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Title: Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia - Performed between the years 1818 and 1822 — Volume 2
Author: King, Phillip Parker, 1793?-1856
Language: English
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OF AUSTRALIA BY P.P. KING VOLUME 2.


NARRATIVE OF A SURVEY

OF THE

INTERTROPICAL AND WESTERN

COASTS OF AUSTRALIA.

PERFORMED BETWEEN

THE YEARS 1818 AND 1822.

BY

CAPTAIN PHILLIP P. KING, R.N., F.R.S., F.L.S.,

AND MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON.

WITH
AN APPENDIX,
CONTAINING
VARIOUS SUBJECTS RELATING TO HYDROGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY.


IN TWO VOLUMES,
ILLUSTRATED BY PLATES, CHARTS, AND WOOD-CUTS.

VOLUME 2.

LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.



CONTENTS.


VOLUME 2.


CHAPTER 1.
Survey upon the mermaid.
Purchase another vessel.
New establishment.
Departure on the fourth voyage, accompanied by a merchant-ship
     bound through Torres Strait.
Discovery of an addition to the crew.
Pass round Breaksea Spit, and steer up the East Coast.
Transactions at Percy Island.
Enormous sting-rays.
Pine-trees serviceable for masts.
Joined by a merchant brig.
Anchor under Cape Grafton, Hope Islands, and Lizard Island.
Natives at Lizard Island.
Cape Flinders.
Visit the Frederick's wreck.
Surprised by natives.
Mr. Cunningham's description of the drawings of the natives in
     a cavern on Clack's Island.
Anchor in Margaret Bay, and under Cairncross Island.
Accident, and loss of anchors.
Pass through Torres Strait, and visit Goulburn Island.
Affair with the natives.
The Dick parts company.


CHAPTER 2.
Passage from Cape Van Diemen to Careening Bay.
Not finding water, visit Prince Regent's River, and procure it
     from the Cascade.
Farther examination of the river.
Amphibious mud-fish.
Anchor in Halfway Bay, and explore Munster Water and Hanover Bay
     in a boat.
Visit Hanover Bay, and procure water and fish.
Interview with natives.
The surgeon speared.
Retaliate upon them, and capture their rafts and weapons.
Description of their implements.
Port George the Fourth.
Islands to the westward.
Red Island of Captain Heywood.
Strong tides.
Camden Bay.
Buccaneer's Archipelago.
Cygnet Bay.
Dangerous situation of the brig.
High and rapid tides.
Cape Leveque.
Examination of the coast to Cape Latouche Treville.
Remarkable effect of mirage.
Leave the coast for Mauritius.
Voyage thither.
Arrival at Port Louis.
Refit.
Some account of the island.


CHAPTER 3.
Departure from Port Louis.
Voyage to the South-west Coast of New Holland.
Anchor in King George the Third's Sound.
Occurrences there.
Visited by the Natives.
Our intercourse with them.
Descriptions of their weapons and other implements.
Vocabulary of their language.
Meteorological and other observations.
Edible plants.
Testaceous productions.


CHAPTER 4.
Leave King George the Third's Sound, and commence the survey of
     the West Coast at Rottnest Island.
Another remarkable effect of mirage.
Anchor under, and land upon Rottnest Island.
Break an anchor.
Examine the coast to the northward.
Cape Leschenault.
Lancelin Island.
Jurien Bay.
Houtman's Abrolhos.
Moresby's Flat-topped Range.
Red Point.
Anchor in Dirk Hartog's Road, at the entrance of Shark's Bay.
Occurrences there.
Examination of the coast to the North-west Cape.
Barrow Island.
Heavy gale off the Montebello Isles.
Rowley's Shoals.
Cape Leveque.
Dangerous situation of the brig among the islands of Buccaneer's
     Archipelago.
Examination and description of Cygnet Bay.
Lose an anchor, and leave the coast.
Adele Island.
Return to Port Jackson.


CHAPTER 5.
The Bathurst sails for England.
Remarks upon some errors in the hydrography of the south coast
     of Van Diemen's Land.
King George the Third's Sound.
Passage to the Cape of Good Hope.
Cross the Atlantic, and arrive at Plymouth Sound.
Observations upon the voyages, and conclusion.


APPENDIX A.


SECTION 1.

Of the winds and currents, and description of the ports, islands,
     and coast between Port Jackson and Breaksea Spit.


SECTION 2.

Description of the winds and weather, and of the ports, islands,
     and coast between Breaksea Spit and Cape York.


SECTION 3.

Description of the winds and weather, and of the ports and coast
     between Wessel's Islands and Clarence Strait.


SECTION 4.

Of the nature of the winds and the description of the coast between
     Clarence Strait and the North-west Cape.


SECTION 5.

Of the winds and weather, and description of the Western Coast
     between the North-west Cape and Cape Leeuwin.


SECTION 6.

Of the winds and weather upon the South Coast. Directions for
     King George the Third's Sound, and hydrographical remarks
     relating to Bass Strait.


SECTION 7.

Description of the shoals and reefs in the neighbourhood of the
     coasts of Australia.


SECTION 8.

Directions for the passage within the reefs through Torres Strait.


SECTION 9.

Dip of the magnetic needle.


SECTION 10.

Upon the geographical positions of the fixed points of the survey.


APPENDIX B.

Containing a list and description of the subjects of natural history
     collected during Captain King's survey of the Intertropical
     and Western Coasts of Australia.


APPENDIX C.

Geology.


APPENDIX D.

Language of the Natives.


LIST OF PLATES.


VOLUME 2.


ENTRANCE OF OYSTER HARBOUR, KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND.
Interview with the Natives.
From a sketch by P.P. King. Published in May 1825 by John Murray,
     London.

WOODCUT 1: NATIVES OF HANOVER BAY ON A RAFT.

VIEW OF THE CASCADE IN PRINCE REGENT'S RIVER.
From a sketch by P.P. King. Published in May 1825 by John Murray,
     London.

WEAPONS ETC. OF THE NATIVES OF HANOVER BAY.

1. Stone Spear Head (Full size.) From a Drawing by F. Chantrey,
     Esquire, F.R.S.

2. Section of a Stone Spear Head (Full size.) From a Drawing by
     F. Chantrey, Esquire, F.R.S.

3. Spear armed with the Stone head.

4. Throwing-stick.

5. Hatchet.

Published in May 1825 by John Murray, London.

WOODCUT 2: RAFT OF THE NATIVES OF HANOVER BAY.

WOODCUT 3: WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE NATIVES OF KING GEORGE
     THE THIRD'S SOUND: MEARA OR THROWING-STICK.

WOODCUT 4: WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE NATIVES OF KING GEORGE
     THE THIRD'S SOUND: METHOD OF PROPULSION OF SPEAR BY A MEARA
     OR THROWING-STICK.

WOODCUT 5: WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE NATIVES OF KING GEORGE
     THE THIRD'S SOUND: KAOIT OR HAMMER.

WOODCUT 6: WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE NATIVES OF KING GEORGE
     THE THIRD'S SOUND: TAAP OR KNIFE.

CHART OF PORT COCKBURN AT MELVILLE ISLAND.
Plan of Port Cockburn, between Bathurst and Melville Islands.
From a survey made by Lieutenant J.S. ROE in October 1824.

VIEW OF FORT DUNDAS, TAKEN FROM GARDEN POINT.

PLAN OF KING'S COVE.

SKETCH 1: ISLANDS OFF ADMIRALTY GULF, LOOKING SOUTHWARD FROM THE
     NORTH-EAST END OF CASSINI ISLAND.
Left to right: Corneille, Fenelon, Descartes, and Pascal Islands,
     Hills on Cape Voltaire, Condillac Island, and East end of
     Cassini Island (Peron's Atlas, plate 6, figure 7) and the
     outline of the Iles Forbin (Peron's Atlas, plate 8, figure 5).

SKETCH 2: ISLANDS OFF ADMIRALTY GULF, LOOKING SOUTHWARD FROM THE
     NORTH-EAST END OF CASSINI ISLAND.
Left to right: Peak upon Cape Voltaire and Condillac Island,
     bearing South, two miles distant.
Several drawings of Captain King.

SKETCH 3: TWO CONSPICUOUS HILLS NORTH-EAST OF PRINCE-REGENT'S RIVER.
Left to right: Mount Trafalgar and Mount Waterloo.

MAP OF THE CHAINS OF ISLANDS ON THE NORTH-WEST COAST OF CARPENTARIA:
In English Miles.
A. Castlereagh Bay.
B. Point Dale.
C. Arnhem Bay.
D. Melville Bay.
E. Cape Arnhem.
F. Caledon Bay.
1, 1 etc. Wessel's Islands.
2, 2 etc. The English Company's Islands.
3. Red Cliffs.
4. Mallison's Island.
5. Cape Newbold.
6. Cape Wilberforce.
7. Bromby's Islands.

SKETCH 4: CLIFF OF CONSIDERABLE HEIGHT, IN WHICH THE BEDS, THOUGH
     INACCESSIBLE AT THE TOP, MAY BE EXAMINED WITH EASE AND SECURITY,
     WHERE THEY COME DOWN TO THE SHORE.

SKETCH 5: HAMMER FOR COLLECTING GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS.

SKETCH 6: SMALL HAMMER FOR TRIMMING GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS.

SKETCH 7: SMALL STONE-CUTTER'S CHISEL.

PLATES AT THE END OF THE VOLUME, REFERRED TO IN THE APPENDIX.

TABLE A.
Chlamydosaurus kingii.
The plate was engraved by Mr. Curtis, from an exceedingly correct
     drawing made by Henry C. Field, Esquire. Fel. Coll. Surg.
Published by John Murray, Albemarle Street, March, 1826.

TABLE B.
Carpophagus banksiae.
Megamerus kingii.
Phasma tiaratum.
Drawn by Miss M.L. Field. J. Curtis sculp.
Published by John Murray, Albemarle Street, March, 1826.

TABLE C.
Kingia Australis.
Curtis, Id et sculp.
Published by John Murray, Albemarle Street.

...



VOYAGES FOR THE SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL COASTS OF AUSTRALIA.


CHAPTER 1.
Survey upon the mermaid.
Purchase another vessel.
New establishment.
Departure on the fourth voyage, accompanied by a merchant-ship
     bound through Torres Strait.
Discovery of an addition to the crew.
Pass round Breaksea Spit, and steer up the East Coast.
Transactions at Percy Island.
Enormous sting-rays.
Pine-trees serviceable for masts.
Joined by a merchant brig.
Anchor under Cape Grafton, Hope Islands, and Lizard Island.
Natives at Lizard Island.
Cape Flinders.
Visit the Frederick's wreck.
Surprised by natives.
Mr. Cunningham's description of the drawings of the natives in a
     cavern on Clack's Island.
Anchor in Margaret Bay, and under Cairncross Island.
Accident, and loss of anchors.
Pass through Torres Strait, and visit Goulburn Island.
Affair with the natives.
The Dick parts company.

1820. December 6.

As soon as the opportunity offered after our arrival, the cutter was laid
on shore upon the beach of Sydney Cove, and surveyed by the master and
the carpenter of H.M. Store-Ship Dromedary, which ship was preparing for
her return to England with a cargo of New Zealand spars. Upon stripping
the copper off the bottom, the tide flowed into her, and proved that to
the copper sheathing alone we were indebted for our safe return. The iron
spikes that fastened her were entirely decayed, and a considerable repair
was recommended by the surveying officers. Upon my communicating the
result of their report to His Excellency, Governor Macquarie, he agreed
with me in thinking that, as her repairs would take up so much time, it
would be better to purchase another vessel, and as a brig was then in the
harbour, that appeared to be every way suited for my purpose, she was
examined by my order by Mr. Mart, the Dromedary's carpenter, who reported
so favourably of her, that, by the governor's permission, she was
purchased and fitted for the voyage. She was built of teak, of one
hundred and seventy tons burden, and had lately received a very
considerable repair at Calcutta; so that, excepting a few trifling
defects and alterations, she was quite fit for sea. Her name was altered
at the suggestion of Governor Macquarie to that of the Bathurst.

By this change we gained a great addition to our comforts; and, besides
increasing the number of our crew, were much better off in regard to
boats; for we now possessed a long-boat, large enough to carry out and
weigh an anchor, or save the crew if any accident should happen to the
vessel; a resource which we did not possess in the Mermaid.

A further addition was made to our party by the appointment of Mr.
Perceval Baskerville, one of the Dromedary's midshipman; but Mr. Hunter
the surgeon, who had volunteered his services in the Mermaid during the
last voyage, was superseded by Mr. A. Montgomery, who had lately arrived
in charge of a convict ship.

Our establishment now consisted of the following officers and men:

Lieutenant and Commander: Phillip Parker King.

Surgeon: Andrew Montgomery.

Master's Mates (Assistant Surveyors):
Frederick Bedwell.
John S. Roe.

Midshipman: Perceval Baskerville.

Botanical Collector: Allan Cunningham.

Steward.

Boatswain's Mate.

Carpenter's Mate.

Sail Maker.

Cook.

Seamen: 16.

Boys: 5.

Total: 32.

1821. May 26.

After experiencing many tedious and unexpected delays in equipping the
Bathurst, notwithstanding our wants were few, and the greater part of our
repairs were effected by our own people, we were not completed for sea
until the 26th of May, when we sailed from Port Jackson upon our fourth
and last voyage to the north coast, accompanied by the merchant-ship Dick
(the same vessel in which we had originally embarked from England): she
was bound to Batavia, and being ready for sailing at the time of our
departure, requested permission to accompany us through Torres Strait,
which, since it would rather prove an assistance to us than cause any
delay in our proceedings, was acceded to on my part with much
satisfaction. In the mean time the Mermaid, our late vessel, had been
thoroughly repaired, fresh fastened with copper spikes, and fitted out;
and, before we sailed, had been sent to sea to carry the first
establishment to Port Macquarie, on which service she had been wrecked.
She was, however, afterwards got off the rocks and repaired, and is now a
very serviceable vessel in the colony.

Boongaree, the native who had formerly accompanied us, volunteered his
services whilst the vessel was preparing for the voyage, which I gladly
accepted; but when the day of departure drew nigh, he kept aloof; and the
morning that we sailed, his place was filled by another volunteer,
Bundell; who proved not only to be a more active seaman, but was of much
greater service to us, than his countryman Boongaree had been. This
addition made our number thirty-three.

May 30.

Three days after we left the port, a discovery was made of another
addition to the number of the crew. Upon opening the hold, which had been
locked ever since the day before we sailed, a young girl, not more than
fourteen years of age, was found concealed among the casks, where she had
secreted herself in order to accompany the boatswain to sea: upon being
brought on deck, she was in a most pitiable plight, for her dress and
appearance were so filthy, from four days' close confinement in a dark
hold, and from having been dreadfully seasick the whole time, that her
acquaintances, of which she had many on board, could scarcely recognise
her. Upon being interrogated, she declared she had, unknown to all on
board, concealed herself in the hold the day before the vessel sailed;
and that her swain knew nothing of the step she had taken. As it was now
inconvenient to return to put her on shore, and as the man consented to
share his ration with her, she was allowed to remain; but in a very short
time heartily repented of her imprudence, and would gladly have been
re-landed, had it been possible.

1821. June 4.

Between the 30th and the 4th of June we had a series of gales of wind,
which enabled us to prove the capabilities of our new ship; and it was
very satisfactory to find that she was weatherly, tight, and dry, three
very essential qualities for a surveying vessel.

June 5.

On the afternoon of the 5th we passed round the north end of Breaksea
Spit, and crossed Hervey's Bay; in the night, when the brig ought to have
been many miles from the shore, we found ourselves unexpectedly close to
some land; but it was not until the day broke that we knew the full
extent of the danger we had encountered: the land we had seen proved to
be the round head of Bustard Bay, which, as the wind was blowing directly
upon it, we were fortunate in having room to clear. The Dick was apprized
by us of the danger in time, and succeeded in clearing the land by
tacking to the southward.

June 6.

At noon we were passing the small woody isle that was seen by Captain
Flinders, and farther on we discovered two other isles of a similar
character: they were seen from the masthead to the north-east; and a
fourth was seen by the Dick. After this we had a few days of fine
weather, which, as dysentery had already made its appearance amongst us,
was most welcome, and tended materially to check the progress of so
alarming a complaint.

June 8.

On the 8th we entered among the Northumberland Islands.

June 10.

But, from light northerly winds, did not reach an anchorage under Percy
Island, Number 2, until the morning of the 10th. Our situation was
between the Pine Islets and the basin, in ten fathoms, near a run of
water, which fell from the rocks into the sea at about a quarter of a
mile to the northward of the sandy beach: from this stream we filled our
casks. Water was also found in many other parts, but all the runs
appeared to be of temporary duration.

June 11.

This island, like Number 1, which we visited in 1819, appears to be
principally of quartzose formation. The soil is sandy, and affords but
little nourishment to the stunted trees with which it is furnished. In
the more barren and rocky parts the pine was abundant, but not growing to
any great size: the Dick's people cut down and embarked several logs; on
examination they were thought to be useless; but, from subsequent
experience, they proved to be far from deserving such contempt, for
during the voyage we made two pole-top gallant-masts of it; which,
although very full of knots, were as tough as any spar I ever saw; and
carried a press of sail longer than would be trusted on many masts. These
trees are very abundant on the Cumberland and Northumberland Islands, but
do not attain any large size; being seldom higher than fifty or sixty
feet, or of a greater diameter than from twelve to eighteen inches.

Among the variety of birds, several black cockatoos and the pheasant
cuckoo were seen. The beaches were frequented by gulls, terns, and
oyster-catchers; and an egret was noticed of a slate-coloured plumage,
with a small ruff upon its head.

The seine was hauled upon the beach; but the only fish caught were two
very large sting-rays; one of which measured twelve feet across: as it
was too unwieldy to take on board, we had no means of weighing it; but
the liver nearly filled a small pork barrel.* It is very probable that
our bad success may be attributed to the presence of these fish, for on
board the Dick several snappers were caught with the hook and line.

(*Footnote. Captain Cook describes some fish, probably of the same
species, found at Botany Bay, weighing each three hundred and thirty-six
pounds (Hawkesworth volume 3 page 100); from which circumstance, as it is
not generally known, the name of Sting-ray Bay was given to that harbour;
it is so-called in the charts of the Endeavour's voyage, in the
Hydrographical Office at the Admiralty, as well as in Sir Joseph Banks'
copy of the Endeavour's journal, and in Dr. Solander's manuscript
journal, both of which are in the possession of my friend Robert Brown,
Esquire. The name by which it is now known appears to have been given
subsequently, on account of the variety and beauty of its botanical
productions.)

In the evening the wind set in from South by East, with rain, and cloudy,
thick weather: in striking the royal masts, a serious defect was
discovered in our fore-top-mast; the upper part being found rotten for
twelve feet below the head; and the top-gallant-mast was also found to be
sprung in the wake of the cap.

June 12.

So that we were compelled to remain all the next day at the anchorage to
shift them. This detention was very vexatious, for we were not only
losing a fair wind, but lying in a very exposed situation.

During the preceding night a brig anchored half a mile to the southward
of us: she proved to be the San Antonio; she left Port Jackson four days
after us, and was bound on a trading speculation to the Moluccas and
Singapore. In the forenoon I visited the master, Mr. Hemmans, and offered
him my guidance up the coast, if he would wait until we had shifted our
defective masts; but he declined it as he was anxious to get on without
delay; and, having Captain Flinders' charts, intended to run "DAY AND
NIGHT THROUGH THE REEFS;" he told me that he had anchored here with the
intention of watering and cutting some pine spars, but that not finding
the latter worth the trouble, he was then getting underweigh to proceed.
When I went away, he accompanied me to look over my plan of the passage;
after which he returned to his vessel, which soon afterwards steered past
us on her way to the northward. Mr. Hemmans told me that he had anchored
under Keppel Islands, where he had a friendly communication with the
natives, who used nets, which he thought were of European construction;
but from his description, they are similar to what have been before seen
on the coast, and are constructed by the natives themselves.

June 13.

At eight o'clock the next morning we got underweigh; but the Dick in
weighing her anchor found both flukes broken off.

June 14.

The next day, we rounded the north extremity of the Cumberland Islands.

June 15.

And at four o'clock a.m. the 15th, were abreast of Cape Gloucester.

Thick cloudy weather with rain and a fresh breeze from the southward,
variable between South-South-East and South-South-West, now set in, and
was unfavourable for our seeing the coast as we passed it: Cape Bowling
Green was not seen, but the gradual decrease of soundings from eighteen
to fourteen fathoms, and the subsequent increase of depth, indicated our
having passed this low and dangerous projection.

June 16.

At daylight of the 16th, we passed outside the Palm Islands at the
distance of five miles.

The weather continued so thick and rainy, that Mount Hinchinbrook was
quite concealed from our view; but a partial glimpse of the land enabled
me to distinguish Point Hillock, and afterwards to see Cape Sandwich,
Goold Island, and the group of the Family Isles.

June 17.

In passing the largest Frankland Island, the San Antonio was seen lying
at anchor near it, with her fore topsail loose, firing guns: seeing this,
we hauled to the wind, and made sail to beat up towards her, under the
idea of her being in distress; but as we approached, we observed a boat
alongside, and her top-gallant yards across, which were proofs that she
was not in such immediate danger, as to require our beating up, with the
risk of losing some of our spars, for the Dick had already sprung her
jib-boom; we, therefore, hove the vessels to, and soon afterwards the San
Antonio joined and passed under our stern, when Mr. Hemmans informed me
that the guns he had fired were intended as signals to his boat, and that
they were not meant for us. He had been aground, he said, on a reef near
the Palm Islands, but had received no damage: light, however, as he
pretended to make of this accident, it was a sufficient lesson for him,
and we soon found he had profited by it, for instead of preceding us, he
quietly fell into our wake, a station which he never afterwards left,
until all danger was over, and we had passed through Torres Strait.

I had now determined upon taking up an anchorage round Cape Grafton
during the continuance of the bad weather, and for that purpose steered
through the strait that separates the cape from Fitzroy Island; and
anchored in six fathoms mud, at about half a mile from its northern
extremity.

It is little remarkable that the day on which we anchored should be the
anniversary of the discovery of the bay; for Captain Cook anchored here
on the eve of Trinity Sunday, fifty-one years before, and named the bay
between Capes Grafton and Tribulation, in reverence of the following day.
In passing between Cape Grafton and Fitzroy Island, eight or ten natives
were observed seated on the rocks at the south end of the beach: one of
them waved his spear to us as we passed, but the distance was too great
to take any notice of him.

In the afternoon we landed upon the small island in the bay, and found it
to be separated from the mainland by a very shoal channel, through which
our boat had some difficulty in passing; the island is small, and formed
of loose fragments of granite, over which the decomposed vegetable matter
had formed a soil, which, although shallow, was sufficient to nourish
some luxuriant grass (panicum) and a robust species of eucalyptus: among
these large flights of cockatoos and parroquets were hovering, but they
were very shy, and did not allow us to approach them: a small dove,
common to other parts of the coast, was killed. A native was seen walking
along a sandy beach behind the island, but proceeded without noticing our
boat, which was at that time passing.

June 18.

The following day the weather was so clear that, in the early part of the
morning, we distinctly saw the summit of the land at the back of Cape
Tribulation, bearing North 43 degrees West (magnetic); it must have been
fifty-five or sixty miles off; the fall of the land towards the extremity
of the cape was also seen, bearing North 35 degrees 50 minutes West
fifty-six miles.

In the afternoon I went on shore near the north extremity of the Cape, to
procure some bearings; after which we strolled about, and found a
temporary stream of water falling into the sea. In walking past a grove
of pandanus trees, which grew near the water, we disturbed a prodigious
quantity of bronze-winged butterflies, reminding us, in point of number,
of the Euploea hamata, at Cape Cleveland in 1819. It proved to be a
variety of the Urania orontes (Godart) of Amboyna and the other Indian
Islands. Mr. Cunningham took advantage of the Dick's boat going to the
bottom of the bay, to cut grass: near their landing-place he found some
natives' huts; some of which were of more substantial construction than
usual, and were thatched with palm leaves: inside of one he found a
fishing rod, and a line, five or six fathoms long, furnished with a hook
made from a shell, like the hooks of the South Sea Islanders: he also
found a small basket, made from the leaf of a palm-tree, lying near the
remains of their fireplaces, which were strewed with broken exuviae of
their shell-fish repasts.

A canoe twelve feet long, similar to the one described at Blomfield's
Rivulet (volume 1) was also seen; and, like it, was not more than nine
inches wide at the bilge. A small kangaroo was seen by Mr. Cunningham
feeding upon the grass, but fled the moment that it saw him approaching.

Nothing more was seen of the natives, nor were any heard, or suspected of
being near us; had there been any number the party would have been placed
in an awkward situation, for upon landing, they all incautiously, and
very imprudently, separated, to amuse themselves as they were inclined,
without regarding the situation of the boat, which was soon left dry by
the ebbing tide; and it was eight o'clock at night before they succeeded
in launching her. Immediately after its return, for which we had been
waiting four hours, we got underweigh, and were only just in time to save
the breeze, which carried us out into the offing: after a short calm, the
wind gradually freshened from South-South-West, and we steered on under
easy sail towards Cape Tribulation.

June 19.

On passing the cape two reefs were seen to seaward, which had previously
escaped our notice.

In the afternoon we anchored in ten fathoms, at about half a mile from
the north-west end of the reef that stretches for two miles to the
northward of the south-westernmost Hope Island; and, as it was low water
and the reef uncovered, we walked across it. It is formed principally of
coral, on the surface of which we found the gray trepang; a small Chama
gigas, a cypraea, a pretty azure-coloured species of asteria, and a few
bivalve shells. The few birds that frequented the reef were very shy, and
flew away at our approach: they were principally pelicans and terns.

June 20.

After weighing the next morning, we steered North 1/2 West, a course
farther to seaward than we had previously taken, in order to see the
reefs more distinctly, and to prove the width and extent of this part of
the channel; but the sun was shining in the direction of our course, and
the shadows of the clouds upon the water were at times so deceptious
that, whilst they often caused appearances of reefs where none existed,
they concealed others that, for the same reason, were not seen until we
were close to them. Having now the charge of two merchant-vessels, it was
necessary to proceed with caution, and therefore we steered nearly over
our last year's track, but notwithstanding, we now discovered several new
reefs, and informed ourselves of the extent and shape of others which had
escaped our previous observation.

As we were rounding the two islands that lie close to the south side of
Lizard Island, a native was seen in a canoe, paddling towards another who
was sitting on the rocks watching our movements; and, as we hauled round
the south point of the bay, two others were observed walking towards the
beach; upon seeing us they stopped short and retreated up the hill; but,
after we anchored and sent a boat on shore, which was accompanied by one
from the Dick, they advanced, and without much hesitation, came forward
and communicated with our party. They carried spears with them, and each
of our gentlemen had their fowling-pieces: the appearance of Bundell, who
on these occasions always took his clothes off, perhaps gave them greater
confidence. After some vociferous and unintelligible parley, one of our
gentlemen, in order to give them further cause for the surprise which
they had already manifested to a great extent, unadvisedly fired his
fowling-piece; upon which, as might be expected, they became distrustful
and frightened, and, fixing their spears in their throwing sticks, walked
backwards at a quick pace, and withdrew altogether towards the hills.

Lizard Island, and the Direction Isles to the south-westward, are of very
different character to the other islands which front this coast, being
high, rising to peaks, and of granitic formation. Captain Cook, in his
description of Lizard Island, mentions it as being a good place to
refresh at, on account of its supplying both wood and water; but, at the
same time we were there, the latter was not found, although the rain had
been lately falling in great quantity; with the former, however, it is
well supplied. This island, from its connection with Captain Cook's
misfortunes during his perilous navigation within the reefs, will always
be an interesting feature in the history of the discovery and examination
of this coast, and deserves a more appropriate appellation.

June 21.

Leaving Lizard Island the following morning, we directed our course for
Cape Flinders, over our last year's track. Upon passing Port Ninian, the
sea was observed to break heavily upon the Barrier Reefs, which in this
part approach nearer to the mainland than at any other. As we doubled
Cape Melville, the wind, as usual, freshened up to a strong breeze, and
carried us rapidly across Bathurst Bay: to the westward of the cape
several natives were observed walking upon the beach.

In passing round Cape Flinders, there appeared to be a considerable
diminution in the remains of the Frederick's wreck. No vestige was left
of her stern or forecastle, both of which were before so very
conspicuous. At half-past five o'clock we anchored with our companions
near the usual place.

June 22.

The following morning, at daybreak, a party of men went to the wreck to
collect the spars and planks that had escaped the mischievous fires of
the natives; and at five o'clock I joined them with the master of the
Dick and Mr. Roe, ordering Mr. Bedwell to relieve the shore party with
some fresh hands at eight o'clock. When the time arrived, supposing that
the relief-party had nearly reached the shore, I sent the people over the
hill, in order to be ready when the boat arrived to go on board; and in
the meantime amused myself in wandering about the reef near the wreck,
where Mr. Roe was also employed. Mr. Harrison (the master of the Dick)
was at the further end of the beach with his fowling piece, with two of
his boat's crew picking up shells: when suddenly they were surprised by
hearing a loud shout, and seeing several spears strike the rocks about
them: upon looking round, Mr. Harrison found that a party of natives were
advancing upon him with their spears poised; upon which he presented his
gun at the foremost, but, from his having waded about in the water, the
powder had got damp and would not go off. Immediately that I heard the
shout of the natives, and saw Mr. Harrison retreating from the Indians,
who were in close pursuit, I hastened to his assistance, and came up in
time to prevent them from doing any mischief; and, by occasionally
levelling my gun, kept them at bay whilst we retreated towards the wreck,
from which we were about half a mile distant. By this time Mr. Roe, who
had also heard the noise, joined; but, as he had not a gun, the only
assistance he brought was an addition to our number. Among the four
foremost of the natives was a mischievous boy, who, being emboldened by
our not firing, and showing an anxiety to get away from them, fixed his
spear and aimed it at me; upon which I fired my gun, but, as it was only
loaded with small shot, it had no effect at the distance he was from me;
the noise, however, arrested their pursuit for a moment; and by the time
they recovered their surprise, I had reloaded with ball, but to my great
mortification, upon presenting the gun to deter the boy from throwing his
spear again, it missed fire: the weapon, which at first was aimed at me,
was then thrown at one of the Dick's men, and, piercing his hat, which he
was carrying at his breast, fortunately, full of shells, only slightly
wounded one of his fingers. The man, who to all appearance was
dangerously wounded, for the spear stuck in the hat and hung suspended in
the air, drew it out, and, throwing it on the ground with the greatest
composure, continued to retreat. The natives then finding we were not
intimidated or hurt by the spears, began to make friendly gestures, which
we, of course, returned, but still continued to walk away with our faces
turned towards them.

We were now only four in number (for I had despatched one of the Dick's
people to recall our boat, and to order the crew over to our assistance)
and being without any means, or show of defence, it required much caution
and management on our part to prevent their throwing any more spears; for
they were now within a few yards of us: their ferocity, however, began to
diminish, as their attention was taken by our clothes and a silk
handkerchief which Mr. Roe held out to them: they were about ten in
number, of whom five or six were armed with spears. Our only safety now
was in letting them approach, and amusing them by a display of our silk
handkerchiefs and other parts of our dress, and making all the grimaces
and monkey-like gestures we could think of.

Among the natives was a young woman, whom they repeatedly offered to us
by using the most significant signs; which she also endeavoured to
strengthen by appropriate gestures on her part; but our inclinations were
not consonant with the opportunity so pressingly, but so suspiciously,
offered. After our declining this honour, they occasionally laid their
hands upon our clothes to detain us, but it did not require much force to
make them quit their hold. One of the men having seized my gun, I drew it
out of his hand rather roughly; but, accompanied at the same moment with
the friendly gesture of patting his breast, the recovery was happily
effected without exciting his anger.

In this manner, and with great fatigue, we continued our retreat across
the reef, and reached the wreck without any signs of our people coming to
our assistance; when the natives found we intended to walk round the
point, they divided, and gave their spears to a party that went over the
hills, as it were, to cut us off; but in this intention, if they
entertained it, they were disappointed, for our boat was there, and the
crew all embarked, ready to shove off, little expecting ever to see us
again. The idea of being thus easily deserted by our people was for a
moment mortifying, but I ordered some of the crew on shore, and by our
numbers kept the natives amused on the beach, while Mr. Harrison shoved
off in his gig to give the alarm, and to order some muskets to be sent
for our protection: by the time, however, that Mr. Bedwell arrived, we
had succeeded in making friends with the natives; who, upon perceiving
that we had now in our turn the superiority, began to draw away, and
appeared to be as anxious to get rid of us as we had been, half an hour
before, to escape from them; but we accompanied them halfway across the
reef, watching an opportunity to seize the boy who had wounded the Dick's
man, whom I intended to keep a prisoner while we were here, and then to
dismiss him with presents, to show that we were not inimical to them,
although angry at being so treacherously attacked. My intention, however,
was probably suspected, for they avoided our approaching sufficiently
near them to effect my purpose with the certainty of success, I therefore
called our people away to resume their work at the wreck, and, after
leaving orders with Mr. Bedwell not to fire but in self-defence, and if
an opportunity offered, to seize the boy, went on board with the party to
breakfast. I had not, however, left the shore long before hostilities
again commenced, and several shots were mischievously fired at the
natives by some of the Dick's and San Antonio's people, who, being
advanced, had very improperly endeavoured to cut off three of them, upon
which one of the natives poised his spear with a threat of throwing it,
when several muskets were fired at these miserable wretches, who,
fortunately for them, got clear off; although one of them by his limping
appeared to have been struck in the leg.

After this we saw nothing more of them for the day. Mr. Bedwell was
employed with his party at the wreck, whilst Mr. Cunningham traversed the
hills in the vicinity, for it was not safe to trust himself at any
distance from our people, since the natives would not have failed, had
they met with an opportunity, to punish us for our broken faith.

June 23.

The following day, on the return of our people from the wreck, they
reported that the natives had shown themselves on the opposite side of
the bay; I therefore went to the shore with Mr. Harrison, to endeavour to
make peace, but saw no signs of them, excepting a smoke on the next
island, to which they had probably retired. On the following day they
were again seen, and fired upon by the boat's crew of the Dick.

All these events gave me much concern, not only because the natives may
be induced to attack and take revenge upon strangers who may subsequently
pass this way, but also because they must have imbibed a very poor idea
of the effect of our arms, when so many muskets were fired without doing
them any mischief: and, but for the sake of humanity, I could almost have
wished that one had been killed.

The day after we arrived here, a boat from the San Antonio conveyed Mr.
Montgomery and Mr. Cunningham to Clack's Island. The reef abounded with
shells, of which they brought back a large collection, but not in any
great variety; an indifferent cypraea was the most common; but there were
also some volutae and other shells, besides trepang and asteriae, in
abundance. Mr. Cunningham observed a singularly curious cavern upon the
rock, of which he gave me a description in the following account of the
island:

"The south and south-eastern extremes of Clack's Island presented a
steep, rocky bluff, thinly covered with small trees. I ascended the steep
head, which rose to an elevation of a hundred and eighty feet above the
sea. I found simply the plants of the main, namely, Mimusops parvifolia,
Br.; Hoya nivea, Cunningham manuscript; Acacia plectocarpa, Cunningham
manuscript; Chionanthus axillaris, Br.; Notelaea punctata, Br.; some
alyxiae, and the small orange-fruited ficus, which grew in the thickets,
and, by insinuating its roots in the interstices of the rocks, clothed a
great portion of the inaccessible front of the island.

"The remarkable structure of the geological feature of this islet led me
to examine the south-east part, which was the most exposed to the
weather, and where the disposition of the strata was of course more
plainly developed. The base is a coarse, granular, siliceous sandstone,
in which large pebbles of quartz and jasper are embedded: this stratum
continues for sixteen to twenty feet above the water: for the next ten
feet there is a horizontal stratum of black schistose rock, which was of
so soft a consistence, that the weather had excavated several tiers of
galleries; upon the roof and sides of which some curious drawings were
observed, which deserve to be particularly described: they were executed
upon a ground of red ochre (rubbed on the black schistus) and were
delineated by dots of a white argillaceous earth, which had been worked
up into a paste. They represented tolerable figures of sharks, porpoises,
turtles, lizards (of which I saw several small ones among the rocks)
trepang, star-fish, clubs, canoes, water-gourds, and some quadrupeds,
which were probably intended to represent kangaroos and dogs. The
figures, besides being outlined by the dots, were decorated all over with
the same pigment in dotted transverse belts. Tracing a gallery round to
windward, it brought me to a commodious cave, or recess, overhung by a
portion of the schistus, sufficiently large to shelter twenty natives,
whose recent fireplaces appeared on the projecting area of the cave.

"Many turtles' heads were placed on the shelfs or niches of the
excavation, amply demonstrative of the luxurious and profuse mode of life
these outcasts of society had, at a period rather recently, followed. The
roof and sides of this snug retreat were also entirely covered with the
uncouth figures I have already described.

"As this is the first specimen of Australian taste in the fine arts that
we have detected in these voyages, it became me to make a particular
observation thereon: Captain Flinders had discovered figures on Chasm
Island, in the Gulf of Carpentaria, formed with a burnt stick; but this
performance, exceeding a hundred and fifty figures, which must have
occupied much time, appears at least to be one step nearer refinement
than those simply executed with a piece of charred wood. Immediately
above this schistose stratum is a superincumbent mass of sandstone, which
appeared to form the upper stratum of the island." (Cunningham
manuscript.)*

(*Footnote. Similar representations were found by Mr. White, carved on
stone in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson. White's Journal quarto page
141.)

June 25.

Having procured all the spars and planks from the wreck that could be
useful to us, we made preparations to sail, and at daylight, the 25th,
got underweigh with my two companions, and resumed our course to the
northward, over that of last year, excepting that we steered inside of
Pelican Island, and to leeward of Island 4. We passed several large
sting-rays asleep on the surface of the sea, which our people
ineffectually endeavoured to harpoon. On the former island large flights
of pelicans were seen, and upon the sandbank, to the southward of it,
there was a flock of two or three hundred young birds.

The breeze not being sufficient to carry us to Night Island before dark,
the anchor was dropped in eleven fathoms muddy bottom, two miles to the
eastward of Island 8. The Dick and San Antonio anchored close to us.
During the night we had a fresh breeze from South-East by East, and, not
having any island or reef to shelter us from the swell, we were obliged
to drop a second anchor to retain our position. The San Antonio drove for
some distance, but the Dick rode through the night without driving,
although she had but forty fathoms of cable out.

June 26.

On weighing the next morning, we made sail to the North by West, but,
from the compass-box not being quite straight in the binnacle, we made a
North by West 1/2 West course, which was not discovered until we had
nearly paid dear for our neglect; for we passed close to a rock which I
intended to have gone at least a mile to windward of. It was seen just in
time to put the helm a-lee, or we should have run upon it.

The weather was now so thick that we could not see a mile around us; we
were therefore obliged to follow our former courses, to avoid the risk of
running over a strange track in such unfavourable weather. At sunset we
anchored under the lee of Piper's Islets.

June 27.

The next day we anchored under Sunday Island in Margaret Bay, at about
half a mile from the sandy beach, on its north-west side.

Here we were detained by bad weather until the 30th.

June 30.

When, with some slight appearance of improvement, and tired of losing so
much time, we weighed and proceeded on our course. After passing the Bird
Isles, thick weather again set in, with constant rain, and a strong
breeze from South-East. Upon reaching Cairncross Island, under which it
was my intention to anchor, the sails were reduced; and, as we were in
the act of letting go the anchor, Mr. Roe, who was at the masthead
holding thoughtlessly by the fore-topmast staysail-halyards, whilst the
sail was being hauled down, was precipitated from a height of fifty feet,
and fell senseless on the deck. We were now close to the reef; and, in
the hurry and confusion attending the accident, and the Dick at the same
time luffing up under our stern, the anchor was dropped, without my
ascertaining the quality of the bottom, which was afterwards found to be
of a very questionable nature.

The Dick, having dropped her anchor within forty yards of us, was lying
so close as to prevent our veering more cable than sixty fathoms, but as
we appeared to ride tolerably easy with a sheer to starboard, while the
Dick rode on the opposite sheer, we remained as we were: to prevent
accident, the yards were braced so that we should cast clear of the Dick
if we parted, a precaution which was most happily taken.

As soon as the distressing accident that had occurred was known on board
the Dick, Dr. Armstrong, a surgeon of the navy and a passenger in that
ship, hastened on board to assist Mr. Montgomery in dressing Mr. Roe's
hurt, which I found, to my inexpressible satisfaction, was not so
grievous as might have been expected: his fall was, most providentially,
broken twice; first by the spritsail brace, and secondly by some planks
from the Frederick's wreck, which had fortunately been placed across the
forecastle bulwark over the cat-heads: his head struck the edge of the
plank and broke his fall, but it cut a very deep wound over the right
temple. This unfortunate event threatened to deprive me of his very
valuable assistance for some time, a loss I could but very ill spare,
particularly when upon the point of returning to the examination of so
intricate a coast as that part where we last left off.

At six o'clock in the evening the flood-tide began to set to leeward, and
as night approached the appearance of the weather became very
threatening, accompanied by a descent of the mercury; this gave me a very
unfavourable idea of our situation: the wind was blowing clear of the
reef, and raised a heavy sea; and the Dick was so close to us that we
dared not veer cable, for fear of getting on board of her, which must
have happened if either ship should break her sheer.

At half-past ten o'clock, during a very heavy squall, the cable parted,
but from the precaution above-mentioned, the brig happily drifted with
her head to starboard, and passed clear both of the Dick and San Antonio;
the chain-cabled anchor was then dropped, and veered to ninety fathoms,
which brought her up in fifteen fathoms, mud; in which birth she appeared
to ride much easier than before. I was now very anxious about the lost
anchor; and, having expressed a wish to inform Mr. Harrison of our
situation, and to request him to recover our anchor in the morning if the
weather would permit, Mr. Bedwell volunteered to go on board her; which,
although a service of danger, was, if possible to be effected, absolutely
necessary. The boat was lowered, and they shoved off, but as the crew
were unable to pull it ahead, I called her on board again, which was most
fortunate; for shortly afterwards the chain-cable parted also, and the
brig drove with her head towards the shore.

1821. July 1.

We had now the prospect of being obliged to keep under sail during the
remainder of the night. An attempt was made to veer, in order that, by
laying to with her head off shore, we might have time to recover the
cable, without endangering the security of the vessel; but, from the
weight of the chain at the bow, this manoeuvre could not be effected;
fearing, therefore, to drift any more to the westward, in which direction
we were making rapid way, I was under the necessity of slipping the
chain, by which we lost one hundred fathoms of cable, which we could but
badly spare: being now freed from the impediment, the brig's head was
placed off shore; and after making sail, we fired several muskets and
showed lights, as signals to the Dick, who, it afterwards appeared, kept
a light up for our guidance; but the weather was so squally and thick,
with almost constant rain, that it was not seen by us. It was half-past
twelve o'clock when we made sail to the North-East by East, deepening
from fourteen to sixteen fathoms, and when the hillocky summit of
Cairncross Island bore South by West, beyond which bearing we did not
know how far we could proceed with safety; we tacked to the
South-South-West, and proceeded in that direction until the island bore
South, when we were in fourteen fathoms. Having thus ascertained the
depth of this space, which was about three miles in extent, it was
occupied during the remainder of the night; which, being very dark and
squally, was passed by us in the greatest anxiety. At day-dawn we were
joined by our companions, and, as it was not possible from the state of
the weather to regain the anchors we had lost, made sail towards Turtle
Island, on our way to which we passed Escape River: both of these places
reminded us of former perils, but the recollection of our providential
preservation on those occasions, as well as on many others during our
former voyages, increased the grateful feelings which we now felt for our
safety and protection during the last night, the anxieties and
circumstances of which can never be obliterated from our minds.

Our course was directed entirely by the chart I had previously formed;
for the weather was so thick that for the greater part of the way no land
could be seen to guide us: by noon we had passed between Cape York and
Mount Adolphus, and in a short time rounded the north end of Wednesday
Island, and were steering between it and the North-West Reef.

After passing the rock off Hammond's Island, we steered West by South 1/2
South, but were obliged to haul up South-West by West to pass to the
southward of a small shoal, some part of which was uncovered (the time of
tide being nearly low water, spring tide): this shoal lies in a North 50
degrees West direction, from the low rocky ledge off the north end of
Good's Island, and is distant from it about a mile and a half. The Dick
being a little to leeward of our track, had four fathoms; but the least
we had was five and three-quarters. This reef is not noticed in Captain
Flinders' chart: at high water, or even at half ebb, it is very
dangerous, from its lying in the direct track; but, by hauling over to
the south shore, may be easily avoided.

At four o'clock we passed Booby Island, and steered West by South across
the Gulf of Carpentaria.

July 3.

Between Booby Island and Cape Wessel, which we passed in sight of on the
3rd, we had thick gloomy weather, with the wind between South and
East-South-East; and, after rounding the Cape had some heavy rain, in
which the mercury, having previously fallen to 29.91, rose to 29.95
inches. Lightning from the east and west accompanied the rain, but the
wind was steady, and did not freshen or lull during the showers.

July 5.

On the 5th, at daylight, Goulburn Islands were seen, and at nine o'clock
we passed through the strait that divides them; our track being half a
mile more to the northward than that of last year, we had more regular
soundings.

As soon as we anchored in South-West Bay, I sent on shore to examine our
former watering-place, but found that the stream had failed. The parched
up appearance of the island showed that the last had been an unusually
dry season; every place that, even in the month of August, six weeks
later, had before yielded large quantities, as well as the lagoon behind
the beach, which, from the nature of the plants growing in it, was
conjectured to be a never-failing supply, was now dried up.

July 6 to 8.

The next morning the brig's boat went over to Sims Island with Mr.
Cunningham, and there found a small quantity of water, sufficient,
according to Mr. Hemmans' report, for all our wants. The next morning
(7th) he moved the San Antonio over to the island, and anchoring her off
the sandy beach, landed his people to dig holes. In the afternoon he sent
me a specimen of what had been collected; but it was so brackish that I
gave up all idea of shipping any: he had improvidently dug large holes,
into which all the water good and bad had drained, and thereby the good
was spoiled. The following morning he sent another specimen, which,
notwithstanding it was considerably better, was still too bad to tempt me
to embark any. During the San Antonio's stay at Sims Island, our
gentleman paid it a visit: its vegetation appeared to have suffered as
much from want of rain as Goulburn Island. "The venerable tournefortia
(Tournefortia argentea. Lin.) however, appeared as an exception: this
tree, which grows on the centre of the beach, where it is remarkably
conspicuous, appeared to have resisted the dry state of the season; it
was in full leaf, and covered with a profusion of flowers, which
attracted a variety of insects, particularly of the genera apis, vespa,
and sphex; and among them a beautiful green-coloured chrysis."
(Cunningham manuscripts.)

During the two last days, our people were employed cutting wood; no
natives had made their appearance, although recent tracks on the sand
showed they were not far off; but on the evening of the 7th, the surgeon,
accompanied by Dr. Armstrong of the Dick, landed in that vessel's gig,
and, whilst amusing themselves among the trees, and the boat's crew
incautiously wandering away from the boat, the natives came down, and
would have carried off all the boat's furniture, and everything in her,
had they not been disturbed by the return of one of the sailors with a
musket. They succeeded however, in making a prize of a new boat-cloak,
and the boat-hook, and one of them had nearly succeeded in carrying off
an oar, but upon being fired at, dropped his booty and scampered off.
This trifling loss was deservedly sustained by our gentlemen, for they
were well aware how suddenly the natives have always appeared, and how
mischievously they had on those occasions conducted themselves: they were
also cautioned, when they went on shore to be upon their guard, and it
was fortunate for them that nothing more serious occurred.

July 8.

At daylight, the 8th, the San Antonio rejoined us from Sims Island, and
at eleven o'clock we left the bay, and passed to the eastward of New
Year's Island: the Dick and ourselves then steered to the westward along
the coast, while the San Antonio steered a north-west course, and parted
company.

July 9.

The following day, being in sight of the land of Cape Van Diemen, and
having sent our letters on board the Dick for conveyance to England, we
parted company by an interchange of three cheers; and it was not without
a considerable degree of regret that we took this leave of our friends;
for it is but due to Mr. Harrison to say that we received very great
assistance from him on several occasions: he offered us his stream anchor
to replace in some degree our loss, although he had himself only one
left; it was, however, much too small for our purpose.

By this opportunity I wrote to the Secretary of the Admiralty, and the
Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, and communicating to them a
brief account of our voyage up the east coast, acquainted them of my
intention of employing the fine-weather months of July and August upon
the north-west coast, and then of going to Mauritius, to replace our
anchors and cable, previous to our examination of the west coast.


CHAPTER 2.
Passage from Cape Van Diemen to Careening Bay.
Not finding water, visit Prince Regent's River, and procure it from the
Cascade.
Farther examination of the river.
Amphibious mud-fish.
Anchor in Halfway Bay, and explore Munster Water and Hanover Bay in a
boat.
Visit Hanover Bay, and procure water and fish.
Interview with natives.
The surgeon speared.
Retaliate upon them, and capture their rafts and weapons.
Description of their implements.
Port George the Fourth.
Islands to the westward.
Red Island of Captain Heywood.
Strong tides.
Camden Bay.
Buccaneer's Archipelago.
Cygnet Bay.
Dangerous situation of the brig.
High and rapid tides.
Cape Leveque.
Examination of the coast to Cape Latouche Treville.
Remarkable effect of mirage.
Leave the coast for Mauritius.
Voyage thither.
Arrival at Port Louis.
Refit.
Some account of the island.

1821. July 9.

Our course was held to the south-west towards Cape Londonderry; on which,
with a fresh South-East wind, we proceeded with rapidity.

July 12.

On the morning of the 12th, Eclipse Hill and Sir Graham Moore's Islands
were seen, and in the afternoon we passed Troughton Island; at sunset,
Point Hillock bore South thirteen miles, whence we steered to the
West-North-West and North-West, and rounded the north end of the long
reef, to the westward of Cape Bougainville.

July 13.

The next morning, at daylight, Cassini Island was seen bearing South by
West; here we were detained for two days by light baffling winds and
calms.

July 14.

During the night of the 14th, the wind was light from the westward, and
we stood off and on to the north of Cassini Island.

July 15.

At half-past one o'clock a.m., having sounded in thirty-three fathoms, we
shoaled suddenly to fourteen, when the vessel's head was put to the
southward, but the breeze was so very light, that she had hardly steerage
way: by the light of the moon a line of breakers was seen two miles off,
under our lee: we had now shoaled to nine fathoms on a rocky bottom, but
its great irregularity prevented our dropping the anchor until the last
minute, since it would have been to the certain loss of the only one we
had. In order, therefore, to save it, if possible, the boat was lowered,
and sent to sound between the vessel and the breakers. Finding we made no
progress off the reef by standing to the southward, we tacked; and, a
light breeze springing up from the westward, we drew off the bank on a
north-west course, and in the space of a mile and a half deepened the
water gradually to thirty fathoms.

July 16.

The next morning, at a quarter past eight o'clock, the breakers were
again seen; they were found to be 24 minutes 44 seconds West of Troughton
Island. The wind was too light to allow of our approaching, we therefore
tacked off to the westward, and soon lost sight of them; at noon we were
in latitude 13 degrees 26 minutes 26 seconds. The breakers from the
masthead, bearing south-east, distant eight or nine miles.

During the ensuing night, having a fresh breeze, we stood first to the
westward, and afterwards to the south-east.

July 17.

At seven o'clock the next morning no land was in sight, but breakers were
seen extending from South by West to South-West by South, about five
miles off; and two miles beyond them was another line of breakers,
bearing from South-South-West to South-West by West. As we steered
obliquely towards them, they were noticed to extend still farther to the
eastward, but apparently in detached patches; our soundings, as we stood
on, shoaled to fifteen fathoms; and we were shortly within half a mile of
an appearance of shoal-water, in thirteen fathoms on a rocky bottom. The
wind now began to lessen; and, for fear of being becalmed, I was anxious
to get an offing. By our observations, we found the breakers this morning
were connected with those passed yesterday, and are a part of Baudin's
Holothurie Banks. The French charts of this part are very vague and
incorrect; for our situation at noon upon their plan (with respect to the
position of Cassini Island) was in the centre of their reefs.

At noon we were in 13 degrees 38 minutes South, when a freshening breeze
from South-East enabled us to make progress to the southward. At two
o'clock some of the Montalivet Islands were seen; and before three
o'clock, an island was seen bearing South, which proved, as we stood
towards it, to be the northernmost of a group lying off the north-west
end of Bigge's Island; they were seen last year from Cape Pond, and also
from the summit of the hills over Careening Bay.

July 19 to 21.

At daylight (19th) having laid to all night, this group was about six
leagues off, bearing from South 35 1/2 to 49 degrees East, but a
continuation of calms and light winds detained us in sight of them until
the 21st.

This group consists of eight or nine islands, and appears to be those
called by the French the Maret Isles; they are from one quarter to a mile
and a half in extent, and are rocky and flat-topped; the shores are
composed of steep, rocky cliffs. They are fronted on the west side by a
rocky reef extending in a North-North-East and South-South-West
direction.

During the calm weather, in the vicinity of this group, we had seen many
fish and sea-snakes; one of the latter was shot and preserved; its length
was four feet four inches; the head very small; it had neither fins nor
gills, and respired like land-snakes; on each scale was a rough ridge: it
did not appear to be venomous. A shark was also taken, eleven feet long;
and many curious specimens of crustacea and medusa were obtained by the
towing-net. Some of the latter were so diaphanous as to be perfectly
invisible when immersed in the water. Among the former were a species of
phyllosoma, and the Alima hyalina of Leach.*

(*Footnote. Cancer vitreus. Banks and Solander manuscripts. Lin. Gmel.
tome 1 page 2991. Astacus vitreus. Fabr. Syst. ent. page 417 n. 8.)

At daylight we were about four leagues to the West-North-West of Captain
Baudin's Colbert Island; at the back of which were seen some patches of
the Coronation Islands. The night was passed at anchor off the
northernmost Coronation Island.

July 23.

And the following afternoon we anchored at about half a mile from the
sandy beach of Careening Bay.

As soon as the vessel was secured, we visited the shore, and recognised
the site of our last year's encampment, which had suffered no alteration,
except what had been occasioned by a rapid vegetation: a sterculia, the
stem of which had served as one of the props of our mess-tent, and to
which we had nailed a sheet of copper with an inscription, was
considerably grown; and the gum had oozed out in such profusion where the
nails had pierced the bark that it had forced one corner of the copper
off.

The large gouty-stemmed tree on which the Mermaid's name had been carved
in deep indented characters remained without any alteration, and seemed
likely to bear the marks of our visit longer than any other memento we
had left.

The sensations experienced at revisiting a place which had so seasonably
afforded us a friendly shelter and such unlooked-for convenience for our
purposes, can only be estimated by those who have experienced them; and
it is only to strangers to such feelings that it will appear ridiculous
to say, that even the nail to which our thermometer had been suspended,
was the subject of pleasurable recognition.

We then bent our steps to the water-gully, but, to our mortification, it
was quite dried up, and exhibited no vestige of its having contained any
for some time. From the more luxuriant and verdant appearance of the
trees and grass than the country hereabout assumed last year, when the
water was abundant, we had felt assured of finding it and therefore our
disappointment was the greater.

July 24.

After another unsuccessful search in the bight, to the eastward of
Careening Bay, in which we fruitlessly examined a gully that Mr.
Cunningham informed me had last year produced a considerable stream, we
gave up all hopes of success here, and directed our attention to the
cascade of Prince Regent's River; which we entered the next afternoon,
with the wind and tide in our favour, and at sunset reached an anchorage
at the bottom of St. George's Basin, a mile and a half to the northward
of the islet that lies off the inner entrance of the river, in seven
fathoms muddy sand.

July 26.

The following morning at half-past four o'clock Mr. Montgomery
accompanied me in the whale-boat to visit the cascade; we reached it at
nine o'clock and found the water, to our inexpressible satisfaction,
falling abundantly.

While the boat's crew rested and filled their baricas, I ascended the
rocks over which the water was falling and was surprised to find its
height had been so underrated when we passed by it last year: it was then
thought to be about forty feet, but I now found it could not be less than
one hundred and fifty. The rock, a fine-grained siliceous sandstone, is
disposed in horizontal strata, from six to twelve feet thick, each of
which projects about three feet from that above it, and forms a
continuity of steps to the summit, which we found some difficulty in
climbing; but where the distance between the ledges was great we assisted
our ascent by tufts of grass firmly rooted in the luxuriant moss that
grew abundantly about the water-courses. On reaching the summit, I found
that the fall was supplied from a stream winding through rugged chasms
and thickly-matted clusters of plants and trees, among which the pandanus
bore a conspicuous appearance and gave a picturesque richness to the
place. While admiring the wildness of the scene, Mr. Montgomery joined
me; we did not however succeed in following the stream for more than a
hundred yards, for at that distance its windings were so confused among
rocks and spinifex that we could not trace its source. After collecting
for Mr. Cunningham, who was confined on board by sickness, a few
specimens of those plants which, to me, appeared the most novel, we
commenced our descent, and reached the bottom in safety; by which time
the tide was ebbing so rapidly that we set off immediately on our return
with a view of arriving on board by low-water, in order that no time
might be lost in sending the boats up with our empty water-casks.

During our absence Mr. Roe, who was fast recovering from the effects of
his fall, had obtained the sun's meridional altitude upon the islet at
the entrance of the river, which gave 15 degrees 25 minutes 46 seconds
for its latitude, differing from the plan of last year by only fifteen
seconds.

July 27.

The following day the boats were despatched up the river, but as the
ebb-tide ran until after four o'clock it was late at night before they
reached the cascade, having experienced some delay by running upon the
sandbanks, which, above Alligator Island, are very numerous and form a
narrow winding channel of not more than twelve feet deep; these banks are
dry at low-water, and are composed of a yellow quartzose sand. At
midnight, as soon as the launch and cutter were loaded, for it did not
take more than half an hour to fill the casks, I despatched them to the
vessel with orders to return the following night for another load, and in
the meantime I purposed continuing the examination of the river, of which
we knew nothing beyond a few miles above the cascade.

July 28.

We were, however, unable to set out until half flood the next morning, on
account of the shoalness of the channel.

For ten miles we found little or no variation either in its character or
course: its windings were only just sufficient to intercept a clear view;
for so direct was its course, that from this part the high round hill
near the entrance was seen midway between the hills that form the banks
of the river.

Proceeding a little way farther, we were suddenly whirled into a rapid
amongst large stones, in the midst of which, as the stream was running at
the rate of five or six knots, the grapnel was instantly dropped, which
had the effect of reversing the boat's head. After this the grapnel was
weighed, and by very great exertions we extricated ourselves from the
rapid, and then landed at a hundred yards below the fall, on the east
bank, where the mangroves were so thick that it was with difficulty we
penetrated through them: having succeeded, we walked to the bank near the
rapid, and found that it was occasioned by the tide falling over a
barrier of rocks, which probably at low-water confines the fresh water
above this place; a few minutes afterwards it was high-water, and the
tide suddenly ceased to run; when the water became quite smooth and
motionless.

A fresh-water rivulet, at that time the mere drainings of what
occasionally is a torrent, joined the main river, just above the rapid,
by a trickling stream; and made us the more desirous of extending our
knowledge of this extraordinary river: we therefore re-embarked, and,
passing the rapid, pulled up the river against the tide for a mile
farther, where it was suddenly terminated by a beautiful fresh-water
rivulet, whose clear, transparent stream was so great a contrast to the
thick, muddied water we had so long been pulling through that it was a
most gratifying sight, and amply repaid us for all our fatigue and
exertions. The fresh water was separated from the salt tide by a gentle
fall over rounded stones; but as the boat was unable to pass over them,
we had only time to fill our water-vessels, in order to be certain of
returning over the first rapid, before the strength of the stream
rendered it dangerous to pass. The bed of the river at this second fall
appeared to be about two hundred and fifty yards in breadth: its farther
course was lost sight of by a sharp turn, first to the North-East, and
then to the South-East, between high and rocky hills.

Large groves of pandanus and hibiscus and a variety of other plants were
growing in great luxuriance upon the banks, but unhappily the sterile and
rocky appearance of the country was some alloy to the satisfaction we
felt at the first sight of the fresh water; as we did not, however,
expect to find a good country, the pleasure was not much diminished, and
we set off on our return, perfectly satisfied with the success of our
labours: we were at this time about fifty miles from the sea.

The ebb-tide had fallen for an hour when we passed the first falls, but
there was no appearance of that violence which we witnessed in the
morning; probably because the stream had not reached its strength.

An alligator was seen on our return, swimming within two yards of the
boat, and a musket, charged with a ball and buck-shot, was uselessly
fired at it. The appearance of these animals in the water is very
deceptious; they lie quite motionless, and resemble a branch of a tree
floating with the tide; the snout, the eye, and some of the ridges of the
back and tail being the only parts that are seen. The animal that we
fired at was noticed for some time, but considered to be only a dead
branch, although we were looking out for alligators, and approached
within six yards of it before we found out our mistake: the length of
this animal was from twelve to fifteen feet; I do not think that we have
ever seen one more than twenty feet long.

We reached the cascade by four o'clock and remained there until our boats
arrived for a second cargo of water, which was at midnight; as soon as
the casks were filled, we set off on our return, but did not reach the
brig until eight o'clock in the morning.

July 29.

The fatigue and exposure which attended our watering at this place were
so great that I was obliged to give up the idea of completing it now. We
had obtained, by the two trips, enough to last until the end of October,
which, with the chance of finding more upon other parts of the coast, was
sufficient for our intended mode of proceeding. The boats were therefore
hoisted in, and preparations made to leave the anchorage.

The river appears to abound with fish, particularly with mullet; and
porpoises were observed as high as the first falls, a distance of fifty
miles from the sea. A curious species of mud-fish (chironectes sp.
Cuvier) was noticed, of amphibious nature, and something similar to what
we have frequently before seen; these were, however, much larger, being
about nine inches long. At low water the mud-banks near the cascade that
were exposed by the falling tide were covered with these fish, sporting
about, and running at each other with open mouths; but as we approached,
they so instantaneously buried themselves in the soft mud that their
disappearance seemed the effect of magic: upon our retiring and
attentively watching the spot, these curious animals would re-appear as
suddenly as they had before vanished. We fired at several, but so sudden
were their motions that they generally escaped; two or three only were
procured, which appeared from their lying on the mud in an inactive state
to have been asleep; they are furnished with very strong pectoral and
ventral fins with which and with the anal fin, when required, they make a
hole, into which they drop. When sporting on the mud, the pectoral fins
are used like legs, upon which they move very quickly; but nothing can
exceed the instantaneous movement by which they disappear. Those that
were shot were taken on board, but on account of the extreme heat of the
weather they had become so putrefied as to be totally unfit for
preservation.

July 30.

The next day, the 30th, was spent in examining some bights in the narrow
part of the channel near Gap Island, so named from a remarkable division
in its centre, through which the high-tide flows, and gives it the
appearance of being two islands. It was on this occasion that we explored
Halfway Bay, where we were fortunate in finding good anchorage, and in
which we also discovered a strait, that on a subsequent examination was
found to communicate with Munster Water, and to insulate the land that
forms the north-west shore of the bay: this island was called after the
late Right Honourable Charles Greville, whose name has also been given to
a family of plants (grevillea) that bears a prominent rank in the botany
of this country. The strait, in which the tide was running at the rate of
six or seven knots, was not more than one hundred and fifty yards wide;
but in one part it was contracted to a much narrower compass, by a bed of
rocks that nearly extended across the strait, and which must originally
have communicated with the opposite shore.

We landed under the flat-topped hill, at the south end of Greville
Island, among the mangroves which skirt the shore, and walked a few
hundred yards round the point, to examine the course of the strait; but
the way was so rugged, and we had so little time to spare, that we soon
re-embarked and returned into Halfway Bay. The geological character of
the island is a red-coloured, coarse-granular, siliceous sandstone,
disposed in horizontal strata, and intersected by veins of crystallised
quartz. The surface is covered by a shallow, reddish-coloured soil,
producing a variety of shrubs and plants.

After this we crossed the river, and examined the two bays opposite to
Gap Island, but found them so shoal and overrun with mangroves that no
landing could be effected in any part. In both bays there is anchorage
between the heads; but all the inner part is very shoal, and perhaps at
low water there is not more than nine feet water within the heads. In the
mid-stream of the river the bottom is deep, and is formed entirely of
shells over which, on account of its being very narrow, the tide runs
with great strength; and from the irregularity of the bottom forms
numerous eddies and whirlpools, in which a boat is quite unmanageable.

During our absence, Mr. Bedwell examined our former watering-place, at
the back of St. Andrew's Island, and on his return landed upon the sandy
beach of a bay on the south-west side of the basin, but was unsuccessful
in his search for water at both places.

The sea breeze freshened towards sunset, and fanned up the fires that had
been burning for the last three days in several places upon the low land,
and on the sides of the hills to the westward of Mount Trafalgar; before
night they had all joined, and, spreading over the tops of the hills for
a space of three miles, produced a singularly grand and magnificent
effect.

1821. August 1.

At half past five o'clock the next morning we were under sail but, the
breeze being light, had only time to reach the anchorage under Greville
Island in Halfway Bay, before the tide turned against us. It was purposed
to remain only during the flood; but, on examination, the place was found
to be so well adapted for the purpose of procuring some lunar distances
with the sun, to correspond with those taken last year at Careening Bay,
that we determined upon seizing the opportunity; and as wood was abundant
on the island and growing close to the shores, a party was formed to
complete our holds with fuel, whilst Mr. Roe assisted me in taking
observations upon a convenient station on the north point of the bay
within Lammas Island, a small rocky islet covered with shrubs, and
separated from the easternmost point of Greville Island by a very shoal
and rocky channel.

During these occupations we examined Munster Water: on our way to it we
landed on the reef off the east end of the Midway Isles, which was found
to be more extensive than had been suspected, and to embrace the group of
small rocks, which at high-water only just show their summits above the
water; at high-tide there is at least fifteen feet water over it, but
being low-water when we landed, the reef was dry. Upon it we found
several varieties of coral, particularly Explanaria mesenterina, Lam.;
Caryophylla fastigata, Lam.; and Porites subdigitata, Lam.: the only
shell that we observed upon the reef was a Delphinula laciniata, Lam.
(Turbo delphinus, Linn.). After obtaining bearings from its extremity, as
also from the summit of the outer dry rock, we landed upon a small
verdant-looking grassy mound, the northernmost islet of the group; but we
found the verdure of its appearance was caused only by the abundance of
the spinifex, through which we had, as usual, much difficulty in
travelling. After procuring some bearings from its summit we re-embarked
and pulled up Munster Water, supposing that it was connected with the
strait at the back of Greville Island; but as the tide then flowing was
running in a contrary direction to what was expected from the hypothesis
we had formed, we began to suspect some other communication with the sea,
and in this we were not deceived; for a narrow but a very deep strait
opened suddenly to our view, at the bottom of the Water, through which
some of the islands in the offing were recognised. In pulling through we
had kept close to the south shore, that we might not miss the
communication with Hanover Bay, but notwithstanding all our care we
passed by without noticing it, on account of the deceptious appearance of
the land; indeed the strait which we discovered leading to sea was not
seen until we were within two hundred yards of it, and would also have
escaped our observation had not the channel been so direct that the sea
horizon was exposed to our view. At the bottom of this arm are two deep
bays which were partially but sufficiently examined. In most parts of
Munster Water there is good anchorage amongst several small rocky
islands, on one of which we landed, and climbed its summit, but saw
nothing to repay us for the trouble or the danger of the ascent: the
surface was composed entirely of loose blocks of sandstone, which, when
trod upon, would crumble away or roll down the nearly perpendicular face
of the rock; and it was only by grasping the branches of the acacias and
other trees that were firmly rooted in the interstices of the
less-decomposed rocks that we were saved from being precipitated with
them. On our return we passed through the channel on the west side of the
Midway Isles which we found to be very deep and the stream very strong.

August 4.

The next day we pulled through the strait that insulates Greville Island,
and found that it communicated with Munster Water at a part where we had
yesterday concluded it likely to exist, and had in consequence steered
towards it; but as we proceeded the probability became less and less, and
we gave up the search when we were within three hundred yards of being
actually in it.

We then pulled up Munster Water and afterwards through the strait to sea;
and, landing on some dry rocks on a reef which projects off the west head
of the strait, found that we were at the entrance of the bight, which was
last year named Hanover Bay: after taking a set of bearings, we
re-embarked and proceeded to the bottom of the bay which terminated in a
shoal basin.

On our return we entered an opening in the rocky cliff which bore the
appearance of being the outlet of a torrent stream; being low-water,
there was not in many parts sufficient depth to float the boat; but after
pulling up for half a mile, a muddy channel was found, which, at the end
of another half mile, was terminated by a bed of rocks over which the
tide flows at high-water. The ravine is formed by steep precipitous rocks
which are at least two hundred and fifty feet high; it appeared to extend
to a considerable distance, and as the farther progress of the boat was
prevented by the stones and want of water, Bundell and two of the boat's
crew were despatched to examine a place farther on, where, from the green
appearance of the trees, it was thought not unlikely that there might be
a fresh stream. In this they were not disappointed, for after much delay
and trouble, from the difficulty of passing over the rocks, they returned
with two baricas full of fresh water, which they found in holes of
considerable size.

In pulling up the river, an alligator was seen crawling slowly over the
mud banks, but took to the water before we came near it and did not
afterwards reappear. Many kangaroo-rats and small kangaroos were seen
skipping about the rocks, but they were very shy, and fled the moment
they saw us.

Hanover Bay thus proving to afford good anchorage and an opportunity of
increasing our stock of water, as well as presenting a sandy beach on
which we could haul the seine, it was determined that we should visit it
as soon as the brig could be moved out of Prince Regent's River.

On our return, which was over the same ground as we had passed in the
morning, we landed near two or three gullies on the inner side of the
island, which forms the eastern boundary of Munster Water, but were
unsuccessful in all our searches after fresh water.

August 6.

At daylight on the 6th we got underweigh to a light air of wind from the
southward, to leave Prince Regent's River; but notwithstanding the vessel
was under all sail she was very nearly thrown upon Lammas Island by the
tide, which was setting with great strength through the shoal passage
between it and Sight Point: as we passed without it we were not more than
five yards from the rocks. The wind then fell to a dead calm and the brig
was perfectly immovable in the water; but, drifted by the tide and
whirled round by the eddies, we were fast approaching the body of the
largest Midway Island, with a very great uncertainty on which side of it
the tide would drift us: when we were about three hundred yards from the
island the direction of the stream changed and carried us round its
south-east side, at about two hundred yards from the shore, but close to
the low rocks off its east end, on which we landed two days since. We
were under great anxiety for fear of being driven over the reef, on which
there could not have been sufficient water to have floated us; but our
fears of that danger were soon over for the tide swept us rapidly round
it. At this moment a light air sprang up which lasted only five minutes,
but it was sufficient to carry us past the junction of the Rothsay and
Munster Waters with the main stream. The vessel was at times unmanageable
from the violent whirlpools through which we passed, and was more than
once whirled completely round upon her keel; but our former experience of
a similar event prepared us to expect it, and the yards were as quickly
braced round.

Having passed all the dangers, the ebb-tide very soon carried us out of
the river into Hanover Bay. In passing the easternmost of the outer
isles, the shrill voices of natives were heard calling to us, and Bundell
returned their shout, but it was some time before we could discern them
on account of the very rugged nature of the island: at last three Indians
were observed standing upon the rocks near the summit of the island but,
as the tide was running out with great strength, we were soon out of
hearing.

Soon after one o'clock the brig was anchored at about half a mile off the
sandy beach in Hanover Bay, in eight fathoms (half flood) muddy bottom.
The boats were immediately hoisted out and sent up the river, but the
tide was ebbing and the difficulty of filling the casks so great that,
after great labour, we only procured a puncheon of water. The launch was
moored without the rocky bed of the river, while the jolly-boat conveyed
the baricas to her as they were filled, but even the latter could not get
within three hundred yards of the water, so that the people had to carry
the baricas over the rugged bed of the river for that distance, which
made the work laborious and slow; still however it was much less
distressing than the fatigue of watering from the cascade in Prince
Regent's River. At night a successful haul of the seine supplied our
people with abundance of fish, among which were mullets weighing from
three to five pounds; cavallos, whitings, silver fish, breams, and two
species of guard-fish.

August 7.

While our people were employed the next morning in washing the decks,
they heard at a distance the voices of natives; at eight o'clock they
were again heard and at ten o'clock they were close by; shortly
afterwards three, of whom one was a woman, were seen standing on the
rocks waving their arms. Being curious to communicate with the
inhabitants of this part of the coast, since we had not seen any between
this and Vansittart Bay, a party consisting of the surgeon, Mr. Bedwell,
Mr. Baskerville, and myself, went on shore to the place where the natives
were seated waiting for us. Bundell, who generally accompanied us on
these occasions divested of his clothes, stood up in the bow of the boat,
and, as we approached the shore, made signs of friendship, which the
natives returned, and appeared quite unconcerned at our approach. On
landing we climbed the rocks on which the two men were standing, when we
found that the woman had walked away: upon our approach they retired a
few paces and evidently eyed us in a distrustful manner; but, as they had
dropped their spears, and repeated the sign of peace that we had made to
them, we did not hesitate to walk towards them unarmed, desiring the
boat's crew to be prepared with the muskets, if called. When we joined
them they had their spears poised ready to throw, but on our presenting
them with some of the fish that we had caught the preceding evening they
dropped their spears and immediately returned us something in exchange;
one gave a belt, made of opossum fur, to Bundell; and the other, the
tallest of the two, gave me a club that he carried in his hand, a short
stick about eighteen inches long, pointed at both ends. This exchange of
presents appeared to establish a mutual confidence between us, and, to
strengthen it, I presented my friend with a clasped knife, after showing
him its use, the possession of which appeared to give him great pleasure.

By this time Mr. Montgomery and Mr. Bedwell joined us; the latter
gentleman was unarmed, but the former had a pistol concealed under his
coat and carried a fish which he held out for them to take; but, as they
would not approach us nearer than two or three yards, he threw it towards
them, when the shortest native picked it up. Upon this accession to our
numbers they began to talk to each other, and at the same time picked up
their spears; but as the latter appeared only to be a cautionary movement
we did not anticipate their mischievous intentions. I then, with a view
to amuse them, made signs to my friend for the knife, which he put into
my hands without showing the least reluctance, upon which he was again
instructed how to open and shut it; but as this, instead of pacifying,
only served to increase their anger, the knife was thrown at his feet,
which he instantly picked up, and then both retired a few paces in a very
suspicious manner.

We were at this time about three or four yards from the natives, who were
talking to each other in a most animated way, and evidently intent upon
some object; and, as it appeared probable that, if we remained any
longer, a rupture would ensue, it was proposed that our party should
retire to the boat, under the idea that they would follow us down; no
sooner, however, had we waved to them our farewell, and turned our backs
to descend the rocks, than they unexpectedly, and in the most treacherous
manner, threw their spears; one of which, striking a rock, broke and fell
harmless to the ground, but the other, which was thrown by the tallest
man, wounded Mr. Montgomery in the back; the natives then, without
waiting to throw their second spears, made off, closely pursued by
Bundell, who had armed himself with the broken spear; but they were out
of sight in a moment, and, by the time that the muskets were brought to
our assistance, were doubtless out of gun-shot. A pursuit was, however,
commenced, but our progress was so much impeded by the rugged and rocky
nature of the ground and by the abundance and intricate growth of the
shrubs and trees that we very soon desisted, and returned to the boat, to
which Mr. Montgomery had been in the meantime carried, complaining of
great weakness from loss of blood.

Upon examining Mr. Montgomery's wound, which unfortunately was in such a
part of his body that he could not himself inspect it, it appeared that
the spear had penetrated about three inches; and, from the quantity of
extravasated blood, great fears were entertained that he had received a
very serious internal injury. The wound, from which he was suffering very
great pain, was dressed according to his instructions, but it was several
days before he considered himself out of danger.

August 8.

The next morning at eleven o'clock a native was seen on a float, or
catamaran, paddling round the west point of the strait, and another man,
a woman, and a child, were observed on the rocks, who, in less than a
quarter of an hour, came down to the spot where we met them yesterday,
and began to wave and call to us. An opportunity now offered of punishing
these wretches for their treacherous conduct, and of disappointing them
in their present plans, for they were evidently intent upon some
mischief. Mr. Bedwell was therefore despatched to secure their catamaran,
which was hauled up on a sandy beach near the outer point, whilst another
boat was sent towards the natives: when the latter arrived near the
shore, they were sitting on the rock and inviting us to land; but it was
necessary to convince them that we were not so defenceless as they
imagined, and, as soon as we were sufficiently near, several muskets were
fired over their heads: one of them fell down behind a rock, but the
other made off. The native who had fallen was wounded in the shoulder,
and was recognised to be the man that speared Mr. Montgomery; he made
several attempts to get away, but every time his head appeared above the
rock which concealed him from us, a pistol or a musket was fired to
prevent his escape; at last, however, he sprang up, and, leaping upon the
rock with a violent effort, was instantaneously out of sight.

As soon as he was gone we pulled round to the sandy bay where the natives
had landed and overtook Mr. Bedwell, who was passing by the place. Upon
the beach we found two catamarans, or floats, on each of which a large
bundle of spears was tied with ligatures of bark; and on searching about
the grass we soon found and secured all their riches, consisting of
water-baskets, tomahawks, spears, throwing-sticks, fire-sticks,
fishing-lines, and thirty-six spears; some of the latter were of large
size, and very roughly made, and one was headed with a piece of stone
curiously pointed and worked. This last spear is propelled by a
throwing-stick, which was also found lying by it. After launching the
catamarans and securing everything found upon them, they were towed round
by the boats to where we had fired upon the natives, whilst a party
walked over land to examine the place. On the way several spears were
discovered placed ready for use on their retreat to the beach, where,
from the quantity collected, they evidently intended to make a stand;
supposing no doubt from our appearance yesterday that we were
defenceless, and would therefore fall an easy prey. On reaching the rock,
behind which the native fell, it was found covered with blood; and
Bundell, who probably did the deed, said the wound was on his shoulder.
We traced their retreat by the blood for half a mile to the border of a
mangrove inlet, which they had evidently crossed, for the marks of their
feet were perceived imprinted in the mud. We then gave up the pursuit,
and went on board.

Upon examining the baskets, among other things a piece of iron hoop was
found fixed in a wooden handle, which it seemed they had used for the
purpose of digging up roots. This hoop must have been left by us last
year at Careening Bay. But what chiefly attracted our attention was a
small bundle of bark, tied up with more than usual care; upon opening it
we found it contained several spear-heads, most ingeniously and curiously
made of stone; they were about six inches in length, and were terminated
by a very sharp point; both edges were serrated in a most surprising way;
the serratures were evidently made by a sharp stroke with some
instrument, but it was effected without leaving the least mark of the
blow: the stone was covered with red pigment, and appeared to be a flinty
slate. These spear-heads were ready for fixing, and the careful manner in
which they were preserved plainly showed their value, for each was
separated by strips of bark, and the sharp edges protected by a covering
of fur. A wound with such a spear must be mortal; and it was very
fortunate for Mr. Montgomery that his was not inflicted with one of these
truly formidable weapons. Their hatchets were also made of the same
stone, the edges of which are ground so sharp that a few blows serve to
chop off the branch of a tree.

The catamarans consisted of five mangrove stems lashed together to a
frame of smaller wood, as in Woodcut 2: they are bouyant enough to carry
two natives, besides their spears and baskets. A representation of this
mode of conveyance is also given in Woodcut 1.

These natives were more robust-looking men than any we had before seen;
the tallest must have been at least six feet two inches high; their
bodies were scarred all over; their teeth perfect, and they were quite
naked. The shorter native had his hair collected into a knob at the top
of his head, which gave him a ferocious appearance. The punishment they
so justly received will make them respect in future the formidable nature
of our arms.

