
        Crescents
        Parker House rolls
        Braids
        Brown bread
        Date bread
        Fruit loaf with Graham and whole-wheat flour
        Raised corn bread
        Corn cake
        Oatmeal bread
        Milk yeast bread
        Graham salt rising bread
      Unfermented breads
      Passover cakes
      Tortillas
      Evils of chemical bread raising
      Rochelle salts in baking powders
      General directions
      Gem irons
      Perforated sheet-iron pan for rolls
      Unfermented batter breads
      Unfermented dough breads
      _Recipes_:
        Whole-wheat puffs
        Whole-wheat puffs No. 2
        Whole-wheat puffs No. 3
        Graham puffs
        Graham puffs No. 2
        Currant puffs
        Graham gems
        Crusts
        Rye puffs
        Rye puffs No. 2
        Rye gems
        Blueberry gems
        Hominy gems
        Sally Lunn gems
        Corn puffs
        Corn puffs No. 2
        Corn puffs No 3
        Corn puffs No. 4
        Corn dodgers
        Corn dodgers No. 2
        Cream corn cakes
        Hoe cakes
        Oatmeal gems
        Snow gems
        Pop overs
        Granola gems
        Bean gems
        Breakfast rolls
        Sticks
        Cream Graham rolls
        Corn mush rolls
        Fruit rolls
        Cream mush rolls
        Beaten biscuit
        Cream crisps
        Cream crisps No. 2
        Graham crisps
        Oatmeal crisps
        Graham crackers
        Fruit crackers
      Table topics.

    FRUITS:
      Chemical constituents of
      Value as nutrients
      Structure of fruits
      The jelly-producing principle
      Digestibility of fruits
      Unripe fruits
      Table of fruit analysis
      Ripe fruit and digestive disorders
      Over-ripe and decayed fruits
      Dangerous bacteria on unwashed fruit
      Free use of fruit lessens desire for alcoholic stimulants
      Beneficial use of fruits in disease
      Apples
      The pear
      The quince
      The peach
      The plum
      The prune
      The apricot
      The cherry
      The olive; its cultivation and preservation
      The date, description and uses of
      The orange
      The lemon
      The sweet lemon or bergamot
      The citron
      The lime
      The grape-fruit
      The pomegranate, its antiquity
      The grape
      Zante currants
      The gooseberry
      The currant
      The whortleberry
      The blueberry
      The cranberry
      The strawberry
      The raspberry
      The blackberry
      The mulberry
      The melon
      The fig, its antiquity and cultivation
      The banana
      Banana meal
      The pineapple
      Fresh fruit for the table
      Selection of fruit for the table
      Directions for serving fruits
      Apples
      Bananas
      Cherries
      Currants
      Goosberries
      Grapes
      Melons
      Oranges
      Peaches and pears
      Peaches and cream
      Pineapples
      Plums
      Pressed Figs
      Raspberries, Blackberries, Dewberries, Blueberries and Whortlberries
      Frosted fruit
      Keeping fresh fruit
      Directions for packing, handling, and keeping fruits
      _Recipes_:
        To keep grapes
        To keep lemons and oranges
        To keep cranberries
      Cooked fruit
      General suggestions for cooking fruit
      _Recipes_:
        Baked apples
        Citron apples
        Lemon apples
        Baked pears
        Baked quince
        Pippins and quince
        Baked apple sauce
        Baked apple sauce No. 2
        Apples stewed whole
        Steamed apples
        Compote of apples
        Apple compote No. 2
        Stewed pears
        Stewed apple sauce
        Boiled apples with syrup
        Stewed apples
        Stewed crab apples
        Sweet apple sauce with condensed apple juice
        Apples with raisins
        Apples with apricots
        Peaches, pears, cherries, berries, and other small fruits
        Baked apples
        Baked pears
        Baked peaches
        Cranberries
        Cranberries with raisins
        Cranberries with sweet apples
        Oranges and apples
        Stewed raisins
        Dried apples
        Dried apples with other dried fruit
        Dried apricots and peaches
        Evaporated peach sauce
        Dried pears
        Small fruits
        Prunes
        Prune marmalade
      Canning fruit
      Selection of cans
      How to test and sterilize cans
      Selection of fruit
      Directions for preparing fruit
      Cooking fruit for canning
      Storing of canned fruit
      Mold on canned fruit
      Opening of canned fruit
      Rules for selecting canned fruit
      _Recipes_:
      To can strawberries
      To can raspberries, blackberries and other small fruit
      To can gooseberries
      To can peaches
      To can pears
      To can plums
      To can cherries
      To can mixed fruit
      Quinces and apples
      Plums with sweet apples
      To can grapes
      To can crab apples
      To can apples
      To can pineapples
      Fruit jellies
      _Recipes_:
      Apple jelly
      Apple jelly without sugar
      Berry and currant jellies
      Cherry jelly
      Crab apple jelly
      Cranberry jelly
      Grape jelly
      Orange jelly
      Peach Jelly
      Quince jelly
      Plum jelly
      Fruit in jelly
      Fruit juices, value of
      How to prepare fruit juices
      _Recipes:_
        Grape juice or unfermented wine
        Grape juice No. 2
        Another method
        Fruit syrup
        Currant syrup
        Orange syrup
        Lemon syrup
        Lemon syrup No 2
        Blackberry syrup
        Fruit ices
      Nuts
      Composition and nutritive value of
      The almond
      Almond bread
      The Brazil nut
      The cocoanut, its uses in tropical countries
      The chestnut
      Chestnut flour
      The acorn
      The hazel nut
      The filbert
      The cobnut
      The walnut
      The butternut
      The hickory nut
      The pecan
      The peanut or ground nut
      _Recipes:_
        To blanch almonds
        Boiled chestnuts
        Mashed chestnuts
        Baked chestnuts
        To keep nuts fresh
      Table topics.

    THE LEGUMES
      Composition and nutritive value
      Legumes as a substitute for animal food
      Legumin, or vegetable casein
      Chinese cheese
      Legumes the "pulse" of Scripture
      Diet of the pyramid builders
      Digestibility of legumes
      A fourteenth century recipe
      The green legumes
      Suggestions for cooking
      Slow cooking preferable
      Soaking the dry seeds
      Effects of hard water upon the legumes
      Temperature of water for cooking
      Amount of water required
      Addition of salt to legumes
      Peas, description of
      Buying votes with peas
      A commemorative dinner
      Peas bainocks
      Peas sausages
      Peas pudding
      Time required for cooking
      _Recipes:_
        Stewed split peas
        Peas puree
        Mashed peas
        Peas cakes
        Dried green peas
      Beans, description of
      Mention of beans in Scripture
      Beans in mythology
      Time required for digestion
      Method of cooking
      Experiment of an English cook
      Parboiling beans
      Time required to cook
      _Recipes:_
        Baked beans
        Boiled beans
        Beans boiled in a bag
        Scalloped beans
        Stewed beans
        Mashed beans
        Stewed Lima beans
        Succotash
        Pulp succotash
      Lentils, description of
      Use of lentils by the ancients
      Lentil meal
      Preparation for cooking
      _Recipes:_
        Lentil puree
        Lentils mashed with beans
        Lentil gravy with rice
      Table topics.

    VEGETABLES
      Composition and nutritive value of vegetables
      Exclusive diet of vegetables not desirable
      To select vegetables
      Poison in potato sprouts
      Stale vegetables a cause of illness
      Keeping vegetables
      To freshen withered vegetables
      Storing winter vegetables
      Preparation and cooking
      To clean vegetables for cooking
      Methods of cooking
      Time required for cooking various vegetables
      Irish potato, description of
      The chemistry of cooking
      Digestibility of the potato
      New potatoes
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Potatoes boiled in "jackets"
        Boiled potatoes without skins
        Steamed potatoes
        Roasted potatoes
        Baked potatoes
        Stuffed potatoes
        Stuffed potatoes No. 2
        Mashed potatoes
        New potatoes
        Cracked potatoes
        Creamed potatoes
        Scalloped potatoes
        Stewed potatoes
        Potatoes stewed with celery
        Potato snow balls
        Potato cakes
        Potato cakes with egg
        Potato puffs
        Browned potatoes
        Ornamental potatoes
        Broiled potatoes
        Warmed-over potatoes
        Vegetable hash
      The sweet potato, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked sweet potatoes
        Baked sweet potatoes No 2
        Boiled sweet potatoes
        Steamed sweet potatoes
        Browned sweet potatoes
        Mashed sweet potatoes
        Potato hash
        Roasted sweet potatoes
      Turnips, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Boiled turnips
        Baked turnips
        Creamed turnips
        Chopped turnips
        Mashed turnips
        Scalloped turnips
        Steamed turnips
        Stewed turnips
        Turnips in juice
        Turnips with cream sauce
      Parsnips, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked parsnips
        Baked parsnips No. 2
        Boiled parsnips
        Browned parsnips
        Creamed parsnips
        Mashed parsnips
        Parsnips with cream sauce
        Parsnips with egg sauce
        Parsnips with potatoes
        Stewed parsnips
        Stewed parsnips with celery
      Carrots, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Boiled carrots
        Carrots with egg sauce
        Stewed carrots
      Beets, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked beets
        Baked beets No. 2
        Beets and potatoes
        Beet hash
        Beet greens
        Beet salad or chopped beets
        Beet salad No 2
        Boiled beets
        Stewed beets
      Cabbage, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked cabbage
        Boiled cabbage
        Cabbage and tomatoes
        Cabbage and celery
        Cabbage hash
        Chopped cabbage or cabbage salad
        Mashed cabbage
        Stewed cabbage
      Cauliflower and Broccoli, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Boiled cauliflower
        Browned cauliflower
        Cauliflower with egg sauce
        With tomato sauce
        Stewed cauliflower
        Scalloped cauliflower
      Spinach, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      Celery
      To keep celery fresh
      _Recipes_:
        Celery salad
        Stewed celery
        Stewed celery No. 2
        Celery with tomato sauce
        Celery and potato hash
      Asparagus, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Asparagus and peas
        Asparagus Points
        Asparagus on toast
        Asparagus with cream sauce
        Asparagus with egg sauce
        Stewed asparagus
      Sea-kale, description of
      Lettuce and radish, description of
     _Recipes:_
        Lettuce
        Radishes
    Cymling
    Description
    Preparation and cooking
    _Recipes:_
      Mashed squash
      Squash with egg sauce
      Stewed squash
      Winter squash
      Preparation and cooking
      Time required for cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked squash
        Steamed squash
      The pumpkin, description of
      _Recipes_:
        Baked pumpkin
        Stewed pumpkin
        Dried pumpkin
      Tomato, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked tomatoes
        Baked tomatoes No. 2
        Scalloped tomatoes
        Stewed corn and tomatoes
        Tomato gravy
        Tomato salad
        Tomato salad No. 2
        Broiled tomatoes
        Tomato pudding
        Stewed tomatoes
        Tomato with okra
      Egg plant, description of
      Nutritive value
      _Recipes_:
        Scalloped egg plant
        Baked egg plant
      Cucumber, description of
      Digestibility
      Preparation and cooking
      Salsify or vegetable oyster, description of
      Preparation and cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Scalloped vegetable oysters
        Stewed vegetable oysters
      Green corn, peas, and beans, description of
      General suggestions for selecting and cooking
      _Recipes for corn_:
        Baked corn
        Baked corn No. 2
        Boiled green corn
        Stewed corn pulp
        Corn cakes
        Corn pudding
        Roasted green corn
        Stewed green corn
        Summer succotash
        Dried corn
      _Recipe for peas_:
        Stewed peas
      _Recipes for beans_:
        Lima beans
        Shelled beans
        String beans
      Canning vegetables
      _Recipes_:
        Canned corn
        Canned corn and tomatoes
        Canned peas
        Canned tomatoes
        Canned tomatoes No. 2
        String beans
        Canned pumpkin and squash
      Table topics.

    SOUPS
      Value of soup as an article of diet
      Superiority of soups made from grain and legumes
      Economical value of such soups
      Digestibility of soups
      Cooking of material for soups
      Use of a colander in preparing soups
      Quantity of salt required
      Flavoring soups
      Seasoning of soup
      Chinese soup strainer
      Whole grains, macaroni, shredded vegetables, etc., for soups
      Milk in the preparation of soups
      Consistency of soups
      Preparation of soups from left-over fragments
      Croutons
      _Recipes_:
        Asparagus soup
        Baked bean soup
        Bean and corn soup
        Bean and hominy soup
        Bean and potato soup
        Bean and tomato soup
        Black bean soup
        Black bean soup No. 2
        Bran stock
        Brown soup
        Canned green pea soup
        Canned corn soup
        Carrot soup
        Celery soup
        Chestnut soup
        Combination soup
        Combination soup No. 2
        Another
        Another
        Cream pea soup
        Cream barley soup
        Green corn soup
        Green pea soup
        Green bean soup
        Kornlet soup
        Kornlet and tomato soup
        Lentil soup
        Lentil and parsnip soup
        Lima bean soup
        Macaroni soup
        Oatmeal soup
        Parsnip soup
        Parsnip soup No. 2
        Pea and tomato soup
        Plain rice soup
        Potato and rice soup
        Potato soup
        Potato and vermicelli soup
        Sago and potato soup
        Scotch broth
        Split pea soup
        Sweet potato soup
        Swiss potato soup
        Swiss lentil soup
        Tomato and macaroni soup
        Tomato cream soup
        Tomato and okra soup
        Tomato soup with vermicelli
        Vegetable oyster soup
        Vegetable soup
        Vegetable soup No. 2
        Vegetable soup No. 3
        Vegetable soup No. 4
        Velvet Soup
        Vermicelli soup No. 2
        White celery soup
      Table topics.

    BREAKFAST DISHES
      Importance of a good breakfast
      Requirements for a good breakfast
      Pernicious custom of using fried and indigestible foods for breakfast
      Use of salted foods an auxiliary to the drink habit
      The ideal breakfast
      Use of fruit for breakfast
      Grains for breakfast
      An appetizing dish
      Preparation of zwieback
      Preparation of toast
      _Recipes_:
        Apple toast
        Apricot toast
        Asparagus toast
        Banana toast
        Berry toast
        Berry toast No. 2
        Celery toast
        Cream toast
        Cream toast with poached egg
        Cherry toast
        Gravy toast
        Dry toast with hot cream
        Grape toast
        Lentil toast
        Prune toast
        Peach toast
        Snowflake toast
        Tomato toast
        Vegetable oyster toast
      _Miscellaneous breakfast dishes:_
        Brewis
        Blackberry mush
        Dry granola
        Frumenty
        Macaroni with raisins
        Macaroni with kornlet
        Peach mush
        Rice with lemon
      Table topics.

    DESSERTS

      Appropriate and healthful desserts
      Objections to the use of desserts
      The simplest dessert
      General suggestions
      Importance of good material
      Preparation of dried fruit for dessert
      Molded desserts
      _Suggestions for flavoring:_
        To prepare almond paste
        Cocoanut flavor
        Orange and lemon flavor
      To color sugar
      Fruit desserts
      _Recipes:_
        Apple dessert
        Apple meringue dessert. Apple rose cream
        Apple snow
        Baked apples with cream
        Baked sweet apple dessert
        Bananas in syrup
        Baked bananas
        Fresh fruit compote
        Grape apples
        Peach cream
        Prune dessert
      Desserts made of fruit with grains, bread, etc.
      _Recipes:_
        Apple sandwich
        Apple sandwich No. 2
        Baked apple pudding
        Barley fruit pudding
        Barley fig pudding
        Blackberry cornstarch pudding
        Cocoanut and cornstarch blancmange
        Cornstarch blancmange
        cornstarch with raisins
        Cornstarch with apples
        Cornstarch fruit mold
        Cornstarch fruit mold No. 2
        Cracked wheat pudding
        Cracked wheat pudding No. 2
        Farina blancmange
        Farina fruit mold
        Fruit pudding
        Jam pudding
        Plain fruit pudding or Brown Betty
        Prune pudding
        Rice meringue
        Rice snowball
        Rice fruit dessert
        Rice dumpling
        Rice cream pudding
        Rice pudding with raisins
        Red rice mold
        Rice and fruit dessert
        Rice and tapioca pudding
        Rice flour mold
        Rice and stewed apple dessert
        Rice and strawberry dessert
        Stewed fruit pudding
        Strawberry minute pudding
        Sweet apple pudding
        Whortleberry pudding
      Desserts with tapioca, sago, manioca, and sea moss
      _Recipes_:
        Apple tapioca
        Apple tapioca No. 2
        Banana dessert
        Blackberry tapioca
        Cherry pudding
        Fruit tapioca
        Molded tapioca with fruit
        Pineapple tapioca
        Prune and tapioca pudding
        Tapioca and fig pudding
        Peach tapioca
        Tapioca jelly
        Apple sago pudding
        Red sago mold
        Sago fruit pudding
        Sago pudding
        Manioca with fruit
        Raspberry manioca mold
        Sea moss blancmange
      Desserts made with gelatin
      Gelatine an excellent culture medium
      Dangers in the use of gelatine
      Quantity to be used
      _Recipes_:
        Apples in jelly
        Apple shape
        Banana dessert
        Clear dessert
        Fruit foam dessert
        Fruit shape
        Gelatine custard
        Layer-pudding
        Lemon jelly
        Jelly with fruit
        Orange dessert; Oranges in jelly
        Orange jelly
        Snow pudding
      Desserts with crusts
      _Recipes_:
        Apple tart
        Gooseberry tart
        Cherry tart
        Strawberry and other fruit shortcakes
        Banana shortcake
        Lemon shortcake
        Berry shortcake with prepared cream
        Cream
        Raised pie
        Baked apple loaf
      Custard puddings
      Importance of slow cooking
      Best utensils for cooking
      Custard desserts in cups
      To stir beaten eggs into heated milk
      To flavor custards and custard puddings
      _Recipes_:
        Apple custard
        Apple custard No. 2
        Apple custard No. 3
        Apple cornstarch custard
        Apple and bread custard
        Almond cornstarch pudding
        Almond cream
        Apple charlotte
        Banana custard
        Boiled custard
        Boiled custard bread pudding
        Bread and fruit custard
        Bread custard pudding
        Bread and fig pudding
        Bread and apricot pudding
        Caramel custard
        Carrot pudding
        Cocoanut cornstarch pudding
        Cocoanut custard
        Cocoanut rice custard
        Corn meal pudding
        Corn meal pudding No. 2
        Corn meal and fig pudding
        Cornstarch meringue
        Cracked wheat pudding
        Cup custard
        Farina custard
        Farina pudding
        Floating island
        Fruit custard
        Graham grits pudding
        Ground rice pudding
        Lemon pudding
        Lemon cornstarch pudding
        Lemon cornstarch pudding No. 2
        Macaroni pudding
        Molded rice or snowballs
        Orange float
        Orange custard
        Orange pudding
        Peach meringue
        Picnic pudding
        Plain cornstarch pudding
        Plain custard
        Prune pudding
        Prune whip
        Rice apple custard pudding
        Rice custard pudding
        Rice snow
        Rice snow with jelly
        Rice with eggs
        Snow pudding
        Steamed custard
        Strawberry charlotte
        Pop corn pudding
        Sago custard pudding
        Sago and fruit custard pudding
        Snowball custard
        Tapioca custard
        Tapioca pudding
        Vermicelli pudding
        White custard
        White custard No. 2
      Steamed pudding
      Precautions to be observed in steaming puddings
      _Recipes:_
        Batter pudding
        Bread and fruit custard
        Date pudding
        Rice balls
        Steamed bread custard
        Steamed fig pudding
      Pastry and cake
      Deleterious effects from the use of
      Reasons for indigestibility
      General directions for making pies
      _Recipes_
        Paste for pies
        Corn meal crust
        Granola crust
        Paste for tart shells
        Cream filling
        Grape tart
        Lemon filling
        Tapioca filling
        Apple custard pie
        Banana pie
        Bread pie
        Carrot pie
        Cocoanut pie
        Cocoanut pie No. 2
        Cream pie
        Cranberry pie
        Dried apple pie
        Dried apple pie with raisins
        Dried apricot pie
        Farina pie
        Fruit pie
        Grape jelly pie
        Jelly custard pie
        Lemon pie
        Lemon meringue custard
        One crust peach pie
        Orange pie
        Peach custard pie
        Prune pie
        Pumpkin pie
        Pumpkin pie No. 2
        Pumpkin pie without eggs
        Simple custard pie
        Squash pie
        Squash pie without eggs
        Sweet apple custard pie
        Sweet potato pie
        Cake
        General suggestions for preparation of
        Cake made light with yeast
        Cake made light with air
      _Recipes:_
        Apple cake
        Cocoanut custard cake
        Cream cake
        Delicate cup cake
        Fig layer cake
        Fruit jelly cake
        Gold and silver cake
        Icing for cakes
        Orange cake
        Fruit cake
        Loaf cake
        Pineapple cake
        Plain buns
        Sponge cake
        Sugar crisps
        Variety cake
      Table topics.

    GRAVIES AND SAUCES
      Importance of proper preparation
      Accuracy of measurement
      Proportion of material necessary
      The double boiler for cooking gravies
      Flavoring of gravies for vegetables
      Gravies and sauces for vegetables
      _Recipes:_
        Brown sauce
        Cream and white sauce
        Celery sauce
        Egg sauce
        Pease gravy
        Tomato gravy
        Tomato cream gravy
      Sauces for desserts and puddings
      _Recipes:_
        Almond sauce
        Caramel sauce
        Cocoanut sauce
        Cream sauce
        Cranberry pudding sauce
        Custard sauce
        Egg sauce
        Egg sauce No. 2
        Foamy sauce
        Fruit cream
        Fruit sauce
        Fruit sauce No. 2
        Lemon pudding sauce
        Mock cream
        Molasses sauce
        Orange sauce
        Peach sauce
        Plain pudding sauce
        Red Sauce
        Rose cream Sago sauce
        Whipped cream sauce
      Table topics.

    BEVERAGES
      Large quantities of fluid prejudicial to digestion
      Wholesome beverages
      The cup that cheers but not inebriates
      Harmful substances contained in tea
      Theine
      Tannin
      Use of tea a cause of sleeplessness and nervous disorders
      Tea a stimulant
      Tea not a food
      Coffee, cocoa, and chocolate
      Caffein
      Adulteration of tea and coffee
      Substitutes for tea and coffee
      _Recipes:_
        Beet coffee
        Caramel coffee
        Caramel coffee No. 2
        Caramel coffee No. 3
        Caramel coffee No. 4
        Mrs. T's caramel coffee
        Parched grain coffee
        Wheat, oats, and barley coffee
      _Recipes for cold beverages:_
        Blackberry beverage
        Fruit beverage
        Fruit beverage No. 2
        Fruit cordial
        Grape beverage
        Lemonade
        Mixed lemonade
        Oatmeal drink
        Orangeade
        Pineapple beverage
        Pineapple lemonade
        Pink lemonade
        Sherbet
        Tisane
      Table topics.

    MILK, CREAM, AND BUTTER
      Milk, chemical composition of
      Proportion of food elements
      Microscopic examination of milk
      Casein
      Casein coagulated by the introduction of acid
      Spontaneous coagulation or souring of milk
      Adulteration of milk
      Quality of milk influenced by the food of the animal
      Diseased milk
      Kinds of milk to be avoided
      Distribution of germs by milk
      Proper utensils for keeping milk
      Where to keep milk
      Dr. Dougall's experiments on the absorbent properties of milk
      Washing of milk dishes
      Treatment of milk for cream rising
      Temperature at which cream rises best
      Importance of sterilizing milk
      To sterilize milk for immediate use
      To sterilize milk to keep
      Condensed milk
      Cream, composition of
      Changes produced by churning
      Skimmed milk, composition of
      Buttermilk, composition of
      Digestibility of cream
      Sterilized cream
      Care of milk for producing cream
      Homemade creamery
      Butter, the composition of
      Rancid butter
      Tests of good butter
      Flavor and color of butter
      Artificial butter
      Test for oleomargarine
      Butter in ancient times
      Butter making
      Best conditions for the rising of cream
      Upon what the keeping qualities of butter depend
      Cheese
      Tyrotoxicon
      _Recipes_:
        Hot milk
        Devonshire or clotted cream
        Cottage cheese
        Cottage cheese from buttermilk
        Cottage cheese from sour milk
        French butter
        Shaken milk
        Emulsified butter
      Table topics.

    EGGS
      Eggs a concentrated food
      Composition of the egg
      How to choose eggs
      Quality of eggs varied by the food of the fowl
      Stale eggs
      Test for eggs
      How to keep eggs
      To beat eggs
      Albumen susceptible to temperature
      Left-over eggs
      _Recipes_:
        Eggs in shell
        Eggs in sunshine
        Eggs poached in tomatoes
        Eggs in cream
        Poached or dropped eggs
        Poached eggs with cream sauce
        Quickly prepared eggs
        Scrambled eggs
        Steamed eggs
        Whirled eggs
      Omelets
      _Recipes_:
        Plain omelets
        Foam omelets
        Fancy omelets
        soft omelets
      Table topics.

    MEATS
      Character of meat
      Nutritive value
      Excrementitious elements
      Flesh food a stimulant
      Diseased meats
      Jewish customs in regard to meat
      Trichina
      Tapeworm and other parasites
      Meat unnecessary for health
      The excessive use of meat tending to develop the animal propensities
      Objections to its use
      Pork
      Calves' brains and other viscera
      Meat pies
      Scallops
      Pates
      Comparative nutritious value
      Variation and flavor
      Composition and digestibility
      Selection of meats
      Preservation of meats
      Jerked beef
      Pemmican
      Preparation and cooking of meat
      Frozen beef
      Best methods of cooking
      Boiling
      Stewing
      Steaming
      Roasting
      Broiling
      Beef, economy and adaptability in selection of
      _Recipes_:
        Broiled beef
        Cold meat stew
        Pan-broiled steak
        Pan-broiled steak No. 2
        Roast beef
        Smothered beef
        Vegetables with stewed beef
        Stewed beef
      Mutton
      Cause of Strong flavor of
      _Recipes_:
        Boiled leg of mutton
        Broiled chops
        Pot roast lamb
        Roast mutton
        Stewed mutton
        Stewed mutton chop
        Stewed mutton chop No. 2
        Veal and lamb
      Poultry and game
      To dress poultry and birds
      To truss a fowl or bird
      To stuff a fowl or bird
      _Recipes_:
        Birds baked in sweet potatoes
        Boiled fowl
        Broiled birds
        Broiled fowl
        Corn and chicken
        Pigeons
        quails
        and partridges
        Roast chicken
        Roast turkey
        Smothered chicken
        Steamed chicken
        Stewed chicken
      Fish, two classes of
      Difference in nutritive value
      Flavor and wholesomeness
      Poison fish
      Parasites in fish
      Fish as a brain food
      Salted fish
      Shellfish (Oysters, Clams, Lobsters, Crabs)
      Not possessed of high nutritive value
      Natural scavengers
      Poisonous mussels
      How to select and prepare fish
      Frozen fish
      Methods of cooking
      _Recipes_:
        Baked fish
        Broiled fish
      Meat soup
      Preparation of stock
      Selection of material for stock
      Quantity of materials needed
      Uses of scraps
      Extracting the juice
      Temperature of the water to be used
      Correct proportion of water
      Time required for cooking
      Straining the stock
      To remove the fat
      Simple Stock or broth
      Compound stock or double broth
      To clarify soup stock
      _Recipes_:
        Asparagus soup
        Barley
        rice
        sago
        or tapioca soup
        Caramel for coloring soup brown
        Julienne soup
        Tomato soup
        White soup
        Vermicelli or macaroni soup
        Puree with chicken
        Tapioca cream soup
      Table Topics.

    FOOD FOR THE SICK
      Need of care in the preparation of food for the sick
      What constitutes proper food for the sick
      Knowledge of dietetics an important factor in the education of
        every woman
      No special dishes for all cases
      Hot buttered toast and rich jellies objectionable
      The simplest food the best
      Scrupulous neatness in serving important
      To coax a capricious appetite
      A "purple" dinner
      A "yellow" dinner
      To facilitate the serving of hot foods
      Cooking utensils
      Gruel
      Long-continued cooking needed
      Use of the double boiler in the cooking of gruels
      Gruel strainer
      _Recipes_:
        Arrowroot gruel
        Barley gruel
        Egg gruel
        Egg gruel No. 2
        Farina gruel
        Flour gruel
        Gluten gruel
        Gluten gruel No. 2
        Gluten cream
        Gluten meal gruel
        Graham gruel
        Graham grits gruel
        Gruel of prepared flour
        Indian meal gruel
        Lemon oatmeal gruel
        Milk oatmeal gruel
        Milk porridge
        Oatmeal gruel
        Oatmeal gruel No. 2
        Oatmeal gruel No. 3
        Peptonized' gluten gruel
        Raisin gruel
        Rice water
      Preparations of milk
      Milk diet
      Advantages of
      Quantity of milk needed
      Digestibility of milk
      _Recipes_:
        Albumenized milk
        Hot milk
        Junket, or curded milk
        Koumiss
        Milk and lime water
        Peptonized milk for infants
      Beef tea, broths, etc.
      Nutritive value
      Testimony of Dr. Austin Flint
      _Recipes_:
        Beef extract
        Beef juice
        Beef tea
        Beef tea and eggs
        Beef broth and oatmeal
        Bottled beef tea
        Chicken broth
        Mutton broth
        Vegetable broth
        Vegetable broth No. 2
        Mixed vegetable broth
      _Recipes for Panada_:
        Broth panada
        Chicken panada
        Egg panada
        Milk panada
        Raisin panada
      Grains for the sick
      _Recipes_:
        Gluten mush
        Tomato gluten
        Tomato gluten No. 2
      Meats for the sick
      Importance of simple preparation
      _Recipes_:
        Broiled steak
        Chicken
        Chicken jelly
        Minced chicken
        Mutton chop
        Minced steak
        Scraped steak
      Eggs for the sick
      _Recipes_:
        Floated egg
        Gluten meal custard
        Gluten custard
        Steamed eggs
        Soft custard
        Raw egg
        White of egg
        White of egg and milk
      Refreshing drinks and delicacies for the sick
      Nature's delicacies
      How to serve
      Fruit juices
      _Recipes_:
        Acorn coffee
        Almond milk
        Apple beverage
        Apple beverage No. 2
        Apple toast water
        Baked milk
        Barley lemonade
        Barley and fruit drinks
        Barley milk
        Cranberry drink
        Currantade
        Crust coffee
        Egg cream
        Egg cream No. 2
        Egg cream No. 3
        Egg lemonade
        Flaxseed coffee
        Gum Arabic water
        Hot water
        Hot lemonade
        Irish moss lemonade
        Orangeade
        Plain lemonade
        Slippery elm tea
        Toast water
        Tamarind water
      Bread
      _Recipes_;
        Diabetic biscuit
        Diabetic biscuit No. 2
        Gluten meal gems
      Jellies and other desserts for the side
      _Recipes_:
        Arrowroot jelly
        Arrowroot blancmange
        Currant jelly
        Iceland moss jelly
        Iceland moss blancmange
        Orange whey
        White custard
      Table topics.

    FOOD FOR THE AGED AND THE VERY YOUNG
      Requisites of food for the aged
      Stimulating diet not necessary
      Flesh food unsuitable
      Bill of fare
      Quantity of food for the aged
      Heavy meals a tax upon digestion
      Cornaro's testimony
      Diet for the young
      Causes of mortality among young children
      Best artificial food
      Use of sterilized milk.
      Difference between cows' milk and human milk
      Common method of preparing cows' milk
      Artificial human milk
      Artificial human milk No. 2
      Artificial human milk No. 3
      Peptonized milk
      Mucilaginous food excellent in gastro-enteritis
      Preparation of food for infants
      Time required for digestion of artificial food
      Quantity of food for infants
      Rules for finding the amount of food needed
      Table for the feeding of infants
      Interval between feeding
      Intervals for feeding at different ages
      Manner of feeding artificial foods
      Danger from unclean utensils
      Diet of older children
      An abundance of nitrogenous material important
      Flesh food unnecessary
      Experiments of Dr. Camman
      Testimony of Dr. Clouston
      Candy and similar sweets
      Eating between meals
      Education of the appetite
      Inherited appetites and tendencies
      Table topics.

    FRAGMENTS AND LEFT-OVER FOODS
      Preserving and utilizing the left-over fragments
      Precautions to be observed
      Uses of stale bread
      To insure perfect preservation of fragments
      Preparation of zwieback and croutons
      Left-over grains
      Left-over vegetables
      Left-over meats
      Left-over milk
      Table topics.

    THE ART OF DINING
      Pleasant accessories essential
      The dining room
      Neatness an essential
      Care of the dining room
      Furnishings of the dining room
      Table talk
      A pleasant custom
      Table manners
      Suggestions for table etiquette
      The table
      Its appearance and appointments
      The table an educator in the household
      A well ordered table an incentive to good manners
      Ostentation not necessary
      Setting the table
      The sub-cover
      Napkins
      The center piece
      Arrangement of dishes
      "Dishing up"
      Setting the table over night
      Warming the dishes
      The service of meals
      A capital idea
      Fruit as the first course at breakfast
      To keep the food hot
      A employed
      General suggestions for waiters
      Suggestions concerning dinner parties
      Proper form of invitation
      Arrangement and adornment of table
      A pleasing custom
      The _menu_ card
      Service for a company dinner
      Etiquette of dinner parties
      Table topics.

    AFTER MEALTIME
      Clearing the table
      Washing the dishes
      _papier-maché_ tubs
      Ammonia, uses of
      Clean dishes not evolved from dirty dishwater
      Washing all dishes of one kind together
      Washing milk dishes
      Uses of the dish mop
      Cleaning of grain boilers and mush kettles
      Washing of tin dishes
      To clean iron ware
      To wash wooden ware
      Care of steel knives and forks
      Draining the dishes
      Dishcloths and towels
      To make a dish mop
      The care of glass and silver
      To keep table cutlery from rusting
      To wash trays and Japanned ware
      Care of the table linen
      To remove stains
      To dry table linen
      To iron table linen
      Washing colored table linen
      The garbage
      Table topics.

    A YEAR'S BREAKFASTS AND DINNERS
      A perplexing problem
      Requisites for a well arranged _menu_
      Suggestions for preparing bills of fare
      Table of food analyses
      Fifty-two weeks' breakfasts and dinners
      Average cost
      Analysis of various bills of fare
      Table topics.

    A BATCH OF DINNERS
      Holiday dinners
      Holiday feasting
      Holiday dinners opposed to temperance
      Thanksgiving _menus_
      Holiday _menus_
      Picnic dinners
      The lunch basket, provision for
      Fruit sandwiches
      Egg sandwiches
      Picnic biscuit
      Fig wafers
      Suitable beverages
      School lunches
      Deficiency of food material in the ordinary school lunch
      Why the after dinner session of school drags wearily
      Simple lunches desirable
      Suggestions for putting up the lunch
      Creamy rice
      Neatness and daintiness essential
      The lunch basket
      Sabbath dinners
      A needed reform
      Feasting on the Sabbath, deleterious results of
      Simple meals for the Sabbath
      A Sabbath bill of fare
      Table topics.



    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

    THE ALIMENTARY CANAL
    AN OVEN THERMOMETER
    CONVENIENT KITCHEN TABLE
    A DOUBLE BOILER
    COMPARTMENT SINK FOR DISH-WASHING OPEN
    COMPARTMENT SINK FOR DISH-WASHING CLOSED
    THE STEAM COOKER
    VEGETABLE PRESS
    LEMON DRILL
    THE HANDY WAITER
    WALL CABINET
    PERCOLATER HOLDER
    KNEADING TABLE
    DISH TOWEL RACK
    VEGETABLE BRUSH
    A DOUBLE BOILER
    SECTIONAL VIEW OF WHEAT KERNEL
    MEASURING CUPS
    BREAD PAN
    MEXICAN WOMEN MAKING TORTILLAS
    STONE METATE
    GEM IRONS
    PERFORATED SHEET IRON PAN FOR ROLLS
    MAKING UNFERMENTED BREAD
    CANNING UTENSILS
    BAIN MARIE
    CHINESE SOUP STRAINER
    CREAMERY
    ORIENTAL BUTTER MAKING
    ARRANGEMENTS FOR STRAINING STOCK
    GRUEL STRAINER
    EXTENSION STRAINER
    WIRE DISHCLOTH
    A PICNIC DINNER



INTRODUCTION.


No one thing over which we have control exerts so marked an influence
upon our physical prosperity as the food we eat; and it is no
exaggeration to say that well-selected and scientifically prepared food
renders the partaker whose digestion permits of its being well
assimilated, superior to his fellow-mortals in those qualities which
will enable him to cope most successfully with life's difficulties, and
to fulfill the purpose of existence in the best and truest manner. The
brain and other organs of the body are affected by the quality of the
blood which nourishes them, and since the blood is made of the food
eaten, it follows that the use of poor food will result in poor blood,
poor muscles, poor brains, and poor bodies, incapable of first-class
work in any capacity. Very few persons, however, ever stop to inquire
what particular foods are best adapted to the manufacture of good blood
and the maintenance of perfect health; but whatever gratifies the palate
or is most conveniently obtained, is cooked and eaten without regard to
its dietetic value. Far too many meals partake of the characteristics of
the one described in the story told of a clergyman who, when requested
to ask a blessing upon a dinner consisting of bread, hot and tinged with
saleratus, meat fried to a crisp, potatoes swimming in grease, mince
pie, preserves, and pickles, demurred on the ground that the dinner was
"not worth a blessing." He might with equal propriety have added, "and
not worth eating."

The subject of diet and its relation to human welfare, is one deserving
of the most careful consideration. It should be studied as a science, to
enable us to choose such materials as are best adapted to our needs
under the varying circumstances of climate growth, occupation, and the
numerous changing conditions of the human system; as an art, that we may
become so skilled in the preparation of the articles selected as to make
them both appetizing and healthful. It is an unfortunate fact that even
among experienced housekeepers the scientific principles which govern
the proper preparation of food, are but little understood, and much
unwholesome cookery is the result. The mechanical mixing of ingredients
is not sufficient to secure good results; and many of the failures
attributed to "poor material," "bad luck," and various other subterfuges
to which cooks ignorance of scientific principles. The common method of
blindly following recipes, with no knowledge of "the reason why," can
hardly fail to be often productive of unsatisfactory results, which to
the uninformed seem quite inexplicable.

Cookery, when based upon scientific principles, ceases to be the
difficult problem it so often appears. Cause and effect follow each
other as certainly in the preparation of food as in other things; and
with a knowledge of the underlying principles, and faithfulness in
carrying out the necessary details, failure becomes almost an
impossibility. There is no department of human activity where applied
science offers greater advantages than in that of cookery, and in our
presentation of the subjects treated in the following pages, we have
endeavored, so far as consistent with the scope of this work, to give
special prominence to the scientific principles involved in the
successful production of wholesome articles of food. We trust our
readers will find these principles so plainly elucidated and the subject
so interesting, that they will be stimulated to undertake for
themselves further study and research in this most important branch of
household science. We have aimed also to give special precedence of
space to those most important foods, the legumes, and grains and their
products, which in the majority of cook books are given but little
consideration or are even left out altogether, believing that our
readers will be more interested in learning the many palatable ways in
which these especially nutritious and inexpensive foods may be prepared,
than in a reiteration of such dishes as usually make up the bulk of the
average cook book.

For reasons stated elsewhere (in the chapter on Milk, Cream, and
Butter), we have in the preparation of all recipes made use of cream in
place of other fats; but lest there be some who may suppose because
cream occupies so frequent a place in the recipes, and because of their
inability to obtain that article, the recipes are therefore not adapted
to their use, we wish to state that a large proportion of the recipes in
which it is mentioned as seasoning, or for dressing, will be found to be
very palatable with the cream omitted, or by the use of its place of
some one of the many substitutes recommended. We ought also to mention
in this connection, that wherever cream is recommended, unless otherwise
designated, the quality used in the preparation of the recipes is that
of single or twelve hour cream sufficiently diluted with milk, so that
one fourth of each quart of milk is reckoned as cream. If a richer
quality than this be used, the quantity should be diminished in
proportion; otherwise, by the excess of fat, a wholesome food may become
a rich, unhealthful dish.

In conclusion, the author desires to state that no recipe has been
admitted to this work which has not been thoroughly tested by repeated
trials, by far the larger share of such being original, either in the
combination of the materials used, the method employed, or both
materials and method. Care has been taken not to cumber the work with
useless and indifferent recipes. It is believed that every recipe will
be found valuable, and that the variety offered is sufficiently ample,
so that under the most differing circumstances, all may be well served.

We trust therefore that those who undertake to use the work as a guide
in their culinary practice, will not consider any given recipe a failure
because success does not attend their first efforts. Perseverance and a
careful study of the directions given, will assuredly bring success to
all who possess the natural or acquired qualities essential for the
practice of that most useful of the arts,--"Healthful Cookery."

ELLA E. KELLOGG.

_Battle Creek, April 20, 1892._



Foods

The purposes of food are to promote growth, to supply force and heat,
and to furnish material to repair the waste which is constantly taking
place in the body. Every breath, every thought, every motion, wears out
some portion of the delicate and wonderful house in which we live.
Various vital processes remove these worn and useless particles; and to
keep the body in health, their loss must be made good by constantly
renewed supplies of material properly adapted to replenish the worn and
impaired tissues. This renovating material must be supplied through the
medium of food and drink, and the best food is that by which the desired
end may be most readily and perfectly attained. The great diversity in
character of the several tissues of the body, makes it necessary that
food should contain a variety of elements, in order that each part may
be properly nourished and replenished.

THE FOOD ELEMENTS.--The various elements found in food are the
following: Starch, sugar, fats, albumen, mineral substances,
indigestible substances.

The digestible food elements are often grouped, according to their
chemical composition, into three classes; _vis._, carbonaceous,
nitrogenous, and inorganic. The carbonaceous class includes starch,
sugar, and fats; the nitrogenous, all albuminous elements; and the
inorganic comprises the mineral elements.

_Starch_ is only found in vegetable foods; all grains, most vegetables,
and some fruits, contain starch in abundance. Several kinds of _sugar_
are made in nature's laboratory; _cane_, _grape_, _fruit_, and _milk_
sugar. The first is obtained from the sugar-cane, the sap of maple
trees, and from the beet root. Grape and fruit sugars are found in most
fruits and in honey. Milk sugar is one of the constituents of milk.
Glucose, an artificial sugar resembling grape sugar, is now largely
manufactured by subjecting the starch of corn or potatoes to a chemical
process; but it lacks the sweetness of natural sugars, and is by no
means a proper substitute for them. _Albumen_ is found in its purest,
uncombined state in the white of an egg, which is almost wholly composed
of albumen. It exists, combined with other food elements, in many other
foods, both animal and vegetable. It is found abundant in oatmeal, and
to some extent in the other grains, and in the juices of vegetables. All
natural foods contain elements which in many respects resemble
_albumen_, and are so closely allied to it that for convenience they are
usually classified under the general name of "albumen." The chief of
these is _gluten_, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley. _Casein_,
found in peas, beans, and milk, and the _fibrin_ of flesh, are elements
of this class.

_Fats_ are found in both animal and vegetable foods. Of animal fats,
butter and suet are common examples. In vegetable form, fat is abundant
in nuts, peas, beans, in various of the grains, and in a few fruits, as
the olive. As furnished by nature in nuts, legumes, grains, fruits, and
milk, this element is always found in a state of fine subdivision, which
condition is the one best adapted to its digestion. As most commonly
used, in the form of free fats, as butter, lard, etc., it is not only
difficult of digestion itself, but often interferes with the digestion
of the other food elements which are mixed with it. It was doubtless
never intended that fats should be so modified from their natural
condition and separated from other food elements as to be used as a
separate article of food. The same may be said of the other carbonaceous
elements, sugar and starch, neither of which, when used alone, is
capable of sustaining life, although when combined in a proper and
natural manner with other food elements, they perform a most important
part in the nutrition of the body. Most foods contain a percentage of
the _mineral_ elements. Grains and milk furnish these elements in
abundance. The cellulose, or woody tissue, of vegetables, and the bran
of wheat, are examples of _indigestible_ elements, which although they
cannot be converted into blood in tissue, serve an important purpose by
giving bulk to the food.

With the exception of gluten, none of the food elements, when used
alone, are capable of supporting life. A true food substance contains
some of all the food elements, the amount of each varying in different
foods.

USES OF THE FOOD ELEMENTS.--Concerning the purpose which these
different elements serve, it has been demonstrated by the experiments of
eminent physiologists that the carbonaceous elements, which in general
comprise the greater bulk of the food, serve three purposes in the body;

1. They furnish material for the production of heat;

2. They are a source of force when taken in connection with other food
elements;

3. They replenish the fatty tissues of the body. Of the carbonaceous
elements,--starch, sugar, and fats,--fats produce the greatest amount of
heat in proportion to quantity; that is, more heat is developed from a
pound of fat than from an equal weight of sugar or starch; but this
apparent advantage is more than counterbalanced by the fact that fats
are much more difficult of digestion than are the other carbonaceous
elements, and if relied upon to furnish adequate material for bodily
heat, would be productive of much mischief in overtaxing and producing
disease of the digestive organs. The fact that nature has made a much
more ample provision of starch and sugars than of fats in man's natural
diet, would seem to indicate that they were intended to be the chief
source of carbonaceous food; nevertheless, fats, when taken in such
proportion as nature supplies them, are necessary and important food
elements.

The nitrogenous food elements especially nourish the brain, nerves,
muscles, and all the more highly vitalized and active tissues of the
body, and also serve as a stimulus to tissue change. Hence it may be
said that a food deficient in these elements is a particularly poor
food.

The inorganic elements, chief of which are the phosphates, in the
carbonates of potash, soda, and lime, aid in furnishing the requisite
building material for bones and nerves.

PROPER COMBINATIONS OF FOODS.--While it is important that our food
should contain some of all the various food elements, experiments upon
both animals and human beings show it is necessary that these elements,
especially the nitrogenous and carbonaceous, be used in certain definite
proportions, as the system is only able to appropriate a certain amount
of each; and all excess, especially of nitrogenous elements, is not only
useless, but even injurious, since to rid the system of the surplus
imposes an additional task upon the digestive and excretory organs. The
relative proportion of these elements necessary to constitute a food
which perfectly meets the requirements of the system, is six of
carbonaceous to one of nitrogenous. Scientists have devoted much careful
study and experimentation to the determination of the quantities of each
of the food elements required for the daily nourishment of individuals
under the varying conditions of life, and it has come to be commonly
accepted that of the nitrogenous material which should constitute one
sixth of the nutrients taken, about _three ounces_ is all that can be
made use of in twenty-four hours, by a healthy adult of average weight,
doing a moderate amount of work. Many articles of food are, however,
deficient in one or the other of these elements, and need to be
supplemented by other articles containing the deficient element in
superabundance, since to employ a dietary in which any one of the
nutritive elements is lacking, although in bulk it may be all the
digestive organs can manage, is really starvation, and will in time
occasion serious results.

It is thus apparent that much care should be exercised in the selection
and combination of food materials. The table on page 484, showing the
nutritive values of various foods, should be carefully studied. Such
knowledge is of first importance in the education of cooks and
housekeepers, since to them falls the selection of the food for the
daily needs of the household; and they should not only understand what
foods are best suited to supply these needs, but how to combine them in
accordance with physiological laws.

CONDIMENTS.--By condiments are commonly meant such substances as
are added to season food, to give it "a relish" or to stimulate
appetite, but which in themselves possess no real food value. To this
category belong mustard, ginger, pepper, pepper sauce, Worcestershire
sauce, cloves, spices, and other similar substances. That anything is
needed to disguise or improve the natural flavor of food, would seem to
imply either that the article used was not a proper alimentary
substance, or that it did not answer the purpose for which the Creator
designed it. True condiments, such as pepper, pepper sauce, ginger,
spice, mustard, cinnamon, cloves, etc., are all strong irritants. This
may be readily demonstrated by their application to a raw surface. The
intense smarting and burning occasioned are ample evidence of the
irritating character. Pepper and mustard are capable of producing
powerfully irritating effects, even when applied to the healthy skin
where wholly intact. It is surprising that it does not occur to the
mother who applies a mustard plaster to the feet of her child, to
relieve congestion of the brain, that an article which is capable of
producing a blister upon the external covering of the body, is quite as
capable of producing similar effects when applied to the more sensitive
tissues within the body. The irritating effects of these substances upon
the stomach are not readily recognized, simply because the stomach is
supplied with very few nerves of sensation. That condiments induce an
intense degree of irritation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, was
abundantly demonstrated by the experiments of Dr. Beaumont upon the
unfortunate Alexis St. Martin. Dr. Beaumont records that when St. Martin
took mustard, pepper, and similar condiments with his food, the mucous
membrane of his stomach became intensely red and congested, appearing
very much like an inflamed eye. It is this irritating effect of
condiments which gives occasion for their extended use. They create an
artificial appetite, similar to the incessant craving of the chronic
dyspeptic, whose irritable stomach is seldom satisfied. This fact with
regard to condiments is a sufficient argument against their use, being
one of the greatest causes of gluttony, since they remove the sense of
satiety by which Nature says, "Enough."

To a thoroughly normal and unperverted taste, irritating condiments of
all sorts are very obnoxious. It is true that Nature accommodates
herself to their use with food to such a degree that they may be
employed for years without apparently producing very grave results; but
this very condition is a source of injury, since it is nothing more nor
less than the going to sleep of the sentinels which nature has posted at
the portal of the body, for the purpose of giving warning of danger. The
nerves of sensibility have become benumbed to such a degree that they no
longer offer remonstrance against irritating substances, and allow the
enemy to enter into the citadel of life. The mischievous work is thus
insidiously carried on year after year until by and by the individual
breaks down with some chronic disorder of the liver, kidneys, or some
other important internal organ. Physicians have long observed that in
tropical countries where curry powder and other condiments are very
extensively used, diseases of the liver, especially acute congestion and
inflammation, are exceedingly common, much more so that in countries and
among nations where condiments are less freely used. A traveler in
Mexico, some time ago, described a favorite Mexican dish as composed of
layers of the following ingredients: "Pepper, mustard, ginger, pepper,
potato, ginger; mustard, pepper, potato, mustard, ginger, pepper." The
common use of such a dish is sufficient cause for the great frequency of
diseases of the liver among the Mexicans, noted by physicians traveling
in that country. That the use of condiments is wholly a matter of habit
is evident from the fact that different nations employ as condiments
articles which would be in the highest degree obnoxious to people of
other countries. For example, the garlic so freely used in Russian
cookery, would be considered by Americans no addition to the natural
flavors of food; and still more distasteful would be the asafetida
frequently used as a seasoning in the cuisine of Persia and other
Asiatic countries.

The use of condiments is unquestionably a strong auxiliary to the
formation of a habit of using intoxicating drinks. Persons addicted to
the use of intoxicating liquors are, as a rule, fond of stimulating and
highly seasoned foods; and although the converse is not always true, yet
it is apparent to every thoughtful person, that the use of a diet
composed of highly seasoned and irritating food, institutes the
conditions necessary for the acquirement of a taste for intoxicating
liquors. The false appetite aroused by the use of food that "burns and
stings," craves something less insipid than pure cold water to keep up
the fever the food has excited. Again, condiments, like all other
stimulants, must be continually increased in quantity, or their effect
becomes diminished; and this leads directly to a demand for stronger
stimulants, both in eating and drinking, until the probable tendency is
toward the dram-shop.

A more serious reason why high seasonings leads to intemperance, is in
the perversion of the use of the sense of taste. Certain senses are
given us to add to our pleasure as well as for the practical, almost
indispensable, use they are to us. For instance, the sense of sight is
not only useful, but enables us to drink in beauty, if among beautiful
surroundings, without doing us any harm. The same of music and other
harmonics which may come to us through the sense of hearing. But the
sense of taste and was given us to distinguish between wholesome and
unwholesome foods, and cannot be used for merely sensuous gratification,
without debasing and making of it a gross thing. An education which
demands special enjoyment or pleasure through the sense of taste, is
wholly artificial; it is coming down to the animal plane, or below it
rather; for the instinct of the brute creation teaches it merely to eat
to live.

Yet how wide-spread is this habit of sensuous gratification through the
sense of taste! If one calls upon a neighbor, he is at once offered
refreshments of some kind, as though the greatest blessing of life came
from indulging the appetite. This evil is largely due to wrong
education, which begins with childhood. When Johnnie sits down to the
table, the mother says, "Johnnie, what would you like?" instead of
putting plain, wholesome food before the child, and taking it as a
matter of course that he will eat it and be satisfied. The child grows
to think that he must have what he likes, whether it is good for him or
not. It is not strange that an appetite thus pampered in childhood
becomes uncontrollable at maturity; for the step from gormandizing to
intoxication is much shorter than most people imagine. The natural,
unperverted taste of a child will lead him to eat that which is good for
him. But how can we expect the children to reform when the parents
continually set them bad examples in the matter of eating and drinking?

The cultivation of a taste for spices is a degradation of the sense of
taste. Nature never designed that pleasure should be divorced from use.
The effects of gratifying the sense of taste differ materially from
those of gratifying the higher senses of sight and hearing. What we see
is gone; nothing remains but the memory, and the same is true of the
sweetest sounds which may reach us through the ears. But what we taste
is taken into the stomach and what has thus given us brief pleasure
through the gratification of the palate, must make work in the
alimentary canal for fourteen hours before it is disposed of.

VARIETY IN FOOD.--Simplicity of diet should be a point of first
consideration with all persons upon whom falls the responsibility of
providing the family bills of fare, since the simplest foods are, as a
rule, the most healthful. Variety is needed; that is, a judicious
mingling of fruits, grains, and vegetables; but the general tendency is
to supply our tables with too many kinds and to prepare each dish in the
most elaborate manner, until, in many households, the cooking of food
has come to be almost the chief end of life. While the preparation of
food should be looked upon as of so much importance as to demand the
most careful consideration and thought as to its suitability,
wholesomeness, nutritive qualities, and digestibility, it should by no
means be made to usurp the larger share of one's time, when simpler
foods and less labor would afford the partakers equal nourishment and
strength.

A great variety of foods at one meal exerts a potent influence in
creating a love of eating, and is likewise a constant temptation to
overeat. Let us have well-cooked, nutritious, and palatable food, and
plenty of it; variety from day to day, but not too great a variety at
each meal.

The prevalent custom of loading the table with a great number of viands,
upon occasions when guests are to be entertained in our homes, is one to
be deplored, since it is neither conducive to good health nor necessary
to good cheer, but on the contrary is still laborious and expensive a
practice that many are debarred from social intercourse because they
cannot afford to entertain after the fashion of their neighbors. Upon
this subject a well-known writer has aptly said: "Simplify cookery, thus
reducing the cost of living, and how many longing individuals would
thereby be enabled to afford themselves the pleasure of culture and
social intercourse! When the barbarous practice of stuffing one's guests
shall have been abolished, a social gathering will not then imply, as it
does now, hard labor, expensive outlay, and dyspepsia. Perhaps when that
time arise, we shall be sufficiently civilized to demand pleasures of a
higher sort. True, the entertainments will then, in one sense, be more
costly, as culture is harder to come by than cake. The profusion of
viands now heaped upon the table, betrays poverty of the worst sort.
Having nothing better to offer, we offer victuals; and this we do with
something of that complacent, satisfied air with which some more
northern tribes present their tidbits of whale and walrus."



TABLE TOPICS.


    "Let appetite wear reason's golden chain,
    and find in due restrain its luxury."

    A man's food, when he has the means and opportunity of selecting it,
    suggests his moral nature. Many a Christian is trying to do by
    prayer that which cannot be done except through corrected
    diet.--_Talmage._

    Our pious ancestors enacted a law that suicides should be buried
    where four roads meet, and that a cart-load of stones should be
    thrown upon the body. Yet, when gentlemen or ladies commit suicide,
    not by cord or steel, but by turtle soup or lobster salad, they may
    be buried on consecrated ground, and the public are not ashamed to
    read an epitaph upon their tombstones false enough to make the
    marble blush.--_Horace Mann._

    It is related by a gentleman who had an appointment to breakfast
    with the late A.T. Stewart, that the butler placed before them both
    an elaborate bill of fare; the visitor selected a list of rare
    dishes, and was quite abashed when Mr. Stewart said, "Bring me my
    usual breakfast,--oatmeal and boiled eggs." He then explained to his
    friend that he found simple food a necessity to him, otherwise he
    could not think clearly. That unobscured brain applied to nobler
    ends would have won higher results, but the principle remains the
    same.--_Sel._

    Study simplicity in the number of dishes, and a variety in the
    character of the meals.--_Sel._

    I have come to the conclusion that more than half the disease which
    embitters life is due to avoidable errors in diet, ... and that more
    mischief, in the form of actual disease, of impaired vigor, and of
    shortened life, accrues to civilized man from erroneous habits of
    eating than from the habitual use of alcoholic drink, considerable
    as I know that evil to be.--_Sir Henry Thompson._

    The ancient Gauls, who were a very brave, strong, and hearty race,
    lived very abstemiously. Their food was milk, berries, and herbs.
    They made bread of nuts. They had a very peculiar fashion of wearing
    a metal ring around the body, the size of which was regulated by act
    of Parliament. Any man who outgrew in circumference his metal ring
    was looked upon as a lazy glutton, and consequently was disgraced.

     To keep in health this rule is wise:
       Eat only when you need, and relish food,
       chew thoroughly that it may do you good,
     have it well cooked, unspiced, and undisguised.

    --_Leonardo da Vinci_



THE DIGESTION OF FOODS.

It is important that the housekeeper not only understand the nature and
composition of foods, but she should also know something of their
digestive properties, since food, to be serviceable, must be not only
nutritious, but easily digested. Digestion is the process by which food
rendered soluble, and capable of being absorbed for use in carrying on
the various vital processes.

The digestive apparatus consists of a long and tortuous tube called the
alimentary canal, varying in length from twenty-five to thirty feet,
along which are arranged the various digestive organs,--the mouth, the
stomach, the liver, and the pancreas,--each of which, together with the
intestines, has an important function to perform. In these various
organs nature manufactures five wonderful fluids for changing and
dissolving the several food elements. The mouth supplies the saliva; in
the walls of the stomach are little glands which produce the gastric
juice; the pancreatic juice is made by the pancreas; the liver secretes
bile; while scattered along the small intestines are minute glands
which make the intestinal juice. Each of these fluids has a particular
work to do in transforming some part of the food into suitable material
for use in the body. The saliva acts upon the starch of the food,
changing it into sugar; the gastric juice digests albumin and other
nitrogenous elements; the bile digests fat, and aids in the absorption
of other food elements after they are digested; the pancreatic juice is
not confined in its action to a single element, but digests starch,
fats, and the albuminous elements after they have been acted upon by the
gastric juice; the intestinal juice is capable of acting upon all
digestible food elements.

[Illustration: The Alimentary Canal, _a._ Esophagus; _b._ Stomach; _c._
Cardiac Orifice; _d._ Pylorus; _e._ Small Intestine; _f._ Bile Duct;
_g._ Pancreatic Duct; _h._ Ascending Colon; _i._ Transverse Colon; _j._
Descending Colon; _k._ Rectum.]

THE DIGESTION OF A MOUTHFUL OF BREAD.--A mouthful of bread
represents all, or nearly all, the elements of nutrition. Taking a
mouthful of bread as a representative of food in general, it may be said
that its digestion begins the moment that it enters the mouth, and
continues the entire length of the alimentary canal, or until the
digestible portion of the food has been completely digested and
absorbed. We quote the following brief description of the digestive
process from Dr. J.H. Kellogg's Second Book in Physiology[A]:--

[Footnote A: Good Health Pub. Co., Battle Creek, Mich.]

"_Mastication._--The first act of the digestive process is mastication,
or chewing the food, the purpose of which is to crush the food and
divide it into small particles, so that the various digestive fluids may
easily and promptly come into contact with every part of it.

"_Salivary Digestion._--During the mastication of the food, the salivary
glands are actively pouring out the saliva, which mingles with the food,
and by softening it, aids in its division and prepares it for the action
of the other digestive fluids. It also acts upon the starch, converting
a portion of it into grape-sugar.

"_Stomach Digestion._--After receiving the food, the stomach soon begins
to pour out the gastric juices, which first makes its appearance in
little drops, like beads of sweat upon the face when the perspiration
starts. As the quantity increases, the drops run together, trickle down
the side of the stomach, and mingle with the food. The muscular walls of
the stomach contract upon the food, moving it about with a sort of
crushing action, thoroughly mixing the gastric juice with the food.
During this process both the openings of the stomach are closed tightly.
The gastric juice softens the food, digests albumen, and coagulates
milk. The saliva continues its action upon starch for sometime after the
food reaches the stomach.

"After the food has remained in the stomach from one to three hours, or
even longer, if the digestion is slow, or indigestible foods have been
eaten, the contractions of the stomach become so vigorous that the more
fluid portions of the food are squeezed out through the pylorus, the
lower orifice of the stomach, thus escaping into the intestine. The
pylorus does not exercise any sort of intelligence in the selection of
food, as was once supposed. The increasing acidity of the contents of
the stomach causes its muscular walls to contract with increasing
vigor, until finally those portions of the food which may be less
perfectly broken up, but which the stomach has been unable to digest,
are forced through the pylorus.

"_Intestinal Digestion._--As it leaves the stomach, the partially
digested mass of food is intensely acid, from the large quantity of
gastric juices which it contains. Intestinal digestion cannot begin
until the food becomes alkaline. The alkaline bile neutralizes the
gastric juice, and renders the digesting mass slightly alkaline. The
bile also acts upon the fatty elements of the food, converting them into
an emulsion. The pancreatic juice converts the starch into grape-sugar,
even acting upon raw starch. It also digest fats and albumem. The
intestinal juice continues the work begun by the other digestive fluids,
and, in addition, digests cane-sugar, converting it into grape-sugar.

"_Other Uses of the Digestive Fluids._--In addition to the uses which we
have already stated, several of the digestive fluids possess other
interesting properties. The saliva aids the stomach by stimulating its
glands to make gastric juice. The gastric juice and the bile are
excellent antiseptics, by which the food is preserved from fermentation
while undergoing digestion. The bile also stimulates the movements of
the intestines by which the food is moved along, and aids absorption. It
is remarkable and interesting that a fluid so useful as the bile should
be at the same time composed of waste matters which are being removed
from the body. This is an illustration of the wonderful economy shown by
nature in her operations.

"The food is moved along the alimentary canal, from the stomach
downward, by successive contractions of the muscular walls of the
intestines, known as peristaltic movements, which occur with great
regularity during digestion.

"_Absorption_.--The absorption of the food begins as soon as any portion
has been digested. Even in the mouth and the esophagus a small amount is
absorbed. The entire mucous membrane lining the digestive canal is
furnished with a rich supply of blood-vessels, by which the greater part
of the digestive food is absorbed.

"_Liver Digestion._--The liver as well as the stomach is a digestive
organ, and in a double sense. It not only secretes a digestive fluid,
the bile, but it acts upon the food brought to it by the portal vein,
and regulates the supply of digested food to the general system. It
converts a large share of the grape-sugar and partially digested starch
brought to it into a kind of liver starch, termed glycogen, which it
stores up in its tissues. During the interval between the meals, the
liver gradually redigests the glycogen, reconverting it into sugar, and
thus supplying it to the blood in small quantities, instead of allowing
the entire amount formed in digestion to enter the circulation at once.
If too large an amount of sugar entered the system at once, it would be
unable to use it all, and would be compelled to get rid of a
considerable portion through the kidneys. The liver also completes the
digestion of albumen and other food elements."

TIME REQUIRED FOR DIGESTION.--The length of time required for
stomach digestion varies with different food substances. The following
table shows the time necessary for the stomach digestion of some of the
more commonly used foods:--

                               min
    Rice                       1  00
    Sago                       1  45
    Tapioca                    2  00
    Barley                     2  00
    Beans, pod, boiled         2  30
    Bread, wheaten             3  30
    Bread, corn                3  15
    Apples, sour and raw       2  00
    Apples, sweet and raw      1  30
    Parsnips, boiled           2  30
    Beets, boiled              3  45
    Potatoes, Irish, boiled    3  30
    Potatoes, Irish, baked     2  30
    Cabbage, raw               2  30
    Cabbage, boiled            4  30
    Milk, boiled               2  00
    Milk, raw                  2  15
    Eggs, hard boiled          3  30
    Eggs, soft boiled          3  00
    Eggs, fried                3  30
    Eggs, raw                  2  00
    Eggs, whipped              1  30
    Salmon, salted, boiled     4  00
    Oysters, raw               2  55
    Oysters, stewed            3  30
    Beef, lean, rare roasted   3  00
    Beefsteak, boiled          3  00
    Beef, lean, fried          4  00
    Beef, salted, boiled       4  15
    Pork, roasted              5  15
    Pork, salted, fried        4  15
    Mutton, roasted            3  15
    Mutton, broiled            3  00
    Veal, broiled              4  00
    Veal, fried                4  30
    Fowls, boiled              4  00
    Duck, roasted              4  30
    Butter, melted             3  30
    Cheese                     3  30
    Soup, marrowbone           4  15
    Soup, bean                 3  00
    Soup, mutton               3  30
    Chicken, boiled            3  00

The time required for the digestion of food also depends upon the
condition under which the food is eaten. Healthy stomach digestion
requires at least five hours for its completion, and the stomach should
have an hour for rest before another meal. If fresh food is taken before
that which preceded it is digested, the portion of food remaining in the
stomach is likely to undergo fermentation, thus rendering the whole mass
of food unfit for the nutrition of the body, besides fostering various
disturbances of digestion. It has been shown by recent observations that
the length of time required for food to pass through the entire
digestive process to which it is subjected in the mouth, stomach, and
small intestines, is from twelve to fourteen hours.

HYGIENE OF DIGESTION.--With the stomach and other digestive organs
in a state of perfect health, one is entirely unconscious of their
existence, save when of feeling of hunger calls attention to the fact
that food is required, or satiety warns us that a sufficient amount or
too much has been eaten. Perfect digestion can only be maintained by
careful observance of the rules of health in regard to habits of eating.

On the subject of Hygiene of Digestion, we again quote a few paragraphs
from Dr. Kellogg's work on Physiology, in which is given a concise
summary of the more important points relating to this:--

"The hygiene of digestion has to do with the quality and quantity of
food eaten, in the manner of eating it.

"_Hasty Eating._--If the food is eaten too rapidly, it will not be
properly divided, and when swallowed in coarse lumps, the digestive
fluids cannot readily act upon it. On account of the insufficient
mastication, the saliva will be deficient in quantity, and, as a
consequence, the starch will not be well digested, and the stomach will
not secrete a sufficient amount of gastric juice. It is not well to eat
only soft or liquid food, as we are likely to swallow it without proper
chewing. A considerable proportion of hard food, which requires thorough
mastication, should be eaten at every meal.

"_Drinking Freely at Meals_ is harmful, as it not only encourages hasty
eating, but dilutes the gastric juice, and thus lessens its activity.
The food should be chewed until sufficiently moistened by saliva to
allow it to be swallowed. When large quantities of fluid are taken into
the stomach, digestion does not begin until a considerable portion of
the fluid has been absorbed. If cold foods or drinks are taken with the
meal, such as ice-cream, ice-water, iced milk or tea, the stomach is
chilled, and a long delay in the digestive process is occasioned.

"The Indians of Brazil carefully abstain from drinking when eating, and
the same custom prevails among many other savage tribes.

"_Eating between Meals._--The habit of eating apples, nuts, fruits,
confectionery, etc., between meals is exceedingly harmful, and certain
to produce loss of appetite and indigestion. The stomach as well as the
muscles and other organs of the body requires rest. The frequency with
which meals should be taken depends somewhat upon the age and occupation
of an individual. Infants take their food at short intervals, and owing
to its simple character, are able to digest it very quickly. Adults
should not take food oftener than three times a day; and persons whose
employment is sedentary say, in many cases at least, adopt with
advantage the plan of the ancient Greeks, who ate but twice a day. The
latter custom is quite general among the higher classes in France and
Spain, and in several South American countries.

"_Simplicity in Diet._--Taking too many kinds of food at a meal is a
common fault which is often a cause of disease of the digestive-organs.
Those nations are the most hardy and enduring whose dietary is most
simple. The Scotch peasantry live chiefly upon oatmeal, the Irish upon
potatoes, milk, and oatmeal, the Italian upon peas, beans, macaroni, and
chestnuts; yet all these are noted for remarkable health and endurance.
The natives of the Canary Islands, an exceedingly well-developed and
vigorous race, subsist almost chiefly upon a food which they call
gofio, consisting of parched grain, coarsely ground in a mortar and
mixed with water.

"_Eating when Tired._--It is not well to eat when exhausted by violent
exercise, as the system is not prepared to do the work of digestion
well. Sleeping immediately after eating is also a harmful practice. The
process of digestion cannot well be performed during sleep, and sleep is
disturbed by the ineffective efforts of the digestive organs. Hence the
well-known evil effects of late suppers.

"_Eating too Much._--Hasty eating is the greatest cause of over-eating.
When one eats too rapidly, the food is crowded into the stomach so fast
that nature has no time to cry, 'Enough,' by taking away the appetite
before too much has been eaten. When an excess of food is taken, it is
likely to ferment or sour before it can be digested. One who eats too
much usually feels dull after eating.

"_How Much Food is Enough?_--The proper quantity for each person to take
is what he is able to digest and utilize. This amount of various with
each individual, at different times. The amount needed will vary with
the amount of work done, mental or muscular; with the weather or the
season of the year, more food being required in cold than in warm
weather: with the age of an individual, very old and very young persons
requiring less food than those of middle age. An unperverted appetite,
not artificially stimulated, is a safe guide. Drowsiness, dullness, and
heaviness at the stomach are indications of an excess of eating, and
naturally suggest a lessening of the quantity of food, unless the
symptoms are known to arise from some other cause.

"_Excess of Certain Food Elements._--When sugar is too freely used,
either with food or in the form of sweetmeats or candies, indigestion,
and even more serious disease, is likely to result. Fats, when freely
used, give rise to indigestion and 'biliousness.' An excess of albumen
from the too free use of meat is harmful. Only a limited amount of this
element can be used; an excess is treated as waste matter, and must be
removed from the system by the liver and the kidneys. The majority of
persons would enjoy better health by using meat more moderately than is
customary in this country.

"_Deficiency of Certain Food Elements._--A diet deficient in any
important food element is even more detrimental to health than a diet in
which certain elements are in excess.

"The popular notion that beef-tea and meat extracts contain the
nourishing elements of meat in a concentrated form, is a dangerous
error. Undoubtedly many sick persons have been starved by being fed
exclusively upon these articles, which are almost wholly composed of
waste substances. Prof. Paule Bernard, of Paris, found that dogs fed
upon meat extracts died sooner than those which received only water."

FOOD COMBINATIONS.--Some persons, especially those of weak
digestive powers, often experience inconvenience in the use of certain
foods, owing to their improper combinations with other articles. Many
foods which are digested easily when partaken of alone or in harmonious
combinations, create much disturbance when eaten at the same meal with
several different articles of food, or with some particular article with
which they are especially incompatible. The following food combinations
are among the best, the relative excellence of each being indicated by
the order in which they are named: Milk and grains; grains and eggs;
grains and vegetables or meats; grains and fruits.

Persons with sound stomachs and vigorous digestion will seldom
experience inconvenience in making use of other and more varied
combinations, but dyspeptics and persons troubled with slow digestion
will find it to their advantage to select from the bill of fare such
articles as best accord with each other, and to avoid such combinations
as fruits and vegetables, milk and vegetables, milk and meats, sugar and
milk, meat or vegetables, fats with fruits, meats, or vegetables, or
cooked with grains.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Now good digestion waits on appetite, and health on
    both--_Shakespeare._

    We live not upon what we eat, but upon what we digest.--_Abernethy._

    If we consider the amount of ill temper, despondency, and general
    unhappiness which arises from want of proper digestion and
    assimilation of our food, it seems obviously well worth while to put
    forth every effort, and undergo any sacrifice, for the purpose of
    avoiding indigestion, with its resulting bodily ills; and yet year
    after year, from the cradle to the grave, we go on violating the
    plainest and simplest laws of health at the temptation of Cooks,
    caterers, and confectioners, whose share in shortening the average
    term of human life is probably nearly equal to that of the combined
    armies and navies of the world.--_Richardson._

    Almost every human malady is connected, either by highway or byway,
    with the stomach.--_Sir Francis Head._

    It is a well-established fact that a leg of mutton caused a
    revolution in the affairs of Europe. Just before the battle of
    Leipsic, Napoleon the Great insisted on dining on boiled mutton,
    although his physicians warned him that it would disagree with him.
    The emperor's brain resented the liberty taken with its colleague,
    the stomach; the monarch's equilibrium was overturned, the battle
    lost, and a new page opened in history.--_Sel._

    Galloping consumption at the dinner table is one of the national
    disorders.--_Sel._

    The kitchen (that is, your stomach) being out of order, the garret
    (the head) cannot be right, and every room in the house becomes
    affected. Remedy the evil in the kitchen, and all will be right in
    parlor and chamber. If you put improper food into the stomach, you
    play the mischief with it, and with the whole machine
    besides.--_Abernethy._

    Cattle know when to go home from grazing, but a foolish man never
    knows his stomachs measures.--_Scandinavian proverb._

    Enough is as good as a feast.

    Simplicity of diet is the characteristic of the dwellers in the
    Orient. According to Niebuhr, the sheik of the desert wants only a
    dish of pillau, or boiled rice, which he eats without fork or spoon.
    Notwithstanding their frugal fare, these sons of the desert are
    among the most hearty and enduring of all members of the human
    family. A traveler tells of seeing one of them run up to the top of
    the tallest pyramid and back in six minutes.

    One fourth of what we eat keeps us, and the other three fourths we
    keep at the peril of our lives.--_Abernethy._



COOKERY.

It is not enough that good and proper food material be provided; it must
have such preparation as will increase and not diminish its alimentary
value. The unwholesomeness of food is quite as often due to bad cookery
as to improper selection of material. Proper cookery renders good food
material more digestible. When scientifically done, cooking changes each
of the food elements, with the exception of fats, in much the same
manner as do the digestive juices, and at the same time it breaks up the
food by dissolving the soluble portions, so that its elements are more
readily acted upon by the digestive fluids. Cookery, however, often
fails to attain the desired end; and the best material is rendered
useless and unwholesome by a improper preparation.

It is rare to find a table, some portion of the food upon which is not
rendered unwholesome either by improper preparatory treatment, or by the
addition of some deleterious substance. This is doubtless due to the
fact that the preparation of food being such a commonplace matter, its
important relations to health, mind, and body have been overlooked, and
it has been regarded as a menial service which might be undertaken with
little or no preparation, and without attention to matters other than
those which relate to the pleasure of the eye and the palate. With taste
only as a criterion, it is so easy to disguise the results of careless
and improper cookery of food by the use of flavors and condiments, as
well as to palm off upon the digestive organs all sorts of inferior
material, that poor cookery has come to be the rule rather than the
exception.

Another reason for this prevalence of bad cookery, is to be found in the
fact that in so many homes the cooking is intrusted to an ignorant class
of persons having no knowledge whatever of the scientific principles
involved in this most important and practical of arts. An ethical
problem which we have been unable to solve is the fact that women who
would never think of trusting the care of their fine china and
bric-a-brac to unskilled hands, unhesitatingly intrust to persons who
are almost wholly untrained, the preparation of their daily food. There
is no department of life where superior intelligence is more needed than
in the selection and preparation of food, upon which so largely depend
the health and physical welfare of the family circle.

The evils of bad cookery and ill-selected food are manifold, so many, in
fact, that it has been calculated that they far exceed the mischief
arising from the use of strong drink; indeed, one of the evils of
unwholesome food is its decided tendency to create a craving for
intoxicants. Bad cookery causes indigestion, indigestion causes thirst,
and thirst perpetuates drunkenness. Any one who has suffered from a fit
of indigestion, and can recollect the accompanying headache and the
lowness of spirits, varying in degree from dejection or ill-humor to the
most extreme melancholy, until the intellectual faculties seemed dazed,
and the moral feelings blunted, will hardly wonder that when such a
condition becomes chronic, as is often the case from the use of
improperly prepared food, the victim is easily led to resort to
stimulants to drown depression and enliven the spirits.

A thorough practical knowledge of simple, wholesome cookery ought to
form a part of the education of every young woman, whatever her station
in life. No position in life is more responsible than that of the person
who arranges the bills of fare and selects the food for the household;
and what higher mission can one conceive than to intelligently prepare
the wherewithal to make shoulders strong to bear life's burdens and
heads clear to solve its intricate problems? what worthier work than to
help in the building up of bodies into pure temples fit for guests of
noble thoughts and high purposes? Surely, no one should undertake such
important work without a knowledge of the principles involved.


THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC COOKERY.

Cookery is the art of preparing food for the table by dressing, or by
the application of heat in some manner.

FUELS.--Artificial heat is commonly produced by combustion, caused
by the chemical action of the oxygen of the air upon the hydrogen and
carbon found in fuel. The different fuels in common use for cooking
purposes are hard wood, soft wood, charcoal, anthracite coal, bituminous
coal, coke, lignite, kerosene oil, gasoline, and gas. As to their
respective values, much depends upon the purpose for which they are to
be used. Wood charcoal produces a greater amount of heat than an equal
weight of any other fuel. Soft wood burns quicker and gives a more
intense heat than hard wood, and hence is best for a quick fire. Hard
wood burns slowly, produces a larger mass of coals, and is best where
long-continued heat is desired. Anthracite coal kindles slowly, and
burns with little flame or smoke, but its vapor is sulphurous, and on
that account it should never be burned in an open stove, nor in one with
an imperfect draft. Its heat is steady and intense. Bituminous coal
ignites readily, burns with considerable flame and smoke, and gives a
much less intense heat than anthracite, Lignite, or brown coal, is much
less valuable as fuel. Coke is useful when a short, quick fire is
needed. Kerosene and gas are convenient and economical fuels.

MAKING FIRES.--If coal is the fuel to be used, first clean out the
stove by shaking the grate and removing all ashes and cinders. Remove
the stove covers, and brush the soot and ashes out of all the flues and
draft holes into the fire-box. Place a large handful of shavings or
loosely twisted or crumpled papers upon the grate, over which lay some
fine pieces of dry kindling-wood, arranged crosswise to permit a free
draft, then a few sticks of hard wood, so placed as to allow plenty of
air spaces. Be sure that the wood extends out to both ends of the
fire-box. Replace the covers, and if the stove needs blacking, mix the
polish, and apply it, rubbing with a dry brush until nearly dry, then
light the fuel, as a little heat will facilitate the polishing. When the
wood is burning briskly, place a shovelful or two of rather small pieces
of coal upon the wood, and, as they ignite, gradually add more, until
there is a clear, bright body of fire, remembering, however, never to
fill the stove above the fire bricks; then partly close the direct
draft. When wood or soft coal is used, the fuel may be added at the same
time with the kindling.

CARE OF FIRES.--Much fuel is wasted through the loss of heat from
too much draft. Only just enough air should be supplied to promote
combustion. A coal fire, when well kindled, needs only air enough to
keep it burning. When the coal becomes red all through, it has parted
with the most of its heat, and the fire will soon die unless
replenished. To keep a steady fire, add but a small amount of fuel at a
time, and repeat often enough to prevent any sensible decrease of the
degree of heat. Rake the fire from the bottom, and keep it clear of
ashes and cinders. If a very hot fire is needed, open the drafts; at
other times, keep them closed, or partially so, and not waste fuel.
There is no economy in allowing a fire to get low before fuel is added;
for the fresh fuel cools the fire to a temperature so low that it is not
useful, and thus occasions a direct waste of all fuel necessary to again
raise the heat to the proper degree, to say nothing of the waste of time
and patience. The addition of small quantities of fuel at short
intervals so long as continuous heat is needed, is far better than to
let the fuel burn nearly out, and then add a larger quantity. The
improper management of the drafts and dampers has also much to do with
waste of fuel. As stoves are generally constructed, it is necessary for
the heat to pass over the top, down the back, and under the bottom of
the oven before escaping into the flue, in order to properly heat the
oven for baking. In order to force the heat to make this circuit, the
direct draft of the stove needs to be closed. With this precaution
observed, a quick fire from a small amount of fuel, used before its
force is spent, will produce better results than a fire-box full under
other circumstances.

An item of economy for those who are large users of coal, is the careful
sifting of the cinders from the ashes. They can be used to good
advantage to put first upon the kindlings, when building the fire, as
they ignite more readily than fresh coal, and give a greater, quicker
heat, although much less enduring.

METHODS OF COOKING.--A proper source of heat having been secured,
the next step is to apply it to the food in some manner. The principal
methods commonly employed are roasting, broiling, baking, boiling,
stewing, simmering, steaming, and frying.

_Roasting_ is cooking food in its own juices before an open fire. A
clear fire with intense heat is necessary.

_Broiling_, or _grilling_, is cooking by radiant heat over glowing
coals. This method is only adapted to thin pieces of food with a
considerable amount of surface. Larger and more compact foods should be
roasted or baked. Roasting and broiling are allied in principle. In
both, the work is chiefly done by the radiation of heat directly upon
the surface of the food, although some heat is communicated by the hot
air surrounding the food. The intense heat applied to the food soon
sears its outer surfaces, and thus prevents the escape of its juices. If
care be taken frequently to turn the food so that its entire surface
will be thus acted upon, the interior of the mass is cooked by its own
juices.

_Baking_ is the cooking of food by dry heat in a closed oven. Only foods
containing a considerable degree of moisture are adapted for cooking by
this method. The hot, dry air which fills the oven is always thirsting
for moisture, and will take from every moist substance to which it has
access a quantity of water proportionate to its degree of heat. Foods
containing but a small amount of moisture, unless protected in some
manner from the action of the heated air, or in some way supplied with
moisture during the cooking process, come from the oven dry, hard, and
unpalatable.

Proper cooking by this method depends greatly upon the facility with
which the heat of the oven can be regulated. When oil or gas is the fuel
used, it is an easy matter to secure and maintain almost any degree of
heat desirable, but with a wood or coal stove, especial care and
painstaking are necessary.

It is of the first importance that the mechanism of the oven to be used,
be thoroughly understood by the cook, and she should test its heating
capacity under various conditions, with a light, quick fire and with a
more steady one; she should carefully note the kind and amount of fuel
requisite to produce a certain degree of heat; in short, she should
thoroughly know her "machine" and its capabilities before attempting to
use it for the cooking of food. An oven thermometer is of the utmost
value for testing the heat, but unfortunately, such thermometers are not
common. They are obtainable in England, although quite expensive. It is
also possible at the present time to obtain ranges with a very reliable
thermometer attachment to the oven door.

[Illustration: An Oven Thermometer]

A cook of good judgment by careful observation and comparison of
results, can soon learn to form quite a correct idea of the heat of her
oven by the length of time she can hold her hand inside it without
discomfort, but since much depends upon the construction of stoves and
the kind of fuel used, and since the degree of heat bearable will vary
with every hand that tries it, each person who depends upon this test
must make her own standard. When the heat of the oven is found to be too
great, it may be lessened by placing in it a dish of cold water.

_Boiling_ is the cooking of food in a boiling liquid. Water is the usual
medium employed for this purpose. When water is heated, as its
temperature is increased, minute bubbles of air which have been
dissolved by it are given off. As the temperature rises, bubbles of
steam will begin to form at the bottom of the vessel. At first these
will be condensed as they rise into the cooler water above, causing a
simmering sound; but as the heat increases, the bubbles will rise higher
and higher before collapsing, and in a short time will pass entirely
through the water, escaping from its surface, causing more or less
agitation, according to the rapidity with which they are formed. Water
boils when the bubbles thus rise to the surface, and steam is thrown
off. If the temperature is now tested, it will be found to be about 212°
F. When water begins to boil, it is impossible to increase its
temperature, as the steam carries off the heat as rapidly as it is
communicated to the water. The only way in which the temperature can be
raised, is by the confinement of the steam; but owing to its enormous
expansive force, this is not practicable with ordinary cooking utensils.
The mechanical action of the water is increased by rapid bubbling, but
not the heat; and to boil anything violently does not expedite the
cooking process, save that by the mechanical action of the water the
food is broken into smaller pieces, which are for this reason more
readily softened. But violent boiling occasions an enormous waste of
fuel, and by driving away in the steam the volatile and savory elements
of the food, renders it much less palatable, if not altogether
tasteless. The solvent properties of water are so increased by heat that
it permeates the food, rendering its hard and tough constituents soft
and easy of digestion.

The liquids mostly employed in the cooking of foods are water and milk.
Water is best suited for the cooking of most foods, but for such
farinaceous foods as rice, macaroni, and farina, milk, or at least part
milk, is preferable, as it adds to their nutritive value. In using milk
for cooking purposes, it should be remembered that being more dense than
water, when heated, less steam escapes, and consequently it boils sooner
than does water. Then, too, milk being more dense, when it is used alone
for cooking, a little larger quantity of fluid will be required than
when water is used.

The boiling point for water at the sea level is 212°. At all points
above the sea level, water boils at a temperature below 212°, the exact
temperature depending upon the altitude. At the top of Mt. Blanc, an
altitude of 15,000 feet, water boils at 185°. The boiling point is
lowered one degree for every 600 feet increase in altitude. The boiling
point may be increased by adding soluble substances to the water. A
saturated solution of common baking soda boils at 220°. A saturated
solution of chloride of sodium boils at 227°. A similar solution of
sal-ammoniac boils at 238°. Of course such solutions cannot be used
advantageously, except as a means of cooking articles placed in
hermetically sealed vessels and immersed in the liquid.

Different effects upon food are produced by the use of hard and soft
water. Peas and beans boiled in hard water containing lime or gypsum,
will not become tender, because these chemical substances harden
vegetable casein, of which element peas and beans are largely composed.
For extracting the juices of meat and the soluble parts of other foods,
soft water is best, as it more readily penetrates the tissue; but when
it is desired to preserve the articles whole, and retain their juices
and flavors, hard water is preferable.

Foods should be put to cook in cold or boiling water, in accordance with
the object to be attained in their cooking. Foods from which it is
desirable to extract the nutrient properties, as for broths, extracts,
etc., should be put to cook in cold water. Foods to be kept intact as
nearly as may be, should be put to cook in boiling water.

Hot and cold water act differently upon the different food elements.
Starch is but slightly acted upon by cold water. When starch is added
to several times its bulk of hot water, all the starch granules burst on
approaching the boiling point, and swell to such a degree as to occupy
nearly the whole volume of the water, forming a pasty mess. Sugar is
dissolved readily in the either hot or cold water. Cold water extracts
albumen. Hot water coagulates it.

_Steaming_, as its name implies, is the cooking of food by the use of
steam. There are several ways of steaming, the most common of which is
by placing the food in a perforated dish over a vessel of boiling water.
For foods not needing the solvent powers of water, or which already
contain a large amount of moisture, this method is preferable to
boiling. Another form of cooking, which is usually termed steaming, is
that of placing the food, with or without water, as needed, in a closed
vessel which is placed inside another vessel containing boiling water.
Such an apparatus is termed a double boiler. Food cooked in its own
juices in a covered dish in a hot oven, is sometimes spoken of as being
_steamed_ or _smothered_.

_Stewing_ is the prolonged cooking of food in a small quantity of
liquid, the temperature of which is just below the boiling point.
Stewing should not be confounded with simmering, which is slow, steady
boiling. The proper temperature for stewing is most easily secured by
the use of the double boiler. The water in the outer vessel boils, while
that in the inner vessel does not, being kept a little below the
temperature of the water from which its heat is obtained, by the
constant evaporation at a temperature a little below the boiling point.

_Frying_, which is the cooking of food in hot fat, is a method not to be
recommended--Unlike all the other food elements, fat is rendered less
digestible by cooking. Doubtless it is for this reason that nature has
provided those foods which require the most prolonged cooking to fit
them for use with only a small proportion of fat, and it would seem to
indicate that any food to be subjected to a high degree of heat should
not be mixed and compounded largely of fats. The ordinary way of frying,
which the French call _sauteing_, is by the use of only a little fat in
a shallow pan, into which the food is put and cooked first on one side
and then the other. Scarcely anything could be more unwholesome than
food prepared in this manner. A morsel of food encrusted with fat
remains undigested in the stomach because fat is not acted upon by the
gastric juice, and its combination with the other food elements of which
the morsel is composed interferes with their digestion also. If such
foods are habitually used, digestion soon becomes slow and the gastric
juice so deficient in quantity that fermentation and putrefactive
changes are occasioned, resulting in serious disturbance of health. In
the process of frying, the action of the heat partially decomposes the
fat; in consequence, various poisonous substances are formed, highly
detrimental to the digestion of the partaker of the food.

ADDING FOODS TO BOILING LIQUIDS.--Much of the soddenness of
improperly cooked foods might be avoided, if the following facts were
kept in mind:--

When vegetables, or other foods of ordinary temperature, are put into
boiling water, the temperature of the water is lowered in proportion to
the quantity and the temperature of the food thus introduced, and will
not again boil until the mass of food shall have absorbed more heat from
the fire. The result of this is that the food is apt to become more or
less water-soaked before the process of cooking begins. This difficulty
may be avoided by introducing but small quantities of the food at one
time, so as not to greatly lower the temperature of the liquid, and then
allowing the latter to boil between the introduction of each fresh
supply, or by heating the food before adding it to the liquid.

EVAPORATION is another principle often overlooked in the cooking of
food, and many a sauce or gravy is spoiled because the liquid, heated in
a shallow pan, from which evaporation is rapid, loses so much in bulk
that the amount of thickening requisite for the given quantity of fluid,
and which, had less evaporation occurred, would have made it of the
proper consistency, makes the sauce thick and unpalatable. Evaporation
is much less, in slow boiling, than in more rapid cooking.

MEASURING.--One of the most important principles to be observed in
the preparation of food for cooking, is accuracy in measuring. Many an
excellent recipe proves a failure simply from lack of care in this
respect. Measures are generally more convenient than weights, and are
more commonly used. The common kitchen cup, which holds a half pint, is
the one usually taken as the standard; if any other size is used, the
ingredients for the entire recipe should be measured by the same. The
following points should be observed in measuring:--

1. The teaspoons and tablespoons to be used in measuring, are the silver
spoons in general use.

2. Any material like flour, sugar, salt, that has been packed, should
either be sifted or stirred up lightly before measuring.

3. A cupful of dry material is measured level with the top of the cup,
without being packed down.

4. A cupful of liquid is all the cup will contain without running over.
Hold the cup in a saucer while measuring, to prevent spilling the liquid
upon the floor or table.

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.--The following
comparative table of weights and measurements will aid in estimating
different materials:--

One heaping tablespoonful of sugar weighs one ounce.

Two round tablespoonfuls of flour weigh one ounce.

Two cupfuls of granulated sugar weigh one pound.

Two cupfuls of meal weigh one pound.

Four cupfuls of sifted flour weigh one pound.

One pint of oatmeal, cracked wheat, or other coarse grains, weighs about
one pound.

One pint of liquid weighs one pound.

One pint of meat chopped and packed solid weighs one pound.

Seven heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar = one cupful.

Five heaping tablespoonfuls of flour = one cupful.

Two cupfuls of liquid or dry material = one pint

Four cupfuls of liquid or dry material = one quart.

MIXING MATERIALS.--In the compounding of recipes, various modes are
employed for mingling together the different ingredients, chief of which
are _stirring_, _beating_, and _kneading_.

By _stirring_ is meant a continuous motion round and round with a spoon,
without lifting it from the mixture, except to scrape occasionally from
the sides of the dish any portion of the material that may cling to it.
It is not necessary that the stirring should be all in one direction, as
many cooks suppose. The object of the stirring is to thoroughly blend
the ingredients, and this may be accomplished as well by stirring--in
one direction as in another.

_Beating_ is for the purpose of incorporating as much air in the mixture
as possible. It should be done by dipping the spoon in and out, cutting
clear through and lifting from the bottom with each stroke. The process
must be continuous, and must never be interspersed with any stirring if
it is desired to retain the air within the mixture.

_Kneading_ is the mode by which materials already in the form of dough
are more thoroughly blended together; it also serves to incorporate air.
The process is more fully described in the chapter on "Bread,"

TEMPERATURE.--Many a cook fails and knows not why, because she does
not understand the influence of temperature upon materials and food.
Flour and liquids for unfermented breads cannot be too cold, while for
bread prepared with yeast, success is largely dependent upon a warm and
equable temperature throughout the entire process.

COOKING UTENSILS.--The earliest cookery was probably accomplished
without the aid of any utensils, the food being roasted by burying it in
hot ashes or cooked by the aid of heated stones; but modern cookery
necessitates the use of a greater or less variety of cooking utensils to
facilitate the preparation of food, most of which are so familiar to the
reader as to need no description. (A list of those needed for use will
be found on page 66.) Most of these utensils are manufactured from some
kind of metal, as iron, tin, copper, brass, etc. All metals are
dissolvable in certain substances, and some of those employed for making
household utensils are capable of forming most poisonous compounds when
used for cooking certain foods. This fact should lead to great care on
the part of the housewife, both in purchasing and in using utensils for
cooking purposes.

Iron utensils, although they are, when new, apt to discolor and impart
a disagreeable flavor to food cooked in them, are not objectionable from
a health standpoint, if kept clean and free from rust. Iron rust is the
result of the combination of the iron with oxygen, for which it has so
great an affinity that it will decompose water to get oxygen to unite
with; hence it is that iron utensils rust so quickly when not carefully
dried after using, or if left where they can collect moisture. This is
the reason why a coating of tallow, which serves to exclude the air and
moisture, will preserve ironware not in daily use from rusting.

"Porcelain ware" is iron lined with a hard, smooth enamel, and makes
safe and very desirable cooking utensils. German porcelain ware is
unexcelled for culinary purposes.

"Granite ware" is a material quite recently come into use, the
composition of which is a secret, although pronounced by eminent
chemists to be free from all injurious qualities. Utensils made from it
are light in weight, easily kept clean, and for most cooking purposes,
are far superior to those made from any other material.

What is termed "galvanized iron" is unsuitable for cooking utensils, it
being simply sheet iron coated with zinc, an exceedingly unsafe metal to
be used for cooking purposes.

Tin, which is simply thin sheet iron coated with tin by dipping several
times into vats of the melted metal, is largely employed in the
manufacture of cooking utensils. Tinware is acted upon by acids, and
when used for holding or cooking any acid foods, like sour milk, sour
fruits, tomatoes, etc., harmful substances are liable to be formed,
varying in quantity and harmfulness with the nature of the acid
contained in the food.

In these days of fraud and adulteration, nearly all the cheaper grades
of tinware contain a greater or less amount of lead in their
composition, which owing to its greater abundance and less price, is
used as an adulterant of tin. Lead is also used in the solder with which
the parts of tinware are united. The action of acids upon lead form very
poisonous compounds, and all lead-adulterated utensils should be wholly
discarded for cooking purposes.

_Test for Lead-Adulterated Tin._--Place upon the metal a small drop of
nitric acid, spreading it to the size of a dime, dry with gentle heat,
apply a drop of water, then add a small crystal of iodide of potash. If
lead is present, a yellowish color will be seen very soon after the
addition of the iodide. Lead glazing, which is frequently employed on
crockery and ironware in the manufacture of cooking utensils, may also
be detected in the same manner.

Cooking utensils made of copper are not to be recommended from the point
of healthfulness, although many cooks esteem them because copper is a
better conductor of heat than iron or tin. The acids of many fruits
combine with copper to form extremely poisonous substances. Fatty
substances, as well as salt and sugar, act upon copper to a greater or
less degree, also vegetables containing sulfur in their composition and
produce harmful compounds.

Utensils made of brass, which is a compound of copper and zinc, are not
safe to use for cooking purposes.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Bad cooking diminishes happiness and shortens life.--_Wisdom of
    Ages._

    Says Mrs. Partington: "Many a fair home has been desiccated by poor
    cooking, and a man's table has been the rock on which his happiness
    has split."

    SIGNIFICANT FACT.--_Lady_--"Have you had much experience as a cook?"
    _Applicant_--"Oh, indeed I have. I was the cook of Mr. and Mrs.
    Peterby for three years."

    _L._--"Why did you leave them?"

    _A._--"I didn't leave them. They left me. They both died."

    _L._--"What of?"

    _A._--"Dyspepsia."

    Cooking is generally bad because people falling to routine; habit
    dulls their appreciation, and they do not think about what they are
    eating.--_Didsbury._

    _Lilly_ (Secretary of the cooking class)--"Now girls, we've learned
    nine cakes, two kinds of angel food, and seven pies. What next?"

    _Susie_ (engaged)--"Dick's father says I must learn to bake bread."

    _Indignant chorus_--"Bread? How absurd! What are bakers for?"

    It is told of Philip Hecgnet, a French, physician who lived in the
    17th, century, that when calling upon his wealthy patients, he used
    often to go to the kitchen and pantry, embrace the cooks and
    butlers, and exhort them to do their duty well. "I owe you so much
    gratitude, my dear friends," he would say; "you are so useful to us
    doctors; for if you did not keep on poisoning the people, we should
    all have to go to the poorhouse."

    There are innumerable books of recipes for cooking, but unless the
    cook is master of the principles of his art, and unless he knows the
    why and the wherefore of its processes, he cannot choose a recipe
    intelligently and execute it successfully.--_Richard Estcourt._

    They who provide the food for the world, decide the health of the
    world. You have only to go on some errands amid the taverns and
    hotels of the United States and Great Britain, to appreciate the
    fact that a vast multitude of the human race are slaughtered by
    incompetent cookery. Though a young woman may have taken lessons in
    music, and may have taken lessons in painting, and lessons in
    astronomy, she is not well educated unless she has taken lessons in
    dough!--_Talmage._



HOUSEHOLD WORKSHOP

It is a mistake to suppose that any room, however small and unpleasantly
situated, is "good enough" for a kitchen. This is the room where
housekeepers pass a great portion of their time, and it should be one of
the brightest and most convenient rooms in the house; for upon the
results of no other department of woman's domain depend so greatly the
health and comfort of the family as upon those involved in this
"household workshop." The character of a person's work is more or less
dependent upon his surroundings, hence is it to be greatly wondered at
that a woman immured in a small, close, dimly-lighted room, whose only
outlook may be the back alley or the woodshed, supplies her household
with products far below the standard of health and housewifely skill?

Every kitchen should have windows on two sides of the room, and the sun
should have free entrance through them; the windows should open from the
top to allow a complete change of air, for light and fresh air are among
the chief essentials to success in all departments of the household.
Good drainage should also be provided, and the ventilation of the
kitchen ought to be even more carefully attended to than that of a
sleeping room. The ventilation of the kitchen should be so ample as to
thoroughly remove all gases and odors, which, together with steam from
boiling and other cooking processes, generally invade and render to some
degree unhealthful every other portion of the house. It is the steam
from the kitchen which gives a fusty odor to the parlor air and provides
a wet-sheet pack for the occupant of the "spare bed." The only way of
wholly eradicating this evil, is the adoption of the suggestion of the
sanitary philosopher who places the kitchen at the top of the house.

To lessen to discomforts from heat, a ventilator may be placed above the
range, that shall carry out of the room all superfluous heat, and aid in
removing the steam and odors from cooking food. The simplest form of
such a ventilator this inverted hopper of sheet iron fitted above the
range, the upper and smaller end opening into a large flue adjacent to
the smoke flue for the range. Care must be taken, however, to provide an
ample ventilating shaft for this purpose, since a strong draft is
required to secure the desired results.

There should be ample space for tables, chairs, range, sink, and
cupboards, yet the room should not be so large as to necessitate too
many steps. A very good size for the ordinary dwelling is 16 x 18 feet.

Undoubtedly much of the distaste for, and neglect of, "housework," so
often deplored in these days, arises from unpleasant surroundings. If
the kitchen be light, airy, and tidy, and the utensils bright and clean,
the work of compounding those articles of food which grace the table and
satisfy the appetite will be a pleasant task, and one entirely worthy of
the most intelligent and cultivated woman.

It is desirable, from a sanitary standpoint, that the kitchen floor be
made impervious to moisture; hence, concrete or tile floors are better
than wooden floors. If wooden floors are used, they should be
constructed of narrow boards of hard wood, carefully joined and
thoroughly saturated with hot linseed oil, well rubbed in to give polish
to the surface.

Cleanliness is the great _desideratum_, and this can be best attained
by having all woodwork in and about the kitchen coated with varnish;
substances which cause stain and grease spots, do not penetrate the wood
when varnished, and can be easily removed with a damp cloth. Paint is
preferable to whitewash or calcimine for the walls, since it is less
affected by steam, and can be more readily cleaned. A carpet on a
kitchen floor is as out of place as a kitchen sink would be in a parlor.

The elements of beauty should not be lacking in the kitchen. Pictures
and fancy articles are inappropriate; but a few pots of easily
cultivated flowers on the window ledge or arranged upon brackets about
the window in winter, and a window box arranged as a jardiniere, with
vines and blooming plants in summer, will greatly brighten the room, and
thus serve to lighten the task of those whose daily labor confines them
to the precincts of the kitchen.

THE KITCHEN FURNITURE.--The furniture for a kitchen should not be
cumbersome, and should be so made and dressed as to be easily cleaned.
There should be plenty of cupboards, and each for the sake of order,
should be devoted to a special purpose. Cupboards with sliding doors are
much superior to closets. They should be placed upon casters so as to be
easily moved, as they, are thus not only more convenient, but admit of
more thorough cleanliness.

Cupboards used for the storage of food should be well ventilated;
otherwise, they furnish choice conditions for the development of mold
and germs. Movable cupboards may be ventilated by means of openings in
the top, and doors covered with very fine wire gauze which will admit
the air but keep out flies and dust. All stationary cupboards and
closets should have a ventilating flue connected with the main shaft by
which the house is ventilated, or directly communicating with the outer
air.

No kitchen can be regarded as well furnished without a good timepiece as
an aid to punctuality and economy of time. An eight-day clock with large
dial and plain case is the most suitable.

Every kitchen should also be provided with a slate, with sponge and
pencil attached, on one side of which the market orders and other
memoranda may be jotted down, and on the other the bills of fare for the
day or week. In households where servants are kept, the slate will save
many a vexatious blunder and unnecessary call to the kitchen, while if
one is herself mistress, cook, and housekeeper, it may prove an
invaluable aid and time-saver if thus used.

[Illustration: A Convenient Kitchen Table.]

Lack of sufficient table room is often a great source of inconvenience
to the housekeeper. To avoid this, arrange swinging tables or shelves at
convenient points upon the wall, which may be put up or let down as
occasion demands. For ordinary kitchen uses, small tables of suitable
height on easy-rolling casters, and with zinc tops, are the most
convenient and most easily kept clean. It is quite as well that they be
made without drawers, which are too apt to become receptacles for a
heterogeneous mass of rubbish. If desirable to have some handy place for
keeping articles which are frequently required for use, an arrangement
similar to that represented in the accompanying cut may be made at very
small expense. It may be also an advantage to arrange small shelves
about and above the range, on which may be kept various articles
necessary for cooking purposes.

One of the most indispensable articles of furnishing for a
well-appointed kitchen, is a sink; however, a sink must be properly
constructed and well cared for, or it is likely to become a source of
great danger to the health of the inmates of the household. Earthen-ware
is the best material for kitchen sinks. Iron is very serviceable, but
corrodes, and if painted or enameled, this soon wears off. Wood is
objectionable from a sanitary standpoint. A sink made of wood lined with
copper answers well for a long time if properly cared for.

The sink should if possible stand out from the wall, so as to allow free
access to all sides of it for the sake of cleanliness, and under no
circumstances should there be any inclosure of woodwork or cupboards
underneath to serve as a storage place for pots and kettles and all
kinds of rubbish, dust, and germs. It should be supported on legs, and
the space below should be open for inspection at all times. The pipes
and fixtures should be selected and placed by a competent plumber.

Great pains should be taken to keep the pipes clean and well
disinfected. Refuse of all kinds should be kept out. Thoughtless
housekeepers and careless domestics often allow greasy water and bits of
table waste to find their way into the pipes. Drain pipes usually have a
bend, or trap, through which water containing no sediment flows freely;
but the melted grease which often passes into the pipes mixed with hot
water, becomes cooled and solid as it descends, adhering to the pipes,
and gradually accumulating until the drain is blocked, or the water
passes through very slowly. A grease-lined pipe is a hotbed for disease
germs.

Water containing much grease should be cooled and the grease removed
before being turned into the kitchen sink, while bits of refuse should
be disposed of elsewhere, since prevention of mischief is in this case,
as in most others, far easier than cure. It is customary for
housekeepers to pour a hot solution of soda or potash down the sink
pipes occasionally, to dissolve any grease which may tend to obstruct
the passage; but this is only a partial safeguard, as there is no
certainty that all the grease will be dissolved, and any particles
adhering to the pipes very soon undergo putrefaction.

A frequent flushing with hot water is important; besides which the pipes
should be disinfected two or three times a week by pouring down a gallon
of water holding in solution a pound of good chloride of lime.

STOVES AND RANGES.--The furnishing of a modern kitchen would be
quite incomplete without some form of stove or range. The multiplicity
of these articles, manufactured each with some especial merit of its
own, renders it a somewhat difficult task to make a choice among them.
Much must, however, depend upon the kind of fuel to be used, the size of
the household, and various other circumstances which make it necessary
for each individual housekeeper to decide for herself what is best
adapted to her wants. It may be said, in brief, that economy of fuel,
simplicity of construction, and efficiency in use are the chief points
to be considered in the selection of stoves and ranges.

A stove or range of plain finish is to be preferred, because it is much
easier to keep clean, and will be likely to present a better appearance
after a few months' wear than one of more elaborate pattern. But
whatever stove or range is selected, its mechanism should be thoroughly
understood in every particular, and it should be tested with dampers
open, with dampers closed, and in every possible way, until one is
perfectly sure she understands its action under all conditions.