At night we hauled the seine, and procured about four dozen fish,
principally mullet. An armed party was stationed above the beach to
prevent any attack from the natives, but they did not show themselves.

August 9.

On the following day we again heard them shouting and hallooing but it
was some time before we could observe their situation; at last five were
discovered by the aid of a telescope, seated on the summit of a hill
behind the beach, occupied in making spears; at a little distance were
two others, one of whom was distinguished to be the native that had
escaped unwounded; the other, a stranger, was chopping a branch off a
tree, which he was seen to trim and scrape into a rough spear. During the
time they were thus employed, they frequently hallooed to us; no notice
was however taken of their cries, although the temptation was very great
of firing a shot over their heads to show them that they were still
within our reach. As soon as they had finished their work and had made
about a dozen spears, they all got up and walked away.

After they disappeared behind the hill it was thought not unlikely that
they would attack our people at the watering-place; the party were
therefore sent away in the afternoon well armed, but the natives did not
make their appearance, and the boats returned at sunset without having
been disturbed. The tide was so trifling and the difficulty of loading
the boat so great that only ninety gallons of water were procured; and as
we were not likely to make quicker progress unless we waited for the
spring-tides, we gave up all idea of completing our water, and made
preparations to leave the bay.

August 10.

On the following day (10th) as there was no wind all the morning, I sent
for another turn of water but only obtained enough for one day's issue;
for the tide did not rise more than four feet. In the meantime I visited
the extreme point on the west side of the bay, and examined in my way
some openings in the land that, from their appearance, promised to afford
water: as it was low tide I could not enter them, for they were blocked
up by banks of sand and rocks; but on my return the tide was higher, and
I pulled about one mile up the northernmost inlet, where I was again
stopped by the shoalness of the water. All these places must afford
abundance of fresh water during the rainy season, and perhaps are seldom
without; and, as this was a year of unusual drought, it is not improbable
that the river in which we watered generally afforded a very considerable
stream; if so, from its proximity to the anchorage, the bay is of great
importance, and is an excellent place for refreshment: turtle might be
procured at the islands in its vicinity, and abundance of very fine fish
at the sandy beach: the anchorage is safe in all parts, being protected
from the sea by the islands in the offing, which front the bay. There is
also abundance of wood that may be cut close to the waterside.

Ships detained during the westerly monsoon, as far to leeward as the
meridian of 125 degrees, would find an advantage in putting into Hanover
Bay, and remaining there until the wind should veer round: by which they
would avoid the necessity of beating to windward, over such dangerous
ground as extends between this part to Timor; and, by being to the
southward, out of the strength of the westerly winds, at the latter end
of February and beginning of March, when southerly and south-east winds
prevail on the coast, they might much earlier effect their passage to the
westward.

The beach of Hanover Bay is situated in latitude 15 degrees 18 minutes 21
seconds, and 13 minutes 40 seconds West of our observatory at Careening
Bay, which makes its longitude 124 degrees 47 minutes 5 seconds East of
Greenwich.

August 11.

The next morning (11th) we left Hanover Bay and steered out at the
distance of a mile and a half from the western shore. After passing round
the western head, we entered a deep opening, and, running into it for
some distance between a rocky shore on either side, came into an
extensive basin, in the centre of which was a high island which we saw at
a distance last year, and then called the Lump, from its shape. As a set
of bearings from this island was desirable, the vessel was anchored
abreast of it at about a mile and a half from the shore; having landed
upon it in time to observe the sun's meridional altitude in the
artificial horizon, we ascended its summit and obtained the desired
bearings; we also discovered Freycinet's Island on the horizon, bearing
North 13 degrees 42 minutes West; this island was distinguished easily by
its form, which is that of an inverted basin. A large island lies in the
centre of the entrance of the port, by which two channels are formed; the
westernmost has several patches of rocks in it, but the eastern one,
which we used, appeared to be clear and free from danger, excepting a
rocky shelf projecting from the eastern shore for not more than three
quarters of a mile. In the afternoon we examined the former, and from a
summit at the south-west end of the island in the entrance obtained
another set of bearings. Afterwards we sounded its channel, and found a
deep passage, but too narrow and intricate to be preferred to the eastern
channel.

Whilst one boat was thus employed, Mr. Baskerville went to examine an
opening at the bottom of the port, which he reported to be a strait,
trending round to the South-West for six miles, beyond which his view was
intercepted by the next projecting point. The strait, which he called
after Captain R.H. Rogers, R.N., is sprinkled with many islands and dry
reefs of great extent.

August 12.

On the 12th I was occupied in laying down the plan of this place, which,
on account of the day, was honoured with the name of our most gracious
king, Port George the Fourth.

August 13.

The next day we sailed out by the eastern channel, but having to beat
against the wind, made no further progress than an anchorage off Point
Adieu, which was the last land seen by us in the Mermaid; it is the north
end of the land that forms the west side of Port George the Fourth, which
was afterwards called Augustus Island: to the westward of the point there
appeared to be many islands and much broken land. I sent Mr. Roe to Point
Adieu to get some bearings from the summit of the hill, and in the
meantime Mr. Baskerville sounded the channel between the point and the
islands; which he found to be deep and clear; Mr. Roe's report, however,
of the appearance of the inner part among the islands was not so
favourable, for it is studded over with numerous extensive reefs, which,
being low water, were exposed to view. Mr. Roe saw a tolerably broad
separation between two islands to the south-west, but more to the
westward the islands were so numerous that very little information as to
their shape or number could be obtained.

August 14.

At daylight the following morning we weighed, and with a moderate
land-breeze from South-East, steered to the North-West, and passed round
the islands. Very far to the northward on the sea horizon we saw a
sandbank, surrounded with heavy breakers; and more to the westward was an
island, which was at first supposed to be one of the Champagny Isles of
Captain Baudin, but which I afterwards satisfied myself was Captain
Heywood's Red Island: it is rocky and of small extent and apparently
quite barren. We were soon afterwards abreast of a strait leading between
some rocky islands to the southward; which, as it appeared to be free
from danger, we purposed to steer through. The brig entered it at noon,
when it was high-water, and as she advanced and reached the narrow part,
the ebb-tide was setting so strong against us that, although we were
sailing five knots by the log, we were losing ground; we continued
however to persevere for three hours and a half, and had run nearly
twenty miles by the log without gaining an inch; the breeze then died
away, and not being able to stem the tide, we steered back for anchorage,
but it was dark and late before a favourable bottom was found so that we
lost all the progress that we had gained since noon.

August 15.

The next morning, after taking angles from the sun's rising amplitude, we
got underweigh and stood towards the strait to make another attempt to
pass through it. The view that was obtained yesterday evening from the
masthead before we put about to look for anchorage, induced us to suppose
that many reefs existed in the neighbourhood of its south entrance, for
one of very extensive size was observed dry, lying off the south-west end
of the island that bounds the west side of the strait. The north end of
that island also appeared to be fronted by many shoals, which either
embrace Red Island and extend to the northward, or else the channels are
narrow and deep. The flowing tide, now in our favour, carried us quickly
forward: as we passed on we heard the voices of natives and soon
afterwards perceived two standing on a hill; our course was, however, so
rapid that we were soon out of sight of them; their fires were seen
yesterday but then they did not make their appearance.

The flood-tide, running to the South-West through the strait, meeting the
ebb flowing North-East into the deep bay to the South-East, formed many
strong ripplings, which to a stranger would have been a frightful vortex
to have entered, and although we had lately been accustomed to such
appearances, yet we did not encounter them without some fear. After
clearing them we sounded on a muddy bottom; upon which, as the weather
was so thick and hazy as to conceal the land from our view, we anchored
in seventeen fathoms muddy sand, at six miles from the strait.

In the afternoon the weather cleared a little, but it was still too thick
for us to be underweigh, so that we remained all the evening, which was
profitably spent in bringing up the chart; a little before sunset the
weather cleared and afforded a good view of the land, which to the
South-East is composed principally of islands, but so numerous that the
mainland could not be distinguished beyond them; a point, afterwards
called Point Hall, round which the land trended to the southward, bore
from the anchorage South 19 degrees East.

The direction of the tides, the flood setting South-South-East, and the
ebb North-North-West and North-West, induced me to suppose that the
opening to the eastward of the bay we were at anchor in, which was called
Camden, in compliment to the noble Marquess, was not only connected with
Rogers Strait, but was also the outlet of another considerable river or
bay.

At the anchorage the flood did not run at a greater rate than a mile and
a half an hour, but it ebbed two miles, and fell thirty-seven feet, which
is the greatest rise and fall we had yet found; it is probable, from the
intricate nature of the coast, that these high tides are common to all
this neighbourhood.

August 16.

At five o'clock on the morning of the 16th after a fine night the wind
sprung up from the East-South-East and blew fresh; but misty weather
immediately after sunrise enveloped us, and clouded our view. The breeze
was too fresh for us to continue at anchor, we therefore got underweigh,
and made sail by the wind; but upon standing across the channel and
finding that the flood-tide set to the South-West, we bore away, and,
passing round Point Hall, steered to the southward towards some low
islands that were just visible through the haze, and which, being
disposed in a group, were named after Mr. Andrew Montgomery, the surgeon
of the Bathurst.

At noon our latitude observed to the South was 15 degrees 44 minutes 16
seconds. The land was visible from the deck as far as South 30 degrees
West, but from the masthead at one o'clock it was seen as far as South 50
degrees West, and a long low island, the westernmost of Montgomery Isles,
bore from South-West by West to South-West by South. The group besides
this contained six other isles, which are all low and rocky and crowned
with bushes: as we approached them the water shoaled to ten fathoms rocky
ground; which on being reduced to the depth of low water, would not be
more than five and perhaps only four fathoms. Between Point Hall and
these islands the ground was also rocky, and, as the group appeared to be
connected by reefs, we steered off to pass round them; the wind, however,
changing to the westward, detained us all the evening near them.

The land to the southward trended deeply in and appeared to be much
broken in its character and very uninviting to us who had only one anchor
to depend upon. This bight was named, at Mr. Montgomery's request, in
compliment to the late Captain Sir George Collier, Bart., K.C.B., R.N.
During the greater part of the night the wind was light, and by the
bearings of a fire on the land we were making but little drift.

August 17.

At sunrise we were near two low islands, bearing South 12 degrees 22
minutes West, and South 20 degrees West, from which very extensive reefs
were seen extending between the bearings of South and South-West by West.
They were called Cockells Isles. We passed round their north end over a
bottom of hard sand, mixed with shells, stones, and coral; in doing which
we found an irregular depth, but as the water did not shoal to less than
twelve fathoms our course was not altered. Soon after the sun appeared
above the horizon the distant land was again enveloped in mist. At eight
o'clock we ventured to steer more southerly, but continued to sound over
a rocky bottom until ten o'clock, when the islands bore South-East; we
then steered South-West through a muddy channel with the flood tide in
our favour, towards some land that, as the mist partially cleared off,
became visible as far as South-West 1/2 West; some islands were also seen
bearing South-South-East; and at noon, being in latitude 15 degrees 50
minutes 39 seconds, we found ourselves off a bay, the east head of which
was formed by several islands. The land at the back appeared to be of
tolerable height but its outline was so level, that it did not present
any prominent feature sufficiently defined to take a bearing of more than
once; its coast appeared to be fronted by several rocky islands and to be
very much intersected to the westward; either by straits or considerable
openings.

The continued hazy state of the weather prevented our ascertaining the
particular feature of the country; it seemed to be rocky and very bare of
vegetation; but they were some parts, particularly on one of the islands
to the eastward at the entrance of Collier's Bay, where a few good-sized
trees were growing over a sandy beach.

The ebb tide after noon was against us, and the wind being light, we were
making no progress. As sunset approached, we began to look for anchorage;
but the suspicious nature of the bottom and the great depth of the water
prevented our being successful until some time after dark; the anchor was
at last dropped in twenty-eight fathoms, on a bottom of sandy mud, with
the ebb-tide setting to the North-West, at the rate nearly of two knots.

Several whales of that species called by whalers fin-backs were playing
about us all day, and during the morning two or three were seen near the
vessel lashing the water with their enormous fins and tails, and leaping
at intervals out of the sea, which foamed around them for a considerable
distance.

After anchoring the wind was variable and light from the western quarter
but during the night there was a heavy swell. The flood-tide, which
commenced at nine o'clock, when the depth was twenty-eight fathoms,
gradually ran stronger until midnight, when its rate was two miles per
hour: high-water took place at 3 hours 15 minutes a.m., or at twelve
minutes before the moon passed her meridian; the rise being thirty-six
feet.

August 18.

We were underweigh before six o'clock the next morning, and after
steering by the wind for a short time towards the southward (on which
course the tide being against us we were making no progress) bore up with
the intention of hauling round the point to leeward for anchorage, whence
we might examine the place by the means of our boats, and wait for more
favourable weather; but upon reaching within half a mile of the point we
found that a shoal communication extended across to a string of islands
projecting several miles to sea in a West-North-West direction: in mid
channel the sea was breaking, and from the colour of the water it is more
than probable that a reef of rocks stretches the whole distance across
the strait; but this appearance, from the experience we afterwards had of
the navigation of this part, might have been produced by tide ripplings,
occasioned by the rapidity of the stream, and by its being contracted in
its passage through so narrow a pass; it was however too doubtful and
dangerous to attempt without having some resource to fly to in the event
of accident.

Being thus disappointed, we were under the necessity of steering round
the above-mentioned range of islands, and at nine o'clock were two miles
North-East by East from the small island 18, when our latitude by
observation was 15 degrees 57 minutes 56 seconds; the depth being
thirty-seven fathoms, and the bottom of coral mixed with sand, mud, and
shells.

To the westward and in a parallel direction with this line of islands was
another range, towards which we steered; at sunset we hauled to the wind
for the night, off the northernmost island which afterwards proved to be
the Caffarelli Island of Captain Baudin. Between these two ranges of
islands we only obtained one cast of the lead which gave us thirty-three
fathoms on a coral bottom. Upon referring to the French charts of this
part of the coast it appeared that we were in the vicinity of a reef
(Brue Reef) under which the French ships had anchored; and, as the night
was passed under sail, we were not a little anxious, fearing lest there
might be others in its neighbourhood.

August 19.

At daybreak Caffarelli Island bore South-South-East; and shortly
afterwards we had the satisfaction of seeing Brue Reef; it appeared to be
partly dry but of small extent.

We passed within half a mile of the dry rock that lies a mile and a half
from the west end of Caffarelli Island and afterwards endeavoured to
steer between the range of islands, of which Caffarelli is the
northernmost, and a group of rocky isles, marked 33; but finding we could
not succeed from the scanty direction of the wind, then blowing a fresh
breeze from South-East, we bore up round the west side of the latter and
then steered by the wind towards a group of which the island 40 is the
principal. On approaching 40 there appeared to be a channel round its
south-end; but afterwards observing the sea breaking in the direction of
our course, we tacked off to pass round the west extremity of the group,
towards two small low islands, 50 and 51, that were seen in the distance
bearing about South 84 degrees West. The tide, having been before in our
favour, was now against us, and, setting with great strength, drove us
near the rocks that front the islands to the northward of Island 40; the
wind was however sufficiently strong to enable us to clear the dangerous
situation we found ourselves in, but soon afterwards it fell to a light
air and we were carried by the tide rapidly towards the low rocky
extremity of the islets, which we were nearly thrown upon, when a breeze
suddenly sprung up again from the South-East and enabled us to clear this
impending danger. We were now drifting to the South by East through a
wide channel, sounding in between fifty and sixty fathoms, rocky bottom.
Had the evening been less advanced and the wind favourable, we could have
run through, and taken our chance of finding either anchorage or an open
sea; and although this would certainly have been hazarding a great risk,
yet it was of very little consequence in what part of the archipelago we
spent the night, as the spots which we might consider to be the most
dangerous might possibly be the least so. We had however no choice; we
were perfectly at the mercy of the tide, and had only to await patiently
its ebbing to drift us out as it carried us in.

By our calculations high-water should have taken place at a quarter past
four o'clock; every minute therefore after that time was passed by us
most anxiously. Every now and then we were in the midst of the most
violent ripplings and whirlpools, which sometimes whirled the vessel
round and round, to the danger of our masts. Five o'clock at last arrived
and the tide-eddies ceased, but the stream continued to run until a
quarter of an hour afterwards, when at last the brig began to drift out
slowly. To add now to the dilemma and the danger we were in a breeze
sprung up against us: had it continued calm we should have been drifted
back through the deepest part of the channel, over the same ground that
the flood had carried us in: we however made sail and beat out, and
before dark had made considerable progress; we then lost sight of the
land until eleven o'clock when some was seen to the eastward: at
half-past eleven we had a dead calm; and, to increase our anxiety, the
tide had begun to flow and to drift us towards the land, which was then
ascertained to be the group 33, on whose shores the sea was distinctly
heard to break. As midnight approached the noise became still more and
more plain; but the moon at that time rose and showed that our position
was very much more favourable than we had conjectured; for, by bearings
of Caffarelli Island and the body of 33 group, I found we were at least
two or three miles from the shore of the latter.

August 20.

A few minutes after midnight we were relieved from our fears by the
sudden springing up of a fresh breeze from South-West, and in a moment
found ourselves comparatively out of danger.

At daylight we were eight miles to the north-east of Caffarelli Island;
whence we steered to the South-West by West and South-South-West. Brue
Reef was seen as we passed by it. At noon our latitude was 16 degrees 14
minutes 1 second, Cape Leveque bearing South.

From noon until one o'clock we were steering South-South-West, but made
no progress, on account of an adverse tide which occasionally formed such
strong eddies and ripplings that we were several times obliged to steer
off to get without their influence. The land of Cape Leveque is low, and
presents a sandy beach lined by a rocky reef, extending off the shore for
a mile, on many parts of which the sea was breaking heavily: the land was
clothed with a small brush wood, but altogether the coast presented a
very unproductive appearance, and reminded us of the triste and arid
character of the North-West Cape.

On laying down upon the chart the plan of this part, I found Cape Leveque
to be the point which Dampier anchored under when on his buccaneering
voyage in the Cygnet in 1688. He says: "We fell in with the land of New
Holland in 16 degrees 50 minutes, we ran in close by it, and finding no
convenient anchoring, because it lies open to the North-West, we ran
along shore to the eastward, steering North-East by East, for so the land
lies. We steered thus about two leagues, and then came to a point of
land, from whence the land trends east and southerly for ten or twelve
leagues; but how, afterwards, I know not. About three leagues to the
eastward of this point there is a pretty deep bay with abundance of
islands in it, and a very good place to anchor in or to hale ashore.
About a league to the eastward of that point we anchored in twenty-nine
fathom, good hard sand and clean ground." He then proceeds to say: "This
part of it (the coast) that we saw is all low, even land, with sandy
banks against the sea, only the points are rocky, and so are some of the
islands in the bay."*

(*Footnote. Dampier volume 1 page 462.)

From this description I have little hesitation in settling Cape Leveque
to be the point he passed round. In commemoration, therefore, of his
visit, the name of Buccaneer's Archipelago was given to the cluster of
isles that fronts Cygnet Bay, which was so-called after the name of the
ship in which he sailed. The point within Cape Leveque was named Point
Swan after the Captain of the ship; and to a remarkable lump in the
centre of the Archipelago the name of Dampier's Monument was assigned.
During the last four days we have laid down upwards of eighty islands
upon the chart, and from the appearance of the land it is not improbable
but that there may be as many more behind them.

Had we even recognised the bay above alluded to by Dampier before we
passed round Cape Leveque, we could not have anchored in it for the wind
was blowing strong from the northward, and a heavy swell was rolling,
which would have placed us in rather a dangerous situation, besides its
being exposed to easterly winds, which for the last two or three days had
blown very strong. During the time we had been among these islands, we
had not met with a single spot that we could have anchored upon without
the almost certain loss of our anchor; and the weather had been so very
thick and hazy that only the land in the vicinity of the vessel's
situation could be at all distinguished; and these disadvantages, added
to the great strength of the wind and the rapidity of the tides, had
materially prevented us from making ourselves better acquainted with the
place. It is remarkable that as soon as we passed round the Champagny
Isles, hazy weather commenced, and continued without intermission until
we were to the westward of Cape Leveque. The French complain of the same
thing; and they were so deceived by it that, in their first voyage, they
laid down Adele Island as a part of the main, when it is only a sandy
island about two or three miles long. No natives were seen on any of the
islands but there were many large smokes on the horizon at the back of
Cygnet Bay.

We were now beginning to feel the effects of this fatiguing duty.
One-fourth of the people who kept watch were ill with bilious or feverish
attacks, and we had never been altogether free from sickness since our
arrival upon the coast. Mr. Montgomery's wound was, however, happily
quite healed, and Mr. Roe had also returned to his duty; but Mr.
Cunningham, who had been confined to the vessel since the day we arrived
in Careening Bay, was still upon the sick list. Our passage up the east
coast, the fatigues of watering and wooding at Prince Regent's River, and
our constant harassing employment during the examination of the coast
between Hanover Bay and Cape Leveque, had produced their bad effects upon
the constitutions of our people. Every means were taken to prevent
sickness: preserved meats were issued two days in the week in lieu of
salt provisions; and this diet, with the usual proportions of lemon-juice
and sugar, proved so good an anti-scorbutic that, with a few trifling
exceptions, no case of scurvy occurred. Our dry provisions had suffered
much from rats and cockroaches; but this was not the only way these
vermin annoyed us, for, on opening a keg of musket ball cartridges, we
found, out of 750 rounds, more than half the number quite destroyed, and
the remainder so injured as to be quite useless.

August 21.

The following day we made very little progress, from light winds in the
morning and a dead calm the whole of the evening. At sunset we anchored
at about four miles from the shore, in seventeen fathoms sandy ground.

During the afternoon we were surrounded by an immense number of whales,
leaping out of the water and thrashing the sea with their fins; the noise
of which, from the calmness and perfect stillness of the air, was as loud
as the report of a volley of musketry. Some remorae were also swimming
about the vessel the whole day, and a snake about four feet long, of a
yellowish brown colour, rose up alongside, but instantly dived upon
seeing the vessel.

August 22.

High-water took place the next morning at twenty-six minutes after six
o'clock, at which time we got underweigh with a moderate land-breeze from
South-South-East, and steered to the southward along the shore. At noon
we were in latitude 16 degrees 30 minutes 19 seconds, Cape Borda bearing
South 42 1/2 degrees East. Soon after noon the sea-breeze sprung up from
the northward and, veering to North-West, carried us to the southward
along the coast which is low and sandy. At three o'clock we were abreast
of a point which was conjectured to be the land laid down by the French
as Emeriau Island; the name has therefore been retained, with the
alteration only of Point for Island. To the eastward of Cape Borda the
coast falls back and forms a bay, the bottom of which was visible from
our masthead and appeared to be composed of sand-downs. From Point
Emeriau the coast trends to the south-west, and preserves the same sandy
character. At five o'clock Lacepede Islands, which were seen by Captain
Baudin, were in sight to the westward; and at sunset we anchored in eight
fathoms, at about three leagues within them. These islands are three in
number, and appear to be solely inhabited by boobies and other sea-fowl:
they are low and sandy and all slightly crowned with a few shrubby
bushes; the reef that encompasses them seemed to be of great extent.

August 23.

The next day we were steering along the shore, and passed a sandy
projection which was named Cape Baskerville, after one of the midshipman
of the Bathurst. To the southward of Cape Baskerville the coast trends
in, and forms Carnot Bay; it then takes a southerly direction. It is here
that Tasman landed, according to the following extract from Dalrymple's
Papua: "In Hollandia Nova, in 17 degrees 12 minutes South (Longitude 121
degrees, or 122 degrees East) Tasman found a naked, black people, with
curly hair, malicious and cruel; using for arms, bows and arrows,
hazeygaeys and kalawaeys. They once came to the number of fifty, double
armed, dividing themselves into two parties, intending to have surprised
the Dutch, who had landed twenty-five men; but the firing of guns
frightened them so, that they fled. Their proas are made of the bark of
trees; their coast is dangerous; there are few vegetables; the people use
no houses."

At noon our latitude was 17 degrees 13 minutes 29 seconds. At four
o'clock we were abreast of Captain Baudin's Point Coulomb, which M. De
Freycinet describes to be the projection at which the Red Cliffs
commence. The interior is here higher than to the northward, and
gradually rises, at the distance of eight miles from the shore, to wooded
hills, and bears a more pleasing and verdant appearance than we have seen
for some time past; but the coast still retains the same sandy and
uninviting character. During the afternoon we had but a light sea-breeze
from the westward; and at sunset the anchor was dropped in thirteen
fathoms fine soft sand, at about six miles from the shore. Large flocks
of boobies flew over the vessel at sunset, directing their course towards
the reefs of Lacepede Islands, and in the direction of the Whale Bank,
which, according to the French chart of this part, lies in the offing to
the westward. As no island was noticed by us in the position assigned to
Captain Baudin's Carnot Island, the bay to the southward of Cape
Baskerville has received that name. The smokes of fires have been noticed
at intervals of every four or five miles along the shore, from which it
may be inferred that this part of the coast is very populous. Captain
Dampier saw forty Indians together, on one of the rocky islands to the
eastward of Cape Leveque, and, in his quaint style, gives the subjoined
interesting account of them:

"The inhabitants of this country are the miserablest people in the world.
The Hodmadods of Monomatapa, though a nasty people, yet for wealth are
gentlemen to these; who have no houses, and skin garments, sheep,
poultry, and fruits of the earth, ostrich eggs, etc., as the Hodmadods
have: and setting aside their human shape, they differ but little from
brutes. They are tall, straight-bodied, and thin, with small, long limbs.
They have great heads, round foreheads, and great brows. Their eye-lids
are always half closed, to keep the flies out of their eyes; they being
so troublesome here, that no fanning will keep them from coming to one's
face; and without the assistance of both hands to keep them off, they
will creep into one's nostrils, and mouth too, if the lips are not shut
very close; so that from their infancy, being thus annoyed with these
insects, they do never open their eyes as other people; and therefore
they cannot see far, unless they hold up their heads, as if they were
looking at somewhat over them.

"They have great bottle-noses, pretty full lips, and wide mouths. The two
fore-teeth of their upper jaw are wanting in all of them, men and women,
old and young; whether they draw them out, I know not: neither have they
any beards. They are long-visaged, and of a very unpleasant aspect,
having no one graceful feature in their faces. Their hair is black, short
and curled, like that of the negroes; and not long and lank like the
common Indians. The colour of their skins, both of their faces and the
rest of their body, is coal-black, like that of the negroes of Guinea.*

(*Footnote. The natives of Hanover Bay, with whom we communicated, were
not deprived of their front teeth, and wore their beards long; they also
differed from the above description in having their hair long and curly.
Dampier may have been deceived in this respect, and from the use that
they make of their hair, by twisting it up into a substitute for thread,
they had probably cut it off close, which would give them the appearance
of having woolly hair like the negro.)

"They have no sort of clothes, but a piece of the rind of a tree tied
like a girdle about their waists, and a handful of long grass, or three
or four small green boughs full of leaves, thrust under their girdle, to
cover their nakedness.

"They have no houses, but lie in the open air without any covering; the
earth being their bed, and the heaven their canopy. Whether they cohabit
one man to one woman, or promiscuously, I know not; but they do live in
companies, twenty or thirty men, women, and children together. Their only
food is a small sort of fish, which they get by making weirs of stone
across little coves or branches of the sea; every tide bringing in the
small fish, the there leaving them for a prey to these people, who
constantly attend there to search for them at low water. This small fry I
take to be the top of their fishery: they have no instruments to catch
great fish, should they come; and such seldom stay to be left behind at
low water: nor could we catch any fish with our hooks and lines all the
while we lay there. In other places at low water they seek for cockles,
mussels, and periwinkles. Of these shell-fish there are fewer still; so
that their chief dependence is upon what the sea leaves in their wares;
which, be it much or little, they gather up, and march to the places of
their abode. There the old people that are not able to stir abroad by
reason of their age, and the tender infants, wait their return; and what
Providence has bestowed on them, they presently broil on the coals, and
eat it in common. Sometimes they get as many fish as makes them a
plentiful banquet; and at other times they scarce get every one a taste;
but be it little or much that they get, every one has his part, as well
the young and tender, the old and feeble, who are not able to go abroad,
as the strong and lusty. When they have eaten they lie down till the next
low water, and then all that are able march out, be it night or day, rain
or shine, 'tis all one; they must attend the weirs, or else they must
fast; for the earth affords them no food at all. There is neither herb,
root, pulse, nor any sort of grain for them to eat, that we saw; nor any
sort of bird or beast that they can catch, having no instruments
wherewithal to do so.

"I did not perceive that they did worship anything. These poor creatures
have a sort of weapon to defend their weir, or fight with their enemies,
if they have any that will interfere with their poor fishery. They did at
first endeavour with their weapons to frighten us, who, lying ashore,
deterred them from one of their fishing-places. Some of them had wooden
swords, others had a sort of lances. The sword is a piece of wood shaped
somewhat like a cutlass.* The lance is a long straight pole, sharp at one
end, and hardened afterwards by heat. I saw no iron, nor any sort of
metal; therefore it is probable they use stone hatchets, as some Indians
in America do, described in Chapter 4.

(*Footnote. Probably a boomerang. See volume 1.)

"How they get their fire I know not; but probably as Indians do, out of
wood. I have seen the Indians of Bon-Airy do it, and have myself tried
the experiment. They take a flat piece of wood that is pretty soft, and
make a small dent in one side of it, then they take another hard, round
stick, about the bigness of one's little finger, and sharpened at one end
like a pencil, they put that sharp end in the hole or dent of the flat
soft piece, and then rubbing or twirling the hard piece between the palm
of their hands, they drill the soft piece till it smokes, and at last
takes fire.

"These people speak somewhat through the throat; but we could not
understand one word that they said. We anchored, as I said before,
January the 5th, and seeing men walking on the shore, we presently sent a
canoe to get some acquaintance with them; for we were in hopes to get
some provision among them. But the inhabitants, seeing our boat coming,
run away and hid themselves. We searched afterwards three days in hopes
to find their houses, but found none; yet we saw many places where they
had made fires. At last, being out of hopes to find their habitations, we
searched no farther; but left a great many toys ashore, in such places
where we thought they would come. In all our search we found no water,
but old wells on the sandy bays.

"At last we went over to the islands, and there we found a great many of
the natives; I do believe there were forty on one island, men, women, and
children. The men on our first coming ashore, threatened us with their
lances and swords; but they were frightened by firing one gun, which we
fired purposely to scare them. The island was so small that they could
not hide themselves; but they were much disordered at our landing,
especially the women and children; for we went directly to their camp.
The lustiest of the women snatching up their infants ran away howling,
and the little children run after squeaking and bawling; but the men
stood still. Some of the women, and such people as could not go from us,
lay still by a fire, making a doleful noise, as if we had been coming to
devour them: but when they saw we did not intend to harm them, they were
pretty quiet, and the rest that fled from us at our first coming,
returned again. This their place of dwelling was only a fire, with a few
boughs before it, set up on the side the winds was of.

"After we had been here a little while, the men began to be familiar, and
we clothed some of them, designing to have some service of them for it;
for we found some wells of water here, and intended to carry two or three
barrels of it aboard. But it being somewhat troublesome to carry to the
canoes, we thought to have made these men to have carried it for us, and
therefore we gave them some old clothes; to one an old pair of breeches,
to another a ragged shirt, to the third a jacket that was scarce worth
owning; which yet would have been very acceptable at some places where we
had been, and so we thought they might have been with these people. We
put them on them, thinking that this finery would have brought them to
work heartily for us; and our water being filled in small long barrels,
about six gallons in each, which were made purposely to carry water in,
we brought these our new servants to the wells, and put a barrel on each
of their shoulders for them to carry to the canoe. But all the signs we
could make were to no purpose, for they stood like statues, without
motion, but grinned like so many monkeys, staring one upon another; for
these poor creatures seem not accustomed to carry burdens; and I believe
that one of our ship-boys of ten years old would carry as much as one of
them. So we were forced to carry our water ourselves, and they very
fairly put the clothes off again, and laid them down, as if clothes were
only to work in. I did not perceive that they had any great liking to
them at first, neither did they seem to admire anything that we had.

"At another time our canoe being among these islands seeking for game,
espied a drove of these men swimming from one island to another; for they
have no boats, canoes, or bark-logs. They took four of them, and brought
them aboard; two of them were middle-aged, the other two were young men
about eighteen or twenty years old. To these we gave boiled rice, and
with it turtle and manatee boiled. They did greedily devour what we gave
them, but took no notice of the ship, or any thing in it, and when they
were set on land again, they ran away as fast as they could. At our first
coming, before we were acquainted with them, or they with us, a company
of them who lived on the main, came just against our ship, and standing
on a pretty high bank, threatened us with their swords and lances, by
shaking them at us: at last the captain ordered the drum to be beaten,
which was done of a sudden with much vigour, purposely to scare the poor
creatures. They hearing the noise, ran away as fast as they could drive;
and when they ran away in haste, they would cry gurry, gurry, speaking
deep in the throat. Those inhabitants also that live on the main would
always run away from us; yet we took several of them. For, as I have
already observed, they had such bad eyes, that they could not see us till
we came close to them. We did always give them victuals, and let them go
again, but the islanders, after our first time of being among them, did
not stir for us."*

(*Footnote. Dampier volume 1 page 464 et seq.)

At this anchorage we perceived very little rise and fall of tide, and the
flood and ebb both set to the northward, this was also the case at our
anchorage within the Lacepede Islands. At four o'clock the next morning a
strong south-easterly breeze sprang up, and moderated again before we
weighed; but no sooner were we under sail than it freshened again, and,
at half-past five o'clock, blew so strong as to oblige our double reefing
the topsails, which had not been done for many weeks before. At noon the
wind fell, and was very calm, at which time our latitude observed was 17
degrees 36 minutes 38 seconds. The highest part of the land bore North 70
1/2 degrees East, south of which a sandy point, supposed to be Captain
Baudin's Cape Boileau, bore South 87 degrees East; and a smoke, a little
to the northward of the masthead extreme, bearing South 42 degrees East
must be upon the land in the neighbourhood of Cape Latreille.

Soon after noon the breeze veered round by South to West-South-West, and
enabled us to make some progress; at sunset we again anchored in thirteen
fathoms, soft sand, at six miles from a sandy projection of the main,
which we afterwards found to be the land called by Captain Baudin,
Gantheaume Island; the name has therefore been given to the point, for
there was no appearance of its being insulated. It bears a truly desolate
appearance, being nothing but ridges of bare white sand, scantily crowned
with a few shrubby bushes.

Behind Point Gantheaume the land appeared to be formed by downs of very
white sand; and between this point and Cape Boileau is a bay, which at
first, from the direction of the flood stream at the anchorage, was
conjectured to be an inlet; but as the tide afterwards set to the
Northward and North-East, it was concluded to be occasioned by the stream
sweeping round the shores of the bay: according to the depth alongside
there was a rise of ten feet; after high-water the ebb set between North
1/2 West and North-North-East, at the rate of a quarter to three quarters
of a knot.

During the whole day the horizon was occupied by haze, and produced a
very remarkable effect upon the land, which was so raised above the
horizon by refraction that many distant objects became visible that could
not otherwise have been seen. This mirage had been frequently observed by
us on various parts of the coast, but never produced so extraordinary an
effect as on the present occasion. The coastline appeared to be formed of
high chalky cliffs, crowned by a narrow band of woody hillocks; and the
land of Cape Villaret was so elevated as to be distinctly seen at the
distance of forty miles, whereas two days afterwards, the weather being
clear, it was not visible above the horizon for more than five leagues.
This state of the atmosphere caused a rapid evaporation during the day,
and as the evening approached a very copious dew commenced falling, which
by sunset was precipitated like a shower of rain.

The next morning the land was again enveloped in haze, but at seven
o'clock it cleared off a little, and the coast was observed to trend
round Point Gantheaume to the south-east, but as we had last evening seen
it as far to the westward as South-West by South, we steered in the
latter direction under the idea of there being no opening to the
southward of the point, since the flood-tide flowed from it instead of
towards it, as it naturally would have done had there been any inlet of
consequence thereabout.

As usual, we had been surrounded by whales, and large flights of boobies;
one of the latter lighted upon the deck this afternoon, and was easily
taken; it seemed to be the same bird (Pelecanus fiber) that frequents the
reefs upon the north and north-eastern coasts. Between sunrise and midday
our progress was much retarded by light south-easterly winds. At noon we
were in 17 degrees 51 minutes 45 seconds South: after which the
sea-breeze set in from South-South-West and South-West, and we steered to
the southward. The land was now visible considerably to the southward of
Point Gantheaume, but of a very low and sandy character; and as we
proceeded it came in sight to the South-South-West. At sunset we anchored
about five or six miles to the north of Captain Baudin's Cape Villaret;
the extreme, which was in sight a little without it, was doubtless his
Cape Latouche-Treville. From Cape Villaret the land trended to the
East-North-East, and was seen very nearly to join the shore at the back
of Point Gantheaume.

The dew was precipitated as copiously this evening as the last, and the
sun set in a very dense bank; but the night was throughout fine. We now
began to experience a more considerable set of tide than we had found
since rounding Cape Leveque, for the rate was as much as a knot and a
half; but as the tides were neaped it only rose nine feet.

At an anchorage near this spot, in the year 1699, Captain Dampier remarks
that the tide rose and fell five fathoms, and ran so strong that his
nun-buoy would not watch: but the French expedition, at an anchorage a
little to the southward, found the flood-tide to set South-South-East and
to rise only nine feet, the moon being then three days past her full. All
these particulars have been mentioned, since it is from the nature of the
tides that Captain Dampier formed his hypothesis of the existence of
either a strait or an opening between this and the Rosemary Islands; but
from our experience it would appear more probable that these great tides
are occasioned by the numerous inlets that intersect the coast between
this and Cape Voltaire; a further examination, however, can only prove
the real cause.

August 26.

At daylight (26th) we weighed with a light breeze from South-West, but
soon afterwards falling calm, and the tide drifting us to the South-East
the anchor was again dropped: ten minutes afterwards a land breeze from
East-South-East sprung up, to which we again weighed, but no sooner were
we under sail than we were enveloped in a thick mist that blew off the
land, where it had been collecting for the last two days. At eleven
o'clock the fog cleared away to seaward, but the land was screened from
our view until noon, when a sea breeze from west gradually dispersed the
fog, and the hillocky summit of Cape Latouche-Treville was seen, bearing
South 17 degrees West. At half-past twelve two rocky lumps on the land to
the westward of Cape Villaret were seen, and very soon afterwards the
hill on the cape made its appearance. Between Capes Villaret and
Latouche-Treville is a bay formed by very low sandy land, slightly
clothed with a stunted vegetation. The wind was now unfavourable for our
approaching the land, and after standing off to sea and then towards the
shore we anchored in thirteen fathoms coarse sand.

At this anchorage we found a still greater difference in the tides than
was experienced the night preceding; the flood set South-East by East and
East-South-East; and the ebb from North-North-East round to
West-North-West; the rise was sixteen feet and a half, from which it
would appear probable that there must be some reason for so great an
indraught of water into the bight between Cape Villaret and Point
Gantheaume, which I have named Roebuck Bay, after the ship that Captain
Dampier commanded when he visited this part of the coast.

As the wind now blew constantly from the South-West, or from some
southern direction, and caused our progress to be very slow and tedious;
and as the shore for some distance to the southward of Cape
Latouche-Treville had been partly seen by the French, I resolved upon
leaving the coast. Our water was also nearly expended, and our
provisions, generally, were in a very bad state; besides which the want
of a second anchor was so much felt that we dared not venture into any
difficulty where the appearance of the place invited a particular
investigation, on account of the exposed nature of the coast, and the
strength of the tides, which were now near the springs: upon every
consideration, therefore, it was not deemed prudent to rely any longer
upon the good fortune that had hitherto so often attended us in our
difficulties.

August 27.

Accordingly after weighing, we steered off by the wind, and directed our
course for Mauritius.

1821. September 22.

On the 22nd September at daylight after a passage of twenty-five days we
saw Roderigues, five or six leagues to the northward. In the evening a
fresh gale sprung up from the southward and we experienced very bad
weather: at noon of the 24th by our calculation we were seventy-three
miles due East from the north end of Mauritius and, having the day before
experienced a westerly current of one mile per hour, we brought to at
sunset for the night, from the fear of getting too near the shore.

September 25.

At daylight the following morning, being by the reckoning only
thirty-four miles to the eastward of the north end of the island, we bore
up for it; but the land, being enveloped in clouds, was not seen until
noon; we then found ourselves off the south-east end, instead of the
north point; having been set to the southward since yesterday noon at the
rate of three quarters of a mile an hour: in consequence of which we
determined upon going round the south side, and bore up for that purpose;
upon approaching the land we found another current setting us to the
north.

September 26.

The next morning at nine o'clock we passed round the Morne Brabant, the
south-west point of the island, but it was four o'clock before we reached
our anchorage (at a cable's length within the flag beacon at the entrance
of Port Louis) in fifteen fathoms mud; we were then visited by the Health
Officer, and afterwards by a boat from H.M. Ship Menai, which was at
anchor in the port.

September 27.

But as it was too late that evening to enter the brig was not moved until
the following morning, when she was warped in and moored head and stern
within the harbour.

My wants were immediately made known to Captain Moresby, C.B. (of H.M.
Ship Menai) who directed the necessary repairs to be performed by the
carpenters of his ship; those articles which could not be supplied from
the Menai's stores were advertised for in the Mauritius Gazette, when the
most reasonable tenders were accepted.

As many of the carpenters and caulkers of the Menai as could be spared
from their other occupations were daily employed upon our repairs; but
from her being put into quarantine and other unforeseen delays they were
not completed for nearly a month: our sails were repaired by the Menai's
sailmakers; and, as all our running rigging was condemned and we had very
little spare rope on board, her rope-makers made sufficient for our
wants. The greater part of our bread, being found in a damaged state from
leaks, was surveyed and condemned.

Captain Flinders' account of Mauritius appears to have been drawn up with
much correctness and judgment, and is, even at the present day, so
descriptive of the island as to be considered, both by the English and
French residents of Port Louis, as the best that has yet been given to
the world. Many alterations and considerable improvements have however
taken place since his departure, and among the latter the improved system
of the culture of the sugar cane, and the introduction of modern
machinery into their mills, may be particularly mentioned. These have
been effected entirely by the political changes that have, since Captain
Flinders' captivity, taken place in the government of the island; and by
the example and exertions of the English, who possess very large
plantations, and indeed may be considered now as the principal
proprietors of the land.

(*Footnote. It afforded me very great pleasure to hear the high terms in
which my late friend and predecessor Captain Flinders was spoken of by
the inhabitants of this island, and their general regret at his infamous
detention. His friend M. Pitot had lately died, but I met many French
gentlemen who were acquainted with him. General Decaen, the governor, was
so much disliked by the inhabitants that Captain Flinders gained many
friends at his expense who would not otherwise have troubled themselves
about him; and this circumstance probably went far towards increasing the
severity of the treatment he so unjustly received. An anecdote of him was
related to me by a resident of Port Louis, which, as it redounds to his
honour, I cannot lose the gratification of recording.

When Captain Flinders was at the house of Madame d'Arifat in the district
of Plains Wilhelms, in which he was latterly permitted to reside upon his
parole, an opportunity of escaping from the island was offered to him by
the commander of a ship bound to India: it was urged to him by his
friends that, from the tyrannical treatment he had received and the
unjustifiable detention he was enduring, no parole to such a man as
General Decaen ought to be thought binding or prevent him from regaining
his liberty and embracing any opportunity of returning to his friends and
country. The escape was well planned, and no chance of discovery likely
to happen: the ship sailed from Port Louis, and at night, bringing to on
the leeward side of the island abreast of Captain Flinders' residence,
sent a boat to the appointed spot which was six miles only from Madame
d'Arifat's house; but after waiting until near daylight without the
captain making his appearance the boat returned to the vessel, which was
obliged to pursue her voyage to prevent suspicion.

It is almost needless to add that Captain Flinders did not think it
consistent with his feelings to take advantage of the opportunity, nor to
effect his escape from imprisonment by a conduct so disgraceful to the
character of a British officer and to the honourable profession to which
he belonged.)

For some years past coffee has entirely failed upon the island and cotton
is seldom seen growing. The principal attention of the habitans appeared
to be given to the cultivation of the sugar cane and maize, both of which
had begun to produce an abundant return to the planters; the manihot is
also generally cultivated: but the dreadful effects of the hurricanes to
which this island is exposed render property of so precarious and
doubtful a tenure that nothing is secure until the season for these
destructive visitations is over; they last from the beginning of December
to the end of April and generally occur about the full of the moon, being
invariably preceded by an unsteady motion of the mercury in the
barometer. They are not always so violent as to be termed hurricanes: the
last experienced before our visit was merely a coup de vent, by which
very little damage was sustained.*

(*Footnote. In the month of January, 1824 this unfortunate island was
again visited and laid waste by a tremendous hurricane that did very
considerable damage, and has in a great measure destroyed the prosperous
state which the island was beginning to arrive at from the previous long
absence of this dreadful visitation.)

The town of Port Louis which is at the north-west, or leeward, side of
the island, is built at the extremity of an amphitheatre of low land,
backed in by a high and precipitous range, upon which Peter Botte and the
Pouce are conspicuous features. The streets are laid out at rightangles,
the principal of which lead from the Chaussee to the Champ de Mars, a
plot of grassy land about half a mile square that intervenes between the
town and the hills. This is the promenade, the drive, the racecourse,
and, in fact, the principal resort for the inhabitants. It is skirted by
houses and gardens and is a valuable acquisition to the town. The
Chaussee and other streets are well furnished with useful shops of which
those of the Tinman, the Druggist, and the Conservateur et Patissier, are
the most numerous.

The houses, generally of wood, are irregularly built, and far from being
elegant in their appearance; those however that have been lately
constructed by our countrymen have already given the place an appearance
of solidity that it could not boast of before, and several substantial
stone dwellings and stones have lately been erected. The roads for seven
or eight miles out of the town, leading to Pamplemousses, to Plains
Wilhelms and to Moca districts, are very good and are kept in repair
partly by Malabar convicts from India; but travelling beyond that
distance is performed in palanquins which four bearers will carry, at a
steady pace, at the rate of six miles per hour.

At the time of our visit there were few fruits ripe; but when we were
about to sail the mango of delicious flavour began to be common; besides
which there were coconuts, guavas, papaws, grapes, the letchy (or
let-chis, a Chinese fruit) and some indifferent pineapples. The ship's
company were supplied daily with fresh beef and vegetables. The latter
were procured in abundance at the bazaar and were exceedingly fine,
particularly carrots and cabbages of an unusually large size and fine
flavour. Bullocks are imported into the island from Madagascar, in which
trade there are two vessels constantly engaged during the fine season.

Horses are very scarce; they are imported from the Cape of Good Hope and
fetch a high price: a cargo of a hundred and seventy-seven mules arrived
from Buenos Ayres while we were at Port Louis, which, on being sold by
auction, averaged each one hundred and eighty dollars. To encourage the
importation of these useful animals a premium of five dollars is offered
by the government for every mule that is brought alive to the island.

The circulating medium was principally of paper but bore a very great
depreciation; the premium upon bills of exchange upon Europe, at the time
of our departure, was as much as 66 to 76 per cent, and upon silver coin
there was a depreciation of 45 per cent.

On the voyage to this place three charts of the north-west coast were
reduced and copied by Mr. Roe and were forwarded to the Admiralty by H.M.
Sloop Cygnet, together with a brief account of our voyage from the time
that we parted company with the Dick, off Cape Van Diemen.

No observations were taken at this place excepting for ascertaining the
rates of the chronometers, and for the variation and dip of the magnetic
needle: the former being 12 degrees 31 minutes West, and the latter 51
degrees 42 minutes 1 second. The situation of the observatory has been
long since fixed by the Abbe de la Caille in 20 degrees 10 minutes South
latitude, and 57 degrees 29 minutes East longitude.

I cannot conclude this very brief account of our visit to Mauritius
without expressing my acknowledgments for the civilities and hospitality
we received from our countrymen at Port Louis, particularly from His
Excellency Sir Robert T. Farquhar, Bart., who so long and ably presided
as Governor of the Island; and for the valuable assistance rendered me in
our re-equipment by Captain Fairfax Moresby, C.B., of H.M. Ship Menai,
for which the expedition I had the honour to command is under more than a
common professional obligation.



CHAPTER 3.
Departure from Port Louis.
Voyage to the South-west Coast of New Holland.
Anchor in King George the Third's Sound.
Occurrences there.
Visited by the Natives.
Our intercourse with them.
Descriptions of their weapons and other implements.
Vocabulary of their language.
Meteorological and other observations.
Edible plants.
Testaceous productions.

1821. November 10.

On the 10th November we were ready for sea.

November 15.

But, from various delays, did not quit the port until the 15th. At
midnight we passed round the Morne Brabant, and the next evening at
sunset saw the high land of Bourbon: for the first two days we had
south-east winds and upon reaching the parallel of 25 degrees, the winds
became light and baffling with calms.

November 21.

But as we advanced more to the southward they gradually veered to east
and north-east, and afterwards to north-west, with very fine weather.

November 28.

We did not get out of the influence of these variable winds until the
28th when we were at noon in latitude 32 degrees 47 minutes and longitude
65 degrees 5 minutes; after which we encountered westerly winds and rough
weather. On the whole we had a very quick passage to the coast of New
Holland; and for the last week were expedited by a strong westerly gale
without encountering any accident or the occurrence of any circumstance
worth recording.

1821. December 23.

On the 23rd December at daylight the land about Cape Chatham was in
sight, and a course was directed to the eastward for King George's Sound;
where it was my intention to complete our wood and water previous to
commencing the examination of the west coast. At four o'clock in the
afternoon we hauled round Bald Head and, entering the Sound, soon
afterwards anchored at one mile from the entrance of Princess Royal
Harbour.

December 24.

Having at our former visit re-fitted at Oyster Harbour, I wished on this
occasion to try Princess Royal Harbour; but as I was both unacquainted
with its entrance, as well as its convenience for our purposes, excepting
from Captain Flinders' account, I hoisted the boat out early the next
morning, to make the necessary examination before the sea-breeze
commenced. Whilst the boat was preparing a distant shouting was heard,
and upon our looking attentively towards the entrance several Indians
were seen sitting on the rocks on the north head hallooing and waving to
us, but no further notice than a return of their call was taken until
after breakfast, when we pulled towards them in the whale-boat. As we
drew near the shore they came down to receive us and appeared from their
gestures to invite our landing; but in this they were disappointed, for,
after a little vociferation and gesture on both sides, we pulled into the
harbour, whilst they walked along the beach abreast the boat. As the
motions of every one of them were attentively watched it was evident that
they were not armed; each wore a kangaroo-skin cloak over his left
shoulder that covered the back and breast but left the right arm exposed.
Upon reaching the spot which Captain Flinders occupied in the
Investigator I found that the brig could not anchor near enough to the
shore to carry on our different operations without being impeded by the
natives, even though they should be amicably disposed. Our plan was
therefore altered and, as the anchorage formerly occupied by the Mermaid
in the entrance of Oyster Harbour would be on all accounts more
convenient for our purposes, I determined upon going thither.

By this time the natives had reached that part of the beach where the
boat was lying, and were wading through the water towards us; but as we
had no wish at present to communicate with them, for fear that, by
refusing anything we had in the boat, for which their importunity would
perhaps be very great, a quarrel might be occasioned, we pulled off into
deeper water where we remained for five minutes parleying with them,
during which they plainly expressed their disappointment and
mortification at our want of confidence. Upon making signs for fresh
water, which they instantly understood, they called out to us "badoo,
badoo," and pointed to a part of the bay where Captain Flinders has
marked a rivulet. Badoo, in the Port Jackson language, means water; it
was thought probable that they must have obtained it from some late
visitors; and in this opinion we were confirmed, for the word kangaroo
was also familiar to them.*

(*Footnote. The San Antonio, merchant brig, the vessel that joined our
company during our passage up the east coast, visited this port in
December 1820 and communicated with the natives; it is therefore probable
that the above words were obtained from that vessel's crew.)

Upon our return towards the entrance the natives walked upon the beach
abreast the boat, and kept with her until we pulled out of the entrance,
when they resumed their former station upon the rocks and we returned on
board.

Upon reaching the brig, the anchor was weighed, and with a fresh
sea-breeze from South-East we soon reached Oyster Harbour, but in
crossing the bar the vessel took the ground in eleven and a half feet
water, and it was some time before we succeeded in heaving her over, and
reaching the anchorage we had occupied at our last visit. Whilst warping
in, the natives, who had followed the vessel along the sandy beach that
separates the two harbours, were amusing themselves near us in striking
fish with a single barbed spear, in which sport they appeared to be
tolerably successful. As soon as we passed the bar three other natives
made their appearance on the east side, who, upon the boat going to that
shore to lay out the kedges, took their seats in it as unceremoniously as
a passenger would in a ferry-boat; and upon its returning to the brig,
came on board, and remained with us all the afternoon, much amused with
everything they saw, and totally free from timidity or distrust. Each of
our visitors was covered with a mantle of kangaroo-skin, but these were
laid aside upon their being clothed with other garments, with the novelty
of which they appeared greatly diverted. The natives on the opposite
shore seeing that their companions were admitted, were loudly vociferous
in their request to be sent for also; but unfortunately for them it was
the lee shore, so that no boat went near them; and as we did not wish to
be impeded by having so many on the deck at one time, their request was
not acceded to and by degrees they separated and retired in different
directions.

As soon as the brig was secured two of our visitors went ashore,
evidently charged with some message from the other native, but as he
voluntarily remained on board nothing hostile was suspected; we therefore
landed and dug a hole three feet deep among the grass about two yards
above the highest tide-mark, for water; but it was found to be so highly
coloured and muddy as it flowed in, that other holes were dug in the sand
nearer the edge of the tide-mark, where it was also produced, and proved
to be of a much better taste, as well as clearer, from being filtered
through the sand.

On examining the place of our former encampment, it was so much altered
from the rapid growth of vegetation that we could scarcely recognise its
situation. The stem of the casuarina on which the Mermaid's name and the
date of our visit had been carved was almost destroyed by fire; and the
inscription in consequence so nearly obliterated that the figures 1818,
and two or three letters alone remained visible. There was not the least
trace of our garden, for the space which it formerly occupied was covered
by three or four feet of additional soil, formed of sand and decayed
vegetable matter and clothed with a thicket of fine plants in full
flower, that would be much prized in any other place than where they
were. The initials of the names of some of our people were still very
perfect upon the stem of a large Banksia grandis which, from being
covered with its superb flowers, bore a magnificent and striking
appearance.

After an absence of an hour our two friends returned, when it appeared
that they had been at their toilet, for their noses and faces had
evidently been fresh smeared over with red ochre, which they pointed out
to us as a great ornament; affording another proof that vanity is
inherent in human nature and not merely the consequence of civilisation.
They had however put off the garments with which we had clothed them and
resumed their mantles.

Each brought a lighted fire-stick in his hand, intending, as we supposed,
to make a fire, and to pass the night near the vessel, in order to watch
our intentions and movements.

On returning on board we desired the native who had remained behind to go
ashore to his companions, but it was with great reluctance that he was
persuaded to leave us. Whilst on board, our people had fed him
plentifully with biscuit, yams, pudding, tea, and grog, of which he ate
and drank as if he was half famished, and after being crammed with this
strange mixture and very patiently submitting his beard to the operation
of shaving, he was clothed with a shirt and a pair of trousers, and
christened Jack, by which name he was afterwards always called, and to
which he readily answered. As soon as he reached the shore, his
companions came to meet him to hear an account of what had transpired
during their absence, as well as to examine his new habiliments which, as
may be conceived, had effected a very considerable alteration in his
appearance, and at the same time that the change created much admiration
on the part of his companions, it raised him very considerably in his own
estimation. It was however a substitution that did not improve his
appearance; in fact he cut but a sorry figure in our eyes, in his
chequered shirt and tarry trousers, when standing amongst his companions,
with their long beards and kangaroo-skin mantles thrown carelessly over
their shoulders.

Upon being accosted by his companions Jack was either sullen with them or
angry with us for sending him on shore, for without deigning to reply to
their questions he separated himself from them, and after watching us in
silence for some time, walked quietly and slowly away, followed at a
distance by his friends who were lost in wonder at what could have
happened to their sulky companion. The grog that he had been drinking had
probably taken effect upon his head and, although the quantity was very
trifling, he might have been a little stupefied.

December 25.

At daylight the following morning the natives had again collected on both
sides, and upon the jolly-boat's landing the people to examine the wells
Jack, having quite recovered his good humour, got into the boat and came
on board. The natives on the opposite side were vociferous to visit us,
and were holding long conversations with Jack, who explained everything
to them in a song, to which they would frequently exclaim in full chorus
the words "Cai, cai, cai, cai, caigh" which they always repeated when
anything was shown that excited their surprise. Finding we had no
intention of sending a boat for them they amused themselves in fishing.
Two of them were watching a small seal that, having been left by the tide
on the bank, was endeavouring to waddle towards the deep water; at last
one of the natives, fixing his spear in its throwing-stick, advanced very
cautiously and, when within ten or twelve yards, lanced it, and pierced
the animal through the neck, when the other instantly ran up and stuck
his spear into it also, and then beating it about the head with a small
hammer very soon despatched it.

This event collected the whole tribe to the spot, who assisted in landing
their prize and washing the sand off the body; they then carried the
animal to their fire at the edge of the grass and began to devour it even
before it was dead. Curiosity induced Mr. Cunningham and myself to view
this barbarous feast and we landed about ten minutes after it had
commenced. The moment the boat touched the sand the natives, springing up
and throwing their spears away into the bushes, ran down towards us; and
before we could land had all seated themselves in the boat ready to go on
board, but they were obliged to wait whilst we landed to witness their
savage feast. On going to the place we found an old man seated over the
remains of the carcass, two-thirds of which had already disappeared; he
was holding a long strip of the raw flesh in his left hand, and tearing
it off the body with a sort of knife; a boy was also feasting with him
and both were too intent upon their breakfast to notice us or to be the
least disconcerted at our looking on. We however were very soon satisfied
and walked away perfectly disgusted with the sight of so horrible a
repast, and the intolerable stench occasioned by the effluvia that arose
from the dying animal, combined with that of the bodies of the natives
who had daubed themselves from head to foot with a pigment made of a red
ochreous earth mixed up with seal-oil.

We then conveyed the natives, who had been waiting with great patience in
the boat for our return, to the vessel, and permitted them to go on
board. Whilst they remained with us Mr. Baskerville took a man from each
mess to the oyster-bank; here he was joined by an Indian carrying some
spears and a throwing-stick, but on Mr. Baskerville's calling for a
musket that was in the boat (to the use of which they were not strangers)
he laid aside his spears, which probably were only carried for the
purpose of striking fish, and assisted our people in collecting the
oysters. As soon as they had procured a sufficient quantity they returned
on board when, as it was breakfast time, our visitors were sent onshore,
highly pleased with their reception and with the biscuit and pudding
which the people had given them to eat. They were very attentive to the
mixture of a pudding, and a few small dumplings were made and given to
them, which they put on the bars of the fireplace but, being too
impatient to wait until they were baked, ate them in a doughy state with
much relish.

Three new faces appeared on the east side, who were brought on board
after breakfast, and permitted to remain until dinner-time: one of them,
an old man, was very attentive to the sailmaker's cutting out a boat's
sail, and at his request was presented with all the strips that were of
no use. When it was completed a small piece of canvas was missing, upon
which the old man, being suspected of having secreted it, was slightly
examined, but nothing was found upon him; after this, while the people
were looking about the deck, the old rogue assisted in the search and
appeared quite anxious to find it; he however very soon walked away
towards another part of the deck and interested himself in other things.
This conduct appeared so suspicious that I sent the sailmaker to examine
the old man more closely, when the lost piece was found concealed under
his left arm, which was covered by the cloak he wore of kangaroo-skin.
This circumstance afforded me a good opportunity of showing them our
displeasure at so flagrant a breach of the confidence we had reposed in
them; I therefore went up to him and, assuming as ferocious a look as I
could, shook him violently by the shoulders. At first he laughed but
afterwards, when he found I was in earnest, became much alarmed: upon
which his two companions, who were both boys, wanted to go onshore; this
however was not permitted until I had made peace with the old man, and
put them all in good humour by feeding them heartily upon biscuit. The
two boys were soon satisfied; but the old man appeared ashamed and
conscious of his guilt; and although he was frequently afterwards with
us, yet he always hung down his head and sneaked into the background.

During the day the people were employed about the rigging, and in the
evening before sunset the natives were again admitted on board for half
an hour. In the afternoon Mr. Montgomery went to Green Island and shot a
few parrakeets and waterbirds, some of which he gave to the natives after
explaining how they had been killed, which of course produced great
applause.

December 26.

The next day was employed in wooding and watering, in which the natives,
particularly our friend Jack, assisted. We had this day twenty-one
natives about us and among them were five strangers. They were not
permitted to come on board until four o'clock in the afternoon, excepting
Jack, who was privileged to come and go as he liked, which, since it did
not appear to create any jealousy among his companions, enabled us to
detain him as a hostage for Mr. Cunningham's safety, who was busily
engaged in adding to his collections from the country in the vicinity of
the vessel.

In the evening Jack climbed the rigging as high as the top masthead, much
to the amusement of his companions but to the mortification of Bundell
who had never taken courage to mount so high.

The waterholes yielded about a ton of water a day; but a stream was found
in the sandy bay to the eastward of the entrance, running over the beach,
which we used when the holes were emptied of their contents; the latter
were however preferred, since our people worked at them under an
immediate protection from the vessel's deck. Near the stream we found
some felled trees and the staves of a cask.*

(*Footnote. At this place the San Antonio merchant brig wooded and
watered in 1820.)

December 27 to 28.

Our watering continued to proceed without molestation from the natives;
the number of whom had increased to twenty-nine, besides some whom we had
before seen that were now absent. During the afternoon of the 28th the
wind freshened from south-west and blew so strong as to cause a
considerable swell where we were lying; but towards sunset the breeze
moderated and the natives were again admitted on board; there were,
however, only eleven, for the rest, having worn out their patience, had
walked away.

They were now quite tractable and never persisted in doing anything
against our wishes. The words "by and by" were so often used by us in
answer to their cau-wah, or "come here," that their meaning was perfectly
understood and always satisfied the natives, since we made it a strict
rule never to disappoint them of anything that was promised, an attention
to which is of the utmost importance in communicating with savages. Every
evening that they visited us they received something, but as a biscuit
was the most valuable present that could be made, each native was always
presented with one upon his leaving the vessel; during the day they were
busily occupied in manufacturing spears, knives, and hammers, for the
evening's barter; and when they came in the morning they generally
brought a large collection, which their wives had probably made in their
absence.

December 29.

On the 29th we had completed our holds with wood and water and prepared
to leave the harbour. In the morning there was thirteen feet water at the
buoy which had been moored on the deepest part of the bar, the depth of
which, during the two preceding days, had been frequently sounded.

In the evening we were visited by twenty-four natives among whom was our
friend Jack. When they found us preparing to go away they expressed great
sorrow at our departure, particularly Jack, who was more than usually
entertaining but kept, as he always did, at a distance from his
companions and treated them with the greatest disdain. When the time came
to send them on shore he endeavoured to avoid accompanying them and as
usual was the last to go into the boat; instead however of following
them, he went into a boat on the opposite side of the brig that was
preparing to go for a load of water, evidently expecting to be allowed to
return in her.

This friendly Indian had become a great favourite with us all and was
allowed to visit us whenever he chose and to do as he pleased; he always
wore the shirt that had been given to him on the first day and
endeavoured to imitate everything that our people were employed upon;
particularly the carpenter and the sailmaker at their work: he was the
only native who did not manufacture spears for barter, for he was
evidently convinced of the superiority of our weapons and laughed
heartily whenever a bad and carelessly-made spear was offered to us for
sale: for the natives, finding we took everything, were not very
particular in the form or manufacturer of the articles they brought to
us. He was certainly the most intelligent native of the whole tribe and
if we had remained longer would have afforded us much information of this
part of the country; for we were becoming more and more intelligible to
each other every day: he frequently accompanied Mr. Cunningham in his
walks and not only assisted him in carrying his plants but occasionally
added to the specimens he was collecting.

December 30.

The next morning (30th) the anchors were weighed and the warps laid out,
but from various delays we did not reach a birth sufficiently near the
bar to make sail from, until the water had fallen too much to allow our
passing it: the brig was therefore moored in the stream of the tide.

At eight o'clock the natives came down as usual and were much
disappointed in finding the brig moved from her former place. After the
vessel was secured the launch and jolly-boat were sent to the
watering-place in the outer bay, where the eastern party were assembled
with a bundle of spears, throwing-sticks, and knives, for barter. Upon
the return of the boats our friend Jack came on board and appeared
altogether so attached to us that some thoughts were entertained of
taking him on our voyage up the west coast if he was inclined to go. As
he did not want for intelligence there was not much difficulty in making
him understand by signs that he might go with us, to which he appeared to
assent without the least hesitation, but that it might be satisfactorily
ascertained whether he really wished to go it was intimated to him that
he should tell his companions of this new arrangement. Mr. Bedwell
accordingly took him on shore, and purchased all the spears the natives
had brought down, that, in case they should feel angry at his leaving
them, they might have no weapons to do any mischief with.

When Jack landed he instantly informed his companions of his intended
departure and pointed to the sea, to show whither he was going, but his
friends received the intelligence with the most careless indifference,
their attention being entirely engrossed with the barter that was going
on. After the spears were purchased Mr. Bedwell got into the boat
followed by Jack, who seated himself in his place with apparent
satisfaction.

While Mr. Bedwell was purchasing the spears and other weapons Jack
brought him a throwing-stick that he had previously concealed behind a
bush and sold it to him for a biscuit; but after he had embarked and the
boat was leaving the shore he threw it among his companions, thereby
affording us a most satisfactory proof of the sincerity of his
intentions.

About an hour after he had returned and I had determined upon taking him,
the breeze freshened and raised a short swell which, causing a slight
motion, affected our friend's head so much that he came to me and,
touching his tongue and pointing to the shore, intimated his wish to
speak to the natives. He was therefore immediately landed and Mr.
Baskerville, after purchasing some spears and waiting a few minutes,
prepared to return on board: upon getting into the boat he looked at our
volunteer but Jack, having had a taste of sea-sickness, shook his head
and hung back; he was therefore left on shore. Upon the boat's leaving
the beach the natives dispersed for the night but Jack, as usual, was
perceived to separate himself from his companions and to walk away
without exchanging a word with them.

December 31.

The weather at daylight the next morning (31st) was too unsettled and the
breeze too strong from the westward to think of moving from the
anchorage. Jack and another native were down on the rocks at an early
hour, hallooing and waving to us, and at eight o'clock some natives
appeared on the opposite shore with spears and knives to barter, but we
had no communication with them.

During our visit we have obtained from these people about one hundred
spears, thirty throwing-sticks, forty hammers, one hundred and fifty
knives, and a few hand-clubs, the value of each being at from half to
one-eighth of a biscuit. We saw no fizgig, shield, nor boomerang; it is
probable that they may have such weapons but did not produce them from a
dislike at parting with them; but the knives, spears, and hammers which
did not require much labour to manufacture were always ready for barter,
particularly the first, but the greater part were, like Peter Pindar's
razors, only made for sale.

Altogether we saw about forty natives of whom ten were boys: they were in
most respects similar to their neighbours, having the same long curly
hair and slight figure; they did not appear to be a navigating tribe, for
we saw no canoes, nor did we observe any trees in the woods with the bark
stripped, of which material they are usually made; and, from the timid
manner they approached the water, it is more than probable that they are
not much accustomed even to swimming. Captain Flinders is mistaken in
stating that the natives of this place do not use the throwing-stick; but
it is probable they did not produce those instruments to him, for fear of
being deprived of them, for it required much persuasion on our part to
prevail upon them to let us have any; they were much more ingeniously
formed than others that we had previously seen, and different also, in
having a small sharp-edged shell, or piece of quartz, fixed in a gummy
knob at the handle, for the purpose of scraping the points of the spears:
the shaft is broad, smooth and flat. Some of these throwing-sticks, or
mearas, were three inches broad and two feet six inches long. See Woodcut
3.

The spears are very slender, and are made from a species of leptospermum
that grows abundantly in swampy places; they are from nine to ten feet
long and barbed with a piece of hard wood, fastened on by a ligature of
bark gummed over; we saw none that were not barbed, or had not a hole at
the end to receive the hooked point of the meara. Woodcut 4 shows the
method by which this weapon is propelled.

The hammer, or kaoit, appears to be used only for the purpose of breaking
open shellfish, and killing seals and other animals by striking them on
the head; for it has no sharpened edge to be used as a chopping or
cutting instrument; the handle is from twelve to fifteen inches long,
having one end scraped to a sharp point, and on each side at the other
end two pieces of hard stone fixed and cemented by a mass of gum, which,
when dry, is almost as hard as the stone itself; the hammer is about one
pound weight. See Woodcut 5.

The knife, or taap, is perhaps the rudest instrument of the sort that
ever was made; the handle is about twelve inches long, scraped to a point
like the hammer, and has, at the other end, three or four splinters of
sharp-edged quartz stuck on in a row with gum, thus forming a sort of
ragged instrument. See Woodcut 6. It is thus used: after they have put
within their teeth a sufficient mouthful of seal's flesh, the remainder
is held in their left hand, and, with the taap in the other, they saw
through, and separate the flesh.* Every native carries one or more of
these knives in his belt besides the hammer which is also an
indispensable instrument with them.

(*Footnote. A very good idea may be obtained of the manner in which these
taaps are used, by referring to Captain Lyon's drawing of the Esquimaux
sledges at page 290 of Parry's Second Voyage: the natives of King
George's Sound however hold the knife underhanded, and cut upwards.)

We did not perceive that these people acknowledged any chief or superior
among them; the two parties that collected daily on the opposite sides of
the harbour evidently belonged to the same tribe for they occasionally
mixed with each other. Their habitations were probably scattered about in
different parts for when the natives went away for the night they
separated into several groups, not more than three or four going
together, and these generally returned in company the next morning by the
same path which they had taken when they left us: they also arrived at
different times and some evidently came from a distance greater than
others, for they were later in arriving and always took their leave at an
earlier hour.

With the exception of one or two petty thefts besides the one
above-mentioned of which serious notice was taken, and an attempt to
steal a hat from one of the boys when he was by himself on the Oyster
Bank, our communication with these people was carried on in the most
friendly manner. Mr. Cunningham was, to their knowledge, on shore every
day attended only by his servant, but none, excepting Jack, followed him
after they had ascertained the intention of his walk, and observed the
care that he took to avoid going near their habitations, for which they
evinced a great dislike; one of their encampments was about a mile and a
half off but, curious as we naturally were to witness their mode of
living and to see the females and children of their tribe, we never
succeeded in persuading them to allow us to gratify our curiosity. On one
occasion it was necessary to lay a kedge anchor out in the direction of
their dwelling-place, and upon the boat's crew landing and carrying it
along the beach, the natives followed and intimated by signs that we
should not go that way; as soon however as the anchor was fixed and they
understood our intention, they assisted the people in carrying the hawser
to make fast to it.

They were well-acquainted with the effects of a musket, although not the
least alarmed at having one fired off near them. Everything they saw
excited their admiration, particularly the carpenter's tools and our
clothes; but what appeared to surprise them above all other things was
the effect produced upon the flesh by a burning-glass, and of its causing
the explosion of a train of gunpowder. They perfectly understood that it
was from the sun that the fire was produced, for on one occasion when
Jack requested me to show it to two or three strangers whom he had
brought to visit us I explained to him that it could not be done while
the sun was clouded; he then waited patiently for five minutes until the
sunshine reappeared, when he instantly reminded me of the removal of the
obstacle. He was a good deal surprised at my collecting the rays of the
sun upon my own hand, supposing that I was callous to the pain, from
which he had himself before shrunk; but as I held the glass within the
focus distance, no painful sensation was produced; after which he
presented me his own arm, and allowed me to burn it as long as I chose to
hold the glass, without flinching in the least, which, with greater
reason, equally astonished us in our turn.

They were all furnished, as has been before mentioned, with a cloak of
kangaroo-skin, which is always taken off and spread under them when they
lie down. Their hair was dressed in different ways; sometimes it was
clotted with red pigment and seal oil, clubbed up behind, and bound round
with a fillet of opossum-fur, spun into a long string, in which
parrot-feathers, escalop shells, and other ornaments being fixed in
different fanciful ways, gave the wearer a warlike appearance.

Their faces and sometimes their whole bodies were daubed over with a
mixture of seal oil and red pigment that caused a most disgusting
effluvia; but the only colouring matter that our friend Jack used, after
his acquaintance with us, was the carpenter's chalk, which he thought
particularly ornamental.

Bracelets of dog-tails or kangaroo-skin were commonly worn and one had
several escalop shells hanging about him, the noise of which, as they
jingled together, he probably thought musical.

The noodle-bul or belt in which they carry their hammer and knife is
manufactured from the fur of the opossum spun into a small yarn like
worsted; it is tightly bound at least three or four hundred times round
the stomach; very few however possessed this ornament; and it is not
improbable that the natives who had their hair clubbed, those that wore
belts, and the one who was ornamented with shells, held some particular
offices in the tribe, which it would be difficult for strangers to
discover.

During our communication with these people the following vocabulary of
their language was obtained, of which some of the words are compared with
those recorded by Captain Flinders: these last are inserted in the third
column.

COLUMN 1: ENGLISH WORD.
COLUMN 2: NATIVE WORD.
COLUMN 3: NATIVE WORD RECORDED BY CAPTAIN FLINDERS.

A goose : Caangan.
A dog : Tiara.
To eat biscuit : Yamungamari (doubtful).
A seal : Baallot.
The sun : Djaat : Djaat.
Water : Badoo (this is a Port Jackson word, and has been probably
obtained from other visitors).
Beard : Nyanuck.
Cheek : Nyaluck.
Mouth : Tatah.
Teeth : Orlock : Yeaal.
Tongue : Darlin, or Thalib.
Arm : Wormuck.
Nails : Pera (strong accent on the r.)
Finger : Mai, plural Maih.
Toe : Kea, plural Kean.
Finger nails : Peramaih.
Toe nails : Perakean.
Nipple : Beep : Bpep.
Belly : Cobbull, or kopul : Kobul.
Posteriors : Wallakah : Wallakah.
Kangaroo : Beango.
A frog : Toke.
Spear-throwing-stick : Meara.
Hammer : Kaoit.
Eye : Meal.
Navel : Beil.
Shoulder : Kadyaran.
Shall I go on board? : Bokenyenna.
Elbow : Gnoyong.
Scars on the body : Naamburn.
Firewood : Gogorr.
A spear : Namberr, or pegero.
A knife : Taap.
Rope (on board) : Nearbango.
Wood (Plank) : Yandari.
Lips : Tar : Urluck.
Throat : Wurt.
Thighs : Dtoual : Dtoual.
Knee : Wonat : Wonat.
Leg : Maat : Maat.
Foot : Jaan, or bangul : Jaan.
Ear : Duong : Duong.
Nose : Tarmul : Moil.
Head : Maka : Kaat.
A porpoise : Nordock.
Woman : Paydgero, or coman (doubtful).
Hair of the head : Kaat : Kaat jou.
Come here : Bulloco.
Shoulder : Djadan.
Musket : Puelar (doubtful).
Gum : Perin.
Tomorrow : Manioc (doubtful.)
Surprise or admiration : Caicaicaicaicaigh. The last word lengthened out
with the breath.
A hawk : Barlerot.
A shark, or shark's tail : Margit.
Belt worn round the stomach : Noodlebul.
Back : Goong.
A particular fish : Wallar, or wallat.

NAMES OF THE NATIVES.

Yallapool (a little boy).
Ureeton, Wytumba : boys.
Marinbibba.
Coolbun.
Nakinna.
Malka.
Uderra.
Kynoora.
Hanbarrah.
Bawarrang.
Monga.
Flooreena.
Coolyarong.
Mogril (a young man).*

(*Footnote. The above names were obtained at a subsequent visit on our
return to England the following year.)

The winds during our stay performed two or three revolutions of the
compass but they partook chiefly of the character of sea and
land-breezes: during the night and early part of the morning the wind was
usually light from the northward and at ten o'clock, gradually dying
away, was succeeded by a wind from the sea, generally from South-West or
South-East; this sea-breeze occasionally blew fresh until four o'clock in
the evening when it would gradually diminish with the setting sun to a
light air.

The barometrical column ranged between 29.75 and 30.22 inches; a fall of
the mercury preceded a westerly wind, and a rise predicted it from the
South-East: when it stood at thirty inches we had sea-breezes from south
with fine weather. The easterly winds were dry; westerly ones the
reverse. The moisture of the atmosphere, for want of a better hygrometer,
was ascertained with tolerable precision by the state of a small piece of
sea-weed, the weight of which varied according to the dryness or moisture
of the atmosphere between one and three scruples. I found it on all
occasions extremely sensible, and very often to predict a change of wind
much sooner than the barometer.

Fahrenheit's thermometer ranged between 64 and 74 degrees, but the usual
extremes were between 66 and 70 degrees.

1822. January 1.

During the day of the 1st of January the depth of the bar was frequently
sounded but as there was not more than ten feet and a half water upon it
we were necessarily detained at the anchorage.

January 2.

On the following morning also at four o'clock the depth was the same; but
at ten o'clock the water rose suddenly eighteen inches, upon which the
anchors were lifted and the brig warped over the bar to an anchorage in
three and a half fathoms off the outer watering-place, to await a
favourable opportunity of going over to Seal Island; near which it was
intended to anchor in order to refit the rigging and otherwise prepare
the vessel for our voyage up the west coast.

In the afternoon we procured a load of water and permitted the natives,
thirteen of whom were assembled, to pay us another visit. On their coming
on board it was noticed that many of them belonged to the tribe that
lived on the opposite shore, but how they had crossed over was not
satisfactorily ascertained. Their wonder on this their last visit was
much raised by our firing off a nine-pounder loaded with shot, the splash
of which in the water caused the greatest astonishment, and one of them
was extremely vehement and noisy in explaining it to his companions. Upon
repeating this exhibition they paid particular attention to the operation
of loading the gun, and expressed the greatest surprise at the weight of
the ball, upon which, after they had all severally examined it, they held
a long and wordy argument as to what it possibly could be. At the splash
of the ball, for which they were all looking out, they expressed their
delight by shouting in full chorus the words Cai, cai, cai, cai, caigh.
After this they were sent on shore.

January 3.

At daybreak the next morning an opportunity offered to cross the sound,
and by eight o'clock the brig was anchored under Seal Island; upon which
we commenced the repair of the rigging, and in the course of the day
shifted the main topmast. We had left the anchorage on the other side of
the sound too early for our friends the natives, who had promised last
evening to bring us a hawk's nest that was built upon a rock near the
watering-place; at ten o'clock a very large fire was perceived close to
the nest; it was no doubt kindled by them, and meant to show that they
were not inattentive to their promise.

January 4.

The following day some natives were seen about a mile off upon the beach
but did not come near the vessel. Mr. Cunningham botanised upon the
summit of Bald Head. Of this excursion he gave me the following account:
"Upon reaching the summit of the ridge, and clearing a rocky gully which
intersected our track, we instantly entered an elevated valley of pure
white sand, bounded on either side by ridges forty feet high, that were
in themselves totally bare, excepting on the tops, where a thin clothing
of shrubs was remarked; the whole surface reflected a heat scarcely
supportable, and the air was so stagnant as scarcely to be respired,
although we were at a considerable elevation, and in the vicinity of a
constant current of pure atmospheric air on the ridge. After traversing
the whole length of this sandy vale, which is one-third of a mile in
extent, in our route towards Bald Head, with scarcely a plant to attract
our attention, we perceived at its extremity some remarkably fine
specimens of Candollea cuneiformis, Labil., which had, in spite of the
poverty and looseness of the drifting sand, risen to large spreading
trees, sixteen feet high, of robust growth and habit; they were at this
time covered with flowers and ripe fruit; but so painful was it to the
eyes and senses to remain for a moment stationary in this heated valley,
that whilst I gathered a quantity of the seeds of this truly rich plant,
my servant was obliged to hurry away to a cooler air on the ridge, which
we had again nearly reached; and but for this fine plant, and the no less
conspicuous blue-flowered Scaevola nitida, Br. The whole scene would have
deeply impressed us with all the horrors that such extremes of aridity
are naturally calculated to excite.

"Upon again reaching the ridge, whose moderated temperature required our
care to avoid suffering from the sudden transition, we came to the
granite, on whose bare surface I found a prostrate specimen of baeckea,
remarkable for the regularity of its decussate leaves, which I have
designated in my list as Baeckea saxicola. Continuing to the extremity of
the ridge, I was much surprised to find we had already attained the
highest point of the range, and to observe another expanse, or extensive
cavity, of bare white sand below us, to the South-East, the termination
of which we afterwards found to be the Bald Head, of Captain Vancouver.
This part is of remarkable appearance from seaward, having on either side
of its bare sandy summit a contrasting brushy vegetation: from the sea
however a very small part only of its extensive surface of sand can be
perceived, the greater part being only observable from the commanding
hillocks we had with much exertion arrived at. A calcareous rock
(affording evidently a very considerable portion of pure lime) was seen
in a decomposing state piercing the sandy surface of all parts of the
ridge about Bald Head which, however, is itself a pure granite; the dense
low brushy wood in its vicinity is chiefly composed of the delicate
baeckea."*

(*Footnote. Cunningham manuscripts.)

In the evening we visited Seal Island, and killed five seals for the sake
of their skins, which were serviceable for the rigging; the boat's crew
also found some penguins (Aptenodytes minor) and a nest of iguanas. The
bottle deposited here at our last visit in 1818 was found suspended where
it had been left and brought on board, when another memorandum was
enclosed in it, containing a notification of our present visit, of the
friendly and communicative disposition of the natives, and a copy of the
vocabulary of their language.

January 5.

On the 5th in the afternoon on our return to the vessel, after visiting
the shore and landing upon the flat rock, which is merely a bare mass of
granite, of about thirty yards in diameter, some natives were heard
calling to us, and upon our pulling to the part whence the sound came, we
found two men and a boy. After some time they were discovered to be three
of our Oyster-Harbour friends, and therefore we made no hesitation of
communicating with them, and of taking them on board, where they were
regaled upon the flesh of the seals we had killed at the island.

Notwithstanding the friendly disposition of the inhabitants of this
sound, I felt it necessary to act very cautiously in our communication
with them, in order to avoid any misunderstanding. And that this might
not even be accidentally done, I requested Mr. Cunningham to confine his
walks to the vicinity of the vessel, and particularly to avoid any route
that would take him towards their encampment. He was therefore prevented
from visiting many parts near which he had promised himself much
amusement and information in botanizing, particularly the neighbourhood
of Bayonet Head, and the distant parts of Oyster Harbour. At our former
visit to this place he had searched in vain for that curious little plant
Cephalotus follicularis, Br.,* but on this occasion he was more
fortunate, for he found it in the greatest profusion in the vicinity of
the stream that empties itself over the beach of the outer bay where we
watered. Of this he says: "The plants of cephalotus were all in a very
weak state, and none in any stage of fructification: the ascidia, or
pitchers, which are inserted on strong foot-stalks, and intermixed about
the root with the leaves, all contained a quantity of discoloured water,
and, in some, the drowned bodies of ants and other small insects. Whether
this fluid can be considered a secretion of the plant, as appears really
to be the fact with reference to the nepenthes, or pitcher-plant of
India,** deposited by it through its vessels into the pitchers; or even a
secretion of the ascidia themselves; or whether it is not simply
rainwater lodged in these reservoirs, as a provision from which the plant
might derive support in seasons of protracted drought, when those marshy
lands (in which this vegetable is alone to be found) are partially dried
of the moisture that is indispensable to its existence, may perhaps be
presumed by the following observations. The opercula, shaped like some
species of oyster, or escalop-shells, I found in some pitchers to be very
closely shut upon their orifices, although their cavities, upon
examination, contained but very little water, and the state of the
weather was exceedingly cloudy, and at intervals showery; if, therefore,
the appendages are really cisterns, to receive an elemental fluid for the
nourishment of the plant in times of drought, it is natural to suppose
that this circumstance would operate upon the ramified vessels of the
lids, so as to draw them up, and allow the rain to replenish the
pitchers. Mr. Brown also, who had an opportunity in 1801 of examining
plants fully grown, supposes it probable that the vertical or horizontal
positions in which the opercula were remarked, are determined by the
state of the atmosphere, at the same time that he thinks it possible that
the fluid may be a secretion of the plant. The several dead insects that
were observed within the vases of cephalotus were very possibly deposited
there by an insect of prey, since I detected a slender-bodied fly
(ichneumon) within a closed pitcher, having evidently forced its passage
under the lid to the interior, where an abundant store of putrescent
insects were collected. Whilst, therefore, these pitchers are answering
the double purpose, of being a reservoir to retain a fluid, however
produced, for the nourishment of the plant in the exigency of a dry
season, as also a repository of food for rapacious insects, as in
sarracenia, or the American pitcher-plant; it is also probable that the
air, disengaged by these drowned ants, may be important and beneficial to
the life of the Australian plant, as Sir James E. Smith has suggested, in
respect to the last-mentioned genus, wild in the swamp of Georgia and
Carolina.

(*Footnote. Flinders volume 1 page 64 and Brown's General Remarks in
Flinders volume 2 page 601 et seq.)

(**Footnote. Smith's Introduction to Botany page 150.)

"I spent much time in a fruitless search for flowering specimens of
cephalotus; all the plants were very small and weak, and showed no
disposition to produce flowers at the season, and none had more than
three or four ascidia."*

(*Footnote. Cunningham manuscripts.)

The only edible plants that Mr. Cunningham found were a creeping parsley
(Apium prostratum, Labil.) and a species of orach (Atriplex halimus,
Brown) the latter was used by us every day, boiled with salt provisions,
and proved a tolerable substitute for spinach or greens. During our visit
we caught but very few fish, and only a few oysters were obtained, on
account of the banks being seldom uncovered, and the presence of the
natives which prevented my trusting the people out of my sight for fear
of a quarrel. Shellfish of other sorts were obtained at Mistaken Island
in abundance, of which the most common were a patella and an haliotis;
the inhabitant of the former made a coarse, although a savoury dish.
There were also varieties of the following genera: namely, lepas, chiton,
cardium, pinna, nerita, two or three species of ostrea, a small mytilus,
and a small buccinum of great beauty; that covered the rocks and at low
water might be collected in abundance.



CHAPTER 4.
Leave King George the Third's Sound, and commence the survey of the West
Coast at Rottnest Island.
Another remarkable effect of mirage.
Anchor under, and land upon Rottnest Island.
Break an anchor.
Examine the coast to the northward.
Cape Leschenault.
Lancelin Island.
Jurien Bay.
Houtman's Abrolhos.
Moresby's Flat-topped Range.
Red Point.
Anchor in Dirk Hartog's Road, at the entrance of Shark's Bay.
Occurrences there.
Examination of the coast to the North-west Cape.
Barrow Island.
Heavy gale off the Montebello Isles.
Rowley's Shoals.
Cape Leveque.
Dangerous situation of the brig among the islands of Buccaneer's
Archipelago.
Examination and description of Cygnet Bay.
Lose an anchor, and leave the coast.
Adele Island.
Return to Port Jackson.

1822. January 6.

We sailed from King George's Sound on the 6th.

January 8.

But from south-westerly winds, were no further advanced by the 8th than
the meridian of Cape Chatham. After which, entering a current setting at
one mile an hour to the westward, the brig made considerable progress.

January 10.

At daylight, 10th, Cape Leeuwin came in sight from the masthead, and at
eight o'clock was seen from the deck at the distance of ten leagues,
bearing North 42 degrees East by compass.

At this, the south-westernmost extremity of New Holland, Captain Flinders
commenced his examination of the south coast, but saw no part to the
northward. The French expedition under Captain Baudin were upon this part
at two different periods of their voyage, and it appears from an
examination of their tracks that the coast between Capes Leeuwin and
Peron, the latter of which is about five leagues to the southward of the
entrance of Swan River, has been sufficiently examined by them. They
landed in several parts of Geographe Bay which affords a shelter from
southerly winds but is so exposed to those between North and
West-North-West that the French ships ran great danger of being
shipwrecked during a gale from that quarter.

The coast is sandy, and from M. Peron's description, barren and
unprofitable. With the exception of the Recif du Naturaliste which lies
about five leagues to the north of the Cape of that name there seems to
be no danger in the vicinity of the bay. The small inlet of Port
Leschenault is only the embouchure of a salt-marsh; it is scarcely
attainable even by boats; for there appears to be only three feet water
on the bar, and over and within it not more than fifteen feet. The French
found no fresh water in any part of Geographe Bay. From Port Leschenault
to Cape Peron the coast is low and sandy but inland it is of a moderate
height and appears to be furnished with a slight vegetation. The French
ships sailed along this coast at the distance of four or five miles from
the beach, and the report made by them is sufficiently in detail for all
the purposes of navigation.

Upon these considerations it was not deemed necessary that we should
examine this part again, and therefore sailed at a distance from the land
to ensure a quicker passage to Cape Peron, in order to explore the bay
behind the Isles of Louis Napoleon. Swan River and Rottnest Island had
been already carefully examined by the French; but from the latter island
to the North-west Cape, with the exception of Shark's Bay, they saw very
little of the coast, and have given its outline principally from Van
Keulen.*

(*Footnote. Freycinet page 441.)

At noon on the 10th our latitude was 34 degrees 16 minutes 14 seconds,
and a large bare, sandy patch upon the land, the Tache Blanche
remarquable of Captain Baudin, bore North 77 degrees East (magnetic). At
six o'clock in the evening we passed Cape Naturaliste, having experienced
a strong current setting North 11 degrees West, at nearly two miles per
hour; hence we steered to the northward, but it was dark when we passed
near the position assigned to the Recif Naturaliste: after steering on
for three hours longer we edged in for the land and at ten o'clock hauled
to the wind for the night.

January 11.

The next day at noon we were in latitude 32 degrees 36 minutes 2 seconds,
having the land about Cape Peron in sight from the masthead, bearing East
by South 1/2 South; but during the day the wind was so light that we had
not approached it within four leagues by sunset.

At this time the coast was visible as far as Cape Bouvard between which
and Cape Peron it is low and sandy, but the hills appeared to be
tolerably well wooded, and of a moderate height. Buache Island was
visible as well as the small rocky islet between it and Cape Peron. The
former is low and sandy, and its outline of hummocky shape; and to the
eastward was some distant land trending towards the assigned entrance of
Swan River. To the northward of Buache Island a small lump was seen on
the horizon, which perhaps might have been Berthollet Island, but it was
very indistinct. The sun set in a dense bank and the moment it
disappeared a very copious dew began to fall.

January 12.

The next morning at daylight the land to the southward of Cape Peron was
ten miles off, but at half-past nine o'clock we were between Capes Peron
and Bouvard, and about five miles from the shore, which from the former
extended in a North-East by North direction, still low and sandy.

At noon the latitude was observed to be 32 degrees 30 minutes 42 seconds,
but by the land it was only 32 degrees 23 minutes 30 seconds, a
difference of 7 minutes 12 seconds. This error was occasioned by the haze
which concealed the true horizon, and caused an appearance of land all
round us, on which rocks, sandy beaches, and trees were so plainly formed
that the officer of the watch actually reported two islands on the
western horizon. This was the most remarkable instance of mirage that we
ever witnessed; the haze had only commenced a few minutes before noon,
whilst the observation for the latitude was in the act of being taken;
and immediately after I was employed upon the chart for half an hour,
puzzling myself in attempting to reconcile the observed latitude with the
bearings of the land. This curious phenomenon was also witnessed by the
French in Geographe Bay. During the time this magical appearance
continued, we had very light airs from the southward: the barometrical
column fell to 29.76 inches, but the hygrometer indicated an
extraordinary dryness of the air. At sunset the haze cleared away, when
Rottnest Island was seen, bearing between North 10 degrees and 32 degrees
East (magnetic); a breeze then freshened from West-South-West but
gradually veered round to the southward; and at nine o'clock was very
light from South-East.

January 13.

During the night we made short tacks. At four o'clock in the morning
(13th) the latitude by the moon's meridional altitude was 32 degrees 16
minutes 17 seconds, and soon afterwards Rottnest was in sight in the
North-North-East. At six o'clock the sky was clouded, and the weather
threatened to be bad; the mercury fell to 29.69 inches, upon which all
sail was made off the land, as appearances indicated a westerly gale: but
after an interval of two hours, during which we had a fresh breeze from
North-West by West, the weather cleared up and we steered towards
Rottnest Island.

January 14.

The next morning the brig was anchored off the north-east end of the
island in thirteen fathoms gravelly sand; and in the afternoon I went on
shore in a bay on the east or leeward side, where we found the water
smooth and the landing more practicable than upon the north side where a
tremendous surf was rolling in upon the beach. We disturbed a great many
seals but only killed three; and were much disappointed in finding that
these animals were not of the fur species, as in M. de Freycinet's
account of the island they are said to be; they were evidently the same
description as those noticed at King George's Sound. The traces of a
small kangaroo were everywhere abundant but the animals were not seen. We
walked to the easternmost of the lakes which the French named Etangs
Duvaildaily and which M. de Freycinet remarks as being surrounded by an
extensive beach, composed entirely of bivalve shells, a species of
cardium: the quantity was indeed extraordinary. The banks were frequented
by gulls and sandpipers, of which many were shot. The water was found to
be perfectly salt and from the circumstance of its rising and falling
with the tide it must have some communication with the sea. The rocks of
the island are principally calcareous and in a very advanced state of
decomposition. The beaches were covered with dead shells of the genera
buccinum, bulla, murex, trochus, and haliotis; but we found none with the
living animal in them. Of the feathered tribe a hawk and a pigeon were
the only land-birds seen; but boobies, terns, and sandpipers were very
numerous about the shores. Mr. Cunningham was fully employed during the
short time that we were on shore, and excepting the pleasing interest
created in our minds by landing on an island which has been so seldom
before seen, and which from Vlaming's account bears a prominent place in
the history of this part of the coast, he was the only one of the party
that derived any advantage from our visit. Of the productions of this
island he makes the following brief remarks: "It is surprising that an
island, situated at so short a distance from the south-west coast, should
bear so small a feature of the characteristic vegetation of King George's
Sound as not to furnish a plant of its several genera of Proteaceae or
Mimoseae, and but a solitary plant of Leguminosae. It would therefore
seem that these families are confined to the shores of the main,
particularly about King George's Sound, where we have just left them in
the greatest luxuriance and profusion. Among the botanical productions of
this island there is no plant of so striking a feature as the callitris,
a tree of about twenty-five feet high, with a short stem of three feet in
diameter; it much resembles the Pinus cedrus, or cedar of Lebanon, in its
robust horizontal growth; it is found abundantly over the island, and
within a few yards of the sea-beach. The island is formed by a succession
of small hills and intervening valleys; and although the soil is very
poor, being principally a mixture of quartzose sand and a large
proportion of marine exuviae, yet this tree grows to a considerable size,
but covering the surface of the island, gives it a monotonous appearance
which is however occasionally relieved by a spreading undescribed species
of melaleuca (allied to Melaleuca armillaris, Smith) and the more elegant
pittosporum, an arborescent species, also undescribed. In fact, these
three trees constitute the timber of the island. The ground is in some
parts profusely clothed with Spinifex hirsutus, Labil., in which I
detected a new species of xerotes, a round bushy plant growing in large
bodies.

"No fresh water has ever been discovered upon this island: indeed the
loose filtering nature of the soil is not tenacious enough to retain that
element at the surface. The woods are abundantly stocked with a small
species of kangaroo of which we saw only the traces; nor did we see the
animal, on account of whose numbers and resemblance to a rat the island
received its name from Vlaming in 1619. M. Peron says that it forms a new
genus, and of a very remarkable character.* Rottnest Island does not
appear ever to have been inhabited or even visited by the natives from
the main; probably on account of the stormy nature of the weather, and
the prevalence of westerly winds, which would be quite sufficient to
deter them from venturing to sea in such fragile vessels as they
possess."**

(*Footnote. Peron volume 1 page 189.)

(**Footnote. Cunningham manuscripts.)

January 15.

On our return to the brig, we passed over a clear sandy bottom that would
have afforded better anchorage than where we had brought up; for the
vessel was not only exposed to a considerable swell but the ground was so
foul that in weighing the anchor the following morning one of the flukes
hooked a rock and broke off, besides which the cable was much rubbed.

As Swan River had been very minutely examined in Baudin's voyage by MM.
Heirisson and Baily, the former an enseigne de vaisseau, the latter a
mineralogist, an account of which is fully detailed in De Freycinet's and
Peron's respective accounts of that voyage,* without their finding
anything of sufficient importance to induce me to risk leaving the brig
at anchor off Rottnest Island for so long a time as it would necessarily
take to add to the knowledge of it that we already possess, I did not
think it advisable to delay for such a purpose, and therefore as soon as
we were underweigh steered for the mainland and continued to run
northerly along the shore at the distance of six miles from it. At noon
our latitude was 31 degrees 37 minutes 32 seconds. The coast is formed by
sandy hillocks, or dunes, of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty
feet high, here and there sprinkled with shrubs, but in many parts quite
bare: behind this frontier a second range of hills was occasionally seen
on which the trees appeared to be of moderate size: the shore is rocky
for two miles off and in many parts the sea broke. At half-past three
o'clock we were abreast of a low, sandy projection, supposed to be
Captain Baudin's Cape Leschenault. The appearance of the coast to the
northward on this cape differed from what we passed in the morning, in
that the coast hillocks are more bare of vegetation; there appeared to be
several ridges behind the coast dunes, but they were all equally
unproductive of vegetation. Lancelin Island was not distinctly made out
but the two small rocky lumps on the bare sandhills that M. De Freycinet
mentions, were seen and thought to be very remarkable. At seven o'clock,
having reached in my plan the latitude 31 degrees 0 minutes 30 seconds,
and longitude 115 degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds, we hauled off shore for
the night.

January 16.

And at six o'clock a.m. stood towards the land again. At half-past ten
o'clock we were so near to it as to see the beach: at noon the latitude
was observed to be 30 degrees 52 minutes 13 seconds, its longitude being
114 degrees 56 minutes 45 seconds, at which time we were on the parallel
of the two rocky lumps seen the last evening. Hence we steered north on a
parallel direction with the coast and ran forty-five miles, passing the
different projections of the beach at the distance of four or five miles,
and sounding in between nineteen and twenty-five fathoms. At four o'clock
we were abreast of a bare sandy point which appeared to be the north head
of Jurien Bay, in which two rocky islets were seen, fronted by reefs, on
which the sea in many parts was breaking violently. To the southward of
the point the coast hills are rather high and principally formed of very
white sand, bearing a strong resemblance, from the absence of vegetables,
to hills covered with snow. Here and there however a few shrubs partially
concealed the sand, and gave a variety to the scene which was dismally
triste. The country to the northward bears a different character; the
shore is very low and sandy and continues so for some distance in the
interior towards the base of a range of tolerably-elevated hills, on
which the French have placed three remarkable pitons, but these, perhaps
from our being too close in shore, we did not discover.

(*Footnote. See De Freycinet page 175 et seq and Peron volume 1 page 178
et seq.)

This range extends in a North by West and South by East direction, and
appears to be rocky. In the middle ground some trees were noticed and
vegetation appeared to be more abundant than in the space between the
bare sandy point and Cape Leschenault. In Jurien Bay towards its south
part near the shore is a small hillock, on which some trees of a moderate
size were seen; they are thus noticed because the existence of trees
hereabout is so rare as to be deserving of record. No native fires were
seen between this part and Rottnest Island, nor was there any other
indication of the coast being inhabited; it is however likely to be as
populous as any other part, for the hills in the interior, which we
occasionally got a glimpse of, seemed to be wooded, and would therefore
furnish subsistence to natives from hunting, even if the seashore failed
in supplying them with fish. Between the bare sandy point and Island
Point there is a deep bay, the shores of which are fronted by a reef
partly dry, extending from the shore two miles.

At seven o'clock we were about a mile and a half from a reef that nearly
crossed our course; and as it was time to haul off for the night we
shortened sail and brought to the wind, then blowing a strong squally
breeze from south; but notwithstanding this succession of bad weather,
the mercury in the barometer had ranged steadily between 29.90 and 29.92
inches.

January 17.

At daybreak we steered in for the land but ran twenty-two miles before it
was seen. At nine o'clock it bore between North-East and South-East, and
at a quarter after nine heavy breakers were seen in the South-East at the
distance of five miles. The weather was now fine and the wind
South-South-East, but still blew strong; the horizon was so enveloped by
haze that the land, although not more than seven miles from our track,
was very indistinctly seen: it seemed to be formed of sandhills, from one
hundred to one hundred and fifty feet high, slightly studded with a
scrubby vegetation; in the interior we perceived a range of hills of
tabular form which are probably very high. At ten o'clock we passed
another patch of breakers at the distance of about a mile and a half; but
these appeared to have no connexion with those seen at nine o'clock. Our
soundings were between fifteen and seventeen fathoms, and our distance
from the beach from six to seven miles. At noon the wind veered back to
South-South-West and blew hard: we were at this time in 29 degrees 5
minutes 1 second South and by chronometers in 114 degrees 40 minutes 30
seconds East; by which we found that a current had set us during the last
twenty-four hours to the North-North-West at one mile per hour. At
half-past twelve o'clock more breakers were seen bearing North-West 1/2
North, when we hauled off West-North-West in order to ascertain the
distance between the land and the Abrolhos bank which, in Van Keulen's
chart, is placed abreast of this part of the coast.

At half-past four o'clock the masthead man was cautioned to look out for
breakers and in less than half an hour afterwards he reported some
bearing North-West by North. On going to the masthead I saw them
distinctly for they were not more than four miles off, and on looking
round the horizon towards the westward, distinctly saw the island of
Frederick Houtman's Abrolhos, which for some time the masthead man
persisted was only the shadow of the clouds; but a small hummock being
soon afterwards descried upon the summit of the largest, confirmed my
conjectures. The group appeared to consist of three islands, all low and
of small size. Beyond and around them the sea was smooth and to the
southward another patch of breakers was observed. Preparations were now
made to tack off, but I had scarcely reached the deck when the lookout
man reported rocks under our lee bow, upon which the helm was immediately
put up; and when the vessel's head was round upon the opposite tack the
following bearings were taken:

Island of the Abrolhos: eight miles off, between West and South 75
degrees West.

Breakers: four miles off, North-North-West North.

Another patch: seven miles off, South-West.

And the small rock patch, half a mile off, West.

This last I did not see myself but two men perceived it distinctly from
the masthead, and it is from their accounts that I am induced to give it
a place upon the chart. The position of the vessel when we saw the
breakers was in latitude 28 degrees 53 minutes and in longitude 114
degrees 2 minutes, and from the short interval between our obtaining
sights for the chronometer and the meridional observation at noon, the
position may be considered to be tolerably correct. After taking the
bearings and before sail was made we sounded in twenty-five fathoms, fine
shelly sand; but as we stood to the eastward the water gradually deepened
to twenty-nine and thirty fathoms.

January 18.

The next morning at daylight the land was out of sight but at five
o'clock was distinguished, forming a range of flat-topped land, probably
about one thousand feet high. At the northern end of the range were four
or five hills standing apart from each other, of which, in the view we
then had of them, the northernmost was flat-topped, and the others
peaked; at the south end of the range were three other distinct hills,
the centre being peaked and the other two flat-topped. Near the centre of
the main range was another summit that was remarkable for its form.

This range was seen by Captain Hamelin of the Naturaliste, and is thus
noticed by M. De Freycinet in his account of the voyage. "Entre les
paralleles de 29 degres et 28 degres 20 minutes, la terre est tres haute;
on y remarque deux montagnes bien reconnoisables par leur forme qui
approche de celle de la Grange, sur la cote de Saint-Domingue, ou de la
Montagne de la Table au Cap de Bonne-Esperance; une autre ressemble un
peu au Pouce, de l'Ile-de-France. La terre est aride, bordee de falaises
rougeatres; on y voit peu de sable comparativement aux terres plus au
sud."*

(*Footnote. De Freycinet page 181.)

We sought in vain for the resemblance to the Pouce, but as all the hills
were flat-topped of course they were similar to the Table Land of the
Cape of Good Hope, but probably inferior to it in point of height.

This range I called after Captain Moresby, R.N. C.B., in grateful
recognition of the prompt assistance rendered by him to the wants and
repairs of our vessel, during her late visit to Mauritius. The summit in
the centre was called Mount Fairfax; the group of hills at the north end
were named Menai Hills, and the three at the south end of the range were
distinguished by the name of Wizard Hills; Mount Fairfax is in latitude
28 degrees 45 minutes 20 seconds, longitude 114 degrees 38 minutes 45
seconds. The shore in front of these hills is sandy and there was an
appearance of two openings in the beach that were probably the outlets of
mountain-streams. The country also appeared much better wooded than in
other parts, and as large smokes were seen in the valleys the place most
likely at the time of our passing frequented by natives.

Hence the coast trends to the North-West by North towards a patch of bare
sand, which is remarkable because the coast is not so sandy as it is more
to the south. At ten o'clock a very thick haze spread over the land and
so enveloped it that nothing could be distinguished. At noon, the brig
being in 28 degrees 25 minutes 42 seconds South, and 114 degrees 7
minutes 0 seconds East, the haze partially cleared away and showed that
the coast had changed its character, being now steep, and in some parts
cliffy, but still occasionally studded with spots of bare sand. In the
interior a rocky, flat-topped hill was seen; it is probably the Mount
Naturaliste of the French. The coast trends here in a North by West
direction.

The passage or channel between the Abrolhos Bank and the coast has been
distinguished by the name of Vlaming's ship, The Geelvink, since she was
the first vessel that passed them (Anno 1697). Captain Hamelin in the
Naturaliste also passed within them, imagining that he perceived them to
the eastward, but what he saw must have been the summit of Moresby's
Flat-topped Range.*

(*Footnote. So M. De Freycinet also thinks, for he says: "quelques
personnes n'osent assurer que nous ayons vu les Abrolhos; d'autres, et je
suis de ce nombre, peusent que ce que nous avons pris pour ce groupe
d'iles est une portion du Continent." Freycinet page 180.)

The soundings of the coast upon our track between Rottnest Island and the
Abrolhos have been gradually of a gravelly nature, mixed sometimes with
shelly sand, and were generally coarser as we approached the shore. In
some parts, particularly near Cape Naturaliste and Rottnest Island, the
bottom appeared to be a bed of small water-worn quartzose pebbles not
larger than a pin's head. Off Moresby's Flat-topped Range the bottom is
of a soft dark-gray-coloured sand of a very fine quality that would
afford good anchorage was it not for the constant swell that pervades
this stormy coast; the water was however much smoother than in other
parts, which might have been occasioned either by the Abrolhos bank's
breaking the sea, or from the temporary cessation of the wind, for it was
comparatively light to what it had been since our leaving Rottnest
Island.

A large patch of bare sand terminates the sandy shores of this coast in
latitude 27 degrees 55 minutes. A steep cliff then commences and extends
for eight miles to the Red Point of Vlaming; behind which is a bight,
called by the French Gantheaume Bay; in the south part of which there
appeared a small opening. This bay did not seem to be so well calculated
for taking shelter in from southerly gales, as Van Keulen's chart
indicates; since it is exposed to winds from South-West by South, from
which quarter it must frequently blow. The country appeared very rocky;
the slight vegetation covering its surface gave it a greenish hue, but no
trees were seen near the shore which is fronted by a sandy beach; the
depth of the bight is probably five or six miles. The cliffs of Red Point
partake of a reddish tinge and appear to be disposed nearly in horizontal
strata. In the centre and about halfway between the base and summit of
the cliffs is a remarkable block of stone, of very white colour, that at
a distance appeared to be either a fort or house: some black marks on its
face took our attention and resembled characters of a very large size, as
if they had been painted for the purpose of attracting the attention of
vessels passing by; but a closer examination with the telescope prove
them to be only the shadows of the projecting parts of the surface.

At half-past seven o'clock we hauled off for the night and, standing off
and on, sounded in between thirty-three and thirty-five fathoms.

January 19.

At daylight the next morning the land bore from East to East-South-East
but the morning and forenoon were so hazy that it was very indistinctly
seen; at noon a partial clearing away of the haze exposed to our view a
long range of high and precipitous cliffs, the base of which was washed
by the sea, breaking upon it with a tremendous roar, and heard distinctly
by us. The wind falling in the afternoon induced me to stand off shore,
when we soon lost sight of the land. At noon we were in latitude 27
degrees 5 minutes 18 seconds. At one o'clock the depth was forty-five
fathoms fine gray sand. No land was seen during the rest of the day; for
although the sky was beautifully clear and serene, the atmosphere for
fifteen degrees above the horizon was enveloped in a thick hazy mist that
caused an extraordinary dampness in the air, and from the unfavourable
state of the weather we did not attempt to make it again.

January 20.

The next morning we saw that part of Dirk Hartog's Island which lies in
25 degrees 56 minutes, and when we had reached within four miles of the
shore steered to the northward parallel to the beach, but the haze was
still so great as to render the land very indistinct. We saw enough of it
however to be convinced of its perfect sterility. The coast is lined with
a barrier of rocks on which the sea was breaking high with a roar that
was heard on board although our distance from the shore was at least
three miles.

The warmth of the weather now began rapidly to increase; the thermometer
at noon ranged as high as 79 degrees.

At one o'clock Cape Inscription, the north-westernmost point of Dirk
Hartog's Island, was distinguished and the sea-breeze veered as far as
South-West by West, which was two points more westerly than we had
hitherto had it. At two o'clock the brig passed round the cape and, as
there was an appearance of good shelter in the bay to the eastward of it,
we hauled in and at half-past three o'clock anchored in twelve fathoms
fine gravelly soft sand; the west point of Dirk Hartog's Island (Cape
Inscription) bearing North 82 degrees West, and the low sandy point that
forms its north-east end South 53 degrees West, at a mile and a half from
the shore.

As we hauled round the cape and were passing under the lee of the land
the breeze became so suddenly heated, by its blowing over the arid and
parched surface of the coast, that my seaweed hygrometer, which had been
quite damp since we left Rottnest Island, was in ten minutes so dried as
to be covered with crystals of salt; and in this state it continued
during our stay.

Upon rounding the cape two posts were descried upon its summit, which we
conjectured to be those on which the French had affixed a record of their
visit, as well as the more ancient one of the Dutch navigators, Dirk
Hartog and Vlaming; for they were very conspicuously placed and appeared
to be in good preservation.

We had not anchored five minutes before the vessel was surrounded by
sharks, which at once impressed us with the propriety of Dampier's
nomenclature. One that was caught measured eleven feet in length but the
greater number were not more than three or four feet long. They were very
voracious and scared away large quantities of fish, of which, however,
our people during the evening caught a good supply.

January 21.

The following morning we landed at the Cape and with eager steps ascended
the rocky face of the hill to examine the interesting memorials that were
affixed to the post; but found to our great mortification that they had
been removed; the only vestige that remained was the nails by which they
had been secured. One of the posts was about two feet high and evidently
made of the wood of the callitris, that grows upon Rottnest Island; it
appeared to have been broken down; the other was still erect and seemed
to have been either the heel of a ship's royal-mast or part of a
studding-sail boom; upon one side of it a flag had been fastened by
nails. A careful search was made all round but, as no signs of the Dutch
plate or of the more recent French inscription were seen, it was
conjectured that they had been removed by the natives; but since our
return to England I have learnt that they are preserved in the Museum of
the Institute at Paris, where they had been deposited by M. De Freycinet
upon his return from his late voyage round the world. After this
disappointment we returned to the sea-beach, whilst Mr. Cunningham
botanised along the summit of the ridge; and before he rejoined us we had
been fortunate enough to find two very fine turtles, and a large quantity
of turtle-eggs. The animals had been left by the tide in holes of the
rocks, from which we had some difficulty in extricating them. During our
absence from the vessel our people had been very successful with the hook
and line, having caught about five or six dozen snappers, besides some of
the genus tetradon.

This seasonable supply and the probability of our procuring more turtles
from the beach induced me to remain here a few days to perform some
trifling repairs that could not be effected at sea. We were also
prevented from moving, from the unfavourable state of the weather; for it
was blowing a gale of wind all the time we remained; but as our people
were living upon fresh food the time was not considered as lost.

January 22.

The next morning fifty turtles were turned, but as we could not convey
them all on board forty were left on shore upon their backs for the
night: upon landing the next morning they were all found dead, having
killed themselves by their exertions to escape, and from their exposure
to the heat of the sun which was so great during the day that I did not
send any of the people on shore. We found, however, no difficulty in
procuring more, some of which weighed four hundredweight.

The shore of this bay is fronted by a rocky reef covered with shell-fish,
of which the principal sorts were species of trochus, chama, conus,
voluta, cypraea, buccinum, ostrea, mytilus, and patella; among the latter
was the large one of King George's Sound. Upon the beaches to windward of
the cape we found varieties of sponge and coral; and beche de mer were
observed in the crevices of the rocks but were neither large nor
plentiful. Mr. Cunningham saw two land snakes, one of which was about
four feet in length; the colour of its back was black and the belly
yellow; the only quadruped seen was a small opossum. A seal of the hair
species, like those of Rottnest Island, was seen on the rocks, probably
of the same description that Dampier found in the maw of the shark;* and
also what was found by the French on Faure Island, which M. Peron
supposed to be an herbivorous animal and described as a dugong.**

(*Footnote. Dampier volume 3 page 87.)

(**Footnote. Peron volume 2 page 227 et seq and De Freycinet page 201.)

January 24.

On the 24th Mr. Roe visited the Cape to fix on the post a memorial of our
visit; an inscription was carved upon a small piece of wood in the back
of which was deposited another memorandum written upon vellum; the wood
was of the size of the sheave-hole of the larger post, into which it was
fixed, and near it Mr. Roe piled up a heap of stones. After this was
accomplished the party walked for some distance along the beach to the
south-west of the cape, where they found the remains of two or three
whales that had been lately wrecked; a small piece of putrefied flesh was
also seen, about two or three feet long, one side of which was covered
with red hair, it was however too far gone to ascertain to what animal it
belonged.

On examining into the state of our dry provisions it was mortifying to
find that the rats and cockroaches had destroyed an incredible quantity,
particularly of our biscuit and flour. In one of the casks of the latter
more than two-thirds of its contents was deficient. The biscuit was
completely drilled through and the greater part would not have been
thought fit to eat if we had possessed any of a better quality; I still
however hoped to have a sufficiency on board to complete the survey of
the north-west coast before our return to Port Jackson, which I now found
would of necessity be at least four or five weeks before the time I had
fixed upon when we left the Mauritius. As it would take up a great
portion of the time we had now left to make a more extensive examination
of Shark's Bay than what the French have already performed, and would
entirely prevent my going upon the north-west coast again; it was
determined that we should not delay here, but pass on and resume our
examination of the coast at Cape Cuvier, the northern head of the bay.
The only part of Shark's Bay that seems to be at all interesting, and to
require further examination, is the eastern side of the bay immediately
opposite to the Islands of Dorre and Bernier; but from the very intricate
and shoal nature of its approach it is very doubtful whether even a sight
of the land in that direction could be procured.

The rocks of Dirk Hartog's Island are of a very remarkable formation,
consisting of a congeries of quartzose sand, united in small circular
kernels by a calcareous cement in which some shells were found embedded.
The geological character of this rock is more fully treated upon in the
Appendix by my friend Dr. Fitton.

"Upon the summit of the cliffs there are a few low shrubs, at this time
much parched up, but among them Mr. Cunningham found a tolerably rich
harvest. In his collection were the following plants, which were
originally brought to Europe by Dampier; namely, Trichinium incanum, Br.;
Diplolaena dampieri, Desf.; solanum, a thorny ferruginous species without
fructification (Solanum dampieri ?) Dampiera incana, Br.; and a cordate
melaleuca, figured by Dampier*: a beautiful loranthus (teretifolius,
Cunningham) grew on the branches of an undescribed acacia (Acacia
ligulata, Cunningham manuscript):"..."many were the wrecks of most
interesting plants, and especially those of soft herbaceous duration,
which had some time since fallen a sacrifice to the apparent
long-protracted drought of the season; but it was impossible, amidst the
sad languor of vegetation, not to admire the luxuriant and healthy habit
of an undescribed species of pittosporum (oleifolium, Cunningham
manuscript) which formed a small robust tree, ten feet high, laden with
ripe fruit. We could perceive no traces either of remains of fires, or
otherwise of natives, in the whole length of our walk along the edge of
the cliffs or the plains, but we saw two snakes of very distinct kinds,
each exceeding five feet in length; the one black with a yellow belly,
the other green and black, but they quickly escaped into holes, leaving a
serpentine impression of their bodies upon the sand. These marks were
seen and remarked near the edge of all the holes, which were very
numerous upon the surface of the island, before I discovered that they
were the tracks of reptiles, from which it may be inferred that these
animals are very abundant. The only bird seen was a solitary species of
loxia, but upon a steep ledge of rocks I observed one of those nests of
which frequent mention has been already made: I examined and found it
built upon the pinnacle of some large rocks, very strongly constructed of
long sticks; it was about five feet high and exceeded four feet in
diameter, with a very slight cavity above; and seemed to have been very
recently inhabited. The rocks that formed its base were ornamented with a
prostrate capparis, or calyptranthus (Calyptranthus orbicularis,
Cunningham manuscript) which afforded me good flowering specimens. In my
walk I started a small black kangaroo: it was feeding upon the seeds of a
small acacia and, upon perceiving my approach, fled across the down
without reaching a single bush or rock large enough to conceal itself as
far as the eye could discern it, so bare and destitute of vegetation are
these arid, sandy plains."* The heat of the weather was so great as not
to allow of any communication with the shore, excepting between daybreak
and eight o'clock. Mr. Cunningham's visits were therefore necessarily
much confined: this precaution I found it absolutely requisite to take to
prevent the people from being exposed to the very great heat of the sun,
which on shore must have been at least twenty degrees more powerful than
on board, where the thermometer ranged between 71 1/2 degrees at
midnight, and 85 and 87 degrees at noon. The barometer ranged between
29.76 and 29.99 inches, and stood highest when the wind was to the
eastward of south, with which winds the horizon was much clearer, and the
air consequently drier than when the wind blew from the sea.

(*Footnote. Cunningham manuscript.)

As an anchorage during the summer months Dirk Hartog's Road has
everything to recommend it, excepting the total absence of fresh water
which, according to the French, was not found in any part of Shark's Bay;
the anchorage is secure and the bottom clear of rocks. There is also an
abundance of fish and turtle, and of the latter a ship might embark forty
or fifty every day, for they are very sluggish and make no effort to
escape, perhaps from knowing the impossibility of their scrambling over
the rocky barrier that fronts the shore, and dries at half ebb. Of fish
we caught only two kinds; the snapper, a species of sparus, called by the
French the rouge bossu, and a tetradon which our people could not be
persuaded to eat, although the French lived chiefly upon it. There are
some species of this genus that are poisonous but many are of delicious
flavour: it is described by M. Lacepede in a paper in the Annal. du
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (tome 4 page 203) as le Tetrodon argente
(Tetrodon argenteus).

January 26.

On the 26th we sailed and passed outside of Dorre and Bernier's Islands;
nothing was seen of the reef that lies in mid-channel on the south side
of Dorre Island: a rippling was noticed by Mr. Roe in an East by South
direction from the masthead at twenty minutes before one o'clock but, if
the position assigned to it by the French is correct, we had passed it
long before that time. At six o'clock Kok's Island, the small rocky islet
that lies off the north end of Bernier's Island, bore North 83 degrees
East, distant seven miles.

January 27.

The following morning at daylight the land was seen in the North-East and
at half-past eight o'clock we resumed our course and passed Cape Cuvier,
a reddish-coloured rocky bluff that presents a precipitous face to the
sea. The coast thence takes a North by East direction; it is low and
sandy and fronted by a sandy beach, occasionally interrupted by
projecting rocky points; those parts where patches of bare sand were
noticed are marked upon the chart.

At one o'clock we were near a low sandy projection round which the coast
extends to the East-North-East and forms a shallow bay. This projection
was called after Sir Robert Townsend Farquhar, Bart., the late Governor
of the Mauritius.

Farther on, in latitude 23 degrees 10 minutes 30 seconds, is a projection
which, at Mr. Cunningham's request, was called after Mr. William Anderson
of the apothecaries' garden at Chelsea. The coast to the northward of
Point Anderson is higher than to the southward and falls back to the
North-East, but was very imperfectly seen on account of the thick haze
that enveloped it. At a quarter before seven o'clock we hauled to the
wind for the night with a fresh gale from the southward.

January 28.

The next morning was cloudy and the horizon tolerably clear; but towards
noon a light haze began to spread, which by sunset was so thick as
entirely to conceal the land. The mercury fell as low as 29.76 inches
and, although the thermometer was at 79 degrees and the sun powerful, yet
the atmosphere was so charged with moisture that the decks and everything
out of the immediate influence of the sun were quite damp. This
extraordinary and constant humidity appeared only to occupy the
atmosphere for the sky was always beautifully clear and serene.

During the night the gale blew strong from the southward with a high
topping sea from the South-West; and being occupied in shifting the main
topsail which had split during the night, we stood off until three
o'clock before we tacked towards the shore.

January 29.

At eight o'clock being in latitude 22 degrees 19 minutes 23 seconds, the
land was visible from North-East to South 35 degrees East at the distance
of five or six leagues: by its outline which, from the glare of the sun
was the only part at all discernible, it seemed to be of moderate height,
very level, and offering no particular mark that could be set with any
chance of recognition to obtain a cross bearing. As there is every reason
to believe that this part of the coast is what was taken by former
navigators for Cloates Island,* I have named the southernmost point of
the high land Point Cloates.

(*Footnote. See volume 1.)

At noon we were in latitude 21 degrees 57 minutes 5 seconds, having
experienced a current of twenty-three miles to the north since yesterday
at noon. The northern extreme, Vlaming's Head, bore North-East by East
1/2 East and the south extreme South 7 degrees West; and in the bearing
of between South 32 degrees to 82 degrees East the land is higher than in
other parts and declines very gradually towards the extreme.

As the brig approached the land breakers were seen to extend the whole
length of the shore, which is fronted by a sandy beach: the land is of
moderate height but the summit is rather more rugged than that to the
southward where the outline is perfectly level. At half-past three
o'clock Vlaming Head bore south six miles and three quarters off: at four
o'clock the latitude, by the moon's meridional altitude, was found to be
21 degrees 38 minutes 27 seconds, at which time sights were taken for the
chronometer, which made the longitude of the head 114 degrees 2 minutes
16 seconds: the situation assigned to it on our first voyage was 114
degrees 1 minute 47 seconds; the mean of the two, 114 degrees 2 minutes 2
seconds, may therefore be considered its true situation.

From the above observation for the latitude of the North-West Cape
agreeing nearly with those of our former voyage, I was induced to think
that there might be some land more to the northward that the French saw
and took for the cape; for they have placed it in 21 degrees 37 minutes 7
seconds South, which is nearly 10 minutes too northerly. Captain
Horsburgh, in the supplement to his Directory, notices some islands seen
by the San Antonio in 1818, called Piddington's Islands, that are said to
lie in the latitude of 21 degrees 36 minutes, but after steering
seventeen miles to the North-East from the above situation, without
seeing anything like land, there remained no doubt in my mind that the
French must have been deceived and that Piddington's Islands are some of
the low, sandy islets to the eastward of Muiron Island.

January 30.

Having steered through the night on a north-east course, Barrow's Island
came in sight the next morning, when it was about five leagues off; at
eight o'clock it bore between South 27 East and North 87 degrees East.
From noon to three p.m. we had calm, dull, and cloudy weather; and
although the thermometer did not range higher than 87 degrees, the heat
was extremely oppressive, and occasioned the death of three of our
turtles. At three o'clock a breeze springing up from the westward enabled
us to steer to the northward round the Montebello Islands, in doing which
we saw nothing of Hermite Island, which the French have laid down as the
westernmost island of that group. There is certainly no land to the
westward of Trimouille Island; and the error can only be accounted for by
Captain Baudin's having seen the latter at two different periods; indeed
this conjecture is in some measure proved, since there is a considerable
reef running off the north-west end of that island, which in the French
chart is attached to Hermite Island; this reef might not have been seen
by him at his first visit, and when he made the land again and observed
the reef he must have concluded it to have been a second island.

After steering a north course until seven o'clock and deepening the water
to sixty-five fathoms, we gradually hauled round the north end of the
Montebello Isles; and at eleven p.m. steered East; but at two o'clock,
having decreased the depth from seventy-two to forty-one fathoms, we
steered off to the northward until daylight, and then to the
East-South-East, in order to anchor in the Mermaid's Strait to the
eastward of Malus Island, to take some stones on board as ballast, for
the brig was so very light and leewardly that it would have been running
a great risk to approach the land, as she then was. But in this we were
disappointed, for after an interval of close sultry weather, and a severe
thunderstorm, a gale of wind set in from the South-West, during which the
barometer fell as low as 29.36 inches. The gale then veered gradually
round to the North-West, and obliged us to make sail off the coast, and
by the time it moderated we were so far to leeward of Dampier's
Archipelago that I was constrained to alter my plan and give up the idea
of taking ballast on board. I therefore determined upon making Rowley's
Shoals, for the purpose of fixing their position with greater
correctness, and examining the extent of the bight round Cape Leveque,
which we were obliged to leave unexplored during the earlier part of this
voyage.

1822. February 4.

The first of these objects was effected on the 4th; on which day we
passed round the south end of the Imperieuse (the westernmost) Shoal;
which we now found to extend nearly four miles more to the southward than
had been suspected in 1818, at which period we steered round its north
end.

A large patch of dry rocks was also seen on the north-east end of the
reef about ten miles from the vessel's track, and Mr. Roe, from the
masthead, thought that the east side of the shoal did not appear to be so
steep as the western side.

From noon we steered east to make the shoal seen by the Good Hope, but
having sailed in that direction as far as latitude 17 degrees 42 minutes
51 seconds and longitude 119 degrees 32 minutes 4 seconds, without seeing
any signs of it for ten miles on either side of our course, we hauled to
the wind for the night and sounded in one hundred and forty-five fathoms
speckled sand and broken shells.

February 5.

At seven o'clock the following morning we were steering east when broken
water was reported bearing from East to East-South-East, but it turned
out to be a rippling which we passed through. These ripplings have been
frequently noticed in the vicinity of the reefs, but we have been very
little affected by the tides by which they must be occasioned. At noon we
were by observation in 17 degrees 43 minutes 41 seconds and longitude 119
degrees 41 minutes 52 seconds, when we sounded in one hundred and twenty
fathoms, speckled sand mixed with broken shells and stones; and at twenty
miles farther to the eastward sounded again on the same depth.

February 6.

At eight o'clock the next morning, having steered through the night
North-East by East, we were in ninety fathoms, sand, broken shells, and
large stones.

February 8.

On the morning of the 8th the land was seen in the South-East and soon
afterwards the brig passed round Cape Leveque at the distance of a mile
and a half. On our way towards Point Swan we saw from the masthead a line
of strong tide-ripplings, extending from the point in a North-West by
West direction; within which we at first attempted to pass but, finding
that they were connected to the point, hauled up to steer through them
where they seemed to be the least dangerous. As we approached the noise
was terrific and, although we were not more than two minutes amongst the
breakers, yet the shocks of the sea were so violent as to make me fear
for the safety of our masts. A smaller vessel would perhaps have been
swamped; for although the sea was in other parts quite smooth and the
wind light, yet the water broke over the bows and strained the brig
considerably.

We then steered between Point Swan and two rocky islands lying five miles
from the shore over a space which, at our last visit, appeared to be
occupied by an extensive reef, but we were then probably deceived by
tide-ripplings.

It was my intention to have brought up under the lee of the point, where
Dampier describes his having anchored in twenty-nine fathoms clear sandy
ground; but upon rounding the projection, the wind suddenly fell and,
after a light squall from South-West we had a dead calm; the depth was
thirty fathoms coral bottom and therefore not safe to anchor upon; this
was unfortunate for the sudden defection of the wind prevented our
hauling into the bay out of the tide, which was evidently running with
considerable rapidity and drifting us, without our having the means of
preventing it, towards a cluster of small rocks and islands through which
we could not discover any outlet, and which were so crowded that in the
dangerous predicament in which we found ourselves placed they bore a
truly awful and terrific appearance. At this time I was at my usual post,
the masthead, directing the steerage of the vessel; but as the brig was
drifting forward by a rapid sluice of tide towards some low rocks, about
a quarter of a mile off, that were not more than two feet above the
water's edge, and upon which it appeared almost inevitable that we must
strike, I descended to the deck, under the certain conviction that we
could not escape the dangers that were strewed across our path unless a
breeze should spring up, of which there was not the slightest appearance
or probability.

Happily however the stream of the tide swept us past the rocks without
accident and, after carrying us about half a mile farther, changed its
direction to south-east and drifted us towards a narrow strait separating
two rocky islands, in the centre of which was a large insulated rock that
seemed to divide the stream. The boat was now hoisted out and sent ahead
to tow, but we could not succeed in getting the vessel's head round. As
she approached the strait the channel became much narrower, and several
islands were passed at not more than thirty yards from her course. The
voices of natives were now heard and soon afterwards some were seen on
either side of the strait, hallooing and waving their arms; we were so
near to one party that they might have thrown their spears on board; they
had a dog with them which Mr. Cunningham remarked to be black. By this
time we were flying past the shore with such velocity that it made us
quite giddy; and our situation was too awful to give us time to observe
the motions of the Indians; for we were entering the narrowest part of
the strait, and the next moment were close to the rock which it appeared
to be almost impossible to avoid; and it was more than probable that the
stream it divided would carry us broadside upon it, when the consequences
would have been truly dreadful; the current, or sluice, was setting past
the rock at the rate of eight or nine knots, and the water being confined
by its intervention fell at least six or seven feet; at the moment,
however, when we were upon the point of being dashed to pieces, a sudden
breeze providentially sprung up and, filling our sails, impelled the
vessel forward for three or four yards: this was enough, but only just
sufficient, for the rudder was not more than six yards from the rock. No
sooner had we passed this frightful danger than the breeze fell again and
was succeeded by a dead calm; the tide however continued to carry us on
with a gradually decreasing strength until one o'clock, when we felt very
little effect from it.

From the spot we had now reached the coast from Cape Leveque appeared to
trend to the southward but was not visible beyond the bearing of
South-West; there was however some land more to the southward that had
the appearance of being an island; it was afterwards found to be a
projection, forming the east head of a bay, and was subsequently called
after my friend Mr. Cunningham, to whose indefatigable zeal the
scientific world is considerably indebted for the very extensive and
valuable botanical collection that has been formed upon this voyage.

We had a dead calm until high-water during which, as the brig continued
to drive with the tide to the southward in from twenty to twenty-four
fathoms, over a rocky bottom, I was undetermined what course to pursue in
order to preserve the situation which we had so unexpectedly reached, and
to prevent the ebb-tide from carrying us back through the strait: the
bare idea of this impending danger reconciled me to determine upon
sacrificing an anchor, for, from the nature of the bottom, it seemed next
to impossible that we could recover it, if once dropped. Just, however,
as the tide was beginning to turn, a breeze sprang up from the westward
and at once put an end to our fears and anxieties; all sail was made
towards Point Cunningham beyond which no land was visible; but the tide
being adverse and the evening near at hand, we anchored in the bight to
the north-west of the Point which bore South 32 1/2 degrees East seven
miles and a half.

February 9.

The next day I remained at the anchorage and despatched Mr. Roe to
examine the coast round Point Cunningham; Mr. Baskerville in the meantime
sounded about the bay between the brig and the western shore and found
very good anchorage in all parts: at about one mile to the westward of
our situation the bottom was of mud, and the depth nine and ten fathoms:
the land appeared a good deal broken, like islands, but from the vessel
the coast seemed to be formed by a continuity of deep bays that may
perhaps afford good anchorage. On one of the sandy beaches at the back of
the bay near Park Hillock, so-called from its green appearance and being
studded with trees, eight or ten natives were observed walking along the
beach close to the low water mark, probably in search of shell-fish; some
of them were children, and perhaps the others were women, except two or
three who carried spears; a dog was trotting along the beach behind them.

After dark, according to a preconcerted plan, port fires were burnt every
half hour for Mr. Roe's guidance, and before midnight the boat came
alongside. Mr. Roe informed me that there was good anchorage round the
point; and where he landed at Point Cunningham there was plenty of fresh
water; but he saw nothing like land to the South-East; the coast trended
from Point Cunningham to the south, and was of low wooded sandy land. The
heat was excessive; the thermometer at noon, out of the influence of the
sun, stood at 120 degrees, and when they landed at Point Cunningham Mr.
Roe thought the heat was increased at least 10 degrees. At this place he
obtained an indifferent meridian altitude which placed it in 16 degrees
40 minutes 18 seconds South.

In the meantime Mr. Cunningham, who had accompanied him, botanised with
success. The traces of natives, dogs, turtle-bones, and broken shells,
were found strewed about; and several fireplaces were noticed that had
very recently been used; a fresh-water stream was running down the rocks
into the sea, and at the back of the beach was a hollow, full of sweet
water. Near the fireplaces Mr. Roe picked up some stones that had been
chipped probably in the manufacture of their hatchets.

The soil was of a red-coloured earth of a very sandy nature; and the
rocks were two sorts of sandstone, one of a deep red colour, the other
whitish, and harder. After leaving Point Cunningham they pulled round the
rocks, which extended for some distance off the point, and then entered a
bay, all over which they found good anchorage; a low distant point formed
the south extreme, but it was too late to reach it and at high-water they
landed at a bright red, cliffy point.

At half-past five o'clock they re-embarked on their return and, although
the tide was in their favour, were six hours before they reached the
vessel; from which Mr. Roe calculated the distance to be nearly twenty
miles, and by the survey subsequently made it was found to be seventeen.

February 11.

We did not leave this anchorage until the 11th and then had some
difficulty in doing it, on account of the shoalness of the water upon the
sandbank that fronts the bay; indeed we were obliged to anchor until the
tide rose high enough to permit our crossing it. At two o'clock we again
got underweigh and crossed the bank, when the wind falling calm we
anchored with Point Cunningham bearing South 17 degrees East three and a
half miles.

February 12.

The following morning I sent Mr. Roe to the point to take some bearings;
the boat left the brig at half-past three o'clock but did not succeed in
reaching the land before the sun rose; at which time the horizon, from
being clearer, would have presented a more distinct view of distant
objects. The group of islands to the eastward was observed to extend no
farther to the southward than the bearing of North 88 degrees East, and
beyond this was an open, boundless sea. The station whence this bearing
was taken was on the north-west trend of the point.

On their first landing Mr. Roe and Mr. Baskerville, with one of the
boat's crew, ascended the summit and, whilst employed in looking round,
heard the voices of natives among the trees about thirty yards off; but
as they could not see them they very properly descended, and carried on
their operations in the vicinity of the boat; they were onshore for two
or three hours afterwards, but the natives did not make their appearance.
The foot-marks of men and boys were evident on the sand below the
high-water mark, and the remains of fireplaces, and where the natives had
been manufacturing spears, were of recent date. The gentlemen brought off
a few shells and some insects, among which was a beautiful sphynx;
besides which one of the boat's crew caught a species of vampyrus,
apparently similar to the flying fox of Port Jackson. Of shells there was
not a great variety; a chama (Tridacna gigas, Lam.) a pinna, and the
trochus (caerulescens) of Dirk Hartog's Island; but at one of the
fireplaces they found a very large voluta that seemed to have served the
purpose of a water-vessel; it was fifteen inches long and ten inches in
diameter.

The shores appear to abound with shellfish, although Dampier thought that
shells hereabouts were scarce. We could easily have completed our water
at this point, but from the place appearing to be populous and, as the
vessel could not be anchored sufficiently near the shore to have
protected the boat's crews, it was feared that our work might be impeded
by the natives.

The boat returned at ten o'clock while we were getting underweigh; but
the wind being at South-East it was one o'clock before we weathered Point
Cunningham, when the tide was urging us forward rapidly. In steering
round the point we found ourselves passing through some light coloured
water and, before we could extricate the brig, were in three and a half
fathoms; the anchor was immediately dropped underfoot and, with the
assistance of the sails, which were kept full, the vessel was retained
whilst the whale-boat was veered astern, and ascertained that the
shoalest part had been already passed; therefore the anchor was again
weighed, and eventually dropped in the bay to the south of Point
Cunningham in fourteen fathoms and three quarters, fine speckled sand and
stones.

In the direction of North 63 degrees West and at a mile and a half from
the anchorage was a remarkable flat-topped hill which was called at Mr.
Cunningham's wish, Carlisle Head, and the bay in which we anchored,
Goodenough Bay, in compliment to the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of
Carlisle. At this part Mr. Cunningham found a new species of velleia (of
the natural order Goodenoviae).

We were now suffering much from the extreme heat and closeness of the
weather; the thermometer ranged night and day between 85 and 89 degrees,
and when the breeze was light or the weather calm the air was
insufferably hot and close, and affected us all very much, but happily
without any very serious consequences.

In the evening four natives armed with spears were seen sitting in the
shade upon the sandy beach under Carlisle Head, attentively watching us;
but upon being joined by three others, who came towards them from Point
Cunningham, got up and walked away. We have yet to learn how far these
people may be confided in, for we were not at a very great distance from
Hanover Bay where we so nearly paid dear for trusting ourselves amongst
them unarmed.

February 13.

We remained at the anchorage in Goodenough Bay until the following
morning, when we weighed to a very light breeze from south-east, the only
direction from which we experienced any wind; the breeze generally blew
strong at night, whilst during the day it was light, or nearly calm; so
that during the night we were very insecurely placed if the anchorage was
at all suspicious, and in the day were either delayed very much or
entirely prevented from weighing.

Thus it was with us on this day; soon after we weighed it fell calm and
the tide, drifting us rapidly to the southward over rocky ground, carried
us close to a reef of dry rocks to the northward of Foul Point without
our being able to avoid it. At a little before five o'clock the
flood-tide was nearly expended and obliged us to drop the chain-cabled
anchor at the distance of three miles from Foul Point, upon a bottom of
rotten yellow-coloured rock that crumbled away upon being touched, but
from the noise that the chain made in dragging over the ground there was
reason to apprehend it was very rocky; and consequently great fears were
entertained for the safety of our anchor.

Our situation was in the outer part of a bay, the southern head of which
bore South 22 degrees East, and which, from the loss and perplexity we
met with in it, was afterwards called Disaster Bay, and its south
extreme, off which is a small rocky island, was named Repulse Point.

During the afternoon we had another instance of mirage which proved
useful so far that it indicated to us the trend of the land to the
south-eastward, in which direction nothing had previously been seen; it
appeared to be very low and level, and similar to the character of the
coast on the southward of Cape Leveque. At sunset when the haze cleared
off and the appearance of the land gradually sank below the horizon we
were instantly relieved from the oppressive heat we had experienced
during the day, for the thermometer had indicated a temperature of 91
degrees and, when exposed to the influence of the sun, rose to 120
degrees.

Three natives were noticed as we passed along the shore; they were
walking upon a sandy beach abreast of us but very soon disappeared among
the trees and bushes which here grow close down to the waterside; they
were armed with spears and appeared to be watching our movements; for
they moved along in the direction of our course and did not afterwards
make their appearance during the evening.

February 14.

The next morning whilst the ebb-tide lasted we had a light breeze but, at
noon, as the weather was calm and the brig could not be got underweigh,
either with safety or utility, the boats were despatched in different
directions to improve our knowledge of the place.

At low water a considerable sandbank was exposed to our view, that had
not previously been seen; it fronts the bay and is dry at low tide for
some extent, it is also shoal some distance to the northward, as our boat
had only four feet in passing over it. In the afternoon, as there was
every appearance of fine weather and no likelihood of a breeze, Mr.
Baskerville and Mr. Cunningham set off in a boat to visit Repulse Point,
in order to make what observations they could upon the further trend of
the land; but no sooner had they left the vessel than a breeze sprung up
and freshened to a gale in which our cable parted; and as there was no
chance of dropping another anchor with a prospect of recovering it, we
were obliged to return to our former anchorage in Goodenough Bay; but,
owing to the tide being contrary, the brig did not reach it until nearly
sunset. Our alarm and anxieties were now raised to a great pitch for the
safety of Mr. Baskerville and his companions: signals of recall had been
hoisted and several guns fired before the cable parted, but the boat was
too far off to notice either: as soon as it was dark signal guns were
fired and port fires burnt every ten minutes to guide its return.

Happily these signals at last had the desired effect, for at ten o'clock
the boat came alongside. Mr. Baskerville had failed in reaching Repulse
Point but obtained some useful information as to the trend of the land
round the point, which still appeared to extend to the southward; they
had not been able to land, but had encountered much danger from the small
size of the boat, which shipped a great deal of water, so that by the
time it arrived they were completely drenched with the spray of the sea.
They had only observed our signals for a few minutes before their
arrival; for the flashes of the guns and the lights of the port-fires
were so confused with lightning and the fires of the natives on the shore
that they could not be distinguished from each other. Soon after they
arrived on board heavy rain commenced, and fell during the greater part
of the night.

February 15.

The ensuing day the weather was still squally and unsettled. In the
afternoon the launch and another boat were sent in search of our lost
anchor but returned at night without success; for the tide was so strong
that the buoy did not watch. The next morning it was again intended to
resume the search, but the weather clouded in and threatened to be so bad
that all further attempts were abandoned.

This succession of bad weather, and our having only one anchor left, made
me feel the necessity of leaving this part, and giving up for the present
the examination of this interesting place; and as we wanted both wood and
water, which we had found no opportunity of obtaining here on account of
the tempestuous state of the weather, it was purposed we should go to
Port George the Fourth, which place would afford both security for the
vessel and facility for procuring these articles. This delay might also
be made serviceable by employing a part of the crew at the same time in
the boats in examining the islands in Rogers Strait, and tracing the
continuation of the mainland behind the islands that form the south-east
coast of Camden Bay, of which we knew nothing. After doing this I hoped
to be able to continue the examination of the deep bay behind
Montgomery's Islands, and connect that part with the gulf or strait
behind the Buccaneer's Archipelago in which we now were; but our loss of
anchors made all this very dangerous and, indeed, nothing could be done
without very fine weather, of which there was at present unfortunately no
appearance.

But a greater and more serious hindrance was that our provisions were
very much reduced in quantity, and that we had not more than enough to
last, upon a full allowance, for the voyage to Port Jackson; the hope
however of procuring more information of this part of the coast was so
inviting that I did not despair of effecting something in a fortnight
worth the delay. We had dry provisions and water on board for about ten
weeks, so that with fine weather we could have retarded our departure for
ten or twelve days without much risk.

February 16.

Our quitting this place being determined upon we did not lose any time;
but from various delays of calm weather and adverse tides could not
succeed in getting out to sea until the 18th.

It was impossible to go out by the dangerous channel through which we
entered; but as Sunday Strait, through which the brig had been drifted
before we went to Mauritius, appeared free from danger, we directed our
course to it.

February 17.

And, after being underweigh all the night near its inner entrance, during
which we had once nearly struck on a reef of rocks, found ourselves at
daylight drifting through it with a rapid ebb-tide without a breath of
wind. The tide however lasted long enough to carry us out, and when the
flood commenced, which would have drifted us back again, a fresh breeze
sprang up from the westward and very soon carried us clear of the
influence of the tide.

With respect to the opening we had now left there were many conflicting
opinions among us, but I have every reason to think that the land from
Cape Leveque to Point Gantheaume is an island and that there is also a
communication between Cygnet and Collier's Bays, behind the islands of
the Archipelago, where it is also probable there is an opening trending
to the south-east. The great rise and fall of the tides in the
neighbourhood of Point Gantheaume gives a plausibility to this opinion;
and the only thing that I know against it is the trifling depth of the
water between that point and Cape Villaret. This however may be caused by
the numerous banks and channels existing there, and which, of themselves
alone, are indicative of the opening being something more than a mere
bay.

As sunset approached the eastern horizon was as usual in commotion; heavy
dense clouds were collected, from which we had thunder and lightning. At
seven o'clock the appearance was more threatening and, as a squall was
evidently approaching, the sails were taken in and preparation made to
meet it: soon after eight o'clock it passed rapidly over and brought a
strong gust of wind, before which we were obliged to scud. After blowing
most tempestuously for an hour the wind moderated, and the night passed
without any repetition of it; we had however run five miles to leeward:
had we been obliged to do this last night when underway in Cygnet Bay, or
been drifted back this evening by the ebb-tide, we should have been very
dangerously placed, from being surrounded by islands and blinded by the
darkness of the night. Whilst this squall lasted the barometer was in no
way affected, but the thermometer fell two degrees, having stood all the
afternoon at 89 3/4 degrees.

February 18.

During the remainder of the night we stood off and on and experienced a
current setting in the direction of North 52 degrees West one mile per
hour. At eight o'clock the next morning (18th) Adele Island was seen; and
in the afternoon we passed at a mile and a half from the western side of
the reef which surrounds it. This island is low and sandy and covered
with small bushes; it is about two or three miles in length; a dry sand
extends for five miles from its south end, and as far as one mile from
its north-west point; but the covered part of the reef is more extensive,
and appeared rocky. At the distance of three miles and a half, in a
north-west direction from its north end, are two dry sandbanks which are
probably covered at high-water. Light-coloured water extended for three
miles to the westward and for fourteen miles to the north-west; but the
water is probably deep enough over it for any vessel to pass: we steered
over the tail within the coloured water, but had no bottom with
forty-five fathoms. In many parts near the island the rocks must be very
little below the surface of the water, for the sea occasionally broke
upon them.

We then steered to the East and East-North-East and at night made short
trips on either tack. The weather was extremely sultry during the
afternoon, the thermometer being at 89 degrees, and when exposed to the
sun the mercury rose to 125 degrees. Towards sunset large flights of
boobies, terns, and other sea-birds passed by, flying towards the
islands. One or two stopped to notice us and flew round the brig several
times.

February 19.

The night was fine with light south-west winds; but we had lightning in
the North-East, from which quarter at daylight the weather clouded in;
and, from the increasing dampness of the atmosphere, indicated rain.

At noon we were in 15 degrees 12 minutes 15 seconds South and 7 minutes 1
second east of the anchorage in Cygnet Bay. The wind was from the
southward with dull cloudy weather. Large flights of birds were about the
vessel, preying upon small fish swimming among the seaweed, of which we
passed a great quantity. As the evening approached the weather clouded in
and threatened us with another squall from the eastward. The thermometer
stood at 88 degrees, and the barometer at 29.81 inches: half an hour
before sunset the clouds, which had collected in the eastern horizon,
began to thicken and approach us with loud thunder and vivid lightning:
all the sails, except the topsails which were lowered, were furled just
in time to avoid any bad effects from the squall, which commenced with a
strong gust from East-South-East and East; it lasted about an hour,
during the latter part of which we had very heavy rain. At eight o'clock
the wind fell to a calm and was afterwards baffling and light from north
to east and south-east.

February 20.

At daylight (20th) the morning was dull and cloudy: a bank of heavy
threatening clouds, rising from the eastward, induced my steering to the
westward to await the issue of this weather, so unfavourable for our
doing any good upon the coast, as well as increasing the danger of
navigating among reefs and islands where the tides were so strong. The
next morning at daylight we had a squall with rain and wind from the
eastward after which a fresh breeze set in from the same quarter: as this
weather appeared likely to last I very unwillingly determined upon
leaving the coast and returning immediately to Port Jackson.

February 21 to 24.

From the 21st until the 24th we had moderate winds between north and
south-east which gradually drew us out of the influence of the damp,
unwholesome weather we so lately experienced. Our course was held to the
northward of Rowley's Shoals which, upon passing, we found a strong
current setting towards them at the rate of one mile an hour. This
indraught increases the danger of navigating near this part but I do not
recollect having experienced any when we passed them in June, 1818. The
current, therefore, that we felt, may be only of temporary duration, and
probably caused by the variable state of the wind.

1822. February 24 to March 3.

Between the 24th of February and the 3rd of March we had light and
variable winds from all directions but, being more frequent from the
eastward than from any other point of the compass, I became reconciled to
the step I had taken of leaving the coast, since it would not have been
possible to have reached Port George the Fourth to effect any good.

The thermometer now ranged between 87 and 89 degrees and the weather was
consequently extremely oppressive and sultry.

March 3 to 11.

On the 3rd at noon we were in latitude 18 degrees 45 minutes 18 seconds
and longitude 111 degrees 4 minutes 15 seconds when a breeze sprang up
from the South-east and carried us within the influence of the trade,
which blew steadily between South-South-east and South by East and
advanced us on our passage but carried us considerably to the westward.
On this course we were accompanied by immense shoals of albicores
(Scomber thynnus, Linn.) but they were of small size; very few measured
more than twenty inches in length, and the average weight about ten
pounds: The meat was very good and tender and as a great number of the
fish were caught, proved a grateful relief to our salt diet. The
atmosphere was very damp and before the vessel entered the trade we had
lightning every night, but it ceased the moment that we were within its
limits. Tropic and other oceanic birds, some of a dark brown colour,
hovered about us and were our daily companions, particularly the latter
which preyed upon the small fish that were pursued by the albicores.

March 11 to 14.

From the 11th to the 14th the trade ceased and the interval was supplied
by a northerly wind, veering round to west, which enabled us to make up
for the ground we had lost by its having been so much from the southward.
After this we had variable breezes between South and East-South-East but
the current, which before had been setting us to the north-west, now set
to the north-east; this change was probably occasioned by the
south-westerly swell.

On the 14th we were in 27 degrees 49 minutes South, and 101 degrees 1
minute East. Some tropic birds were seen this morning but as yet neither
albatrosses nor pintadoes had made their appearance. During the short
cessation of the trade the atmosphere was very dry until the
south-easterly winds returned, when it became more humid; but as we
approached the southern limit of this South-East wind, which may be
considered to bear more of the character of a periodical wind than the
trade, the atmosphere became altogether drier; it carried us as far as 32
degrees 40 minutes South and 96 degrees 42 minutes West before it veered
to the northward of east when, after a calm, we had north-easterly winds
and fine weather of which we made good use.

The first albatross was seen in 31 1/4 degrees South and was flying about
the brig at the same time with a tropic bird, which is a remarkable
occurrence, for I never saw the latter bird before so far without the
tropic; but here was one nearly five hundred miles to the southward of
it, and at least three hundred leagues from the nearest land; an
albatross (Diomedea exulans, Linn.) was shot, but did not measure more
than nine feet nine inches across the tips of the wings.

February 25.

On the 25th of February we examined our water and found the casks so much
damaged by rats that instead of having thirteen tons we had only nine on
board, but as this was thought to be sufficient for our voyage the daily
issue was not reduced.

March 28.

On the 28th of March however it was found necessary to make a
considerable reduction in the allowance.

April 13.

On the 13th of April the north-west end of Van Diemen's Land came in
sight but it was not until the 15th that we entered Bass Strait by the
passage between King's and Hunter's Islands. Off Cape Howe we boarded a
trading brig belonging to Port Jackson bound to Van Diemen's Land, from
which we obtained pleasing and satisfactory news of our friends at
Sydney, as also the gratifying intelligence of the promotion of myself to
the rank of commander, and of Messrs. Bedwell and Roe to that of
lieutenant. The promotion of the latter gentleman was under circumstances
of the most flattering nature, and here not only offers a most
satisfactory proof of the approbation bestowed by the Lords Commissioners
of the Admiralty upon my zealous assistant, but precludes me from the
otherwise pleasing task of giving my humble testimonial of his conduct
and merits.

Between Cape Howe and Port Jackson we experienced much bad weather, which
delayed our arrival so long that we had expended all our bread and were
reduced to a very small proportion of water:

April 25.

We however succeeded in effecting our arrival at Sydney by the 25th,
after an absence of 344 days.



CHAPTER 5.
The Bathurst sails for England.
Remarks upon some errors in the hydrography of the south coast of Van
Diemen's Land.
King George the Third's Sound.
Passage to the Cape of Good Hope.
Cross the Atlantic, and arrive at Plymouth Sound.
Observations upon the voyages, and conclusion.

1822. April 25 to September 25.

Upon an examination of the brig's defects after our arrival at Port
Jackson her stern and cut-water were found so defective as to require a
considerable repair; but from the difficulty of procuring seasoned wood,
so long a time elapsed before it was effected that we were not ready for
sea until the beginning of September, when other delays of minor
importance detained us until the 25th.

At Port Jackson I found orders from the Lords Commissioners of the
Admiralty to return to England in the Bathurst when the survey should be
completed; but as we were in want of many things that the colony could
not furnish, and as we should be detained until the month of February
before the monsoon would allow of our going upon the coast; it was deemed
most advantageous for the public service to return without making another
voyage. Accordingly on the 25th September we sailed from Sydney with the
intention of proceeding to the north through Torres Strait, and calling
at the Mauritius on our way; but no sooner had we put to sea than a hard
gale set in from the north which induced me to bear up and either to go
round Van Diemen's Land to the westward, if the wind should favour such a
proceeding, or, by doubling the south end of New Zealand to make the
eastern passage round Cape Horn.

1822. October 6.

Having reached the south-east end of Van Diemen's Land on the 6th of
October, and a fresh north-easterly wind setting in at the same time, I
determined upon adopting the first plan; and therefore proceeded round
the south side of the island, in doing which I had the opportunity of
verifying some observations formerly taken by which it appeared that the
coast between Storm Bay and the South-west Cape was very erroneously laid
down both by Captain Flinders and the French expeditions under
d'Entrecasteaux and Baudin.

On my voyage to Macquarie Harbour in 1819 I found so many errors in the
bearings that were taken as induced me to suspect an original error, and
on this occasion a very considerable one was detected.

When Captain Flinders passed round Van Diemen's Land in the Norfolk he
obtained a meridional supplementary altitude of the sun to the south, his
vessel being under the land, which made the South-west Cape in 43 degrees
29 minutes South; but finding the next day that his instrument was 2
minutes 40 seconds in error to the north he assigned to the cape a
position of 43 degrees 32 minutes. In the Introduction to his voyage* he
makes some remarks in a note upon the positions assigned to it by
Captains Cook and Furneaux; the latter officer placed it in 43 degrees 39
minutes, in which I also found it to be by its transient bearing from the
South Cape. By a series of bearings carried along the coast its position
is thirty-three miles West 3 degrees South true, from the South Cape.

(*Footnote. Flinders volume 1 Introduction page 179.)

All parts of the coast in this interval are proportionally in error as to
latitude but tolerably well placed in reference to the coast. The
subjoined are the positions now assigned to the following places, namely:

COLUMN 1: NAME OF PLACE.
COLUMN 2: LATITUDE.
COLUMN 3: LONGITUDE ACCORDING TO CAPTAIN FLINDERS' SURVEY.

South Cape : 43 degrees 38 minutes : 146 degrees 56 minutes.

Mewstone : 43 degrees 46 minutes : 146 degrees 31 1/2 minutes.

South-west Cape : 43 degrees 39 minutes : 146 degrees 12 minutes.

The south-east cape of Bruny Island, Tasman's Head, is also placed too
much to the southward in Captain Flinders' chart as well as in that of
Baudin. From the Mermaid it was set in a line with the south-east cape on
the bearing of North 56 degrees East (the vessel's head being to the
eastward); and on this occasion (the brig's head being to the westward)
it bore, when in the same line, North 53 degrees East. The variation in
the latter case was 9 degrees East, but in the former no more than 6
degrees was allowed, and Captain Flinders found even 4 degrees
sufficient.

I passed outside the Mewstone and took its bearing as it came on with the
points of the land between the south-west and the south-east capes, by
which I satisfied myself beyond a doubt of the correctness of my
observations and of the error into which Captain Flinders had fallen, and
which must either be attributed to the imperfection of his instrument or
to his reading off the altitude 10 minutes in error; and as there is just
that difference between it and the position assigned by Captain Furneaux,
which is also confirmed by my observation, the probability is in favour
of the last conjecture.

After leaving the coast of Van Diemen's Land we had much damp,
unwholesome weather, and a succession of heavy westerly gales, in which
the brig was occasionally much pressed.

1822. November 8-31.

And it was not until the 8th of November that we made Bald Island, which
is to the eastward of King George's Sound. We were now much in need of a
place to caulk the bends, as well as to repair some temporary damage to
the rigging and complete our wood and water. I therefore seized the
opportunity of our being near the sound and, steering into it, anchored
off the sandy bay within Seal Island and immediately commenced
operations. We were however much delayed by hard westerly gales, which
not only prevented the carpenter's caulking, but also delayed our
watering, since the boat could not pull to the shore; but as the
anchorage was well sheltered we suffered no further inconvenience than
the delay.

A few days after our arrival we were surprised by the appearance of a
strange vessel beating into the sound; she proved to be an American
schooner on a sealing voyage and was coming in for the purpose of
careening and cleaning the vessel's bottom in Oyster Harbour. The natives
also made their appearance and some of them being our old friends,
immediately recognised us.

As there was no wood convenient to our anchorage I moved the vessel to
the entrance of Princess Royal Harbour, near the northern head of which,
at the south end of the long sandy beach, the trees were growing in
abundance close to the beach: it was at this place also that Captain
Flinders obtained his wood; and excepting the entrance of Oyster Harbour
it is the most convenient place in the whole sound.

Whilst at this last anchorage we were visited by the natives, many of
them strangers; they were accompanied by our old friend Coolbun, the
native that, upon our former visit, was so noisy in explaining to his
companions the effect of the shot that was fired. On one occasion, when
they were on board, an immense shark was hooked, but broke the hook and
escaped, which was a great disappointment to them, for they evidently
anticipated a luxurious meal. After this they went on shore, when the
breeze blew so fresh as to make some seasick, very much to the amusement
of those who did not suffer, particularly one of the older men. On this
occasion the names of several of the natives were obtained, which have
been inserted with a few additional words at the end of the list obtained
from them during our former visit.* Our friend Jack did not make his
appearance, nor did the natives at all seem to understand for whom we
were enquiring.

(*Footnote. See above.)

As soon as our wood was completed the brig was moved to an anchorage off
the watering bay which proved a more convenient place than under Seal
Island, as it was better sheltered and nearer to the watering-place.
After riding out a heavy gale from the westward at single anchor without
any accident and as soon as our water was completed, we again anchored
for a day under Seal Island, but were obliged to make two attempts before
we succeeded in getting out to sea.

Whilst at the anchorage off Princess Royal Harbour I went to Oyster
Harbour to procure flowering specimens of a tree which had hitherto been
a subject of much curiosity to botanists: at our former visits the season
was too far advanced; and Mr. Brown was equally unfortunate. The plant
resembles xanthorrhoea, both in its trunk and leaves, but bears its
flower in a very different manner; for, instead of throwing out one long
flower scape, it produces eighteen or twenty short stalks, each
terminated by an oval head of flowers. I recollected having seen a large
grove of these trees growing at a short distance from the outer beach on
the east side of the entrance of the harbour; and on going there found
the decayed flowers and seeds sufficiently perfect to throw a
considerable light upon this singular plant;* several were procured and
brought to England. A drawing of this tree is given in the view of King
George's Sound in Captain Flinders' account of the Investigator's
voyage.** In the list of the plants collected by me upon this occasion
was a splendid species of anigosanthus, which proved to be quite new, and
had escaped the observation both of Mr. Brown and of Mr. Cunningham.
Living plants of various genera were also procured: among which were
several of the remarkable Cephalotus follicularis (Brown) which however
alone survived the voyage, and are now growing in the royal gardens at
Kew.