OIL AND GAS STOVES.--In many households, oil, gas, and gasoline
stoves have largely taken the place of the kitchen range, especially
during the hot weather of summer. They can be used for nearly every
purpose for which a wood or a coal range is used; they require much less
labor and litter, and can be instantly started into full force and as
quickly turned out when no longer required, while the fact that the heat
can be regulated with exactness, makes them superior for certain
processes of cooking to any other stove. But while these stoves are
convenient and economical, especially in small families, they should be
used with much care. Aside from the danger from explosion, which is by
no means inconsiderable in the use of gasoline and oil stoves, they are
not, unless well cared for altogether healthful. Unless the precaution
is taken to use them in well-ventilated rooms or to connect them with a
chimney, they vitiate the atmosphere to a considerable extent with the
products of combustion. Oil stoves, unless the wicks are kept well
trimmed, are apt to smoke, and this smoke is not only disagreeable, but
extremely irritating to the mucous membrane of the nose and throat. Oil
stoves are constructed on the same principle as ordinary oil lamps, and
require the same care and attention.

Quite recently there has been invented by Prof. Edward Atkinson a very
unique apparatus for cooking by means of the heat of an ordinary
kerosene lamp, called the "Aladdin Cooker." The food to be cooked is
placed in a chamber around which hot water, heated by the flame of the
lamp, circulates. The uniform heat thus obtained performs the process of
cooking, slowly, but most satisfactorily and economically, the result
being far superior to that obtained by the ordinary method of cooking by
quick heat. The cooker is only used for stewing and steaming; but Mr.
Atkinson has also invented an oven in which the heat is conveyed to the
place where it is needed by a column of hot air instead of hot water.
With this oven, which consists of an outer oven made of non-conducting
material, and an inner oven made of sheet iron, with an intervening
space between, through which the hot air circulates, no smoke or odor
from the lamp can reach the interior.

KITCHEN. UTENSILS.--The list of necessary kitchen utensils must of
course be governed somewhat by individual circumstances, but it should
not be curtailed for the sake of display in some other department, where
less depends upon the results. A good kitchen outfit is one of the
foundation-stones of good housekeeping. The following are some of the
most essential:--

Two dish pans; two or more _papier-maché_ tubs for washing glassware;
one kneading board; one bread board; one pair scales, with weights;
scrubbing and stove brushes; brooms; dustpans; roller for towel;
washbowl; soap dish; vegetable brushes.

[Illustration: A Double Boiler.]

FOR THE TIN CLOSET.-One dipper; one egg-beater; one two-quart pail;
one four-quart pail; six brick-loaf bread pans; three shallow tins;
three granite-ware pie tins; two perforated sheet iron pans for rolls,
etc.; one set of measures, pint, quart, and two quart; two colanders;
two fine wire strainers; one flour sifter; one apple corer; one set
patty pans; two dripping pans; two sets gem irons; one set muffin rings;
one toaster; one broiler; the six saucepans, different sizes; two
steamers; six milk-pans; one dozen basins, different sizes; one chopping
bowl and knife; six double boilers; two funnels, large and small; one
can opener; griddle; kettles, iron and granite ware; two water baths.

FOR THE DISH CLOSET.--One half dozen iron-stone china cups; three
quart bowls; three pint bowls; two large mixing bowls; two quart bowls
with lip; six deep plates; three kitchen pitchers; one glass rolling
pin; six wooden and six iron spoons, assorted sizes; six kitchen
teaspoons; one stone baking pot; glass jars for stores; crocks and jars.

THE PANTRY.--The pantry and china closet should have direct light
and good ventilation. The dark, dingy places sometimes used for this
purpose are germ breeders. There should be plenty of shelf room and
cupboards for the fine glass and china-ware, with a well-arranged sink
for washing the dishes. The sink for this purpose is preferably one
lined with tinned or planished copper; for dishes will be less liable to
become injured and broken then when washed in an iron or earthen-ware
sink. Extension or folding shelves are a great convenience, and can be
arranged for the sink if desired. The accompanying cuts illustrate a
sink of four compartments for dish-washing, devised by the writer for
use in the Sanitarium Domestic Economy kitchen, which can be closed and
used as a table. Two zinc trays fit the top, upon which to place the
dish drainers. If preferred, the top might be arranged as a drainer, by
making it of well-seasoned hard wood, with a number of inclined grooves
to allow the water to run into the sink. If the house be heated by
steam, a plate-warmer is an important part of the pantry furnishing.

[Illustration: Compartment Sink for Dish-Washing. Open.]

THE STOREROOM.--If possible to do so, locate the room for the
keeping of the kitchen supplies on the cool side of the house. Plenty of
light, good ventilation, and absolute cleanliness are essential, as the
slightest contamination of air is likely to render the food supply unfit
for use.

The refrigerator should not be connected with the kitchen drain pipe,
and the greatest care should be taken to keep it clean and sweet. It
should be thoroughly scrubbed with borax or sal-soda and water, and well
aired, at least once a week. Strongly flavored foods and milk should not
be kept in the same refrigerator. The ice to be used should always be
carefully washed before putting in the refrigerator. Care should also be
taken to replenish it before the previous supply is entirely melted, as
the temperature rises when the ice becomes low, and double the quantity
will be required to cool the refrigerator that would be necessary to
keep it of uniform temperature if added before the ice was entirely out.

THE WATER SUPPLY.--The water used for drinking and cooking purposes
should receive equal consideration with the food supply, and from
whatever source obtained, it should be frequently tested for impurities,
since that which looks the most refreshing may be contaminated with
organic poison of the most treacherous character.

[Illustration: Compartment Sink for Dish-Washing. Closed.]

A good and simple test solution, which any housewife can use, may be
prepared by dissolving twelve grains of caustic potash and three of
permanganate of potash in an ounce of distilled water, or filtered soft
water. Add a drop of this solution to a glass of the water to be tested.
If the pink color imparted by the solution disappears at once, add
another drop of the solution, and continue adding drop by drop until the
pink color will remain for half an hour or more. The amount of the
solution necessary to security permanent color is very fair index to the
quality of the water. If the color imparted by the first one or two
drops disappears within a half hour, the water should be rejected as
probably dangerous. Water which is suspected of being impure may be
rendered safe by boiling. Filters are only of service in removing
suspended particles and the unpleasant taste of rain water; a really
dangerous water is not rendered safe by filtering in the ordinary
manner.

CELLARS.--Sanitarians tell us that cellars should never be built
under dwelling houses. Because of improper construction and neglect,
they are undoubtedly the cause of much disease and many deaths. A
basement beneath the house is advantageous, but the greatest of care
should be given to construct it in accord with sanitary laws. It should
be thoroughly drained that there may be no source of dampness, but
should not be connected with a sewer or a cesspool. It should have walls
so made as to be impervious to air and water. An ordinary brick or stone
wall is inefficient unless well covered with good Portland cement
polished smooth. The floors should likewise be covered with cement,
otherwise the cellar is likely to be filled with impure air derived from
the soil, commonly spoken of as "ground air," and which offers a
constant menace to the health of those who live over cellars with
uncemented walls and floors.

Light and ventilation are quite as essential to the healthfulness of a
cellar as to other rooms of the dwelling. Constantly during warm
weather, and at least once a day during the winter season, windows
should be opened wide, thus effecting a free interchange of air. All
mold and mustiness should be kept out by thorough ventilation and
frequent coats of whitewash to the walls. Vegetables and other
decomposable articles, if stored in the basement, should be frequently
sorted, and all decaying substances promptly removed. This is of the
utmost importance, since the germs and foul gases arising from
decomposing food stuffs form a deadly source of contamination through
every crack and crevice.


KITCHEN CONVENIENCES.

In these days of invention and progress, much thought and ingenuity have
been expended in making and perfecting labor-saving articles and
utensils, which serve to make housework less of a burden and more of a
delight.

THE STEAM-COOKER.--One of the most unique of these conveniences is
the steam-cooker, one kind of which is illustrated by the accompanying
cut. Steaming is, for many foods, a most economical and satisfactory
method of cooking. Especially is this true respecting fruits, grains,
and vegetables, the latter of which often have the larger proportion of
their best nutritive elements dissolved and thrown away in the water in
which they are boiled. In the majority of households it is, however, the
method least depended upon, because the ordinary steamer over a pot of
boiling water requires too much attention, takes up too much stove room,
and creates too much steam in the kitchen, to prove a general favorite.
The steam-cooker has an escape-steam tube through which all excess of
steam and odors passes into the fire, and thus its different
compartments may contain and cook an entire dinner, if need be, and over
one stove hole or one burner of an oil or gasoline stove.

[Illustration: The Steam-Cooker.]

THE VEGETABLE PRESS.--The accompanying cut represents this handy
utensil, which is equally useful as a potato and vegetable masher; as a
sauce, gruel, and gravy strainer; as a fruit press, and for many other
purposes for which a colander or strainer is needed, while it economizes
both time and labor.

[Illustration: Vegetable Press.]

LEMON DRILL.--This little article for extracting the juice of the
lemon, and which can be purchased of most hardware dealers, is quite
superior to the more commonly used lemon squeezer. Being made of glass,
its use is not open to the danger that the use of metal squeezer is are
from poisonous combinations of the acid and metal, while the juice
extracted is free from pulp, seeds, and the oil of the skin.

[Illustration: Lemon Drill.]

A HANDY WAITER.--In many households where no help is employed, a
labor-saving device like the one represented in the accompanying
illustration, will be found of great service. It is a light double table
on easy-rolling casters, and can be readily constructed by anyone handy
in the use of tools. If preferred, the top may be covered with zinc. In
setting or clearing the table, the dishes may be placed on the lower
shelf, with the food on the top, and the table rolled from pantry to
dining room, and from dining room to kitchen; thus accomplishing, with
one trip, what is ordinarily done with hundreds of steps by the weary
housewife. If desirable to reset the table at once after a meal, the
waiter will be found most serviceable as a place whereon the glassware
and silverware may be washed. It is equally serviceable for holding the
utensils and material needed when cooking; being so easily moved, they
can be rolled to the stove and is always convenient.

[Illustration: The Handy Waiter.]

WALL CABINET.--where cupboard space is limited, or where for
convenience it is desirable to have some provision for supplies and
utensils near the range and baking table, a wall cabinet offers a most
convenient arrangement. It may be made of a size to fit in any
convenient niche, and constructed plainly or made as ornamental as one
pleases, with doors to exclude the dust, shelves on which to keep tin
cans filled with rice, oatmeal, cracked wheat, and other grains; glass
jars of raisins, sugar, citron, cornstarch, etc.; hooks on which may
hang the measures, egg-beater, potato masher, and such frequently needed
utensils; and with drawers for paring knives, spoons, and similar
articles, the wall cabinet becomes a _multum in parvo_ of convenience
which would greatly facilitate work in many households.

[Illustration: Wall Cabinet.]

PERCOLATE HOLDER.--The accompanying cut illustrates an
easily-constructed device for holding a jelly bag or percolate. It may
be so made as to be easily screwed to any ordinary table, and will save
the housekeeper far more than its cost in time and patience.

KNEADING TABLE.--Much of the tiresome labor of bread-making can be
avoided if one is supplied with some convenient table similar to the one
represented in the cut, wherein the needed material and utensils may be
kept in readiness at all times. The table illustrated has two large tin
drawers, each divided into two compartments, in which may be kept corn
meal, entire wheat, and Graham and white flours. Two drawers above
provide a place for rolling-pin, bread mallet, gem irons, spoons, etc.,
while a narrow compartment just beneath the hardwood top affords a place
for the kneading board. The table being on casters is easily moved to
any part of the kitchen for use.

[Illustration: Percolater Holder.]

[Illustration: Kneading Table.]

DISH-TOWEL RACK.--Nothing adds more to the ease and facility with
which the frequent dish-washings of the household may be accomplished
than clean, well-dried towels. For quick drying,--an item of great
importance if one would keep the towels fresh and sweet,--the towel rack
represented in the cut, and which can be made by any carpenter, is a
most handy device. When not in use, it can be turned up against the wall
as illustrated. It is light, affords sufficient drying space so that no
towel need be hung on top of another, and projecting out from the wall
as it does, the free circulation of air between the towels soon dries
them.

[Illustration: Dish-Towel Rack.]

KITCHEN BRUSHES.--These useful little articles can be put to such a
variety of uses that they are among the chiefest of household
conveniences. They are also so inexpensive, costing but five cents
apiece without handles and seven cents with handles, that no housewife
can afford to be without a supply of them. For the washing of dishes
with handles, the outside of iron kettles, and other cooking utensils
made of iron, they are especially serviceable. The smaller sizes are
likewise excellent for cleaning cut glass ware, Majolica ware,--in fact,
any kind of ware with raised figures or corrugated surfaces. For
cleaning a grater, nothing is superior to one of these little brushes.
Such a brush is also most serviceable for washing celery, as the
corrugated surface of the stalk makes a thorough cleaning with the hands
a difficult operation. Then if one uses a brush with handle, ice water,
which adds to the crispness of the celery, may be used for the cleaning,
as there will be no necessity for putting the hands in the water. A
small whisk broom is also valuable for the same purpose. Such vegetables
as potatoes, turnips, etc., are best cleaned with a brush. It makes the
work less disagreeable, as the hands need not be soiled by the process,
and in no other way can the cleaning be so well and thoroughly done.

[Illustration: Vegetable Brush.]

All brushes after being used should be carefully scalded and placed
brush downward in a wire sponge basket, or hung up on hooks. If left
around carelessly, they soon acquire the musty smell of a neglected
dishcloth.



TABLE TOPICS.

    The kitchen is a chemical laboratory, in which are conducted a
    number of chemical processes by which our food is converted from its
    crudest state to condition more suitable for digestion and
    nutrition, and made more agreeable to the palate.--_Prof. Matthew
    Williams._

    Half the trouble between mistresses and maids arises from the
    disagreeable surroundings to which servants are confined. There is
    no place more dismal than the ordinary kitchen in city dwellings. It
    is half underground, ill-lighted, and unwholesome. What wonder,
    then, in the absence of sunlight, there is a lack of sunny temper
    and cheerful service? An ill-lighted kitchen is almost sure to be a
    dirty one, where germs will thrive and multiply. Let sanitary
    kitchens be provided, and we shall have more patient mistresses and
    more willing servants.--_Sel._

    A sluggish housemaid exclaimed, when scolded for the uncleanliness
    of her kitchen, "I'm sure the room would be clean enough if it were
    not for the nasty sun, which is always showing the dirty
    corners."--_Sel._

    If we would look for ready hands and willing hearts in our kitchens,
    we should make them pleasant and inviting for those who literally
    bear the "burden and heat of the day" in this department of our
    homes, where, emphatically, "woman's work is never done." We should
    no longer be satisfied to locate our kitchens in the most
    undesirable corner of the house. We should demand ample
    light,--sunshine if possible,--and justly too; for the very light
    itself is inspiring to the worker. It will stir up cheer and breed
    content in the minds of those whose lot is cast in this work-a-day
    room.--_Sel._

    Any invention on the part of the housekeeper intended to be a
    substitute for watchfulness, will prove a delusion and a
    snare.--_Sel._

    "The first wealth is health," says Emerson.

    A knowledge of sanitary principles should be regarded as an
    essential part of every woman's education, and obedience to sanitary
    laws should be ranked, as it was in the Mosaic code, as a religious
    duty.--_Sel._

    Much of the air of the house comes from the cellar. A heated house
    acts like a chimney. A German experimenter states that one half of
    the cellar air makes its way into the first story, one third into
    the second, and one fifth into the third.



CEREALS AND THEIR PREPARATION FOR THE TABLE

Cereal is the name given to those seeds used as food (wheat, rye, oats,
barley, corn, rice, etc.), which are produced by plants belonging to the
vast order known as the grass family. They are used for food both in the
unground state and in various forms of mill products.

The grains are pre-eminently nutritious, and when well prepared, easily
digested foods. In composition they are all similar, but variations in
their constituent elements and the relative amounts of these various
elements, give them different degrees of alimentary value. They each
contain one or more of the nitrogenous elements,--gluten, albumen,
caseine, and fibrin,--together with starch, dextrine, sugar, and fatty
matter, and also mineral elements and woody matter, or cellulose. The
combined nutritive value of the grain foods is nearly three times that
of beef, mutton, or poultry. As regards the proportion of the food
elements necessary to meet the various requirements of the system,
grains approach more nearly the proper standard than most other foods;
indeed, wheat contains exactly the correct proportion of the food
elements.

Being thus in themselves so nearly perfect foods, and when properly
prepared, exceedingly palatable and easy of digestion, it is a matter of
surprise that they are not more generally used; yet scarcely one family
in fifty makes any use of the grains, save in the form of flour, or an
occasional dish of rice or oatmeal. This use of grains is far too meager
to adequately represent their value as an article of diet. Variety in
the use of grains is as necessary as in the use of other food material,
and the numerous grain preparations now to be found in market render it
quite possible to make this class of foods a staple article of diet, if
so desired, without their becoming at all monotonous.

In olden times the grains were largely depended upon as a staple food,
and it is a fact well authenticated by history that the highest
condition of man has always been associated with wheat-consuming
nations. The ancient Spartans, whose powers of endurance are proverbial,
were fed on a grain diet, and the Roman soldiers who under Caesar
conquered the world, carried each a bag of parched grain in his pocket
as his daily ration.

Other nationalities at the present time make extensive use of the
various grains. Rice used in connection with some of the leguminous
seeds, forms the staple article of diet for a large proportion of the
human race. Rice, unlike the other grain foods, is deficient in the
nitrogenous elements, and for this reason its use needs to be
supplemented by other articles containing an excess of the nitrogenous
material. It is for this reason, doubtless, that the Hindoos use
lentils, and the Chinese eat peas and beans in connection with rice.

We frequently meet people who say they cannot use the grains,--that they
do not agree with them. With all deference to the opinion of such
people, it may be stated that the difficulty often lies in the fact that
the grain was either not properly cooked, not properly eaten, or not
properly accompanied. A grain, simply because it is a grain, is by no
means warranted to faithfully fulfil its mission unless properly
treated. Like many another good thing excellent in itself, if found in
bad company, it is prone to create mischief, and in many cases the root
of the whole difficulty may be found in the excessive amount of sugar
used with the grain.

Sugar is not needed with grains to increase their alimentary value. The
starch which constitutes a large proportion of their food elements must
itself be converted into sugar by the digestive processes before
assimilation, hence the addition of cane sugar only increases the burden
of the digestive organs, for the pleasure of the palate. The Asiatics,
who subsist largely upon rice, use no sugar upon it, and why should it
be considered requisite for the enjoyment of wheat, rye, oatmeal,
barley, and other grains, any more than it is for our enjoyment of bread
or other articles made from these same grains? Undoubtedly the use of
grains would become more universal if they were served with less or no
sugar. The continued use of sugar upon grains has a tendency to cloy the
appetite, just as the constant use of cake or sweetened bread in the
place of ordinary bread would do. Plenty of nice, sweet cream or fruit
juice, is a sufficient dressing, and there are few persons who after a
short trial would not come to enjoy the grains without sugar, and would
then as soon think of dispensing with a meal altogether as to dispense
with the grains.

Even when served without sugar, the grains may not prove altogether
healthful unless they are properly eaten. Because they are made soft by
the process of cooking and on this account do not require masticating to
break them up, the first process of digestion or insalivation is usually
overlooked. But it must be remembered that grains are largely composed
of starch, and that starch must be mixed with the saliva, or it will
remain undigested in the stomach, since the gastric juice only digests
the nitrogenous elements. For this reason it is desirable to eat the
grains in connection with some hard food. Whole-wheat wafers, nicely
toasted to make them crisp and tender, toasted rolls, and unfermented
zwieback, are excellent for this purpose. Break two or three wafers into
rather small pieces over each individual dish before pouring on the
cream. In this way, a morsel of the hard food may be taken with each
spoonful of the grains. The combination of foods thus secured, is most
pleasing. This is a specially advantageous method of serving grains for
children, who are so liable to swallow their food without proper
mastication.

COOKING OF GRAINS.--All grains, with the exception of rice, and the
various grain meals, require prolonged cooking with gentle and
continuous heat, in order to so disintegrate their tissues and change
their starch into dextrine as to render them easy of digestion. Even the
so-called "steam-cooked" grains, advertised to be ready for use in five
or ten minutes, require a much longer cooking to properly fit them for
digestion. These so-called quickly prepared grains are simply steamed
before grinding, which has the effect to destroy any low organisms
contained in the grain. They are then crushed and shredded. Bicarbonate
of soda and lime is added to help dissolve the albuminoids, and
sometimes diastase to aid the conversion of the starch into sugar; but
there is nothing in this preparatory process that so alters the chemical
nature of the grain as to make it possible to cook it ready for easy
digestion in five or ten minutes. An insufficiently cooked grain,
although it may be palatable, is not in a condition to be readily acted
upon by the digestive fluids, and is in consequence left undigested to
act as a mechanical irritant.

[Illustration: A Double Boiler.]

For the proper cooking of grains the double boiler is the best and most
convenient utensil for ordinary purposes. If one does not possess a
double boiler, a very fair substitute may be improvised by using a
covered earthen crock placed within a kettle of boiling water, or by
using two pails, a smaller within a larger one containing boiling water.

A closed steamer or steam-cooker is also valuable for the cooking of
grains. Grains may be cooked in an ordinary kettle, but the difficulties
to be encountered, in order to prolong the cooking sufficiently and
prevent burning, make it the least desirable utensil for this purpose.

Water is the liquid usually employed for cooking grains, but many of
them are richer and finer flavored when milk is mixed with the
water,--one part to two of water. Especially is this true of rice,
hominy, and farina. When water is used, soft water is preferable to
hard. No salt is necessary, but if used at all, it is generally added to
the water before stirring in the grain or meal.

The quantity of liquid required varies with the different grains, the
manner in which they are milled, the method by which they are cooked,
and the consistency desired for the cooked grain, more liquid being
required for a porridge than for a mush. The following table gives the
time necessary for cooking and the quantity of liquid required for the
various grains, with the exception of rice, when cooked in a double
boiler or closed steamer, to produce a mush of ordinary consistency. If
an ordinary kettle is used for cooking the grains, a larger quantity of
water will be needed:--


TABLE SHOWING PROPORTION OF GRAIN AND LIQUID REQUIRED, WITH APPROXIMATE
TIME, WHEN A DOUBLE BOILER IS USED.

                         Quantity of       Water        Hours to
                           Grain.        Required.        Cook.
    Graham Grits          1 part           4 parts        3 to 5
    Rolled Wheat          1   "            3   "          3 to 4
    Cracked "             1   "          4-1/2 "          3 to 4
    Pearl   "             1   "            4   "          4 to 5
    Whole   "             1   "            5   "          6 to 8
    Rolled Oats           1   "            3   "          3 to 4
    Coarse Oatmeal        1   "            4   "          4 to 6
    Rolled Rye            1   "            3   "          3 to 4
    Pearl Barley          1   "            5   "          4 to 5
    Coarse Hominy         1   "            5   "          6 to 10
    Fine Hominy           1   "            4   "          4 to 6
    Cerealine             1   "            1 part          1/2

All grains should be carefully looked over before being put to cook.

In the cooking of grains, the following points should be observed:--

1. Measure both liquid and grain accurately with the same utensil, or
with two of equal size.

2. Have the water boiling when the grain is introduced, but do not
allow it to boil for a long time previous, until it is considerably
evaporated, as that will change the proportion of water and grain
sufficiently to alter the consistency of the mush when cooked. Introduce
the grain slowly, so as not to stop the sinking to the bottom, and the
whole becomes thickened. If the grain is cooked in a double boiler, this
first boiling should be done with the inner dish directly over the fire,
and when the grain has thickened or become "set," as it is termed, the
dish should at once be placed in the outer boiler, the water in which
should be boiling. It will then require no further care during the
entire cooking, safe to keep the outer boiler filled and the water
boiling. If the grain is to be cooked in a steam-cooker, as soon as set
it may be turned into a china or an earthen dish, suitable for use on
the table, and placed at once in the steamer to complete the cooking. If
an ordinary kettle is used, it is well to place it upon an iron ring or
brick on some part of the range were it will just simmer, for the
remainder of the cooking.

3. Stir the grain continuously until it has set, but not at all
afterward. Grains are much more appetizing if, while properly softened,
they can still be made to retain their original form. Stirring renders
the preparation pasty, and destroys its appearance. Grains cooked in a
double boiler will require no stirring, and there will be little danger
of their being lumpy, underdone on top, and scorched at the bottom, as
is so often the case when cooked in a single boiler.

4. Cook continuously. If it be necessary to replenish the water in the
outer boiler at anytime, let it be done with water of boiling
temperature. If it is desired to have the mush quite thick and dry, the
boiler should be left uncovered during the latter part of the cooking.
If preferred moist, keep the cover on.

In the preparation of all mushes with meal or flour, it is a good plan
to make the material into a batter with a portion of the liquid retained
from the quantity given, before introducing it into the boiling water.
This prevents the tendency to cook in lumps, so frequent when dry meal
is scattered into boiling liquid. Care must be taken, however, to add
the moistened portion very slowly, stirring vigorously meantime, so that
the boiling will not be checked. Use warm water for moistening. The
other directions given for the whole or broken grains are applicable to
the ground products.

GRAINS FOR BREAKFAST.--Since hasty preparation will not suffice for
the grains, they cannot be conveniently cooked in the morning in time
for breakfast. This difficulty may be obviated by cooking the day
previous, and reheating in the following way:--

Place the grain, when sufficiently cooked, in the refrigerator or in
some place where it will cool quickly (as slow cooling might cause
fermentation), to remain overnight. If cooked in a porcelain-lined or
granite-ware double boiler, it may be left undisturbed, if uncovered. If
cooked in tin or iron, turn the grain into a large earthen or china
dish. To heat in the morning, fill the outer boiler with boiling water,
place the inner dish containing the grain therein, and steam until
thoroughly heated. No stirring and no additional liquid will be
necessary, and if placed upon the stove when beginning the preparations
for breakfast, it will be ready for serving in good season. If the grain
has been kept in an earthen dish, it may best be reheated by placing
that inside the steam cooker or an ordinary steamer over a kettle of
boiling water.

Cracked wheat, pearl wheat, oatmeal, and other course grain preparations
to be reheated, require for cooking a half cup of water in addition to
the quantity given in the table. For rolled wheat, rolled oats, rolled
rye, and other crushed grains, no more is needed. Grains may be used for
breakfast without reheating, if served with hot milk or cream. If one
has an Aladdin oven, the problem of grains for breakfast may be easily
solved by cooking them all night, and if started late in the evening,
they may be thus cooked over a single burner oil stove with the flame
turned low.

GRAINS AN ECONOMICAL FOOD.--While grains are pre-eminently among
the most nutritious of foods, they are also among the most economical,
the average price being from five to seven cents a pound, and even less
when purchased in bulk. If it be objected that they require much fuel to
secure the prolonged cooking necessary, we would say that a few cents'
worth of oil a week and a small lamp stove will accomplish the cooking
in a most efficient manner. For a hot-weather food there are few
articles which give greater satisfaction and require less time and labor
on the part of the housewife than grains, cooked by the aid of a small
lamp stove.

WHEAT.

DESCRIPTION.--Wheat is the most important of the grain foods. It is
probably a native of Southwestern Asia, though like most grains
cultivated from the earliest periods, its history is extremely obscure.

Wheat is of two principal kinds, characterized as soft and hard wheat,
though there are hundreds of named varieties of the grain. The
distinction between many of these is due to variation in the relative
proportions of starch and nitrogenous matter. Some contain not more than
eight per cent of nitrogenous elements, while others contain eighteen or
twenty per cent, with a corresponding decrease in carbonaceous elements.
This difference depends upon the soil, cultivation, season, climate, and
other conditions under which the grain is produced.

The structure of the wheat grain consists of an external tegument of a
hard, woody nature, so coherent that it appears in the form of scales or
bran when the wheat is ground, and an inner portion, more soft and
friable, consisting of several cellular layers. The layer nearest the
outer husk contains vegetable fibrin and fatty matter. The second layer
is largely composed of gluten cells; while the center comprising the
bulk of the grain, is chiefly made up of starch granules with a small
proportion of gluten.

The structure of a wheat kernel is well illustrated in the are situated
in different parts of the grain, and not uniformly distributed
throughout its structure. The outer husk of the berry is composed wholly
of innutritious and indigestible matter, but the thin layers which lie
next this outer covering contain the larger proportion of the
nitrogenous elements to be found in the entire kernel. The central
portion consists almost wholly of farinaceous matter.

[Illustration: Sectional View of Wheat Kernel.]

Phosphates and other mineral matter are present to some extent
throughout the entire grain, but preponderates in the external part.
Here is also found a peculiar, soluble, active principle called
diastase, which possesses the power of converting starch into sugar. The
dark color and marked flavor of Graham bread is undoubtedly due to the
influence of this element.

Until within a few years the unground grain was rarely used as an
article of food, but people are beginning to appreciate its
wholesomeness, and cracked, rolled, and pearled wheats are coming
rapidly into favor. Cracked wheat is the grain cleaned and then cut into
two or more pieces; in rolled wheat the grains are mashed between
rollers, by which process they are thoroughly softened in every part,
and are then easily cooked. Pearl wheat is the whole grain cleaned and
dressed. The whole grain is also cooked sometimes in its natural state.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Few articles of food show greater
difference between good and poor cooking than the various grains. Dry,
harsh, or underdone, they are as unwholesome as unpalatable. Like most
of the grains, wheat, with the exception of new wheat boiled whole,
should be put into boiling water and allowed to cook continuously but
slowly until done. Any of the unground preparations require prolonged
cooking. The average length of time and the approximate amount of water
needed in cooking _one cupful_ of the various wheat preparations in a
double boiler is stated on page 82.

_RECIPES._

PEARL WHEAT.--Heat a quart of water to boiling in the inner dish of
a double boiler, and stir into it one cup or one-half pint of pearl
wheat. Let it boil rapidly until thickened and the wheat has ceased
settling, then place in the outer boiler, in which the water should be
boiling, and cook continuously from three to four hours.

CRACKED WHEAT.--Cracked wheat may be cooked in the same manner as
pearl wheat, by using four and one-half parts of water to one of grain.
The length of time required to cook it thoroughly is about the same as
for pearl wheat.

ROLLED WHEAT.--This preparation of wheat requires only three parts
water to one of wheat. It should be cooked in the same way as pearled
wheat, but requires only three hours' cooking.

BOILED WHEAT (sometimes called frumenty).--Select newly-cut wheat,
well rubbed or threshed out. Look it over carefully, wash, and put to
cook in five times its measure of cold water. Let it come to a boil, and
cook gently until the grains burst open, and it can be readily mashed
between the thumb and finger. This will require from four to ten hours,
depending upon the age and variety of the wheat used. When done, it
should be even full of a rich, thick liquor. If necessary, add more
boiling water, but stir as little as possible. It may be served with
cream, the same as other wheat preparations. It is also excellent served
with lemon and other fruit sauces.

WHEAT WITH RAISINS.--Raisins or Zante currants may be added to any
of the foregoing recipes, if desired. The raisins or currants should be
well steamed previously, however, and stirred in lightly and evenly just
before dishing. If cooked with the grain, they become soft, broken, and
insipid. Figs, well steamed and chopped, may be added in the same way.

WHEAT WITH FRESH FRUIT.--Fresh whortleberries, blueberries, and
blackberries stirred into any of the well-cooked wheat preparations just
before serving, make a very desirable addition. A most delicious dish
may be prepared by stirring into well-cooked cracked wheat a few
spoonfuls of rather thick cream and some fresh wild blackberries. Serve
hot.

MOLDED WHEAT.--Cracked wheat, rolled wheat, or pearl wheat, cooked
according to the foregoing recipes, and turned into molds until cold,
makes a very palatable dessert, and may be served with sugar and cream
or with fruit juice. Bits of jelly placed on top of the molds in the
form of stars or crosses, add to the appearance. Molded grains are also
very nice served with fresh berries, either mashed or whole, arranged
around the mold.


FINER MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT.

The grain of wheat is inclosed in a woody envelope. The cellular layers
just beneath contain the largest proportion of nitrogenous matter, in
the form of gluten, and are hard of pulverization, while the starchy
heart of the grain is easily crumbled into fine dust. Thus it will be
readily understood that when the grain is subjected to an equal
pulverizing force, the several portions will be likely to be crushed
into particles of different sizes. The outer husk being toughest, will
be the least affected, the nitrogenous or glutenous portion will be much
finer, while the brittle starch will be reduced to powder. This first
simple product of grinding is termed wheat meal, unbolted, or Graham
flour, and of course contains all the elements of the grain. In ordinary
milling, however, this is subjected to various siftings, boltings, or
dressings, to separate the finer from the coarser particles, and then
subdivided into various grades of flour, which vary much in composition
and properties. The coarser product contains the largest proportion of
nutrients, while in the finer portions there is an exclusion of a large
part of the nitrogenous element of the grain. The outer portions of the
wheat kernel, which contain the greater part of the nitrogenous element,
are darker in color than the central, starchy portion. It will be
apparent, then, that the finer and whiter the flour, the less nutriment
it is likely to contain, and that in the use of superfine white flour
the eye is gratified at the expense of the body.

A preparation called farina, is made from the central portion of wheat,
freed from bran, and crushed into granules. Another preparation, called
Graham grits, is prepared by granulating the outer layers of the kernel
together with the germ of the wheat. This preparation, comparatively a
new one, includes the most nutritious properties of the grain, and its
granular form renders it excellent for mushes as well as for other
purposes. Farina is scarcely more nutritious than white flour, and
should not be used as a staple food. Graham grits contains the best
elements of the wheat grain in good proportion, and is one of the best
preparations of wheat. Other preparations of wheat somewhat similar in
character are farinose, germlet, etc.


_RECIPES._

FARINA.--Heat a pint of milk and one of water, or if preferred, a
quart of milk, in the inner cup of a double boiler; and when boiling,
stir in five tablespoonfuls of farina, moistened evenly with a little
milk. Let it boil rapidly until well set, which will be in about five or
eight minutes; then place in the outer boiler, and cook one hour. Serve
cold or hot with a dressing of cream or fruit juices. Farina may be
cooked in water alone, but on account of its lack of nutritive elements,
it is more valuable if prepared with milk.

FARINA WITH FIG SAUCE.--Cook the farina as in the foregoing recipe,
and serve hot with a fig sauce prepared as follows:--

Carefully look over, washed, and chop or cut quite finally, enough good
figs to make a cupful. Stew in a pint of water, to which has been added
a tablespoonful of sugar, until they are one homogeneous mass. If the
figs are not of the best quality and do not readily soften, it is well,
after stewing for a time, to rub them through a colander or vegetable
press to break up the tough portions and make a smooth sauce. Put a
spoonful of the hot fig sauce on each individual dish of farina, and
serve with cream or without dressing.

FARINA WITH FRESH FRUIT.--Cook the farina as previously directed.
Have some sliced yellow peaches, mellow sweet apples, or bananas in a
dish, turn the farina over them, stir up lightly with a fork, and serve
hot with cream.

MOLDED FARINA.--Farina to be used cold may be cooked in the same
manner as before described, with two or three tablespoonfuls of sugar
added at the same time with the farina, and when done, molded in cups
previously wet with a little cold water. Serve with a dressing of fruit
juice, whipped cream flavored with lemon, or mock cream flavored with
cocoanut.

GRAHAM GRITS.--To four parts of water boiling in the inner dish of
a double boiler add slowly, so as not to stop the boiling of the water,
one part of Graham grits. Stir until thickened, then place in the outer
boiler, and steam from three to five hours. Serve hot with cream, or
mold in cups previously dipped in cold water, and serve with a dressing
of fruit juice. The fig sauce prepared as previously directed, is also
excellent with Graham grits.

GRAHAM MUSH NO. 1.--Good flour is the first requisite for making
good Graham mush. Poor Graham flour cannot be made into first-class
mush. Flour made from the best white winter wheat is perhaps the best.
It may be used either sifted or unsifted, as preferred. The proportion
of flour and liquid to be used will necessarily vary somewhat with the
quality of the flour, but in general, three parts water to one of flour
will be needed. Too much flour not only makes the mush too thick, but
gives it an underdone taste. Stir the dried flour rapidly into boiling
water, (which should not cease to boil during the process), until a
thick porridge is obtained. It is well to have it a little thinner at
first than is desirable for serving, as it will thicken by cooking. Cook
slowly at least one hour. A longer time makes it more digestible.

Left-over Graham mush is nice spread on rather shallow tins, and simply
heated quickly in a hot oven.

GRAHAM MUSH NO. 2.--Moisten one pint of good Graham flour with a
pint of warm water, or enough to make a batter thin enough to pour. (The
quantity of water needed will vary a little with the fineness and
quality of the flour.) Pour this batter into a quart of water boiling in
the inner cup of a double boiler. Remember to add the batter
sufficiently slow, so as not to stop the boiling of the water. When
thickened, put into the outer boiler, and cook for one hour.

GRAHAM MUSH NO. 3.--Prepare in the same way as above, using milk or
part milk in the place of water. Left-over Graham mush at breakfast,
which has been prepared with water, is very nice if, while it is still
warm, a small quantity of hot milk is well stirred into it, and it is
then set by to be reheated in a double boiler for dinner.

GRAHAM MUSH WITH DATES.--Prepare a mush as for Graham mush No. 2.
When done, place in the dish in which the mush is to be served, some
nice, fresh dates from which the stones have been removed. Pour the mush
over them, and stir up lightly, taking care not to break the fruit, and
serve. Raisins previously steamed, or figs steamed and cut into pieces,
may be used instead of dates. Serve hot with cream, or mold, and serve
cold.

PLUM PORRIDGE.--Prepare a Graham mush as previously directed, and
when done, add to it a cup of well-steamed raisins and sufficient rich
milk to thin it to the consistency of porridge.

GRAHAM APPLE MUSH.--Prepare a smooth apple sauce of rather tart
apples. Sweeten it slightly, and thin with boiling water. Have this
mixture boiling, and add to it Graham flour, either sprinkled in dry or
moistened with water, sufficient to make a well-thickened mush. Cook,
and serve hot with cream.

GRANOLA MUSH.--Granola, a cooked preparation of wheat and oats,
manufactured by the Sanatarium Food Co., makes a most appetizing and
quickly prepared breakfast dish. Into a quart of boiling water sprinkle
a pint of granola. Cook for two or three minutes, and serve hot with
cream.

GRANOLA FRUIT MUSH.--Prepare the mush as directed, and stir into
it, when done, a large cupful of nicely-steamed, seedless raisins. Serve
hot with cream. Milk may be used instead of water, if preferred.

GRANOLA PEACH MUSH.--Instead of the raisins as directed in the
foregoing recipe, add to the mush, when done, a pint of sliced yellow
peaches. Finely-cut, mellow sweet apples, sliced bananas, and
blueberries may be used in a similar way.

BRAN JELLY.--Select some clean wheat bran, sprinkle it slowly into
boiling water as for Graham mush, stirring briskly meanwhile with a
wooden spoon, until the whole is about the consistency of thick gruel.
Cook slowly in a double boiler for two hours. Strain through a fine wire
sieve placed over the top of a basin. When strained, reheat to boiling.
Then stir into it a spoonful or so of sifted Graham flour, rubbed smooth
in a little cold water. Boil up once; turn into molds previously wet in
cold water, and when cool, serve with cream or fruit juice.


THE OAT, OR AVENA.

DESCRIPTION.--The native country of the plant from which our common
varieties of the oat are derived, is unknown. Oat grains have been found
among the remains of the lake-dwellers in Switzerland, and it is
probable that this plant was cultivated by the prehistoric inhabitants
of Central Europe.

The ancient Greeks and Romans used oats, ranking them next in value to
barley, which they esteemed above all other cereals. Although
principally grown as food for horses, the oat, when divested of its husk
and broken by a process of milling, is an exceedingly nutritious and
valuable article of diet for human beings; and there is no article of
food that has increased in general favor more rapidly in the last few
years than this grain.

The Scotch have long been famed for their large consumption of oatmeal.
It forms the staple article of diet for the peasantry, to which fact is
generally attributed the fine physique and uniform health for which
they, as a race, are particularly noted. It is related that Dr. Johnson,
of dictionary fame, who never lost an opportunity to disparage the
Scotch, on one occasion defined oats as, "In Scotland, food for men; in
England, food for horses." He was well answered by an indignant
Scotchman who replied, "Yes; and where can you find such fine men as in
Scotland, or such horses as in England?"

Oatmeal justly ranks high as an alimentary substance. It contains about
the same proportion of nitrogenous elements as wheat, and with the
exception of maize, is richer in fatty matter than any other of the
cultivated cereals. In general structure the oat resembles wheat.

To prepare oats for food, the husk, which is wholly indigestible in
character, must be thoroughly removed. To accomplish this, the grain is
first kiln-dried to loosen the husk, and afterward submitted to a
process of milling. Denuded of its integument, the nutritive part of the
grain is termed groats; broken into finer particles, it constitutes what
is known as oatmeal; rolled oats, or avena, is prepared by a process
which crushes the kernels. Oatmeal varies also in degrees of
trituration, some kinds being ground much finer than others. The more
finely-ground products are sometimes adulterated with barley meal, which
is cheaper than oatmeal and less nutritious. The black specks which are
sometimes found in oatmeal are particles of black oats which have been
ground in connection with the other.

Oatmeal lacks the tenacity of wheaten flour, and cannot, without the
addition of some other flour, be made into light bread. It is, however,
largely consumed by the inhabitants of Scotland and the north of
England, in the form of oatcakes. The oatmeal is mixed with water,
kneaded thoroughly, then rolled into very thin cakes, and baked on an
iron plate or griddle suspended over a fire. So much, however, depends
upon the kneading, that it is said that the common inquiry before the
engagement of a domestic servant in Scotland, is whether or not she is a
good kneader of oatcakes.

The most common use of oatmeal in this country is in the form of mush or
porridge. For this the coarser grades of meal are preferable. For people
in health, there is no more wholesome article of diet than oatmeal
cooked in this way and eaten with milk. For growing children, it is one
of the best of foods, containing, as it does, a large proportion of bone
and muscle-forming material, while to almost all persons who have become
accustomed to its use, it is extremely palatable. The time required for
its digestion is somewhat longer than that of wheaten meal prepared in
the same manner. It is apt to disagree with certain classes of
dyspeptics, having a tendency to produce acidity, though it is
serviceable as an article of diet in some forms of indigestion. The
manner of its preparation for the table has very much to do with its
wholesomeness. Indeed, many objectionable dishes are prepared from it.
One of these, called _brose_, much used in Scotland, is made by simply
stirring oatmeal into some hot liquid, as beef broth, or the water in
which a vegetable has been boiled. The result is a coarse, pasty mass of
almost raw oatmeal, an extremely indigestible compound, the use of which
causes water brash. A preparation called _sowens_, or flummery, made by
macerating the husks of the oats in water from twenty-four to thirty-six
hours, until the mixture ferments, then boiling down to the consistency
of gruel, is a popular article of food among the Scotch and Welsh
peasantry. When boiled down still more, so it will form a firm jelly
when cold, the preparation is called _budrum_.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Oatmeal requires much cooking in order to
break its starch cells; and the coarser the meal, the longer it should
be allowed to cook. A common fault in the use of oatmeal is that it is
served in an underdone state, which makes a coarse, indigestible dish of
what, with more lengthy preparation, would be an agreeable and
nutritious food. Like most of the grains, it is best put into boiling
soft water, and allowed to cook continuously and slowly. It is greatly
injured by stirring, and it is therefore preferably cooked in a double
boiler or closed steamer. If it is necessary to use an ordinary kettle,
place it on some part of the range where the contents will only simmer;
or a hot brick may be placed under it to keep it from cooking too fast.
It may be cooked the day previous, and warmed for use the same as other
grains.


RECIPES.

OATMEAL MUSH.--Heat a quart of water to boiling in the inner dish
of a double boiler, sift into it one cup of coarse oatmeal, and boil
rapidly, stirring continuously until it sets; then place in the outer
boiler, the water in which should be boiling, and cook three hours or
longer. Serve with cream.

OATMEAL FRUIT MUSH.--Prepare the oatmeal as directed above, and
stir in lightly, when dishing for the table, some sliced mellow and
juicy raw sweet apples. Strawberry apples and other slightly tart apples
are likewise excellent for the purpose. Well-ripened peaches and bananas
may also be used, if care is taken to preserve the slices whole, so as
to present an appetizing appearance. Both this and the plain oatmeal
mush are best eaten with toasted whole-wheat wafers or some other hard
food.

OATMEAL BLANCMANGE NO. 1.--Soak a cupful of coarse oatmeal over
night in a pint and a half of water. In the morning, beat the oatmeal
well with a spoon, and afterwards pass all the soluble portion through a
fine strainer. Place the liquid in the inner dish of a double boiler,
and cook for half an hour. Turn into cups, cool fifteen or twenty
minutes, and serve warm with cream and sugar, or a dressing of fruit
juice. A lemon sauce prepared as directed on page 354 likewise makes an
excellent dressing.

OATMEAL BLANCMANGE NO. 2.--Take a pint of well-cooked oatmeal, add
to it a pint of milk, part cream if obtainable. Beat well together, and
strain through a fine wire sieve. Turn the liquid into a saucepan, and
boil for a few moments, until it is thick enough to drop from the point
of a spoon; then turn into cups previously wet in cold water, and mold.
Serve with a dressing of fruit juice or whipped cream slightly sweetened
and flavored with lemon.

JELLIED OATMEAL.--Cook oatmeal or rolled oats with an additional
cup or cup and a half of water, and when done, turned into cups and
mold. Serve cold with hot cream.

MIXED MUSH.--A cup and a half of rolled wheat, mixed with one-half
cup of coarse oatmeal, and cooked the same as oatmeal, forms a mush
preferred by some to oatmeal alone.

ROLLED OATS.--This preparation of oats should be cooked the same
as oatmeal, but requires only three parts water to one of rolled oats,
when cooked in a double boiler.

OATMEAL WITH APPLE.--Cold oatmeal which has been left over may be
made into an appetising dish by molding in alternate layers with
nicely-steamed tart apple, sprinkled lightly with sugar. Serve with
cream. Other cooked fruit, such as cherries, evaporated peaches, and
apricots may be used in the same way. A very pleasing dish is made by
using between the layers ripe yellow peaches and plums sliced together,
and lightly sprinkled with sugar.

OATMEAL PORRIDGE.--Into a quart and a half of water, which should
be boiling in the inner dish of a double boiler, sprinkle one cup of
rather coarse oatmeal. Boil rapidly, stirring meanwhile until the grain
is set; then place in the outer boiler, and cook continuously for three
hours or longer. A half cup of cream added just before serving, is a
desirable addition.


BARLEY.

DESCRIPTION.--Barley is stated by historians to be the oldest of
all cultivated grains. It seems to have been the principal bread plant
among the ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. The Jews especially held
the grain in high esteem, and sacred history usually uses it
interchangeably with wheat, when speaking of the fruits of the Earth.

Among the early Greeks and Romans, barley was almost the only food of
the common people and the soldiers. The flour was made into gruel, after
the following recipe: "Dry, near the fire or in the oven, twenty pounds
of barley flour, then parch it. Add three pounds of linseed meal, half a
pound of coriander seeds, two ounces of salt, and the water necessary."
If an especially delectable dish was desired, a little millet was also
added to give the paste more "cohesion and delicacy." Barley was also
used whole as a food, in which case it was first parched, which is still
the manner of preparing it in some parts of Palestine and many districts
of India, also in the Canary Islands, where it is known as _gofio_. Of
this custom a lady from Palestine writes: "The reapers, during barley
harvest, take bunches of the half-ripe grain, and singe, or parch, it
over a fire of thorns. The milk being still in the grain, it is very
sweet, and is considered a delicacy."

In the time of Charles I, barley meal took the place of wheat almost
entirely as the food of the common people in England. In some parts of
Europe, India, and other Eastern countries, it is still largely consumed
as the ordinary farinaceous food of the peasantry and soldiers. The
early settlers of New England also largely used it for bread making. At
the present day only a very insignificant quantity of barley is used for
food purposes in this country, and most of this in the unground state.

Barley is less nutritious than wheat, and to many people is less
agreeable in flavor. It is likewise somewhat inferior in point of
digestibility. Its starch cells being less soluble, they offer more
resistance to the gastric juice.

There are several distinct species of barley, but that most commonly
cultivated is designated as two-rowed, or two-eared barley. In general
structure, the barley grain resembles wheat and oats.

Simply deprived of its outer husk, the grain is termed _Scotch milled_
or _pot barley_. Subjected still further to the process by which the
fibrous outer coat of the grain is removed, it constitutes what is known
as _pearl barley_. Pearl barley ground into flour is known as _patent
barley_. Barley flour, owing to the fact that it contains so small a
proportion of gluten, needs to be mixed with wheaten flour for
bread-making purposes. When added in small quantity to whole-wheat
bread, it has a tendency to keep the loaf moist, and is thought by some
to improve the flavor.

The most general use made of this cereal as a food, is in the form of
pearl, or Scotch, barley. When well boiled, barley requires about two
hours for digestion.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR COOKING BARLEY.--The conditions requisite
for cooking barley are essentially the same as for oatmeal. It is best
cooked slowly. Four parts of water to one of grain will be needed for
steaming or cooking in a double boiler, and from four to five hours'
time will be required, unless the grain has been previously soaked for
several hours, in which case three hours will do. If the strong flavor
of the grain is objected to, it may be soaked over night and cooked in
fresh water. This method will, however, be a sacrifice of some of the
nutriment contained in the grain. Barley thus soaked will require only
three parts water to one of barley for cooking.


_RECIPES._

BAKED BARLEY.--Soak six tablespoonfuls of barley in cold water over
night. In the morning, turn off the water, and put the barley in an
earthen pudding dish, and pour three and one half pints of boiling water
over it; add salt if desired, and bake in a moderately quick oven about
two and one half hours, or till perfectly soft, and all the water is
absorbed. When about half done, add four or five tablespoonfuls of sugar
mixed with grated lemon peel. It may be eaten warm, but is very nice
molded in cups and served cold with cream.

PEARL BARLEY WITH RAISINS.--Carefully look over and wash a cupful
of pearl barley. Cook in a double boiler in five cups of boiling water
for four hours. Just before serving, add a cupful of raisins which have
been prepared by pouring boiling water over them and allowing them to
stand until swollen. Serve hot, with cream.

PEARL BARLEY WITH LEMON SAUCE.--Pearl barley cooked in the same
manner, but without the addition of the raisins, is excellent served
with cream or with a lemon sauce prepared as directed on page 354.


RICE.

DESCRIPTION.--Rice is one of the most abundantly used and most
digestible of all the cereals. It grows wild in India, and it is
probable that this is its native home. It is, however, now cultivated in
most tropical and sub-tropical climates, and is said to supply the
principal food for nearly one third of the human race. It is mentioned
in history several hundred years before Christ. According to Soyer, an
old writer on foods, the Greeks and Romans held rice in high esteem,
believing it to be a panacea for chest and lung diseases.

The grain is so largely grown and used by the Chinese that "fan," their
word for rice, has come to enter into many compound words. A beggar is
called a "tou-fan-tee," that is, "the rice-seeking one." The ordinary
salutation, "Che-fan," which answers to our "How do you do?" means,
"Have you eaten your rice?"

Rice requires a wet soil, and the fields in which the grain is raised,
sometimes called "paddy" fields, are periodically irrigated. Before
ripening, the water is drained off, and the crop is then cut with a
sickle, made into shocks, stacked, threshed, and cleaned, much like
wheat. The rice kernel is inclosed within two coverings, a course outer
husk, which is easily removed, and an inner, reddish, siliceous coating.

"Paddy" is the name given in India to the rice grain when inclosed in
its husk. The same is termed "rough rice" in this country. The outer
husk of the rice is usually removed in the process of threshing, but the
inner red skin, or hull, adheres very closely, and is removed by rubbing
and pounding. The rough rice is first ground between large stones, and
then conveyed into mortars, and pounded with iron-shod pestles. Thence,
by fanning and screening, the husk is fully removed, and the grain
divided into three different grades, whole, middlings, and small whole
grains, and polished ready for market. The middlings consist of the
larger broken pieces of the grain; the small rice, of the small
fragments mixed with the chit of the grain. The broken rice, well dried,
is sometimes ground into flour of different degrees of fineness. The
small rice is much sweeter and somewhat superior in point of nutritive
value to the large or head rice usually met with in commerce.

Rice is characterized by a large percentage of starch, and is so
deficient in other food elements that if used alone, unless consumed in
very large quantities, it will not furnish the requisite amount of
nitrogenous material necessary for a perfect health food. For this
reason, it is necessary to supplement its use with some other food
containing an excess of nitrogenous elements, as peas, beans, milk, etc.
Associated with other articles rich in albuminous elements, rice is
exceedingly valuable, and one of the most easily digested foods. Boiled
or steamed rice requires but a little over one hour for digestion.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Rice needs to be thoroughly washed to
remove the earthy taste it is so apt to have. A good way to do this is
to put it into a colander, in a deep pan of water. Rub the rice well
with the hands, lifting the colander in and out the water, and changing
the water until it is clear; then drain. In this way the grit is
deposited in the water, and the rice left thoroughly clean.

The best method of cooking rice is by steaming it. If boiled in much
water, it loses a portion of its already small percentage of nitrogenous
elements. It requires much less time for cooking than any of the other
grains. Like all the dried grains and seeds, rice swells in cooking to
several times its original bulk. When cooked, each grain of rice should
be separate and distinct, yet perfectly tender.


RECIPES.

STEAMED RICE.--Soak a cup of rice in one and a fourth cups of water
for an hour, then add a cup of milk, turn into an earthen dish suitable
for serving it from at table, and place in a steam-cooker or a covered
steamer over a kettle of boiling water, and steam for an hour. It should
be stirred with a fork occasionally, for the first ten or fifteen
minutes.

BOILED RICE (Japanese method).--Thoroughly cleanse the rice by
washing in several waters, and soak it overnight. In the morning, drain
it, and put to cook in an equal quantity of boiling water, that is, a
pint of water for a pint of rice. For cooking, a stewpan with tightly
fitting cover should be used. Heat the water to boiling, then add the
rice, and after stirring, put on the cover, which is not again to be
removed during the boiling. At first, as the water boils, steam will
puff out freely from under the cover, but when the water has nearly
evaporated, which will be in eight to ten minutes, according to the age
and quality of the rice, only a faint suggestion of steam will be
observed, and the stewpan must then be removed from over the fire to
some place on the range, where it will not burn, to swell and dry for
fifteen or twenty minutes.

Rice to be boiled in the ordinary manner requires two quarts of boiling
water to one cupful of rice. It should be boiled rapidly until tender,
then drained at once, and set in a moderate oven to become dry. Picking
and lifting lightly occasionally with a fork will make it more flaky and
dry. Care must be taken, however, not to mash the rice grains.

RICE WITH FIG SAUCE.--Steam a cupful of best rice as directed
above, and when done, serve with a fig sauce prepared as directed on
page 89. Dish a spoonful of the fig sauce with each saucer of rice, and
serve with plenty of cream. Rice served in this way requires no sugar
for dressing, and is a most wholesome breakfast dish.

ORANGE RICE.--Wash and steam the rice according to directions
already given. Prepare some oranges by separating into sections and
cutting each section in halves, removing the seeds and all the white
portion. Sprinkle the oranges lightly with sugar, and let them stand
while the rice is cooking. Serve a portion of the orange on each
saucerful of rice.

RICE WITH RAISINS.--Carefully wash a cupful of rice, soak it, and
cook as directed for Steamed Rice. After the rice has began to swell,
but before it has softened, stir into it lightly, using a fork for the
purpose, a cupful of raisins, or Zante currents. Serve with cream.

RICE WITH PEACHES.--Steam the rice as previously directed, and when
done, serve with cream and a nicely ripened peach pared and sliced on
each individual dish.

BROWNED RICE.--Spread a cupful of rice on a shallow baking tin, and
put into a moderately hot oven to brown. It will need to be stirred
frequently to prevent burning and to secure a uniformity of color. Each
rice kernel, when sufficiently browned, should be of a yellowish brown,
about the color of ripened wheat. Steam the same as directed for
ordinary rice, using only two cups of water for each cup of browned
rice, and omitting the preliminary soaking. When properly cooked, each
kernel will be separated, dry, and mealy. Rice prepared in this manner
is undoubtedly more digestible than when cooked without browning.


RYE.

DESCRIPTION.--Rye is much more largely grown and used in European
countries that in America. In appearance it closely resembles wheat,
although somewhat darker in color and smaller in size. Bread made from
rye constitutes the staple food of the people in many parts of Europe.
In nutritive value such bread nearly equals that made from wheat, but it
has an acid taste not relished by persons unaccustomed to its use.

Rye is found in market deprived of its husk and crushed or rolled, and
also in the form of meal and flour.


_RECIPES._

ROLLED RYE.--Into three parts water boiling in the inner dish of a
double boiler, stir one part rolled rye. Boil rapidly until set,
stirring meanwhile, then place in the outer boiler, and cook for three
or more hours.

RYE MUSH.--Stir a cupful of rye meal to a smooth batter with a
cupful of water, then turn it slowly into three cupfuls of water, which
should be boiling on the range, in the inner dish of a double boiler.
Stir until thickened, then place in the outer boiler, and cook for an
hour or longer.


MAIZE, OR INDIAN CORN.

DESCRIPTION.--There can be little doubt that maize is of American
origin. The discoverers of the new world found it cultivated by the
aborigines, and from the fact that corn was the generic term then
largely used to designate grain (in old English, "corn" means grain),
they named it "Indian corn." Since that time it has been carried to
nearly every part of the globe, and probably it is more extensively used
than any other one of the cereals, with the exception of rice. This is
undoubtedly due to the fact that it is the most prolific of the grains,
and is adapted to the widest range of climate.

Maize was the chief food of the slaves of Brazil, as it used to be of
those in our own Southern States, and is very largely consumed in Mexico
and Peru. It was used very little in Europe until the Irish famine in
1847; since then, it has become a staple food with the poorer classes.

The varieties of corn are almost too numerous to be counted. For general
purposes, however, they may be classified as field corn, sweet corn, and
pop corn.

Corn is characterized by an excess of fatty matter, containing upwards
of three times the amount of that element to be found in wheat. Corn
requires stronger powers of digestion than wheat, and is unsuited to
some stomachs.

The skin of the corn kernel is thin, and when subjected to milling
processes, is included in the grinding. When well ground, it can be
digested, with the exception of the siliceous coating.

Sweet corn and some of the field varieties, form a nutritious and
favorite food while green. The mature grain is used in many forms. The
whole grain, hulled, is an agreeable food. Hulled, broken, or split to
various degrees of fineness, it is known according to the size to which
the grain has been reduced as hominy, fine hominy, or grits; or, if
finer still, as samp. Subjected to a process of still finer trituration,
it forms meal. Cornstarch consists of the farinaceous portions of the
grain.

On account of the large proportion of fatty matter contained in maize,
it acquires, if kept for some time and unpleasant, rancid taste,
occasioned by the usual change which takes place in fat when exposed to
the atmosphere.

The new process granular meal, which is prepared from corn dried for a
long period before grinding, becomes rank less quickly than that ground
in the old way.

Maize meal is very largely consumed in the form of mush or porridge.
This, in Ireland, is termed "stirabout;" in Italy it is called
"polenta;" and in British Honduras it is known as "corn lob."

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR COOKING.--Most of the various preparations
from maize require prolonged cooking to render them wholesome; this is
equally true respecting mushes prepared from samp or meal, a dish which
unfortunately some cook in bygone days saw fit to term "hasty pudding."
Unthinking people since, supposing it to have been so named because of
the little time required to cook it, have commonly prepared it in
fifteen or twenty minutes, whereas from one to two hours, or even
longer, are necessary to cook it properly. Hulled corn, hominy, and
grits, all require prolonged cooking. The time for cooking these
preparations may be somewhat lessened if they are previously soaked over
night. They should, however, be cooked in the same water in which they
are soaked.


_RECIPES._

CORN MEAL MUSH.--stir together one pint of cornmeal, one
tablespoonful of flour, and one pint of cold milk. Turn this slowly,
stirring well meanwhile, into one quart of boiling water, which should
not cease to boil during the introduction of the batter. Cook three or
four hours. If milk is not obtainable, water alone may be used, in which
case two tablespoonfuls of flour will be needed. Cook in a double
boiler.

CORN MEAL MUSH WITH FRUIT.--Mush prepared in the above manner may
have some well-steamed raisins or chopped figs added to it just before
serving.

CORN MEAL CUBES.--Left-over corn meal mush may be made into an
appetizing dish by first slicing into rather thick slices, then cutting
into cubes about one inch squares. Put the cubes into a tureen and turn
over them a quantity of hot milk or cream. Cover the dish, let them
stand until thoroughly heated through, then serve.

BROWNED MUSH.--Slice cold corn meal mush rather thin, brush each
slice with thick, sweet cream, and brown in a moderate oven until well
heated through.

SAMP.--Use one part of samp to four and one half parts of boiling
water. It is the best plan to reserve enough of the water to moisten the
samp before adding it to the boiling water, as it is much less likely to
cook in lumps. Boil rapidly, stirring continuously, until the mush has
well set, then slowly for from two to three hours.

CEREALINE FLAKES.--Into one measure of boiling liquid stir an equal
measure of cerealine flakes, and cook in a double boiler from one half
to three fourths of an hour.

HULLED CORN.--_To Hull the Corn._--Put enough wood ashes into a
large kettle to half fill it; then nearly fill with hot water, and boil
ten minutes. Drain off the water from the ashes, turn it into a kettle,
and pour in four quarts of clean, shelled field corn, white varieties
preferred. Boil till the hulls rub off. Skim the corn out of the lye
water, and put it into a tub of fresh cold water. To remove the hulls,
scrub the corn well with a new stiff brush broom kept for the purpose,
changing the water often. Put through half a dozen or more waters, and
then take the corn out by handfuls, rubbing each well between the hands
to loosen the remaining hulls, and drop again into clear water. Pick out
all hulls. Cleanse the corn through several more waters if it is to be
dried and kept before using. Well hulled corn is found in the markets.

_To Cook._--If it is to be cooked at once, it should be parboiled in
clear water twice, and then put into new water and cooked till tender.
It should be nearly or quite dry when done. It may be served with milk
or cream.

COARSE HOMINY.--For coarse hominy use four parts of water or milk
and water to one of grain. It is best steamed or cooked in a double
boiler, though it may be boiled in a kettle over a slow fire. The only
objection to this method is the need of frequent stirring to prevent
sticking, which breaks and mashes the hominy. From four to five hours'
slow cooking will be necessary, unless the grain has been previously
soaked; then about one hour less will be required.

FINE HOMINY OR GRITS.--This preparation is cooked in the same
manner as the foregoing, using three and one half or four parts of water
to one of the grain. Four or five hours will be necessary for cooking
the unsoaked grits.

POPPED CORN.--The small, translucent varieties of maize known as
"pop corn," possessed the property, when gently roasted, of bursting
open, or turning inside out, a process which is owing to the following
facts: Corn contains an excess of fatty matter. By proper means this fat
can be separated from the grain, and it is then a thick, pale oil. When
oils are heated sufficiently in a vessel closed from the air, they are
turned into gas, which occupies many times the bulk of the oil. When pop
corn is gradually heated, and made so hot that the oil inside of the
kernel turns to gas, being unable to escape through the hull of the
kernel, the pressure finally becomes strong enough to burst the grain,
and the explosion is so violent as to shatter it in a most curious
manner.

Popped corn forms an excellent food, the starch of the grain being will
cooked. It should, however, be eaten in connection with other food at
mealtime, and not as a delicacy between meals. Ground pop corn is
considered a delectable dish eaten with milk or cream; it also forms the
base of several excellent puddings.

To pop the corn, shell and place in a wire "popper" over a bed of bright
coals, or on the top of a hot stove; stir or shake continuously, so that
each kernel may be subjected to the same degree of heat on all sides,
until it begins to burst open. If a popper is not attainable, a common
iron skillet covered tightly, and very lightly oiled on the bottom, may
be used for the purpose. The corn must be very dry to begin with, and if
good, nearly every kernel will pop open nicely. It should be used within
twenty-four hours after popping.


MACARONI.

DESCRIPTION.--Macaroni is a product of wheat prepared from a hard,
clean, glutenous grain. The grain is ground into a meal called
_semolina_, from which the bran is excluded. This is made into a tasty
dough by mixing with hot water in the proportion of two thirds
_semolina_ to one third water. The dough after being thoroughly mixed is
put into a shallow vat and kneaded and rolled by machinery. When well
rolled, it is made to assume varying shapes by being forced by a
powerful plunger through the perforated head of strong steel or iron
cylinders arranged above a fire, so that the dough is partially baked as
it issues from the holes. It is afterwards hung over rods or laid upon
frames covered with cloth, and dried. It is called by different names
according to its shape. If in the shape of large, hollow cylinders, it
is _macaroni;_ if smaller in diameter, it is _spaghetti;_ if fine,
_vermicelli;_ if the paste is cut into fancy patterns, it is termed
_pasta d'Italia_.

Macaroni was formerly made only in Italy, but at present is manufactured
to a considerable extent in the United States. The product, however, is
in general greatly inferior to that imported from Italy, owing to the
difference in the character of the wheat from which it is made, the
Italian macaroni being produced from a hard, semi-translucent wheat,
rich in nitrogenous elements, and which is only grown successfully in a
hot climate. Like all cereal foods, macaroni should be kept in a
perfectly dry storeroom.

TO SELECT MACARONI.--Good macaroni will keep in good condition for
years. It is rough, elastic, and hard; while the inferior article is
smooth, soft, breaks easily, becomes moldy with keeping. Inferior
macaroni contains a large percentage of starch, and but a small amount
of gluten. When put into hot water, it assumes a white, pasty
appearance, and splits in cooking. Good macaroni when put into hot water
absorbs a portion of the water, swells to nearly double its size, but
perfectly retains its shape. Inferior macaroni is usually sold a few
cents cheaper per pound than the genuine article. It contains a much
smaller amount of gluten. The best quality of any shape one pleases can
be bought in most markets for ten or fifteen cents a pound.

TO PREPARE AND COOK MACARONI.--Do not wash macaroni. If dusty, wipe
with a clean, dry cloth. Break into pieces of convenient size. Always
put to cook in boiling liquid, taking care to have plenty of water in
the saucepan (as it absorbs a large quantity), and cook until tender.
The length of time required may vary from twenty minutes, if fresh, to
one hour if stale. When tender, turn into a colander and drain, and pour
cold water through it to prevent the tubes from sticking together. The
fluid used for cooking may be water, milk, or a mixture of both; also
soup stock, tomato juice, or any preferred liquid.

Macaroni serves as an important adjunct to the making of various soups,
and also forms the basis of other palatable dishes.


_RECIPES._

HOME-MADE MACARONI.--To four cupfuls of flour, add one egg well
beaten, and enough water to make a dough that can be rolled. Roll thin
on a breadboard and cut into strips. Dry in the sun. The best
arrangement for this purpose is a wooden frame to which a square of
cheese-cloth has been tightly tacked, upon which the macaroni may be
laid in such a way as not to touch, and afterwards covered with a
cheese-cloth to keep off the dust during the drying.

BOILED MACARONI.--Break sticks of macaroni into pieces about an
inch in length, sufficient to fill a large cup; put it into boiling
water and cook until tender. When done, drained thoroughly, then add a
pint of milk, part cream if it can be afforded, a little salt and one
well-beaten egg; stir over the fire until it thickens, and serve hot.

MACARONI WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Cook the macaroni as directed in the
proceeding, and serve with a cream sauce prepared by heating a scant
pint of rich milk to boiling, in a double boiler. When boiling, add a
heaping tablespoonful of flour, rubbed smoothed in a little milk and one
fourth teaspoonful of salt. If desired, the sauce may be flavored by
steeping in the milk before thickening for ten or fifteen minutes, a
slice of onion or a few bits of celery, and then removing with a fork.

MACARONI WITH TOMATO SAUCE.--Break a dozen sticks of macaroni into
two-inch lengths, and drop into boiling milk and water, equal parts. Let
it boil for an hour, or until perfectly tender. In the meantime prepare
the sauce by rubbing a pint of stewed or canned tomatoes through a
colander to remove all seeds and fragments. Heat to boiling, thicken
with a little flour; a tablespoonful to the pint will be about the
requisite proportion. Add salt and if desired, a half cup of very thin
sweet cream. Dish the macaroni into individual dishes, and serve with a
small quantity of the sauce poured over each dish.

MACARONI BAKED WITH GRANOLA.--Break macaroni into pieces about an
inch in length sufficient to fill a large cup, and cook until tender in
boiling milk and water. When done, drain and put a layer of the macaroni
in the bottom of an earthen pudding dish, and sprinkle over it a scant
teaspoonful of granola. Add a second and third layer and sprinkle each
with granola; then turn over the whole a custard sauce prepared by
mixing together a pint of milk, the well beaten yolks of two eggs or one
whole egg, and one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt. Care should be taken
to arrange the macaroni in layers loosely, so that the sauce will
readily permeate the whole. Bake for a few minutes only, until the
custard has well set, and serve.

EGGS AND MACARONI.--Break fifteen whole sticks of macaroni into
two-inch lengths, and put to cook in boiling water. While the macaroni
is cooking, boil the yolks of four eggs until mealy. The whole egg may
be used if caught so the yolks are mealy in the whites simply jellied,
not hardened. When the macaroni is done, drain and put a layer of it
arranged loosely in the bottom of an earthen pudding dish. Slice the
cooked egg yolks and spread a layer of them over the macaroni. Fill the
dish with alternate layers of macaroni and egg, taking care to have the
top layer of macaroni. Pour over the whole a cream sauce prepared as
follows: Heat one and three fourths cup of rich milk to boiling, add one
fourth teaspoonful of salt and one heaping spoonful of flour rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk. Cook until thickened, then turn over the
macaroni. Sprinkle the top with grated bread crumbs, and brown in a hot
oven for eight or ten minutes. Serve hot.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Sir Isaac Newton, when writing his grail work, "Principia," lived
    wholly upon a vegetable, diet.

    ROBERT COLLYER once remarked; "One great reason why I never had a
    really sick day in my life was that as boy I lived on oatmeal and
    milk and brown bread, potatoes and a bit of meat when I could get
    it, and then oatmeal again."

    HOT-WEATHER DIET.--The sultry period of our summer, although
    comparatively slight and of short duration, is nevertheless felt by
    some people to be extremely oppressive, but this is mainly due to
    the practice of eating much animal food or fatty matters, conjoined
    as it often is with the habit of drinking freely of fluids
    containing more or less alcoholics. Living on cereals, vegetables,
    and fruits, and abstaining from alcoholic drinks, the same persons
    would probably enjoy the temperature, and be free from the thirst
    which is the natural result of consuming needlessly heating
    food.--_Sir Henry Thompson._

    _Mistress_ (arranging for dinner)--"Didn't the macaroni come from
    the grocer's, Bridget?"

    _Bridget_--"Yis, mum, but oi sint it back. Every won av thim leetle
    stims wuz impty."

    Some years since, a great railroad corporation in the West, having
    occasion to change the gauge of its road throughout a distance of
    some five hundred miles, employed a force of 3,000 workmen upon the
    job, who worked from very early in the morning until late at night.
    Alcoholic drinks were strictly prohibited, but a thin gruel made of
    oatmeal and water was kept on hand and freely partaken of by the men
    to quench their thirst. The results were admirable; not a single
    workmen gave out under the severe strain, and not one lost a day
    from sickness. Thus this large body of men were kept well and in
    perfect strength and spirits, and the work was done in considerably
    less time than that counted on for its completion.

    In Scotch households oatmeal porridge is as inevitable as breakfast
    itself, except perhaps on Sundays, as this anecdote will illustrate.
    A mother and child were passing along a street in Glasgow, when this
    conversation was overheard:--

    "What day is the morn, mither?"

    "Sabbath, laddie."

    "An' will wi hae tea to breakfast, mither?"

    "Aye, laddie, gin we're spared."

    "An' gin we're no spared, will we hae parrich?"



BREADSTUFFS AND BREADMAKING

Although the grains form most nutritious and palatable dishes when
cooked in their unground state, this is not always the most convenient
way of making; use of them. Mankind from earliest antiquity has sought
to give these wonderful products of nature a more portable and
convenient form by converting them into what is termed bread, a word
derived from the verb _bray_, to pound, beat, or grind small, indicative
of the ancient manner of preparing the grain for making bread. Probably
the earliest form of bread was simply the whole grain moistened and then
exposed to heat. Afterward, the grains were roasted and ground, or
pounded between stones, and unleavened bread was made by mixing this
crude flour with water, and baking in the form of cakes. Among the many
ingenious arrangements used by the ancients for baking this bread, was a
sort of portable oven in shape something like a pitcher, in the inside
of which a fire was made. When the oven was well heated, a paste made of
meal and water was applied to the outside. Such bread was baked very
quickly and taken off in small, thin sheets like wafers. A flat cake was
the common form in which most of the bread of olden times was baked;
being too brittle to be cut with a knife, the common mode of dividing it
was by breaking and hence the expression "breaking bread" so common in
Scripture.

Various substances have been and are employed for making this needful
article. Until the last few decades, barley was the grain most
universally used. Chestnuts, ground to a flour, are made into bread in
regions where these nuts abound. Quite recently, an immense peanut crop
in the Southern States was utilized for bread-making purposes. In
ancient times, the Thracians made to bread from a flour made from the
_water coltran_, a prickly root of triangular form. In Syria, mulberries
were dried and grounded to flour. Rice, moss, palm tree piths, and
starch producing roots are used by different nationalities in the
preparation of bread. In many parts of Sweden, bread is made from dried
fish, using one half fish flour and one half barley flour; and in
winter, flour made from the bark of trees is added. Desiccated tomatoes,
potatoes, and other vegetables are also mixed with the cereals for
bread-making. In India, the lower classes make their bread chiefly from
millet. Moss bread is made in Iceland from the reindeer moss, which
toward autumn becomes soft, tender, and moist, with a taste like wheat
bran. It contains a large quantity of starch, and the Icelanders gather,
dry, pulverize it, and thus prepare it for bread-making. The ancient
Egyptians often made their bread from equal parts of the whole grain and
meal.

The breadstuff's most universally used among civilized nations at the
present time are barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat, rice, and wheat,
of which the last has acquired a decided preference.

If made in the proper manner and from suitable material, bread is, with
the exception of milk, the article best fitted for the nourishment of
the body, and if need be, can supply the place of all other foods. Good
bread does not cloy the appetite as do many other articles of food, and
the simplest bill of fare which includes light, wholesome bread, is far
more satisfying than an elaborate meal without it. Were the tables of
our land supplied with good, nutritious, well-baked bread, there would
be less desire for cake, pastry, and other indigestible particles,
which, under the present system of cookery, are allowed to compensate
for the inferior quality and poor preparation of more wholesome foods.

Bread has been proverbially styled the "staff of life." In nearly all
ancient languages the entomology of the word "bread" signifies all,
indicating; that the bread of earlier periods was in truth what it
should be at the present time,--a staff upon which all the functions of
life might with safety depend.

Notwithstanding the important part bread was designed to play in the
economy of life, it would be hardly possible to mention another aliment
which so universally falls below the standard either through the manner
of its preparation or in the material used.

Bread, to answer the requirements of a good, wholesome article of food,
beside being palatable, must be light, porous, and friable, so that it
can be easily insalivated and digested. It should not contain
ingredients which will in any way be injurious if taken into the system,
but should contain as many as possible of the elements of nutrition.
Wheat, the substance from which bread is most generally made, contains
all the necessary food elements in proper proportions to meet the
requirements of nutrition, and bread should also contain them. The
flour, however, must be made from the whole grain of the wheat, with the
exception of the outer husk.

What is ordinarily termed fine flour has a large part of the most
nutritive properties of the grain left out, and unless this deficiency
is made up by other foods, the use of bread made from such material will
leave the most vital tissues of the body poorly nourished, and tend to
produce innumerable bad results. People who eat bread made from fine
white flour naturally crave the food elements which have been eliminated
from the wheat, and are thus led to an excessive consumption of meat,
and the nerve-starvation and consequent irritability thus induced may
also lead to the use of alcoholic drinks. We believe that one of the
strongest barriers women could erect against the inroads of intemperance
would be to supply the tables of the land with good bread made from
flour of the entire wheat.

The superiority of bread made from the entire wheat or unbolted meal has
been attested by many notable examples in history. In England, under the
administration of William Pitt, there was for several years such a
scarcity of wheat that to make it hold out longer, a law was passed by
Parliament that the army should be supplied with bread made of unbolted
flour. This occasioned much murmuring on the part of the soldiers, but
nevertheless the health of the army improved so greatly as to be a
subject of surprise. The officers and the physicians at last publicly
declared that the soldiers had never before been so robust and healthy.

According to the eminent Prof. Liebig, whole-wheat bread contains 60 per
cent more of the phosphate or bone forming material than does meat, and
200 per cent more gluten than white bread. To the lack of these elements
in a food so generally used as white flour bread, is undoubtedly due the
great prevalence of early decaying teeth, rickets, and other bone
diseases. Indeed, so many are the evils attendant upon a continued use
of fine flour bread that we can in a great measure agree with a writer
of the last century who says, in a quaint essay still to be seen at the
British Museum, that "fine flour, spirituous liquors, and strong
ale-house beer are the foundations of almost all the poverty and all the
evils that affect the labouring part of mankind."

Bread made from the entire wheat is looked upon with far more favor than
formerly, and it is no longer necessary to use the crude products of the
grain for its manufacture, since modern invention has worked such a
revolution in milling processes that it is now possible to obtain a fine
flour containing all the nutritious elements of the grain. The old-time
millstone has been largely superceded by machinery with which the entire
grain may be reduced to fine flour without the loss of any of its
valuable properties. To be sure, the manufacture of fine white flour of
the old sort, is still continued, and doubtless will be continued so
long as color takes precedence over food value. The improved processes
of milling have, however, enabled the millers to utilize a much larger
proportion of the nutritious elements of the grain than formerly, and
still preserve that whiteness is so pleasing to many consumers. Although
it is true that there are brands of white flour which possess a large
percentage of the nutrient properties of the wheat, it is likewise true
that flour which contains _all_ the nutritive elements is _not_ white.

Of flours made from the entire grain there are essentially two different
varieties, that which is termed _unbolted wheat meal_ or _Graham_ flour,
and that called _wheat-berry, whole-wheat_, or _entire-wheat_ flour. The
principal difference between the two consists in the preliminary
treatment of the wheat kernel before reduction, Graham flour containing
more or less of the flinty bran, which is wholly innutritious and to a
sensitive stomach somewhat irritating. In the manufacture of _whole_ or
_entire_-wheat flour, the outer, flinty bran is first removed by special
machinery, and then the entire grain pulverized, by some of approved
method, to different grades of fineness. The absence of the indigestible
bran renders the entire-wheat flour superior in this respect to Graham,
though for many persons the latter is to preferred.

HOW TO SELECT FLOUR.--The first requisite in the making of good
bread is good flour. The quality of a brand of flour will of course
depend much upon the kind of grain from which it is prepared--whether
new or old, perfect, or deteriorated by rust, mold, or exposure, and
also upon the thoroughness with which it has been cleansed from dust,
chaff, and all foreign substances, as well as upon the method by which
it is ground. It is not possible to judge with regard to all these
particulars by the appearance of the flour, but in general, good flour
will be sweet, dry, and free from any sour or musty smell or taste. Take
up a handful, and if it falls from the hand light and elastic, it is
pretty sure to be good. If it will retain the imprint of the fingers
and falls and a compact mass or a damp, clammy, or sticky to the touch,
it is by no means the best. When and knead a little of it between the
fingers; if it works soft and sticky, it is poor. Good flour, when made
into dough, is elastic, and will retain its shape. This elastic property
of good flour is due to the gluten which it contains. The more gluten
and the stronger it is, the better the flour. The gluten of good flour
will swell to several times its original bulk, while that of poor flour
will not.

In buying white flour, do not select that which is pure white with a
bluish tinge, but that which is of a creamy, yellowish-white tint. While
the kinds of flour that contain the entire nutritive properties of the
wheat will necessarily be darker in color, we would caution the reader
not to suppose that because flour is dark in color it is for that reason
good, and rich in nutritive elements. There are many other causes from
which flour may be dark, such as the use of uncleansed or dark varieties
of wheat, and the large admixture of bran and other grains; many
unscrupulous millers and flour dealers make use of this fact to palm off
upon their unsuspecting customers an inferior article. Much of the
so-called Graham flour is nothing more than poor flour mixed with bran,
and is in every way inferior to good white flour. Fine flour or made
from the entire wheat may generally be distinguished from a spurious
article by taking a small portion into the mouth and chewing it. Raw
flour made from the entire grain has a sweet taste, and a rich, nutty
flavor the same as that experienced in chewing a whole grain of wheat,
and produces a goodly quantity of gum or gluten, while a spurious
article tastes flat and insipid like starch, or has a bitter, pungent
taste consequent upon the presence of impurities. This bitter taste is
noticeable in bread made from such flour. A given quantity of poor flour
will not make as much bread as the same quantity of good flour, so that
adulteration may also be detected in this way. Doubtless much of the
prejudice against the use of whole-wheat flour has arisen from the use
of a spurious article.

As it is not always possible to determine accurately without the aid of
chemistry and a microscope whether flour is genuine, the only safe way
is to purchase the product of reliable mills.

It is always best to obtain a small quantity of flour first, and put it
to the test of bread-making; then, if satisfactory, purchase that brand
so long as it proves good. It is true economy to buy a flour known to be
good even though it may cost more than some others. It is not wise to
purchase too large a quantity at once unless one has exceptionally good
facilities for storage, as flour is subject to many deteriorating
influences. It is estimated that a barrel of good flour contains
sufficient bread material to last one person one year; and from this
standard it can be easily estimated in what proportion it is best to
purchase.

TO KEEP FLOUR.--Flour should always be kept in a tight receptacle,
and in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place. It should not be allowed to
remain in close proximity to any substances of strong odor, as it very
readily absorbs odors and gaseous impurities. A damp atmosphere will
cause it to absorb moisture, and as a result the gluten will lose some
of its tenacity and become sticky, and bread made from the flour will be
coarser and inferior in quality. Flour which has absorbed dampness from
any cause should be sifted into a large tray, spread out thin and
exposed to the hot sun, or placed in a warming oven for a few hours.

DELETERIOUS ADULTERATIONS OF FLOUR.--Besides the fraud frequently
practiced of compounding whole-wheat flour from inferior mill products,
white flour is sometimes adulterated--more commonly, however, in
European countries that in this--with such substances as alum, ground
rice, plaster of Paris, and whiting. Alum is doubtless the most commonly
used of all these substances, for the reason that it gives the bread a
whiter color and causes the flour to absorb and retain a larger amount
of water than it would otherwise hold. This enables the user to make,
from an inferior brand of flour, bread which resembles that made from a
better quality. Such adulteration is exceedingly injurious, as are other
mineral substances used for a similar purpose.

The presence of alum in flour or bread may be detected in the following
way: Macerate a half slice of bread in three or four tablespoonfuls of
water; strain off the water, and add to it twenty drops of a strong
solution of logwood, made either from the fresh chips or the extract.
Then add a large teaspoonful of a strong solution of carbonate of
ammonium. If alum is present, the mixture will change from pink to
lavender blue.

The _Journal of Trade_ gives the following simple mode of testing for
this adulterant: "Persons can test the bread they buy for themselves, by
taking a piece of it and soaking it in water. Take this water and mix it
with an equal part of fresh milk, and if the bread contains alum, the
mixture will coagulate. If a better test is required, boil the mixture,
and it will form perfect clot."

Whiting can be detected by dipping the ends of the thumb and forefinger
in sweet oil and rubbing the flour between them. If whiting is present,
the flour will become sticky like putty, and remain white; whereas pure
flour, when so rubbed, becomes darker in color, but not sticky. Plaster
of Paris, chalk, and other alkaline adulterants may be detected by a few
drops of lemon juice: if either be present, effervescence will take
place.

CHEMISTRY OF BREAD-MAKING.--Good flour alone will not insure good
bread. As much depends upon its preparation as upon the selection of
material; for the very best of flour may be transformed into the poorest
of bread through improper or careless preparation. Good bread cannot be
produced at random. It is not the fruit of any luck or chance, but the
practical result of certain fixed laws and principles to which all may
conform.

The first step in the conversion of flour into bread is to incorporate
with it a given amount of fluid, by which each atom of flour is
surrounded with a thin film of moisture, in order to hydrate the starch,
to dissolve the sugar and albumen, and to develop the adhesiveness of
the gluten, thus binding the whole into one coherent mass termed
_dough_, a word from a verb meaning to wet or moisten. If nothing more
be done, and this simple form of dough be baked, the starch granules
will be ruptured by the heat and thus properly prepared for food; but
the moistening will have developed the glue-like property of the gluten
to the extent of firmly cementing the particles of flour together, so
that the mass will be hard and tough, and almost incapable of
mastication. If, however, the dough be thoroughly kneaded, rolled very
thin, made into small cakes, and then quickly baked with sufficient
heat, the result will be a brittle kind of bread termed unleavened
bread, which, although it requires a lengthy process of mastication, is
more wholesome and digestible than soft bread, which is likely to be
swallowed insufficiently insalivated.

The gluten of wheat flour, beside being adhesive, is likewise remarkably
elastic. This is the reason why wheat flour is much more easily made
into light bread than the product of other cereals which contain less or
a different quality of gluten. Now if while the atoms of flour are
supplied with moisture, they are likewise supplied with some form of
gaseous substance, the elastic walls of the gluten cells will become
distended, causing the dough to "rise," or grow in bulk, and at the same
time become light, or porous, in texture.

This making of bread light is usually accomplished by the introduction
of air into the dough, or by carbonic acid gas generated within the
mass, either before or during the baking, by a fermentative or chemical
process.

When air is the agency used, the gluten, by its glue-like properties,
catches and retains the air for a short period; and if heat is applied
before the air, which is lighter than the dough, rises and escapes, it
will expand, and in expanding distend the elastic glutinous mass,
causing it to puff up or rise. If the heat is sufficient to harden the
gluten quickly, so that the air cells throughout the whole mass become
firmly fixed before the air escapes, the result will be a light, porous
bread. If the heat is not sufficient, the air does not properly expand;
or if before a sufficient crust is formed to retain the air and form a
framework of support for the dough, the heat is lessened or withdrawn,
the air will escape, or contract to its former volume, allowing the
distended glutinous cell walls to collapse; in either case the bread
will be heavy.

If carbonic acid gas, generated within the dough by means of
fermentation or by the use of chemical substances, be the means used to
lighten the mass, the gluten by virtue of its tenacity holds the bubbles
of gas as they are generated, and prevents the large and small ones from
uniting, or from rising to the surface, as they seek to do, being
lighter than the dough. Being thus caught where they are generated, and
the proper conditions supplied to expand them, they swell or raise the
dough, which is then termed a loaf. (This word "loaf" is from the
Anglo-Saxon _hlifian_, to raise or lift up.) The structure is rendered
permanent by the application of heat in baking.


BREAD MADE LIGHT BY FERMENTATION.

For general use, the most convenient form of bread is usually considered
to be that made from wheat flour, raised or made light by some method of
fermentation, although in point of nutritive value and healthfulness, it
does not equal light, unfermented, or aërated bread made without the aid
of chemicals.

THE PROCESS OF FERMENTATION.--Fermentation is a process of
decomposition, and hence more or less destructive to the substances
subjected to its influence. When animal and vegetable substances
containing large amounts of nitrogenous elements are in a moist state
and exposed to air, they very soon undergo a change, the result of which
is decomposition or decay. This is occasioned by the action of germs,
which feed upon nitrogenous substances, as do the various species of
fungi. Meat, eggs, milk, and other foods rich in nitrogenous elements
can be preserved but a short time if exposed to the atmosphere. The
carbonaceous elements are different in this respect. When pure starch,
sugar, or fat is exposed to the air in a moistened state, they exhibit
the very little tendency to change or decay. Yet if placed in contact
with decomposing substances containing nitrogen, they soon begin to
change, and are themselves decomposed and destroyed. This communication
of the condition of change from one class of substances to another, is
termed fermentation. If a fermenting substance be added to a watery
solution containing sugar, the sugar will be changed or decomposed, and
two new substances, alcohol and carbonic acid gas, are produced.

The different stages of fermentation are noted scientifically as
alcoholic, acetous, and putrefactive. The first is the name given to the
change which takes place in the saccharine matter of the dough, which
results in the formation of alcohol and carbonic acid gas. This same
change takes place in the saccharine matter of fruits under the proper
with conditions of warmth, air, and moisture, and is utilized in the
production of wines and fermented liquors.

In bread-making, the alcohol and carbonic acid gas produced during the
fermentation, are formed from sugar,--that originally contained in the
flour and the additional quantity formed from starch during the
fermenting process. It is evident, therefore, that bread cannot be
fermented without some loss in natural sweetness and nutritive value,
and bread made after this method should be managed so as to deteriorate
the material as little as possible.

If this fermentation continues long enough, the acetous fermentation is
set up, and _acetic_ acid, the essential element of vinegar, is formed
and the dough becomes sour. If the process of fermentation is very much
prolonged, the putrefactive change is set up, and the gluten is more or
less decomposed.

If the dough be baked during the alcoholic and carbonic-acid stage of
fermentation, the gas will render the loaf light and porous. The alcohol
will be dissipated by the heat during the baking, or evaporated shortly
afterward, provided the baking be thorough. If the fermentation is
allowed to proceed until the acetous fermentation has begun, the loaf,
when baked, will be "sad" and heavy, since there is no longer any gas to
puff it up. If, however, during the first or alcoholic stage of
fermentation, new material be added, the same kind of fermentation will
continue for a certain period longer.

These facts serve to show that great care and attention are necessary to
produce good bread by a fermentative process. If the fermentation has
not been allowed to proceed far enough to generate a sufficient amount
of gas to permeate the whole mass, the result will be a heavy loaf; and
if allowed to proceed too far, acid fermentation begins, the gas
escapes, and we have sour as well as heavy bread. It is not enough,
however, to prevent bread from reaching the acetous or sour stage of
fermentation. Bread may be over-fermented when there is no appreciable
sourness developed. Fermentation may be carried so far as to destroy
much of the richness and sweetness of the loaf, and yet be arrested by
the baking process just before the acetous stage begins, so that it will
be light and porous, but decidedly lacking in flavor and substance.
Over-fermentation also develops in the bread various bitter substances
which obscure the natural sweetness of the bread and give to it an
unpleasant flavor. Many of these substances are more or less harmful in
character, and include many poisons known as ptomaines, a class of
chemical compounds produced by germs whenever fermentation or
decomposition of organic matter takes place. Much skill is required to
determine at what point to arrest the fermentation, in order to save the
sweetness and richness of the bread.

FERMENTATIVE AGENTS.--Fermentation in vegetable matter is always
accompanied by the growth of living organisms. The development of these
minute organisms is the exciting cause of fermentation and putrefaction.
The germs or spores of some of these fermenting agents are always
present in the air. It is well known to housekeepers that if a batter of
flour and water and a little salt be kept in a jar of water at a
temperature of from 100° to 110°, it will ferment in the course of five
or six hours. Scientists assure us that this fermentation is occasioned
by the introduction of the spores of certain species of fungi which are
continually floating in the atmosphere, and the proper conditions of
warmth and moisture being supplied, they at once begin to grow and
multiply. This method of securing fermentation is utilized by housewives
in making what is termed salt-rising bread. The raising of dough by this
process is lengthy and uncertain, and a far more convenient method is to
accelerate the fermentation by the addition of some active ferment. The
ancient method of accomplishing this was by adding to the dough a
leaven, a portion of old dough which had been kept until it had begun to
ferment; but since the investigations of modern chemistry have made
clear the properties of yeast, that has come to be considered the best
agent for setting up the process of alcoholic fermentation in bread. The
use of leaven is still practiced to somewhat in some European countries.
The bread produced with leaven, although light and spongy in texture,
has an unpleasant, sour taste, and is much less wholesome than that
produced with fresh yeast.

Yeast is a collection of living organisms or plants belonging to the
family of fungi, which, like all other plants, require warmth, moisture,
and food, in order to promote growth, and when properly supplied with
these, they begin to grow and multiply rapidly. Fermentation will not
take place at a temperature below 30°, it proceeds slowly at 45°, but
from 70° to 90° it goes on rapidly. Fermentation may be arrested by the
exhaustion of either the fermenting agent or the food supply, or by
exposure to heat at the temperature of boiling water. This latter fact
enables the housewife to arrest the process of fermentation, when the
loaf has become sufficiently light, by baking it in a hot oven. Heat
destroys most of the yeast cells; a few, however, remain in the loaf
unchanged, and it is for this reason that yeast bread is considered less
wholesome for dyspeptics than light unleavened bread. It is apparent,
then, that the more thoroughly fermented bread is baked, the more
wholesome it will be, from the more complete destruction of the yeast
germs which it contains.

YEAST.--Next to good flour, the most important requisite in the
manufacture of fermented bread is good yeast. The best of flour used in
conjunction with poor yeast will not produce good bread. The most
convenient and reliable kind of marketable yeast, when fresh, is the
compressed yeast. The dry though they are always ready for use, the
quality of the bread they produce is generally inferior to that made
with either compressed yeast or good liquid yeast. If this sort of yeast
must be depended upon, the cakes known as "Yeast Foam" are the best of
any with which we are acquainted.

Of homemade yeasts there are almost as many varieties as there are
cooks. Their comparative value depends mainly upon the length of time
they will keep good, or the facility with which they can be prepared.
Essentially the same principles are involved in the making of them all;
viz., the introduction of a small quantity of fresh, lively yeast into a
mixture of some form of starch (obtained from flour, potato, or a
combination of both) and water, with or without the addition of such
other substances as will promote fermentation, or aid in preventing the
yeast from souring. Under proper conditions of warmth, the small amount
of original yeast begins to supply itself with food at once by
converting the starch into dextrine, and then into grape sugar, and
multiplies itself with great rapidity, and will continue to do so as
long as there is material to supply it with the means of growth. While
its growth is rapid, its decay is equally so; and unless some means of
preservation be employed, the yeast will die, and the mixture become
sour and foul. Ordinarily it can be kept good for several days, and
under the best conditions, even three or four weeks. After it has been
kept from four to six hours, it should be placed in some receptacle as
nearly air-tight as possible and set in the cellar or refrigerator,
where it can be kept at a temperature not conducive to fermentation.
Thus the little yeast organisms will remain in a quiescent state, but
yet alive and capable of multiplying themselves when again surrounded
with favorable conditions.

The yeast should be kept in glass or glazed earthen ware. The vessel
containing it should be washed and scalded with scrupulous care before
new yeast is put in, since the smallest particle of sour or spoiled
yeast will ruin the fresh supply in a very short time. It is generally
conceded that yeast will keep longer if the material of which it is made
be mixed with liquid of a boiling temperature, or cooked for a few
minutes at boiling heat before adding the yeast. The reason for this
undoubtedly lies in the fact that the boiling kills foreign germs, and
thus prevents early souring or putrefaction. The yeast must not be
added, however, until the liquid has cooled to a little more than blood
heat, as too great heat will kill the yeast cells.

The starch of the potato is thought to furnish better material for the
promotion of yeast growth than that of wheat flour; but whether the
potato be first cooked, mashed, and then combined with the other
ingredients, or grated raw and then cooked in boiling water, makes
little difference so far as results are concerned, though the latter
method may have the advantage of taking less time. If potatoes are used
for this purpose, they should be perfectly mature. New ones will not
answer.

Sugar assists in promoting the growth of the yeast plant, and a small
amount is usually employed in making yeast. Hops serve to prevent the
yeast from souring, and an infusion of them is frequently used for this
purpose.

While it is essential that the water used should be boiling, it is also
necessary that the mixture should cooled to a lukewarm temperature
before the introduction of the original yeast, as intense heat will kill
the yeast plant. Freezing cold will likewise produced the same result.
While a cool temperature is one of the requisites for keeping yeast
fresh, care must be taken, especially in winter, that it does not get
chilled.

When yeast is needed for bread, it is always the best plan to take a cup
to the cellar or refrigerator for the desired quantity, and re-cover the
jar as quickly as possible. A half hour in a hot kitchen would be quite
likely to spoiled it. Always shake or stir the whole well before
measuring out the yeast. In making yeast, used earthen bowls for mixing,
porcelain-lined or granite-ware utensils for boiling, and silver or
wooden spoons for stirring.

BITTER YEAST.--It sometimes happens that an excessive use of hops
in the making of yeast gives to it so bitter a flavor as to communicate
a disagreeable taste to the bread. To correct this bitterness, mix with
the yeast a considerable quantity of water, and let it stand for some
hours, when the thickest portion will have settled at the bottom. The
water, which will have extracted much of the bitterness, can then be
turned off and thrown away. Yeast also sometimes becomes a bitter from
long keeping. Freshly burnt charcoal thrown into the yeast is said to
absorb the odors and offensive matter and render the yeast more sweet;
however, we do not recommend the use of any yeast so stale as to need
sweetening or purifying. Yeast that is new and fresh is always best; old
and stale yeast, even though it may still possess the property of
raising the dough, will give an unpleasant taste to the bread, and is
much less wholesome.

TESTS FOR YEAST.--Liquid yeast, when good, is light in color and
looks foamy and effervescent; it has a pungent odor somewhat similar to
weak ammonia, and if tasted will have a sharp, biting flavor. Yeast is
poor when it looks dull and watery, and has a sour odor. Compressed
yeast, if good, breaks off dry and looks white; if poor, it appears
moist and stringy.

If there is any question as to the quality of yeast, it is always best
to test it before use by adding a little flour to a small quantity and
setting it in a warm place. If it begins to ferment in the course of
fifteen or twenty minutes, it is good.

STARTING THE BREAD.--Having secured good yeast, it is necessary in
some way to diffuse it through the bread material so that it will set up
an active fermentation, which, by the evolution of gas, will render the
whole mass light and porous. As fermentation is more sure, more rapid,
and requires less yeast to start it when set in action in a thin mixture
than when introduced into stiff dough, the more common method of
starting fermented bread is by "setting a sponge;" viz., preparing a
batter of flour and liquid, to which potato is sometimes added, and into
which the yeast is introduced. Some cooks, in making the batter, use
the whole amount of liquid needed for the bread, and as the sponge
rises, add flour in small quantities, beating it back, and allowing it
to rise a second, third, or even fourth time, until sufficient flour has
been added to knead; others use only half the liquid in preparing the
sponge, and when it has well risen, prepare a second one by adding the
remainder of the liquid and fresh flour, in which case the fermented
batter acts as a double portion of yeast and raises the second sponge
very quickly. The requisite amount of flour is then added, the dough
kneaded, and the whole allowed to rise a third time in the loaf. Other
cooks dispense altogether with the sponge, adding to the liquid at first
the requisite amount of flour, kneading it thoroughly and allowing it to
rise once in mass and again after molding into loaves. As to the
superiority of one method over another, much depends upon their
adaptability to the time and convenience of the user; light bread can be
produced by either method. Less yeast but more time will be required
when the bread is started with a sponge. The end to be attained by all
is a complete and equal diffusion of gas bubbles generated during
fermentation throughout the whole mass of dough.

The preferable method of combining the materials needed for the batter
is by first mingling the yeast with the water or milk. If condensed or
dry yeast is used, previously dissolve it well in a half cupful or less
of lukewarm water. Stir the flour slowly into the liquid mixture and
beat it _very thoroughly_ so that the yeast shall be evenly distributed
throughout the whole.

PROPORTION OF MATERIALS NEEDED.--The material needed for making:
the bread should all be carefully measured out beforehand and the flour
well sifted. Many housekeepers fail in producing good bread, because
they guess at the quantity of material to be used, particularly the
flour, and with the same quantity of liquid will one time use much more
flour that at another, thus making the results exceedingly variable.
With this same brand of flour, this same quantity should always be used
to produce a given amount of bread. This amount will depend upon the
quality of the material used. Good flour will absorb a larger quantity
of liquids than that of an inferior quality, and the amount of liquid a
given quantity of flour will take up determines the quantity of bread
that can be produced from it. This amount is chiefly dependent upon the
proportion of gluten contained in the flour. One hundred pounds of good
flour will absorb sufficient water to produce one hundred and fifty
pounds of bread. One reason why bread retains so much water is that
during the baking a portion of starch is converted into gum, which holds
water more strongly than starch. Again: the gluten, when wet, is not
easily dried, while the dry crust which forms around the bread in baking
is merely impervious to water, and, like the skin of a baking potato,
prevents the moisture from escaping.

Kinds of flour vary so considerably in respect to their absorbent
properties that it is not possible to state the exact proportions of
flour and liquid required; approximately, three heaping measures of
flour for one scant measure of liquid, including the yeast, will in
general be found a good proportion. Bread made from the entire wheat
will require from one half to one cupful less flour than that made of
white flour. A quart of liquid, including the yeast, is sufficient for
three ordinary-sized loaves. One half or two thirds of a cup of homemade
yeast, according to its strength, or one half a cake of compressed yeast
dissolved in a half cup of lukewarm water, will be sufficient for one
quart of liquid. It is a common mistake to use too much yeast. It
lessens the time required, but the result is less satisfactory. Bread to
be set over night requires less yeast.

Whether water or milk should be used for bread-making, depends upon
taste and convenience. Bread retains more nearly the natural flavor of
the grain if made with water, and is less apt to sour; at the same time,
bread made with milk is more tender than that made with water. Bread
made with milk requires from one half to one cupful less of flour.

Potatoes are sometimes used in conjunction with flour for bread-making.
They are by no means necessary when good flour is used, but bread made
from inferior flour is improved by their use. Only potatoes that are
fully matured should be used for this purpose, and they should be well
cooked and smoothly mashed. Neither sugar nor salt is essential for the
production of good bread, though most cook books recommend the use of
one or both. The proportion of the former should not exceed one even
tablespoonful to three pints of flour, and the very smallest amount of
salt, never more than a half teaspoonful, and better less. No butter or
other free fat is required; the tenderness of texture produced by its
use can be secured as well by the use of unskimmed milk and thorough
kneading.

UTENSILS.--For bread-making purposes, earthen or china ware is
preferable to either tin or wooden utensils: being a poor conductor, it
protects the sponge from the cold air much more effectually than tin,
and is much more easily kept clean and sweet than wood. The utensil
should be kept exclusively for the purpose of bread-making, and should
never be allowed to contain any sour substance. The bowl should be
thoroughly scalded before and after each using. Use silver or
granite-ware spoons for stirring the bread. Iron and tin discolor the
sponge. For measuring the material, particularly the liquid and the
yeast, half-pint cups, divided by marks into thirds and fourths, as
shown in the cut, are especially serviceable.

[Illustration: Measuring Cup] [Illustration: Measuring Cup]

WHEN TO SET THE SPONGE.--The time to set the sponge for
bread-making is a point each housekeeper must determine for herself. The
fact before stated, that temperature controls the activity of
fermentation, and that it is retarded or accelerated according to the
conditions of warmth, enables the housewife, by keeping the
bread-mixture at a temperature of about 50° F., to set her bread in the
evening, if desired, and find it light and ready for further attention
in the morning. In winter, the sponge will need to be prepared early in
the evening and kept during the night at as even a temperature as
possible. A good way to accomplish this is to cover the bowl with a
clean napkin and afterwards wrap it about very closely with several
folds of a woolen blanket. In extremely cold weather bottles of hot
water may be placed around the bowl outside the wrappings. In case this
plan is employed, care must be taken to have sufficient wrappings
between the bread and the bottles to prevent undue heat, and the bottles
should be covered with an additional blanket to aid in retaining the
heat as long as possible.

If the sponge is set in the evening, if in very warm weather, it should
be started as late as practicable, and left in a rather cool place.
Cover closely to exclude the air, but do not wrap in flannel as in
winter. It will be likely to need attention early in the morning.

TEMPERATURE FOR BREAD-MAKING.--Except in very warm weather, the
ferment or sponge should be started with liquid at a lukewarm
temperature.

The liquid should never be so cold as to chill the yeast. Milk, if used,
should be first sterilized by scalding, and then cooled before using.

After the sponge is prepared, the greatest care must be taken to keep it
at an equable temperature. From 70° to 90° is the best range of
temperature, 75° being considered the golden mean throughout the entire
fermentative process of bread-making.

After fermentation has well begun, it will continue, but much more
slowly if the temperature be gradually lowered to 45° or 50°. If it is
necessary to hasten the rising, the temperature can be raised to 80° or
85°, but it will necessitate careful watching, as it will be liable to
over-ferment, and become sour. Cold arrests the process of fermentation,
while too great heat carries forward the work too rapidly. Too much
stress cannot be laid upon the importance of an equable temperature. The
housewife who permits the fermentation to proceed very slowly one hour,
forces it rapidly by increased heat the next, and perhaps allows it to
subside to a chilling temperature the third, will never be sure of good
bread.

Putting the bowl containing the sponge into a dish of warm (not hot)
water, or keeping it in the warming oven, or on the back of the range,
are all methods which may bring about good results, provided the same
degree of heat can be maintained continuously; but if the fire is one
which must be increased or diminished to suit the exigencies of
household details, nothing but the closest and most careful attention
will keep the sponge at uniform temperature. The better way is to cover
the bowl with a napkin, and in cold weather wrap closely in several
thicknesses of flannel, and place on a stand behind the stove, or in
some place not exposed to draughts. A bread-raiser purposely arranged
for keeping the bread at proper temperature is a great convenience. Two
small and rather thick earthen ware crocks of the same size, serve very
well for this purpose. Scald both with hot water, and while still warm,
put the sponge in one, invert the other for a cover, and leave in a warm
room. All flour used in the bread should be warm when added.

LIGHTNESS OF THE BREAD.--The time required for bread in its
different stages to grow light will vary according to the quantity and
strength of the yeast used and the amount of warmth supplied. A thin
batter is light enough when in appearance it resembles throughout a mass
of sea foam. It will not greatly increase in bulk, but will be in the
state of constant activity, sending up little bubbles of gas and
emitting a sharp, pungent odor like fresh yeast.