(*Footnote. More perfect specimens were afterwards collected by Mr.
Baxter, and sent, through Mr. Henchman his employer, to my friend Mr.
Brown, the original discoverer of the tree in Captain Flinders' voyage,
and the author of the paper in the appendix at the end of the volume
relating to it.)

(**Footnote. Flinders volume 1 page 60.)

December 1 to February 9, 1823.

Having effected our departure from King George's Sound we proceeded on
our way towards Simon's Bay at the Cape of Good Hope, which we reached on
the 14th January after a passage of forty-six days without encountering a
gale of wind or the occurrence of any event worth recording.

February 9 to April 23.

We left Simon's Bay on the 9th of February and, after touching at St.
Helena and Ascension, crossed the line in 22 degrees 6 minutes West; and
on the 7th of April made the Island of Flores, one of the Azores. On the
same morning we fell in with two French men of war, a frigate and a
corvette, who bore down but, upon showing our colours, hauled their wind
and resumed their course without communicating with us. Between this and
the Channel we were delayed by a succession of northerly winds. The
Lizard Lights were made in the night of the 22nd of April and the
following day we anchored in Plymouth Sound; after an absence of more
than six years.

It may not be considered irrelevant here to make a few brief observations
upon what has been effected by these voyages, and what yet remains to be
done upon the northern coasts of Australia. Beginning with the
north-eastern coast, I have been enabled to lay down a very safe and
convenient track for vessels bound through Torres Strait, and to
delineate the coastline between Cape Hillsborough, in 20 degrees 54
minutes South, and Cape York, the north extremity of New South Wales; a
distance of six hundred and ninety miles. As my instructions did not
authorise my delaying to examine any part of this coast I could not
penetrate into the many numerous and extensive openings that presented
themselves in this space; particularly in the neighbourhoods of Cape
Gloucester, Upstart, and Cleveland; where the intersected and broken
appearances of the hills at the back are matters of interesting enquiry
and research.

My instructions at first confined me between Cape Arnhem and the
North-west Cape, but were subsequently extended to the western coast. The
examination of the northern and part of the north-western coasts, from
Wessel Islands to Port George the Fourth, a distance of seven hundred and
ninety miles, has been carefully made and, with a few exceptions, every
opening has been explored. Those parts in this interval that yet require
examination are some inlets on the south side of Clarence Strait, and one
of more considerable size to the eastward of Cambridge Gulf, trending in
to the south-east: otherways, the coast comprised within these limits has
been sufficiently examined for all the purposes of navigation.

The coast also between the North-west Cape and Depuch Island, containing
two hundred and twenty miles, has also been sufficiently explored; but
between the latter island and Port George the Fourth, a distance of five
hundred and ten miles, it yet remains almost unknown. The land that is
laid down is nothing more than an archipelago of islands fronting the
mainland, the situation of which is quite uncertain. Our examinations of
these islands were carried on as far as Cape Villaret, but between that
and Depuch Island the coast has only been seen by the French, who merely
occasionally saw small detached portions of it. At present however this
is conjecture; but the space is of considerable extent and, if there is
an opening into the interior of New Holland, it is in the vicinity of
this part. Off the Buccaneer's Archipelago the tides are strong and rise
to the height of thirty-six feet. Whatever may exist behind these
islands, which we were prevented by our poverty in anchors and other
circumstances from exploring, there are certainly some openings of
importance; and it is not at all improbable that there may be a
communication at this part with the interior for a considerable distance
from the coast.

The examination of the western coast was performed during an almost
continued gale of wind, so that we had no opportunity of making any very
careful observation upon its shores. There can however be very little
more worth knowing of them, as I apprehend the difficulty of landing is
too great ever to expect to gain much information; for it is only in
Shark's Bay that a vessel can anchor with safety.

With respect to the subjects of natural history that have been procured
upon the voyage, it is much to be lamented that the small size of the
vessel and our constant professional duties prevented my extending them.
Of quadrupeds we saw but few. Birds were very numerous but the operation
of skinning and preserving them would have taken up more time than could
be afforded. A few insects, some shells, and a small series of specimens
of the geology of the parts we landed at were among the only things
obtained, excepting the extensive and valuable collection of plants
formed by Mr. Cunningham which are now in the possession of Mr. Aiton, of
the Royal Gardens at Kew; for which establishment it would seem that they
were solely procured. It was in fact the only department of natural
history in which any pains were taken and for which every assistance was
rendered. A small herbarium was however collected by me, containing
nearly five hundred species: they are in the possession of my respected
friend Aylmer B. Lambert, Esquire, whose scientific attainments in the
field of botany are well and widely known. It is to be hoped however that
the few subjects offered to the scientific world in the appendix, through
the kindness of my friends, will not be thought uninteresting or
unimportant; and that they will serve to show how very desirable it is to
increase the comparatively slender knowledge that we possess of this
extensive country, which in this respect might still with propriety
retain its ancient name of Terra Australis INCOGNITA.

Whilst this sheet was going through the press accounts were received at
the Admiralty from Captain J.G. Bremer, C.B. of H.M. Ship Tamar who was
despatched by the government in the early part of last year (1824) to
take possession of Arnhem's Land, upon the north coast of the continent,
and to form an establishment upon the most eligible spot that could be
found for a mercantile depot. Of the proceedings of this expedition the
following particulars have been communicated to me by Lieutenant J.S.
Roe, my former companion and assistant, who was appointed lieutenant of
the Tamar upon her being destined for that service; and which, as the
sequel of the voyage I have been describing, cannot be deemed irrelevant
or uninteresting, since the place fixed upon by Captain Bremer was
discovered during the early part of the said voyage.*

(*Footnote. See volume 1.)

The Tamar arrived at Port Jackson on the 28th of July, 1824; when every
facility was rendered by the colonial government to further the object in
view. The expedition sailed thence in less than a month with a detachment
of the 3rd regiment and forty-five convicts, in addition to the party of
Royal Marines that had been embarked before the Tamar left England. The
establishment was placed under the command of Captain Barlow of the 3rd
regiment. A merchant ship, the Countess of Harcourt, was taken up to
convey the stores and provisions, and the Lady Nelson, colonial brig, was
also placed at the disposal of the commandant.

Lieutenant Roe, in describing this voyage to me, writes: "We had a very
favourable passage to the northward, and in less than three weeks cleared
Torres Strait by the route you recommended to Captain Bremer, without
encountering any accident. We nevertheless saw several shoals that, in
our former voyages in the Mermaid and Bathurst, were not noticed; by
reason of the greater altitude of the Tamar's masthead affording a much
more extensive view on either side of our course." The particulars of
these discoveries of Lieutenant Roe are given in the Appendix, under the
description of the North-East Coast, in the order in which they occur.

Having cleared Torres Strait the Tamar anchored in Port Essington.
Lieutenant Roe then says, "Having brought the ship to anchor off Table
Point in Port Essington, all the boats were hoisted out and the marines
landed, when, an union-jack being fixed upon a conspicuous tree near the
extremity of the point, formal possession was taken of the north coast of
Australia, between the meridians of 129 and 136 degrees East of
Greenwich. The marines fired three volleys, and the Tamar a royal salute,
upon the occasion.

"Our first object being to find water, parties were despatched in various
directions for that purpose; but after traversing many miles of country,
and coasting a great deal of the port, only one place was discovered (the
low sandy east point of entrance to Inner Harbour) where any was to be
procured, and it was then only obtained by digging deep holes in the
sand. A large Malay encampment had recently removed from this spot,
leaving their fireplaces and temporary couches, and large piles of
firewood to season, in readiness for their next visit. No natives were
seen, not even at our old place in Knockers Bay. The adjoining country
was found to be very good forest land, well timbered, but parched with
drought, which was by no means in favour of our views. Having buried a
sealed bottle upon the sandy point, containing an account of our
proceedings, we named it Point Record,* and sailed at the expiration of
two days for Apsley Strait.

(*Footnote. Point Record is the low sandy point on the left of the
picture in the view of Port Essington, volume 1.)

"Light winds retarded our arrival off Cape Van Diemen until the 24th, and
it was not before the 26th that we brought up close to Luxmoore Head, in
St. Asaph Bay. Possession was here taken in a similar manner and with the
same forms as at Port Essington, and we commenced a strict search for
water in every direction in the neighbourhood of the head, which appeared
so desirable and commanding a position, that it was with great reluctance
we eventually gave up all idea of settling there, on not finding fresh
water in its neighbourhood.

"At the expiration of five or six days a small river and plenty of water
was discovered on Melville Island abreast of Harris Island; and an
eligible situation for the intended new settlement being discovered near
it, the ships were removed thither on the 2nd of October, and parties
landed to commence immediate operations with the axe and saw. The
projection of land fixed upon for the site of a town, was named after the
commandant (Captain Barlow). The cove in which the ships were at anchor
was named King's Cove by Captain Bremer, after yourself, as the original
discoverer of the strait; and that part of Apsley Strait, between
Luxmoore Head and Harris Island,* received the name of Port Cockburn, in
honour of Vice Admiral Sir George Cockburn, G.C.B., one of the Lords of
the Admiralty.

(*Footnote. Harris Island was named by me after my friend John Harris,
Esquire, formerly surgeon of the 102nd Regiment, who has served so long
and so faithfully in various offices under the government of New South
Wales.)

"All disposable hands being employed on shore in clearing Point Barlow of
wood and other impediments, we were speedily enabled to commence the
erection of a fort, seventy-five yards in length by fifty wide; to be
built of the trunks of the felled trees, and to be surrounded by a ditch
ten feet wide and deep. On the memorable 21st of October, our
quarter-deck guns were landed and mounted, the colours were hoisted for
the first time, and the work was named Fort Dundas, under a royal salute
from itself.

"From this time the place began to assume the appearance of a fortified
village; quarters were constructed within the walls of the fort for the
accommodation of the officers belonging to the establishment, and about
thirty huts of various kinds were erected, and thatched with rushes for
the soldiers and convicts. A deep well was sunk near the fort; a good
substantial wharf ran out into the water; and, as soon as a commissariat
storehouse was finished, all the provisions were landed from the Countess
of Harcourt and secured there.

"The soil in the neighbourhood of the settlement being exceedingly good,
gardens were cleared and laid out, and soon produced all kinds of
vegetables. In our stock we were rather unfortunate, for of six sheep
that were landed for the purpose of breeding, five died, supposed from
the effect produced by eating some pernicious herb in the woods: pigs,
ducks, and fowls seemed however in a fair way of doing well, and had
increased considerably since they were landed; but great inconvenience
was experienced for want of some horses or draught oxen, which would not
only have materially expedited the work in hand, but would have spared
the men much laborious fatigue and exposure to the effects of a vertical
sun: all difficulties and obstacles were however met and overcome with
the greatest zeal and perseverance, and the works proceeded with such
spirit and alacrity, that we were enabled to sail for Bombay on the 13th
of November, without exposing the new settlement either to the jealousy
of the Malays, or the mischievous attack of the natives. No traces of the
former people were observed at this place, nor any of the trepang that
would be their sole inducement for visiting it. Not one native made his
appearance before the early part of November when, as if by signal, a
party of about eighteen on each shore communicated with us on the same
day and were very friendly, although exceedingly suspicious and timid.
They would not venture within the line of the outer hut and always came
armed, but laid aside their spears and clubs whenever friendly signs were
made. On the second day of their visit I was greatly astonished to see
amongst them a young man of about twenty years of age, not darker in
colour than a Chinese but with perfect Malay features and like all the
rest entirely naked: he had daubed himself all over with soot and grease,
to appear like the others, but the difference was plainly perceptible. On
perceiving that he was the object of our conversation, a certain archness
and lively expression came over his countenance, which a native
Australian would have strained his features in vain to have produced. The
natives appeared to be very fond of him. It seems probable that he must
have been kidnapped when very young, or found while astray in the woods.*

(*Footnote. At our visit to this place in 1818 and during our
communication with the natives a boy of the above description was noticed
among them; he was brought down upon the shoulders of one of the Indians,
in which position he is represented in the view. See volume 1.)

"These Indians made repeated signs for hatchets, which they called
paaco-paaco, and although they had stolen two or three on their first
appearance, it was considered desirable to gain their goodwill by giving
them more, and three were accordingly presented to individuals among them
who appeared to be in authority. They were of course much pleased, but
the next day several axes, knives, and sickles were taken by force from
men employed outside the settlement, upon which they were made to
understand that until these articles were restored no more would be
given. This arrangement being persevered in by us, they determined upon
seizing these implements on every occasion that presented itself; so that
it was found necessary to protect our working parties in the woods by a
guard; the result of which was that the natives threw their spears
whenever resistance was offered, and the guard was obliged to fire upon
the aggressors.

"Open acts of hostility having now been committed, and the natives
increasing daily in numbers to upwards of one hundred round the
settlement, a good lookout was kept upon them; but not sufficiently to
prevent about sixty of them surprising five of the marines in a swamp
cutting rushes, and throwing their spears amongst them: their salute was
immediately returned, and they disappeared without any damage having been
done on either side; at the same minute however reports of musketry were
heard at our watering-place and garden and proved to be in repelling an
attack that about forty natives had made upon our jolly-boat watering and
two men cutting grass. One of the natives was shot dead at ten yards'
distance while in the act of throwing his spear; and our people thought
that several others were wounded as they disappeared making most strange
noises, and have not been near us since. One of the spears thrown upon
the last occasion had sixteen barbs to it but, in general, they were
merely scraped to a sharp point without even one barb, and were not
thrown with anything like precision or good aim, which accounts for none
of their weapons having taken effect, although discharged at our people
at the distance only of a few yards."

Soon after this the Tamar left Fort Dundas for the India station and
despatched the Countess of Harcourt upon her ulterior destination. The
settlement was left in a very forward state and consisted altogether of
one hundred and twenty-six individuals of whom there were 3 or 4 women
and forty-five convicts; the remainder were composed of detachments of
the 3rd regiment (the Buffs) and of the marines, the latter under the
command of Lieutenant Williamson. The Lady Nelson was left with
Commandant Barlow.

Such is the state of the settlement of Fort Dundas, which at some future
time must become a place of considerable consequence in the eastern
world. The soil and climate of Melville and Bathurst Islands are capable
of growing all the valuable productions of the East, particularly spices,
and many other equally important articles of trade: it is conveniently
placed for the protection of ships passing to our Indian possessions from
Port Jackson, and admirably situated for the purposes of mercantile
speculation.

Such, then, are the first fruits of the voyages I have had the honour to
direct. Much, however, of the coast yet remains to be examined; and
although, for the general purposes of navigation, it has been quite
sufficiently explored, yet there are many spaces upon the chart left
blank that would be highly interesting to examine and really important to
know. We have but a slight knowledge also of the natural history of the
continent; slight however as it is, no country has ever produced a more
extraordinary assemblage of indigenous productions; no country has proved
richer than Australia in every branch of natural history; and it has
besides, this advantage, that as the greater part is yet entirely
unknown, so much the more does it excite the interest of the geographer
and naturalist.

The examination of its vast interior can only be performed by degrees:
want of navigable rivers will naturally impede such a task, but all these
difficulties will be gradually overcome by the indefatigable zeal of our
countrymen, of whose researches in all parts of the world the present
times teem with such numerous examples.



APPENDIX A.

Previously to entering into the detail of the following coast-directions,
in which it has been attempted, for the sake of a more easy reference, to
collect all the nautical information under one general head, it may be
proper to premise that Captain Flinders, in the account of his voyage,*
has given two very useful chapters upon the winds and weather that may be
experienced upon the various coasts of this continent; as well as
information respecting its general navigation and particular
sailing-directions for the outer passage from Port Jackson through Torres
Strait, by entering the reefs at Murray Island. From these chapters
Captain Horsburgh has arranged, in his valuable work on the Hydrography
etc. of the Indian Ocean, a set of sailing-directions and other nautical
information** that will be found useful for the navigation of the
southern and eastern coasts of this continent.

(*Footnote. Volume 1 book 1 chapter 11 and volume 2 book 2 chapter 11.)

(**Footnote. Horsburgh's Indian Directory volume 2 pages 493 and 515.)



APPENDIX A. SECTION 1.

OF THE WINDS AND CURRENTS, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTS, ISLANDS, AND
COAST BETWEEN PORT JACKSON AND BREAKSEA SPIT.

EAST COAST.

The south-east trade cannot be said to blow home upon that part of the
coast of New South Wales, which lies between Breaksea Spit and Port
Jackson, except during the summer months when winds from that quarter
prevail and often blow very hard; they are then accompanied by heavy
rains and very thick weather: generally however from October to April
they assume the character of a sea-breeze and, excepting during their
suspension by south-easterly or westerly gales, are very regular. In the
month of December strong south-easterly gales are not uncommon; and in
February and March they are very frequent.

In the month of December hot winds from the north-west will sometimes
last for two or three days, and are almost always suddenly terminated by
a gust of wind from the southward. The most prevailing winds, during all
seasons, are from the south, and are probably oftener from the eastward
of that point than from the westward. The current always sets to the
southward, and has been found by us on several occasions to set the
strongest during a South-East gale. The general course of the current is
in the direction of the coast, but this is not constant; for, between
Port Stevens and to the southward of Port Jackson, it sometimes sets in
towards it. In a gale from the South-East in the month of December 1820,
it must have been setting as much to the westward as South-West. This
should be attended to, particularly in south-easterly gales, and an
offing preserved to provide against the wind's veering to East-South-East
and East by South, which is often the case; and then the current, setting
upon the weather-bow, will place the vessel, in a dark night, in
considerable danger. The rate of the current is generally about one mile
per hour, but it sometimes though rarely runs at the rate of nearly three
knots.

To the eastward in the space between New South Wales and New Caledonia
the current sets to the North-West, which carries a great body of water
into the bight between the former and New Guinea; but as Torres Strait
offers but a very inconsiderable outlet the stream is turned, and sets to
the southward until it gradually joins the easterly current which, from
the prevalence of westerly winds, is constantly running between Van
Diemen's Land and Cape Horn.

The tides in this interval are of little consequence and in few places
rise higher than six feet at the springs, excepting where they are
affected by local circumstances.

There are but few places of shelter upon the east coast between Port
Jackson and Breaksea Spit: Captain Flinders points out Broken Bay, Port
Hunter for small craft, Port Stephens, Shoal Bay for vessels not
exceeding fifty tons, and Glass House (Moreton) Bay. There are however
other anchorages that might be resorted to in the event of being thrown
upon a lee shore, which are equally good with Port Hunter, Shoal Bay, and
Glass House Bay.

There is an anchorage behind Black Head to the north of Point Stevens
which Lieutenant Oxley discovered to be an island; Port Macquarie also
affords shelter for small vessels; and on the north side of Smoky Cape
there is good shelter from southerly or south-easterly winds: but the
whole of these, excepting Broken Bay, are only attainable by small
vessels. A large ship must keep an offing; and as the coast is not at all
indented the wind must blow very hard, and the ship sail very badly, to
be placed in danger. Wide Bay however is a very good port, and affords a
safe and secure shelter; the anchorage being protected by a reef which
fronts it.

PORT JACKSON.

The Lighthouse, or Macquarie Tower, is in latitude 33 degrees 51 minutes
11 seconds South and longitude 4 minutes 29.8 seconds east of Sir Thomas
Brisbane's Observatory at Sydney, or 151 degrees 19 minutes 45 seconds
East of Greenwich. It is a revolving light and may be seen at the
distance of ten leagues. The Inner South Head bears from it North 20
degrees West* and is distant about two thousand five hundred yards. The
North Head bears from the Inner South Head North 53 degrees East by
compass, about two thousand four hundred and forty yards; and the
narrowest part of the entrance, which is between the Inner North and
South Heads, is a little more than eight hundred yards, so that there is
abundance of room to work in should the wind blow out of the Port. On
arriving off the lighthouse, steer in between the North and South Heads
until you are past the line of bearing of the Outer North, and the Inner
South Heads: then haul round the latter, but avoid a reef of rocks that
extends for two hundred yards off the point, and steer for Middle Head, a
projecting cliff at the bottom of the bay, until the harbour opens round
the Inner South Head; you may then pass on either side of the Sow and
Pigs; but the eastern channel, although the narrowest, is perhaps the
best; but this, in a great measure, depends upon the direction of the
wind. The eastern channel is the deepest. The Sow and Pigs, or Middle
Ground, is the only danger in Port Jackson: it is a bank of sand and
rocks, of about eight hundred yards in length, by about three hundred and
fifty in breadth: its length being in the direction of the harbour; a
very small portion of it is dry, and consists of a few rocks, upon which
the sea almost always breaks; they are situated upon the outer end of the
shoal, and are in the line of bearing of the Outer North and the Inner
South Heads. The south-western tail of the bank is chiefly of sand, with
rocks scattered about it; but, on the greater portion of it, there is
twelve feet water; it gradually deepens to three and a quarter fathoms,
which is beyond the rocky limits of the shoal. To sail through the
Western Channel, which is from one-third to half a mile wide, steer
towards George's Head, a high rocky head, about three quarters of a mile
above Middle Head, keeping it in sight upon the larboard bow, and the sea
horizon open between the points of entrance, until you are within the
line of bearing between a small sandy beach on the western shore and
Green Point; the latter is a grassy mound, the south head of Camp Cove.
Then steer for George's Head, and gradually round it: when you have
passed the line of bearing between it and Green Point, and opened the
sandy beach of Watson's Bay, steer boldly up the harbour. In rounding
Point Bradley, there is a rocky shelf that runs off the point for perhaps
one hundred yards. Pass on either side of Pinch-gut Island, and, in
hauling into Sydney Cove, avoid a rocky reef that extends off Point
Bennelong for rather more than two hundred yards into the sea.

To sail through the Eastern Channel, or to the eastward of the Sow and
Pigs, haul round the Inner South Head until the summit of the Inner North
Head is in a line with the inner trend of the former, bearing by compass
North 23 1/2 degrees East; then steer South-South-West until you have
passed Green Point, when the course may be directed at pleasure up the
harbour.

In turning to windward, go no nearer to the Sow and Pigs than three and a
quarter fathoms, unless your vessel is small; nor within two hundred
yards of the shore, for although it is bold in most parts close to, yet
there are some few straggling rocks off the south point of Watson's Bay,
and also some round Shark's Island. There is good anchorage in all parts
of the harbour, when within Middle and the South Heads. There is also
anchorage in North Harbour, but not to be recommended, for the swell
sometimes rolls into the mouth of the harbour; no swell can, however,
affect the anchorage between Middle Head and the Sow and Pigs.

SYDNEY COVE is nearly half a mile deep, and four hundred yards wide, and
will contain more than twenty ships swinging at their moorings. The
shores are bold to, and, excepting the rocky shoals that extend off Point
Bennelong and Point Dawes, ships may approach very near.

On the eastern side of the cove is a convenient place for heaving down:
it belongs to the government, but merchant ships may use it, by paying a
small sum according to the length of time it is engaged. Wood and water
are easily obtained from the north shore of the port; the former may be
cut close to the beach; the latter is collected in tanks, and, excepting
during a very dry season, is always abundant.

The tide rises occasionally at the springs as much as eight feet, but six
feet is the general rise; it is high water at Sydney Cove at half past
eight o'clock, but at the heads, it precedes this time by a quarter of an
hour. The variation of the magnetic needle observed on shore by
Lieutenant Roe:

at Sydney Cove in 1822, to be 8 degrees 42 minutes East,

at Garden Island 9 degrees 6 minutes East,

at Camp Cove 9 degrees 42 minutes East.

As all navigators are, or ought to be, supplied with Captain Horsburgh's
Indian Directory, it has not been thought necessary to descant further
upon the nature of the winds and currents of the east coast; since this
subject has been so fully treated upon, in the above valuable book, in
the section that commences at page 501.

Captain Horsburgh has also described the entrance of Botany Bay at page
502, and of Broken Bay, at page 505. According to Lieutenant Jeffreys,
R.N., who commanded the hired armed transport Kangaroo, the latter
harbour has a bar stretching across from the south to the north head, on
which there is not less than five fathoms water.

PORT HUNTER is situated fifty-nine miles North 22 degrees East (true)
from the entrance of Port Jackson. There is a lighthouse at its southern
entrance, and pilots are established who come off to vessels that arrive.
The entrance is round the Nobby (latitude 32 degrees 56 minutes,
longitude 151 degrees 43 1/4 minutes) an insulated rock: and the passage
is indicated by keeping two lights, that are placed at a distance from
each other at the wharf, in a line: the anchorage is about two hundred
yards from the wharf in three fathoms. The shoals on the west side are
dangerous, and several vessels have been wrecked upon them in going in.
The above information is from a plan drawn by Lieutenant Jeffreys, in the
Hydrographical Office at the Admiralty: it was drawn in the year 1816;
since which a portion of the labour of the convicts has been employed in
building a breakwater, or pier, from the south entrance to the Nobby
Rock, which will tend to direct the stream of tide through the channel,
and also protect it from the surf and swell, which, during a south-east
gale, must render the harbour of dangerous access. The town was formerly
called King's Town, but it has since been changed to that of Newcastle,
and the appellation of the Coal River has partly superseded the more
legitimate name of Port Hunter.

PORT STEPHENS is easy to enter, but not to sail from, unless the wind is
fair, on account of the shoals that are near its entrance. Point Stephens
is in latitude 32 degrees 46 1/2 minutes, longitude 152 degrees 9 minutes
45 seconds.

BLACK HEAD is an island, behind which there is very good anchorage; the
head is in latitude 32 degrees 38 minutes 20 seconds. Between Black Head,
and the hills called the Brothers, are WALLIS' Lake, in latitude 32
degrees 11 minutes 50 seconds, HARRINGTON'S Lake, in 32 degrees 0
minutes, and FARQUHAR'S Lake, in latitude 31 degrees 54 minutes; they
were discovered by Lieutenant Oxley on his return from his land journey
in 1819; they have all shoal entrances, and are merely the outlets of
extensive lagoons, which receive the streams from the hills, and occupy a
considerable space between the coast and the mountains.

In latitude 31 degrees 47 minutes 50 seconds, and at the distance of two
miles and a quarter from the shore, is a dangerous reef, on which the sea
constantly breaks; it was named by Lieutenant Oxley, who discovered it,
the MERMAID'S REEF; it is about a quarter of a mile in extent, and bears
South 85 degrees East from the South Brother; a small detached portion of
the reef is separated from the principal rock, within which there
appeared to be a narrow navigable channel. A quarter of a mile without
the latter we found sixteen fathoms water. Round the point under the
North Brother Hill, is CAMDEN HAVEN, the particulars respecting its
entrance (in latitude 31 degrees 41 minutes, longitude 152 degrees) are
not yet known, but it is supposed to be very shoal.

PORT MACQUARIE is the embouchure or the River Hastings; its entrance is
about two miles and two-thirds to the North-North-West of Tacking Point.
It is a bar harbour, and, like Port Hunter, is of dangerous access, on
account of the banks of sand that project from the low north sandy point
of entrance, on which the sea breaks and forms sand rollers; these
however serve to indicate the edge of the channel, which is about ninety
yards wide. The south shore extends in a North-North-West direction from
Tacking Point to Green Mound (a remarkable conical shaped hillock) whence
the south shore of the entrance trends in nearly a west direction to the
narrow entrance opposite Pelican Point.

Between Green Mound and the next projection the bar stretches across
towards the sand rollers, and is about one hundred and twenty yards in
extent.

The deepest channel over it is within thirty yards of two sunken rocks,
the outermost of which bears from Green Mound North 45 degrees West
(true) or North 55 degrees West, nine hundred yards. When Green Mound
Point and the next point to the southward of it are in a line, you are
within a few yards of the shoalest part of the bar. After passing the
bar, there are from two to four fathoms water. Since the examination of
this harbour, a penal settlement has been formed, and a pilot appointed
to conduct vessels in and out. Off the entrance is a high rocky islet,
the Nobby, within which the channel is shoal and dangerous to pass. There
is good anchorage in four, five, or six fathoms, about half a mile
outside of the bar, on a bank of sand, which gradually deepens for three
miles to fourteen fathoms, upon any part of which a vessel may anchor to
await high water.

Latitude of its entrance 31 degrees 25 minutes 32 seconds South.

Longitude 152 degrees 57 minutes 25 seconds East.

Variation of the compass 10 degrees 11 minutes 0 seconds East.

High water at full and change 8 hours 56 minutes.

Tide rises four to five feet.

The south-east trend of SMOKY CAPE is in latitude 30 degrees 55 minutes
40 seconds, longitude 153 degrees 4 minutes 30 seconds.

TRIAL BAY, so named by Lieutenant Oxley, who anchored in it on a second
expedition to examine Port Macquarie previous to its being settled, is a
convenient roadstead during southerly winds: it is situated on the north
side of Smoky Cape, and affords an anchorage in three fathoms, protected
from the sea as far as North-East by East. Fresh water may be procured
from a stream that runs over the beach. Four miles to the north of Smoky
Cape is an inlet having a bar harbour, on which there is but eight feet
water.

SHOAL BAY is the next harbour to the northward: the following description
of it is from Captain Flinders (Flinders' Terra Australis, Introduction,
cxcv.)

"On the south side of the entrance, which is the deepest, there is ten
feet at low water; and within side the depth is from two to four fathoms,
in a channel near the south shore: the rest of the bar is mostly occupied
by shoals, over which boats can scarcely pass when the tide is out. High
water appeared to take place about seven hours after the moon's passage;
at which time a ship not drawing more than fourteen feet might venture
in, if severely pressed. Shoal Bay is difficult to be found except by its
latitude, which is 29 degrees 26 1/2 minutes, but there is on the low
land about four leagues to the southward, a small hill somewhat peaked,
which may serve as a mark to vessels coming from that direction."

CAPE BYRON, in latitude 28 degrees 38 minutes 10 seconds, longitude 153
degrees 37 minutes 20 seconds. MOUNT WARNING is in latitude 28 degrees 24
minutes, longitude 153 degrees 12 minutes.

THE TWEED is a river communicating with the sea by a bar, on which there
is twelve feet water, it is situated about a mile and a half to the north
of a small island off Point Danger, which lies in latitude 28 degrees 8
minutes.

In latitude 28 degrees there is a communication with the inlet at the
south side of Moreton Bay, insulating the land whose north extremity is
Point Lookout. The entrance of this inlet is shoal and only passable for
boats.

MORETON BAY.* In addition to the account of this bay by Captain
Flinders,** Lieutenant Oxley has lately discovered the Brisbane, a very
fine fresh water river that falls into it in 27 degrees 25 minutes
latitude, abreast of the strait between Moreton Island and Point Lookout.

(*Footnote. This bay was originally called Glass House Bay, in allusion
to the name given by Captain Cook to three remarkable glass house-looking
hills near Pumice-stone River; but as Captain Cook bestowed the name of
Moreton Bay upon the strait to the south of Moreton Island, that name has
a prior claim, and is now generally adopted. A penal settlement has
lately been formed at Red Cliff Point, which is situated a little to the
north of the embouchure of the Brisbane River.)

(*Footnote. Flinders Introduction cxcvi.)

WIDE BAY, the entrance of which is in latitude 25 degrees 49 minutes, was
examined by Mr. Edwardson, the master of one of the government colonial
vessels; he found it to be a good port, having in its entrance a channel
of not less than three fathoms deep; and to communicate with Hervey's
Bay, thus making an island of the Great Sandy Peninsula.

INDIAN HEAD is in latitude 25 degrees 1 minute, and longitude 153 degrees
23 minutes.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 2.

DESCRIPTION OF THE WINDS AND WEATHER, AND OF THE PORTS, ISLANDS, AND
COAST BETWEEN BREAKSEA SPIT AND CAPE YORK.

NORTH-EAST COAST.

The south-east trade is occasionally suspended near the shore by
north-easterly winds during the months of June, July, and August, the
only season that I have any experience of the winds and weather upon the
north-east coast; the weather is generally thick and cloudy, and often
accompanied with showers of rain, particularly during the two first
months.

	In the neighbourhood of Breaksea Spit in May, 1819, we
experienced a fresh gale from the westward, after which it veered
to south-east with thick rainy weather: and in the neighbourhood
of Cape Capricorn, in June, 1821, we had a fresh gale from the
north-east. Among the Northumberland Islands, we have experienced
westerly winds, but they blew in light breezes with fine weather.
Even as far as Cape Grafton the wind cannot be said to be steady.
To the north of this point, however, the winds are always
constant from the southward, and seldom or ever veer to the
westward of south, or to the eastward of South-East by East; they
generally are from South-South-East: fresh winds cause the
weather to be hazy, and sometimes bring rain, which renders the
navigation among the reefs in some degree dangerous. In my last
voyage up the coast, on approaching Cape York, the weather was so
thick that we could not see more than a quarter of a mile ahead;
we, however, ran from reef to reef, and always saw them in
sufficient time to alter the course if we were in error. In such
a navigation cloudy dull weather is, however, rather an advantage
than otherwise, because the reefs, from the absence of the glare
of the sun, are more distinctly seen, particularly in the
afternoon, when the sun is to the westward. Later in the season
(August 1820) we had more settled weather, for the wind seldom
veered to the southward of South-South-East, or eastward of
East-South-East; and this weather accompanied us from Breaksea
Spit, through Torres Strait.

The best time for passing up this coast is in April and the beginning of
May, or between the middle of August and latter end of October; in the
months of June and July, the passage is not apparently so safe, on
account of the changeable weather that may be encountered, which to a
stranger would create much anxiety, although no real danger. Strict
attention to these directions and confidence in the chart, with a
cautious lookout will, however, neutralize all the dangers that thick
weather may produce in this navigation.

The tides and currents in this part are not of much consequence. The rise
of tide is trifling, the flood-tide sets to the North-West, but at a very
slow rate. In the neighbourhood of the reefs, the stream sometimes sets
at the rate of a knot or in some cases at two knots, but for a small
distance it is scarcely perceptible. There appeared rather to be a gentle
drain of current to the North-West.

HERVEY'S BAY and BUSTARD BAY have been already described by Captains Cook
and Flinders. We did not enter either, so that I have nothing to offer in
addition to the valuable information of those navigators (Hawkesworth
volume 3 page 113 and 117; and Flinders Introduction cci. and volume 2
page 9 et seq.)

LADY ELLIOT'S ISLAND is a low islet, covered with shrubs and trees, and
surrounded by a coral reef, which extends for three-quarters of a mile
from its north-east end; the island is not more than three-quarters of a
mile long, and about a quarter of a mile broad; it is dangerous to
approach at night, from being very low. It is situated thirty miles North
53 degrees West (magnetic) from the extremity of Breaksea Spit (as laid
down in Captain Flinders' chart); its latitude is 24 degrees 6 minutes,
and its longitude 152 degrees 45 minutes 15 seconds.

BUNKER'S GROUP consists of three islets; they are low and wooded like
Lady Elliot's Island, and lie South-East and North-West from each other;
the south-easternmost (or 1st) has a coral reef projecting for two miles
and a half to the North-East: four miles and a half to the North-West of
the north-westernmost (or 3rd islet) is a large shoal, which, from the
heavy breakers upon it, is probably a part of the barrier or outer reefs.
The centre island (or 2nd) of the group is in latitude 23 degrees 51
minutes 10 seconds, and longitude 152 degrees 19 minutes 5 seconds. Off
the south-west end of the 2nd island is a small detached islet connected
to it by a reef; and off the north-east end of the 3rd island is another
islet, also connected by a coral reef.

The spaces between these islands, which are more than a league wide, are
quite free from danger: we passed within a quarter of a mile of the south
end of the reef off the 3rd island, without getting bottom with ten
fathoms.

RODD'S BAY, a small harbour on the west side of the point to the
northward of Bustard Bay, offers a good shelter for vessels of one
hundred and fifty tons burden. The channel lies between two sandbanks,
which communicate with either shore. In hauling round the point, steer
for Middle Head, a projecting rocky point covered with trees, keeping the
centre of it in the bearing of about South (magnetic); you will then
carry first five, then six and seven fathoms: when you are abreast of the
north low sandy point, you have passed the sandbank on the eastern side,
the extremity of which bears from the point West 1/4 North about one
mile: then haul in East by South, and anchor at about one-third of a mile
from the low sandy point bearing North.

In hauling round this point, you must not shoalen your water, on the
south side, to less than four fathoms, as the sandbank projects for a
mile and a quarter from Middle Head. In the centre of the channel,
between Sandy Point and Middle Head, and at about one third of a mile
from the former, you will have seven, eight, and nine fathoms water,
until it bears North by East when it shoals to five fathoms. The
situation of the extremity of the low sandy point upon Captain Flinders'
chart (East Coast sheet 3) is in latitude 23 degrees 59 minutes 45
seconds, and longitude 151 degrees 34 minutes 45 seconds. High water
takes place at eight hours and a half after the moon's transit.

In standing into Rodd's Bay, the water does not shoalen until you are in
a line with the north points of Facing Island and Bustard Bay.

There is a run of fresh water in the bay to the eastward of the low sandy
point, but it was not thought to be a durable stream. Wood may be cut
close to the beach, and embarked without impediment.

PORT BOWEN. Captain Flinders, in his account of this port, has merely
confined himself to the anchorage under Entrance Island (latitude 22
degrees 29 minutes, longitude 150 degrees 45 minutes 30 seconds) which
is, at best, but an exposed roadstead. The channel in, on the north side
of the island, is free from danger, but, on the south side, between it
and Cape Clinton, there is an extensive shoal on which the sea breaks
heavily: it was not ascertained whether it is connected with the bank off
the south end of the island, but there is every probability of it. The
inlet round Cape Clinton affords good anchorage: but in the mid-channel
the depth is as much as eighteen fathoms; the sands on the western side
of the inlet are steep to, and should be avoided, for the tide sweeps
upon them. The best anchorage is in the sandy bay round the inner trend
of the cape (latitude 22 degrees 31 minutes 40 seconds, longitude 150
degrees 44 minutes) where both wood and water are convenient. In steering
in from sea, haul round the cape, and pass about half to three-quarters
of a mile to the north of the high round island, in seven fathoms,
avoiding the sandbanks on either side. In passing the inner trend of the
cape, the water will shoal to three and three-quarter fathoms, but do not
approach too near the point. When you have opened the inlet, steer in,
and, having passed the inner cape, haul in to a sandy bay on the eastern
side, where you may anchor in eight or nine fathoms at pleasure.

The centre of the shoal in the middle of the port bears North 1/4 East by
compass, from the high round island, and North by West 1/4 West when in a
line with Entrance Island.

High water appears to take place half an hour later than at Entrance
Island, or about 10 hours 40 minutes after the moon's southing (the
moon's age being thirteen days). The tide did not rise more than six
feet, but it wanted three days to the springs. Captain Flinders supposes
the spring tides to rise not less than fifteen feet. The variation of the
compass was 9 degrees 5 minutes East, off Cape Clinton, but at Entrance
Island, according to Captain Flinders, it was 7 degrees 40 minutes East.

NORTHUMBERLAND ISLANDS. In the direction of North 8 degrees East
(magnetic) and five miles and a half from the 3rd Island, is a low rock
which, at high water, is very little above the surface of the sea; it is
very dangerous because it is in the direct track of vessels steering
towards the Percy Isles. It escaped the observation of Captain Flinders.

In the direction of South 42 degrees West (magnetic) and ten miles from
the west end of Percy Island Number 1, are some rocks, but I am not aware
whether they are covered: they were seen by Lieutenant Jefferies in 1815.

Another patch of dry rocks was seen by me from the summit of a hill at
the west end of Percy Island Number 1, whence they bore South 60 degrees
West (magnetic) and were supposed to be distant about eight or nine
miles. The variation of the compass here is between 7 and 8 degrees East.

The PERCY ISLES have also been described by Captain Flinders; the bay at
the west end of Number 1 is of very steep approach and not safe to anchor
in, excepting during a south-east wind: the anchorage at Number 2, inside
the Pine Islets, is bad, since the bottom is rocky; the ground is,
however, clearer more to the southward; on the whole this anchorage is
not insecure, since there is a safe passage out either on the north or
south sides of the Pine Islets. Wood may be procured with facility, and
water also, unless the streams fail in the dry season. Captain Flinders
was at these islands at the latter end of September, and found it
abundant. The flood-tide comes from the north-east; at the anchorage in
the channel, between the pine islets and Number 2, the flood sets to the
south, and the ebb to the north; the maximum rate was one and a quarter
knot. High water occurred at the latter place two hours and a half before
the moon's passage; but on the following day did not precede it more than
one hour and a half. Captain Flinders mentions high water taking place on
shore at eight hours after the moon's passage. (Vide Flinders volume 2
page 82.) The tide rose twelve feet when the moon was thirteen days old.
The north-west end of Number 1 is in latitude 21 degrees 44 minutes 50
seconds, longitude 150 degrees 16 minutes 40 seconds; south-west end of
Number 2 is in latitude 21 degrees 40 minutes 50 seconds, longitude 150
degrees 13 minutes.

In passing SHOAL POINT, in latitude 21 degrees 0 minutes 5 seconds,
longitude 149 degrees 7 minutes 40 seconds, Captain Cook's ship got into
shoal water, and at one time had as little as three fathoms (Hawkesworth
volume 3 page 131); and the merchant ship Lady Elliot, in the year 1815,
met with a sandbank extending from the island off the point in a
north-east direction for ten miles, on one part of which she found only
nine feet water.

The Mermaid passed the point at the distance of three miles, and, when
the island bore South 68 degrees West, distant two miles and a half, had
four and three-quarter fathoms, which was the least water that was found,
but, being then high water, five or six feet, if not more, may be
deducted, to reduce it to the proper low water sounding. There was no
appearance of shoaler water near us, and it is probable that Captain
Cook's and the Lady Elliot's tracks were farther off shore. The variation
of the compass, six miles east of Point Slade, was 7 degrees 11 minutes
East.

CAPE HILLSBOROUGH is a projection terminating in a bluff point in
latitude 20 degrees 53 minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 149 degrees 0
minutes 15 seconds: being high land, it may be seen seven or eight
leagues off. The variation here is 6 degrees 30 minutes East.

The CUMBERLAND ISLES extend between the parallels of 20 and 21 degrees 6
minutes, and consist generally of elevated, rocky islands; they are all
abundantly wooded, particularly with pines, which grow to a larger size
than at the Percy Isles. We did not land upon any of them; they appeared
to be of bold approach, and not dangerous to navigate amongst; they are
from six to eight hundred feet high, and some of the peaks on the
northern island are much higher.

k l (latitude 21 degrees 5 minutes 40 seconds, longitude 149 degrees 54
minutes 25 seconds) is about three-quarters of a mile in diameter; it is
of peaked shape; at three-quarters of a mile off its south-east end there
is a dry rocky lump.

k (latitude 21 degrees 0 minutes, longitude 149 degrees 52 minutes 30
seconds) is nearly a mile and a quarter in diameter, and has a
considerable reef stretching for more than a mile and a half off both its
north-west and south-east ends; on the latter is a small rocky islet.

k 2 (in latitude 20 degrees 58 minutes, longitude 149 degrees 44 minutes
55 seconds) is of hummocky shape; it has also a reef off its south-east
and north-west ends, stretching off at least a mile. On the south-east
reef is a dry rocky islet.

THREE ROCKS, in latitude 20 degrees 56 1/4 minutes, are small islets of
moderate height. All these islands are surrounded by deep water. The
variation here is about 6 3/4 degrees East.

k 4, in latitude 20 degrees 53 minutes 10 seconds, and k 4 1/2, in
latitude 20 degrees 58 minutes, and the two sandy islets to the westward
of them, were seen only at a distance.

l, in latitude 20 degrees 51 minutes 10 seconds, l 1, in latitude 20
degrees 54 minutes 10 seconds, containing two islands, l 3, in latitude
20 degrees 44 minutes l5 seconds, and l 4, in latitude 20 degrees 45
minutes 30 seconds, are also high, but we were not nearer to them than
six or seven miles; l 2, in latitude 20 degrees 45 minutes 40 seconds,
longitude 149 degrees 33 minutes 55 seconds, is the island on which
Captain Flinders landed, and describes in volume 2 page 94; he says,
"This little island is of triangular shape, and each side of it is a mile
long; it is surrounded by a coral reef. The time of high water took place
ONE HOUR before the moon's passage, as it had done among the barrier
reefs; from ten to fifteen feet seemed to be the rise by the shore, and
the flood came from the northward." The variation near l 2 is 6 degrees
17 minutes East.

m is a high, bluff island, the peaked summit of which, in latitude 20
degrees 46 minutes 35 seconds and longitude 149 degrees 15 minutes 15
seconds, is eight hundred and seventy-four feet high: there are several
islets off its south-east end, and one off its north-west end.

SIR JAMES SMITH'S GROUP consists of ten or twelve distinct islands, and
perhaps as many more, for we were not within twelve miles of them. On the
principal island is LINNE PEAK, in latitude 20 degrees 40 minutes 30
seconds, and longitude 149 degrees 9 minutes 10 seconds; it is seven or
eight hundred feet high.

SHAW'S PEAK, in latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes, longitude 149 degrees 2
minutes 55 seconds, is on a larger island than any to the southward; it
is sixteen hundred and one feet high. The group consists of several
islands; it is separated from the next to the northward by a channel five
miles wide. In the centre is PENTECOST ISLAND, a remarkable rock, rising
abruptly out of the sea to the height of eleven hundred and forty feet.
Its latitude is 20 degrees 23 minutes 10 seconds, and longitude 148
degrees 59 minutes 30 seconds.

The northern group of the Cumberland Islands are high, and appear to be
better furnished with wood, and more fertile than the southern groups,
particularly on their western sides.

The principal peak, in latitude 29 degrees 15 minutes 10 seconds and
longitude 148 degrees 55 minutes, is fifteen hundred and eighty-four feet
high, and is situated on the largest island, which is ten miles long, and
from three to nine broad: it has several bays on either side, and off its
south-eastern end are four small islands: beyond them is a range of rocky
islets. The northernmost island of this range is the extremity of the
Cumberland Islands, as well as the north-eastern limit of Whitsunday
Passage; it forms a high, bluff point, in latitude 20 degrees 0 minutes,
and longitude 148 degrees 50 minutes 30 seconds, and is of bold approach:
on the western side of the island are some low islets.

REPULSE BAY is a deep bight: its shores are low, but the hills rise to a
great height. The extremity of the bay was not distinctly traced, but it
is probable, upon examining it, that a fresh-water rivulet may be found;
and there may be a communication with Edgecumbe Bay.

The Repulse Isles are of small size; they are surrounded by rocks, which
do not extend more than a quarter of a mile from them. The summit of the
largest island is in latitude 20 degrees 37 minutes 5 seconds, and
longitude 148 degrees 50 minutes 30 seconds. Variation 6 degrees 15
minutes East.

Between Capes Conway and Hillsborough the flood-tide comes from the
north-eastward, but is very irregular in the direction of the stream. At
an anchorage off the island near the latter cape the tide rose twelve
feet, but close to the Repulse Isles, the rise was eighteen feet. At the
former place, the moon being full, high water took place at about
three-quarters past ten o'clock; by an observation the next day at the
latter, it was a quarter of an hour later: the maximum rate was about one
and a half knot.

WHITSUNDAY PASSAGE, formed by the northern group of the Cumberland
Islands, is from three to six miles wide, and, with the exception of a
small patch or rocks within a quarter of a mile from Cape Conway, and a
sandbank (that is probably dry, or nearly so at low water) off Round
Head, is free from danger. The shores appear to be bold to, and the
depth, in the fairway, varies between twenty and thirty fathoms; the
shoal off Round Head stretches in a North-North-West direction, but its
extent was not ascertained.

In steering through the strait, particularly during the flood-tide, this
shoal should be avoided by keeping well over to the east shore; for the
tide there sets across the strait; it is about a mile and a half from
Round Head, in which space the water is ten and fourteen fathoms deep.

Between Round Head (in latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes 30 seconds) and
Cape Conway is a bay, where there appeared to be good anchorage out of
the strength of the tides; and to the north of Round Head is another bay,
the bottom of which is an isthmus of about a mile wide, separating it
from an inlet to the westward of Cape Conway. This bay very probably
affords good anchorage out of the strength of the tides.

CAPE CONWAY, in latitude 20 degrees 32 minutes, and longitude 148 degrees
54 minutes, is the western limit of the south entrance of Whitsunday
Passage; it is a steep point, sloping off to the eastward: immediately on
its north side is a small shingly beach, a few yards behind which there
is a hollow, containing a large quantity of fresh water. At a short
quarter of a mile from the point is a rocky shoal of small size, between
which and the shore there is deep water.

PINE HEAD, in latitude 20 degrees 23 minutes, and longitude 148 degrees
51 minutes 40 seconds, is the south-east extremity of a small island that
is separated from the main by a passage of about a mile wide, but we did
not ascertain whether it is navigable. The head is a high, bluff point,
clothed with pine-trees: near it the tide runs in strong eddies, and for
that reason it ought not to be approached nearer than half a mile; it
appeared to be bold to. There is a sandy bay on its south west side
affording a good landing-place; the island is clothed with grass, and
thickly wooded: we found no water. The variation was 5 degrees 35 minutes
East.

PORT MOLLE, so named by Lieutenant Jeffreys, appeared to trend in for
four or five miles: and, probably, to afford a convenient port, as it is
well sheltered from the wind, and is protected from the north-east by a
group of small islands, thickly wooded. Hence the land trends to the
north-west towards Cape Gloucester; the shore was very indistinctly seen,
but seemed to be very much indented, and to possess several bays, if not
rivers; for the land at the back is very high, and must give rise to
several mountain, if not navigable, streams.

MOUNT DRYANDER, whose summit is in latitude 20 degrees 14 minutes 10
seconds, and longitude 148 degrees 30 minutes 55 seconds, forms a small
peak, and is visible from Repulse Bay, as well as from the northern
extremity of the Cumberland Islands: it is four thousand five hundred and
sixty-six feet high; and the hills around it are at least from seven
hundred to a thousand feet in height.

The greater part of the water that collects from these hills probably
empties itself into Repulse and Edgecumbe Bays, or it may be distributed
in lagoons upon the low land that separates them.

At the back of Point Slade there is a high mountainous range extending
without interruption to the westward of Mount Upstart. In latitude 21
degrees 1 1/2 minutes, and longitude 148 degrees 36 3/4 minutes is a
high-rounded summit, which is visible at the distance of twenty leagues:
between this range, which is at the distance of from five to seven
leagues from the sea, and the coast, are several ridges gradually
lowering in altitude as they approach the shore. In the neighbourhood of
Repulse Bay, this mountainous range recedes, and has a considerable track
of low land at its base, which is possibly a rich country: from the
height of the hills, it must be well watered.

CAPE GLOUCESTER. The point of land that Captain Cook took originally for
the cape, is an island of about five miles long and two broad, separated
from the true Cape Gloucester by a strait, a mile and a half wide. The
island is called Gloucester Island; its summit at the north end is in
latitude 19 degrees 57 minutes 24 seconds, longitude 148 degrees 23
minutes 38 seconds: it is eighteen hundred and seventy-four feet high,
and its summit is a ridge of peaks: its shores are rocky and steep; and,
although the sides of the hills are wooded, yet it has a sombre and heavy
appearance, and, at least, does not look fertile. The cape, in latitude
20 degrees 1 minute 50 seconds, and longitude 148 degrees 26 minutes 15
seconds, is the extremity of the mountainous range that extends off Mount
Dryander. The variation observed off the island was 7 degrees 11 minutes
East.

EDGECUMBE BAY is a deep indentation of the land, the shores of which are
very low: its extent was not ascertained, but, by the bearings of some
land at the bottom, it is seventeen miles deep; and its greatest breadth,
at the mouth, is about fourteen miles. It affords excellent shelter; and
between Middle Island (a small rocky islet of a mile and half in extent)
and Gloucester Island there is good anchorage in seven fathoms muddy
bottom, with protection from all winds. We did not examine the bay
farther than passing round Middle Island in six, seven, and eight
fathoms, mud. The western side is formed by low islands, that appeared to
be swampy, but our distance was too great to form the most distant
opinion of them: if the main is not swampy, it must be a rich and
interesting country.

HOLBORNE ISLAND is a rocky island, visible about seven or eight leagues,
and has three small islets near it: it is in latitude 19 degrees 41
minutes 5 seconds, and longitude 148 degrees 17 minutes 30 seconds.

CAPE UPSTART is the extremity of Mount Upstart, which is so high as to be
visible for more than twenty leagues in clear weather: it rises abruptly
from a low projection, and forms a long ridge of mountainous land; the
north-east end of the summit is in latitude 19 degrees 41 minutes 50
seconds, and longitude 147 degrees 44 minutes 30 seconds. This point
separates two deep bays, both of which were of very inviting appearance,
on account of the high and broken character of the gullies on either side
of Mount Abbott, and it was almost evident that they both terminate in a
river. The hills of Mount Upstart are of primitive form, and were judged
to be composed of granite. The variation observed off the point was 6
degrees 16 minutes East.

CAPE BOWLING-GREEN is very low, and projects for a considerable distance
into the sea: its north-east extremity is in latitude 19 degrees 19
minutes 10 seconds, and longitude 147 degrees 23 minutes East; the
mountainous ranges are at least thirty miles in the rear, and, were it
not for Mounts Upstart and Eliot, both of which are very visible, and
serve as an excellent guide, this part of the coast would be very
dangerous to approach, particularly in the night, when these marks cannot
be seen, when great attention must be paid to the lead. A ship passing
this projection should not come into shoaler water than eleven fathoms;
and, in directing a course from abreast of Mount Upstart, should be
steered sufficiently to the northward to provide against the current
which sets into the bay on the western side of the mount. On approaching
the cape, if the soundings indicate a less depth than eleven fathoms, the
vessel should be hauled more off, because she is then either a parallel
with or to the southward of the cape.

CAPE CLEVELAND (latitude 19 degrees 10 minutes 10 seconds, longitude 146
degrees 57 minutes 56 seconds) like Mount Upstart, rises abruptly from a
projection of low land, separating Cleveland Bay from a deep sinuosity
that extends under the base of Mount Eliot, a high range with a rounded
hill and a peak, the latter being at the south extremity of its summit.
Mount Eliot may probably be seen at the distance of twenty-five leagues,
if not farther; between it and the hills of Cape Cleveland the land is
low, and is probably much intersected by water.

A reef extends from the extremity of Cape Cleveland for four miles to the
eastward, but not at all to the northward, so that, with the point
bearing to the southward of West 1/2 South a ship is safe: there is a
breaker near the extremity of the reef, at about three miles from the
point; to avoid which, keep the south end of Magnetical Island well open
of the north extremity of the cape.

The peaked summit of MOUNT ELIOT is in latitude 19 degrees 33 minutes 10
seconds, and longitude 146 degrees 54 minutes 25 seconds.

CLEVELAND BAY affords good anchorage in all parts, in four, five, and six
fathoms; a considerable flat extends for a mile from the shore on the
western side of the cape, and is left dry at half ebb; it fronts a sandy
beach that commences at a mile and a half to the south of the cape, and
extends to the southward for nearly two miles; over this beach, two or
three streams of fresh water communicate with the sea; they take their
rise from the hills, and probably are seldom dry.

The most convenient watering-place is near the centre of the beach, a
little to the northward of the highest hills. Wood for fuel is plentiful,
and grows close to the beach, and may be embarked with facility; the best
place is at the north end of the sandy beach, since the boat can be
brought nearer to the shore to protect the wooding party.

HALIFAX BAY extends from Cape Cleveland to Point Hillock; it has several
islands in it, and is fronted by the PALM ISLANDS, the summit of which is
in latitude 18 degrees 43 minutes 5 seconds, longitude 146 degrees 35
minutes 15 seconds: this group consists of nineteen islands, one only of
which is of large size, being eight miles long and three wide; it
probably affords all the conveniences of a sheltered anchorage, and a
good supply of wood and water.

In latitude 18 degrees 49 minutes, nine miles from the shore, and six
miles within the island Number 2, is a coral reef, that shows at low
water: it appeared to be about two miles long; between it and Number 2 is
a wide channel with nine fathoms. The Lady Elliot, merchant ship, in
1815, struck upon a reef in 18 degrees 45 minutes, about four miles from
the shore; of which we saw nothing; we anchored within four miles of its
position, but, at daylight, when we got underweigh, it might have been
covered by the tide.

In 18 degrees 32 minutes and 146 degrees 41 minutes is a reef, on which
the San Antonio, merchant brig, struck: its position was not correctly
ascertained, as the accident happened in the night.

POINT HILLOCK is in latitude 18 degrees 25 minutes, and longitude 146
degrees 20 minutes; it is a low point projecting to the eastward, under
Mount Hinchinbrook.

CAPE SANDWICH is the north-east extremity of the sandy land that
stretches to the northward from the base of Mount Hinchinbrook, which is
so high as to be visible for eighteen leagues: the mount is topped with a
craggy summit, seven miles in length from north to south.

There is a reef that extends for nearly a mile and a half off the cape,
having a rocky islet at its extremity. The cape is in latitude 18 degrees
13 minutes 20 seconds, and longitude 146 degrees 16 minutes 40 seconds.
The peak at the north end of Mount Hinchinbrook is in latitude 18 degrees
21 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 146 degrees 15.

BROOKE'S ISLANDS lie four miles north from Cape Sandwich; they consist of
three rocky islets, besides some of smaller size; the whole are
surrounded by a coral reef.

From Cape Sandwich the land extends, low and sandy, in a North-West
direction for five miles to a point, which is terminated by a hill.
Between this and Goold Island there appears to be a navigable strait
leading into Rockingham Bay.

GOOLD ISLAND, the summit of which, formed by a conical hill covered with
wood, in latitude 18 degrees 9 minutes 35 seconds, and longitude 146
degrees 9 minutes, is about two miles long: the south-west point of the
island is a long strip of low land, with a sandy beach; at the eastern
end of which there is a run of water; and fuel may be cut close to the
shore. High water takes place at full and change at three quarters past
ten.

ROCKINGHAM BAY appears to be a spacious harbour. At the bottom there was
an appearance of an opening that may probably communicate with an inlet
on the south side of Point Hillock, and insulate the land of Mount
Hinchinbrook. There is good anchorage in the bay in four and five fathoms
mud, near Goold Island.

The natives are very friendly here, and will come off and visit the ship.

FAMILY ISLES consist of seven small rocky islets, covered with a stunted
vegetation.

DUNK ISLAND is remarkable for having two peaks on its summit; the
south-east summit is in latitude 17 degrees 58 minutes, and longitude 146
degrees 8 minutes 45 seconds. The variation observed in the offing to the
North-East was 5 degrees 41 minutes East.

BARNARD ISLES form a group of small rocky islands extending in a
straggling direction for six miles to the south of Double Point. Three
miles to the south of the southernmost island, but nearer to the shore,
is a reef of rocks which dry at low water.

From DOUBLE POINT (latitude of its summit 17 degrees 39 minutes 50
seconds) to CAPE GRAFTON, the coast is formed by a succession of sandy
bays and projecting rocky points. In latitude 17 degrees 31 minutes, in
the centre of a sandy bay, is a small opening like a rivulet; and, on the
south side of Point Cooper is another; but neither appeared to be
navigable for boats. Abreast of Frankland's Islands, and near the south
end of a sandy bay of six miles in extent, there is another opening like
a river, that, from the appearance of the land behind, which is low and
of a verdant character, may be of considerable size. The high mountains
to the southward, Bellenden Ker's Range, must give rise to a considerable
stream; and it appears very probable that this may be one of the outlets,
but the most considerable is, perhaps, that which falls into Trinity Bay
round Cape Grafton.

FRANKLAND'S ISLANDS consist of several low islets one of which is
detached and of higher character than the others, which are very low, and
connected by a reef. The largest island may be seen five or six leagues
off; it is in latitude 17 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds.

The land between this and Cape Grafton is high, and towards the north has
several remarkable peaks. The land of Cape Grafton may be readily known,
when seen from the southward, by appearing like three lofty islands; the
outermost is Fitzroy Island, but the others are hills upon the main. The
easternmost of the latter, Cape Grafton, is conspicuous for having two
small peaks, like notches, on the west extremity of its summit; it is
joined to the westernmost by low land, which also separates the latter
from the other hills behind it; and, as this low land is not seen at a
distance, the hills assume the appearance of islands.

There is good anchorage in the strait between Cape Grafton and Fitzroy
Island, but, with a northerly wind, the better anchorage would be on the
south side of the cape. The former is exposed to all winds between
North-West and North-East. In the former case the anchor may be dropped
in nine fathoms, at a quarter to half a mile from the beach of the
island. The north extremity of Cape Grafton is in latitude 16 degrees 51
minutes 20 seconds, longitude 145 degrees 53 minutes 5 seconds; the
south-east extreme is in latitude 16 degrees 54 minutes 20 seconds,
longitude 145 degrees 55 minutes 15 seconds.

FITZROY ISLAND affords both wood and water; it has a peaked summit. It
affords anchorage in the bay on its western side, off a coral beach; the
south-west end of which is in latitude 16 degrees 55 minutes 21 seconds,
and longitude 145 degrees 56 minutes 21 seconds. Nine miles to the
eastward of Fitzroy Island is a small bare sandy island; and, at about
seven miles North-East by East from it, there was an appearance of
extensive shoals. Variation 5 degrees 10 minutes East.

On the west side of CAPE GRAFTON is a bay, in the centre of which is an
island. The bottom is very shoal, but good anchorage may be had with the
cape bearing South-East Between CAPE GRAFTON and SNAPPER ISLAND, the
centre of which is in latitude 16 degrees 17 minutes 35 seconds, and
longitude 145 degrees 27 minutes 40 seconds, is TRINITY BAY; the shores
of which were not very distinctly seen. At the south side, and about
seven miles within the cape there is an opening that appeared to be
extensive, and the mouth of a considerable stream, trending in between
high ranges of land, in a direction towards Bellenden Ker's Range.

In latitude 16 degrees 23 1/2 minutes, and longitude 145 degrees 34
minutes is a group consisting of three coral islands; which, being very
low, are dangerous to pass in the night.

The offing is said to be strewed with extensive reefs; we saw none beyond
Green Island: those that are laid down on the chart are from Lieutenant
Jeffrey's account.*

(*Footnote. Much shoal water was seen to the northward of Green Island
from the Tamar's masthead. Roe manuscript.)

SNAPPER ISLAND lies off the point which forms the northern limit of
Trinity Bay; it is small, and does not supply any water.*

(*Footnote. Ten or eleven miles South 80 degrees East from Snapper Island
is the north-west end of a shoal, extending to the South 41 degrees East
for sixteen or seventeen miles; the Tamar anchored under it. Roe
manuscript.)

The land behind CAPE TRIBULATION may be seen at a greater distance than
twenty leagues. It is here that the outer part of the barrier reefs
approach the coast, and there is reason to believe that, in latitude 16
degrees 17 minutes 35 seconds, longitude 145 degrees 27 minutes 40
seconds, they are not more than twenty miles from it. The cape has a
hillock at its extremity, and a small rocky islet close to the shore that
renders it conspicuous: it is fourteen miles beyond Snapper Island. The
shore appears to be bold to: at three miles off we had sixteen fathoms.

Ten miles further to the northward is BLOMFIELD'S RIVULET in Weary Bay:
it is blocked up by a rocky bar, having only four feet water over it; the
anchorage off it is too much exposed to be safe. The river runs up for
four or five miles, having soundings within it from three to four
fathoms, its entrance is in 15 degrees 55 minutes 50 seconds.

The coast then extends to the north to Endeavour River, and forms a few
inconsiderable sinuosities; it is backed by high land, particularly
abreast of the Hope Islands. These islands open of each other in a North
39 degrees East direction, and appear to be connected by a shoal; it is
however very likely that a narrow passage may exist between them, but
certainly not safe to sail through.

Here the number of the coral reefs begin to increase, and great attention
must be paid in navigating amongst them; but, with a careful look out
from the masthead, and a quick leadsman in the chains, no danger need be
apprehended.

Between reef a and the shoal off the south-west Hope Island there is a
passage two miles wide, with twelve fathoms: a is about half a mile in
diameter, with a few rocks above water; its centre is in 15 degrees 43
minutes 20 seconds, two miles from the shore, and three miles North 55
degrees West from the south west Hope.

b is about a mile and a quarter long, and has a dry rock at its north
end, the latitude of which is 15 degrees 39 minutes 20 seconds: it is
divided from Endeavour Reef by a channel of nearly a mile wide, and
fifteen fathoms deep: abreast of the south end of b, on the western edge
of Endeavour Reef, there is a dry rock, in latitude 15 degrees 39 minutes
55 seconds.

ENDEAVOUR REEF is nine miles long; it lies in a North-West direction; the
north end, in 15 degrees 39 minutes South, bears due from the North-east
Hope.

c is covered, and not quite half a mile in length; its latitude is 15
degrees 32 minutes: it lies four miles from the shore.

d is rather larger, and has some dry rocks on its north end, in latitude
15 degrees 29 minutes 30 seconds. Between c and d and the shore the
passage is from three to four miles wide, and in mid-channel the depth is
seven and eight fathoms.

On the south side of Point Monkhouse there is a bay having a small
opening at the bottom, but not deep enough for ships: it was this bay
that Captain Cook first examined in search of a place to repair his ship.

On steering along the shore between Point Monkhouse and the entrance of
Endeavour River, the bottom is of sand and of irregular depth. A spit of
sand was passed over with only two and a half fathoms on it when the
summit of Mount Cook bore South 66 degrees West (magnetic) and the outer
extreme of Point Monkhouse South 18 degrees West (magnetic). One mile off
shore the shoal soundings continued with two and a half fathoms until it
bore South 59 degrees West (magnetic) when the depth was three, and three
and a half fathoms.

ENDEAVOUR RIVER. The entrance of this river, in latitude 15 degrees 27
minutes 4 seconds, and longitude 145 degrees 10 minutes 49 seconds,*
forms a very good port for small vessels; and, in a case of distress,
might be useful for large ships, as it proved to our celebrated navigator
Captain Cook, who, it is well known, repaired his ship there after having
laid twenty-three hours upon a coral reef.

(*Footnote. The situation of the observatory at Endeavour River was found
by lunar distances, taken during my visits to that place in 1819 and
1820, as follows:

Latitude by meridional altitudes of the sun, taken in the artificial
horizon, being the mean of twenty-seven observations: 15 degrees 27
minutes 4 seconds.

Longitude by twenty-five set of distances (sun West of first quarter of
the moon) containing one hundred and seventeen sights, with the sextant:
144 degrees 52 minutes 16 seconds.

Longitude by thirty set of distances (sun East of first quarter of the
moon) containing one hundred and fifty sights, with the sextant: 145
degrees 29 minutes 23 seconds.

Mean, of fifty-five sets: 145 degrees 10 minutes 49 seconds.)

The entrance is formed on the south side by a steep hill, covered with
trees growing to the edge of its rocky shore. The north side of the
entrance is a low sandy beach of two miles and a quarter in length: at
its north end a range of hills rises abruptly, and extends for six or
seven miles, when it again suddenly terminates, and is separated from the
rocky projection of Cape Bedford by a low plain of sand.

The entrance of Endeavour River is defended by a bar, on which, at high
water, there is about fourteen feet; but, at low water, not more than ten
feet: the channel over the bar is close to the south side, for the
sandbank extends from the low sandy north shore to within one hundred and
forty yards of the south shore, and at three quarters ebb (spring tides)
is dry.

In steering in for the mouth, upon bringing Point Monkhouse in a line
with Point a (the north point of the bay under Mount Cook) you will be in
three fathoms; steer in until the south extremity of the low north sandy
point is opened of the trend round Point c, when you may haul a little
more in, and when point d (which is a point where the mangroves commence)
bears South 33 degrees West (magnetic) steer directly for it; this will
carry you over the deepest part or the bar, which stretches off from
point c in a North 75 degrees West (magnetic) direction; another mark is
to keep the trend beyond d just in sight, but not open, or you will be
too near the spit: the best way is, having opened it, haul in a little to
the southward, and shut it in again: you may pass within ten yards of
point d; and the best anchorage is just within it; the vessel may be
secured head and stern to trees on the beach, with bow and stern anchors
to steady her. No vessel of a greater draught than twelve feet should
enter the harbour; and this vessel may even moor in four fathoms within
her own length of the shore, with the outer trend just shut in by the
mangrove point a. The watering-place is a stream that empties itself into
the port through the mangroves, about two hundred yards to the south: and
if this should fail, there is a good stream at the north end of the long
north sandy beach. The latter, although very high coloured, is of
wholesome quality; but in bad weather is inconvenient to be procured on
account of the surf. Water for common purposes of cooking may be had on a
sandy beach a little without the entrance, but it is of a mineral
quality, and of brackish taste. It is high water at full and change at
eight o'clock, and the tide rises from five to ten feet. The variation of
the observatory was 5 degrees 14 minutes East.

CAPE BEDFORD (latitude 15 degrees 16 minutes 19 seconds, longitude 145
degrees 17 minutes 19 seconds) is high, and forms a steep slope to the
sea: it appeared to be bold to.* Between it and Cape Flattery is a bay
backed by low land, about five miles deep; but it is exposed to the wind,
unless there is anchorage under the north-west end of Cape Bedford.

(*Footnote. Shoal water extends for nearly a mile round Cape Bedford. Roe
manuscript.)

CAPE FLATTERY is eighteen miles north of Cape Bedford: its extremity is
high and rocky, and forms two distinct hills. The summit of the cape is
in latitude 14 degrees 52 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 145 degrees
16 minutes 10 seconds.*

(*Footnote. There are some dangerous shoals to the eastward of Point
Lookout, and to the northward of Cape Flattery, about two miles apart
from each other, situated in what was considered to be the fair channel.
Roe manuscript.)

Eleven miles beyond the cape, in a North 45 degrees West direction, is
POINT LOOKOUT, forming a peaked hill at the extremity of a low sandy
projection, whence the land trends West by North 1/2 North for twelve
leagues to Cape Bowen.

e, a reef nearly three miles long and one broad: its north end is twelve
miles nearly due East from the entrance of Endeavour River, in latitude
15 degrees 26 minutes 50 seconds, longitude 145 degrees 23 minutes 30
seconds.

TURTLE REEF was visited by Mr. Bedwell, it is covered at high water,
excepting a small spot of sand, about the size of the boat, at its north
end in latitude 15 degrees 23 minutes, longitude 145 degrees 22 minutes
50 seconds: its interior is occupied, like most others, by a shoal
lagoon; it is entirely of coral, and has abundance of shellfish; it was
here that Captain Cook procured turtle during his stay at Endeavour
River, from the entrance of which it bears North 75 degrees East, and is
distant eleven miles; its south end is separated from e by a channel of a
mile wide.

THREE ISLES, in latitude 15 degrees 7 minutes 30 seconds, is a group of
low coral islets covered with shrubs, and encircled by a reef, that is
not quite two miles in diameter.

Two miles and three quarters to the North-West is a low wooded island,
about a mile long, also surrounded by a reef; and four miles to the
southward of it is a rocky islet.

REEF f is about four or five miles East-South-East from Three Isles; it
appeared to be about three miles long: its western extreme is in latitude
15 degrees 10 minutes, and in longitude 145 degrees 26 minutes.

TWO ISLES are also low and wooded, and surrounded by a reef: the largest
islet is in latitude 15 degrees 1 minute 20 seconds, and longitude 145
degrees 22 minutes 10 seconds.

REEF g appeared to be about a mile broad and two miles and a half long:
its south end is in latitude 15 degrees 0 minutes 15 seconds, longitude
145 degrees 26 minutes 45 seconds.

REEF h is an extensive reef, having high breakers on its outer edge: it
is more than four miles long, and separated from the north end of g by a
channel a mile wide.

REEF i has several detached reefs about it, on the northernmost are two
rocky islands, and to the southward, on a detached shoal, there is a bare
sandy islet that is perhaps occasionally covered by the tide: its
south-westernmost extremity and the summit of Lizard Island are in the
line of bearing of North 5 degrees West (magnetic) its latitude is 14
degrees 53 minutes 40 seconds.

REEF k, in latitude 14 degrees 47 minutes, has a dry sand upon it: its
sub-marine extent was not ascertained.

REEF l; the position of this reef is rather uncertain, near its western
side is a dry key in latitude 14 degrees 47 minutes 30 seconds.

m is probably unconnected with the shoal off the south end of Eagle
Island. In Captain Cook's rough chart there is twelve fathoms marked
between two shoals which must mean the above.

EAGLE ISLAND is low and wooded, and situated at the north end of a
considerable shoal; its latitude is 14 degrees 42 minutes 20 seconds, and
longitude 145 degrees 18 minutes 30 seconds.

DIRECTION ISLANDS are two high rocky islands, so called by Captain Cook
to direct ships to the opening in the reefs, through which he passed out
to sea; they are high and of conical shape, and might be seen more than
five or six leagues off was it not for the hazy weather that always
exists in the neighbourhood of the reefs; the northernmost is in latitude
14 degrees 44 minutes 50 seconds, longitude 145 degrees 26 minutes 25
seconds: the southernmost is in latitude 14 degrees 50 minutes, longitude
145 degrees 26 minutes 45 seconds.

LIZARD ISLAND, about three miles long, is remarkable for its peaked
summit, the latitude of which is 14 degrees 40 minutes 20 seconds, and
longitude 145 degrees 23 minutes: on its south side is an extensive reef
encompassing three islets, of which two are high and rocky: the best
anchorage is on its western side under the summit; with the high
northernmost of the Direction Islands in sight over the low land, bearing
about South-East by compass: the depth is six and seven fathoms sandy
bottom. The variation here is 5 degrees 2 minutes East.

TURTLE GROUP is four miles to the north of Point Lookout; the islets are
encircled by a horse-shoe shaped coral reef, and consist of six islands,
all low and bushy. These islands are not laid down with sufficient
accuracy as to their relative positions.

n is a low wooded island about eleven miles west from Lizard Island; no
reef was seen to project from it; it is in the meridian of the
observatory of Endeavour River; and in latitude 14 degrees 40 minutes.

o is a small coral reef; it lies a mile and a half North 64 degrees West
from the north end of n.

p is a coral reef, about a mile in extent, separated from o by a channel
of a mile wide.

q, a reef, on which are two low wooded isles, apparently connected with a
shoal extending from Point Lookout along the shore to the
West-North-West; the isles are seven miles North 64 degrees West from
Point Lookout.

COLES ISLANDS consist of four small bushy islets from a quarter to half a
mile in extent; they are from four to six miles North-East from Point
Murdoch. This group appeared to be merely the several dry parts of the
shoal that extends from Point Lookout to Noble Island; between them and
the latter island, are two patches of dry sandy keys, but it is probable
that they may be covered by the tide. The continuation of the shoal
between the islands and Point Lookout was not clearly ascertained.

At POINT MURDOCH, which has a peaked hill at its extremity, the hills
again approach the coast; at Cape Bowen they project into the sea, and
separate two bays, in each of which there is possibly a rivulet; that to
the eastward of the cape trends in and forms a deep bight. On the western
side of the hills of Cape Bowen there is a track of low land, separating
them from another rocky range. The summit of the hill at Point Murdoch is
in latitude 14 degrees 40 minutes, and longitude 144 degrees 46 minutes.

HOWICK'S GROUP consists of ten or eleven islands, of which Number 1,
remarkable for a hillock at its south-east end, is in latitude 14 degrees
32 minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 144 degrees 55 minutes 20 seconds;
it is nearly three miles long; the rest are all less than half a mile in
extent, excepting the westernmost, Number 6, which is nearly a mile and a
half in diameter.

The passage between 2 and 3 is safe, and has seven and eight fathoms: the
north-west side of 3 is of rocky approach, but the opposite side of the
strait is bold to; the anchorage is tolerably good. The Mermaid drove,
but it was not considered to be caused by the nature of the bottom, which
is of soft sand, and free from rocks.

The channel between 1 and 2 appeared to be very rocky, and shoal: between
1 and the reef r there is probably a clear channel of about a mile wide:
the north-east end of 1 has a reef which extends off it for half a mile.

(*Footnote. Many shoals, partly dry, occupy the space to the northward
and eastward of Howick's Group. Roe manuscript.)

All the islands are low and wooded, and surrounded by a coral reef of
small extent.

4 has a small islet off its west end.

5, 8, and 9 did not appear to have any reefs projecting from them. 7 is
probably two islands, with a reef extending for half a mile on its
western side. 6 is of larger size than the generality of the low islands
hereabout, Number 1 excepted: its centre is in latitude 14 degrees 28
minutes, and longitude 144 degrees 45 minutes. The position of Number 10
was not correctly ascertained.

The peak of CAPE BOWEN is in latitude 14 degrees 34 minutes, and
longitude 144 degrees 35 minutes 40 seconds.

NOBLE ISLAND is a rock, having a sandy, or a coral beach at its
north-west end; although small it is very conspicuous; and, when first
seen from the southward, has the appearance of a rock with a double
rounded top.

The REEFS s, t, and u are unconnected; the north end of s, lying six
miles and a half due east from Point Barrow, was dry for a considerable
extent; t, one mile to the north, was covered; but there is a dry sandy
key on u, bearing from Point Barrow, North 32 degrees East, six miles:
some rocks showed themselves above the water off its south end.

v and w may possibly be connected; the former was noticed to extend for
three miles, and the latter for nearly ten miles; there was, however, a
space of three miles between them, where a channel may possibly exist.
The channels between t and u, and between v and w, appeared to be clear
and deep.

The REEFS x, y, and Z, are probably parts of the barrier reefs, for the
sea was breaking very heavily upon their outer edge; there were, however,
considerable spaces where no breakers appeared, some of which, being
three or four miles wide, may possibly be as many outlets to sea.

NINIAN BAY is a bight to the west of Point Barrow;* it is about three
miles deep, and has a small opening at the bottom; in crossing it we had
not more water than four fathoms, and within our course it appeared to be
very shoal: there is doubtless a channel leading to the opening; but, to
the name of harbour or port, it has not the slightest pretension: it was
named Port Ninian by Lieutenant Jeffreys: off the north end of Point
Barrow are two rocky islands.

(*Footnote. Off Point Barrow, the shoals lie from half to one mile nearer
the shore, than they are laid down; and one mile and three quarters North
55 degrees East from the point are two small patches of coral, under
water; they bear North-East and South-West from each other and are
probably one tenth of a mile apart. Roe manuscript.)

Between Ninian Bay and Cape Melville the coast is high and rocky, but
appeared to be fronted by a reef, which in some places extends for a mile
and a half from the shore; in this interval there are two or three sandy
beaches, but I doubt the practicability of landing upon them in a boat.
The summit and sides of the hills that form the promontory, of which Cape
Melville is the extreme, are of most remarkable appearance, being covered
with heaps of rounded stones of very large size (volume 1.)

CAPE MELVILLE, sloping off into the sea to the north, terminates this
remarkable promontory in latitude 14 degrees 9 minutes 30 seconds, and
longitude 144 degrees 24 minutes 50 seconds: the coast trends round it to
the South-South-West and South-West, and forms Bathurst Bay, which is
nine miles and a half deep, and thirteen wide, the western side being
formed by Flinders' Group. A reef extends for more than two miles off
Cape Melville in a North West by North direction, on which some rounded
stones, similar to those upon the land, are heaped up above the sea:
there is also one of these heaps at the extremity of the reef, outside,
and within a quarter of a mile of which we had fourteen fathoms water:
there are two other similar heaps within the outer pile, and between them
there are possibly clear passages, but they should not be attempted
without great caution. It was remarked that the breeze always freshened
on passing round this cape.

PIPON ISLANDS, two small islets, of which the easternmost is the largest,
are in latitude 14 degrees 6 minutes 40 seconds, longitude 144 degrees 26
minutes 5 seconds; they are surrounded by a reef, lying two miles and a
half from the cape; between them and the reef that extends from the cape,
there is a safe and deep passage of more than a mile wide.

The south-east side of Bathurst Bay is shoal. At the bottom are two
openings, with some projecting land between them, at the extremity of
which there is a peak; these openings are doubtless rivulets of
considerable size, and take their rise from the high land at the back of
Cape Bowen.

FLINDERS' GROUP forms the west head of Bathurst Bay; they are high and
rocky, and consist of four islands, two of which are three miles long.
The peak of the largest island, in latitude 14 degrees 11 minutes 5
seconds, and longitude 144 degrees 12 minutes 5 seconds, is visible from
a distance of twelve or thirteen leagues; and the higher parts of the
islands may be seen generally at seven or eight leagues.

On the eastern side of the northernmost island there is a bay fronted by
a coral reef, but it is too exposed to the prevailing winds to be safe.
It is here that the Frederick (merchant ship) was wrecked in 1818.

CAPE FLINDERS, in latitude 14 degrees 8 minutes, longitude 144 degrees 10
minutes 20 seconds, is the north extremity of the island; it may be
passed close to with twelve fathoms: the best anchorage is under the
flat-topped hill, at a quarter of a mile from the shore, in ten fathoms
mud. The variation is 5 degrees 20 minutes East. It is high water at full
and change at a quarter past nine.

In the offing is a low wooded island of more than a mile in diameter.

CLACK'S ISLAND is a high rock, situated at the south-east end of reef b,
in latitude 14 degrees 4 minutes 45 seconds, and longitude 144 degrees 11
minutes 45 seconds, and, being a bare black rock, with no apparent
vegetation, is a conspicuous object: there is another rock on its
north-east end. (See above.) The reef is of circular shape, and three
miles in diameter.

The shoal marked a was not seen by us. H.M. sloop Satellite struck upon
it in June, 1822, on her passage to India. The following marks for it
were obligingly communicated to me by Captain M.J. Currie, of H.M. sloop
Satellite, who sent a boat to examine it upon her second voyage the
following year:

"In crossing the northern part of Bathurst Bay, and nearly in
mid-channel, between Cape Flinders and the low wooded island, there is a
small patch of sunken rocks, lying north and south, not more than a
cable's length in extent, the least water being one fathom. The Satellite
grounded on them in two fathoms, in June, 1822. I sent a boat to examine
this shoal in making the same passage in August, 1823, and found it to be
under the following bearings (by compass): namely, Cape Flinders,
South-West by West 3/4 West; the high peak on the south-east part of
Flinders' Group, South 1/4 West; the highest of Clack's Islands,
North-West 1/2 West, and Cape Melville East 1/2 South. It is a dangerous
shoal in running for Cape Flinders, but may be easily avoided by steering
near the low wooded island, to the north-east of the cape, or by keeping
the shore of Flinders' Group on board, which is perhaps preferable. The
variation is 5 degrees 40 minutes East."*

(*Footnote. The shoal is in a line with, and half way between, the
flat-topped hill on the north island of Flinders' Group, and the centre
of the low wooded island, and is nearly joined to some shoal-water that
extends for two miles from the latter island. Roe manuscript.)

PRINCESS CHARLOTTE'S BAY is an extensive bight in the coast, twenty-two
miles deep, and thirty-one broad; its shores are low, and at the bottom
in latitude 14 degrees 29 minutes there is a mangrove opening.

JANE'S TABLE LAND, in latitude 14 degrees 29 minutes 15 seconds and
longitude 144 degrees 4 minutes 45 seconds, is a remarkable flat-topped
hill at the bottom of the bay, rising abruptly from the surrounding low
land: it is about five miles from the coast; its summit, by the angle it
subtended, is about a mile in length. Excepting this hill, no other high
land was seen at the bottom of the bay.

On the western side the land rises to a moderate height, and forms a bank
of about ten miles in extent, but this was not visible for more than
three or four leagues. To the north of this no part of the interior can
be seen until in latitude 13 degrees 55 minutes, when the south end of a
ridge of hills commences at about seven miles behind the beach, which it
gradually approaches until it reaches the coast in 13 degrees 35 minutes,
and is terminated by a round hill; the coast then extends with a low
sandy beach for eleven miles to Cape Sidmouth.

c is a covered reef of coral, extending North-East by East and South-West
by West for seventeen miles: its south-west end bears North 75 degrees
West, twelve miles and a half, from Cape Flinders.

d, e, and f, are three coral banks, having dry sandy keys on each; they
are of circular shape, and from a mile to a third of a mile in diameter:
d is the largest, and bears nearly due-west from Cape Flinders, from
which it is distant twelve miles and a half.

g and h are two coral reefs; but it was not ascertained whether they are
connected to each other or not: they may also be joined to c, and indeed
this supposition is very likely to be correct, for we found the water
quite smooth, and little or no set of tide on passing them. On the
southwest extremity of g, in latitude 14 degrees 1 minute 20 seconds,
longitude 143 degrees 50 minutes, there is a dry sandy key, as there is
also upon h, but on the latter there are also rocks, and the sand is dry
for four or five miles along its north-west side: the south-west end of h
is in latitude 13 degrees 59 minutes, longitude 143 degrees 49 minutes.

i is a circular coral reef, of a mile and a quarter in diameter, and has
a dry sandy key at its north-west end; it is two miles North-North-West
from the south-west end of h.

k is a small reef with a sandy key upon it, four miles to the east of
Pelican Island.

PELICAN ISLAND is on the north-west side of a reef of more than a mile
and a half long: it is very small, but remarkable for having two clumps
of trees, which at a distance give it the appearance of being two small
islets: it is low, and, like the other islands of its character, may be
seen at ten miles from the deck: its latitude is 13 degrees 54 minutes 45
seconds, and longitude 143 degrees 46 minutes. (See volume 1.)

l is a long narrow coral reef, extending in a North-North-East direction:
it is thirteen miles in extent, but generally not more than one-third of
a mile wide: its greatest width is not more than a mile and a half: its
south-west end is five miles and three-quarters north from Pelican
Island.

m is an extensive coral reef, extending for fifteen miles in North East
by North direction, parallel with l, from which it is separated by a
channel of from one to two miles wide. At its south-west end, where there
is an extensive dry sandy key, and some dry rocks, it is two miles wide:
but towards its northern end it tapers away to the breadth of a quarter
of a mile. The south trend of its south-west end lies seven miles North
44 degrees West from Pelican Island, and four miles from Island 2 of
Claremont Isles.

n is another extensive reef, which may possibly be connected with m. At
its westernmost end, about four miles North by East 1/2 East from the
west end of m., is a dry sand of small extent.

It was considered probable that there was a safe passage between the
reefs l and m. We steered so far as to see the termination of the latter,
upon which the sea was breaking, which afforded a proof of its not being
connected with the former, which also the dark colour of the water
sufficiently indicated.

The Mermaid was nearly lost in attempting to cross the latter reef.
(Volume 1.)

CLAREMONT ISLES consist of five small islets, numbered from 1 to 5; they
are of coral formation, and are covered with small brushwood; they are
from six to seven miles apart, excepting 4 and 5, which are separated by
a channel only a mile and a half wide: off the east and south-east end of
5, a coral reef extends for a mile and a half to the eastward, having two
dry rocks on its north-east end.

COLUMN 1: CLAREMONT ISLE.
COLUMN 2: LATITUDE IN DEGREES, MINUTES, SECONDS.
COLUMN 3: LONGITUDE IN DEGREES, MINUTES, SECONDS.

Number 1 : 13 56 20 : 143 40 30.

Number 2 : 13 51 30 : 143 37 30.

Number 3 : 13 46 45 : 143 33 20.

Number 4 : 13 40 00 : 143 36 20.

Reef o extends in an east and west direction for a mile and a half, and
at a mile farther there is another reef, that may be connected to it; o
has a dry sand near its western extremity, in latitude 13 degrees 34
minutes, and longitude 143 degrees 38 minutes 45 seconds.

Islet 6, in latitude 13 degrees 29 minutes, longitude 143 degrees 38
minutes 26 seconds, is a very small, low, woody islet, with a reef
extending for three-quarters of a mile off its north and south ends.

A reef lies two miles and one-third North 72 1/2 degrees West from islet
6, and South 59 degrees East from the summit of Cape Sidmouth; this reef
is not more than a quarter of a mile in extent, and has a rock in its
centre, that is uncovered at half tide; it is a brown looking shoal, and
therefore of dangerous approach.

Off ROUND HILL there is a sandbank covered by the sea; it lies about two
miles from the shore, and about East-North-East from Round Hill summit.

q is a small, brown, rocky shoal, that is not visible until close to it;
it bears South 60 degrees East, four miles from the extremity of Cape
Sidmouth.

CAPE SIDMOUTH is rather an elevated point, having higher land behind it;
and at about nine miles in the interior, to the West-North-West, there is
a rounded summit: at the extremity of the cape there are two remarkable
lumps on the land, in latitude 13 degrees 24 minutes 20 seconds, and
longitude 143 degrees 30 minutes. The cape is fronted by several rocky
shoals, and ought not to be approached within four miles.

r is a sandbank, on which we had two and a half fathoms; but from the
nature of the other neighbouring reefs, s and t, it is perhaps rocky
also, and may be connected with them. It lies four miles and a quarter
North 32 degrees East from Cape Sidmouth, and West 1/2 North from islet
7.

6 1/2 and 7 are two bare sandy islets, situated at the north ends of
reefs extending in a North-North-West direction; the reef off the islet 6
1/2 is four miles and a half in length, and that off 7 is two miles and a
half long: 6 1/2 is in latitude 13 degrees 23 minutes 20 seconds,
longitude 143 degrees 39 minutes 30 seconds; 7, in latitude 13 degrees 21
minutes 20 seconds, and longitude 143 degrees 36 minutes 10 seconds.

8 and 9 are two low, woody islets of about a mile and a quarter in
diameter. Some shoal marks on the water were observed opposite these
islands, but their existence was not ascertained. Both the islets are
surrounded by coral reefs, of small extent.

NIGHT ISLAND, its north end in latitude 13 degrees 13 minutes 8 seconds,
and longitude 143 degrees 28 minutes 40 seconds, is a low woody island,
two miles long, but not more than half a mile wide; it is surrounded by a
coral reef, that does not extend more than a quarter of a mile from its
northern end. On the south side, and within it, the space seemed to be
much occupied by reefs, but they were not distinctly made out, on account
of the thickness of the weather. There was also the appearance of a
covered shoal, bearing North 55 degrees East from the north end of the
island, distant four miles.*

(*Footnote. Observed many shoals to the North-West of Night Island; one
bore East-North-East, two miles and a half from its north point; we saw
much shoal water to seaward. Roe manuscript.)

u and w are two reefs; the former, which was dry when we passed, lies six
miles North 18 degrees West from the north end of Night Island; there is
also a small rock detached from it, which is not visible until close to
it.

v is a covered coral reef, of about a mile and a quarter in extent; its
centre is in 13 degrees 1 minute latitude.

SHERRARD'S ISLETS are low and bushy, and surrounded by a rocky shoal
extending for a mile to the South-East; the south-westernmost is in 12
degrees 58 minutes 10 seconds latitude, and 143 degrees 30 minutes 15
seconds longitude.

10 is a low wooded islet, in latitude 12 degrees 53 minutes 10 seconds,
on a reef of small extent; abreast of it is a rocky islet, lying about a
mile and a half south from CAPE DIRECTION; off its east end is a smaller
rock.

The coast between Cape Sidmouth and Cape Direction is rather high, and
the shore is formed by a sandy beach. Ten miles North-West from the
former cape is an opening in the hills; the high land then continues to
the northward to Cape Direction, which has a peak near its extremity,
close off which are two small rocks, but the depth at a mile and a half
off is thirteen fathoms. The peak is in latitude 12 degrees 51 minutes 55
seconds, and longitude 143 degrees 26 minutes 10 seconds.*

(*Footnote. Shoal water extends for about six miles round the north side
of Cape Direction. Roe manuscript.)

x; the position of this reef was not precisely ascertained; it appeared
to be about two miles to the North-North-West of the extremity of the
cape.

y and z are two covered reefs, of not more than a mile in extent; they
are separated from each other by a channel a mile wide; y is four miles
and a half North 51 degrees East from Cape Direction.

a and b are also covered reefs; the former is a mile and a quarter in
length; the latter extends for two miles in an east direction, and is a
mile broad: a bears nearly east, nine miles, from a peaked hill on the
shore, and is five miles to the south of Cape Weymouth.

LLOYD'S BAY was not examined; it appeared to have a considerable opening
at its south-west end, where the land was very low; the hilly country to
the south of Cape Direction also ceases, and there is a considerable
space of low land between them and the south end of Cape Weymouth range.

CAPE WEYMOUTH is an elevated point, sloping off from a high summit; its
extreme is in latitude 12 degrees 37 minutes 15 seconds, and longitude
143 degrees 20 minutes 35 seconds. RESTORATION ISLAND, off the cape, is
high, and of conical shape; about a mile East-South-East from it is a
small rocky islet. The coast then extends towards Bolt Head, and forms
several sinuosities, one of which is WEYMOUTH BAY of Captain Cook; the
shores of the bay were not well examined.*

(*Footnote. There is a dry sand four or five miles North-West from Cape
Weymouth. Roe manuscript.)

FAIR CAPE, so named by Lieutenant Bligh, is a projection of high land, in
latitude 12 degrees 25 minutes, longitude 143 degrees 11 minutes 15
seconds: it has a reef off it according to Lieutenant Jeffrey's account,
but its situation does not appear to have been correctly ascertained: we
did not see it.

BOLT HEAD is the north-west end of the high land at the south end of
TEMPLE BAY. It is here that the high land terminates; the coast to the
northward being very low and sandy; with the exception of CAPE GRENVILLE,
which is the rocky projection that forms the north extremity of Temple
Bay. A little to the south of the cape is INDIAN BAY of Lieutenant Bligh.
The latitude of Cape Grenville's east trend is 11 degrees 57 minutes 30
seconds, its longitude 143 degrees 8 minutes.

c is a coral reef, with a dry sandy key at its northern end, in latitude
12 degrees 35 minutes 20 seconds, longitude 143 degrees 25 minutes 15
seconds; it is about two miles long.

d, a small oval-shaped reef in the channel between c and e: it is
covered, and has perhaps twelve feet water over it.

e is an extensive coral reef, fourteen miles long, commencing in latitude
12 degrees 32 1/2 minutes, and extending to 12 degrees 24 minutes; and in
longitude 143 degrees 16 minutes: it is entirely covered, except a few
dry rocks at its north-west end: the south-eastern extremity of the reef
is perhaps three or four miles wide, but its eastern termination was not
clearly distinguished.

f is a small reef, about three miles South-West from QUOIN ISLAND, which
is a small wedge-shaped rock: it is in the neighbourhood of this reef
that the merchant ship, Morning Star, was lost. Quoin Island is in
latitude 12 degrees 24 minutes, and longitude 143 degrees 23 minutes 50
seconds.

g is a coral reef, ten miles long, and from one to two broad; having a
dry rock upon it (in latitude 12 degrees 18 minutes 20 seconds, and
longitude 143 degrees 14 minutes 35 seconds) about three miles from its
north end.

FORBES' ISLANDS are high and rocky, but appeared to be clothed with
vegetation; the group occupies a space of about two miles. The summit of
Forbes' Island is in latitude 12 degrees 16 minutes 35 seconds, and
longitude 143 degrees 18 minutes 50 seconds.

h, a coral reef, with some dry rocks near its north end, is about one
mile long, and separated from i by a narrow pass. The south end of h
bears from the summit of Forbes' Island West 1/4 South seven miles.

i and k, coral reefs, lying North-West, having a very narrow channel
between them; the former is covered, but the latter has a dry sandy key
at its north-west end, in latitude 12 degrees 12 minutes 20 seconds, and
longitude 143 degrees 10 minutes 5 seconds.

PIPER'S ISLETS are four low bushy islets upon two circular reefs, with a
passage separating them of a quarter of a mile wide; the reefs have each
two islets upon them, and a dry rocky key round their western edge: the
centre of the narrowest part of the channel between them is twelve and a
half fathoms deep, but abreast the south end of the south-easternmost
shoal there is ten and a half fathoms.

l, a circular coral reef, a mile and a half in diameter, with a dry rock
at its east end, in latitude 12 degrees 9 minutes 5 seconds, and
longitude 143 degrees 11 minutes.

YOUNG ISLAND, a small islet on a coral reef of about half a mile in
extent, in latitude 12 degrees 6 minutes 50 seconds, and longitude 143
degrees 7 minutes. (See volume 1.)

m, a coral reef, about two and a half miles long, having a dry rock at
its north end; it bears South 40 degrees West, three miles from the
summit of Haggerston's Island.

n, an extensive, irregular-shaped, coral reef, seven miles long, and from
one to four broad; it is separated from o by a narrow tortuous channel,
but not safe to pass through: both n and o are covered. There is a safe
passage between these reefs and Haggerston's Island, of a mile and a half
wide; but there is a small reef detached from the north-west end of n,
which should be avoided, although there is probably sufficient depth of
water over it for any ship: it was seen from the summit of the island,
from whence another coral patch was observed at about one mile to the
westward, of which we saw no signs.

p is a small reef, of about a mile and a quarter in extent; it was seen
from the summit of Haggerston's Island, as was also another reef, seven
miles South by East from it: the positions of these reefs are doubtful.

HAGGERSTON'S ISLAND is high and rocky; the summit is in latitude 12
degrees 1 minute 40 seconds, and longitude 143 degrees 12 minutes; it is
situated at the South-South-West extremity of a coral reef, of nearly two
miles in length; its northern side is furnished with some trees and a
sandy beach. At the north end of the reef are two dry patches of sand and
rocks. It is separated from the islands of Sir Everard Home's Group by a
channel nearly three miles wide, quite free from danger; but in passing
through it, the tide or current sets to the North-North-West, round the
reef off Haggerston's Island. (See volume 1.)

SIR EVERARD HOME'S GROUP consists of six islands: the two
south-westernmost are rocky, and one of them has two peaks upon it,
which, from the southward, have the appearance of being upon the
extremity of Cape Grenville: the south-easternmost has a hillock, or
clump of trees, at its south-east extremity, in latitude 11 degrees 57
minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 143 degrees 11 minutes. The outer part
of this group is bold to, and the islands may be approached, but the
space within them appeared to be rocky: there is a passage between the
group and Cape Grenville. The merchant ship Lady Elliot in passing
through it, found overfalls with eighteen fathoms.

Round Cape Grenville is MARGARET BAY, fronted by SUNDAY ISLAND, elevated
and rocky, but not so high as Haggerston's Island, with good anchorage
under its lee.

q is a covered reef of about a mile in extent, in latitude 11 degrees 55
minutes, five or six miles to the East-North-East of Sir Everard Home's
Group.

SIR CHARLES HARDY'S ISLANDS are high and rocky, and may be seen five or
six leagues off; the summit is in latitude 11 degrees 53 minutes 20
seconds, and longitude 143 degrees 23 minutes 40 seconds.

r is a covered reef; and s, a reef, with a dry sandy key upon it.

COCKBURN ISLES are rocky, and may be seen four leagues off.*

(*Footnote. There is a dry sand bearing South-West by West 1/2 West, two
miles and a half from the southernmost Cockburn Island, and there are
many shoals of great extent to the northward of the group. Roe
manuscript.)

t and u are two reefs that were seen at a distance, and appeared to be
detached from each other.

BIRD ISLES (the Lagoon Islands of Lieutenant Bligh) consist of three low
bushy islets encompassed by a reef: the islands are at the outer verge of
the reef, and may be passed within a quarter of a mile; the north-east
island is in latitude 11 degrees 44 minutes 15 seconds, and longitude 142
degrees 58 minutes 45 seconds.

McARTHUR'S ISLES consist of four low bushy islets, of which two are very
small; they are encompassed by a reef of more than three miles long, and
are separated from the Bird Isles by a channel three miles and a half
wide.

HANNIBAL'S ISLES are three in number, low and covered with bushes, the
easternmost is near the extremity of the reef encircling the whole, and
is in latitude 11 degrees 34 minutes 15 seconds, and longitude 142
degrees 51 minutes 20 seconds.*

(*Footnote. There is a dry sand at one mile and three-quarters, and
another at two miles and a half North-North-West from North Hannibal
Island.)

v and w; these shoals are separated by a safe channel of a mile and a
quarter wide; v is circular, and has a dry sand at its north-west edge,
and a rocky key at its south-west end; the channel between it and
Hannibal's Islands is two miles and a half wide: w is nearly four miles
long, and is entirely covered; the course between them is west, but, by
hauling close round the east end of v, a West by North 1/2 North course
will carry a vessel a quarter of a mile to leeward of the west end of w;
the north-west extreme of w is three miles and a quarter South 35 degrees
West from Islet 1.

The islets 1 and 2 are contained in a triangular-shaped reef, of about a
mile and three quarters in extent; they are covered with low trees. Islet
1 is in latitude 11 degrees 28 minutes 45 seconds. Number 3 is a sandy
islet crowned with bushes at the north-west end of a coral reef of about
a mile and a half in length. Between the two latter reefs there appeared
to be a channel of a mile wide in the direction of about North-West. 4,
5, and 6, are sandy islets covered with bushes, on small detached reefs,
with, apparently, a passage between each: 4 is in latitude 11 degrees 22
minutes 30 seconds. 7, a small bushy island,* is separated from
CAIRNCROSS ISLAND by a channel two miles wide. The latter is a small
woody island, situated at the north-west end of a coral reef, more than
two miles long and one broad; the north-west point of the reef runs off
with a sharp point for about a quarter of a mile from the islet. There is
good anchorage under it, but the depth is fifteen fathoms, and the sea is
rather heavy at times with the tide setting against the wind; the
latitude of its centre is 11 degrees 33 minutes 30 seconds, and its
longitude 142 degrees 50 minutes 35 seconds. (See volume 1 and above.)

(*Footnote. A rocky reef extends for two miles to the southward of islet
7. Roe manuscript.)

8, 9, and 10, are low, woody islets: 8 is five miles to the eastward of
Cairncross Island; 9 and 10 are to the northward of 8.

11 is also low and woody, but its position was not clearly ascertained.

ORFORDNESS is a sandy projection of the coast under Pudding-pan Hill (of
Bligh) the shape of which, being flat-topped, is very remarkable: the
hill is in latitude 11 degrees 18 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 142
degrees 43 minutes 35 seconds.

The country between Cape Grenville and Cape York is low and sandy, with
but few sinuosities in its coast line: it is exposed to the trade wind,
which often blows with great strength, from South-East and South-East by
East.

ESCAPE RIVER, in 10 degrees 57 1/2 minutes, is an opening in the land of
one mile in breadth, trending in for two or three miles, when it turns to
the north, and is concealed from the view; the land on the north side of
the entrance is probably an island, for an opening was observed in
Newcastle Bay, trending to the south, which may communicate with the
river. The entrance is defended by a bar, on which the Mermaid was nearly
lost. (Volume 1.) The deepest channel may probably be near the south
head, which is rocky. The banks on the south side are wooded, and present
an inviting aspect.

NEWCASTLE BAY is nine miles in extent by six deep; its shores are low,
and apparently of a sandy character; at the bottom there is a
considerable opening bearing West 1/4 North eight miles and a half from
Turtle Island.

Off the south head of the bay is TURTLE ISLAND, a small rocky islet on
the east side of an extensive reef, in latitude 10 degrees 54 minutes,
and longitude 142 degrees 38 minutes 40 seconds; it is separated by a
channel three miles wide from reef x, which has a dry sand at its north
end, in latitude 10 degrees 53 minutes, and longitude 142 degrees 42
minutes, it has also some dry rocks and a mangrove bush on the inner part
of its south end.

Four miles to the north of x are two shoals y and Z, both of which are
covered; y is two miles and a half long, and three miles and a quarter;
neither of them appeared to be a mile in width; the north-west end of z,
when in a line with Mount Adolphus, bears North 19 degrees West.

Off the north head of Newcastle Bay, which forms the south-east trend of
the land of Cape York, is a group of high rocky islands, ALBANY ISLES;
and immediately off the point is a reef, which extends for about a mile;
half a mile without its edge, we had ten fathoms.

The islets 12, 13, and 15, were only seen at a distance.

THE BROTHERS, so called in Lieutenant Bligh's chart, are two high rocks
upon a reef.

ALBANY ISLES contain six islands, of which one only is of large size; the
easternmost has a small peak, and a reef extends for less than a quarter
of a mile from it; the peak is in latitude 10 degrees 43 minutes 45
seconds, and longitude 142 degrees 35 minutes 5 seconds.

YORK ISLES is a group about seven miles from the mainland; the principal
island, which is not more than two miles long, has a very conspicuous
flat-topped hill upon it, MOUNT ADOLPHUS,* in latitude 10 degrees 38
minutes 20 seconds, and longitude 142 degrees 36 minutes 25 seconds. Off
the south-east end of this island are two rocky islets, the southernmost
of which is more than a mile distant; the northern group of the York
Isles are laid down from Captain Flinders.

(*Footnote. There is a bay on the west side or Mount Adolphus, but it
appeared shoal. Roe manuscript.)

CAPE YORK, the northernmost land of New South Wales, has a conical hill
half a mile within its extremity, the situation of which is in 10 degrees
42 minutes 40 seconds South, and 142 degrees 28 minutes 50 seconds East
of Greenwich. There is also an island close to the point with a conical
hill upon it, which has perhaps been hitherto taken for the cape; from
which it is separated by a shoal strait half a mile wide; the latitude of
the summit is 10 degrees 41 minutes 35 seconds, and longitude 142 degrees
28 minutes 25 seconds. From this island a considerable shoal extends to
the westward for six miles towards a peaked hill on the extremity of a
point. In the centre of this shoal are some dry rocks.

At the distance of nearly five miles from the above island is the rocky
islet a, in latitude 10 degrees 36 minutes 50 seconds, and longitude 142
degrees 27 minutes 45 seconds; it is of small size, and surrounded by
deep water; and, being easily seen from the strait between Cape York and
the York Isles, serves to direct the course.

POSSESSION ISLES consist of nine or ten islets, of which 2 and 7 only are
of large size, and neither of these are two miles long; they are also
higher than the others. Number 1 is a small conical hill; 2 is hummocky;
3, 4, and 6, are very small; 5 makes with a hollow in its centre, like
the seat of a saddle. The passage between 2 and the small islets 3 and 4
is the best; there is six and seven fathoms water; but in passing this,
it must be recollected that the tide sets towards the islands on the
northern side.

ENDEAVOUR STRAIT is on the south side of Prince of Wales' Islands: a
shoal extends from Cape Cornwall (latitude 10 degrees 45 minutes 45
seconds, longitude 142 degrees 8 minutes 35 seconds) to the westward, and
is probably connected with a strip of sand that stretches from Wallis'
Isles to Shoal Cape. We crossed it with the cape bearing about East, when
the least depth was four fathoms; but on many parts there are not more
than three fathoms. Variation 5 degrees 38 minutes West.

PRINCE OF WALES ISLANDS are much intersected by straits and openings,
that are very little known; there was an appearance of a good port, a
little to the South-West of HORNED HILL (latitude 10 degrees 36 minutes
35 seconds, longitude 142 degrees 15 minutes) which may probably
communicate with Wolf's Bay; the strait to the south of Wednesday Island
also offers a good port in the eastern entrance of some rocky islands and
without them is the rock b, with some sunken dangers near it.

WEDNESDAY ISLAND; its north end, in latitude 10 degrees 30 minutes 10
seconds, and longitude 142 degrees 15 minutes, may be approached close,
but a considerable shoal stretches off its western side, the greater part
of which is dry.

Off HAMMOND'S ISLAND is a high, conspicuous rock, bearing West 3/4 South,
and five miles and three-quarters from the north end of Wednesday Island.
Captain Flinders passed through the strait separating Wednesday Island
from Hammond's Islands, and had four, five, and six fathoms.

Abreast of the strait separating GOOD'S ISLAND from the latter is the
reef c, on which are several dry rocks, but abreast of it, and one mile
and one quarter from it, is the reef d,* which is generally covered; the
latter bears South 75 degrees West three miles and a quarter from the
rock off Hammond's Island, and about North 45 degrees West two and a
quarter miles from the opening between Good and Hammond's Island; the
marks for avoiding it are given in the sailing directions.

(*Footnote. d consists of three small detached patches, that extend
farther off than is at first observed. There is also a narrow strip of
rocks extending for a short distance off the north-east end of the reef
off Hammond's Island. Roe manuscript.)

Abreast of Wednesday, Hammond, and Good's Islands, is the NORTH-WEST
REEF, an extensive coral bank, many parts of which are dry; it is ten or
eleven miles long; the channel between it and the islands is from one
mile and three-quarters to two miles and a quarter wide.

BOOBY ISLAND (latitude of its centre 10 degrees 36 minutes, longitude 141
degrees 52 minutes 50 seconds) is a small rocky islet of scarcely a third
of a mile in diameter; its south-west end has a shoal projecting from it
for half a mile, but its other sides are bold to. In a North 70 degrees
East direction from it, at the distance of two miles and three-quarters,
is a sandbank with three fathoms; it was discovered by the ships Claudine
and Mary, on their passage through Torres Strait, when it was named
LARPENT'S BANK.*

(*Footnote. It is near the west end of a shoal of five miles in length,
extending in an east and west direction, a few feet only below the
surface of the water. Roe manuscript.)

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 3.

DESCRIPTION OF THE WINDS AND WEATHER, AND OF THE PORTS AND COAST BETWEEN
WESSEL'S ISLANDS AND CLARENCE STRAIT.

In the sea that separates the land of New Guinea and the islands of Timor
Laut and Arroo from the north coast of Australia, the winds are
periodical, and are called the east and west monsoons, for such is their
direction in the mid-sea. Near the Coast of New Holland the regularity of
these winds is partly suspended by the rarefied state of the atmosphere;
this produces land and sea-breezes, but the former are principally from
the quarter from which the winds are blowing in the mid sea. The usual
course of the winds near the coast in the months of April, May, and June,
is as follows: after a calm night, the land-wind springs up at daylight
from South or South-South-East; it then usually freshens, but, as the sun
gets higher, and the land becomes heated, gradually decreases. At noon
the sea-wind rushes in towards the land, and generally blows fresh from
East; at sunset it veers to the North-East, and falls calm, which lasts
the whole night, so that if a ship, making a course, does not keep at a
moderate distance from the land, she is subject to delay; she would not,
however, probably have so fresh a breeze in the day time. Later in the
season of the easterly monsoon, in August, September, and October, calms
are frequent, and the heat is sultry and oppressive; this weather
sometimes lasts for a fortnight or three weeks at a time. The easterly
monsoon commences about the 1st of April, with squally, rainy weather,
but, in a week or ten days, settles to fine weather and steady winds in
the offing, and regular land and sea breezes, as above described, near
the coast. It ceases about the latter end of November or early part of
December; the westerly monsoon may then be expected to blow strong, and
perhaps with regularity.

This is the rainy season, and is doubtless an unwholesome time; Captain
Flinders' crew experienced much sickness in his examination of the Gulf
of Carpentaria during this monsoon, but, when upon the western side of
the gulf, he thought that the fine weather then experienced might be
occasioned by the monsoon's blowing over the land. In January and
February the monsoon is at its strength, but declines towards the end of
the latter month, and in March becomes variable, with dark, cloudy, and
unsettled weather; the wind is then generally from the South-West, but
not at all regular.

The current sets with the wind, and seldom exceeds a knot or a knot and a
half per hour; between Capes Wessel and Van Diemen it is not stronger,
and its course in the easterly monsoon, when only we had any experience
of it, was West: the strength is probably increased or diminished by the
state of the wind.

The tides are of trifling consequence; the flood comes from the eastward,
but rarely rises more than ten feet, or runs so much as a mile and a half
per hour. High water takes place at full and change at Liverpool River,
and Goulburn Island at six o'clock, at the entrance of the Alligator
Rivers in Van Diemen's Gulf, at 8 hours 15 minutes, and at the south end
of Apsley Strait at 3 hours 25 minutes.* The flood-tide comes from the
eastward, excepting when its course is altered by local circumstances;
the rise is not more than eleven feet at the springs.

(*Footnote. In St. Asaph's Bay, Lieutenant Roe found high-water take
place at full and change at 5 hours 45 minutes; and in King's Cove at 5
hours 15 minutes; at the latter place it rose fourteen feet.)

The variation of the compass in this interval is scarcely affected by the
ship's local attraction. Off Cape Wessel it is between 3 and 4 degrees
East; at Liverpool River about 1 3/4 degrees East, at Goulburn Islands 2
degrees East, and off Cape Van Diemen, not more than 1 1/2 degrees East.

The dip of the south end of the needle at Goulburn Island was 27 degrees
32 1/2 minutes.

When the survey of the Gulf of Carpentaria was completed by Captain
Flinders, his vessel proved to be so unfit for continuing the examination
of the north coast, that it was found necessary to return to Port
Jackson; and as he left it at the strait that separates Point Dale from
Wessel's Islands, which is called in my chart BROWN'S STRAIT, he saw no
part of the coast to the westward of that point, nor did he even see Cape
Wessel, the extremity of the range of Wessel's Islands, which terminate
in latitude 10 degrees 59 1/4 minutes, and longitude 135 degrees 46
minutes 30 seconds. The group consists of four islands, besides some of
smaller size to the southward of the northernmost, and also a few on the
eastern side of Brown's Strait; one of which is Cunningham's Island, of
Captain Flinders. CUMBERLAND STRAIT is in latitude 11 degrees 25 minutes,
longitude 135 degrees 31 minutes.

POINT DALE, unless it is upon an island, appears to be the east extremity
of the north coast; its latitude is 11 degrees 36 minutes, longitude 135
degrees 9 minutes: there are several rocky islands of small size, lying
off, encompassed by a reef, which extends for eight miles
North-North-East 1/2 East from the point. In Brown's Strait the tide sets
at the rate of three and a half and four miles per hour; the flood runs
to the southward through the strait. To the westward of Point Dale the
coast extends for about sixty miles to the south-west to Castlereagh Bay;
in which space there are several openings in the beach, that are probably
small rivers: one, ten miles to the South-West, may be a strait
insulating Point Dale, and communicating with Arnhem Bay.

CASTLEREAGH BAY is forty miles wide, by about eighteen deep; it is
fronted by a group of straggling islands of low coral formation, crowned
with small trees and bushes: the centre of the northernmost islet is in
latitude 11 degrees 41 minutes 50 seconds, longitude 134 degrees 10
minutes 5 seconds. To the eastward of Cape Stewart, the western head of
the bay, the coast is very much indented, and probably contains several
openings or rivulets, particularly two at the bottom of the bay. The
beach is generally sandy, with rocky points, and the shore is wooded to
the beach; the interior was in no part visible over the coast hills,
which are very low and level.

From the extremity of CAPE STEWART, which is in latitude 11 degrees 56
minutes, and longitude 133 degrees 48 minutes, a reef extends to the West
by North 1/2 North for eight miles and a half; having, at a mile within
the extremity, a low sandy key, with a small dry rock half a mile to the
eastward. Every other part of the reef is covered.

To the westward of Cape Stewart is a sandy bay nearly eleven leagues in
extent, but not more than seven deep; near its western end there is a
small break in the beach, but it did not appear to be of any consequence.

The extreme point of this bight is the eastern head of LIVERPOOL RIVER,
whose entrance is to the westward of Haul-round Islet; which, as well as
Entrance Island, is connected to the above point by a shoal. Haul-round
Islet is in latitude 11 degrees 54 minutes, and longitude 134 degrees 14
minutes; Entrance Island is in latitude 11 degrees 57 minutes, and
longitude 134 degrees 14 minutes 50 seconds.

The entrance is from one and a quarter to two miles wide. The reef
extends for half a mile from Haul-round Islet, close without which the
water is deep, the least depth in the entrance is five and three-quarter
fathoms; and, in some parts there are thirteen and fourteen fathoms: at
seven miles within Haul-round Islet, the depth decreases to four fathoms,
and then gradually shoals to three; after which it varies in the channel
of the river to between nine and twelve feet at low water. A bar crosses
the river at the low mangrove island, over which there is not more than
three feet at low water; but, as the tide rises more than eight feet at
the springs, vessels drawing ten or eleven feet may proceed up the river.

The stream runs in a very tortuous course for upwards of forty miles, but
as our examination was unassisted by bearings or observations, it is laid
down from an eye sketch.

POINT BRAITHWAITE, in latitude 11 degrees 45 minutes 50 seconds, and
longitude 133 degrees 55 minutes 20 seconds, is twenty miles to the
westward of Haul-round Islet; to the southward of it is Junction Bay,
which was not examined.

For the next thirty miles the coast is very much indented, and has some
deep bays on either side of Point Barclay, as also one to the eastward of
Point Turner, at the bottom of which an opening, a mile in width, is
probably a river. Here also the feature of the coast is altered, being
low and level to the eastward as far as Point Dale, without a hill or
rising ground in the interior to relieve its monotonous appearance. At
this place, however, a range of rocky hills, WELLINGTON RANGE, commences,
of about twenty miles in extent: five miles behind it is the Tor
(latitude 11 degrees 54 minutes, and longitude 133 degrees 10 minutes 20
seconds) a solitary pyramidal rock; and seven miles and a quarter West by
South, from the latter is a peak-topped hill.

The two latter are apparently unconnected with the range, on which there
are four remarkable ridges, of which the two westernmost are the most
remarkable.

GOULBURN ISLANDS consist of two islands, each being about twenty miles in
circumference; they are separated from each other by a rocky strait three
miles wide, which in most parts is deep enough for a ship of any size to
pass through; the latitude of the centre of this strait is 11 degrees 32
minutes. Macquarie Strait separates the southernmost from the main, and
is nearly two miles across: the depth in mid-channel being eighteen
fathoms: the latitude of Retaliation Point, which is on the northern side
of the strait, is in 11 degrees 39 minutes.

SOUTH WEST BAY affords good anchorage in five and six fathoms at a mile
from the shore, and vessels may anchor at a quarter of a mile off the
beach in three fathoms muddy bottom.

At the north end of the bay are the Bottle Rocks separated from the point
by a channel two and a quarter fathoms deep. The Bottle Rock was one of
our fixed points, and is placed in latitude 11 degrees 37 minutes 24
seconds, and longitude 133 degrees 19 minutes 40 seconds. The bay affords
a convenient place for wooding and watering; the latter may be had during
the early months of the dry season (as late as August) from a drain at
the base of the Pipe Clay Cliffs at the north end of the bay. There are
also some holes on Sims Island that contain water for a much later
period. The holes have been made by the Malays for the purpose of
collecting it.

MULLET BAY is on the west side of the north island, affording good
anchorage in the easterly monsoon in six and seven fathoms mud, at a mile
from the shore. The flood-tide here sets to the eastward, and it is high
water at full and change in the strait at six o'clock; the rise of the
tide is not more than five or six feet. The north-east point of North
Goulburn Island is in latitude 11 degrees 26 minutes, longitude 133
degrees 26 minutes.

From Macquarie Strait the land trends to the westward, and north-westward
to De Courcy Head, and forms but few sinuosities. POINT BROGDEN, in
latitude 11 degrees 30 minutes, the only projection in this space, is
remarkable for being higher than usual, and for having a range of cliffs
to the southward of the point; with a solitary tree near its extremity,
hence the land is rocky towards De Courcy Head, which is a cliffy
projection in latitude 11 degrees 17 minutes 30 seconds; thence the shore
continues rocky to Cape Cockburn, a low rocky point, with a conspicuous
tree at its extremity. The point is wooded to within a short distance of
the sea, as is generally the case with the shores of this coast. CAPE
COCKBURN is in latitude 11 degrees 18 minutes, and longitude 132 degrees
53 minutes 5 seconds.

MOUNTNORRIS BAY extends between Cape Cockburn and Cape Croker, it is
twenty-eight miles wide, and twenty-three deep. It contains several
islands, and is also fronted by a group, of which New Year's Island, the
latitude of whose centre is 10 degrees 55 minutes, and longitude 133
degrees 0 minutes 36 seconds, is the outermost; the others are named
Oxley, Lawson, McCluer, Grant, Templer, and Cowlard. They are straggling,
and have wide and apparently deep channels between them. Between New
Year's and McCluer's Islands, the channel is nearly eight miles wide and
eighteen and nineteen fathoms deep. A reef extends off the north-west end
of the latter island for nearly three miles, and the ground is rocky and
shoal for some distance off the north-east end of Oxley's Island. Grant's
Island is higher than the others, which are merely small woody islets,
the centre is in 11 degrees 10 minutes.

At the north-east end of Mountnorris Bay is MALAY BAY which is four miles
wide and six deep; it affords good anchorage in four and five fathoms in
the centre: as it offered no other inducement, we did not land upon any
part of it. Between Valentia Island and Point Annesley, the channel is
more than a mile wide and four fathoms deep. VALENTIA ISLAND has a reef
off its north point, and another off its south-east point, each about a
mile in extent.

COPELAND ISLAND is small and wedge-shaped, its summit is in latitude 11
degrees 28 minutes, and longitude 132 degrees 43 minutes; four miles and
a quarter West-North-West from it is a covered sandbank having nine feet
water near its edge; it was not quite certain whether it was joined to
the land or not, from which it is distant two miles and a half.

On the western side of the bay there is a strait two miles wide
separating Croker's Island from the main; it is ten or eleven miles in
length, and is navigable since the Malay fleet were observed to pass
through it.

CROKER'S ISLAND is twenty-one miles and a quarter from north to south,
and from two to five broad, its northern extremity is in 10 degrees 58
minutes 30 seconds latitude, and 132 degrees 34 minutes 10 seconds
longitude; about three-quarters of a mile within it there is a remarkable
rocky knob: its south extreme is in 11 degrees 19 1/4 minutes.

PALM BAY, on its western side, is an excellent anchorage in the easterly
monsoon; it is four miles and a half wide, and nearly three deep. The
shore is rocky for a mile off, and the south point has a rocky shoal
projecting to the West-North-West for a mile and a quarter.

DARCH'S ISLAND is separated from Croker's Island by a navigable strait
two miles wide; near the reef at the north-east end we had six fathoms,
but in mid-channel the depth was as much as eleven fathoms. A
considerable reef projects off the east end for more than a mile. The
island is about two miles and three-quarters long, and is thickly wooded;
its north point is in latitude 11 degrees 7 minutes 30 seconds.

RAFFLES BAY forms a good port during any season; it is seven miles deep,
and from two to three broad: beyond High Point the depth is not more than
three fathoms and a half. The anchorage is however quite safe.

The bay to the eastward of Point Smith, which has a reef extending from
it for nearly a mile, has a shoal opening at its bottom of very little
importance. At the north-east end of the bay, separated from the point by
a channel a mile wide, and more than five fathoms deep, is a small sandy
island, with a reef extending for a mile off its north end.

PORT ESSINGTON, the outer heads of which, Vashon Head and Point Smith,
are seven miles apart, is an extensive port, thirteen miles and a quarter
deep, and from five to three wide; independent of its Inner Harbour,
which, with a navigable entrance of a mile wide, is five miles deep and
four wide. The port is not only capacious, but has very few shoals or
dangers in it.

On the western side, off Island Point, there are some rocks, and also a
reef projects for a mile off the bluff point that forms the east head of
Knocker's Bay. The western side of the entrance to Inner Harbour, is also
rocky and shoal for two-thirds across, but near the opposite point* the
depth is thirteen fathoms.

(*Footnote. This is Point Record of Captain Bremer, see above.)

On the eastern side of the port there is no danger beyond a quarter of a
mile from the shore, excepting a reef of rocks, some of which are dry;
this danger, when in a line with a remarkable cliff two miles and a
quarter to the south of Table Point, bears East-South-East 1/2 East;
close without them the depth is five fathoms.

The INNER HARBOUR is divided into two basins which extend in for two
miles on either side of Middle Head, a cliffy projection, surrounded by a
rocky shore for a quarter of a mile off. The anchorage between the
entrance and Middle Head is in five and six fathoms mud, and in the
centre of the western basin the depth is five fathoms mud. The shores are
higher than usual, and are varied by sandy beaches and cliffs, some of
white and others of a red colour. The western side of the port was not
visited, and our tracks and examinations were made principally on the
opposite shore. At the bottom of Knocker's Bay is a shoal mangrove
opening, of no importance. See volume 1.

POINT SMITH is in latitude 11 degrees 6 minutes 45 seconds, and longitude
132 degrees 12 minutes 30 seconds.

VASHON HEAD has a considerable shoal projecting from it, and extending
into the bay to the westward which was called TREPANG BAY. This bay has
an opening at the bottom, that appeared to be shoal. A small sandy island
lies at the distance of a mile and three-quarters from the shore; the
reef projects into the sea for nearly a mile farther, and apparently
extends to the South-West to the north head of POPHAM BAY, which has a
small opening at the bottom, but of shoal approach; good anchorage may be
had in Popham Bay in five and six fathoms, a little within the heads, and
as they bear North and South-South-West, it is well sheltered in the
easterly monsoon. Hence to CAPE DON is three miles and a half. The latter
cape is in latitude 11 degrees 19 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 131
degrees 45 minutes 30 seconds.

VAN DIEMEN'S GULF is seventy miles deep, and more than forty broad. It
has two outlets to sea; the one to the northward, DUNDAS STRAIT, is
sixteen miles wide and very deep; the other, CLARENCE STRAIT, is
seventeen miles wide, and communicates with the sea round the south sides
of Melville and Bathurst Islands: it is probably not so safe as Dundas'
Strait, on account of Vernon's Isles, which lie in mid channel, near its
western end.

The north eastern side of Van Diemen's Gulf washes the south side of
Coburg Peninsula. It has several bays, and, to the eastward of MOUNTS
BEDWELL and Roe, the shore is fronted by SIR GEORGE HOPE'S ISLANDS,
forming a channel or port within them twenty miles deep and from three to
six broad; the entrance to it is round the north end of GREENHILL ISLAND,
which is separated from the land of the peninsula, by a strait a mile and
a half wide: the depth in mid-channel, for the shore on either side for
half a mile is shoal and rocky, is eighteen fathoms, and within it the
bottom is six, seven, and eight fathoms deep, and principally of mud.
This strait is in latitude 11 degrees 35 minutes.

The eastern side has several openings in it, but the shores are very low,
and of shoal approach. At its south-east end are the two (and probably
three) Alligator Rivers; the westernmost (or centre) is fronted by FIELD
ISLAND, the centre of which is in 12 degrees 6 minutes latitude, and 132
degrees 25 minutes 10 seconds longitude. These rivers have been described
in the narrative. See volume 1. The bottom of the gulf is very low, and
forms two bights, separated by a point that projects for seven or eight
miles.

In the neighbourhood of the rivers the country is sprinkled with wooded
hills, that extend in a straggling chain towards Wellington Range, of
which they might be considered a part: but between the rivers and
Clarence Strait the country is low and flat, and only protected from
inroads of the sea by a barrier of sandhills, beyond which not a vestige
of the interior could be seen.

CLARENCE STRAIT separates Bathurst and Melville Islands from the
mainland: it is seventy-five miles long, and from seventeen to
thirty-five wide. The narrowest part is at about its centre, between Cape
Gambier and Cape Eldon, and in this space is a group of four low rocky
islands, covered with mangroves (Vernon's Islands) from which
considerable reefs extend towards either shore.

The best channel is probably on the northern side, near Cape Gambier,
which is in latitude 11 degrees 56 minutes 20 seconds; and there also
appeared to be a wide and safe channel on the south side; but the
neighbourhood of Vernon's Islands is rocky. The flood-tide sets to the
eastward into the gulf.

MELVILLE ISLAND is of considerable size, and forms the western side of
Van Diemen's Gulf; its greatest length from Cape Van Diemen to Cape Keith
being seventy-two miles, and its greatest breadth thirty-eight miles; its
circumference is two hundred miles.

We did not land on any part of it, excepting in the entrance of Apsley
Strait, at Luxmoore Head (latitude 11 degrees 21 minutes, longitude 130
degrees 22 minutes) from which we were driven by the natives. It appeared
fertile and more elevated than the coast to the eastward, and to possess
several good harbours, particularly Apsley Strait, besides several bays
on its north coast; and from the appearance of the land on its east side,
and the extent and abrupt shape of the hills, it is probable that there
may be a port there also.

BRENTON BAY is the mouth of a small inlet, which may probably prove to be
a fresh-water stream; and the bottom of LETHBRIDGE BAY appeared likely to
yield one also. The hills and coast are wooded to the brink of the cliffs
and sandy beaches that vary the northern shores of
Melville Island.

The most unproductive part appeared to be the narrow strip that extends
towards Cape Van Diemen. On either side of the point, near Karslake
Island, is a bay, and at the bottom of each there is an opening in the
land, like those of Brenton and Lethbridge Bays.

The western trend of CAPE VAN DIEMEN is in latitude 11 degrees 8 minutes
15 seconds, and longitude 130 degrees 20 minutes 30 seconds. The coast to
the south-east of the cape is formed by a range of cliffs, extending
uninterruptedly for seven miles, of a most remarkable white appearance,
whiter even than the usual colour of the pipe-clay cliffs to the
eastward. Cape Van Diemen is a low sandy point, with a shoal spit
projecting from it for four miles, within half a mile of the extremity of
which we had no bottom with ten fathoms: from this a very considerable
shoal (MERMAID'S SHOAL) extends to the westward and south-westward for
seventeen miles; and, curving round to PIPER'S HEAD, forms the northern
limit of the entrance to Apsley Strait: its western edge is rather steep;
we coasted along it, and had overfalls between ten and four fathoms near
its edge. It is not only possible, but very likely, that there are
channels through it, but the most direct channel is round its south side,
across the bar, on which there is (at low water) five fathoms. To sail
into APSLEY STRAIT by this channel, if coming from the westward, steer in
on the parallel of 11 degrees 15 minutes, until the northern part of
Bathurst Island is seen: when the western trend of the island bears
South, you will be abreast of the west extremity of the shoal off Cape
Van Diemen. Steering on, you will see Piper's Head, a cliffy point,
forming the north entrance to the strait, which must be kept upon the
bearing of East by North, until the low, sandy, south point of the
strait's entrance* is in a line with the summit of LUXMOORE HEAD, a
remarkable flat-topped hill on the eastern side of the strait, bearing
South 59 degrees East. Then steer East by South, keeping the lead going,
and hauling to the north if the soundings are less than seven fathoms,
until the strait is opened bearing South-East by South, when you may haul
in for Luxmoore Head, and anchor at will.

(*Footnote. Point Brace of Captain Bremer.)

The narrowest part of the strait is where the low, sandy extremity, Point
Brace, bears South 40 degrees East; the channel then is from seventeen to
eighteen fathoms deep, and shoals suddenly on its south, but gradually on
its north side: it is about a mile and a half wide.

APSLEY STRAIT is forty miles long, and from one to three broad; the
widest part being at the north end: the southern end, for five or six
miles from the outlet, is very rocky; the south entrance is in latitude
11 degrees 45 minutes; the flood sets to the southward, and the ebb, from
Van Diemen's Gulf out of Clarence Strait, runs through the strait to the
north, which must cause many shoals off the south entrance; the depth is
generally from ten to thirteen fathoms, but is very irregular towards the
south end; at low water many parts are dry, which leave the channels very
intricate. We passed over it at high water without knowing our danger,
for the stream of the tide carried us through the deepest part of the
channel.

BATHURST ISLAND is from thirty to thirty-three miles in extent, having a
circumference of a hundred and twenty miles. GORDON BAY, on its western
side, affords a good shelter in the easterly monsoon; it is ten miles
wide, and six deep, and terminated by PORT HURD, the entrance to which is
fronted by a bar, having twelve or fourteen feet on it at low water. Near
the south-western head of the bay two projecting cliffy points (Twin
Cliffs) terminate a sandy bay, from which wood and, probably, water may
be obtained.

PORT HURD, at the bottom of Gordon Bay, in latitude 11 degrees 39 minutes
30 seconds, is a mere salt-water inlet, running up in a South-East
direction for eight miles; it then separates into two creeks that wind
under each side of a wooded hill; the entrance is three-quarters of a
mile wide, and formed by two low points. At the back of the port are some
wooded hills; one of them, Mount Hurd, kept in the opening between the
two points of entrance, is the mark for the deepest part of the bar. When
within the entrance the port opens, and forms a basin two miles and a
quarter broad, after which it narrows and runs up at from half to a
quarter of a mile wide, with a channel four and five fathoms deep.

The country here is thickly wooded, but very low, excepting a few ranges
of hills that may rise to the height of two hundred feet. The south side
of Bathurst Island has no sinuosities.

Near CAPE FOURCROY the coast is formed by sandhills: but, for the next
fifteen miles, it is low and backed by wooded hills.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 4.

OF THE NATURE OF THE WINDS AND THE DESCRIPTION OF THE COAST BETWEEN
CLARENCE STRAIT AND THE NORTH-WEST CAPE.

NORTH-WEST COAST.

The nature of the winds upon the North-west Coast, that is, between Cape
Van Diemen and the North-west Cape, differs very materially from the
regularity of the monsoons in the sea that divides it from Timor and the
islands to the northward; excepting in the narrower part between Cape
Londonderry and the Sahul Bank, where, from the contracted nature of the
sea, more regular winds may be expected. The easterly monsoon commences
about the beginning of April, and in the months of May and June blows
with great strength, and will be found more regular close to the
projecting parts of the coast, but they then rather assume the character
of a sea-breeze, for the nights are generally calm.

After the month of June the winds to the westward of Cape Londonderry are
very irregular, and generally blow from the southward or south-west; they
are however more constant to the westward of Buccaneer's Archipelago,
where the seabreezes blow principally from the North-West along the land.
At intervals, during the east monsoon, the wind blows strong from
South-East, but only for a short time, perhaps only for a few hours.
Ships may creep along the Coast of New Holland to the eastward during the
easterly monsoon, when they could not make any progress in the mid sea,
without being much delayed by calms. Towards the North-west Cape, neither
the monsoon nor the South East trade are much experienced, the wind being
generally from the South-West or North-West.

During the strength of the westerly monsoon, that is, in the months of
December and January, the wind is regular between West-North-West and
West-South-West, and, in the neighbourhood of the North-west Cape,
sometimes blows hard; but even in these tropical regions, when the
weather is very bad, the change is predicted by the barometer, which
otherwise is scarcely affected.

In February, near the coast of New Holland, the monsoon is less constant,
and the wind often blows off the land, so that a ship could make her
westing, when, if more to the northward, it would be impossible for her
to gain any ground. At the latter end of February the westerly winds die
away, and are succeeded by light, baffling, easterly winds, with damp,
unwholesome weather, and attended occasionally by heavy squalls of wind
and rain.

If a ship is detained late in the easterly monsoon, and wishes to get to
the westward, she will find the wind more regular and strong from the
eastward in the neighbourhood of Timor, where the easterly monsoon lasts
until the first or second week in November: in the months of September
and October, to the southward of the parallel of 12 degrees, the winds
are almost constant from South-West.

The currents are stronger according to the regularity and strength of the
wind, and generally set at the rate of one or one knot and a half. The
tides in this part of the coast are noticed in the description of the
places where they were observed. High water at full and change takes
place at:

The anchorage off Vansittart Bay at 9 hours 15 minutes.

In Montagu Sound at 12 hours 00 minutes.

In Careening Bay at 12 hours 00 minutes.

In Prince Regent's River at 12 hours 20 minutes.

The rise of the tide, to the westward of Cape Van Diemen, and
particularly to the westward of Cape Bougainville, appeared gradually to
increase: the greatest that we experienced was in the vicinity of
Buccaneer's Archipelago; and at the anchorage in Camden Bay the tide rose
thirty-seven feet; occasioned probably by the intersected nature of the
coast.

The variation in this interval is almost too trifling to be noticed for
the purposes of common navigation. Between Capes Londonderry and Van
Diemen it varies between 1/4 and 1 degree East. Between the former and
Careening Bay it was between 1 and 1 1/2 degrees East; at Careening Bay
the mean of the observations gave 3/4 of a degree West; but to the
westward of that, as far as Cape Villaret, the results of the
observations varied between 1 degree East and 1 degree West. Near the
North-west Cape, and to the eastward of it as far as Depuch Island, it is
about two degrees Westerly.

On the south-side of Clarence Strait the land is low, like the coast to
the eastward. PATERSON BAY appeared to be the mouth of a river, but it
was not examined. The opening to the eastward of the projecting point
that forms the eastern side of Paterson Bay, seemed to be a good port;
and to have an inlet at its bottom trending to the South-East.

CAPE GROSE, in latitude 12 degrees 32 minutes 40 seconds, and longitude
131 degrees 26 minutes, is the western head of Paterson Bay: it is
fronted by reefs that extend for a considerable distance into the sea;
their extremity is nearly nine miles north from the cape.

Hence the coast extends low and sandy to POINT BLAZE, to the northward of
which there is a bay: to the south the shore is wooded, and trends for
eighteen miles to the north entrance of Anson Bay, which is formed by
PERON ISLANDS; these are low and sandy; at the extremity of the northern
island, there is a sandy peak in latitude 13 degrees 6 minutes 30
seconds, and longitude 131 degrees 1 minute 20 seconds: the south end is
overrun with mangroves, and it appeared very doubtful whether a channel
existed between it and the smaller island, which is entirely surrounded
by mangroves. This entrance to the bay is very intricate, and useless,
since that to the south of the islands is so much better. Anson's Bay
affords good anchorage, and probably has a small rivulet at the bottom.

CAPE FORD, in latitude 13 degrees 24 minutes 35 seconds, longitude 130
degrees 52 minutes 20 seconds, has a reef projecting for three miles from
it: hence the coast trends round to the southward for thirty miles to a
bay, which also has a small opening at the bottom; five miles inland
there is a range of hills, on which two, of flat-topped summits, are
conspicuous; and, at a distance, assume the appearance of islands. They
are the Barthelemy Hills.

A few miles to the westward is PORT KEATS. TREE POINT, in latitude 13
degrees 59 minutes 20 seconds, longitude 130 degrees 34 minutes, the
eastern head of the port, is surrounded by a reef, which extends from it
for more than three miles. The west side has also a reef, but of much
more considerable size, stretching to the northward of Cape Hay for
fifteen miles; near its extremity there is a patch of dry rocks,
occupying an extent of two miles. The channel within the heads is from
two to four miles wide, and has anchorage in it between six and seven
fathoms, mud. The port gradually contracts as it approaches the narrow
mouth of the inlet to a mile and a half; it then trends to the south for
six miles, where it is divided into two arms, that run up for six or
seven miles more to the foot of a range of wooded hills, one of which is
MOUNT GOODWIN. The western side of the inlet is occupied by a bank of
clay, that dries at low water. At about three miles within the narrow
entrance on the western side, there is an inlet, and above this the
anchorage is good, the bottom being of clay, in which is mixed a small
ironstone pebble: between the inlet and the narrows, the bottom is deep
and rocky.

Between Cape Hay, in latitude 14 degrees 1 minute 30 seconds, and
longitude 130 degrees 27 minutes 30 seconds, and POINT PEARCE, in
latitude 14 degrees 28 minutes 30 seconds, longitude 130 degrees 17
minutes 15 seconds, the coast is still low, and was only seen at a
distance. Off the latter point there is a reef which does not extend to a
greater distance than a mile and a half.

To the south of Point Pearce there is a very extensive opening, which bad
weather and other circumstances did not allow of being examined. It is
nearly thirty miles wide, and the depth across between eight fathoms and
twenty. The south shore is lined by a considerable reef extending for
seven miles from the beach. The land was very indistinctly seen at the
back, but, in one part, there was a space of more than eighteen miles, in
which nothing was visible. The strength of the tide, the bottom being
sandy instead of mud, as in other parts of the neighbourhood, and the
rocky overfalls on either side of the entrance bespeak this opening to be
of considerable size and importance.

The shore to CAPE DOMETT was very indistinctly seen. It occupies an
extent of forty-five miles, and is fronted by extensive reefs, which
project for twenty-three miles; the north extremity of the shoal water is
twenty-six miles, nearly due west from Cape Pearce. It terminates with a
narrow point, and then trends in to the South-West towards the coast.

The Medusa Bank fronts the entrance of Cambridge Gulf; it projects from
the coast, near Cape Domett, to the North-West for seventeen miles, and
terminates with a narrow spit, thirteen miles north from Lacrosse Island,
in latitude 14 degrees 30 1/2 minutes. Both these banks are of sand, and
their edges are very steep to. They are covered with large quantities of
mollusca, which are also abundant in the sea in their vicinity.

CAMBRIDGE GULF extends from Lacrosse Island in a South-South-Westerly
direction for sixty-four miles. The entrance, between Cape Domett and
Cape Dussejour, is twelve miles wide; but Lacrosse Island, under which
there is good anchorage for vessels going in or out of the gulf, divides
the entrance into two channels. The western entrance is about two miles
and a half wide, and is deepest near the island: but, at a mile from the
shore, we had no bottom with fourteen and seventeen fathoms. The reefs
project from Cape Dussejour for nearly three miles. On the eastern side
of Lacrosse Island, within half a mile of the point, we had seven
fathoms, and there was every appearance of the channel being deep in the
neighbourhood of Cape Domett. Shakspeare Hill, the situation of which is
in latitude 14 degrees 47 minutes 55 seconds, and longitude 128 degrees
24 minutes, is a conspicuous object on this promontory: it is high and
rocky, and, at a distance, has the appearance of being insulated, like
Lacrosse Island.

Having entered the gulf, it trends to the South-South-West for
twenty-three miles to Adolphus Island, where it is divided into two arms,
of which the westernmost is the principal. At ten miles from Lacrosse
Island, the channel is narrowed by shoals to a width of five miles, the
shores being twelve miles apart. The land on the western side of the gulf
is high and rocky; but the opposite shore is very low, and apparently
marshy. The bottom is of sand, as are the banks on either side, and
affords good anchorage: the tide stream runs with great strength in
mid-channel, but is easily avoided by anchoring upon the weather shore
near the edge of the bank.

The channels on either side of Adolphus Island are called the East and
West Arms. The East Arm is from one to two miles and a half wide, and
four or five fathoms deep. At ten miles it is joined by an arm that
washes the south side of Adolphus Island, and the united streams trend
together in a South-East direction, under the foot of Mount Connexion,
for a considerable distance. This inlet was not examined. The West Arm
extends down the west side of Adolphus Island for seven miles; it is then
divided by a projecting point under View Hill; and, whilst one runs to
the eastward and unites with the East Arm, the other continues to trend
to the southward, and then opens out to an extensive basin eleven miles
in length, and from four to six in breadth; and, at seven miles,
gradually contracts as it winds under the base of the Bastion Hills:
before, however, you arrive at the basin, the stream is divided by
several islands and rocky islets, that narrow the channel in some parts
to the width of half a mile, in which the depth is very great, and the
tide runs with great strength.

At the entrance of the basin the high rocky character of the west shore
is superseded by low mangrove banks, with here and there a detached hill
rising from a plain of low marshy land, that, at the time of our visit,
was covered with a salt incrustation, occasioned by the evaporation of
the sea, which, apparently, had lately flooded the low lands to a great
extent: some of these plains are seven and eight miles in diameter. The
hills rise abruptly; those we examined are of sandstone formation. The
basin is very shoal, but there is a narrow channel in the centre, with
from five to nine fathoms water. The shore, opposite the Bastion Hills,
is low, and the gulf trends gradually round to the South-West for five
miles, when it is contracted into a narrow communication, called The Gut,
leading to an interior shoal basin, strewed with low marshy islands,
which the tide covers. This basin terminates to the southward in a narrow
stream, winding under the base of Mount Cockburn; and there also appeared
to be several others falling into the basin more to the westward. The
water was salt at the extremity of our exploration. The Gut leading to it
is two miles long, and not so much as a quarter of a mile wide: in some
parts we had nineteen fathoms, but in others it was deeper; it runs
through a chasm in the hills, which rise abruptly, and occasionally
recede and form bights, in which, in the wet season, the rains form some
very considerable mountain torrents. No fresh water was seen in any part
of the gulf; but as it was near the end of the dry season when we were
there, it might probably be found in a more advanced season in every part
of the western side, where the land is high and the gullies numerous:
there is, however, no durable freshwater stream without the Gut. An
alligator was observed swimming about, but very few fish were noticed.

The coast extends from Cape Dussejour to Cape Londonderry, a distance of
ninety-five miles, without an opening, and with but few sinuosities of
any consequence. The coast is chiefly rocky, with here and there a few
sandy beaches: but the shore generally is open and exposed: there are
many parts, however, where a boat might land; particularly behind BUCKLE
HEAD, and a little farther on at REVELEY ISLAND: at the latter place
there is a gully in the hills, at the back of the bay, which may probably
produce fresh water: this bay is near Captain Baudin's MOUNT CASUARINA, a
flat-topped hill, that is conspicuous from the sea. The mount is only
visible between the bearings of South and West-South-West, and may be
seen at the distance of seven or eight leagues. It is situated at six
miles from the shore, in latitude 14 degrees 23 minutes 15 seconds, and
longitude 127 degrees 36 minutes 50 seconds.

The coast is here but slightly wooded, and sufficiently elevated to
conceal the interior; no part of which, excepting Mount Casuarina, could
be seen. It is fronted by rocks, but they do not appear to extend more
than two miles from the shore. At CAPE RULHIERES, the coast trends more
westerly. To the westward of this cape are two sandy bays, in which boats
might effect a landing; but they are open and exposed to the northward.
To the eastward of it there are some reefs which project for more than
two miles from the shore; and, at the west head of the westernmost of the
bays, is an island with a reef extending for nearly three miles from it:
behind the island is another bay, that appeared to be fronted by the
above reef. In the offing, and at the distance of six miles from the
shore, is LESUEUR ISLAND; it is about two miles in circumference, and
surrounded by a coral reef, that extends for one mile and a half from its
north-east end. At this part the coast is more verdant in appearance than
to the eastward of Cape Rulhieres, particularly for ten miles to the
South-East of Cape Londonderry; in which space there are several sandy
bays, with the shores wooded to the brink of the beach: at about five
miles from the cape is a small boat harbour, at the back of which a gully
in the hills appeared promising for the search for fresh water, more
particularly on account of the verdant appearance of the trees near it.

CAPE LONDONDERRY is a low rocky point; it is easily recognised by the
reef that extends from it, and the trend of the land, which takes from it
a westerly direction; there are also two small sandy islets, Stewart's
Islets, at a little more than two miles from it, encompassed by the reef.
The cape is in 13 degrees 44 minutes South, and 126 degrees 53 minutes 50
seconds East.

The land then extends to the westward for nearly eleven miles, to CAPE
TALBOT; it is fronted by the reef that commences at Cape Londonderry, and
projects from the shore for nearly five miles, but to the eastward of the
cape a ship may approach it within two miles.

To the south of Cape Talbot the land trends in and forms a bay twelve
miles deep, and wide, that was not examined. It is fronted by SIR GRAHAM
MOORE'S ISLANDS, one of which is eight miles long, and low, excepting at
the east end, where there is a flat-topped hill; there is also another
remarkable summit on a smaller island, to the north of the principal
island.

At twenty miles West-South-West from Cape Talbot is the east entrance of
VANSITTART BAY; it is formed between MARY ISLAND and the easternmost of
the ECLIPSE ISLES (Long Island) but this space, which is nearly three
miles wide, is much occupied by rocks, so that it is contracted to the
width of little more than half a mile.

The channel to this is between two extensive reefs, the innermost of
which commences at eight miles to the westward of Cape Talbot, and
extends along Sir Graham Moore's Islands to Mary Island.

The outer reef commences at about twelve miles from the cape, and extends
to the westward, embracing JONES' ISLAND (in latitude 13 degrees 44
minutes, and longitude 126 degrees 23 minutes) and the Eclipse Isles. The
passage is from three and a half to five miles wide, and is deep and free
from danger. The bottom is rocky until within five miles of the Eclipse
Islands, when good anchorage may be obtained in five and six fathoms,
upon a muddy bottom.

The entrance is between Middle Rock, and a patch of dry rocks to the
eastward of Long Rocks, the distance across being about half a mile. In
entering the bay by this channel, steer so as to pass round Middle Rock,
and upon bringing the peaked summit of Jar Island, at the bottom of the
port, between it and Long Rocks, bearing South 29 1/2 degrees West, steer
directly for Jar Island, until you are abreast of Middle Rock, when you
may haul close round it, with fourteen and sixteen fathoms: when you have
passed the Long Rocks, a course may be directed at pleasure into the bay.
There is also a deep passage to the westward of Middle Rock; but it is
too narrow to be safe. The tide sets through the channels with great
strength; with the flood-tide there is no danger, as the stream will
carry a vessel through the deepest part; with the ebb-tide, however, it
should not be attempted.

The western entrance to Vansittart Bay is between the land of CAPE
BOUGAINVILLE and the Eclipse Islands: it is three miles and a half wide,
and quite free from danger. The approach to it, between TROUGHTON ISLAND
(latitude 13 degrees 44 minutes 10 seconds, longitude 126 degrees 11
minutes) and the reefs in the offing, is six miles wide, and probably
quite safe. We did not ascertain the existence of a channel on the east
side of the island, but it appeared to be free from danger, and, if so,
would be the best approach. ECLIPSE HILL, being higher than the land near
it, and conspicuous from its flat tabular shape, is a good mark for the
port; it is in latitude 13 degrees 54 minutes 20 seconds and longitude
126 degrees 18 minutes 40 seconds.

Vansittart Bay is eighteen miles deep, and from five to ten broad; it
offers excellent anchorage. The eastern shore is rocky, and should not be
approached nearer than a mile; but the western shore is steep to, and may
be passed very close: on this side the port there are many coves and bays
fit for any purposes. The most secure anchorage is in the centre of the
bay, where there is from seven to nine fathoms, mud, and the sea-breeze
has free access: but, if a more sheltered place is required, such may be
found at the south-east corner of the bottom of the bay in six and seven
fathoms, mud. High water at full and change takes place in the eastern
entrance, at a quarter past nine o'clock; the tide rises about six feet.

JAR ISLAND is surrounded by rocks, but to the eastward of it the channel
is twelve fathoms deep. Its summit is in latitude 14 degrees 7 minutes 10
seconds, longitude 126 degrees 15 minutes 40 seconds.

The western side of Vansittart Bay is formed by a peninsula, the
extremity of which is Cape Bougainville; the northern part of this land
is fronted by a reef, that extends round it for three miles from the
shore, but the western side appeared to be of bold approach. The reef
commences at Cape Bougainville, and trends round to Point Gibson, where
it terminates. This part of the coast is fronted by extensive reefs,
which render the approach to it very dangerous: at sixteen miles to the
northward of the cape there is a range, the HOLOTHURIA BANKS, that extend
in an east and west direction for twenty-three miles; their north-east
extent was not ascertained, but the western end, in latitude 13 degrees
32 minutes, and longitude 125 degrees 46 minutes 45 seconds, is narrow,
and not more than five or six miles broad.

There is another range of reefs to the westward of the cape, that extends
in a north and south direction for upwards of twenty miles; and about
from three to five miles broad. The water breaks on many parts of it. Its
north extremity, in latitude 13 degrees 41 1/2 minutes, is sixteen miles
West 3/4 North from Troughton Island: in this space the sea is quite
clear, and from sixteen to twenty fathoms deep. The narrowest part of the
channel, between the reef and the peninsula, is at Point Gibson, where it
is more than eight miles wide, and in mid-channel about twenty-three
fathoms deep.

Between Cape Bougainville and Cape Voltaire is the ADMIRALTY GULF. It is
twenty-nine miles wide and twenty-two deep, independent of Port
Warrender. This gulf is thickly strewed with islands and reefs: a group
off Cape Voltaire was seen by the French and named by them the INSTITUTE
ISLANDS, the three principal of which, of flat-topped shape, are called
Descartes, Fenelon, and Corneille; besides these the Montesquieu Group,
and Pascal and Condillac Islands, were distinguished. On the eastern side
of the gulf, near the shore, are OSBORN'S ISLANDS, which are high and
rocky: the southernmost is remarkable for its steep, precipitous form,
and for its resemblance to Mount Cockburn in Cambridge Gulf. There is
also a conspicuous high bluff on the principal island, which appears to
have been seen by the French.

In the offing is CASSINI ISLAND; it is rather low and level, and
surrounded by cliffs and rocky shores: on the eastern side are four sandy
beaches, which are very much frequented by turtle: a reef projects off
its north end for a mile and a half. The anchorage is good near the
island, but the water is very deep. The situation of its centre is in
latitude 13 degrees 55 minutes 5 seconds, and longitude 125 degrees 42
minutes.

PORT WARRENDER is an excellent port, and affords good anchorage in the
bay round Crystal Head, in which a vessel is quite land-locked; but
equally secure anchorage may be had for five miles higher up the port, in
from four to seven fathoms, mud. It extends for six miles farther, but
the depth in some parts is not more than two fathoms.

At eleven miles from the entrance, the port is separated into two inlets,
which wind under the base of a dividing range of high, steep, and wooded
hills; these run up for five miles higher, when they become mere mangrove
creeks. There is probably another inlet on the east side of Port
Warrender which we did not examine, since it appeared to be less
considerable in size, and important in appearance, than the arm which we
had examined. CRYSTAL HEAD is in latitude 14 degrees 28 minutes, and
longitude 125 degrees 55 minutes 30 seconds.

WALMESLY BAY appeared to be a good port also, but it is open to the
eastward. We did not enter it.

CAPE VOLTAIRE is the extremity of a promontory, extending for more than
twenty miles into the sea, and separating the Admiralty Gulf from Montagu
Sound. There is a flat-topped hill near its extremity, in latitude 14
degrees 14 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 125 degrees 40 minutes 12
seconds; and, at three miles more to the southward, a peaked hill; its
shores on either side are rocky, and indented by bays. At one part the
width across to Walmesly Bay cannot be more than a mile and a half.

The MONTALIVET ISLES, about six leagues from the main, consist of three
rocky islands; they are visible for six or seven leagues from the deck:
the north-easternmost is in latitude 14 degrees 13 minutes 40 seconds,
longitude 125 degrees 19 minutes 30 seconds.

MONTAGU SOUND extends from Cape Voltaire to the north end of Bigge's
Island, a distance of thirty-one miles, and is from eleven to twenty
miles deep. It is fronted by a range of islands; the outer range, which
is eight miles within the Montalivet Isles, was called PRUDHOE ISLANDS;
besides which there were several scattered about the sound, and some of
larger size near the main: of the latter are KATER'S and WOLLASTON'S.
They are of a very rocky character, and furnished with but a poor and
shallow soil, although the surface is thickly covered with small trees,
growing most luxuriantly. WATER ISLAND, to the north-east, in latitude 14
degrees 21 minutes, and longitude 125 degrees 32 minutes 25 seconds, was
visited by us, as was also CAPSTAN ISLAND, in the south-west corner of
the sound. The latter island is in latitude 14 degrees 35 minutes 20
seconds, and longitude 125 degrees 16 minutes 20 seconds. They are both
rocky, and destitute of any soil but what is formed by the decomposition
of the vegetables that grow upon the island. The channels between them
appeared to be clear and free from hidden danger. The depth among the
islands is from ten to fifteen fathoms on a muddy bottom; but the
anchorage is better between Kater Island and the promontory that
separates it from Walmesly Bay, than any other part. It is a very fine
port, particularly near the bottom, in SWIFT'S BAY, where the depth is
from four to five fathoms at low water, It is high water at full and
change in Swift's Bay at twelve o'clock, which is two hours and a quarter
later than in Vansittart Bay: the tide rose eighteen feet, whereas in
Port Warrender its rise was only six. The islands off the north-east end
of Bigge's Island are more numerous than in other parts of the sound:
they were only seen at a distance, and too numerous to give correct
positions to. BIGGE'S ISLAND is fourteen miles long, and from six to
seven broad; it is of moderate height, and rocky character: its south end
appeared to be thickly wooded. A flat-topped hill near the shore of
Scott's Strait is a remarkable object, and may be seen six or seven
leagues off. It is in latitude 14 degrees 39 minutes 20 seconds, and
longitude 125 degrees 10 minutes 20 seconds.

SCOTT'S STRAIT is a channel separating Bigge's Island from the main: it
is thirteen miles long, and from three to one and a quarter broad. It is
of irregular depth, and has some rocks in mid-channel, which are dry: the
deepest channel is near the eastern shore, the depth being from ten to
fourteen fathoms. The strait does not terminate until you are to the
westward of Cape Pond, for there are several islets off the south end of
Bigge's Island, and a considerable reef, through which, although there
may be deep channels, yet they must be narrow. Off the north-west end of
Bigge's Island are several rocky islets; the outer ones were seen by me
in the Bathurst (see above): they are the MARET ISLES of Commodore
Baudin; they consist of four or five principal islands, of about two
miles in length, besides as many more of very small size off the south
extremity of the group. The northern point of the northernmost island is
in latitude 15 degrees 7 minutes 15 seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 56
minutes 40 seconds. The group is fronted on the north-west side by a
considerable reef, extending North by East 1/2 East for seven miles; the
outer edge being three miles and a half to the westward of the group.

YORK SOUND is fourteen miles wide and ten deep: it is contained between
Cape Pond and the northern extreme of the Coronation Islands. It is
spacious, but the bottom, in the middle, is rocky: there is, however,
very good anchorage near the Coronation Islands; and there is also,
possibly, as good on the eastern shore to the south of CAPE POND, which
has a rocky island immediately off it, the situation of which is in
latitude 14 degrees 43 minutes 20 seconds, and longitude 125 degrees 9
minutes 25 seconds.

At the bottom of York Sound is PRINCE FREDERIC'S HARBOUR, a fine spacious
port, fourteen miles long, and from five to seven broad: it is terminated
by two rivers, namely Hunter's and Roe's. It has several rocky islands on
either shore; and, at the bottom, they are numerous. The tide here rises
at the springs twenty-nine feet. The anchorage is not so good in the
entrance of the port, but a good bottom may be found as soon as Hunter's
River begins to open, and bears East 1/2 North, and when you are within a
small island that is in the centre of the port; but an anchorage may very
probably be obtained on the northern shore, or, indeed, any where out of
the strength of the tides.

HUNTER'S RIVER runs up for about fourteen miles. It is about one mile and
a half wide at the entrance, and preserves that width for more than four
miles, when it suddenly contracts and becomes shoal, and very tortuous in
its course, and winds through a narrow chasm in the rocks, which rise
precipitously in some parts for at least two or three hundred feet. A
vessel may anchor in seven fathoms near the end of the first reach; its
course is to the East-North-East. There is a remarkable rock at the
entrance, in latitude 15 degrees 1 minute 30 seconds, and longitude 125
degrees 24 minutes. ROE'S RIVER first trends for seventeen miles to the
East by South, and then, taking a sudden turn to the south, runs up for
thirteen miles more; after which it trends to the South-East, and was
supposed to run up for at least ten miles farther. Its entrance for seven
miles forms a very good harbour, being from two to six fathoms deep; but,
in anchoring here, it must be recollected that the tide falls twenty-nine
feet. This river, like Hunter's River, is bounded on either bank by
precipitous hills, which, in many parts, are inaccessible.

Five miles to the westward of Cape Torrens is Point Hardy: off the latter
is an islet; and three miles, North by East 1/2 East from it, is a reef,
on which the sea breaks. This point is the east head of PORT NELSON,
which extends to the southward from it for eight miles: its western side
is formed by the Coronation Islands: its width is three miles, with good
anchorage all over it. At the bottom is CAREENING BAY, where the Mermaid
was repaired. The latitude of the beach in 15 degrees 6 minutes 18
seconds, and longitude 125 degrees 0 minutes 46 seconds.* Port Nelson
communicates with the sea to the westward of the Coronation Islands,
which may be considered a strait. At the south-west end of the
southernmost island, where the strait is narrowest, and not more than one
mile and a quarter wide, there is a patch of rocks in the centre, which
always shows: the channel on the north side of these rocks is the best:
the water is very deep, and the tide sets right through.