When the thicker batter or second sponge is sufficiently light, it will
have risen to nearly double its original bulk and become cracked over
the top like "crazed" china. It should never be allowed to rise to the
point of sinking or caving in, and should be kneaded as soon as ready.
If for any reason it is not possible to knead the bread at once when it
has arrived at this stage, do not allow it to stand, but take a knife or
spoon and gently beat it back a little. This dissipates some of the gas
and reduces the volume somewhat. Let it rise again, which it will do in
a short time, if it has not been allowed to become too light. If dough
that has been kneaded and allowed to rise in mass, becomes sufficiently
light at some inopportune moment for shaping into loaves, it may be kept
from becoming too light and souring, by taking a knife and cutting it
away from the sides of the bowl and gradually working it over toward the
center. Re-cover and put in a warm place. It will soon assume its former
bulk. This "cutting down" may be repeated several times if necessary,
provided the bread has not been allowed to become too light at any time,
and some cook's recommend it as a uniform practice. We do not, however,
except in case of necessity; since, though it may possibly make the
bread more light, the long-continued fermentation destroys more than is
necessary of the food elements of the flour, and develops an unnecessary
amount of the products of fermentation. Lightness is not the only
requisite for bread, and should be secured with as little deterioration
of the flour as possible.

An important point in the preparation of bread is to decide when it is
sufficiently light after having been molded and placed in pans. The
length of time cannot be given, because it will vary with the
temperature, the quality of the flour, and the quantity added during the
kneading. At a temperature of 75°, an hour or an hour and a half is
about the average length of time needed. A loaf should nearly double its
size after being placed in a pan, before baking; when perfectly risen,
the bread feels light when lifted and weighed upon the hand. It is
better to begin the baking before it has perfectly risen them to wait
until it has become so light as to commence to fall, since if the
fermentation proceeds too far, the sweetness of the grain will be
destroyed, and the bread will be tasteless and innutritious, even if it
does not reach the acetous stage.

The exercise of a little judgment and careful attention to detail will
soon enable a person successfully to determine the proper degree of
lightness of bread in its various stages. Bread which passes the extreme
point of fermentation, or in common phrase gets "too light," will have a
strong acid odor, and will pull away from the bowl in a stringy mass,
having a watery appearance very different from the fine, spongy texture
of properly risen dough. The acidity of such dough may be neutralized by
the addition of an alkali, and housewives who through carelessness and
inattention have allowed their bread to become "sour," often resort to
saleratus or soda to neutralize the acid. The result of such treatment
is unwholesome bread, wholly unfit for food. It is better economy to
throw away bread material which needs to be sweetened with soda than to
run the risk of injury to health by using it.

KNEADING THE DOUGH.--As fresh flour is added during the
bread-making, it is necessary to mix it in thoroughly. As long as the
batter is thin, this can be done by thoroughly beating the mixture with
the addition of material; but when it is a thick dough, some other
method must be adopted to bring about the desired result. The usual way
is by mixing the dough to a proper consistency, and working it with the
hands. This is termed _kneading_. Much of the excellence of bread
depends upon the thoroughness of this kneading, since if the yeast is
not intimately and equally mixed with every particle of flour, the bread
will not be uniform; some portions will be heavy and compact, while
others will be full of large, open cavities, from the excessive
liberation of gas.

The length of time required for kneading depends upon the perfection
with which the yeast cells have been previously diffused throughout the
sponge, and upon the quality of the flour used in preparing the bread,
much less time being required for kneading dough made from good flour.
Some consider an hour none too long to knead bread. Such a lengthy
process may be advantageous, since one of the objects of kneading is to
render the glutinous parts of the flour so elastic that the dough may be
capable of expanding to several times its bulk without cracking or
breaking, but excellent results can be obtained from good flour with
less labor. Bread has been kneaded all that is necessary when it will
work clean of the board, and when, after a smart blow with the fist in
the center of the mass, it will spring back to its original shape like
an India rubber ball. Its elasticity is the surest test of its goodness;
and when dough has been thus perfectly kneaded, it can be molded into
any shape, rolled, twisted, or braided with ease. Chopping, cutting,
stretching, and pulling--the dough are other methods for accomplishing
the same end.

If a large mass is to be kneaded, it is better to divide it into several
portions and knead each separately. It is less laborious and more likely
to result in an equal diffusion of the yeast. Bread is often spoiled by
the addition of too much flour during kneading. Dough should always be
kneaded as soft as it can be handled, and only sufficient flour added to
prevent its sticking to the board. Stiff bread is close in texture, and
after a day or two becomes dry and hard.

HOW TO MANIPULATE THE DOUGH IN KNEADING.--Sprinkle the board well
with flour, and scrape the dough from the bowl with a knife. Dust the
hands with flour, and then draw the dough with a rolling motion from the
farthest side toward you, using the finger tips for the purpose, but
pressing firmly down upon the mass with the palm of the hands. Reach
forward again with the finger tips, and again press the ball of the
hands upon the dough. Continue this process of manipulation until the
mass is very much elongated; then turn at right angles and repeat the
process, taking care that the finger tips do not break through the light
film which will form upon the outside of soft dough when well managed.
_Keep the dough constantly in motion_ until it is smooth, elastic, and
fine-grained. The hands and the board may need a light dusting of flour
at frequent intervals. If the dough sticks, lift it quickly, and clean
the board, that it may be kept smooth. The dough will not stick if kept
in constant motion. Do not rub off little wads of dough either from the
hands or the board and keep kneading them into the loaf; they will
seriously injure the uniform texture of the bread.

HOW MANY TIMES SHALL BREAD BE KNEADED?--As the objects to be
attained in kneading dough are to render the gluten more elastic and
thoroughly to diffuse the yeast, it will be seen that there has been
sufficient kneading when all the flour necessary for the bread has been
added. Furthermore, it must be apparent that continued manipulation of
the dough at this stage will dissipate and press out the little vesicles
of gas held in place by the elastic gluten, and thus lose in part what
so much pains has been taken to secure. At whatever stage the requisite
amount of flour be added, the dough should then be thoroughly kneaded
once for all. If allowed to rise in bulk, when light it should be shaped
into loaves with the greatest care, handled lightly, and worked as
little as possible, and if at all diminished, allowed to rise again
before baking.

DRYNESS OF THE SURFACE.--Bread in all stages should be covered over
the top, since it rises much more evenly, and does not have a stiff,
dried surface, as when placed in a warm place exposed to air. It
sometimes happens that this precaution is forgotten or not sufficiently
attended to, and a dry crust forms and over the dough, which, if kneaded
into the loaves, leaves hard, dry spots in the bread. In case of such a
mishap, take the dry crust off, dissolve it in a little warm water, add
flour enough to mold, make it into a small loaf, and raise it
separately.

SIZE OF LOAVES.--The lightness of the bread after baking depends
upon the perfection with which the little air-cells, formed during the
fermenting process, have become fixed by the heat during the baking. The
heat expands the carbonic acid gas contained within the open spaces in
the dough, and at the same time checks further development of gas by
destroying the yeast plant. The sooner, then, that the cells can be made
permanent after the arrest of fermentation, the more light and porous
the bread will be. Although this fixing of the cells is largely
dependent upon the degree of heat maintained, it likewise in a measure
depends upon the size of the loaf, as the heat will penetrate and fix
the cells of a small loaf throughout much sooner than, those of a large
one. Therefore, bake in small loaves, and have a separate pan for each,
as that admits of an equal degree of heat to all sides. This aids in a
more rapid fixing of the air-cells and likewise gives more crust, which
is the sweetest and most digestible part of the bread.

Sheet-iron pans, about eight inches in length, four in width, and five
in depth, are the most satisfactory. After the dough is molded, divide
it into loaves which will fill such pans to the depth of two inches. Let
them rise until double their first volume, and then put them in the
oven. In baking, the loaves will rise still higher, and if about five
inches high when done, will have expanded to about the right
proportions.

[Illustration: Bread Pan]

PROPER TEMPERATURE OF THE OVEN.--The objects to be attained in the
baking of bread are to break up the starch and gluten cells of the Sour
so as to make them easily digestible, to destroy the yeast plant, and
render permanent the cells formed by the action of the carbonic acid
gas. To accomplish well these ends, the loaf must be surrounded by a
temperature ranging from 400° to 600°. The oven should be one in which
the heat is equal in all parts, and which can be kept at a steady,
uniform heat. Old-fashioned brick ovens were superior in this respect to
most modern ranges. The fire for baking bread should be of sufficient
strength to keep the oven heated for at least an hour. If the oven has
tendency to become too hot upon the bottom, a thin, open grate, broiler,
or toasting rack, should be placed underneath the tins to allow a
circulation of air and avoid danger of burning. If the heat be
insufficient, fermentation will not cease until the bread has become
sour; the cells will be imperfectly fixed or entirely collapsed; too
little of the moisture will have evaporated, and the result will be a
soft, wet, and pasty or sour loaf. If the heat be too great, the bread
will be baked before it has perfectly risen, or a thick, burned crust
will be produced, forming a non-conducting covering to the loaf, which
will prevent the heat from permeating the interior, and thus the loaf
will have an overdone exterior, but will be raw and doughy within. If,
however, the temperature of the oven be just right, the loaf will
continue for a little time to enlarge, owing to the expansion of the
carbonic acid gas, the conversion of the water into steam, and the
vaporizing of the alcohol, which rises in a gaseous form and is driven
off by the heat; a nicely browned crust will be formed over the surface,
the result of the rapid evaporation of water from the surface and
consequent consolidation of the dough of this portion of the loaf, and a
chemical change caused by the action of the heat upon the starch by
which is converted into dextrine, finally assuming a brown color due to
the production of a substance known to the chemist as _assama_.

Bread is often spoiled in the baking. The dough may be made of the best
of flour and yeast, mixed and kneaded in the most perfect manner, and
may have risen to the proper degree of lightness' before going to the
oven, yet if the oven is either too hot or not hot enough, the bread
will be of an inferior quality.

Without an oven thermometer, there is no accurate means of determining
the temperature of the oven; but housekeepers resort to various means to
form a judgment about it. The baker's old-fashioned method is to throw a
handful of flour on the oven bottom. If it blackens without igniting,
the heat is deemed sufficient. Since the object for which the heat is
desired is to cook the flour, not to burn it, it might be supposed that
this would indicate too high a temperature; but the flour within the
loaf to be baked is combined with a certain amount of moisture, the
evaporation of which lowers the temperature of the bread considerably
below that of the surrounding heated atmosphere. The temperature of the
inner portion of the loaf cannot exceed 212° so long as it continues
moist. Bread might be perfectly cooked at this temperature by steam, but
it would lack that most digestible portion of the loaf, the crust.

A common way of ascertaining if the heat of the oven is sufficient, is
to hold the bare arm inside it for a few seconds. If the arm cannot be
held within while thirty is counted, it is too hot to begin with. The
following test is more accurate: For rolls, the oven should be hot
enough to brown a teaspoonful of flour in _one_ minute, and for loaves
in _five_ minutes.

The temperature should be high enough to arrest the fermentation, which
it will do at a point considerably below the boiling point of water, and
at the same time to form a shell or crust, which will so support the
dough as to prevent it from sinking or collapsing when the evolution of
carbonic acid gas shall cease; but it should not be hot enough to brown
the crust within ten or fifteen minutes. The heat should increase for
the first fifteen minutes, remain steady for the next fifteen minutes,
and may then gradually decrease during the remainder of the baking. If
by any mischance the oven be so hot as to brown the crust too soon,
cover the loaf with a clean paper for a few minutes. Be careful that no
draught reaches the bread while baking; open the oven door very seldom,
and not at all for the first ten minutes. If it is necessary to turn the
loaf, try to do so without bringing it to the air. From three fourths of
an hour to an hour is usually a sufficient length of time to bake an
ordinary sized loaf. Be careful not to remove the bread from the oven
until perfectly done. It is better to allow it to bake ten minutes too
long than not long enough. The crust of bread, when done, should be
equally browned all over.

The common test for well-baked bread is to tap it on the bottom with the
finger; if it is light and well done, it will sound hollow; heavy bread
will have a dull sound. A thoroughly baked loaf will not burn the hand
when lifted upon it from the pan.

CARE OF BREAD AFTER BAKING.--When done, remove the loaves from the
tins, and tilt them upon edge so that the air may circulate freely on
all sides of them to prevent "sweating." Do not, however, lay them on a
pine shelf or table to absorb the odor of the wood. A large tin dripping
pan turned over upon the table does very well to tilt them on. If they
are turned often, so that they will not soften on one side, but a fine
wire bread cooler is the best thing. If this is not obtainable, a fair
substitute can be easily improvised by tacking window-screen wire to a
light frame of sufficient size to hold the requisite number of loaves.
If the bread is left exposed to the air until cold, the crust will be
crisp; if a soft crust is desired, it can be secured by brushing the top
of the loaf while hot, with tepid water, and covering with several
thicknesses of a clean bread cloth.

If by accident any portion of the crust is burnt, grate it away as soon
as cold; this is preferable to cutting or clipping it off.

BEST METHOD OF KEEPING BREAD.--When the bread is quite cold, put it
away in a bread box, which should be of tin, or of wood lined with tin,
convenient in form and supplied with a well-fitting cover. Never use an
unlined wooden box of any kind, as it cannot easily be kept fresh and
free from musty odors, which bread so readily absorbs.

Stone and earthen ware are not open to this objection, but they are
likely to collect moisture, and hence are not equal to a tin receptacle.
Do not keep bread in the cellar or any other damp place, nor in a close
closet, where there are other foods from which it can absorb odors. The
bread box should be kept well covered, and free from crumbs and stale
bits. It should be carefully washed in boiling soapsuds, scalded, and
dried, every two or three days. If cloths are used to wrap or cover the
bread, they too should be washed and scalded every week, and oftener if
at any time the loaf about which they are wrapped becomes moldy or
musty.

TEST OF GOOD FERMENTED BREAD.--A loaf of good bread, well risen and
perfectly baked, may be taken in the hands, and, with the thumb on the
top crust and fingers upon the bottom of the loaf, pressed to less than
half its thickness, and when the pressure is removed, it will
immediately expand like a sponge, to its former proportions.

Good yeast bread, while it should be firm and preserve a certain amount
of moisture, will, when cold, crumble easily when rubbed between the
fingers. If, instead, it forms a close, soggy mass, it may be regarded
as indigestible. This is one reason why hot, new yeast bread and biscuit
are so indigestible. In demonstration of this, take a small lump of new
bread, gently roll it into a ball, and put into a glass of water, adding
a similar quantity of stale bread of the same kind also. The latter will
crumble away very soon, while the former will retain its form for hours,
reminding one of its condition in the stomach, "as hard as a bullet,"
for a long time resisting the action of the gastric juice, although,
meanwhile, the yeast germs which have not been killed in the oven are
converting the mass into a lump of yeast, by which the whole contents of
the stomach are soured. A soluble article like salt or sugar in fine
powdered form is much more easily and quickly dissolved than the same
article in solid lumps, and so it is with food. The apparent dryness of
stale bread is not caused by its loss of moisture; for if carefully
weighed, stale bread will be found to contain almost exactly the same
proportion of water as new bread that has become cold. The moisture has
only passed into a state of concealment, as may be demonstrated by
subjecting a stale loaf inclosed in a tightly-sealed receptacle to a
temperature equal to boiling heat in an oven for half an hour, when it
will again have the appearance of new bread.

Hot bread eaten with butter is still more unwholesome, for the reason
that the melted grease fills up the pores of the bread, and further
interferes with the action of the digestive fluids.

WHOLE-WHEAT AND GRAHAM BREADS.--The same general principles are
involved in the making of bread with whole-wheat and Graham flours as in
the production of bread from white flour. Good material and good care
are absolutely essential.

Whole-wheat flour ferments more readily and rises more quickly than does
white flour, hence bread made with it needs more careful management, as
it is more liable to sour. The novice in bread-making should not
undertake the preparation of bread with whole-wheat flour, until she has
thoroughly mastered all the details of the art by practical experience,
and can produce a perfect loaf from white flour.

Breads from whole-wheat and Graham flours require less yeast and less
flour than bread prepared from white flour. A slower process of
fermentation is also advantageous.

Such breads will be lighter if at least one third white flour be
employed in their manufacture. When the bread is made with a sponge,
this white flour may be utilised for the purpose. Thus the length of
time the whole-wheat flour will be undergoing fermentation will be
somewhat lessened, and its liability to become sour diminished. This
plan is a preferable one for beginners in bread-making.

Graham and whole-wheat flour breads must be kneaded longer than
white-flour bread, and require a hotter oven at first and a longer time
for baking. Much Graham and whole-wheat bread is served insufficiently
baked, probably owing to the fact that, being dark in color, the crust
appears brown very soon, thus deluding the cook into supposing that the
loaf is well baked. For thorough baking, from one to one and a half
hours are needed, according to the size of the loaf and the heat of the
oven.

TOAST.--Toasting, if properly done, renders bread more digestible,
the starch being converted into dextrine by the toasting process; but by
the ordinary method of preparing toast, that of simply browning each
side, only the surfaces of the slices are really toasted, while the
action of the heat upon the interior of the slice, it is rendered
exactly in the condition of new bread, and consequently quite as
indigestible. If butter is added while the toast is hot, we have all the
dyspepsia-producing elements of new bread and butter combined. Although
considered to be the dish _par excellence_ for invalids, nothing could
be more unwholesome than such toast. To properly toast the bread, the
drying and browning should extend throughout the entire thickness of the
slice. Bread may be thus toasted before an open fire, but the process
would be such a lengthy and troublesome one, it is far better to secure
the same results by browning the bread in a moderate oven.

Such toast is sometimes called _zwieback_ (twice baked), and when
prepared from good whole-wheat bread, is one of the most nourishing and
digestible of foods. Directions for its preparation and use will be
found in the chapter on "Breakfast Dishes."

STEAMED BREAD.--Steaming stale bread is as open to objection as the
surface toasting of bread, if steamed so as to be yielding and adhesive.
It is not, perhaps, as unwholesome as new bread, but bread is best eaten
in a condition dry and hard enough to require chewing, that its starch
may be so changed by the action of the saliva as to be easily digested.


LIQUID YEAST.


_RECIPES._

RAW POTATO YEAST.--Mix one fourth of a cup of flour, the same of
white sugar, and a teaspoonful of salt to a paste with a little water.
Pare three medium-size, fresh, and sound potatoes, and grate them as
rapidly as possible into the paste; mix all quickly together with a
silver spoon, then pour three pints of boiling water slowly over the
mixture, stirring well at the same time. If this does not rupture the
starch cells of the flour and potatoes so that the mixture becomes
thickened to the consistency of starch, turn it into a granite-ware
kettle and boil up for a minute, stirring well to keep it from sticking
and burning. If it becomes too much thickened, add a little more boiling
water. It is impossible to give the exact amount of water, since the
quality of the flour will vary, and likewise the size of the potatoes;
but three pints is an approximate proportion. Strain the mixture through
a fine colander into an earthen bread bowl, and let it cool. When
lukewarm, add one cup of good, lively yeast. Cover with a napkin, and
keep in a moderately warm place for several hours, or until it ceases to
ferment. As it begins to ferment, stir it well occasionally, and when
well fermented, turn into a clean glass or earthen jar. The next morning
cover closely, and put in the cellar or refrigerator, not, however, in
contact with the ice. It is best to reserve enough for the first baking
in some smaller jar, so that the larger portion need not be opened so
soon. Always shake the yeast before using.

RAW POTATO YEAST NO. 2.--This is made in the same manner as the
preceding, with this exception, that one fourth of a cup of loose hops
tied in a clean muslin bag, is boiled in the water for five minutes
before pouring it into the potato and flour mixture. Many think the
addition of the hops aids in keeping the yeast sweet for a longer
period. But potato yeast may be kept sweet for two weeks without hops,
if cared for, and is preferred by those who dislike the peculiar flavor
of the bread made from hop yeast.

HOP YEAST.--Put half a cup of loose hops, or an eighth of an ounce
of the pressed hops (put up by the Shakers and sold by druggists), into
a granite-ware kettle; pour over it a quart of boiling water, and simmer
about five minutes. Meanwhile stir to a smooth paste in a tin basin or
another saucepan, a cup of flour, and a little cold water. Line a
colander with a thin cloth, and strain the boiling infusion of hops
through it onto the flour paste, stirring continually. Boil this thin
starch a few minutes, until it thickens, stirring constantly that no
lumps be formed. Turn it into a large earthen bowl, add a tablespoonful
of salt and two of white sugar, and when it has cooled to blood heat,
add one half cup of lively yeast, stirring all well together. Cover the
bowl with a napkin, and let it stand in some moderately warm place
twenty-four hours, or until it ceases to ferment or send up bubbles,
beating back occasionally as it rises; then put into a wide-mouthed
glass or earthen jar, which has been previously scalded and dried, cover
closely, and set in a cool place. Yeast made in this manner will keep
sweet for two weeks in summer and longer in winter.

BOILED POTATO YEAST.--Peel four large potatoes, and put them to
boil in two quarts of cold water. Tie two loose handfuls of hops
securely in a piece of muslin, and place in the water to boil with the
potatoes. When the potatoes are tender, remove them with a perforated
skimmer, leaving the water still boiling. Mash them, and work in four
tablespoons of flour and two of sugar. Over this mixture pour gradually
the boiling hop infusion, stirring constantly, that it may form a smooth
paste, and set it aside to cool. When lukewarm, add a gill of lively
yeast, and proceed as in the preceding recipe.

BOILED POTATO YEAST NO. 2.--To one teacupful of very smoothly
mashed, mealy potato, add three teaspoonfuls of white sugar, one
teaspoonful of salt, and one cup of lively yeast, or one cake of Yeast
Foam, dissolved in a very little water. The potatoes should be warm, but
not hot enough to destroy the yeast. Allow this to stand until light,
when it is ready for use.


FERMENTED BREADS.

In the preparation of breads after the following recipes, the measure of
flour should be heaping.


_RECIPES._

MILK BREAD WITH WHITE FLOUR.--Scald and cool on pint of unskimmed
milk. Add to the milk when lukewarm, one fourth of a cup, or three
tablespoonfuls, of liquid yeast, and three cups of flour. Give the
batter a vigorous beating, turn it into a clean bread bowl or a small
earthen crock, cover, and let it rise over night. In the morning, when
well risen, add two or three cupfuls of warm flour, or sufficient to
knead. Knead well until the dough is sufficiently elastic to rebound
when struck forcibly with the fist. Allow it to rise again in mass; then
shape into loaves; place in pans; let it stand until light, and bake. If
undesirable to set the bread over night, and additional tablespoonfuls
or two of cheese may be used, to facilitate the rising.

VIENNA BREAD.--Into a pint of milk sterilized by scalding, turn a
cup and a half of boiling water. When lukewarm, add one half cup of warm
water, in which has been dissolved a cake of compressed yeast, and a
quart of white flour. Beat the batter thus made very thoroughly, and
allow it to rise for one hour; then add white flour until the dough is
of a consistency to knead. Knead well, and allow it to rise again for
about three hours, or until very light. Shape into four loaves, handling
lightly. Let it rise again in the pans, and bake. During the baking,
wash the tops of the loaves with a sponge dipped in milk, to glaze them.

WATER BREAD.--Dissolve a tablespoonful of sugar in a pint of
boiling water. When lukewarm, add one fourth of a cup full of liquid
yeast, and sufficient flour to make a batter thick enough to drop from
the spoon. Beat vigorously for ten minutes, turn into a clean,
well-scalded bread bowl, cover (wrapping in a blanket if in cold
weather), and let it rise over night. In the morning, when well risen,
add flour to knead. Knead well for half an hour, cover, and let it
become light in mass. When light, shape into loaves, allow it to rise
again, and bake.

FRUIT ROLL.--Take some bread dough prepared as for Milk Bread,
which has been sufficiently kneaded and is ready to mold, and roll to
about one inch in thickness. Spread over it some dates which have been
washed, dried, and stoned, raisins, currants, or chopped figs. Roll it
up tightly into a loaf. Let and it rise until very light, and bake.

FRUIT LOAF.--Set a sponge with one pint of rich milk, one fourth
cup of yeast, and a pint of flour, over night. In the morning, add two
cups of Zante currents, one cup of sugar, and three cups of flour, or
enough to make a rather stiff dough. Knead well, and set to rise; when
light, mold into loaves; let it rise again, and bake.

POTATO BREAD.--Cook and mash perfectly smooth, potatoes to make a
cupful. Add a teaspoonful of best white sugar, one cup and a half of
warm water, and when the mixture is lukewarm, one half cup of yeast,
prepared as directed for Boiled Potato Yeast No. 2, and flour to make a
very thick batter. Allow it to rise over night. In the morning, add a
pint of warm water and flour enough to knead. The dough will need to be
considerably stiffer than when no potato is used, or the result will be
a bread too moist for easy digestion. Knead well. Let it rise, mold into
four loaves, and when again light, bake.

PULLED BREAD.--Remove a loaf from the oven when about half baked,
and lightly pull the partially set dough into pieces of irregular shape,
about half the size of one's fist. Do not smooth or mold the pieces;
bake in a slow oven until browned and crisp throughout.

WHOLE WHEAT BREAD.--The materials needed for the bread are: one
pint of milk, scalded and cooled, one quart of wheat berry flour, one
pint Minnesota spring wheat flour, one third cup of a soft yeast, or one
fourth cake of compressed yeast, dissolved in one third cup of cold
water. Stir enough flour into the milk to make a stiff batter, put in
the yeast, and let it rise until foamy. Have the milk so warm that, when
the flour is put in, the batter will be of a lukewarm temperature. Wrap
in a thick blanket, and keep at an equable temperature. When light, stir
in, slowly, warm flour to make a soft dough. Knead for fifteen minutes,
and return to the bowl (which has been washed and oiled) to rise again.
When risen to double its size, form into two loaves, place in separate
pans, let rise again, and bake from three fourths to one and one half
hours, according to the heat of the oven.

WHOLE-WHEAT BREAD NO. 2.--Scald one pint of unskimmed milk; when
lukewarm, add one half cup of liquid yeast, or one fourth cake of
compressed yeast, dissolved in one half cup of warm water, and a pint of
Pillsbury's best white flour. Beat this batter thoroughly, and allow it
to rise. When well risen, add three and two thirds cups of wheat berry
flour. Knead thoroughly, and allow it to become light in mass; then
shape into two loaves, allow it to rise again, and bake.

MISS. B'S ONE-RISING BREAD.--Sift and measure three and three
fourths cups of wheat berry flour. Scald and cool a pint of unskimmed
milk. When lukewarm, add one tablespoonful of lively liquid yeast. By
slow degrees add the flour, beating vigorously until too stiff to use a
spoon, then knead thoroughly for half an hour, shape into a loaf, place
in a bread pan, cover with a napkin in warm weather, wrap well with
blankets in cold weather, and let rise over night. In the morning, when
perfectly light, pat in a well heated oven, and bake.

POTATO BREAD WITH WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR.--Take a half gill of liquid
yeast made as for Boiled Potato Yeast No. 2, and add milk, sterilised
and cooled to lukewarm, to make a pint. And one cup of well-mashed,
mealy potato and one cup of white flour, or enough to make a rather
thick batter Beat thoroughly, cover, and set to rise. When well risen,
add sufficient whole-wheat flour to knead. The quantity will vary
somewhat with the brand of flour used, but about four and one fourth
cupfuls will in general be needed. Knead well, let it rise in mass and
again in the loaf, and bake.

RYE BREAD.--Prepare a sponge over night with white flour as for
Water Bread. In the morning, when light, add another tablespoonful of
sugar, and rye flour to knead. Proceed as directed for the Water Bread,
taking care to use only enough rye flour to make the dough Just stiff
enough to mold. Use white flour for dusting than kneading board, as the
rye flour is sticky.

GRAHAM BREAD.--Take two tablespoonfuls of lively liquid yeast, or a
little less than one fourth cake of compressed yeast, dissolved in a
little milk, and add new milk, scalded and cooled to lukewarm, to make
one pint. Add one pint of white flour, beat very thoroughly, and set to
rise. When very light, add three find one half cupfuls of sifted Graham
flour, or enough to make a dough that can be molded. Knead well for half
an hour. Place in a clean, slightly oiled bread bowl, cover, and allow
it to rise. When light, shape into a loaf: allow it to rise again, and
bake.

GRAHAM BREAD NO. 2.--Mix well one pint of white and two pints of
best Graham flour. Prepare a batter with a scant pint of milk, scalded
and cooled, two table spoonfuls of liquid yeast, or a little less than
one fourth of a cake of compressed yeast, dissolved in two table
spoonfuls of milk, and a portion of the mixed flour. Give it a vigorous
beating, and put it in a warm place to rise. When well risen, add more
flour to make a dough sufficiently stiff to knead. There will be some
variation in the amount required, dependent upon the brands of flour
used, but in general, two and one half pints of the flour will be enough
for preparing the sponge and kneading the dough. Knead thoroughly for
twenty-five or thirty minutes. Put into a clean and slightly oiled bread
bowl, cover, and set to rise again. When double its first bulk, mold
into a loaf; allow it to rise again, and bake.

GRAHAM BREAD NO. 3.--Mix three pounds each of Graham and Minnesota
spring wheat flour. Make a sponge of one and a half pints of warm water,
one half cake compressed yeast, well dissolved in the water, and flour
to form a batter. Let this rise. When well risen, add one and a half
pints more of warm water, one half cup full of New Orleans molasses, and
sufficient flour to knead. Work the bread thoroughly, allow it to rise
in mass; then mold, place in pans, and let it rise again. The amount of
material given is sufficient for four loaves of bread.

RAISED BISCUIT.--These may be made from dough prepared by any of
the preceding recipes for bread. They will be more tender if made with
milk, and if the dough is prepared expressly for biscuits, one third
cream may be used. When the dough has been thoroughly kneaded the last
time, divide into small, equal-sized pieces. A quantity of dough
sufficient for one loaf of bread should be divided into twelve or
sixteen such portions. Shape into smooth, round biscuits, fit closely
into a shallow pan, and let them rise until very light. Biscuit should
be allowed to become lighter than bread before putting in the oven,
since, being so much smaller, fermentation is arrested much sooner, and
they do not rise as much in the oven as does bread.

ROLLS.--Well kneaded and risen bread dough is made into a variety
of small forms termed rolls, by rolling with the hands or with a
rolling-pin, and afterward cutting or folding into any shape desired,
the particular manner by which they are folded and shaped giving to the
rolls their characteristic names. Dough prepared with rich milk or part
cream makes the best rolls. It may be divided into small, irregular
portions, about one inch in thickness, and shaped by taking each piece
separately in the left hand, then with the thumb and first finger of the
right hand, slightly stretch one of the points of the piece and draw it
over the left thumb toward the center of the roll, holding it there with
the left thumb. Turn the dough and repeat the operation until you have
been all around the dough, and each point has been drawn in; then place
on the pan to rise. Allow the rolls to become very light, and bake.
Rolls prepared in this manner are termed _Imperial Rolls_, and if the
folding has been properly done, when well baked they will be composed of
a succession of light layers, which can be readily separated.

_French Rolls_ may be made by shaping each portion of dough into small
oval rolls quite tapering at each end, allowing them to become light,
and baking far enough apart so that one will not touch another.

If, when the dough is light and ready to shape, it be rolled on the
board until about one eighth of an inch in thickness, and cut into
five-inch squares, then divided through the center into triangles,
rolled up, beginning with the wide side, and placed in the pan to rise
in semicircular shape, the rolls are called _Crescents_.

What are termed _Parker House Rolls_ may be made from well-risen dough
prepared with milk, rolled upon the board to a uniform thickness of
about one forth inch; cut into round or oval shapes with the cutter;
folded, one third over the other two thirds; allowed to rise until very
light, and baked.

The light, rolled dough, may be formed into a _Braid_ by cutting into
strips six inches in length and one in width, joining the ends of each
three, and braiding.

The heat of the oven should be somewhat greater for roils and biscuit
than for bread. The time required will depend upon the heat and the size
of the roll, but it will seldom exceed one half hour. Neither rolls nor
biscuits should be eaten hot, as they are then open to the same
objections as other new yeast bread.

BROWN BREAD.--To one and one fourth cups of new milk which has been
scalded and cooled, add one fourth of a cup of lively yeast, three
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and one cup each of white flour, rye flour or
sifted rye meal, and yellow corn meal. With different brands of flour
there may need to be some variation in the quantity of liquid to be
used. The mixture should be thick enough to shape. Allow it to rise
until light and cracked over the top; put into a bread pan, and when
again well risen, bake for an hour and a half or two hours in an oven
sufficiently hot at first to arrest fermentation and fix the bread
cells, afterwards allowing the heat to diminish somewhat, to permit a
slower and longer baking. Graham flour may be used in place of rye, if
preferred.

DATE BREAD.--Take a pint of light white bread sponge prepared with
milk, add two tablespoons of sugar, and Graham flour to make a very
stiff batter. And last a cupful of stoned dates. Turn into a bread pan.
Let it rise, and bake.

FRUIT LOAF WITH GRAHAM AND WHOLE-WHEAT FLOUR.--Dissolve one fourth
cake of compressed yeast in a pint of sterilized milk; and a pint of
white flour; heat thoroughly, and set to rise. When well risen, add
three and one fourth cups of flour (Graham and whole-wheat, equal
proportions, thoroughly mixed), or sufficient to knead. Knead well for
half an hour, and just at the last add a cup of raisins, well washed,
dried, and dusted with flour. Let the loaf rise in mass; then shape, put
in the pan, allow it to become light again, and bake.

RAISED CORN BREAD.--Into two cupfuls of hot mush made from white
granular corn meal, stir two cupfuls of cold water. Beat well, and add
one half cup of liquid yeast, or one half cake of compressed yeast,
dissolved in one half cup of warm water, and two teaspoonfuls of
granulated sugar. Stir in white or sifted Graham flour to make it stiff
enough to knead. Knead very thoroughly, and put in a warm place to rise.
When light, molded into three loaves, put into pans, and allow it to
rise again. When well risen, bake at least for three fourths of an hour.

CORN CAKE.--Sterilise a cupful of rich milk or thin cream. Cool to
lukewarm, and dissolve in it half a cake of compressed yeast Add two
small cupfuls of white flour; beat very thoroughly, and put in a warm
place to rise. When light, add a cup of lukewarm water or milk, and two
cups of best yellow cornmeal. Turn into a shallow square pan, and leave
until again well risen. Bake in a quick oven. A tablespoonful of sugar
may be added with the corn meal, if desired.

OATMEAL BREAD.--Mix a quart of well-cooked oatmeal mush with a pint
of water, beating it perfectly smooth; add a cupful of liquid yeast and
flour to make a stiff batter. Cover, and let it rise. When light, add
sufficient flour to mold; knead as soft as possible, for twenty or
thirty minutes; shape into four or more loaves, let it rise again, and
bake.

MILK YEAST BREAD.--Prepare the yeast the day before by scalding
three heaping teaspoonfuls of fresh cornmeal with boiling milk. Set in a
warm place until light (from seven to ten hours); then put in a cool
place until needed for use. Start the bread by making a rather thick
batter with one cupful of warm water, one teaspoonful of the prepared
yeast, and white flour. Put in a warm place to rise. When light, add to
it a cupful of flour scalded with a cupful of boiling milk, and enough
more flour to make the whole into a rather stiff batter. Cover, and
allow it to rise. When again well risen, add flour enough to knead.
Knead well; shape into a loaf; let it rise, and bake. Three or four
cupfuls of white flour will be needed for all purposes with the amount
of liquid given; more liquid and flour may be added in forming the
second sponge if a larger quantity of bread is desired. In preparing
both yeast and bread, all utensils used should first be sterilized by
scalding in hot sal-soda water.

GRAHAM SALT-RISING BREAD.--Put two tablespoonfuls of milk into a
half-pint cup, add boiling water to fill the cup half full, one half
teaspoonful of sugar, one fourth teaspoonful of salt, and white flour to
make a rather stiff batter. Let it rise over night. In the morning, when
well risen, add a cup and a half of warm water, or milk scalded and
cooled, and sufficient white flour to form a rather stiff batter. Cover,
and allow it again to rise. When light, add enough sifted Graham flour
to knead. When well kneaded, shape into a loaf; allow it to become light
again in the pan, and bake. All utensils used should be first well
sterilized by scalding in hot sal-soda water.

UNFERMENTED BREADS.

The earliest forms of bread were made without fermentation. Grain was
broken as fine as possible by pounding on smooth stones, made into dough
with pure water, thoroughly kneaded, and baked in some convenient way.
Such was the "unleavened breads" or "Passover cakes" of the Israelites.
In many countries this bread is the only kind used. Unleavened bread
made from barley and oats is largely used by the Irish and Scotch
peasantry. In Sweden an unleavened bread is made of rye meal and water,
flavored with anise seed, and baked in large, thin cakes, a foot or more
in diameter.

[Illustration: Mexican Woman Making Tortillas]

Some savage tribes subsists chiefly upon excellent corn bread, made
simply of meal and water. Unleavened bread made of corn, called
_tortillas_, forms the staple diet of the Mexican Indians. The corn,
previously softened by soaking in lime water, is ground to a fine paste
between a stone slab and roller called a _metate_, then patted and
tossed from hand to hand until flattened into thin, wafer-like cakes,
and baked over a quick fire, on a thin iron plate or a flat stone.

Unquestionably, unleavened bread, well kneaded and properly baked, is
the most wholesome of all breads, but harder to masticate than that made
light by fermentation, but this is an advantage; for it insures more
thorough mixing with that important digestive agent, the saliva, than is
usually given to more easily softened food.

[Illustration: Stone Metate.]

What is usually termed unfermented bread, however, is prepared with
flour and liquid, to which shortening--of some kind is added, and the
whole made light by the liberation of gas generated within the dough
during the process of baking. This is brought about either by mixing
with the flour certain chemical substances, which, when wet and brought
into contact, act upon each other so as to set free carbonic acid gas,
which expands and puffs up the loaf; or by introducing into the dough
some volatile substance as carbonate of ammonia, which the heat during
baking will, cause to vaporize, and which in rising produces the same
result.

Carbonic acid gas maybe for this purpose developed by the chemical
decomposition of bicarbonate of potassa (saleratus), or bicarbonate of
soda, by some acid such as sour milk, hydrochloric acid, tartaric acid,
nitrate of potassa, or the acid phosphate of lime.

The chemical process of bread-raising originally consisted in adding to
the dough definite proportions of muriatic acid and carbonate of soda,
by the union of which carbonic acid gas and common salt were produced.
This process was soon abandoned, however, on account of the propensity
exhibited by the acid for eating holes in the fingers of the baker as
well as in his bread pans; and a more convenient one for hands and
pans, that of using soda or salaratus with cream of tartar or sour milk,
was substituted. When there is an excess of soda, a portion of it
remains in the loaf uncombined, giving to the bread a yellow color and
an alkaline taste, and doing mischief to the delicate coating of the
stomach. Alkalies, the class of chemicals to which soda and salaratus
belong, when pure and strong, are powerful corrosive poisons. The acid
used with the alkali to liberate the carbonic-acid gas in the process of
bread-making, if rightly proportioned, destroys this poisonous property,
and unites with it to form a new compound, which, although not a poison,
is yet unwholesome.

We can hardly speak too strongly in condemnation of the use of chemicals
in bread-making, when we reflect that the majority of housewives who
combine sour milk and salaratus, or cream of tartar and soda, more
frequently than otherwise _guess_ at the proportions, or measure them by
some "rule of thumb," without stopping to consider that although two
cups of sour milk may at one time be sufficiently acid to neutralize a
teaspoonful of saleratus, milk may vary in degree of acidity to such an
extent that the same quantity will be quite insufficient for the purpose
at another time; or that though a teaspoonful of some brand of cream of
tartar will neutralize a half teaspoonful of one kind of soda, similar
measures will not always bring about the same result. Very seldom,
indeed, will the proportions be sufficiently exact to perfectly
neutralise the alkali, since chemicals are subject to variations in
degree of strength, both on account of the method by which they are
manufactured and the length of time they have been kept, to say nothing
of adulterations to which they may have been subjected, and which are so
common that it is almost impossible to find unadulterated cream of
tartar in the market.

Baking powders are essentially composed of bicarbonate of soda and cream
of tartar, mixed in the proper proportions to exactly neutralize each
other, and if they were always pure, would certainly be as good as soda
and cream of tartar in any form, and possess the added advantage of
perfect proportions; but as was demonstrated not long ago by the
government chemist, nearly every variety of baking powder in the market
is largely adulterated with cheaper and harmful substances. Alum, a most
frequent constituent of such baking powders, is exceedingly injurious to
the stomach. Out of several hundred brands of baking powder examined,
only one was found pure.

Even when in their purest state, these chemicals are not harmless, as is
so generally believed. It is a very prevalent idea that when soda is
neutralized by an acid, both chemical compounds are in some way
destroyed or vaporized in the process, and in some occult manner escape
from the bread during the process of baking. This is altogether an
error. The alkali and acid neutralize each other chemically, but they do
not destroy each other. Their union forms a salt, exactly the same as
the Rochelle salts of medicine, a mild purgative, and if we could
collected from the bread and weigh or measure it, we would find nearly
as much of it as there was of the baking powder in the first place. If
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder to the quart of flour be used, we have
remaining in the bread made with that amount of flour 165 grains of
crystallized Rochelle salts, or 45 grains more than this to be found in
a Seidlitz powder. It may be sometimes useful to take a dose of salts,
but the daily consumption of such chemical substances in bread can
hardly be considered compatible with the conditions necessary for the
maintenance of health. These chemical substances are unusable by the
system, and must all be removed by the liver and excretory organs, thus
imposing upon them an extra and unnecessary burden. It has also been
determined by scientific experimentation that the chemicals found in
baking powders in bread retard digestion.

These substances are, fortunately, not needed for the production of good
light bread. The purpose of their use is the production of a gas; but
air is a gas much more economical and abundant than carbonic-acid gas,
and which, when introduced into bread and subjected to heat, has the
property of expanding, and in doing, puffing up the bread and making it
light. Bread made light with air is vastly superior to that compounded
with soda or baking powder, in point of healthfulness, and when well
prepared, will equal it in lightness and palatableness. The only
difficulty lies in catching and holding the air until it has
accomplished the desired results. But a thorough understanding of the
necessary conditions and a little practice will soon enable one to
attain sufficient skill in this direction to secure most satisfactory
results.

[Illustration: Gem Irons]

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.--All materials used for making aërated bread
should be of the very best quality. Poor flour will not produce good
bread by this or by any other process. Aërated breads are of two kinds:
those baked while in the form of a batter, and such as are made into a
dough before baking.

[Illustration: Perforated Sheet Iron Pan for Rolls.]

All breads, whether fermented or unfermented, are lighter if baked in
some small form, and this is particularly true of unfermented breads
made light with air. For this reason, breads made into a dough are best
baked in the form of rolls, biscuits, or crackers, and batter breads in
small iron cups similar to those in the accompanying illustration. These
cups or "gem irons" as they are sometimes called, are to be obtained in
various shapes and sizes, but for this purpose the more shallow cups are
preferable. For baking the dough breads a perforated sheet of Russia
iron or heavy tin, which any tinner can make to fit the oven, is the
most serviceable, as it permits the hot air free access to all sides of
the bread at once. If such is not obtainable, the upper oven grate,
carefully washed and scoured, may be used Perforated pie tins also
answer very well for this purpose.

[Illustration: Making Unfermented Bread.]

The heat of the oven for baking should be sufficient to form a slight
crust over all sides of the bread before the air escapes, but not
sufficient to brown it within the first fifteen minutes. To aid in
forming the crust on the sides and bottom of batter breads, the iron
cups should be heated previous to introducing the batter. The degree of
heat required for baking will be about the same as for fermented rolls
and biscuit, and the fire should be so arranged as to keep a steady but
not greatly increasing heat.

Air is incorporated into batter breads by brisk and continuous agitating
and beating; into dough breads by thorough kneading, chopping, or
pounding.

Whatever the process by which the air is incorporated, it must be
_continuous_. For this reason it is especially essential in making
aërated bread that every thing be in readiness before commencing to put
the bread together. All the materials should be measured out, the
utensils to be used in readiness, and the oven properly heated. Success
is also dependent upon the dexterity with which the materials when ready
are put together. Batter bread often proves a failure although the
beating is kept up without cessation, because it is done slowly and
carelessly, or interspersed with stirring, thus permitting the air to
escape between the strokes.

If the bread is to be baked at once, the greater the dispatch with which
it can be gotten into a properly-heated oven the lighter it will be.
Crackers, rolls and other forms of dough breads often lack in lightness
because they were allowed to stand some time before baking. The same is
true of batter breads. If, for any reason, it is necessary to keep such
breads for any length of time after being prepared, before baking, set
the dish containing them directly on ice.

The lightness of aërated bread depends not only upon the amount of air
incorporated in its preparation, but also upon the expansion of the air
during the baking. The colder the air, the greater will be its expansion
upon the application of heat. The colder the materials employed, then,
for the bread-making, the colder will be the air confined within it, and
the lighter will be the bread. For this reason, in making batter bread,
it will be found a good plan, when there is time, to put the materials
together, and place the dish containing the mixture on ice for an hour
or two, or even over night. When ready to use, beat thoroughly for ten
or fifteen minutes to incorporate air, and bake in heated irons. Rolls
and other breads made into a dough, may be kneaded and shaped and put
upon ice to become cold. Thus treated, less kneading is necessary than
when prepared to be baked at once.

Many of the recipes given for the batter breads include eggs. The yolk
is not particularly essential, and if it can be put to other uses, may
be left out. The white of an egg, because of its viscous nature, when
beaten, serves as a sort of trap to catch and hold air, and added to the
bread, aids in making it light. Very nice light bread may be made
without eggs, but the novice in making aërated breads will, perhaps,
find it an advantage first to become perfectly familiar with the
processes and conditions involved, by using the recipes with eggs before
attempting those without, which are somewhat more dependent for success
upon skill and practice.

When egg is used in the bread, less heating of the irons will be
necessary, and not so hot an oven as when made without.

If the bread, when baked, appears light, but with large holes in the
center, it is probable that either the irons or the oven was too hot at
first. If the bread after baking, seems sticky or dough-like in the
interior, it is an indication that either it was insufficiently baked,
or that not enough flour in proportion to the liquid has been used. It
should be stated, that although the recipes given have been prepared
with the greatest care, and with the same brands of flour, careful
measurement, and proper conditions, prove successful every time, yet
with different brands of flour some variation in quantity may needed,--a
trifle more or less,--dependent upon the absorbent properties of the
flour, and if eggs are used, upon the size of the eggs.

A heavy bread may be the result of the use of poor flour, too much
flour, careless or insufficient beating, so that not enough air was
incorporated, or an oven not sufficiently hot to form a crust over the
bread before the air escaped. Breads made into a dough, if moist and
clammy, require more flour or longer baking. Too much flour will make
them stiff and hard.

The length of time requisite for baking aërated breads made with
whole-wheat, wheat berry, or Graham flours, will vary from forty minutes
to one hour, according to the kind and form in which the bread is baked,
and the heat of the oven.

The irons in which batter breads are to be baked should not be smeared
with grease; if necessary to oil them at all, they should only be wiped
out lightly with a clean, oiled cloth. Irons well cared for, carefully
washed, and occasionally scoured with Sapolio to keep them perfectly
smooth, will require no greasing whatever.

In filling the irons, care should be taken to fill each cup at first as
full as it is intended to have; it, as the heat of the irons begins the
cooking of the batter as soon as it is put in, and an additional
quantity added has a tendency to make the bread less light.


_RECIPES._

WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS.--Put the yolk of an egg into a basin, and beat
the white in a separate dish to a stiff froth. Add to the yolk, one half
a cupful of rather thin sweet cream and one cupful of skim milk. Beat
the egg, cream, and milk together until perfectly mingled and foamy with
air bubbles; then add, gradually, beating well at the same time, one
pint of what berry flour. Continue the beating vigorously and without
interruption for eight or ten minutes; then stir in, lightly, the white
of the egg. Do not beat again after the white of the egg is added, but
turn at once into heated, shallow irons, and bake for an hour in a
moderately quick oven. If properly made and carefully baked, these puffs
will be of a fine, even texture throughout, and as light as bread raised
by fermentation.

WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS NO. 2.--Make a batter by beating together until
perfectly smooth the yolk of one egg, one and one half cups of new or
unskimmed milk, and one pint of whole-wheat flour. Place the dish
containing it directly upon ice, and leave for an hour or longer. The
bread may be prepared and left on the ice over night, if desired for
breakfast. When ready to bake the puffs, whip the white of the egg to a
stiff froth, and after vigorously beating the batter for ten minutes,
stir in lightly the white of the egg; turn at once into heated irons,
and bake. If preferred, one third white flour and two thirds sifted
Graham flour may be used in the place of the wheat berry flour.

WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS NO. 3.--Take one cupful of sweet cream
(twelve-hour cream), one half cupful of soft ice water, and two slightly
rounded cupfuls of wheat berry flour. Beat the material well together,
and set the dish containing it on ice for an hour or more before using.
When ready to bake, beat the mixture vigorously for ten minutes, then
turn into heated iron cups (shallow ones are best), and bake for about
an hour in a quick oven.

GRAHAM PUFFS.--Beat together vigorously until full of air bubbles,
one pint of unskimmed milk, the yolk of one egg, and one pint and three
or four tablespoonfuls of Graham flour, added a little at a time. When
the mixture is light and foamy throughout, stir in lightly and evenly
the white of the egg, beaten to a stiff froth; turn into heated irons,
and bake in a rather quick oven. Instead of all Graham, one third white
flour may be used if preferred.

GRAHAM PUFFS NO. 2.--Beat the yolks of two eggs in two cupfuls of
ice water; then add gradually, beating well meantime, three and one
fourth cupfuls of Graham flour. Continue the beating, after all the
flour is added, until the mixture is light and full of air bubbles. Add
last the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and bake at once
in heated irons.

CURRANT PUFFS.--Prepare the puffs as directed in any of the
foregoing recipes with the addition of one cup of Zante currants which
have been well washed, dried, and floured.

GRAHAM GEMS.--Into two cupfuls of unskimmed milk which has been
made very cold by standing on ice, stir gradually, sprinkling it from
the hand, three and one fourth cupfuls of Graham flour. Beat vigorously
for ten minutes or longer, until the batter is perfectly smooth and full
of air bubbles. Turn at once into hissing hot gem irons, and bake in a
hot oven. If preferred, the batter may be prepared, and the dish
containing it placed on ice for an hour or longer; then well beaten and
baked. Graham gems may be made in this manner with soft water instead of
milk, but such, in general, will need a little more flour than when made
with milk. With some ovens, it will be found an advantage in baking
these gems to place them on the upper grate for the first ten minutes or
until the top has been slightly crusted, and then change to the bottom
of the oven for the baking.

CRUSTS.--Beat together very thoroughly one cupful of ice-cold milk,
and one cupful of Graham flour. When very light and full of air bubbles,
turn into hot iron cups, and bake twenty-five or thirty minutes. The
best irons for this purpose are the shallow oblong, or round cups of the
same size at the bottom as at the top. Only a very little batter should
be put in each cup. The quantity given is sufficient for one dozen
crusts.

RYE PUFFS.--Beat together the same as for whole-wheat puffs one
cupful of milk, one tablespoonful of sugar, and the yolk of an egg. Add
one cupful of good rye flour, mixed with one half cupful of Graham
flour, and stir in lastly the well beaten white of the egg. Bake at
once, in heated gem-irons.

RYE PUFFS NO. 2.--Beat together until well mingled one pint of thin
cream and the yolk of one egg. Add gradually, beating meanwhile, four
cups of rye flour. Continue to beat vigorously for ten minutes, then add
the stiffly-beaten white of the egg, and bake in heated irons.

RYE GEMS.--Mix together one cupful of corn meal and one cupful of
rye meal. Stir the mixed meal into one and a half cupfuls of ice water.
Beat the batter vigorously for ten or fifteen minutes, then turn into
hot irons, and bake.

BLUEBERRY GEMS.--To one cupful of rich milk add one tablespoonful
of sugar, and the yolk of an egg. Beat well till full of air bubbles;
then add gradually one cupful of Graham flour, and one cupful of white
flour, or white corn meal. Beat vigorously until light; stir in the
beaten white of the egg, and one cupful of fresh, sound blueberries.
Bake in heated irons, in a moderately quick oven. Chopped or sour apples
may be used in place of the berries.

HOMINY GEMS.--Beat one egg until very light, add to it one
tablespoonful of thick sweet cream, a little salt if desired, and two
cupfuls of cooked hominy (fine). Thin the mixture with one cupful or
less of boiling water until it will form easily, beat well, and bake in
heated irons.

SALLY LUNN GEMS.--Beat together the yolk of one egg, two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and one cupful of thin, ice-cold, sweet cream.
Add slowly, beating at the same time, one cup and two tablespoonfuls of
sifted Graham flour. Beat vigorously, until full of air bubbles, add the
white of the egg beaten stiffly, and bake in heated irons.

CORN PUFFS.--Mingle the yolk of one egg with one cupful of rich
milk. Add to the liquid one cupful of flour, one-half cupful of fine,
yellow corn meal, and one-fourth cupful of sugar, all of which have
previously been well mixed together. Place the batter on ice for an
hour, or until very cold. Then beat it vigorously five or ten minutes,
till full of air bubbles; stir in lightly the stiffly beaten white of
the egg, and put at once into heated irons. Bake in a moderately quick
oven, thirty or forty minutes.

CORN PUFFS NO. 2.--Scald two cupfuls of fine white corn meal with
boiling water. When cold, add three tablespoonfuls of thin sweet cream,
and the yolk of one egg. Beat well, and stir in lastly the white of the
egg, beaten to a stiff froth. The batter should be sufficiently thin to
drop easily from a spoon, but not thin enough to pour. Bake in heated
irons, in a moderately quick oven.

CORN PUFFS NO. 3.--Take one cupful of cold mashed potato, and one
cupful of milk, rubbed together through a colander to remove all lumps.
Add the yolk of one well beaten, egg, and then stir in slowly, beating
vigorously meantime, one cupful of good corn meal. Lastly, stir in the
white of the egg beaten to a stiff froth, and bake in heated irons, in a
rather quick oven.

CORN PUFFS NO. 4.--Beat together one and one-half cupfuls of
unskimmed milk and the yolks of two eggs, until thoroughly blended. Add
two cupfuls of flour, and one cupful best granular corn meal. Beat the
batter thoroughly; stir in lightly the whites of the eggs, beaten to a
stiff froth, turn into heated irons, and bake.

CORN DODGERS.--Scald one cupful of best granular corn meal, with
which a tablespoonful of sugar has been sifted, with one cup of boiling
milk. Beat until smooth, and drop on a griddle, in cakes about one inch
in thickness, and bake slowly for an hour. Turn when brown.

CORN DODGERS NO. 2.--Mix one tablespoonful of sugar with two cups
best corn meal. Scald with one cup of boiling water. Add rich milk to
make a batter thin enough to drop from a spoon. Lastly, add one egg,
yolk and white beaten separately, and bake on a griddle in the oven from
three fourth of an hour to one hour.

CREAM CORN CAKES.--Into one cup of thin cream stir one and one half
cups of granular corn meal, or enough to make a stiff batter; beat well,
drop into heated irons, and bake.

HOE CAKES.--Scald one pint of white corn meal, with which, if
desired, a tablespoonful of sugar, and one half teaspoonful of salt have
been mixed, with boiling milk, or water enough to make a batter
sufficiently thick not to spread. Drop on a hot griddle, in large or
small cakes, as preferred, about one half inch in thickness. Cook
slowly, and when well browned on the under side, turn over. The cake may
be cooked slowly, until well done throughout, or, as the portion
underneath becomes well browned the first browned crust may be peeled
off with a knife, and the cake again turned. As rapidly as a crust
becomes formed and browned, one may be removed, and the cake turned,
until the whole is all browned. The thin wafer-like crusts are excellent
served with hot milk or cream.

OATMEAL GEMS.--To one cupful of well-cooked oatmeal add one half
cupful of rich milk or thin cream, and the yolk of one egg. Beat all
together thoroughly; then add, continuing to beat, one and one third
cupfuls of Graham flour, and lastly the stiffly beaten white of the egg.
Bake in heated irons. If preferred, one cupful of white flour may be
used in place of the Graham.

SNOW GEMS.--Beat together lightly but thoroughly two parts clean,
freshly fallen, dry snow, and one part best granular corn meal. Turn
into hot gem irons and bake quickly. The snow should not be packed in
measuring, and the bread should be prepared before the snow melts.

POP OVERS.--For the preparation of these, one egg, one cupful of
milk, and one scant cupful of white flour are required. Beat the egg,
yolk and white separately. Add to the yolk, when well beaten, one half
of the milk, and sift in the flour a little at a time, stirring until
the whole is a perfectly smooth paste. Add the remainder of the milk
gradually, beating well until the whole is an absolutely smooth, light
batter about the thickness of cream. Stir in the stiffly beaten white of
the egg, and bake in hot earthen cups or muffin rings, and to prevent
them from sticking, sift flour into the rings after slightly oiling,
afterward turning them upside down to shake off all of the loose flour.

GRANOLA GEMS.--Into three fourths of a cup of rich milk stir one
cup of Granola (prepared by the Sanitarium Food Co.). Drop into heated
irons, and bake for twenty or thirty minutes.

BEAN GEMS.--Prepare the gems in the same manner as for Whole-Wheat
Puffs, using one half cup of milk, one egg, one cup of cooked beans
which have been rubbed through a colander and salted, and one cup and
one tablespoonful of white flour. A little variation in the quantity of
the flour may be necessary, dependent upon the moisture contained in the
beans, although care should be taken to have them quite dry.

BREAKFAST ROLLS.--Sift a pint and a half of Graham flour into a
bowl, and into it stir a cupful of very cold thin cream or unskimmed
milk. Pour the liquid into the flour slowly, a few spoonfuls at a time,
mixing each spoonful to a dough with the flour as fast as poured in.
When all the liquid has been added, gather the fragments of dough
together, knead thoroughly for ten minutes or longer, until perfectly
smooth and elastic. The quantity of flour will vary somewhat with the
quality, but in general, the quantity given will be quite sufficient for
mixing the dough and dusting the board. When well kneaded, divide into
two portions; roll each over and over with the hands, until a long roll
about once inch in diameter is formed; cut this into two-inch lengths,
prick with a fork and place on perforated tins, far enough apart so that
one will not touch another when baking. Each roll should be as smooth
and perfect as possible, and with no dry flour adhering. Bake at once,
or let stand on ice for twenty minutes. The rolls should not be allowed
to stand after forming, unless on ice. From thirty to forty minutes will
be required for baking. When done, spread on the table to cool, but do
not pile one on top of another.

Very nice rolls may be made in the same manner, using for the wetting
ice-cold soft water. They requite a longer kneading, are more crisp, but
less tender than those made with cream.

With some brands of Graham flour the rolls will be much lighter if one
third white flour be used. Whole-wheat flour may be used in place of
Graham, if preferred.

STICKS.--Prepare, and knead the dough the same as for rolls. When
ready to form, roll the dough much smaller; scarcely larger than one's
little finger, and cut into three or four-inch lengths. Bake the same as
rolls, for about twenty minutes.

CREAM GRAHAM RAILS.--To one half cup cold cream add one half cup of
soft ice water. Make into a dough with three cups of Graham flour,
sprinkling in slowly with the hands, beating at the same time, so as to
incorporate as much air as possible, until the dough is too stiff to be
stirred; then knead thoroughly, form into rolls, and bake.

CORN MUSH ROLLS.--Make a dough of one cup of corn meal mush, one
half cup of cream, and two and one half cups of white flour; knead
thoroughly, shape into rolls, and bake.

FRUIT ROLLS.--Prepare the rolls as directed in the recipe for
Breakfast Rolls, and when well kneaded, work into the dough a half
cupful of Zante currants which have been well washed, dried, and
floured. Form the rolls in the usual manner, and bake.

CREAM MUSH ROLLS.--Into a cupful of cold Graham mush beat
thoroughly three tablespoonfuls of thick, sweet cream. Add sufficient
Graham flour to make a rather stiff dough, knead thoroughly, shape into
roils, and bake. Corn meal, farina, and other mushes may be used in the
place of the Graham mush, if preferred.

BEATEN BISCUIT.--Into a quart of whole-wheat flour mix a large cup
of must be very stiff, and rendered soft and pliable by thorough
kneading and afterward pounding with a mallet for at least half an hour
in the following manner: Pound the dough oat flat, and until of the same
thickness throughout; dredge lightly with flour; double the dough over
evenly and pound quickly around the outside, to fasten the edges
together and thus retain the air within the dough. When well worked, the
dough will appear flaky and brittle, and pulling a piece off it quickly
will cause a sharp, snapping sound. Mold into small biscuits, making an
indenture in the center of each with the thumb, prick well with a fork,
and place on perforated sheets, with a space between, and put at once
into the oven. The oven should be of the same temperature as for rolls.
If they are "sad" inside when cold, they were not well baked, as they
should be light and tender. If preferred, use one third white flour,
instead of all whole-wheat. Excellent results are also obtained by
chopping instead of pounding the dough.

CREAM CRISPS.--Make a dough of one cupful of thin cream, and a
little more than three cups of Graham flour. Knead until smooth, then
divide the dough into several pieces, and place in a dish on ice for an
hour, or until ice cold. Roll each piece separately and quickly as thin
as brown paper. Cut with a knife into squares, prick with a fork, and
bake on perforated tins, until lightly browned on both sides.

CREAM CRISPS NO. 2.--Into two and one half cups of cold cream or
rich milk, sprinkle slowly with the hands, beating meanwhile to
incorporate air, four cups of best Graham flour, sifted with one half
cup of granulated sugar. Add flour to knead; about two and one fourth
cups will be required. When well kneaded, divide into several portions,
roll each as thin as a knife blade, cut into squares, prick well with a
fork, and bake.

GRAHAM CRISPS.--Into one half cupful of ice-cold soft water, stir
slowly, so as to incorporate as much air as possible, enough Graham
flour to make a dough stiff enough to knead. A tablespoonful of sugar
may be added to the water before stirring in the flour, if desired.
After kneading fifteen minutes, divide the dough into six portions;
roll each as thin as brown paper, prick with a fork, and bake on
perforated tins, turning often until both sides are a light, even brown.
Break into irregular pieces and serve.

OATMEAL CRISPS.--Make a dough with one cupful of oatmeal porridge
and Graham flour. Knead thoroughly, roll very thin, and bake as directed
for Graham Crisps. A tablespoonful of sugar may be added if desired.

GRAHAM CRACKERS.--Make a dough of one cup of cream and Graham flour
sufficient to make a soft dough. Knead thoroughly, and place on ice for
half an hour; then roll thin, cut into small cakes with a cookie-cutter,
prick with a fork, and bake on floured pans, in a brisk oven. A
tablespoonful of sugar may be added if desired.

FRUIT CRACKERS.--Prepare a dough with one cup of cold sweet cream
and three cups of Graham flour, knead well, and divide into two
portions. Roll each quite thin. Spread one thickly with dates or figs
seeded and chopped; place the other one on top and press together with
the rolling pin. Cut into squares and bake. An additional one fourth of
a cup of flour will doubtless be needed for dusting the board and
kneading.



TABLE TOPICS.


    Behind the nutty loaf is the mill wheel; behind the mill is the
    wheat field; on the wheat field rests the sunlight; above the sun is
    God.--_James Russell Lowell._


    Bread forms one of the most important parts of the ration of the
    German soldier. In time of peace, the private soldier is supplied
    day by day with one pound and nine ounces of bread; when fighting
    for the Fatherland, every man is entitled to a free ration of over
    two pounds of bread, and field bakery trains and steam ovens for
    providing the large amount of bread required, form a recognized part
    of the equipment of the German army.

    The wandering Arab lives almost entirely upon bread, with a few
    dates as a relish.

    According to Count Rumford, the Bavarian wood-chopper, one of the
    most hardy and hard-working men in the world, receives for his
    weekly rations one large loaf of rye bread and a small quantity of
    roasted meal. Of the meal he makes an infusion, to which he adds a
    little salt, and with the mixture, which he calls burned soup, he
    eats his rye bread. No beer, no beef, no other food than that
    mentioned, and no drink but water; and yet he can do more work and
    enjoys a better digestion and possesses stronger muscles than the
    average American or Englishman, with their varied dietary.


    The following truthful bit of Scandinavian history well illustrates
    the influence of habits of frugality upon national character: "The
    Danes were approaching, and one of the Swedish bishops asked how
    many men the province of Dalarna could furnish.

    "'At least twenty thousand,' was the reply; 'for the old men are
    just as strong and brave as the young ones.'

    "'But what do they live upon?'

    "'Upon bread and water. They take little account of hunger and
    thirst, and when corn is lacking, they make their bread out of tree
    bark.'

    "'Nay,' said the bishop, 'a people who eat tree bark and drink
    water, the devil himself could not vanquish!' and neither were they
    vanquished. Their progress was one series of triumphs, till they
    placed Gustavus Vasa on the throne of Sweden."

    The word _biscuit_ embodies the process by which this form of bread
    was made from time immemorial down to within the last century. _Bis_
    (twice), and _coctus_ (cooked), show that they were twice baked.

    Fragments of unfermented bread were discovered in the Swiss
    lake-dwellings, which belong to the Neolithic age.

    Fermented bread is seldom seen in Northern Europe and Asia except
    among the rich or the nobility. At one time, the captain of an
    English vessel requested a baker of Gottenburg to bake a large
    quantity of loaves of raised bread. The baker refused to undertake
    an order of such magnitude, saying it would be quite impossible to
    dispose of so much, until the captain agreed to take and pay for it
    all.

    I made a study of the ancient and indispensable art of bread-making,
    consulting such authorities as offered, going back to the primitive
    days and first invention of the unleavened kind, and traveling
    gradually down in my studies through that accidental souring of the
    dough which it is supposed taught the leavening process, and through
    the various fermentations thereafter till I came to "good, sweet,
    wholesome bread,"--the staff of life. Leaven, which some deemed the
    soul of bread, the _spiritus_ which fills its cellular tissues,
    which is religiously preserved like the vestal fire,--some precious
    bottleful, I suppose, brought over in the Mayflower, did the
    business for America, and its influence is still rising, swelling,
    spreading in cerulean billows over the land,--this seed I regularly
    and faithfully procured from the village, until one morning I forgot
    the rules and scalded my yeast; by which accident I discovered that
    even this was not indispensable, and I have gladly omitted it ever
    since. Neither did I put any soda or other acid or alkali into my
    bread. It would seem that I made it according to the recipe which
    Marcus Porcius Cato gave about two centuries before Christ: "Make
    kneaded bread thus: Wash your hands and trough well. Put the meal
    into the trough, add water gradually, and knead it thoroughly. When
    you have needed it well, mold it, and bake it under a cover," that
    is in a baking kettle.--_Thoreau in Walden._



FRUITS

Of all the articles which enter the list of foods, none are more
wholesome and pleasing than the fruits which nature so abundantly
provides. Their delicate hues and perfect outlines appeal to our sense
of beauty, while their delicious flavors gratify our appetite. Our
markets are supplied with an almost unlimited variety of both native and
tropical fruits, and it might be supposed that they would always appear
upon the daily bill of fare; yet in the majority of homes this is rarely
the case. People are inclined to consider fruit, unless the product of
their own gardens, a luxury too expensive for common use. Many who use a
plentiful supply, never think of placing it upon their tables, unless
cooked. Ripe fruit is a most healthful article of diet when partaken of
at seasonable times; but to eat it, or any other food, between meals, is
a gross breach of the requirements of good digestion.

Fruits contain from seventy-five to ninety-five per cent of water, and a
meager proportion of nitrogenous matter; hence their value as
nutrients, except in a few instances, is rather small; but they supply a
variety of agreeable acids which refresh and give tone to the system,
and their abundant and proper use does much to keep the vital machinery
in good working order.

Aside from the skin and seeds, all fruits consist essentially of two
parts,--the cellulose structure containing the juice, and the juice
itself. The latter is water, with a small proportion of fruit sugar
(from one to twenty per cent in different varieties), and vegetable
acids. These acids are either free, or combined with potash and lime in
the form of acid salts. They are mallic, citric, tartaric, and pectic
acids. The last-named is the jelly-producing principle.

While the juice, as we commonly find it, is readily transformable for
use in the system, the cellular structure of the fruit is not so easily
digested. In some fruits, as the strawberry, grape, and banana, the cell
walls are so delicate as to be easily broken up; but in watermelons,
apples, and oranges, the cells are coarser, and form a larger bulk of
the fruit, hence are less easily digested. As a rule, other points being
equal, the fruits which yield the richest and largest quantity of
juices, and also possess a cellular framework the least perceptible on
mastication, are the most readily digested. A certain amount of waste
matter is an advantage, to give bulk to our food; but persons with weak
stomachs, who cannot eat certain kinds of fruit, are often able to
digest the juice when taken alone.

Unripe fruits differ from ripe fruits in that they contain, starch,
which during ripening is changed into sugar, and generally some
proportion of tannic acid, which gives them their astringency. The
characteristic constituent of unripe fruit, however, is pectose, an
element insoluble in water, but which, as maturation proceeds, is
transformed into pectic and pectosic acids. These are soluble in boiling
water, and upon cooling, yield gelatinous solutions. Their presence
makes it possible to convert the juice of ripe fruits into jelly. Raw
starch in any form is indigestible, hence unripe fruit should never be
eaten uncooked. As fruit matures, the changes it undergoes are such as
best fit for consumption and digestion. The following table shows the
composition of the fruits in common use:--


ANALYSIS.

                 Water. Albumen. Sugar. Free Acid. Pectose. Cellulose Mineral
                                                                      Matter.
    Apples        83.0   0.4      6.8      1.0     5.2       3.2         0.4
    Pears         84.0   0.3      7.0      0.1     4.6       3.7         0.3
    Peaches       85.0   0.5      1.8      0.7     8.0       3.4         0.6
    Grapes        80.0   0.7    Glucose. Tartaric. 3.1       2.0         0.4
                                 13.0      0.8
    Plums         82.0   0.2      3.6      0.5     5.7       ...         0.6
    Gooseberries  86.0   0.4      7.0      1.5     1.9       2.7         0.5
    Strawberries  87.6   0.5      4.5      1.3     0.1       ...         0.6
    Raspberries   86.+   0.5      4.7      1.3     1.7       ...         0.4
    Currants      85.2   0.4      6.4      1.8     0.2       ...         0.5
    Blackberries  86.4   0.5      4.4      1.1     1.4       ...         0.4
    Cherries      75.0   0.9     13.1      0.3     2.2       ...         0.6
    Apricots      85.0    .08     1.0      ...     5.9       ...         0.8
    Oranges       86.0   [A]   8 to 10     ...     ...       ...         ...
    Dates         20.8   6.6     54.0      Fat.   12.3       5.5         1.6
                                           0.2
    Bananas       73.9   4.8     19.7[B]   Fat.    ...       0.2         0.8
                                           0.6
    Turkey Figs   17.5   6.1     57.5      Fat.    8.4[C]    7.3         2.3
                                           0.9

[Table Note A: Small quantities of albumen, citric acid, citrate of
potash, cellulose, etc.]

[Table Note B: Sugar and pectose.]

[Table Note C: Starch, pectose, etc.]


There is a prevailing notion that the free use of fruits, especially in
summer, excites derangement of the digestive organs. When such
derangement occurs, it is far more likely to have been occasioned by the
way in which the fruit was eaten than by the fruit itself. Perhaps it
was taken as a surfeit dish at the end of a meal. It may have been eaten
in combination with rich, oily foods, pastry, strong coffee, and other
indigestible viands, which, in themselves, often excite an attack of
indigestion. Possibly it was partaken of between meals, or late at
night, with ice cream and other confections, or it was swallowed without
sufficient mastication. Certainly, it is not marvelous that stomach and
bowel disorders do result under such circumstances. The innocent fruit,
like many other good things, being found in "bad company," is blamed
accordingly. An excess of any food at meals or between meals, is likely
to prove injurious, and fruits present no exception to this rule. Fruit
taken at seasonable times and in suitable quantities, alone or in
combination with proper foods, gives us one of the most agreeable and
healthful articles of diet. Fruit, fats, and meats do not affiliate, and
they are liable to create a disturbance whenever taken together.

Partially decayed, stale, and over-ripe, as well as unripe fruit, should
never be eaten. According to M. Pasteur, the French scientist, all
fruits and vegetables, when undergoing even incipient decay, contain
numerous germs, which, introduced into the system, are liable to produce
disturbances or disease. Perfectly fresh, ripe fruit, with proper
limitations as to quantity and occasion, may be taken into a normal
stomach with impunity at any season.

It is especially important that all fruits to be eaten should not only
be sound in quality, but should be made perfectly clean by washing if
necessary, since fruit grown near the ground is liable to be covered
with dangerous bacteria (such as cause typhoid fever or diphtheria),
which exist in the soil or in the material used in fertilizing it.

Most fruits, properly used, aid digestion either directly or indirectly.
The juicy ones act as dilutents, and their free use lessens the desire
for alcohol and other stimulants. According to German analysts, the
apple contains a larger percentage of phosphorus than any other fruit,
or than any vegetable. In warm weather and in warm climates, when foods
are not needed for a heat-producing purpose, the diet may well consist
largely of fruits and succulent vegetables, eaten in combination with
bread and grains. In case of liver and kidney affections, rheumatism,
and gout, the use of fruit is considered very beneficial by many
scientific authorities.

To serve its best purpose, raw fruit should be eaten without sugar or
other condiments, or with the addition of as small a quantity as
possible.

It is a disputed question whether fruits should begin or end the meal;
but it is generally conceded by those who have given the matter
attention, that fruit eaten at the beginning of a meal is itself the
more readily digested, and aids in the digestion of other foods, since
fruits, like soups, have the property of stimulating the flow of the
digestive juices. Something, however, must depend upon the character of
the fruit; oranges, melons, and like juicy fruits, are especially useful
as appetizers to begin the meal, while bananas and similar fruits agree
better if taken with other food, so as to secure thorough mixture with
saliva. This is true of all fruits, except such pulpy fruits as
strawberries, peaches, melons, grapes, and oranges. It is often
erroneously asserted that fruit as dessert is injurious to digestion.
For those people, however, who regulate their bill of fare in accordance
with the principles of hygiene, a simple course of fruit is not only
wholesome, but is all that is needed after a dinner; and much time,
labor, and health will be saved when housekeepers are content to serve
desserts which nature supplies all ready for use, instead of those
harmful combinations in the preparing of which they spend hours of
tiresome toil.

DESCRIPTION.--For convenience, fruits may be grouped together; as,
_pomaceous_ fruits, including the apple, quince, pear, etc.; the
_drupaceous_ fruits, those provided with a hard stone surrounded by a
fleshy pulp, as the peach, apricot, plum, cherry, olive, and date; the
orange or citron group, including the orange, lemon, lime, citron, grape
fruit, shaddock, and pomegranate; the _baccate_ or berry kind,
comprising the grape, gooseberry, currant, cranberry, whortleberry,
blueberry, and others; the _arterio_ group, to which belong raspberries,
strawberries, dewberries, and blackberries; the fig group; the gourd
group, including--melons and cantaloupes; and foreign fruits.

It is impossible, in the brief scope of this work, to enumerate the
infinite varieties of fruit; but we will briefly speak of some of the
most common found in the gardens and markets of this latitude.

APPLES.--The origin and first home of the apple, is unknown. If
tradition is to be believed, it was the inauspicious fruit to which may
be traced all the miseries of mankind. In pictures of the temptation in
the garden of Eden, our mother Eve is generally represented as holding
an apple in her hand.

We find the apple mentioned in the mythologies of the Greeks, Druids,
and Scandinavians. The Thebans offered apples instead of sheep as a
sacrifice to Hercules, a custom derived from the following
circumstance:--

"At one time, when a sacrifice was necessary, the river Asopus had so
inundated the country that it was impossible to take a sheep across it
for the purpose, when some youths, recollecting that the Greek word
_melon_ signified both sheep and an apple, stuck wooden pegs into the
fruit to represent legs, and brought this vegetable quadruped as a
substitute for the usual offering. After this date, the apple was
considered as especially devoted to Hercules."

In ancient times, Greece produced most excellent apples. They were the
favorite dessert of Phillip of Macedon and Alexander the Great, the
latter causing them to be served at all meals. Doubtless they came to be
used to excess; for it is recorded of the Athenian lawgiver, Solon, that
he made a decree prohibiting a bridegroom from partaking of more than
one at his marriage banquet, a law which was zealously kept by the
Greeks, and finally adopted by the Persians. In Homer's time the apple
was regarded as one of the precious fruits. It was extensively
cultivated by the Romans, who gave to new varieties the names of many
eminent citizens, and after the conquest of Gaul, introduced its culture
into Southwestern Europe, whence it has come to be widely diffused
throughout all parts of the temperate zone.

Apples were introduced into the United States by the early settlers,
and the first trees were planted on an island in Boston Harbor, which
still retains the name of Apple Island. The wild crab tree is the parent
of most of the cultivated varieties.

THE PEAR.--The origin of the pear, like that of the apple, is
shrouded in obscurity, though Egypt, Greece, and Palestine dispute for
the honor of having given birth to the tree which bears this prince of
fruits. Theophrastus, a Greek philosopher of the fourth century, speaks
of the pear in terms of highest praise; and Galen, the father of medical
science, mentions the pear in his writings as possessing "qualities
which benefit the stomach." The pear tree is one of the most hardy of
all fruit trees, and has been known to live several hundred years.

THE QUINCE.--This fruit appears to have been a native of Crete,
from whence it was introduced into ancient Greece; and was largely
cultivated by both Greeks and Romans. In Persia, the fruit is edible in
its raw state; but in this country it never ripens sufficiently to be
palatable without being cooked. The fruit is highly fragrant and
exceedingly acid, and for these reasons it is largely employed to flavor
other fruits.

THE PEACH.--This fruit, as its botanical name, _prinus Persica_,
indicates, is a native of Persia, and was brought from that country to
Greece, from whence it passed into Italy. It is frequently mentioned by
ancient writers, and was regarded with much esteem by the people of
Asia. The Romans, however, had the singular notion that peaches gathered
in Persia contained a deadly poison, but if once transplanted to another
soil, this injurious effect was lost. In composition, the peach is
notable for the small quantity of saccharine matter it contains in
comparison with other fruits.

THE PLUM.--The plum is one of the earliest of known fruits. Thebes,
Memphis, and Damascus were noted for the great number of their plum
trees in the early centuries. Plum trees grow wild in Asia, America, and
the South of Europe, and from these a large variety of domestic plum
fruits have been cultivated.

Plums are more liable than most other fruits to produce disorders of
digestion, and when eaten raw should be carefully selected, that they be
neither unripe nor unripe. Cooking renders them less objectionable.

THE PRUNE.--The plum when dried is often called by its French
cognomen, _prune_. The larger and sweeter varieties are generally
selected for drying, and when good and properly cooked, are the most
wholesome of prepared fruits.

THE APRICOT.--This fruit seems to be intermediate between the peach
and the plum, resembling the former externally, while the stone is like
that of the plum. The apricot originated in Armenia, and the tree which
bears the fruit was termed by the Romans "the tree of Armenia." It was
introduced into England in the time of Henry VIII. The apricot is
cultivated to some extent in the United States, but it requires too much
care to permit of its being largely grown, except in certain sections.

THE CHERRY.--The common garden cherry is supposed to have been
derived from the two species of wild fruit, and historians tell us that
we are indebted to the agricultural experiments of Mithridates, the
great king of ancient Pontus, for this much esteemed fruit. It is a
native of Asia Minor, and its birthplace.

THE OLIVE.--From time immemorial the olive has been associated with
history. The Scriptures make frequent reference to it, and its
cultivation was considered of first importance among the Jews, who used
its oil for culinary and a great variety of other purposes. Ancient
mythology venerated the olive tree above all others, and invested it
with many charming bits of fiction. Grecian poets sang its praises, and
early Roman writers speak of it with high esteem. In appearance and size
the fruit is much like the plum; when ripe, it is very dark green,
almost black, and possesses a strong, and, to many people, disagreeable
flavor. The pulp abounds in a bland oil, for the production of which it
is extensively cultivated in Syria, Egypt, Italy, Spain, and Southern
France. The fruit itself is also pickled and preserved in various ways,
but, like all other similar commodities when thus prepared, it is by no
means a wholesome article of food.

THE DATE.--The date is the fruit of the palm tree so often
mentioned in the Sacred Writings, and is indigenous to Africa and
portions of Asia. The fruit grows in bunches which often weigh from
twenty to twenty-five pounds, and a single tree will bear from one to
three thousand pounds in a season. The date is very sweet and
nutritious. It forms a stable article of diet for the inhabitants of
some parts of Egypt, Arabia, and Persia, and frequently forms the chief
food of their horses, dogs, and camels. The Arabs reduce dried dates to
a meal, and make therefrom a bread, which often constitutes their sole
food on long journeys through the Great Desert. The inhabitants of the
countries where the date tree flourishes, put its various productions to
innumerable uses. From its leaves they make baskets, bags, mats, combs,
and brushes; from its stalks, fences for their gardens; from its fibers,
thread, rope, and rigging; from its sap, a spirituous liquor; from its
fruit, food for man and beast; while the body of the tree furnishes them
with fuel. The prepared fruit is largely imported to this country. That
which is large, smooth, and of a soft reddish yellow tinge, with a
whitish membrane between the flesh and stone, is considered the best.

THE ORANGE.--According to some authors, the far-famed "golden fruit
of the Hesperides," which Hercules stole, was the orange; but it seems
highly improbable that it was known to writers of antiquity. It is
supposed to be indigenous to Central and Eastern Asia. Whatever its
nativity, it has now spread over all the warmer regions of the earth.
The orange tree is very hardy in its own habitat, and is one of the most
prolific of all fruit-bearing trees, a single tree having been known to
produce twenty thousand good oranges in a season. Orange trees attain
great age. There are those in Italy and Spain which are known to have
flourished for six hundred years. Numerous varieties of the orange are
grown, and are imported to our markets from every part of the globe.
Florida oranges are among the best, and when obtained in their
perfection, are the most luscious of all fruits.

THE LEMON.--This fruit is supposed to be a native of the North of
India, although it is grown in nearly all sub-tropical climates. In
general, the fruit is very acid, but in a variety known as the sweet
lemon, or bergamot (said to be a hybrid of the orange and lemon), the
juice is sweet. The sour lemon is highly valued for its antiscorbutic
properties, and is largely employed as a flavoring ingredient in
culinary preparations, and in making a popular refreshing beverage.

THE CITRON.--The citron is a fruit very similar to the lemon,
though larger in size and less succulent. It is supposed to be identical
with the Hebrew _tappuach_, and to be the fruit which is mentioned in
the English version of the Old Testament as "apple." The citron is not
suitable for eating in its raw state, though its juice is used in
connection with water and sugar to form an excellent acid drink. Its
rind, which is very thick, with a warty and furrowed exterior, is
prepared in sugar and largely used for flavoring purposes.

THE LIME.--The fruit of the lime is similar to the lemon, though
much smaller in size. It is a native of Eastern Asia, but has long been
cultivated in the South of Europe and other sub-tropical countries. The
fruit is seldom used except for making acidulous drinks, for which it is
often given the preference over the lemon.

THE GRAPE FRUIT.--This fruit, a variety of shaddock, belongs to the
great _citrus_ family, of which there are one hundred and sixty-nine
known varieties. The shaddock proper, however, is a much larger fruit,
frequently weighing from ten to fourteen pounds. Although a certain
quantity of grape fruit is brought from the West Indies, our principal
supply is derived from Florida. It is from two to four times the size of
an ordinary orange, and grows in clusters. It is rapidly gaining in
favor with fruit lovers. Its juice has a moderately acid taste and makes
a pleasing beverage. The pulp, carefully separated, is also much
esteemed.

THE POMEGRANATE.--This fruit has been cultivated in Asia from
earliest antiquity, and is still quite generally grown in most tropical
climes. In the Scriptures it is mentioned with the vine, fig, and olive,
among the pleasant fruits of the promised land. It is about the size of
a large peach, of a fine golden color, with a rosy tinge on one side.
The rind is thick and leathery. The central portion is composed of
little globules of pulp and seeds inclosed in a thin membrane, each seed
being about the size of a red currant. It is sub-acid, and slightly
bitter in taste. The rind is strongly astringent, and often used as a
medicine.

THE GRAPE.--Undoubtedly the grape was one of the first fruits eaten
by mankind, and one highly valued from antiquity down to the present
time. Although this fruit is often sadly perverted in the manufacture of
wine, when rightly used it is one of the most excellent of all fruits.
The skins and seeds are indigestible and should be rejected, but the
fresh, juicy pulp is particularly wholesome and refreshing. Several
hundred varieties of the grape are cultivated. Some particularly sweet
varieties are made into raisins, by exposure to the sun or to artificial
heat. Sun-dried grapes make the best raisins. The so-called English or
Zante currant belongs to the grape family, and is the dried fruit of a
vine which grows in the Ionian Islands and yields a very small berry.
The name _currant_, as applied to these fruits, is a corruption of the
word _Corinth_, where the fruit was formerly grown.

THE GOOSEBERRY.--The gooseberry probably derives its name from
gorse or goss, a prickly shrub that grows wild in thickets and on
hillsides in Europe, Asia, and America. It was known to the ancients,
and is mentioned in the writings of Theocritus and Pliny. Gooseberries
were a favorite dish with some of the emperors, and were extensively
cultivated in gardens during the Middle Ages. The gooseberry is a
wholesome and agreeable fruit, and by cultivation may be brought to a
high state of perfection in size and flavor.

THE CURRANT.--This fruit derives its name from its resemblance to
the small grapes of Corinth, sometimes called Corinthus, and is
indigenous to America, Asia, and Europe. The fruit is sharply acid,
though very pleasant to the taste. Cultivation has produced white
currants from the red, and in a distinct species of the fruit grown in
Northern Europe and Russia, the currants are black or yellow.

THE WHORTLEBERRY AND BLUEBERRY.--These are both species of the same
fruit, which grows in woods and waste places in the North of Europe and
America. Of the latter species there are two varieties, the high-bush
and the low-bush, which are equally palatable. The fruit is very sweet
and pleasant to the taste, and is one of the most wholesome of all
berries.

THE CRANBERRY.--A German writer of note insists that the original
name of this fruit was cram-berry, because after dinner, when one was
filled with other food, such was its pleasant and seductive flavor that
he could still "cram" quite a quantity thereof, in defiance of all
dietetic laws. Other writers consider the name a corruption of
craneberry, so called because it is eagerly sought after by the cranes
and other birds which frequent the swamps and marshes where it chiefly
grows. The fruit is extremely acid, and is highly valued for sauces and
jellies. Cranberries are among the most convenient fruits for keeping.
Freezing does not seem to hurt them, and they may be kept frozen all
winter, or in water without freezing, in the cellar, or other cool
places, for a long period.

THE STRAWBERRY.--The flavor of antiquity rests upon the wild
strawberry. Its fruit was peddled by itinerant dealers about the streets
of ancient Grecian and Roman cities. Virgil sings of it in pastoral
poems, and Ovid mentions it in words of praise. The name by which the
fruit was known to the Greeks indicates its size; with the Latins its
name was symbolic of its perfume. The name _strawberry_ probably came
from the old Saxon _streawberige_, either from some resemblance of the
stems to straw, of from the fact that the berries have the appearance
when growing of being strewn upon the ground. In olden times, children
strung the berries upon straws, and sold so many "straws of berries" for
a penny, from which fact it is possible the name may have been derived.
The strawberry is indigenous to the temperate regions of both the
Eastern and Western Hemispheres, but it seems to have been matured in
gardens, only within the last two centuries.

THE RASPBERRY.--This fruit grows in both a wild and a cultivated
state. It derives its name from the rough rasps or spines with which the
bushes are covered. Among the ancients it was called "the bramble of Mt.
Ida," because it was abundant upon that mountain. It is a hardy fruit,
found in most parts of the world, and is of two special varieties, the
black and the red.

THE BLACKBERRY.--This fruit is a native of America and the greater
part of Europe. There are one hundred and fifty-one named species,
although the high-blackberry and the low-blackberry, or dewberry, are
said to have furnished the best cultivated varieties.

THE MULBERRY.--Different varieties of the mulberry tree produce
white, red, and black mulberries of fine aromatic flavor, and acidulous
or sweet taste. Persia is supposed to be the native home of this fruit,
from whence it was carried, at an early date, to Asia Minor and to
Greece. The Hebrews were evidently well acquainted with it. It was also
cultivated by the farmers of Attica and Peloponnesus. The ancient
mulberry was considered the wisest and most prudent of trees, because it
took care not to put forth the smallest bud until the cold of winter had
disappeared, not to return. Then, however, it lost no time, but budded
and blossomed in a day. Several varieties are found in the United
States.

THE MELON.--This is the generic name for all the members of the
gourd tribe known as cantaloupes, muskmelons, and watermelons. The fruit
varies greatly in size and color, and in the character of the rind. When
fresh and perfectly ripe, melons are among the most delicious of edible
fruits.

THE FIG.--In the most ancient histories, the fig tree is referred
to as among the most desirable productions of the earth. It was the
only tree in the garden of Eden of which the Sacred Writings make
particular mention. Among the inhabitants of ancient Syria and Greece,
it formed one of the principal articles of food. Its cultivation was,
and is still, extensively carried on in nearly all Eastern countries;
also in Spain, Southern France, and some portions of the United States.
The fruit is pear-shaped, and consists of a pulpy mass full of little
seeds. Dried and compressed figs are largely imported, and are to be
found in all markets. Those brought from Smyrna are reputed to be the
best.

THE BANANA.--This is essentially a tropical fruit growing very
generally in the East, the West Indies, South American countries, and
some of the Southern States. The plant is an annual, sending up stems to
the height of ten or fifteen feet, while drooping from the top are
enormous leaves three or four feet in length, and looking, as one writer
has aptly said, like "great, green quill pens." It is planted in fields
like corn, which in its young growth it much resembles. Each plant
produces a single cluster of from eighty to one hundred or more bananas,
often weighing in the aggregate as high as seventy pounds. The banana is
exceedingly productive. According to Humboldt, a space of 1,000 feet,
which will yield only 38 pounds of wheat, or 462 pounds of potatoes,
will produce 4,000 pounds of bananas, and in a much shorter period of
time. It is more nutritious than the majority of fruits, and in tropical
countries is highly valued as a food, affording in some localities the
chief alimentary support of the people. Its great importance as a food
product is shown by the fact that three or four good sized bananas are
equal in nutritive value to a pound of bread. The amount of albumen
contained in a pound of bananas is about the same as that found in a
pound of rice, and the total nutritive value of one pound of bananas is
only a trifle less than that of an equal quantity of the best beefsteak.

The unripe fruit, which contains a considerable percentage of starch, is
often dried in the oven and eaten as bread, which, in this state, it
considerably resembles in taste and appearance. Thus prepared, it may be
kept for a long time, and is very serviceable for use on long journeys.
The variety of the banana thus used is, however, a much larger kind
than any of those ordinarily found in our Northern markets, and is known
as the plantain. The dried plantain, powdered, furnishes a meal of
fragrant odor and bland taste, not unlike common wheat flour. It is said
to be easy of digestion, and two pounds of the dry meal or six pounds of
the fruit is the daily allowance for a laborer in tropical America.

THE PINEAPPLE.--This delicious fruit is a native of South America,
where it grows wild in the forests. It is cultivated largely in tropical
America, the West Indies, and some portions of Europe. The fruit grows
singly from the center of a small plant having fifteen or more long,
narrow, serrated, ridged, sharp-pointed leaves, seemingly growing from
the root. In general appearance it resembles the century plant, though
so much smaller that twelve thousand pineapple plants may be grown on
one acre. From the fibers of the leaves is made a costly and valuable
fabric called _pina_ muslin.

Nothing can surpass the rich, delicate flavor of the wild pineapple as
found in its native habitat. It is in every way quite equal to the best
cultivated variety. The most excellent pineapples are imported from the
West Indies, but are seldom found in perfection in out Northern markets.


FRESH FRUIT FOR THE TABLE.

All fruit for serving should be perfectly ripe and sound. Immature fruit
is never wholesome, and owing to the large percentage of water in its
composition, fruit is very prone to change; hence over-ripe fruit should
not be eaten, as it is liable to ferment and decompose in the digestive
tract.

Fruit which has begun, however slightly, to decay, should be rejected.
Juice circulates through its tissues in much the same manner as the
blood circulates through animal tissues, though not so rapidly and
freely. The circulation is sufficient, however, to convey to all parts
the products of decomposition, when only a small portion has undergone
decay, and although serious results do not always follow the use of
such fruit, it certainly is not first-class food.

If intended to be eaten raw, fruit should be well ripened before
gathering, and should be perfectly fresh. Fruit that has stood day after
day in a dish upon the table, in a warm room, is far less wholesome and
tempting than that brought fresh from the storeroom or cellar. All
fruits should be thoroughly cleansed before serving. Such fruit as
cherries, grapes, and currants may be best washed by placing in a
colander, and dipping in and out of a pan of water until perfectly
clean, draining and drying before serving.


_DIRECTIONS FOR SERVING FRUITS._

APPLES.--In serving these, the "queen of all fruits," much
opportunity is afforded for a display of taste in their arrangement.
After wiping clean with a damp towel, they may be piled in a fruit
basket, with a few sprigs of green leaves here and there between their
rosy cheeks. The feathery tops of carrots and celery are pretty for this
purpose. Oranges and apples so arranged, make a highly ornamental dish.

Raw mellow sweet apples make a delicious dish when pared, sliced, and
served with cream.

BANANAS.--Cut the ends from the fruit and serve whole, piled in a
basket with oranges, grapes, or plums. Another way is to peel, slice,
and serve with thin cream. Bananas are also very nice sliced, sprinkled
lightly with sugar, and before it had quite dissolved, covered with
orange juice. Sliced bananas, lightly sprinkled with sugar, alternating
in layers with sections of oranges, make a most delicious dessert.

CHERRIES.--Serve on stems, piled in a basket or high dish, with
bits of green leaves and vines between. Rows of different colored
cherries, arranged in pyramidal form, make also a handsome dish.

CURRANTS.--Large whole clusters may be served on the stem, and when
it is possible to obtain both red and white varieties, they make a most
attractive dish. Put them into cold water for a little time, cool
thoroughly, and drain well before using. Currants, if picked from the
stems after being carefully washed and drained, may be served lightly
sprinkled with sugar. Currants and raspberries served together, half and
half, or one third currants two thirds raspberries, are excellent. Only
the ripest of currants should be used.

GOOSEBERRIES.--When fresh and ripe, the gooseberry is one of the
most delicious of small fruits. Serve with stems on. Drop into cold
water for a few moments, drain, and pile in a glass dish for the table.

GRAPES.--Grapes need always to be washed before serving. Drop the
bunches into ice water, let them remain ten of fifteen minutes, then
drain and serve. An attractive dish may be made by arranging bunches of
different colored grapes together on a plate edged with grape leaves.

MELONS.--Watermelons should be served very cold. After being well
washed on the outside, put on ice until needed. Cut off a slice at the
ends, that each half may stand upright on a plate, and then cut around
in even slices. Instead of cutting through the center into even halves,
the melon may be cut in points back and forth around the entire
circumference, so that when separated, each half will appear like a
crown. Another way is to take out the central portion with a spoon, in
cone-shaped pieces, and arrange on a plate with a few bits of ice. Other
melons may be served in halves, with the seeds removed. The rough skin
of the cantaloupe should be thoroughly scrubbed with a vegetable brush,
then rinsed and wiped, after which bury the melon in broken ice till
serving time; divide into eighths or sixteenths, remove the seeds,
reconstruct the melon, and serve surrounded with ice, on a folded
napkin, or arranged on a bed of grape leaves. Do not cool the melon by
placing ice upon the flesh, as the moisture injures the delicate flavor.

ORANGES.--Serve whole or cut the skin into eighths, halfway down,
separating it from the fruit, and curling it inward, thus showing half
the orange white and the other half yellow; or cut the skin into
eighths, two-thirds down, and after loosening from the fruit, leave them
spread open like the petals of a lily. Oranges sliced and mixed with
well ripened strawberries, in the proportion of three oranges to a quart
of berries, make--a palatable dessert.

PEACHES AND PEARS.--Pick out the finest, and wipe the wool from the
peaches. Edge a plate with uniform sized leaves of foliage plant of the
same tints as the fruit, and pile the fruit artistically upon it,
tucking sprays or tips of the plant between. Bits of ice may also be
intermingled. Yellow Bartlett pears and rosy-cheeked peaches arranged in
this way are most ornamental.

PEACHES AND CREAM.--Pare the peaches just as late as practicable,
since they become discolored by standing. Always use a silver knife, as
steel soon blackens and discolors the fruit. If sugar is to be used, do
not add it until the time for serving, as it will start the juice, and
likewise turn the fruit brown, destroying much of its rich flavor. Keep
on ice until needed for the table. Add cream with each person's dish.

PINEAPPLES.--The pineapple when fresh and ripened to perfection, is
as mellow and juicy as a ripe peach, and needs no cooking to fit it for
the table. Of course it must be pared, and have the eyes and fibrous
center removed. Then it may be sliced in generous pieces and piled upon
a plate, or cut into smaller portions and served in saucers. No
condiments are necessary; even the use of sugar detracts from its
delicate flavor. Pineapples found in our Northern markets are, however,
generally so hard and tough as to require cooking, or are valuable only
for their juice, which may be extracted and used for flavoring other
fruits. When sufficiently mellow to be eaten raw, they are usually so
tart as to seem to require a light sprinkling of sugar to suit most
tastes. Pineapples pared, cut into dice or small pieces, lightly
sprinkled with sugar, to which just before serving, a cup of orange
juice is added, form a delicious dish.

PLUMS.--Plums make a most artistic fruit piece, served whole and
arranged with bunches of choice green grapes, in a basket or glass dish.
A fine edge may be made from the velvety leaves of dark purple foliage
plants.

PRESSED FIGS.--Look over carefully, and select only such as are
perfectly good. They may be served dry, mixed with bunches of raisins,
or steamed over a kettle of boiling water. Steamed figs make an
excellent breakfast dish, and are considered much more wholesome then
when used dry. Steamed raisins are likewise superior to dried raisins.

RASPBERRIES, BLACKBERRIES, DEWBERRIES, BLUEBERRIES AND WHORTLEBERRIES,
require careful looking over to remove all insects, stems, and over-ripe
fruit. Blueberries and whortleberries frequently need to be washed. They
are then drained by spreading on a sieve or colander. Perfectly ripe,
they are more healthful without condiments; but sugar and cream are
usually considered indispensable.

If necessary to wash strawberries, they should be put into cold water, a
few at a time, pushed down lightly beneath the water several times until
entirely clean, then taken out one by one, hulled, and used at once.
Like all other small fruits and berries they are more wholesome served
without cream, but if cream is used, each person should be allowed to
add it to his own dish, as it quickly curdles and renders the whole dish
unsightly; if allowed to stand, it also impairs the flavor of the fruit.

FROSTED FRUIT.--Prepare a mixture of the beaten white of egg,
sugar, and a very little cold water. Dip nice bunches of clean currants,
cherries, or grapes into the mixture; drain nearly dry, and roll lightly
in powdered sugar. Lay them on white paper to dry. Plums, apricots, and
peaches may be dipped in the mixture, gently sprinkled with sugar, then
allowed to dry. This method of preparing fruit is not to be commended
for its wholesomeness, but it is sometimes desirable for ornament.


KEEPING FRESH FRUIT.

Of the numerous varieties of fruits grown in this country, apples and
pears are about the only ones that can be kept for any length of time
without artificial means. As soon as fruit has attained its maturity, a
gradual change or breaking down of tissues begins. In some fruits this
process follows rapidly; in other it is gradual. There is a certain
point at which the fruits are best suited for use. We call it
mellowness, and say that the fruit is in "good eating condition." When
this stage has been reached, deterioration and rotting soon follow. In
some fruits, as the peach, plum, and early varieties of apples and
pears, these changes occur within a few days after maturity, and it is
quite useless to attempt to keep them; in others, like the later
varieties of apples and pears, the changes are slow but none the less
certain. To keep such fruits we must endeavor to retard or prolong the
process of change, by avoiding all conditions likely to hasten decay.
Even with ordinary care, sound fruit will keep for quite a length of
time; but it can be preserved in better condition and for a longer
period by careful attention to the following practical points:--

1. If the fruit is of a late variety, allow it to remain on the tree as
long as practicable without freezing.

2. Always pick and handle the fruit with the greatest care.

3. Gather the fruit on a dry, cool day, and place in heaps or bins for
two or three weeks.

4. Carefully sort and pack in barrels, placing those most mellow and
those of different varieties in different barrels; head the barrels,
label, and place in a cool, dry place where the temperature will remain
equable. Some consider it better to keep fruit in thin layers upon broad
shelves in a cool place. This plan allows frequent inspection and
removal of all affected fruit without disturbance of the remainder.

5. Warmth and moisture are the conditions most favorable to
decomposition, and should be especially guarded against.

6. The best temperature for keeping fruit is about 34° F., or 2° above
freezing.

Another method which is highly recommended is to sprinkle a layer of
sawdust on the bottom of a box, and then put in a layer of apples, not
allowing them to tough each other. Upon this pack more sawdust; then
another layer of apples, and so on until the box is filled. After
packing, place up from the ground, in a cellar or storeroom, and they
will keep perfectly, retaining their freshness and flavor until brought
out. The _Practical Farmer_ gives the following rough but good way to
store and keep apples: "Spread plenty of buckwheat chaff on the barn
floor, and on this place the apples, filling the interstices with the
chaff. Cover with the chaff and then with straw two or three feet deep.
The advantage of this is that covering and bedding in chaff excludes
cold, prevents air currents, maintains a uniform temperature, absorbs
the moisture of decay, and prevents the decay produced by moisture."

The ordinary cellar underneath the dwelling house is too warm and damp
for the proper preservation of fruit, and some other place should be
provided if possible. A writer in the _American Agriculturist_ thus
calls attention to an additional reason why fruit should not be stored
beneath living-rooms: "After late apples are stored for the winter, a
gradual change begins within the fruit. It absorbs oxygen from the air
of the room, and gives off carbonic acid gas. Another change results in
the formation of water, which is given off as moisture. The taking up of
oxygen by the fruit and the giving off of carbonic acid, in a short time
so vitiates the atmosphere of the room in which the fruit is kept, that
it will at once extinguish a candle, and destroy animal life. An
atmosphere of this kind tends to preserve the fruit. There being little
or no oxygen left in the air of the room, the process of decay is
arrested. Hence it is desirable that the room be air tight, in order to
maintain such an atmosphere."

The production of carbonic acid shows that a cellar in or under a
dwelling, is an improper place for storing fresh fruit. When the gas is
present in the air in sufficient proportion, it causes death, and a very
small quantity will cause headache, listlessness, and other unpleasant
effects. No doubt many troubles attributed to malaria, are due to gases
from vegetables and fruits stored in the cellar. A fruit cellar should
be underneath some other building rather than the dwelling, or a fruit
house may be built entirely above the ground. A house to keep fruit
properly must be built upon the principle of a refrigerator. Its walls,
floor, and ceiling should be double, and the space between filled with
sawdust. The doors and windows should be double; and as light is
undesirable, the windows should be provided with shutters. There should
be a small stove for use if needed to keep a proper temperature in
severe weather.

TO KEEP GRAPES.--Select such bunches as are perfect, rejecting all
upon which there are any bruised grapes, or from which a grape has
fallen. Spread them upon shelves in a cool place for a week or two. Then
pack in boxes in sawdust which has been recently well dried in an oven.
Bran which has been dried may also be used. Dry cotton is employed by
some. Keep in a cool place.

Some consider the following a more efficient method: select perfect
bunches, and dip the broken end of the stems in melted paraffine or
sealing wax. Wrap separately in tissue paper, hang in a cool place, or
pack in sawdust.

TO KEEP LEMONS AND ORANGES.--Lemons may be kept fresh for weeks by
placing them in a vessel of cold water in a very cool cellar or ice
house. Change the water every day. Oranges may be kept in the same way.
The usual method employed by growers for keeping these fruits is to wrap
each one separately in tissue paper, and put in a cool, dry place.

TO KEEP CRANBERRIES.--Put them in water and keep in a cool place
where they will not freeze. Change the water often, and sort out berries
which may have become spoiled.


COOKED FRUIT.

Perfectly ripe fruit is, as a rule, more desirable used fresh than in
any other way. Fruits which are immature, require cooking. Stewing and
baking are the simplest methods of preparation.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR COOKING FRUIT.--The utensils for stewing
should be porcelain-lined, or granite ware. Fruit cooked in tin loses
much of its delicate flavor; while if it be acid, and the tin of poor
quality, there is always danger that the acid of the fruit acting upon
the metal will form a poisonous compound. Cover with a china plate or
granite-ware cover, never with a tin one, as the steam will condense and
run down into the kettle, discoloring the contents. Use only silver
knives for preparing the fruit, and silver or wooden spoons for
stirring. Prepare just before cooking, if you would preserve the fruit
perfect in flavor, and unimpaired by discoloration. In preparing apples,
pears, and quinces for stewing, it is better to divide the fruit into
halves or quarters before paring. The fruit is more easily handled, can
be pared thinner and cored more quickly. Peaches, apricots, and plums,
if divided and stoned before paring, can be much more easily kept whole.

Cook in a small quantity of boiling water, and if economy is a point to
be considered, do not add sugar until the fruit is done. Sugar boiled
with an acid will be converted into glucose, two and one half pounds of
which only equal one pound of cane sugar in sweetening properties. It
will require a much larger amount of sugar to sweeten fruit if added
before the cooking process is completed. Fruit should be cooked by
stewing, or by gentle simmering; hard boiling will destroy the fine
flavor of all fruits, and especially of berries and other small fruits.
Cinnamon, cloves, or other spices, should not be added, as their
stronger flavors deaden or obliterate the natural flavor, which should
always be preserved as perfectly as possible. If desirable to add some
foreign flavor, let it be the flavor of another fruit, or the perfume
of flowers. For Instance, flavor apple with lemon, pineapple, quince, or
rose water.

Unripe fruit is improved by making the cooking quite lengthy, which acts
in the place of the ripening process, changing the starchy matter to
saccharine elements. In cooking fruit, try to preserve its natural form.
The more nearly whole it is, the better it looks, and the more natural
will be its flavor.