(*Footnote. The latitude of the observatory was taken every day during
our stay, using the sea-horizon, but the effect of refraction was so
great that the daily observations varied as much as 3 minutes 43 seconds.

The mean of 15 meridional altitudes with the sextant made the latitude 15
degrees 6 minutes 22.5 seconds,
and of fourteen observations with the circle 15 degrees 6 minutes 13.8
seconds.
Mean for the latitude of the observatory 15 degrees 6 minutes 18 seconds
South.

The longitude was deduced by the mean of the observations of our two
visits; namely, in October, 1820, and August, 1821: the latter were taken
at Sight Point, in Prince Regent's River, the difference of the meridians
of the two places, by chronometers and survey, being 8 minutes 52.8
seconds.

1820. September 28 and 29. By twenty sets of lunar distances with the
sun, containing one hundred sights with the sextant, the sun being to the
east of the moon, the longitude is 125 degrees 11 minutes 24.3 seconds.

1821. August 2nd and 3rd. By seventeen sets of lunar distances with the
sun, containing eighty-five sights with the sextant, the sun being to the
west of the moon, the longitude of Sight Point, in Prince Regent's River,
was found to be 124 degrees 41 minutes 15.3 seconds, or of Careening Bay
124 degrees 50 minutes 8.1 seconds.

The mean is the longitude of the observatory 125 degrees 0 minutes 46
seconds East.)

The CORONATION ISLANDS separate York Sound from Brunswick Bay, and are
situated in front of Port Nelson. The group consists of seventeen or
eighteen islands, besides numerous rocky islets. On the largest island
are two remarkable peaks; the easternmost is in 14 degrees 59 minutes,
and longitude 124 degrees 56 minutes 5 seconds. The island is eight miles
long, and from four to two wide; the others are from three to one mile in
length; they are covered with vegetation, and the larger islands are well
clothed with trees. The great rise of the tide would render this part of
the coast of importance, was it not for the wretched state of the
country, and the unproductiveness of its soil, which are great drawbacks
upon the advantage of the tide's unusual rise. It is high water at full
and change in Port Nelson at twelve o'clock, as it is also in Montagu
Sound.

Beyond the Coronation Islands there is a string of small, rocky islands
extending for sixteen miles: the westernmost is Freycinet's Group; the
principal island of which Captain De Freycinet has described as
resembling an inverted bowl; and, from this description, we had no
difficulty in finding it out; it is in latitude 15 degrees 0 minutes 30
seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 32 minutes 40 seconds. Among the other
islands we distinguished the islets Colbert, Keraudren, and Buffon. On
the last there is a small, grassy, peaked hillock, in latitude 14 degrees
55 minutes 25 seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 43 minutes 20 seconds.

We passed out to sea between Freycinet's Group and Keraudren; and within
one mile and a half of the latter had eighteen fathoms: it appeared, from
the colour of the water, to have a reef projecting to the westward.

BRUNSWICK BAY is at the back of these islands, and extends from CAPE
BREWSTER, in latitude 15 degrees 6 minutes 10 seconds, and longitude 124
degrees 55 minutes 5 seconds, which terminates Port Nelson, to Point
Adieu. It is an extensive bay or sound, and is about twenty miles in
extent, with good anchorage all over it. The coast is here very much
indented by rivers and bays; among which may be particularized Prince
Regent's River, Hanover Bay, and Port George the Fourth.

PRINCE REGENT'S RIVER is, without exception, the most remarkable feature
of the North-West Coast. In general the inlets of this coast form
extensive ports at their entrance; and, when they begin to assume the
character of a river, their course becomes tortuous, and very irregular;
of which there cannot be a better instance than the neighbouring river,
Roe's River. Prince Regent's River trends into the interior in a
South-East by East direction for fifty-four miles. With scarcely a point
to intercept the view, after being thirteen miles within it. The entrance
is formed by Cape Wellington on the east, and High Bluff on the west, a
width of eight miles, but is so much contracted by islands, that, in
hauling round Cape Wellington, the width is suddenly reduced to little
more than a mile: at the branching off of Rothsay Water, it is little
more than half a mile, and also the same width at the entrance of St.
George's Basin. In this space, however, it is in some parts a little
wider, but in no part between projecting points is it more than one mile
and a quarter. For the first nine miles the stream is narrowed by
islands; beyond this, its boundaries are formed by the natural banks of
the river. On the eastern side, within Cape Wellington, is a deep bay,
but of shoal and rocky appearance. At six miles farther on are two
inlets, ROTHSAY and MUNSTER WATERS, near which the tide forms rapid
eddies and whirlpools, that render its approach dangerous. In mid-channel
is a group of isles; and, off the easternmost, a reef projects to the
eastward for more than half a mile, round which a vessel must pass; here
the channel is not more than half a mile wide. Munster Water, on the
western side, communicates with Hanover Bay by a narrow strait, with very
good anchorage in it in four and five fathoms mud; it is, however, an
inconvenient place to go to, if a vessel is bound any farther up the
river. Rothsay Water is a very considerable arm; and was conjectured to
communicate with Prince Frederic's Harbour, and, if so, would insulate
the land between Capes Torrens and Wellington. We did not enter Rothsay
Water; and the tides and whirlpools were too rapid and dangerous to trust
our small boats without running a very great risk. At the entrance of
this arm, on the south shore, there appeared to be a shoal-bank. Halfway
Bay offers very good anchorage out of the strength of the tides, with
abundance of room to get underweigh from. The northernmost point of the
bay, SIGHT POINT, has a small islet off it (LAMMAS ISLET) where the
observations were taken to fix the longitude of Careening Bay. (See
above.) The two bays on the opposite, or north-east shore, are shoal, and
not fit for any vessel drawing more than six or seven feet; and the
shores are so lined with mangroves, as in most parts to defy all attempts
at landing. After passing them, the shores approach each other within
three-quarters of a mile, but the south-west shore is fronted by a rocky
shoal, which narrows it to less than half a mile; here the tide runs very
strong, and forms whirlpools. On passing the point, the river opens into
a large, spacious reach, which was called ST. GEORGE'S BASIN; and two
conspicuous islands in it were called ST. ANDREW and ST. PATRICK'S
ISLANDS. At the north-east corner are two remarkable hills, MOUNTS
TRAFALGAR and WATERLOO: the situation of the summit of the former is in
latitude 15 degrees 16 minutes 35 seconds, and longitude 125 degrees 4
minutes. The basin is from eight to nine miles in diameter, but affords
no safe anchorage until a vessel is above St. Patrick's Island. The
northern side of the basin is shoaler, and has two small inlets, which
trend in on either side of the mounts, and run in for upwards of five
miles, but they are salt. At the south side of the basin there are two or
three inlets of considerable size, that trend in towards a low country.
At ten miles South-East by East from the narrow entrance to the basin the
river again resumes its narrow channel, and runs up so perfectly straight
for fourteen miles in a South-East by East course, that the hills, which
rise precipitously on either bank, were lost in distance, and the river
assumed the most exact appearance of being a strait; it was from one to
one mile and a quarter wide, and generally of from four to eight fathoms
deep on a bottom of yellow sand: the river then took a slight bend, and
continued to run up for twelve or thirteen miles further, with a few
slight curves, and gradually to decrease in width until terminated by a
bar of rocks; which, when the tide rose high enough to fall over, was
very dangerous to pass: here a considerable gully joins the main stream,
and, being fresh water, was supposed to have the same source as Roe's
River. The river trended up for about three or four miles farther, when
it is entirely stopped by a rapid formed of stones, beyond which we did
not persevere in tracing it; the tide did not reach above this, and the
stream was perceived to continue and form a very beautiful fresh-water
river, about two or three hundred yards wide. As our means did not allow
of our persevering any further, we gave up our examination. At seventeen
miles above St. George's Basin, on the south shore, we found a cascade of
fresh water falling in a considerable quantity from the height of one
hundred and forty feet; and this, in the rainy season, must be a very
large fall, for its breadth is at least fifty yards. At the time of our
visit it was near the end of the dry season: and even then there was a
very considerable quantity falling. Several small inlets trended in on
either side of the river above the basin, particularly one upon the north
side, which, from the height of the hills under which it trended, would
probably produce a freshwater stream. In 1821 the Bathurst watered from
the cascade, but the fatigue was too great, and the heat too powerful,
for the boats' crew had to pull nearly forty miles every trip. High water
took place in St. George's Basin at twenty minutes after twelve o'clock:
the tide rose twenty-four feet.

HANOVER BAY is a very convenient port, about five miles deep, but exposed
from the North-North-West; the anchorage is, however, so good, that no
danger need be apprehended. At the bottom of the bay there is a deep
chasm in the land, yielding a fresh-water stream; beyond this the bay
terminates in a shoal basin. In the offing are several rocky islets,
particularly one, a high rock, which is very remarkable. A little to the
north-east of the river is a sandy beach, the situation of which is in
latitude 15 degrees 18 minutes 21 seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 46
minutes 50 seconds.

HIGH BLUFF, the extremity of the promontory separating Hanover Bay from
Port George the Fourth, speaks for itself. It is in latitude 15 degrees
14 minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 41 minutes 35 seconds.
Between High Bluff and Point Adieu, in latitude 15 degrees 14 minutes 10
seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 34 minutes 45 seconds, is PORT GEORGE
THE FOURTH, having midway in its entrance a high island nearly two miles
long; and to the southward, in the centre of the port, a high rocky
islet, the LUMP, the summit of which is situated in latitude 15 degrees
18 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 37 minutes 50 seconds.
The western side of the port is an extensive island, AUGUSTUS ISLAND,
eleven miles long; it is high and rocky, and has several bays on its
eastern side. The port affords very good anchorage, particularly between
Entrance Island and the Lump, in nine fathoms, mud; but there is also
very good anchorage with the Lump bearing west, in ten fathoms, mud. Port
George the Fourth terminates in a strait, ROGER'S STRAIT, communicating
with Camden Bay. The best entrance to the port is on the eastern side of
Entrance Island; for the opposite, although practicable and sufficiently
deep for the largest ships, is narrow, and must be buoyed before it can
be used.

POINT ADIEU is the last land seen by us in 1820: it is the north-east end
of Augustus Island, and is a rocky, bluff point. In the offing, at the
distance of three miles, there is a considerable range of reefs, that
extend from the peaked island of Jackson's Isles; and more to the
north-west is another group of rocky islands.

To the westward of Augustus Island is a range of islands extending for
five leagues; on their north side they are fronted by considerable coral
reefs, which at low water are dry; besides which there are several small
islets that contract the channels, and render the navigation intricate
and difficult. Between Augustus and Byam Martin's Islands there is an
open strait, of one mile and a half wide; but, its communication with the
sea to the north, appears to be little more than half a mile. BYAM
MARTIN'S ISLAND is separated from a range of small islets, extending
North-North-East by a strait; and these last are divided from the
Champagny Isles by another strait, from twenty-eight to thirty fathoms
deep, through which the tide runs with great force. Off the north end of
Byam Martin's Island are several smaller islets and coral reefs; the
latter extend from it for more than six miles: the north-westernmost of
these islets is the land seen in 1801 by Captain Heywood, and was called
by him Vulcan Point: RED ISLAND, which he also saw, is eight miles to the
westward; it is in latitude 15 degrees 13 minutes 15 seconds, and
longitude 124 degrees 15 minutes 45 seconds: between it and Champagny
Isles the ebbing tide uncovered several extensive reefs. Ten miles North
26 degrees East from Red Island, and South 71 degrees West from
Freycinet's Island, is a dry sandbank surrounded by a reef.

DEGERANDO ISLAND, so called by the French, is the southernmost of the
CHAMPAGNY ISLES: considerable reefs extend off its south end, which are
dry at low water; its centre is in latitude 15 degrees 20 minutes 45
seconds, and longitude 124 degrees 13 minutes 15 seconds.

CAMDEN BAY is formed between Byam Martin's Island and Pratt's Islands,
and extends to the eastward to Roger's Strait; it is twelve miles deep
and eight wide. Here the tide rose and fell thirty-seven feet and a half,
the moon's age being nineteen days. High water took place thirteen
minutes after the moon's transit.

Between Camden Bay and Point Swan, a distance of ninety miles, the
mainland falls back, and forms a very considerable opening fronted by a
multitude of islands, islets, and reefs, into which, from our loss of
anchors; we were not able to penetrate. From Camden Bay the islands, for
the coast seemed too irregular to be the mainland, extend in a range in a
south direction for more than fifty-five miles, to where there appeared
to be a deep opening, or strait, from three to five miles wide. An
irregular line of coast then appeared to extend for seven leagues to the
North-West, and afterwards to the westward for five or six leagues. To
the westward of this, the land appeared to be less continuous, and to be
formed by a mass of islands separated by deep and narrow straits, through
some of which the tide was observed to rush with considerable strength,
foaming and curling in its stream, as if it were rushing through a bed of
rocks: this was particularly observed among the islands to the south of
Macleay's Islands. After extending for thirty miles farther to the
South-West, the land terminates evidently in islands, which then trend to
the South-East; and to the westward they are separated from Cygnet Bay,
and the land to the southward of it by a strait five or six leagues wide.
The narrowest part of this strait is at Point Cunningham, where it is
twelve miles wide; two-thirds over to the islands are two rocky islets,
which bear due south from Sunday Strait.

MONTGOMERY ISLANDS, a group of seven islets on the eastern side of this
extensive range of islands, which are named BUCCANEER'S ARCHIPELAGO, are
low and of small extent, particularly the six easternmost, none of which
are a mile long: the westernmost, which has an extensive reef stretching
to the North-West, is more than three miles in diameter, and appears to
be of different formation to the other, being low and flat, whilst the
rest are scarcely better than a heap of stones, slightly clothed with
vegetation. Between the easternmost islet and the land, there is a strait
of a league in width. The tide prevented our trying its depth: a league
and a half to the north-west, at high-water, we had irregular soundings
between ten and sixteen fathoms, but six fathoms must be deducted from it
to reduce it to the depth at low water.

Three leagues to the north-west of Montgomery's westernmost island are
COCKELL'S ISLES, two in number, low and flat, but of small size. A reef
extends for more than five miles to the westward, and it was not thought
improbable that it might be connected with the reefs that extend to the
westward of Montgomery Islands. The centre of the largest island is in 15
degrees 48 minutes South, and 124 degrees 4 minutes East. To the
North-East of Cockell's Islands the flood-tide sets to the south; but to
the westward with great strength to the South-East, and, at an anchorage
ten miles to the eastward of Macleay Isles, the tide rose and fell
thirty-six feet, the moon being twenty-one days old. Cockell's Islands
are twenty miles from the land to the south; and in this interval, but
within four leagues from the shore, are several small rocky islets, on
one of which there is a remarkable lump; nearer the shore are two
islands, which have a more fertile and verdant appearance than any other
part near them: these form the western extremity of COLLIER'S BAY.

MACLEAY ISLES lie in a North by West direction, and are eight miles in
extent; the principal and highest island is near the south end of the
group; those to the northward are small and straggling. The centre of the
highest is in latitude 15 degrees 57 minutes, and longitude 123 degrees
42 minutes.

CAFFARELLI ISLAND was seen by the French. Its summit is in latitude 16
degrees 2 minutes 25 seconds, and longitude 123 degrees 18 minutes 35
seconds. It is the north-westernmost of a range of islands, extending in
the direction of North 60 degrees West; among which Cleft Island, so
named from a remarkable cleft or chasm near its north end, and DAMPIER'S
MONUMENT, are conspicuous: the latter is a high lump. This range is
separated from one of a similar nature, and extending in a like direction
to the eastward, by a strait from three to four miles wide, and from
fifteen to twenty deep.

Fourteen miles North 68 degrees West from the summit of Caffarelli Island
is BRUE REEF, a circular patch of rocks of about a mile in diameter;
three miles to the north-east of which we had irregular soundings,
between thirty-eight and forty-five fathoms on a rocky bottom. The reef
is in 15 degrees 57 minutes South, and 123 degrees 4 minutes 45 seconds
East.

Six miles south of Caffarelli Island, is a rocky island, surrounded by a
reef; and eight miles farther are several small rocky islands, forming
the north extremity of a range, which, extending to the South by East for
ten miles, form the eastern side of Sunday Strait, which is the best, and
in fact the only safe communication with the deep opening between Point
Cunningham and the islands to the eastward. Between this strait and Point
Swan, a distance of eleven miles, the space is occupied by a multitude of
islands and islets, separated from each other by narrow and, probably, by
deep channels, through which the tide rushes with frightful rapidity.
Sunday Strait is more than four miles wide, and appears to be free from
danger. The tide sets through it at the rate of four or five miles an
hour, and forms strong ripplings, which would be, perhaps, dangerous for
a boat to encounter. The vessel was whirled round several times in
passing through it; but a boat, by being able to pull, might in a great
measure avoid passing through them.

CYGNET BAY is formed between the islands and Point Cunningham; it is
fronted by a bank, over which the least water that we found was two
fathoms; within this bank there is good anchorage, and near the inlets at
the bottom of the bay, there is a muddy bottom, with eight and nine
fathoms mud.

POINT CUNNINGHAM projects slightly to the eastward; its easternmost
extremity is in latitude 16 degrees 39 minutes 20 seconds and longitude
123 degrees 10 minutes; from the northward it has the appearance of being
an island, as the land to the westward is rather lower: two miles and a
half south of it is Carlisle Head, the north extremity of GOODENOUGH BAY.

The shore thence extends in a South-South-East direction for seventeen
miles, in which space there is a shoal bay, beyond which we did not
penetrate. Off the point is an islet, in latitude about 16 degrees 58
minutes, and to the south of it the land was seen trending to the South
by East for four or five miles, when it was lost in distance. From this
anchorage no land was distinctly seen to the eastward; between the
bearings of East-North-East and South-South-East, a slight glimmering of
land was raised above the horizon, by the effect of refraction; but this,
as in a case that occurred before in a neighbouring part off Point
Gantheaume, might be at least fifty miles off.

From all that is at present known of this remarkable opening, there is
enough to excite the greatest interest; since, from the extent of the
opening, the rapidity of the stream, and the great rise and fall of the
tides, there must be a very extensive gulf or opening, totally different
from everything that has been before seen.

There is also good reason to suspect that the land between Cape Leveque
and Point Gantheaume is an island; and if so, the mouth of this opening
is eight miles wide; besides, who is to say that the land even of Cape
Villaret may not also be an island? The French expedition only saw small
portions of the coast to the southward; but it does not appear probable
that the opening extends to the southward of Cape Villaret. (See above.)

Thirty-three miles in a North 14 degrees West direction from the summit
of Caffarelli Island is ADELE ISLAND. It is low, and merely covered with
a few shrubs, and is about three miles from east to west, and from one to
one and a half broad; its west end is in 15 degrees 30 minutes South, and
123 degrees 9 minutes 15 seconds East. At about a league North-West from
its western end are two bare sandy islets, which were uncovered as we
passed, but which as there was not the slightest appearance of vegetation
upon it, may be covered at high water. On the western side of Adele
Island, is an extensive patch of light-coloured water, in some parts of
which the sea broke upon the rocks, which were only just below the
surface. The light-coloured water extends for fourteen miles North West
by West 1/2 West from Adele Island, but there is reason to think that the
water is deep over the greater part of it; for we crossed over its tail,
and sounded in forty-five fathoms without finding bottom, whilst in the
darker-coloured water on either side of it, we had forty-two and
forty-four fathoms.

POINT SWAN is the north-easternmost point of the land of Cape Leveque; it
has an island close off its extremity, round which the tide rushes with
great force, and forms a line of ripplings for ten miles to the
West-North-West, through which, even in the Bathurst, we found it
dangerous to pass. Five miles to the north-eastward of the point are two
small rocky islets, two miles apart from each other.

CAPE LEVEQUE is low and rocky, with a small islet close to its extremity:
its extreme is in latitude 16 degrees 21 minutes 50 seconds, and
longitude 122 degrees 56 minutes 35 seconds. Between the cape and Point
Swan, there is a sandy bay, fronted by a bed of rocks. It was in this bay
that the Buccaneers anchored, which Dampier has so well described.

The coast between CAPES LEVEQUE and BORDA extending South 40 degrees West
nineteen miles, is low and rocky, and the country sandy and unproductive.
Between Cape Borda and Point Emeriau is a bay ten miles deep, backed by
very low sandy land; and five miles further is another bay, that appeared
to be very shoal: thence the coast extends to the South-West for
twenty-three miles to CAPE BASKERVILLE; it is low and sandy, like that to
the northward, but the interior is higher, and with some appearance of
vegetation.

Thirteen miles from the shore are the LACEPEDE ISLANDS; they are three in
number, and surrounded by a reef nine miles long by five wide. They lie
in a North-West direction, and are two miles apart: the north-westernmost
is in latitude 16 degrees 49 minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 122
degrees 7 minutes 20 seconds: they are low and slightly clothed with
bushes, and seem to be little more than the dry parts of the reef, on
which a soil has been accumulated, and in time produced vegetation. These
islands appear to be the haunt of prodigious numbers of boobies. The
variation is 0 degrees 12 minutes West.

In latitude 16 degrees 46 minutes, and longitude 121 degrees 50 minutes
30 seconds, the French have placed a reef, BANC DES BALEINES; which we
did not approach near enough to see.

Between Capes Baskerville and Berthollet, is CARNOT BAY; it is six miles
deep, and backed by low land. The bottom of the bay was not distinctly
seen, but from the appearance of the land behind the beach, it is not
improbable that there may be a rivulet falling into it.

At POINT COULOMB, in latitude 17 degrees 21 minutes, where there is a
range of dark red cliffs, the coast commences to present a more verdant
and pleasing appearance than to the north: the interior rises to an
unusual height, and forms a round-backed hill, covered with trees: it
reminded us of the appearance of the country of the north coast, and is
so different from the rugged and barren character of the Islands of
Buccaneer's Archipelago as to afford an additional ground for our
conjecture of the insularity of this land. The red cliffs extend for four
miles to the southward of Point Coulomb, and are then superseded by a low
coast, composed alternately of rocky shores and sandy beaches.

CAPE BOILEAU is seventeen miles to the south of Point Coulomb; here the
shore trends in and forms a bay fifteen miles wide and six deep: the
south head is the land of Point Gantheaume, which is composed of
sandhills very bare of vegetation, as was also the character of the
interior. From Point Gantheaume, in latitude 17 degrees 53 minutes, the
coast trends to the South-East for about fifteen miles, where it was lost
to view in distance: the extreme was a low sandy point, and appeared to
be the south extremity of the land. The space to the south of this, which
appeared to be a strait, insulating the land to the north as far as Cape
Leveque, is nine miles wide. The south shore trends to the westward to
Cape Villaret, on which there is a remarkable hillock, in latitude 18
degrees 19 minutes 5 seconds, and longitude 122 degrees 3 minutes 45
seconds.

The space between the Cape and Point Gantheaume was called ROEBUCK BAY.
It is here that Captain Dampier landed, in the year 1688.

Three miles to the south of the hillock on Cape Villaret, are two lumps,
which at a distance appeared like rocks. Cape Latouche-Treville has a
small hummock near its extremity, in latitude 18 degrees 29 minutes, and
longitude 121 degrees 50 minutes 50 seconds; to the eastward of it, there
is a shallow bay open to the northward.

The depth of water in the offing of Roebuck Bay, is between eight and
twelve fathoms; the bottom is sandy, and there are in some parts
sandbanks, on which the depth decreased three fathoms at one heave, but
the least water was eight fathoms. The flood-tide sets to the eastward,
towards the opening, and at an anchorage near Cape Latouche-Treville, the
ebb ran to the North-East: but the tides were at the neaps, and did not
rise more than sixteen feet. Captain Dampier, at the springs, found it
flow thirty feet, which tends unquestionably to prove the opening behind
Roebuck Bay to be considerable, even if it does not communicate with that
behind the Buccaneer's Archipelago.

The interval between Cape Latouche-Treville and Depuch Island, was not
seen by us. The following brief description of it is taken from M. De
Freycinet's account of Commodore Baudin's voyage.

LAGRANGE BAY, to the east of Cape Bossut, is a bight, the bottom of which
was not seen. CAPE BOSSUT is low and sandy, as well as the neighbouring
land; and, with the exception of a small grove of trees a little to the
north of Cape Duhamel, the country is sterile everywhere.

The CASUARINA REEF is a bank of sand and rocks, parts of which are dry,
on which the sea occasionally breaks. The channel between it and the
shore is narrow and shoal, the depth being two and a half fathoms. The
dry part of the reef extends from east to west for about two miles.

Between CAPES DUHAMEL and MISSIESSY, the coast is sandy and sterile, with
rocky projections: GEOFFROY and DESAULT BAYS are of the same character.

With the exception of two intervals, one of which is to the west of Cape
Missiessy, and the other to the east of the Bancs des Planaires, the
French saw the coast between Capes Missiessy and Keraudren, but at a
great distance. It appeared low and sterile.

The BANCS DES PLANAIRES appeared to have a considerable longitudinal
extent; it was not ascertained whether they joined the mainland: some
parts seemed to be dry at low water.

There is a bank with only fourteen feet water over it, situated nearly
North-East from Cape Keraudren in 19 degrees 41 minutes latitude.

North, a little westerly, from CAPE LARREY, between which and Cape
Keraudren there is a bay with an island (POISSONNIER) in the entrance, is
BEDOUT ISLAND. It is in latitude 19 degrees 29 minutes, longitude 116
degrees 32 minutes, East of Paris, or 118 degrees 52 minutes East of
Greenwich. It is low and sandy.

The BANC DES AMPHINOMES is very extensive, and appeared to be connected
with the main; it is composed of coral, rocks, and sand.

The coast to the South-West of Cape Larrey is, as well as the Cape
itself, of a remarkable red colour. The country appeared to be sterile.

TURTLE ISLANDS, two in number, lie West-North-West from Cape Larrey: the
south-westernmost is merely a flat sandy islet (PLATEAU DE SABLE) the
other is surrounded by a reef of coral, upon which the sea breaks. The
Casuarina (M. De Freycinet's vessel) had nine fathoms within half a mile
of it; the reef appeared to be steep, and the island to afford a landing
in fine weather.

The land is equally low and sandy as far as CAPE THOUIN and CAPE
COSSIGNY.

The GEOGRAPHE REEFS extend for more than twelve miles, and perhaps are
joined to the land. Their southern parts dry at low water. The Geographe
sailed through them, so that it is probable they are detached in numerous
reefs.

At FORESTIER ISLANDS we saw the coast again. The main is here very low,
but from the shoalness of the water we were not able to penetrate behind
Depuch Island. It is very uncertain whether the coastline that is laid
down upon the chart is correct: it was scarcely visible from the deck,
and was so low that it might have merely been the dry parts of extensive
reefs. The high land retires for fifteen or twenty miles, and forms an
amphitheatre or deep bay, with some hills of considerable elevation in
the distance.

All the islands of this group are low and sandy, excepting DEPUCH, which
is high, and of a very peculiar formation; it is described in the first
volume.

We did not land upon it, but on its north-east side there appeared to be
a bay, on which the French found a stream of water.

Between DEPUCH ISLAND and CAPE LAMBERT the coast is very shoal. Towards
the latter the hills approach the sea, and the bottom is deeper. BEZOUT
ISLAND is connected to the cape by a reef, on which there are several dry
rocks; we passed close round its north-east edge, and had eleven fathoms.

To the westward of Cape Lambert, in latitude 20 degrees 24 minutes 30
seconds, and longitude 117 degrees 7 minutes, there are two deep
openings, which appeared to be merely bays, but their bottom was not
distinctly seen. On the top of the hill of the projecting point that
separates them, there are three remarkable rocky summits. The next point
has several round-backed hills upon it; it is the east head of NICKOL'S
BAY, into which there may possibly fall one or more streams; its shores
are low, and appeared to be lined with mangroves. Nickol's Bay affords
good anchorage in six and seven fathoms, and is only exposed to the
North-East. It is protected from westerly winds by high land: it is,
however, rather exposed to the South-West winds, from the little
elevation of the land in that direction; but if a vessel should drive,
the passage between Bezout and Delambre Island is clear and, as far as we
know, free from danger.

DELAMBRE ISLAND has very extensive reefs stretching to the northward, and
also to the eastward, but on its western side did not appear to extend
for more than half a mile: the hill at the north end of the island is in
latitude 20 degrees 23 minutes 35 seconds, and longitude 117 degrees 1
minute 25 seconds; the passage between it and the reef off HAUY ISLAND,
is about two miles and a half wide, and from nine to ten fathoms deep.
The edge of the reef off the latter island is not well defined, for we
passed several straggling rocks.

LEGENDRE ISLAND is the northernmost of Dampier's Archipelago: it is nine
miles long, and from half to one and a half mile broad: near its
south-east end, which is connected to HAUY ISLAND, there are several
rocky islets, and near its extremity it has three remarkable hillocks;
its North-West point is in latitude 20 degrees 18 minutes 45 seconds, and
longitude 116 degrees 46 minutes; its north-east coast and north-west
extremity are of bold approach: the latter has a reef that fronts its
shores, extending for about a quarter of a mile into the sea; the ground
under its lee is rocky, and not safe to anchor near. Our cable hooked a
rock, fortunately however it was rotten, and broke away, so that the
cable, being a chain was not damaged.

The islands of DAMPIER'S ARCHIPELAGO, are of high rocky character, and
very different from either the coast or the islands in their vicinity. It
consists of about twenty islands, besides smaller ones, scattered over a
space of forty miles in extent: Delambre is the easternmost island, and a
small sandy island to the South-West of Enderby Island is the
westernmost.

GIDLEY ISLAND, and two others to the eastward, extend in a north and
south direction; they are high and rocky. The west shore of Gidley Island
appeared to be fronted by a continuous reef, on which some patches of dry
rocks were observed. Gidley Island is separated from Legendre Island by a
very shoal and rocky strait, apparently impassable for anything larger
than boats. It has several small sandy islets scattered about it, and at
low water the greater part is dry. There is doubtless a deep passage
through, but it must be intricate and dangerous, and only to be attempted
in a case of the most pressing emergency. On the island to the southward,
are two sandy bays. The land to the southward is doubtless a part of the
main: and is, like the other islands, high and rocky. It forms the
eastern shore of MERMAID's STRAIT, which is an excellent port, affording
safe and secure anchorage at all seasons.

The islands on the western side of the strait, are LEWIS and MALUS. The
north-east point of the latter island, COURTENAY HEAD, is, without doubt,
Captain Dampier's Bluff Head. It is a very remarkable point; its summit
is in 20 degrees 29 minutes 5 seconds South, and 116 degrees 36 minutes
35 seconds East. On its west side is a sandy bay with good anchorage in
four and five fathoms. Malus Island is separated from Lewis Island by a
strait a mile wide; it is probably deep.

The north-east point of LEWIS ISLAND is a narrow projecting tongue of
land, terminating in a high rocky lump; and to the southward of it, are
two high rocky islets of similar appearance. There is also another, but
of smaller size, off the south-east point of Malus Island. In the centre
of Lewis Island there is a valley, that stretches across to the opposite
sides of the island, forming a bay on either side.

To the south of Lewis Island is a group of islands, which, from the
circumstance of our communicating with the natives, was called
INTERCOURSE ISLANDS. They are all small. The largest has a remarkable
summit upon it, in latitude 20 degrees 37 minutes 50 seconds, and
longitude 116 degrees 36 minutes 45 seconds: it is from this Island that
the natives drove us, and would not allow us to land.* The channel
between them and Lewis Island is more than a mile wide, and is seven and
eight fathoms deep.

(*Footnote. Vide volume 1.)

ENDERBY ISLAND is separated from Lewis Island by a channel one mile and a
half wide, apparently clear and free from danger. Its south-west point is
ROCKY HEAD, the summit of which was found to be in latitude 20 degrees 35
minutes 25 seconds, and longitude 116 degrees 23 minutes 5 seconds. To
the north is GOODWYN ISLAND; and further north, and West-North-West from
Malus Island, from which it is separated by a strait two miles and a half
wide, is ROSEMARY ISLAND, which, when viewed from the North-North-East or
South-South-West, has three hummocks bearing from each other West by
North and East by South. The centre hummock is in latitude 20 degrees 27
minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 116 degrees 31 minutes. In the vicinity
of Rosemary and Goodwyn Islands are several small rocky islands,
particularly on the north-east side of the former; and at the distance of
three miles, to the north of the centre of Malus Island, is a patch of
flat rocks, which are those seen and noticed by Dampier (Dampier volume 3
page 81 table 4 Number 10) but from his vague account, it is not at all
certain what island he saw; and, was it not for the peculiarity and
remarkable appearance of Courtenay Head, it might have been any of the
others. There is good anchorage in all parts about the Archipelago,
particularly within Lewis Island, where the Intercourse Islands will
shelter a ship from whatever point the wind may blow.

There is no wood of any size to be procured among the islands, which is a
great drawback upon its utility as a port. In the rainy season water is
doubtless abundant, but must be soon evaporated. We saw no rivulet or any
fresh water, excepting a few gallons that were protected from the heat of
the sun by being under the shade of a fig, but from the number of natives
seen by us, it is probable that there must be a large quantity not far
off. The natives of this part use logs to convey them from and to the
islands. A small sandy island, with a reef extending for two miles from
its north-west end, and one mile and a half from its south-east end, lies
off the south-west end of Enderby Island, and would serve as a good
protection from the sea in a South-West wind, for the anchorage on the
south side of Enderby Island.

The mainland is high and rocky behind the islands, but at the bottom of
the bay again assumes a low character: more to the westward, a range of
hills rises abruptly and advances for fourteen miles in a North-West
direction from the interior, and reaches the shores of the bay, when it
extends for eleven miles to the westward, and is then terminated by a
valley, or an opening of one mile and a half wide, that separates it from
the rocky hills of CAPE PRESTON. The cape juts out into the sea, and is
connected by reefs to some low sandy islands to the North-East; it is in
latitude 20 degrees 49 minutes 45 seconds, and longitude 116 degrees 5
minutes. In the centre of the bay, at eight miles North 64 degrees East
from the extremity of the cape, is a low, sandy islet, of about one-third
of a mile in diameter; and behind it, near the shores of the bay, there
appeared to be other islands of the same size and character, the
particular form and situation of which could not be distinguished.

There is a small rocky islet off Cape Preston, and some to the
South-South-West, in which direction the shore trends in and forms a bay,
the shores of which were not seen.

From Cape Preston the coast assumes a very different character from that
to the eastward, being less sinuous, very low, and either fronted by
mangroves, or by a range of sandhills, both of which conceal the
interior. The coast, at from three to seven miles, is fronted by a range
of low, sandy islets, from one quarter to two-thirds of a mile in
diameter: there are, however, two or three near Cape Preston of larger
size, particularly one bearing South 66 degrees West, fifteen miles from
the extremity of the cape, of rocky character, but very level, and
apparently sterile; it is nearly circular, and about two miles in
diameter. It is visible for about five leagues.

Thirty miles South-West by South from Cape Preston is a mangrove bight,
with several openings communicating with a large lagoon, or body of
water, at the base of a small range of hills. The bight is shoal and
thickly studded with sandy islets. Hence the coast extends to the
South-West by West, fronted by mangroves for about forty miles, and then
for about sixteen miles South-West to the entrance of Curlew River.

Between Curlew River and Cape Preston, a space of eighty-five miles,
there are not less than thirty sandy islets in sight from the coast,
separated from each other by channels, generally navigable, between one
to five miles wide. Good anchorage may be found among these islands, for
the sea cannot fail of being smooth in the strongest winds. The depth
among these islands is from four to six fathoms, and the bottom generally
of gravel or sand.

CURLEW RIVER is defended by a shoal entrance, and is merely a creek
running through a low country for three miles; its banks are overrun with
mangroves, and it affords no inducement whatever for vessels to visit it.
The country behind is low, and, at spring tides, or during the rainy
season, is inundated.

The coast continues low and sandy to CAPE LOCKER, a distance of thirteen
miles, and with the same barren character for twenty miles further,
forming the east side of Exmouth Gulf. ROSILY, and THEVENARD ISLES are
low and sandy; they were seen by us at a considerable distance.

BARROW'S ISLAND, of about forty miles in circumference, is of moderate
height and level aspect, but of very sterile and barren appearance. A
considerable reef extends towards the main from its south-east side,
where there is also a small islet: on the north-east side are three
islets; the two outermost of which are low and rocky. The west coast of
Barrow's Island was seen by the French, who thought it was part of the
main; they named its north-west end, CAPE DUPUY, and its south end, CAPE
POIVRE. At ten miles South 25 degrees West from the last cape, the French
charts have assigned a position to a reef: and four miles North 10
degrees East from Cape Dupuy is another. Neither were noticed by us,
since we did not approach this part sufficiently near to see them if they
do exist; of which, from the account of the French, there can be but
little doubt.

LOWENDAL ISLAND and TRIMOUILLE ISLAND were seen by us, but not any
vestige of HERMITE ISLAND, which the French have placed in their chart.
From M. de Freycinet's account, the two latter islands were seen at
different times; and since Trimouille Island has a reef extending for
five miles from its north-western extremity, as Hermite Island is
described to have, there seems to be good reason to suppose that there is
but one; had there been two, we should have seen it on passing this part
in 1822.*

(*Footnote. Vide volume 1.)

From the reasons mentioned in the narrative, there remains no doubt in my
mind that Barrow's Island, and Lowendal and Trimouille Islands (which the
French called the Montebello Islands) are the long lost TRYAL ROCKS. The
latitude and description answer very exactly; the longitude alone raises
the doubt, but the reckonings of former navigators cannot be depended
upon, and errors of ten or twelve degrees of longitude were not rare, of
which many proofs might be found, by comparing the situations of places
formerly determined with their position on the charts of the present
time. Many old navigators were not very particular; and never gave the
error of their account upon arriving at their destined port, either from
shame or from carelessness and indifference.

A reef of rocks is said to exist in latitude 20 degrees 17 minutes 40
seconds, and longitude 114 degrees 46 minutes 6 seconds. They were seen
by Lieutenant Ritchie, R.N., in the command of a merchant brig, as
appears by an account published in the Sydney Gazette.

EXMOUTH GULF terminates the North-west Coast of Australia; it is
thirty-four miles wide at its entrance (between the North-west Cape and
Cape Locker) and forty-five miles deep. Its eastern side is formed by a
very low coast, the particulars of which were not distinguished, for it
is lined by an intricate cluster of islands that we could not, having but
one anchor, penetrate among. In the entrance is Muiron Island, and two
others, h and i; and within the gulf they are too numerous to
distinguish: all the outer ones have been assigned correct positions to,
as have all between Exmouth Gulf and Dampier's Archipelago. The islets y
and z are the outer ones of the group; between which and the western
shore there is a space of fourteen miles in extent, quite free from
danger, with regular soundings between nine and twelve fathoms on a sandy
bottom. Under the western shore, which is the deepest, there are some
bays which will afford anchorage; but the bottom is generally very rocky.
In the neighbourhood of the Bay of Rest, the shore is more sinuous, and
in the bay there is good anchorage in three and four fathoms, mud. Here
the gulf is twelve miles across, and from three to six fathoms deep; but
the eastern side is shoal and very low. The gulf then shoalens and
narrows very much; and at fifteen miles farther terminates in an inlet,
or, as has been subsequently conjectured, a strait communicating with the
sea at the south end of the high land that forms the western side of the
gulf, and which is doubtless the identical Cloates Island that has
puzzled navigators for the last eighty years. It perfectly answers the
descriptions that have been given; and the only thing against it is the
longitude; but this, like that of the Tryal Rocks, is not to be attended
to.

(*Footnote. Vide below.)

The south-west point of this land has been named Point Cloates until its
insularity shall be determined, when, for the sake of Geography, the name
of CLOATES ISLAND should be restored. At the bottom of the south-eastern
side of Exmouth Gulf the land is so low and the islands so numerous, that
it was in vain that we attempted to examine its shores, which was also
rendered still more difficult and dangerous to persevere in doing, from
our losses of anchors, and the strong winds which blew every night from
the South-West.

The NORTH-WEST CAPE is a low, sandy point, projecting for full two miles
to the East-North-East from the fall of the land, which was called
VLAMING HEAD. There is a reef of small extent off the cape, but separated
from it by a channel half a mile wide, and six fathoms deep; a sandy spit
extends also from the cape for about a quarter of a mile.

The extremity of the North-West Cape is in latitude 21 degrees 47 minutes
40 seconds, and longitude 114 degrees 3 minutes 40 seconds; and Vlaming
Head in latitude 21 degrees 48 minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 114
degrees 1 minute 40 seconds.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 5.

OF THE WINDS AND WEATHER, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN COAST BETWEEN
THE NORTH-WEST CAPE AND CAPE LEEUWIN.

NORTH-WEST COAST.

We did not obtain much experience of the winds upon this coast, having
only been upon it during the months of January and February, when they
prevailed between South-South-East and South-South-West, veering
sometimes, though rarely, to South-West. In the winter season (June,
July, and August) hard gales of wind have been experienced from the
North-West, even as high as Shark's Bay; and at this season the coast
ought not to be approached. The South-east Trade is suspended in the
neighbourhood of the coast in the summer season, and the winds are almost
constant from South-South-West.

Between the North-west Cape and POINT CLOATES, which is in 22 degrees 33
minutes 5 seconds South, a space of about fifty-two miles, the shore is
defended by a reef of rocks, extending from three to five miles from it.
The land is high and level, and of most sterile appearance: nearer the
north end there is a low, sandy plain at the foot of the hills; but to
the southward the coast appeared to be steep and precipitous. This is
evidently the land that has been taken for Cloates Island; and, in fact,
it is not at all unlikely to be an island, for, to the southward of the
latter point, the shore trends in, and was so indistinctly seen, that it
probably communicates with the bottom of Exmouth Gulf.* At latitude 23
degrees 10 minutes the coast slightly projects, and is fronted by a reef,
on which the sea was breaking heavily.

(*Footnote. Vide volume 1.)

CAPE FARQUHAR, in latitude 23 degrees 35 minutes, and longitude 113
degrees 35 minutes 35 seconds, is a low, sandy point. To the northward of
it the coast trends in and forms a bay, but not deep enough to offer
shelter from the prevailing winds.

Between Cape Farquhar and Cape Cuvier the coast is low and sandy; the
land has a level outline, and the shore is formed by a sandy beach, which
did not appear to be fronted by rocks. The land of CAPE CUVIER is high,
level, and rocky, and, rising abruptly from the sea, forms a bluff point,
in latitude 24 degrees 0 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 113 degrees 21
minutes 48 seconds. This promontory is the northern head of Shark's Bay.
The land was not seen by us to the South-East, and is laid down, as is
indeed the whole of Shark's Bay, from M. De Freycinet's chart, which was
drawn from the survey made of it in Commodore Baudin's voyage.

The western coast of BERNIER and DORRE ISLANDS are bold to, and are
composed of a high, precipitous cliff, with a level summit. The only
irregularity upon them is a slight elevation on the south end of the
latter. Off the north end of Bernier Island is the small islet called
KOK'S. The channel between Bernier and Dorre is about a mile and a half
wide, but is so blocked up by rocks as to be impassable.

DIRK HARTOG'S ISLAND extends from Cape Inscription, in latitude 25
degrees 28 minutes 20 seconds, to 26 degrees 6 minutes; it is here
separated from Point Escarpee (Bluff Point) by a strait, which has a
shoal communication with Shark's Bay. Dirk Hartog's Island is high, and
of similar appearance to Bernier and Dorre; it is fronted by a line of
breakers. DIRK HARTOG'S ROAD, at the north end of the island, is a
commodious roadstead, sheltered from all winds to the southward of east
and west; and, since they are the prevailing and almost constant winds of
this part, may be considered a very secure anchorage. There is a reef
extending off Cape Inscription for half a mile, which will also afford
protection from the sea, even should the wind blow hard from the west.
The beach of the bay is fronted by coral rocks, but affords easy landing
in all parts, particularly at high water. This beach is covered with
turtles' nests; and at daylight thirty to fifty might be turned and
embarked without any difficulty or delay. The animals are easily taken,
since the rocks prevent their escaping into the sea; and it is only at
high water that they can return. M. De Freycinet says (page 189) that
there is a passage between the reef, off the east point of the bay, and
the shore with ten fathoms.

The following account of Shark's Bay is taken from M. De Freycinet's
account (page 189 et seq.)

In the fairway of the entrance to Shark's Bay, between Dorre and Dirk
Hartog's Islands, is DAMPIER'S REEF; it is two miles in extent from east
to west, and about one mile wide. It has but two and a half and three
fathoms water over it, and should be approached with care, on account of
the swell. Proceeding southerly from Cape Levillain, which is the east
head of Dirk Hartog's Road, at the distance of five or six miles is a
cove (barachois) formed by reefs, where boats might obtain shelter. Hence
to Quoin Point (Coin-de-Mire) the coast has no sinuosities. TETRODON BAY
is seven miles wide and very shallow; it has two or three sandy islets in
it, and can only be entered by small boats. Near Refuge Point is a safe
and convenient creek. To the southward of this there are several shoal
bays. To the eastward of Cape Ransonnet, which is peaked and of a
moderate elevation, there are several little creeks well adapted for
boats and, to the westward, a sandy plain extends to the south extremity
of the island. That part of Shark's Bay, between Dirk Hartog's Island and
Peron's Peninsula, is formed by Le Passage Epineux, Useless Harbour
(Havre Inutile) and Henry Freycinet's Harbour: to the southward of the
line of bearing between Quoin Point and Cape Lesueur, the sea is shoal
and studded with banks, but to the north it is quite open.

The Passage Epineux, which separates Dirk Hartog's Island from the main,
is about two miles wide; but the reefs and rocks, which protrude from
either shore, reduce the passage to half that width. The depth upon the
rocky bar which stretches across the entrance is six fathoms, but
immediately without it the depth is twenty-two fathoms. M. De Freycinet
says, that a ship upon a lee shore in the vicinity of Point Escarpee may
enter this opening with confidence; she will find a good shelter and
excellent anchorage in five and six fathoms fine sand. To enter it, pass
in mid-channel, if anything, borrowing upon Point Escarpee, and steer for
the Mondrain de Direction, and pass over the bar without fearing the
breakers upon it, which are caused by the sudden decrease of depth, from
twenty-two to six fathoms; after this the depth will continue without
altering more than one fathom. The best anchorage is to the South-West of
Cape Ransonnet, for within it the passage is blocked up by shoals, over
which a boat cannot without difficulty pass.

USELESS HARBOUR is so shoal as to be, according to its name, quite
unserviceable; since boats can with difficulty penetrate to the bottom,
although its length is twenty-one miles: HENRY FREYCINET HARBOUR is
twenty-two leagues long in a South-East direction; and from three to six
leagues wide. Its entrance is blocked up by a bar; and, although the
depth within is in some parts considerable, it is very doubtful whether
ships can enter it. The shores are difficult to land upon, from the
shoals extending so far off.

On the western side of this harbour there are several inlets and deep
bays, but too shoal to be of any service. The eastern shore of the
harbour is formed by PERON'S PENINSULA, which separates it from HAMELIN'S
HARBOUR. It is sixteen leagues long and five leagues wide. DAMPIER'S BAY,
at the north-west end, contains several sandy bays, where boats may
almost always land. It is here that the French had their observatory.

From the northern point of the peninsula, Pointe des Hauts-Fonds, the
reefs extend for three leagues to the North and North-North-West. They
were then supposed to extend to the North-East.

The French only examined the western shores of Hamelin Harbour. The
opposite coast was seen only at a distance, and the shoalness of the
water prevented their boats from approaching it. M. De Freycinet says:
"Ces terres, basses et steriles, ne contiennent aucune coupure;
l'uniformite y est par-tout complete," page 194.

Although Hamelin Harbour is not so deep as that of Henry Freycinet, on
the opposite side of Peron's Peninsula, it is nevertheless of larger
size. The centre is much occupied by banks, which entirely surround FAURE
ISLAND; the diameter of which is about two leagues.

Although many sandy beaches were seen at a distance upon the eastern
shore of Shark's Bay, yet the boats of the French ships could not reach
the shore on account of the reefs which front it. Here and there they
distinguished red cliffs, and some signs of a scanty and burnt up
vegetation.

Of the anchorages in Shark's Bay, the most convenient appears to be that
in Dampier's Bay, at the north-west end of Peron's Peninsula, as well on
account of the excellency of the holding-ground, as the facility of
procuring fuel. The Naturaliste remained a long time at this anchorage,
and never experienced any ill effect from the winds. The distance from
the shore was six miles, and the depth six fathoms, fine sandy bottom.
The sea was so clear, that the anchor was easily distinguished. The
Naturaliste found only occasion to moor with a kedge, merely to keep the
cable clear of the anchor. As the strongest winds were the South and
East, the bower anchor was laid in the latter direction.

The above seems to be all that is worth taking from M. De Freycinet's
account as regards the navigation of Shark's Bay. The coasts of the
harbours of Henry Freycinet and Hamelin are much more detailed by him,
and there is also much valuable information upon various heads,
particularly as to meteorological observations, and the productions of
the land and sea, and a curious example of the effect of a mirage; but as
these subjects are irrelevant to the matter of this paper, they have been
disregarded.

From POINT ESCARPEE to GANTHEAUME BAY, the coast is formed by a
precipitous range of rocky cliffs, rising abruptly from the sea, to the
height perhaps of three or four hundred feet. The coast is fringed with
an uninterrupted line of breakers. The summit of the land is so level,
and the coast so uniform, that no summits or points could be set with any
chance of recognizing them. The depth at ten miles off the shore, was
between fifty and seventy fathoms, decreasing to thirty-four in the
neighbourhood of Gantheaume Bay.

GANTHEAUME BAY probably affords shelter on its south side from South-West
winds: there was some appearance of an opening in it, but Vlaming, who
sent a boat on shore here, has not mentioned it; and if there is one, it
is of very small size, and unimportant. The shores of the bay are low and
of sterile appearance.

RED POINT, a steep cliffy projection, is the north extremity of a range
of reddish-coloured cliffs, of about two hundred feet high, that extends
to the southward for eight miles, when a sandy shore commences and
continues with little variation, except occasional rocky projections and
sometimes rocky bays, as far as Cape Burney. The coast is moderately
high, and, in the interior, some hills of an unusual height for this part
of the coast are seen. MOUNT NATURALISTE is in latitude 28 degrees 18
minutes, and between the latitudes 28 degrees 25 minutes and 28 degrees
55 minutes, is MORESBY'S FLAT-TOPPED RANGE. It is terminated at the north
end by three hills, called MENAI HILLS; and at the southern end, by the
WIZARD HILLS. MOUNT FAIRFAX is in latitude 28 degrees 45 minutes 30
seconds, and longitude 114 degrees 38 minutes 45 seconds. The coast in
front of this range is of pleasing and verdant appearance; two or three
small openings in the sandy beach, with an evident separation in the
hills behind, particularly one in latitude 28 degrees 36 minutes, bore
indications of rivulets; and the smokes of natives' fires, and the more
wooded character of the coast, showed that the country was evidently more
fertile and productive than any other part between Cape Leeuwin and the
North-west Cape. The bottom at from ten to twelve miles off, is from
twenty to twenty-five fathoms deep, and composed of a fine sand, of a
dark gray colour.

CAPE BURNEY is in latitude 28 degrees 56 minutes: four miles to the
southward is a reef, apparently detached from the shore.

HOUTMAN'S ABROLHOS. The old Dutch charts give a very considerable extent
to this reef; Van Keulen makes it cover a space of sea, forty-seven miles
long, and twenty-five broad. We only saw the islands at the south end,
with three detached reefs between them and the shore; one of which (the
southernmost) may probably be the TURTLE DOVE. The islands lie West 4
degrees North true, forty-one miles from Cape Burney, but the channel
(GEELVINK CHANNEL) between the shore and the reefs, is not more than
twenty-six miles wide. The south-easternmost reef that we saw is about
three miles long, and lies nearly ten miles South 55 degrees East from
the islands; it appeared to be covered, but the sea was breaking high
over it. In passing this part of the coast, Captain Hamelin, who
commanded the Naturaliste under Commodore Baudin's orders, must have
steered within the reefs, as the Geelvink (Vlaming's ship) did. The reef
that is laid down upon the chart, in latitude 29 degrees 10 minutes is
from Van Keulen. We did not see it. (See Horsburgh volume 1 page 98.)

From Cape Burney the coast is rather low and sandy; in 29 degrees 16
minutes is a reef; and seven miles more to the south is another; they lie
from five to seven miles from the shore.

In latitude 29 degrees 6 minutes 30 seconds, there is a small peaked
hillock; and in 29 degrees 17 minutes 50 seconds, a small sandy patch
upon the land.

Between latitudes 29 degrees 25 minutes and 29 degrees 55 minutes, we did
not see the coast, having passed it in the night. It is laid down from
Van Keulen's chart. Hence to Island Point, which is low and rocky, the
shore is lined with reefs, extending off shore for two to four miles. At
the back of this, and at about eight miles from the coast, is a rocky
range, of three leagues in length, on which are MOUNTS PERON and LESUEUR.

To the south of ISLAND POINT, are two bays fronted by reefs; the
southernmost, JURIEN BAY, has three or more small islets in it. The coast
to the south of the bay is sandy. In latitude 30 degrees 37 minutes, are
three small rocky lumps, very remarkably placed; the middle one is in
latitude 30 degrees 37 minutes 40 seconds: fourteen miles to the south of
these are two others, the north-easternmost is in latitude 30 degrees 51
minutes 50 seconds, they are very conspicuously placed upon a ridge of
bare white sand. Hence the coast winds to the South-South-East for eighty
miles as far as the entrance of Swan River. The coast is low and slightly
wooded, and lined with reefs, that in some places extend for two miles
from the shore. Off CAPE LESCHENAULT (in latitude 31 degrees 21 minutes)
is a reef, lying six miles and a half from the shore; it appeared to be
connected with the rocks that line the coast.

The following account of SWAN RIVER is taken from Captain De Freycinet's
account of Baudin's voyage (page 175 et seq).

"The mouth of Swan River is in latitude 32 degrees 4 minutes 31 seconds,
and longitude 113 degrees 26 minutes 28 seconds East of Paris, or (115
degrees 46 minutes 43 seconds East of Greenwich). The channel is
obstructed by a bar of rocks, which it is very difficult to pass over,
and, indeed, impracticable if the wind blows from the sea. On entering,
the passage is on the starboard side: it is narrow and shoal, and divided
into two channels; in each of which there is from five to six feet of
water; after passing this, there is seven and eight feet: the course must
then be towards the west, to avoid two shoals, which are upon the right
bank: after half a mile the navigation is free, and in mid-channel the
depth is not less than seven, eight, and nine feet. The river then trends
in a northerly direction for seven miles, without any sinuosity of
consequence. On the eastern bank, are two shoals; the passage is then on
the opposite side of the river, the depth of which is eight feet: beyond
these banks the course of the river trends to the eastward towards a low
point, upon which there is a solitary tree; an extensive bank fronts this
point, and the channel continues on the western shore, ten feet deep.
Here the river is a mile broad; it then increases its width, and forms
spacious bays on either side, that were not examined. To the South-East
is an opening, which may probably be an arm of the river; it was called
MOREAU INLET; it was not examined. Opposite to it is a sharp point,
fronted by a shoal, and the channel is on the eastern side of the river,
with thirteen feet water. Here the river widens and forms a basin, two
miles and a half wide: a little above this the river is blocked up by
shoals and islets (HEIRISSON ISLES) between which the depth is not more
than two or three feet, but afterwards deepens gradually from five to
fifteen feet: the banks of the river are then not more than one-third of
a mile wide, and then continue in a serpentine course, with a channel
from seven to ten feet deep, and free from shoals, as far as the French
boats examined it. The stream of the river ran very slowly, and winds
through a valley, one side of which is abrupt and precipitous, and when
it ceases to be so on one side, the heights immediately appear on the
other."

In front of this river is a group of islands, of which two only are of
large size, namely, ROTTNEST and BUACHE. We anchored on the north side of
the former, but broke the fluke, from the rocky nature of the bottom. On
the North-East side of the island, the anchorage is better, since it is
more sheltered. Rottnest Island is five miles long: it was discovered by
Vlaming in 1696. Its shores are very rocky and difficult to land upon,
particularly those of its northern side, which is fronted by rocks. Off
its north point there are some rocky islets, and on the north-east side a
convenient landing place in a sandy bay, where boats may put ashore with
great facility. The island is covered with a pine-like tree, which is
very good for fire-wood, but no fresh water was found in any part; the
French were equally unsuccessful in their search. The north-east point of
Rottnest Island is in 31 degrees 59 minutes 30 seconds South, and 115
degrees 31 minutes 12 seconds East; and the variation 4 degrees 50
minutes West.

BUACHE ISLAND, according to Captain De Freycinet's account (page 170) is
equally difficult to land upon; it is well wooded, but destitute of fresh
water.

To the south of CAPE PERON is a long range of sandy coast, for seventy
miles, to GEOGRAPHE BAY, which is open and exposed to the northward and
north-west; its western head is formed by Cape Naturaliste, a rocky
point, in latitude 33 degrees 27 minutes 30 seconds, and longitude 114
degrees 57 minutes 53 seconds, beyond which the coast extends to the
southward, without any bays to Cape Leeuwin. Off the cape is Naturaliste
Reef, in latitude 33 degrees 12 minutes, and longitude 114 degrees 59
minutes 8 seconds; it was seen by the French expedition. The land is here
of a moderate height, but of level aspect. There is a remarkable patch of
bare sand, in latitude 34 degrees 12 minutes, and longitude 114 degrees
57 minutes. It is the Tache blanche remarquable of De Freycinet's chart.
It lies about seven miles from the south extreme of the island.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 6.

OF THE WINDS AND WEATHER UPON THE SOUTH COAST. DIRECTIONS FOR KING GEORGE
THE THIRD'S SOUND, AND HYDROGRAPHICAL REMARKS RELATING TO BASS STRAIT.

SOUTH COAST.

Between the meridians of Cape Leeuwin and Bass Strait, the weather is
generally very unsettled and tempestuous; and, at certain seasons, very
much against a ship making the western passage from Port Jackson, which
is by passing through Bass Strait, and along the south coast; but it so
happens that at the time when ships cannot proceed through Torres Strait,
by reason of the Westerly Monsoon, namely, from the month of December to
that of March, easterly winds prevail upon the south coast, and are more
regular and strong in that space between the land and the parallel of
Bass Strait.* I have been told that the south-westerly gales that
sometimes occur during that season, seldom, if ever, blow home upon the
coast; and that when they do reach the land, they partake more of the
character of the sea breeze; be that as it may, a ship steering to the
westward should keep to the north of 40 degrees, in order to benefit by
the regularity of the wind, which to the south of that parallel generally
blows from some western quarter. From April to October the westerly gales
are very constant, and veer between South by West and North by East; but,
in the months of June and July, seldom veer to the southward of
South-West or northward of North-West; they are then accompanied by a
deep and heavy sea. The wind, in the summer season, generally revolves
with the sun, and, as the atmosphere becomes more dense, veers to the
South-East, with fine weather.

(*Footnote. Horsburgh volume 2 page 506.)

The marine barometer is here of considerable importance, as its rise
always precedes a south-east wind, and its fall a change from the
North-West; it seldom, however, stands lower than twenty-nine and a half
inches. The currents generally set to the north, and seldom run with any
velocity either to the east or west. A ship steering along this coast to
the eastward, bound to Port Jackson through Torres Strait, should steer
upon the parallel of 41 degrees, to avoid being thrown into the bight to
the west of Cape Northumberland, where with a South-East wind, that would
otherwise be fair for carrying her through Bass Strait, she would be
detained probably a week.

Upon making Van Diemen's Land, she is ready for either a northerly or a
southerly wind; since, with the former, she can round Van Diemen's Land,
without suffering much detention, or materially lengthening her voyage.

KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND was discovered by Captain Vancouver in the
year 1791, on his celebrated voyage to the North-west Coast of America.
It offers an excellent resort for vessels, and is convenient for all the
purposes of refitting, wooding, and watering. The natives are friendly;
the banks of Oyster Harbour afford a large abundance of oysters and other
shell-fish, and the harbours and rivers are well-stocked with fish and
birds.

There are many convenient anchorages in the sound; the best place for a
large ship, when it is necessary to refit the rigging at the same time
that she is completing her wood and water, is PRINCESS ROYAL HARBOUR; but
for a small vessel, not drawing more than eleven feet, OYSTER HARBOUR is
preferable, because she is secured to within one hundred yards of the
shore, and therefore better situated for the protection of her people at
their occupations from the natives, who are numerous, and will daily
visit them. But, for a ship only wanting fuel and water, there is a sandy
bay in the south-west corner of the sound, in which two or three streams
of excellent water run into the sea over the sand, from which a ship
might complete her hold in a day or two, by digging a well to collect it.
Wood may also be procured at this place, but not of so large a size, or
perhaps of so good a quality as at other parts. This bay is readily
found, by its being the first to the westward of a rocky point, that
projects from some remarkable bare sand hillocks, as also from its being
the second sandy beach to the westward of the low flat rocky islet at the
back of Seal Island.

The anchorage is good, being a bottom of sand and weeds, and is
sufficiently protected from easterly winds by BREAKSEA and MICHAELMAS
ISLANDS. The anchorage between SEAL ISLAND and the first sandy beach to
the westward of BALD HEAD, with the low flat rocky islet bearing west, in
six or seven fathoms sand and weeds, should be preferred during the
summer months; for the easterly winds then prevail, and sometimes blow
strong, even as late as March; the anchorage is landlocked, excepting in
the direction of East by North, the only quarter to which it is exposed,
and even in that direction the angle subtending the sea horizon is not
greater than ten degrees of the circle, which is of insignificant
consequence.

There is no water nearer to this anchorage than in the sandy bay above
mentioned, but the distance is trifling for a ship that can send boats
with men enough to protect themselves while employed in filling the
casks, for notwithstanding the friendly communication we have had with
the inhabitants of this sound, they are not to be trusted, unless their
character is different from the rest of their countrymen that we have
seen.

Water is procured at Princess Royal and Oyster Harbours by digging holes
at the edge of the sand under the hills; but, at the latter place, the
stream that we used outside the bar affords plenty, of excellent quality,
without the trouble of digging.

Over the bar of Oyster Harbour there is not more than ten and a half feet
at low water, and in the neaps twelve feet at high water; but it is
likely that, at spring-tides, there may be fourteen feet, or perhaps more
if the wind is blowing into the harbour; but during the springs high
water always takes place at night, and it would not, therefore, be
prudent to attempt to pass the bar at that time.

A vessel intending to go to Oyster Harbour should anchor off the sandy
beach immediately to the eastward of the entrance, that is, between the
breakers off the point and the bar, in three fathoms sand, bringing the
summit of Green Island, in the harbour, on with the extremity of the
bushes of the west point of entrance, and the highest part of Breaksea
Island in a line with the outer point of the bay: a boat should then be
sent to sound the bar. The mark for the deepest part is when the western
summit of some flat-topped land, at the back of Oyster Harbour, is a
little open of the rocks off the east side of the entrance.

After the bar is passed, the channel is deepest when the centre of the
flat land is kept midway between the points of entrance, avoiding a spit
of rocks that projects from the rocky point at the west end of the
watering beach. The strongest winds are from the westward, and therefore
bower anchors should be placed to the south-west and north-west: warps
and the stream cable will be sufficient to secure her from easterly
winds, as the hills rise immediately over the vessel on that shore. If
the run of water outside the bar should fail, holes may be dug at the
edge of the grass, about three feet deep, which will yield a sufficient
quantity in two or three days for any vessel that can pass over it.

The flood-tide in the entrance generally ran sixteen hours, and ebbed
eight hours. High water at full and change took place at 10 hours 10
minutes at night; but on the bar the rise and fall was very irregular,
and a vessel going in should pay great attention to the depth, if her
draught is more than ten feet, for it sometimes rises suddenly two feet.
The spring-tides take place about the third or fourth day after new or
full moon. The variation here is about 7 degrees East. The situation of
Seal Island, from Captain Flinders' observations, is in latitude 35
degrees 4 minutes 55 seconds, and longitude 117 degrees 58 minutes 7
seconds.

A small island was reported in the Sydney Gazette to have been seen in
latitude 36 degrees 27 minutes, and longitude 127 degrees 2 minutes East;
but as the account says, that Kangaroo Island was seen the same day,
which is not less than one hundred and fifty leagues from the above
position, it appears too vague to be correct. (See Horsburgh Supp. page
32.)

BLACK PYRAMID, off the north-west end of Van Diemen's Land, in Bass
Strait, is situated about 4 minutes too much to the southward on Captain
Flinders' chart.

BELL'S ROCK. The following account of a rock, seen by Mr. Bell, the
Commander of the ship Minerva, on her outward-bound passage to New South
Wales, appeared in a Sydney (New South Wales) Gazette, of the 16th of
December, 1824.

"On the 14th of November the Minerva very narrowly escaped striking on a
rock, in the fairway of the west entrance to Bass Strait, on the south
side of King's Island. Reid's rocks bearing North six miles, and the
Black Pyramid East-South-East: from this situation the danger was about
half a mile off (to the southward); but as the water broke only at
intervals of three or four minutes, although the swell was very heavy, it
is probable there may be sufficient depth of water to carry a ship over
it. An indifferent observation made the latitude of the ship at the time
40 degrees 26 minutes."

In M. De Freycinet's chart of Bass Strait, some rocky islets are placed
forty miles east of Sea-Elephant Bay. I did not succeed in finding them,
although the Mermaid sailed close to their position. (See volume 1.)

The PYRAMID, at the east end of Bass Strait, is placed five miles too
much to the northward: its true situation is in latitude 39 degrees 52
minutes 40 seconds, and longitude 147 degrees 11 minutes 30 seconds.

A reef of rocks were seen by Lieutenant John Lamb, R.N., off Cape Albany
Otway. (See Horsburgh volume 2 page 499.)

There appears to be a considerable difference in the positions assigned
to ALBATROSS ISLAND, by the French expedition and Captain Flinders; the
former made the difference between the meridian of Albatross Island, and
that of the rock in Sea-Elephant Bay, 24 minutes 45 seconds; whilst by
the latter it is 32 minutes 30 seconds. But as Captain Flinders only saw
the north end of KING'S ISLAND, the error seems to originate in his
having laid down its eastern side from other authorities, for his
difference of longitude between its north-west point and the centre of
Albatross Island only differs 2 minutes 30 seconds from the French, who
surveyed that island with great care.

Several sunken rocks have been discovered from time to time near the
north end of GREAT ISLAND, so that ships, bound through Bass Strait to
the eastward, should not pass within Craggy Island without using great
caution. The best passage is on the south side of Kent's Group, between
it and the rocky islet (WRIGHT'S ROCK) to the south-east.

In a line between the above rocky islet and Craggy Island, and about two
miles from the former, is a reef with two small rocks upon it. (See
Horsburgh Supp. page 32.)

There are some considerable errors in Captain Flinders' chart of Van
Diemen's Land, with respect to the latitudes of the South-west Cape, the
Mewstone, the South cape, and the land between them. The first is laid
down 8 minutes too much to the North 30 degrees West (true) and the other
places in proportion. The corrected situations are given in the second
volume of this work.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 7.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SHOALS AND REEFS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE COASTS OF
AUSTRALIA.

REEFS, EAST COAST.

ELIZABETH'S REEF (see Horsburgh's Supp. page 52) in latitude 30 degrees 5
minutes, and longitude 159 degrees, was discovered by the ships Claudine
and Marquis of Hastings, on the 16th of May, 1820. Within two cables'
length of the reef, they found fourteen fathoms; at a quarter of a mile
off the depth was twenty-five fathoms, but beyond that the bottom was not
reached. It is about three miles in circuit, with deep water in the
centre: the edge is covered, but some straggling rocky lumps show at
intervals above the surface of the water. The east side of the reef
extends about North-North-East and South-South-West for one mile, but the
greatest extent seemed to be West-North-West and East-South-East.

MIDDLETON'S SHOAL is in latitude 29 degrees 14 minutes, and longitude 158
degrees 53 minutes. (See Horsburgh volume 2 page 508.)

CATO'S BANK is in latitude 23 degrees 6 minutes, and longitude 155
degrees 23 minutes. (Flinders volume 2 page 298 and Horsburgh volume 2
page 509.)

WRECK REEF is in latitude 22 degrees 11 minutes 23 seconds, and longitude
155 degrees 18 minutes 50 seconds. (Flinders volume 2 page 330 and
Horsburgh volume 2 page 509.)

CARNS, or MID-DAY REEF, was discovered by Mr. Carns, the master of the
ship Neptune, on the 21st of June, 1818, having taken a departure the day
before from Sandy Cape. It extends east and west for a considerable
distance: the ship passed round the western extremity at two miles off,
and found its bearing from Sandy Cape to be North 21 degrees East, one
hundred and seventy-six miles, and to be in latitude 21 degrees 58
minutes, and longitude 154 degrees 20 minutes. Its eastern limit was not
seen: it consists of a string of sandbanks and rocks, from five to twenty
feet high, with passages between them. (Horsburgh Supp. page 35.)

SIR JAMES SAUMAREZ' SHOAL was seen by Mr. Lihou; it is in latitude 21
degrees 40 minutes, and longitude 153 degrees 46 minutes by chronometer,
which was found correct on making Sandy Cape a day or two afterwards.
There is reason to suppose that many other reefs exist to the North-West
of this position.

KENN'S REEF, discovered by Mr. Alexander Kenn, Master of the ship William
Shand, on her passage from Sydney to Batavia, extends in the direction of
North West by North 1/2 North for ten miles, and is composed of sand and
rocks, some of which, at the south end, were six or eight feet out of the
water: it is six miles broad; the centre of the edge (? north) is in
latitude 21 degrees 9 minutes, and longitude 155 degrees 49 minutes (by
chronometer and lunars): it was found to bear South 67 degrees West, six
miles from Bird Islet, of Wreck Reef.

BOOBY and BELLONA SHOALS. In the neighbourhood of these reefs, Lieutenant
John Lamb, R.N., Commander of the ship Baring, was embarrassed for three
days, in which interval he was sounding in between nineteen and
forty-five fathoms, and frequently passed shoal parts, upon which the sea
was breaking. The limits assigned by this officer to the extent of the
rocky ground, are the parallels of 20 degrees 40 minutes, and 21 degrees
50 minutes, and the meridians of 158 degrees 15 minutes and 159 degrees
30 minutes. A sandy islet was also seen by him, surrounded by a chain of
rocks in 21 degrees 24 1/2 minutes South, and 158 degrees 30 minutes
East. The ship Minerva also struck soundings in eight fathoms, with the
appearance of shoaler water to the South-West; this last danger is in a
line between the two shoals in about longitude 159 degrees 20 minutes.
(See Horsburgh Supp. page 35.)

BAMPTON'S SHOAL is laid down in the shape of a horse-shoe, of not less
than forty-five miles in extent; on the north-east end are two islets
with trees. The AVON ISLES are probably near its south-west extremity:
they were seen by Mr. Sumner, Master of the ship Avon, September 18,
1823; and are described by him as being three-quarters of a mile in
circumference, twenty feet high, and the sea between them twenty fathoms
deep. At four miles North East by North from them the vessel sounded in
twelve fathoms, and at the same time saw a reef ten or fifteen miles to
the South-East, with deep water between it and the islets. A boat landed
on the south-westernmost islet, and found it inhabited only by birds, but
clothed with shrubs and wild grapes. By observation, these islands were
found to lie in latitude 19 degrees 40 minutes, and longitude 158 degrees
6 minutes.

A reef is laid down in M. Krusenstern's Atlas of the Pacific Ocean (1824)
in latitude 17 degrees, and longitude 156 degrees, and is there called
MELLISH REEF.

A REEF was seen by the ship FREDERICK, the north-east extremity of which
is laid down in latitude 20 degrees 44 minutes, and longitude 150 degrees
32 minutes; it is of semi-circular shape, and extends as far south as 21
degrees 2 minutes, and appears to be nearly twenty miles wide.

VINE'S HORSE-SHOE SHOAL; its northernmost end is in latitude 20 degrees 5
minutes, and longitude 151 degrees 50 minutes: it presents its convex, or
outer edge, to the Southward, and extends as far as fifteen miles to the
South and East.

DIANA'S BANK is placed in latitude 15 degrees 38 minutes, and longitude
150 degrees 28 minutes. (Horsburgh volume 2 page 509.)

BETWEEN the parallels of 16 degrees 50 minutes and 17 degrees 45 minutes,
and the meridians of 150 degrees 30 minutes and 152 degrees 30 minutes,
there are several very extensive reefs, various parts of which have been
seen, according to the following accounts.

Lieutenant Vine saw a DRY BANK in latitude 17 degrees 46 minutes, and
longitude 151 degrees 40 minutes. See the account of the shoal described
by M. Tregrosse.

Mr. Brodie, Commander of the brig Alert, in October, 1817, saw A REEF
extending for a considerable distance in a North-East and South-West
direction. The Alert ran along the reef for twenty-five miles: about the
centre Mr. Brodie saw two sand islets in latitude 17 degrees 2 minutes,
and longitude 151 degrees 49 minutes.

LIHOU'S SHOAL, probably a part of the above reefs seen by Lieutenant Vine
and from the Alert, lies in latitude 17 degrees 25 minutes, and longitude
151 degrees 45 minutes: it is forty-six miles in length, and lies
North-North-East and South-South-West.

A very extensive RANGE OF SHOALS and ISLETS was seen by M. Tregrosse, of
the French brig Les Trois Freres, in company with the brig Jessie, in
1821, according to the subjoined account.

On the 19th June, the two brigs in company fell in with a range of reefs,
terminated to the eastward by two sandy islets, the easternmost of which
is in 151 degrees 47 minutes (149 degrees 27 minutes East of Paris); the
vessels hauled to the wind immediately, but finding they could not pass
to windward, bore up, and ran along the shoal from eight a.m. to four
p.m., at the distance of a league and a half. Altogether they counted
seven islets, three of which were covered with shrubs, and the whole
connected by a reef, on the edge of which the sea broke heavily: they
were called GOVERNOR FARQUHAR'S GROUP: the westernmost islet is in 17
degrees 39 minutes, and 151 degrees 27 minutes (149 degrees 7 minutes
East of Paris) and appeared to terminate the group. As it was near
sunset, the vessels hauled to the wind for the night, and at daylight
bore up on a north course: soon afterwards they saw an islet
West-North-West; they, however, continued to steer North until eight
o'clock, and then, having run nine miles, saw another island
North-North-East. On attempting to steer between the isles, they were
found to be connected, and having sounded in eleven fathoms, the vessels
bore up, and steered between the westernmost islet and two extensive
reefs, through a passage five or six miles wide, that appeared to be
clear.

The westernmost islet is in 17 degrees 42 minutes South, and 150 degrees
43 minutes East (148 degrees 23 minutes East of Paris) and the
westernmost reef, in 17 degrees 44 minutes South, and 150 degrees 32
minutes East (148 degrees 12 minutes East of Paris). A space of ten or
twelve leagues between Governor Farquhar's Group and that seen the
preceding day was passed in the night, and probably may contain other
reefs. The last group was named TREGROSSE'S ISLETS.

NORTH COAST.

The ALERT struck on a shoal to the westward of Torres Strait in 1817; it
seemed to be about two hundred fathoms in length, and about fifty yards
broad: it is in latitude 9 degrees 52 minutes, and longitude 140 degrees
50 minutes.

In the vicinity of Cape Van Diemen there are many submarine coral banks,
that are not yet shoal enough to be called reefs; that which Captain
Flinders saw, and sounded upon in seven fathoms, lies in 9 degrees 56
minutes latitude, and 129 degrees 28 minutes longitude. The Alert also
passed over a shoal patch with nine fathoms in 10 degrees 1 minute South,
and 129 degrees 8 minutes East.

NORTH-WEST COAST.

SAHUL BANK is but very imperfectly known, and its extent by no means so
large as is laid down upon the chart. In that interval, however, there
are probably many reefs, which have been occasionally seen. Captain
Heywood saw a dry part in latitude 11 degrees 35 minutes and longitude
124 degrees 10 minutes, and there are shoal soundings in crossing it on
the following parts, namely:

COLUMN 1: SOUNDINGS OVER CORAL REEF IN FATHOMS.
COLUMN 2: LATITUDE.
COLUMN 3: LONGITUDE.

12 : 11 degrees 21 minutes : 125 degrees 23 minutes.
16 : 11 degrees 10 minutes : 125 degrees 27 minutes.
12 : 11 degrees 7 minutes : 125 degrees 30 minutes.
15 : 10 degrees 57 minutes : 125 degrees 34 minutes.

All of which are detached and separated by deep water. (See Horsburgh
volume 1 page 103.)

CARTIER ISLAND, seen in 1800 by the ship Cartier, is a dry sand bank
surrounded by a shoal extending for four miles to the northward. It is in
12 degrees 29 minutes South, and 123 degrees 56 minutes East, by
chronometer.

Captain Heywood in 1801 saw the following reefs. The centre of one in
latitude 12 degrees 48 minutes, and longitude 124 degrees 25 minutes; and
the other in 13 degrees 29 minutes, and 124 degrees 5 minutes.

HIBERNIA SHOAL, seen by Mr. Samuel Ashmore, Commander of the ship
Hibernia, consists of two small sandbanks in the centre of a shoal, four
miles in extent, lying in an east and west direction. It is in latitude
11 degrees 56 minutes, and longitude 123 degrees 28 minutes, by
chronometers.

Mr. Ashmore also saw another shoal in 1811, the particulars of which are
detailed in the following letter.

"The north-east end of the shoal, fell in with on the 11th June, 1811, by
a good noon observation, is in 12 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude by
chronometer 122 degrees 58 minutes 30 seconds (allowing the south head of
Port Jackson to be in 151 degrees 25 minutes 25 seconds). To the westward
of the barrier of black rocks, that presented themselves to our view,
were several sandbanks, the highest of which, on the east end, appeared
to have some vegetation: the rocks in general were six or eight feet
above the water and the surf broke violently on the North-East and
South-East points in view. The shoal trends in a West by North direction
for six or seven miles," It is distinguished on the chart by the name of
ASHMORE'S SHOAL.

SCOTT'S REEF (see Horsburgh volume 1 page 102) was discovered by Captain
Heywood, R.N., in 1811: the north-west end is in latitude 13 degrees 52
1/2, and longitude 121 degrees 59 minutes; thence it extends South 16
degrees East for eighteen or nineteen miles to the north-east point, in
latitude 14 degrees 1 minute, and longitude 122 degrees 16 minutes; the
south extent was not ascertained. It is ninety-seven miles due East from
the situation assigned to Dampier's Rocks. The Cartier also struck upon a
shoal hereabouts, and Captain Horsburgh seems to think that there is
little doubt of Scott's Reef being the same that Dampier saw, as well as
that on which the Cartier struck.

ROWLEY'S SHOALS consist of three separate reefs, the westernmost is the
Imperieuse, the middle Clerke's, and the north-easternmost the Mermaid's.
The Imperieuse is ten miles in length from north to south, and its
greatest breadth five miles: it is surrounded by very deep water and near
the eastern edge, in latitude 17 degrees 35 minutes, and longitude 118
degrees 51 minutes, are some dry rocks. Clerke's Shoal (south end in
latitude 17 degrees 28 minutes, longitude 119 degrees 18 minutes) extends
to the north-west, and probably joins the Minstrel's Shoal, which is
described below, and, if this is the case, trends North-North-West 1/2
West for seventeen miles. The south end of Mermaid's Shoal is in 17
degrees 12 minutes South, and 119 degrees 35 minutes East, and extends to
the northward for seven miles; but its termination in that direction was
not seen. The edges of all these reefs are steep to; and no bottom was
obtained with one hundred and eighty fathoms. Within the reefs, however,
there is a bank of soundings of the depth of from one hundred and seventy
to one hundred and twenty fathoms. (See Horsburgh volume 1 page 101.)

MINSTREL'S SHOAL (see Horsburgh's Supp. page 52) its north-east end is in
17 degrees 14 minutes South, and 118 degrees 57 minutes East, or 5
degrees 28 minutes East by chronometer, from the coast of New Holland in
latitude 23 degrees 10 minutes South. The longitude of that part of the
coast by my survey, is 113 degrees 42 minutes; this will make the
Minstrel's Shoal in 119 degrees 10 minutes, which agrees very well with
Clerke's Reef, the centre reef of Rowley's Shoals, of which it is
certainly the north end; so Captain Horsburgh also supposes.

A ship called the LIVELY was wrecked on a coral reef in about 16 degrees
30 minutes South, and 119 degrees 35 minutes East.

RITCHIE'S REEF, or the Greyhound's Shoal. The situation of this reef is
recorded by Captain Horsburgh (see Supp. page 38) to be in latitude 19
degrees 58 minutes, and longitude 114 degrees 40 1/4 minutes; but, by a
letter published in the Sydney Gazette by Lieutenant Ritchie, R.N., the
commander, it would appear to be in 20 degrees 17 minutes 40 seconds,
longitude by lunars 114 degrees 46 minutes 6 seconds.

ROCK OFF VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.

The Russian ship RURICK, in 1822, saw a dry rock above water off the
south-east coast of Van Diemen's Land, in latitude 44 degrees, and
longitude 147 degrees 45 minutes.

A rock was also seen by the ship LORD SIDMOUTH in 1819, in latitude 43
degrees 48 minutes, and longitude 147 degrees 15 minutes.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 8.

DIRECTIONS FOR THE PASSAGE WITHIN THE REEFS THROUGH TORRES STRAIT.

INNER ROUTE.

The passage recommended by Captain Flinders for passing through Torres
Strait us by entering the reefs at Murray's Island; by which route a
two-days' passage will carry a ship past all danger: but, as the space
between Wreck Reef and Murray's Island is strewed with dangers, many of
which have been discovered since the publication of his charts, and of
which the greater number have only been recently seen, it cannot be
called a safe navigation. The dangers consist of low coral islands,
surrounded by extensive reefs, upon which in long and dark nights a
vessel is in momentary danger of striking; the result of which must be
the certain destruction of the vessel, and the probable loss of the crew.
The Inner Route was first pursued by Mr. Cripps in the brig Cyclops,
bound from Port Jackson to Bengal, in 1812. It was subsequently followed
by Lieutenant C. Jeffreys, R.N., in the command of the hired armed vessel
Kangaroo, on her passage from Port Jackson to Ceylon, in 1815.* This
officer drew a chart, with a track of his voyage up the coast; which,
considering the shortness of his time, and other circumstances that
prevented his obtaining the necessary data to lay down with accuracy so
intricate and dangerous a passage, does him very great credit; he filled
up the space between Endeavour River and Cape Direction, which Captain
Cook did not see; the only part that had previously been left a blank
upon the chart of New South Wales; his outline was found to be tolerably
correct, and my alterations have only been caused by better
opportunities, and by the greater detail of my operations. The general
feature of the coast has scarcely required correction; the principal
corrections have been in the number, size, and relative bearings of the
coral reefs and islands that front it.

(*Footnote. Horsburgh's Indian Directory volume 2 page 514.)

In describing this route, the whole of the bearings are magnetic; and the
courses are freed from the effect of tide or current, since they are only
temporary, and often of trifling importance.*

(*Footnote. In following these directions, reference should be made to
the description of the coast contained in this Appendix.)

DIRECTIONS.

Having hauled round Breaksea Spit (see Flinders' chart sheet 3) in the
evening, it would perhaps be dangerous to steer on through the night;
after running, therefore, to the West-North-West for five or six leagues,
bring to until daylight: but, if the day is before you, the course from
the extremity of the spit is West-North-West 1/4 West for about a hundred
miles. You will then be about twenty miles from Cape Capricorn: on your
way to which you should pass about three miles within Lady Elliot's
Island, and also within the southernmost islet of Bunker's Group, by
which you will see how the current has affected your course, and you can
act accordingly: if it has set you to the northward, you may pass on
either side of or through the islands without danger. After making Cape
Capricorn, you may leave it at a convenient distance, and, directing your
course about North West by North, pass either within or without the
Peaked and Flat Islands off Port Bowen; then, steering for the Percy
Group, pass between the 2nd and 3rd Northumberland Islands.

After passing the latter, avoid a low dangerous rock, that bears from it
North 8 degrees East five miles and three-quarters, and from 1st Peak
South 85 degrees West. To avoid this in the night, pass close round
Number 3, when, its situation being known, you can easily avoid it.

The channel is safe on either side of the Percy Isles, but that to the
westward of them, being better known, is therefore recommended as the
safest. Then steer either over the Mermaid's or Bathurst's tracks, which
will carry a ship round the projections of the coast as far as Cape
Grafton, as far as which, if the weather is fine, there can be no danger
of proceeding through the night; but it must be recollected, that at Cape
Grafton the coral reefs approach the coast, and, consequently, great care
must be used.

On reaching Fitzroy Island, round it at a mile off shore, and, when its
north end bears West, steer North-West 1/2 North for thirty-five miles;
you will then be a league to the South-East of a group of low isles; if
it should be night when you pass them, come no nearer to them than
fourteen fathoms. In steering this course, great care should be taken,
not to go too much to the eastward to avoid the reef which the Tamar saw.
(See above.)

If the moon is up the islets will be readily distinguished, but otherwise
it would be more prudent to wait for daylight. This course will carry a
ship over two of my tracks, and the soundings will be in seventeen,
eighteen, and nineteen fathoms. From the low isles direct your course for
the Hope Islands, which bear from the former North 18 degrees West
thirty-eight miles, but the course had better be within that line, to
avoid some reefs in latitude 15 degrees 51 minutes: pass, therefore,
within five miles of Cape Tribulation, when a direct course may be
steered either to the eastward or westward of the Hope Isles. The better
route will be within the western Hope, and along its reef at the distance
of three-quarters of a mile, by which you will avoid reef a. When you are
abreast of its north end, steer North by West westerly for twenty-eight
miles; this will carry you to Cape Bedford which you may round at from
one to three or four miles. You will see in your way, at three miles and
a half from the north end of the Hope Reef, reef b; and at fifteen miles
from it you will be abreast of e; and five miles farther on you will pass
Captain Cook's Turtle Reef, which has a dry sand at its north end. These
three reefs will be to the eastward of your course.

The current sets to the North-West, so that your course must be directed
accordingly. In coasting along the shore, you will discern the summits
which are marked on the chart. The high conical hill, on the south side
of the entrance of Endeavour River, is Mount Cook, bearings of which,
crossed with the summit of Cape Bedford, or any of the particularized
summits or points will give the vessel's place, by which the effects of
the current, which is generally very slight, will be perceived: on one
occasion we found a current in the space between the Endeavour Reef and
Turtle Reef of two miles an hour to the North-West.

Being off Cape Bedford, and steering to the North 1/2 West, you will see
the Three Isles ahead: steer between them and the low wooded island; and
direct your course round Cape Flattery and Point Lookout, to anchor under
the Turtle Group, unless you have time before dark to reach the islands
4, 5, or 6, of Howick's Group. Under which anchorage may be found. In
rounding Point Lookout, do not come within two miles and a half of it, to
avoid a reef that is on Captain Cook's chart, but which we did not see;
it lies a mile and a half north from the peaked hill at the extremity of
the point. You may pass without the Turtle Group, or you will find
anchorage under Lizard Island, but this is not recommended, both because
the wind is generally fresher as you increase your distance from the
shore, and because it lengthens the distance.

From the Turtle Group steer North West by West 1/2 West until you see the
hillock at the south-east end of Number 1 of Howick's Group: then pass
inside and within a mile of 2 and 3, and between islet 4 and Cole's
Islands, and inshore of 6 and the dry sands s, t, and u. The Mermaid's
track will direct the course to Cape Melville. If the day is late when
abreast of 6, of Howick's Group, anchorage had better be secured under
it, as there is none to be recommended between it and Cape Flinders.

Upon rounding Cape Melville, the Islands of Flinders' Group will be seen;
and as soon as you have passed round the stony reef that projects off the
Cape (the extremity of which bears from it by compass North West by
North, and from Pipon's Island South-West by West 1/4 West nearly) in
doing which steer within the reef that surrounds Pipon Island, direct the
course for the extremity of the islands, which is Cape Flinders; the
course and distance being West 3/4 South nearly thirteen miles: on this a
low woody island will be left on the starboard hand.

His Majesty's sloop Satellite, in 1822, grounded upon a small reef,
bearing North by East (easterly) from the extremity of the cape, distant
about two miles; but, as a ship may pass within a stone's throw of the
cape, this danger may be easily avoided. The best anchorage here is under
the flat-topped hill, at a third of a mile from the shore, in ten
fathoms, muddy bottom. In hauling round the cape, avoid a shoal which
extends for a short distance from the shore on its western side.

If the day is not far advanced, and you have time to run fifteen miles
further, the ship may proceed to the reef d; but, indeed, anchorage may
be obtained under any of the reefs or islets between this part and Cape
Grenville, for the bottom is universally of mud; and by anchoring with
the body of a reef, bearing South-East, the vessel is sufficiently
sheltered from the sea, which is generally smooth.

On leaving Cape Flinders, steer West 3/4 North for about twenty-three
miles, leaving the reefs c and g to seaward, and d, e, and f to the
southward, of the course; then haul up about North-West 3/4 North, and
steer within the reef l and Pelican Island, and to seaward of the
Claremont Islands 1 and 2, which are low and woody.

When abreast of 2, the south-west end of the reef m will be seen, which
should be passed at from one to two miles, and the course North by West
1/4 West will carry you to 4 and 5, which you may pass on either side of,
the channel between them being quite safe. If you take the latter course,
steer north, within the reef o, and then close within 6, to avoid the low
rock that covers with the tide. Having passed this rock, steer for 7, and
pass within one mile of it, to avoid the shoals that extend off Cape
Sidmouth. Hence the course is North-North-West towards Night Island; and,
when abreast of it, steer North 1/2 West until near the covered shoal v,
when the course may be directed within Sherrard's Islets and reef 10 (on
which there is a sandy islet covered with some bushes) and then steer
round Cape Direction.

Hence the course North-North-West 1/4 West will carry you within the
reefs y, z, a, b, and c, and without the rocky islet that lies off
Restoration Island: continuing this course you will, at about five miles
beyond the cape, see the long reef e; steer North-West parallel with its
edge, which extends until you are abreast of Fair Cape, where it
terminates with a very narrow point. Then steer North-West 1/2 North, and
pass between the two easternmost Piper's Islands and the reefs h, i, and
k; then pass on either side of l and m, inshore of Haggerston's Island,
and round the outermost of Sir Everard Home's Group.

The anchorages between Cape Flinders and this are so numerous as not to
require particular mention: the north-west end of every reef will afford
shelter; but the anchor should not be dropped too near, because the tide
sweeps round the edge with greater strength than it does at half a mile
off, within which distance the bottom is generally deeper. If the day is
advanced and the breeze fresh, Night Island should not be passed: because
the anchorages between it and Piper's Islands are rather exposed; and a
vessel getting underweigh from Night Island at daylight will easily reach
Piper's Islands, or Margaret Bay, before dark.

The latter bay is round Cape Grenville; it is fronted by Sunday Island,
which affords good shelter from the wind: it is a safe place to stop at.

In passing round Sir Everard Home's Islands, steer wide from them, to
avoid the tide drifting you towards the group, for it sets to the
North-West across the course. The course is then about North-West 1/4
West to the Bird Isles, and thence, to the reef v, about North West by
North; the better and more direct plan is to pass within v and w (there
is, however, a safe channel between them) and when abreast of the west
end of the latter, the course to Cairncross Island is North by West 1/2
West, and the distance about eighteen miles.

There not being any very good anchorage between this and Cape York, it
would be perhaps better to anchor under it for the night, in about
fourteen or fifteen fathoms, mud, the island bearing South-East, but not
nearer than half a mile, because, within that distance, the bottom is
rocky.

Leaving Cairncross Island, steer North-North-West 1/4 West until Escape
River is abreast of you, when look out for reef x: steer within it about
North West by North, which will take you inside the covered reef z. Your
course then must be round the Albany Islands, and hence North West by
North for a, which is a rocky islet that may be seen from abreast the
Albany Isles.

The passage through the Possession Isles and Endeavour Strait is not to
be recommended for a large ship, on account of the shoal water that
extends from Wallis' Isles towards Shoal Cape; but the route round the
north end of Wednesday and Hammond's Islands is preferable. Upon passing
reef a, Wednesday Island will be seen: in steering towards it, avoid
standing too close to the rocky islet that is abreast of the strait
between it and Horned Hill, as some sunken rocks stretch off it for about
a quarter of a mile: steer round the north point of Wednesday Island at
half a mile, and then West by South 1/4 South which will carry you to the
northward of the rock off Hammond's Island. Having passed this rock,
steer South-West by West; and when abreast of the south-west end of
Hammond's Island, haul towards a reef, to the southward of the course, on
which you will see some dry rocks, which you may pass within half a mile
of: you will then avoid reef d, which is generally, if not always,
covered: the fairway of this channel is seven and eight fathoms deep.

When the summit of Good's Island bears South-West by West, steer West by
South southerly for Booby Island, by which you will avoid Larpent's bank,
and when you have passed it, you are clear of the strait. Hence you may
steer West 3/4 South through the night, on which course you will very
gradually deepen your water.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 9.

TABLE: DIP OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE, OBSERVED DURING THE MERMAID'S AND
BATHURST'S VOYAGES UPON THE COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

COLUMN 1: DATE.
COLUMN 2: PLACE.
COLUMN 3: LATITUDE SOUTH IN DEGREES MINUTES SECONDS.
COLUMN 4: LONGITUDE EAST IN DEGREES MINUTES SECONDS.
COLUMN 5: DIP OF THE NEEDLE IN DEGREES MINUTES SECONDS.
COLUMN 6: NORTH OR SOUTH END.
COLUMN 7: VARIATION IN DEGREES MINUTES SECONDS.
COLUMN 8: REMARKS.

1817. October 9, November 28 : Port Jackson, East Coast : 33 51 : 151 15
: 62 1 30 : South : 8 42 East : Observed on shore, on the north side of
Sydney Cove.

1819. January : Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land : 42 54 : 147 27 : 70 7 00
: South : 9 00 East : Observed on shore.

June 16 : Cleveland Bay, East Coast : 19 10 : 146 56 : 44 6 40 : South :
5 12 1/2 East : Two observations made at the extremity of the cape.

July : Endeavour River, East Coast : 15 27 : 145 11 : 38 00 00 : South :
5 27 East : Taken at the tent.

1818. April : Goulburn Island, North Coast : 11 38 : 133 20 : 27 32 30 :
South : 2 0 East : Taken on Bottle Rock, in South-west Bay.

1820. October : Careening Bay, North-west Coast : 15 6 1/4 : 125 0 : 38
44 36 : South : 0 43 1/2 West : Taken at the tent.

Dip of the Needle at Port Louis, Simon's Bay, and various parts of the
Atlantic Ocean, observed upon the Bathurst's return to England.

1821. November : Port Louis, Mauritius : 20 10 : 57 29 East : 51 42 :
South : 12 00 West : On shore.

1823. February : Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope : 34 11 2/3 : 18 28 1/2 :
48 23 1/2 : - : 28 to 30 : On shore.

February 9 : False Bay 5 minutes East-South-East of Simon's Bay : - : - :
48 48 : - : 28 to 30 : On the binnacle.

February 14 : At Sea : 27 18 : 8 50 : 37 57 1/2 : - : 24 00 : On the
binnacle.

February 16 : At Sea : 23 47 : 4 2 : 30 10 : - : 24 00 : This observation
is correct to 3/4 degree.

The situation for the above observation bears East 5 degrees North from
the place where the same dip was observed by M. Perouse on the Coast of
Brazil.

February 20 : At Sea : 17 7 : 4 57 West : 15 42 1/2 : - : 21 9 : Correct
to 1/2 degree.

The above situation bears East 16 1/2 degrees North from the place where
Commodore Baudin observed the dip of 15 degrees; and East 14 degrees
North from the observation of 14 degrees by M. Perouse.

February 24 : At Sea, four leagues North-North-West from St. Helena : - :
- : 11 45 : - : 20 35 : Correct to 1/2 degree.

February 26 : At Sea : 14 25 : 7 53 : 7 56 1/4 : - : 18 54 : Correct to
1/2 degree.

1823. February 27 : At Sea : 12 42 South : 9 21 West : 3 6 3/4 : South :
18 28 West : -.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 45 degrees East the needle dipped 4 30.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 67 East the needle dipped 11 30.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 78 East the needle dipped 14 30.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 85 East the needle dipped 18 15.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 88 East the needle dipped 20 0.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 91 East the needle dipped 25 0.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 92 1/2 East it was vertical.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of North 95 East the needle shifted on the opposite side to 65
0.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of South 45 East the needle shifted on the opposite side to 3
40.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction of South 45 West the needle shifted on the opposite side to 3
0.

Upon placing the instrument with the end marked 180 degrees in the
direction North 45 West the needle shifted on the opposite side to 5 30.

The mean of the observation, on placing either end North and South was 3
6 3/4 degrees.

The mean of the observation, on placing either end North-East and
South-West was 3 45.

The mean of the observation, on placing either end South-East and
North-West was 4 35.

1823. February 28 : At Sea : 11 44 South : 10 12 West : 1 25 : South : 17
to 18 West : -.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 45 East the needle
dipped 2 10.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 60 East the needle
dipped 2 50.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 70 East the needle
dipped 4 25.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 80 East the needle
dipped 5 15.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 90 East the needle
dipped 8 15.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 92 East the needle
dipped 14 00.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of South 60 East the needle
shifted.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of South 45 East the needle
shifted 2 20.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of South 45 West the needle
shifted 1 40.

Upon placing the instrument in the direction of North 45 West the needle
shifted 1 00.

Mean when placed at North-East and North-East 1 55.

Mean when placed at North-West and South-East 1 40.

February 28 : At Sea : 11 30 1/2 : 10 20 : 0 45 : South : 17 to 18 West :
-.

February 28 : At Sea : 11 5 1/2 : 10 34 : 0 15 : North : 17 to 18 West :
-.

From the above observations, it would appear that the Magnetic Equator
crosses the meridian of 10 1/2 degrees West, in 11 degrees 12 minutes
South latitude. At the latter observation--when the direction of the
instrument was changing, the needle remained quite stationary, the south
end of the needle pointing to the north, until the change was effected;
it remained in this position for two seconds of time, and then suddenly
shifted to the opposite, its proper, direction; its movements were,
however, very sluggish and irregular in its shifting end for end. The day
was so rainy that no observation could be made for the variation of the
compass.

March 1 : At Sea : 10 1 South : 11 31 West : 3 32 1/2 : North : 17 44
West : -.

March 2 : At Sea : 8 21 South : 12 57 : 6 50 : North : 18 00 : -.

March 5 : At Sea : 7 3 South : 15 42 : 11 22 1/2 : North : 16 5 : -.

March 7 : At Sea : 4 17 South : 18 50 : 19 15 : North : 13 18 : -.

March 9 : At Sea : 0 0 1/3 South : 22 6 1/4 : 27 45 : North : 12 51 : -.

March 24 : At Sea : 17 4 North : 35 40 : 54 23 3/4 : North : 11 3 :
Correct to 3/4 degree.

March 31 : At Sea : 29 33 North : 38 35 : 65 25 : North : 10 59 : Correct
to 1 degree.

...


APPENDIX A. SECTION 10.

UPON THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS OF THE FIXED POINTS OF THE SURVEY.

The observations for determining the longitudes of the various parts of
the coast were taken with a circle and a sextant by Troughton: besides
these valuable instruments we had three chronometers of Arnold's make,
namely, 413 (box) 2054 (pocket) and 394 (pocket); of which the two first
were supplied by the Admiralty. At the end of the fourth year, in
consequence of 394 having stopped, a fourth chronometer, made by
Parkinson and Frodsham (Number 287 box) was purchased in the colony, and
proved to be a most excellent watch.

The situations of the following places, which were either fixed by us or
adapted from other authorities, served as the basis of the chronometrical
determination of the longitudes of the intermediate parts.

The flagstaff of FORT MACQUARIE on the north-east head of Sydney Cove in
PORT JACKSON (the Cattle Point of Flinders, and otherwise Bennelong
Point) is in latitude 33 degrees 51 minutes 28 seconds South and
longitude 151 degrees 15 minutes 26 East, being, according to the ensuing
table, the mean of all the observations that have been taken.

Latitude (in degrees minutes seconds) observed by:

Captain Flinders, in 1795 and 1802: 33 51 45.6.
De Freycinet in 1802: 33 51 21.
King (reduced) 1817: 33 51 18.
Sir T. Brisbane (reduced) 1822: 33 51 30.

Mean Latitude of Fort Macquarie 33 51 28.

Longitude (in degrees minutes seconds) observed by:

Captain Cook, reduced from his observations at Botany Bay, 1770: 151 11
32.
Captain Hunter, 1788: 151 19 43.
Lieutenant Dawes 1788: 151 18 50.
Lieutenant Bradley: 151 20 38.
Malespina: 151 17 53.
Messrs. Broughton and Crosley, 1795: 151 9 3.
Captain Flinders, 1795-6: 151 17 12.
Ditto 1802: 151 11 49.
Captain De Freycinet, 1802: 151 8 32.
M. D'Espinosa by an eclipse of sun and occultation of Jupiter 1st and 2nd
Satellites, 1793: 151 12 45.
Governor Bligh, 1806, eclipse of sun: 151 17 49.
Captain P.P. King, 1817, eclipse of sun, calculated by Mr. Rumker: 151 17
29.
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 1822 (the mean of six eclipses places his
observatory in 151 degrees 15 minutes 20 seconds): 151 15 32.
Mr. Rumker, eclipse of sun at Parramatta, reduced to Fort Macquarie: 151
17 30.

Mean Longitude of Fort Macquarie 151 15 26.

PERCY ISLAND (Number 2). The longitude of the south-west end of this
island is by Captain Flinders' observation in 150 degrees 13 minutes
East.

ENDEAVOUR RIVER. The observatory, which was placed within a few yards of
the shore on the south side of the entrance (the summit of the highest
bush near the extremity of the opposite sandy beach, bearing by compass
West 3 degrees 40 minutes South) was found to be situated in latitude 15
degrees 27 minutes 4 seconds, and longitude 145 degrees 10 minutes 49
seconds. (See note, Appendix A.)

GOULBURN ISLANDS. The observations were taken upon Bottle Rock, the
largest of two rocky islets at the north end of South-west Bay; but the
results were so doubtful and unsatisfactory, that the longitude
determined by the chronometers was preferred. The following are the
observations that were taken to fix its situation, namely:

Latitude by fourteen meridional altitudes of the sun l. l. on the
sea-horizon, taken in various parts of the bay, and reduced by survey to
Bottle Rock 11 37 24.

The difference of longitude between Bottle Rock and Cassini Island by
chronometers, taken in:

1819: 7 40 47.
1820: 7 40 00.
1821: 7 38 28.

Mean difference between Cassini Island and Bottle Rock: 7 39 45.

Longitude of Cassini Island from Careening Bay, by survey: 125 38 46.

Longitude of Bottle Rock, by chronometer, from Cassini Island: 133 18 31.

The mean of the results of the lunar distances that were taken during the
years 1818 and 1819, gave for the longitude of the rock 133 degrees 31
minutes 58 seconds East. On our last voyage the mean of the Bathurst's
and Dick's watches made it 133 degrees 19 minutes 40 seconds, which was
finally adapted, since it accorded better with the chronometrical
difference between its meridian and that of Cassini Island. I have never
been able to account for this extraordinary disagreement between the
results of the lunar distances and the chronometers, since the former
were taken with the sun on both sides of the moon, and seemed to be very
good.

CAREENING BAY. This place was fixed by a series of observations, in
latitude 15 degrees 6 minutes 18 seconds South, and 125 degrees 0 minutes
46 seconds East. (See Appendix A. in a note.)

KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND. The longitude of this place was adapted
from the observations and survey of Captain Flinders, as follows; namely:

The tent on the east shore of the entrance of Oyster Harbour. Latitude 35
degrees 0 minutes 17 seconds, and longitude 117 degrees 56 minutes 22
seconds.

The sandy beach under the low part of the land of Bald Head (the first
sandy bay round the head) is in latitude 35 degrees 6 minutes, and
longitude 117 degrees 58 minutes 6 seconds.

COEPANG, in the Island of Timor. The situation of the flag-staff of FORT
CONCORDIA, where our chronometers were rated, is in latitude 10 degrees 9
minutes 6 seconds, and longitude 123 degrees 35 minutes 46 seconds,
according to the observations of Captain Flinders.

...


APPENDIX B.

CONTAINING A LIST AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY
COLLECTED DURING CAPTAIN KING'S SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL AND WESTERN
COASTS OF AUSTRALIA.

Previously to the establishment of the British Colony at Port Jackson, in
the year 1787, the shores of this extensive continent had been visited by
very few navigators who have recorded any account of the productions of
its Animal Kingdom. The first authentic report that we have, is that of
Vlaming, who is celebrated as the first discoverer of that rara avis, the
black swan: next to him followed Dampier, who has handed down to us in
his intelligent, although quaint, style, the account of several of the
productions of the North-western and Western Coasts; but the harvest was
reserved for Banks and Solander, the companions of Cook, whose names are
so well and widely known in the fields of science. These distinguished
naturalists were the first collectors upon the Coast of New South Wales;
and although their labours were not confined to any particular branch of
Natural History, yet Botany appeared to be their chief object, of which
the Banksian Herbarium yields ample proof.

Among the collectors of Natural History, in the neighbourhood of the
colony, since the year 1787, may be recorded the names of White,
Paterson, Collins, Brown, Caley, Lewin, Humphreys, and Jamison; and in
this interval the coasts have been visited by two English and two French
expeditions of discovery; namely, those commanded by Admiral
D'Entrecasteaux, Captains Vancouver and Flinders, and Commodore Baudin.
The first merely touched upon the south coast at the Recherche's
Archipelago, and on the south shores of Van Diemen's Land; and the second
only at King George the Third's Sound, near the South-west Cape; but
these opportunities were sufficient to celebrate the names of
Labillardiere and Menzies as Australian Botanists, notwithstanding they
have been since eclipsed by the more extensive discoveries of Mr. Brown,
whose collections of Natural History upon the voyage of Captain Flinders,
and his pre-eminent qualifications, have justly raised him to the
pinnacle of botanical science upon which he is so firmly and deservedly
elevated.

Peron and Lesueur, in Baudin's voyage, extended their inquiries chiefly
among the branches of zoological research; but in that expedition each
department of Natural History had its separate collector, and the names
of Leschenault de la Tour, Riedle, Depuch, and Bailly, will not be
forgotten. Unfortunately, the Natural History of this voyage has never
yet been given to the world, the death of M. Peron having put a stop to
its publication; a few of the subjects, however, have been taken up by
MM. Lacepede and Cuvier, and other French naturalists, in the form of
monographs, in their various scientific journals; but the greater part is
yet untouched, probably from the want of the valuable information which
died with its collector. M. Peron, in his historical account of that
expedition, notices a few subjects of zoology that were collected by him,
but in so vague a manner, that it is with very great doubt that the
specimens which we procured, and suspect to be his discoveries, can be
compared with his descriptions.

Of the Natural History collections of Captain Flinders and Mr. Brown, no
account has been published, excepting the valuable botanical works of the
latter gentleman.

With respect to the collection which has been formed upon this
expedition, it is to be regretted that the gleanings of the Animal
Kingdom, particularly of quadrupeds and birds, should have been so
trifling in number; and that the students of Natural History should have
suffered disappointment in what might, at first view, be fairly
considered to have arisen from neglect and careless attention to the
subject; but as the principal, and almost the only, object of the voyage
was the survey of the coast, for which purpose a small vessel was justly
considered the most advantageous, accommodation for a zoological
collection was out of the question. The very few specimens that are now
offered to the world were procured as leisure and opportunity offered;
but many interesting and extremely curious subjects were in fact obliged
to be left behind from want of room, and from our not possessing
apparatus for collecting and preserving them.

A botanical collector for the Royal Garden, Mr. Allan Cunningham, was
attached to the expedition; and this gentleman did not fail to make a
very extensive and valuable collection in his department, the whole of
which is preserved at Kew.

In making out the Appendix, every species brought home (excepting three
or four fishes) has been mentioned, for the sake of furnishing materials
for the students of Geographical Zoology. The distribution of animals is
a branch of study that has been very much neglected, which is to be
lamented, as it appears likely to offer a very great assistance to the
systematic Physiologist; and for this reason the species found at the
Isle of France have been added to the list.

For the catalogue and descriptions of the quadrupeds, reptiles, and
shells, I am under obligation to Mr. J.E. Gray, of the British Museum.
Mr. Vigors has kindly assisted me with the use of his collection, and his
valuable advice with respect to the few specimens of birds that were
preserved; and Mr. W.S. MacLeay has furnished me with a very valuable
description of my entomological collection. I am also indebted to Mr.
Cunningham for his remarks upon the botany of the country; to Mr. Brown,
for his description of a new tree from King George the Third's Sound; and
lastly to Dr. Fitton, for his kindness in drawing up for me a very
interesting geological notice from the specimens that have been presented
to the Geological Society of London, of which he is one of the most
active and scientific members.

...

VERTEBRATA.

MAMMALIA.

BY JOHN EDWARD GRAY, ESQUIRE, M.G.S., ETC.

1. Pteropus edwardsii, Desm. Mamm. 109.
Madagascar Bat, Edwards' Birds, t. 108.
Vespertilio vampyrus, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1 45.
Flying Fox, Colonists of Port Jackson.

This specimen, caught at Point Cunningham on the North-west Coast,
appears to agree with Edwards' figure, and with the specimen preserved in
the British Museum. There is also one in the collection of the Linnean
Society from Port Jackson. Large flights of these animals were observed
at Port Keats and in Cambridge Gulf, on the North-west Coast. This bat
seems also to be very abundant on the Friendly Islands, for Forster
describes having seen five hundred hanging upon one casuarina tree.
Forster, page 187.

2. Canis australiae.
Canis familiaris australasiae, Desmarest, Mamm. 191.
Australasian Dog, or Dingo, Shaw's Zool. 1 278, t. 76.

This animal is common in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, and dogs, to
all appearance of the same species, are found on all parts of the coast.
Captain King presented a living specimen to Sir Everard Home, Bart., who
sent it to Exeter Change.

In considering this species as distinct from the common dog, I am
supported by the opinion of Mr. William MacLeay*. (See Linnean
Transactions 13.)

(*Footnote. No such opinon has been expressed by Mr. W. S. Macleay in the
place alluded to.--P.P.K. [added in "errata"])

Captain King informs me that these dogs never bark, in which particular
they agree with the Linnean account of the American dog; that, in their
appearance and cunning disposition, they resemble the fox; and although
occasionally domesticated in New South Wales, they never lose the sly
habits peculiar to their breed, nor can be prevented from killing poultry
or biting sheep.

This dog, however, seems to be quite a distinct species from that found
in the South Sea Islands, which Forster describes as being "of a singular
race: they mostly resemble the common cur, but have prodigious large
heads, remarkably little eyes, prick ears, long hair, and a short bushy
tail. They are chiefly fed with fruit at the Society Isles; but in the
Low Isles and New Zealand, where they are the only domestic animals, they
live upon fish. They are exceedingly stupid, and seldom or NEVER BARK,
only howl now and then." Forster's Observations, page 189.

3. Otaria cinerea, Peron et Lesueur. Voyage aux Terres Austral. ij. 75.

The head of a species, agreeing with the short description of Peron, was
brought home by the expedition, but that it is the one intended by these
authors, there is great room to doubt. I am informed that specimens of
Peron's animal are in the Paris Museum, but Desmarest and Frederic
Cuvier, who have both lately written upon seals, have only copied the
very short specific character given by Peron. The head of our specimen is
gray, covered with rather short, rigid, hairs, and without any woolly
fur. The ears are short, conical.

It is very distinct from the Otaria Falklandica of Desmarest (the Phoca
falklandica* of Shaw) by the want of the woolly substance under the hair
(called fur by the seal-fishers) and by the length of the ear, which in
the latter species, described by Shaw, is long and awl-shaped.

(*Footnote. The specimen in the Museum, which I take for this species,
was brought by Captain Peake from New South Shetland: it differs from
Pennant's, and consequently from all succeeding descriptions that are
taken from him, in having five instead of four claws and toes to the hind
foot.)

Captain King in his manuscript observes, that this seal is found at
Rottnest Island on the West Coast, and at King George the Third's Sound.
It appeared also to be the same species that frequents Shark's Bay; and,
if it is M. Peron's Otaria cinerea, it is also found as far to the
eastward as Kangaroo Island.

The head is deposited in the Linnean Society's collection.

4. Petaurista sciurea, Desm. N. Dict. H.N. 25 403.
Didelphis sciurea, Shaw's Zool. 1 t. 113.
Sugar Squirrel, Colonists of Port Jackson.

A well preserved natural skeleton of this animal was brought home and
deposited in the British Museum.

5. Acrobata pygmaea, Desm. Mamm. 270.
Didelphis pygmaea, Shaw's Gen. Zool. 1 t. 114.
Phalangista pygmaea, Geoffr. manuscripts.
Petaurus pygmaeus, Desm. N. Dict. H.N. 25 405.
Opossum Mouse, Colonists at Port Jackson.

This little animal, the smallest and most beautiful of the opossum tribe,
is exceedingly numerous in the vicinity of Port Jackson. It was first
described by Dr. Shaw in his Zoology of New Holland. There are several
specimens in the Linnean Society's collection. The above is placed in the
British Museum.

6. Delphinorhynchus pernettensis ?
Delphinus pernettensis, Blainville.
Delphinus delphis, var. Bonnaterre, Ency. Cetol. 21.
Dauphin, Pernetty, Voyage aux Isles Malouines, 99. t. 2. f. 1.

A head, apparently belonging to this species, was brought home and
deposited in the collection of the British Museum. This animal is very
common upon the northern coasts of New Holland.

Captain King, in his manuscript, remarks, that the coasts of New South
Wales, and the north-western side of New Holland, abound in cetaceous
animals. Upon the North-east Coast, within the reefs, the sea is crowded
with Balaena physalis, Linn., or fin-backed whales, as they are called by
the whalers, who pay little attention to them, on account of the danger
of approaching them. His boats were sometimes placed in critical
situations from these animals suddenly rising to the surface of the water
close to them, and lashing the sea with their tremendous fins, and their
occasionally leaping out of the water, and falling down with a crushing
weight. Their colour is generally of a cinereous hue, but a few were
noticed that were variegated black and white. The whales of the
North-west Coast appeared to be of the same species, but of a darker
colour. At one of the anchorages, near Cape Leveque (volume 2 page 91)
the brig was for a whole night surrounded by these enormous fish, and the
crew in momentary dread of their falling on board, the consequence of
which would have been very disastrous. The noise of their fall in the
water, on a calm night, was as loud as the report of a cannon.

...

AVES.

THIS COLLECTION HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, IN WHOSE
CABINETS THEY ARE NUMBERED ACCORDING TO THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY ARE HERE
INSERTED.

1. Halcyon sacra. Swainson.
Alcedo sacra, Ind. Orn. 1 250.
Sacred Kingfisher, Latham, 4 25.

This bird was taken at sea, in the neighbourhood of Cambridge Gulf, on
the North-west Coast, having probably been blown off by a strong land
wind.

2. Barita tibicen. Cuvier.
Coracias tibicen, Ind. Orn. sup. 27.
Piping roller, Latham, 3 86.

3. Barita varia. Cuvier.
Coracias varia, Ind. Orn. 1 173.
Pied roller, Latham, 3 86.

This appears to be a young specimen.

4. Centropus phasianus. Illiger.
Cuculus phasianus, Ind. Orn. Sup. 30.
Polophilus phasianus, Leach, Zool. Misc. plate 46.
Pheasant Cuckoo, Latham, 3 240.

This bird is found upon all parts of the coast of New South Wales north
of Port Jackson, as well as upon the eastern part of the North-west
Coast. Its habitat in Australia is known to extend as wide as twenty-four
degrees of latitude, and twenty-six degrees of longitude. This specimen
was taken at Endeavour River, on the East Coast. There is also another
specimen of this bird in the Linnean Society's collection, that was taken
in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson.

5. Meliphaga corniculata. Lewin.
Merops corniculata, Ind. Orn. 1 276.
Knob-fronted Honey-eater, Latham, 4 161.

This bird is found upon the whole extent of the Eastern Coast.

The next bird in the collection has been arranged by Dr. Latham in the
Linnean genus Gracula, but appears to me to agree in no respect with that
genus, as originally characterized by Linnaeus, much less with it as it
has been modified by modern ornithologists. Whether we consider,
according to M. Cuvier,* that the type of Gracula is the Paradisea
tristis, Linn., or, according to M. Temminck, that it is the Gracula
religiosa, Linn.,** in which latter opinion I feel rather disposed to
acquiesce, my bird agrees with the group in none of its essential
characters. In fact, the Linnean genus Oriolus is that to which it bears
the closest resemblance in its general appearance; particularly by a
similar disposition of its colours, and in the structure of its bill,
wings, and legs. I would at once refer it to that genus, but that I have
some reason to think that it belongs to the meliphagous birds, which are
so abundant in New Holland, and which have been observed to assume the
appearance of almost every group in the Insessores. Indeed, some birds of
that country, which have been decided to be
meliphagous, such as the Meliphaga cyanops, Lewin,*** [Graculine
Honey-eater, Lath. Syn. 4 166. sp. Ed. 2da.] and others allied to it, and
which differ little from the bird before us, have so many external
relations with the Orioles, that they probably would be found to arrange
themselves in the same family with them, were it not for the totally
different structure of their tongue, and the consequent difference in
their habits of life. Of the tongue, or mode of feeding of the bird at
present before us, I can myself say nothing decisively, not having had
leisure or opportunity, as I have already observed, of attending to the
more interesting details of Natural History during the expedition. But
general opinion places this bird among the groups that feed by suction;
and as I have a second species hitherto undescribed, which is closely
allied to it, I prefer forming both provisionally into a new genus, to
referring them to one, from which, although they agree with it in
external appearance, they may be totally remote, in consequence of their
internal anatomy and habits of life. The error at least will not be so
great, and may be easily retrieved. If the tongue of my birds be found to
accord with that of the Orioles, and not of the Honey-suckers, my group
of course must fall.

(*Footnote. Regne Anim. 1 360.)

(**Footnote. Analyse d'un Syst. Gen. d'Orn. page 52.)

(***Footnote. Birds of New Holland plate 4.)

Genus MIMETES.*

(*Footnote. Mimetes, from Greek, imitator; [assuming the appearance of a
different group.])

Rostrum forte, subarcuatum, subcultratum, mandibulis utrisque apice
emarginatis; naribus basalibus, lateralibus, subovalibus, membrano partim
tectis.

Lingua ad sugendum idonea ?

Alae mediocres, rotundatae; remige 1ma brevissima; 2da et 6ta aequalibus;
3tia et 4ta fere aequalibus; longissimis; 5ta his paulo breviori: remigum
3tiae ad 6tam inclusam pogoniis externis in medio gradatim productis.

Pedes subbreves; acrotarsiis scutellatis, scutis quinque; paratarsiis
integris.

Cauda mediocris, fere aequalis.

6. VIRIDIS. M. olivaceo-viridis, subtus albidus nigro guttatim striatus;
alis caudaque nigro-fuscis, illis albido-marginatis, hac apice albo.

Gracula viridis. Lath. Ind. Orn. supp. page 28.

Caput dorsumque olivaceo-viridia, plumis in medio longitudinaliter
fusco-lineatis. Tectrices superiores nigro-fuscae, ad apicem
albido-marginatae; inferiores albido nigroque variegatae. Remiges supra
fuscae, ad marginem externum apicemque leviter albido-notatae; subtus
pallide fuscae. Rectrices nigro-fuscae, subtus pallidiores, omnibus,
duabus mediis exceptis, apice albo-maculatis. Rostrum flavum. Pedes
nigri. Longitudo* corporis, 10 1/4; alae a carpo ad remigem 3tiam, 5
7/10; caudae, 4 4/5; tarsi, 17/20; rostri ad frontem, 1 2/10, ad rictum,
1 3/10.

(*Footnote. My measurement is in inches, and their component parts.)

7. FLAVO-CINCTUS (n.s.) M. flavo-viridis, subtus pallidior, capite
dorsoque fusco-lineatis, alis caudaque nigris viridi flavoque variegatis.

Capitis, gulae, dorsique plumae flavo-virides, in medio fusco-lineatae,
hujus lineis latioribus. Tectrices superiores nigrae, apice
flavo-marginatae, pteromatum margine flavo, alis clausis, fasciam
conspicuam formante; inferiores flavee, ad basin nigro-notatae. Remiges
supra nigrae, subtus fuscae; primariis anguste, secondariis late, apice
flavo-marginatis; pogoniis externis anguste, internis late,
flavo-marginatis. Rectrices supra nigrae flavo-viridi marginatae; subtus
pallidiores, omnibus, duabus mediis exceptis, macula flava lata apicali
notatis. Rostrum flavum, paulo altius, et magis carinatum, quam rostrum
M. viridis. Pedes nigri.

The dimensions of this bird are nearly the same as those of M. viridis:
the bill only slightly differing in being somewhat higher, and more
carinated. The above descriptions will point out the specific differences
between the two birds, which are strongly apparent, not merely by the M.
flavo-cinctus being marked with yellow where the other bird is white, but
by the general distribution of the colours. In this respect, M.
flavo-cinctus resembles more closely the true Orioles, particularly in
the yellow fascia which is formed on the wing, when closed by the
junction of the apical spots on the quill coverts.

8. Rallus philippensis. Lin. Syst. 1 263.7. Ind. Orn. 756. Bris. 5 163.
t. 14. f. 1. Plate Enl. 774.

This bird was found upon Booby Island, near Cape York (the north
extremity of New South Wales) and agrees with a specimen already in the
Linnean Society's collection, that was taken in the neighbourhood of Port
Jackson. My bird, being of smaller size than most of those with which I
have compared it, is probably a young specimen. The rufous band on the
breast is narrower than is usual in the species, originating probably
from the same circumstance: otherwise it agrees precisely.

Rallus philippensis was originally found in the Philippine Islands. It
appears to have a very extensive range, as it inhabits lands both in the
North and South Pacific, as well as in the Indian Ocean.

9. Haematopus picatus (n.s.)

H. ater; corpore subtus, fascia alarum, uropygio, caudaeque basi, albis;
remigibus primoribus totis nigris.

Rostrum pedesque rubri; collum totum nigrum; tectrices inferiores
primores fuscae, secondariae albae, ad carpum et ad marginem exteriorem
nigro-variegatae; fascia alarum angusta; remiges primores supra nigrae,
subtus fuscae; uropygium album parce nigro variegatum.

Longitudo corporis ab apice rostri ad apicem caadae, 22; alae a carpo ad
remigem primam, 11; rosri, 3 3/10; tarsi, 2 3/10; caudae, 5.

Besides the common Oyster-Catcher of Europe, two species have lately been
added to the genus, namely, H. palliatus, Temm., a native of Brazil, and
H. niger, Cuv., from New Holland. The bird above described approaches
more closely to the European species (H. ostralegus) than to the other
two; but may be distinguished from it by the following characters,
namely:

In its dimensions it exceeds the length of the European bird by six
inches, and the other parts in proportion; it wants the white collar
round the neck, which is a very distinctive character of H. ostralegus;
the fascia on the wing is confined to the extremity of the secondary
quill feathers alone, whilst in the other bird it extends to some of the
wing coverts: the primary quill feathers also are entirely black; whereas
the other has them partially variegated with white: the under wing
coverts also differ, the primary ones being fuscous, and the outer
secondary partially marked with black; whilst the whole of the under wing
coverts in H. ostralegus are white. The uropygium also, which in the
European bird is entirely white, is in our specimen partially variegated
with black. The marginal webs of the toes are much more dilated. The
whitish lunular mark under the eye of H. ostralegus, is entirely wanting
in our species, of which the margin of the eye seems to be of a reddish
tinge, of the same colour as the bill. This bird is common upon the
shores of the continent generally; it is called by the colonists the Red
Bill.

10. Aptenodytes minor. Gmel. Syst. 1 558.
The Little Penguin, Latham.

This bird is common in all parts of the Southern Ocean. The above
specimen was found at King George the Third's Sound near the south-west
extremity of New Holland. There are two specimens in the collection
marked 9 a, and 9 b.

11. Tachypetes aquila. Vieillot.
Pelecanus Aquila, Gmel. Lin. 1 572.
Frigate Bird.

This specimen was obtained at Ascension, and is common in all parts of
the Atlantic within or near the Tropic.

12. Sterna fuliginosa. Gmel. Lin. 1 605. Ind. Orn. 2 804.
Egg Bird, Forst. Voyage 1 115. Cook, Voyage 1 66, 275.
Noddy, Dampier, 3 pt. 1 99., table page 85. figure 5. Hawkesworth's Coll.
of Voyages, 3 652.
Sooty Tern, Gen. Syn. 6 352. Arc. Zool. 2 Number 447.

There are two specimens of this bird in the collection, marked 12 a, and
12 b.

13. Sterna pelecanoides (n.s.)
S. alba; capitis vertice nigro albo-variegato; dorso, alis, caudaque
canis; remigibus fusco-atris, rhachibus albis.

Colli latera parce cano-maculata; tectrices secundariae primoribus
obscuriores; remiges fusco-atrae, pogoniis internis fere ad apicem
albo-marginatis; rectrices externae fuscae basi apiceque albis; rostrum
subflavum; pedes nigri.

Longitudo corporis, 19 1/4; alae a carpo ad remigem primam, 13 1/2;
caudae, 6 3/4; rostri, ad frontem, 2 1/3, ad rictum, 3 1/6; tarsi, 1 1/6.

The hallux, or hind toe, of this bird appears to be more closely united
to the fore toes, and to be situated more in front than is usual among
the Terns: it is also to be observed, that the side of the nail of the
middle toe is considerably dilated, although not serrated, similar to
what is observed among the Pelecanidae. These characters offer a
corroboration of the affinity of the Sternae to the family of the
Pelecanidae, and particularly to the genus Phaeton, which approaches the
Terns more closely than any other group of that family, in the smaller
size of the membrane that unites the toes (see Linnean Transactions 14
505). It may also be stated on the other hand, that the same membrane of
the Sterna pelecanoides deviates from its own genus, and approaches the
Pelecanidae, in its being more dilated than usual. The wings are longer
than the tail for a considerable extent, by which our bird also evinces
another character, in common with the long-winged Tachypetes, or Frigate
bird.

14. Larus georgii (n.s.)

L. albus, dorso alisque nigris; rectricibus albis, fascia media atra.

Rostrum flavum, apice rubro; mandibulae inferioris gonide maxime
angulata; remiges primores atrae, secundariae supra nigrae apice albo,
infra albae; tectrices inferiores albae; pedes flavi.

Longitudo corporis, 28; alae, a carpo ad remigem primam 18 3/4;
mandibulae, superioris ad frontem, 2 1/3, ad rictum, 3 1/6; tarsi, 2
11/12; caudae, 8 1/2.

This bird was found at King George the Third's Sound, on the South-west
Coast, in the vicinity of Seal Island.

...

REPTILIA.

BY JOHN EDWARD GRAY, ESQUIRE, M.G.S.

Genus CHLAMYDOSAURUS. Gray.

Capite depresso; membrana tympani aperta.
Gula pennulis plicatis ornata.
Pedibus quatuor.
Digitis quinque, elongatis, simplicibus.
Cauda elongata, subcylindrica.

Animal scaly; the head depressed; the nostrils placed on the side, midway
between the eyes and the end of the head; the drum of the ear naked; the
front teeth conical, awl-shaped (eight in the upper, and four in the
lower jaw); the hinder ones largest; the side or cheek teeth compressed,
short, forming a single ridge, gradually longer behind; tongue short,
fleshy, with an oval smooth disk at each side of the lower part of its
front part; neck rather long, furnished on each side with a large plaited
frill, supported above by a crescent-shaped cartilage arising from the
upper hinder part of the ear, and, in the middle, by an elongation of the
side fork of the bone of the tongue; body compressed; legs rather long,
especially the hinder ones; destitute of femoral pores; feet four, with
five toes, the first having two, the second three, the third four, the
fourth five, and the little finger and toe three joints; claws
compressed, hooked; tail long, nearly round, scaly.

This genus appears to be nearly allied to the Agamae, but differs from
them in the peculiar frill that is appended to the neck.

1. Chlamydosaurus kingii (n.s.)

C. corpore luteo, nigro, variegato; squamis carinatis; pennula antice
serrata; cauda corpore duplo longiore.
Chlamydosaurus kingii, Gray manuscripts.
Icon. Table A. Natural size.

Inhabits Port Nelson, north-west coast of Australia.

The colour yellowish-brown variegated with black: the head depressed,
with the sides erect, leaving a blunt ridge on the upper part, in which
the eyes are placed: the ridge over the eyes covered with larger scales
than those over the head; eyes rather small, with a fleshy ridge above
them; eye-lids covered with minute, and surrounded by a delicate serrated
ridge of small upright scales: the lips surrounded by a row of oblong,
four-sided scales, arranged lengthways, the front scale of the upper lip
being the largest: the chin covered with narrow mid-ribbed scales, with a
five-sided one in the centre, and several of larger size just over the
front of the fork of the lower jaw: nostrils, surrounded by rather a
large orbicular scale, situated nearly mid-way between the eye and the
end of the upper jaw, the tubes pointing forwards: the side of the face
has a very obscure ridge extending from the angle of the mouth to the
under part of the ear: neck covered with small scales: frill arising from
the hinder part of the head, just over the front of the ears, and
attached to the sides of the neck and extending down to the front part of
the chest, supported above by a lunate cartilage arising from the hinder
dorsal part of the ear, and in the centre by a bone, which extends about
half its length: this bone appears to be an elongation of the side fork
of the bone of the tongue, but it could not be determined with certainty
without injuring the specimen; each frill has four plaits, which converge
on the under part of the chin, and fold it up on the side, and a fifth
where the two are united in the centre of the lower part of the neck; the
front part of its upper edge is elegantly serrated, but the hinder or
lower part is quite whole; the outer surface is covered with keeled
scales, which are largest towards its centre; the inner surface is quite
smooth. The scales of the back are oval, smoothish; those of the lower
part of the body and upper part of the legs acutely mid-ribbed, and of
the sides and joints of the limbs minute. The tail is twice as long as
the body, roundish, covered with acutely mid-ribbed scales, which towards
the end form six rows, so as to render it obscurely six-sided; the end is
blunt: the toes long, very unequal, varying in joints, as stated in the
generic character (which includes also the claw joint) compressed, scaly;
the claws hooked, horn-coloured.

Length of the tail: 12 inches.
Length of the body: 5 inches.
Length of the head: 5 1/2 inches.
Breadth of the head over the eyes: 1 inch.
Length of the thigh: 1 9/10 inches.
Length of the foot and sole: 2 2/10 inches.
Length of the outer edge of the frill: 10 inches.

This interesting lizard was found by Mr. Allan Cunningham, who
accompanied the expedition as His Majesty's Botanical Collector for Kew
Gardens, on the branch of a tree in Careening Bay, at the bottom of Port
Nelson. (See volume 1.) It was sent by him to Sir Everard Home, by whom
it was deposited in the Museum of the College of Surgeons,* which
precluded my examination of its internal structure.

(*Footnote. Upon application to the Board of Curators of the College, I
was permitted to have a drawing made of this curious and unique specimen
for the Appendix of my work. The plate was engraved by Mr. Curtis, from
an exceedingly correct drawing made by my friend, Henry C. Field,
Esquire. P.P.K.)

Respecting this remarkable Lizard, Mr. Cunningham's journal contains the
following remarks. "I secured a lizard of extraordinary appearance, which
had perched itself upon the stem of a small decayed tree. It had a
curious crenated membrane like a ruff or tippet round its neck, covering
its shoulders, and when expanded, which it was enabled to do by means of
transverse slender cartilages, spreads five inches in the form of an open
umbrella. I regret that my eagerness to secure so interesting an animal
did not admit of sufficient time to allow the lizard to show by its alarm
or irritability how far it depended upon, or what use it made of, this
extraordinary membrane when its life was threatened. Its head was rather
large, and eyes, whilst living, rather prominent; its tongue, although
bifid, was short and thick, and appeared to be tubular." Cunningham
manuscripts.

Captain King informs me, that the colour of the tongue and inside of the
mouth was yellow.

2. Uaranus varius, Merrem.
Lacerta varia, White, Journal of a Voyage to New Holland, 253, t. 38.
Shaw, Nat. Misc. t. 83.
Tupinambis variegatus, Daud. Rept. iij. 76.
Monitor bigarre, Cuv. Reg. Anim. ij. 24.

This species, better known to English Dealers under the name of The Lace
Lizard, is peculiar in having the two series of the scales, placed on the
upper part of the centre of the tail, raised into a biserrated ridge, and
in the outer toe, or rather thumb, of the hinder-foot being long, and
reaching to the penultimate distal joint of the first or longest toe; the
claws are compressed, sharp.

Genus PHELSUMA. Gray.

Pedes quatuor, digitis fere aequalibus, totis lobatis, muticis; poris
femoralibus distinctis.

Caput et truncus supra tesserulis minutis, infra squamis minimis, tecti.

This genus, which appears to be confined to the Isle of France, differs
from the rest of the Geckonidae, by the toes being dilated the whole
length, and entirely clawless, and covered beneath with transverse
scales; by the thumb being very small and indistinct, and by the thighs
being furnished with a series of minute pores.

3. Phelsuma ornata (n.s.).
P. supra plumbea macula, fasciaque rufa ornata, subtus albida.
Icon. --
Inhabits Isle of France.

Head depressed, truncated in front, covered with minute ovate scales; the
front of the upper part lead-coloured, with a rather broad red band a
little before the eyes, and a white crescent-shaped spot on each side
immediately behind it, and then some obscure red shades just behind that;
the back lead-coloured and blue, with six longitudinal series of
irregular-sized red spots; belly whitish; tail rather longer than the
body. Body one inch and five-eighths, head half an inch, tail two inches
and a half long.

This animal is very interesting, as being the second species of a genus
recently established, which only consisted of P. cepedia, the Gecko
cepedien of Peron; Cuv. Reg. Anim. 2 46. and 4 t. 5. f. 5.; which has
somewhat the manner of colouring, but is very distinct from the Gecko
ocellatus of Oppel.

Genus TILIQUA. Gray.

Pedes quatuor pentadactyli, poris femoralibus nullis.
Caput scutatum; dentes in palato nulli.
Truncus regulariter squamosus.

This genus is distinguished from the true Skinks by the want of Palatine
teeth, the shorter body, and the holes of the ears being furnished on
their front part with a fringe. It differs from the succeeding Genus,
Trachysaurus, in the head being covered with distinct flat plates, and
the whole of the body with cut hexangular scales; the scales are harder
than those of the true Skink, but not so distinctly bony as those of the
Trachysaurus.

4. Tiliqua tuberculata. Gray.
Lacerta scincoides. Shaw, Nat. Misc.
Lacerta occidua. var. Shaw, Zool. iij. 289.
Scincus tuberculatus, Merrem. Syst. Amph. 73.
Scincoid, or Skink-formed Lizard, White, Journal 242.
Icon. White, l. c. t. 30. Shaw, N. M. t. 179; Zool. iij. t. 81.

This Lizard, which was first described in the excellent journal of Mr.
White, does not appear to be uncommon on the coast of Australia, as there
are several specimens both in the British Museum and in the collection of
the Linnean Society, that were probably taken in the neighbourhood of the
colony; the specimen before me was caught at Seal Island, in King George
the Third's Sound.

The scales of the whole of the body are broad, hexangular, with five or
six longitudinal, slightly-raised ridges, which gradually taper, and are
lost just before they reach the margin. The legs are short, thick; the
toes of the fore-feet are rather short, the outer reaching to the middle
of the second, the second and third equal; the fourth reaching to the
last joint of the third, and the little one to the second joint of the
fourth finger. In the hind foot the first and third toe are nearly equal,
and only half as long as the second; the fourth only half as long as the
third; and the fifth about half the length of the fourth toe.

Genus TRACHYSAURUS. Gray.

Pedes quatuor pentadactyli.
Caput sub-scutatum, dentes in palato nulli.
Truncus supra sqoamis crassis elongatis subspinosis, infra hexagonis
membranaceis imbricatis, tectus.
Cauda brevis, depressa.

This genus is at once distinguished from the former, and indeed from the
whole of the Scincidae, by the large hard scales that cover the back of
the body and head; which are formed of distinct triangular long plates,
rough on the outside, and covered with a membranaceous skin. The body
shields of the head pass gradually into the dorsal plates. The teeth
short, thick, and conical; the palate toothless. The belly and lower
surface of the tail are covered with large six-sided scales, like the
other genera of the family. The head is rather large, triangular. The
legs short, weak; the toes very short, covered only with as many scales
as there are joints; the outer and innermost being about half as long as
the three central toes, which are nearly of equal length; claws short,
conical, channelled beneath. The tail short, depressed.

5. Trachysaurus rugosus (n.s.)
T. squamis dorsi rugosis, caudae subspinosis; cauda brevissima.

The body nearly uniform, chestnut brown; the head depressed with the
scales convex, and more nearly of an equal size than usual: those round
the eyes and mouth large; the three anterior scales on the edge of the
lower jaw larger than those which cover the lower surface of the head,
body, and tail, which are uniform, distinct, large, and membranaceous:
the scales of the back are nearly of equal size with those covering the
commencement of the tail; they are furnished with a prominent midrib, and
end in a point. The legs very short, compressed, covered with nearly
smooth, rather thin, scales. The toes very short; claws rather thick, and
short. The tail about half the length of the body.

Head, three inches long.
Body, seven inches.
Tail, four inches.

Only one specimen of this exceedingly interesting animal was brought home
by Captain King, but the spirits in which it had been preserved had
unfortunately evaporated, so that it was considerably injured; there is,
however, a specimen, apparently of the same animal, in the collection of
the Linnean Society, which wants the end of its tail.

The above specimen was found at King George the Third's Sound, and is
preserved in the Museum.

6. Agama muricata. Daud.
Lacerta muricata, Shaw, in White's Journal of a Voyage to New South
Wales, 244.
Lacerta Agama, var. ? Shaw, Gen. Zool. iij. 211.
Muricated Lizard, Shaw.
Icon. Shaw, Gen. Zool. t. 65, and White's Journal t. 31. f. 2.

This lizard was first described in Mr. White's Journal, by the late Dr.
Shaw, who paid particular attention to that class of animals; but he was
afterwards inclined to consider it as only a variety of the common
Lacerta agama, or American Galeote, from which, however, it is quite
distinct.

It appears to be a young specimen, since its length is only seven inches,
whilst that described by Dr. Shaw was more than a foot in length; and
some have been caught even of a much larger size. The Doctor's figure is
remarkably good, but rather more spinous than the specimen under
examination, which is probably another proof of its youth. It was taken
and preserved by Mr. James Hunter, R.N., who accompanied Captain King as
surgeon during the Mermaid's third voyage, and has been presented by him
to the British Museum.

7. Disteira doliata. Lacepede, Ann. de Museum, D'Hist. Nat. 4 199. 210.
Enhydris doliatus, Merrem, Syst. Amph. 140.
Icon. Lacep. Ann. Mus. 4 t. 57. f. 2.

The series of small hexagonal shields on the abdomen of this curious
animal appears to be formed of two series of scales united laterally. The
length of the specimen brought home by Captain King exceeds four feet.
The figure by M. Lacepede seems to be too short, but his description
agrees admirably with our specimen, which has been presented to the
British Museum.

8. Leptophis* punctulatus (n.s.).
N. squamis laevibus apice uni-indentatis, spinae dorsalis triangularibus;
cauda quadrantali, tenui, squamis aequalibus.

(*Footnote. I have adopted Mr. Bell's manuscript name for this genus
since his paper was read at the Zoological club of the Linnean Society,
before the publication of my genera of Reptiles in the Annals of
Philosophy, where I erroneously considered it as synonymous with Dr.
Leach's genus Macrosoma instead of my Ahaetulla. J.E.G.)

Scales uniform, pale brown, with a minute black dot impressed on the
apex: body slender, compressed: abdominal scutae rather broad. The series
of scales on the side next to the ventral plates ovate and blunt; those
on the sides narrow, linear, in five series; the series of scales along
the centre of the back long, triangular. This arrangement of the scales
gradually assumes a uniform appearance on the neck close to the head,
where they are ovate. Head rather long with nine plates, frontal plate
being divided; the snout very blunt, truncated; the upper central labial
scale octangular, with a deep concavity on the labial margin; the
anterior and posterior mental scales long. The tail one-fourth the length
of the body, covered with uniform ovate quadrangular scales. Length, four
feet.

This species appears to have a considerable affinity to the genus named
Macrosoma by Dr. Leach, but not described by him, and is very much like
Coluber decorus of Shaw. It belongs to the group called by English
Zoologists, Whip Snakes.

The specimen above described was taken by Mr. James Hunter, at Careening
Bay, on the north coast, and presented by him to the British Museum.

9. Leptophis spilotus.
Coluber spilotus, Lacepede, Ann. Mus. iv 209.

A specimen of this snake was brought home by Captain King, agreeing very
well with the short description given by Lacepede, in his account of some
new species of animals from New Holland. It has not been taken notice of
in the modern works on Reptiles. It may, perhaps, be distinct from it;
but upon considering that upwards of two hundred species of this genus
have been already described, I thought it best not to increase the number
without very good reason. This species forms a second section in the
genus Leptophis, on account of the form of its scales, particularly those
of the throat.

Captain King has informed me that turtles of two or three kinds are
common on the coasts of Australia, particularly within the tropic; and
Alligators were seen, in great abundance, in the rivers of the northern
and north-western coasts, particularly in those that empty themselves
into the bottom of Van Diemen's Gulf; but as no specimens of either of
these animals were preserved, no further notice can be taken of them.*

(*Footnote. The turtle that frequents the North-east Coast, in the
neighbourhood of Endeavour River, is a variety of the Testudo mydas. See
Banks and Solander manuscripts.)

...

PISCES.

BY JOHN EDWARD GRAY, ESQUIRE, M.G.S.

1. Tetraodon argenteus. Lacepede, Ann. Mus. 4 203.
Icon. Ann. Mus. l.c. t. 58. f. 2.

2. Chironectes tuberosus, G. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. 3 432.
Icon. --

There are two other species of this genus in Captain King's collection,
which appear to be new.

3. Balistes australis. Donovan. Naturalist. Repos. 26.
Icon. l.c.

4. Teuthis australis (n.s.).
T. fusca, fasciis sexta transversis nigro-fuscis, cauda truncata.
Icon. --

Body brown, paler beneath, with six transverse blackish-brown bands; the
first placed across the eye and front angle of the gill flap; the second
obliquely across the pectoral fin, and the three next, nearly
equidistant, straight across the body, the last band placed between the
spine and the base of the rays of the tail; and with a black longitudinal
line between the eyes. Teeth flat, rather broad, rounded at the end, and
denticulated. The gills flat, unarmed; pectoral fin subacute, triangular;
ventral fin triangular, supported by a very strong first ray; dorsal and
anal fins rounded. Tail truncated, spine on the side of the tail very
distinct, imbedded in a sheath.

Pectoral fin, fifteen rays, first very short: Ventral fin, five rays, one
very strong, short. Dorsal fin, thirty-one; anterior very strong, first
short. Anal fin, twenty-three; two first very strong and short. Caudal
fin, sixteen rays, divided.

Body 3; tail 1 1/4 inches long. Body 2 3/4 high; dorsal fin 3/4; pectoral
fin 1 1/4 inches long.

This fish belongs to the Genus Acanthurus of Bloch, adopted by Shaw
(Harpurus, of Forster) but as that genus is apparently formed from the
type of Linnaeus' Genus, Teuthis, I have adopted the latter name for
those Chetodons which have one spine on each side of the tail, and
Acanthurus for those that have two. They are usually called Lancet-fish,
from the curious structure of the sub-caudal spines.

Captain King has presented to the Museum seven or eight other sorts of
fish, in spirits, and several interesting drawings, which I have not
hitherto been enabled to find in any of the works on Ichthyology, but so
little is known of the genera and species of this department of Natural
History, that I am not inclined to describe them as new, for fear of
increasing the confusion at present existing.

Among the unnamed fish, there is one exactly similar to a species found
by my late friend Mr. Cranch, in the South Atlantic.

5. Squalus ocellatus. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1494.
Squalus oculatus. Banks and Solander, manuscripts.

6. Squalus glaucus.

Captain King observes, this fish is frequently found in the neighbourhood
of the coast.

7. Squalus. Captain King in his manuscripts observes, that a species of
shark was observed commonly near the shores, having a short nose, with a
very capacious mouth; the body was of an ash grey colour, marked with
darker spots, of a round shape, and about two inches in diameter. This
shark was usually ten or eleven feet long.

...

ANNELIDES.

1. Leodice gigantea. Savigny Syst. des Annel. page 49. Lam. 5 322.
Eunice gigantea, Cuv. Reg. Anim. 2 524.
Nereis aphroditois, Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop. 2 229. table 5. figure 1.7.
Terebella aphroditois, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 3114.

The specimen brought by Captain King is nearly five feet long, and was
procured at the Isle of France.

...

ANNULOSA.

CATALOGUE OF INSECTS, COLLECTED BY CAPTAIN KING, R.N.

BY WILLIAM SHARP MACLEAY, ESQUIRE, A.M., F.L.S.

The collection consists of one hundred and ninety-two species, of which
one hundred and thirty belong to the class Mandibulata, fifty-eight to
Haustellata, and four to the Arachnida. Eighty-one of the species are
new, and the extent to which each order of winged insects has been
collected, will be best understood from the following summary.

COLUMN 1: MANDIBULATA.
COLUMN 2: HAUSTELLATA.

108 Coleoptera : 40 Lepidoptera.
8 Orthoptera : 2 Homoptera.
5 Neuroptera : 8 Hemiptera.
9 Hymenoptera : 8 Diptera.

Total 188 Species.

This number is, of course, not sufficient to allow any general remarks to
be founded on the collection, and the following Catalogue is, therefore,
merely descriptive.

CLASS MANDIBULATA.

Order COLEOPTERA.

1. Panagaeus quadrimaculatus. Oliv. Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat.

Obs. There is a wretched figure of this insect given in the fourth volume
of Cuvier's Regne Animal.

2. Paecilus kingii (n.s.) P. atronitidus, antennis tomentosis obscuris,
basi et apice piceis, labri margine antico palpisque rufo-piceis, thorace
linea media longitudinali vix marginem
posticum attingente fossulaque utrinque postica, elytris striatis vix
atro-aeneis tibiis ad apicem tarsisque atro-piceis.

3. Gyrinus rufipes. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. page 276. 13.

Obs. The description of this species, as given by Fabricius is very
vague; but as it applies tolerably well to the insect collected by
Captain King, I have not thought proper to give it a new name.

4. Silpha lacrymosa. Schreiber, in Linnean Transactions 6 194. t. 20, f.
5.

5. Creophilus erythrocephalus.
Staphylinus erythrocephalus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 593. 19.

6. Hister cyaneus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1 page 88. 13.

7. Hister. speciosus. Dej. Cat. page 48.

8. Passalus polyphyllus (n.s.) P. ater depressiusculus, antennis
sex-lamellatis, vertice tuberculis tribus, intermedio majore compressa
linearum superiorem duarum elevatarum transversarum dissecante, thoracis
lateribus rufo-ciliatis, elytrorum striis lateralibus punctatis.

9. Passalus edentulus (n.s.) P. ater convexiusculus antennis triphyllis,
verticis cornu elevato incurva canaliculato apice emarginato, tuberculo
utrinque acuto, elytrorllm striis subpunctatis, mandibulis concavis extus
dentatis.

Obs. This insect is much less in size than the former, and is more
convex.

10. Lamprima aenea. Horae Entom. 1 page 101. 3.

11. Dasygnathus dejeanii. Horae Entom. 1 page 141. 1.

12. Trox alternans (n.s.) T. capite antice linea angulati elevata
marginato, thorace lineis quatuor mediis elevatis, exterioribus
interruptis tuberculisque utrinque duobus inaequalibus, elytris
tuberculis striatim dispositis, striis alternatim majoribus.

13. Melolontha festiva. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 171. page 63.

Obs. This most beautiful insect ought to be considered as the type of a
new genus near to Serica.

14. Diphucephala sericea. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 page 463.

Obs. This genus I had named Agrostiphila in my manuscripts, but M. Dejean
has since published it under the name of Diphucephala.

15. Diphucephala splendens (n.s.). D. viridis nitidissima antennis
palpisque nigris, capite antice thoracisque lateribus subpunctatis, media
canaliculato, elytris punctis rugosis seriatim dispositis, corpore subtus
hirsutie incano.

An Melolontha colaspidoides, Schon. App. 101. ?

16. Cetonia variegata. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 page 157. 112.
C. luctuosa. Lat. in Cat. Mus. Gall.

Obs. This insect is an inhabitant of the Isle of France, and was probably
collected by Captain King during his stay in that island.

17. Cetonia australasiae. Donov. Ins. of New Holland, table 1.

18. Cetonia dorsalis. Donov. Ins. of New Holland, table 1.

19. Anoplognathus viridiaeneus. Horae. Ent. 1 page 144. 1.

20. Anoplognathus viriditarsis. Leach. Zool. Miscel. 2 44.

21. Anoplognathus rugosus. Kirby, Linnean Transactions 12 405.

22. Anoplognathus inustus. Kirby, Linnean Transactions 12 405.

23. Repsimus aeneus.
Melolontha aenea. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 page 166. 30.

24. Repsimus dytiscoides. Horae. Entom. 1 page 144. 2.

25. Buprestis macularis.
Buprestis macularia. Don. Ins. of New Holland, table 8.

26. Buprestis imperialis. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 page 204. 98.

27. Buprestis suturalis. Don. Ins. of New Holland, table 8.

28. Buprestis variabilis. Don. Ins. of New Holland, table 7.

29. Buprestis kingii (n.s.) B. elytris striatis nigro-violaceis
testaceo-quadrifasciatis haud bidentatis, thorace punctato nigro-aeneo
lateribus testaceis.

Obs. This species comes perhaps too near to some of the darker varieties
of B. variabilis, of the true appearance of which scarcely any idea can
be formed from the figures of Donovan. Our insect bears a remarkable
similarity to a Surinam Buprestis, with serrated elytra.

30. Buprestis bimaculata. Lin. Syst. Nat. 2 662. 16. Oliv. Ins. 2 32,
table 12, figure 140.

Obs. This is an East Indian Insect; and, as Captain King collected a few
species in the Isle of France, this is probably one of them.

31. Buprestis fissiceps. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 page 458,
table 23, figure 4.

32. Buprestis lapidosa (n.s.) B. cuprea scabrosa thorace lineis duabus
parallelis longitudinalibus elevatis, elytris integris subacuminatis
substriatis inter tuberculos punctatis, corpore subtus aeneo.

33. Elater xanthomus (n.s.) E. ater antennis apicem versus dilatatis
serratis, thorace punctato canaliculato, elytris punctatis striatis
pubescentibus basi late auratis dimidiatis.

Obs. This insect is about four lines long, and entirely black, except the
upper half of the elytra.

34. Elater nigro-terminatus (n.s.) E. luteus cavite antennisque atris,
thorace convexo macula longitudinali sub-acuminata a margine antico ultra
medium attingente, elytris punctato~striatis apice late nigris, anoque
nigro.

Obs. This insect is about the same length with the former, having its
feet and underside entirely yellow, excepting the head and a black anal
spot, something like the letter V.

35. Lycus serraticornis. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. volume 2 1ll. 6.

36. Lycus septemcavus (n.s.) L. ater thorace parabolico fossulis septem,
quatuor anticis fere aequalibus, posticarum media angusta lanciformi,
duabus lateralibus latis antice emarginatis. Scutello quadrato nigro;
elytrls rubris marginatis lineis quatuor elevatis, interstitiis duplici
serie punctorum transversorum crenatis.

37. Lycus rhipidium (n.s.) L. ater antennis fiabellatis; thorace angulis
porrectis obtusis, fossulis septem, posticarum trium media longitudinali
lanciformi; scutello quadrato nigro; elytris rubris marginatis lineis
novem elevatis, quatuor alternatim majoribus, interstitiis crenatis.

38. Telephorus pulchellus (n.s.) T. capite thoraceque nigro-nitidis,
hujus margine postico late rufo, elytris viridi-caeruleis tomentosis
punctatis ad suturam marginatis, corpore pedibusque nigris abdomine
subtus rufo.

39. Malachius verticalis, (n.s.) M. rufo-testaceus vertice antennisque
apice nigro-nitidis, thorace testaceo. elytris fascia humerali mediaque
violaceis, postpectore pedibus anoque nigris.

40. Clerus cruciatus (n.s.) C. testacea tomentosa, capite thoracis
lateribus elytrorumque maculis duabus longitudinalibus, quarum postica
latiori, nigris, elytris striato-punctatis apice rufescentibus, antennis
piceis. pedibus palpisque pallidis.

41. Oedemera livida. Oliv. Ins. 50, table 1 figure 2.
Dryops livida. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 68. 3.

42. Oedemera lineata. Oliv. Ins. 50, table 1 figure 4.
Dryops lineata. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 68. 4.

Obs. I suspect this insect to be merely a variety of the former species.

43. Oedemera punctum (n.s.) Oe. flavo-nitida antennis obscuris, fronte
puncto atro-nitido impresso, thorace lunula utrinque atro-nitida
impresso, scutello flavo, elytris nigro-fuscis limbo et sutura testaceis,
geniculis tibiis tarsisque nigris.

44. Lagria tomentosa. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. volume 2 page 70. 9.

45. Lagria rufescens. Dej. Cat. 72.

46. Cistela securigera (n.s.) C. subtus picea supra brunnea pubescens,
antennis apice palporumque articulo ultimo securiformi nigris, elytris
punctis crenatis striatis.

47. Amarygmus tristis.
Cnodulon triste. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 page 13. 4.

Obs. The characters of this genus are given by Fabricius under the head
of Cnodulon, but the true Cnodulon of M. Latreille is a native of St.
Domingo, and a different genus of which the characters are to be found in
the Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum. The genus has, however, been of
late more accurately investigated by Dalman, in his Analecta
Entomologica, and he has given it the name of Amarygmus.

48. Amarygmus viridicollis (n.s.) A. convexiusculus capite thoraceque
viridi-caeruleis, elytris cupreis striato-punctatis, corpore subtus
chalybeo pedibusque nigris.

49. Amarygmus velutinus (n.s.) A. atro-nitidus glaberrimus labri margine
rubro, elytris nigro-aeneis punctorum striis minutissimis.

Obs. This beautiful insect is one of the largest of a genus which
contains a great number of species.

50. Adelium calosoioides. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 page 420. 57.
table 22. figure 2.

51. Adelium caraboides. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 page 466. 17.

52. Phalidura mirabilis.
Curculio mirabilis. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 469. 21. table 23,
figure 9.

Obs. The characters of this most singular genus Phalidura are chiefly to
be found in the broken clavate antennae, short thick rustrum, connate
elytra, and singular anal forceps of the male.

53. Phalidura kirbii (n.s.) P. nigro-fusca clypeo subfurcato utrinque
canaliculato, thorace confertim noduloso, elytris lineis elevatis
interstitiis crenatis lateribusque punctato-striatis.

54. Phalidura draco (n.s.) P. atrofusca vertice concavo cruce impresso,
clypeo emarginato, thorace depresso utrinque dilatato dentato margine
antico tuberculato tuberculourmque lineis quatuor duabus mediis
longitudinalibus, elytris punctis elevatis scabrosis utrinque dentibus
acutis seriatim armatis, lateribus seriatim nudulosis medioque linea
tuberculorum sub-duplici instructo.

Obs. This and the following species are not true Phalidurae; at least
neither appears to have the anal forceps, but as they come close in
affinity to the genus Phalidura, I have not for the present ventured to
give them a new generic name.

55. Phalidura marshami. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 436. 77.

Obs. This insect appears to be a Chrysolopus in M. Dejean's Catalogue.

56. Hybauchenia nodulosa (n.s.) H. atra capite laevi vel punctis
minutissimis impresso, clypeo canaliculato, thorace irregulariter
noduloso, elytris sutura laeviori punctis que elevatis striatis striis
duabus a sutura alternatim majoribus.

Obs. I regret that I am not able to give the detailed characters of this
genus at present. I shall merely, therefore, say that it has the broken
clavate antennae of Phalidura, only they are here longer than the head
and thorax taken together. The body is very convex:, having the thorax as
wide as the abdomen, subquadrate, with very convex sides. Abdomen joined
to thorax by a distinct peduncle. Elytra very convex, with almost
perpendicular sides. Feet long, with rather incrassated femora.

57. Chrysolopus spectabilis.
Curculio spectabilis. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 537. 184.

58. Chrysolupus echidna (n.s.) C. atrofuscus vertice trilineato, thorace
punctis scabro medio concavo subcarinato lineis utrinque elevatis,
elytris crenatis seriebus spinarum duabus interiori anum versus
abbreviata; spinis anticis depressis obtusis, posticis acutis.
C. echidna. Dej. Cat. 88.

59. Chrysolopus tuberculatus (n.s.) C. fuscus vertice lineato, thorace
punctis scabro medio canaliculato, elytris punctis seriatim impressis,
tuberculorumque seriebus tribus minutis interiori abbreviata; tuberculo
postico suturali maximo.

60. Chrysolopus quadridens.
Curculio 4-dens. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 536. 175.

Obs. The three last species can scarcely be considered to belong to the
same genus with C. spectabilis; but I follow M. Dejean until the whole
family be more accurately investigated.

61. Gastrodus crenulatus.
Curculio crenulatus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 518. 64.

62. Gastrodus albolineatus (n.s.) G. niger thorace scabriusculo rugis
transversis duabus lineaque laterali alba, elytris nigris
striato-punctatis sutura striaque media elevatis laevibus linea laterali
alba haud apicem attingente, apice rufescente albo-punctato.

63. Festus rubripes (n.s.) F. niger capite linea transversa constricto;
vertice lineis quatuor elevatis clypeoque tribus, antennis piceis clava
obscura, thorace punctis elevatis scabro: elytris punctis impressis
striatis, punctis conspicuis argenteo-squamigeris pedibus rufis geniculis
obscuris.

Obs. I am doubtful whether this insect truly belongs to Megerle's genus
Festus. The antennae are much shorter than in Pachygaster.

64. Cenchroma lanuginosa. Dej. Cat. page 95.

65. Cenchroma obscura (n.s.) C. nigra squamis cinereis asperga clypeo
lineis duabus mediis approximatis elevatis lateribus albis, thorace
canaliculato, elytris punctis impressis striatis squamisque cinereis
subaureis praesertim ad latera aspersis, corpore subtus ad latera
pedibusque albo-squamosis.

66. Curculio cultratus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 586. 173.
Oliv. Ins. 83. figure 157.

Obs. This is a new genus of the Curculionidae, but as I am not able in
this place to give the characters of it, I prefer to cite the insect
under its Fabrician title.

67. Rhynchaenus cylindrirostris. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 463. 125.
Oliv. Ins. 83, figure 128.

Obs. This insect is altogether as different from the true Rhynchaeni, as
the preceding one is from the true Curculiones.

68. Rhynchaenus bidens. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 457. 96.
Oliv. Ins. 83. figure 113.

Obs. This is also not a true Rhynchaenus, but is a very singular insect
in appearance, as the acute spine, which rises from each elytron, appears
to be its peculiar defence against entomological collectors.