Apples are best cooked by baking. Pears and quinces are also excellent
baked. The oven should be only moderately hot; if the heat is too great,
they brown on the outside before they are done throughout. In cooking
fruit by any method, pains should be taken to cook together such as are
of the same variety, size, and degree of hardness; if it is to be cut in
pieces, care should be taken to have the pieces of uniform size.


_RECIPES._

BAKED APPLES.--Moderately tart apples or very juicy sweet ones are
best for baking. Select ripe apples, free from imperfections, and of
nearly equal size. Wipe carefully and remove the blossom ends. Water
sufficient to cover bottom of the baking dish, should be added if the
fruit is not very juicy. If the apples are sour and quite firm, a good
way is to pare them before baking, and then place them in an earthen pie
dish with a little hot water. If they incline to brown too quickly,
cover the tops with a granite-ware pie dish. If the syrup dries out, add
a little more hot water. When done, set them away till nearly cold, then
transfer to a glass dish, pour the syrup, which should be thick and
amber colored, over them. Sour apples are excellent pared, cored, and
baked with the centers filled with sugar, jelly, or a mixture or chopped
raisins and dates. They should be put into a shallow earthen dish with
water sufficient to cover the bottom, and baked in a quick oven, basting
often with the syrup. Sweet apples are best baked without paring. Baked
apples are usually served as a relish, but with a dressing of cream they
make a most delicious dessert.

CITRON APPLES.--Select a few tart apples of the same degree of
hardness, and remove the cores. Unless the skins are very tender, it is
better to pare them. Fill the cavities with sugar, first placing in each
apple a few bits of chopped citron. If the skins have been removed,
place the stuffed apples on a flat earthen dish with a tablespoonful of
water on the bottom; cover closely, and bake till perfectly tender, but
not till they have fallen to pieces. If the skins are left on, they may
be baked without covering. When cold, serve in separate dishes, with or
without a spoonful or two of whipped cream on each apple.

LEMON APPLES.--Prepare tart apples the same as for citron apples.
Fill the cavities made by removing the cores with a mixture of grated
lemon and sugar, squeeze a few drops of lemon juice over each apple, and
bake. Serve with or without whipped cream.

BAKED PEARS.--Hard pears make an excellent dessert when baked.
Pare, halve, remove seeds, and place in a shallow earthen dish, with a
cup of water to each two quarts of fruit. If the pears are sour, a
little sugar may be added. Bake, closely covered, in a moderate oven
until tender. Serve with sugar and cream. Tart pears are the best for
baking, as the sweet varieties are often tasteless.

BAKED QUINCES.--Pare and remove the cores. Fill the cavities with
sugar, put in a shallow earthen dish, and add water to cover the bottom;
bake till soft, basting often with the syrup. If the syrup dries out
before the fruit is perfectly tender, add a little more hot water.

PIPPINS AND QUINCE.--Pare and quarter nice golden pippins, and cook
in boiling water until reduced to a jelly. Add two or three quinces
sliced, and simmer slowly in the jelly until the quince is tender. Add
sugar to taste. Serve cold.

BAKED APPLE SAUCE.--Pare, core, and quarter apples to fill an
earthen crock or deep pudding dish, taking care to use apples of the
same degree of hardness, and pieces of the same size. For two quarts of
fruit thus prepared, add a cup of water, and if the apples are sour, a
cup of sugar. Cover closely, and bake in a moderate oven several hours,
or until of a dark red color.

Sweet apples and quinces in the proportion of two parts of apple to one
of quince, baked in this way, are also good. Cut the apples into
quarters, but slice the quinces much thinner, as they are more difficult
to cook. Put a layer of quince on the bottom of the dish, alternating
with a layer of apple, until the dish is full. Add cold water to half
cover the fruit, and stew in the oven well covered, without stirring,
until tender.

Pears may be cooked in a similar way, and both apples and pears thus
cooked may be canned while hot and kept for a long period.

BAKED APPLE SAUCE NO. 2.--Prepare nice tart apples as for No. 1.
Bake, with a small quantity of water, in a covered pudding dish, in a
moderate oven, until soft. Mash with a spoon, add sugar, and when cold,
a little grated orange rind.

APPLES STEWED WHOLE.--Take six large red apples, wash carefully,
and put in a fruit kettle with just enough boiling water to cover. Cover
the kettle, and cook slowly until the apples are soft, with the skins
broken and the juice a rich red color. After removing the apples, boil
the juice to a syrup, sweeten, and pour over the apples.

STEAMED APPLES.--Select pound sweets of uniform size, wipe, cut
out the blossom-ends, and pack in a large pudding dish. Pour in a cupful
of water, cover the dish closely, set in a moderate oven, and steam till
the apples are tender. Remove from the dish, and pour the liquor over
them frequently as they cool.

COMPOTE OF APPLES.--Pare and extract the cores from moderately
tart, juicy apples. Place them in a deep pudding dish with just enough
water to cover them. Cover, place in a moderate oven, and stew until
they are tender. Remove the apples and place in a deep dish to keep hot.
Measure the juice and pour it into a saucepan, add a few bits of lemon
rind, and boil up until thickened almost like a jelly. While the juice
is boiling, heat some sugar, one tablespoonful to each cup of juice, in
the oven, and add to the juice when thickened. Pour scalding hot over
the apples, and cover until cold.

APPLE COMPOTE NO. 2.--Pare eight or ten rather tart, finely
flavored and easy-cooking apples, carefully removing the cores, and put
them into a broad, shallow, granite-ware saucepan with just enough hot
water to cover the bottom. Cover tightly and place over the fire. The
steam will cook the apples tender in a short time. Do not allow them to
fall to pieces. Make a syrup by dissolving one cup of sugar in a pint of
hot water. Add three teaspoonfuls of the juice of canned pineapple, and
pour over the apples while both are hot.

STEWED PEARS.--Select some fine Bartlett pears which are ripe, but
have hardly begun to soften; remove the skins, cut in halves or
quarters, and take out the seeds. Put loosely in a granite-ware kettle,
and add a pint of water for three and a half quarts of fruit. Cover
closely, and when it begins to boil, set it where it will just simmer
until the top pieces are tender. Serve cold. Sugar will not be necessary
if the fruit is of good quality.

SMOOTH APPLE SAUCE.--If fruit is not sufficiently perfect to be cut
into uniform quarters, a good way to prepare it is to pare, core, and
slice into thin slices. Cook in as small a quantity of water as
possible, the fruit covered closely, so that the top portion will steam
tender as soon as the bottom, and when done rub through a colander, or
beat smooth with a wooden spoon or an egg beater. Let it cool before
adding sugar. A little lemon peel may be added to the fruit just long
enough before it is done to flavor it, if desired.

BOILED APPLES WITH SYRUP.--Halve and remove the cores of a half
dozen nice apples, leaving the skins on. Boil till tender in sufficient
water to cover them. Take out with a fork into a glass dish. Add to the
juice three or four slices of a large lemon; boil for ten or fifteen
minutes; sweeten to taste; then pour over the apples, and cool.

STEWED APPLES.--Select fine fruit of a sub-acid flavor and not
over-ripe. Pare, remove the cores and all blemishes, and divide into
sixths if large, into quarters if small. Put into a porcelain or
granite-ware kettle with enough boiling water to cook and leave a good
liquor. Cover, and simmer gently, without stirring, from one to two
hours. Do not add sugar till cold. Be careful not to break the fruit in
serving.

STEWED CRAB APPLES.--Select perfect fruit. Wash and stew in but
little water until they are very soft. Rub through a coarse sieve or
colander to remove the seeds and skins. Sweeten to taste.

SWEET APPLE SAUCE WITH CONDENSED APPLE JUICE.--For the juice, wash,
divide, and core rather tart apples and cook until softened with one cup
of water for every six pounds of fruit. When soft, put into a percolater
and drain off the juice or extract it with a fruit press. Boil until it
is reduced one half. Skim if needed while boiling, and if not perfectly
clear allow it to settle before using. A considerable quantity of the
juice may be thus prepared and put into stone jars, to be used as
needed. For the sauce, pare, core, and quarter sweet apples. Put into a
porcelain kettle with enough of the condensed juice to cover. Cook
slowly until tender.

APPLES WITH RAISINS.--Pare, core, and quarter a dozen or more
medium sized sour apples. Clean thoroughly one fourth as many raisins as
apples, and turn over them a quart of boiling water. Let them steep
until well swollen, then add the apples, and cook until tender. Sugar to
sweeten may be added if desired, although little will be needed unless
the apples are very tart. Dried apples soaked over night may be made
much more palatable by stewing with raisins or English currants, in the
same way.

APPLES WITH APRICOTS.--Pare, core, and quarter some nice, sour
apples. Put them to cook with two halves of dried apricot for each
apple. When tender, make smooth by beating or rubbing through a
colander, and sweeten. Dried apples may be used in place of fresh ones.

PEACHES, PLUMS, CHERRIES, BERRIES, and all small fruits may be
cooked for sauce by stewing in a small amount of water, adding sugar to
sweeten when done.

BAKED APPLES.--Take any good tart apples; peel, cut in halves, and
remove the cores. Scatter a few spoonfuls of sugar in the bottom of a
dish, and lay the apples in, flat side down; add a teacupful of cold
water, and bake till tender. Let stand in the dish till cold, then take
up the pieces in a vegetable dish, and poor over them what juice
remains. Sweet apples are good baked in this way without sugar.

BAKED PEARS.--Peel ripe pears; cut in halves, and pack in layers in
a stone ware jar. Strew a little sugar over each layer, and add a small
cupful of water, to prevent burning. Cover tightly, and bake three or
four hours in a well-heated oven. Let them get very cold, and serve
with sweet cream.

BAKED PEACHES.--Peaches which are ripe but too hard for eating, are
nice baked. Pare, remove the stones, and place in loose layers in a
shallow, earthen pudding dish with a little water. Sprinkle each layer
lightly with sugar, cover and bake.

CRANBERRIES.--Cranberries make an excellent sauce, but the skins
are rather hard of digestion, and it is best to exclude them. Stew in
the proportion of a quart of berries to a pint of water, simmering
gently until the skins have all burst, and the quantity is reduced to a
pint. Put through a colander to remove the skins, and when nearly cool,
add for the quart of berries two thirds of a cup of sugar.

CRANBERRIES WITH RAISINS.--Cook the cranberries as in the preceding
recipe, and when rubbed through the colander, add for every pound of
cranberries before cooking, one fourth pound of raisins which have been
steeped for half an hour in just sufficient boiling water to cover. A
little less sugar will be needed to sweeten than when served without the
raisins.

CRANBERRIES AND SWEET APPLES.--Stew equal parts of cranberries and
sweet apples together. Mash, rub through a fine sieve or colander to
remove the skins and make the whole homogeneous. This makes a very
palatable sauce without the addition of sugar. California prunes and
cranberries stewed together in equal proportion, in a small quantity of
water, also make a nice sauce without sugar.

ORANGES AND APPLES.--The mild, easy cooking, tart varieties of
apples make an excellent sauce stewed with one third sliced oranges from
which the seeds have been removed. Pare, core, and slice the apples, and
cook gently so as to preserve the form of both fruits until the apples
are tender. Add sugar to sweeten, and if desired a very little of the
grated yellow of the orange rind.

STEWED RAISINS.--Soak a pint of good raisins, cleaned and freed
from stems, in cold water for several hours. When ready to cook, put
them, with the water in which they were soaked, in a fruit kettle and
simmer until the skins are tender. Three or four good-sized figs,
chopped quite fine, cooked with the raisins, gives an additional
richness and thickness of juice. No sugar will be needed.

DRIED APPLES.--Good apples properly dried make a very palatable
sauce; but unfortunately the fruit generally selected for drying is of
so inferior a quality that if cooked in its fresh state it would not be
good. The dried fruit in most of our markets needs to be looked over
carefully, and thoroughly washed before using. Put into a granite-ware
kettle, cover with boiling water, and cook gently until tender. Fresh
steam-dried or evaporated apples will cook in from one half to three
fourths of an hour; if older, they may require from one to two more
hours. Add boiling water, as needed, during the cooking. If when tender
they are lacking in juice, add a little boiling water long enough before
lifting from the fire to allow it to boil up once. If the fruit is very
poor, a few very thin slices of the yellow portion of lemon or orange
rind added a half hour before it is done, will sometimes be an
improvement.

DRIED APPLES WITH OTHER DRIED FRUIT.--An excellent sauce may be
made by cooking a few dried plums with dried or evaporated apples. Only
enough of the plums to give a flavor to the apples will be needed; a
handful of the former to a pound of apples will be sufficient. Dried
cherries, raisins, English currants, dried apricots, prunelles, and
peaches are also excellent used in combination with dried apples.

DRIED APRICOTS AND PEACHES.--These fruits, if dried with the skins
on, need, in addition to the preparation for cooking recommended for
dried apples, a thorough rubbing with the fingers, while being washed,
to remove the down. Put into boiling water in about the proportion of
two parts of fruit to three of water. If the fruit was pared before
drying, a little more water will be required. Cook quickly, but gently,
until just tender, and take from the fire as soon as done. If too soft,
they will be mushy and insipid.

EVAPORATED PEACH SAUCE.--Soak the peaches over night in just enough
water to cover. In the morning put to cook in boiling water. When
tender, sweeten and beat perfectly smooth with an egg beater.

DRIED PEARS.--These may be treated in the same way as dried apples.

SMALL FRUITS.--These when dried must be carefully examined,
thoroughly washed, and then cooked rather quickly in boiling water. They
swell but little, do not require much water, and usually cook in a few
minutes. They should be taken from the fire as soon as soft, as long
standing makes them insipid.

PRUNES.--Use only the best selected prunes. Clean by putting them
into warm water; let them stand a few minutes, rubbing them gently
between the hands to make sure that all dust and dirt is removed; rinse,
and if rather dry and hard, put them into three parts of water to one of
prunes; cover closely, and let them simmer for several hours. If the
prunes are quite easily cooked, less water may be used. They will be
tender, with a thick juice. The sweet varieties need no sugar whatever.
Many persons who cannot eat fruit cooked with sugar, can safely partake
of sweet prunes cooked in this way. A slice of lemon added just before
the prunes are done, is thought an improvement.

PRUNE MARMALADE.--Cook sweet California prunes as directed above.
When well done, rub through a colander to remove the skins and stones.
No sugar is necessary. If the pulp is too thin when cold, it may be
covered in an earthen pudding dish and stewed down by placing in a pan
of hot water in a moderate oven.


THE PRESERVATION OF FRUIT.

Fresh fruit is so desirable, while at the same time the season during
which most varieties can be obtained is so transient, that various
methods are resorted to for preserving it in as nearly a natural state
as possible. The old-fashioned plans of pickling in salt, alcohol, or
vinegar, or preserving in equal quantities of sugar, are eminently
unhygienic. Quite as much to be condemned is the more modern process of
keeping fruit by adding to it some preserving agent, like salicylic acid
or other chemicals. Salicylic acid is an antiseptic, and like many other
substances, such as carbolic acid, creosote, etc., has the power of
preventing the decay of organic substances. Salicylic acid holds the
preference over other drugs of this class, because it imparts no
unpleasant flavor to the fruit. It is nevertheless a powerful and
irritating drug, and when taken, even in small doses, produces intense
burning in the stomach, and occasions serious disturbances of the heart
and other organs. Its habitual use produces grave diseases.

What is sold as antifermentive is simply the well-known antiseptic,
salicylate of soda. It should be self-evident to one at all acquainted
with the philosophy of animal existence, that an agent which will
prevent fermentation and decay must be sufficiently powerful in its
influence to prevent digestion also.

The fermentation and decay of fruits as well as that of all other
organic substances, is occasioned by the action of those minute living
organisms which scientists call germs, and which are everywhere present.
These germs are very much less active in a dry, cold atmosphere, and
fruit may be preserved for quite a long period by refrigeration, an
arrangement whereby the external air is excluded, and the surrounding
atmosphere kept at an equal temperature of about 40° F. The most
efficient and wholesome method of preserving fruit, however, is
destruction of the germs and entire exclusion from the air. The germs
are destroyed at a boiling temperature; hence, if fruit be heated to
boiling, and when in this condition sealed in air-tight receptacles, it
will keep for an unlimited period.


CANNING FRUIT.

Canning consists in sealing in air-tight cans or jars, fruit which has
been previously boiled. It is a very simple process, but requires a
thorough understanding of the scientific principles involved, and
careful management, to make it successful. The result of painstaking
effort is so satisfactory, however, it is well worth all the trouble,
and fruit canning need not be a difficult matter if attention is given
to the following details:--

Select self-sealing glass cans of some good variety. Tin cans give more
trouble filling and sealing, are liable to affect the flavor of the
fruit, and unless manufactured from the best of material, to impair its
wholesomeness. Glass cans may be used more than once, and are thus much
more economical. Those with glass covers, or porcelain-lined covers, are
best. Test the cans to see if they are perfect, with good rubbers and
covers that fit closely, by partly filling them with cold water,
screwing on the tops, and placing bottom upward upon the table for some
time before using. If none of the water leaks out, they may be
considered in good condition. If the cans have been previously used,
examine them with special care to see that both cans and covers have
been carefully cleaned, then thoroughly sterilize them, and fit with new
rubbers when necessary.

Cans and covers should be sterilized by boiling in water for half an
hour, or by baking in an oven, at a temperature sufficient to scorch
paper, for two hours. The cans should be placed in the water or oven
when cold, and the temperature allowed to rise gradually, to avoid
breaking. They should be allowed to cool gradually, for the same
purpose.

Select only the best of fruit, such as is perfect in flavor and neither
green nor over-ripe. Fruit which has been shipped from a distance, and
which is consequently not perfectly fresh, contains germs in active
growth, and if the least bit musty, it will be almost sure to spoil,
even though the greatest care may be taken in canning.

Poor fruit will not be improved by canning; over-ripe fruit will be
insipid and mushy; and though cooking will soften hard fruit, it cannot
impart to it the delicate flavors which belong to that which is in its
prime. The larger varieties of fruit should not be quite soft enough for
eating. Choose a dry day for gathering, and put up at once, handling as
little as possible. Try to keep it clean enough to avoid washing. If the
fruit is to be pared, use a silver knife for the purpose, as steel is
apt to discolor the fruit. If the fruit is one needing to be divided or
stoned, it will be less likely to become broken if divided before
paring.

Cook the fruit slowly in a porcelain-lined or granite-ware kettle, using
as little water as possible. It is better to cook only small quantities
at a time in one kettle. Steaming in the cans is preferable to stewing,
where the fruit is at all soft. To do this, carefully fill the cans with
fresh fruit, packing it quite closely, if the fruit is large, and set
the cans in a boiler partly filled with cold water, with something
underneath them to prevent breaking,--muffin rings, straw, or thick
cloth, or anything to keep them from resting on the bottom of the boiler
(a rack made by nailing together strips of lath is very convenient);
screw the covers on the cans so the water cannot boil into them, but not
so tightly as to prevent the escape of steam; heat the water to boiling,
and steam the fruit until tender. Peaches, pears, crab apples, etc., to
be canned with a syrup, may be advantageously cooked by placing on a
napkin dropped into the boiling syrup.

Fruit for canning should be so thoroughly cooked that every portion of
it will have been subjected to a sufficient degree of heat to destroy
all germs within the fruit, but overcooking should be avoided. The
length of time required for cooking fruits for canning, varies with the
kind and quality of fruit and the manner of cooking. Fruit is more
frequently spoiled by being cooked an insufficient length of time, than
by overcooking. Prolonged cooking at a boiling temperature is necessary
for the destruction of certain kinds of germs capable of inducing
fermentation. Fifteen minutes may be considered as the shortest time for
which even the most delicate fruits should be subjected to the
temperature of boiling water, and thirty minutes will be required by
most fruits. Fruits which are not perfectly fresh, or which have been
shipped some distance, should be cooked not less than thirty minutes.
The boiling should be very slow, however, as hard, rapid boiling will
break up the fruit, and much of its fine flavor will be lost in the
steam.

Cooking the sugar with the fruit at the time of canning, is not to be
recommended from an economical standpoint; but fruit thus prepared is
more likely to keep well than when cooked without sugar; not, however,
because of the preservative influence of the sugar, which is too small
in amount to prevent the action of germs, as in the case of preserves,
but because the addition of sugar to the water or fruit juice increases
its specific gravity, and thus raises the boiling point. From
experiments made, I have found that the temperature of the fruit is
ordinarily raised about 5° by the addition of the amount of sugar needed
for sweetening sub-acid fruit. By the aid of this additional degree of
heat, the germs are more certainly destroyed, and the sterilization of
the fruit will be accomplished in a shorter time.

Another advantage gained in cooking sugar with the fruit at the time of
canning, is that the fruit may be cooked for a longer time without
destroying its form, as the sugar abstracts the juice of the fruit, and
thus slightly hardens it and prevents its falling in pieces.

The temperature to which the fruit is subjected may also be increased by
the same method as that elsewhere described for sterilizing milk, the
covers of the cans being screwed down tightly before they are placed in
the sterilizer, or as soon as the boiling point is approached, so that
the steam issues freely from the can. See page 396. If this method is
employed, it must be remembered that the cans should not be removed from
the sterilizer until after they have become cold, or nearly so, by being
allowed to stand over night.

Use the best sugar, two tablespoonfuls to a quart of fruit is
sufficient for most sub-acid fruits, as berries and peaches; plums,
cherries, strawberries, and currants require from five to eight
tablespoonfuls of sugar to a quart. Have the sugar hot, by spreading it
on tins and heating in the oven, stirring occasionally. See that; it
does not scorch. Add it when the fruit is boiling. Pears, peaches,
apples, etc., which contain a much smaller quantity of juice than do
berries, may be canned in a syrup prepared by dissolving a cup of sugar
in two or three cups of water. Perfect fruit, properly canned, will keep
without sugar, and the natural 'flavor of the fruit is more perfectly
retained when the sugar is left out, adding the necessary amount when
opened for use.

If the fruit is to be cooked previous to being put in the cans, the cans
should be heated before the introduction of the fruit, which should be
put in at a boiling temperature. Various methods are employed for this
purpose. Some wrap the can in a towel wrung out of hot water, keeping a
silver spoon inside while it is being filled; others employ dry heat by
keeping the cans in a moderately hot oven while the fruit is cooking.

Another and surer way is to fill a large dishpan nearly full of scalding
(not boiling) water, then gradually introduce each can, previously
baked, into the water, dip it full of water, and set it right side up in
the pan. Repeat the process with other cans until four or five are
ready. Put the covers likewise into boiling water. Have in readiness for
use a granite-ware funnel and dipper, also in boiling water; a cloth for
wiping the outside of the cans, a silver fork or spoon, a dish for
emptyings, and a broad shallow pan on one side of the range, half filled
with boiling water, in which to set the cans while being filled. When
everything is in readiness, the fruit properly cooked, and _at a boiling
temperature,_ turn one of the cans down in the water, roll it over once
or twice, empty it, and set in the shallow pan of hot water; adjust the
funnel, and then place first in the can a quantity of juice, so that
when the fruit is put in, no vacant places will be left for air, which
is sometimes quite troublesome if this precaution is not taken; then
add the fruit. If any bubbles of air chance to be left, work them out
with a fork or spoon handle, which first dip in boiling water, and then
quickly introduce down the sides of the jar and through the fruit in
such a way that not a bubble will remain. Fill the can to overflowing,
remembering that any vacuum invites the air to enter; use boiling water
or syrup when there is not enough juice. Skim all froth from the fruit,
adding more juice if necessary; wipe the juice from the top of the can,
adjust the rubber, put on the top, and screw it down as quickly as
possible. If the fruit is cooked in the cans, as soon as it is
sufficiently heated, fill the can completely full with boiling juice,
syrup, or water; run the handle of a silver spoon around the inside of
the can, to make sure the juice entirely surrounds every portion of
fruit, and that no spaces for air remain, put on the rubbers, wipe off
all juice, and seal quickly.

[Illustration: Canning Utensils.]

As the fruit cools, the cover can be tightened, and this should be
promptly done again and again as the glass contracts, so that no air may
be allowed to enter.

If convenient to fill the cans directly from the stove, the fruit may be
kept at boiling heat by placing the kettle on a lamp stove on the table,
on which the other utensils are in readiness. Many failures in fruit
canning are due to neglect to have the fruit boiling hot when put into
the cans.

When the cans are filled, set them away from currents of air, and not on
a very cold surface, to avoid danger of cracking. A good way is to set
the cans on a wet towel, and cover with a woolen cloth as a protection
from draughts.

After the cans have cooled, and the tops have been screwed down tightly,
place them in a cool place, bottom upward, and watch closely for a few
days. If the juice begins to leak out, or any appearance of fermentation
is seen, it is a sign that the work has failed, and the only thing to do
is to open the can immediately, boil the fruit, and use as quickly as
possible; recanning will not save it unless boiled a long time. If no
signs of spoiling are observed within two or three weeks, the fruit may
be safely stored away in a dark, cool place. If one has no dark
storeroom, it is an advantage to wrap each can in brown paper, to keep
out the light.

Sometimes the fruit will settle so that a little space appears at the
top. If you are perfectly sure that the can is tight, do not open to
refill, as you will be unable to make it quite as tight again, unless
you reheat the fruit, in which case you would be liable to have the same
thing occur again. Air is dangerous because it is likely to contain
germs, though in itself harmless.

If mold is observed upon the top of a can, it should be opened, and the
fruit boiled and used at once, after carefully skimming out all the
moldy portions. If there is evidence of fermentation, the fruit should
be thrown away, as it contains alcohol.

If care be taken to provide good cans, thoroughly sterilized, and with
perfectly fitting covers; to use only fruit in good condition; to have
it thoroughly cooked, and at boiling temperature when put into the can;
to have the cans well baked and heated, filled completely and to
overflowing, and sealed at once while the fruit is still near boiling
temperature, there will be little likelihood of failure.

OPENING CANNED FRUIT.--Canned fruit is best opened a short time
before needed, that is may be will aërated; and if it has been canned
without sugar, it should have the necessary quantity added, so that it
may be well dissolved before using.

Fruit purchased in tin cans should be selected with the utmost care,
since unscrupulous dealers sometimes use cans which render the fruit
wholly--unfit for food.

The following rules which we quote from a popular scientific journal
should be 'carefully observed in selecting canned fruit:--

"Reject every can that does not have the name of the manufacturer or
firm upon it, as well as the name of the company and the town where
manufactured. All 'Standards' have this. When the wholesale dealer is
ashamed to have his name on the goods, be shy of him.

"Reject every article of canned goods which does not show the line of
resin around the edge of the solder of the cap, the same as is seen on
the seam at the side of the can.

"Press up the bottom of the can; if decomposition is beginning, the tin
will rattle the same as the bottom of your sewing-machine oil can does.
If the goods are sound, it will be solid, and there will be no rattle to
the tin.

"Reject every can that show any rust around the cap on the inside of the
head of the can. Old and battered cans should be rejected; as, if they
have been used several times, the contents are liable to contain small
amounts of tin or lead"


_RECIPES._

TO CAN STRAWBERRIES.--These are generally considered more difficult
to can than most other berries. Use none but sound fruit, and put up the
day they are picked, if possible. Heat the fruit slowly to the boiling
point, and cook fifteen minutes or longer, adding the sugar hot, if any
be used, after the fruit is boiling. Strawberries, while cooking, have a
tendency to rise to the top, and unless they are kept poshed down, will
not be cooked uniformly, which is doubtless one reason they sometimes
fail to keep well. The froth should also be kept skimmed off. Fill the
cans as directed on page 197, taking special care to let out every air
bubble, and to remove every particle of froth from the top of the can
before sealing. If the berries are of good size, the may be cooked in
the cans, adding a boiling syrup prepared with one cup of water and one
of sugar for each quart can of fruit.

If after the cans are cold, the fruit rises to the top, as it frequently
does, take the cans and gently shake until the fruit is well saturated
with the juice and falls by its own weight to the bottom, or low enough
to be entirely covered with the liquid.

TO CAN RASPBERRIES, BLACKBERRIES, AND OTHER SMALL FRUITS.--Select
none but good, sound berries; those freshly picked are best; reject any
green, over-ripe, mashed, or worm-eaten fruit. If necessary to wash the
berries, do so by putting a quart at a time in a colander, and dipping
the dish carefully into a pan of clean water, letting it stand for a
moment. If the water is very dirty, repeat the process in a second
water. Drain thoroughly, and if to be cooked previous to putting in the
cans, put into a porcelain kettle with a very small quantity of water,
and heat slowly to boiling. If sugar is to be used, have it hot, but do
not add it until the fruit is boiling; and before doing so, if there is
much juice, dip out the surplus, and leave the berries with only a small
quantity, as the sugar will have a tendency to draw out more juice, thus
furnishing plenty for syrup.

Raspberries are so juicy that they need scarcely more than a pint of
water to two quarts of fruit.

The fruit may be steamed in the cans if preferred. When thoroughly
scalded, if sugar is to be used, fill the can with a boiling syrup made
by dissolving the requisite amount of sugar in water; if to be canned
without sugar, fill up the can with boiling water or juice.

Seal the fruit according to directions previously given.

TO CAN GOOSEBERRIES.--Select such as are smooth and turning red,
but not fully ripe; wash and remove the stems and blossom ends. For
three quarts of fruit allow one quart of water. Heat slowly to boiling;
cook fifteen minutes, add a cupful of sugar which has been heated dry
in the oven: boil two or three minutes longer, and can.

TO CAN PEACHES.--Select fruit which is perfectly ripe and sound,
but not much softened. Free-stone peaches are the best. Put a few at a
time in a wire basket, and dip into boiling water for a moment, and then
into cold water, to cool fruit sufficiently to handle with comfort. The
skins may then be rubbed or peeled off easily, if done quickly, and the
fruit divided into halves; or wipe with a clean cloth to remove all dirt
and the wool, and with a silver knife cut in halves, remove the stone,
and then pare each piece, dropping into cold water at once to prevent
discoloration. Peaches cut before being pared are less likely to break
in pieces while removing the stones. When ready, pour a cupful of water
in the bottom of the kettle, and fill with peaches, scattering sugar
among the layers in the proportion of a heaping tablespoonful to a quart
of fruit. Heat slowly, boil fifteen minutes or longer till a silver fork
can be easily passed through the pieces; can in the usual way and seal;
or, fill the cans with the halved peaches, and place them in a boiler of
warm water with something underneath to avoid breaking; cook until
perfectly tender. Have ready a boiling syrup prepared with one half cup
of sugar and two cups of water, and pour into each can all that it will
hold, remove air bubbles, cover and seal. A few of the pits may be
cooked in the syrup, and removed before adding to the fruit, when their
special flavor is desired.

ANOTHER METHOD.--After paring and halving the fruit, lay a clean napkin
in the bottom of a steamer; fill with fruit. Steam until a fork will
easily penetrate the pieces. Have ready a boiling syrup prepared as
directed above, put a few spoonfuls in the bottom of the hot cans, and
dip each piece of fruit gently in the hot syrup; then as carefully place
it in the jars. Fill with the syrup, and finish in the usual way.

Peaches canned without sugar, retain more nearly their natural flavor.
To prepare in this way, allow one half pint of water to each pound of
fruit. Cook slowly until tender, and can in the usual manner. When
wanted for the table, open an hour before needed, and sprinkle lightly
with sugar.

TO CAN PEARS.--The pears should be perfectly ripened, but not soft.
Pare with a silver knife, halve or quarter, remove the seeds and drop
into a pan of cold water to prevent discoloration. Prepare a syrup,
allowing a cup of sugar and a quart of water to each two quarts of
fruit. When the syrup boils, put the pears into it very carefully, so as
not to bruise or break them, and cook until they look clear and can be
easily pierced with a fork. Have the cans heated, and put in first a
little of the syrup, then pack in the pears very carefully; fill to
overflowing with the scalding syrup, and finish as previously directed.
The tougher and harder varieties of pears must be cooked till nearly
tender in hot water, or steamed over a kettle of boiling water, before
adding to the syrup, and may then be finished as above. If it is
desirable to keep the pears whole, cook only those of a uniform size
together; or if of assorted sizes, put the larger ones into the syrup a
few minutes before the smaller ones. Some prefer boiling the kins of the
pears in the water of which the syrup is to be made, and skimming them
out before putting in the sugar. This is thought to impart a finer
flavor. Pears which are very sweet, or nearly tasteless, may be improved
by using the juice of a large lemon for each quart of syrup. Pears may
be cooked in the cans, if preferred.

TO CAN PLUMS.--Green Gages and Damsons are best for canning. Wipe
clean with a soft cloth. Allow a half cup of water and the same of sugar
to every three quarts of fruit, in preparing a syrup. Pick each plum
with a silver fork to prevent it from bursting, and while the syrup is
heating, turn in the fruit, and boil until thoroughly done. Dip
carefully into hot jars, fill with syrup, and cover immediately.

TO CAN CHERRIES.--These may be put up whole in the same way as
plums, or pitted and treated as directed for berries, allowing about two
quarts of water and a scant pint of sugar to five quarts of solid fruit,
for the tart varieties, and not quite half as much sugar for the sweeter
ones.

TO CAN MIXED FRUIT.--There are some fruits with so little flavor
that when cooked they are apt to taste insipid, and are much improved by
canning with some acid or strongly flavored fruits.

Blackberries put up with equal quantities of blue or red plums, or in
the proportion of one to three of the sour fruit, are much better than
either of these fruits canned separately. Black caps are much better if
canned with currants, in the proportion of one part currants to four of
black caps.

Red and black raspberries, cherries and raspberries, are also excellent
combinations.

QUINCES WITH APPLES.--Pare and cut an equal quantity of firm sweet
apples and quinces. First stew the quinces till they are tender in
sufficient water to cover. Take them out, and cook the apples in the
same water. Lay the apples and quinces in alternate layers in a
porcelain kettle or crock. Have ready a hot syrup made with one part
sugar to two and a half parts water, pour over the fruit, and let it
stand all night. The next day reheat to boiling, and can.

Quinces and sweet apples may be canned in the same way as directed below
for plums and sweet apples, using equal parts of apples and quinces, and
adding sugar when opened.

PLUMS WITH SWEET APPLES.--Prepare the plums, and stew in water
enough to cover. When tender, skim out, add to the juice an equal
quantity of quartered sweet apples, and stew until nearly tender. Add
the plumbs again, boil together for a few minutes, and can. When wanted
for the table, open, sprinkle with sugar if any seems needed, let stand
awhile and serve.

TO CAN GRAPES.--Grapes have so many seeds that they do not form a
very palatable sauce when canned entire. Pick carefully from the stems,
wash in a colander the same as directed for berries, and drain. Remove
the skins, dropping them into one earthen crock and the pulp into
another. Place both crocks in kettles of hot water over the stove, and
heat slowly, stirring the pulp occasionally until the seeds will come
out clean.

Then rub the pulp through a colander, add the skins to it, and a cupful
of sugar for each quart of pulp. Return to the fire, boil twenty minutes
until the skins are tender, and can; or, if preferred, the whole grapes
may be heated, and when well scalded so that the seeds are loosened,
pressed through a colander, thus rejecting both seeds and skins, boiled,
then sweetened if desired, and canned.

TO CAN CRAB APPLES.--These may be cooked whole, and canned the same
way as plums.

TO CAN APPLES.--Prepare and can the same as pears, when fresh and
fine in flavor. If old and rather tasteless, the following is a good
way:--several thin slices of the yellow part of the rind, four cups of
sugar, and three pints of boiling water. Pare and quarter the apples, or
if small, only halve them, and cook gently in a broad-bottomed
closely-covered saucepan, with as little water as possible, till tender,
but not broken; then pour the syrup over them, heat all to boiling, and
can at once. The apples may be cooked by steaming over a kettle of hot
water, if preferred. Care must be taken to cook those of the same degree
of hardness together. The slices of lemon rind should be removed from
the syrup before using.

TO CAN PINEAPPLES.--The writer has had no experience in canning
this fruit, but the following method is given on good authority: Pare
very carefully with a silver knife, remove all the "eyes" and black
specks; then cut the sections in which the "eyes" were, in solid pieces
clear down to the core. By doing this all the valuable part of the fruit
is saved, leaving its hard, woody center. As, however, this contains
considerable juice, it should be taken in the hands and wrung as one
wrings a cloth, till the juice is extracted, then thrown away. Prepare a
syrup with one part sugar and two parts water, using what juice has been
obtained in place of so much water. Let it boil up, skim clean, then add
the fruit. Boil just as little as possible and have the fruit tender, as
pineapples loses its flavor by overcooking more readily than any other
fruit. Put into hot cans, and seal.


FRUIT JELLIES.

The excess of sugar commonly employed in preparing jellies often renders
them the least wholesome of fruit preparations, and we cannot recommend
our readers to spend a great amount of time in putting up a large stock
of such articles.

The juice of some fruits taken at the right stage of maturity may be
evaporated to a jelly without sugar, but the process is a more lengthy
one, and requires a much larger quantity of juice than when sugar is
used.

Success in the preparation of fruit jellies depends chiefly upon the
amount of pectose contained in the fruit. Such fruits as peaches,
cherries, and others containing but a small proportion of pectose,
cannot be made into a firm jelly. All fruit for jelly should, if
possible, be freshly picked, and before it is over-ripe, as it has then
a much better flavor. The pectose, the jelly-producing element,
deteriorates with age, so that jelly made from over-ripe fruit is less
certain to "form." If the fruit is under-ripe, it will be too acid to
give a pleasant flavor. Examine carefully, as for canning, rejecting all
wormy, knotty, unripe, or partially decayed fruit. If necessary to wash,
drain very thoroughly.

Apples, quinces, and similar fruits may require to be first cooked in a
small amount of water. The juice of berries, currants, and grapes, may
be best extracted by putting the fruit in a granite-ware double boiler,
or a covered earthen crock placed inside a kettle of boiling water,
mashing as much as possible with a spoon, and steaming without the
addition of water until the fruit is well scalded and broken.

For straining the juice, have a funnel-shaped bag made of coarse flannel
or strong, coarse linen crash. The bag will be found more handy if a
small hoop of wire is sewn around the top and two tapes attached to hang
it by while the hot juice is draining, or a wooden frame to support the
bag may be easily constructed like the one shown on page 74. A dish to
receive the juice should be placed underneath the bag, which should
first be wrung out of hot water, and the scalded fruit, a small quantity
at a time, turned in; then with two large spoons press the sides of the
bag well, moving the fruit around in the bag to get out all the juice,
and removing the pressed pulp and skins each time before putting in a
fresh supply of the hot fruit. If a very clear jelly is desired, the
juice must be allowed to drain out without pressing or squeezing. The
juice of berries, grapes, and currants may be extracted without the
fruit being first scalded, if preferred, by putting the fruit into an
earthen or granite-ware dish, and mashing well with a wooden potato
masher, then putting into a jelly bag and allowing the juice to drain
off for several hours.

When strained, if the jelly is to be prepared with sugar, measure the
juice and pour it into a granite or porcelain fruit kettle with a very
broad bottom, so that as much surface can be on the stove possible. It
is better to boil the juice in quantities of not more than two or three
quarts at a time, unless one has some utensil in which a larger quantity
can be cooked with no greater depth of liquid than the above quantity
would give in a common fruit kettle. The purpose of the boiling is to
evaporate the water from the juice, and this can best be accomplished
before the sugar is added. The sugar, if boiled with the juice, also
darkens the jelly.

The average length of time required for boiling the juice of most
berries, currants, and grapes, extracted as previously directed, before
adding the sugar, is twenty minutes from the time it begins to bubble
all over its surface. It is well to test the jelly occasionally,
however, by dropping a small quantity on a plate to cool, since the
quantity of juice and the rapidity with which it is boiled, may
necessitate some variation in time. In wet season, fruits of all kinds
absorb more moisture and a little longer boiling may be necessary. The
same is true of the juice of fruits gathered after a heavy rain. Jellies
prepared with sugar are generally made of equal measures of juice,
measured before boiling, and sugar; but a very scant measure of sugar is
sufficient, and a less amount will suffice for many fruits. White
granulated sugar is best for all jellies. While the juice is heating,
spread the sugar evenly on shallow tins, and heat in the oven, stirring
occasionally to keep it from scorching. If portions melt, no great harm
will be done, as the melted portions will form in lumps when turned into
the juice, and can be removed with a spoon. When the juice has boiled
twenty minutes, turn in the sugar, which should be so hot that the hand
cannot be borne in it with comfort, stirring rapidly until it is all
dissolved. Let the syrup boil again for three or four minutes, then take
immediately from the fire. Heat the jelly glasses (those with glass
covers are best), by rolling in hot water, and place them in a shallow
pan partially filled with hot water, or stand them on a wet, folded
towel while filling. If it is desired to have the jelly exceptionally
clear and nice, it may be turned through a bag of cheese cloth,
previously wrung out of hot water, into the jelly glasses. If the covers
of the glasses are not tight fitting, a piece of firm paper should be
fitted over the top before putting on the cover, to make it air tight.
Pint self-sealing fruit cans are excellent for storing jelly, and if it
is sealed in them in the same manner as canned fruit, will keep
perfectly, and obviate any supposed necessity for the use of brandied
paper as a preservative measure. Label each variety, and keep in some
cool, dry place. If the jelly is not sufficiently firm when first made,
set the glasses in the sunshine for several days, until the jelly
becomes more firm. This is better than reheating and boiling again, as
it destroys less of the flavor of the fruit.


_RECIPES._

APPLE JELLY.--Cut nice tart apples in quarters, but unless wormy,
do not peel or core. Put into a porcelain kettle with a cup of water for
each six pounds of fruit, and simmer very slowly until the apples are
thoroughly cooked. Turn into a jelly-bag, and drain off the juice. If
very tart, allow three fourths of a pound of sugar to each pint of
juice. If sub-acid, one half pound will be sufficient. Put the sugar
into the oven to heat. Clean the kettle, and boil the juice therein
twenty minutes after it begins to boil thoroughly. Add the sugar,
stirring until well dissolved, let it boil up once again, and remove
from the fire. The juice of one lemon may be used with the apples, and a
few bits of lemon rind, the yellow portion only, cooked with them to
give them a flavor, if liked. One third cranberry juice makes a pleasing
combination.

APPLE JELLY WITHOUT SUGAR.--Select juicy, white fleshed, sub-acid
fruit, perfectly sound and mature but not mellow. The snow apple is one
of the best varieties for this purpose. Wash well, slice, and core
without removing the skins, and cook as directed in the preceding
recipe. Drain off the juice, and if a very clear jelly is desired,
filter it through a piece of cheese cloth previously wrung out of hot
water. Boil the juice,--rapidly at first, but more gently as it becomes
thickened,--until of the desired consistency. The time required will
vary with the quantity of juice, the shallowness of the dish in which it
is boiled, and the heat employed. One hour at least, will be required
for one or two quarts of juice. When the juice has become considerably
evaporated, test it frequently by dipping a few drops on a plate to
cool; and when it jellies sufficiently, remove at once from the fire. A
much larger quantity of juice will be needed for jelly prepared in this
manner than when sugar is used, about two quarts of juice being required
for one half pint of jelly. Such jelly, however, has a most delicious
flavor, and is excellent served with grains. Diluted with water, it
forms a most pleasing beverage.

BERRY AND CURRANT JELLIES.--Express the juice according to the
directions already given. For strawberries, red raspberries, and
currants, allow three fourths of a pound of sugar to a pint of juice.
Black raspberries, if used alone, need less sugar. Strawberry and black
raspberry juice make better jelly if a little lemon juice is used. The
juice of one lemon to each pint of fruit juice will be needed for black
raspberries. Two parts red or black raspberries with one part currants,
make a better jelly than either alone. Boil the juice of strawberries,
red raspberries, and currants twenty minutes, add the sugar, and finish,
as previously directed. Black raspberry juice is much thicker, and
requires less boiling.

CHERRY JELLY.--Jelly may be prepared from cherries by using with
the juice of cherries an equal amount of apple juice, which gives an
additional amount of pectose to the juice and does not perceptibly
change the flavor.

CRAB APPLE JELLY.--Choose the best Siberian crab apples; cut into
pieces, but do not pare or remove seeds. Place in a porcelain-lined or
granite-ware double boiler, with a cup of water for each six pounds of
fruit, and let them remain on the back of the range, with the water
slowly boiling, seven or eight hours. Leave in the boiler or turn into a
large china bowl, and keep well covered, all night. In the morning drain
off the juice and proceed as for apple jelly, using from one half to
three fourths of a pound of sugar to one of juice.

CRANBERRY JELLY.--Scald the berries and express the juice for other
jellies. Measure the juice, and allow three fourths of a pound of sugar
to one of juice. Boil twenty minutes, add the sugar hot, and finish as
directed for other jellies.

GRAPE JELLY.--Jelly from ripe grapes may be prepared in the same
manner as that made from the juice of berries. Jelly from green grapes
needs one half measure more of sugar.

ORANGE JELLY.--Express the juice of rather tart oranges, and use
with it an equal quantity of the juice of sub-acid apples, prepared in
the manner directed for apple jelly. For each pint of the mixed juice,
use one half pound of sugar and proceed as for other jellies.

PEACH JELLY.--Stone, pare, and slice the peaches, and steam them in
a double boiler. Express the juice, and add for each pint of peach juice
the juice of one lemon. Measure the juice and sugar, using three fourths
of a pound of sugar for each pint of juice, and proceed as already
directed. Jelly prepared from peaches will not be so firm as many fruit
jellies, owing to the small amount of pectose contained in their
composition.

A mixture of apples and peaches, in the proportion of one third of the
former to two thirds of the latter, makes a firmer jelly than peaches
alone. The apples should be pared and cored, so that their flavor will
not interfere with that of the peaches.

QUINCE JELLY.--Clean thoroughly good sound fruit, and slice thin.
Put into a double boiler with one cup of water for each five pounds of
fruit, and cook until softened. Express the juice, and proceed as with
other jellies, allowing three fourths of a pound of sugar to each pint
of juice. Tart or sweet apples may be used with quinces, in equal
proportions, and make a jelly of more pleasant flavor than quinces used
alone. The seeds of quinces contain considerable gelatinous substance,
and should be cooked with the quince for jelly making.

PLUM JELLY.--Use Damsons or Green Gages. Stone, and make in the
same way as for berry and other small fruit jellies.

FRUIT IN JELLY.--Prepare some apple jelly without sugar. When
boiled sufficiently to form, add to it, as it begins to cool, some nice,
stoned dates or seeded raisins. Orange jelly may be used instead of the
apple jelly, if preferred.

FRUIT JUICES.


As sauces for desserts and for summer beverages for sick or well, the
pure juices of fruits are most wholesome and delicious. So useful are
they and so little trouble to prepare, that no housewife should allow
the fruit season to pass by without putting up a full stock.
Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, grapes, and cherries
are especially desirable. In preparing them, select only the best fruit,
ripe, but not over-ripe. Extract the juice by mashing the fruit and
slowly heating in the inner cup of a double boiler, till the fruit is
well scalded; too long heating will injure its color. Strain through a
jelly bag and let it drain slowly for a long time, but do not squeeze,
else some of the pulp will be forced through. Reheat slowly to boiling
and can the same as fruit. It may be put up with or without sugar. If
sugar is to be used, add it hot as for jelly, after the juice is
strained and reheated to boiling. For strawberries and currants,
raspberries and cherries, use one cup of sugar to a quart of juice.
Black raspberries and grapes require less sugar, while blueberries and
blackberries require none at all, or not more than a tablespoonful to
the quart. A mixed juice, of one part currants and two parts red or
black raspberries, has a very superior flavor.


_RECIPES._

GRAPE JUICE, OR UNFERMENTED WINE.--Take twenty-five pounds of some
well ripened very juicy variety of grapes, like the Concord. Pick them
from the stems, wash thoroughly, and scald without the addition of
water, in double boilers until the grapes burst open; cool, turn into
stout jelly bags, and drain off the juice without squeezing. Let the
juice stand and settle; turn off the top, leaving any sediment there may
be. Add to the juice about four pounds of best granulated sugar, reheat
to boiling, skim carefully, and can the same as fruit. Keep in a cool,
dark place. The wine, if to be sealed in bottles, will require a corker,
and the corks should first be boiled in hot water and the bottles well
sterilized.

GRAPE JUICE NO. 2.--Take grapes of the best quality, picked fresh
from the vines. Wash well after stripping from the stems, rejecting any
imperfect fruit. Put them in a porcelain or granite fruit kettle with
one pint of water to every three quarts of grapes, heat to boiling, and
cook slowly for fifteen minutes or longer, skimming as needed. Turn off
the juice and carefully filter it through a jelly bag, putting the seeds
and skins into a separate bag to drain, as the juice from them will be
less clear. Heat again to boiling, add one cupful of hot sugar to each
quart of juice, and seal in sterilized cans or bottles. The juice from
the skins and seeds should be canned separately.

ANOTHER METHOD.--Wash the grapes, and express the juice without
scalding the fruit. Strain the juice three or four times through muslin
or cheese cloth, allowing it to stand and settle for some time between
each filtering. To every three pints of juice add one of water and two
cupfuls of sugar. Heat to boiling, and keep at that temperature for
fifteen minutes, skim carefully, and bottle while at boiling heat. Set
away in a cool, dark place.

FRUIT SYRUP.--Prepare the juice expressed from strawberries,
raspberries, currants, or grapes, as directed above for fruit juices.
After it has come to a boil, add one pound of sugar to every quart of
juice. Seal in pint cans. It may be diluted with water to form a
pleasing beverage, and is especially useful in flavoring puddings and
sauces.

CURRANT SYRUP.--Boil together a pint of pure currant juice and one
half pound of best white sugar for ten minutes, and can or bottle while
at boiling temperature. One or two spoonfuls of the syrup in a glass of
water makes a most refreshing drink. Two parts currants and one of red
raspberries may be used in place of all currants, if preferred.

ORANGE SYRUP.--Select ripe and thin-skinned fruit. To every pint of
the juice add one pound of sugar, the juice of one lemon, and a little
of the grated rind. Boil for fifteen minutes, removing all scum as it
rises. If the syrup is not clear, strain through a piece of cheese
cloth, and reheat. Can and seal while boiling hot.

LEMON SYRUP.--Grate the yellow portion of the rind of six lemons,
and mix with three pounds of best granulated white sugar. Add one quart
of water and boil until it thickens. Strain, add the juice of the six
lemons, carefully leaving out the pulp and seeds; boil ten minutes, and
bottle. Diluted with two thirds cold water, it forms a delicious and
quickly prepared lemonade.

LEMON SYRUP NO. 2.--To every pint of lemon juice add one pound of
sugar; boil, skim, and seal in cans like fruit.

BLACKBERRY SYRUP.--Crush fresh, well-ripened blackberries, and add
to them one fourth as much boiling water as berries; let them stand for
twenty-four hours, stirring frequently. Strain, add a cup of sugar to
each quart of juice, boil slowly for fifteen minutes, and can.

FRUIT ICES.--Express the juice from a pint of stoned red cherries,
add the juice of two lemons, one cup of sugar and a quart of cold water.
Stir well for five minutes, an freeze in an ice cream freezer. Equal
parts currant and red raspberry juice may be used instead of cherry, if
preferred.


DRYING FRUIT.

This method of preserving fruit, except in large establishments where it
is dried by steam, is but little used, since canning is quicker and
superior in every way. Success in drying fruits is dependent upon the
quickness with which, they can be dried, without subjecting them to so
violent a heat as to burn them or injure their flavor.

Pulpy fruits, such as berries, cherries, plums, etc., should be spread
on some convenient flat surface without contact with each other, and
dried in the sun under glass, or in a moderate oven. They should be
turned daily. They will dry more quickly if first scalded in a hot oven.
Cherries should be first stoned and cooked until well heated through and
tender, then spread on plates, and the juice (boiled down to a syrup)
poured over them. When dried, they will be moist. Pack in jars. Large
fruit, such as apples, pears, and peaches, should be pared, divided, and
the seeds or stones removed. If one has but a small quantity, the best
plan is to dry by mean of artificial heat; setting it first in a hot
oven until heated through, which process starts the juice and forms a
film or crust over the cut surfaces, thus holding the remaining:
quantity of juice inside until it becomes absorbed in the tissues. The
drying process may be finished in a warming oven or some place about the
range where the fruit will get only moderate heat. If a larger quantity
of fruit is to be dried, after being heated in the oven, it may be
placed in the hot sun out of doors, under fine wire screens, to keep off
the flies; or may be suspended for the ceiling in some way, or placed
upon a frame made to stand directly over the stove. As the drying
proceeds, the fruit should be turned occasionally, and when dry enough,
it should be thoroughly heated before it is packed away, to prevent it
from getting wormy.


NUTS.

The nuts, or shell fruits, as they are sometimes termed, form a class of
food differing greatly from the succulent fruits. They are more properly
seeds, containing, in general, no starch, but are rich in fat and
nitrogenous elements in the form of vegetable albumen and casein. In
composition, the nuts rank high in nutritive value, but owing to the
oily matter which they contain, are difficult of digestion, unless
reduced to a very minutely divided state before or during mastication.
The fat of nuts is similar in character to cream, and needs to be
reduced to the consistency of cream to be easily digested. Those nuts,
such as almonds, filberts, and pecans, which do not contain an excess of
fat, are the most wholesome. Nuts should be eaten, in moderation, at the
regular mealtime, and not partaken of as a tidbit between meals. It is
likewise well to eat them in connection with some hard food, to insure
their thorough mastication. Almonds and cream crisps thus used make a
pleasing combination.

Most of the edible nuts have long been known and used as food. The
_Almond_ was highly esteemed by the ancient nations of the East, its
native habitat, and is frequently referred to in sacred history. It is
grown extensively in the warm, temperate regions of the Old World. There
are two varieties, known as the bitter and the sweet almond. The kernel
of the almond yields a fixed oil; that produced from the bitter almond
is much esteemed for flavoring purposes, but it is by no means a safe
article to use, at it possesses marked poisonous qualities. Fresh, sweet
almonds are a nutritive, and, when properly eaten, wholesome food. The
outer brown skin of the kernel is somewhat bitter, rough, and irritating
to the stomach but it can be easily removed by blanching.

Blanched almonds, if baked for a short time, become quite brittle, and
may be easily pulverized, and are then more easily digested. Bread made
from almonds thus baked and pulverized, is considered an excellent food
for persons suffering with diabetes.

_Brazil Nuts_ are the seeds of a gigantic tree which grows wild in the
valleys of the Amazon, and throughout tropical America. The case
containing these seeds is a hard, woody shell, globular in form, and
about the size of a man's head. It is divided into four cells, in each
of which are closely packed the seeds which constitute the so-called
nuts, of commerce. These seeds are exceedingly rich in oil, one pound of
them producing about nine ounces of oil.

The _Cocoanut_ is perhaps the most important of all the shell fruits, if
we may judge by the variety of uses to which the nut and the tree which
bears it can be put. It has been said that nature seldom produces a tree
so variously useful to man as the cocoanut palm. In tropical countries,
where it grows abundantly, its leaves are employed for thatching, its
fibers for manufacturing many useful articles, while its ashes produce
potash in abundance. The fruit is eaten raw, and in many ways is
prepared for food; it also yields an oil which forms an important
article of commerce. The milk of the fruit is a cooling beverage, and
the woody shell of the nut answers very well for a cup from which to
drink it. The saccharine juice of the tree also affords an excellent
drink; and from the fresh young stems is prepared a farinaceous
substance similar to sago.

The cocoanuts grow in clusters drooping from the tuft of long, fringed
leaves which crown the branchless trunk of the stately palm. The
cocoanut as found in commerce is the nut divested of its outer sheath,
and is much smaller in size than when seen upon the tree. Picked fresh
from the tree, the cocoanut consists first of a green outer covering;
next of a fibrous coat, which, if the nut is mature, is hairy-like in
appearance; and then of the woody shell, inside of which is the meat and
milk. For household purposes the nuts are gathered while green, and
before the inner shell has become solidified; the flesh is then soft
like custard, and can be easily eaten with a teaspoon, while a large
quantity of delicious, milk-like fluid is obtainable from each nut.

As found in our Northern markets, the cocoanut is difficult of
digestion, as is likewise the prepared or desiccated cocoanut. The
cocoanut contains about seventy per cent of oil.

The _Chestnut_ is an exception to most nuts in its composition. It
contains starch, and about fifteen per cent of sugar. No oil can be
extracted from the chestnut. In Italy, and other parts of Southern
Europe, the chestnut forms an important article of food. It is sometimes
dried and ground into flour, from which bread is prepared. The chestnut
is a nutritious food, but owing to the starch it contains, is more
digestible when cooked. The same is true of the _Acorn_, which is
similar in character to the chestnut. In the early ages, acorns were
largely used for food, and are still used as a substitute for bread in
some countries.

The _Hazelnut_, with the _Filbert_ and _Cobnut_, varieties of the same
nut obtained by cultivation, are among the most desirable nuts for
general consumption.

The _Walnut_, probably a native of Persia, where in ancient times it was
so highly valued as to be considered suited only for the table of the
king, is now found very commonly with other species of the same family,
the _Butternut_ and _Hickory nut_, in most temperate climates.

The _Pecan_, a nut allied to the hickory nut, and grown extensively in
the Mississippi Valley and Texas, is one of the most easily digested
nuts.

The _Peanut_ or _Groundnut_ is the seed of an annual, cultivated
extensively in most tropical and sub-tropical countries. After the plant
has blossomed, the stalk which produced the flower has the peculiarity
of bending down and forcing itself under ground so that the seeds mature
some depth beneath the surface. When ripened, the pods containing the
seeds are dug up and dried. In tropical countries the fresh nuts are
largely consumed, and are thought greatly to resemble almonds in flavor.
In this country they are more commonly roasted. They are less easily
digested than many other nuts because of the large amount of oily matter
which they contain.


_RECIPES._

TO BLANCH ALMONDS.--Shell fresh, sweet almonds, and pour boiling
water over them; let them stand for two or three minutes, skim out, and
drop into cold water. Press between the thumb and finger, and the
kernels will readily slip out of the brown covering. Dry between clean
towels. Blanched almonds served with raisins make an excellent dessert.

BOILED CHESTNUTS.--The large variety, knows as the Italian
chestnut, is best for this purpose. Remove the shells, drop into boiling
water, and boil for ten minutes, take out, drop into cold water, and rub
off the brown skin. Have some clean water boiling, turn the blanched
nuts into it, and cook until they can be pierced with a fork. Drain
thoroughly, put into a hot dish, dry in the oven for a few minutes, and
serve. A cream sauce or tomato sauce may be served with them if liked.

MASHED CHESTNUTS.--Prepare and boil the chestnuts as in the
preceding recipe. When tender, mash through a colander with a potato
masher. Season with cream and salt if desired. Serve hot.

TO KEEP NUTS FRESH.--Chestnuts and other thin-shelled nuts may be
kept from becoming too dry by mixing with an equal bulk of dry sand and
storing in a box or barrel in some cool place.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Who lives to eat, will die by eating.--_Sel._

    Fruit bears the closest relation to light. The sun pours a
    continuous flood of light into the fruits, and they furnish the best
    portion of food a human being requires for the sustenance of mind
    and body.--_Alcott._

    The famous Dr. John Hunter, one of the most eminent physicians of
    his time, and himself a sufferer from gout, found in apples a remedy
    for this very obstinate and distressing malady. He insisted that all
    of his patients should discard wine and roast beef, and make a free
    use of apples.

    Do not too much for your stomach, or it will abandon you.--_Sel._

    The purest food is fruit, next the cereals, then the vegetables. All
    pure poets have abstained almost entirely from animal food.
    Especially should a minister take less meat when he has to write a
    sermon. The less meat the better sermon.--_A. Bronson Alcott._

    There is much false economy: those who are too poor to have
    seasonable fruits and vegetables, will yet have pie and pickles all
    the year. They cannot afford oranges, yet can afford tea and coffee
    daily.--_Health Calendar._

     What plant we in the apple tree?
     Fruits that shall dwell in sunny June,
     And redden in the August moon,
     And drop, when gentle airs come by,
     That fan the blue September sky,
     While children come, with cries of glee,
     And seek there when the fragrant grass
     Betrays their bed to those who pass
     At the foot of the apple tree.

    --_Bryant._



LEGUMES

The legumes, to which belong peas, beans, and lentils, are usually
classed among vegetables; but in composition they differ greatly from
all other vegetable foods, being characterized by a very large
percentage of the nitrogenous elements, by virtue of which they possess
the highest nutritive value. Indeed, when mature, they contain a larger
proportion of nitrogenous matter than any other food, either animal or
vegetable. In their immature state, they more nearly resemble the
vegetables. On account of the excess of nitrogenous elements in their
composition, the mature legumes are well adapted to serve as a
substitute for animal foods, and for use in association with articles in
which starch or other non-nitrogenous elements are predominant; as, for
example, beans or lentils with rice, which combinations constitute the
staple food of large populations in India.

The nitrogenous matter of legumes is termed _legumin_, or vegetable
casein, and its resemblance to the animal casein of milk is very marked.
The Chinese make use of this fact, and manufacture cheese from peas and
beans. The legumes were largely used as food by the ancient nations of
the East. They were the "pulse" upon which the Hebrew children grew so
fair and strong. According to Josephus, legumes also formed the chief
diet of the builders of the pyramids. They are particularly valuable as
strength producers, and frequently form a considerable portion of the
diet of persons in training as athletes, at the present day. Being foods
possessed of such high nutritive value, the legumes are deserving of a
more extended use than is generally accorded them in this country. In
their mature state they are, with the exception of beans, seldom found
upon the ordinary bill of fare, and beans are too generally served in a
form quite difficult of digestion, being combined with large quantities
of fat, or otherwise improperly prepared. Peas and lentils are in some
respects superior to beans, being less liable to disagree with persons
of weak digestion, and for this reason better suited to form a staple
article of diet.

All the legumes are covered with a tough skin, which is in itself
indigestible, and which if not broken by the cooking process or by
thorough mastication afterward, renders the entire seed liable to pass
through the digestive tract undigested, since the digestive fluids
cannot act upon the hard skin. Even when the skins are broken, if served
with the pulp, much of the nutritive material of the legume is wasted,
because it is impossible for the digestive processes to free it from the
cellulose material of which the skins are composed. If, then, it be
desirable to obtain from the legumes the largest amount of nutriment and
in the most digestible form, they must be prepared in some manner so as
to reject the skins. Persons unable to use the legumes when cooked in
the ordinary way, usually experience no difficulty whatever in digesting
them when divested of their skins. The hindrance which even the
partially broken skins are to the complete digestion of the legume, is
well illustrated by the personal experiments of Prof. Strümpell, a
German scientist, who found that of beans boiled with the skins on he
was able to digest only 60 per cent of the nitrogenous material they
contained. When, however, he reduced the same quantity of beans to a
fine powder previous to cooking, he was enabled to digest 91.8 per cent
of it.

The fact that the mature legumes are more digestible when prepared in
some manner in which the skins are rejected, was doubtless understood in
early times, for we find in a recipe of the fourteenth century,
directions given "to dry legumes in an oven and remove the skins away
before using them."

The green legumes which are more like a succulent vegetable are easily
digested with the skins on, if the hulls are broken before being
swallowed. There are also some kinds of beans which, in their mature
state, from having thinner skins, are more readily digested, as the
Haricot variety.

SUGGESTIONS FOR COOKING.--The legumes are best cooked by stewing or
boiling, and when mature, require prolonged cooking to render them
tender and digestible. Slow cooking, when practicable, is preferable.
Dry beans and peas are more readily softened by cooking if first soaked
for a time in cold water. The soaking also has a tendency to loosen the
skins, so that when boiled or stewed, a considerable portion of them
slip off whole, and being lighter, rise to the top during the cooking,
and can be removed with a spoon; it likewise aids in removing the strong
flavor characteristic of these foods, which is considered objectionable
by some persons. The length of time required for soaking will depend
upon the age of the seed, those from the last harvest needing only a few
hours, while such as have been kept for two or more years require to be
soaked twelve or twenty-four hours. For cooking, soft water is best. The
mineral elements in hard water have a tendency to harden the casein, of
which the legumes a largely composed, thus rendering it often very
difficult to soften them.

The dry, unsoaked legumes are generally best put to cook in cold water,
and after the boiling point is reached, allowed to simmer gently until
done. Boiling water may be used for legumes which have been previously
soaked. The amount of water required will vary somewhat with the heat
employed and the age and condition of the legume, as will also the time
required for cooking, but as a general rule two quarts of soft water
for one pint of seeds will be quite sufficient. Salt should not be added
until the seeds are nearly done, as it hinders the cooking process.


PEAS.

DESCRIPTION.--The common garden pea is probably a native of
countries bordering on the Black Sea. A variety known as the gray pea
(_pois chiche_) has been used since a very remote period. The common
people of Greece and Rome, in ancient times made it an ordinary article
of diet. It is said that peas were considered such a delicacy by the
Romans that those who coveted public favor distributed them gratuitously
to the people in order to buy votes.

Peas were introduced into England from Holland in the time of Elizabeth,
and were then considered a great delicacy. History tells us that when
the queen was released from her confinement in the tower, May 19, 1554,
she went to Staining to perform her devotions in the church of
Allhallows, after which she dined at a neighboring inn upon a meal of
which the principal dish was boiled peas. A dinner of the same kind,
commemorative of the event, was for a long time given annually at the
same tavern.

Peas, when young, are tender and sweet, containing a considerable
quantity of sugar. The nitrogenous matter entering into their
composition, although less in quantity when unripe, is much more easily
digested than when the seeds are mature.

When quite ripe, like other leguminous seeds, they require long cooking.
When very old, no amount of boiling will soften them. When green, peas
are usually cooked and served as a vegetable; in their dried state, they
are put to almost every variety of use in the different countries where
they are cultivated.

In the southeast of Scotland, a favorite food is made of ground peas
prepared in thick cakes and called peas-bainocks.

In India and southern Europe, a variety of the pea is eaten parched or
lightly roasted, or made into cakes, puddings, and sweetmeats. In
Germany, in combination with other ingredients, peas are compounded into
sausages, which, during the Franco-Prussian war, served as rations for
the soldiers.

Dried peas for culinary use are obtainable in two forms; the split peas,
which have had the tough envelope of the seed removed, and the green or
Scotch peas.

The time required for cooking will vary from five to eight hours,
depending upon the age of the seed and the length of time it has been
soaked previous to cooking.


_RECIPES._

STEWED SPLIT PEAS.--Carefully examine and wash the peas, rejecting
any imperfect or worm-eaten ones. Put into cold water and let them come
to a boil; then place the stewpan back on the range and simmer gently
until tender, but not mushy. Season with salt and a little cream if
desired.

PEAS PUREE.--Soak a quart of Scotch peas in cold water over night.
In the morning, drain and put them to cook in boiling water. Cook slowly
until perfectly tender, allowing them to simmer very gently toward the
last until they become as dry as possible. Put through a colander to
render them homogeneous and remove the skins. Many of the skins will be
loosened and rise to the top during the cooking, and it is well to
remove these with a spoon so as to make the process of rubbing through
the colander less laborious. Season with salt if desired, and a cup of
thin cream. Serve hot.

MASHED PEAS.--Soak and cook a quart of peas as for Peas _Puree_
When well done, if the Scotch peas, rub through a colander to remove the
skins. If the split peas are used, mash perfectly smooth with a potato
masher. Season with a teaspoonful of salt and a half cup of sweet cream,
if desired. Beat well together, turn into an earthen or granite-ware
pudding dish, smooth the top, and bake in a moderate oven until dry and
mealy throughout, and nicely browned on top. Serve hot like mashed
potato, or with a tomato sauce prepared as follows: Heat a pint of
strained, stewed tomato, season lightly with salt, and when boiling,
thicken with a tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold
water.

PEAS CAKES.--Cut cold mashed peas in slices half an inch in
thickness, brush lightly with cream, place on perforated tins, and brown
in the oven. If the peas crumble too much to slice, form them into small
cakes with a spoon or knife, and brown as directed. Serve hot with or
without a tomato sauce. A celery sauce prepared as directed in the
chapter on Sauces, is also excellent.

DRIED GREEN PEAS.--Gather peas while young and tender and carefully
dry them. When needed for use, rinse well, and put to cook in cold
water. Let them simmer until tender. Season with cream the same as fresh
green peas.


BEANS.

DESCRIPTION.--Some variety of the bean family has been cultivated
and used for culinary purposes from time immemorial. It is frequently
mentioned in Scripture; King David considered it worthy of a place in
his dietary, and the prophet Ezekiel was instructed to mix it with the
various grains and seeds of which he made his bread.

Among some ancient nations the bean was regarded as a type of death, and
the priests of Jupiter were forbidden to eat it, touch it, or even
pronounce its name. The believer in the doctrine of transmigration of
souls carefully avoided this article of food, in the fear of submitting
beloved friends to the ordeal of mastication.

At the present day there is scarcely a country in hot or temperate
climates where the bean is not cultivated and universally appreciated,
both as a green vegetable and when mature and dried.

The time required to digest boiled beans is two and one half hours, and
upwards.

In their immature state, beans are prepared and cooked like other green
vegetables. Dry beans may be either boiled, stewed, or baked, but
whatever the method employed, it must be very slow and prolonged. Beans
to be baked should first be parboiled until tender. We mention this as a
precautionary measure lest some amateur cook, misled by the term "bake,"
should repeat the experiment of the little English maid whom we employed
as cook while living in London, a few years ago. In ordering our dinner,
we had quite overlooked the fact that baked beans are almost wholly an
American dish, and failed to give any suggestions as to the best manner
of preparing it. Left to her own resources, the poor girl did the best
she knew how, but her face was full of perplexity as she placed the
beans upon the table at dinner, with, "Well, ma'am, here are the beans,
but I don't see how you are going to eat them." Nor did we, for she had
actually baked the dry beans, and they lay there in the dish, as brown
as roasted coffee berries, and as hard as bullets.

Beans to be boiled or stewed do not need parboiling, although many cooks
prefer to parboil them, to lessen the strong flavor which to some
persons is quite objectionable.

From one to eight hours are required to cook beans, varying with the age
and variety of the seed, whether it has been soaked, and the rapidity of
the cooking process.


_RECIPES._

BAKED BEANS.--Pick over a quart of best white beans and soak in
cold water over night. Put them to cook in fresh water, and simmer
gently till they are tender, but not broken. Let them be quite juicy
when taken from the kettle. Season with salt and a teaspoonful of
molasses. Put them in a deep crock in a slow oven. Let them bake two or
three hours, or until they assume a reddish brown tinge, adding boiling
water occasionally to prevent their becoming dry. Turn, into a shallow
dish, and brown nicely before sending to the table.

BOILED BEANS.--Pick over some fresh, dry beans carefully, and wash
thoroughly. Put into boiling water and cook gently and slowly until
tender, but not broken. They should be moderately juicy when done. Serve
with lemon juice, or season with salt and a little cream as preferred.

The colored varieties, which are usually quite strong in flavor, are
made less so by parboiling for fifteen or twenty minutes and then
pouring the water off, adding more of boiling temperature, and cooking
slowly until tender.

BEANS BOILED IN A BAG.--Soak a pint of white beans over night. When
ready to cook, put them into a clean bag, tie up tightly, as the beans
have already swelled, and if given space to move about with the boiling
of the water will become broken and mushy. Boil three or four hours.
Serve hot.

SCALLOPED BEANS.--Soak a pint of white beans over night in cold
water. When ready to cook, put into an earthen baking dish, cover well
with new milk, and bake in a slow oven for eight or nine hours;
refilling the dish with milk as it boils away, and taking care that the
beans do not at any time get dry enough to brown over the top till they
are tender. When nearly done, add salt to taste, and a half cup of
cream. They may be allowed to bake till the milk is quite absorbed, and
the beans dry, or may be served when rich with juice, according to
taste. The beans may be parboiled in water for a half hour before
beginning to bake, and the length of time thereby lessened. They should
be well drained before adding the milk, however.

STEWED BEANS.--Soak a quart of white beans in water over night. In
the morning drain, turn hot water over them an inch deep or more, cover,
and place on the range where they will only just simmer, adding boiling
water if needed. When nearly tender, add salt to taste, a tablespoonful
of sugar if desired, and half a cup of good sweet cream. Cook slowly an
hour or more longer, but let them be full of juice when taken up, never
cooked down dry and mealy.

MASHED BEANS.--Soak over night in cold water, a quart of nice white
beans. When ready to cook, drain, put into boiling water, and boil till
perfectly tender, and the water nearly evaporated. Take up, rub through
a colander to remove the skins, season with salt and a half cup of
cream, put in a shallow pudding dish, smooth the top with a spoon, and
brown in the oven.

STEWED LIMA BEANS.--Put the beans into boiling water, and cook till
tender, but not till they fall to pieces. Fresh beans should cook an
hour or more, and dry ones require from two to three hours unless
previously soaked. They are much better to simmer slowly than to boil
hard. They should be cooked nearly dry. Season with salt, and a cup of
thin cream, to each pint of beans. Simmer for a few minutes after the
cream is turned in. Should it happen that the beans become tender before
the water is sufficiently evaporated, do not drain off the water, but
add a little thicker cream, and thicken the whole with a little flour. A
little flour stirred in with the cream, even when the water is nearly
evaporated may be preferred by some.

SUCCOTASH.--Boil one part Lima beans and two parts sweet corn
separately until both are nearly tender. Put them together, and simmer
gently till done. Season with salt and sweet cream. Fresh corn and beans
may be combined in the same proportions, but as the beans will be likely
to require the most time for cooking, they should be put to boil first,
and the corn added when the beans are about half done, unless it is
exceptionally hard, in which case it must be added sooner.

PULP SUCCOTASH.--Score the kernels of some fresh green corn with a
sharp knife blade, then with the back of a knife scrape out all the
pulp, leaving the hulls on the cob. Boil the pulp in milk ten or fifteen
minutes, or until well done. Cook some fresh shelled beans until tender,
and rub them through a colander. Put together an equal quantity of the
beans thus prepared and the cooked corn pulp, season with salt and
sweet cream, boil together for a few minutes, and serve. Kornlet and
dried Lima beans may be made into succotash in a similar manner.


_LENTILS._

DESCRIPTION.--Several varieties of the lentil are cultivated for
food, but all are nearly alike in composition and nutritive value. They
have long been esteemed as an article of diet. That they were in
ordinary use among the Hebrews is shown by the frequent mention of them
in Scripture. It is thought that the red pottage of Esau was made from
the red variety of this legume.

The ancient Egyptians believed that a diet of lentils would tend to make
their children good tempered, cheerful, and wise, and for this reason
constituted it their principal food. A gravy made of lentils is largely
used with their rice by the natives of India, at the present day.

The meal which lentils yield is of great richness, and generally
contains more casein than either beans or peas. The skin, however, is
tough and indigestible, and being much smaller than peas, when served
without rejecting the skins, they appear to be almost wholly of tough,
fibrous material; hence they are of little value except for soups,
_purees_, toasts, and other such dishes as require the rejection of the
skin. Lentils have a stronger flavor than any of the other legumes, and
their taste is not so generally liked until one has become accustomed to
it.

Lentils are prepared and cooked in the same manner as dried peas, though
they require somewhat less time for cooking.

The large dark variety is better soaked for a time previous to cooking,
or parboiled for a half hour and then put into new water, to make them
less strong in flavor and less dark in color.


_RECIPES._

LENTIL PUREE.--Cook the lentils and rub through a colander as for
peas _puree_. Season, and serve in the same manner.

LENTILS MASHED WITH BEANS.--Lentils may be cooked and prepared in
the same manner as directed for mashed peas, but they are less strong in
flavor if about one third to one half cooked white beans are used with
them.

LENTIL GRAVY WITH RICE.--Rub a cupful of cooked lentils through a
colander to remove the skins, add one cup of rich milk, part cream if it
can be afforded, and salt if desired. Heat to boiling, and thicken with
a teaspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Serve hot on
nicely steamed or boiled rice, or with well cooked macaroni.



TABLE TOPICS.

    The men who kept alive the flame of learning and piety in the Middle
    Ages were mainly vegetarians.--_Sir William Axon._

    According to Xenophon, Cyrus, king of Persia, was brought up on a
    diet of water, bread, and cresses, till his fifteenth year, when
    honey and raisins were added; and the family names of Fabii and
    Lentuli were derived from their customary diet.

    Thomson, in his poem, "The Seasons," written one hundred and sixty
    years ago, pays the following tribute to a diet composed of seeds
    and vegetable
products:--#/

    "With such a liberal hand has Nature flung
    These seeds abroad, blown them about in winds-- ...
    But who their virtues can declare? who pierce,
    With vision pure, into those secret stores
    Of health and life and joy--the food of man,
    While yet he lived in innocence and told
    A length of golden years, unfleshed in blood?
    A stranger to the savage arts of life--
    Death, rapine, carnage, surfeit, and disease--
    The _lord_, and not the _tyrant_ of the world."

    Most assuredly I do believe that body and mind are much influenced
    by the kind of food habitually depended upon. I can never stray
    among the village people of our windy capes without now and then
    coming upon a human being who looks as if he had been split, salted,
    and dried, like the salt fish which has built up his arid organism.
    If the body is modified by the food which nourishes it, the mind and
    character very certainly will be modified by it also. We know enough
    of their close connection with each other to be sure of what without
    any statistical observation to prove it.--_Oliver Wendell Holmes._

    The thoughts and feelings which the food we partake of provokes, are
    not remarked in common life, but they, nevertheless, have their
    significance. A man who daily sees cows and calves slaughtered, or
    who kills them himself, hogs "stuck," hens "plucked," etc., cannot
    possibly retain any true feeling for the sufferings of his own
    species....Doubtless, the majority of flesh-eaters do not reflect
    upon the manner in which this food comes to them, but this
    thoughtlessness, far from being a virtue, is the parent of many
    vices....How very different are the thoughts and sentiments produced
    by the non-flesh diet!--_Gustav Von Struve._

    That the popular idea that beef is necessary for strength is not a
    correct one, is well illustrated by Xenophon's description of the
    outfit of a Spartan soldier, whose dietary consisted of the very
    plainest and simplest vegetable fare. The complete accoutrements of
    the Spartan soldier, in what we would call heavy marching order,
    weighed seventy-five pounds, exclusive of the camp, mining, and
    bridge-building tools and the rations of bread and dried fruit which
    were issued in weekly installments, and increased the burden of the
    infantry soldier to ninety, ninety-five, or even to a full hundred
    pounds. This load was often carried at the rate of four miles an
    hour for twelve hours _per diem_, day after day, and only when in
    the burning deserts of southern Syria did the commander of the
    Grecian auxiliaries think prudent to shorten the usual length of the
    day's march.

    DIET OF TRAINERS.--The following are a few of the restrictions and
    rules laid down by experienced trainers:--

    Little salt. No course vegetables. No pork or veal. Two meals a day;
    breakfast at eight and dinner at two. No fat meat is allowed, no
    butter or cheese, pies or pastry.



VEGETABLES

Vegetables used for culinary purposes comprise roots and tubers, as
potatoes, turnips, etc.; shoots and stems, as asparagus and sea-kale;
leaves and inflorescence, as spinach and cabbage; immature seeds,
grains, and seed receptacles, as green peas, corn, and string-beans; and
a few of the fruity products, as the tomato and the squash. Of these the
tubers rank the highest in nutritive value.

Vegetables are by no means the most nutritious diet, as water enters
largely into their composition; but food to supply perfectly the needs
of the vital economy, must contain water and indigestible as well as
nutritive elements. Thus they are dietetically of great value, since
they furnish a large quantity of organic fluids. Vegetables are rich in
mineral elements, and are also of service in giving bulk to food. An
exclusive diet of vegetables, however, would give too great bulk, and at
the same time fail to supply the proper amount of food elements. To
furnish the requisite amount of nitrogenous material for one day, if
potatoes alone were depended upon as food, a person would need to
consume about nine pounds; of turnips, sixteen pounds; of parsnips,
eighteen pounds; of cabbage, twenty-two pounds. Hence it is wise to use
them in combination with other articles of diet--grains, whole-wheat
bread, etc.--that supplement the qualities lacking in the vegetables.

TO SELECT VEGETABLES.--All roots and tubers should be plump, free
from decay, bruises, and disease, and with fresh, unshriveled skins.
They are good from the time of maturing until they begin to germinate.
Sprouted vegetables are unfit for food. Potato sprouts contain a poison
allied to belladonna. All vegetables beginning to decay are unfit for
food.

Green vegetables to be wholesome should be freshly gathered, crisp, and
juicy; those which have lain long in the market are very questionable
food. In Paris, a law forbids a market-man to offer for sale any green
vegetable kept more than one day. The use of stale vegetables is known
to have been the cause of serious illness.

KEEPING VEGETABLES.--If necessary to keep green vegetables for any
length of time, do not put them in water, as that will dissolve and
destroy some of their juices; but lay them in a cool, dark place,--on a
stone floor is best,--and do not remove their outer leaves until needed.
They should be cooked the day they are gathered, if possible. The best
way to freshen those with the stems when withered is to cut off a bit of
the stem or stem-end, and set only the cut part in water. The vegetables
will then absorb enough water to replace what has been lost by
evaporation.

Peas and beans should not be shelled until wanted. If, however, they are
not used as soon as shelled, cover them with pods and put in a cool
place.

Winter vegetables can be best kept wholesome by storing in a cool, dry
place of even temperature, and where neither warmth, moisture, nor light
is present to induce decay or germination. They should be well sorted,
the bruised or decayed, rejected, and the rest put into clean bins or
boxes; and should be dry and clean when stored. Vegetables soon absorb
bad flavors if left near anything odorous or decomposing, and are thus
rendered unwholesome. They should be looked over often, and decayed ones
removed. Vegetables, to be kept fit for food, should on no account be
stored in a cellar with barrels of fermenting pickle brine, soft soap,
heaps of decomposing rubbish, and other similar things frequently found
in the dark, damp vegetable cellars of modern houses.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Most vegetables need thorough washing
before cooking. Roots and tubers should be well cleaned before paring. A
vegetable brush or a small whisk broom is especially serviceable for
this purpose. If necessary to wash shelled beans and peas, it can best
be accomplished by putting them in a colander and dipping in and out of
large pans of water until clean. Spinach, lettuce, and other leaves may
be cleaned the same way.

Vegetables admit of much variety in preparation for the table, and are
commonly held to require the least culinary skill of any article of
diet. This is a mistake. Though the usual processes employed to make
vegetables palatable are simple, yet many cooks, from carelessness or
lack of knowledge of their nature and composition, convert some of the
most nutritious vegetables into dishes almost worthless as food or
almost impossible of digestion. It requires no little care and skill to
cook vegetables so that they will neither be underdone nor overdone, and
so that they will retain their natural flavors.

A general rule, applicable to all vegetables to be boiled or stewed, is
to cook them in as little water as may be without burning. The salts and
nutrient juices are largely lost in the water; and if this needs to be
drained off, much of the nutriment is apt to be wasted. Many cooks throw
away the true richness, while they serve the "husks" only. Condiments
and seasonings may cover insipid taste, but they cannot restore lost
elements. Vegetables contain so much water in their composition that it
is not necessary to add large quantities for cooking, as in the case of
the grains and legumes, which have lost nearly all their moisture in the
ripening process. Some vegetables are much better cooked without the
addition of water.

Vegetables to be cooked by boiling should be put into boiling water; and
since water loses its goodness by boiling, vegetables should be put in
as soon as the boiling begins. The process of cooking should be
continuous, and in general gentle heat is best. Remember that when water
is boiling, the temperature is not increased by violent bubbling. Keep
the cooking utensil closely covered. If water is added, let it also be
boiling hot.

Vegetables not of uniform size should be so assorted that those of the
same size may be cooked together, or large ones may be divided. Green
vegetables retain their color best if cook rapidly. Soda is sometimes
added to the water in which the vegetables are cooked, for the purpose
of preserving their colors, but this practice is very harmful.

Vegetables should be cooked until they are perfectly tender but not
overdone. Many cooks spoil their vegetables by cooking them too long,
while quite as many more serve them in an underdone state to preserve
their form. Either plan makes them less palatable, and likely to be
indigestible.

Steaming or baking is preferable for most vegetables, because their
finer flavors are more easily retained, and their food value suffers
less diminution. Particularly is this true of tubers.

The time required for cooking depends much upon the age and freshness of
the vegetables, as well as the method of cooking employed. Wilted
vegetables require a longer time for cooking than fresh ones.

TIME REQUIRED FOR COOKING.--The following is the approximate length
of time required for cooking some of the more commonly used
vegetables:--

Potatoes, baked, 30 to 45 minutes.

Potatoes, steamed, 20 to 40 minutes.

Potatoes, boiled (in jackets), 20 to 25 minutes after the water is
fairly boiling.

Potatoes, pared, about 20 minutes if of medium size; if very large, they
will require from 25 to 45 minutes.

Green corn, young, from 15 to 20 minutes.

Peas, 25 to 30 minutes.

Asparagus, 15 to 20 minutes, young; 30 to 50 if old.

Tomatoes, 1 to 2 hours.

String beans and shelled beans, 45 to 60 minutes or longer.

Beets, boiled, 1 hour if young; old, 3 to 5 hours.

Beets, baked, 3 to 6 hours. Carrots, 1 to 2 hours.

Parsnips, 45 minutes, young; old, 1 to 2 hours.

Turnips, young, 45 minutes; old, 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

Winter squash, 1 hour. Cabbage, young, 1 hour; old, 2 to 3 hours.

Vegetable oysters, 1 to 2 hours.

Celery, 20 to 30 minutes.

Spinach, 20 to 60 minutes or more.

Cauliflower, 20 to 40 minutes.

Summer squash, 20 to 60 minutes.


If vegetables after being cooked cannot be served at once, dish them up
as soon as done, and place the dishes in a _bain marie_ or in pans of
hot water, where they will keep of even temperature, but not boil.
Vegetables are never so good after standing, but they spoil less kept in
this way than any other. The water in the pans should be of equal depth
with the food in the dishes. Stewed vegetables and others prepared with
a sauce, may, when cold, be reheated in a similar manner.

[Illustration: Bain Marie.]

If salt is to be used to season, one third of a teaspoonful for each
pint of cooked vegetables is an ample quantity.


THE IRISH POTATO.

DESCRIPTION.--The potato, a plant of the order _Solanaceae_, is
supposed to be indigenous to South America. Probably it was introduced
into Europe by the Spaniards early in the sixteenth century, but
cultivated only as a curiosity. To Sir Walter Raleigh, however, is
usually given the credit of its introduction as a food, he having
imported it from Virginia to Ireland in 1586, where its valuable
nutritive qualities were first appreciated. The potato has so long
constituted the staple article of diet in Ireland, that it has come to
be commonly, though incorrectly, known as the Irish potato.

The edible portion of the plant is the tuber, a thick, fleshy mass or
enlarged portion of an underground stem, having upon its surface a
number of little buds, or "eyes," each capable of independent growth.
The tuber is made up of little cells filled with starch granules,
surrounded and permeated with a watery fluid containing a small
percentage of the albuminous or nitrogenous elements. In cooking, heat
coagulates the albumen within and between the cells, while the starch
granules absorb the watery portion, swell, and distend the cells. The
cohesion between these is also destroyed, and they easily separate. When
these changes are complete, the potato becomes a loose, farinaceous
mass, or "mealy." When, however, the liquid portion is not wholly
absorbed, and the cells are but imperfectly separated, the potato
appears waxen, watery, or soggy. In a mealy state the potato is easily
digested; but when waxy or water-soaked, it is exceedingly trying to the
digestive powers.

It is obvious, then, that the great _desideratum_ in cooking the potato,
is to promote the expansion and separation of its cells; in other words,
to render it mealy. Young potatoes are always waxy, and consequently
less wholesome than ripe ones. Potatoes which have been frozen and
allowed to thaw quickly are much sweeter and more watery, because in
thawing the starch changes into sugar. Frozen potatoes should be thawed
in cold water and cooked at once, or kept frozen until ready for use.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Always pare potatoes very thin. Much of
the most nutritious part of the tuber lies next its outer covering; so
care should be taken to waste as little as possible. Potatoes cooked
with the skins on are undoubtedly better than those pared. The chief
mineral element contained in the potato is potash, an important
constituent of the blood. Potash salts are freely soluble in water, and
when the skin is removed, there is nothing to prevent these salts from
escaping into the water in which the potato is boiled. If the potato is
cooked in its "jacket," the skin, which does not in general burst open
until the potato is nearly done, serves to keep this valuable element
largely inside the potato while cooking. For the same reason it is
better not to pare potatoes and put them in water to soak over night, as
many cooks are in the habit of doing, to have them in readiness for
cooking for breakfast.

Potatoes to be pared should be first washed and dried. It is a good plan
to wash quite a quantity at one time, to be used as needed. After
paring, drop at once into cold water and rinse them thoroughly. It is a
careless habit to allow pared potatoes to fall among the skins, as in
this way they become stained, and appear black and discolored after
cooking. Scrubbing with a vegetable brush is by far the best means for
cleaning potatoes to be cooked with the skins on.

When boiled in their skins, the waste, according to Letheby, is about
three per cent, while without them it is not less than fourteen per
cent, or more than two ounces in every pound. Potatoes boiled without
skins should be cooked very gently.

Steaming, roasting, and baking are much better methods for cooking
potatoes than boiling, for reasons already given. Very old potatoes are
best stewed or mashed. When withered or wilted, they are freshened by
standing in cold water for an hour or so before cooking. If diseased or
badly sprouted, potatoes are wholly unfit for food.


_RECIPES._

BOILED POTATOES (IN JACKETS).--Choose potatoes of uniform size,
free from specks. Wash and scrub them well with a coarse cloth or brush;
dig out all eyes and rinse in cold water; cook in just enough water to
prevent burning, till easily pierced with a fork, not till they have
burst the skin and fallen in pieces. Drain thoroughly, take out the
potatoes, and place them in the oven for five minutes, or place the
kettle back on the range; remove the skins, and cover with a cloth to
absorb all moisture, and let them steam three or four minutes. By either
method they will be dry and mealy. In removing the skins, draw them off
without cutting the potatoes.

BOILED POTATOES (WITHOUT SKINS).--Pare very thin, and wash clean.
If not of an equal size, cut the larger potatoes in two. Cook in only
sufficient water to prevent burning until a fork will easily pierce
their center; drain thoroughly, place the kettle back on the range,
cover with a cloth to absorb the moisture, and let them dry four or five
minutes. Shake the kettle several times while they are drying, to make
them floury.

STEAMED POTATOES.--Potatoes may be steamed either with or without
the skin. Only mature potatoes can be steamed. Prepare as for boiling;
place in a steamer, over boiling water, and steam until tender. If water
is needed to replenish, let it always be boiling hot, and not allow the
potatoes to stop steaming, or they will be watery. When done, uncover,
remove the potatoes to the oven, and let them dry a few minutes. If
peeled before steaming, shake the steamer occasionally, to make them
floury.

ROASTED POTATOES.--Potatoes are much more rich and mealy roasted
than cooked in any other way. Wash them very carefully, dry with a
cloth, and wrap in tissue paper; bury in ashes not too hot, then cover
with coals and roast until tender. The coals will need renewing
occasionally, unless the roasting is done very close to the main fire.

BAKED POTATOES.--Choose large, smooth potatoes as near the same
size as possible; wash and scrub with a brush until perfectly clean; dry
with a cloth, and bake in a moderately hot oven until a fork will easily
pierce them, or until they yield to pressure between the fingers. They
are better turned about occasionally. In a slow oven the skins become
hardened and thickened, and much of the most nutritious portion is
wasted. When done, press each one till it bursts slightly, as that will
allow the steam to escape, and prevent the potatoes from becoming soggy.
They should be served at once, in a folded napkin placed in a hot dish.
Cold baked potatoes may be warmed over by rebaking, if of good quality
and not overdone the first time.

STUFFED POTATO.--Prepare and bake large potatoes of equal size, as
directed in the preceding recipe. When done, cut them evenly three
fourths of an inch from the end, and scrape out the inside, taking care
not to break the skins. Season the potato with salt and a little thick
sweet cream, being careful not to have it too moist, and beat thoroughly
with a fork until light; refill the skins with the seasoned potato, fit
the broken portions together, and reheat in the oven. When hot
throughout, wrap the potatoes in squares of white tissue paper fringed
at both ends. Twist the ends of the paper lightly together above the
fringe, and stand the potatoes in a vegetable dish with the cut end
uppermost. When served, the potatoes are held in the hand, one end of
the paper untwisted, the top of the potato removed, and the contents
eaten with a fork or spoon.

STUFFED POTATOES NO. 2.--Prepare large, smooth potatoes, bake until
tender, and cut them in halves; scrape out the inside carefully, so as
not to break the skins; mash smoothly, mix thoroughly with one third
freshly prepared cottage cheese; season with nice sweet cream, and salt
if desired. Fill the shells with the mixture, place cut side uppermost,
in a pudding dish, and brown in the oven.

MASHED POTATOES.--Peel and slice potatoes enough to make two
quarts; put into boiling water and cook until perfectly tender, but not
much broken; drain, add salt to taste; turn into a hot earthen dish, and
set in the oven for a few moments to dry. Break up the potatoes with a
silver fork; add nearly a cup of cream, and beat hard at least five
minutes till light and creamy; serve at once, or they will become heavy.
If preferred, the potatoes may be rubbed through a hot sieve into a hot
plate, or mashed with a potato beetle, but they are less light and flaky
when mashed with a beetle. If cream for seasoning is not obtainable, a
well-beaten egg makes a very good substitute. Use in the proportion of
one egg to about five potatoes. For mashed potatoes, if all utensils and
ingredients are first heated, the result will be much better.

NEW POTATOES.--When potatoes are young and freshly gathered, the
skins are easiest removed by taking each one in a coarse cloth and
rubbing it; a little coarse salt used in the cloth will be found
serviceable for this purpose. If almost ripe, scrape with a blunt knife,
wash very clean, and rinse in cold water. Boiling is the best method of
cooking; new potatoes are not good steamed. Use only sufficient water to
cover, and boil till tender. Drain thoroughly, cover closely with a
clean cloth, and dry before serving.

CRACKED POTATOES.--Prepare and boil new potatoes as in the
preceding recipe, and when ready to serve, crack each by pressing
lightly upon it with the back of a spoon, lay them in a hot dish, salt
to taste, and pour over them a cup of hot thin cream or rich milk.

CREAMED POTATOES.--Take rather small, new potatoes and wash well;
rub off all the skins; cut in halves, or if quite large, quarter them.
Put a pint of divided potatoes into a broad-bottomed, shallow saucepan;
pour over them a cup of thin sweet cream, add salt if desired; heat just
to the boiling point, then allow them to simmer gently till perfectly
tender, tossing them occasionally in the stewpan to prevent their
burning on the bottom. Serve hot.

SCALLOPED POTATOES.--Pare the potatoes and slice thin; put them in
layers in an earthen pudding dish, dredge each layer lightly with flour,
and salt, and pour over all enough good, rich milk to cover well. Cover,
and bake rather slowly till tender, removing the cover just long enough
before the potatoes are done, to brown nicely. If preferred, a little
less milk may be used, and a cup of thin cream added when the potatoes
are nearly done.

STEWED POTATO.--Pare the potatoes and slice rather thin. Put into
boiling water, and cook until nearly tender, but not broken. Have some
rich milk boiling in the inner dish of a double boiler, add to it a
little salt, then stir in for each pint of milk a heaping teaspoonful of
corn starch or rice flour, rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Stir
until it thickens. Drain the potatoes, turn them into the hot sauce, put
the dish in the outer boiler, and cook for a half hour or longer. Cold
boiled potatoes may be sliced and used in the same way. Cold baked
potatoes sliced and stewed thus for an hour or more, make a particularly
appetizing dish.

POTATOES STEWED WITH CELERY.--Pare and slice the potatoes, and put
them into a stewpan with two or three tablespoonfuls of minced celery.
Use only the white part of the celery and mince it finely. Cover the
whole with milk sufficient to cook and prevent burning, and stew until
tender. Season with cream and salt.

POTATO SNOWBALLS.--Cut largo potatoes into quarters; if small,
leave them undivided; boil in just enough water to cover. When tender,
drain and dry in the usual way. Take up two or three pieces at a time in
a strong, clean cloth, and press them compactly together in the shape of
balls. Serve in a folded napkin on a hot dish.

POTATO CAKES.--Make nicely seasoned, cold mashed potato into small
round cakes about one half an inch thick. Put them on a baking tin,
brush them over with sweet cream, and bake in a hot oven till golden
brown.

POTATO CAKES WITH EGG.--Bake nice potatoes till perfectly tender;
peel, mash thoroughly, and to each pint allow the yolks of two eggs
which have been boiled until mealy, then rubbed perfectly smooth through
a fine wire sieve, and one half cup of rich milk. Add salt to taste, mix
all well together, form the potato into small cakes, place them on oiled
tins, and brown ten or fifteen minutes in the oven.

POTATO PUFF.--Mix a pint of mashed potato (cold is just as good if
free from lumps) with a half cup of cream and the well-beaten yolk of an
egg; salt to taste and beat till smooth; lastly, stir in the white of
the egg beaten to a stiff froth. Pile up in a rocky form on a bright tin
dish, and bake in a quick oven until heated throughout and lightly
browned. Serve at once.

BROWNED POTATOES.--Slice cold potatoes evenly, place them on an
oiled tin, and brown in a very quick oven; or slice lengthwise and lay
on a wire broiler or bread-toaster, and brown over hot coals. Sprinkle
with a little salt if desired, and serve hot with sweet cream as
dressing.

ORNAMENTAL POTATOES.--No vegetable can be made palatable in so many
ways as the potato, and few can be arranged in such pretty shapes.
Mashed potatoes made moist with cream, can easily be made into cones,
pyramids, or mounds. Cold mashed potatoes may be cut into many fancy
shapes with a cookie-cutter, wet with a little cold water, and browned
in the oven.

Mounds of potatoes are very pretty smoothed and strewn with well-cooked
vermicelli broken into small bits, and then lightly browned in the oven.

Scoring the top of a dish of mashed potato deeply in triangles, stars,
and crosses, with the back of a carving knife, and then browning
lightly, gives a very pretty effect.

BROILED POTATO.--Mashed potatoes, if packed firmly while warm into
a sheet-iron bread tin which has been dipped in cold water, may be cut
into slices when cold, brushed with cream, and browned on a broiler over
hot coals.

WARMED-OVER POTATOES.--Cut cold boiled potatoes into very thin
slices; heat a little cream to boiling in a saucepan; add the potato,
season lightly with salt if desired, and cook until the cream is
absorbed, stirring occasionally so as to prevent scorching or breaking
the slices.

VEGETABLE HASH.--With one quart finely sliced potato, chop one
carrot, one red beet, one white turnip, all boiled, also one or two
stalks of celery. Put all together in a stewpan, cover closely, and set
in the oven; when hot, pour over them a cup of boiling cream, stir well
together, and serve hot.


THE SWEET POTATO.

DESCRIPTION.--The sweet potato is a native of the Malayan
Archipelago, where it formerly grew wild; thence it was taken to Spain,
and from Spain to England and other parts of the globe. It was largely
used in Europe as a delicacy on the tables of the rich before the
introduction of the common potato, which has now taken its place and
likewise its name. The sweet potato is the article referred as potato by
Shakespeare and other English writers, previous to the middle of the
seventeenth century.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--What has been said in reference to the
common potato, is generally applicable to the sweet potato; it may be
prepared and cooked in nearly all the ways of the Irish potato.

In selecting sweet potatoes, choose firm, plump roots, free from any
sprouts; if sprouted they will have a poor flavor, and are likely to be
watery.

The sweet potato is best cooked with the skin on; but all discolored
portions and the dry portion at each end, together with all branchlets,
should be carefully removed, and the potato well washed, and if to be
baked or roasted, well dried with a cloth before placing in the oven.

The average time required for boiling is about fifty minutes; baking,
one hour; steaming, about one hour; roasting, one and one half hours.


_RECIPES._

BAKED SWEET POTATOES.--Select those of uniform size, wash clean,
cutting out any imperfect spots, wipe dry, put into moderately hot oven,
and bake about one hour, or until the largest will yield to gentle
pressure between the fingers. Serve at once without peeling. Small
potatoes are best steamed, since if baked, the skins will take up nearly
the whole potato.

BAKED SWEET POTATO NO. 2.--Select potatoes of medium size, wash and
trim but do not pare, and put on the upper grate of the oven. For a peek
of potatoes, put in the lower part of the oven in a large shallow pan a
half pint of hot water. The water may be turned directly upon the oven
bottom if preferred. Bake slowly, turning once when half done. Serve in
their skins, or peel, slice, and return to the oven until nicely
browned.

BOILED SWEET POTATOES.--Choose potatoes of equal size; do not pare,
but after cleaning them well and removing any imperfect spots, put into
cold water and boll until they can be easily pierced with a fork; drain
thoroughly, and lay them on the top grate in the oven to dry for five or
ten minutes. Peel as soon as dry, and send at once to the table, in a
hot dish covered with a folded napkin. Sweet potatoes are much better
baked than boiled.

STEAMED SWEET POTATOES.--Wash the potatoes well, cut out any
discolored portions, and steam over a kettle of boiling water until they
can be easily pierced with a fork, not allowing the water in the pot to
cease boiling for a moment. Steam only sufficient to cook them, else
they will be watery.

BROWNED SWEET POTATOES.--Slice cold, cooked sweet potatoes evenly,
place on slightly oiled tins in a hot oven, and brown.

MASHED SWEET POTATOES.--Either bake or steam nice sweet potatoes,
and when tender, peel, mash them well, and season with cream and salt to
taste. They may be served at once, or made into patties and browned in
the oven.

POTATO HASH.--Take equal parts of cold Irish and sweet potatoes;
chop fine and mix thoroughly; season with salt if desired, and add
sufficient thin cream to moisten well. Turn into a stewpan, and heat
gently until boiling, tossing continually, that all parts become heated
alike, and serve at once.

ROASTED SWEET POTATOES.--Wash clean and wipe dry, potatoes of
uniform size, wrap with tissue paper, cover with hot ashes, and then
with coals from a hardwood fire; unless near the main fire, the coals
will need renewing a few times. This will require a longer time than by
any other method, but they are much nicer. The slow, continuous heat
promotes their mealiness. When tender, brush the ashes off with a broom,
and wipe with a dry cloth. Send to the table in their jackets.

TO DRY SWEET POTATOES.--Carefully clean and drop them into boiling
water. Let them remain until the skins can be easily slipped off; then
cut into slices and spread on racks to dry. To prepare for cooking, soak
over night, and boil the next day.


TURNIPS.

DESCRIPTION.--The turnip belongs to the order _Cruciferæ_,
signifying "cross flowers," so called because their four petals are
arranged in the form of a cross. It is a native of Europe and the
temperate portions of Asia, growing wild in borders of fields and waste
places. The ancient Roman gastronomists considered the turnip, when
prepared in the following manner, a dish fit for epicures: "After
boiling, extract the water from them, and season with cummin, rue or
benzoin, pounded in a mortar; afterward add honey, vinegar, gravy, and
boiled grapes. Allow the whole to simmer, and serve."

Under cultivation, the turnip forms an agreeable culinary esculent; but
on account of the large proportion of water entering into its
composition, its nutritive value is exceedingly low. The Swedish, or
Rutabaga, variety is rather more nutritive than the white, but its
stronger flavor renders it less palatable. Unlike the potato, the turnip
contains no starch, but instead, a gelatinous substance called pectose,
which during the boiling process is changed into a vegetable jelly
called pectine. The white lining just inside the skin is usually bitter;
hence the tuber should be peeled sufficiently deep to remove it. When
well cooked, turnips are quite easily digested.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Turnips are good for culinary purposes
only from the time of their ripening till they begin to sprout. The
process of germination changes their proximate elements, and renders
them less fit for food. Select turnips which are plump and free from
disease. A turnip that is wilted, or that appears spongy, pithy, or
cork-like when cut, is not fit for food.

Prepare turnips for cooking by thoroughly washing and scraping, if young
and tender, or by paring if more mature. If small, they may be cooked
whole; if large, they should be cut across the grain into slices a half
inch in thickness. If cooked whole, care must be taken to select those
of uniform size; and if sliced, the slices must be of equal thickness.


_RECIPES._

BOILED TURNIPS.--Turnips, like other vegetables, should be boiled
in as small an amount of water as possible. Great care must be taken,
however, that the kettle does not get dry, as scorched turnip is
spoiled. An excellent precaution, in order to keep them from scorching
in case the water becomes low, is to place an inverted saucer or
sauce-dish in the bottom of the kettle before putting in the turnips.
Put into boiling water, cook rapidly until sufficiently tender to pierce
easily with a fork; too much cooking discolors and renders them strong
in flavor. Boiled turnips should be drained very thoroughly, and all
water pressed out before preparing for the table. The age, size, and
variety of the turnip will greatly vary the time necessary for its
cooking. The safest rule is to allow plenty of time, and test with a
fork. Young turnips will cook in about forty-five minutes; old turnips,
sliced, require from one and a quarter to two hours. If whole or cut in
halves, they require a proportionate length of time. White turnips
require much, less cooking than yellow ones.

BAKED TURNIPS.--Select turnips of uniform size; wash and wipe, but
do not pare; place on the top grate of a moderately hot oven; bake two
or more hours or until perfectly tender; peel and serve at once, either
mashed or with cream sauce. Turnips are much sweeter baked than when
cooked in any other way.

CREAMED TURNIPS.--Pare, but do not cut, young sweet white turnips;
boil till tender in a small quantity of water; drain and dry well. Cook
a tablespoonful of flour in a pint of rich milk or part cream; arrange
the turnips in a baking dish, pour the sauce over them, add salt if
desired, sprinkle the top with grated bread crumbs, and brown in a quick
oven.

CHOPPED TURNIPS.--Chop well-boiled white turnips very fine, add
salt to taste and sufficient lemon juice to moisten. Turn into a
saucepan and heat till hot, gently lifting and stirring constantly. Cold
boiled turnip may be used advantageously in this way.

MASHED TURNIPS.--Wash the turnips, pare, and drop into boiling
water. Cook until perfectly tender; turn into a colander and press out
the water with a plate or large spoon; mash until free from lumps,
season with a little sweet cream, and salt if desired. If the turnips
are especially watery, one or two hot, mealy potatoes mashed with them
will be an improvement.

SCALLOPED TURNIPS.--Prepare and boil whole white turnips until
nearly tender; cut into thin slices, lay in an earthen pudding dish,
pour over them a white sauce sufficient to cover, made by cooking a
tablespoonful of flour in a pint of milk, part cream if preferred, until
thickened. Season with salt, sprinkle the top lightly with grated bread
crumbs, and bake in a quick oven until a rich brown. Place the baking
dish on a clean plate, and serve. Rich milk or cream may be used instead
of white sauce, if preferred.

STEAMED TURNIPS.--Select turnips of uniform size, wash, pare, and
steam rapidly till they can be easily pierced with a fork; mash, or
serve with lemon juice or cream sauce, as desired.

STEWED TURNIPS.--Prepare and slice some young, fresh white turnips,
boil or steam about twenty minutes, drain thoroughly, turn into a
saucepan with a cup of new milk for each quart of turnips; simmer gently
until tender, season with salt if desired, and serve.

TURNIPS IN JUICE.--Wash young white turnips, peel, and boil whole
in sufficient water to keep them from burning. Cover closely and cook
gently until tender, by which time the water in the kettle should be
reduced to the consistency of syrup. Serve at once.

TURNIPS WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Wash and pare the turnips, cut them
into half-inch dice, and cook in boiling water until tender. Meanwhile
prepare a cream sauce as directed for Scalloped Turnips, using thin
cream in place of milk. Drain the turnips, pour the cream sauce over
them, let them boil up once, and serve.


PARSNIPS.

DESCRIPTION.--The common garden parsnip is derived by cultivation
from the wild parsnip, indigenous to many parts of Europe and the north
of Asia, and cultivated since Roman times. It is not only used for
culinary purposes, but a wine is made from it. In the north of Ireland a
table beer is brewed from its fermented product and hops.

The percentage of nutritive elements contained in the parsnip is very
small; so small, indeed, that one pound of parsnips affords hardly one
fifth of an ounce of nitrogenous or muscle-forming material. The time
required for its digestion, varies from two and one half to three and
one half hours.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Wash and trim off any rough portions:
scrape well with a knife to remove the skins, and drop at once into cold
water to prevent discoloration. If the parsnips are smooth-skinned,
fresh, and too small to need dividing, they need only be washed
thoroughly before cooking, as the skins can be easily removed by rubbing
with a clean towel. Reject those that are wilted, pithy, coarse, or
stringy. Large parsnips should be divided, for if cooked whole, the
outside is likely to become soft before the center is tender. They may
be either split lengthwise or sliced. Parsnips may be boiled, baked, or
steamed; but like all other vegetables containing a large percentage of
water, are preferable steamed or baked.

The time required for cooking young parsnips, is about forty-five
minutes; when old, they require from one to two hours.


_RECIPES._

BAKED PARSNIPS.--Wash, thoroughly, but do not scrape the roots;
bake the same as potatoes. When tender, remove the skins, slice, and
serve with cream or an egg sauce prepared as directed for Parsnips with
Egg Sauce. They are also very nice mashed and seasoned with cream. Baked
and steamed parsnips are far sweeter than boiled ones.

BAKED PARSNIPS NO. 2.--Wash, scrape, and divide; drop into boiling
water, a little more than sufficient to cook them, and boil gently till
thoroughly tender. There should remain about one half pint of the liquor
when the parsnips are done. Arrange on an earthen plate or shallow
pudding dish, not more than one layer deep; cover with the juice, and
bake, basting frequently until the juice is all absorbed, and the
parsnips delicately browned. Serve at once.

BOILED PARSNIPS.--Clean, scrape, drop into a small quantity of
boiling water, and cook until they can be easily pierced, with a fork.
Drain thoroughly, cut the parsnips in slices, and mash or serve with a
white sauce, to which a little lemon juice may be added if desired.

BROWNED PARSNIPS.--Slice cold parsnips into rather thick pieces,
and brown as directed for browned potatoes.

CREAMED PARSNIPS.--Bake or steam the parsnips until tender; slice,
add salt if desired, and a cup of thin sweet cream. Let them stew slowly
until nearly dry, or if preferred, just boil up once and serve.

MASHED PARSNIPS.--Wash and scrape, dropping at once into cold water
to prevent discoloration. Slice thinly and steam, or bake whole until
perfectly tender. When done, mash until free from lumps, removing all
hard or stringy portions; add salt to taste and a few spoonfuls of thick
sweet cream, and serve.

PARSNIPS WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Bake as previously directed. When
tender, slice, cut into cubes, and pour over them a cream sauce prepared
as for Turnips with Cream Sauce. Boil up together once, and serve.

PARSNIPS WITH EGG SAUCE.--Scrape, wash, and slice thinly, enough
parsnips to make three pints; steam, bake, or boil them until very
tender. If boiled, turn into a colander and drain well. Have ready an
egg sauce, for preparing which heat a pint of rich milk or very thin
cream to boiling, stir into it a level tablespoonful of flour rubbed
smooth with a little milk. Let this boil a few minutes, stirring
constantly until the flour is well cooked and the sauce thickened; then
add slowly the well-beaten yolk of one egg, stirring rapidly so that it
shall be well mingled with the whole; add salt to taste; let it boil up
once, pour over the parsnips, and serve. The sauce should be of the
consistency of thick cream.

PARSNIPS WITH POTATOES.--Wash, scrape, and slice enough parsnips
to make two and a half quarts. Pare and slice enough potatoes to make
one pint. Cook together in a small quantity of water. When tender, mash
smoothly, add salt, the yolks of two eggs well beaten, and a cup of rich
milk. Beat well together, put into an earthen or china dish, and brown
lightly in the oven.

STEWED PARSNIPS.--Prepare and boil for a half hour; drain, cover
with rich milk, add salt if desired, and stew gently till tender.

STEWED PARSNIPS WITH CELERY.--Prepare and steam or boil some nice
ones until about half done. If boiled, drain thoroughly; add salt if
desired, and a tablespoonful of minced celery. Turn rich boiling milk
over them, cover, and stew fifteen or twenty minutes, or till perfectly
tender.


CARROTS.

DESCRIPTION.--The garden carrot is a cultivated variety of a plant
belonging to the _Umbettiferæ_, and grows wild in many portions of
Europe. The root has long been used for food. By the ancient Greeks and
Romans it was much esteemed as a salad. The carrot is said to have been
introduced into England by Flemish refugees during the reigns of
Elizabeth and James I. Its feathery leaves were used by the ladies as an
adornment for their headdresses, in place of plumes. Carrots contain
sugar enough for making a syrup from them; they also yield by
fermentation and distillation a spirituous liquor. In Germany they are
sometimes cut into small pieces, and roasted as a substitute for coffee.

Starch does not enter into the composition of carrots, but a small
portion of pectose is found instead. Carrots contain more water than
parsnips, and both much cellulose and little nutritive material. Carrots
when well cooked form a wholesome food, but one not adapted to weak
stomachs, as they are rather hard to digest and tend to flatulence.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--The suggestions given for the preparation
of parsnips are also applicable to carrots; and they may be boiled,
steamed, or browned in the same manner. From one to two hours time will
be required, according to age, size, variety, and method of cooking.


_RECIPES._

BOILED CARROTS.--Clean, scrape, drop into boiling water, and cook
till tender; drain thoroughly, slice, and serve with a cream sauce.
Varieties with strong flavor are better parboiled for fifteen or twenty
minutes, and put into fresh boiling water to finish.

CARROTS WITH EGG SAUCE.--Wash and scrape well; slice and throw into
boiling water, or else steam. When tender, drain thoroughly, and pour
over them a sauce prepared the same as for parsnips (page 244), with the
addition of a tablespoonful of sugar. Let them boil up once, and serve.

STEWED CARROTS.--Prepare young and tender carrots, drop into
boiling water, and cook for fifteen or twenty minutes. Drain, slice, and
put into a stewpan with rich milk or cream nearly to cover; simmer
gently until tender; season with salt and a little chopped parsley.


BEETS.

DESCRIPTION.--The beet is a native of the coasts of the
Mediterranean, and is said to owe its botanical name, _beta_, to a
fancied resemblance to the Greek letter B. Two varieties are in common
use as food, the white and the red beet; while a sub-variety, the sugar
beet, is largely cultivated in France, in connection with the beet-sugar
industry in that country. The same industry has recently been introduced
into this country. It is grown extensively in Germany and Russia, for
the same pose, and is also used there in the manufacture of alcohol.

The beet root is characterized by its unusual amount of sugar. It is
considered more nutritive than any other esculent tuber except the
potato, but the time required for its digestion exceeds that of most
vegetables, being three and three fourths hours.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Beets, like other tubers, should be
fresh, unshriveled, and healthy. Wash carefully, scrubbing with a soft
brush to remove all particles of dirt; but avoid scraping, cutting, or
breaking, lest the sweet juices escape. In handling for storage, be
careful not to bruise or break the skins; and in purchasing from the
market, select only such as are perfect.

Beets may be boiled, baked, or steamed. In boiling, if the skin is cut
or broken, the juice will escape in the water, and the flavor will be
injured; for this reason, beets should not be punctured with a fork to
find if done. When tender, the thickest part will yield readily to
pressure of the fingers. Beets should be boiled in just as little water
as possible, and they will be much better if it has all evaporated by
the time they are cooked.

Young beets will boil in one hour, while old beets require from three to
five hours; if tough, wilted, and stringy, they cannot be boiled tender.
Baked beets require from three to six hours.


_RECIPES._

BAKED BEETS.--Beets are far better baked than boiled, though it
takes a longer time to cook properly. French cooks bake them slowly six
hours in a covered dish, the bottom of which is lined with
well-moistened rye straw; however, they may be baked on the oven grate,
like potatoes. Wipe dry after washing, and bake slowly. They are very
nice served with a sauce made of equal quantities of lemon juice and
whipped cream, with a little salt.

BAKED BEETS NO. 2.--Wash young and tender beets, and place in an
earthen baking dish with a very little water; as it evaporates, add
more, which must be of boiling temperature. Set into a moderate oven,
and according to size of the beets, bake slowly from two to three hours.
When tender, remove the skins and dress with lemon juice or cream sauce.

BEETS AND POTATOES.--Boil newly matured potatoes and young beets
separately till tender; then peel and slice. Put thorn in alternate
layers in a vegetable dish, with salt to taste, and enough sweet cream
nearly to cover. Brown in the oven, and serve at once.

BEET HASH.--Chop quite finely an equal quantity of cold boiled or
baked beets and boiled or baked potatoes. Put into a shallow saucepan,
add salt and sufficient hot cream to moisten. Toss frequently, and cook
until well heated throughout. Serve hot.

BEET GREENS.--Take young, tender beets, clean thoroughly without
separating the tops and roots. Examine the leaves carefully, and pick
off inferior ones. Put into boiling water, and cook for nearly an hour.
Drain, press out all water, and chop quite fine. Serve with a dressing
of lemon juice or cream, as preferred.

BEET SALAD, OR CHOPPED BEETS.--Cold boiled or baked beets, chopped
quite fine, but not minced, make a nice salad when served with a
dressing of lemon juice and whipped cream in the proportion of three
tablespoonfuls of lemon juice to one half cup of whipped cream, and salt
if desired.

BEET SALAD NO. 2.--Chop equal parts of boiled beets and fresh young
cabbage. Mix thoroughly, add salt to taste, a few tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and cover with diluted lemon juice. Equal quantities of cold
boiled beets and cold boiled potatoes, chopped fine, thoroughly mixed,
and served with a dressing of lemon juice and whipped cream, make a
palatable salad. Care should be taken in the preparation of these and
the preceding salad, not to chop the vegetables so fine as to admit of
their being eaten without mastication.

BOILED BEETS.--Wash carefully, drop into boiling water, and cook
until tender. When done, drop into cold water for a minute, when the
skins can be easily rubbed off with the hand. Slice, and serve hot with
lemon juice or with a cream sauce.

STEWED BEETS.--Bake beets according to recipe No. 2. Peel, cut in
slices, turn into a saucepan, nearly cover with thin cream, simmer for
ten or fifteen minutes, add salt if desired, and thicken the gravy with
a little corn starch or flour.


CABBAGE.

DESCRIPTION.--The common white garden cabbage is one of the oldest
of cultivated vegetables. A variety of the plant known as red cabbage
was the delight of ancient gourmands more than eighteen centuries ago.
The Egyptians adored it, erected altars to it, and made it the first
dish at their repasts. In this they were imitated by the Greeks and
Romans.

Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, considered the cabbage one of the
most valuable of remedies, and often prescribed a dish of boiled cabbage
to be eaten with salt for patients suffering with violent colic.
Erasistratus looked upon it as a sovereign remedy against paralysis,
while Cato in his writings affirmed it to be a panacea for all diseases,
and believed the use the Romans made of it to have been the means
whereby they were able, during six hundred years, to do without the
assistance of physicians, whom they had expelled from their territory.
The learned philosopher, Pythagoras, composed books in which he lauded
its wonderful virtues.

The Germans are so fond of cabbage that it enters into the composition
of a majority of their culinary products. The cabbage was first raised
in England about 1640, by Sir Anthony Ashley. That this epoch, important
to the English horticultural and culinary world, may never be forgotten,
a cabbage is represented upon Sir Anthony's monument.

The nutritive value of the cabbage is not high, nearly ninety per cent
being water; but it forms an agreeable variety in the list of vegetable
foods, and is said to possess marked antiscorbutic virtue. It is,
however, difficult of digestion, and therefore not suited to weak
stomachs. It would be impossible to sustain life for a lengthened period
upon cabbage, since to supply the body with sufficient food elements,
the quantity would exceed the rate of digestion and the capacity of the
stomach.

M. Chevreul, a French scientist, has ascertained that the peculiar odor
given off during the boiling of cabbage is due to the disengagement of
sulphureted hydrogen. Cabbage is said to be more easily digested raw
than cooked.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--A good cabbage should have a
well-developed, firm head, with fresh, crisp leaves, free from
worm-holes and decayed portions. To prepare for cooking, stalk, shake
well to free from dirt, and if there are any signs of insects, lay in
cold salted water for an hour or so to drive them out. Rinse away the
salt water, and if to be boiled, drop into a small quantity of boiling
water. Cover closely and boil vigorously until tender. If cooked slowly,
it will be watery and stringy, while overdone cabbage is especially
insipid and flavorless. If too much water has been used, remove the
cover, that evaporation may go on more rapidly; if too little, replenish
with boiling water. Cabbage should be cooked in a porcelain-lined or
granite-ware sauce pan or a very clean iron kettle. Cabbage may also be
steamed, but care must be taken to have the process as rapid as
possible. Fresh young cabbage will cook in about one hour; old cabbage
requires from two to three hours.


_RECIPES._

BAKED CABBAGE.--Prepare and chop a firm head of young white
cabbage, boil until tender, drain, and set aside until nearly cold. Then
add two well-beaten eggs, salt to taste, and a half cup of thin cream or
rich milk. Mix and bake in a pudding dish until lightly browned.

BOILED CABBAGE.--Carefully clean a nice head of cabbage, divide
into halves, and with a sharp knife slice very thin, cutting from the
center of the head outward. Put into boiling water, cover closely, and
cook rapidly until tender; then turn into a colander and drain, pressing
gently with the back of a plate. Return to the kettle, add salt to
taste, and sufficient sweet cream to moisten well, heat through if at
all cooled, dish, and serve at once. If preferred, the cream may be
omitted, and the cabbage served with tomato sauce or lemon juice as a
dressing.

CABBAGE AND TOMATOES.--Boil finely chopped cabbage in as little
water as possible. When tender, add half the quantity of hot stewed
tomatoes, boil together for a few minutes, being careful to avoid
burning, season with salt if desired, and serve. If preferred, a little
sweet cream may be added just before serving.

CABBAGE CELERY.--A firm, crisp head of cabbage cut in slices half
an inch or an inch thick, and then again into pieces four or five inches
long and two or three inches wide, makes a quite appetizing substitute
for celery.

CABBAGE HASH.--Chop fine, equal parts of cold boiled potatoes and
boiled cabbage, and season with salt. To each quart of the mixture add
one half or three fourths of a cup of thin cream; mix well and boil till
well heated.

CHOPPED CABBAGE OR CABBAGE SALAD.--Take one pint of finely chopped
cabbage; pour over it a dressing made of three tablespoonfuls of lemon
juice, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a half cup of whipped cream,
thoroughly beaten together in the order named; or serve with sugar and
diluted lemon juice.

MASHED CABBAGE.--Cut a fine head of cabbage into quarters, and cook
until tender. A half hour before it is done, drop in three good-sized
potatoes. When done, take all up in a colander together, press out the
water, and mash very fine. Season with cream, and salt if desired.

STEWED CABBAGE. Chop nice cabbage quite fine, and put it into
boiling water, letting it boil twenty minutes. Turn into a colander and
drain thoroughly; return to the kettle, cover with milk, and let it boil
till perfectly tender; season with salt and cream to taste. The beaten
yolk of an egg, stirred in with the cream, is considered an improvement
by some.


CAULIFLOWER AND BROCCOLI.

DESCRIPTION.--These vegetables are botanically allied to the
cabbage, and are similar in composition. They are entirely the product
of cultivation, and constitute the inflorescence of the plant, which
horticultural art has made to grow into a compact head of white color in
the cauliflower, and of varying shades of buff, green, and purple in the
broccoli. There is very little difference between the two aside from the
color, and they are treated alike for culinary purposes. They were known
to the Greeks and Romans, and highly appreciated by connoisseurs. They
are not as nutritious as the cabbage, but have a more delicate and
agreeable flavor.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--The leaves should be green and fresh, and
the heads of cauliflower creamy white; when there are dark spots, it is
wilted. The color of broccoli will depend upon the variety, but the head
should be firm, with no discolorations. To prepare, pick off the outside
leaves, cut the stalk squarely across, about two inches below the
flower, and if very thick, split and wash thoroughly in several waters;
or better still, hold it under the faucet, flower downward, and allow a
constant stream of water to fall over it for several minutes; then place
top downward in a pan of lukewarm salted water, to drive out any insects
which may be hidden in it; examine carefully for worms just the color of
the stalk; tie in a net (mosquito netting, say) to prevent breaking, or
place the cauliflower on a plate in a steamer, and boil, or steam, as is
most convenient. The time required for cooking will vary from twenty to
forty minutes.


_RECIPES._

(The recipes given are applicable to both broccoli and cauliflower.)

BOILED CAULIFLOWER.--Prepare, divide into neat branches, and tie
securely in a net. Put into boiling milk and water, equal quantities,
and cook until the main stalks are tender. Boil rapidly the first five
minutes, afterward more moderately, to prevent the flower from becoming
done before the stalks. Serve on a hot dish with cream sauce or diluted
lemon juice.

BROWNED CAULIFLOWER.--Beat together two eggs, a little salt, four
tablespoonfuls of sweet cream, and a small quantity of grated bread
crumbs well moistened with a little milk, till of the consistency of
batter. Steam the cauliflower until tender, separate it into small
bunches, dip each top in the mixture, and place in nice order in a
pudding dish; put in the oven and brown.

CAULIFLOWER WITH EGG SAUCE.--Steam the cauliflower until tender,
separate into small portions, dish, and serve with an egg sauce prepared
as directed for parsnips on page 244.

CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE.--Boil or steam the cauliflower until
tender. In another dish prepare a sauce with a pint of strained stewed
smooth in a little water, and salted to taste. When the cauliflower is
tender, dish, and pour over it the hot tomato sauce. If preferred, a
tablespoonful of thick sweet cream may be added to the sauce before
using.

STEWED CAULIFLOWER.--Boil in as little water as possible, or steam
until tender; separate into small portions, add milk, cream and salt to
taste; stew together for a few minutes, and serve.

SCOLLOPED CAULIFLOWER.--Prepare the cauliflower, and steam or boil
until tender. If boiled, use equal quantities of milk and water.
Separate into bunches of equal size, place in a pudding dish, cover with
a white or cream sauce, sprinkle with grated bread crumbs, and brown in
the oven.


SPINACH.

DESCRIPTION.--This plant is supposed to be a native of western
Arabia. There are several varieties which are prepared and served as
"greens." Spinach is largely composed of water. It is considered a
wholesome vegetable, with slightly laxative properties.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Use only tender plants or the tender
leaves of the older stalks, and be sure to have enough, as spinach
shrinks greatly. A peck is not too much for a family of four or five.
Pick it over very carefully, trim off the roots and decayed leaves, and
all tough, stringy stalks, and the coarse fibers of the leaves, as those
will not cook tender until the leaves are overdone. Wash in several
waters, lifting grit. Shake each bunch well. Spinach is best cooked in
its own juices; this may be best accomplished by cooking it in a double
boiler, or if placed in a pot and slowly heated, it will however, be
stirred frequently at first, to prevent burning; cover closely and cook
until tender. The time required will vary from twenty minutes to half an
hour or more. If water is used in the cooking, have a half kettleful
boiling when the spinach is put in, and continue to boil rapidly until
the leaves are perfectly tender; then drain in a colander, press with
the back of a plate to extract all water, chop very fine, and either
serve with lemon juice as a dressing, or add a half cup of sweet cream
with or without a teaspoonful of sugar. Boil up once, stirring
constantly, and serve very hot. A garnish of sliced boiled eggs is often
employed with this vegetable.


CELERY.

DESCRIPTION.--The common celery is a native of Great Britain. In
its wild state it has a strong, disagreeable taste and smell, and is
known as _smallage_. By cultivation it becomes more mild and sweet. It
is usually eaten uncooked as a salad herb, or introduced into soups as a
flavouring. In its raw state, it is difficult of digestion.

Celery from the market may be kept fresh for some time by wrapping the
bunches in brown paper, sprinkling them with water, then wrapping in a
damp cloth and putting in some cool, dark place.


_RECIPES_

CELERY SALAD.--Break the stems apart, cut off all green portions,
and after washing well put in cold water for an hour or so before
serving.

STEWED CELERY.--Cut the tender inner parts of celery heads into
pieces about a finger long. The outer and more fibrous stalks may be
saved to season soups. Put in a stewpan, and add sufficient water to
cover; then cover the pan closely, and set it where it will just simmer
for an hour, or until the celery is perfectly tender. When cooked, add a
pint of rich milk, part cream if you have it, salt to taste, and when
boiling, stir in a tablespoon of flour rubbed smooth in a little milk.
Boil up once and serve.

STEWED CELERY NO. 2.--Cut the white part of fine heads of celery
into small pieces, blanch in boiling water, turn into a colander, and
drain. Heat a cup and a half of milk to boiling in a stewpan; add the
celery, and stew gently until tender. Remove the celery with a skimmer,
and stir into the milk the beaten yolks of two eggs and one half cup of
cream. Cook until thickened; pour over the celery, and serve.

CELERY WITH TOMATO SAUCE.--Prepare the celery as in the preceding
recipe, and cook until tender in a small quantity of boiling water.
Drain in a colander, and for three cups of stewed celery prepare a sauce
with a pint of strained stewed tomato, heated to boiling and thickened
with a tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold water. If
desired, add a half cup of thin cream. Turn over the celery, and serve
hot.

CELERY AND POTATO HASH.--To three cups of cold boiled or baked
potato, chopped rather fine, add one cup of cooked celery, minced. Put
season. Heat to boiling, tossing and stirring so that the whole will be
heated throughout, and serve hot.


ASPARAGUS.

DESCRIPTION.--The asparagus is a native of Europe, and in its wild
state is a sea-coast plant. The young shoots form the edible portion.
The plant was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, who not only used
it as a table delicacy but considered it very useful in the treatment of
internal diseases. Roman cooks provided themselves with a supply of the
vegetable for winter use by cutting fine heads and drying them. When
wanted, they were put into hot water and gently cooked.

The asparagus is remarkable as containing a crystalline alkaloid called
_asparagin_, which is thought to possess diuretic properties.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Select fresh and tender asparagus. Those
versed in its cultivation, assert that it should be cut at least three
times a week, and barely to the ground. If it is necessary to keep the
bunches for some time before cooking, stand them, tops uppermost, in
water about one half inch deep, in the cellar or other cool place. Clean
each stalk separately by swashing back and forth in a pan of cold water
till perfectly free from sand, then break off all the tough portions,
cut in equal lengths, tie in bunches of half a dozen or more with soft
tape, drop into boiling water barely sufficient to cover, and simmer
gently until perfectly tender.

If the asparagus is to be stewed, break: (not cut) into small pieces;
when it will not snap off quickly, the stalk is too tough for use.

Asparagus must be taken from the water just as soon as tender, while yet
firm in appearance. If boiled soft, it loses its flavor and is
uninviting. It is a good plan when it is to be divided before cooking,
if the stalks are not perfectly tender, to boil the hardest portions
first. Asparagus cooked in bunches is well done, if, when held by the
thick end in a horizontal position between the fingers, it only bends
lightly and does not fall heavily down.

The time required for boiling asparagus depends upon its freshness and
age. Fresh, tender asparagus cooks in a very few minutes, so quickly,
indeed, that the Roman emperor Augustus, intimating that any affair must
be concluded without delay, was accustomed to say, "Let that be done
quicker than you can cook asparagus." Fifteen or twenty minutes will
suffice if young and fresh; if old, from thirty to fifty minutes will be
required.


_RECIPES._

ASPARAGUS AND PEAS.--Asparagus and green peas make a nice dish
served together, and if of proportionate age, require the same length of
time to cook. Wash the asparagus, shell and look over the peas, put
together into boiling water, cook, and serve as directed for stewed
asparagus.

ASPARAGUS POINTS.--Cut of enough heads in two-inch lengths to make
three pints. Put into boiling water just sufficient to cover. When
tender, drain off the water, add a half cup of cream, and salt if
desired. Serve at once.

ASPARAGUS ON TOAST.--Cook the asparagus in bunches, and when
tender, drain and place on slices of nicely browned toast moistened in
the asparagus liquor. Pour over all a cream sauce prepared as directed
below.

ASPARAGUS WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Thoroughly wash, tie in small bunches,
and put into boiling water; boil till perfectly tender. Drain
thoroughly, untie the bunches, place the stalks all the same way upon a
hot plate, with a dressing prepared as follows: Let a pint of sweet
cream (about six hours old is best) come to the boiling point, and stir
into it salt to taste and a level tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth
with a little cold cream.

ASPARAGUS WITH EGG SAUCE.--Prepare and cook asparagus as directed
above. When tender, drain thoroughly, and serve on a hot dish or on
slices of nicely browned toast, with an egg sauce prepared in the
following manner: Heat a half cup of rich milk to boiling, add salt, and
turn into it very slowly the well-beaten yolk of an egg, stirring
constantly at the same time. Let the whole just thicken, and remove from
the fire at once.

STEWED ASPARAGUS.--Wash, break into inch pieces, simmer till tender
in water just to cover, add sufficient rich milk, part cream if
convenient, to make a gravy, thicken slightly with flour, a teaspoonful
to a pint of milk; add salt if desired, boil up together once, and
serve.


SEA-KALE.

DESCRIPTION.--This plant, a native of Britain, and much esteemed as
a vegetable in England and on the Continent, is also in its wild state a
sea-coast plant. When properly cooked, it is nutritious and easy of
digestion. In appearance and flavor it greatly resembles asparagus, and
the suggestions for cooking and recipes given for that vegetable are
applicable to sea-kale.


LETTUCE AND RADISH.

DESCRIPTION.--These two vegetables, although wholly different, the
one being the leaf of a plant, the other the root, are both so commonly
served as relishes that we will speak of them together. Both have long
been known and used. Wild lettuce is said to be the bitter herb which
the Hebrews ate with the Paschal lamb. The ancient Greek and Roman
epicures valued lettuce highly, and bestowed great care upon its
cultivation, in some instances watering the plants with sweet wine
instead of water, in order to communicate to them a delicate perfume and
flavor. The common garden lettuce of the present day is a hardy plant,
which supplies an agreeable, digestible, and, when served with a
wholesome dressing, unobjectionable salad.

The common radish is supposed to be indigenous to China. Ancient writers
on foods mention the radish as used by the early Greeks and Romans, who
fancied that at the end of three years its seed would produce cabbages.
They had also the singular custom of making the radish the ignominious
projectile with which in times of tumult the mob pursued persons whose
political opinions had made them obnoxious. When quiet was restored, the
disgraced vegetable was boiled and eaten with oil and vinegar. Common
garden radishes are of different shapes and of various colors on the
outside, there being black, violet, red, and white radishes. The inside
portion of all, however, is white. They are sometimes cooked, but more
commonly served raw. A dish of crisp, coral radishes adds beauty to the
appearance of the table, but they are not possessed of a high nutritive
value, being very similar to the turnip in composition, and unless very
young, tender, and when eaten thoroughly masticated, are quite difficult
of digestion.


_RECIPES._

LETTUCE.--Wash well, put into cold water, and set on ice or on the
cellar bottom for an hour or more before using. Dry the leaves with a
soft towel and use whole or tear into convenient pieces with a silver
fork; never cut with a knife. Serve with a dressing prepared of equal
quantities of lemon juice and sugar, diluted with a little ice water;
or, with a dressing of cream and sugar, in the proportion of three or
four tablespoonfuls of thin cream to a teaspoonful of sugar. The
dressing may be prepared, and after the sugar is dissolved, a very
little lemon juice (just enough to thicken the cream slightly, but not
sufficient to curdle it) may be added if desired.

RADISHES.--Wash thoroughly young and tender radishes, and arrange
in a glass dish with the taper ends meeting. Scatter bits of cracked ice
among them. An inch of the stem, if left on, serve as a convenience in
handling.


CYMLING, SUMMER SQUASH, OR VEGETABLE MARROW.

DESCRIPTION.--The vegetable marrow (sometimes called cymling) is
thought to be a variety of the common gourd, from which also the pumpkin
and winter squash appear to have been derived. It is easily digested,
but on account of the abundance of water in its composition, its
nutritive value is very low.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--When very young, most varieties need no
preparation for cooking, aside from washing thoroughly. After cooking,
the skin can be easily rubbed off and the seeds removed. If more mature,
pare thinly, and if large, divide into halves or quarters and scoop out
the seeds. Summer squashes are better steamed than boiled. If boiled,
they should be cooked in so little water that it will be quite
evaporated when they are tender. From twenty to sixty minutes will be
required for cooking.


_RECIPES._

MASHED SQUASH.--Wash, peel, remove seeds, and steam until tender.
Place the squash in a clean cloth, mash thoroughly, squeeze until the
squash is quite dry, or rub through a fine colander and afterward simmer
until neatly dry; season with cream, and a little salt if desired, and
heat again before serving. A teaspoonful of sugar may be added with the
cream, if desired.

SQUASH WITH EGG SAUCE.--Prepare, steam till tender, cut into
pieces, and serve with an egg sauce made the same as directed for
asparagus, page 256.

STEWED SQUASH.--Prepare, cut into pieces, and stew until tender in
a small quantity of boiling water; drain, pressing out all the water;
serve on toast with cream or white sauce. Or, divide in quarters, remove
the seeds, cook in a double boiler, in its own juices, which when done
may be thickened with a little flour. Season with salt if desired, and
serve hot.


WINTER SQUASHES.

The winter squash and pumpkin are allied in nature to the summer squash.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Select squashes of a firm texture, wash,
break in pieces with a hatchet if hard-shell, or if the shell is soft,
divide with a knife; remove all seeds, and boil, stew, steam, or bake,
as preferred.

To boil or steam, from thirty minutes to one hour's time will be needed;
to bake, one to two hours.


_RECIPES._

BAKED SQUASH..--The hard-shell varieties are best for baking. Wash,
divide, and lay, shells downward, on the top grate of the oven, or place
in a shallow baking dish with a little boiling water. Boil until tender,
serve in the shell, or scrape out the soft part, mash and serve with two
largo tablespoonful of cream to a pint of squash. If preferred, the
skins may be removed before baking, and the squash served the same as
sweet potato, for which it makes a good substitute.

STEAMED SQUASH.--Prepare the squash, and steam until tender. Mash
and season as for baked squash.


THE PUMPKIN.

DESCRIPTION.--When our forefathers came to this country, they found
the pumpkin growing in the Indian cornfields, and at once made use of
it. Although as food it did not supply what its handsome exterior
promised, yet in the absence of other fruits and relishes, of which the
exigencies of a new country deprived them, they soon found the pumpkin
quite palatable; and the taste, cultivated through necessity, has been
handed down through generations, until the pumpkin stewed and baked in
pies, has become an established favorite.


_RECIPES._

BAKED PUMPKIN.--Wash the pumpkin well on the outside, divide into
quarters if small, into sixths or eighths if large; remove the seeds but
not the rind. Bake as directed for squash. Serve in the rind, dishing it
out by spoonfuls.

STEWED PUMPKIN.--Select a good, ripe pumpkin, and cut in halves;
remove the seeds, slice halfway around, pare, cut into inch pieces, put
over the fire in a kettle containing a small quantity of boiling water,
and stew gently, stirring frequently until it breaks to pieces. Cool,
rub through a colander, and place where it will just simmer, but not
burn, until the water is all evaporated and the pumpkin dry. Pumpkin for
pies is much richer baked like squash, and rubbed through a colander
after the skin has been removed.

DRIED PUMPKIN.--Pumpkin may be dried and kept for future use. The
best way is first to cut and stew the pumpkin, then spread on plates,
and dry quickly in the oven. Dried in this manner, it is easily
softened, when needed, by soaking in a small quantity of water, and is
considered nearly as good as that freshly stewed.


TOMATO.

DESCRIPTION.--The tomato, or "love apple," as it was called in the
early part of the century, is a native of South America and Mexico. It
was formerly regarded as poisonous, and though often planted and prized
as a curiosity in the flower garden, it has only within the last half
century come to be considered as a wholesome article of diet.
Botanically, it is allied to the potato. It is an acid fruit, largely
composed of water, and hence of low nutritive value; but it is justly
esteemed as a relish, and is very serviceable to the cook in the
preparation of soups and various mixed dishes.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Tomatoes to be served in an uncooked
state should be perfectly ripe and fresh. The medium-sized, smooth ones
are the best. To peel, pour scalding water over them; let them remain
for half a minute, plunge into cold water, allow them to cool, when the
skins can be easily rubbed off. Tomatoes should always be cooked in
porcelain or granite ware; iron makes them look dark, and being
slightly acid in character, they are not wholesome cooked in tin
vessels.

Tomatoes require cooking a long time; one hour is needed, and two are
better.


_RECIPES._

BAKED TOMATOES.--Fill a pudding dish two thirds full of stewed
tomatoes; season with salt, and sprinkle grated crumbs of good
whole-wheat or Graham bread over it until the top looks dry. Brown in
the oven, and serve with a cream dressing.

BAKED TOMATOES NO. 2. Wash and wipe a quantity of smooth,
even-sized tomatoes; remove the stems with a sharp-pointed knife.
Arrange on an earthen pudding or pie dish, and bake whole in a moderate
oven. Serve with cream.

SCALLOPED TOMATOES.--Take a pint of stewed tomatoes, which have
been rubbed through a colander, thicken with one and one fourth cups of
lightly picked crumbs of Graham or whole-wheat bread, or a sufficient
quantity to make it quite thick, add salt if desired, and a half cup of
sweet cream, mix well, and bake for twenty minutes. Or, fill a pudding
dish with alternate layers of peeled and sliced tomatoes and bread
crumbs, letting the topmost layer be of tomatoes. Cover, and bake in a
moderate oven for an hour or longer, according to depth. Uncover, and
brown for ten or fifteen minutes.

STEWED CORN AND TOMATOES.--Boil dried or fresh corn until perfectly
tender, add to each cup of corn two cups of stewed, strained tomatoes,
either canned or freshly cooked. Salt to taste, boil together for five
or ten minutes, and serve plain or with a little cream added.

TOMATO GRAVY.--Heat to boiling one pint of strained stewed
tomatoes, either canned or fresh, and thicken with a tablespoonful of
flour rubbed smooth in a little water; add salt and when thickened, if
desired, a half cup of hot cream. Boil together for a minute or two and
serve at once.

TOMATO SALAD.--Select perfectly ripe tomatoes, and peel at least an
hour before using. Slice, and place on ice or in a cool place. Serve
plain or with lemon juice or sugar as preferred.

TOMATO SALAD NO. 2.--Use one half small yellow tomatoes and one
half red. Slice evenly and lay in the dish in alternate layers. Powder
lightly with sugar, and turn over them a cupful of orange juice to a
pint of tomato, or if preferred, the juice of lemons may be used
instead. Set on ice and cool before serving.

BROILED TOMATOES.--Choose perfectly ripened but firm tomatoes of
equal size. Place them on a wire broiler, and broil over glowing coals,
from three to eight minutes, according to size, then turn and cook on
the other side. Broil the stem end first. Serve hot with salt to season,
and a little cream.

TOMATO PUDDING.--Fill an earthen pudding dish with alternate layers
of stale bread and fresh tomatoes, peeled, sliced, and sprinkled lightly
with sugar. Cover the dish and bake.

STEWED TOMATOES.--Peel and slice the tomatoes. Put them into a
double boiler, without the addition of water, and stew for an hour or
longer. When done, serve plain with a little sugar added, or season with
salt and a tablespoonful of rather thick sweet cream to each pint of
tomatoes. If the tomatoes are thin and very juicy, they may be thickened
with a little flour rubbed smooth in a little cold water. They are much
better, however, to stew a longer time until the water they contain is
sufficiently evaporated to make them of the desired consistency. The
stew may also be thickened, if desired, by the addition of bread crumbs,
rice, or macaroni.

TOMATO WITH OKRA.--Wash the okra, cut off the stem and nibs, and
slice thin. For a quart of sliced okra, peel and slice three large
tomatoes. Stew the tomatoes for half an hour, then add the okra, and
simmer together for half an hour longer. Season with salt and a little
cream.


EGG PLANT.

DESCRIPTION.--The egg plant, a vegetable indigenous to the East
Indies, is somewhat allied in character to the tomato. In shape, it
resembles an egg, from which fact it doubtless derives its name. It
ranks low in nutritive value. When fresh, the plant is firm and has a
smooth skin.


_RECIPES._

SCALLOPED EGG PLANT.--Pare a fresh egg plant. If large, divide in
quarters, if small, in halves, and put to cook in boiling water. Cook
until it can be easily pierced with a straw, and drain in a colander.
Turn into a hot dish, and beat with a silver fork until finely broken.
Measure the egg plant, and add to it an equal quantity of graded bread
crumbs, a little salt, and a tablespoonful of thick sweet cream. Lastly,
add one well beaten egg. Put in an earthen pudding dish, and brown in
the oven until the egg is set, and the whole is heated throughout but
not dry.

BAKED EGG PLANT.--Wash and cook whole in boiling water until
tender. Divide in halves, remove the inside with a spoon, taking care
not to break the skin. Beat the egg plant smooth with a fork. Season
with salt and cream, and if desired, a stalk of celery or a small slice
of onion very finely minced, for flavor. Put back in the skin, sprinkle
the top with bread crumbs, and brown the outside uppermost in the oven.


CUCUMBER.

DESCRIPTION.--The cucumber is a native of Southern Asia, although
it is quite commonly cultivated in most civilized countries. It formed a
part of the dietary of the Israelites when in Egypt, where it grew very
plentifully. The ancient Greeks held the cucumber in high esteem, and
attributed to it wonderful properties.

The cucumber is not a nutritious vegetable, and when served in its raw
state, as it so generally is, dressed with salt, vinegar, pepper, and
similar condiments, it is an exceedingly indigestible article. If it is
to be eaten at all, it should first be cooked. It may be pared, divided
in quarters, the seeds removed, and cooked in a small quantity of water
until perfectly tender, and served on toast with an egg sauce or a cream
sauce; or it may be prepared the same as directed for Escalloped Egg
Plant.


SALSIFY, OR VEGETABLE OYSTER.

DESCRIPTION.--The vegetable oyster plant, sometimes called purple
goat's-beard, or salsify, is indigenous to some portions of Great
Britain. The long, slender root becomes fleshy and tender under
cultivation, with a flavor, when cooked, somewhat resembling that of the
mollusk for which it is named. On this account, it is much esteemed for
soups. A variety of the plant grows near the line of perpetual snow, and
forms the principal article of fresh vegetable food in the dietary of
Kurdistan.

PREPARATION AND COOKING.--Select fresh and unshriveled roots, wash
and scrape well, dropping into cold water as soon as cleaned, to prevent
discoloration. If the roots are covered with cold water for a half hour
or more before scraping, they can be cleaned much easier. Use a
porcelain-lined kettle, for cooking, as an iron one will discolor it
and injure its flavor. From twenty minutes to one hour, according to
age, is required to cook it tender.


_RECIPES._

SCALLOPED VEGETABLE OYSTERS.--Boil two quarts of sliced vegetable
oysters in about two quarts of water until very tender. Skim them out,
and fill a pudding dish with alternate layers of crumbs and oysters,
having a layer of crumbs for the top. To the water in which they were
boiled, add a pint and a half of thin cream, salt to taste, boil up, and
thicken with a heaping tablespoonful or two of flour rubbed smooth in a
little cold cream. Pour this over the oysters and crumbs, and bake a
half hour. If this is not enough to cover well, add more cream or milk.
Stewed tomatoes are a nice accompaniment for escalloped vegetable
oysters.

STEWED VEGETABLE OYSTERS.--Wash, scrape, and cut into slices not
more than one half inch in thickness. Put into a small quantity of
boiling water and cook until tender. If a large quantity of water is
used, the savory juices escape, and leave the roots very insipid. When
tender, pour in a cup of rich milk and simmer for five or ten minutes;
add a little flour rubbed smooth in milk, and salt if desired; boil up
once, and serve as a vegetable or on slices of nicely browned toast. If
preferred, a well-beaten egg may be used in the place of flour.


GREEN CORN, PEAS, AND BEANS.

DESCRIPTION.--Corn, peas, and beans in their immature state are so
nearly allied to vegetables, that we give in this connection recipes for
cooking green corn, green beans, and green peas. A general rule
applicable to all is that they should, when possible, be cooked and
eaten the day they are gathered, as otherwise they lose much of their
sweetness and flavor. For corn, select young, tender, well-filled ears,
from which the milk will spurt when the grain is broken with the finger
nail. Beans and peas are fresh only when the pods are green, plump, snap
crisply when broken, and have unshriveled stems. If the pods bend and
appear wilted, they are stale. Corn, peas, and beans are wholesome and
nutritious foods when thoroughly cooked and sufficiently masticated, but
they are almost indigestible unless the hull, or skin, of each pea,
bean, or grain of corn, be broken before being swallowed.


_RECIPES FOR CORN._

BAKED CORN.--Select nice fresh ears of tender corn of as nearly
equal size as possible. Open the husks and remove all the silk from the
corn; replace and tie the husks around the ears with a thread. Put the
corn in a hot oven, and bake thirty minutes or until tender. Remove the
husks before serving.

BAKED CORN NO. 2.--Scrape enough corn from the cob (as directed
below for Corn Pulp) to make one and a half quarts. Put into a baking
dish, season with salt if desired, add enough milk, part cream if
convenient, barely to cover the corn, and bake in a hot oven twenty-five
or thirty minutes.

BOILED GREEN CORN.--Remove the husks and every thread of the silk
fiber. Place in a kettle, the larger ears at the bottom, with sufficient
boiling water nearly to cover. Cover with the clean inner husks, and
cook from twenty to thirty minutes, according to the age of the corn;
too much cooking hardens it and detracts from its flavor. Try a kernel,
and when the milk has thickened, and a raw taste is no longer apparent,
it is sufficiently cooked. Green corn is said to be sweeter, boiled with
the inner husks on. For cooking in this way, strip off all outer husks,
and remove the silk, tying the inner husk around the ear with a bit of
thread, and boil. Remove from the kettle, place in a heated dish, cover
with a napkin and serve at once on the cob. Some recommend scoring or
splitting the corn by drawing a sharp knife through each row lengthwise.
This is a wise precaution against insufficient mastication.

STEWED CORN PULP.--Take six ears of green corn or enough to make a
pint of raw pulp; with a sharp knife cut a thin shaving from each row of
kernels or score each kernel, and with the back of the knife scrape out
the pulp, taking care to leave the hulls on the cob. Heat a cup and a
half of rich milk--part cream if it can be afforded--to boiling, add the
corn, cook twenty or thirty minutes; season with salt and a teaspoonful
of sugar if desired.

CORN CAKES.--To a pint of corn pulp add two well-beaten eggs and
two tablespoonfuls of flour; season with salt if desired, and brown on a
griddle. Canned corn finely chopped can be used, but two tablespoonfuls
of milk should be added, as the corn is less moist.

CORN PUDDING.--One quart of corn pulp prepared as for stewing, one
quart of milk, three eggs, and a little salt. Mix the corn with a pint
of the milk, and heat it to boiling. Break the eggs into the remainder
of the milk, and add it to the corn, turn all into an oiled pudding
dish, and bake slowly until the custard is well set.

ROASTED GREEN CORN.--Remove the husks and silk, and place the corn
before an open grate or in a wire broiler over hot coals until the
kernels burst open, or bury in hot ashes without removing the husks.
Score the grains, and serve from the cob.

STEWED GREEN CORN.--Cut the corn from the cob and with the back of
the knife scrape off all the pulp, being careful to leave the hull on
the cob. Put into a stewpan with half as much water as corn, cover
closely and stew gently until thoroughly cooked, stirring frequently to
prevent the corn from sticking to the pan; add cream or milk to make the
requisite amount of juice, and season with salt if desired. A
teaspoonful of white sugar may be added if desired.

Cold boiled corn cut from the cob and stewed a few minutes in a little
milk, makes a very palatable dish.

SUMMER SUCCOTASH.--This maybe made by cooking equal quantities of
shelled beans and corn cut from the cob, separately until tender, and
then mixing them; or the beans may be cooked until nearly soft, an equal
quantity of shaved corn added, and the whole cooked fifteen or twenty
minutes or longer. Season with cream, and salt if desired.

DRIED CORN.--The sweet varieties of corn taken when young and
tender and properly dried, furnish an excellent material for nearly all
purposes to which green corn is put. Take green corn, just right for
eating, have it free from silk; cut the fleshy portion from the cob with
a sharp knife, then with the back of the knife gently press the
remaining pulp from the cob. Spread thinly on plates and put into an
oven hot enough to scald, not scorch it. Watch closely for a half hour
or more, turning and stirring frequently with a fork. When thus
thoroughly scalded, the corn may be left without further attention if
placed in a moderate oven, save an occasional stirring to prevent its
sticking to the plate, until the drying is complete, which ought to be
in about forty-eight hours; however, if one can spend the time to watch
closely and stir very frequently, the drying may be completed in a
single afternoon in a rather hot oven. Be careful that it does not
scorch.

When needed for use, soak over night and cook in accordance with recipes
for Stewed Corn, Succotash, etc., pages 265, 234, only remembering to
allow a longer time.


_RECIPES FOR PEAS._

STEWED PEAS.--If from the garden, pick and shell the peas with
clean hands; if from the market, wash the pods before shelling, so that
the peas will not require washing, as they are much better without. When
shelled, put into a colander and sift out the fine particles and
undeveloped blossoms. If not of equal growth, sort the peas and put the
older ones to cook ten minutes before the others. Use a porcelain
kettle, with one half pint of boiling water for each quart of peas, if
young and tender; older ones, which require longer stewing, need more.
Cover closely, and simmer gently till tender. The time required for
young peas is from twenty-five to thirty minutes; older ones require
forty to fifty minutes. Serve without draining, season with salt and
enough sweet cream to make them as juicy as desired. If preferred, the
juice may be thickened with a little flour.

The peas may be purposely stewed in a larger quantity of water, and
served in their own juices thickened with a little flour and seasoned
with salt.


_RECIPES FOR BEANS._

LIMA BEANS.--Lima beans are not good until they are full grown and
have turned white. Shell, wash, cover with boiling water, and cook about
one hour or until tender. Let the water nearly evaporate, and add milk
or cream thickened with a little flour. Season with salt to taste, boil
up once, and serve.

SHELLED BEANS.--Shell, wash, drop into boiling water sufficient to
cover, and cook until tender. Let the water boil nearly away, and serve
without draining. Season with thin cream, and salt if desired.

STRING BEANS.--Wash well in cold water. Remove the strong fiber, or
strings, as they are called, by paring both edges with a sharp knife;
few cooks do this thoroughly. Break off stems and points, carefully
rejecting any imperfect or diseased pods. Lay a handful evenly on a
board and cut them all at once into inch lengths. Put in a porcelain
kettle, cover with boiling water, and cook from one to three hours,
according to age and variety, testing frequently, as they should be
removed from the kettle just as soon as done. When very young and
tender, only water sufficient to keep them from burning will be needed.
When done, add a half cup of thin cream, and salt to taste. If the
quantity of juice is considerable, thicken with a little flour.


THE ONION.

The onion belongs to a class of foods containing an acrid oil of a
strongly irritating character, on which account it cannot be considered
a wholesome food when eaten raw, as it so generally is. The essential
oil is, however, quite volatile, so that when cooked, after being first
parboiled in two or three waters, its irritating properties are largely
removed. The varieties grown in warm climates are much milder and
sweeter than those grown in colder countries. The onion is valuable for
flavoring purposes. It may also be boiled and served whole with a cream
sauce, or cut in quarters and prepared as directed for Scalloped
Turnips, page 242.


CANNING VEGETABLES.

Most housekeepers experience more difficulty in canning and keeping
vegetables than fruit. This is frequently owing to lack of care to
secure perfect cans, covers, and rubbers, and to cook the vegetables
thoroughly. Whatever is to be canned must be cooked sufficiently to be
eaten, and must be boiling at the time it is put into the cans. Care as
to the cleanliness of the cans and their sterilization is also
important, and after the canning process is completed, all vegetables
put up in glass should be kept in a cool, dark place. The general
directions given for canning fruits should be followed in canning
vegetables.


_RECIPES._

CANNED CORN.--Select corn just ripe enough for table use, and
prepare as directed for stewed corn. It will require from twelve to
fifteen ears to fill sufficiently each quart can. To insure success, the
cans should be so full that when the corn is shrunken by the cooking,
the can will still be well filled. Pack the corn in the cans, working it
down closely by means of the small end of a potato masher, so the milk
will cover the corn and completely fill the can; heap a little more corn
loosely on the top, and screw the covers on sufficiently tight to
prevent water from getting into the can. Place the cans in a boiler, on
the bottom of which has been placed some straw or a rack; also take care
not to let the cans come in contact with each other, by wrapping each in
a cloth or by placing a chip between them. A double layer of cans may be
placed in the boiler, one on top of the other, if desirable, provided
there is some intervening substance. Fill the boiler with cold water so
as completely to cover the cans; place over the fire, bring gradually to
a boil, and keep boiling steadily for four hours. Remove the boiler from
the fire, and allow the cans to cool gradually, tightening the covers
frequently as they cool.

If the corn in the can shrinks, do not open to refill. If cooked
thoroughly, and due care is taken in other particulars, there need be no
failure. Wrap closely in brown paper, and put away in a dark, cool, dry
place.

CANNED CORN AND TOMATOES.--Use about one third corn and two thirds
tomatoes, or in equal portions if preferred. Cook the tomatoes in a
double boiler for an hour and a half or longer; and in another double
boiler, when the tomatoes are nearly done, cook the corn in its own
juices until thoroughly done. Turn them together, heat to boiling, and
can at once.

CANNED PEAS.--Select peas which are fresh, young, and tender.
Shell, pack into perfect cans, shaking and filling as full as possible,
add sufficient cold water to fill them to overflowing, screw on the
covers, and cook and seal the same as directed for canning corn.

CANNED TOMATOES.--Tomatoes for canning should be freshly gathered,
ripe, but not at all softened.

As they are best cooked in their own juices, peel, slice, put into a
double boiler or a porcelain fruit-kettle set inside a dish filled with
boiling water, and cook from one to two hours. Cooked in the ordinary
way, great care will be required to keep the fruit from burning. When
thoroughly cooked--simple scalding will not do--put into cans, and be
sure that all air bubbles are expelled before sealing. Wrap in dark
brown paper, and put in a cool, dry, dark place.

CANNED TOMATOES NO. 2.--Cut the fruit into thick slices, let it
stand and drain until a large portion of the juice has drained off; then
pack solid in new or perfect cans. Allow them to stand a little time,
then again drain off the juice; fill up a second time with sliced
tomatoes, and screw on the top of the cans without the rubbers. Pack
into a wash boiler as directed for canning corn, and boil for two hours,
then put on the rubbers and seal. When cold, tighten the covers and put
away.

STRING BEANS.--Select young and tender beans, string them, and cut
into pieces about one half inch in length. Pack the cans as full as
possible, and fill with water until every crevice between the beans is
full. Screw on the covers and can in the same manner as corn.

Shelled beans may be canned in the same way.

CANNED PUMPKIN AND SQUASH.--These fruits when canned are quite as
desirable for pies as the fresh material. The same general rules should
be followed as in canning other vegetables and fruits.



TABLE TOPICS.

    The word "vegetarian" is not derived from "vegetable," but from the
    Latin, _homo vegetus_, meaning among the Romans a strong, robust,
    thoroughly healthy man.

    AN INTELLECTUAL FEAST.--Professor Louis Agassiz in his early manhood
    visited Germany to consult Oken, the transcendentalist in zoölogical
    classification. "After I had delivered to him my letter of
    introduction," he once said to a friend, "Oken asked me to dine with
    him, and you may suppose with what joy I accepted the invitation.
    The dinner consisted only of potatoes, boiled and roasted; but it
    was the best dinner I ever ate; for there was Oken. Never before
    were such potatoes grown on this planet; for the mind of the man
    seemed to enter into what we ate sociably together, and I devoured
    his intellect while munching his potatoes."

    Dr. Abernethy's recipe for using cucumbers: "Peel the cucumber,
    slice it, pepper it, put vinegar to it, then throw it out the
    window."

    A green son of the Emerald Isle was eating sweet corn from the cob
    for the first time. He handed the cob to the waiter, and asked,
    "Will you plaze put some more beans on my shtick?"

    A French physician styles spinach, _le balai de l'estomac_ (broom of
    the stomach).

    An ox is satisfied with the pasture of an acre or two; one wood
    suffices for several elephants. Man alone supports himself by the
    pillage of the whole earth and sea. What? Has Nature indeed given us
    so insatiable a stomach, while she has given us so insignificant
    bodies? No; it is not the hunger of our stomachs, but insatiable
    covetousness which costs so much.--_Seneca._

    The oftener we go to the vegetable world for our food, the oftener
    we go to the first and therefore the cheapest source of supply. The
    tendencies of all advanced scholars in thrift should be to find out
    plans for feeding all the community, as far as possible, direct from
    the lap of earth; to impress science into our service so that she
    may prepare the choicest viands minus the necessity of making a
    lower animal the living laboratory for the sake of what is just a
    little higher than cannibal propensities.


    _--Dr. B.W. Richardson._


A VOICE FROM THE CORN.

     I was made to be eaten, not to be drank,
     To be husked in a barn, not soaked in a tank;
     I come as a blessing when put in a mill,
     As a blight and a curse when run through a still.
     Make me up into loaves, and your children are fed;
     But made into drink, I will starve them instead.
     In bread I'm a servant the eater shall rule,
     In drink I'm a master, the drinker a fool.
     Then remember my warning; my strength I'll employ,
     If eaten, to strengthen, if drunk, to destroy.

    --_Sel._



SOUPS

Soup is an easily made, economical, and when properly prepared from
healthful and nutritious material, very wholesome article of diet,
deserving of much more general use than is commonly accorded it.

In general, when soup is mentioned, some preparation of meat and bones
is supposed to be meant; but we shall treat in this chapter of a quite
different class of soups, viz., those prepared from the grains, legumes,
and vegetables, without the previous preparation of a "stock." Soups of
this character are in every way equal, and in many points superior to
those made from meat and bones. If we compare the two, we shall find
that soups made from the grains and legumes rank much higher in
nutritive value than do meat soups. For the preparation of the latter,
one pound of meat and bones, in about equal proportion, is required for
each quart of soup. In the bone, there is little or no nourishment, it
being valuable simply for the gelatine it contains, which gives
consistency to the soup; so in reality there is only one half pound of
material containing nutriment, for the quart of soup. Suppose, in
comparison we take a pea soup. One half pound of peas will be amply
enough for a quart. As we take an equal amount of material as basis for
each soup, we can easily determine their relative value by comparing the
amount of nutritive material contained in peas with that of beef, the
most commonly used material for meat soups. As will be seen by reference
to the table of food analyses on page 486, peas contain 87.3 parts
nutritive material, while lean beef contains only 28 parts in one
hundred. Thus the pea soup contains more than three times as much
nourishment as does the beef soup.

Soups prepared from grains and legumes are no more expensive than meat
soups, and many kinds cost much less, while they have the added
advantage of requiring less time and no more labor to prepare.

The greater bulk of all meat soups is water, holding in solution the
essence of meat, the nutritive value of which is of very doubtful
character.

When properly prepared, the solid matter which enters into the
composition of vegetable soups, is so broken up in the process of
cooking, that it is more easily digested than in any other form.

Taken hot at the beginning of a meal, soup stimulates the flow of the
digestive juices, and on account of the bulk, brings a sense of satiety
before an excessive quantity of food has been taken.

In preparing soups from grains, legumes, and vegetables, the material
should be first cooked in the ordinary manner, using as small an amount
of water as practicable, so as the more thoroughly to disintegrate or
break it up. If the material be legumes or grains, the cooking should be
slow and prolonged. The purpose to be attained in the cooking of all
foods is the partial digestion of the food elements; and in general,
with these foods, the more slowly (if continuous) the cooking is done,
the more completely will this be brought about.

When the material is cooked, the next step is to make it homogeneous
throughout, and to remove any skins or cellulose material it may
contain. To do this, it should be put through a colander. The kind of
colander depends upon the material. Peas and beans require a fine
colander, since the skins, of which we are seeking to rid them, would
easily go through a coarse one. To aid in this sifting process, if the
material be at all dry, a small quantity of liquid may be added from
time to time. When the colander process is complete, a sufficient amount
of milk or other liquid may be added to make the whole of the
consistency of rather thick cream.

[Illustration: Chinese Soup Strainer.]

If the material is now cold, it must be reheated, and the salt, if any
is to be used, added. The quantity of salt will depend somewhat upon the
taste of the consumer; but in general, one half teaspoonful to the pint
of soup will be an ample supply. If any particular flavor, as of onion
or celery, is desired, it may be imparted to the soup by adding to it a
slice of onion or a few stalks of celery, allowing them to remain during
the reheating. By the time the soup is well heated, it will be
delicately flavored, and the pieces of onion or celery may be removed
with a fork or a skimmer. It is better, in general, to cook the soup all
that is needed before flavoring, since if allowed to boil, all delicate
flavors are apt to be lost by evaporation. When reheated, add to the
soup a quantity of cream as seasoning, in the proportion of one cup of
thin cream for every quart or three pints of soup.

To avoid the possibility of any lumps or fragments in the soup, pour it
again through a colander or a Chinese soup strainer into the soup
tureen, and serve. It is well to take the precaution first to heat the
strainer and tureen, that the soup be not cooled during the process.

If it is desired to have the soup especially light and nice, beat or
whip the cream before adding, or beat the hot soup with an egg beater
for a few minutes after adding the cream. The well-beaten yolk of an egg
for every quart or three pints of soup, will answer as a very fair
substitute for cream in potato, rice, and similar soups. It should not
be added to the body of the soup, but a cupful of the hot soup may be
turned slowly onto the egg, stirring all the time, in order to mix it
well without curdling, and then the cupful stirred into the whole. Soups
made from legumes are excellent without cream.

The consistency of the soup when done should be about that of single
cream, and equal throughout, containing no lumps or fragments of
material. If it is too thick, it may be easily diluted with hot milk or
water; if too thin, it will require the addition of more material, or
may be thickened with a little flour or cornstarch rubbed to a cream
with a small quantity of milk, used in the proportion of one
tablespoonful for a quart of soup,--heaping, if flour; scant, if
cornstarch,--and remembering always to boil the soup five or ten minutes
after the flour is added, that there may be no raw taste.

The addition of the flour or cornstarch gives a smoothness to their
consistency which is especially desirable for some soups. A few
spoonfuls of cooked oatmeal or cracked wheat, added and rubbed through
the colander with the other material, is valuable for the same purpose.
Browned flour prepared by spreading a cupful thinly on shallow tins, and
placing in a moderately hot oven, stirring frequently until lightly and
evenly browned, is excellent to use both for thickening and flavoring
certain soups.

If whole grains, macaroni, vermicelli, or shredded vegetables are to be
used in the soup, cook them separately, and add to the soup just before
serving.

The nutritive value of soup depends of course upon its ingredients, and
these should be so chosen and combined as to produce the best possible
food from the material employed. Milk is a valuable factor in the
preparation of soups. With such vegetables as potatoes, parsnips, and
others of the class composed largely of starch, and containing but a
small proportion of the nitrogenous food elements, its use is especially
important as an addition to their food value, as also to their
palatableness. Very good soups may, however, be made from legumes, if
carefully cooked with water only.

Soups offer a most economical way of making use of the "left-over"
fragments which might otherwise be consigned to the refuse bucket. A
pint of cold mashed potatoes, a cupful of stewed beans, a spoonful or
two of boiled rice, stewed tomatoes, or other bits of vegetables and
grains, are quite as good for soup purposes as fresh material, provided
they have been preserved fresh and sweet. To insure this it is always
best to put them away in clean dishes; if retained in the dish from
which they were served, the thin smears and small crumbs on the sides
which spoil much sooner than the larger portion, will help to spoil the
rest. One may find some difficulty in rubbing them through the colander
unless they are first moistened. Measure the cold food, and then
determine how much liquid will be needed, and add a part of this before
attempting to put through the colander.

It is difficult to give specific directions for making soups of
fragments, as the remnants to be utilized will vary so much in character
as to make such inapplicable, but the recipes given for combination
soups will perhaps serve as an aid in this direction. Where a sufficient
amount of one kind of food is left over to form the basis of a soup or
to serve as a seasoning, it can be used in every way the same as fresh
material. When, however, there is but a little of various odds and ends,
the general rule to be observed is to combine only such materials as
harmonize in taste.

Soups prepared from the grains, legumes, and vegetables, are so largely
composed of food material that it is important that they be retained in
the mouth long enough for proper insalivation; and in order to insure
this, it is well to serve with the soup _croutons_, prepared by cutting
stale bread into small squares or cubes, and browning thoroughly in a
moderate oven. Put a spoonful or two of the _croutons_ in each plate,
and turn the hot soup over them. This plan also serves another
purpose,--that of providing a means whereby the left-over bits of stale
bread may be utilized to advantage.


_RECIPES._

ASPARAGUS SOUP.--Wash two bunches of fresh asparagus carefully, and
cut into small pieces. Put to cook in a quart of boiling water, and
simmer gently till perfectly tender, when there should remain about a
pint of the liquor. Turn into a colander, and rub all through except the
hard portion. To a pint of asparagus mixture add salt and one cup of
thin cream and a pint of milk; boil up for a few minutes, and serve.

BAKED BEAN SOUP.--Soak a half pint of white beans over night. In
the morning turn off the water, and place them in an earthen dish with
two or two and one half quarts of boiling water; cover and let them
simmer in a moderate oven four or five hours. Also soak over night a
tablespoonful of pearl tapioca in sufficient water to cover. When the
beans are soft, rub through a colander, after which add the soaked
tapioca, and salt if desired; also as much powdered thyme as can be
taken on the point of a penknife and sufficient water to make the soup
of proper consistency if the water has mostly evaporated. Return to the
oven, and cook one half hour longer. A little cream may be added just
before serving.

BEAN AND CORN SOUP.--Cold boiled or stewed corn and cold baked
beans form the basis of this soup. Take one pint of each, rub through a
colander, add a slice of onion, three cups of boiling water or milk, and
boil for ten minutes. Turn through the colander a second time to remove
the onion and any lumps or skins which may remain. Season with salt and
a half cup of cream. If preferred, the onion may be omitted.

BEAN AND HOMINY SOUP.--Soak separately in cold water over night a
cupful each of dry beans and hominy. In the morning, boil them together
till both are perfectly tender and broken to pieces. Rub through a
colander, and add sufficient milk to make three pints. Season with salt,
and stir in a cup of whipped cream just before serving. Cold beans and
hominy may be utilized for this soup.

BEAN AND POTATO SOUP.--Soak a half pint of dry white beans over
night; in the morning drain and put to cook in boiling water. When
tender, rub through a colander. Prepare sliced potato sufficient to make
one quart, cook in as small a quantity of water as possible, rub
through a colander, and add to the beans. Add milk or water sufficient
to make two quarts, and as much prepared thyme as can be taken on the
point of a penknife, with salt to season. Boil for a few minutes, add a
teacup of thin cream, and serve.

BEAN AND TOMATO SOUP.--Take one pint of boiled or a little less of
mashed beans, one pint of stewed tomatoes, and rub together through a
colander. Add salt, a cup of thin cream, one half a cup of nicely
steamed rice, and sufficient boiling water to make a soup of the proper
consistency. Reheat and serve.

BLACK BEAN SOUP.--Soak a pint of black beans over night in cold
water. When ready to cook, put into two and one half quarts of fresh
water, which should be boiling, and simmer until completely dissolved,
adding more boiling water from time to time if needed. There should be
about two quarts of all when done. Rub through a colander, add salt, a
half cup of cream, and reheat. When hot, turn through a soup strainer,
add two or more teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, and serve.

BLACK BEAN SOUP NO. 2.--Soak a pint of black beans in water over
night. Cook in boiling water until tender, then rub through a colander.
Add sufficient boiling water to make about two quarts in all. Add salt,
and one half a small onion cut in slices to flavor. Turn into a double
boiler and reheat. When sufficiently flavored, remove the onion with a
skimmer, thicken the soup with two teaspoonfuls of browned flour, turn
through the soup strainer and serve. If desired, a half cup of cream may
be added, and the onion flavor omitted.

BRAN STOCK.--For every quart of stock desired, boil a cup of good
wheat bran in three pints of water for two or three hours or until
reduced one third. This stock may be made the base of a variety of
palatable and nutritious soups by flavoring with different vegetables
and seasoning with salt and cream. An excellent soup may be prepared by
flavoring the stock with celery, or by the addition of a quantity of
strained stewed tomato sufficient to disguise the taste of the stock. It
is also valuable in giving consistence to soups, in the preparation of
some of which it may be advantageously used in place of other liquid.

BROWN SOUP.--Simmer together two pints of sliced potatoes and one
third as much of the thin brown shavings (not thicker than a silver
dime) from the top of a loaf of whole-wheat bread, in one quart of
water. The crust must not be burned or blackened, and must not include
any of the soft portion of the loaf. When the potatoes are tender, mash
all through a colander. Flavor with a cup of strained, stewed tomatoes,
a little salt, and return to the fire; when hot, add a half cup of
cream, and boiling water to make the soup of proper consistency, and
serve at once. If care has been taken to prepare the crust as directed,
this soup will have a brown color and a fine, pungent flavor exceedingly
pleasant to the taste.

CANNED GREEN PEA SOUP.--Rub a can of green peas through a colander
to remove the skins. Add a pint of milk and heat to boiling. If too
thin, thicken with a little flour rubbed smooth in a very little cold
milk. Season with salt and a half cup of cream. A small teaspoonful of
white sugar may be added if desired.

Green peas, instead of canned, may be used when procurable. When they
have become a little too hard to serve alone, they can be used for soup,
if thoroughly cooked.

CANNED CORN SOUP.--Open a can of green corn, turn it into a
granite-ware dish, and thoroughly mash with a potato-masher until each
kernel is broken, then rub through a colander to remove the skins. Add
sufficient rich milk to make the soup of the desired consistency, about
one half pint for each pint can of corn will be needed. Season with
salt, reheat, and serve. If preferred, a larger quantity of milk and
some cream may be used, and the soup, when reheated, thickened with a
little corn starch or flour. It may be turned through the colander a
second time or not, as preferred.

CARROT SOUP.--For a quart of soup, slice one large carrot and boil
in a small quantity of water for two hours or longer, then rub it
through a colander, add a quart of rich milk, and salt to season.
Reheat, and when boiling, thicken with two teaspoonfuls of flour rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk.

CELERY SOUP.--Chop quite fine enough fresh, crisp celery to make a
pint, and cook it until tender in a very little boiling water. When
done, heat three cupfuls of rich milk, part cream if it can be afforded,
to boiling, add the celery, salt to season, and thicken the whole with a
tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk; or add to
the milk before heating a cupful of mashed potato, turn through a
colander to remove lumps, reheat, add salt and the celery, and serve.

CELERY SOUP NO. 2.--Cook in a double boiler a cupful of cracked
wheat in three pints of water for three or four hours. Rub the wheat
through a colander, add a cup of rich milk, and if needed, a little
boiling water, and a small head of celery cut in finger lengths. Boil
all together for fifteen or twenty minutes, until well flavored, remove
the celery with a fork, add salt, and serve with or without the
hard-boiled yolk of an egg in each soup plate.

CHESTNUT SOUP.--Shell and blanch a pint of Italian chestnuts, as
directed on page 215, and cook in boiling milk until tender. Rub the
nuts through a colander, add salt and sufficient milk and cream to make
a soup of the proper consistency, reheat and serve.

COMBINATION SOUP.--This soup is prepared from material already
cooked, and requires two cups of cracked wheat, one and one half cups of
Lima beans, one half cup of black beans, and one cup of stewed tomato.
Rub the material together through a colander, adding, if needed, a
little hot water to facilitate the sifting. Add boiling water to thin to
the proper consistency, season with salt and if it can be afforded a
little sweet cream,--the soup is, however, very palatable without the
cream.

COMBINATION SOUP NO. 2.--Take three and one half cups of mashed
(Scotch) peas, one cup each of cooked rice, oatmeal, and hominy, and two
cups of stewed tomato. Rub the material through a colander, add boiling
water to thin to the proper consistency, season with salt, reheat, and
add, just before serving, two cups of cooked macaroni. If preferred, a
cup of cream may be used in place of the tomato, or both may be omitted.

ANOTHER.--One half cup of cold mashed potato, one cup each of
cooked pearl wheat, barley and dried peas. Rub all through a colander,
add boiling milk to thin to the proper consistency, season with salt and
a half cup of cream.

ANOTHER.--Take three cups of cooked oatmeal, two of mashed white
beans, and one of stewed tomato. Rub the ingredients through a colander,
add boiling milk to thin to the proper consistency, season with salt and
a little cream.

CREAM PEA SOUP.--Soak three fourths of a pint of dried Scotch peas
over night in a quart of water. In the morning put to cook in boiling
water, cover closely and let them simmer gently four or five hours, or
until the peas are very tender and well disintegrated; then rub through
a colander to remove the skins. If the peas are very dry, add a little
water or milk occasionally, to moisten them and facilitate the sifting.
Just before the peas are done, prepare potatoes enough to make a pint
and a half, after being cut in thin slices. Cook the potatoes until
tender in a small amount of water, and rub them through a colander. Add
the potatoes thus prepared to the sifted peas, and milk enough to make
three and one half pints in all. Return to the fire, and add a small
head of celery cut finger lengths, and let the whole simmer together ten
or fifteen minutes, until flavored. Remove the celery with a fork, add
salt and a cup of thin cream. This should make about two quarts of soup.
If preferred, the peas may be cooked without soaking. It will, however,
require a little longer time.

CREAM BARLEY SOUP.--Wash a cup of pearl barley, drain and simmer
slowly in two quarts of water for four or five hours, adding boiling
water from time to time as needed. When the barley is tender, strain off
the liquor, of which there should be about three pints; add to it a
portion of the cooked barley grains, salt, and a cup of whipped cream,
and serve. If preferred, the beaten yolk of an egg may be used instead
of cream.

GREEN CORN SOUP.--Take six well-filled ears of tender green corn.
Run a sharp knife down the rows and split each grain; then with the back
of a knife, scraping from the large to the small end of the ear, press
out the pulp, leaving the hulls on the cob. Break the cobs if long, put
them in cold water sufficient to cover, and boil half an hour. Strain
off the water, of which there should be at least one pint. Put the corn
water on again, and when boiling add the corn pulp, and cook fifteen
minutes, or until the raw taste is destroyed. Rub through a rather
coarse colander, add salt and a pint of hot unskimmed milk; if too thin,
thicken with a little cornstarch or flour, boil up, and serve. If
preferred, a teaspoonful of sugar may be added to the soup. A small
quantity of cooked macaroni, cut in rings, makes a very pretty and
palatable addition to the soup. The soup is also excellent flavored with
celery.

GREEN PEA SOUP.--Gently simmer two quarts of shelled peas in
sufficient water to cook, leaving almost no juice when tender. Rub
through a colander, moistening if necessary with a little cold milk. Add
to the sifted peas an equal quantity of rich milk and a small onion cut
in halves. Boil all together five or ten minutes until the soup is
delicately flavored, then remove the onion with a skimmer; add salt if
desired, and serve. If preferred, a half cup of thin cream may be added
just before serving. Celery may be used in place of the onion, or both
may be omitted.

GREEN BEAN SOUP.--Prepare a quart of fresh string beans by pulling
off ends and strings and breaking into small pieces. Boil in a small
quantity of water. If the beans are fresh and young, three pints will be
sufficient; if wilted or quite old, more will be needed, as they will
require longer cooking. There should be about a teacupful and a half of
liquid left when the beans are perfectly tender and boiled in pieces.
Rub through a colander, return to the kettle, and for each cup of the
bean pulp add salt, a cup and a half of unskimmed milk; boil together
for a few minutes, thicken with a little flour, and serve. The quart of
beans should be sufficient for three pints of soup.

KORNLET SOUP.--Kornlet or canned green corn pulp, may be made into
a most appetizing soup in a few minutes by adding to a pint of kornlet
an equal quantity of rich milk, heating to boiling, and thickening it
with a teaspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.

KORNLET AND TOMATO SOUP.--Put together equal quantities of kornlet
and strained stewed tomato, season with salt and heat to boiling; add
for each quart one fourth to one half cup of hot thin cream, thicken
with a tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little water, and
serve. Cooked corn rubbed through a colander may also be used for this
soup.

LENTIL SOUP.--Simmer a pint of lentils in water until tender. If
desired to have the soup less dark in color and less strong in flavor,
the lentils may be first parboiled for a half hour, and then drained and
put into fresh boiling water. Much valuable nutriment is thus lost,
however. When perfectly tender, mash through a colander to remove all
skins; add salt and a cup of thin cream, and it too thick, sufficient
boiling milk or water to thin to the proper consistency, heat again to
boiling, and serve. If preferred, an additional quantity of liquid may
be added and the soup slightly thickened with browned flour.

LENTIL AND PARSNIP SOUP.--Cook together one pint of lentils and one
half a small parsnip, sliced, until tender in a small quantity of
boiling water. When done, rub through a colander, and add boiling water
to make a soup of the proper consistency. Season with salt and if
desired a little cream.

LIMA BEAN SOUP.--Simmer a pint of Lima beans gently in just
sufficient water to cook and not burn, until they have fallen to pieces.
Add more boiling water as needed. When done, rub the beans through a
colander. Add rich milk or water to make of the proper consistency, and
salt to season; reheat and serve. White beans may be used in place of
Lima beans, but they require more prolonged cooking. A heaping
tablespoonful of pearl tapioca or sago previously soaked in cold water,
may be added to the soup when it is reheated, if liked, and the whole
cooked until the sago is transparent.

MACARONI SOUP.--Heat a quart of milk, to which has been added a
tablespoonful of finely grated bread crust (the brown part only, from
the top of the loaf) and a slice of onion to flavor, in a double boiler.
When the milk is well flavored, remove the onion, turn through a
colander, add salt, and thicken with two teaspoonfuls of flour rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk. Lastly add one cupful of cooked macaroni,
and serve.

OATMEAL SOUP.--Put two heaping tablespoonfuls of oatmeal into a
quart of boiling water, and cook in a double boiler for two hours or
longer. Strain as for gruel, add salt if desired, and two or three
stalks of celery broken into finger lengths, and cook again until the
whole is well flavored with the celery, which may then be removed with a
fork; add a half cup of cream, and the soup is ready to serve. Cold
oatmeal mush may be thinned with milk, reheated, strained, flavored, and
made into soup the same as fresh material. A slice or two of onion may
be used with the celery for flavoring the soup if desired, or a cup of
strained stewed tomato may be added.

PARSNIP SOUP.--Take a quart of well scraped, thinly sliced
parsnips, one cup of bread crust shavings (prepared as for Brown Soup),
one head of celery, one small onion, and one pint of sliced potatoes.
The parsnips used should be young and tender, so that they will cook in
about the same length of time as the other vegetables. Use only
sufficient water to cook them. When done, rub through a colander and add
salt and sufficient rich milk, part cream if desired, to make of the
proper consistency. Reheat and serve.

PARSNIP SOUP NO. 2.--Wash, pare, and slice equal quantities of
parsnips and potatoes. Cook, closely covered, in a small quantity of
water until soft. If the parsnips are not young and tender, they must be
put to cook first, and the potatoes added when they are half done. Mash
through a colander. Add salt, and milk to make of the proper
consistency, season with cream, reheat and serve.

PEA AND TOMATO SOUP.--Soak one pint of Scotch peas over night. When
ready to cook, put into a quart of boiling water and simmer slowly until
quite dry and well disintegrated. Rub through a colander to remove the
skins. Add a pint of hot water, one cup of mashed potato, two cups of
strained stewed tomato, and one cup of twelve-hour cream. Turn into a
double-boiler and cook together for a half hour or longer; turn a second
time through a colander or soup strainer and serve. The proportions
given are quite sufficient for two quarts of soup. There may need to be
some variation in the quantity of tomato to be used, depending upon its
thickness. If very thin, a larger quantity and less water will be
needed. The soup should be a rich reddish brown in color when done. The
peas may be cooked without being first soaked, if preferred.

PLAIN RICE SOUP.--Wash and pick over four tablespoonfuls of rice,
put it in an earthen dish with a quart of water, and place in a moderate
oven. When the water is all absorbed, add a quart of rich milk, and salt
if desired; turn into a granite kettle and boil ten minutes, or till the
rice is done. Add a half cup of sweet cream and serve. A slice of onion
or stalk of celery can be boiled with the soup after putting in the
kettle, and removed before serving, if desired to flavor.


POTATO AND RICE SOUP.--Cook a quart of sliced potatoes in as little
water as possible. When done, rub through a colander. Add salt, a quart
of rich milk, and reheat. If desired, season with a slice of onion, a
stalk of celery, or a little parsley. Just before serving, add a half
cup of cream and a cup and a half of well-cooked rice with unbroken
grains. Stir gently and serve at once.

POTATO SOUP.--For each quart of soup required, cook a pint of
sliced potatoes in sufficient water to cover them. When tender, rub
through a colander. Return to the fire, and add enough rich, sweet milk,
part cream if it can be afforded to make a quart in all, and a little
salt. Let the soup come to a boil, and add a teaspoonful of flour or
corn starch, rubbed to a paste with a little water; boil a few minutes
and serve. A cup and a half of cold mashed potato or a pint of sliced
baked potato can be used instead of fresh material; in which case add
the milk and heat before rubbing through the colander. A slice of onion
or a stalk of celery may be simmered in the soup for a few minutes to
flavor, and then removed with a skimmer or a spoon. A good mixed potato
soup is made by using one third sweet and two thirds Irish potatoes, in
the same manner as above.

POTATO AND VERMICELLI SOUP.--Breakup a cupful of vermicelli and
drop into boiling water. Let it cook for ten or fifteen minutes, and
then turn into a colander to drain. Have ready a potato soup prepared
the same as in the proceeding; stir the vermicelli lightly into it just
before serving.

SAGO AND POTATO SOUP.--Prepare the soup as directed for Potato
Soup, from fresh or cold mashed potato, using a little larger quantity
of milk or cream, as the sago adds thickness to the soap. When seasoned
and ready to reheat, turn a second time through the colander, and add
for each quart of soup, one heaping tablespoonful of sago which has been
soaked for twenty minutes in just enough water to cover. Boil together
five or ten minutes, or until the sago is transparent, and serve.

SCOTCH BROTH.--Soak over night two tablespoonfuls of pearl barley
and one of coarse oatmeal, in water sufficient to cover them. In the
morning, put the grains, together with the water in which they were
soaked, into two quarts of water and simmer for several hours, adding
boiling water as needed. About an hour before the soup is required, add
a turnip cut into small dice, a grated carrot, and one half cup of fine
pieces of the brown portion of the crust of a loaf of whole-wheat bread.
Rub all through a colander, and add salt, a cup of milk, and a half cup
of thin cream. This should make about three pints of soup.

SPLIT PEA SOUP.--For each quart of soup desired, simmer a cupful of
split peas very slowly in three pints of boiling water for six hours, or
until thoroughly dissolved. When done, rub through a colander, add salt
and season with one half cup of thin cream. Reheat, and when boiling,
stir into it two teaspoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold
water. Boil up until thickened, and serve. If preferred, the cream may
be omitted and the soup flavored with a little celery or onion.

SWEET POTATO SOUP.--To a pint of cold mashed sweet potato add a
pint and a half of strained stewed tomato, rub together through a
colander, add salt to season, and half a cup of cream. Reheat and serve.

SWISS POTATO SOUP.--Pare and cut up into small pieces, enough white
turnips to fill a pint cup, and cook in a small quantity of water. When
tender, add three pints of sliced potatoes, and let them boil together
until of the consistency of mush. Add hot water if it has boiled away so
that there is not sufficient to cook the potatoes. When done, drain,
rub through a colander, add a pint and a half of milk and a cup of thin
cream, salt if desired, and if too thick, a little more milk or a
sufficient quantity of hot water to make it of the proper consistency.
This should be sufficient for two and a half quarts of soup.

SWISS LENTIL SOUP.--Cook a pint of brown lentils in a small
quantity of boiling water. Add to the lentils when about half done, one
medium sized onion cut in halves or quarters. When the lentils are
tender, remove the onion with a fork, and rub the lentils through a
colander. Add sufficient boiling water to make three pints in all.
Season with salt, reheat to boiling, and thicken the whole with four
table spoonfuls of browned flour, rubbed to a cream in a little cold
water.

TOMATO AND MACARONI SOUP.--Break a half dozen sticks of macaroni
into small pieces, and drop into boiling water. Cook for an hour, or
until perfectly tender. Rub two quarts of stewed or canned tomatoes
through a colander, to remove all seeds and fragments. When the macaroni
is done, drain thoroughly, cut each piece into tiny rings, and add it to
the strained tomatoes. Season with salt, and boil for a few minutes. If
desired, just before serving add a cup of thin cream, boil up once, and
serve immediately. If the tomato is quite thin, the soup should be
slightly thickened with a little flour before adding the macaroni.

TOMATO CREAM SOUP.--Heat two quarts of strained, stewed tomatoes to
boiling; add four tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold
water. Let the tomatoes boil until thickened, stirring constantly that
no lumps form; add salt to season. Have ready two cups of hot rich milk
or thin cream. Add the cream or milk hot, and let all boil together for
a minute or two, then serve.

TOMATO AND OKRA SOUP.--Take one quart of okra thinly sliced, and
two quarts of sliced tomatoes. Simmer gently from one to two hours. Rub
through a colander, heat again to boiling, season with salt and cream if
desired, and serve.

Canned okra and tomatoes need only to be rubbed through a colander,
scalded and seasoned, to make a most excellent soup. If preferred, one
or two potatoes may be sliced and cooked, rubbed through a colander, and
added.

TOMATO SOUP WITH VERMICELLI.--Cook a cupful of broken vermicelli in
a pint of boiling water for ten minutes. Turn into a colander to drain.
Have boiling two quarts of strained, stewed tomatoes, to which add the
vermicelli. If preferred, the tomato may be thickened slightly with a
little cornstarch rubbed smooth in cold water before adding the
vermicelli. Salt to taste, and just before serving turn in a cup of hot,
thin cream. Let all boil up for a moment, then serve at once.

VEGETABLE OYSTER SOUP.--Scrape all the outer covering and small
rootlets from vegetable oysters, and lay them in a pan of cold water to
prevent discoloration. The scraping can be done much easier if the roots
are allowed first to stand in cold water for an hour or so. Slice rather
thin, enough to make one quart, and put to cook in a quart of water. Let
them boil slowly until very tender. Add a pint of milk, a cup of thin
cream, salt, and when boiling, a tablespoonful or two of flour, rubbed
to a cream with a little milk. Let the soup boil a few minutes until
thickened, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP.--Simmer together slowly for three or four hours, in
five quarts of water, a quart of split peas, a slice of carrot, a slice
of white turnip, one cup of canned tomatoes, and two stalks of celery
cut into small bits. When done, rub through a colander, add milk to make
of proper consistency, reheat, season with salt and cream, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP NO. 2.--Prepare and slice a pint of vegetable
oysters and a pint and a half of potatoes. Put the oysters to cook
first, in sufficient water to cook both. When nearly done, add the
potatoes and cook all till tender. Rub through a colander, or if
preferred, remove the pieces of oysters, and rub the potato only through
the colander, together with the water in which the oysters were cooked,
as that will contain all the flavor. Return to the fire, and add salt, a
pint of strained, stewed tomatoes, and when boiling, the sliced oysters
if desired, a cup of thin cream and a cup of milk, both previously
heated; serve at once.

VEGETABLE SOUP NO. 3.--Soak a cupful of white beans over night in
cold water. When ready to cook, put into fresh boiling water and simmer
until tender. When nearly done, add three large potatoes sliced, two or
three slices of white turnip, and one large parsnip cut in slices. When
done, rub through a colander, add milk or water to make of proper
consistency, season with salt and cream, reheat and serve. This quantity
of material is sufficient for two quarts of soup.

VEGETABLE SOUP NO. 4.--Prepare a quart of bran stock as previously
directed. Heat to boiling, and add to it one teaspoonful of grated
carrot, a slice of onion, and a half cup of tomato. Cook together in a
double boiler for half an hour. Remove the slice of onion, and add salt
and a half cup of turnip previously cooked and cut in small dice.

VELVET SOUP.--Pour three pints of hot potato soup, seasoned to
taste, slowly over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, stirring briskly
to mix the egg perfectly with the soup. It must not be reheated after
adding the egg. Plain rice or barley soup may be used in place of potato
soup, if preferred.

VERMICELLI SOUP.--Lightly fill a cup with broken vermicelli. Turn
it into a pint of boiling water, and cook for ten or fifteen minutes.
Drain off all the hot water and put into cold water for a few minutes.
Turn into a colander and drain again; add three pints of milk, salt to
taste, and heat to boiling. Have the yolks of three eggs well beaten,
and when the soup is boiling, turn it gradually onto the eggs, stirring
briskly that they may not curdle. Return to the kettle, reheat nearly to
boiling, and serve at once.

VERMICELLI SOUP NO. 2.--Cook a cupful of sliced vegetable oysters,
a stalk or two of celery, two slices of onion, a parsnip, and half a
carrot in water just sufficient to cover well. Meanwhile put a cupful of
vermicelli in a quart of milk and cook in a double boiler until tender.
When the vegetables are done, strain off the broth and add it to the
vermicelli when cooked. Season with salt and a cup of cream. Beat two
eggs light and turn the boiling soup on the eggs, stirring briskly that
they may not curdle. Reheat if not thickened, and serve.

WHITE CELERY SOUP.--Cut two heads of celery into finger lengths,
and simmer in a quart of milk for half an hour. Remove the pieces of
celery with a skimmer. Thicken the soup with a tablespoonful of
cornstarch braided with a little milk, add salt if desired, and a teacup
of whipped cream.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Soup rejoices the stomach, and disposes it to receive and digest
    other food.--_Brillat Savarin._

    To work the head, temperance must be carried into the
    diet.--_Beecher._

    To fare well implies the partaking of such food as does not disagree
    with body or mind. Hence only those fare well who live
    temperately.--_Socrates._

    The aliments to which the cook's art gives a liquid or semi-liquid
    form, are in general more digestible.--_Dictionaire de Medicine._

    In the most heroic days of the Grecian army, their food was the
    plain and simple produce of the soil. When the public games of
    ancient Greece were first instituted, the _athleta_, in accordance
    with the common dietetic habits of the people, were trained entirely
    on vegetable food.

    The eating of much flesh fills us with a multitude of evil diseases
    and multitudes of evil desires.--_Perphyrises, 233 A.D._

     No flocks that range the valley free
     To slaughter I condemn;
     Taught by the Power that pities me,
     I learn to pity them.
     But from the mountain's grassy side
     A guiltless feast I bring;
     A scrip with herbs and fruits supplied
     And water from the spring.

    --_Goldsmith._



BREAKFAST DISHES

A good breakfast is the best capital upon which people who have real
work to do in the world can begin the day. If the food is well selected
and well cooked, it furnishes both cheer and strength for their daily
tasks. Poor food, or good food poorly prepared, taxes the digestive
powers more than is due, and consequently robs brain and nerves of
vigor. Good food is not rich food, in the common acceptation of the
term; it is such food as furnishes the requisite nutriment with the
least fatigue to the digestive powers. It is of the best material,
prepared in the best manner, and with pleasant variety, though it may be
very simple.

"What to get for breakfast" is one of the most puzzling problems which
the majority of housewives have to solve. The usually limited time for
its preparation requires that it be something easily and quickly
prepared; and health demands that the bill of fare be of such articles
as require but minimum time for digestion, that the stomach may have
chance for rest after the process of digestion is complete, before the
dinner hour. The custom of using fried potatoes or mushes, salted fish
or meats, and other foods almost impossible of digestion, for breakfast
dishes, is most pernicious. These foods set completely at variance all
laws of breakfast hygiene. They are very difficult of digestion, and the
thirst-provoking quality of salted foods makes them an important
auxiliary to the acquirement of a love of intoxicating drinks. We feel
very sure that, as a prominent temperance writer says, "It very often
happens that women who send out their loved ones with an agony of prayer
that they may be kept from drink for the day, also send them with a
breakfast that will make them almost frantic with thirst before they get
to the first saloon."

The foods composing the breakfast _menu_ should be simple in character,
well and delicately cooked, and neatly served. Fruits and grains and
articles made from them offer the requisites for the ideal breakfast.
These afford ample provision for variety, are easily made ready, and
easily digested, while at the same time furnishing excellent nutriment
in ample quantity and of the very best quality. Meats, most vegetables,
and compound dishes, more difficult of digestion, are better reserved
for the dinner bill of fare. No vegetable except the potato is
especially serviceable as a breakfast food, and it is much more readily
digested when baked than when prepared in any other manner. Stewing
requires less time for preparation, but about one hour longer for
digestion.

As an introduction to the morning meal, fresh fruits are most desirable,
particularly the juicy varieties, as oranges, grape fruit, melons,
grapes, and peaches, some one of which are obtainable nearly the entire
year. Other fruits; such as apples, bananas, pears, etc., though less
suitable, may be used for the same purpose. They are, however, best
accompanied with wafers or some hard food, to insure their thorough
mastication.

For the second course, some of the various cereals, oatmeal, rye, corn,
barley, rice, or one of the numerous preparations of wheat, well cooked
and served with cream, together with one or more unfermented breads
(recipes for which have been given in a previous chapter), cooked
fruits, and some simple relishes, are quite sufficient for a healthful
and palatable breakfast.

If, however, a more extensive bill of fare is desired, numerous
delicious and appetizing toasts may be prepared according to the recipes
given in this chapter, and which, because of their simple character and
the facility with which they can be prepared, are particularly suitable
as breakfast dishes. The foundation of all these toasts is _zwieback_,
or twice-baked bread, prepared from good whole-wheat or Graham fermented
bread cut in uniform slices not more than a half inch thick, each slice
being divided in halves, placed on tins, or what is better, the
perforated sheets recommended for baking rolls, and baked or toasted in
a slow oven for a half hour or longer, until it is browned evenly
throughout the entire slice. The zwieback may be prepared in
considerable quantity and kept on hand in readiness for use. It will
keep for any length of time if stored in a dry place.

Stale bread is the best for making zwieback, but it should be good,
light bread; that which is sour, heavy, and not fit to eat untoasted,
should never be used. Care must be taken also not to scorch the slices,
as once scorched, it is spoiled. Properly made, it is equally crisp
throughout, and possesses a delicious, nutty flavor.

Its preparation affords an excellent opportunity for using the left-over
slices of bread, and it may be made when the oven has been heated for
other purposes, as after the baking of bread, or even during the
ordinary cooking, with little or no additional heat. If one possesses an
Aladdin oven, it can be prepared to perfection.

Zwieback may also be purchased in bulk, all ready for use, at ten cents
a pound, from the Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek, Mich., and it is
serviceable in so many ways that it should form a staple article of food
in every household.

For the preparation of toasts, the zwieback must be first softened with
some hot liquid, preferably thin cream. Heat the cream (two thirds of a
pint of cream will be sufficient for six half slices) nearly to boiling
in some rather shallow dish. Put the slices, two or three at a time, in
it, dipping the cream over them and turning so that both sides will
become equally softened. Keep the cream hot, and let the slices remain
until softened just enough so that the center can be pierced with a
fork, but not until at all mushy or broken. With two forks or a fork and
a spoon, remove each slice from the hot cream, draining as thoroughly as
possible, and pack in a heated dish, and repeat the process until as
much zwieback has been softened as desired. Cover the dish, and keep hot
until ready to serve. Special care should be taken to drain the slices
as thoroughly as possible, that none of them be wet and mushy. It is
better to remove them from the cream when a little hard than to allow
them to become too soft, as they will soften somewhat by standing after
being packed in the dish. Prepare the sauce for the toast at the same
time or before softening the slices, and pour into a pitcher for
serving. Serve the slices in individual dishes, turning a small quantity
of the hot sauce over each as served.


_RECIPES._

APPLE TOAST.--Fresh, nicely flavored apples stewed in a small
quantity of water, rubbed through, a colander, sweetened, then cooked in
a granite-ware dish in a slow oven until quite dry, make a nice dressing
for toast. Baked sweet or sour apples rubbed through a colander to
remove cores and skins, are also excellent. Soften slices of zwieback in
hot cream, and serve with a spoonful or two on each slice. If desired,
the apple may be flavored with a little pineapple or lemon, or mixed
with grape, cranberry, or apricot, thus making a number of different
toasts.

APRICOT TOAST.--Stew some nice dried apricots as directed on page
191. When done, rub through a fine colander to remove all skins and to
render them homogeneous. Add sugar to sweeten, and serve as a dressing
on slices of zwieback which have been previously softened in hot cream.
One half or two thirds fresh or dried apples may be used with the
apricots, if preferred.

ASPARAGUS TOAST.--Prepare asparagus as directed on page 255. When
tender, drain off the liquor and season it with a little cream, and salt
if desired. Moisten nicely browned zwieback in the liquor and lay in a
hot dish; unbind the asparagus, heap it upon the toast, and serve.

BANANA TOAST.--Peel and press some nice bananas through a colander.
This may be very easily done with a potato masher, or if preferred a
vegetable press may be used for the purpose. Moisten slices of zwieback
with hot cream and serve with a large spoonful of the banana pulp on
each slice. Fresh peaches may be prepared and used on the toast in the
same way.

BERRY TOAST.--Canned strawberries, blueberries, and blackberries
may be made into an excellent dressing for toast.

Turn a can of well-kept berries into a colander over an earthen dish, to
separate the juice from the berries. Place the juice in a porcelain
kettle and heat to boiling. Thicken to the consistency of cream with
flour rubbed smooth in a little water; a tablespoonful of flour to the
pint of juice will be about the right proportion. Add the berries and
boil up just sufficiently to cook the flour and heat the berries; serve
hot. If cream for moistening the zwieback is not obtainable, a little
juice may be reserved without thickening, and heated in another dish to
moisten the toast; of if preferred, the fruit may be heated and poured
over the dry zwieback without being thickened, or it may be rubbed
through a colander as for Apricot Toast.

BERRY TOAST NO. 2.--Take fresh red or black raspberries,
blueberries, or strawberries, and mash well with a spoon. Add sugar to
sweeten, and serve as a dressing on slices of zwieback previously
moistened with hot cream.

CELERY TOAST.--Cut the crisp white portion of celery into inch
pieces, simmer twenty minutes or half an hour, or until tender, in a
very little water; add salt and a cup of rich milk. Heat to boiling, and
thicken with a little flour rubbed smooth in a small quantity of milk--a
teaspoonful of flour to the pint of liquid. Serve hot, poured over
slices of zwieback previously moistened with cream or hot water.

CREAM TOAST.--For this use good Graham or whole-wheat zwieback. Have
a pint of thin sweet cream scalding hot, salt it a little if desired,
and moisten the zwieback in it as previously directed packing it
immediately into a hot dish; cover tightly so that the toast may steam,
and serve. The slices should be thoroughly moistened, but not soft and
mushy nor swimming in cream; indeed, it is better if a little of the
crispness still remains.

CREAM TOAST WITH POACHED EGG.--Prepare the cream toast as
previously directed, and serve hot with a well-poached egg on each
slice.

CHERRY TOAST.--Take a quart of ripe cherries; stem, wash and stew
(if preferred the stones may be removed) until tender but not broken;
add sugar to sweeten, and pour over slices of well-browned dry toast or
zwieback. Serve cold.

GRAVY TOAST.--Heat a quart and a cupful of rich milk to boiling,
add salt, and stir into it three scant tablespoonfuls of flour which has
been rubbed to a smooth paste in a little cold milk. This quantity will
be sufficient for about a dozen slices of toast. Moisten slices of
zwieback with hot water and pack in a heated dish. When serving, pour a
quantity of the cream cause over each slice.

DRY TOAST WITH HOT CREAM.--Nicely prepared zwieback served in hot
saucers with hot cream poured over each slice at the table, makes a most
delicious breakfast dish.

GRAPE TOAST.--Stem well-ripened grapes, wash well, and scald
without water in a double boiler until broken; rub through a colander to
remove sends and skins, and when cool, sweeten to taste. If the toast is
desired for breakfast, the grapes should be prepared the day previous.
Soften the toast in hot cream, as previously directed, and pack in a
tureen. Heat the prepared grapes and serve, pouring a small quantity
over each slice of toast. Canned grapes may be used instead of fresh
ones, if desired.

LENTIL TOAST.--Lentils stewed as directed for Lentil Gravy on page
226 served as a dressing on slices of zwieback moistened with hot cream
or water, makes a very palatable toast. Browned flour may be used to
thicken the dressing if preferred.

PRUNE TOAST.--Cook prunes as directed on page 191, allowing them to
simmer very slowly for a long time. When done, rub through a colander,
and if quite thin, they should be stewed again for a time, until they
are about the consistency of marmalade. Moisten slices of zwieback with
hot cream, and serve with a spoonful or two of the prune dressing on
each. One third dried apple may be used with the prune, if preferred.

PEACH TOAST.--Stew nice fresh peaches in a small quantity of water;
when tender, rub through a colander, and if quite juicy, place on the
back of the range where they will cook very slowly until nearly all the
water has evaporated, and the peach is of the consistency of marmalade.
Add sugar to sweeten, and serve the same as prunes, on slices of
zwieback previously moistened with hot cream. Canned peaches may be
drained from their juice and prepared in the same manner. Dried or
evaporated peaches may also be used. Toast with dried-peach dressing
will be more delicate in flavor if one third dried apples be used with
the peaches.

SNOWFLAKE TOAST.--Heat to boiling a quart of milk to which a half
cup of cream, and a little salt have been added. Thicken with a
tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Have ready
the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth; and when the sauce is
well cooked, turn a cupful of it on the beaten egg, stirring well
meanwhile so that it will form a light, frothy mixture, to which add the
remainder of the sauce. If the sauce is not sufficiently hot to
coagulate the albumen, it may be heated again almost to the boiling
point, but should not be allowed to boil. The sauce should be of a
light, frothy consistency throughout. Serve as dressing on nicely
moistened slices of zwieback.

TOMATO TOAST.--Moisten slices of zwieback in hot cream, and serve
with a dressing prepared by heating a pint of strained stewed tomato to
boiling, and thickening with a tablespoonful of corn starch or flour
rubbed smooth in a little cold water. Season with salt and a half cupful
of hot cream. The cream may be omitted, if preferred.

VEGETABLE OYSTER TOAST.--Cook a quart of cleaned, sliced vegetable
oysters in a quart of water until very tender; add a pint and a half of
rich milk, salt to taste, and thicken the whole with two tablespoonfuls
of flour rubbed to a smooth paste with a little milk. Let it boil for a
few minutes, and serve as a dressing on slices of well-browned toast
previously moistened with hot water or cream.


_MISCELLANEOUS BREAKFAST DISHES._

BREWIS.--Heat a pint of rich milk to boiling, remove from fire, and
beat into it thoroughly and quickly a cup of very fine stale rye or
Graham bread crumbs. Serve at once with cream.

BLACKBERRY MUSH.--Rub a pint of canned or fresh stewed and
sweetened blackberries, having considerable juice, through a fine
colander or sieve to remove the seeds. Add water to make a pint and a
half cupful in all, heat to boiling, and sprinkle into it a cupful of
sifted Graham flour, or sufficient to make a mush of desired thickness.
Cook as directed for Graham Mush, page 90. Serve hot with cream.

DRY GRANOLA.--This prepared food, made from wheat, corn, and oats,
and obtainable from the Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek, Mich., forms
an excellent breakfast dish eaten with cold or hot milk and cream.
Wheatena, prepared wholly from wheat; Avenola, made from oats and wheat;
and Gofio, made from parched grains, all obtainable from the same firm,
are each delicious and suitable foods for the morning meal.

FRUMENTY.--Wash well a pint of best wheat, and soak for twenty-four
hours in water just sufficient to cover. Put the soaked wheat in a
covered earthen baking pot or jar, cover well with water, and let it
cook in a very slow oven for twelve hours. This may be done the day
before it is wanted, or if one has a coal range in which a fire may be
kept all night, or an Aladdin oven, the grain may be started in the
evening and cooked at night. When desired for use, put in a saucepan
with three pints of milk, a cupful of well-washed Zante currants, and
one cup of seeded raisins. Boil together for a few minutes, thicken with
four tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk, and
serve.

MACARONI WITH RAISINS.--Break macaroni into inch lengths sufficient
to fill a half-pint cup. Heat four cups of milk, and when actively
boiling, put in the macaroni and cook until tender. Pour boiling water
over a half cup of raisins, and let them stand until swelled. Ten or
fifteen minutes before the macaroni is done, add the raisins. Serve hot
with or without the addition of cream. Macaroni cooked in the various
ways as directed in the chapter on Grains, is also suitable for
breakfast dishes.

MACARONI WITH KORNLET.--Break macaroni into inch lengths and cook
in boiling milk and water. Prepare the kornlet by adding to it an equal
quantity of rich milk or thin cream, and thickening with a little flour,
a tablespoonful to the pint. When done, drain the macaroni, and add the
kornlet in the proportion of a pint of kornlet mixture to one and one
half cups of macaroni. Mix well, turn into an earthen dish, and brown in
a moderate oven. Left-over kornlet soup, if kept on ice, may be utilized
for this breakfast dish, and the macaroni may be cooked the day before.
Green corn pulp may be used in place of the kornlet.

PEACH MUSH.--Prepare the same as Blackberry Mush using very thin
peach sauce made smooth by rubbing through a colander. Freshly stewed or
canned peaches or nicely cooked dried peaches are suitable for this
purpose. Apples and grapes may be likewise used for a breakfast mush.

RICE WITH LEMON.--Wash a cup of rice and turn it into three pints
of boiling water, let it boil vigorously until tender, and turn into a
colander to drain. While still in the colander and before the rice has
become at all cold, dip quickly in and out of a pan of cold water
several times to separate the grains, draining well afterward. All
should be done so quickly that the rice will not become too cold for
serving; if necessary to reheat, place for a few moments in a dish in a
steamer over a kettle of boiling water. Serve with a dressing of lemon
previously prepared by cutting two fresh lemons in thin, wafer-like
slices, sprinkling each thickly with sugar, and allowing them to stand
for an hour or more until a syrup is formed. When the rice is ready to
serve, lay the slices of lemon on top of it, pouring the syrup over it,
and serve with a slice or two of the lemon for each dish.



TABLE TOPICS.


    The lightest breakfast is the best.--_Oswald._

    A NEW NAME FOR BREAKFAST.--"Tum, mamma, leth's go down to tupper,"
    said a little toddler to her mother, one morning, recently.

    "Why, we don't have supper in the morning," replied the mother.

    "Den leth's do down to dinner," urged the little one.

    "But we don't have dinner in the morning," corrected the mother.

    "Well, den, leth's do down any way," pleaded the child.

    "But try and think what meal we have in the morning," urged mamma.

    "I know," said the toddler, brightening up.

    "What meal do we have in the morning?"

    "Oatmeal. Tum on; leth's do."--_Sel._

    Seneca, writing to a friend of his frugal fare which he declares
    does not cost a sixpence a day, says:--

    "Do you ask if that can supply due nourishment? Yes; and pleasure
    too. Not indeed, that fleeting and superficial pleasure which needs
    to be perpetually recruited, but a solid and substantial one. Bread
    and polenta certainly is not a luxurious feeding, but it is no
    little advantage to be able to receive pleasure from a simple diet
    of which no change of fortune can deprive one."

     Breakfast: Come to breakfast!
     Little ones and all,--
     How their merry footsteps
     Patter at the call!
     Break the bread; pour freely
     Milk that cream-like flows;
     A blessing on their appetites
     And on their lips of rose.

     Dinner may be pleasant
     So may the social tea,
     But yet, methinks the breakfast
     Is best of all the three.
     With its greeting smile of welcome,
     Its holy voice of prayer,
     It forgeth heavenly armor
     To foil the hosts of care.

    --_Mrs. Sigourney._

    Health is not quoted in the markets because it is without
    price.--_Sel._

    It is a mistake to think that the more a man eats, the fatter and
    stronger he will become.--_Sel._



DESSERTS

Custom has so long established the usage of finishing the dinner with a
dessert of some kind, that a _menu_ is considered quite incomplete
without it; and we shall devote the next few pages to articles which may
be deemed appropriate and healthful desserts, not because we consider
the dessert itself of paramount importance, for indeed we do not think
it essential to life or even to good living, but because we hope the
hints and suggestions which our space permits, may aid the housewife in
preparing more wholesome, inexpensive dishes in lieu of the indigestible
articles almost universally used for this purpose.

We see no objection to the use of a dessert, if the articles offered are
wholesome, and are presented before an abundance has already been taken.
As usually served, the dessert is but a "snare and delusion" to the
digestive organs. Compounded of substances "rich," not in food elements,
but in fats, sweets, and spices, and served after enough has already
been eaten, it offers a great temptation to overeat; while the elements
of which it is largely composed, serve to hamper the digestive organs,
to clog the liver, and to work mischief generally. At the same time it
may be remarked that the preparation of even wholesome desserts requires
an outlay of time and strength better by far expended in some other
manner. Desserts are quite unnecessary to a good, healthful, nutritious
dietary. The simplest of all desserts are the various nuts and delicious
fruits with which nature has so abundantly supplied us, at no greater
cost than their harmful substitutes, and which require no expenditure of
time or strength in their preparation. If, however, other forms of
dessert are desired, a large variety may be prepared in a simple manner,
so as to be both pleasing and appetizing.


GENERAL SUGGESTIONS.

In the preparation of desserts, as in that of all other foods it is
essential that all material used shall be thoroughly good of its kind.
If bread is to be used, the crumbs should be dry and rather stale, but
on no account use that which is sour or moldy. Some housekeepers imagine
that if their bread happens to spoil and become sour, although it is
hardly palatable enough for the table, it may be advantageously used to
make puddings. It is indeed quite possible to combine sour bread with
other ingredients so as to make a pudding agreeable to the palate; but
disguising sour bread makes sweets and flavors by no means changes it
into a wholesome food. It is better economy to throw sour bread away at
once than to impose it upon the digestive organs at the risk of health
and strength.

Bread which has begun to show appearance of mold should never be used;
for mold is a poison, and very serious illness has resulted from the
eating of puddings made from moldy bread.

Eggs, to be used for desserts, should always be fresh and good. Cooks
often imagine that an egg too stale to be eaten in any other way will do
very well for use in cakes and puddings, because it can be disguised so
as not to be apparent to the taste; but stale eggs are unfit for food,
either alone or in combination with other ingredients. Their use is
often the occasion of serious disturbances of the digestive organs. Most
desserts in which eggs are used will be much lighter if the yolks and
whites are beaten separately. If in winter, and eggs are scarce, fewer
may be used, and two tablespoonfuls of dry snow for each omitted egg
stirred in the last thing before baking.

Milk, likewise, should always be sweet and fresh. If it is to be heated,
use a double boiler, so that there will be no danger of scorching. If
fresh milk is not available, the condensed milk found at the grocer's is
an excellent substitute. Dissolve according to directions, and follow
the recipe the same as with fresh milk, omitting one half or two thirds
the given amount of sugar.

If dried sweet fruits, raisins, or currants are to be used, look them
over carefully, put them in a colander, and placing it in a pan of warm
water, allow the currants to remain until plump. This will loosen the
dirt which, while they are shriveled, sticks in the creases, and they
may then be washed by dipping the colander in and out of clean water
until they are free from sediment; rinse in two waters, then spread upon
a cloth, and let them get perfectly dry before using.

It is a good plan, after purchasing raisins and currants, to wash and
dry a quantity, and store in glass cans ready for use. To facilitate the
stoning of raisins, put them into a colander placed in a dish of warm
water until plump; then drain, when the seeds can be easily removed.

For desserts which are to be molded, always wet the molds in cold water
before pouring in the desserts.


_SUGGESTIONS FOR FLAVORING, ETC._

TO PREPARE ALMOND PASTE.--Blanch the nuts according to directions
given on page 215. Allow them to dry thoroughly, and pound in a mortar
to a smooth paste. They can be reduced much easier if dried for a day or
two after blanching. During the pounding, sprinkle with a few drops of
cold water, white of egg, rose water, or lemon juice, to prevent them
from oiling.

COCOANUT FLAVOR.--Cocoanut, freshly grated or desiccated, unless in
extremely fine particles, is a very indigestible substance, and when its
flavor is desired for custards, puddings, etc., it is always better to
steep a few tablespoonfuls in a pint of milk for twenty minutes or a
half hour, and strain out the particles. The milk should not be allowed
to boil, as it will be likely to curdle. One tablespoonful of freshly
grated cocoanut or two of the desiccated will give a very pleasant and
delicate flavor; and if a more intense flavor is desired, use a larger
quantity.

ORANGE AND LEMON FLAVOR.--Orange or lemon flavor may be obtained by
steeping a few strips of the yellow part of the rind of lemon or orange
in milk for twenty minutes. Skim out the rind before using for desserts.
Care should be taken to use only the yellow part, as the white will
impart a bitter flavor. The grated rind may also be used for flavoring,
but in grating the peel, one must be careful to grate very lightly, and
thus use only the outer yellow portion, which contains the essential oil
of the fruit. Grate evenly, turning and working around the lemon, using
as small a surface of the grater as possible, in order to prevent waste.
Generally, twice across the grater and back will be sufficient for
removing all the yellow skin from one portion of a lemon. A well-grated
lemon should be of exactly the same shape as before, with no yellow skin
remaining, and no deep scores into the white. Remove the yellow pulp
from the grater with a fork.

TO COLOR SUGAR.--For ornamenting the meringues of puddings and
other desserts, take a little of the fresh juice of cranberries, red
raspberries, currants, black raspberries, grapes, or other colored
juices of fruits, thicken it stiff with the sugar, spread on a plate to
dry, or use at one. It may be colored yellow with orange peel strained
through a cloth, or green with the juice of spinach. Sugar prepared in
this manner is quite as pretty and much more wholesome than the colored
sugars found in market, which are often prepared with poisonous
chemicals.


FRUIT DESSERTS.


_RECIPES._

APPLE DESSERT.--Pare some large tart apples, remove the cores, put
into the cavities a little quince jelly, lemon flavored sugar, or grated
pineapple and sugar, according to the flavor desired. Have as many
squares of bread with the crust taken off as there are apples, and place
a filled apple on each piece of bread, on earthen pie plates; moisten
well with a little quince jelly dissolved in water, lemon juice, or
pineapple juice, according to the filling used. Cover closely, and bake
in a rather quick oven till the apples are tender. Serve with whipped
cream and sugar.

APPLE MERINGUE DESSERT.--Pare and core enough tart, easy-cooking
apples to make a quart when stewed. Cover closely and cook slowly till
perfectly tender, when they should be quite dry. Mash through a
colander, add a little sugar and a little grated pineapple or lemon
peel. Beat light with a silver fork, turn into a pudding dish, and brown
in a moderate oven ten or fifteen minutes. Then cover with a meringue
made with two tablespoonfuls of sugar and the beaten whites of two eggs,
and return to the oven for a moment to brown. Serve cold.

APPLE ROSE CREAM.--Wash, core, slice, and cook without paring, a
dozen fresh snow apples until very dry. When done, rub through a
colander to remove the skins, add sugar to sweeten, and the whites of
two eggs; beat vigorously with an egg beater until stiff, add a
teaspoonful of rose water for flavoring, and serve at once, or keep on
ice. It is especially important that the apples be very dry, otherwise
the cream will not be light. If after rubbing through the colander,
there is still much juice, they should be cooked again until it has
evaporated; or they may be turned into a jelly bag and drained. Other
varieties of apple may be used, and flavored with pineapple or vanilla.
Made as directed of snow apples or others with white flesh and red
skins, the cream should be of a delicate pink color, making a very
dainty as well as delicious dessert.

APPLE SNOW.--Pare and quarter some nice tart apples. Those that
when cooked will be whitest in color are best. Put them into a china
dish, and steam until tender over a kettle of boiling water. When done,
rub through a colander or beat with a fork until smooth, add sugar to
sweeten and a little grated lemon rind, and beat again. For every cup
and a half of the prepared apple allow the white of one egg, which beat
to a stiff froth, adding the apple to it a little at a time, beating all
together until, when taken up in a spoon, it stands quite stiff. Serve
cold, with or without a simple custard prepared with a pint of hot milk,
a tablespoonful of sugar, and the yolks of two eggs.

BAKED APPLES WITH CREAM.--Pare some nice juicy sweet apples, and
remove the cores without dividing. Bake until tender in a covered dish
with a spoonful or two of water on the bottom. Serve with whipped cream.
Or, bake the apples without paring and when done, remove the skins, and
serve in the same manner. The cream may be flavored with a little lemon
or rose if desired. Lemon apples and Citron apples, prepared as directed
on pages 186 and 187, make a most delicious dessert served with whipped
cream and sugar, or with mock cream flavored with cocoanut.

BAKED SWEET APPLE DESSERT.--Wash and remove the cores from a dozen
medium-sized sweet apples, and one third as many sour ones, and bake
until well done. Mash through a colander to make smooth and remove the
skins. Put into a granite-ware dish, smooth the top with a knife, return
to the oven and bake very slowly until dry enough to keep its shape when
cut. Add if desired a meringue made by heating the white of one egg with
a tablespoonful of sugar. Cut into squares, and serve in individual
dishes. The meringue may be flavored with lemon or dotted with bits of
colored sugar.

BANANAS IN SYRUP.--Heat in a porcelain kettle a pint of currant and
red raspberry juice, equal parts, sweetened to taste. When boiling, drop
into it a dozen peeled bananas, and simmer very gently for twenty
minutes. Remove the bananas, boil the juice until thickened to the
consistency of syrup, and pour over the fruit. Serve cold.

BAKED BANANAS.--Bake fresh, firm, yelow bananas with the skins on
fifteen minutes in a moderate oven. Serve hot.

FRESH FRUIT COMPOTE.--Flavor three tablespoonfuls of sugar by
mixing with it a little of the grated yellow rind of an orange, or by
rubbing it over the orange to extract the oil. If the latter method is
used, the square lump sugar will be preferable. Pare, quarter, and slice
three medium-sized tart apples. Peel, remove the seeds, and cut in quite
fine pieces three oranges. Put the fruit in alternate layers in a glass
dish. Sweeten a cupful of fresh or canned raspberry juice with the
flavored sugar, and turn it over the fruit. Put the dish on ice to cool
for a half hour before serving.

GRAPE APPLES.--Sweeten a pint of fresh grape juice with a pint of
sugar, and simmer gently until reduced one third. Pare and core without
dividing, six or eight nice tart apples, and stew very slowly in the
grape juice until tender, but not broken. Remove the apples and boil the
juice (if any remain) until thickened to the consistency of syrup. Serve
cold with a dressing of whipped cream. Canned grape pulp or juice may be
utilized for this purpose. Sweet apples may be used instead of tart
ones, and the sugar omitted.

PEACH CREAM.--Pare and stone some nice yellow peaches, and mash
with a spoon or press through a colander with a potato masher. Allow
equal quantities of the peach pulp and cream, add a little sugar to
sweeten, and beat all together until the cream is light. Serve in
saucers or glasses with currant buns. A banana cream may be prepared in
the same manner.

PRUNE DESSERT.--Prepare some prune marmalade as directed on page
191. Put in a square granite-ware dish, which place inside another dish
containing hot water, and cook it in a slow oven until the marmalade is
dry enough to retain its shape when cut with a knife. If desired add a
meringue as for baked sweet apple dessert, dotting the top with pink
sugar. Serve in squares in individual dishes.


DESSERTS MADE OF FRUIT WITH GRAINS, BREAD, ETC.


_RECIPES._

APPLE SANDWICH.--Mix half a cup of sugar with the grated yellow
rind of half a lemon. Stir half a cup of cream into a quart of soft
bread crumbs; prepare three pints of sliced apples, sprinkled with the
sugar; fill a pudding dish with alternate layers of moistened crumbs and
sliced apples, finishing with a thick layer of crumbs. Unless the apples
are very juicy, add half a cup of cold water, and unless quite tart,
have mixed with the water the juice of half a lemon. Cover and bake
about one hour. Remove the cover toward the last, that the top may brown
lightly. Serve with cream. Berries or other acid fruits may be used in
place of apples, and rice or cracked wheat mush substituted for bread
crumbs.

APPLE SANDWICH NO. 2.--Prepare and stew some apples as for sauce,
allowing them to become quite dry; flavor with lemon, pineapples,
quince, or any desired flavor. Moisten slices of zwieback in hot cream
as for toast. Spread a slice with the apple mixture, cover with a second
slice of the moistened zwieback, then cut in squares and serve, with or
without a dressing of mock cream. If desired to have the sandwiches
particularly dainty, cut the bread from which the zwieback is prepared
in rounds, triangles, or stars before toasting.

BAKED APPLE PUDDING.--Pour boiling water over bread crumbs; when
soft, squeeze out all the water, and line the bottom and sides of an
oiled earthen pudding dish with the crumbs. Fill the interior with
sliced apples, and cover with a layer of bread crumbs. Bake in a covered
dish set in a pan of hot water, until the apples are tender; then remove
the cover and brown. Loosen the pudding with a knife, invert on a plate,
and it will turn out whole. Serve with sugar and cream.

BARLEY FRUIT PUDDING.--Mix together a pint of cold, well steamed
pearl barley, a cup of finely minced tart apples, three fourths of a cup
of chopped and seeded raisins, a third of a cup of sugar, and a cup of
boiling water and turn into a pudding dish; cover, and place the dish in
the oven in a pan of hot water, and bake slowly an hour and a half, or
until the water has become quite absorbed and the fruit tender. Serve
warm with a water, adding sugar to taste, and thickening with a half
teaspoonful of cornstarch. Any tart fruit jelly may be used, or the
pudding may be served with cream and sugar flavored with a little grated
lemon rind.

BARLEY FIG PUDDING.--One pint of well-steamed pearl barley, two
cups of finely chopped best figs, one half cup of sugar, one half cup of
thin sweet cream, and one and one half cups of fresh milk. Mix all
thoroughly, turn into an earthen pudding dish; place it in the oven in
a pan half full of hot water, and bake slowly till the milk is nearly
absorbed. The pudding should be stirred once or twice during the baking,
so that the figs will be distributed evenly, instead of rising to the
top.

BLACKBERRY CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Take two quarts of well-ripened
blackberries which have been carefully looked over, put them into a
granite-ware boiler with half a cup of water, and stew for twenty
minutes. Add sugar to sweeten, and three heaping tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch rubbed to a cream with a little cold water. Cook until
thickened, pour into molds, and cool. Serve cold with milk or cream.
Other fresh or canned berries may be used in the same way.

COCOANUT AND CORNSTARCH BLANCMANGE.--Simmer two tablespoonfuls of
desiccated cocoanut in a pint of milk for twenty minutes, and strain
through a fine sieve. If necessary, add more cold milk to make a full
pint. Add a tablespoonful of sugar, heat to boiling, and stir in
gradually two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a very
little cold milk. Cook five minutes, turn into cups, and serve cold with
fruit sauce or cream.

CORNSTARCH BLANCMANGE.--Stir together two tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch, half a cup of sugar, the juice and a little of the grated
rind of one lemon; braid the whole with cold water enough to dissolve
well. Then pour boiling water over the mixture, stirring meanwhile,
until it becomes transparent. Allow it to bubble a few minutes longer,
pour into molds, and serve cold with cream and sugar.

CORNSTARCH WITH RAISINS.--Measure out one pint of rich milk. Rub
two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch perfectly smooth with a little of the
milk, and heat the remainder to boiling, adding to it a tablespoonful of
sugar. Add the braided cornstarch, and let it cook until it thickens,
stirring constantly. Then add a half cup of raisins which have been
previously steamed. This may be served hot with sugar and cream, or
turned into cups and molded, and served cold with lemon, orange, or
other fruit sauce for dressing.

CORNSTARCH WITH APPLES.--Prepare the cornstarch as in the preceding
recipe, omitting the raisins. Place in a pudding dish some lemon apple
sauce, without juice, about two inches deep. Pour the cornstarch over
it, and serve hot or cold with cream.

CORNSTARCH FRUIT MOLD.--Heat a quart of strawberry, raspberry, or
currant juice, sweetened to taste, to boiling. If the pure juice of
berries is used, it may be diluted with one cup of water to each pint
and a half of juice. Stir in four tablespoonfuls of cornstarch well
braided with a little of the juice reserved for this purpose. Boil until
the starch is well cooked, stirring constantly. Pour into molds
previously wet with cold water, and cool. Serve with cream and sugar. A
circle of fresh berries around the mold when served adds to its
appearance.

CORNSTARCH FRUIT MOLD NO. 2.--Wash, stone, and stew some nice
French prunes, add sugar to sweeten, and if there is not an abundance of
juice, a little boiling water. For every one fourth pound of prunes
there should be enough juice to make a pint in all, for which add two
tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, rubbed smooth in a little cold water, and
boil three or four minutes. Pour into cups previously wet in cold water,
and mold. Serve cold with whipped cream. Other dried or canned fruits,
as apricots, peaches, cherries, etc., may be used in place of prunes, if
preferred.

CRACKED-WHEAT PUDDING.--A very simple pudding may be made with two
cups of cold, well-cooked cracked wheat, two and a half cups of milk,
and one half cup of sugar. Let the wheat soak in the milk till
thoroughly mixed and free from lumps, then add the sugar and a little
grated lemon peel, and bake about three fourths of an hour in a moderate
oven. It should be of a creamy consistency when cold, but will appear
quite thin when taken from the oven. By flavoring the milk with
cocoanut, a different pudding may be produced. Rolled or pearl wheat may
be used for this pudding. A cupful of raisins may be added if desired.

CRACKED-WHEAT PUDDING NO. 2.--Four and one half cups of milk, a
very scant half cup of cracked wheat, one half cup of sugar; put
together in a pudding dish, and bake slowly with the dish covered and
set in a pan of hot water for three or four hours, or until the wheat is
perfectly tender, as may be ascertained by dipping a few grains with a
spoon out from the side of the dish.

FARINA BLANCMANGE.--Heat a quart of milk, reserving one half cup,
to boiling. Then add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and four heaping
tablespoonfuls of farina, previously moistened with the reserved half
cup of milk. Let all boil rapidly for a few minutes till the farina has
well set, then place in a double boiler, or a dish set in a pan of
boiling water, to cook an hour longer. Mold in cups previously wet with
cold water. Serve with sugar and cream flavored with vanilla or a little
grated lemon rind, mock cream, or cocoanut sauce.

Much variety may be given this simple dessert by serving it with a
dressing of fruit juices; red raspberry, strawberry, grape, current,
cranberry, cherry, and plum are all very good. If desired, the milk with
which the blancmange is prepared may be first flavored with cocoanut,
thus making a different blancmange. Fresh fruit, as sliced banana,
blueberries, or strawberries, lightly stirred in just before molding,
make other excellent varieties.

FARINA FRUIT MOLD.--Put a quart of well-sweetened red raspberry
juice into the inner cup of a double boiler. Heat to boiling, and stir
in four heaping tablespoonfuls of farina first moistened with a little
of the juice. Boil up until thickened, then set into the outer boiler,
the water in which should be boiling, and cook for one hour. Pour into
molds previously wet in cold water, and cool. Serve with whipped cream
or mock cream. Currant, strawberry, cherry, or blackberry juice may be
used instead of raspberry. If water be added to dilute the juice, a
little more farina will be needed.

FRUIT PUDDING.--Measure out one quart of rich new milk, reserving
half a pint to wet five large rounded tablespoonfuls of sifted flour.
Add to the milk one even cup of sugar, turn in the flour mixture and
heat to boiling in a farina kettle, stirring all the while to prevent
lumps, and cook till it thickens, which will be about ten minutes after
it begins to boil. Remove from the stove, and beat while it is cooling.
When cool, add sliced bananas or whole strawberries, whortleberries,
raspberries, blackberries, sliced apricots, or peaches. Serve cold.

JAM PUDDING.--Make a jam by mashing well some fresh raspberries or
blueberries and sweetening to taste. Spread over slices of fresh, light
bread or buns, and pile in layers one above another in a pudding dish.
Pour over the layers enough rich milk or thin cream heated to scalding,
to moisten the whole. Turn a plate over the pudding, place a weight upon
it, and press lightly till cold. Cut in slices, and serve with or
without a cream dressing.

PLAIN FRUIT PUDDING OR BROWN BETTY.--Chop together one part seeded
raisins and two parts good tart apples. Fill a pudding dish with
alternate layers of the fruit and bread crumbs, finishing with the bread
crumbs on top. Unless the apples are very juicy, moisten the whole with
a tablespoonful of lemon juice in a cup of cold water, for a pudding
filling a three-pint dish. Cover the dish and place it in a moderate
oven in a pan of hot water, and bake nearly an hour; then remove from
the pan, uncover, and brown nicely. Serve warm with cream and sugar, or
with an orange or lemon sauce. Seeded cherries may be used in place of
the apples and raisins. In that case, each layer of fruit should be
sprinkled lightly with sugar, and the water omitted.

PRUNE PUDDING.--Moisten rather thin slices of stale bread in hot
milk and place in a pudding dish with alternate layers of stewed prunes
from which the stones have been removed, finishing with bread on top.
Pour over the whole a little more hot milk or pure juice or both, and
bake in a moderate over three fourths of an hour. Serve hot or cold with
orange or lemon sauce.

RICE MERINGUE.--Steam a cupful of rice as directed on page 99 until
tender and dry. Heap it loosely on a glass dish, and dot with squares of
cranberry or currant jelly. Beat with the whites of two eggs to a stiff
froth with one third cup of sugar, and pile it roughly over the rice.
Serve with cream.

RICE SNOWBALL.--Wash a cupful of good rice and steam until half
done. Have pared and cored without dividing, six large, easy cooking
tart apples. Put a clean square of cheese cloth over a plate, place the
apples on it, and fill them and all the interstices between with rice.
Put the remainder of the rice over and around the apples; tie up the
cloth, and cook in a kettle of boiling water until the apples are
tender. When done, lift from the water and drain well, untie the cloth,
invert the pudding upon a plate and remove the cloth. Serve hot with
cream and sugar or cocoanut sauce.

RICE FRUIT DESSERT.--Cold boiled rice, molded so that it can be
sliced, may be utilized in making a variety of delicious desserts. A
nice pudding may be prepared by filling a dish with alternate layers of
half-inch slices of molded rice and grated tart raw apples the same
thickness. Grate a little lemon rind over each layer. Cover, and place
in the oven in a pan of boiling water, and bake for an hour. Serve with
sugar and cream. Stoned cherries or peaches may be used instead of the
apple.

RICE DUMPLING.--Steam a teacup of rice until tender, and line an
oiled earthen pudding dish, pressing it up around the sides and over the
bottom. Fill the crust thus made with rather tart apples cut in small
slices; cover with rice, and steam until the apples are tender, which
may be determined by running a broom-straw through them. Let stand until
cold, then turn from the dish, and serve with sugar and cream. Any easy
cooking tart fruit, as stoned cherries, gooseberries, etc., may be used
in place of the apples when preferred.

RICE CREAM PUDDING.--Take one cup of good well-washed rice, one
scant cup of sugar, and eight cups of new milk, with a little grated
lemon rind for flavoring. Put all into an earthen pudding dish, and
place on the top of the range. Heat very slowly until the milk is
boiling, stirring frequently, so that the rice shall not adhere to the
bottom of the dish. Then put into a moderately hot oven, and bake
without stirring, till the rice is perfectly tender, which can be
ascertained by dipping a spoon in one side and taking out a few grains.
It should be, when cold, of a rich, creamy consistency, with each grain
of rice whole. Serve cold. It is best if made the day before it is
needed. If preferred, the milk may be first flavored with cocoanut,
according to the directions given on page 298.

RICE PUDDING WITH RAISINS.--Wash thoroughly one half cup of rice,
and soak for two hours in warm water. Drain off the water, add two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, one half cup of raisins, and four cups of milk.
Put in an earthen pudding dish and cook for two hours in a moderate
oven, stirring once or twice before the rice begins to swell, then add a
cup of hot milk, and cook for an hour longer.

RED RICE MOLD.--Take one and one half pints of red currants and
one half pint of red raspberries, and follow directions on page 209 for
extracting their juice. The juice may be diluted with one part water to
two of juice if desired. Sweeten to taste, and for each pint when
boiling stir in two tablespoonfuls of ground rice or rice flour rubbed
smooth in a little of the juice which may be retained for the purpose.
Pour into molds, cool, and serve with whipped cream.

RICE AND FRUIT DESSERT.--Steam a cup of good well-washed rice in
milk till tender. Prepare some tart apples by paring, dividing midway
between the stem and blow ends, and removing the cores. Fill the
cavities with quince or pineapple jelly; put the apples in a shallow
stewpan with a half cup of water, cover, and steam till nearly tender.
Put the rice, which should be very moist, around the bottom and sides of
a pudding dish; place the apples inside, cover, and bake ten minutes.
Serve with cream flavored with quince or lemon.

RICE AND TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Soak one half cup of tapioca over night
in a cup of water; in the morning drain off the water if any remains.
Add to the tapioca half a cup of rice, one cup of sugar, one cup of
raisins, and eight cups of new milk, with a little grated lemon rind for
flavoring. Put all in an earthen pudding dish on the top of the range,
where it will heat very gradually to the boiling point, stirring
frequently. When the milk boils, put the pudding in the oven, and bake
till the rice grains are perfectly tender but not broken and mushy. From
twenty minutes to half an hour is usually sufficient. When taken from
the oven, it will appear quite thin, but after cooling will be of a
delicious, creamy consistency. Serve cold.

RICE-FLOUR MOLD.--Braid two tablespoonfuls of rice flour with a
little milk and stir the mixture into a pint of boiling milk to which
has been added three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little salt if
desired. Let this boil until it thickens, then mold, and serve with
cream and sugar or with lemon, orange, or other fruit sauce.

RICE AND STEWED APPLE DESSERT.--Steam or bake some rice in milk
until tender, sweeten slightly and spread a layer of the rice half an
inch thick on the bottom of a pudding dish, then a layer of
lemon-flavored apple sauce, which has been rubbed through a colander and
afterward simmered on the range until stiff. If preferred, the sauce may
be prepared by first baking the apples, and then rubbing the pulp
through a colander. Add another layer of rice, then one of sauce, and so
on until the dish is full. Bake in a moderate oven and serve hot. If the
apples are not very tart, part stewed and sifted cranberries may be used
with them.

RICE AND STRAWBERRY DESSERT.--Soak a cup of rice in one and a half
cups of new milk; place all in an earthen dish, and steam an hour, or
until dry and tender, stirring occasionally for the first fifteen
minutes. When the rice is done, place in the bottom of cups previously
moistened with cold water, five nice hulled strawberries in the shape of
a star. Carefully fill the interstices between the berries with the
cooked rice, and put in a layer of rice. Add next a layer of
strawberries, then another of rice. Press firmly into the cups, and set
away to cool. When well molded, turn into saucers, and pile whipped
cream around each mold; sprinkle with sugar and serve.

A little care in forming the stars and filling the molds makes this a
delicious and pretty dessert. If preferred, the dessert may be prepared
in one large mold, and a larger number of berries arranged in the form
of a cross in the bottom of the dish, covering with rice, and adding as
many alternate layers of berries and rice as desired.

STEWED FRUIT PUDDING.--Take a deep, square or oblong granite-ware
or earthen dish; cut strips of stale bread uniformly an inch in width
and three fourths of an inch in thickness, and place them in the mold
with spaces between them equal to their width. Or, fit the strips around
the bottom of a round, earthen pudding dish, like the spokes of a wheel,
with stewed or canned fruit, sweetened to taste; whortleberries are
best, but apricots, cherries, currants, strawberries, and gooseberries
may all be used. Separate the juice from the berries by turning them
into a colander. Fill the interstices between the bread with hot fruit,
using just as little juice as possible. Cover with another layer, this
time placing the strips of bread over the fruit in the first layer, and
leaving the spaces for fruit over the bread in the first layer. Fill the
dish with these layers of fruit and bread, and when full, pour over all
the hot fruit juice. Put a plate with a weight on it on the top to press
it firmly. Dip off any juice that may be pressed out, and set the
pudding in the refrigerator to cool and press. When cold, it will turn
out whole, and can be cut in slices and served with whipped cream or
cocoanut sauce.

STRAWBERRY MINUTE PUDDING.--Cook a quart of ripe strawberries in a
pint of water till well scalded. Add sugar to taste. Skim out the fruit,
and into the boiling juice stir a scant cup of granulated wheat flour
previously rubbed to a paste with a little cold water; cook fifteen or
twenty minutes, pour over the fruit, and serve cold with cream sauce.

SWEET APPLE PUDDING.--Pare, core, and slice enough ripe, juicy
sweet apples to fill a pint bowl. Heat a quart of new milk to scalding
in a double boiler. Pour it hot over one cup of good granulated
cornmeal, and beat very thoroughly to remove all lumps. Return to the
double boiler, and cook until the meal is set. The batter then should
be about the consistency of corn mush. Remove from the fire, add a pint
of cold milk, stir in the sliced apples, one third of a cup of sugar or
molasses, and a teaspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a very little
milk. Turn all into a deep earthen crock or pudding dish, and bake
slowly from three to four hours, stirring frequently the first hour. It
should be moderately browned on top when done. Serve warm or cold.

WHORTLEBERRY PUDDING.--One quart of new milk, one quart of fine
bread crumbs, two quarts of fresh whortleberries, one or two
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Heat the milk to boiling; fill a pudding dish
with alternate layers of bread crumbs and berries, beginning and ending
with crumbs. Add the sugar to the milk, let it dissolve, and pour the
whole over the pudding. Cover closely, and bake in a slow oven within a
pan of hot water nearly an hour. Serve warm with cream or cocoanut
sauce.


DESSERTS WITH TAPIOCA, SAGO, MONICA, AND SEA MOSS.

Both pearl and flake tapioca are suitable for these desserts. They
should be soaked for some hours before using, and it is always best to
soak over night if convenient. The flake tapioca requires longer soaking
and cooking than the pearl tapioca. For soaking, use one and a half cups
of water for each cup of flake tapioca, and one pint of water for a cup
of pearl tapioca. For cooking, three or four additional cups of water
will be required for each cup of tapioca, depending upon, the articles
used with it. A double boiler should be used for the cooking.


_RECIPES._

APPLE TAPIOCA.--Soak a cupful of pearl tapioca over night. In the
morning simmer in a quart of boiling water until transparent and
thickened. Arrange in the bottom of a pudding dish four or five
good-sized tart apples, which have been pared, cored, and the cavities
filled with sugar. Squeeze the juice of a lemon and grate a very little
of the rind over the apples. Pour the tapioca over the fruit. Set the
dish inside a pan filled with hot water, cover, and bake one hour, or
until the apples are done. Serve with sugar and cream. It is best nearly
cold. Fresh peaches, pared and stewed, may be used in place of apples,
if preferred.

APPLE TAPIOCA NO. 2.--Soak a half cup of tapioca in a cap of tepid
water, for at least three hours. Pare, core, and quarter nice tart
apples to fill a two-quart pudding dish nearly half full. Add four cups
of water and one of sugar to the soaked tapioca, pour it over the
apples, and bake two or three hours in a slow oven. Serve with whipped
cream.

BANANA DESSERT.--Soak a cup of tapioca over night. In the morning
cook in a double boiler in a quart of water until transparent. When
done, add a cup of sugar and three or four sliced bananas. Serve cold
with cream.

BLACKBERRY TAPIOCA.--Soak a cup of tapioca over night. When ready
to cook, add three cups of boiling water and cook in a double boiler
until transparent and smooth. Sprinkle a quart of fresh blackberries
with sugar, and stir lightly into the tapioca. Pour into molds and serve
cold with cream and sugar. Other fresh berries may be used in the same
way.

CHERRY PUDDING.--Soak and cook a half cup of tapioca in a pint of
water until transparent. Have a pint of fresh pitted cherries in an
earthen pudding dish. Sprinkle them well with sugar, pour over them the
cooked tapioca, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven. Serve hot with
or without cream.

FRUIT TAPIOCA.--Cook three fourths of a cup of tapioca in four cups
of water until smooth and transparent Stir into it lightly a pint of
fresh strawberries, raspberries, currants, or any small fruit, adding
sugar as required. For variety a cup of canned quinces or apricots may
be substituted for fresh fruit. Serve warm or cold with whipped cream or
mock cream.

MOLDED TAPIOCA WITH FRUIT.--Simmer one half cup of desiccated
cocoanut in a pint of milk for twenty minutes. Strain out the cocoanut,
and add milk to make a full pint. Add one half cup of sugar and one half
cup of tapioca previously soaked over night. Let the whole simmer until
the tapioca is transparent. Dip some cups in cold water, drain, and lay
fresh strawberries, currants, or cherries in the bottom of each in the
form of a star or cross. Pour the tapioca into the molds gently, so as
not to displace the fruit. When cold, turn out and serve with whipped
cream or fruit sauce. Raisins may be substituted for fresh fruit, or
bits of jelly may be placed around the mold after it has cooled, if
preferred.

PINEAPPLE TAPIOCA.--Soak one cup of tapioca over night in one and
one half cups of water. Add two and one half cups of water and cook in a
double boiler until transparent, then add one cup of sugar and one juicy
pineapple minced fine with a sharp knife. Mold, and serve cold with or
without cream.

PRUNE AND TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Soak one half cup of tapioca over
night. In the morning cook until transparent in two cups of water. Stew
two cups of well-washed and stoned prunes in a quart of water till
perfectly tender; then add the juice of a good lemon and two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and boil till the syrup becomes thick and
rich. Turn the prunes into a pudding dish, cover with the cooked
tapioca, and add a little grated lemon rind. Bake lightly. Serve without
dressing or with sugar and cream or almond sauce. If preferred, the
prunes and tapioca may be placed in the dish in alternate layers, having
the top one of tapioca.

TAPIOCA AND FIG PUDDING.--Cook three fourths of a cup of tapioca as
for Apple Tapioca. Have ready two cups of finely sliced or chopped tart
apples, and one cup of chopped figs, which have first been lightly
steamed. If preferred, raisins may be used in place of half the figs.
Put the fruit in the bottom of the pudding dish, turn the tapioca over
it, and bake till the fruit is very soft. If the apples are not very
tart, sprinkle the juice of a lemon over them before adding the figs and
tapioca.

A nice fruit pudding can also be made by using half canned pears and
half apples, or canned quinces may be substituted for figs.

PEACH TAPIOCA.--For this will be needed a quart of nicely canned
peaches, a cup of tapioca, and from one half to three fourths of a cup
of sugar, according to the sweetness of the peaches. Soak the tapioca
over night in just enough water to cover. When ready to cook, put in a
double boiler with three cups of water, and cook for an hour. Remove
from the fire and add to it the juice from the peaches, of which there
should be a cup and a half, which has been secured by draining the
peaches in a colander, and stir it well into the tapioca. Place a layer
of this mixture in an oiled pudding dish, add the peaches, cover with
the remainder of the tapioca, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven.

TAPIOCA JELLY.--Soak a cup of tapioca in a pint of water over
night. Add another pint and cook until transparent and smooth. Add three
tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and four tablespoonfuls of sugar; beat
well together and tun into molds. Serve cold. No dressing is required.
This may be varied by using unsweetened currant, grape, or other acid
fruit juice in place of lemon. Fruit jelly may be used if the juice is
not easily obtained. Add when the tapioca is well cooked, and stir until
dissolved.

APPLE SAGO PUDDING.--Soak one cup of sago in six cups of water;
stew ten small apples, mix with the sago, and bake three quarters of an
hour. Serve with cream and sugar. It is better warm than cold, but
acceptable either way.

RED SAGO MOLD.--Take a quart of red raspberry juice, pure or
diluted with one third water, and sweeten to taste. Have ready one half
cup of best sago which has soaked for twenty minutes in just enough
water to cover. Drain off any water that may remain. Add the sago to the
juice, and cook until the sago is transparent, then turn into molds.
Serve cold with cream. Cranberry or strawberry juice may be used in
place of the raspberry, if preferred.

SAGO FRUIT PUDDING.--Soak a small cup of sago an hour in just
enough water to cover. Drain off any water that may not be absorbed. Mix
two thirds of a cup of sugar with this sago, and stir all into a quart
of boiling water. Let it boil until the sago is perfectly transparent
and pour in a pint of nicely hulled strawberries. Turn into molds to
cool, or serve warm with cream, as preferred. Tapioca can be used
instead of sago, but needs longer soaking. Raspberries, stoned cherries,
or currants can be used in place of strawberries.

SAGO PUDDING.--Soak a cupful of sago for twenty minutes in a cup of
cold water; then pour over it a quart and a cup of boiling water, add a
cup of sugar and one half cup of raisins. Cook till the sago is
perfectly transparent, flavor with vanilla, and set away to cool. Serve
with whipped cream.

MANIOCA WITH FRUIT.--Pare, core, and quarter six medium-sized tart
apples, and put them to cook in a quart of boiling water. Add a cup of
sugar, and cook without stirring until softened, then sprinkle into the
water in which they are cooking five tablespoonfuls of manioca, and cook
until it is transparent, which will be in about ten minutes. Flavor with
a little grated lemon rind, and serve hot with sugar and cream, or mold,
as preferred. Canned peaches, apricots, or cherries may be used in a
similar manner, adding boiling water if there is not sufficient juice to
properly cook the manioca. Or the manioca may be first cooked in boiling
water, using four scant tablespoonfuls for a pint of water, and when
transparent, turning it over sliced bananas, pineapples, or oranges,
molding and serving with cream and sugar.

RASPBERRY MANIOCA MOLD.--Heat a pint of water, and when boiling,
sprinkle into it four scant tablespoonfuls of manioca and cook for ten
minutes or until transparent, stirring continually. When transparent and
thickened, remove from the fire and add a tablespoonful of lemon juice
and one cup of sugar. Place a layer of the cooked manioca in the bottom
of a pudding dish, add a layer of freshly picked red raspberries, then
another of the manioca, filling the dish in alternate layers with one of
manioca for the top. Set away in some cool place until well molded.
Serve in slices with cream flavored with rose. Other fresh berries may
be used instead of raspberries.

SEA MOSS BLANCMANGE.--Wash the moss well in several waters, and
soak in a very little cold water for an hour before using. It is hardly
possible to give exact directions for making this blancmange, owing to
the difficulty of accurately measuring the moss, but in general, a small
handful will be ample for a quart of milk. Add the moss, when washed, to
the milk, and cook in a double boiler until the milk has become
thickened and glutinous. Add sugar to sweeten, flavor with vanilla or
rose water, and strain through a fine sieve into cups previously wet in
cold water, and mold. This may be varied by using boiling water instead
of milk for cooking, adding the juice of one or two lemons and a little
grated rind to flavor.


DESSERTS MADE WITH GELATINE.

Gelatine is an article largely employed in making delicate and dainty
dishes. It is economical and convenient, because the dessert can be
prepared several hours before needed; but it must be stated that it has
in itself little or no food value, and there is great liability of its
being unwholesome. A writer in the _Anti-Adulteration Journal_, a short
time since, speaking of the use of gelatine, says:--

"The nutritive value of pure gelatine has been shown to be very low in
the scale of foods. The beef gelatine of the markets that is used by
bakers, is far from being pure gelatine. It frequently has a very
disagreeable, fetid odor, and has evidently begun to decompose during
the process of manufacture. After a thorough drying, putrefaction does
not take place as long as it remains dry. But suppose that gelatine
which has thus begun to decompose during the drying process, containing,
perhaps, putrefactive germs in the dried state, be dissolved in water,
and in hot weather, kept in this condition for a few hours previous to
being used; the result would be rapid putrefaction. The putrefaction
would be checked by freezing; but the bacteria causing it are not killed
by the low temperature. As soon as the dessert is melted or eaten, they
resume their activity in the body, and may cause sickness. It is a
well-known fact that gelatine is an excellent medium in which to
cultivate various kinds of micro-organisms; and if the conclusions here
mentioned be correct, it seems that gelatine should be used with great
care in connection with food preparations. When used carelessly, it may
do a great deal of harm. I wish to impress those who use it with the
importance of guarding against its dangers. Gelatine should not be
allowed to remain in solution for many hours before using, especially in
hot weather.

"When used at all, the best varieties should be employed, and such as
are free from putrefactive odor."

A "box" of gelatine is used to signify a two-ounce package. If half a
box is called for, divide it by cutting the box and its contents in
halves rather than by emptying the box and then attempting to make a
division.

To prepare gelatine for desserts, first soak it till soft in a small
quantity of cold water (a cupful to one box of gelatine is sufficient);
fifteen minutes will suffice if it is stirred frequently; then dissolve
in boiling liquid. Do not cook the gelatine, and after it is dissolved,
always strain through a cloth strainer before using.

In winter, a two-ounce package will solidify two quarts of liquid,
including the water in which the gelatine is soaked. In summer, a little
less liquid should be used. Gelatine desserts must be left on ice or in
a cool place until hardened, but they should not be served at the table
so cold as to interfere with the digestion of other foods.


_RECIPES._

APPLES IN JELLY.--Pare and core without cutting open, a half dozen
medium-sized tart apples of the same degree of hardness. Fill the
centers with a little grated lemon rind and sugar. Steam until tender
but not broken. Have ready half a package of gelatine which has been
soaked for an hour in just enough water to cover. Prepare a syrup with
one cup of sugar and a pint of water. When boiling, turn the syrup over
the gelatine, stirring well to dissolve it, and add the juice of half a
lemon. Strain, place the apples in a deep dish with a little space
between each; turn the mixture over them, and set in the ice box to
cool. Serve with or without a little whipped cream.

APPLE SHAPE.--Steam some nice tart apples. When tender, rub through
a colander. Have two thirds of a box of gelatine soaked in just enough
water to cover; pour over it a cup and a half of boiling water; when
well dissolved, strain and add a pint of the sifted apples sweetened to
taste, and one half cup of grated fresh or canned pineapple, or if
preferred, one half cup of the juice of canned pineapple. Turn into cups
previously wet in cold water, and mold. Serve with a little cream.
Canned peaches, apricots, and other fruit may be used the same as
apples, if preferred. Rub the fruit with but little juice through a
colander, and proceed as above.

BANANA DESSERT.--Dissolve half a box of gelatine in a half cup of
warm water. Heat three cups of rich milk to boiling, and add to it one
cup of sugar and turn over the well-dissolved gelatine and strain. Let
it partly cool, and mix in three or four bananas, sliced thin or chopped
fine. Turn all into a mold previously wet with cold water, and leave
till hardened, which may require several hours unless the mold be placed
on ice. When well molded, turn into a glass dish, serve with whipped
cream flavored with vanilla or lemon.

CLEAR DESSERT.--Soak a box of gelatine in a large bowl with half a
cup of cold water. When soft, pour over it three pints of boiling water,
add the juice of three large lemons and two cups of sugar. Stir well,
strain, and pour into molds previously wet with cold water. Put into the
refrigerator until hardened. Serve with whipped cream. Quince, apricot,
orange, or pineapple juice may be substituted for lemon, and thus a
variety of desserts may be made.

FRUIT FOAM DESSERT.--Soak half a package of gelatine in half a cup
of cold water until soft. Heat to boiling two and one half cups of red
raspberry, currant, strawberry, or grape juice, sweetened to taste, and
pour over the soaked gelatine. Stir until perfectly dissolved, then
strain, and set the dish in ice water to cool. When it is cold and
beginning to thicken, beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth and
stir into the thickening gelatine. Beat thoroughly for fifteen minutes
with an egg beater, or whip till the whole is of a solid foam stiff
enough to retain its shape. Turn into molds previously wet with cold
water, or pile roughly in large spoonfuls in a glass dish. Set away in
the refrigerator until needed. Serve with a little whipped cream piled
lightly around it.

FRUIT SHAPE.--Take a quart of nicely canned red raspberries,
sweetened to taste; turn into a colander and drain off the juice, taking
care to keep the fruit as perfect as possible. Put two thirds of a box
of gelatine to soak in just enough of the juice to cover. When the
gelatine is ready, heat the remainder of the juice to boiling and pour
over it. When well dissolved, add the fruit, turn into cups, and mold.
Serve with cream. Peaches, strawberries, apricots, and other canned
fruit may be used in place of the raspberries, if preferred.

GELATINE CUSTARD.--Soak a quarter of a box of gelatine in one
fourth of a cup of cold water till soft; then pour over it three fourths
of a cup of boiling water, and stir until dissolved. Beat the yolks of
two eggs and three tablespoonfuls of sugar to a cream; pour over it
slowly, stirring continuously, a pint of boiling milk, and cook in a
double boiler until it thickens. Then add the gelatine mixture, which
should first be strained, the whites of the two eggs beaten stiff, and a
little vanilla for flavoring. Beat all well together, turn into molds
previously wet in cold water, and place on ice to harden. Serve with
fruit sauce.

LAYER PUDDING.--Divide a package of gelatine into three portions,
and put each to soak in one third of a cup of cold water. Heat one and
one fourths cups of water to boiling, add the juice of one lemon and two
thirds of a cup of sugar. Turn this slowly, stirring well meanwhile,
over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Cook in a double boiler five
minutes, or until the mixture thickens. Pour the hot custard over one
portion of the soaked gelatine, and stir it until dissolved. Strain, add
a little grated lemon rind for flavoring, and turn into a broad, shallow
dish to mold. A square granite-ware baking tin is admirable for this
purpose.

Take one and one half cups of raspberry, strawberry, grape, or currant
juice, sweetened to taste; heat to boiling and pour over the second
portion of the soaked gelatine. Stir till well dissolved, strain, and
turn into a shallow mold like that containing the first portion.

Heat one and one half cups of rich milk to boiling, add one half cup of
sugar, and pour over the third portion of soaked gelatine. Strain and
cool a little, flavor with vanilla or a few chopped bananas; or, if
preferred, flavor the milk with cocoanut before using, as directed on
page 298. Pour into a third mold like the others to cool. When all are
cold, arrange in layers, the yellow at the bottom and the white at the
top. The whites of the eggs may be used for meringue, or for making a
whipped cream sauce to serve with the pudding.

LEMON JELLY.--Soak one half box of gelatine in a scant cup of cold
water until soft. Then pour over it one pint of boiling water and stir
until well dissolved. Add one cup of sugar, the yellow rind of one
lemon, and one half cup of lemon juice. Strain, put into molds
previously wet in cold water, and place in the ice chest to harden. If
preferred, the above may be cooled in a shallow dish and cut into
irregular shapes to be served with a custard sauce. Use only the yolks
of eggs in making the custard, that it may have a rich color, using two
yolks in place of one whole egg.

JELLY WITH FRUIT.--Soak a package of gelatine in a cup of cold
water until soft; then pour over it one quart and a cup of boiling
water. Strain, add the juice of four lemons and twelve tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Cool a little of the gelatine in a mold, and as soon as set,
scatter in some nice currants or seedless raisins; add another layer of
gelatine, and when set, scatter in more fruit; continue until the mold
is full, having gelatine at the top. Fresh fruit, currants, grapes,
cherries, plums, peaches, etc., may be used in place of raisins, if
preferred.

ORANGE DESSERT.--Soak one third of a cup of gelatine in one third
of a cup of cold water until soft; then pour over it one third of a cup
of boiling water. Add a scant cup of sugar, the juice of one lemon, and
a cupful of orange juice and pulp. Set the dish containing the mixture
in a pan of ice water until it begins to harden. Have ready the whites
of three eggs well whipped, add to the jelly, and beat all together
until light and stiff enough to drop. Pour into molds wet in cold water,
and lined with sections of oranges, from which seeds and white fiber
have been removed.

ORANGES IN JELLY.--Pare divide, and take out the seeds from four or
five sweet oranges, being careful to remove all the white rind and
shreds. Place in a deep dish and pour over them a syrup prepared as for
Apples in Jelly, using the juice of a whole lemon. Set in the ice box
over night. A very little orange peel may be grated into the syrup if
liked; and if the oranges are very sweet, less sugar will be required.
If one can afford to use orange juice in place of the water in making
the syrup, the dessert will be greatly improved.

ORANGE JELLY.--Soak one quarter of a box of gelatine until soft in
just enough cold water to cover. Then pour over it one half cup of
boiling water. Stir until well dissolved, add the juice of one small
lemon, one cupful of orange juice, and one half cup of sugar. Strain,
turn into molds previously wet in cold water, and set on ice to harden.
Strawberry, raspberry, and other fruit juices may be used in a similar
manner.

SNOW PUDDING.--Soak one fourth of a box of gelatine until soft in
an equal measure of cold water. Then pour over it one cup of boiling
water, and add one fourth of a cup of strained lemon juice and one cup
of sugar; stir till the sugar is all dissolved. Strain into a large
china dish, and set in ice water to cool. Let it stand until cold and
beginning to thicken. Have ready the whites of three eggs beaten to a
stiff froth, and add to the gelatine as it begins to thicken; beat all
together for fifteen or twenty minutes, until it is of a solid foam and
stiff enough to hold its shape. Turn into molds and keep in a cool place
till needed. A half dozen finely sliced or chopped bananas stirred in
toward the last, makes a nice variation. Serve with custard sauce made
with the yolks of the eggs and flavored with rose or vanilla. Orange,
quince, or pineapple juice may be substituted for lemon, for a change.

This dessert is best if made several hours before it is needed and set
in the refrigerator to keep cold.


DESSERTS WITH CRUSTS.


_RECIPES._

APPLE TART.--Pare and slice some quick-cooking, tart apples, and
place them in the bottom of a pudding dish, with a tablespoonful of
water. Cover with a crust prepared in the following manner: Into a cup
of thin cream stir a gill of yeast and two cups of flour; let this
become very light, then add sufficient flour to mix soft. Knead for
fifteen or twenty minutes very thoroughly, roll evenly, and cover the
apples; put all in a warm place until the crust has become very light,
then bake. If the apples do not bake easily, they may be partially
cooked before putting on the crust. Dish so that the fruit will be
uppermost, and serve cold with cream and sugar, cocoanut sauce, or mock
cream.

GOOSEBERRY TART.--Fill a pudding dish with well prepared green
gooseberries, adding a tablespoonful or two of water. Cover with a crust
as for Apple Tart, and when light, bake in a moderately quick oven. Cut
the crust into the required number of pieces, and dish with gooseberries
heaped on top. Serve cold with sugar and cream.

CHERRY TART.--Prepare the same as for Apple Tart, with stoned
cherries, only omitting the water, as the cherries will be sufficiently
juicy of themselves. If the fruit is very juicy, sprinkle a
tablespoonful of flour over it before putting on the crust. Plum and
peach tart may be made in the same manner, and are both very nice.

STRAWBERRY AND OTHER FRUIT SHORTCAKES.--Beat together one cup of
thin cream, slightly warmed, a tablespoonful of yeast, and two small
cups of flour. Set in a warm place till very light. Add sufficient warm
flour to mix soft, and knead thoroughly for fifteen or twenty minutes.
Divide into two equal portions, and roll into sheets about one half inch
in thickness, making the center a very little thinner than the edges, so
that when risen, the center will not be highest. Place in tins, and set
in a warm place until perfectly risen, or until they have doubled their
first thickness. Bake quickly. When cold, spread one cake with fruit,
and cover with the other. If the fruit is large, it may be chopped fine
with a knife, or mashed with a spoon. A little lemon juice added to
peaches is an addition for shortcake.

BANANA SHORTCAKE.--Prepare the crust as previously directed. Fill
with sliced bananas, for every three of which add the juice of one
orange, a little of the grated rind, and a half cup of sugar.

LEMON SHORTCAKE.--Prepare the crust as for Fruit Shortcake. For the
filling, grate the yellow portion only of the lemon, and squeeze the
juice into a bowl; add a cupful of sugar. Braid a tablespoonful of flour
smooth with two tablespoonfuls of water, add enough boiling water,
stirring well meanwhile, to make a teacupful. Add this to the other
ingredients, beat well together, and place the bowl in a basin of
boiling water or over the teakettle. Cook until about as thick as boiled
custard. Fill this between the shortcakes and serve.

BERRY SHORTCAKE WITH PREPARED CREAM.--Prepare the shortcake as
previously directed. Sweeten the berries and spread on the lower crust,
then pour over them a "cream" prepared as follows, and add top crust:--

CREAM.--Heat one half cup of milk and the same of thin cream to
boiling, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and thicken with one
teaspoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Turn the
hot sauce over the beaten white of two eggs, stirring rapidly meanwhile,
until the egg is thoroughly mingled with the whole. Allow it to become
cold before using.

RAISED PIE.--Prepare the dough as for shortcake. Divide in two
portions, spread one on the tin, and cover with a layer of easy-cooking
tart apples sliced in eighths. Put two or three spoonfuls of rather
thick sweet cream over the apples, and cover with the top crust. Let the
crusts rise until very light, and bake. Peaches may be used in the same
manner.

BAKED APPLE LOAF.--Prepare some dough as for buns on page 347,
leaving out the sugar, and when ready for the last melding, cut it into
three portions. Put some flour on the bread board, mold the dough well,
and roll as thin as pie crust in such shape as will fit a shallow baking
tin. Spread over the tin, and cover the dough with a layer of
easy-cooking, sour apples sliced very thin, or with very stiff apple
marmalade. Cover this with a second layer of dough, then add another
layer of apples, and cover with the third portion of the dough. Pinch
the edges of the dough well together, let the loaf rise till very light,
then bake. Eat cold with sugar and cream. If the apples will not cook
quickly, they may be first steamed until nearly tender. If the crust
appears too hard when taken from the oven, cover with a wet napkin and
allow it to steam for a little time until softened.


CUSTARD PUDDINGS.

Very much depends upon the baking in all puddings made with milk and
eggs.

A custard pudding made with one egg, and slowly baked, will be much
thicker and nicer than one made with more eggs, baked in too hot an
oven.

A custard pudding baked too quickly or too long will have the eggs mixed
with the farinaceous substance and the milk turned to whey, while one
more carefully baked will have eggs and milk formed into a thick custard
on the top.

Custard puddings and all other baked puddings which require to be cooked
slowly, are best cooked in an earthen dish set in the oven in a pan of
hot water, and baked only till the pudding is set. If it is desirable
to use with eggs any ingredient which requires a lengthy cooking, it is
much better to cook it partially before adding the eggs. Many custard
desserts are much more dainty and more easily served when cooked in cups
than when baked in a large dish. The blue willow pattern stoneware cups
and the blue and white Japanese ware are very suitable for this purpose.
When cooking, set the cups, allowing one for each person, in the oven in
a dripping pan containing hot water, and bake. Serve without removing
from the cups.

If desired to stir beaten eggs into heated milk, add a few spoonfuls of
cold milk to the eggs, and pour the mixture, a little at a time, into
the hot milk, taking care to stir it constantly.

A nice way to flavour custards and meringues for custard puddings is to
beat fruit jelly with the whites of the eggs; red raspberry, quince, and
pineapple jellies give especially nice flavours.


_RECIPES._

APPLE CUSTARD.--Bake good tart apples; when done, remove the pulp,
and rub through a sieve; sweeten, and flavour with grated pineapple or
grated orange or lemon rind. Put in a glass dish, and cover with a plain
custard prepared as directed on page 328. Bits of jelly may be scattered
over the top of the custard.

APPLE CUSTARD NO. 2.--Peel, halve, and core eight or ten
medium-sized sour apples. Have prepared a syrup made with a cup of
water, the juice of one lemon, a little grated rind, and a half cup of
sugar. When the sugar is dissolved, add the fruit, and simmer till
tender but not fallen to pieces. Skim out the apples, draining
thoroughly, and lay them in a glass dish. Boil up the syrup until thick,
and poor it over the apples. Make a soft boiled custard with a pint of
milk, yolks of three eggs, and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. When cold,
spread over the apples; whip the whites to a stiff froth, flavor with
lemon, and pile irregularly upon the top. Brown lightly in the oven.

APPLE CUSTARD NO. 3.--Pare and remove the cores from a dozen tart
apples, and fill the cavities with black raspberry, quince, or grape
jelly. Put them in a covered baking dish with a tablespoonful of water,
and steam in the oven till tender but not fallen to pieces. Then cover
the apples with a raw custard made by cooking two tablespoonfuls of
flour rubbed smooth with a little milk, in a quart of milk, till just
thickened, and adding, when cold, the yolks of two eggs well beaten
with two heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, and lastly the whites of the
eggs whipped to a stiff froth. Bake in a dish set in a pan of hot water,
until the custard has set, but not till it separates.

APPLE CORNSTARCH CUSTARD.--Cover the bottom of a small earthen-ware
pudding dish an inch or more in depth with apples stewed until very dry,
sweetened and flavored with a teaspoonful of rose water. Heat a cup of
milk to boiling, and stir into it a tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk, and one fourth cup of sugar; cook until
thickened, then add the yolk of one egg, and pour the whole over the
apple. Meringue the top with the white of the egg beaten stiff with a
tablespoonful of sugar, and flavored with a little rose water.

APPLE AND BREAD CUSTARD.--For this is required one cup of finely
rolled bread crumbs, two eggs, one half cup of sugar, one cup minced
sour apples, and one quart of milk. Beat the sugar and yolks together,
add the milk, bread, and fruit, and lastly the well-beaten whites of the
eggs. Bake in a dish set in a pan of hot water till firm but not dry.

ALMOND CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Blanch one and one half ounces of sweet
almonds, and reduce them to a paste as directed on page 298; or if
obtainable, almondine may be used instead of the prepared almonds. Heat
a quart of milk, and while boiling, stir into it four tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch which has been braided smooth with a little cold milk; let it
thicken over the fire, stirring all the time. Then add two
tablespoonfuls of thick, sweet cream. Lastly, stir in two or three
well-beaten eggs and a tablespoonful of rose water. Let it come just to
the boiling point, and remove from the stove. Keep in a cold place till
needed. Serve with hot mock cream or with grape pulp as dressing.

ALMOND CREAM.--Heat a pint of milk, and when boiling stir into it
two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk,
also one fourth cup of sugar and three tablespoonfuls of almondine. Cook
until thickened, and pour it, stirring constantly meanwhile, over the
beaten whites of two eggs. Set on ice to cool, and serve with grape pulp
as dressing. A cupful of blanched and chopped almonds may be used
instead of almondine if that is not obtainable. The pudding will then
require an additional one fourth cup of sugar.

APPLE CHARLOTTE.--Take three cups of nicely stewed tart apples
which have been beaten smooth or rubbed through a colander and sweetened
to taste. If the sauce is thin and very juicy, place it upon the range,
and simmer slowly till it is of the consistency of thick marmalade or
jelly. Add to the apples four tablespoonfuls of grated fresh or canned
pineapple for flavoring. Remove the hard crusts from slices of light
whole-wheat bread, spread them quite thickly with the prepared apple,
and pack in layers in a pudding mold. Cover with a simple custard made
of a quart of milk, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and two eggs. Let it
stand half an hour, then bake. Do not press the bread or beat it after
the custard is turned on, as that will be likely to make the pudding
heavy. Other fruit marmalade may be used in place of the apple
preparation if preferred.

BANANA CUSTARD.--Prepare a custard as directed for Plain Custard
with a quart of milk, two well-beaten eggs, four tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and one of cornstarch. When the custard is cool, pour it over
four thinly sliced yellow bananas, over which a tablespoonful of sugar
and a teaspoonful of water have been sprinkled. Serve cold.

BOILED CUSTARD.--Beat thoroughly together one pint of milk, two
eggs, and a tablespoonful or two of sugar, until thoroughly mingled.
Turn the mixture into a double boiler, and cook until the custard is
set.

BOILED CUSTARD BREAD PUDDING.--Crumble enough of the soft portion
of stale whole-wheat bread to lightly fill a pint bowl. Heat a pint of
milk to boiling. Stir into it, as soon as it boils, two eggs, yolks and
whites well beaten separately, two heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, a
little grated lemon rind, and the light bread crumbs; stir rapidly till
the whole thickens, pour into a deep dish, and when cold, dot the top
with bits of currant or cranberry jelly.

BREAD AND FRUIT CUSTARD.--Take for this, two cups of grated bread
crumbs, two cups of finely chopped tart apples, one cup of English
currants or stoned raisins, mixed with a very little chopped citron for
flavor, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, three cups of milk, and two eggs.
Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together, then add the milk,
bread, fruit, and lastly the well-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in a
dish set within a pan of hot water, until the custard is set.

BREAD CUSTARD PUDDING.--Take one cup of finely powdered bread
crumbs, one half cup of sugar, one quart of milk, and the beaten yolks
of three eggs and whites of two. Mix the bread and milk, and when well
softened, add the beaten yolks, sugar, and lastly the well-beaten
whites; beat all together thoroughly, season with a little grated lemon
rind; place the pudding dish in the oven in a pan of hot water, and bake
till firm and lightly brown. Take from the oven, cover the top with a
layer of apple marmalade made without sugar, or with some tart fruit
jelly; add to this a meringue made of the white of the remaining egg and
a tablespoonful of sugar, beaten to a stiff froth, and place in the oven
a moment to brown lightly.

Fresh fruit, strawberries, raspberries, chopped peaches, currants,
cherries, or shredded oranges are equally as good as the marmalade or
jelly for the top dressing, and may be used to vary this pudding in a
number of different ways. Canned fruits, if well drained from juice,
especially apricots and peaches, are excellent for this purpose. A
cocoanut custard pudding may be made of the above by flavoring the milk
before using, with two tablespoonfuls of desiccated cocoanut Another
variety still may be made by adding to the first recipe half a cup of
Zante currants and the same of seedless raisins, or a half cup of finely
shredded, tender citron.

BREAD AND FIG PUDDING.--Put together two cups of finely grated
bread crumbs, two cups of milk, one cup of finely chopped figs
previously steamed or cooked, one fourth cup of sugar, and lastly, two
well-beaten eggs. Bake in a moderate oven till the custard is set.

BREAD AND APRICOT PUDDING.--Fill a pudding dish with alternate
layers of bread crumbs and canned apricots well drained from juice. Pour
over it a custard made with two eggs, one half cup of sugar, and a pint
of milk. Bake one half hour, or only until the custard is set. Canned
peaches, to which a teaspoonful of lemon juice has been added after
draining, may be used in place of apricots.

CARAMEL CUSTARD.--Turn one fourth of a cup of sugar into a stewpan,
and stir it over the fire until it becomes liquid and brown. Scald a cup
and a half of milk, and add the browned sugar. Beat two eggs thoroughly,
add to them one half cup cold milk, and turn the mixture slowly,
stirring constantly that no lumps form, into the scalding milk; continue
to stir until the custard thickens. Set away to cool, and serve in
glasses.

CARROT PUDDING.--Take two cups of carrots, boiled tender and rubbed
through a colander, one pint of milk, two thirds of a cup of sugar, and
two well beaten eggs. Flavor with vanilla, and having beaten all well
together, turn into an earthen pudding dish, set the dish in a pan of
hot water, and place in the oven. Bake only till the custard sets.

COCOANUT CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Simmer a cupful of grated cocoanut in
a quart of milk for twenty minutes. Strain the milk to remove the
cocoanut, adding enough more milk to make a full quart. With a small
portion of it braid smoothly one and one half tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch or rice flour, and put the remainder in a saucepan over the
fire. When the milk is boiling, add the cornstarch, stirring constantly
until it thickens; then remove from the fire and cool. Next add two
tablespoonfuls of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a moderate
oven, in a dish set in a pan of hot water, until the custard is well
set.

COCOANUT CUSTARD.--Flavor a pint of milk with cocoanut, add a
tablespoonful of sugar and two well-beaten eggs, and boil till set in a
double boiler or a bowl set in a dish of boiling water. Richer custards
may be made by using three or four eggs, but the richer the custard the
more likely it is to curdle and become watery, as well as being less
wholesome.

COCONUT RICE CUSTARD.--Flavor one quart of milk quite strongly
with coconut, as previously directed. Add to it one and one half cups of
boiled rice, one cup of raisins, one half cup of sugar, and lastly three
well-beaten eggs. Set the pudding dish in a pan of hot water, and bake
till the custard is well set.

CORN MEAL PUDDING.--Heat a quart of milk lacking two thirds of a
cupful, to boiling. Moisten three tablespoonfuls of nice granulated corn
meal with the two thirds of a cup of milk, and stir gradually into the
boiling milk. Let it boil up until set, turn into a double boiler, and
cook for an hour. Then add a tablespoonful of thick sweet cream, one
half a cup of molasses or sugar, a quart of cold milk, a little salt if
desired, and lastly, two well-beaten eggs. Mix thoroughly. Pour into a
pudding dish and bake one hour. A cup of currants or seeded raisins may
be used to give variety.

CORN MEAL PUDDING NO. 2.--Crumble cold corn puffs or corn cake to
make a cupful; add a pint of sweet milk, three teaspoonfuls of sugar,
the yolks of two eggs and the white of one, and bake slowly in a dish
set inside a pan of hot water for an hour.

CORN MEAL AND FIG PUDDING.--Beat together a scant cup of best
sifted corn meal with a cupful of molasses, and stir the mixture
gradually into a quart of boiling milk. Cook ten or twelve minutes, or
until well thickened, then set aside to cool. Add a cupful of finely
chopped figs, one and two thirds cups of cold milk, part cream if it can
be afforded, and when the mixture is cool, add two well-beaten eggs.
Pour into a pudding dish and bake in a moderate, steady oven for three
or more hours; the longer the better. When the pudding has baked an
hour, pour over it a cupful of cold milk. Do not stir the pudding, but
allow the milk to soak in gradually, a pint of finely sliced or chopped
sweet apples may be used in place of figs for variety, or if preferred,
both may be omitted.

CORNSTARCH MERINGUE.--Heat one and one half pints of milk to
boiling, and then stir in gradually two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch
which has been previously rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. When the
starch has thickened, allow it partially to cool, and then add, stirring
continuously meanwhile, the yolks of two eggs which have been previously
well beaten with three table spoonfuls of sugar. Let the whole simmer
for a minute or two longer, turn into a dish, meringue with the whites
of the eggs, and when cold, dot with lumps of strawberry jelly.

CRACKED WHEAT PUDDING.--Beat two cups of cold steamed cracked wheat
in two cups of rich milk until so thoroughly mingled that no lumps
remain. Add one cup of canned sweet cherries well drained from juice,
one half cup of sugar, and two eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately.
Bake in a slow oven till the custard is set.

CUP CUSTARD.--Into four cups of milk stir the yolks of three eggs
and one whole one well beaten. Add four tablespoonfuls of sugar, and
strain the mixture into cups; place these in a dripping pan full of hot
water, grate a little lemon rind over the top of each, and bake in a
moderate oven. If preferred, the milk may be first flavoured with
cocoanut. It is also better to have the milk nearly hot when stirring in
the egg. Half a cupful of the milk should be reserved to add to the egg
before turning into the heated portion.

FARINA CUSTARD.--Flavor a quart of milk with cocoanut as directed
on page 298. Cook two tablespoonfuls of farina in the flavored milk for
twenty minutes, in a double boiler; then set aside to cool. When nearly
cold, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and the well-beaten yolks of two
eggs. Beat all together very thoroughly, and lastly stir in the whites
of the eggs which have been previously beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in
one dish set inside another filled with hot water, just long enough to
set the custard. Serve cold.

FARINA PUDDING.--Take a cup of cold cooked farina and soak it in
four cups of milk until there are no lumps, or rub through a colander;
add two well-beaten eggs, one scant cup of sugar and one cup of raisins;
bake in a moderate oven until the custard is well set.

FLOATING ISLAND.--Make a custard of a pint of milk flavored with
cocoanut, and the yolks of three eggs; sweeten to taste, and steam in a
double boiler. When done, turn into a glass dish. Have the whites of the
eggs whipped to a stiff froth, and drop for a few seconds on the top of
a pan of scalding hot water, turning so that both sides may be alike
coagulated but not hardened; skim off, and put in islands on the top of
the custard. When quite cold, drop bits of different colored jellies on
the islands, and keep in a cool place till needed. Or put a spoonful of
fruit jelly in the bottom of small glasses, and fill with the custard
with a spoonful of the white on top.

FRUIT CUSTARD.--Heat a pint of red raspberry, strawberry, or
currant juice to boiling, and stir into it two tablespoonfuls or
cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold water. Stir constantly until
thickened, then add half a cup of sugar, or less if the fruit juice has
been sweetened; take from the fire and stir in the stiffly beaten whites
of three eggs, stirring all the time so that the hot mixture will
coagulate the egg. Make a custard of a pint of milk, the yolks of the
three eggs, and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. When done, set on the ice
to cool. Dish in a glass dish when cold, placing the fruit mixture by
spoonfuls on top, and serve.

GRAHAM GRITS PUDDING.--Heat two cups of milk in a double boiler.
When boiling, stir in one cup of Graham grits moistened with one cup of
cold milk. Cook for an hour and a half in a double boiler, then remove
from the fire and cool. Add three tablespoonfuls of sugar, three fourths
of a cup of finely chopped apples, and one fourth of a cup of chopped
raisins, and two well-beaten eggs. Bake three fourths of an hour in a
moderate oven.

GROUND RICE PUDDING.--Simmer a few pieces of thinly cut lemon rind
or half a cup of cocoanut, very slowly in a quart of milk for twenty
minutes, or until the milk is well flavored. Strain the milk through a
fine strainer to remove the lemon rind or cocoanut, and put into a
saucepan to boil. Mix four large tablespoonfuls of ground rice smooth
with a little cold milk, and add to the boiling milk. Cook until the
whole has thickened, then set aside to cool. When nearly cold, add two
tablespoonfuls of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a gentle oven
in a dish placed in a pan of hot water, until the whole is lightly
browned.

LEMON PUDDING.--Grate the rind of one lemon; soften one pint of
bread crumbs in one quart of sweet milk, add the yolks of two eggs, and
half a cup of sugar mixed with grated lemon rind. Bake twenty minutes.
Beat to a froth the whites of the eggs, the juice of the lemon, and half
a cup of sugar. Spread over the top, and return to the oven for five
minutes. This may be baked in cups if preferred.

LEMON CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Beat the yolks of two eggs in a pudding
dish; add a cupful of sugar; dissolve four tablespoonfuls of cornstarch
in a little cold water, stir it into two teacupfuls of actively boiling
water; when thickened, add the juice of two lemons with a little grated
peel; turn over the eggs and sugar, beating well to mix all together,
and bake about fifteen minutes. If desired, the beaten whites of the
eggs may be used to meringue the top. Serve either cold or hot.

LEMON CORNSTARCH PUDDING NO. 2.--Mix together one half cup of
cornstarch, one half cup of sugar, the juice and a portion of the grated
rind of one medium-sized lemon. Add to these ingredients just enough
cold water to dissolve thoroughly, then pour boiling water over the
mixture until it becomes thickened and looks transparent. Stir
continuously and boil for a few minutes until the starch is cooked. Take
from the fire, and add gradually, with continuous stirring, the
well-beaten yolks of three eggs. Whip the whites of the eggs with a
teaspoonful of quince jelly to a stiff froth, and pour over the pudding;
then brown in the oven. Orange juice with a very little of the grated
rind, or pineapple juice may be substituted for the lemon, if preferred.

MACARONI PUDDING.--Break sufficient macaroni to make a pint in inch
lengths, put into a double boiler, turn over it three pints of milk, and
cook until tender. Turn into a pudding dish, add a pint of cold milk,
two thirds of a cup of sugar, one egg, and the yolks of two others well
beaten. Bake from twenty minutes to one half hour. When done, cool a
little, spread the top with some mashed fresh berries or grape
marmalade, and meringue with the whites of the eggs and a tablespoonful
of sugar.

MOLDED RICE OR SNOW BALLS.--Steam a pint of well-cleaned rice until
tender, as directed on page 99, and tarn Into cups previously wet in
cold water, to mold. When perfectly cold, place in a glass dish, and
pour over them a cold custard made of a pint of milk, half a cup of
sugar, a teaspoonful of cornstarch, and one egg. Or, if preferred, the
rice balls may be served in individual dishes with the custard sauce, or
with a dressing of fruit juice.

ORANGE FLOAT.--Heat one quart of water, the juice of two lemons,
and one and one half cupfuls of sugar. When boiling, stir into it four
tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a very little water. Cook
until the whole is thickened and clear. When cool, stir into the mixture
five nice oranges which have been sliced, and freed from seeds and all
the white portions. Meringue, and serve cold.

ORANGE CUSTARD.--Turn a pint of hot milk over two cups of stale
bread crumbs and let them soak until well softened: add the yolks of two
eggs, and beat all together until perfectly smooth; add a little of the
grated rind and the juice of three sweet oranges, and sugar to taste.
Lastly add the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, turn into
cups, which place into a moderate oven in a pan of hot water, and bake
twenty minutes, or until the custard is well set but not watery.

ORANGE PUDDING.--Pare and slice six sweet Florida oranges, removing
the seeds and all the white skin and fibers. Place in the bottom of a
glass dish. Make a custard by stirring two table spoonfuls of cornstarch
braided with a little milk into a pint of boiling milk, and when
thickened, adding gradually, stirring constantly meanwhile, one egg and
the yolk of a second egg well beaten with one fourth cup of sugar. When
partially cool, pour over the oranges. Whip the white of the second egg
to a stiff froth with one fourth cup of sugar which has been flavored by
rubbing over some orange peel, and meringue the top of the pudding.
Fresh strawberries, raspberries, or peaches may be substituted for
oranges in making this dessert, if preferred.

PEACH MERINGUE.--To every pint of stewed or canned peaches,
sweetened to taste, stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs. Bake in a deep
pudding dish fifteen minutes, then cover with the whites of the two eggs
beaten till very light with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Brown in the
oven, and serve cold with whipped cream. For peaches, substitute any
other stewed fruit desired.

PICNIC PUDDING.--Thicken a pint of strawberry or raspberry juice,
sweetened to taste, with two tablespoonfuls of corn starch, as for Fruit
Custard. Turn into the bottom of cups previously wet with cold water,
or a large mold, as preferred. In a second dish heat to boiling a pint
of milk, flavored with cocoanut, to which a tablespoonful of sugar has
been, added. Stir into it two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth
in a little cold milk, and cook thoroughly. When done, cool slightly and
turn into the molds on the top of the pink portion, which should be
sufficiently cool so that it will not mix. A third layer may be added by
cooking two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch and one of sugar, rubbed smooth
in a little milk, in a pint of boiling milk, and stirring in, just as it
is taken from the stove, the well-beaten yolks of two eggs.

PLAIN CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Heat to boiling a pint and a half of
milk, with a few bits of the yellow rind of a lemon to flavor it. While
the milk is heating, rub four large spoonfuls of cornstarch to a cream
with half a cup of cold milk; beat well together the yolks of three
eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and half a cup of cold milk, and
whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth. When the milk is actively
boiling, remove the bits of lemon rind with a skimmer, and stir in the
starch mixture; stir constantly and boil three or four minutes--until
the starch is well cooked; then add gradually, stirring well meanwhile,
the yolks and sugar. Remove from the fire, and stir the beaten whites
lightly through the whole. Serve with a dressing of fruit juice or fruit
syrup; if in the season of fresh berries, the pudding may be dressed
with a few spoonfuls of mashed strawberries, raspberries, or currants.

PLAIN CUSTARD.--Heat a pint of milk to boiling, and stir in a
tablespoonful of cornstarch nabbed smooth in a little milk; let the milk
and starch boil together till they thicken; then cool and add one
well-beaten egg and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Cook in the oven in a
dish set inside another filled with hot water, or in a double boiler.
The milk may be previously flavored with orange, lemon, or cocoanut.

PRUNE PUDDING.--Heat two and one half cups of milk to boiling, then
stir in gradually a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch which has been
rubbed smooth in a little cold milk; let this boil and thicken for a
minute, then remove from the fire. When cool, add three well-beaten
eggs, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a cupful of prunes which have
been stewed, then drained of all juice, the stones removed, and the
prunes chopped fine. Pour into a pudding dish and bake twenty minutes.
Serve with or without cream.

PRIME WHIP.--Sift through a colander some stewed sweet California
prunes which have been thoroughly drained from juice, and from which the
stones have been removed. Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff
froth, and add two cups of the sifted prunes; beat all together
thoroughly; turn into a pudding dish, and brown in the oven fifteen
minutes. Serve cold, with a little cream or custard for dressing. Almond
sauce also makes an excellent dressing.

RICE APPLE CUSTARD PUDDING.--Pare, and remove the cores without
dividing from a sufficient number of apples to cover the bottom of a
two-quart pudding dish. Fill the cavities of the apples with a little
grated lemon rind and sugar, and put them into the oven with a
tablespoon of water on the bottom of the dish. Cover, and steam till the
apples are tender, but not fallen to pieces. Then pour over them a
custard made with two cups of boiled rice, a quart of milk, half a cup
of sugar, and two eggs.

RICE CUSTARD PUDDING.--Take one and one half cups of nicely steamed
rice, four tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a pint of milk; heat to boiling
in a saucepan. Then stir in very carefully the yolk of one egg and one
whole egg, previously well beaten together with a few spoonfuls of milk
reserved for the purpose. Let the whole boil up till thickened, but not
longer, as the custard will whey and separate. When partly cool, flavor
with a little vanilla or lemon, turn into a glass dish, and meringue
with the white of the second egg beaten to a stiff froth. Cold steamed
rice may be used by soaking it in hot milk until every grain is
separate.

RICE SNOW.--Into a quart of milk heated to boiling, stir five
tablespoonfuls of rice flour previously braided with a very little cold
milk; add one half cup of sugar. Let the whole boil up together till
well cooked and thickened; then remove from the stove, and stir in
lightly the beaten whites of four eggs. Mold, and serve cold with foam
sauce.

RICE SNOW WITH JELLY.--Steam or bake a teacupful of best rice in
milk until the grains are tender. Pile it up on a dish roughly. When
cool, lay over it squares of jelly. Beat the whites of two eggs and one
third of a cup of sugar to a stiff froth, and pile like snow over the
rice. Serve with cream sauce.

RICE WITH EGGS.--Steam rice as previously directed, and when
sufficiently cooked, stir into half of it while hot, the yolks of one or
two eggs well beaten with a little sugar. Into the other half, the
whites of the eggs, sweetened and beaten to a stiff froth, may be
lightly stirred while the rice is still hot enough to set the eggs.
Serve with the yellow half in the bottom of the dish, and the white part
piled on top covered with whipped cream flavored with lemon or vanilla.

SNOW PUDDING.--Heat one half pint each of water and milk together,
to boiling, stir into this a tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth
in a little cold milk, and cook for five minutes. Cool partially and add
the whites of two well-beaten eggs. Turn into molds and set in the ice
box to cool. Serve with a cream made by stirring into a half pint of
boiling milk the yolks of two eggs, a teaspoonful of cornstarch rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk, and half a cup of sugar. Cook until well
thickened. Cool and flavor with a little lemon or vanilla. Or, if
preferred, serve with a dressing of fruit juice.

STEAMED CUSTARD.--Heat a pint of milk, with which has been well
beaten two eggs and one third of a cup of sugar, in a double boiler
until well thickened. When done, turn into a glass dish, and grate a
little of the yellow rind of lemon over the top to flavor. If desired to
have the custard in cups, remove from the fire when it begins to
thicken, turn into cups, and finish in a steamer over a kettle of
boiling water.

STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE.--Fit slices of nice plain buns (those made
according to recipe on page 347 are nice for this) in the bottom of a
pudding dish, and cover with a layer of hulled strawberries; add another
layer of the buns cut in slices, a second layer of strawberries, and
then more slices of buns. Make a custard in the following manner: Heat a
scant pint of milk to boiling in the inner cup of a double boiler, and
stir into it gradually, beating thoroughly at the same time, an egg
which has been previously well beaten with half a cup of sugar, a
teaspoonful of cornstarch, and a spoonful or two of milk until perfectly
smooth. Cook together in the double boiler until well set. Cool
partially, and pour over the buns and strawberries. Place a plate with a
weight upon it on the top of the charlotte, and set away to cool.

POP CORN PUDDING.--Take a scant pint of the pop corn which is
ground and put up in boxes, or if not available, freshly popped corn,
rolled fine, is just as good. Add to it three cups of new milk, one half
cup of sugar, two whole eggs and the yolk of another, well beaten. Bake
in a pudding dish placed inside another filled with hot water, till the
custard is set. Cover with a meringue made of the remaining white of
egg, a teaspoonful of sugar, and a sprinkling of the pop corn.

SAGO CUSTARD PUDDING.--Put one half cup of sago and a quart of rich
milk into the inner cup of a double boiler, or a basin set inside a pan
of boiling water, and let it simmer until the sago has thickened the
milk and become perfectly transparent. Allow it to cool, then add a cup
of sugar, two well-beaten eggs, and a little of the grated rind of a
lemon. Turn into a pudding dish, and bake only till the custard has set.

SAGO AND FRUIT CUSTARD PUDDING.--Soak six table spoonfuls of sago
in just enough water to cover it, for twenty minutes. Meanwhile pare and
remove the cores from half a dozen or more tart apples, and fill the
cavities with a mixture of grated lemon rind and sugar. Place the apples
in the bottom of a pudding dish, with a tablespoonful of water; cover,
and set in the oven to bake. Put the soaked sago with a quart of milk
into a double boiler. Let it cook until the sago is clear and thick;
then add three fourths of a cup of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Pour
the sago custard over the apples, which should be baked tender but not
mushy. Put the pudding dish in the oven in a pan of hot water, and bake
till the custard is well set. Serve cold.

SNOWBALL CUSTARD.--Flavor a pint of milk by sleeping in it three
or four slices of the yellow rind of a lemon for twenty minutes or more.
Skim out the rind; let the milk come to the boiling point, and drop into
it the well-beaten whites of two eggs, in tablespoonfuls, turning each
one over carefully, allowing them to remain only long enough to become
coagulated but not hardened, and then place the balls upon a wire sieve
to drain. Afterward stir into the scalding milk the yolks of the eggs
and one whole one well beaten, together with two tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Stir until it thickens. Pour this custard into a glass dish, and
lay the white balls on top.

TAPIOCA CUSTARD.--Soak a cup of pearl tapioca over night in
sufficient water to cover. When ready to prepare the custard, drain off
the water if any remain, and add one quart of milk to the tapioca; place
in a double boiler and cook until transparent; then add the well-beaten
yolks of three eggs or the yolks of two and one whole one, mixed with
three fourths of a cup of sugar. Let it cook a few minutes, just long
enough for the custard to thicken and no more, or it will whey and be
spoiled; flavor with a little vanilla and turn into a glass dish. Cover
the top with the whites beaten stiffly with a tablespoonful of sugar,
and dot with bits of jelly, or colored sugar prepared by mixing sugar
with cranberry or raspberry juice and allowing it to dry. For variety,
the custard may be flavored with grated lemon rind and a tablespoonful
of lemon juice whipped up with the whites of the eggs, or other flavor
may be dispensed with, and the meringue flavored by beating with a
tablespoonful of quince jelly with the whites of the eggs.

TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Soak a cupful of tapioca over night in just
enough water to cover. In the morning, add to it one quart of milk, and
cook in a double boiler until transparent. Add three eggs well beaten,
one half cup of sugar, one half cup of chopped raisins, and a very
little chopped citron. Bake till the custard is set. Serve warm or cold
as preferred.

VERMICELLI PUDDING.--Flavor two and one half cups of milk with
lemon as directed on page 229. Drop into it, when boiling, four ounces
of vermicelli, crushing it lightly with one hand while sprinkling it in,
and stir to keep it from gathering in lumps. Let it cook gently in a
double boiler, stirring often until it is tender and very thick. Then
pour it into a pudding dish, let it cool, and add a tablespoonful of
rather thick sweet cream if you have it (it does very well without),
half a cup of sugar, and lastly, two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a
moderately hot oven till browned over the top.

WHITE CUSTARD.--Beat together thoroughly one cup of milk, the
whites of two eggs, one tablespoonful of sugar, and one and one half
tablespoonfuls of almondine. Turn into cups and steam or bake until the
custard is set.

WHITE CUSTARD NO. 2.--Cook a half cup of farina in a quart of milk
in a double boiler, for an hour. Remove from the stove, and allow it to
become partially cool, then add one half cup of sugar, the whites of two
eggs, and one half the yolk of one egg. Turn into a pudding dish, and
bake twenty minutes or until the custard is well set.


STEAMED PUDDING.

The following precautions are necessary to be observed in steaming
puddings or desserts of any sort:--

1. Have the water boiling rapidly when the pudding is placed in the
steamer, and keep it constantly boiling.

2. Replenish, if needed, with boiling water, never with cold.

3. Do not open the steamer and let in the air upon the pudding, until it
is done.


_RECIPES._

BATTER PUDDING.--Beat four eggs thoroughly; add to them a pint of
milk, and if desired, a little salt. Sift a teacupful of flour and add
it gradually to the milk and eggs, beating lightly the while. Then pour
the whole mixture through, a fine wire strainer into a small pail with
cover, in which it can be steamed. This straining is imperative. The
cover of the pail should be tight fitting, as the steam getting into the
pudding spoils it. Place the pail in a kettle of boiling water, and do
not touch or move it until the pudding is done. It takes exactly an hour
to cook. If moved or jarred during the cooking, it will be likely to
fall. Slip it out of the pail on a hot dish, and serve with cream sauce.
A double boiler with tightly fitting cover is excellent for cooking this
pudding.

BREAD AND FRUIT CUSTARD.--Soak a cupful of finely grated bread
crumbs in a pint of rich milk heated to scalding. Add two thirds of a
cup of sugar, and the grated yellow rind of half a lemon. When cool, add
two eggs well beaten. Also two cups of canned apricots or peaches
drained of juice, or, if preferred, a mixture of one and one half cups
of chopped apples, one half cup of raisins, and a little citron. Turn
into a pudding dish, and steam in a steamer over a kettle of boiling
water for two hours. The amount of sugar necessary will vary somewhat
according to the fruit used.

DATE PUDDING.--Turn a cup of hot milk over two cups of stale bread
crumbs, and soak until softened; add one half cup of cream and one cup
of chopped and stoned dates. Mix all thoroughly together. Put in a china
dish and steam for three hours. Serve hot with lemon sauce.

RICE BALLS.--Steam one cup of rice till tender. Wring pudding
cloths about ten inches square out of hot water, and spread the rice one
third of an inch over the cloth. Put a stoned peach or apricot from
which the skin has been removed, in the center, filling the cavity in
each half of the fruit with rice. Draw up the cloth until the rice
smoothly envelops the fruit, tie, and steam ten or fifteen minutes.
Remove the cloth carefully, turn out into saucers, and serve with sauce
made from peach of apricot juice. Easy-cooking tart apples may also be
used. Steam them thirty minutes, and serve with sugar and cream.

STEAMED BREAD CUSTARD.--Cut stale bread in slices, removing hard
crusts. Oil a deep pudding mold, and sprinkle the bottom and sides with
Zante currants; over these place a layer of the slices of bread,
sprinkled with currants; add several layers, sprinkling each with the
currants in the same manner. Cover with a custard made by beating
together three or four eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and one
quart of milk. Put the pudding in a cool place for three hours; at the
end of that time, steam one and a quarter hours. Serve with mock cream
flavored with vanilla. Apple marmalade may be used to spread between the
slices in place of currants, if preferred.

STEAMED FIG PUDDING.--Moisten two cupfuls of finely grated Graham
bread crumbs with half a cup of thin sweet cream. Mix into it a heaping
cupful of finely chopped fresh figs, and a quarter of a cup of sugar.
Add lastly a cup of sweet milk. Turn all into a pudding dish, and steam
about two and one half hours. Serve as soon as done, with a little cream
for dressing, or with orange or lemon sauce.


PASTRY AND CAKE.

So much has been said and written about the dietetic evils of these
articles that their very names have been almost synonymous with
indigestion and dyspepsia. That they are prolific causes of this dire
malady cannot be denied, and it is doubtless due to two reasons; first,
because they are generally compounded of ingredients which are in
themselves unwholesome, and rendered doubly so by their combination; and
secondly, because tastes have become so perverted that an excess of
these articles is consumed in preference to more simple and nutritious
food.

As has been elsewhere remarked, foods containing an excess of fat, as do
most pastries and many varieties of cake, are exceedingly difficult of
digestion, the fat undergoing in the stomach no changes which answer to
the digestion of other elements of food, and its presence interferes
with the action of the gastric juice upon other elements. In
consequence, digestion proceeds very slowly, if at all, and the delay
often occasions fermentative and putrefactive changes in the entire
contents of the stomach.

It is the indigestibility of fat, and this property of delaying the
digestion of other foods, chiefly that render pastry and cakes so
deleterious to health.

We do not wish to be understood as in sympathy with that class of people
who maintain that dyspepsia is a disciplinary means of grace, when,
after having made the previous statement, we proceed to present recipes
for preparing the very articles we have condemned. Pie and cake are not
necessarily utterly unwholesome; and if prepared in a simple manner, may
be partaken of in moderation by persons with good digestion.
Nevertheless, they lack the wholesomeness of more simple foods, and we
most fully believe that would women supply their tables with perfectly
light, sweet, nutritious bread would cease. However, if pies and cakes
must needs be, make them as simple as possible.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING PIES.--Always prepare the filling
for pies before making the crust, if the filling is to be cooked in the
crust. Have all the material for the crust on the table, measured and in
readiness, before beginning to put together. Follow some of the simple
recipes given in these pages. Have all the material cold, handle the
least possible to make it into a mass, and do not knead at all.

When the crust is ready, roll it out quickly to about one half inch in
thickness, then fold up like a jelly roll, and cut from the end only
sufficient for one crust at a time. Lay this, the flat side upon the
board, and roll evenly in every direction, until scarcely more than an
eighth of an inch in thickness, and somewhat larger than the baking
plate, as it will shrink when lifted from the board.

Turn one edge over the rolling pin, and carefully lift it onto the
plate. If there is to be an upper crust, roll that in the same manner,
make a cut in the center to allow the steam to escape, fill the pie,
slightly rounding it in the center, and lift on the upper crust; press
both edges lightly together; then, lifting the pie in the left hand,
deftly trim away all overhanging portions of crust with a sharp knife;
ornament the edge if desired, and put at once into the oven, which
should be in readiness at just the right temperature, a rather moderate
oven being best for pies.

The under crust of lemon, pumpkin, custard, and very juicy fruit pies,
filled before baking, is apt to become saturated and softened with the
liquid mixture, if kept for any length of time after baking. This may be
prevented in a measure by glazing the crust, after it is rolled and
fitted on the plate, with the beaten white of an egg, and placing in the
oven just a moment to harden the egg before filling; or if the pie is
one of fruit, sprinkle the crust with a little flour and sugar, brushing
the two together with the hand before; adding the filling. During the
baking, the flour and melted sugar will adhere together, tending to keep
the juice from contact with the crust.

Pies are more wholesome if the crusts are baked separately and filled
for use as needed. This is an especially satisfactory way to make pies
of juicy fruit, as it does away largely with the saturated under crusts,
and the flavor of the fruit can be retained much more perfectly. Pies
with one crust can be made by simply fitting the crust to the plate,
pricking it lightly with a fork to prevent its blistering while baking,
and afterward filling when needed for the table. For pies with two
crusts, fit the under crust to the plate, and fill with clean pieces of
old white linen laid in lightly to support the upper crust. When baked,
slip the pie on a plate, lift off the upper crust, take out the pieces
of cloth, and just before serving, fill with fruit, which should be
previously prepared.

Canned peaches filled into such a crust make a delicious pie.
Strawberries, cherries, gooseberries, and other juicy fruits, that lose
so much of their flavor in baking, may be lightly scalded, the juice
thickened a little with flour if desired, sweetened to taste, and filled
into such a crust. An excellent pie may be made in this manner from
apples, stewed carefully so as to keep the slices whole, sweetened to
taste, and flavored with lemon, orange, or grated pineapple. One
pineapple will be sufficient for four pies. Fresh fruit for filling may
be used without cooking, if desired. If desired, several crusts may be
baked and put away unfilled. When needed, the crusts may be placed for a
few minutes in a hot oven until heated through, then filled with freshly
prepared fruit.

In preparing material for custard or pumpkin pies, if the milk used be
hot, the pies will be improved and the time of baking be considerably
shortened.

Tin or granite-ware plates are preferable to earthen ones for pies, as
they bake better on the bottom. The perforated pans are superior in some
respects. No greasing is needed; simply rub them well with flour. The
time required for baking pies varies from one half to three fourths of
an hour. The dampers should be so adjusted as to bake the bottom crust
first.

After baking, remove at once to heated earthen plates, or set the tins
upon small supports, so that the air can circulate underneath them.


_RECIPES._

PASTE FOR PIES.--Sift together equal parts of Graham grits and
white flour (Graham flour will do if the grits are not obtainable, but
the grits will produce a more crisp and tender crust), and wet with very
cold, thin sweet cream. Have the flour also as cold as possible, since
the colder the material, the more crisp the paste; mix together very
quickly into a rather stiff dough. Do not knead at all, but gather the
fragments lightly together, roll out at once, fill and bake quickly,
since much of the lightness of the crust depends upon the dispatch with
which the pie is gotten into the oven after the materials are thrown
together. If for any reason it is necessary to defer the baking, place
the crust in the ice-chest till needed.

CORN MEAL CRUST.--Equal parts of sifted white corn meal and flour,
mixed together lightly with rather thin sweet cream which has been set
in the ice-chest until very cold, makes a very good crust.

GRANOLA CRUST.--For certain pies requiring an under crust only, the
prepared granola manufactured by the Sanitarium Food Co. makes a
superior crust. To prepare, moisten with thin sweet cream--one half cup
of cream for every two thirds cup of granola is about the right
proportion, and will make sufficient crust for one pie. Flour the board,
and lift the moistened granola onto it, spreading it as much as possible
with the hands. Dredge lightly with flour over the top, and roll out
gently to the required size without turning. The material, being coarse
and granular, will break apart easily, but may be as easily pressed
together with the fingers. Change the position of the rolling pin often,
in order to shape the crust without moving it. When well roiled,
carefully slip a stiff paper under it, first loosening from the board
with a knife if necessary, and lift it gently onto the pan. Press
together any cracks, trim the edges, fill, and bake at once. Use the
least flour possible in preparing this crust, and bake as soon as made,
before the moisture has become absorbed. Such a crust is not suited for
custard or juicy fruit pies, but filled with prune, peach, or apple
marmalade, it makes a most delicious and wholesome pie. A cooked custard
may be used in such a crust.

PASTE FOR TART SHELLS.--Take one half cup of rather thin sweet
cream, which has been placed on ice until very cold; add to it the
stiffly beaten whites of two eggs, and whip all together briskly for ten
minutes. Add sufficient white flour to roll. Cut into the required
shape, bake quickly, but do not brown. Fill after baking. This paste,
rolled thin and cut into shapes with a cookie-cutter, one half of them
baked plain for under crusts, the other half ornamented for tops by
cutting small holes with a thimble or some fancy mold, put together with
a layer of some simple fruit jelly between them, makes a most attractive
looking dessert. It is likewise very nice baked in little patty pans,
and afterward filled with apple or peach marmalade, or any of the
following fillings:--

CREAM FILLING.--One cup of rich milk (part cream if it can be
afforded) heated to boiling. Into this stir one scant tablespoonful of
flour previously braided smooth with a little cold milk. Add to this the
well-beaten yolk of one egg and one tablespoonful of sugar. Turn this
mixture into the hot milk and stir until it thickens. Flavor with a
little grated lemon rind, vanilla, or, if preferred, flavor the milk
with cocoanut before using. Fill the tart shells, and meringue with the
white of the egg beaten stiff with a tablespoonful of sugar.

GRAPE TART.--Into one pint of canned or fresh grape juice, when
boiling, stir two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch braided with a little
water, and cook for five minutes. Sweeten to taste, and fill a baked
crust.

LEMON FILLING.--Into one cup of boiling water stir one
tablespoonful of cornstarch previously braided smooth with the juice of
a large lemon. Cook until it thickens, then add one half cup of sugar
and a little grated yellow rind of the lemon.

TAPIOCA FILLING.--Soak one tablespoonful of tapioca over night in
one cup of water; mash and stir the tapioca, simmer gently until clear
and thick, adding enough water to cook it well; add half a cup of white
sugar and a tablespoonful each of lemon and orange juice. If desired, a
little raspberry or currant juice may be added to make the jelly of a
pink color.

APPLE CUSTARD PIE.--Stew good dried apples till perfectly tender
and there remains but very little juice. Rub through a colander. For
each pie use one cup of the sifted apples, one and a half cups of rich
milk, two eggs, five tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little grated lemon
rind for flavoring. Bake with under crust only. Stewed fresh apples,
beaten smooth or rubbed through a colander, can be used if preferred.
The eggs may be omitted, and one half cup more of the sifted apples,
with more sugar, may be used instead.

BANANA PIE.--For each pie required prepare a custard with one and
one half cups of milk, the yolks of two eggs, and two heaping
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Mash two large bananas through a colander,
strain the custard over them, and beat well together. Bake in an under
crust only, and meringue the top with the whites of the eggs beaten to a
stiff froth with two tablespoonfuls of sugar.

BREAD PIE.--Soak a slice of very light bread in a pint of rich
milk. When it is quite soft, rub through a colander and afterward beat
well through the milk. Add one well-beaten egg, four tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and a little grated lemon rind for flavor. Bake with under crust
only, till the custard is set. This is sufficient for one pie.

CARROT PIE.--Boil, drain, and rub the carrots through a colander.
For each pie required, use two large tablespoonfuls of carrot thus
prepared, two eggs, two cups of milk, a little salt if desired, four
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and lemon or vanilla for flavoring. Bake with
under crust only.

COCOANUT PIE.--Flavor a pint of milk with two tablespoonfuls of
desiccated, or finely grated fresh cocoanut according to directions on
page 298; strain, and add enough fresh milk to make a pint in all. Add
three tablespoonfuls of sugar, heat, and as the milk comes to a boil,
add a tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.
Boil for a minute or two till the cornstarch thickens the milk; then
remove from the stove. Allow it to get cold, and then stir in one
well-beaten egg; bake in an under crust. Tie a tablespoonful of
desiccated cocoanut in a clean cloth, and pound it as fine as flour; mix
it with a tablespoonful of sugar and the white of an egg beaten to a
stiff froth. When the pie is done, spread this over the top, and brown
in the oven for a moment only.

COCOANUT PIE NO. 2.--Steep one half cup of cocoanut in a pint of
milk for one half hour. Strain out the cocoanut and add sufficient fresh
milk to make a pint. Allow it to become cold, then add a quarter of a
cup of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Bake with an under crust only.
When done, the top may be covered with a meringue the same as in the
preceding recipe.

CREAM PIE.--For one pie beat together one egg, one half cup of
sugar, one tablespoonful of flour, and two cups of rich milk. Bake in
one crust.

CRANBERRY PIE.--Stew a quart of cranberries until broken in a pint
of boiling water. Rub through a colander to remove the skins, add two
cups of sugar and one half cup of sifted flour. Bake with under crust
only.

DRIED APPLE PIE.--Stew good dried apples till perfectly tender in
as small a quantity of water as possible. When done, rub through a
colander; they should be about the consistency of fruit jam; if not, a
little flour may be added. Sweeten to taste, fill under crusts with the
mixture, and bake. If lemon flavor is liked, a few pieces of the yellow
rind may be added to the apples a little while before they are tender.
If the apples are especially tasteless, lemon juice or some sour apple
jelly should be added after rubbing through the colander. The crusts may
first be baked, and filled with the mixture when needed; in which case
the sauce should be simmered lightly till of the desired consistency.
The top may be ornamented with strips or rings of crust, if desired.

DRIED APPLE PIE WITH RAISINS.--Rub a quart of well-stewed dried
apples through a colander, add a cupful of steamed raisins, sugar to
sweeten, and bake with two crusts. This is sufficient for two pies.

DRIED APRICOT PIE.--Stew together one third dried apricots and two
thirds dried apples or peaches. When soft, rub through a colander, add
sugar to sweeten, and if very juicy, stew again until the juice is
mostly evaporated; then beat until light and bake in a granola crust.

FARINA PIE.--Cook one fourth cup of farina in a double boiler for
an hour in three cups of rich milk. Allow it to become cool, then add
one half cup of sugar, the yolks of two eggs, and a little grated lemon
rind. Bake with under crust only. Meringue the top with the white of the
egg beaten to a stiff froth with one tablespoonful of sugar and a little
grated lemon rind for flavoring. The quantity given is sufficient for
two small pies.

FRUIT PIES.--Apples, peaches, and all small fruits and berries may
be made into palatable pies without rich crusts or an excess of sugar,
or the addition of unwholesome spices and flavorings. Bake the crust
separately, and fill when needed with prepared fruit; or, fill with the
fruit, using only sufficient sugar to sweeten; add no spices, and bake
quickly. Prepare apples for pies by paring, coring, and dividing in
eighths. Peaches are best prepared in a similar manner. Fill crusts in
which the fruit is to be baked quite full and slightly heaping in the
center. If flavoring is desired, let it be that of some other fruit. For
apple pies, a teaspoonful or two of pineapple juice, a little grated
lemon or orange peel, or a little strawberry or quince syrup, may be
used for flavoring. For pies made of apples, peaches, and fruits which
are not very juicy, add a tablespoonful or so of water or fruit juice;
but for very juicy fruits and berries, dredge the under crust with a
tablespoonful of sugar and a little flour mixed together before filling,
or stir a spoonful of flour into the fruit so that each berry or piece
may be separately floured.

GRAPE JELLY PIE.--Cook perfectly ripe, purple grapes; rub them
through a colander to remove the seeds and skins. Return the pulp to the
fire and thicken with rice flour or cornstarch, to the consistency of
thick cream or jelly, and sweeten to taste. Fill an under crust with the
mixture, and bake. The top may be ornamented with pastry cut in fancy
shapes if desired.

JELLY CUSTARD PIE.--Dissolve three tablespoonfuls of nice, pure
fruit jelly in very little warm water, add one and one half cups of milk
and two well-beaten eggs, stirring the whites in last. Bake with under
crust only. Jellies are usually so sweet that no sugar is needed. Apple,
raspberry, currant, strawberry, and quince jellies all make nice pies,
prepared in this way.

LEMON PIE.--Take four tablespoonfuls of lemon juice (one large
lemon or two small ones will yield about this quantity), the grated
yellow portion only of the rind of half a lemon, and two thirds of a cup
of sugar. Beat the lemon juice and sugar together. Braid a slightly
heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch with as little water as possible,
and pour over it, stirring constantly, one half pint of boiling water,
to thicken the starch. Add the lemon and sugar to the starch, and let it
cool; then stir in the yolks of two eggs and half the white of one, well
beaten together. Beat thoroughly, pour into a deep crust, and bake. When
done, cover with the remaining whites of the eggs, beaten with one and a
half tablespoonfuls of sugar, and brown lightly in the oven.

LEMON MERINGUE CUSTARD.--Heat two cups of milk to boiling, add a
tablespoonful of cornstarch well braided with a little cold milk; let
the whole simmer till thickened, stirring constantly. Allow it to cool,
add one third of a cup of sugar and the beaten yolks of two eggs. Bake
in an under crust, and cover with a meringue made of the whites of the
eggs beaten to a stiff froth with two tablespoonfuls of sugar mixed
with grated lemon peel. If liked, a spoonful of lemon juice may be
added, a few drops at a time, during the beating of the meringue.

ONE-CRUST PEACH PIE.--Pare and remove the stones from ripe, nice
flavored peaches; stew till soft in the smallest quantity of water
possible without burning. Rub through a colander, or beat smooth with a
large spoon. Add sugar as required. Bake with one crust. If the peach
sauce is evaporated until quite dry, it is very nice baked in a granola
crust. When done, meringue with the whites of two eggs whipped stiff
with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. The flavor is improved by adding by
degrees to the egg while whipping, a tablespoonful of lemon juice.
Return to the oven and brown lightly. Serve cold.

Canned peaches or stewed dried peaches may be used in place of the fresh
ones. In using the dried peaches, carefully examine and wash; soak them
over night in cold water, and stew them in the same water until soft
enough to rub through the colander. For each pie, add two tablespoonfuls
of sweet cream, and sufficient sugar to sweeten; too much, sugar
destroys the flavor of the fruit. Evaporated peaches, soaked over night
and stewed carefully until tender, then removed from the syrup, which
may be sweetened and boiled until thick and rich and afterward turned
over the peaches, makes a delicious pie. Bake in one crust, with or
without a meringue.

ORANGE PIE.--Rub smooth a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch in
three tablespoonfuls of water; pour over it a cup of boiling water, and
cook until clear, stirring frequently that no lumps form. Add one cupful
of sour orange juice, a little grated rind, and the juice of one lemon,
with two eggs. Bake with under crust only. Meringue the top when baked,
with the whites of the eggs well beaten with a tablespoonful of sugar,
and a very little grated orange peel sprinkled over it.

PEACH CUSTARD PIE.--Cover a pie plate with an under crust. Take
fresh peaches, pare, halve, and stone them, and place a layer, hollow
side up, in the pie. Prepare a custard with one egg, one cup of milk,
and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pour the custard over the peaches,
and bake. If the quantity given will not entirely cover the peaches, a
little more must be prepared. Canned peaches which are not broken can be
used instead of fresh ones. The pieces should be drained free from
juice, and less sugar used.

PRUNE PIE.--Prepare and cook sweet California prunes as directed
for Prune Marmalade. Fill an under crust and bake. The top may be
ornamented with strips of crust or pastry leaves; or if desired, may be
meringued with the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth with two
tablespoonfuls of sugar and a little grated lemon peel. This pie is
excellent baked in a granola crust.

PUMPKIN PIE.--To prepare the pumpkin, cut into halves, remove the
seeds, divide into moderately small pieces, and bake in the oven until
thoroughly done. Then scrape from the shell, rub through a colander, and
proceed as follows: For one and one third pints of the cooked pumpkin
use one quart of hot, rich, sweet milk. Add one half cup of sugar and
the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, beat well together, add the whites
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, and beat thoroughly. Line the tins
with a stiff cream paste, fill, and bake in a moderate oven till the
pies are barely firm in the center, or till the custard is well set.

PUMPKIN PIE NO. 2.--For each pie desired, take one half pint of
baked pumpkin, a pint of rich milk, one third of a cup of sugar, and two
eggs. Mix the sugar and eggs, add the pumpkin, and lastly the milk,
which should be hot, and beat all together with an egg beater until very
light. Fill the crust, and bake slowly.

PUMPKIN PIE WITHOUT EGGS.--Prepare the pumpkin as previously
directed. For two medium-sized pies, heat a pint and a half of milk in a
farina kettle, and when scalding, stir into it two scant tablespoonfuls
of white flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Cook, stirring
often, until it thickens. Add half a cup of sugar, or a little less of
syrup, to a pint and a half of the sifted pumpkin, and after beating
well together, stir this into the hot milk. Bake in an under crust; or,
for three pies, take one quart and a cupful of pumpkin, three fourths of
a cup of sugar, two thirds of a cup of best New Orleans molasses, and
three pints of hot milk. Beat all together thoroughly. Line deep plates
with a cream crust, and bake an hour and a half in a moderate oven.

SIMPLE CUSTARD PIE.--For one pie, take one pint of milk, two
well-beaten eggs, one third of a cup of sugar, and a little grated lemon
rind for flavor. Bake in an under crust. If eggs are scarce, a very good
pie can be made by using only one egg, and a tablespoonful of
cornstarch, with the above proportions of milk and sugar; in which case,
heat the milk to scalding, stir in the cornstarch, and cook till
thickened; cool, and then add the well-beaten egg. If preferred, the
crust may be baked before filling, and the custard steamed, meanwhile.

SQUASH PIE.--Squash prepared as directed for pumpkin, and flavored
with rose water, makes an excellent pie. Or, for each pie desired, take
one pint of rich milk (part cream if it can be afforded), add one cup of
nicely baked mealy squash which has been rubbed through a colander, one
third of a cup of sugar, and two well-beaten eggs. Beat all together
thoroughly. Bake in a deep pan slowly and carefully until firm.

SQUASH PIE WITHOUT EGGS.--Bake the squash in the shell; when done,
remove with a spoon and mash through a colander. For one pie, take eight
tablespoonfuls of the squash, half a cup of sugar, and one and one third
cups of boiling milk. Pour the milk slowly over the squash, beating
rapidly meanwhile to make the mixture light. Bake in one crust.

SWEET-APPLE CUSTARD PIE.--Into one pint of new milk, grate three
ripe sweet apples (Golden Sweets are excellent); add two well-beaten
eggs, and sugar to taste. Bake with under crust only.

SWEET POTATO PIE.--Bake sufficient sweet potatoes to make a pint of
pulp when rubbed through a colander; add a pint of rich milk, a scant
cup of sugar, salt if desired, the yolks of two eggs, and a little
grated lemon rind for flavor. Bake with under crust. When done, meringue
with the whites of the eggs beaten up with a tablespoonful of sugar.


CAKE.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS.--Always sift the flour for cake before
measuring out the amount required. Use the best granulated white sugar.
Eggs for use in cake are better to have the yolks and whites beaten
separately. Beat the former until they cease to froth and begin to
thicken as if mixed with flour. Beat the whites until stiff enough to
remain in the bowl if inverted. Have the eggs and dishes cool, and if
practicable, beat in a cool room. Use earthen or china bowls to beat
eggs in.

If fruit is to be used, it should be washed and dried according to
directions given on page 298, and then dusted with flour, a
dessertspoonful to the pound of fruit. For use in cup cake or any other
cake which requires a quick baking, raisins should be first steamed. If
you have no patent steamer, place them in a close covered dish within an
ordinary steamer, and cook for an hour over a kettle of boiling water.
This should be done the day before they are to be used.

Use an earthen or granite-ware basin for mixing cake. Be very accurate
in measuring the materials, and have them all at hand and all utensils
ready before beginning to put the cake together. If it is to be baked at
once, see that the oven also is at just the right temperature. It should
be less hot for cake than for bread. Thin cakes require a hotter oven
than those baked in loaves. They require from fifteen to twenty minutes
to bake; thicker loaves, from thirty to sixty minutes. For loaf cakes
the oven should be at such a temperature that during the first half of
the time the cake will have risen to its full height and just begun to
brown.

The recipes given require neither baking powder, soda, nor saleratus.
Yeast and air can be made to supply the necessary lightness, and their
use admits of as great a variety in cakes as will be needed on a
hygienic bill of fare.

In making cake with yeast, do not use very thick cream, as a rich, oily
batter retards fermentation and makes the cake slow in rising. If the
cake browns too quickly, protect it by a covering of paper. If necessary
to move a cake in the oven, do it very gently. Do not slam the oven door
or in any way jar a cake while baking, lest it fall. Line cake tins with
paper to prevent burning the bottom and edges. Oil the paper, not the
tins, very lightly. Cake is done when it shrinks from the pan and stops
hissing, or when a clean straw run into the thickest part comes up
clean.

As soon as possible after baking, remove from the pan, as, if allowed to
remain in the pan, it is apt to become too moist.


_RECIPES._

APPLE CAKE.--Scald a cup of thin cream and cool to blood heat, add
one and a half cups of sifted white flour, one fourth of a cup of sugar,
and a gill of liquid yeast or one half cake of compressed yeast
dissolved in a gill of thin cream. Beat well together, set in a warm
place, and let it rise till perfectly light. When well risen, add one
half cup of sugar mixed with one half cup of warm flour. Beat well and
set in a warm place to rise again. When risen a second time, add two
eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, and about one tablespoonful of
flour. Turn the whole into three round shallow baking tins, which have
been previously oiled and warmed, and place where it will rise again for
an hour, or until it is all of a foam. Bake quickly in a moderately hot
oven. Make this the day before it is needed, and when ready to use
prepare a filling as follows: Beat together the whites of two eggs, one
half cup of sugar, the juice of one lemon, and two large tart apples
well grated. Heat in a farina kettle until all are hot; cool, and
spread between the layers of cake. This should be eaten the day the
filling is prepared.

COCOANUT CUSTARD CAKE.--Make the cake as directed in the preceding
recipe. For the filling, prepare a soft custard by heating just to the
boiling point one pint of rich milk previously flavored with cocoanut;
into which stir A tablespoonful of cornstarch braided with a little
milk, and let it boil until thickened. Beat together an egg and one
third of a cup of sugar, and turn the hot mixture slowly over it,
stirring constantly till the custard thickens. When cold, spread between
the layers of raised cake.

CREAM CAKE.--Prepare the cake as above. Spread between the layers
when cold a cream made as follows: Stir into one half pint of boiling
milk two teaspoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.
Take with two tablespoonfuls of sugar; return to the rest of the custard
and cook, stirring constantly until quite thick. Cool and flavor with a
teaspoonful of vanilla or rose water.

DELICATE CUP CAKE.--This cake contains no soda or baking powder,
and to make it light requires the incorporation of as much air as
possible. In order to accomplish this, it should be put together in the
same manner as directed for Batter Breads (page 154). Have all material
measured and everything in readiness before beginning to put the cake
together, then beat together the yolk of one egg, one cup of sugar, and
one cup of very cold sweet cream, until all of a foam; add a little
grated lemon rind for flavoring; stir in slowly, beating briskly all the
time, two cups of granular white flour (sometimes termed gluten flour)
or Graham meal. When all the flour is added, add lastly the beaten
whites of two eggs, stirring just enough to mix them well throughout the
whole; turn at once into slightly heated gem irons which have been
previously oiled, and bake in a moderately quick oven. If made according
to directions, this cake will be very light and delicate. It will not
puff up much above its first proportions, but will be light throughout.

A nice cake may be prepared in the same manner with Graham meal or even
white flour, by the addition of a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch
sifted into the flour, in the way in which baking powder is ordinarily
mixed with flour before using.

FIG LAYER CAKE.--Prepare the cake as directed for Apple Cake. Chop
one half pound of figs very fine, add one half cup of sugar, one cup of
water and boil in a farina kettle until soft and homogeneous. Cool, and
spread between the cakes. Or chop steamed figs very fine, mix with an
equal quantity of almondine, and use.

FRUIT JELLY CAKE.--Prepare the cake as in the foregoing, using
fruit jelly between the layers.

GOLD AND SILVER CAKE.--Prepare the cake as for Apple Cake. When it
has risen the second time, measure out one third of it, and add the
yolks of the eggs to that portion with a little grated lemon rind for
flavoring; add the whites with some very finely pulverized desiccated
cocoanut to the other two thirds. Make two sheets of the white and one
of the yellow. Allow them to become perfectly light before baking. When
baked, place the yellow portion between the two white sheets, binding
them together with a little frosting or white currant jelly.

ICING FOR CAKES.--Since icing adds to the excess of sugar contained
in cakes, it is preferable to use them without it except when especially
desired for ornament. An icing without eggs may be prepared by boiling a
cup of granulated sugar in five tablespoonfuls of sweet milk for five
minutes, then beating until cool enough to spread. One with egg may be
easily made of six tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, the white of one
egg, and one teaspoonful of boiling water mixed without beating. A
colored icing may be made by using a teaspoonful of boiling cranberry
juice or other red fruit juice instead of water. The top of the icing
may be ornamented with roasted almonds, bits of colored sugar or frosted
fruits, directions for the preparation of all of which have already been
given.

ORANGE CAKE.--Prepare the cake as for Apple Cake, and bake in two
layers. For the filling, take two good-sized, juicy oranges. Flavor two
tablespoonfuls of sugar by rubbing it over the skin of the oranges, then
peel, remove the white rind, and cut into small pieces, discarding the
seeds and the central pith. Put the orange pulp in a china bowl, and set
in a dish of boiling water. When it is hot, stir in a heaping
teaspoonful of cornstarch which has been braided smooth in two spoonfuls
of water. Stir constantly until the starch has cooked, and the whole
becomes thickened. Beat the yolk of one egg to a cream with two
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Stir this very gradually, so as not to lump,
into the orange mixture, and cook two or three minutes longer. Remove
from the fire, and when cool, spread between the cakes. If the oranges
are not very tart, a little lemon juice is an improvement. Meringue the
top of the cake with the white of the egg beaten up with the two
tablespoonfuls of sugar flavored with orange.

FRUIT CAKE.--Make a sponge of one pint of thin cream which has been
scalded and cooled to lukewarm, one gill of liquid yeast or one half
cake of compressed yeast dissolved in a gill of cream, one half cup of
sugar, and two and one half cups of flour. Beat all together very
thoroughly and let rise until light. When light, add another half cup of
sugar, one half cup of rather thick cream which has been scalded and
cooled, one cup of warm flour, and after beating well together, set away
to rise again. When well risen, add one cup of seeded raisins, one
fourth cup of citron chopped fine, one half cup of Zante currants, two
well-beaten eggs, and about one and one third cups of flour. Turn into a
brick loaf bread pan, let it rise until very light, and bake. When done,
remove from the pan and set away until at least twenty-four hours old
before using.

LOAF CAKE.--Scald a cup of rather thin cream, and cool to blood
heat. Add one and one half cups of warm flour, one half a cup of sugar,
and one fourth cake of compressed yeast dissolved in two tablespoonfuls
of thin cream or as much of liquid yeast. Beat well, and let rise until
perfectly light; then add one half cup more of sugar mixed with one half
cup of warm flour. Beat well, and set away to rise a second time. When
again well risen, add the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth,
one half cup of warm flour, and a little grated lemon rind, or two
teaspoonfuls of rose water to flavor. Turn into a brick loaf bread pan
lined with oiled paper, allow it to become perfectly light again, and
bake. This cake, like other articles made with yeast, should not be
eaten within at least twenty-four hours after baking.

PINEAPPLE CAKE.--Prepare as for orange cake, using grated pineapple
in place of oranges.

PLAIN BUNS.--These are the simplest of all cakes. Dissolve half a
small cake of compressed yeast in a cup of thin cream which has been
previously warmed to blood heat, add two cups of warm flour, and beat
thoroughly together. Put in a warm place, and let it rise till very
light. Add three tablespoonfuls of sugar mixed well with a half cup of
warm flour, one half cup of Zante currants, and sufficient flour to make
of the consistency of dough. Buns should be kneaded just as soft as
possible, and from fifteen to twenty minutes. Shape into biscuits a
little larger than an English walnut, place them on tins far enough
apart so they will not touch each other when risen. Put in a warm place
till they have risen to twice their first size, then bake in a
moderately quick oven. If desired, the currants may be omitted and a
little grated lemon rind for flavoring added with the sugar, or a bit of
citron may be placed in the top of each bun when shaping. When taken
from the oven, sprinkle the top of each with moist sugar if desired, or
glace by brushing with milk while baking.

SPONGE CAKE.--For this will be required four eggs, one cup of
sugar, one tablespoonful of lemon juice with a little of the grated
rind, and one cup of white flour. Success in the making of sponge cake
depends almost wholly upon the manner in which it is put together. Beat
the yolks of the eggs until very light and thick, then add the sugar
little by little, beating it in thoroughly; add the lemon juice and the
grated rind. Beat the whites of the eggs until perfectly stiff and firm,
and fold or chop them very lightly into the yolk mixture. Sift the flour
with a sifter little by little over the mixture and fold it carefully
in. On no account stir either the white of the eggs or the flour in,
since stirring will drive out the air which has been beaten into the
eggs. Do not beat after the flour is added. The cake, when the flour is
all in, should be stiff and spongy. If it is liquid in character, it
will be apt to be tough and may be considered a failure. Bake in a
shallow pan in a rather hot oven fifteen or twenty minutes.

SUGAR CRISPS.--Make a soft dough of two and one fourth cups of
Graham flour, one half cup of granulated white sugar, and one cup of
rather thick sweet cream. Knead as little as possible, roll out very
thinly, cut in rounds or squares, and bake in a quick oven.

VARIETY CAKE.--Make the same as Gold and Silver Cake, and mix a
half cup of Zante currants and chopped raisins with the yellow portion.
The white portion may be flavored by adding a very little chopped citron
instead of the cocoanut, if preferred.



TABLE TOPICS.

    If families could be induced to substitute the apple--sound, ripe,
    and luscious--for the pies, cakes, candies, and other sweetmeats
    with which children are too often stuffed, there would be a
    diminution of doctors' bills, sufficient in a single year to lay up
    a stock of this delicious fruit for a season's use.--_Prof.
    Faraday._

    Food for repentance--mince pie eaten late at night.

    _Young Student_--"This cook book says that pie crust needs plenty of
    shortening. Do you know what that means, pa?"

    _Father_--"It means lard."

    "But why is lard called shortening, pa?"

    "Because it shortens life."

    The health journals and the doctors all agree that the best and most
    wholesome part of the New England country doughnut is the hole. The
    larger the hole, they say, the better the doughnut.

    An old gentleman who was in the habit of eating a liberal slice of
    pie or cake just before retiring, came home late one evening after
    his wife had gone to bed. After an unsuccessful search in the
    pantry, he called to his wife, "Mary, where is the pie?" His good
    wife timidly acknowledged that there was no pie in the house. Said
    her husband, "Then where is the cake?" The poor woman meekly
    confessed that the supply of cake was also exhausted; at which the
    disappointed husband cried out in a sharp, censorious tone, "Why,
    what would you do if somebody should be sick in the night?"

    _Woman_ (to tramp)--"I can give you some cold buckwheat cakes and a
    piece of mince pie." _Tramp_--(frightened) "What ye say?"
    _Woman_--"Cold buckwheat cakes and mince pie." _Tramp_--(heroically)
    "Throw in a small bottle of pepsin, Madam, and I'll take the
    chances."



GRAVIES AND SAUCES

Gravies for vegetables, sauces for desserts, and similar foods thickened
with flour or cornstarch, are among the most common of the poorly
prepared articles of the _cuisine_, although their proper preparation is
a matter of considerable importance, since neither a thin, watery sauce
nor a stiff, paste-like mixture is at all palatable. The preparation of
gravies and sauces is a very simple matter when governed by that
accuracy of measurement and carefulness of detail which should be
exercised in the preparation of all foods. In consistency, a properly
made sauce should mask the back of the spoon; that is to say, when
dipped into the mixture and lifted out, the metal of the spoon should
not be visible through it as it runs off. The proportion of material
necessary to secure this requisite is one tablespoonful of flour,
slightly rounded, for each half pint of water or stock. If the sauce be
made of milk or fruit juice, a little less flour will be needed. If
cornstarch be used, a scant instead of a full tablespoonful will be
required. The flour, or cornstarch should be first braided or rubbed
perfectly smooth in a very small amount of the liquid reserved for the
purpose (salt or sugar, if any is to be used, being added to the flour
before braiding with the liquid), and then carefully added to the
remaining liquid, which should be actively boiling. It should then be
continuously stirred until it has thickened, when it should be allowed
to cook slowly for five or ten minutes until the starch or flour is well
done. If through any negligence to observe carefully these simple
details, there should be lumps in the sauce, they must be removed before
serving by turning the whole through a fine colander or wire strainer.

The double boiler is the best utensil for the preparation of sauces and
gravies, since it facilitates even cooking and renders them less liable
to become scorched. The inner cup should be placed on the top of the
range until the sauce has become thickened, as in the cooking of grains,
and afterwards placed in the outer boiler to continue the cooking as
long as needed.

Cream gravies for vegetables may be delicately flavored with celery, by
steeping a few bits of celery in the milk for a few minutes, and
removing with a fork before adding the thickening. Sauces for puddings
may be similarly flavored, by steeping cocoanut or bits of orange or
lemon rind in the milk.


GRAVIES AND SAUCES FOR VEGETABLES.


_RECIPES._

BROWN SAUCE.--Heat a pint of thin cream, and when boiling, add half
a teaspoonful of salt and a tablespoonful of flour browned in the oven
as directed on page 274, and rubbed to a smooth paste with a little cold
milk. Allow it to boil rapidly, stirring constantly until thickened;
then cook more slowly, in a double boiler, for five or ten minutes. If
desired, the milk may be flavored with onion before adding the flour.
This makes a good dressing for potatoes.

CREAM OR WHITE SAUCE.--Heat a pint of rich milk, part cream if it
can be afforded, to boiling, and stir into it one tablespoonful of flour
previously rubbed smooth in a little milk. Season with salt, and cook in
a double boiler five or ten minutes, stirring frequently that no lumps
be formed. If lumps are found in the sauce, turn it quickly through a
fine, hot colander into the dish in which it is to be served.

CELERY SAUCE.--Cut half a dozen stalks of celery into
finger-lengths, and simmer in milk for ten or fifteen minutes. Skim out
the celery, add a little cream to the milk, salt to taste, and thicken
with flour as for white sauce. This is very nice for potatoes and for
toast.

EGG SAUCE.--Heat a pint of milk to boiling, and stir in a
dessertspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little milk. Stir constantly
until the sauce is well thickened; add the well-beaten yolk of an egg,
turning it in very slowly and stirring rapidly so that it shall be well
mingled. Boil up once only, add a very little salt, and serve. The egg
makes an excellent substitute for cream.

PEASE GRAVY.--A gravy prepared either of dried or green peas as
directed for Lentil Gravy on page 226, makes a suitable dressing for
baked potatoes. Lentil gravy is also good for the same purpose. The
addition of a little lemon juice to the lentil gravy makes another
variety.

TOMATO GRAVY.--A gravy made of tomatoes as directed on page 261, is
excellent to use on baked or boiled sweet potatoes.

TOMATO CREAM GRAVY.--Prepare a gravy as for Cream Sauce, using a
slightly heaping measure of flour. When done, add, just before serving,
for each quart of the cream sauce, one cup of hot, stewed tomato which
has been put through a fine colander to remove all seeds. Beat it
thoroughly into the sauce and serve on boiled or baked potato.


SAUCES FOR DESSERTS AND PUDDINGS.


_RECIPES._

ALMOND SAUCE.--Heat a pint of rich milk in the inner cup of a
double boiler, placed directly upon the stove. When the milk is boiling,
stir into it a heaping tablespoonful of flour which has been rubbed to a
cream in a little cold milk. Boil rapidly until thickened, stirring
constantly; then add three tablespoonfuls of almondine; place in the
outer boiler, and cook for five or ten minutes longer.

CARAMEL SAUCE.--Stir a cup of sugar in a saucepan over the fire
until melted and lightly browned. Add one cup of boiling water, and
simmer ten minutes.

COCOANUT SAUCE.--Flavor a pint of new milk with cocoanut, as
directed on page 298. Skim out the cocoanut, and add enough fresh milk
to make one pint. Heat the milk to boiling, add two tablespoonfuls of
sugar, thicken with two even spoonfuls of cornstarch, and proceed in the
same manner as for Mock Cream.

CREAM SAUCE.--Beat together two thirds of a cup of sugar, one
tablespoonful of thick, sweet cream, and one egg. Wet half a teaspoonful
of cornstarch with a little milk, and stir in with the mixture; then
add five tablespoonfuls of boiling milk, stirring rapidly all the time.
Pour into the inner cup of a double boiler; have the water in the outer
cup boiling, and cook five minutes. Flavor to taste.

CRANBERRY PUDDING SAUCE.--To a quart of boiling water add two cups
of sugar, and when well dissolved, one quart of carefully sorted
cranberries. Mash the berries as much as possible with a silver spoon,
and boil just seven minutes. Turn through a colander to remove skins,
cool and serve.

CUSTARD SAUCE.--Rub two teaspoonfuls of flour to a smooth paste
with half a cup of new milk. Heat two and a half cups of fresh milk in a
double boiler to scalding, then stir in the braided flour; heat again,
stirring constantly till just to the boiling point, but no longer;
remove from the stove and cool a little. Beat together one egg, three
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little lemon rind for flavoring. Turn the
hot milk over this, a little at a time, stirring briskly meanwhile.
Return the whole to the double boiler, and cook, stirring frequently,
until when a spoon is dipped into the custard a coating remains upon it.
Then remove at once from the fire. If the spoon comes out clean, the
custard is not sufficiently cooked.

EGG SAUCE.--Separate the yolks and whites of three eggs. Beat the
whites to a stiff froth, and stir in very gently, so as not to let the
air out of the beaten whites, one cup of powdered sugar and a
teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon flavoring powder. Lastly, stir in
carefully the beaten yolks of the eggs, and serve at once.

EGG SAUCE NO. 2.--Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth
with one half cup of sugar. Add three tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and
one of water. Serve at once.

FOAMY SAUCE.--Beat one egg or the whites of two very thoroughly
with one half cup of sugar and a little grated lemon rind. Pour on this
very slowly, stirring constantly to make it smooth, one cup of boiling
milk, part cream if it can be afforded. If the whites alone are used,
they should not be beaten stiff. If preferred, the lemon may be omitted
and a tablespoonful or two of currant juice or quince jelly added last
as flavoring.

FRUIT CREAM.--Take the juice pressed from a cupful of fresh
strawberries, red raspberries, or black caps, add to it one third of a
cup of sugar, and place in the ice chest till chilled. Set a cup of
sweet cream also on ice till very cold. When thoroughly cold, whip with
an egg beater till the froth begins to rise, then add to it the cold
fruit juice and beat again. Have ready the white of one egg beaten to a
stiff froth, which add to the fruit cream, and whip till no more froth
will rise. This makes a delicious dressing for simple grain molds and
blancmanges, but is so rich it should be used rather sparingly. Serve as
soon as possible after being prepared. Fruit syrup, in the proportion of
two or three tablespoonfuls to the pint of cream, may be used in the
same manner when the fresh juice is not available. The juice of orange,
quince, and pineapple may also be used in the same manner as that of
berries.

FRUIT SAUCE.--Heat a pint of red raspberry, currant, grape,
strawberry, apricot, or any other fruit juice to scalding, and stir in a
tablespoonful of cornstarch previously rubbed to a cream with a little
cold water. Cook till it thickens; then add sugar according to the
acidity of the fruit. Strain and cool before using. If fruit juice is
not available, two or three tablespoonfuls of pure fruit jelly may be
dissolved in a pint of hot water and used instead of the juice. A
mixture of red and black raspberry juice, or currant and raspberry, will
be found acceptable for variety.

FRUIT SAUCE NO. 2.--Mash a quart of fresh berries, add one cup of
sugar, beat very thoroughly together, and set away until needed. Just
before it is wanted for serving, turn into a granite fruit kettle and
heat nearly to boiling, stirring constantly to avoid burning. Serve hot
with hot or cold puddings, or molded desserts.

LEMON PUDDING SAUCE.--Heat to boiling, in a double boiler, a pint
of water in which are two slices of lemon, and stir into it a
dessertspoonful of cornstarch; cook four to five minutes, or until it
thickens. Squeeze the juice from one large lemon, and mix it with two
thirds of a cup of sugar. Add this to the cornstarch mixture, and allow
the whole to boil up once, stirring constantly; then take from the fire.
Leave in the double boiler, surrounded by the hot water, for ten
minutes. Cool to blood heat before serving.

MOCK CREAM.--Heat a pint of fresh, unskimmed milk in a double
boiler. When the milk is boiling, stir in two tablespoonfuls of sugar,
and two even tablespoonfuls of cornstarch which has first been rubbed
smooth in a very little cold milk. Bring just to a boil, stirring
constantly; then pour the hot mixture, a little at a time, beating
thoroughly all the while, over the well-beaten white of one egg. Put
again into the double boiler, return to the fire, and stir till it
thickens to the consistency of cream.

MOLASSES SAUCE.--To one half cup of molasses, add one half cup of
water, and heat to boiling. Thicken with a teaspoonful of flour rubbed
to a cream with a little cold water. Serve hot.

ORANGE SAUCE.--Squeeze a cupful of juice from well-flavored, sour
oranges. Heat a pint of water, and when boiling, thicken with a
tablespoonful of cornstarch. Add the orange juice, strain, and sweeten
to taste with sugar that has been flavored by rubbing over the yellow
rind of an orange until mixed with the oil in the rind. If a richer
sauce is desired, the yolk of an egg may be added lastly, and the sauce
allowed to cook until thickened.

PEACH SAUCE.--Strain the juice from a well-kept can of peaches.
Dilute with one half as much water, heat to boiling, and thicken with
cornstarch, a scant tablespoonful to the pint of liquid.

PLAIN PUDDING SAUCE.--Thicken one and one half cups of water with
one tablespoonful of cornstarch; boil a few minutes, then stir in two
thirds of a cup of sugar, and one half cup of sweet cream. Take off the
stove, and flavor with a little rose, vanilla, or lemon.

RED SAUCE.--Pare and slice a large red beet, and simmer gently in
three cups of water for twenty minutes, or until the water is rose
colored, then add two cups of sugar, the thin yellow rind and juice of
one lemon, and boil until the whole is thick syrup. Strain, add a
teaspoonful of rose water or vanilla, and serve.

ROSE CREAM.--Remove the thick cream from the top of a pan of cold
milk, taking care not to take up any of the milk. Add sugar to sweeten
and a teaspoonful or two of rose water. Beat with an egg beater until
the whole mass is thick. Good thick cream, beaten in this manner, makes
nearly double its original quantity.

SAGO SAUCE.--Wash one tablespoonful of sago in two or three waters,
then put it into a saucepan with three fourths of a cup of hot water,
and some bits of lemon peel. Simmer gently for ten minutes, take out the
lemon peel, add half a cup of quince or apricot juice; and if the
latter, the strained juice of half a lemon, and sugar to taste. Beat
together thoroughly.

WHIPPED CREAM SAUCE.--Beat together with an egg beater until of a
stiff froth one cup of sweet cream which has been cooled to a
temperature of 64° or less, one teaspoonful of vanilla or a little
grated lemon rind, and one half cup of powdered white sugar, and the
whites of one or two eggs. The sauce may be variously flavored with a
little fruit jelly beaten with the egg, before adding to the cream.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Whether or not life is worth living, all depends upon the
    liver.--_Sel._

    Diet cures mair than doctors.--_Scotch Proverb._

    According to the ancient Hindu Scriptures, the proper amount of food
    is half of what can be conveniently eaten.

    Every hour you steal from digestion will be reclaimed by
    indigestion.--_Oswald._

    "Very few nations in the world," says a sagacious historian,
    "produce better soldiers than the Russians. They will endure the
    greatest fatigues and sufferings with patience and calmness. And it
    is well know that the Russian soldiers are from childhood nourished
    by simple and coarse vegetable food. The Russian Grenadiers are the
    finest body of men I ever saw,--not a man is under six feet high.
    Their allowance consists of eight pounds of black bread, and four
    pounds of oil per man for eight days."

    Colonel Fitzgibbon was, many years ago, colonial agent at London for
    the Canadian Government, and wholly dependent upon remittances from
    Canada for his support. On one occasion these remittances failed to
    arrive, and it being before the day of cables, he was obliged to
    write to his friends to ascertain the reason of the delay. Meanwhile
    he had just one sovereign to live upon. He found he could live upon
    a sixpence a day,--four pennyworth of bread, one pennyworth of milk,
    and one pennyworth of sugar. When his remittances arrived a month
    afterward, he had five shillings remaining of his sovereign, and he
    liked his frugal diet so well that he kept it up for several years.

    An hour of exercise to every pound of food.--_Oswald._

     Some eat to live, they loudly cry;
     But from the pace they swallow pie
     And other food promiscuously,
     One would infer they eat to die.

    --_Sel._



BEVERAGES

The use of beverages in quantities with food at mealtime is prejudicial
to digestion, because they delay the action of the gastric juice upon
solid foods. The practice of washing down food by copious draughts of
water, tea, or coffee is detrimental, not only because it introduces
large quantities of fluid into the stomach, which must be absorbed
before digestion can begin, but also because it offers temptation to
careless and imperfect mastication, while tea and coffee also serve as a
vehicle for an excessive use of sugar, thus becoming a potent cause of
indigestion and dyspepsia. It is best to drink but sparingly, if at all,
at mealtimes. Consideration should also be given to the nature of the
beverage, since many in common use are far from wholesome. Very cold
fluids, like iced water, iced tea, and iced milk, are harmful, because
they cool the contents of the stomach to a degree at which digestion is
checked. If drunk at all, they should be taken only in small sips and
retained in the mouth until partly warmed.

Tea is often spoken of as the "cup that cheers but not inebriates."
"The cup that may cheer yet does injury" would be nearer the truth, for
there is every evidence to prove that this common beverage is
exceedingly harmful, and that the evils of its excessive use are second
only to those of tobacco and alcohol. Tea contains two harmful
substances, theine and tannin,--from three to six per cent of the former
and more than one fourth its weight of the latter. Theine is a poison
belonging to the same class of poisonous alkaloids, and is closely
allied to cocaine. It is a much more powerful poison than alcohol,
producing death in less than one hundredth part the deadly dose of
alcohol; and when taken in any but the smallest doses, it produces all
the symptoms of intoxication. Tannin is an astringent exercising a
powerful effect in delaying salivary and stomach digestion, thus
becoming one of the most common causes of digestive disorders. It is
also a matter of frequent observation that sleeplessness, palpitation of
the heart, and various disorders of the nervous system frequently follow
the prolonged use of tea. Both theine and tannin are more abundant in
green than in black tea.

The dependence of the habitual tea-drinker upon the beverage, and the
sense of loss experienced when deprived of it, are among the strongest
proofs of its evil effects, and should be warnings against its use. No
such physical discomfort is experienced when deprived of any article of
ordinary food. The use of tea makes one feel bright and fresh when
really exhausted; but, like all other stimulants, it is by exciting
vital action above the normal without supplying extra force to support
the extra expenditure. The fact that a person feels tired is evidence
that the system demands rest, that his body is worn and needs repair;
but the relief experienced after a cup of tea is not recuperation.
Instead, it indicates that his nerves are paralyzed so that they are
insensible to fatigue.

Some people suppose the manner of preparing tea has much to do with its
deleterious effects, and that by infusion for two or three minutes only,
the evils resulting from the tannin will be greatly lessened. This,
however, is a delusion, if the same amount of tea be used proportionate
to the water; for tannin in its free state, the condition in which it is
found in tea is one of the most readily soluble of substances; and tea
infused for two minutes is likely to hold nearly as much tannin in
solution as that infused for a longer period.

Tea is not a food, and it can in no wise take the place of food, as so
many people attempt to make it, without detriment to health in every
respect.

Coffee, cocoa, and chocolate rank in the same category with tea, as
beverages which are more or less harmful. Coffee contains caffein, a
principle identical with theine and a modified form of tannin, though in
less quantity than tea. Cocoa and chocolate contain substances similar
to theine and equally harmful, though usually present in much less
proportion than in tea.

Custom has made the use of these beverages so common that most people
seldom stop to inquire into their nature. Doubtless the question arises
in many minds; If these beverages contain such poisons, why do they not
more commonly produce fatal results?--Because a tolerance of the poison
is established in the system by use, as in the case of tobacco and other
narcotics and stimulants; but that the poisons surely though insidiously
are doing their work is attested by the prevalence of numerous disorders
of the digestive and nervous systems, directly attributable to the use
of these beverages.

Both tea and coffee are largely adulterated with other harmful
substances, thus adding another reason why their use should be
discarded. It is stated on good authority that it is almost impossible
to obtain unadulterated ground coffee.

In view of all these facts, it certainly seems wisest if a beverage is
considered essential, to make use of one less harmful. Hot milk, hot
water, hot lemonade, caramel coffee, or some of the various grain
coffees, recipes for which are give in the following pages, are all
excellent substitutes for tea and coffee, if a hot drink is desired.


_RECIPES_

BEET COFFEE.--Wash best beets thoroughly, but do not scrape; slice,
and brown in a moderate oven, taking care not to burn. When brown, break
in small pieces and steep the same as ordinary coffee.

CARAMEL COFFEE.--Take three quarts best bran, one quart corn meal,
three tablespoonfuls of molasses; mix and brown in the oven like
ordinary coffee. For every cup of coffee required, use one heaping
tablespoonful of the caramel. Pour boiling water over it, and steep, not
boil, for fifteen or twenty minutes.

CARAMEL COFFEE NO. 2.--Take one cup each of white flour, corn meal,
unsifted Graham flour, and molasses. Mix well, and form into cakes half
an inch thick and a little larger around than a silver dollar. If the
molasses is not thin enough to take up all the dry material, one fourth
or one half a cup of cold water may be added for that purpose. Bake the
cakes in the oven until very dark brown, allowing them to become
slightly scorched. When desired for use, take one cake for each cup of
coffee required, pour sufficient water over them, and steep, not boil,
twenty minutes.

CARAMEL COFFEE NO. 3.--To three and one half quarts of bran and one
and one half quarts of corn meal, take one pint of New Orleans molasses
and one half pint of boiling water. Put the water and molasses together
and pour them over the bran and corn meal which have been previously
mixed. Rub all well together, and brown slowly in the oven, stirring
often, until a rich dark brown. Use one heaping tablespoonful of coffee
to each small cup of boiling water, let it just boil up, then steep on
the back of the stove for five or ten minutes.

CARAMEL COFFEE NO. 4.--Beat together four eggs and one pint of
molasses, and mix thoroughly with four quarts of good wheat bran. Brown
in the oven, stirring frequently. Prepare for use the same as the
preceding.

MRS. T'S CARAMEL COFFEE.--Make a rather thick batter of Graham
grits or Graham meal and milk, spread it in shallow pans and bake in a
moderate oven until evenly done throughout. Cut the cake thus prepared
into thin strips, which break into small uniform pieces and spread on
perforated tins or sheets and brown in the oven. Each piece should be
very darkly and evenly browned, but not burned. For each cup of coffee
required, steep a small handful in boiling water for ten or fifteen
minutes, strain and serve.

PARCHED GRAIN COFFEE.--Brown in the oven some perfectly sound
wheat, sweet corn, barley, or rice, as you would the coffee berry. If
desired, a mixture of grains may be used. Pound or grind fine. Mix the
white of an egg with three tablespoonfuls of the ground grain, and pour
over it a quart of boiling water. Allow it to come just to the boiling
point, steep slowly for twelve or fifteen minutes, and serve.

WHEAT, OATS AND BARLEY COFFEE.--Mix together equal quantities of
these grains, brown in the oven like ordinary coffee, and grind. To one
quart of boiling water take three tablespoonfuls of the prepared coffee
mixed with the white of an egg, and steep in boiling water ten or
fifteen minutes.


_RECIPES FOR COLD BEVERAGES._

BLACKBERRY BEVERAGE.--Crush a quart of fresh blackberries, and pour
over them a quart of cold water; add a slice of lemon and a teaspoonful
of orange water, and let it stand three or four hours. Strain through a
jelly bag. Sweeten to taste with a syrup prepared by dissolving white
sugar in hot water, allowing it to become cold before using. Serve at
once with bits of broken ice in the glasses, or place the pitcher on ice
until ready to serve.

FRUIT BEVERAGE.--A great variety of pleasant, healthful drinks may
be made by taking equal quantities of water and the juice of currants,
strawberries, raspberries, cherries, or a mixture of two kinds, as
raspberries and currants, sweetening to taste, and putting into each
glass a small lump of ice. Directions for the preparation of fruit
juices will be found on page 209.

FRUIT BEVERAGE NO. 2.--Mash a pint of red raspberries, add one cup
of canned pineapple or half a fresh one chopped fine; pour over all
three pints of water. Stir frequently, and let the mixture stand for two
hours. Strain, add the juice of six lemons, and sugar or syrup to
sweeten.

ANOTHER.--Extract the juice from three lemons and as many sour
oranges, add a quart of cold water, sugar or syrup to sweeten, half a
teaspoonful of rose water, and a cup of pure grape juice; or the rose
water and grape juice may be omitted and two tablespoonfuls of
strawberry, raspberry, or cherry juice used instead, and the whole
poured over half a dozen slices of pineapple, and allowed to stand until
well flavored before using.

FRUIT CORDIAL.--Crush a pint of blackberries, raspberries, grapes,
currants, or cherries, adding the juice of two sour oranges, and a
sliced lemon; pour over all a quart of cold water. Stir the mixture
frequently and let it stand for two hours, then strain and add a syrup
made by dissolving white sugar in boiling water, sufficient to sweeten.
Cool on ice and serve.

GRAPE BEVERAGE.--Crush two pounds of perfectly ripened purple
grapes and strain the juice through a jelly bag. Add to the juice three
tablespoonfuls of granulated sugar or syrup, and dilute with cold water
to suit the taste.

LEMONADE.--Use three large or four medium-sized lemons for each
quart of water, and from six to eight tablespoonfuls of sugar. Rub or
squeeze the lemons till soft. Cut a slice or two from each, and extract
the juice with a lemon drill; strain the juice through a fine wire
strainer to remove the seeds and bits of pulp, and pour it over the
sugar. Add the slices of lemon, and pour over all a very little boiling
water to thoroughly dissolve the sugar; let it stand ten or fifteen
minutes, then add the necessary quantity of cold water, and serve. Or
rub the sugar over the outside of the lemons to flavor it, and make it
into a syrup by adding sufficient boiling water to dissolve it. Extract
and strain the lemon juice, add the prepared syrup and the requisite
quantity of cold water, and serve.

MIXED LEMONADE.--A very pleasant, cooling summer drink is made from
the juice of six oranges and six lemons, with sugar to taste; add to
this some pounded ice and the juice of a small can of pineapple, and
lastly pour over the whole two quarts of water.

OATMEAL DRINK.--Boil one fourth of a pound of oatmeal in three
quarts of water for half an hour, then add one and one half
tablespoonfuls of sugar, strain and cool. It may be flavored with a
little lemon or raspberry syrup if desired; or the sugar may be omitted
and a quart of milk added. Cool on ice and serve.

ORANGEADE.--Pare very thin from one orange a few bits of the yellow
rind. Slice three well-peeled sour oranges, taking care to remove all
the white portion and all seeds. Add the yellow rind and a tablespoonful
of sugar; pour over all a quart of boiling water. Cover the dish, and
let it remain until the drink is cold. Or, if preferred, the juice of
the oranges may be extracted with a lemon drill and strained as for
lemonade.

PINEAPPLE BEVERAGE.--Pare and chop quite fine one fresh pineapple;
add a slice or two of lemon, and cover with three pints of boiling
water. Let it stand for two hours or more, stirring frequently; then
strain and add the juice of five lemons, and sugar or syrup to sweeten.

PINEAPPLE LEMONADE.--Lemonade made in the usual manner and flavored
with a few spoonfuls of canned pineapple juice, is excellent for
variety.

PINK LEMONADE.--Add to a pint of lemonade prepared in the usual
manner half a cup of fresh or canned strawberry, red raspberry, currant,
or cranberry juice. It gives a pretty color besides adding a pleasing
flavor.

SHERBET.--Mash a quart of red raspberries, currants, or
strawberries, add the juice of a lemon, and pour over all three pints of
cold water. Stir frequently, and let it stand for two or three hours.
Strain through a jelly bag, sweeten to taste, and serve.

TISANE.--This is a favorite French beverage, and is prepared by
chopping fine a cupful of dried fruits, such as prunes, figs, or
prunelles, and steeping for an hour in a quart of water, afterward
straining, sweetening to taste, and cooling on ice before using.



TABLE TOPICS.

    The nervousness and peevishness of our times are chiefly
    attributable to tea and coffee. The digestive organs of confirmed
    coffee drinkers are in a state of chronic derangement which reacts
    on the brain, producing fretful and lachrymose moods. The snappish,
    petulant humor of the Chinese can certainly be ascribed to their
    immoderate fondness for tea.--_Dr. Bock._

    Dr. Ferguson, an eminent physician who has carefully investigated
    the influence of tea and coffee upon the health and development of
    children, says he found that children who were allowed these
    beverages gained but four pounds a year between the ages of thirteen
    and sixteen, while those who had been allowed milk instead, gained
    fifteen pounds in weight during the same period.

    Dr. Richardson, the eminent English physician and scientist, asserts
    that the misery of the women of the poorer classes of the population
    in England is more than doubled by the use of tea, which only
    soothes or stimulates to intensify the after-coming depression and
    languor.

    A physician recommended a lady to abandon the use of tea and coffee.
    "O, but I shall miss it so," said she.

    "Very likely," replied her medical adviser, "but you are missing
    health now, and will soon lose it altogether if you do not."

    Dr. Stenhouse, of Liverpool, once made a careful analysis of a
    sample package of black tea, which was found to contain "some pure
    Congo tea leaves, also siftings of Pekoe and inferior kinds,
    weighing together twenty-seven per cent of the whole. The remaining
    seventy-three per cent was composed of the following substances;
    Iron, plumbago, chalk, China-clay, sand, Prussian-blue, tumeric,
    indigo, starch, gypsum, catechu, gum, the leaves of the camelia,
    sarangna, _Chlorantes officinalis_, elm, oak, willow, poplar, elder,
    beach, hawthorn, and sloe."



MILK CREAM BUTTER

MILK.

Chemically considered, the constituents of milk are nitrogenous matter
(consisting of casein and a small proportion of albumen), fat, sugar of
milk, mineral matter, and water, the last constituting from sixty-five
to ninety per cent of the whole.

The proportion of these elements varies greatly in the milk of different
animals of the same species and of the same animals at different times,
so that it is not possible to give an exact analysis.

The analysis of an average specimen of cow's milk, according to Letheby,
is:--

    Nitrogenous matter.......................................4.1
    Fat......................................................3.9
    Sugar of milk............................................5.2
    Mineral matter...........................................0.8
    Water...................................................86.0

If a drop of milk be examined with a microscope, it will be seen as a
clear liquid, holding in suspension a large number of minute globules,
which give the milk its opacity or white color. These microscopic
globules are composed of fatty matter, each surrounded by an envelope of
casein, the principal nitrogenous element found in milk. They are
lighter than the surrounding liquid, and when the milk remains at rest,
they gradually rise to the top and form cream. Casein, unlike albumen,
is not coagulated by heat; hence when milk is cooked, it undergoes no
noticeable change, save the coagulation of the very small amount of
albumen it contains, which, as it solidifies, rises to the top, carrying
with it a small portion of the sugar and saline matter and some of the
fat globules, forming a skin-like scum upon the surface. Casein,
although not coagulable by heat, is coagulated by the introduction into
the milk of acids or extract of rennet. The curd of cheese is coagulated
casein. When milk is allowed to stand for some time exposed to warmth
and air, a spontaneous coagulation occurs, caused by fermentative
changes in the sugar of milk, by which it is converted into lactic acid
through the action of germs.

Milk is sometimes adulterated by water, the removal of more or less of
the cream, or the addition of some foreign substance to increase its
density.

The quality of milk is more or less influenced by the food upon which
the animal is fed. Watery milk may be produced by feeding a cow upon
sloppy food.

The milk of diseased animals should never be used for food. There is no
way by which such milk can invariably be detected, but Prof. Vaughan, of
Michigan University, notes the following kinds of milk to be avoided:

1. Milk which becomes sour and curdles within a few hours after it has
been drawn, and before any cream forms on its surface. This is known in
some sections as 'curdly' milk, and it comes from cows with certain
inflammatory affections of the udder, or digestive diseases, or those
which have been overdriven or worried.

2. "Bitter-sweet milk" has cream of a bitter taste, is covered with
'blisters,' and frequently with a fine mold. Butter and cheese made from
such milk cannot be eaten on account of the disagreeable taste.

3. 'Slimy milk' can be drawn out into fine, ropy fibers. It has an
unpleasant taste, which is most marked in the cream. The causes which
lead to the secretion of this milk are not known.

4. 'Blue milk' is characterized by the appearance on its surface,
eighteen or twenty-four hours after it is drawn, of small, indigo-blue
spots, which rapidly enlarge until the whole surface is covered with a
blue film. If the milk be allowed to stand a few days, the blue is
converted into a greenish or reddish color. This coloration of the milk
is due to the growth of microscopic organisms. The butter made from
'blue milk' is dirty-white, gelatinous, and bitter.

5. 'Barnyard milk' is a term used to designate milk taken from unclean
animals, or those which have been kept in filthy, unventilated stables.
The milk absorbs and carries the odors, which are often plainly
perceptible. Such milk may not be poisonous, but it is repulsive.

There is no doubt that milk often serves as the vehicle for the
distribution of the germs of various contagious diseases, like scarlet
fever, diphtheria, and typhoid fever, from becoming contaminated in some
way, either from the hands of milkers or from water used as an
adulterant or in cleansing the milk vessels. Recent investigations have
also shown that cows are to some extent subject to scarlet fever, the
same as human beings, and that milk from infected cows will produce the
same disease in the consumer.

Milk should not be kept in brass or copper vessels or in earthen-ware
lined with lead glazing; for if the milk becomes acid, it is likely to
unite with the metal and form a poisonous compound. Glass and granite
ware are better materials in which to keep milk.

Milk should never be allowed to stand uncovered in an occupied room,
especially a sitting-room or bedroom, as its dust is likely to contain
disease-germs, which falling into the milk, may become a source of
serious illness to the consumer. Indeed it is safest to keep milk
covered whenever set away, to exclude the germs which are at all times
present in the air. A good way is to protect the dishes containing milk
with several layers of cheese-cloth, which will permit the air but not
the germs to circulate in and out of the pans. Neither should it be
allowed to stand where there are strong odors, as it readily takes up by
absorption any odors to which it is exposed.

A few years ago Dr. Dougall, of Glasgow, made some very interesting
experiments on the absorbent properties of milk. He inclosed in jars a
portion of substances giving off emanations, with a uniform quantity of
milk, in separate vessels, for a period of eight hours, at the end of
which time samples of the milk were drawn off and tested. The result was
that milk exposed to the following substances retained odors as
described:--

Coal gas, distinct; paraffine oil, strong; turpentine, very strong;
onions, very strong; tobacco smoke, very strong; ammonia, moderate;
musk, faint; asafetida, distinct; creosote, strong; cheese (stale),
distinct; chloroform, moderate; putrid fish, very bad; camphor,
moderate; decayed cabbage, distinct.

These facts clearly indicate that if the emanations to which milk is
exposed are of a diseased and dangerous quality, it is all but
impossible that the milk can remain free from dangerous properties.

Too much pains cannot be taken in the care of milk and vessels
containing it. Contact with the smallest quantity of milk which has
undergone fermentation will sour the whole; hence the necessity for
scrupulous cleanliness of all vessels which have contained milk before
they are used again for that purpose.

In washing milk dishes, many persons put them first into scalding water,
by which means the albumen in the milk is coagulated; and if there are
any crevices or seams in the pans or pails, this coagulated portion is
likely to adhere to them like glue, and becoming sour, will form the
nucleus for spoiling the next milk put into them. A better way is first
to rinse each separately in cold water, not pouring the water from one
pan to another, until there is not the slightest milky appearance in the
water, then wash in warm suds, or water containing sal-soda, and
afterward scald thoroughly; wipe perfectly dry, and place if possible
where the sun will have free access to them until they are needed for
further use. If sunshine is out of the question, invert the pans or cans
over the stove, or place for a few moments in a hot oven.

The treatment of milk varies with its intended use, whether whole or
separated from the cream.

Cream rises best when the milk is quite warm or when near the
freezing-point. In fact, cream separates more easily from milk at the
freezing-point than any other, but it is not thick and never becomes so.
An intermediate state seems to be unfavorable to a full rising of the
cream.

A temperature of 56° to 60°F. is a good one. Milk to be used whole
should be kept at about 45° and stirred frequently.

All milk obtained from city milkmen or any source not certainly known to
be free from disease-germs, should be sterilized before using. Indeed,
it is safest always to sterilize milk before using, since during the
milking or in subsequent handling and transportation it is liable to
become infected with germs.

TO STERILIZE MILK FOR IMMEDIATE USE.--Put the milk as soon as
received into the inner dish of a double boiler, the outer vessel of
which should be filled with boiling water. Cover and heat the milk
rapidly to as near the boiling point as possible. Allow it to remain
with the water in the outer boiler actively boiling for half an hour,
then remove from the stove and cool very quickly. This may be
accomplished by pouring into shallow dishes, and placing these in cold
water, changing the water as frequently as it becomes warm, or by using
pieces of ice in the water. It is especially important to remember that
the temperature of the milk should be raised as rapidly as possible, and
when the milk is sufficiently cooked, cooled very quickly. Either very
slow heating or slow cooling may prove disastrous, even when every other
precaution is taken.

Or, well-cleaned glass fruit cans may be nearly filled with milk, the
covers screwed on loosely, then placed in a kettle of cold water,
gradually heated to boiling and kept at that temperature for a half hour
or longer, then gradually cooled. Or, perfectly clean bottles may be
filled with milk to within two inches of the top, the neck tightly
closed with a wad of cotton, and the bottles placed in a steam cooker,
the water in which should be cold at the start, and steamed for half an
hour.

This cooking of milk, while it destroys many of the germs contained in
milk, particularly the active disease-germs which are liable to be found
in it, thus rendering it more wholesome, and improving its keeping
qualities somewhat, does not so completely sterilize the milk that it
will not undergo fermentative changes. Under varying conditions some
thirty or forty different species of germs are to be found in milk, some
of which require to be subjected to a temperature above that of boiling
water, in order to destroy them. The keeping quality of the milk may be
increased by reboiling it on three successive days for a half hour or
longer, and carefully sealing after each boiling.

TO STERILIZE MILK TO KEEP.--This is a somewhat more difficult
operation, but it may be done by boiling milk sealed in very strong
bottles in a saturated solution of salt. The milk used should be
perfectly fresh. It is best, when possible, to draw the milk from the
cow directly into the bottles. Fill the bottles to within two inches of
the top, cork them immediately and wire the corks down firmly and place
them in the cold salt solution. Boil fifteen minutes or half an hour.
Allow the solution to cool before removing them. If the bottles are
removed from the solution while hot, they will almost instantly break.
When cold, remove the bottles, and cover the tops with sealing wax.
Store in a cool place, shake thoroughly once or twice a week. Milk
sterilized in this manner will keep indefinitely.

CONDENSED MILK.--Condensed milk is made by evaporating milk in a
vacuum to one fifth its original volume; it is then canned like any
other food by sealing at boiling temperature in air-tight cans. When
used, it should be diluted with five times its bulk of warm water.

Condensed milk, when not thoroughly boiled in the process of
condensation, is liable to harbor disease-germs the same as any other
milk.


CREAM.

Cream varies in composition according to the circumstances under which
it rises.

The composition of an average specimen as given by Letherby is:--

    Nitrogenous matter............................................ 2.7
    Fat.......................................................... 26.7
    Sugar of milk................................................. 2.8
    Mineral matter................................................ 1.8
    Water........................................................ 66.0

In the process of churning; the membranes of casein which surround each
of the little globules constituting the cream are broken, and the fat of
which they are composed becomes a compact mass known as butter. The
watery looking residue containing casein, sugar of milk, mineral matter,
and a small proportion of fat, comprises the buttermilk.

Skim-milk, or milk from which the cream has been removed, and buttermilk
are analogous in chemical composition.

The composition of each, according to Dr. Edward Smith, is:--

SKIM-MILK

    Nitrogenous matter......................................... 4.0
    Sugar...................................................... 3.8
    Fat........................................................ 1.8
    Mineral matter............................................. 0.8
    Water......................................................88.0

BUTTERMILK

    Nitrogenous matter..........................................4.1
    Sugar.......................................................3.6
    Fat.........................................................0.7
    Mineral matter..............................................0.8
    Water......................................................88.0

Skim-milk and buttermilk, when the butter is made from sweet cream and
taken fresh, are both excellent foods, although lacking the fat of new
milk.

Cream is more easily digested than butter, and since it contains other
elements besides fat, is likewise more nutritious. In cream the fat is
held in the form of an emulsion which allows it to mingle freely with
water. As previously stated, each atom of fat is surrounded with a film
of casein. The gastric juice has no more power to digest casein than it
has free fat, and the little particles of fat thus protected are carried
to the small intestines, where the pancreatic juice digests them, and on
their way they do not interfere with the stomach digestion of other
foods, as the presence of butter and other free fats may do.

It is because of its greater wholesomeness that in the directions for
the preparation of foods given in this work we have given preference to
the use of cream over that of butter and other free fats. The usual
objection to its use is its expense, and the difficulty of obtaining it
from city dealers. The law of supply and cost generally corresponds with
that of demand, and doubtless cream would prove no exception if its use
were more general.

[Illustration: Creamery.]

Cream may be sterilized and preserved in a pure state for some time, the
same as milk.

Milk requires especial care to secure a good quality and quantity of
cream. Scrupulous cleanliness, good ventilation, and an unvarying
temperature are absolute essentials. The common custom of setting milk
in pans is objectionable, not only because of the dust and germs always
liable to fall into the milk, but also from the difficulty of keeping
milk thus set at the proper temperature for cream-rising. Every family
using milk in any quantity ought to have a set of creameries of large or
small capacity according to circumstances, in which the milk supply can
be kept in a pure, wholesome condition, and so arranged as to facilitate
the full rising of the cream if desired. A very simple and satisfactory
creamery, with space for ice around the milk, similar to that
represented in the accompanying cut, may be constructed by any tinman.

The plan of scalding milk to facilitate the rising of the cream is
excellent, as it not only secures a more speedy rising, but serves to
destroy the germs found in the milk, thus lessening its tendency to
sour. The best way to do this is to heat the milk in a double boiler, or
a dish set inside another containing hot water, to a temperature of 150°
to 165°F. as indicated by wrinkles upon its surface. The milk must not,
however, be allowed to come to a boil. When scalded, it should be cooled
at once to a temperature of about 60° F. and kept thus during the rising
of the cream.


BUTTER.

Of all foods wholly composed of fat, good fresh butter is the most
wholesome. It should, however, be used unmelted and taken in a finely
divided state, and only in very moderate quantities. If exposed to great
heat, as on hot buttered toast, meats, rich pastry, etc., it is quite
indigestible. We do not recommend its use either for the table or for
cooking purposes when cream can be obtained, since butter is rarely
found in so pure a state that it is not undergoing more or less
decomposition, depending upon its age and the amount of casein retained
in the butter through the carelessness of the manufacturer.

Casein, on exposure to air in a moist state, rapidly changes into a
ferment, which, acting upon the fatty matter of the butter, produces
rancidity, rendering the butter more or less unwholesome. Poor, tainted,
or rancid butter should not be used as food in any form.

Good butter is pale yellow, uniform throughout the whole mass, and free
from rancid taste or odor. White lumps in it are due to the
incorporation of sour milk with the cream from which it was produced. A
watery, milk-like fluid exuding from the freshly cut surface of butter,
is evidence that insufficient care was taken to wash out all the
buttermilk, thus increasing its liability to spoil.

The flavor and color of butter vary considerably, according to the breed
and food of the animal from which the milk was obtained. An artificial
color is often given to butter by the use of a preparation of annatto.

Both salt and saltpeter are employed as preservatives for butter; a
large quantity of the former is often used to increase the weight of the
butter.

ARTIFICIAL BUTTER.--Various fraudulent preparations are sold as
butter. Oleomargarine, one of the commonest, is made from tallow or
beef-fat, cleaned and ground like sausage, and heated, to separate the
oil from the membranes. It is then known as "butter-oil," is salted,
cooled, pressed, and churned in milk, colored with annatto, and treated
the same as butter. Butterine, another artificial product, is prepared
by mixing butter-oil and a similar oil obtained from lard, then churning
them with milk.

An eminent analyst gives the following excellent way of distinguishing
genuine butter from oleomargarine:--"When true butter is heated over a
clear flame, it 'browns' and gives out a pleasant odor,--that of browned
butter. In heating there is more or less sputtering, caused by minute
particles of water retained in washing the butter. On the bottom of the
pan or vessel in which true butter is heated, a yellowish-brown crust is
formed, consisting of roasted or toasted casein. When oleomargarine is
heated under similar circumstances, it does not 'brown,' but becomes
darker by overheating, and when heated to dryness, gives off a grayish
steam, smelling of tallow. There is no 'sputtering' when it is being
heated, but it boils easily. If a pledget of cotton or a wick saturated
with oleomargarine be set on fire and allowed to burn a few moments
before being extinguished, it will give out fumes which are very
characteristic, smelling strongly of tallow, while true butter behaves
very differently."

BUTTER IN ANCIENT TIMES.--Two kinds of butter seem to have been
known to the ancient Jews, one quite like that of the present day,
except that it was boiled after churning, so that it became in that warm
climate practically an oil; the other, a sort of curdled milk. The juice
of the Jerusalem artichoke was mixed with the milk, when it was churned
until a sort of curd was separated. The Oriental method of churning was
by putting the milk into a goat-skin and swinging and shaking the bag
until the butter came, as illustrated in the accompanying cut.

[Illustration: Oriental Butter-Making.]

An article still sold as butter in Athens is made by boiling the milk of
goats, allowing it to sour, and then churning in a goat-skin. The result
is a thick, white, foamy substance appearing more like cream than
butter.

BUTTER-MAKING.--The manufacture of good butter is dependent upon
good cows and the care given them, as well as most careful treatment of
the milk and cream. The milk to be used for butter making, as indeed for
all purposes, should be most carefully strained through a wire strainer
covered with three or four thicknesses of perfectly clean cheese cloth.

The following points given by an experienced dairyman will be found
worthy of consideration by all who have to do with the manufacture of
this article:--

"Milk is almost as sensitive to atmospheric changes as mercury itself.
It is a question among many as to what depth milk should be set to get
the most cream. It does not make so much difference as to the depth as
it does the protection of the milk from acid or souring. As soon as the
milk begins to sour, the cream ceases to rise.

"With a clear, dry atmosphere the cream will rise clean in the milk; but
in that condition of the atmosphere which readily sours the milk, the
cream will not rise clean, but seems to hang in the milk, and this even
when the milk is protected by being set in water.

"The benefit of setting milk in cold water is that the water protects
the milk from becoming acid until the cream has time to rise. For cream
to rise readily on milk set in cold water, the atmosphere in the room
should be warmer than the water. As much cream will rise on milk set in
cold water in one hour as on milk not set in water in twenty-four hours.
The milk should be skimmed while sweet, and the cream thoroughly stirred
at each skimming.

"Cream skimmed from different milkings, if churned at the same time in
one churn, should be mixed eight to ten hours before churning; then the
cream will all come alike.

"The keeping qualities of butter depend principally upon two things:
First, the buttermilk must be all gotten out; and secondly, the grain of
the butter should be kept as perfect as possible. Butter should not be
allowed to be churned after it has fairly come, and should not be
gathered compactly in the churn in taking out, but the buttermilk should
be drained from the butter in the churn, through a hair sieve, letting
the butter remain in the churn. Then take water and turn it upon the
butter with sufficient force to pass through the butter, and in
sufficient quantity to rinse the buttermilk all out of the butter. With
this process of washing the butter the grain is not injured or mashed,
and is thus far kept perfect. And in working in the salt the ladle or
roll or worker, whatever it is, should never be allowed to slip on the
butter,--if it does, it will destroy the grain,--but it should go upon
the butter in a pressing or rolling motion."

Test the temperature of the cream with a thermometer, and churn it at
60° in summer and 62° in winter. If the butter is soft, it may be
hardened by pouring onto it while working a brine made by dissolving a
pint of salt in ten quarts of water. The salt used in the butter should
be carefully measured, three fourths of an ounce of salt to the pound
being the usual allowance.

Butter, like milk, absorbs odors readily, and should never be allowed to
remain in occupied rooms or any place exposed to strong or foul odors,
but be kept covered in a cold place.


CHEESE.

Cheese is a product of milk prepared by separating the casein, with more
or less of the cream, according to the manner in which it has been
prepared, from the other ingredients of the milk. It is an article,
which, although possessing a large proportion, of nutritive material, is
very difficult of digestion, and the use of which is very questionable,
not only for this reason, but because it is very liable to contain a
poison called tyrotoxicon, capable of producing most violent and indeed
fatal results, according to the remarkable researches of Prof. Vaughan
of Michigan University. This poison is sometimes found in ice cream and
custards, cream-puffs, etc., made from stale milk or cream.

It is much better to use milk in its fresh, natural state than in any of
its products. Made into either butter or cheese, we lose some of its
essential elements, so that what is left is not a perfect food.


_RECIPES_

HOT MILK.--Milk is more easily digested when used hot. This is not
due to any marked chemical change in the milk, but to the stimulating
effect of heat upon the palate and stomach.

To prepare hot milk, heat it in a double boiler until a wrinkled skin
appears upon the surface. In the double boiler it may be kept at the
proper temperature for a long time without difficulty, and thus
prepared, it forms one of the most healthful of foods.

Milk, either cold or hot, should be taken a few sips only at a time, and
not be drank in copious draughts when used in connection with other
foods at mealtime. It will then coagulate in the stomach in small flakes
much more easily digested than the large mass resulting when a large
quantity is swallowed at a time.

DEVONSHIRE OR CLOTTED CREAM.--This is prepared as follows: Strain
the milk as it comes fresh from the cow into a deep pan which will fit
tightly over a kettle in which water can be boiled, and set away in a
cool well-ventilated place, where it should be allowed to remain
undisturbed from eight to twelve hours or longer. Then take the pan up
very carefully so as not to disturb the cream, place over a kettle of
water, heat to near the boiling point, or until a rim of bubbles half an
inch wide forms all around the dish of milk. It must not, however, be
allowed to boil, or the cream will be injured. Now lift the pan again
with equal care back to a cool place and allow it to stand from twelve
to twenty-four hours longer. The cream should be a compact mass of
considerable thickness, and may be divided with a knife into squares of
convenient size before skimming. It is delicious for use on fruit and
grains.

COTTAGE CHEESE.--This dish is usually prepared from milk which has
curdled from lack of proper care, or from long standing exposed to the
air, and which is thus in some degree decomposing. But the fact that the
casein of the milk is coagulated by the use of acids makes it possible
to prepare this dish in a more wholesome manner without waiting for
decomposition of the milk. Add to each four quarts of milk one cupful of
lemon juice; let it stand until coagulated, then heat slowly, but do not
boil, until the curd has entirely separated from the whey. Turn the
whole into a colander lined with a square of clean cheese cloth, and
drain off the whey. Add to the curd a little salt and cream, mix all
together with a spoon or the hands, and form into cakes or balls for the
table. The use of lemon gives a delicious flavor, which may be
intensified, if desired, by using a trifle of the grated yellow rind.

COTTAGE CHEESE FROM BUTTERMILK.--Place a pail of fresh buttermilk
in a kettle of boiling water, taking care to have sufficient water to
come up even with the milk in the pail. Let the buttermilk remain until
it is heated throughout to about 140°, which can be determined by
keeping a thermometer in the milk and stirring it frequently. When it is
sufficiently heated, empty the curd into strong muslin bags and hang up
to drain for several hours. If properly scalded and drained, the curd
will be quite dry and may be seasoned and served the same as other
cottage cheese. If scalded too much, it will be watery.

COTTAGE CHEESE WITH SOUR MILK.--Take a pan of newly-loppered thick
sour milk, and place it over a kettle of boiling water until the whey
separates from the curd, breaking and cutting the curd as the milk
becomes warmed, so as to allow the whey to settle. The milk should be
well scalded, but not allowed to boil, as that will render the curd
tough and leathery. Have ready a clean piece of cheese cloth spread
inside a colander, dip the curd into it, and leave it to drain. If
preferred, the corners of the cloth may be tied with a string, thus
forming a bag in which the cheese may be hung up to drain. When well
drained, remove the dry curd to a dish, rub it fine with the hands, add
salt, and season with sweet cream, beating it well through the curd with
a silver fork. It may be shaped into balls with the hands or pressed in
large cups or bowls.

FRENCH BUTTER.--Fill a large, wide-mouthed glass bottle or jar
about half full of thick sweet cream. Cork tightly, and with one end of
the bottle in each hand shake it vigorously back and forth until the
butter has separated from the milk, which it will generally do in a few
minutes. Work out the buttermilk, make into small pats, and place on ice
until ready to serve. As a rule this butter is not washed or salted, as
it is intended for immediate use.

SHAKEN MILK.--Fit a conical tin cup closely over a glass of milk
and shake it vigorously until all of a foam, after which it should be
slowly sipped at once; or a glass of milk may be put into a quart fruit
can, the cover tightly screwed on, and then shaken back and forth until
the milk is foamy.

EMULSIFIED BUTTER.--Boil the butter with water for half an hour to
destroy any germs it may contain; use plenty of water and add the butter
to it while cold. When boiled, remove from the fire and allow it to
become nearly cold, when the butter will have risen to the top and may
be removed with a skimmer, or it may be separated from the water by
turning the whole after cooling into a clean strainer cloth placed
inside a colander. The butter may be pressed in the cloth if any water
still remains. If hardened, reheat just sufficient to soften, and add to
it, while still liquid, but cooled to about blood heat, the yolk of one
egg for each tablespoonful of butter, and stir until very thoroughly
mingled.

Or, add to each tablespoonful of the liquid butter two level
tablespoonfuls of flour, rub together thoroughly, and cook until
thickened in a half cupful of boiling water. If cream is not obtainable
and butter must be used for seasoning, it is preferable to prepare it in
one of the above ways for the purpose, using the quantity given as an
equivalent of one cupful of thin cream. It will be evident, however,
that these preparations will not only season but thicken whatever they
are used in, and that additional liquid should be used on that account.



TABLE TOPICS.

    A little six-year-old boy went into the country visiting. About the
    first thing he got was a bowl of bread and milk. He tasted it, and
    then hesitated a moment, when his mother asked if he didn't like it;
    to which he replied, smacking his lips, "Yes, ma'am. I was only
    wishing that our milkman in town would keep a cow!"

    When Horace Greeley was candidate for the presidency, he at one time
    visited New Orleans, whose old creole residents gave him a dinner;
    and to make it as fine an affair as possible, each of the many
    guests was laid under contribution for some of the rarest wines in
    his cellar. When dinner was announced, and the first course was
    completed, the waiter appeared at Mr. Greeley's seat with a plate of
    shrimp. "You can take them away," he said to the waiter, and then
    added to the horrified French creole gentleman who presided, "I
    never eat insects of any kind." Later on, soup was served, and at
    the same time a glass of white wine was placed at Mr. Greeley's
    right hand. He pushed it quietly away, but not unobserved by the
    chief host. "Do you not drink wine?" he asked.

    "No," answered Mr. Greeley; "I never drink any liquors."

    "Is there anything you would like to drink with your soup?" the host
    then asked, a little disappointed.

    "If you've got it," answered Mr. Greeley, "and it isn't any trouble,
    I'd like a glass of fresh buttermilk."

    Said the host afterward in his broken English, "Ze idea of electing
    to ze presidency a man vot drink buttermilk vis his soup!"


    Old friendships are often destroyed by toasted cheese, and hard
    salted meat has often led to suicide.--_Sydney Smith._


    A German sitting beside a Spanish officer on board a Havana steamer,
    was munching Limberger cheese with evident satisfaction when it
    occurred to him that he ought to offer some to his neighbor, who
    very coolly declined. "You think it unhealthful to eat that?"
    inquired the German in polite astonishment. "_Unhealthful?_"
    exclaimed the Hidalgo, with a withering look and a gasp for a more
    adequate word; "No, sir: I think it an unnatural crime!"--_Oswald._


    Good for Dyspepsia.--"Really, don't you think cheese is good for
    dyspepsia?" said an advocate of the use of this common article of
    food. "Why, my uncle had dyspepsia all his life, and he took a bit
    of cheese at the close of every meal!"


    Mattieu Williams tells us, "When common sense and true sentiment
    supplant mere unreasoning prejudice, vegetables oils and vegetable
    fats will largely supplant those of animal origin in every element
    of our dietary."



EGGS

As will be seen from the analysis given below, an egg is particularly
rich in nitrogenous elements. It is indeed one of the most highly
concentrated forms of nitrogenous food, about one third of its weight
being solid nutriment, and for this reason is often found serviceable in
cases of sickness where it is desirable to secure a large amount of
nourishment in small bulk.

Composition of the white of an ordinary hen's egg.

    Nitrogenous matter..................... 20.4
    Fatty matter........................... 10.0
    Mineral matter.........................  1.6
    Water.................................. 68.0

Composition of the yolk.

    Nitrogenous matter.....................  1.0
    Fatty matter........................... 30.7
    Mineral matter.........................  1.3
    Water.................................. 52.0

The white of egg is composed mainly of albumen in a dissolved state,
inclosed in layers of thin membrane. When beaten, the membranes are
broken, and the liberated albumen, owing to its viscous or glutinous
nature, entangles and retains a large amount of air, thus increasing to
several times its original bulk.

The yolk contains all the fatty matter, and this, with a modified form
of albumen called vitellin, forms a kind of yellow emulsion. It is
inclosed in a thin membrane, which separates it from the surrounding
white.

The yolk, being lighter than the white, floats to that portion of the
egg which is uppermost, but is held in position by two membranous cords,
one from each end of the egg. The average weight of an egg is about two
ounces, of which ten per cent consists of shell, sixty of white, and
thirty of yolk.

HOW TO CHOOSE EGGS.--The quality of eggs varies considerably,
according to the food upon which the fowls are fed. Certain foods
communicate distinct flavors, and it is quite probable that eggs may be
rendered unwholesome through the use of filthy or improper food; hence
it is always best, when practicable, to ascertain respecting the diet
and care of the fowls before purchasing eggs.

On no account select eggs about the freshness of which there is any
reason to doubt. The use of stale eggs may result in serious
disturbances of the digestive organs.

An English gentleman who has investigated the subject quite thoroughly,
finds upon careful microscopical examination that stale eggs often
contain cells of a peculiar fungoid growth, which seems to have
developed from that portion of the egg which would have furnished
material for the flesh and bones of the chick had the process of
development been continued. Experiments with such eggs upon dogs produce
poisonous effects.

There are several ways of determining with tolerable accuracy respecting
the freshness of an egg. A common test is to place it between the eye
and a strong light. If fresh, the white will appear translucent, and the
outline of the yolk can be distinctly traced. By keeping, eggs become
cloudy, and when decidedly stale, a distinct, dark, cloud-like
appearance may be discerned opposite some portion of the shell. Another
test is to shake the egg gently at the ear; if a gurgle or thud is
heard, the egg is bad. Again, eggs may be tested by dropping into a
vessel containing a solution of salt and water, in the proportion of a
tablespoonful to a quart. Newly laid eggs will sink; if more than six
days old, they will float in the liquid; if bad, they will be so light
as to ride on the surface of the brine. The shell of a freshly laid egg
is almost full; but owing to the porous character of the shell, with age
and exposure to air a portion of the liquid substance of which the egg
is composed evaporates, and air accumulates in its place at one of the
extremities of the shell. Hence an egg loses in density from day to day,
and the longer the egg has been kept, the lighter it becomes, and the
higher it will rise in the liquid.

An egg that will float on the surface of the liquid is of too
questionable a character to be used without breaking, and is apt to be
unfit for use at all.

HOW TO KEEP EGGS.--To preserve the interior of an egg in its
natural state, it is necessary to seal the pores of the shell air-tight,
as the air which finds its way into the egg through the pores of the
shell causes gradual decomposition. Various methods are devised to
exclude the air and thus preserve the egg. A good way is to dip
perfectly fresh eggs into a thick solution of gum-arabic,--equal parts
of gum and water,--let the eggs dry and dip them again, taking care that
the shells are entirely covered with the solution each time. When dry,
wrap separately in paper and pack in a box of sawdust, bran, salt, or
powdered charcoal, and cover tightly to keep out the air.

There is a difference of opinion as to which end should be placed down
in packing; most authorities recommend the smaller end. However, an
experienced poultryman offers the following reasons for packing with the
larger end down: "The air-chamber is in the larger end, and if that is
placed down, the yolk will not break through and touch the shell and
thereby spoil. Another thing: if the air-chamber is down, the egg is not
so liable to shrink away."

It would be well for housekeepers to make the test by packing eggs from
the same lot each way and noting the result.

Melted wax or suet may be used to coat the shells. Eggs are sometimes
immersed and kept in a solution of lime water, a pound of lime to a
gallon of cold water, or simply packed in bran or salt, without a
previous coating of fat or gum. By any of these methods they will keep
for several weeks. Eggs, however, readily absorb flavors from
surrounding substances, and for that reason lime water or salt solution
are somewhat objectionable. Nothing of a disagreeable odor should be
placed near eggs.

Eggs for boiling may be preserved by placing in a deep pan, and pouring
scalding water over them. Let them stand half a minute, drain off the
water, and repeat the process two or three times. Wipe dry, and when
cool, pack in bran.

Eggs should be kept in a cool, not cold, place and handled carefully, as
rough treatment may cause the mingling of the yolk and white by
rupturing the membrane which separates them; then the egg will spoil
quickly.

The time required for the digestion of a perfectly cooked egg varies
from three to four hours.

It is generally conceded that eggs lightly cooked are most readily
digested. What is generally termed a hard-boiled egg is not easily acted
upon by the digestive juices, and any other manner of cooking by which
the albumen becomes hardened and solid offers great resistance to
digestion.

TO BEAT EGGS.--This may seem trivial, but no dish requiring eggs
can be prepared in perfection, unless they are properly beaten, even if
every other ingredient is the best. An egg-beater or an egg-whip is the
most convenient utensil for the purpose; but if either of these is not
to be had, a silver fork will do very well, and with this the beating
should be done in sharp, quick strokes, dipping the fork in and out in
rapid succession, while the egg should grow firmer and stiffer with
every stroke. When carelessly beaten, the result will be a coarse and
frothy instead of a thick and cream-like mass. Use a bowl in beating
eggs with an egg-beater, and a plate when a fork or egg-whip is
employed.

If the white and yolk are used separately, break the shells gently about
the middle, opening slowly so as to let the white fall into the dish,
while retaining the yolk in one half of the shell. If part of the white
remains, turn the yolk from the one half to the other till the white has
fallen. Beat the yolks until they change from their natural orange color
to a much lighter yellow. The whites should be beaten until firm and dry
enough not to fall from the bowl if turned upside down. The yolk should
always be beaten first, since, if the white is left to stand after being
beaten, a portion of the air, which its viscous nature allows it to
catch up, escapes and no amount of beating will render it so firm a
second time. Eggs which need to be washed before breaking should always
be wiped perfectly dry, that no water may become mingled with the egg,
as the water may dilute the albumen sufficiently to prevent the white
from becoming firm and stiff when beaten.

In cold weather, it is sometimes difficult to beat the whites as stiff
as desirable. Albumen is quite susceptible to temperature, and this
difficulty may be overcome by setting the dish in which the eggs are
beaten into warm water--not hot by any means--during the process of
beating. In very hot weather it is often advantageous to leave the eggs
in cold or ice water for a short time before beating. When a number of
eggs are to be used, always break each by itself into a saucer, so that
any chance stale egg may not spoil the whole. If the white or yolk of an
egg--is left over, it may be kept for a day or two if put in a cool
place, the yolk thoroughly beaten, the white unbeaten.


_RECIPES._

EGGS IN SHELL.--The usual method of preparing eggs for serving in
this way is to put them into boiling water, and boil or simmer until
they are considered sufficiently cooked. Albumen, of which the white of
the egg is composed, is easiest digested when simply coagulated. The
yolk, if cooked at all, is easiest digested when dry and mealy. Albumen
coagulates at 160°, and when the boiling point is reached, it becomes
hardened, tough, and leathery, and very difficult of digestion. If the
egg were all albumen, it might be easily and properly cooked by dropping
into boiling water, allowing it to remain for a few seconds, and
removing it, since the shell of the egg would prevent its becoming
sufficiently heated in so short a time as to become hardened; but the
time necessary to cook properly the white of the egg would be
insufficient for the heat to penetrate to and cook the yolk; and if it
is desirable to cook the yolk hard, the cooking process should be
carried on at a temperature below the boiling point, subjecting the egg
to a less degree of heat, but for a longer time. The most accurate
method is to put the eggs into water of a temperature of 160°, allowing
them to remain for twenty minutes and not permitting the temperature of
the water to go above 165°. Cooked in this way, the white will be of a
soft, jelly-like consistency throughout, while the yolks will be hard.
If it is desired to have the yolks dry and mealy, the temperature of the
water must be less, and the time of cooking lengthened. We have secured
the most perfect results with water at a temperature of 150°, and seven
hours' cooking. The temperature of the water can be easily tested by
keeping in it an ordinary thermometer, and if one possesses a kerosene
or gas stove, the heat can be easily regulated to maintain the required
temperature.

Another method, although less sure, is to pour boiling water into a
saucepan, draw it to one side of the range where it will keep hot, but
not boil, put in the eggs, cover, and let stand for twenty minutes. If
by either method it is desired to have the yolk soft-cooked, lessen the
time to ten minutes or so, according to the hardness desired. Eggs are
best served as soon as done, as the white becomes more solid by being
kept in a hot shell.

It should be remarked that the time necessary to cook eggs in the shell
will vary somewhat with the firmness of the shell, the size of the eggs,
and the number cooked together.

EGGS IN SUNSHINE.--Take an earthen-ware dish which will stand heat
and also do to use in serving the eggs. Oil it and break therein as many
eggs as desired; sprinkle lightly with salt, and put into the oven for
two or more minutes till the eggs are set. Have ready some hot tomato
sauce prepared as for Tomato Toast; pour the sauce over them, and serve.

EGGS POACHED IN TOMATOES.--Take a pint of stewed tomatoes, cooked
until they are homogeneous or which have been rubbed through a colander;
season with salt if desired, and heat. When just beginning to boil, slip
in gently a half dozen eggs, the shells of which have been so carefully
broken that the yolks are intact. Keep the tomato just below the boiling
point until the eggs are cooked. Lift the whites carefully with a fork
as they cook, until they are firm, then prick them and let the yellow
mix with the tomato and the whites. The whole should be quite soft when
done, but showing the red of the tomatoes and the white and yellow of
the eggs quite distinctly. Serve on toast. If the flavor is agreeable, a
little onion.

EGGS IN CREAM.--Put a half cupful or more of cream into a shallow
earthen dish, and place the dish in a kettle or pan of boiling water.
When the cream is hot, break in as many eggs as the bottom of the dish
will hold, and cook until well set, basting them occasionally over the
top with the hot cream. Or, put a spoonful or two of cream into
individual egg or vegetable dishes, break a fresh egg in each, and cook
in the oven or in a steamer over a kettle of boiling water until the
white of the egg is well set.

POACHED OR DROPPED EGGS.--Break each egg into a saucer by itself.
Have a shallow pan half filled with scalding, not boiling, water on the
stove. If desired, a little salt and a tablespoonful of lemon juice may
be added. Slip the eggs gently from the saucer upon the top of the
water, holding the edge of the saucer under water to prevent the eggs
from scattering; dip the water over them with a spoon and let them stand
five minutes, or until the yolk is covered with a film, and the white is
firm but not hardened; keep the water just below the boiling point. Take
out the eggs one by one on a skimmer, and serve in egg-saucers, or on
slices of nicely browned toast moistened with a little sweet cream, as
preferred. If one is especially particular to keep the shape of the
eggs, an egg poacher should be used, or a set of muffin-rings may be
laid in the bottom of the pan, and the eggs turned into the rings.

POACHED EGGS WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Poach eggs as in the foregoing, and
pour over them a sauce made according to direction on page 351.

QUICKLY PREPARED EGGS.--A good way to cook quickly a large number
of eggs, is to use a large-bottomed earthen dish, which will stand the
heat and in which the eggs may be served. Oil it well; break the
requisite number of eggs separately, and turn each carefully into the
dish; sprinkle lightly with salt; set the dish in the oven or in a
steamer over a kettle of boiling water for a few minutes until the eggs
are set, then serve.

SCRAMBLED EGGS.--Beat four eggs lightly, add a little salt if
desired, and half a cup of milk or cream. Have ready a hot, oiled
saucepan; turn the eggs in and cook quickly, stirring constantly until
firm, but soft.

STEAMED EGGS.--Break eggs into egg or vegetable dishes or
patty-pans, salt very lightly, and set in a steamer over a kettle of
boiling water until the whites are set and a film has formed over the
yolk. Serve the same as poached eggs, with or without toast.

WHIRLED EGGS.--Have a small kettle of water heated almost to
boiling, and with a wooden spoon, stir it rapidly round and round in the
same direction until a miniature whirlpool is produced. Have ready some
eggs broken in separate cups, and drop them carefully one at a time into
the whirling water, the stirring of which must be kept up until the egg
is a soft round ball. Remove with a skimmer, and serve on cream toast.


OMELETS.


_RECIPES._

PLAIN OMELET.--Beat the yolks of three eggs to a cream and beat the
whites to a stiff froth. Add to the yolks three tablespoonfuls of milk
or cream, one tablespoonful of finely grated bread crumbs, and season
lightly with salt; lastly, fold, not stir, the whites lightly in. An
omelet pan is the best utensil for cooking, but if that is not to be
had, an earthen-ware pudding dish which will stand the heat is good; an
iron spider will do, but a larger omelet would need to be prepared. A
tin saucepan is apt to cook the omelet so rapidly as to burn it in
spots. Whatever the utensil used, it should be hot, the fire clear and
steady, and all in readiness by the time the eggs are beaten.

Oil the dish well and gently pour in the omelet mixture; cover, and
place the pan on the range where the heat will be continuous. Do not
stir, but carefully, as the egg sets, lift the omelet occasionally by
slipping a broad-bladed knife under it, or with a fork by dipping in
here and there. It should cook quickly, but not so quickly as to burn.
From three to five minutes will generally be ample time. When the middle
of the omelet is set, it may be put into a hot oven to dry the top. As
soon as the center is dry, it should be removed immediately, as it will
be hard and indigestible if overdone. To dish, loosen from the pan by
running a knife under it, lay a hot platter, bottom upward, over the
pan, and invert the latter so as to shake out the omelet gently, browned
side uppermost; or if preferred, double one part over the other before
dishing. Serve at once, or it will fall.

An omelet of three eggs is sufficient for two or three persons; if more
is desired, a second omelet of three eggs may be made. Larger ones are
not so light nor so easily prepared. The dish used should be reserved
for that purpose alone, and should be kept as smooth and dry as
possible. It is better to keep it clean by wiping with a coarse towel
than by washing; if the omelet comes from the pan perfectly whole and
leaving no fragments behind.

FOAM OMELET.--Prepare as above, leaving out the white of one egg,
which must be beaten to a stiff froth and spread over the top of the
omelet after it is well set. Let this white just heat through by the
time the omelet is done. Fold the omelet together, and dish. The whites
will burst out around the edges like a border of foam.

FANCY OMELETS.--Various fancy omelets may be made by adding other
ingredients and preparing the same as for plain omelets. Two or three
tablespoonfuls of orange juice instead of milk, with a little grated
rind for flavor and three tablespoonfuls of sugar, may be combined with
the eggs and called an orange omelet.

A little cold cauliflower or cooked asparagus chopped very fine and
mixed in when the omelet is ready for the pan, may be denominated a
vegetable omelet.

SOFT OMELET.--Beat together thoroughly one quart of milk and six
eggs. Season with salt. Pour into a shallow earthen pudding dish, and
bake in the oven until well set.



TABLE TOPICS.

    The candidates for ancient athletic games were dieted on boiled
    grain, with warm water, cheese, dried figs, but no meat.

    An unpleasant reminder.--(Scene, Thanksgiving dinner, everybody
    commenting on the immense size of the turkey.) An appalling silence
    fell upon the crowd when Tommy cried out, "Mamma, is that the old
    sore-headed turkey?"

    The eminent Prof. Wilder was reared a vegetarian, having passed his
    earlier years without even knowing that flesh food was ever eaten by
    human beings. When six years old, he saw on the table for the first
    time, a roasted chicken, at which he gazed for some moments in great
    bewilderment, when he seemed to make a discovery, and in his
    astonishment burst out with the remark, "I'll bet that's a dead
    hen!"

    A story is told of a minister who was spending the day in the
    country, and was invited to dine. There was chicken for dinner, much
    to the grief of a little boy of the household, who had lost his
    favorite hen to provide for the feast. After dinner, prayer was
    proposed, and while the preacher was praying, a poor little lonesome
    chicken came running under the house, crying for its absent mother.
    The little boy shouted, "Peepy! Peepy! I didn't kill your mother!
    They killed her for that big preacher's dinner!" The "Amen" was said
    very suddenly.



MEATS

This is the term usually applied to the flesh and various organs of such
animals, poultry, and game as are used for food. This class of foods
contains representatives of all nutritive elements, but is especially
characterized by as excess of albuminous matter. But in actual nutritive
value flesh foods do not exceed various other food materials. A
comparison of the food grains with beefsteak and other flesh foods,
shows, in fact, that a pound of grain is equivalent in food value to two
or three pounds of flesh.

At present time there is much question in the minds of many intelligent,
thinking people as to the propriety of using foods of this class, and
especially of their frequent use. Besides being in no way superior to
vegetable substances, they contain elements of an excrementitious
character, which cannot be utilized, and which serve only to clog and
impede the vital processes, rendering the blood gross, filling the body
with second-hand waste material which was working its way out of the
vital domain of the animal when slaughtered. To this waste matter,
consisting of unexpelled excretions, are added those produced by the
putrefactive processes which so quickly begin in flesh foods exposed to
air and warmth.

That flesh foods are stimulating has been shown by many observations and
experiments.

Flesh foods are also specially liable to be diseased and to communicate
to the consumer the same disease. The prevalence of disease among
animals used for food is known to be very great, and their transmission
to man is no longer a matter of dispute. It has been abundantly proved
that such diseases as the parasitic, tuberculous, erysipelatous, and
foot and mouth diseases are most certainly communicable to man by
infected flesh. All stall and sty fed animals are more or less diseased.
Shut up in the dark, cut off from exercise, the whole fattening process
is one of progressive disease. No living creature could long retain good
health under such unnatural and unwholesome conditions. Add to this the
exhaustion and abuse of animals before slaughtering; the suffering
incident to long journeys in close cars, often without sufficient food
and water; and long drives over dusty roads under a burning sun to the
slaughter house, and it will be apparent to all thoughtful persons that
such influences are extremely liable to produce conditions of the system
that render the flesh unfit for food.

Thousands of animals are consumed each year which were slaughtered just
in time to save them from dying a natural death. It is a common thing
for cattle owners, as soon as an animal shows symptoms of decline, to
send it to the butcher at once; and when epidemics of cattle diseases
are prevalent, there can be no doubt that the meat markets are flooded
with diseased flesh.

There are few ways in which we can more effectually imperil our health
than in partaking freely of diseased animal food. This is no new theory.
The Jews have for ages recognized this danger, and their laws require
the most careful examination of all animals to be used as food, both
before and after slaughtering. Their sanitary regulations demand that
beast or fowl for food must be killed by bleeding through the jugular
vein, and not, according to custom, by striking on the head, or in some
violent way. Prior to the killing, the animal must be well rested and
its respiration normal; after death the most careful dissection and
examination of the various parts are made by a competent person, and no
flesh is allowed to be used for food which has not been inspected and
found to be perfectly sound and healthy. As a result, it is found in
many of our large cities that only about one in twenty of the animals
slaughtered is accepted as food for a Jew. The rejected animals are sold
to the general public, who are less scrupulous about the character of
their food, and who are in consequence more subject to disease and
shorter-lived than are Jews.

Trichinæ, tapeworms, and various other parasites which infest the flesh
of animals, are so common that there is always more or less liability to
disease from these sources among consumers of flesh foods.

Meat is by no means necessary for the proper maintenance of life or
vigorous health, as is proved by the fact that at least "four tenths of
the human race," according to Virey, "subsist exclusively upon a
vegetable diet, and as many as seven tenths are practically
vegetarians." Some of the finest specimens of physical development and
mental vigor are to be found among those who use very little or no
animal food. Says St. Pierre, a noted French author, "The people living
upon vegetable foods are of all men the handsomest, the most vigorous,
the lease exposed to disease and passion; and they are those whose lives
last longest."

The use of large quantities of animal food, however free from disease
germs, has a tendency to develop the animal propensities to a greater or
less degree, especially in the young, whose characters are unformed.
Among animals we find the carnivorous the most vicious and destructive,
while those which subsist upon vegetable foods are by nature gentle and
tractable. There is little doubt that this law holds good among men as
well as animals. If we study the character and lives of those who
subsist largely upon animal food, we are apt to find them impatient,
passionate, fiery in temper, and in other respects greatly under the
dominion of their lower natures.

There are many other objections to the use of this class of foods--so
many in fact that we believe the human race would be far healthier,
better, and happier if flesh foods were wholly discarded. If, however,
they are to be used at all, let them be used sparingly and prepared in
the simplest and least harmful manner. Let them be cooked and served in
their own juices, not soaked in butter or other oils, or disguised by
the free use of pepper, mustard, catsup, and other pungent sauces. Salt
also should be used only in the smallest possible quantities, as it
hardens the fiber, rendering it more difficult of digestion.

We can conceive of no possible stretch of hygienic laws which admits the
use of pork; so we shall give it and its products no consideration in
our pages.

Such offal as calves' brains, sheep's kidneys, beef livers, and other
viscera, is not fit food for any one but a scavenger. The liver and
kidneys are depurating organs, and their use as food is not only
unwholesome but often exceedingly poisonous.

Meat pies, scallops, sauces, fricassees, _pâtés_, and other fancy dishes
composed of a mixture of animal foods, rich pastry, fats, strong
condiments, etc., are by no means to be recommended as hygienic, and
will receive no notice in these pages.

In comparative nutritive value, beef ranks first among the flesh foods.
Mutton, though less nutritive, is more easily digested than beef. This
is not appreciable to a healthy person, but one whose digestive powers
are weak will often find that mutton taxes the stomach less than beef.

Veal or lamb is neither so nutritious nor so easily digested as beef or
mutton. Flesh from different animals, and that from various parts of the
same animal, varies in flavor, composition, and digestibility. The mode
of life and the food of animals influence in a marked manner the quality
of the meat. Turnips give a distinctly recognizable flavor to mutton.
The same is true of many fragrant herbs found by cattle feeding in
pastures.

THE SELECTION OF MEAT.--Good beef is of a reddish-brown color and
contains no clots of blood. A pale-pink color indicates that the animal
was diseased; a dark-purple color that the animal has suffered from some
acute febrile affection or was not slaughtered, but died with the blood
in its body.

Good beef is firm and elastic to the touch; when pressed with the
finger, no impression is left. It should be so dry upon the surface as
scarcely to moisten the fingers. Meat that is wet, sodden, and flabby
should not be eaten. Good beef is marbled with spots of white fat. The
suet should be dry and crumble easily. If the fat has the appearance of
wet parchment or is jelly-like, the beef is not good. Yellow fat is an
indication of old, lean animals.

Good beef has little or no odor. If any odor is perceptible, it is not
disagreeable. Diseased meat has a sickly odor, resembling the breath of
feverish persons. When such meat is roasted, it emits a strong,
offensive smell. The condition of a piece of beef may be ascertained by
dipping a knife in hot water, drying it, and passing it through the
meat. Apply to the nose on withdrawal, and if the meat is not good, a
disagreeable odor will be quite perceptible.

Good beef will not shrink greatly in cooking. In boiling or stewing, the
shrinkage is computed to be about one pound in four; in baking, one and
one fourth pounds in four. Beef of a close, firm fiber shrinks less than
meat of coarse fiber.

Good veal is slightly reddish or pink, and the fat should be white and
clear. Avoid veal without fat, as such is apt to be too young to be
wholesome.

Good mutton should be firm and compact, the flesh, fine-grained and
bright-red, with an accumulation of very hard and clear white fat along
the borders of the muscles.

Meat should not be kept until decomposition sets in, as by the
putrefaction of the albuminous elements certain organic poisons are
generated, and flesh partaken of in this condition is liable to result
in serious illness. Meat containing white specks is probably infested by
parasites and should not be used as food.

PRESERVATION OF MEAT.--The tendency of flesh foods to rapid
decomposition has led to the use of various antiseptic agents and other
methods for its preservation.

One of the most common methods is that of immersion in a brine made of a
solution of common salt to which a small portion of saltpeter has been
added. This abstracts the juice from the meat and also lessens the
tendency to putrefaction. Salt is used in various other ways for
preserving meat. It should be remarked, however, that cured and dried
meats are much more difficult to digest than fresh meat, and the nature
of the meat itself is so changed by the process as to render its
nutritive value much less.

Meat is sometimes packed in salt and afterward dried, either in the sun
or in a current of dry air. Both salting and smoking are sometimes
employed. By these means the juices are abstracted by the salt, and at
the same time the flesh is contracted and hardened by the action of
creosote and pyroligneous acid from the smoke.

What is termed "jerked" beef is prepared by drying in a current of warm
air at about 140°. This dried meat, when reduced to a powder and packed
in air-tight cans, may be preserved for a long time. When mixed with
fat, it forms the pemmican used by explorers in Arctic voyages.

Meat is also preserved by cooking and inclosing in air-tight cans after
the manner of canning fruit. This process is varied in a number of ways.

The application of cold has great influence in retarding decomposition,
and refrigeration and freezing are often employed for the preservation
of flesh foods.

All of these methods except the last are open to the objection that
while they preserve the meat, they greatly lessen its nutritive value.
It should also be understood that the decomposition of its flesh begins
almost the moment an animal dies, and continues at a slow rate even when
the flesh is kept at a low temperature. The poisons resulting from this
decomposition are often deadly, and are always detrimental to health.

THE PREPARATION AND COOKING OF MEAT.--Meat, when brought from the
market, should be at once removed from the paper in which it is wrapped,
as the paper will absorb the juices of the meat; and if the wrapping is
brown paper, the meat is liable to taste of it. Joints of meat should
not be hung with the cut surface down, as the juices will be wasted.

Meat kept in a refrigerator should not be placed directly on the ice,
but always upon plates or shelves, as the ice will freeze it or else
draw out its juices.

If meat is accidentally frozen, it should be thoroughly thawed in cold
water before cutting. Meat should not be cleaned by washing with water,
as that extracts the nutritive juices, but by thoroughly wiping the
outside with a damp cloth. The inside needs no cleaning.

Meat may be cooked by any of the different methods of cookery,--boiling,
steaming, stewing, roasting, broiling, baking, etc.,--according as the
object is to retain the nutriment wholly within the meat; to draw it all
out into the water, as in soups or broths; or to have it partly in the
water and partly in the meat, as in stews. Broiling is, however,
generally conceded to be the most wholesome method, but something will
necessarily depend upon the quality of the meat to be cooked.

Meat which has a tough, hard fiber will be made tenderest by slow,
continuous cooking, as stewing. Such pieces as contain a large amount of
gelatine--a peculiar substance found in the joints and gristly parts of
meat, and which hardens in a dry heat--are better stewed than roasted.

BOILING.--The same principles apply to the boiling of all kinds of
meats. The purpose to be attained by this method is to keep the
nutritive juices so far as possible intact within the meat;
consequently, the piece to be cooked should be left whole, so that only
a small amount of surface will be exposed to the action of the water.
Since cold water extracts albumen, of which the juices of the meat are
largely composed, while hot water coagulates it, meat to be boiled
should be plunged into boiling water sufficient to cover it and kept
there for five or ten minutes, by which time the albumen over the entire
surface will have become hardened, thus forming a coat through which
the juices cannot escape. Afterward the kettle, closely covered, may be
set aside where the water will retain a temperature of about 180°. A
small portion of albumen from the outer surface will escape into the
water in the form of scum, and should be removed.

Meat cooked in this way will require a longer time than when the water
is kept boiling furiously, but it is superior in every respect and more
digestible. Something depends upon the shape of the piece cooked, thin
pieces requiring less time than a thick, cubical cut; but approximately,
first allowing fifteen or twenty minutes for the heat to penetrate the
center of the meat, at which time the real process of cooking begins, it
will require from twelve to fifteen minutes for every pound cooked.

STEWING.--While the object in boiling is to preserve the juices
within the meat as much as possible, in stewing, the process is largely
reversed; the juices are to be partly extracted. Some of the juices
exist between the fibers, and some are found within the fibers. The
greater the surface exposed, the more easily these juices will be
extracted; hence meat for stewing should be cut into small pieces and
cooked in a small quantity of water. Since cold water extracts the
albuminous juices, while boiling water hardens them into a leathery
consistency, water used for stewing should be neither cold nor boiling,
but of a temperature which will barely coagulate the albumen and retain
it in the meat in as tender a condition as possible; _i.e.,_ about 134°
to 160°. To supply this temperature for the prolonged process of cooking
necessary in stewing, a double boiler of some form is quite necessary.
Put the pieces of meat to be stewed in the inner dish, add hot water
enough to cover, fill the outer boiler with hot water, and let this
outer water simmer very gently until the meat is perfectly tender. The
length of time required will be greater than when meat is stewed
directly in simmering water, but the result will be much more
satisfactory. The juices should be served with the meat.

STEAMING.--Meat is sometimes steamed over boiling water until it
is made very tender and afterward browned in the oven.

Another method of steaming, sometimes called smothering, is that of
cooking meat in a tightly covered jar in a moderate oven for an hour
(the moderate heat serves to draw out the juice of the meat), after
which the heat is increased, and the meat cooked in its own juices one
half hour for each pound.

ROASTING.--This method, which consists in placing meat upon a
revolving spit and cooking it before an open fire, is much less employed
now than formerly, when fireplaces were in general use. What is
ordinarily termed roasting is in reality cooking meat it in own juices
in a hot oven. In cooking meat by this method it is always desirable to
retain the juices entirely within the meat, which can be best
accomplished by first placing the clean-cut sides of the meat upon a
smoking-hot pan over a quick fire; press the meat close to the pan until
well scared and slightly browned, then turn over and sear the opposite
side in the same manner. This will form a coating of hardened albumen,
through which the interior juices cannot escape. Put at once into the
oven, arrange the fire so that the heat will be firm and steady but not
too intense, and cook undisturbed until tender.

Basting is not necessary if the roast is carefully seared and the oven
kept at proper temperature. When the heat of the oven is just right, the
meat will keep up a continuous gentle sputtering in the pan. If no
sputtering can be heard, the heat is insufficient. The heat is too great
when the drippings burn and smoke.

BROILING.--This is the method employed for cooking thin cuts of
meat in their own juices over glowing coals. When properly done, broiled
meat contains a larger amount of uncoagulated albumen than can be
secured by cooking in any other manner; hence it is the most wholesome.
For broiling, a bed of clear, glowing coals without flame is the first
essential. Coke, charcoal, or anthracite coal serves best for securing
this requisite.

In an ordinary stove, the coals should be nearly to the top of the
fire-box, that the meat may be held so as almost to touch the fire. No
utensil is better for ordinary purposes than a double wire broiler.
First, rub it well with a bit of suet, then put in the meat with the
thickest part in the center. Wrap a coarse towel around the hand to
protect it from the heat, hold the meat as near the fire as possible, so
as to sear one side instantly, slowly count ten, then turn and sear the
other side. Continue the process, alternating first one side and then
the other, slowly counting ten before each turning, until the meat is
sufficiently done. Successful broiling is largely dependent upon
frequent turning. The heat, while it at once sears the surface, starts
the flow of the juices, and although they cannot escape through the
hardened surface, if the meat were entirely cooked on one side before
turning, they would soon come to the top, and when it was turned over,
would drip into the fire. If the meat is seared on both sides, the
juices will be retained within, unless the broiling is too prolonged,
when they will ooze out and evaporate, leaving the meat dry and
leathery. Salt draws out the juices, and should not be added until the
meat is done. As long as meat retains its juices, it will spring up
instantly when pressed with a knife; when the juices have begun to
evaporate, it will cease to do this. Broiled meats should be served on
hot dishes.


BEEF.

ECONOMY AND ADAPTABILITY IN SELECTION.--While the greatest care
should be exercised in the selection of beef as regards its soundness
and wholesomeness, it must likewise be selected with reference to
economy and adaptability for cooking purposes, pieces from different
portions of the animal being suitable for cooking only in certain ways.
Ox beef is said to be best. That beef is most juicy and tender which has
fine streaks of fat intermingled with the lean. Beef which is
coarse-grained and hard to cut is apt to be tough. An economical piece
of beef to purchase is the back of the rump. It is a long piece with
only a small portion of bone, and weighs about ten pounds. The thickest
portion may be cut into steaks, the thin, end with bone may be utilized
for soups and stews, while the remainder will furnish a good roast. Only
a small portion of choice tender lean meat is to be found in one animal,
and these are also the most expensive; but the tougher, cheaper parts,
if properly cooked, are nearly as nutritious.


_RECIPES._

BROILED BEEF.--Beef for broiling should be juicy and have a tender
fiber. Steaks cut from three parts of the beef are in request for this
purpose,--tenderloin, porterhouse, and round steak. The last-named is
the more common and economical, yet it is inferior in juice and
tenderness to the other two. Steak should be cut three fourths of an
inch or more in thickness. If it is of the right quality, do not pound
it; if very tough, beat with a steak-mallet or cut across it several
times on both sides with a sharp knife. Wipe, and remove any bone and
superfluous fat. Have the fire in readiness, the plates heating, then
proceed as directed on page 398.

COLD-MEAT STEW.--Cut pieces of cold roast beef into thick slices
and put into a stewpan with six or eight potatoes, a good-sized bunch of
celery cut into small pieces; and a small carrot cut in dice may be
added if the flavor is liked. Cover with hot water, and simmer for three
fourths of an hour. Thicken with a little browned flour.

PAN-BROILED STEAK.--In the absence of the necessary appliances for
broiling over coals, the following method may be employed. Heat a clean
skillet to blue heat, rub it with a bit of suet, just enough to keep the
meat from sticking, but leave no fat in the pan. Lay in the steak,
pressing it down to the pan, and sear quickly on one side; turn, and
without cutting into the meat, sear upon the other. Keep the skillet hot
but do not scorch; cook from five to ten minutes, turning frequently, so
as not to allow the juices to escape. Add no salt until done. Serve on
hot plates. This method is not frying, and requires the addition of no
water, butter, or stock.

PAN-BROILED STEAK NO.2.--Take a smooth pancake-griddle, or in lieu
of anything better, a clean stove-griddle may be used; heat very hot and
sear each side of the steak upon it. When well seared, lift the steak
into a hot granite-ware or sheet-iron pan, cover, and put into a hot
oven for two or three minutes, or until sufficiently cooked.

ROAST BEEF.--The sirloin and rib and rump pieces are the best cuts
for roasting. Wipe, trim, and skewer into shape. Sear the cut surfaces
and proceed as directed on page 397, cooking twenty minutes to the
pound if it is to be rare, less half an hour deducted on account of
soaring. The application of salt and water has a tendency to toughen the
meat and draw out its juices; so if it is desired to have the meat juicy
and tender, it is better to cook without basting. Unless the heat of the
oven is allowed to become too great, when meat is cooked after this
manner there will be a quantity of rich, jelly-like material in the pan,
which with the addition of a little water and flour may be made into a
gravy.

SMOTHERED BEEF.--Portions from the round, middle, or face of the
rump are generally considered best for preparing this dish. Wipe with a
clean wet cloth, put into a smoking-hot skillet, and carefully sear all
cut surfaces. Put into a kettle, adding for a piece of beef weighing
about six pounds, one cup of hot water. Cover closely and cook at a
temperature just below boiling, until the meat is tender but not broken.
As the water boils away, enough more boiling water may be added to keep
the meat from burning. Another method of securing the same results is to
cut the beef into small pieces and put into a moderate oven inside a
tightly covered jar for an hour. Afterward increase the heat and cook
closely covered until the meat is tender. Thicken and season the juice,
and serve as a gravy.

VEGETABLES WITH STEWED BEEF.--Prepare the beef as directed for
Stewed Beef, and when nearly tender, add six or eight potatoes. Just
before serving, thicken the gravy with a little browned flour braided in
cold water, and add a cup of strained, stewed tomato and a teaspoonful
of chopped parsley.

STEWED BEEF.--The aitch-bone and pieces from the shin, the upper
part of the chuck-rib and neck of beef, are the parts most commonly used
for stewing. All meat for stews should be carefully dressed and free
from blood. Those portions which have bone and fat, as well as lean
beef, make much better-flavored stews than pieces which are wholly lean.
The bones, however, should not be crushed or splintered, but carefully
sawed or broken, and any small pieces removed before cooking. It is
generally considered that beef which has been previously browned makes a
much more savory stew, and it is quite customary first to brown the meat
by frying in hot fat. A much more wholesome method, and one which will
have the same effect as to flavor, is to add to the stew the remnants of
roasts or steak. It is well when selecting meat for a stew to procure a
portion, which, like the aitch-bone, has enough juicy meat upon it to
serve the first day as a roast for a small family. Cut the meat for a
stew into small pieces suitable for serving, add boiling water, and cook
as directed on page 396. Remove all pieces of bone and the fat before
serving. If the stew is made of part cooked and part uncooked meat, the
cooked meat should not be added until the stew is nearly done. The
liquor, if not of the proper consistency when the meat is tender, may be
thickened by adding a little flour braided in cold water, cooking these
after four or five minutes.


MUTTON.

The strong flavor of mutton is said to be due to the oil from the wool,
which penetrates the skin, or is the result, through heedlessness or
ignorance of the butcher, in allowing the wool to come in contact with
the flesh. There is a quite perceptible difference in the flavor of
mutton from a sheep which had been for some time sheared of its woolly
coat and that from one having a heavy fleece.

The smallest proportion of both fat and bone to muscle is found in the
leg; consequently this is the most valuable portion for food, and is
likewise the most economical, being available for many savory dishes. On
account of the disagreeable adhesive qualities of its fat when cold,
mutton should always be served hot.


_RECIPES._

BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.--Wipe carefully, remove the fat, and put into
boiling water. Skim, and cook as directed on page 395, twelve minutes
for each pound.

BROILED CHOPS.--The best-flavored and most tender chops are those
from the loins. Remove carefully all the pink skin above the fat,
scraping it off if possible without cutting into the lean. Wipe with a
wet cloth, and broil in the same manner as beefsteak over hot coals or
in a hot skillet, turning frequently until done; five or eight minutes
will suffice to cook. Sprinkle salt on each side, drain on paper, and
serve hot.

POT-ROAST LAMB.--For this purpose a stone jar or pot is best,
although iron or granite-ware will do; wipe the meat well and gash with
a sharp knife. If crowded closely in the pot, all the better; cover with
a lid pressed down firmly with a weight to hold it if it does not fit
tightly. No water is needed, and no steam should be allowed to escape
during the cooking. Roast four or five hours in a moderate oven.

ROAST MUTTON.--The best pieces for this purpose are those obtained
from the shoulder, and saddle, loin, and haunches. Wipe carefully, sear
the cut surfaces, and proceed as directed for roasting beef. Cook slowly
without basting, and unless desired rare, allow twenty-five or thirty
minutes to the pound. A leg of mutton requires a longer time to roast
than a shoulder. When sufficiently roasted, remove from the pan and
drain off all the grease.

STEWED MUTTON.--Pieces from the neck and shoulder are most suitable
for this purpose. Prepare the meat, and stew as directed for beef,
although less time is usually required.

STEWED MUTTON CHOP.--Wipe, trim off the fat, and remove the bone
from two or three pounds of chops. Put into the inner dish of a double
boiler with just enough hot water to cover; add a minced stalk of
celery, a carrot, and a white turnip cut in dice; cover, and cook until
the chops are tender. Sliced potato may be added if liked, when the meat
is nearly done. Remove the grease and thicken the liquor with a little
browned flour braided with thin cream.

STEWED MUTTON CHOP NO. 2.--Prepare the chops as in the preceding.
Place a layer of meat in a deep baking dish, and then a layer of sliced
potato, sprinkled with a little minced celery. Add two or more layers of
meat, alternating with layers of potatoes. Cover with boiling water and
bake closely covered in a very moderate oven two and a half hours.

VEAL AND LAMB.--Both veal and lamb should be thoroughly cooked;
otherwise they are not wholesome. They may be prepared for the tale in
the same way as beef or mutton, but will require longer time for
cooking.


POULTRY AND GAME.

Poultry and game differ from other animal foods in the relative quantity
of fat and the quality of their juices. The fat of birds is laid up
underneath the skin and in various internal parts of the body, while but
a small proportion is mingled with the fibers or the juices of the
flesh. The flesh of the chicken, turkey, and guinea-fowl is more
delicately flavored, more tender and easy to digest, than that of geese
and ducks. Chickens broiled require three hours for digestion; when
boiled or roasted, four hours are needed.

The flesh of poultry is less stimulating than beef, and is thus
considered better adapted for invalids. The flesh of wild fowl contains
less fat than that of poultry; it is also tender and easy of digestion.
Different birds and different parts of the same bird, vary considerably
in color and taste. The breed, food, and method of fattening, influence
the quality of this class of foods. Fowls poorly fed and allowed wide
range are far from cleanly in their habits of eating; in fact, they are
largely scavengers, and through the food they pick up, often become
infested with internal parasites, and affected with tuberculosis and
other diseases which are liable to be communicated to those who eat
their flesh.

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF POULTRY AND GAME.--The first care
in the selection of poultry should be its freedom from disease. Birds
deprived of exercise, shut up in close cages, and regularly stuffed with
as much corn or soft food as they can swallow, may possess the requisite
fatness, but it is of a most unwholesome character. When any living
creature ceases to exercise, its excretory organs cease to perform their
functions thoroughly, and its body becomes saturated with retained
excretions.

A stall-fed fowl may be recognized by the color of its fat, which is
pale white, and lies in thick folds beneath the skin along the lower
half of the backbone. The entire surface of the body presents a more
greasy, uninviting appearance than that of fowls permitted to live under
natural conditions.

Never purchase fowls which have been sent to the market undrawn. All
animals intended for use as food should be dressed as quickly as
possible after killing. Putrefactive changes begin very soon after
death, and the liver and other viscera, owing to their soft texture and
to the quantity of venous blood they retain, advance rapidly in
decomposition. When a fowl or animal is killed, even if the large
arteries at the throat are cut, a large quantity of blood remains in and
around the intestines, owing to the fact that only through the
capillaries of the liver can the blood in the portal system find its way
into the large vessels which convey it to the heart, and which at death
are cut off from the general circulation at both ends by a capillary
system. This leaves the blood-vessels belonging to the portal
circulation distended with venous blood, which putrefies very quickly,
forming a virulent poison. The contents of the intestines of all
creatures are always in a more or less advanced state of putrescence,
ready to undergo rapid decomposition as soon as the preservative action
of the intestinal fluids ceases. It will readily be seen, then, that
the flesh of an undrawn fowl must be to a greater or less degree
permeated with the poisonous gases and other products of putrefaction,
and is certainly quite unfit for food.

Young fowls have soft, yellow feet, a smooth, moist skin, easily torn
with a pin, wings which will spring easily, and a breastbone which will
yield to pressure. Pinfeathers are an indication of a young bird; older
fowls are apt to have sharp scales, long hairs, long, thin necks, and
flesh with a purplish tinge.

Poultry should be entirely free from disagreeable odors. Methods are
employed for sweetening fowls which have been kept too long in market,
but if they need such attention, bury them decently rather than cook
them for the table.

Turkeys should have clear, full eyes, and soft, loose spurs. The legs of
young birds are smooth and black; those of older ones, rough and
reddish.

Geese and ducks, when freshly killed, have supple feet. If young, the
windpipe and beak can be easily broken by pressure of the thumb and
forefinger. Young birds also have soft, white fat, tender skin, yellow
feet, and legs free from hairs.

The legs of young pigeons are flesh-colored. When in good condition, the
breast should be full and plump, and if young, it is of a light reddish
color. Old pigeons have dark flesh; squabs always have pinfeathers.

Partridges, when young, have dark bills and yellow legs.

The breast of all birds should be full and plump. Birds which are
diseased always fall away on the breast, and the bone feels sharp and
protrudes.

TO DRESS POULTRY AND BIRDS.--First strip off the feathers a few at
a time, with a quick, jerking motion toward the tail. Remove pinfeathers
with a knife.

Fowls should be picked, if possible, while the body retains some warmth,
as scalding is apt to spoil the skin and parboil the flesh. When all the
feathers but the soft down have been removed, a little hot water may be
poured on, when the down can be easily rubbed off with the palm of the
hand. Wipe dry, and singe the hairs off by holding the bird by the legs
over the flame of a candle, a gas-jet, or a few drops of alcohol poured
on a plate and lighted. To dress a bird successfully, one should have
some knowledge of its anatomy, and it is well for the amateur first to
dress one for some dish in which it is not to be cooked whole, when the
bird may be opened, and the position of its internal organs studied.

Remove the head, slip the skin back from the neck, and cut it off close
to the body, take out the windpipe and pull out the crop from the end of
the neck. Make an incision through the skin a little below the
leg-joint, bend the leg at this point and break off the bone. If care
has been taken to cut only through the skin, the tendons of the leg may
now be easily removed with the fingers.

If the bird is to be cut up, remove the legs and wings at the joints.
Then beginning near the vent, cut the membrane down between the
breastbone and tail to the backbone on each side, and separate just
below the ribs. The internal organs can now been seen and easily
removed, and the body of the bird divided at its joints.

If desired to keep the fowl whole, after removing the windpipe and crop,
loosen the heart, liver, and lungs by introducing the forefinger at the
neck; cut off the oil-sack, make a slit horizontally under the tail,
insert the first and middle fingers, and after separating the membranes
which lie close to the body, press them along within the body until the
heart and liver can be felt. The gall bladder lies directly under the
left lobe of the liver, and if the fingers are kept up, and all
adhesions loosened before an effort is made to draw the organs out,
there will be little danger of breaking it. Remove everything which can
be taken out, then hold the, fowl under the faucet and cleanse
thoroughly.

TO TRUSS A FOWL OR BIRD.--Twist the tips of the wings back under
the shoulder and bend the legs as far up toward the breast as possible,
securing them in that position by putting a skewer through one thigh
into the body and out through the opposite thigh. Then bring the legs
down and fasten close to the vent.

TO STUFF A FOWL.--Begin at the neck, stuff the breast full, draw
the neck skin together, double it over on the back and fasten with a
darning needle threaded with fine twine. Put the remainder of the
stuffing into the body at the other opening.


_RECIPES._

BIRDS BAKED IN SWEET POTATOES.--Small birds, of which the breast is
the only suitable portion for eating, may be baked in the following
manner: Cut a sweet potato lengthwise; make a cavity in each half. Place
the breast of the bird therein; fit, and tie together carefully; bake
until the potato is soft. Serve in the potato.

BOILED FOWL.--After cleaning and dividing the fowl, put into
boiling water, and proceed as directed on page 395.

BROILED BIRDS.--Pluck and wipe clean with a damp cloth. Split down
the middle of the back, and carefully draw the bird. Proceed as directed
below.

BROILED FOWL.--A young bird well dressed and singed is best for
this purpose. Split down the middle of the back, wipe clean with a damp
cloth, twist the top of the wings from the second joint; spread out
flat, and with a rolling pin break the projecting breastbone so that the
bird will lie flat upon the broiler. When ready to cook, place it skin
uppermost and sear the under side by pressing it on a hot pan; then
broil the same as beefsteak over glowing coals.

CORN AND CHICKEN.--Clean and divide a chicken in joints. Stew in
milk or part milk and water until nearly tender; then add the grains and
juice from a dozen ears of corn. Cook slowly until the corn is done;
season lightly with salt, and serve with dry toast.

PIGEONS, QUAILS, AND PARTRIDGES may be half baked, then cooked as
directed for Smothered Chicken until tender.

ROAST CHICKEN.--Dress carefully, singe, wash, and wipe dry. Put
into a pan of the proper size, add a cup of boiling water, and cook very
slowly for the first half hour, then increase the heat, baste
frequently, turn occasionally so that no portion will brown too fast.
Cook from one to two hours according to size and age of the bird. It is
usually considered essential to stuff a fowl for roasting, but a
dressing compounded of melted fat and crumbs seasoned with herbs and
strong condiments is not to be recommended.

If a dressing is considered necessary, it may be made of a quart of
crumbs of rather stale whole-wheat bread, moistened with cream, to which
add a small handful of powdered and sifted sage leaves which have been
dried in the oven until crisp. Add salt as desired, a well-beaten egg,
and a little chopped celery.

ROAST TURKEY.--Pluck, singe, and dress the turkey; wash thoroughly
and wipe with a dry cloth. If dressing is to be used, stuff the body
full, sew up, and truss. Place in a dripping-pan, add a pint of boiling
water, and put in an oven so moderate that the turkey will not brown for
the first hour; afterward the heat may be somewhat increased, but at no
time should the oven be very hot. After the bird becomes brown, baste it
occasionally with the water in the pan, dredging lightly with flour.
Cook until the legs will separate from the body; three or four hours
will be necessary for a small turkey. One half hour to the pound is the
usual rule. When tender, remove the stuffing and serve it hot, placing
the turkey on a large hot platter to be carved. It may be garnished with
parsley or celery leaves and served with cranberry sauce.

Ducks and geese may be prepared and roasted in the same manner, but less
time will suffice for cooking, about one and one third hours for ducks
of ordinary size, and about three hours for a young goose.

A stuffing of mashed potato seasoned with onion, sage, and salt is
considered preferable for a goose. Equal parts of bread crumbs and
chopped apples moistened in a little cream are also used for this
purpose.

SMOTHERED CHICKEN.--Cut two chickens into joints and put in a
closely covered kettle with a pint of boiling water. Heat very slowly to
boiling, skim, keep covered, and simmer until tender and the water
evaporated; add salt, turn the pieces, and brown them in their own
juices.

STEAMED CHICKEN.--Prepare the chicken as for roasting, steam until
nearly tender, dredge with flour and a little salt; put into a
dripping-pan and brown in the oven. Other birds and fowls may be
prepared in the same way.

STEWED CHICKEN.--Divide a chicken into pieces suitable for serving,
and stew as directed for beef on page 400. Old fowls left whole and
stewed in this manner for a long time and afterward roasted, are much
better than when prepared in any other way. If a gravy is desired,
prepare as for stewed beef. Other poultry may be stewed likewise.



FISH.

Fish is a less stimulating article of food than other meats. Edible fish
are generally divided into two classes, those of white flesh and those
more or less red. The red-fleshed fish, of which the salmon is a
representative, have their fat distributed throughout the muscular
tissues, while in white fish the fat is stored up in the liver; hence
the latter class is much easier of digestion, and being less
stimulating, is to be recommended as more wholesome. Different kinds of
fish have different nutritive values. Their flavor and wholesomeness are
greatly influenced by the nature of their food and the condition of the
water in which they are caught; those obtained in deep water with strong
currents are considered superior to those found in shallow water. Fish
are sometimes poisonous, owing no doubt to the food they eat.

Like all animal foods, fish are subject to parasites, some of which take
up their abode in the human body when fish infected with them are eaten.
An eminent scientist connected with the Smithsonian Institution,
contributed an article to _Forest and Stream_ a few years ago, in which
he stated that in the salmon no less than sixteen kinds of parasitic
worms have been discovered, and undoubtedly many others remain unknown;
four species were tapeworms, and four, roundworms. The yellow perch is
known to be infested with twenty-three species of parasitic worms.

The pike carries with him at least twenty kinds, while many other
varieties of fish are equally infested.

Fish have been highly lauded as a food particularly suited to the
development of the brain and nervous system. This no doubt has arisen
from the fact that fish contain a considerable amount of phosphorus.
Phosphorus is also present in the human brain, and for this reason it
has been supposed that fish must be excellent nutriment for the brain;
but the truth is, there is no such thing as any special brain or nerve
food. What is good to build up one part of the body is good for the
whole of it; a really good food contains the elements to nourish every
organ of the body.

Salted fish, like salted meat, is deprived of most of its nutriment
during the curing process, and being rendered much more difficult of
digestion, possesses very little value as a food.

SHELL-FISH (OYSTERS, CLAMS, SCALLOPS, LOBSTERS, CRABS,
ETC.)--Although considered a luxury by epicures, shellfish are not
possessed of a high nutritive value. The whole class are scavengers by
nature and according to recent researches it appears that they are not
altogether safe articles of diet. Many cases of severe and extensive
sickness have been traced to the use of clams and oysters.
Investigations made to ascertain the cause show the poisonous part of
the mussel to be the liver. Rabbits and other small animals inoculated
with the poison died in one or two minutes. Not all mussels are thus
poisonous, but inasmuch as there is an abundance of wholesome food, it
would certainly seem the part of wisdom to discard shellfish altogether.

HOW TO SELECT AND PREPARE FISH.--The flesh of good, fresh fish is
firm and hard, and will respond at once to pressure with the fingers. If
the flesh feels soft and flabby, the fish is not fresh. The eyes should
be full and bright and the gills of a clear red color.

Fish should be cleaned as soon as possible after being caught. To do
this, lay the fish upon a board, and holding it by the tail, scrape off
the scales with a dull knife held nearly flat, working from the tail
toward the head. Scrape slowly, and rinse the knife frequently in cold
water. Cut off the head and fins, make an opening from the gills halfway
down the lower part of the body, scrape out the entrails and every
particle of blood. Remove the white part that lies along the backbone,
then thoroughly rinse and wipe dry.

Keep in a cool place until ready to cook, but do not place directly on
ice, as that will have a tendency to soften the flesh. Fresh fish should
never be allowed to soak in water. If salt fish is to be used, it should
be freshened by placing it skin-side up in cold water, and soaking for
several hours, changing the water frequently.

Frozen fish should be placed in cold water to thaw, and when thawed,
should be cooked immediately.

Fish is cooked by nearly all methods, but retains more nourishment when
broiled or baked. It should be thoroughly cooked, being both
indigestible and unpalatable when underdone.

Boiled fish is usually dependent for flavor upon some kind of rich sauce
so incompatible with healthy digestion that we do not recommend this
method.


_RECIPES._

BAKED FISH.--Select a perfectly fresh, properly dressed fish. Rinse
thoroughly and wipe dry. Fold it together and place in a dripping pan
with a cup of boiling water. Cook slowly and steadily until tender. A
fish weighing three or four pounds will require at least two hours. If
desired, the fish may be lightly dredged with flour, toward the last, as
it begins to brown.

BROILED FISH.--Thoroughly clean the fish, and if small, split down
the back. Fish of larger size should be cut into inch slices. Use a
double wire broiler well oiled with a bit of suet. Lay the fish, with
its thickest part next the center of the broiler, skin uppermost, and
broil over a bed of clear coals until the flesh-side is of an even
brown. The time required will vary, according to the size of the fish,
from five to twenty minutes; then turn and brown on the other side. If
the fish be very thick, when both sides are browned, put the broiler in
the oven over a dripping pan and cook until done.


MEAT SOUP.

Soups made from meat require first the preparation of a special material
called _stock_, a liquid foundation upon which to begin the soup.

Beef, veal, mutton, and poultry are all made into stock in the same
manner, so that general rules for its preparation will be sufficient for
all meat soups.

The principal constituents of meat and bones, the material from which
stock is compounded, are fiber, albuminous elements, gelatinous
substances, and flavoring matters. The albuminous elements are found
only in the flesh. The gelatinous substance found in bones, skin, and
tendons, is almost devoid of nutriment. In selecting material for stock,
therefore, it is well to remember that the larger the proportion of lean
meat used, the more nutritious will be the soup.

But little else than gelatine is obtained from the bones, and although
serviceable in giving consistency, a soup made principally from bones is
not valuable as a food. The amount of bone used for soup should never
exceed the flesh material in weight. The bones, trimmings, and remnants
of steaks, chops, and roasts may be advantageously utilized for soups.
Bits of roast meat and roast gravies are especially serviceable
material, since they are rich in the flavoring elements of meat. It
should be remembered, however, that these flavoring matters are chiefly
excrementitious or waste substances, derived from the venous blood of
the animal.

The greatest care must be observed to keep the scraps perfectly sweet
and fresh until needed, as stale meat is exceedingly unwholesome. If the
scraps are mostly cooked meats and bones, a small portion of raw, lean
meat should be used with them; it need not be of the choicest quality;
tough, coarse meat, when fresh and good, can be advantageously used for
soup stock.

If fresh material is to be procured, select for beef soups a piece from
the shin or lower round; the same choice of pieces may be made of veal;
of mutton, pieces from the forequarter and neck are best.

In preparing meat for soup, if it is soiled, scrub the outside
thoroughly with a clean cloth wet in cold water, or cut away the soiled
portion. Break the bones into as small pieces as convenient; cut the
meat into inch dice, remove the marrow from the bones, and put it aside.
If added to the stock, it will make it greasy.

Having selected proper material and prepared it for use, the next step
is to extract the juices. To do this put it into cold water, bring very
gradually to the boiling point,--an hour is not too long for
this,--then cook slowly but continuously. In the observation of these
simple measures lies the secret of success in stock-making.

The albuminous elements of the meat, which are similar in character to
the white of an egg, are readily dissolved in cold or tepid water, but
boiling water coagulates them. If the meat is put into boiling water,
the albumen coagulates, or hardens, forming a sort of crust on the
outside of the meat, which prevents the inner juices from escaping; on
the contrary, if the meat is put to cook in cold water, and is gradually
raised to the boiling point, the soaking and simmering will easily
extract and dissolve the juices.

Salt likewise hinders the extraction of the meat juices, and should not
be added to stock during its preparation.

The best utensil for use in the preparation of stock is a soup digester.
This is a porcelain-lined kettle, resting on standards, with a cover
fitting closely into a groove, so that no steam can escape except
through a valve in the top of the cover. In this the meat can be placed
and allowed to cook for hours without burning. An ordinary granite-ware
kettle with tightly fitting cover set on a stove ring or brick, answers
quite well. It should, however, be kept entirely for this purpose. A
double boiler is also suitable.

The correct proportion of water is to be used is about one quart to each
pound of meat and bones, though this will vary somewhat with the
material and the length of time required for cooking. The scum which is
thrown to the surface of the water during the cooking process is
composed of blood and other impurities, and should be removed as rapidly
as it rises. If allowed to remain after the water reaches the boiling
point, it will become incorporated into the stock and injure it in
flavor and wholesomeness.

If the meat and bones are well cut and broken, the juices ought to be
all extracted, with proper cooking, in three or four hours. Longer
cooking will render the stock thicker and more gelatinous but not more
nutritious, and too long cooking will detract from its flavor. As soon
as the meat will fall from the bones, the stock should be removed from
the pot and strained at once.

A good way to strain stock is to place a colander over an earthen crock
or jar (the colander should fit inside the jar), with a cloth strainer
within the colander. Then dip the contents of the stock kettle into the
colander, and leave it there to drain for fifteen or twenty minutes. Do
not squeeze the cloth, and when well drained, throw the scraps away.

[Illustration: Arrangement for Straining Stock.]

French cooks, with their propensity for economy, sometimes select a good
quality of beef, cook it so as to retain a portion of the juices in the
meat, and make it serve both for preparing the soup and for boiled beef
on the bill of fare. The meat is not cut up, but is heated quickly and
removed as soon as tender, so that only part of the juices are
extracted.

Set the stock where it will become cold. The more rapidly it cools, the
more delicate will be its flavor, and the better it will keep. The fat
will rise to the surface, and can be easily removed when desired. If the
quantity of fat in the material used was considerable, a solid cake will
cover the top. This fat, by excluding the air, helps keep the stock
sweet, and should not be removed until the stock is needed.

If only a portion is to be used at one time, the remainder with the fat
should be reheated and cooled, that a new crust may be formed. In
winter, stock may be kept several days, if care is thus taken to reheat
it. In summer, unless kept in a very cold place, it will spoil in a few
hours.

Soup should never be greasy, and hence, before using the stock, every
particle of the fat should be removed. To accomplish this, loosen the
cake of fat from the dish with a knife, and if solid, it will sometimes
come off whole; if soft, remove all that is possible without cutting
into the stock, and afterwards wipe the top of the jellied stock with a
cloth wrung out of very hot water, which will readily absorb any
lingering portion of fat. If the stock is not jellied, skim off all the
fat possible, and then turn the stock through a napkin wrung out of ice
water. This will harden the grease, which will adhere to the napkin. It
is always better to prepare stock long enough before it is needed to
allow it to become perfectly cold; if, however, it is necessary to use
the stock very soon after it is prepared, the fat may be quickly
hardened by turning the stock into a dripping pan or some other shallow
dish, and placing it on ice in a cool place; if there is no time for
this, strain several times through a napkin wrung out of ice-cold water,
removing the particles of fat each time and wringing the cloth anew
before straining again. A little cold water poured into hot stock will
also cause the grease to rise so that it can be easily skimmed off; but
this method weakens the stock.

Stock may be prepared from one kind of meat only, or from two or more
different kinds mixed together. Chicken stock is generally conceded to
be better if a small portion of beef is combined with the fowl. Beef and
veal are largely used together; but mutton on account of its strong
flavor is better used alone.

Stock, when prepared from a single kind of meat, is termed simple stock
or broth. When prepared from two or more kinds of flesh cooked together,
or when stock prepared separately from different kinds of meat are mixed
together, the result is termed compound stock or double broth. With
either of these stocks as a foundation, an innumerable variety of soups
may be prepared, either by serving them as plain broth or by the
addition of some of the various grains and vegetables, the distinctive
name of each soup being given it according to its principal solid
ingredient.

TO CLARIFY SOUP STOCK.--Having removed all the fat from the stock,
add to it before reheating, the shell of an egg, and the whole of one
egg well beaten, with a little cold water, for every three pints of
soup. Place the soup over the fire and stir it constantly to keep the
egg from setting until it is hot. Simmer for fifteen minutes, removing
the scum as it rises, and strain through a flannel cloth or napkin laid
in a colander. It is also a good plan to place a fine wire strainer on
the napkin to catch the shells and scum. Do not squeeze the cloth or
stir the liquid with a spoon to hasten the straining process. If the
cloth is clogged so that the stock does not run through well, carefully
change it in the colander so that the liquid will run down upon a clean
portion. When strained, it may be reheated, seasoned, and served as
clear soup.


_RECIPES._

ASPARAGUS SOUP.--This soup is prepared in every way like the one on
page 276, except that while stock made from veal is used instead of
milk. Green pea soup, celery soup, green corn soup, and green bean soup
may be prepared according to the recipes already given for these soups
by substituting for milk the same quantity of the stock of veal or
chicken.

BARLEY, RICE, SAGO, OR TAPIOCA SOUP.--Any kind of stock may be used
in making these soups, though chicken and mutton stock are generally
considered preferable. Prepare the grains, the sago, or the tapioca, by
steaming or boiling till well cooked, and add to the stock, which should
be at boiling temperature. Season and serve.

CARAMEL FOR COLORING SOUP BROWN.--Melt a half pint of sugar and one
tablespoonful of water in a saucepan over the fire; stir constantly
until it is of a dark brown color; then add a half pint of boiling
water, simmer ten minutes, strain, and put into an air-tight can or
bottle. When needed, mix such a quantity with the soup as will give the
desired degree of color.

JULIENNE SOUP.--Take an equal proportion of carrot, parsnip,
turnip, celery, and string beans, cut into thin pieces of inch lengths,
sufficient to make one pint. Simmer the vegetables gently in a small
quantity of water until tender, but not long enough to destroy their
shape. Heat a quart of clear stock to boiling, add vegetables, salt to
taste, and serve.

Other vegetables, as peas, asparagus, etc. may be used in the season.
Sometimes the vegetables are cut into dice or fancy shapes with a
vegetable cutter. It makes little difference about the shape, so that
the pieces are small and uniform in size. Such vegetables as potatoes,
carrots, or turnips, when used for soups, are easiest cut, after paring
in the usual manner, by taking the vegetable in the left hand, holding
it on the table or board between thumb and finger, and with the right
hand cutting downward in even slices not over one third of an inch wide,
to within a quarter of an inch of the bottom. Turn the vegetable and
repeat the process, cutting across the first slices. Again lay the
vegetable on its side, and make a third series of cuts, which will
divide it into cubes. If several kinds of vegetables are used, those
which require a longer time for cooking should be cut into smaller
pieces.

TOMATO SOUP.--Into two quarts of boiling beef stock stir a
teaspoonful of cornstarch well braided with a little cold water, and a
pint of strained, stewed tomatoes. Boil a few minutes, and serve. A
teaspoonful of sugar may also be added, if desired.

WHITE SOUP.--White soups are made from veal or chicken stock,
seasoned with cream, flavored with onion or celery, and thickened with
cornstarch or flour.

VERMICELLI OR MACARONI SOUPS.--Drop into boiling water and cook the
macaroni about one hour, the vermicelli ten minutes. Drain well, dash
cold water through them to separate the pieces, which are apt to stick
together, and add to boiling stock (beef and veal are preferable) in the
proportion of a pint of cooked macaroni or vermicelli to a quart of
soup. Salt to taste and serve.

PUREE WITH CHICKEN.--Take a quart of chicken stock from which the
fat has been removed. Add a stalk or two of celery cut into
finger-lengths, and a slice of onion, and put to boil. Beat together the
mashed yolk of two hard boiled eggs, and a half cup of sweet cream. Chop
the white meat of the chicken until fine as meal and beat with the egg
mixture. Add slowly a cup and a half of hot milk. Remove the celery and
onion from the hot stock, and stir all together. Boil up, salt to taste,
and serve. If too thick, a little more stock or milk can be added.

TAPIOCA CREAM SOUP.--Soak two tablespoonfuls of tapioca over night.
Heat a quart of stock prepared from the white meat of chicken, to
boiling, in a saucepan. Then stir the tapioca in gradually. Move the
saucepan to the side of the range where it will simmer till the tapioca
is transparent. Have ready in a large dish a mixture prepared by beating
together very thoroughly the yolks of three eggs and four tablespoonfuls
of sweet cream. When the tapioca is clear, remove the stock from the
range and pour it very gradually onto the egg mixture, stirring briskly
all the time, so that the egg will not curdle. Season with salt if
desired. The soup may be returned to the stove and warmed before serving
if necessary, but it must not be boiled or allowed to stand a long time.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Animal food is one of the greatest means by which the pure sentiment
    of the race is depressed.--_Alcott._

    An English medical author says, "It is no doubt true that the
    constant use of animal food disqualifies the mind for literary
    application. We can scarcely imagine a philosopher living on horse
    flesh like a Tartar, or on buffalo meat like an Indian; and it is a
    fact that these tribes appear incapable of civilization until they
    acquire the habit of using a less stimulating diet, and begin to
    cultivate the fruits of the earth for their own use. The difference,
    in the success of Christian missions, between such people and those
    whose chief sustenance is farinaceous food, is very striking and
    worthy of especial notice. In the East, and in Polynesia, literature
    and Christian doctrines are seized upon with avidity. But in vain
    were the most earnest labors of the best men to introduce reading
    and writing among the American Indians until they had first been
    taught to grow corn and to eat bread."

    An American gentleman traveling in the East met a Brahmin priest,
    who refused to shake hands with him for fear of pollution. The
    reason he assigned was that Americans eat hogs. Said the priest,
    "Why, I have heard that in America they put hogs' flesh in barrels
    and eat it after it has been dead six months! Horrible!"

    Pork is by no means a favorite food in Scotland. King James is said
    to have abhorred pork almost as much as he did tobacco. He said, "If
    I were to give a banquet to the devil, I would provide a loin of
    pork and a poll of ling, with a pipe of tobacco for digestion!"
    --_Scott._

    The Hindu would as soon think of becoming a cannibal as of eating
    swine's flesh. It is stated that the Indian mutiny so frightful in
    its results originated in a fear among the Sepoys that they would be
    forced to eat pork. A lady in India had an amusing experience which
    illustrates the Hindu sentiment on the subject of pig. Arriving late
    at a grand dinner, she and her husband saw the first course being
    carried in as they went down the hall. A row of khitmutgars was
    drawn up, waiting to follow the dish into the dining-room, and serve
    their respective employers; as a dish of ham was carried by, each
    man gravely and deliberately spat upon it! Needless to say, Mrs. B.
    and her lord waited for the second course.

    Both the ancient Syrians and Egyptians abstained from flesh-eating
    out of dread and abhorrence, and when the latter would represent any
    thing as odious or disagreeable by hieroglyphics, they painted a
    fish.

    Yes, Agassiz does recommend authors to eat fish because the
    phosphorus in it makes brains. So far you are correct. But I cannot
    help you to a decision about the amount you need to eat--at least
    with certainty. If the specimen composition you send is about your
    fair usual average, I should judge that perhaps a couple of whales
    would be all you want for the present; not the largest kind, but
    simply good, middling-sized whales!--_Mark Twain's Letter to a Young
    Author._



FOOD FOR THE SICK

[Illustration: Food for the Sick]

There is no branch of the culinary art which requires more skill than
that of preparing food for the sick and feeble. The purpose of food at
all times is to supply material for repairing--the waste which is
constantly be chosen with reference to its nutritive value. But during
illness and convalescence, when the waste is often much greater and the
vital powers less active, it is of the utmost importance that the food
should be of such a character as will supply the proper nutrition. Nor
is this all; an article of food may contain all the elements of
nutrition in such proportions as to render it a wholesome food for those
in health, and not be a proper food for the sick, for the reason that
its conversion into blood and tissue lays too great a tax upon the
digestive organs. Food for the sick should be palatable, nutritious and
easily assimilated. To discriminate as to what food will supply these
requisites, one must possess some knowledge of dietetics and physiology,
as well as of the nature of the illness with which the patient is
suffering; and such a knowledge ought to be part of the education of
every woman, no matter to what class of society she belongs.

There are no special dishes suitable alike for all cases. Hot buttered
toast, tea, rich jellies, and other dainties so commonly served to the
sick, are usually the very worst articles of diet of which they could
partake. As a general rule, elaborate dishes are not suitable.

Well-cooked gruel, a nicely broiled steak, a glass of milk, or some
refreshing drink often serve far better than foods which combine a
greater variety of ingredients, and require more extensive preparation.
The simplest foods are always the best, because the most readily
assimilated.

Scrupulous neatness and care in all the minute particulars of the
cooking and serving of food for invalids, will add much to its
palatableness. The clean napkin on the tray, the bright silver, and
dainty china plate, with perhaps a sprig of leaves and flowers beside
it, thinly sliced bread, toast or cracker, and the light cup partly
filled with hot gruel, are far more appetizing to the invalid than
coarse ware, thickly cut bread, and an overflowing cup of gruel, though
the cooking may be just as perfect. Anything that suggests excess or
weight fatigues the sick. The appearance of milk served in a bowl, water
in a mug, beef-tea in a saucer, though seemingly a trivial thing, is
often sufficient to remove all desire for food.

So far as practicable, the wants of the patient should be anticipated,
and the meal served, a surprise. The capricious appetite of an invalid
may sometimes be coaxed by arranging his simple food upon a tray so
planned that in the napery and service-ware used, some one particular
color predominates, and if this color be selected to accord or harmonize
as far as possible with the food allowed, the _tout ensemble_ presents a
pleasing fancy, which will tempt the eye, and through its influence, the
appetite of the patient. For example: an invalid whose dietary must
consist of fruit and grains, might be served to a "purple" dinner, with
bill of fare including a fresh, cool bunch of purple grapes, a glass of
unfermented grape juice, a saucer of blackberry mush, a plate of nicely
toasted wafers, Graham puffs or zwieback, with stewed prunes, or a
slice of prune toast served on dishes decorated with purple. Tie the
napkin with a bow of purple ribbon, and place a bunch of purple pansies
just within its folds. The monotonous regimen of a poor dyspeptic which
poached eggs, beaten biscuit, wheat gluten, eggnog, with, perhaps,
stewed peaches or an orange, are served on gilt-band china with a spray
of goldenrod, a bunch of marigolds, or a water-lily to give an
additional charm.

Foods which are ordered to be served hot, should be _hot,_ not merely
warm, when they reach the patient. To facilitate this, let the dish in
which the food is to be served, stand in hot water for a few moments;
take out, wipe dry, turn in the hot food, place on the tray, and serve.
An oil stove, alcohol lamp, or a pocket stove is very convenient for
warming gruels, broths and other similar foods, as either can be made
ready for use in a moment, and will heat the small quantity of food
necessary for an invalid in one fourth the time in which it could be
accomplished over the range, if necessary to reduce the fire.

In the preparation of food for the sick, a scrupulously clean dish for
cooking is of the first importance. It is a good plan in every household
to reserve one or two cooking utensils for this purpose, and not be
obliged to depend upon those in daily use. Utensils used for the cooking
of fruits, vegetables, meat, etc., unless cleaned with the utmost call
will sometimes impart a sufficiently unpleasant flavor to the food to
render it wholly unpalatable to an invalid whose senses are
preternaturally acute.


GRUELS

These simple foods, the base of which is usually some one of the grains,
play an important part in the dietary for the sick, if properly
prepared; but the sloppy messes sometimes termed gruel, the chief merit
of which appears to be that they "are prepared in ten minutes," are
scarcely better than nothing at all. Like other dishes prepared from the
grains, gruel needs a long, continuous cooking. When done, it should be
the very essence of the grain, possessing all its nutritive qualities,
but in such form as to be readily assimilated. For the making of gruels,
as for the cooking of grains for any other purpose, the double boiler is
the best utensil.

[Illustration: Gruel Strainer.]

If it is desirable to strain the gruel before serving, have a fine wire
strainer of a size to stand conveniently within a large bowl or basin,
turn the gruel into this, and rub it through with a wooden or silver
spoon, using a second spoon, if necessary, to remove that which hangs
beneath the sieve. On no account use the first spoon for the latter
operation, as by so doing one is apt to get some of the hulls into the
gruel and destroy its smoothness. When as much of the gruel as possible
has been rubbed through the sieve, pour the strained liquid into a clean
dish, reheat to boiling, and season as desired before serving. An
extension strainer which can be fitted over any sized dish is also
serviceable for straining gruels.

[Illustration: Extension Strainer.]

Gruels, like all other foods, should be retained in the mouth for proper
insalivation, and it is well to eat them with wafers or some hard food,
when solid food is allowed.


_RECIPES._

ARROWROOT GRUEL.--Rub a dessertspoonful of _pure_ arrowroot to a
thin paste in two tablespoonfuls of cold water, and stir it into a half
pint of boiling water, or, if preferred, a cup and a third of boiling
milk, and stir rapidly until thickened and clear. If desired, a little
lemon peel for flavoring may be infused in the water or milk, before
adding the arrowroot. Sweeten, if allowed, and serve.

BARLEY GRUEL.--Wash three heaping tablespoonfuls of pearl barley,
drop it into a pint of boiling water, and parboil five minutes. Pour
this water off and add a quart of fresh boiling water. Let it simmer
gently for three hours. Strain, season, and serve. A small piece of
lemon rind added to the gruel a half hour before it is done, gives it a
very agreeable flavor. Equal quantities of milk and barley gruel make a
very nourishing drink; the milk, however, should not be added to the
gruel until needed, as in a warm atmosphere it undergoes quite rapid
change, and is likely to ferment. A little lemon juice, with sugar to
sweeten to taste, is sometimes preferred as seasoning for barley gruel.

EGG GRUEL.--Heat a cup of milk to boiling, and stir into it one
well-beaten egg mixed with one fourth cup of cold milk. Stir constantly
for a few minutes till thickened, but do not allow it to boil again.
Season with a little salt, or if preferred and allowed, a little loaf
sugar.

EGG GRUEL NO. 2.--Boil the yolks of three eggs until dry and mealy,
mash perfectly smooth, then add a cup of boiling milk. Season with salt,
and serve.

FARINA GRUEL.--Moisten two table spoonfuls of farina with a very
little cold milk, and stir it into a cupful of boiling water. Boil until
it thickens, add a cupful of new milk, turn into a double boiler, and
cook again for twenty or thirty minutes. Strain if necessary, season
with salt or sugar, and serve.

FLOUR GRUEL.--Rub one heaping tablespoonful of whole-wheat flour to
a thin paste with three tablespoonfuls of cold milk, and stir it into a
pint of boiling milk. Cook for ten or twelve minutes. Season with salt,
strain if necessary, and while hot, stir in the beaten white of one egg.
The egg may be omitted if preferred; or the yolk of the egg and a little
sugar may be used instead, if the patient's condition will allow it.

GLUTEN GRUEL.--Stir two and one half tablespoonfuls of the wheat
gluten prepared by the Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek, Mich., into a
pint of boiling milk; boil until thickened, when it is ready to serve.

GLUTEN GRUEL NO. 2.--Into a pint of boiling water stir three
heaping tablespoonfuls of the prepared gluten. Boil until thickened, and
add a half cup of thin cream.

GLUTEN CREAM.--Heat a pint of thin cream to boiling, and stir into
it three tablespoonfuls of wheat gluten. When thickened, it is ready to
serve.

GLUTEN MEAL GRUEL.--Into a cup and a half of boiling water stir
four tablespoonfuls of gluten meal (prepared by the Sanitarium Food
Co.), let it boil for a moment, add six tablespoonfuls of rather thin,
sweet cream, and serve.

GRAHAM GRUEL.--Heat three cups of water in the inner dish of a
double boiler, and when vigorously boiling stir into it carefully, a
little at a time, so as not to check the boiling, one scant cup of
Graham flour which has been rubbed perfectly smooth in a cup of warm,
not hot, water. Stir until thickened, then place in the outer boiler and
cook for an hour or longer. When done, strain if necessary, season with
salt if desired, and a half cup of sweet cream.

GRAHAM GRITS GRUEL.--Cook three heaping tablespoonfuls of Graham
grits in a quart of boiling water, as directed in the chapter on Grains,
for three hours. Turn through a soup strainer to remove any lumps,
season with half a cup of cream, and salt if desired. Well cooked Graham
grits may be made into gruel by thinning with water or milk, straining
and seasoning as above.

GRUEL OF PREPARED FLOUR.--Knead a pint of flour with water into a
ball, and tie firmly in a linen cloth; put it into a granite-ware basin
or kettle, cover with boiling water, and boil slowly, replenishing with
boiling water as needed, for twelve hours. Put it before the fire to
dry. Afterward remove the cloth, and also a thick skin which will have
formed over the ball. Dry the interior again. When needed for use, rub a
tablespoonful of the prepared flour smooth with three spoonfuls of cold
milk, and stir it into a pint of boiling milk. Cook from three to five
minutes. Season with salt if desired.

INDIAN MEAL GRUEL.--Make a thin paste of one teaspoonful of flour,
two tablespoonfuls of best cornmeal, and a little water. Stir this into
a quart of boiling water, or milk and water in equal proportions, as
preferred. Boil until the meal has set, stirring constantly; then turn
into a double boiler and cook for an hour and half or two hours. Season
with salt, and strain. If too thick, thin with milk or cream.

LEMON OATMEAL GRUEL.--The United States Dispensary recommends the
following method of preparing oatmeal gruel for fever patients; "Rub one
heaping tablespoonful of fine oatmeal smooth in a little cold water;
stir this into three pints of boiling water. Cook until the quantity is
reduced to two pints; then strain, and let it cool and settle. When it
is quite cold, pour the clear gruel from the sediment, add the juice of
a lemon, and sugar to sweeten slightly. If desirable to serve it warm,
reheat before adding the lemon juice." Freshly cooked oatmeal may be
thinned with boiling water, strained and seasoned in the same manner.

MILK OATMEAL GRUEL.--Take a pint of milk and one of water, and heat
to boiling. Stir in three heaping table spoonfuls of oatmeal, and cook
in a double boiler for two or three hours.

MILK PORRIDGE.--Take one pint of milk and the same quantity of
water, and heat to boiling. Stir in two heaping tablespoonfuls of
cornmeal or Graham grits, boil, stirring continuously, until the meal
has set, then turn into a double boiler and cook for two hours or
longer. Season with salt, and a tablespoonful of sweet cream if allowed.

OATMEAL GRUEL.--Into one quart of boiling water stir two heaping
tablespoonfuls of fine oatmeal; let it boil until it thickens, stirring
all the time; then turn into a double boiler and cook for three and a
half or four hours. Strain before serving. A little cream may also be
added, unless contra-indicated by the patient's condition.

OATMEAL GRUEL NO. 2.--Pound one half cup of coarse oatmeal until it
is mealy. The easiest way to do this is to tie the oatmeal in a coarse
cloth and pound it with a wooden mallet. Put it in a pint bowl, and fill
the bowl with cold water. Stir briskly for a few moments until the water
is white, then allow the meal to settle. Pour off the water, being
careful to get none of the sediment. Fill the bowl a second time with
cold water, stir thoroughly, let settle, and pour off the water as
before. Do this the third time. Boil the liquid one half hour, strain,
and serve hot. If very thick, a little cream or milk may be added.

OATMEAL GRUEL NO, 3.--Add to one cup of well-cooked oatmeal while
hot two cups of hot milk, or one cup of hot milk and one of hot water.
Beat all thoroughly together, add a little salt if desired, strain, and
serve.

PEPTONIZED GLUTEN GRUEL.--Prepare the gruel as directed for Gluten
Gruel No. 1. Strain if needed, cook to lukewarm, and turn it into a
pitcher, which place in a dish containing hot water even in depth with
the gruel in the pitcher; add the peptonizing fluid or powder, stir
well, and let it stand in the hot water bath for ten minutes. The
temperature must not be allowed to rise over 130°. Put into a clean dish
and serve at once, or place on ice till needed. Other well-cooked gruels
maybe peptonized in the same way.

RAISIN GRUEL.--Stone and quarter two dozen raisins and boil them
twenty minutes in a small quantity of water. When the water has nearly
boiled away, add two cups of new milk. When the milk is boiling, add one
heaping tablespoonful of Graham or whole-wheat flour which has been
rubbed to a thin paste with a little cold milk. Boil until thickened,
stirring all the time; then turn into a double boiler and cook for
twenty minutes or half an hour. Season with salt and serve.

RICE WATER.--Wash half a cup of rice very thoroughly in several
waters. Put it into a saucepan with three cups of cold water and boil
for half an hour. Strain off the rice water, season with salt if
desired, and serve.


PREPARATIONS OF MILK.

MILK DIET.--An almost exclusive milk diet is sometimes a great
advantage in cases of sickness. It is usually necessary to begin the use
of the milk in moderate quantities, gradually withdrawing the more solid
food and increasing the quantity of milk. In the course of a week, all
other food should be withdrawn, and the quantity of milk increased to
three or four quarts a day. Milk is easily digested, and hence may be
taken at more frequent intervals than other food.


_RECIPES._

ALBUMINIZED MILK.--Shake together in a well-corked bottle or glass
fruit can, a pint of fresh milk and the well-beaten whites of two eggs,
until thoroughly mixed. Serve at once.

HOT MILK.--Hot milk is an excellent food for many classes of
invalids. The milk should be fresh, and should be heated in a double
boiler until the top is wrinkled over the entire surface.

JUNKET, OR MILK CURD.--Heat a cup of fresh milk to 85°, add one
teaspoonful of the essence of pepsin, and stir just enough to mix
thoroughly. Let it stand until firmly curded, and serve.

KOUMISS.--Dissolve one fourth of a two-cent cake of compressed
yeast, and two teaspoonfuls of white sugar, in three tablespoonfuls of
lukewarm water. Pour this into a quart bottle and add sufficient fresh,
sweet milk to nearly fill. Shake well, and place in a room of the
temperature of 70° to 80° F., and allow it to ferment about six hours.
Cork tightly and tie the cork in. Put in a cool place, act above 60° and
let it remain a week, when it will be ready for use. In making koumiss
be sure that the milk is pure, the bottle sound, and the yeast fresh.
Open the bottle with a champagne tap. If there is any curd or thickening
resembling cheese, the fermentation has been prolonged beyond the proper
point, and the koumiss should not be used.

MILK AND LIME WATER.--In cases where milk forms large curds, or
sours in the stomach, lime water prepared in the following manner may be
added to the milk before using:--

Into a gallon jar of water, put a piece of lime the size of one's fist.
Cover the jar and let the lime settle over night. In the morning, draw
the water off the top with a syphon, being careful not to move the jar
so as to mix again the particles of lime with the water.

Two tablespoonfuls of the lime water is usually sufficient for a pint
of milk.

PEPTONIZED MILK FOR INFANTS.--One gill of cows' milk, fresh and
unskimmed; one gill of pure water; two tablespoonfuls of rich, sweet
cream; two hundred grains of milk sugar, one and one fourth grains of
_extractum pancreatis_; four grains of sodium bicarbonate. Put the above
in a clean nursing bottle, and place the bottle in water so warm that
the whole hand cannot be held in it longer for one minute without pain.
Keep the milk at this temperature for exactly twenty minutes. Prepare
fresh just before using.


BEEF-TEA, BROTHS, ETC.

Beef tea and meat broths are by no means so useful as foods for the sick
as is generally supposed. The late Dr. Austin Flint used to say of these
foods, that "the valuation by most persons outside of the medical
profession, and by many within it, of beef tea or its analogues, the
various solutions, most of the extracts, and the expressed juice of
meat, is a delusion and a snare which has led to the loss of many lives
by starvation.

"The quantity of nutritive material in these preparations is
insignificant or nil, and it is vastly important that they should be
reckoned as of little or no value, except as indirectly conducive to
nutrition by acting as stimulants for the secretion of the digestive
fluids, or as vehicles for the introduction of the nutritive substances.
Furthermore, it is to be considered that water and pressure not only
fail to extract the alimentary principles of meat, but that the
excrementitious principles, or the products of destructive assimilation,
_are_ thereby extracted."

Vegetable broths prepared from grains and legumes possess a much higher
nutritive value, while they lack the objectionable features of meat
broths.


_RECIPES._

BEEF EXTRACT.--Take a pound of lean beef, cut it up into small
dice, and put into a glass fruit jar. Screw on the cover tightly, put
the jar into a vessel filled with cold water to a depth sufficient to
come to the top of contents of the jar, and set over a slow fire. As
soon as the water boils, set where it will keep just boiling, but no
more; and cook for an hour or an hour and a quarter. Then strain,
season, and serve. If preferred, a double boiler may be used for the
preparation of the extract.

BEEF JUICE.--Cut a thick slice of round steak, trim off every
particle of fat, and broil it over a clear fire just long enough to heat
it throughout. Next gash it in many places with a sharp knife, and with
the aid of a beef-juice press or lemon squeezer, press out all the juice
into a bowl set in hot water, salt but very slightly, remove all
globules of fat, and serve. This may also be frozen and given the
patient in small lumps, if so ordered.

BEEF TEA.--Take a pound of fresh, lean, juicy beef of good
flavor,--the top of the round and the back and middle of the rump are
the best portions for the purpose,--from which all fat, bones, and
sinews have been carefully removed; cut into pieces a quarter of an inch
square, or grind in a sausage-cutter. Add a quart of cold water, and put
into a clean double boiler. Place over the fire, and heat very slowly,
carefully removing all scum as it rises. Allow it to cook gently for two
or three hours, or until the water has been reduced one half. Strain,
and put away to cool. Before using, remove all fat from the surface, and
season. In reheating, a good way is to place a quantity in a cup, and
set the cup into hot water until the tea is sufficiently hot. This
prevents waste, and if the patient is not ready for the tea, it can be
easily kept hot.

BEEF TEA AND EGGS.--Beat the yolk of an egg thoroughly in a teacup
and fill the cup with boiling beef tea, stirring all the while. Season
with a little salt if desired.

BEEF BROTH AND OATMEAL.--Rub two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal smooth
in an equal quantity of cold water, and stir into a quart of boiling
beef broth. Cook in a double broiler for two hours, strain, and season
with salt and a little cream if allowed. Or, thin well-cooked oatmeal
mush with beef-tea; strain, reheat, season, and serve.

BOTTLED BEEF TEA.--Cut two pounds of round steak into small dice,
rejecting all skin and fat. Put it into a glass fruit jar with one cup
of cold water. Cover the can sufficiently tight to prevent any water
from boiling in, and place it on a wisp of straw or a muffin ring in a
kettle of cold water. Heat very gradually, and keep it just below the
boiling point for two or more hours; or, place the can in a deep dish of
hot water, and cook in a moderate oven for three hours. Allow the meat
to cook thus four or five hours, or until it appears white, by which
time it will have discharged all its juice. Turn the liquor off, strain
through a piece of muslin or cheese cloth laid in a colander, and cool;
then if any fat has been left, it will harden on the top, and can be
removed. When needed for use, reheat, season, and serve.

CHICKEN BROTH.--Take a well dressed, plump spring chicken, cut it
into half-inch pieces, cracking well all the bones; add cold water,--a
quart to the pound of meat and bones,--and cook the same as beef-tea.
Allow the broth to cool before using, and carefully skim off all
particles of fat before reheating. If allowed, a tablespoonful of
steamed rice may be added to the broth, or a well-beaten egg may be
stirred in while hot just before serving. Heat until the whole becomes
thickened, but do not boil.

If preferred, the broth may be prepared by using only the white portion
of the chicken in connection with lean beef. This is liked better by
some to whom the strong flavor of the chicken is not pleasant. Or,
prepare equal quantity of rich milk, season with salt, reheat, and
serve. The broth may be flavored with celery if allowed.

MUTTON BROTH.--Cut a pound of perfectly fresh, lean mutton or
lamb--the scrags of neck are best--into small dice. Add a quart of cold
water, and simmer gently for two or three hours. Strain, and when cold
skim off all fat. Reheat when needed for use.

If preferred, a tablespoonful of rice which has been soaked for an hour
in a little warm water, or a tablespoonful of cooked barley, may be
simmered in the broth for a half hour before serving. Season with salt
as desired.

VEGETABLE BROTH.--Put a cupful of well washed white beans into a
quart of cold water in a double boiler, and cook slowly until but a
cupful of the liquor remains. Strain off the broth, add salt, and serve
hot. If preferred, a few grains of powdered thyme may be added as
flavoring.

VEGETABLE BROTH NO. 2.--Pick over and wash a cup of dried Scotch
peas, and put to cook in a quart of cold water, cook slowly in a double
boiler or in a kettle placed on the range where they will just simmer,
until but a cupful of liquid remains. Strain off the broth, add salt and
one third of a cupful of the liquor, without pulp, from well-stewed
tomatoes. Serve hot.

MIXED VEGETABLE BROTHS.--Broths may be prepared as directed from
both black and white beaus, and combined in the proportion of one third
of the former to two thirds of the latter; or a broth of lentils may be
used instead of the black bean.


_RECIPES FOR PANADA._

BROTH PANADA.--Use beef or chicken broth in place of water, and
proceed the same as in Egg Panada, omitting the egg.

CHICKEN PANADA.--Take a cupful of the white meat of chicken,
pounded to a paste in a mortar, and half a cup of whole-wheat crust or
zwieback crumbs. Add sufficient chicken broth to make a thick gruel.
Season with salt, boil up for a few minutes, and serve hot.

EGG PANADA.--Put two ounces of light, whole-wheat crusts into a
pint of cold water in a granite-ware stewpan; simmer gently for three
quarters of an hour, stirring occasionally. Season with a spoonful of
sweet cream and a little salt, then stir in the well-beaten yolk of an
egg, and serve.

MILK PANADA.--Heat a pint of milk to boiling, then allow it to
cool. Add two ounces of nice, light, whole-wheat crusts, and simmer for
half an hour, stirring frequently. Season with a little sugar, if
allowed. Granola may be used in place of the crusts, if preferred.

RAISIN PANADA.--Boil a half cup of raisins in a half pint of water.
Break a slice of zwieback into fragments in a bowl. Add a well-beaten
egg and a teaspoonful of sugar. Pour in the raisins, water and all, and
beat very thoroughly.


GRAINS FOR THE SICK.

For invalids able to digest solid food, rice, cracked wheat, Graham
grits, oatmeal, barley, farina and other grains may be prepared and
cooked as previously directed in the chapter on Grains.

The various cooked preparations of grains--granola, wheatena, avenola,
wheat gluten and gluten meal--manufactured by the Sanitarium Food Co.,
Battle Creek, Mich., form excellent articles of diet for many invalids,
when served with hot milk or cream, or prepared in the form of mush.
Several recipes for their use have already been given in preceding
chapters; the following are a few additional ones:--


_RECIPES._

GLUTEN MUSH.--Heat together a cup of thin cream and three cups of
water; when boiling, sift in lightly with the fingers, stirring
continuously meanwhile, enough wheat gluten to make a mush of the
desired consistency. Boil up once and serve. A few blanched or roasted
almonds may be stirred in just before serving, if desired.

TOMATO GLUTEN.--Heat a pint of stewed tomato, which has been rubbed
through a fine colander to remove the seeds, to boiling, add salt to
season, and three tablespoonfuls of gluten meal. Boil together for a
moment until thickened, and serve hot.

TOMATO GLUTEN NO. 2.--Prepare the same as the preceding, using five
tablespoonfuls of the gluten meal, and seasoning with two tablespoonfuls
of rather thick, sweet cream.


MEATS FOR THE SICK.

All meats for the sick should be prepared in the very simplest way,
served with the plainest possible dressing, and without the use of
condiments other than salt.


_RECIPES._

BROILED STEAK.--Take a half pound of round steak and a slice of
tenderloin; wipe well with a clean, wet cloth. Have a clear fire; place
the meat in an open wire broiler or on a gridiron over the coals, and
cook, turning as often as you can count ten, for four or five minutes,
if the slices are about one inch thick; then with a lemon squeezer
squeeze the juice from the round steak over the tenderloin, season with
a little salt, and serve at once on a hot plate.

CHICKEN.--For an invalid, the breast of a tender chicken broiled
quickly over hot coals is best. For directions for broiling chicken see
page 406.

CHICKEN JELLY.--Dress a small chicken. Disjoint, break or pound the
bones, and cut the meat into half-inch pieces. Remove every particle of
fat possible. Cover with cold water, heat very slowly, and simmer gently
until the meat is in rags, and the liquid reduced about one half. Strain
off the liquor, cool, and remove all the fat. To make the broth more
clear, add the shell and white of an egg, then reheat slowly, stirring
all the time until hot. Strain through a fine cloth laid inside of a
colander. Salt and a little lemon may be added as seasoning. Pour into
small cups, and cool.

MINCED CHICKEN.--Stew the breast of a young chicken until tender;
mince fine with a sharp knife. Thicken the liquor in which it was stewed
with a little flour, add salt and a little cream if allowed, then the
minced chicken, and serve hot on zwieback, softened with cream as
directed in the chapter on Breakfast Dishes.

MUTTON CHOP.--Select a chop containing a large tenderloin: cut
thick, and broil for eight or ten minutes as directed for beef steak.
Season lightly with salt, and serve hot.

MINCED STEAK.--Mince some nice, juicy steak with a chopping knife,
or in a sausage-cutter, rejecting as much of the fiber as possible; make
into small cakes and broil the same as steak. Salt lightly when done,
and for dressing use a little beef juice prepared as directed on page
427. It may be thickened with a little flour as for gravy, if preferred.

SCRAPED STEAK.--Take a small piece of nice, juicy steak, and with a
blunt case-knife or tablespoon, scrape off all the pulp, being careful
to get none of the fibers. Press the pulp together in the form of
patties, and broil quickly over glowing coals. Salt lightly, and serve
hot. It is better to be as rare as the patient can take it. Instead of
butter, turn a spoonful or two of thick, hot beef juice over the steak,
if any dressing other than salt is required.


EGGS FOR THE SICK.


_RECIPES._

FLOATED EGG.--Separate the white from the yolk, and drop the yolk,
taking great care not to break it, into boiling, salted water. Cook
until hard and mealy. In the meantime, beat the white of the egg until
stiff and firm. When the yolk is cooked, remove it from the water with a
skimmer. Let the water cease to boil, then dip the beaten white in
spoonfuls on the top of the scalding water, allowing it to remain for a
second or two until coagulated, but not hardened. Arrange the white in a
hot egg saucer, and place the cooked yolk in the center, or serve on
toast. This makes a very pretty, as well as appetising dish, if care is
taken to keep the yolk intact.

GLUTEN MEAL CUSTARD.--Beat together thoroughly, one pint of rich
milk, one egg, and four tablespoonfuls of gluten meal. Add a little salt
if desired, and cook with the dish set in another containing boiling
water, until the custard has set. Or, turn the custard into cups, which
place in a dripping pan partly filled with hot water, and cook in a
moderate oven until the custard is set.

GLUTEN CUSTARD.--Into a quart of boiling milk stir four
tablespoonfuls of wheat gluten moistened with a little of the milk,
which may be reserved for the purpose. Allow it to cook until thickened.
Cool to lukewarm temperature, and add three well-beaten eggs, and a
trifle of salt, if desired. Turn into cups, and steam over a kettle of
boiling water until the custard is set.

STEAMED EGGS.--Break an egg into an egg saucer, sauce-dish, or
patty pan, salt very slightly, and steam until the white has just set.
In this way, it will retain its shape perfectly, and not be mixed with
the few drops of water so annoying to invalids, and so hard to avoid in
dishing a poached egg from water.

SOFT CUSTARD.--Boil some milk, then cool it to 180°, add three
whipped eggs to each quart of milk, and keep at the temperature of 180°
for fifteen or twenty minutes. The object is to coagulate the eggs
without producing the bad effect of exposure to a high temperature.

RAW EGGS.--Break a fresh egg into a glass, add a tablespoonful of
sugar, and heat to a stiff froth; a little cold water may be added if
liked.

WHITE OF EGG.--Stir the white of an egg into a glass of cold
water, or water as warm as it can be without coagulating the egg, and
serve.

WHITE OF EGG AND MILK.--The white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth
and stirred into a glass of milk, forms a nourishing food for persons of
weak digestion.


REFRESHING DRINKS AND DELICACIES FOR THE SICK.

In many fevers and acute diseases, but little food is required, and that
of a character which merely appeases hunger and quenches thirst, without
stimulation and without affording much nourishment.

Preparations from sago, tapioca, and other farinaceous substances are
sometimes serviceable for this purpose. Oranges, grapes, and other
perfectly ripened and juicy fruits are also most excellent. They are
nature's own delicacies, and serve both for food and drink. They should
not, however, be kept in the sick room, but preserved in some cool
place, and served when needed, as fresh and in as dainty a manner as
possible. Like all food provided for the sick, they should be arranged
to please the eye as well as the palate. The capricious appetite of an
invalid will often refuse luscious fruit from the hand of a nurse, which
would have been gladly accepted had it been served on dainty china, with
a clean napkin and silver.

The juice of the various small fruits and berries forms a basis from
which may be made many refreshing drinks especially acceptable to the
dry, parched mouth of a sick person.

Fruit juices can be prepared with but little trouble. For directions see
page 209.

Beverages from fruit juices are prepared by using a small quantity of
the juice, and sufficient cold water to dilute it to the taste. If it is
desirable to use such a drink for a sick person in some household where
fruit juices have not been put up for the purpose, the juice may be
obtained from a can of strawberries, raspberries, or other small fruit,
by turning the whole into a coarse cloth and straining off the juice; or
a tablespoonful of currant or other jelly may be dissolved in a tumbler
of warm water, and allowed to cool. Either will make a good substitute
for the prepared fruit juice, though the flavor will be less delicate.
The hot beverages and many of the cold ones given in the chapter on
Beverages will be found serviceable for the sick, as will also the
following additional ones:--


_RECIPES._

ACORN COFFEE.--Select plump, round, sweet acorns. Shell, and brown
in an oven; then grind in a coffee-mill, and use as ordinary coffee.

ALMOND MILK.--Blanch a quarter of a pound of shelled almonds by
pouring over them a quart of boiling water, and when the skins soften,
rubbing them off with a coarse towel. Pound the almonds in a mortar, a
few at a time, adding four or five drops of milk occasionally, to
prevent their oiling. About one tablespoonful of milk in all will be
sufficient. When finely pounded, mix the almonds with a pint of milk,
two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little piece of lemon rind. Place the
whole over the fire to simmer for a little time. Strain, if preferred,
and serve cold.

APPLE BEVERAGE.--Pare and slice very thin a juicy tart apple into a
china bowl. Cover with boiling water, put a saucer over the bowl, and
allow the water to get cold. Strain and drink. Crab apples may be used
in the same way.

APPLE BEVERAGE NO. 2.--Bake two large, sour apples, and when
tender, sprinkle a tablespoonful of sugar over them, and return to the
oven until the sugar is slightly browned. Break and mash the apples with
a silver spoon, pour over them a pint of boiling water; cover and let
stand until cold; then strain and serve.

APPLE TOAST WATER.--Break a slice of zwieback into small pieces,
and mix with them two or three well-baked tart apples. Pour over all a
quart of boiling water, cover, and let stand until cold, stirring
occasionally. When cold, strain, add sugar to sweeten if desired, and
serve.

BAKED MILK.--Put a quart of new milk in a stone jar, tie a white
paper over it, and let it stand in a moderately heated oven eight or ten
hours. It becomes of a creamy consistency.

BARLEY LEMONADE.--Put a half cup of pearl barley into a quart of
cold water, and simmer gently until the water has become mucilaginous
and quite thick. This will take from an hour to an hour and a half. The
barley will absorb most of the water, but the quantity given should make
a teacupful of good, thick barley water. Add to this two teaspoonfuls of
lemon juice and a tablespoonful of sugar. Let it get cold before
serving. By returning the barley to the stewpan with another quart of
cold water, and simmering for an hour or an hour and a half longer, a
second cap of barley water may be obtained, almost as good as the first.

BARLEY AND FRUIT DRINK.--Prepare a barley water as above, and add
to each cupful a tablespoonful or two of cranberry, grape, raspberry, or
any tart fruit syrup. The pure juice sweetened will answer just as well;
or a little fruit jelly may be dissolved and added.

BARLEY MILK.--Wash two tablespoonfuls of pearl barley in cold water
until the water is clear. Put it to cook in a double boiler, with a
quart of milk, and boil till the milk is reduced to a pint. Strain off
the milk, and sweeten if desired.

CRANBERRY DRINK.--Mash carefully selected, ripe cranberries
thoroughly in an earthen dish, and pour boiling water over them. Let the
mixture stand until cold, strain off the water, and sweeten to taste.
Barberries prepared in the same manner make a nice drink.

CURRANTADE.--Mash thoroughly a pint of ripe, red currants, and one
half the quantity of red raspberries; add sugar to sweeten and two
quarts of cold water. Stir, strain, cool on ice, and serve.

CRUST COFFEE.--Brown slices of Graham bread in a slow oven until
very ark in color. Break in pieces and roll fine with a rolling pin. A
quantity of this material may be prepared at one time and stored in
glass fruit cans for use. When needed, pour a cupful of actively boiling
water over a dessertspoonful of the prepared crumbs, let it steep for a
few moments, then strain and serve.

EGG CREAM.--Beat the white of an egg to a stiff froth, add one
tablespoonful of white sugar, then beat again. Next add the yolk, and
beat; then a tablespoonful of milk, one of cold water, and one of any
fruit juice desired.

EGG CREAM NO. 2.--Prepare as above, using two tablespoonfuls of
water instead of one of water and one of milk, and a teaspoonful of
lemon juice in place of other fruit juice.

EGG CREAM NO. 3.--Beat the yolk of a freshly laid egg with a
tablespoonful of sugar until it is light and creamy; add to this, one
half cup of hot milk and stir in lightly the stiffly beaten white of the
egg. Serve at once.

EGG LEMONADE.--Beat the white of an egg to a stiff froth, then mix
with it the juice of a small lemon, and one tablespoonful of sugar. Add
a half pint of cold water. Or, beat together with an egg beater a
tablespoonful of lemon juice, a teaspoonful of sugar, the white of an
egg and a cup of cold water, until thoroughly mingled, then serve at
once.

FLAXSEED TEA.--Take an ounce of whole flaxseed, half an ounce of
crushed licorice root, an ounce of refined sugar, and four
tablespoonfuls of lemon juice. Pour a quart of boiling water over them;
keep near the fire for four hours, and then strain off the liquid. The
flaxseed should not be crushed, as the mucilage is in the outer part of
the kernel, and if braised, the boiling water will extract the oil of
the seed, and render the decoction nauseous. Make fresh daily.

GUM ARABIC WATER.--Pour a pint of boiling water over an ounce of
clean gum arabic. When dissolved, add the juice of one lemon and a
teaspoonful of sugar, and strain.

HOT WATER.--Put good, fresh water into a perfectly clean
granite-ware kettle, already warmed; let it come to a boil very quickly,
and use at once. Do not leave it to simmer until it has become insipid
through the loss of the air which it contains.

HOT LEMONADE.--Put in a glass a thin slice of lemon and the juice
of half a small lemon, being careful to remove all seeds; mix with it
one dessertspoonful of white sugar, and fill the glass with boiling
water. Or, remove the peel of a lemon in very thin parings, turn one
pint of boiling water over them, letting it stand for a few moments
covered. Remove the peel, add the juice of a lemon and one tablespoonful
of sugar, and serve.

IRISH MOSS LEMONADE.--Soak one fourth of a cup of Irish moss in
cold water until it begins to soften; then work it free from sand and
tiny shells likely to be on it, and thoroughly wash. Put it in a
granite-ware basin, and pour over it two cups of boiling water. Leave on
the back of the range where it will keep hot, but not boil, for half an
hour; strain, add the juice of one lemon, and sugar to taste. Drink hot
or cold, as preferred.

ORANGEADE.--Rub lightly two ounces of lump sugar on the rind of two
nice, fresh oranges, to extract the flavor; put this sugar into a
pitcher, to which add the juice expressed from the oranges, and that
from one lemon. Pour over all one pint of cold water, stir thoroughly,
and serve.

PLAIN LEMONADE.--For one glass of lemonade squeeze the juice of
half a small lemon into the glass; carefully remove all seeds and
particles. Add a dessertspoonful of sugar, and fill the glass with cold
water.

SLIPPERY ELM TEA.--Pour boiling water over bits of slippery elm
bark or slippery elm powder, cool, and strain, if desired, a little
lemon juice and sugar may be added to flavor.

TOAST WATER.--Toast a pint of whole-wheat or Graham bread crusts
very brown, but do not burn. Cover with a pint of cold water. Let it
stand an hour, strain, and use. Sugar and a little cream may be added if
allowed.

TAMARIND WATER.--Boil four ounces of tamarinds and the same of
raisins slowly, in three quarts of water, for fifteen or twenty minutes,
or until the water is reduced nearly one fourth; strain while hot into a
bowl with a small slice of lemon peel in it. Set away until cold before
using.


BREAD.

For invalids who are able to partake of solid foods, the Breakfast
Rolls, Whole-wheat Puffs, Beaten Biscuit, Crisps, and other unfermented
breads, directions for the preparation of which are given in the chapter
on Bread, will be found excellent.

The various crackers, wafers, and invalid foods manufactured by the
Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek, Mich., are also to be recommended.
Zwieback, prepared as directed on page 289, will be found serviceable
and wholesome to be used with broths and gruels. It may be prepared so
as to look especially tempting by cutting off the crust of the bread,
and cutting the slice into fancy shapes with a cookie-cutter before
toasting. In cases where their use is allowable, many of the various
toasts given under the head of Breakfast Dishes will be relished.


_RECIPES._

DIABETIC BISCUIT.--Make a stiff dough of Graham or entire-wheat
flour and water. Knead thoroughly, and let it stand three hours; then
place on a sieve under a faucet, turn a stream of water over the dough,
and wash out the starch, kneading and working with the hands so that all
portions of the dough will be equally washed. When the starch has been
all washed out, as will be indicated by the water running off clear, the
dough will be a rubber-like, glutinous mass. It may then be cut into
long strips, and these divided into equal-sized pieces or cubes. Place
the pieces on shallow baking pans in a rather hot oven, which, after a
short time, should be allowed to cool to moderate heat, and bake for two
hours, when they should be of a dark, rich brown color and light and
crisp throughout. If tough, they need rebaking. If the oven is too hot,
the pieces will puff up, becoming mere hollow shells; if not
sufficiently hot, they will not rise properly.

DIABETIC BISCUIT NO. 2.--Prepare a dough and wash out the starch as
in the preceding. Add coarse middlings so that the dough can be rolled
into thin cakes, and bake.

GLUTEN MEAL GEMS.--Beat together one half cup of ice water, one
half cup of thick, sweet cream, and one egg; then add one cup and a
tablespoonful of the gluten meal prepared by the Sanitarium Food Co.
Turn into slightly heated gem irons, and bake in a moderately hot oven
from one half to three fourths of an hour.


JELLIES AND OTHER SIMPLE DESSERTS FOR THE SICK.

Invalids whose digestion will allow of other than the plainest foods
will find most of the desserts made with fruits and those with fruits
and grains given in the chapter on Desserts, excellent for their use.
The following are a few additional recipes of a similar character:--


_RECIPES._

ARROWROOT JELLY.--Rub two heaping teaspoonfuls of arrowroot smooth
in a very little cold water, and stir it into a cupful of boiling water,
in which should be dissolved two teaspoonfuls of sugar. Stir until
clear, allowing it to boil all the time; lastly, add a teaspoonful of
lemon juice. Serve cold, with cream and sugar if allowed.

ARROWROOT BLANCMANGE.--Rub two and a half tablespoonfuls of best
arrowroot smooth in half a cup of cold milk, and stir slowly into two
and one half cups of boiling new milk. When it begins to thicken, add
three fourths of a cup of sugar, and cook, stirring constantly for
several minutes. Turn into molds and cool. Serve with fruit juice or
fruit sauces.

CURRANT JELLY.--Soak an ounce of Cox's gelatine in half a pint of
cold water for fifteen minutes, then pour over it a teacupful of boiling
water; strain, and add one pint at currant juice, one tablespoonful of
sugar, and set on ice to cool.

ICELAND MOSS JELLY.--Wash about four ounces of moss very clean in
lukewarm water. Boil slowly in a quart of cold water. When quite
dissolved, strain it onto a tablespoonful of currant or raspberry jelly,
stirring so as to blend the jelly perfectly with the moss. Turn into a
mold, and cool.

ICELAND MOSS BLANCMANGE.--Substitute milk for the water, and
proceed as in the foregoing. Flavor with lemon or vanilla. Strain
through a muslin cloth, turn into a mold, and let stand till firm and
cold.

ORANGE WHEY.--Add the juice of one sour orange to a pint of sweet
milk. Heat very slowly until the milk is curded, then strain and cool.

WHITE CUSTARD.--Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, add
a little salt if desired, and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. A bit of
grated lemon rind may also be used for flavoring. Add lastly a pint of
new milk, little by little, beating thoroughly all the while. Bake in
cups set in a pan of hot water. When firm in the center, take out and
set in a cool place.



TABLE TOPICS.

    Regimen is better than physic.--_Voltaire._

    Many dishes have induced many diseases.--_Seneca._

    Dr. Lyman Beecher tells the following story of his aunt, which well
    illustrates a popular notion that sick people should be fed with all
    sorts of dainties, no matter what the nature of the disease. When a
    boy eight or nine years of age, he was one day suffering in the
    throes of indigestion, as the result of having swallowed a large
    amount of indigestible mince pie. His kind-hearted aunt noticed the
    pale and distressed look on his face, and said to him, with genuine
    sympathy in her voice, "Lyman, you look sick. You may go into the
    pantry and help yourself to a nice piece of fruit cake just warm
    from the oven."

    Fix on that course of life which is the most excellent, and custom
    will render it the most delightful.--_Pythagoras._

    A MERE indigestion can temporarily metamorphose the character. The
    eel stews of Mohammed II. kept the whole empire in a state of
    nervous excitement, and one of the meat-pies which King Philip
    failed to digest caused the revolt of the Netherlands.--_Oswald._

    Few seem conscious that there is such a thing as physical morality.
    Man's habitual words and acts imply that they are at liberty to
    treat their bodies as they please. The fact is, that all breaches of
    the laws of health are physical sins.--_Herbert Spencer._

    Practical right and good conduct are much more dependent on health
    of body than on health of mind.--_Prof. Schneider._

    Dr. Abernathy's reply to the Duke of York when consulted about his
    health was, "Cut off the supplies and the enemy will soon leave the
    citadel."



FOOD FOR THE AGED AND THE VERY YOUNG.

FOOD FOR THE AGED

One of the first requisites of food for the aged is that it shall be
easy of digestion, since with advancing age and decreasing physical
energy, digestion and assimilation may be taken with impunity at an
earlier period of life, overtax the enfeebled organs and prove highly
injurious. The fact that the vital machinery is worn and weakened with
age has led to the popular notion that old people require a stimulating
diet as a "support" for their declining forces. That this is an error is
apparent from the fact that stimulation either by drink or food lessens
instead of reinforces vital strength, thus defeating the very purpose
desired. Flesh food in quantities is a peculiarly unsuitable diet for
the aged, not alone because it is stimulating, but because it produces a
tendency to plethora, a condition which is especially inimical to the
health of old persons. Eminent authorities on diet also reason that the
loss of the teeth at this period, whereby thorough mastication of flesh
food is done with difficulty, even with the best artificial aids, should
be considered a sign that nature intends such foods to be discarded by
the old.

A milk, grain, and fruit diet is undoubtedly the one best suited to the
average person in old age. Vegetables and legumes in well-prepared soups
may also be used to advantage. Directions for such soups, as also for
cooking grains and grain products, will be found in the preceding pages.

The following bills of fare, one for each season of the year, will
perhaps serve to illustrate how a varied and appetizing regimen may be
provided without the use of flesh foods:--

    BREAKFAST

    Fresh Fruits
    Graham Grits and Cream
    Prune Toast
    Graham Puffs
    Cream Crisps
    Strawberries
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    DINNER

    Vegetable Broth with Toasted Rolls
    Baked Potato with Pease Gravy
    Stewed Asparagus
    Cracked Wheat and Cream
    Whole-Wheat Bread
    Canned Berries
    Manioca with Fruit
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    BREAKFAST

    Fresh Fruits
    Rolled Oats and Cream
    Baked Sweet Apples
    Macaroni with Cream Sauce
    Whole-Wheat Puffs
    Stewed Peaches
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    DINNER

    Lentil Soup
    Baked Potato with Cream Sauce
    Escalloped Tomato
    Green Corn Pulp
    Browned Rice and Cream
    Fruit Bread
    Lemon Apple Sauce
    Prune Pie
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    BREAKFAST

    Fresh Fruits
    Blackberry Mush and Cream
    Cream Toast
    Graham Crusts
    Blueberries
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    DINNER

    Green Pea Soup
    Mashed Potato
    Macaroni with Tomato Sauce
    Pearl Barley and Cream
    Cream Rolls
    Blackberries
    Stewed Fruit Pudding
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    BREAKFAST

    Fresh Fruits
    Rolled Wheat and Cream
    Tomato Toast
    Corn Bread
    Graham Gems
    Stewed Prunes
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

    DINNER

    Vegetable Oyster Soup
    Baked Sweet Potato
    Mashed Peas
    Steamed Rice with Fig Sauce
    Graham Bread
    Stewed Dried Fruit
    Apples
    Caramel Coffee or Hot Milk

In the selection of a dietary for elderly persons, much must depend
upon their physical condition, the daily amount of exercise to which
they are accustomed, their habits in earlier life, and a variety of
other circumstances.

The quantity as well as quality of food for the aged should receive
consideration. Diminished bodily activity and the fact that growth has
ceased, render a smaller amount of food necessary to supply needs; and a
decrease in the amount taken, in proportion to the age and the activity
of the subject, must be made or health will suffer. The system will
become clogged, the blood filled with imperfectly elaborated material,
and gout, rheumatism, apoplexy, or other diseased conditions will be the
inevitable result. The digestion of heavy meals is a tax upon vital
powers at any time of life, but particularly so as age advances; and for
him who has passed his first half-century, over-feeding is fraught with
great danger. Cornaro, an Italian of noble family, contemporary with
Titian in the sixteenth century, after reaching his eighty-third year
wrote several essays upon diet and regimen for the aged, in one of which
he says: "There are old lovers of feeding who say that it is necessary
that they should eat and drink a great deal to keep up their natural
heat, which is constantly diminishing as they advance in years; and that
it is therefore their duty to eat heartily and of such things as please
their palate, be they hot, cold, or temperate, and that if they were to
lead a sober life, it would be a short one. To this I answer; Our kind
Mother Nature, in order that old men may live to still greater age, has
contrived matters so that they may be able to subsist on little, as I
do; for large quantities of food cannot be digested by old and feeble
stomachs."

Cornaro lived to be one hundred years old, doubtless owing largely to
his simple, frugal habits.


DIET FOR THE YOUNG.

A very large share of the mortality among young children results from
dietetic errors which proper knowledge and care on the part of those who
have them in charge might commonly avoid. From infancy to the age of
twelve or eighteen months, milk is the natural and proper food. Milk
contains all the food elements except starch, which cannot be digested
by very young children, owing to the insufficient formation of digestive
elements of the salivary secretion during the first few months. If the
child is deprived of the milk provided by nature, the best artificial
food is cow's milk; it, however, requires very careful selection and
intelligent preparation. The animal from which the milk comes, should be
perfectly healthy and well cared for. The quality of her food should
also receive attention, as there is little doubt that disease is often
communicated to infants by milk from cows improperly fed and cared for.
An eminent medical authority offers the following important points on
this subject:--

"The cow selected for providing the food for an infant should be between
the ages of four and ten years, of mild disposition, and one which has
been giving milk from four to eight weeks. She should be fed on good,
clean grain, and hay free from must. Roots, if any are fed, should be of
good quality, and she should have plenty of good clean water from a
living spring or well. Her pasture should be timothy grass or native
grass free from weeds; clover alone is bad. She should be cleaned and
cared for like a carriage horse, and milked twice a day by the same
person and at the same time. Some cows are unfit by nature for feeding
infants."

Milk from the same animal should be used if possible. Changing from one
cow's milk to another, or the use of such milk as is usually supplied by
city milkmen, often occasions serious results. The extraction of the
heat from the milk immediately after milking and before it is used or
carried far, especially in hot weather, is essential. While the milk
itself should be clean and pure, it should also be perfectly fresh and
without any trace of decomposition. To insure all these requisites,
besides great care in its selection, it must be sterilized, and if not
intended for immediate use, bottled and kept in a cool place until
needed. It is not safe to feed young children upon unsterilized milk
that has stood a few hours. Even fresh milk from the cleanest cows,
unless drawn into bottles and sealed at once, contains many germs. These
little organisms, the cause of fermentation and decomposition, multiply
very rapidly in milk, and as they increase, dangers from the use of the
milk increase.

There is no doubt that cholera infantum and other digestive disturbances
common among young children would be greatly lessened by the use of
properly sterilized milk. Directions for sterilizing milk, and
additional suggestions respecting points to be considered in its
selection, are to be found in the chapter on Milk, etc.

Cow's milk differs from human milk in that it contains nearly three
times as much casein, but only two thirds as much fat and three fourths
as much sugar. Cow's milk is usually slightly acid, while human milk is
alkaline. The casein of cow's milk forms large, hard curds, while that
of breast milk forms fine, soft curds. These facts make it important
that some modification be made in cow's milk to render it acceptable to
the feeble stomach of an infant. Cases are rare where it is safe to feed
a child under nine months of age on pure, undiluted cow's milk. A common
method of preparing cow's milk so as to make it suitable for infant
feeding, is to dilute it with pure water, using at first only one third
or one fourth milk, the proportion of milk being gradually increased as
the child's stomach becomes accustomed to the food and able to bear it,
until at the age of four months the child should be taking equal parts
of milk and water. When sterilized milk is to be thus diluted, the water
should be first boiled or added before sterilizing. A small amount of
fine white sugar, or what is better, milk sugar, should be added to the
diluted milk. Barley water, and thin, well-boiled, and carefully
strained oatmeal gruel thoroughly blended with the milk are also used
for this purpose. A food which approximates more nearly the constituents
of mother's milk may be prepared as follows:--

ARTIFICIAL HUMAN MILK NO. 1.--Blend one fourth pint of fresh, sweet
cream and three fourths of a pint of warm water. Add one half ounce of
milk sugar and from two to ten ounces of milk, according to the age of
the infant and its digestive capacity.

ARTIFICIAL HUMAN MILK NO. 2.--Meigs's formula: Take two
tablespoonfuls of cream of medium quality, one tablespoonful of milk,
two of lime water, and three of water to which sugar of milk has been
added in the proportion of seventeen and three fourths drams to the
pint. This saccharine solution must be prepared fresh every day or two
and kept in a cool place. A child may be allowed from half a pint to
three pints of this mixture, according to age.

ARTIFICIAL HUMAN MILK NO. 3.--Prepare a barley water by adding one
pint boiling water to a pint of best pearl barley. Allow it to cool, and
strain. Mix together one third of a pint of this barley water, two
thirds of a pint of fresh, pure milk, and a teaspoonful of milk
sugar.--_Medical News._

Peptonized milk, a formula for the preparation of which may be found on
page 426, is also valuable as food for infants, especially for those of
weak digestion.

MUCILAGINOUS FOOD EXCELLENT IN GASTRO-ENTERITIS.--Wheat, one
tablespoonful; oatmeal, one half tablespoonful; barley, one half
tablespoonful; water, one quart. Boil to one pint, strain, and
sweeten.--_Dietetic Gazette._

PREPARED FOODS FOR INFANTS.--Of prepared infant foods we can
recommend that manufactured by the Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek,
Mich., as thoroughly reliable. There are hundreds of prepared infant
foods in the market, but most of them are practically worthless in point
of food value, being often largely composed of starch, a substance which
the immature digestive organs of a young child are incapable of
digesting. Hundreds of infants are yearly starved to death upon such
foods.

All artificial foods require longer time for digestion than the food
supplied by nature; and when making use of such, great care should be
taken to avoid too frequent feeding. It is absolutely essential for the
perfect health of an infant as well as of grown people, that the
digestive organs shall enjoy a due interval of rest between the
digestion of one meal and the taking of another. As a rule, a new-born
infant may be safely fed, when using human milk, not oftener than once
in every three or four hours. When fed upon artificial food, once in
five or six hours is often enough for feeding. The intervals between
meals in either case should be gradually prolonged as the child grows
older.

QUANTITY OF FOOD FOR INFANTS.--Dr. J.H. Kellogg gives the following
rules and suggestions for the feeding of infants:--

"During the first week of a child's life, the weight of the food given
should be 1/100 of the weight of the infant at birth. The daily
additional amount of food required for a child amounts to about one
fourth of a dram, or about one ounce at the end of each month. A child
gains in weight from two thirds of an ounce to one ounce per day during
the first five months of its life, and an average of one half as much
daily during the balance of the first year.

"From a series of tables which have been prepared, as the result of
experiments carefully conducted in large lying-in establishments, we
have devised this rule:--

"To find the amount of food required by a child at each feeding during
the first year of life, divide the weight of the child at birth by 100
and add to this amount 3/100 of the gain which the child has made since
birth. Take, for example, a child which weighs 7-1/2 lbs--at birth, or
120 ounces. Dividing by 100 we have 1.2 oz. Estimating the weight
according to the rule above given, the child at the end of nine months
will have gained 210 oz. Dividing this by 100 and multiplying by 3, we
have 6.3 oz. Adding to this our previous result, 1.3, we have 7.5 oz, as
the amount of food required at each feeding at the end of nine months by
a child which weighed 7-1/2 lbs. at birth. To save mothers the trouble
of making these calculations, we have prepared the following table,
which will be found to hold good for the average child weighing 7-1/2
lbs. at birth. This is rather more than the ordinary child weighs, but
we have purposely chosen a large child for illustration, as it is better
that the child should have a slight excess of food than too little.


                                                AGE OF CHILD.
                                       |1w.| 1m. |2m.|3m.|4m.|6m.|9m.|12m
    Amount of each feeding in ounces...|  1| 1½-2| 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |7½ | 9
    Number of feedings.................| 10|  8  | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 5 | 5
    Amount of food daily, in ounces....| 10|12-16|18 |24 |30 |36 |37½|45
    Interval between feedings, in hours|  2| 2½  | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 |3½ |3½

"In the above table the first column represents quantities for the first
week, the second for the end of the second month, the third for the end
of the third month, etc. It need not be mentioned that the change in
quantity should be even more gradual than represented in the table.

"Attention should also be called to the fact that the time mentioned as
the interval for feeding at different ages, does not apply to the whole
twenty-four hours. Even during the first week, the child is expected to
skip two feedings during the night, making the interval four hours
instead of two. By the end of the second month, the interval between the
feedings at night becomes six hours, and at the end of the ninth month,
six and one half hours.

"From personal observation we judge that in many cases children will do
equally well if allowed a longer interval between feedings at night. The
plan of feeding five times daily instead of six, may be begun at as
early an age as six months in many instances."

MANNER OF FEEDING ARTIFICIAL FOODS.--All artificial foods are best
fed with a teaspoon, as by this method liability to over-feeding and
danger from unclean utensils are likely to be avoided. If a
nursing-bottle is used, it should be of clear flint glass so that the
slightest foulness may be easily detected, and one simple in
construction, which can be completely taken apart for cleaning. Those
furnished with conical black rubber caps are the best. Each time after
using, such a bottle should have the cap removed, and both bottle and
cap should be thoroughly cleansed, first with cold water, and then with
warm water in which soda has been dissolved in the proportion of a
teaspoonful to a pint of water. They should then be kept immersed in
weak soda solution until again needed, when both bottle and cap should
be thoroughly rinsed in clean boiled water before they are used. Neglect
to observe these precautions is one of the frequent causes of stomach
disturbances in young children. It is well to keep two bottles for
feeding, using them alternately.

DIET FOR OLDER CHILDREN.--No solid food or table-feeding of any
kind should be given to a child until it has the larger share of its
first, or milk teeth. Even then it must not be supposed that because a
child has acquired its teeth, it may partake of all kinds of food with
impunity. It is quite customary for mothers to permit their little ones
to sit at the family table and be treated to bits of everything upon the
bill of fare, apparently looking upon them as miniature grown people,
with digestive ability equal to persons of mature growth, but simply
lacking in, stomach capacity to dispose of as much as older members of
the family. The digestive apparatus of a child differs so greatly from
that of an adult in its anatomical structure and in the character and
amount of the digestive fluids, that it is by no means proper to allow a
child to eat all kinds of wholesome foods which a healthy adult stomach
can consume with impunity, to say nothing of the rich, highly seasoned
viands, sweetmeats, and epicurean dishes which seldom fail to form some
part of the bill of fare. It is true that many children are endowed with
so much constitutional vigor that they do live and seemingly thrive,
notwithstanding dietetic errors; but the integrity of the digestive
organs is liable to be so greatly impaired by continued ill-treatment
that sooner or later in life disease results. Till the age of three
years, sterilized milk, whole-wheat bread in its various forms, such of
the grains as contain a large share of gluten, prepared in a variety of
palatable ways, milk and fruit toasts, and the easily digested fruits,
both raw and cooked, form the best dietary. Strained vegetable soups may
be occasionally added for variety. For from three to six years the same
simple regimen, with easily digested and simply prepared vegetables,
macaroni, and legumes prepared without skins, will be all-sufficient. If
desserts are desirable, let them be simple in character and easily
digestible. Tea, coffee, hot bread and biscuit, fried foods of all
kinds, salted meats, preserves, rich puddings, cake, and pastries should
be wholly discarded from the children's bill of fare.

It is especially important that a dietary for children should contain an
abundance of nitrogenous material. It is needed not only for repairs,
but must be on deposit for the purpose of food. Milk, whole-wheat bread,
oatmeal, barley, and preparations of wheat, contain this element in
abundance, and should for this reason be given great prominence in the
children's dietary.

Flesh foods are in no way necessary for children, since the food
elements of which they are composed can be supplied from other and
better sources, and many prominent medical authorities unite in the
opinion that such foods are decidedly deleterious, and should not be
used at all by children under eight or ten years of age. Experiments
made by Dr. Camman, of New York, upon the dietary of nearly two hundred
young children in an orphan's home, offer conclusive evidence that the
death rate among children from gastro-intestinal troubles is greatly
lessened by the exclusion of meat from their dietary. Dr. Clouston, of
Edinburgh, an eminent medical authority, states that in his experience,
those children who show the greatest tendencies to instability of the
brain, insanity, and immoral habits are, as a rule, those who use animal
food in excess; and that he has seen a change of diet to milk and
farinaceous food produce a marked change in their nervous irritability.

Scores of other authorities corroborate. Dr. Clouston's observation, and
assert that children fed largely on flesh foods have capricious
appetites, suffer more commonly from indigestion in its various forms,
possess an unstable nervous system, and have less resisting power in
general.

Candy and similar sweets generally given to children as a matter of
course, may be excluded from their dietary with positive benefit in
every way. It is true, as is often stated in favor of the use of these
articles, that sugar is a food element needed by children; but the
amount required for the purpose of growth and repair is comparatively
small, and is supplied in great abundance in bread, grains, fruits, and
other common articles of food. If an additional quantity is taken, it is
not utilized by the system, and serves only to derange digestion, impair
appetite, and indirectly undermine the health.

Children are not likely to crave candy and other sweets unless a taste
for such articles has been developed by indulgence in them; and their
use, since they are seldom taken at mealtime, helps greatly to foster
that most pernicious habit of childhood--eating between meals. No food,
except at their regular mealtimes, should be the universal rule for
children from babyhood up; and although during their earliest years they
require food at somewhat shorter intervals than adults, their meal hours
should be arranged for the same time each day, and no piecing permitted.
Parents who follow the too common practice of giving their little ones a
cracker or fruit between meals are simply placing them under training
for dyspepsia, sooner or later. Uninterrupted digestion proceeds
smoothly and harmoniously in a healthy stomach; but interruptions in the
shape of food sent down at all times and when the stomach is already at
work, are justly resented, and such disturbances, if long continued, are
punished by suffering.

The appetite of a child is quite as susceptible of education, in both a
right and wrong direction, as are its mental or moral faculties; and
parents in whose hands this education mainly rests should give the
subject careful consideration, since upon it the future health and
usefulness of their children not a little devolve. We should all be
rulers of our appetites instead of subject to them; but whether this be
so or not, depends greatly upon early dietetic training. Many a loving
mother, by thoughtless indulgence of her child, in season and out of
season, in dainties and tidbits that simply serve to gratify the palate,
is fostering a "love of appetite" which may ruin her child in years to
come. There are inherited appetites and tendencies, it is true; but even
these may be largely overcome by careful early training in right ways of
eating and drinking. It is possible to teach very young children to use
such food as is best for them, and to refrain from the eating of things
harmful; and it should be one of the first concerns of every mother to
start her children on the road to manhood and womanhood, well trained in
correct dietetic habits.



TABLE TOPICS.

     "The wanton taste no flesh nor fowl can choose,
     For which the grape or melon it would lose,
     Though all th' inhabitants of earth and air
     Be listed in the glutton's bill of fare."

    --_Cowley._

    Jean Jacques Rousseau holds that intemperate habits are mostly
    acquired in early boyhood, when blind deference to social precedents
    is apt to overcome our natural antipathies, and that those who have
    passed that period in safety, have generally escaped the danger of
    temptation. The same holds good of other dietetic abuses. If a
    child's natural aversion to vice has never been wilfully perverted,
    the time will come when his welfare may be intrusted to the
    safe-keeping of his protective instincts. You need not fear that he
    will swerve from the path of health when his simple habits,
    sanctioned by nature and inclination, have acquired the additional
    strength of long practice. When the age of blind deference is past,
    vice is generally too unattractive to be very dangerous.--_Oswald._

    That a child inherits certain likes and dislikes in the matter of
    food cannot be questioned, and does not in the least forbid the
    training of the child's taste toward that which is healthful and
    upbuilding; it merely adds an element to be considered in the
    training.--_Sel._

    Prevention is better than cure. It is worth a life effort to lift a
    man from degradation. To prevent his fall is better.--_Gough._


    A cynical French writer of the last century intending a satire upon
    the principles of vegetarianism adopted by Phillippe Hecquet, puts
    into the mouth of one of the characters in his book what, in the
    grossly voluptuous life of that country and time, the author no
    doubt imagined to be the greatest absurdities conceivable in
    reference to diet, but which, in the light of present civilization
    are but the merest hygienic truths. A doctor had been called to a
    gouty and fever-stricken patient. "Pray what is your ordinary diet?"
    asked the physician.

    "My usual food," replied the patient, "is broth and juicy meat."

    "Broth and juicy meat!" cried the doctor, alarmed. "I do not wonder
    to find you sick; such dishes are poisoned pleasures and snares that
    luxury spreads for mankind, so as to ruin them the more
    effectually.... How old are you, pray?"

    "I am in my sixty-ninth year," replied the patient.

    "Exactly," ... said the physician; "if you had drunk nothing else
    than pure water all your life, and had been satisfied with simple
    nourishment,--such as boiled apples for example,--you would not now
    be tormented with the gout, and all your limbs would perform their
    functions with ease."

    Dr. Horace Bushnell says: "The child is taken when his training
    begins in a state of naturalness as respects all the bodily tastes
    and tempers, and the endeavour should be to keep him in that key, to
    let no stimulation of excess or delicacy disturb the simplicity of
    nature, and no sensual pleasure in the name of food become a want or
    expectation of his appetite. Any artificial appetite begun is the
    beginning of distemper, disease, and a general disturbance of
    natural proportion. Nine tenths of the intemperate drinking begins,
    not in grief and destitution, as we so often hear, but in vicious
    feeding."

    Always let the food be simply for nourishment--never more, never
    less. Never should food be taken for its own sake, but for the sake
    of promoting bodily and mental activity. Still less should the
    peculiarities of food, its taste or delicacy ever become an object
    in themselves, but only a means to make it good, pure, wholesome
    nourishment; else in both cases the food destroys
    health.--_Froebel._

     Since what need mortals, save twain things alone,
     Crushed grain (heaven's gift), and steaming water-draught?
     Food nigh at hand, and Nature's aliment--
     Of which no glut contents us.
     Pampered taste hunts out device of other eatables.

    --_Euripides._



FRAGMENTS & LEFT-OVER FOODS

Economy, one of the cardinal principles of success in the details of
housekeeping, as in all other occupations in life, consists not alone in
making advantageous use of fresh material, but in carefully preserving
and utilizing the "left-over" fragments and bits of food which accrue in
every household. Few cooks can make such perfect calculation respecting
the desires and needs of their families as to provide just enough and no
more, and the improvident waste of the surplus thus prepared, is in many
homes fully equal to one half the first cost of the meal. Scarcely
anything need ever be wasted--certainly nothing which was at first well
cooked. There are ways of utilizing almost every kind of cooked food so
that it will be quite as appetizing and nutritious as when first
prepared.

All left-over foods, as grains, vegetables, or others of a moist
character, should be removed to clean dishes before putting away. Unless
this precaution is observed, the thin smears and tiny bits about the
edges of the dish, which become sour or moldy much sooner than the
larger mass, are apt to spoil the whole. They should also be set on ice
or be kept in a cool, dry place until needed. Left-over foods of any
kind, to be suitable again for use, must be well preserved. Sour or
moldy fragments are not fit for food.

USES OF STALE BREAD.--If properly made from wholesome and
nutritious material and well preserved, there are few other foods that
can be combined into more varied and palatable dishes than left-over
bread. To insure the perfect preservation of the fragments, the loaf
itself should receive good care. Perfectly sweet, light, well-baked
bread has not the same propensity to mold as a poorer loaf; but the best
of bread is likely to become musty if its surroundings are not entirely
wholesome. The receptacle used for keeping the loaves should be
frequently washed, scalded, and well dried. Crumbs and fragments should
be kept in a separate receptacle and as thoroughly cared for. It is well
in cutting bread not to slice more than will be needed, and to use one
loaf before beginning on another. Bread grows stale much faster after
being cut.

Whole or half slices of bread which have become too dry to be palatable
may be utilized for making zwieback, directions for the use and
preparation of which are given on page 289.

Broken pieces of bread not suitable for zwieback, crusts, and trimmings
of the loaf make excellent _croutons_, a most palatable accompaniment
for soups, gruels, hot milk, etc. To prepare the _croutons_ cut the
fragments as nearly uniform in size as possible,--half-inch cubes are
convenient,--and place them on tins in a warming oven to dry. Let them
become crisply dry, and lightly browned, but not scorched. They are
preferable to crackers for use in soups, and require so little work to
prepare, and are so economical withal, that one who has once tried them
will be likely to keep a supply on hand. The crumbs and still smaller
fragments may be utilized for thickening soups and for various dressings
and puddings, recipes for many of which are given in preceding chapters.

If crumbs and small bits of bread accumulate more rapidly than they can
be used, they may be carefully dried, not browned, in a warming oven,
after which put them in a mortar and pound them, or spread them upon an
old bread board, fold in a clean cloth and roll them with a rolling pin
until fine. Prepared thus, stored in glass fruit cans and put away in a
dry place, they will keep almost indefinitely, and can be used when
needed. For preparing escalloped vegetables of all kinds, these prepared
crumbs are excellent; they give a fine, nutty flavor to the dish, which
fresh crumbs do not possess.

LEFT-OVER GRAINS.--Left-over grains, if well kept, may be reheated
in a double boiler without the addition of water, so as to be quite as
palatable as when freshly cooked. Small quantities of left-over grains
can be utilized for preparing various kinds of desserts, where the
ingredients require previous cooking. Rice, barley, pearl wheat, and
other whole grains can be satisfactorily used in soups in which a whole
grain is required; oatmeal, rolled oats, corn meal, grits, etc., with
the addition of a little milk and cream, may be made into delicious
gruels; they may also be used advantageously in the preparation of
vegetable soups, many of which are even improved by the addition of a
few spoonfuls of well-kept cooked oatmeal or rolled oats. The left-over
grains may also be utilized in a variety of breads, directions for the
preparation of which are given in the chapter on Bread.

LEFT-OVER VEGETABLES.--Left-over portions of most varieties of
vegetables can be best utilized for soups as stated on page 275. Cold
mashed potato may be made into potato cakes as directed on page 237 of
the chapter on Vegetables, where will also be found many other recipes,
suited to the use of these left-over foods.

LEFT-OVER MEATS.--Most cook books offer numerous recipes for
croquettes, hashes, and fried dishes prepared from remnants of meat and
fish, which, although they serve the purpose of using up the fragments,
are not truly economical, because they are generally far from wholesome.
Most fragments of this character are more digestible served cold as a
relish, or utilized for soups and stews, than compounded into fancy
dishes requiring to be fried and highly seasoned or served with rich
sauces.

LEFT-OVER MILK.--Small quantities of unsterilized milk or cream
left over should always be carefully scalded, then cooled at once to a
temperature of 60,° and put in a cool place, in order to keep it sweet
and fresh until the next meal.



TABLE TOPICS.

    "Care preserves what Industry gains. He who attends to his business
    diligently, but _not_ carefully, throws away with one hand what he
    gathers with the other."--_Colton._

    "What does cookery mean?"

    It means the knowledge of all fruits and herbs and balms and
    spices--it means carefulness, and inventiveness, and watchfulness,
    and willingness, and readiness of appliance. It means the economy of
    your great grandmothers and the science of modern chemists,--it
    means much tasting and no wasting.--_Ruskin._

     A penny saved is two pence clear
     A pin a day's a groat a year.

    --_Franklin._

    Bad cooking is waste--waste of money and loss of comfort. Whom God
    has joined in matrimony, ill-cooked joints and ill-boiled potatoes
    have very often put asunder.--_Smiles._

    Never sacrifice the more precious things--time, health, temper,
    strength--in attempting to save the less precious--money.

    --_Sel._

    Learn by how little life may be sustained and how much nature
    requires. The gifts of Cerea and water are sufficient nourishment
    for all peoples.--_Pharsalia._



THE ART OF DINING

Human nature is so susceptible to externals, while good digestion is so
dependent upon interior conditions, that all the accessories of pleasant
surroundings--neatness, cheeriness, and good breeding--should be brought
into requisition for the daily gathering of the family at mealtime. The
dining room should be one of the airiest, choicest rooms in the house,
with a pleasant outlook, and, if possible, with east windows, that the
morning sun may gladden the breakfast hour with its cheering rays. Let
plants, flowers, birds, and pictures have a place in its appointments,
that the association with things bright and beautiful may help to set
the keynote of our own lives in cheerful accord. A dark, gloomy,
ill-ventilated room brings depression of spirits, and will make the most
elaborate meal unsatisfactory; while the plainest meal may seem almost a
feast when served amid attractive surroundings. Neatness is an important
essential; any home, however humble, may possess cleanliness and order,
and without these, all charms of wealth and art are of little account.

A thorough airing each morning and opening of the windows a few minutes
after each meal to remove the odor of food, are important items in the
care of the dining room. The furnishing may be simple and
inexpensive,--beauty in a home is not dependent upon expense,--but let
it be substantial, tasteful, harmonious in color and soft in tone,
nothing gaudy or showy. Use no heavy draperies, and have no excess of
ornament and bric-a-brac to catch dust and germs. A hard-finished wood
floor is far superior to a carpet in point of healthfulness, and quite
as economical and easy to keep clean. The general furnishing of the
room, besides the dining table and chairs, should include a sideboard,
upon which may be arranged the plate and glassware, with drawers for
cutlery and table linen; also a side-table for extra dishes needed
during the service of a meal.

An open fireplace, when it can be afforded, aids in ventilation as well
as increases the cheerful aspect of the room.

A moveable china closet with glass encasements for keeping the daintier
china, glass, or silver ware not in common use is often a desirable
article of furniture in small homes; or a shallow closet may be built in
the wall of the dining-room for this purpose. A good size for such a
closet is twelve inches deep and three feet wide. Four shelves, with one
or more drawers below, in which may be kept the best table napery,
afford ample space in general. The appearance of the whole may be made
very pleasing by using doors of glass, and filling in the back and sides
of the shelves with velvet paper in dark-brown, dull-red, or any shade
suitable for background, harmonizing with the general furnishing of the
room. The shelves should be of the same material and have the same
finish as the woodwork of the room. The upper side may be covered with
felt if desired; and such artistic taste may be displayed in the
arrangement of the china as to make the closet ornamental as well as
convenient.

TABLE-TALK.--A sullen, silent meal is a direct promoter of
dyspepsia. "Laugh and grow fat" is an ancient adage embodying good
hygienic doctrine. It has long been well understood that food digests
better when seasoned with agreeable conversation, and it is important
that unpleasant topics should be avoided. Mealtime should not be made
the occasion to discuss troubles, trials, and misfortunes, which rouse
only gloomy thoughts, impair digestion, and leave one at the close of
the meal worried and wearied rather than refreshed and strengthened. Let
vexatious questions be banished from the family board. Fill the time
with bright, sparkling conversation, but do not talk business or discuss
neighborhood gossip. Do not let the food upon the table furnish the
theme of conversation; neither praise nor apology are in good taste.
Parents who make their food thus an especial topic of conversation are
instilling into their children's minds a notion that eating is the best
part of life, whereas it is only a means to a higher end, and should be
so considered. Of all family gatherings the meals should be the most
genial and pleasant, and with a little effort they may be made most
profitable to all. It is said of Dr. Franklin that he derived his
peculiarly practical turn of mind from his father's table talk.

Let themes of conversation be of general interest, in which all may take
a part. If there are children, a pleasant custom for the breakfast hour
is to have each in turn relate something new and instructive, that he or
she has read or learned in the interval since the breakfast hour of the
previous day. This stimulates thought and conversational power, while
music, history, adventure, politics, and all the arts and sciences offer
ample scope for securing interesting items.

Another excellent plan is the selection of a special topic for
conversation for each meal or for the meals of a day or a week, a
previous announcement of the topic being made, that all, even the
youngest, may have time to prepare something to say of it. The benefits
from such social intercourse around the board can hardly be
over-estimated; and if thus the mealtime is prolonged, and too much
appears to be taken out of the busy day, be sure it will add to their
years in the end, by increasing health and happiness.

TABLE MANNERS.--Good breeding and true refinement are nowhere more
apparent than in manners at table. These do not relate alone to the
proper use of knife and fork, napkin and spoon, but to habits of
punctuality, neatness, quietn