69. Eurhinus scabrior. Kirby. in Linnean Transactions 12 page 428. 65.

70. Rhinotia haemoptera. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12 page 426.

71. Orthorhynchus suturalis (n.s.) O. nigro-fuscus punctis impressus
vertice ad oculos albo-bilineato, thorace fossula postica media alba,
elytris ad suturam linea pilis alba, corpore subtus lateribus albis.

72. Carpophagus banksiae (n.s.) C. nigro-fuscus pilis albis aspersus
capite thoraceque punctatis linea media glabra divisis, scutello cinereo,
elytris rugosis lineis quatuor subelevatis, corpore subtus pedibusque
cinereo-sericeis.

Table B. figure 1.

Obs. This curious insect is said to be found on the Banksia, and would
probably, with Linnaeus, have been a Bruchus. The following are the
characters of this new genus.

CARPOPHAGUS (novum genus.)

Antennae ante oculos insertae filiformes articulo basilari crassiori,
secundo subgloboso brevissimo, ultimo apice conico acuto,

Labrum semicirculare margine antico integro rotundato ciliato.

Mandibulae validae corneae arcuatae, intus apicem versus subsinuatae
edentulae basin versus ciliatae vel submembranaceae.

Maxillae basi corneae processubus duobus membranaceis apicem versus
instructae, lobo externo vel apicali ovali extus ciliato; interno
tenuiori lanciformi apice acuto.

Palpi maxillares breves crassi vix ultra maxillarum apicem extensi,
quadriarticulati articulo stipitali vix conspicuo secundo obconico tertio
subgloboso breviori ultimo ovali obtuso.

Palpi labiales triarticulati articulo stipitali minimo, secundo obconico
longiore, ultimo crassiori ovato, apice truncato.

Labium obcordatum basi corneum angustius apice membranaceum medio
emarginatum ciliatum lobo utrinque rotundato.

Mentum semicirculare antice rotundatum medio emarginato sive edentulo.

Caput porrectum oculis prominulis thorace angustiua clypeo quadrato
vertice inter oculos fossulis duabus antice convergentibus. Thorax haud
marginatus lateribus haud rotundatis subcylindricus antice angustius,
postice sublobatus. Scutellum tuberculare mucronatum. Abdomen thorace
duplo latius. Elytra convexa humeris eminentibus postice divergentia
rotundata. Pedes pentameri articulis tribus tarsorum primis ciliatis
pulvillatis dilatatis, tertio bilobo, quarto brevissimo et quinto
tenuibus obconicis, hoc biunguiculato. Femora postica valde incrassata
intus unidentata; dente magno. Tibiae posticae compressae apice
dilatatae.

73. Megamerus kingii (n.s.) M. nigro-fuscus labro palpisque piceis
thorace vix punctato postice rugoso, elytris rugis vel punctis
confluentibus substriatis fossula ad humeros profunda lineaque suturali
impressis, corpore subtus pilis sub-sericeo pedibusque concoloribus.

Table B. figure 2.

Obs. This singular insect has an affinity to Sagra, but differs from that
genus in having setiform antennae, porrect mandibles, and securiform
palpi. Its habit is also totally different from that of a Sagra, and more
like that of some of those insects which belong to the heterogeneous
magazine called Prionus. It is, undoubtedly, the most singular and novel
form in Captain King's collection, and forms a new genus, of which the
characters are as follow.

MEGAMERUS (novum genus).

Antennae inter oculos insertae filiformes vel potius setaceae articulo
basilari crassiori secundo subgloboso brevissimo apicali acuto.

Labrum transverso-quadratum antice submembranaceum tomentosum
subemarginatum.

Mandibulae exertae porrectae supra convexiusculae lunulatae vel
falciformes dorso subsinuatae apice vel extus oblique truncatae
acutissimae.

Maxillae basi corneae processubus duobus submembranaceis apicem versus
instructae, lobo externo vel apicali ovali extus ciliato, interno
tenuiori apice subacuto margineque interno vix unidentato.

Palpi maxillares quadriarticulati, articulo stipitali minimo inconspicuo,
secundo obconico longo duobus ultimis simul sumptis longitudine fere
aequali, tertio obconico crassiori, ultimo securiformi compressa.

Palpi labiales triarticulati articulo stipitali minimo inconspicuo,
secundo longo obconico setis quibusdam ad apicem instructo, tertio
triangulari compresso vel securiformi.

Labium membranaceum cordatam antice bilobum, lobis elongatis ciliatis
interno latere rectilineari extus ad apicem rotundatis.

Mentum semicirculare antice rotundatum margine antico emarginato.

Caput porrectum oculis prominentibus thorace haud angustius. Thorax
convexus antice posticeque marginatus lateribus rotundatis haud
marginatis. Scutellum triangulare subacutum. Abdomen thorace fere duplo
latius. Elytra humeris eminentibus marginatis, lateribus parallelis.
Pedes pentameri articulis tribus tarsorom primis ciliatis pulvillatis
dilatatis, penultimo bilobo, ultimo tenui biunguiculato. Femora postica
valde incrassata intus unidentata. Tibiae posticae compressae apice
dilatatae angulo externo acuto.

Obs. The structure of the tarsus in this genus, so near in affinity to
Carpophagus and Sagra, has led me to investigate more minutely the tarsus
in the tetramerous and trimerous insects of the French entomologists, and
the result has been that the arrangement given in the third volume of M.
Cuvier's Regne Animal, is discovered to be as erroneous in point of
description, as it is inconsistent with natural affinities.

74. Prionus bidentatus. Don. Ins. of New Holland, table 6.

75. Prionus fasciatus. Don. Ins. of New Holland, table 6.

76. Prionus spinicollis (n.s.) P. piceus antennis filiformibus basi
nigris articulo ultimo vix crassiore, capite fusco tomentoso, thorace
nigro-fusco punctis scabroso, lateribus spinulosus, in medio postice
carina laevi tuberculoque utrinque magno compressa scabro; scutello piceo
nigro-marginato, elytris testaceis punctulatis substriatis apice
unidentatis, pectoris lateribus rufo-tomentosis.

77. Distichocera maculicollis. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions 12.

78. Distichocera ? rubripennis (n.s.) D. rufo-testacea subtomentosa,
capitis lateribus oreque nigris, vertice canaliculato, antennis nigris
articulis vix biramosis ramis sinistris brevissimis, thorace atro vitta
utrinque rufotestacea, scutello nigro, elytris rufo-testaceis tomentosis
apice obtusis dehiscentibus, corpore cuneiformi subtus villo argenteo
micante, abdomine utrinque nigro maculato, pedibus nigris.

Obs. This insect may be considered a Molorchus with elytra as long as its
wings; and it, therefore, evidently connects this genus with
Distichocera.

79. Clytus thoracicus. Don. Sys. of New Holland, table 5.

Obs. This insect leaves the typical form of Clytus, so much as to make me
hesitate in placing it in the genus.

80. Callidium bajulus. Fab. Syst. Eleulh. 2 333. 2.

Obs. This insect answers perfectly well to the specific description as
given by Fabricius, but is rather larger than the European insect, and
has eight obsolete white spots disposed in two parallel bands on the back
of the elytra.

81. Callidium erosum (n.s.) C. nigrum capite punctato, ore testaceo,
antennis apice fuscis, thorace tomentoso punctato vel potius punctis
confluentibus eroso disco rufo medio subtuberculato, elytris acuminatis
apice deflexis lineis duabus elevatis interstitiis punctis confertissimis
pulcherrime erosis sutura margineque rufis, corpore subtus pedibusque
tomentosis.

Var. B. Major, cavite rufo antennis fuscis, elytris rufis litura inter
lineas duas elevatas solum nigricante, pedibus nigropiceis.

82. Callidium solandri.
Lamia solandri. Oliv. Ins. 67. 133. Plate 16. figure 118.
Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 292. 97.

Obs. I place Olivier's Synonym in this case first; because the Fabrician
description is so erroneous, that did we not know the original insect in
the Banksian Collection, there would be no possibility of making it out.

83. Stenochorus semipunctatus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 306, 8.

Obs. This and the three following species belong to the Stenochori
Callidiiformes of Schonnher.

84. Stenochorus acanthocerus (n.s.) S. fusco-ferrugineus capite punctato,
antennis rubris articulo tertio quarto quinto et sexto apice spinosis,
ore rubro, maxillis elongatis apice ciliatis membranaceis, palpis
securiformibus, thorace obscuro utrinque unispinoso margine antico
tuberculisque dorsalibus utrinque duobus posticoque semicirculari rubris,
scutello rubro; elytris rubris fasciis tribus nigris undatis, ad basin
inter lineas elevatas subcrenatis apicemque versus punctatis apice
bidentatis; corpore subtus nigro-nitido tomentoso pedibus rubris.

85. Stenochorus dorsalis (n.s.) S. fulvo-piceus capite angusto, labro
palpisque testaceis, vertice canaliculato, thorace inaequaliter rugoso
eminentia media ovali glabra tribusque aliis utrinque inconspicuis,
elytris bidentatis lineis subelevatis interstitiisque punctatis macula
media suturali testacea antice subemarginata, antennis subtus villosis
articulis apice haud spinosis, corpore pedibusque piceis femoribus
incrassatis.

86. Stenochorus tunicatus (n.s.) S. flavus antennarum articulis duobus
primis nigris quinto apice septimo nonoque nigris, thorace subcylindrico
utrinque unidentato supra quadrituberculato tuberculis anticis majoribus,
elytris apice flavis unidentatis, parte basali ultra medium
subviolaceo-flava linea obliqua terminata, corpore pedibusque
flavo-testaceis.

87. Stenoderus abbreviatus. Dej. Cat. 112.
Cerambyx abbreviatus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth.
Leptura ceramboides. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions volume 12 page 472.

Obs. This is certainly Mr. Kirby's Leptura ceramboides, and perfectly
agrees with the Fabrician description of the Cerambyx abbreviatus, except
that no mention is there made of its mouth being yellow. Mr. Kirby says
of this insect, "a habitu Lepturae omnino recedit Cerambycibus propior,"
and certainly were it allowable to judge entirely from habit, it would
seem to connect those American Saperdae of Fabricius and Olivier which
have bearded antennae, such as (S. plumigera, Oliv., barbicornis, Fab.)
with some other family, perhaps the Oedemeridae. But, however this may
be, the genus Stenoderus differs from the Cerambycidae, and agrees with
the Lepturidae, inasmuch as it has the antennae inserted between the
eyes.

88. Stenoderus concolor (n.s.) S. obscure testceus, antennis articulo
basilari longo apice crassiori, capite thoraceque cylindrico constricto
subrufis, elytris testaceis punctatis lineis quatuor elevatis.

89. Lamia vermicularis. Schon. in App. Syn. Ins. page 169, 234.
L. vermicularia. Don. Ins. Fab. 5.

90. Lamia rugicollis. Schon. in App. Syn. Ins. page 169, 234.

91. Lamia bidens. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 304. 124.

92. Acanthocinus piliger (n.s.) A. antennis obscuris pilosis apicem
versus cinereo-annulatis, capite cinereo vertice nigro bilineato, thorace
obscuro cinereo inaequali postice subcanaliculato medio utrinque
tuberculato, elytris obscuris fasciculis minutis nigris flavis
cinereisque variegatis, fascia media cinerea undata cristaque tuberculata
humeros versus.

93. Notoclea immaculata. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 291, table
25. figure 4.

94. Notoclea variolosa. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 285, table 24.
figure 1.

95. Notoclea reticulata. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 285, table
24. figure 2.

96. Notoclea 4-maculata. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 287, table
24. figure 6.

Obs. I suspect that this insect is merely a variety of N. reticulata.

97. Notoclea atomaria. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 286, table 24.
figure 3.

98. Notoclea splendens (n.s.) N. splendidissime cuprea antennis piceis,
scutello nigro, thorace postice elytrorum sutura maculisque duabus
dorsalibus caeruleo-viridibus, elytris novem striis punctorum
subtilissime impressis.

99. Notoclea testacea. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 289. table 24.
figure 10.

100. Notoclea 8-maculata. Marsham, in Linnean Transactions 9 294. table
25. figure 10.

101. Podontia nigrovaria (n.s.) P. rufa thorace punctis quatuor utrinque
inter latus et fossulas anticas duas divergentes in lineam transversam
dispositis, scutellu piceo, elytris testaceis nigro-variis striatis
striis punctatis, corpore subtus pedibusque rufis, femoribus posticis
valde incrassatis.

Obs. This insect bears a great affinity to Chrysomela 14-punctata, Fab.,
and other Asiatic insects of this type, which have been separated from
Chrysomela by Dalman in his Ephemerides Entomologicae, under the name of
Podontia.

102. Phyllocharis cyanicornis. Dalman. Ephem. Entom. 21. Chrysomela
cyanicornis. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1 page 436. 85.

103. Phyllocharis klugii (n.s.) P. rufo-testacea antennis scutello
pedibusque atro-cyaneis, capite puncto verticali, thorace macula
posticali, elytris punctato-striatis maculis duabus anticis cruceque
apicali atro-cyaneis, abdomine subtus atro-cyaneo limbo rufo.

Obs. This species comes very near to the Chrysomela cyanipes of
Fabricius, and is probably only a variety of it.

104. Chrysomela 18-guttata. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1 439. 101.
Don. Ins. of New Holland, table 2.

105. Chrysomela curtisii. Kirby, in Linnean Transactions volume 12.

106. Cryptocephalus tricolor. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2 51. 55.
Var. beta. Thoracis macula media nigra.

107. Cassida deusta. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1 396.44.
Oliv. Ins. 97. table 1 figure 17.

108. Coccinella kingii (n.s.) C. pallide testacea thorace medio maculis
quinque nigris duabus anticis elongatia tribusque posticis rotundatis,
elytris nigro-tripunctatis punctis humeralibus duobus alioque media
marginali.

Order ORTHOPTERA.

109. Blatta australis (n.s.) B. elongato-ovata, ferrugineo-fusca thorace
suborbiculato-quadrato, marginibus laterali et posticali lunulisque
utrinque duabus paulisper impressis, fascia ante marginem posticum nigrum
lata alba transversa, et lineolis duabus longitudinalibus mediis rufis
carinulam formantibus in furcam flavam ad marginem anticum desinentibus.

Obs. The elytra of the male are much longer than the abdomen.

110. Mantis quinquedens (n.s.) M. dilute-viridis thorace haud tripla
longiore quam latiore, dorso parte antica, canaliculata excepta
longitrorsum carinato, marginibus lateralibus denticulatis, elytris
thorace duplo longioribus elongato-ovatis dilute viridibus margine
externo maculaque media elevata flavescentibus; alis hyalinis dilute
ferrugineis margine antico apiceque subfuscis; pedibus anticis coxis
denticulatis margine interna piceo lineis quatuor albis elevatis
transversis in dentes desinentibus.

111. Mantis darchii (n.s.) M. dilute viridis thorace quadruplo longiore
quam latiore, dorso parte antica canaliculata excepta longitrorsum
carinato, marginibus lateralibus postice haud denticulatis, elytris
thorace haud duplo longioribus linearibus acuminatis antice viridibus
margine flavescente postice subhyalinis subfuscis, nervo costam versus
crassiore, aiis apice acuminatis margine antico dilute rufescente, medio
nigro punctis hyalinis et parte postica fusca obscura vix maculata.

Mantis darchii. Captain P.P. King, manuscripts.

Obs. This insect has been named by Captain King after his friend Thomas
Darch, Esquire, of the Admiralty.

112. Phasma titan (n.s) P. corpore decem unciarum longo, subcinereo-fusco
lineari, thorace spinulis quibusdam raris acutis elytris longiore, his
nigro-viridibus testaceo maculatis maculaque in marginis antici medio
magna alba, alis membranaceis nigro-fuscis albo-maculatis, antice
coriaceis ad basin rubris nigro-maculatis ad apicem nigro-viridibus
testaceo maculatis, pedibus albo-cinereis coxis anticis trigonis angulo
inferiori dentibus magnis rufis postico minoribus et superiori nullis.

Obs. This immense insect, which is nearly a foot long, is now for the
first time described, although it seems to be not uncommon in New South
Wales. Although much larger, it comes very near to the P. Gigas of
Linnaeus and Stoll, and like it, belongs to Lichtenstein's division, thus
characterized, "Alata elytris alisque in utroque sexu."

113. Phasma tiartum (n.s.) P. corpore fere quinque unciarum longo
cuneiformi viridi, capite tiara acuminata spinulosa coronato, thorace
antice angusto subdepresso spinuloso postice dilatato convexiori
marginibus lateralibus denticulatis, abdomine antice cylindrico medio
valde dilatato margine dentato et in processum segmentorum trium linearem
desinente segmentis supra binis laminis dentatis in medio armatis,
elytris viridibus subovatis minutis alarum rudimentis brevioribus;
pedibus viridibus coxis triquetris, anticis angulo interiori tridentato,
superiori denticulato processu ad apicem cristato, inferiori dilatato
rotundato, quatuor posticis dilatatis ovatis margine denticulatis,
femoribus anticis extus dilatatis rotundatis apicem versus
subemarginatis, quatuor posticis triquetris angulis dentatis exteriori
valde dilatato. Table B. figure 3 et 4.

Obs. I have been thus particular in the description of this rare insect,
in order to afford as much information as possible to the naturalist, who
may be inclined to investigate the natural arrangement of the Phasmina.

114. Locusta salicifolia (n.s.) L. viridis thorace supra plano lateribus
perpendicularibus angulis flavescentibus, elytris alis brevioribus
lanceolato-ovatis, costa flava punctis utrinque ad medium impressis alis
hyalinis acuminatis apice viridibus.

Obs. This insect differs from the L. unicolor of Stoll, a Javanese
insect, inasmuch as its thorax is not dentated, and is marked at the
angles with yellow.

115. Gryllus pictus. Leach, Zool. Misc. 1 table 25.

116. Gryllus regulus (n.s.) G. ferrugineo-fuscus antennis filiformibus
nigris, elytris obscure nebulosis, alis fusco-hyalinis, thoracis
lateribus postice testaceis, corpore subtus rufo-testaceo, tibiis
posticis testaceis spinis dorsalibus rufis apicibus nigris.

Order NEUROPTERA.

117. Libellula sanguinea (n.s.) L. tota sanguinea alis hyalinis stigmate
fulvo nervisque sanguineis, posticis basi flavescentibus.

118. Libellula oculata. Fab. Ent. Syst. 2 376. 9.

119. Libellula stigmatizans. Fab. Ent. Syst. 2 375. 8.

120. Lestes belladonna (n.s.) L. supra viridis subtus albescens pedibus
nigris, alis quatuor cultratis macula ad marginem apicalem alba.

121. Agrion kingii (n.s.) A. capite nigro, fronte corporeque subtus
albidis, thorace abdomineque supra fuscis, segmentis abdominalibus nigro
alboque annulatis, alis hyalinis stigmate fusco.

Order HYMENOPTERA.

122. Ophion luteum. Fab. Syst. Piez. 130. 1.

Obs. This seems, according to Fabricius, to be merely a variety of the
common European insect.

123. Liris angulata. Fab. Syst. Piez. 230. 9.

124. Pompilus morio. Fab. Syst. Piez. 187. 1.

125. Pompilus collaris. Fab. Syst. Piez. 187. 2.

126. Alyson tomentosum (n.s.) A. nigro-pubescens abdominis segmentis
apice argenteis, alis apice nigricantibus.

127. Thynnus variabilis. Leach, manuscripts.
Thynnus dentatus. Fab. Syst. Piez. 231. 1.

128. Eumenes campaniformis. Fab. Syst. Piez. 287. 10.

129. Eumenes apicalis (n.s.) E. flava thoracis spatio inter alas
segmentique abdominalis secundi parte basali nigris, alis flavis apice
fuscis.

130. Centris bombylans. Fab. Syst. Piez. 358. 19.

CLASS HAUSTELLATA.

Order LEPIDOPTERA.

131. Papilio eurypilus. Linn. Syst. Nat. 2 page 754. 49.
Godart. Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 45. 61.

Obs. Captain King found an insect on the north coast of New Holland,
which, I think, can only be deemed a variety of P. eurypilus, a species
hitherto recorded as inhabiting Java and Amboyna. This variety is
distinguished from the euripilus of Godart by several minute differences.

132. Papilio macleayanus. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 47. 65.

133. Papilio sthenelus (n.s.) P. alis nigris flavo-maculatis posticis
dentatis fascia maculaque adjecta flavis, ocello anali rufo lunulae
caeruleae submisso.

Obs. This species is in New Holland what demoleus is in Africa, and epius
in India. It is even difficult to determine whether the three may not be
varieties of one species. If varieties, however, they are certainly
permanent according to the above localities, and this species may be
easily distinguished from epius, which it most resembles, by the large
yellow spot near the middle of the superior margin of the upper wing.
This spot is divided into two in epius and demoleus. Moreover, the band
of the lower wing in P. sthenelus is only attended with one small spot.

134. Papilio anactus (n.s.) P. alis nigro-fuscis, anticis
griseo-maculatis, inferis dentatis fascia alba extus dentata lunula media
nigra limbique nigri lunulis quinque caeruleis ocellis tot rufis
submissis.

Obs. This fine species is of the middle size, and seems to have a
relation both with P. epius and P. machaon. The vertex is
orange-coloured, with a black line in the middle. The two upper wings are
slightly dentated, the lower dentations being marked with white spots.
There are three grey spots in the middle of the superior margin of the
wing, of which the largest is the one nearest to the body; on the outside
of these are two parallel rows of grey spots, the first range consisting
of about nine oblong spots unequal in size, and the outer range of eight
smaller, whitish, and round spots. The white band of the lower wings,
which are not tailed, has a black crescent-like spot in the middle; and
on the outside, two parallel rows of five spots, the one blue and the
other red, The emarginations of these wings are fringed with white. The
underside of this insect is like the upper, except that the colours are
more pronounced, and that there are two round white spots on the outside
of the white band of the lower wings.

135. Papillo cressida. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9. 76. 145.

136. Papilio harmonia. Don. Ins. of New Holland.
P. Harmonoides. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 76. 146.

137. Pontia crokera (n.s.) P. alis integerrimis niveis anticis apice
punctoque nigris, posticis cinereo-submarginatis subtus flavo-irroratis.
P. crokera. Captain P.P. King, manuscripts.

Obs. This insect is of Godart's fifth size, and comes very near to his
Pieris nina. The wings are of a fine white colour, particularly the
upper. These have their summit black, and a minute black point, near the
middle. The under wings are without any spots, but are bordered behind by
a cinereous thread. The underside of the upper wings have the costa and
summit covered with spots and minute incontinuous lines of a yellowish
colour. The underside of the lower wings are sulphureous, with very fine
undulating or rather incontinuous lines of a yellowish colour.

The species has been named by Captain King, after John Wilson Croker,
Esquire, M.P., and first secretary to the Admiralty.

138. Pieris niseia (n.s.) P. alis albis limbo late nigro; anticis macula
media nigra limboque albo-trimaculato; posticis subtus nigro-venosis
limbi maculis luteo-notatis.

Obs. This insect comes very near to the P. teutonia of Godart and
Donovan, particularly in its underside. It is, however, smaller than that
insect. The upper wings are white, with a posterior broad black
subtriangular border, having two or three white spots at the apex. These
wings have a black spot near their middle, which is also on the
underside, but there communicates by a transverse, short, and rather
curved, black band, with a black superior edging of the wing. In other
respects the underside of the superior wings is like the upper, except
perhaps that it is yellowish at the base. The lower wings have their
upper side white, with a broad black border. Their underside is strongly
veined with black, having the base and the middle of the outer row of
white spots in the posterior margin of the wing yellowish.

139. Pieris scyllara (n.s.) P. alis integerrimis albis limbo exteriori
utrinque nigro: anticis elongato-trigonis maculis apicalibus quatuor
albis.

Obs. This species comes very near to P. lyncida of Godart. Its wings are
white above. The upper ones have their costa blackish, and a triangular
border at their extremity rather dentated on the inside. On this black
border is a transverse row of four or five white spots, unequal in size.
The lower wings have also a black border with one white spot, and which
is simply crenated on the inside. The underside of the four wings
scarcely differs from the upper, except that the black borders above
mentioned are in general more pale, and those of the lower wings are
broader than on the upper side.

140. Pieris nysa. Fab. Syst. Ent. 3 195. 606.
P. Eudora. Don. Ins. of New Holland.
P. Nysa. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 152. 118.
P. Eudora. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 152. 117 ?

Obs. On an inspection of the original Pieris nysa of Fab., in the
Banksian cabinet, I find it to be the same with the P. eudora of Donovan,
the only difference being that the under wings are less cinereous on the
upper side, and the upper wings have more white at the extremity of the
yellow spots at the base of their undersides. These minute differences
appear to be sexual. At all events this is undoubtedly the P. eudora of
Donovan, in his Insects of New Holland. M. Godart, however, most
erroneously quotes another work of Donovan, namely, The Insects of India,
and gives an erroneous description, apparently from confounding some
Indian insect with the insect described by Donovan. Godart has also
erroneously altered the Fabrician description of P. nysa, and thus added
to the multitude of proofs which his laborious work affords, that the
continental entomologists have no means of undertaking a complete
description of species, without visiting the extensive collections of
London.

141. Pieris nigrina. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 149. 108.

142. Pieris aganippe. Godart, Enc. Meth. H. Nat. 9 153. 121.

143. Pibris smilax. Don. Ins. of New Holland.
P. Smilax. Godart, Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 9 136. 56.

Obs. As Godart here again cites Donovan's work on the Insects of India,
instead of his Insects of New Holland, I am inclined to think that he
never saw those works.

144. Pieris herla (n.s.) P. alis rotundatis integerrimis flavis, anticis
apice fuscis, posticis margine nigro-sublineatis subtus testaceis atomis
griseis aspersis.

Obs. This insect is larger than P. smilax, but resembles it extremely in
its upper side. The underside, however, is different, as the extremity of
the upper wings and the whole of the under wings are of a fawn colour.
The underside of the lower wings is also sprinkled with some grey atoms,
and marked obscurely with a fuscous band under two points.

145. Euplaea chrysippus. Godart, Enc. Meth. H.N. 9 187.88.

Obs. Captain King has brought a variety of this insect from New Holland,
which only differs from the European specimen figured by Hubner, in the
row of white points round the edge of the upper side of the lower wings
being evanescent. This species is one of those which have a great range
of distribution, being found in Naples, Egypt, Syria, India, Java, and
New Holland.

146. Euplaea affinis. Godart. Enc. Meth. H. Nat. 9 182. 21.

147. Euplaea hamata (n.s.) E. abdomine supra nigro subtus fusco alis
repandis SUPRA atris; omnibus utrinque ad extimum punctis ad basin
maculis subbifidis virescenti-albis: subtus anticarum apice posticarumque
pagina omni, olivaceo-fuscescentibus.

Obs. This insect comes so very near to the Euplaea limniace, of Godart
and Cramer, which is common on the Coromandel Coast as well as in Java
and Ceylon, that I can scarcely consider it as any thing but a variety of
that species. It differs, however, in being constantly of a smaller size,
in its abdomen being black, and in the exterior row of white spots on the
under wings not extending much more than half way round the margin of
these wings. Captain King found this insect in surprising numbers on
various parts of the North-east Coast, particularly at Cape Cleveland.
See volume 1.

148. Danais tulliola. Fab. Ent. Syst. 3 page 41. 123.

Obs. I reserve the generic name of Danais for such of M. Latreille's
genus as have no pouches to the lower wings of their males; and to the
remainder I give the Fabrician generic name of Euplaea.

149. Danais darchia, (n.s.) P. alis integris fuscis velutinis
caeruleo-micantibus, omnibus supra fascia maculari intra punctorum seriem
marginalem abbreviatam alba; anticis puncto albo costali.

Danais Darchia. Captain P.P. King MSS.

Obs. This is exactly the size of D. eleusine, to which it appears to come
very near. The upper side of the four wings is brownish-black, having
towards the margin an arched band of violet-coloured white spots, of
which the greatest is at the extremity of the wing. There is also on the
superior margin, about the middle of the upper wing, a white point, and
at its inferior angle a marginal series of a few white points. The upper
side of the lower wings has an abbreviated series of marginal points on
the outside of an arched series of violet-coloured whitish lunulae. The
underside answers well to the description given by Godart of the
underside of his Danais eunice, except that D. darchia has only one white
point in the middle of the upper wing.

This species bas been named by Captain King after his friend Thomas
Darch, Esquire, of the Admiralty.

150. Danais corinna (n.s.) P. alis integris fuscis velutinis
caeruleo-micantibus, anticis punctis quatuor costalibus, maculis duabus
angularibus et punctorum serie marginali albis, punctis extimum versus
majoribus; alis posticis punctorum serie marginali et macularum
longitudinalium fascia discoidali albis.

Obs. This species comes between the Danais cora of Godart and his D.
coreta. The underside differs in having the marginal series of white
points continued to the very tip of the upper wings, while they have
three other points in the disc. There are also eight or nine similar
white points between the base of the lower wings and the band of
longitudinal spots.

151. Nymphalis lassinassa. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 395. 155.

152. Vanessa itea. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 321. 57.

153. Vanessa cardui, var. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 323. 62.

154. Satyrus banksia. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 477, 3.

155. Satyrus abeona. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 497. 72.

156. Satyrus merope. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 500. 80.

157. Satyrus archemor. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 500. 81.

158. Argynnis niphe. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 261. 17.

159. Argynnis tephnia. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 262. 18.

160. Acrea andromacha. Fab. Ent. Syst. 3 182. 564.
A. entoria. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9.

Obs. The original insect of Fabricius is in the Banksian cabinet, and
affords further cause of regret, that the article "Papillon," of the
Encyclopedie Methodique, should have been undertaken by a person who had
not studied the classical collections that exist out of Paris. M. Godart
describes this insect as a new species, under the name of Entoria, and
makes it an inhabitant of the West Coast of Africa.

161. Cethosia penthesilea. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 248. 13.

Obs. This species bas hitherto been described only as a native of Java,
but Captain King found several specimens of a variety of it on the North
Coast of New Holland.

162. Hesperia rafflesia, (n.s.) H. atra alis integerrimis; anticis fascia
maculari abbreviata sulphurea atomisque apicem versus subviridibus
aspersis, posticis rotundatis fascia basali ovali sulphurea abbreviata,
caudata corporis fascia media sulphurea ano palpisque vivide rufis.

Obs. This beautiful species I have named after Sir Stamford Raffles, to
whose scientific ardour and indefatigable exertions in Java and Sumatra,
every Naturalist must feel himself indebted.

The undersides of the wings are spotted like the upper, the only
difference being, that round the whole disc of the four wings there runs
a band of ashy-green atoms. The antennae and feet are black, and the
breast whitish. The vivid colour of the yellow spots on the velvety black
of the wings distinguish it at once from every known species.

163. Urania orontes. Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 710. 4.
Var. alis atro-viridibus, anticis fasciis duabus posticis
cupreo-viridibus, unica lata.

Obs. This beautiful variety of an insect hitherto described as peculiar
to Java and Amboyna was found in immense numbers, flitting among a grove
of Pandanus trees, growing on the banks of a stream near the extremity of
Cape Grafton, upon the North-east Coast of New Holland. See volume 2.

164. Agarista agricola. Don. Ins. of New Holland.
Agarista picta. Leach, Zool. Misc. volume 1 table 15
-- Godart. Enc. Meth. 9 803. 2.

Obs. As Donovan described and figured this insect many years before Dr.
Leach, his name has the right of priority.

165. Sphinx latreillii (n.s.) S. alis integris; superis
griseo-flavescentibus atomis brunneis aspersis, punctis duobus nigris
basalibus et fasciis quatuor obscuris subapicalibus, inferis
griseo-nigrescentibus apicem versos subflavescentibus.
Dielophila Latreillii. De Cerisy manuscripts.

Obs. The underside of the four wings is very pale, of a yellowish-gray
colour, traversed by a line of blackish points, which indeed are
dispersed very generally over the whole surface. The disk of the upper
wings is rather blacker than the rest. The head and thorax are of the
colour of the wings, their sides and the conical abdomen being rather
lighter. The antennae are ciliated, whitish above, and brownish beneath.

166. Sphinx godarti (n.s.) S. abdomine griseo linea media longitudinali
guttulisque lateralibus nigrescentibus, alis integris; superis
griseo-nigrescentibus maculis irregularibus nigris punctoque medio albo,
inferis griseo-flavescentibus fasciis tribus nigris.
Dielophila Godarti. De Cerisy manuscripts.

Obs. All the wings are of a gray colour beneath, the fringe being
alternately white and brown. The thorax is gray, with a narrow, tawny,
transverse mark, a lateral white fascia, two black curved marks, and on
the hinder part a black spot. The body beneath is of a whitish colour.

167. Macroglossum kingii (n.s.) M. capite thoraceque viridibus, abdomine
nigro flavoque variegato, alis integris hyalinis subtus ad originem
flavis, superis basin versus brunneis pilis viridescentibus obtectis
costa limboque posteriori brunneis, inferis ad originem limbumque
internum brunneo-viridescentibus.
Macroglossum kingii. De Cerisy manuscripts.

Obs. The antennae of this beautiful species are black, very slender at
the base, and thick towards the extremity. The palpi are greenish above
and white beneath. The breast is white in the middle, and yellow at the
sides. The two first segments of the abdomen are, on the upper side, gray
in the middle, and yellow on the sides; the third segment is black, with
a part of the anterior edge yellowish towards the side; the fourth
segment is entirely black, having only a white fringe on its anterior
edge; the fifth segment is of an orange yellow, with the middle black;
the sixth segment is entirely yellow, and the whole abdomen is terminated
by a pencil of hairs, which are yellow at their base, and black at the
extremity. The thighs are whitish, with the tibiae and tarsi yellow.

168. Cossus nebulosus. Don. Insects of New Holland.

169. Euprepia crokeri (n.s.) E. alba antennis fuscis, cavite nigro
bipunctato, thorace linea transversa miniata antice punctis quatuor et
postice duodecim nigris, alis testaceo-fuscis, superis ad basin albis
punctis axillaribus tribus atris maculisque duabus mediis hyalinis,
abdomine supra miniato subtus albo lateribus duplici serie punctorum
nigrorum notatis, pedibus chermesinis.
Euprepia crokeri. Captain P.P. King manuscripts.

Obs. This lovely insect, of which two specimens were taken at sea, has
been named by Captain King after John Wilson Croker, Esquire, M.P., and
First Secretary of the Admiralty.

170. Noctua cyathina (n.s.) N. fusco-grisea subtus pallidior, alis
superis linea transversa fusca sub-undata aliisque marginalibus obscuris
fascia apicem versus fulva undata intus lineola fusca terminata, ad
marginem externum dilatata, limbo punctorum serie vix marginato, subtus
fascia alba, posteris supra apicem versus nigris fascia media maculisque
tribus marginalibus albis, subtus macula marginali pallidiori margine
nigro punctato.

Order HOMOPTERA.

171. Cicada australasiae. Don. Ins. of New Holland.

172. Cicada zonalis (n.s.) C. capite thoraceque flavis, hoc macularum
fascia nigrarum punctisque posticis variegato, abdomine atro fascia
antica rubra analibusque tribus albis, lamellis basalibus subviridibus,
elytris hyalinis costis viridibus pedibusque testaceis.

Order HEMIPTERA.

173. Scutellera banksii. Don. Ins. of New Holland.

Obs. This insect varies so much in colour, that I almost think it to be
the same species with the following S. cyanipes, Fab.

174. Scutellera cyanipes.
Tetyra cyanipes. Fab. Syst. Rhyng. 133. 23.

175. Scutellera imperialis.
Tetyra imperialis. Fab. Syst. Rhyng. 128. 1.

176. Scutellera corallifera (n.s.) S. supra cyanea linea verticali nigra
thorace antice aurato, scutello ad basin macula transversa rubra, corpore
subtus nigro-cyaneo pectoris lateribus auratis abdominis lateribus rubris
anoque viridi, pedibus rubris tibiis tarsisque nigro-cyaneis.

177. Scutellera pagana.
Tetyra pagana. Fab. Syst. Rhyng. 134. 29.

178. Pentatoma caelebs.
Cimex caelebs. Fab. Ent. Syst. 4 111. 119.

179. Pentatoma elegans.
Cimex elegans. Don. Ins. of New Holland.

180. Lygaeus regalis (n.s.) L. capite rubro, antennis nigris, thorace
flavo-marginato antice lineis alba nigraque transverse notato, scutello
nigro, elytris flavis macula media parteque apicali membranacea nigris,
corpore subtus fulvo lateribus albo-lineatis pedibus nigro-brunneis.

Order DIPTERA.

181. Stratiomys hunteri (n.s.) S. nigro-brunnea tomentosa, post-scutello
flavo, abdomine supra nigro maculis utrinque basin versus duabus
viridibus, subtus viridi, pedibus flavis.
Stratiomys hunteri. Captain P.P. King manuscripts.

Obs. This insect has been named by Captain King after Mr. James Hunter,
the surgeon of the Mermaid.

182. Asilus inglorius (n.s.) A. obscuro-luteus abdomine ad basin pilis
flavis hirsuto, alis flavo-hyalinis apice obscurioribus, pedibus rufis
geniculis tarsisque nigris.

183. Tabanus guttatus. Don. Ins. of New Holland.

184. Tabanus cinerescens (n.s.) T. cinereo-ferrugineus subtus albescens,
alis hyalinis basin versus subluteis, abdomine linea media maculisque
quatuor utrinque cinereis.

185. Pangonia roei. (n.s.) P. rostro brevi tota ferruginea nitida,
abdomine subtus testaceo alis fulvo-hyalinis apice margineque exteriori
saturatioribus fasciisque duabus mediis obscuris marginalibus.
Pangonia roei. Captain P.P. King manuscripts.

Obs. This insect has been named after Lieutenant John S. Roe, R.N.; one
of the assistant-surveyors of the expedition.

186. Anthrax prae-argentatus (n.s.) A. supra niger pilis flavescentibus
tomentosus subtus albidus, ore albo, pedibus nigris, alis
brunneo-hyalinis margine exteriori saturatioribus apice albis.

187. Anthrax bombyliformis (n.s.) A. nigro-bmnneus post-scutello
ferrugineo, abdomine supra ad basin fulvo apice albo fasciaque media
fusca, subtus albo pedibus atro-brunneis alis hyalinis basi margineque
exteriori fuscis maculisque aliquot discoidalibus.

188. Musca splendida. Don. Ins. of New Holland.

Class ARACHNIDA.

189. Nephila cunninghamii (n.s.) N. thorace sericeo cinereo, geniculis
incrassatis pedibus nigro-fulvis, tibiarum primo et postremo pari
flavo-annulatis.
Nephila cunninghamii. Captain P.P. King manuscripts.

Named after Mr. Allan Cunningham, the botanist of the expedition.

Obs. The genus Nephila has been very properly separated from Epeira by
Dr. Leach in the Zoological Miscellany.

190. Uloborus canus (n.s.) U. albescens thorace convexo, pedum pari
secundo longiori, femoribus nigro-punctatis.

191. Linyphia deplanata (n.s.) L. rufo-testacea mandibulis pedibusque
apicem versus nigris, thorace sub-circulari plano, pedum secundo pari
longiori.

Obs. The principal difference of this spider from the genus Linyphia, as
characterized by Latreille, consists in the circumstance of the two
largest of the four middle eyes being the posterior ones. The palpi of
the male are in this species each provided with a spiral screw resembling
the tendril of a vine.

192. Thomisus morbillosus (n.s.) T. pedibus quatuor primis longioribus,
cinereus thorace macula postica sublunari magna viridifusca, pedibus
sub-geminatim fusco maculatis.

...

CIRRIPEDES.

Anatifera sulcata. Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825.
Pentalasmis sulcata, Leach.
Montague, Test. Brit.

...

RADIATA.

CENTRONIA.

1. Echinus ovum ? Peron and Lesueur. Lam. Hist. 3 48.

This specimen, presented to the Museum, agrees very well with the short
description given by Lamarck of this species.

2. Echinus variolaris. Lam. Hist. 3 47.

This specimen, agreeing very well with the description of one found by
Peron, is very remarkable; and has the larger area agrulate and
ornamented with two rows of white tubercles, nearly as large as those in
the genus Cidaris; the pores in the upper part are not perforated, and
are placed in segments of circles round small tubercles.

3. Echinometra lucunter.
Echinus lucunter. Gmel. Sys. Nat. 1 3176.
Icon. Ency. Method. t. 134. f. 3, 4, 7.

ANOMALIA.

Physalia megalista ? Peron Voyage 1 Lam. Hist. 2 481.
Icon. Peron, Voyage Atlas, t. 29. f. 1.

No specimen of this animal was preserved, but Captain King observes, that
the animal he caught, of which he made a drawing, differed from Lesueur's
figure of P. megalista, in being of smaller size, and with fewer tints;
the colour of the tentacula was a brighter purple tipped with yellow
globules, and the crest of a greenish hue, but the general colour of the
animal was purple. It measured from three-quarters to one inch in length.
Captain King considered it to be a variety of P. megalista.

Porpita gigantea. Peron, Voyage 2. Lam. Hist. 2 485.
Icon. Peron and Lesueur, Atlas, t. 31. f. 6.

A very beautiful and accurate drawing of this curious animal was made by
Lieutenant Roe. M. Lesueur's figure is also very correctly drawn.

ACRITA.

ZOOPHYTA.

1. Tubipora musica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3753. Lam. Hist. 2 209.
Icon. Seba. Mus. 3 t. 110. f. 8, 9. Soland. and Ellis. t. 27.

According to Peron, the animals of this coral are furnished with
green-fringed tentacula.

2. Pavonia lactuca, Lam. Hist. 2 239.
Madrepora lactuca, Pallas, Zooph. 289.
Icon. Soland, and Ellis, t. 44.

3. Explanaria mesenterina, Lam. Hist. il. 255.
Madrepora cinerascens, Soland. and Ellis.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, Number 26. t. 43.

4. Agaricia ampliata, Lam. Hist. 2 243.
Madrepora ampliata, Soland. and Ellis, 157.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 41. f. 1, 2.

5. Fungia agariciformis, Lam. Hist. 2 236.
Madrepora fungites, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3757.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, page 149. t. 58. f. 5, 6.

6. Fungia limacina, Lam. Hist. 2 237.
Madrepora pileus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3758.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 45. Seba. Mus. 3 t. 111. f. 3, 5.

7. Fungia compressa, Lam. Hist. 2 235.

8. Caryophillia ? fastigiata, Lam. Hist. 2 228.
Madrepora fastigiata, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3777.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 33. Esp. Suppl. t. 82.

9. Porites subdigitata, Lam. Hist. 2 271.
Icon. --

10. Porites clavaria, Lam. Hist. 2 270.
Madrepora porites, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3774.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 47. f. 1.

11. Astrea stellulata ? Lam. Hist. 2 261.
Madrepora stellulata, Soland. and Ellis, page 165.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis. t. 53. f. 3, 4.

Obs. The stars in this specimen are more numerous, and do not perforate.

12. Madrepora prolifera. Lam. Hist. 2 281.
Madrepora muricata, Gmel. Syst. 1 3775.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 57.

13. Madrepora abrotanoides, Lam. Hist. 2 280.
Madrepora muricata, Gmel. Sys. Nat. 1 3775.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 57.

14. Seriatopora subulata, Lam. Hist. 2 282.
Madrepora seriata, Pallas. Zooph. p 336.
Madrepora lineata, Esper. Suppl. 1 t. 19.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 31. f. 1. 2.

15. Madrepora laxa (?) Lam. Hist. 2 280.

16. Madrepora plantaginea (?) Lam. Hist. 2 279.
Icon. Esper. Suppl. 1 t. 54.

17. Madrepora corymbosa, Lam. Hist. 2 279.

18. Madrepora pocillifera, Lam. Hist. 2 280.

19. Gorgonia flabellum, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3809.
Flabellum Veneris, Ellis, Corall. page 76.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 26. f. A.

20. Galaxaria cylindrica, Lamouroux.
Corallina cylindrica, Soland. and Ellis, 114.
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 22. f. 4.

21. Spongia muricina (?) Lam. Hist. 2 369. Number 74.
Icon. Seba. Mus. 3 t. 97. f. 2.

22. Spongia perfoliata, Lam. Hist. 2 370. Number 78.
Icon. --

23. Spongia basta, Pallas. Zooph. 379. Lam. Hist. 2 371. Number 82.
Icon. -- Esper. 2 t. 25.

24. Spongia alcicornis, Esper. Lam. Hist. 2 380. Number l26.
Icon. -- Esper. 2 page 248. t. 28.

25. Spongia spiculifera ? Lam. Hist. 2 376. Number 106.
Icon. --

Three or four other species of Spongia were brought home, which I have
not been able to identify with all of Lamarck's descriptions, or with any
figures; but as this author has described many species from the
collection of Peron and Lesueur, which have not hitherto been figured, I
have not considered them as new, until I have had an opportunity of
examining more New Holland species, and of seeing those described by
Lamarck.

...


MOLLUSCA.

BY JOHN EDWARD GRAY, ESQUIRE, F.G.S.

1. CONCHOPHORA.

1. Solenomya australis.
Solemya Australis, Lam. Hist. 5 489.
Mya marginipectinata, Peron and Lesueur.

2. Mactra abbreviata ? Lam. Hist. 5 477. n. 20.
Icon. --

This collection contains a considerable number of specimens of a shell
agreeing with the short specific character given by Lamarck of the above;
but as it has not been figured, I have referred to it with a mark of
doubt. The shells are rather solid, white, or white variegated with
purple, with numerous concentric wrinkles, which are more distinct nearer
the margin; the umbones, covered with a thin pale periostraca, nearly
smooth and polished, with a small purple spot, the inside white, with the
disk and posterior slope purple; the anterior and posterior slopes
distinct, the lunule and escutcheon deeply and distinctly sulcated;
length fourteen-tenths of an inch; height one inch.

3. Mactra ovalina, Lam. Hist. 5 477.

This shell is nearly of the same shape as the last, but the anterior
slope is rounded and circumscribed, and the posterior only marked by a
raised line in the periostraca. The shell is thin, white; with a pale
brown and deeply grooved escutcheon.

4. Solen truncatus, Wood. Conch.
Solen ceylonensis, Leach, Zool. Misc. 1 22. table 7.
Solen vagina, b. Lam. Hist. 5 451.
Icon. Wood. Conch. t. 26. f. 3. 4. Ency. Method. t. 222. f. 1.

5. Cardium tenuicostatum, Lam. Hist. 6 5.
Icon. --

The shell when perfect is white, with rose-coloured umbones; the rose
colour is often extended down the centre of the shell, forming concentric
zones.

6. Lucina divaricata, Lam. Hist. 5 541.
Tellina divaricata, Gmel. Sys. Nat. 1 3241.
Icon. Chemn. Conch. 6 134. t. 13. f. 129.

7. Venerupis galactites, nob.
Venus galactites, Lam. Hist. 5 599.
Icon. --

The fact of Lamarck having placed in the genus Venus this shell, which a
modern conchologist has considered as a variety of Venerupis perforans,
shows the very great affinity that exists between those genera.

8. Venus flammiculata ? Lam. Hist. 5 605.
Icon. --

This shell is pale yellowish, with irregular, large, distinct, concentric
ridges, and distinctly radiated striae; the umbones smooth, polished,
orange-yellow; the lozenge lanceolate, purple; the inside golden-yellow;
the anterior and posterior dorsal margins purple.

9. Venus tessellata (n.s.)
Testa ovato-oblonga, albida, lineis purpureis angulatis picta; sulcis
concentricis, ad latus posteriorem lamellatis; marginibus integerrimis.
Icon. --

Shell ovate-oblong, white, polished, with rows of square purple spots,
forming regular lines, with the points directed toward the back of the
shell; covered with many distinct, nearly equal, concentric, smooth
ridges; the front part of the ridges somewhat elevated, thin, hinder part
distinctly lamellar and much elevated: the lunule subulate, lanceolate;
the edge quite entire; umbones with a purple spot; inside white, except
on the anterior and posterior dorsal edges, which are purple; length
eight-tenths, height six-tenths of an inch.

There are two other specimens of this shell in the Museum which do not
agree with any that Lamarck describes; one of these being fourteen-tenths
of an inch long, and one inch high, is double the size of Captain King's
specimen; its habitation is not marked, but the other specimen is from
Ceylon.

10. Cytherea kingii (n.s.)
Testa ovato-cordata, tumida, albida, concentrice substriata, radiata,
radiis flavicantibus; lunula lanceolato-cordata; intus albida.

Shell ovate, heart-shaped, white or pale brown, with darker brown rays,
each formed of several narrow lines, the umbones white, the edge quite
entire; the lunule lanceolate heart-shaped, obscurely defined, the centre
rather prominent; inside white, the hinge margin rather broad.

This shell is very like Cytherea loeta, but differs from it in its
markings, as well as its outline, which is more orbicular. The specimen
given to the Museum by Captain King, is one inch long, and eight-tenths
of an inch high; but there is another specimen in the collection, from
the Tankerville cabinet (Number 288) which is twice that size.

11. Cytherea gibba.
Cytherea gibbia, Lam. Hist. 5 577.
Icon. Chemn. 7 t. 39. f. 415. 416.

12. Petricola rubra ? Cardium rubrum ? Montague.

This shell agrees in general form, teeth, and colour, with the Cardium
rubrum of Montagu, but it is larger. It was found imbedded in the seaweed
and spongy-like substance that covers the Tridacna squamosa.

13. Chama limbula, Lam. Hist. 6 95.

This shell may, perhaps, be a variety of Chama gryphoides.

14. Tridacna gigas, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1. 105.
Chama Gigas, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3299.
Icon. Chemn. 7 t. 49. f. 495. Ency. Meth. plate 235. f. 1.

15. Pectunculus radians ? Lam. Hist. 6 54.

16. Arca scapha, Lam. Hist. 6 42.
Icon. Chemn. 7 201. t. 55. f. 548. Ency. Meth. plate 306. f. 1. a, b.

17. Mytilus erosus, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 120.

This shell was described by Lamarck from some New Holland specimens, that
were probably collected by Peron in Baudin's voyage. It is remarkable for
being very thick and solid, and of a fine dark colour, with only a narrow
white band on the anterior basal edge. The edge is crenated, and the
muscular impressions are very distinct, and raised above the surface,
particularly that on the anterior valve, which is both pellucid and
tubercular.

18. Modiola (Tulipa ?) australis, Nob.
Modiola tulipa, var. 1. Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 111.

This Australian species will most probably prove to be distinct from the
American kind; but the specimen before me does not afford sufficient
materials to separate it, since there is only one water-worn valve in the
collection. It is not so distinctly rayed as M. tulipa, and the inside is
entirely of a brilliant pearly purple, except near the anterior basal
edge.

19. Lithophagus caudatus, nob.
Modiola caudigera, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 116.
Icon. Ency. Meth. plate 221. f. 8. a, b.

20. Meleagrina albida, var. a. Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 152.

This appears to be a distinct species from those found in the Gulf of
Mexico and the West Indies, but the difference is not easy to describe.
The specimens before me, which are small, differ materially from some of
the same size among the American species. The outside is of a dull
greenish-purple colour, with a few distant membranaceous laminae which
are only slightly lobed, and not extended into long processes like those
of Avicula radiata (Zool. Misc. 1. t. 43.) which is the young of the
American kind. The internal pearly coat has a bright yellow tinge.

21. Spondylus radians ? Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 192.
Icon. Chemn. Conch. 7 t. 45. f. 469. 470. Ency. Meth. plate 191. f. 5.

22. Pecten maximus ? Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 163.
Ostrea maxima, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3315.
Icon. Chemn. Conch. 7 t. 60. f. 585. Ency. Meth. plate 209. f. 1. a, b.

The shell before me is probably distinct from the above species, but is
too much worn down to be separated from it; in its present state it seems
to agree tolerably well with the species to which it has been referred.

23. Pecten asperrimus, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 174.

This beautiful species was originally found by MM. Peron and Lesueur on
the coast of Van Diemen's Land.

24. Lima minuta (n.s.)

Testa ovato-oblonga valde tumida clausa radiatim costata, costis
transverse costato-striatis, auriculis minutis, margine crenato.

This shell, which was brought up by the deep sea sounding-lead, being
only one-sixth of an inch long, and one-fourth high, is the smallest
species of the genus. It is white, ovate, oblong, turned and closed at
the ends; the surface is deeply radiately ribbed; the ribs are
concentrically rib-striated, which gives their sides a denticulated
appearance; the edge is crenulated, and the umbones are acute, a small
distance apart, and nearly in the centre of the hinge margin, which is
straight.

25. Pinna dolabrata, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 1 133.
Pinna bicolor, Chemn. Conch. Cab. t. 90. f. 234.
Icon. Chemn. 8 t. 90. f. 780 ?

The shell, figured by Chemnitz, appears to be a variety of this species
with the anterior end uncurved, which has most probably been caused by
some injury on the anterior basal edge.

The species is peculiar for its yellow pearly internal coat, and purplish
rays.


2. COCHLEOPHORA.

26. Trochus caerulescens. Lam. Hist. 7 18.
Icon. Ency. Meth. plate 444. f. 2. a, b.
Inhab. South-west Coast.

Lamarck describes this shell from a specimen found by Peron.

27. Trochus noduliferus, Lam. Hist. 7 18.

28. Monodonta conica (n.s.)

Testa conica, acuta, imperforata, spiraliter striflto-costata, rufa;
costis subtuberculatis, albo-nigro-articulatis; apertura sulcata.
Inhab. -- Mus. Brit.

Shell conical, axis longer than the diameter, the whorl flattened with
six spiral raised substriae, which are transversely divided into blackish
purple beads with white interspaces, the apex rather acute; the base,
rather convex, axis imperforated; the aperture subquadrangular, inside
furrowed; the base of the columella lip with a prominent tooth and
distinct groove behind it, the upper part rugose; axis eight-twelfths,
diameter six-twelfths of an inch. This shell does not appear to be
uncommon on the coast of Australia.

29. Monodonta uranulata (n.s.)

Testa depresso-conica, umbilicata, purpurea, albomarmorata, spiraliter
papillata; papillis quadri-seriatis, umbilico laevi; infima facie
papillata, apertura sulcata.

Inhab. Mus. Brit.

Shell rather depressed, conical, purple variegated with white, generally
concentrically wrinkled, and ornamented with granulated spiral ribs, the
ribs of the upper part of the last, and of all the other whorls rather
distant, and forming four series; those of the under part rather closer,
and smaller. The axis unbilicated, smooth, the aperture roundish, the
outer lips furrowed, the columella lip smooth with a groove at its base,
axis four-twelfths, diameter five-twelfths of an inch.

30. Monodonta denticulata (n.s.)
Testa depresso-conica, umbilicata, rufa, nigro punctata, spiraliter
sulcata, subgranulata, umbilico extus crenato.

Inhab. -- Mus. Brit.

Shell depressed, conical, pale reddish, ornamented with rows of white and
brown spots, spirally grooved, ribs slightly granulated; the sutures
distinct, impressed, the lower part of the last whorl nearly smooth, the
umbilicus white, smooth inside, the edge furnished with a series of
granules. The mouth subquadrangular, outer lip crenulated at the edge,
the columella lip smooth, with a large tooth at the inside, and a little
roughness on the outer side; axis three-tenths, diameter five-twelfths of
an inch.

31. Monodonta constricta, Lam. Hist. 7 36.

32. Monodonta rudis (n.s.)

Testa ovato-conica imperforata ulbido-purpurea rudis crassa, labro
duplicato, extus albido viridi, intus subsulcato, albo.

Inhab. -- Mus. Brit.

Shell ovate, conical, imperfurated, rough, pearly, concentrically
striated, whitish-brown; when worn or where eroded, purple; the whorls
convex, suture distinct, sometimes occupying an impressed line on the
lower whorl; the base rather convex, the aperture roundish, the axis
(imperforate) covered with a white callus, which leaves a slight
concavity over its end; the outer lip of three colours, the outer part
purple or green and white, the middle pearly, and the inner opaque,
white, and furrowed; the surface of the lower part of the last whorl is
frequently worn away just opposite the mouth, so as to leave a purple
spot.

33. Rissoa clathrata (n.s.)

Testa subglobosa, subimperforata, alba, solida, spiraliter et concentrice
costata; apertura suborbiculari, sutura impressa.

Shell nearly globular, spire conical, upper whorls with three, lower with
seven distinct, large, rather separate, much raised, spiral ribs, and
numerous acute transverse ribs, which form an acute tubercle where it
crosses the spiral ridges, the suture deeply impressed, very distinct,
the aperture nearly orbicular, the outer lip denticulated on its outer
edge, inner lip smooth, column without any perforation, only a slight
linear cavity behind the inner lip, axis and diameter each one-sixth of
an inch.

This shell is allied to Littorina muricata (Turbo muricata, Lin.) in its
general form and the shape of its umbilicus, but is white and ribbed like
Rissoa cimex (Turbo cimex, Lin.) R. calathriscus, the Turbo calathriscus
of Montague.

34. Solarium biangulatum (n.s.)

Testa orbiculato-conica subdepressa albida spiraliter sub-striata rufo
variegata, anfractibus biangulatis supra planis infra convexis, umbilico
pervio edentulo.

Shell orbicular conical; spire rather depressed; whorls five spirally
striated; upper part flattened, expanded, white with numerous diverging
red cross lines; centre flat, nearly at right angles with the upper edge,
white, with a convex thread-like rib round its base, which is distantly
articulated; base of the whorls convex, red, punctured and variegated
with white; axis conical, concave, white, smooth at the commencement;
aperture subquadrangular; inside pearly, inner lip with an obscure tooth
at the end of the umbilicus; axis one-fourth, diameter one-third, of an
inch.

35. Turbo setosus, Gmel. Sys. Nat. 3594. Lam. Hist. 7 42.
Icon. Chemn. 5 t. 181. f. 1795, 1796.

36. Turbo torquatus, Gmel. 3597. Lam. Hist. 7 40.
Icon. Chemn. 10 293. figure 24. f. A. B.

37. Phasianella varia, Lam. Ency. Meth. plate 449. f. 1. a. b. c.
Phasianella bulimoides, Lam. Hist. 7 52.
Buccinum Australe, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3490.
Icon. Chemn. 9 t. 120. f. 1033, 1034.

38. Phasianella pulchra (n.s.)

Testa minuta oblique conica tenuis pellucida linea albida opaca et
fasciis coccineis ornata, anfractibus valde convexis.

Shell minute, obliquely conical, thin, pellucid, variegated with spiral
opaque white intercepted striae and several transverse scarlet bands
formed of oblique lines; axis, imperforated, one-sixth, diameter
one-eighth, of an inch.

This shell is somewhat like P. pullus, Turbo pullus of Montague, but the
whorls are more convex, and it is rather differently marked.

39. Scalaria australis, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 2. 228.
Icon. --

40. Scalaria tenuis (n.s.)

Testa conica umbillcata tenuis pellucida albida unifasciata, costis albis
tenuibus ereberrimis parum elevatis laevibus, anfractibus contiguis.

Shell conical, thin, pellucid, whitish-brown, with a narrow central
spiral brown band; whorls contiguous, convex, smooth, with numerous close
oblique slightly raised, thin, simple-edged cross ribs; axis umbilicated;
umbilicus narrow; mouth small, ovate, orbicular; axis three-eighths,
diameter one-fourth of an inch.

This shell is most like Scalaria principalis, nob. Turbo principalis of
Pallas, Chemn. 11 t. 195, f. 1876, 1877. The shell before me is most
probably a young specimen.

41. Delphinula laciniata, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 2. 230.
Turbo Delphinus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3599.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 608. f. 45.

This shell was found at low water upon the Coral Reefs, in the entrance
of Prince Regent's River, on the North-west Coast.

42. Nerita atrata, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 2. 191.
Icon. Chemn. Conch. 5 t. 190. f. 1954, 1955.

43. Nerita textilis, Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 3683.
Icon. Chemn. 5 190, f. 1944, 1945.

44. Natica mamilla, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 2. 197.
Nerita mamilla, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3672.
Icon. Lister Conch. t. 571. f. 22. Enc. Meth. plate 453. f. 5. a. b.

45. Natica alba, n.
Icon. Chemn. 5 t. 189. f. 1922. 1923.

46. Natica conica, Lam. Hist. 6 pt. 2. 198.
Icon. Chemn. 5 t. 189. f. 1930. 1931.

47. Littorina australis (n.s.)

Testa ovata, conica fulva rudis spiraliter striata sulcata, spira acuta,
fauce livida.

Shell ovate, conical, fulvous-brown, rough, with numerous impressed
spiral lines; the spire acute, the whorls rather convex, last slightly
angular, the columella lip purplish-brown; axis solid, with a lunate
concavity behind the usual situation of the umbilicus.

48. Littorina unifasciata (n.s.)

Testa ovato-conica imperforata purpureo-albida laevigata, anfractibus
convexis ultimo subangulato, apertura purpurea unifasciata.
Icon. --

Shell ovate conical, nearly smooth, with only a few concentric ridges,
and distant, scarcely impressed, very narrow, grooves; white or
purplish-white outside; the whorls rather convex, last one slightly
angular in front; mouth ovate; throat purple or purplish-black with a
distinct broad white spiral band just below the slight external keel;
inner lip purple with a deep concavity behind it; spire acute half the
length of the shell; axis 8/12, diameter 6/12, of an inch.

This shell has somewhat the shape of Littorina zigzag, the Trochus zigzag
of Montague, but is all of one colour externally and has a much shorter
spire.

49. Cerithium palustre, Brug. Dict. n. 19. Lam. Hist. 7 66.
Strombus palustris, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3521. Number 38.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 836. f. 62. t. 837. f. 63. Seba, 3 t. 50. f. 13.
14. 17-19. Martini Conch. 4 t. 156. f. 1472.

50. Cerithium ebeninum, Brug. Dict. n. 26. Lam. Hist. 7 67.
Icon. Chem. Conch. 10 t. 162. f. 1548, 1549. Ency. Meth. t. 442. f. 1. a,
b.

51. Cerithium morus, Lam. Hist. 7 75. not Brug.
Icon. Lister. t. 1024. f. 90 ?

52. Cerithium lima ? Lam. Hist. 7 77. Brug. Number 33.

A broken shell apparently of this species was brought home, but when a
more perfect specimen is round, it may prove to be distinct from it.

53. Cerithium perversum ? Lam. Hist. 7 77.

54. Nassa fasciata, n.
Buccinum fasciatum, Lam. Hist. 7 271.

55. Nassa suturalis, n.
Buccinum suturale, Lam. Hist. 7 269 ?

56. Nassa mutabilis, n.
Buccinum mutabile, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3481. Lam. Hist. 7 269.
Icon. List. t. 975. f. 30. Born. t. 9. f. 13. Chemn. Conch. 11 t. 188. f.
1810, 1811.

57. Nassa livida (n.s.)
Testa ovato-conica superne transverse plicata basi spiraliter striata
purpureo-livida obscure castaneo bifasciata, anfractibus convexiusculis,
sutura linea alba notata, labro extus marginato intus sulcato.

Icon. --

Shell ovate conical, livid purplish-white, with one or two central,
obscure brown, bands; upper whorls bluntly transversely plaited, the rest
smooth, livid, except at the front part of the last, just over the
groove, where it is spirally striated; the suture distinct (not
channelled) marked by a white line; the inner lip distinct, raised, the
outer thickened on the outer side, edge sharp, inside grooved; the throat
fulvous-brown; axis one inch, diameter half an inch.

This shell belongs to the group of Nassa, but will perhaps form a
distinct genus intermediate between it and Columbella, characterized by
the narrow form of the mouth. It is most nearly allied to N. olivacea, n.
(Bucc. olivaceum, Lam.) and N. canaliculata, n. (Bucc. canaliculatum,
Lam.)

58. Clavatula striata (n.s.)

Testa ovato-lanceolata turrita albida regulariter spiraliter
sulcato-striata transverse et interrupte costata, anfractuum margine
superiore angulato subnodoso, cauda brevi, fauce sulcata.

Icon. --

Shell ovate turreted, whitish-brown, with eleven or twelve longitudinal
interrupted ribs forming long tubercles on the centre of the whorls; the
whorls with distant impressed spiral lines near the suture, with a rather
flattened slightly nodulose band; the mouth rather more than one-third
the length of the shell; outer lip thin inside, grooved; tail short, with
a linear depression on its columella side; axis ten-twelfths, diameter
four-twelfths of an inch.

59. Cassis achatina, var. Lam. Hist. 7 226.

A worn specimen, apparently a variety of this species. It is entirely
smooth, polished, and has the last whorl near the spire slightly concave,
edged with a scarcely raised rather nodulous line, the outer lip is very
thick, grooved on its inner edge, and the columella is distinctly
plaited.

It may perhaps prove to be a new kind; but the species of this genus are
so exceedingly apt to vary, that I do not wish to increase the number of
the already too much extended lists of Lamarck and others.

60. Cassis flammea. Lam. Hist. 7 220.
Cassidea flammea, Brug. Dict. n. 13.
Buccinum flammeum, Lin. Sys. Nat. 1199. Gmel. 3473.
Icon. Lister. t. 1004. f. 69. et t. 1005. f. 72. Martini Conch. 2 t. 34.
f. 353. 354.

61. Dolium variegatum, Lam. Hist. 7 261.
Icon. --

62. Purpura haemastoma, Lam. Hist. 7 238.
Buccinum haemastoma, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1202. Gmel. 3483.
Icon. Lister. t. 988. f. 48. Martini Conch. 3 t. 101. f. 964, 965.

63. Murex adustus ? Lam. Hist. 7 162.
Icon. Seba. Mus. ili. t. 77. f. 9. 10. Martini Conch. 3 t. 105. f. 990,
991.

This shell agrees very well with the description of Lamarck, except that
the whole edge of the mouth is of a fine rose-red colour.

64. Tritonium tranquebaricum, n.
Triton tranquebaricum, Lam. Hist. 7 189.
Icon. Ency. Meth. t. 422. f. 6.

65. Tritonium australe, n.
Triton australe, Lam. Hist. 7 179.
Murex tritonium australe, Chemn. Conch. 11.
Icon. Chemn. 11 t. 194. f. 1867, 1868.

66. Ranella leucostoma, Lam. Hist. 7 150.
Icon. --

This shell is very like Triton scobinator, Lam.; and the varices, like
it, neither form a complete series, nor are they alternate, so that it
does not agree exactly with the characters of either genus.

67. Fusus verrucosus, n.
Murex verrucosus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3557.
Icon. Martini. 4 t. 146. f. 1349, 1356.

68. Conus achatinus, Brug. Dict. n. 66. Lam. Hist. 7 480.
Icon. Chemn. 10 t. 142. f. 1317. Ency. Method. t. 380. f. 6.

69. Conus puncturatus. Brug. Dict. n. 35. Lam. Hist. 1 460.
Icon. Ency. Meth. t. 322. f. 9.

70. Conus maurus (n.s.)
Testa turbinata coronata albida zonis duabus fuscis, spira subdepressa
mucronata, faute albida zonis duabus purpureis notata.
Icon. --

Shell very plain, top-shaped, crowned, and whitish, with two brown bands;
spire rather depressed; crowned, blunt; the epidermis pale
greenish-brown; the inside white, with two broad blue bands, in the front
of which is enclosed the canal; axis one and a half, diameter one inch.

71. Cypraea arabica, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3398. Lam. Hist. 7 378. Gray,
Zool. Journal 1 76.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 658. f. 3. Martini. 1 t. 31. f. 328. Ency. Meth.
t. 352 f. 1, 2.

72. Cypraea tigris, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 3408. Lam. Hist. 7 382. Gray,
Zool. Journal 1 367.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 682. f. 29. Martini 1 t. 24. f. 232-234. Ency.
Meth. t. 353. f. 3.

The shells of this species that are found on the North-east Coast of
Australia are generally of a very pale colour, with only scattered
markings.

73. Cypraea mauritiana, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3407. Lam. Hist. 7 377. Gray,
Zool. Jour. 1 79.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 703. f. 52. Martini 1 t. 30. f. 317-319. Ency.
Meth. t. 350. f. 2. a. b.

74. Cypraea lynx, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3409. Lam. Hist. 7 388. Oray, Zool.
Journal 1 151.
Cypraea venelli, Gmel. 3402.
Cypraea squalina, Gmel. 3420.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 683. f. 30. Martini 1 t. 23. f. 230, 231. Ency.
Meth. t. 355. f. 8. a. b.

75. Cypraea annulus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3415. Lam. Hist. 7 402. Gray, Zool.
Journal 1 494.
Icon. Martini Conch. 1 t. 24. f. 239. 240. Ency. Meth. t. 356. f. 7.

76. Cypraea obvelata, Lam. Hist. 7 401. Gray, l.c. 1 493.
Icon. --

77. Cypraea moneta, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3414. Lam. Hist. 7 401. Gray, Zool.
Journal 1 492.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 709. f. 59. Martini 1 t. 31. f. 337. 338. Ency.
Meth. t. 356. f. 3.

78. Cypraea errones. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1178. Gray, l.c. 1 385.
Cypraea erronea, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3411.
Cyprrea olivacea, b. Lam. Hist. 7 392.
Icon. Pet. Gaz. t. 97. f. 21.

79. Cypraea caput serpentis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1175. Gmel. 3406. Lam. Hist.
7 385. Gray, Zool. Journal 1 495.
Icon. Lister. t. 702. f. 50. et t. 704. f. 52. Martini 1 t. 33. f. 316.
Ency. Meth. 354. f. 4.

80. Cypraea zigzag, Gmel. Syst. Nat. t. 3410. Lam. Hist. 7 394. Gray,
Zool. Journal 1 373. Cypraea undata, Lam. Ann. Mus. n. 41.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 661. f. 5. Martini 1 t. 23. f. 224, 225. Ency.
Meth. t. 356. f. 8. a. b.

81. Cypraea helvola, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1130. Gmel. 3417. Lam. Hist. 7 398.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 691. f. 38. Martini Conch. 1 t. 30. f. 326, 327.
Ency. Meth. 356. f. 13.

82. Cypraea nucleus, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1 1181. Gmel. 3418. Lam. Hist. 7
400. Gray, Zool. Journal 1 515.
Icon. Born. t. 8. f. 17. Ency. Meth. t. 355. f. 3.

83. Cypraea oniscus, Lam. Hist. 7 402.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 706. f. 55. Martini 1 t. 29. f. 306, 307.

84. Cypraea australis, Lam. Hist. 7 404.
Icon. --

85. Mitra tabanula ? Lam. Hist. 7 323. n. 79.

A single bleached specimen, agreeing with this description excepting in
having five instead of three or four plaits on the columella, was brought
up by the sounding line. The shell is longitudinally grooved, and very
remarkable for being furnished with numerous, rather distant, smooth,
narrow, raised spiral bands; having the inter-spaces finely spirally
striated; the nucleus of the shell, like that of a voluta, is mammillary.

86. Mitra scutulata, Lam. Hist. 7 314.
Voluta scutulata sue discolor, Chemn. Conch. 10 Gmel. 3452.
Icon. Chemn. l.c. t. 151. f. 1428, 1429.

Lamarck never having seen this shell has described it on the authority of
Chemnitz, whose figure agrees very well with the shell before me;
excepting that the spots round the suture form nearly a continual band at
a little distance from it; the outer lip is smooth and thin; the inside
dull livid brown; the axis is fourteen-twelfths, the diameter
seven-twelfths, of an inch.

87. Marginella minuta (n.s.)
Testa minuta ovata fusiformis alba polita, spira conoidea obtusiuscula,
labro inflexo, columella quadriplicata.
Icon. --

Shell ovate, fusiform, white, polished; spire conical, nearly as long as
the aperture, rather blunt; outer lip somewhat inflexed; columella with
four distinct plaits; axis three-twelfths, diameter two-twelfths of an
inch.

88. Strombus plicatus, Lam. Hist. 7 210.
Strombus dentatus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3519.
Icon. Rumph. Mus. t. 37. f. T. Pet. Amb. t. 14. f. 21. Schroet. Einl. in
Conch. 1 t. 2. f. 12. Ency. Meth. t. 408. f. 2. a. b.

89. Strombus urceus, Lin. Gmel. 3518.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 857. f. 13. Martini. Conch. 3 t. 78. f. 803-806.

90. Strombus australis (n.s.)

Testa ovato-oblonga tuberculata spiraliter sulcata albida
fusco-variegata, spira exserta, cauda recurva, labro incrassato posterius
lobo digiti-formi termitato intus (roseo ?) sulcato.
Icon. -- ?

Shell ovate oblong, spiral, white, spotted and lined with pale,
fulvous-brown; the spire exserted, conical, half as long as the shell;
the whorls longitudinally ribbed with one more prominent than the rest,
the one nearest the suture being acute and tuberculated; the canal
recurved; the outer lip thickened, ending in a projecting lobe behind,
and edged with two or three blunt tubercles; the throat rose-coloured,
furrowed; the inner lip much thickened.

This shell is one of the five species which have been confounded with
Strombus auris dianae; it is most like S. zelandiae, n. Chemn. 10 t. 156.
f. 1485, 1486, in form and throat, but has the sculpture of S. adusta, n.
Chemn. 10 t. 156. f. 1487, 1488; this last Lamarck considers as the true
S. auris dianae, whilst Linnaeus unquestionably describes the shell
figured by Martini, 7 t. 84. f. 840, and by Seba, 3 t, 61. f. 1, 2, which
I have named S. lamarckii, from having considered it to be the young of a
new species; it is figured by Martini, 7 t. 84. f. 338, 339, and by Seba,
3 t. 61. f. 5, 6, and is very nearly allied to S. bituberculatus of
Lamarck.

91. Pterocera lambis, Lam. Hist. 7 196.
Strombus lambis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3508.
Icon. Lister. Conch. t. 866. f. 21. Martini, Conch. 3 t. 87. f. 858, 859.

This shell is very distinct from Strombus camelus of Chemn. 10 t. 155. f.
1478.

92. Bulla australis, Gray, Ann. of Philosophy, 9 n.s. 408.
Icon. --

This species is very distinct from Bulla striata, Lister. Conch. t. 714.
f. 72. with which it has been generally confounded; it is of larger size
and perfectly smooth.

93. Bulla hyalina (n.s.)

Testa ovata cylindrica imperforata tenuis hyalina albida laevis
concentrice subrugosa; apice incrassato.
Icon. --

The shell ovate, cylindrical, thin; hyaline white, smooth, very slightly
concentrically rugose; the vertex thickened, not perforated; the aperture
rather longer than the shell; the inner lip slightly reflexed; axis
five-twelfths, diameter three-twelfths of an inch.

94. Cryptostoma haliotoideum (n.)
Sigaretus haliotoideus, Lam. Hist. 6 2. 208.
Icon. Martini. Conch. 1 t. 16. f. 151-154.

95. Hipponix listeri (n.)
Icon. Lister. t. 544. f. 29.

This shell is very nearly allied to Pileopis, but the animal is evidently
not brachiopodous. It does not form (or at least not always) a shelly
support, but corrodes the surface of the shell to which it is attached,
so as to form a more flat attachment, and to leave a lunate convex rib
instead of the lunate muscular impression which is observed on those
specimens or individuals which have a shelly base.

96. Siphonaria radiata, Var. Gray, Phil. Mag. 1824. 275.
Siphonaria exigua, Sow. Gen.
Patella japonica, Donovan.
Icon. Donovan, Nat. Repos. t. 79.

97. Bulimus kingii, Gray, Ann. Phil., 9 n.s. 414.
Icon.

The shell ovate, white, with numerous dark-brown irregular concentric
lines, smooth except near the suture where it is slightly wrinkled;
whorls six, rather convex; aperture ovate, about half as long as the
shell; peristome thin (perhaps not formed); perforation covered with a
white even lip, surrounded by a dark edge; the throat chocolate-brown.

This shell is abundant on the hills of King George the Third's Sound, in
the vicinity of Bald Head.

98. Cyclostoma australe (n.s.)

Testa orbiculata subtrochiformis profunde umbilicata albida fasciis binis
fuscis cincta, spira brevi acuta, anfractibus 5 convexis concentrice
sulcatis.
Icon. --

Shell orbicular, nearly trochi-form, white with two pale-brown bands on
each whorl; the one near the suture narrow, and the other, placed on the
middle of the whorl, broad; whorls five; convex rounded, with numerous
close concentric furrows; axis umbilicated; umbilicus rather narrow,
deep; aperture rather more than one half the length of the shell;
peristome (not formed ?) simple.

99. Chiton rugosus (n.s.)

Testa octovalvis glabra, valvis tuberculatis, ligamento glabro laevi.
Icon. --

Shell with eight valves, bald; valves covered with numerous small
tubercles both on the central and lateral area; marginal ligament smooth,
bald.

100. Patella tramoserica, Chemn. 11 179.
Icon. Chemn. 11 t. 197. f. 1912, 1913.

101. Patella radiata, Chemn. 11 100.
Icon. Chemn. 11 t. 197. f. 1916, 1917.

When young, the form of this shell is more conical than in the figure
above quoted, and the outer surface is finely radiately striated.

102. Patella neglecta (n.)
Patella melanogramma, Sowerby, not Gmel.
Icon. Sow. Gen. f.

When this shell is young, or when the older specimens have lived in deep
water, where their surface has not been broken by the shingle, or
corroded, or covered with coralloid incrustations, they are regularly
radiately ribbed; the ribs are covered with narrow intermediate grooves,
marked with a black spot on the internal edge of the shell, which is
permanent through all the variations of the outer surface. The inside is
pale purplish-brown, with a yellowish-white muscular impression. In the
older specimens the central disk is often of a pure opaque-white, and the
muscular impressions round the inner edge of the shell are both pellucid
brownish-white; length four inches, breadth three, height two inches.

This shell is abundant on the rocky shores of King George the Third's
Sound.

In the collection there is a worn specimen of another species of this
genus; but from its bad state, and from the very great confusion in which
the various species of Patella are involved, I do not venture to describe
it as a new shell, although there has not been any hitherto described to
which, in its present state, it can with any certainty be referred. It is
conical, convex, with twenty-four or twenty-five distinct convex ribs
alternately increasing in size; the grooves between the ribs are broad,
with irregular, concentric, black-brown, raised lines, which appear to be
caused by the wearing away of the other part of the dark outer coat; the
inside is white with a brown disk, and the edge sinuated and furnished
with grooves under the larger ribs.

103. Haliotis roei (n.s.)

Testa subrotunda convexiuscula rugosa et plicata spiraliter sulcata intus
argenteo et rubro margaritacea, spira prominula.
Icon. --

Shell roundish, rather convex; the outside reddish or brownish, regular;
closely but unequally spiral, ribbed, and irregularly and roughly
concentrically striated and plaited; the row of perforations is rather
prominent, and pierced with six or seven moderate-sized, slightly
tubular, holes; the inside is iridescent, pearly, rather wavy, and
exhibits two distinct whorls; the columella lip is short and flattened,
outer lip rounded; the spire is convex, rather prominent, placed about
one-third of the breadth of the shell from the outer lip, and consists of
three whorls, which very rapidly enlarge.

This distinct shell, at the desire of Captain King, has been named after
Lieutenant J.S. Roe, the assistant-surveyor of the expedition.

It is most nearly allied to H. australis, Chemn. 10 t. 166. f. 1604, but
differs from it in being rounder and more distinctly ribbed.

104. Haliotis cunninghamii (n.s.)

Testa ovato-rotundata tenuis depressa rugoso-subplicata spiraliter
striata intus argenteo et rubro margaritacea, spira prominula,
foraminibus parvis.
Icon. --

Shell roundish-ovate, thin, depressed; the outer surface very slightly
concentrically plaited and rough, and finely, regularly, spirally,
striated; the row of perforations slightly elevated, pierced with eight
or nine small slightly-tubular holes; the spire rather prominent, apex
placed about one-fourth of the breadth of the shell from the sutural
angle on the outer lip, consisting of four whorls which rapidly enlarge;
the inside expanded out, disk nearly flat exhibiting one distinct whorl;
the columella lip narrow, rather long, flattened; the outer lip thin,
truncated; the nick of the imperfect perforation placed about one-third
the length of the outer lip from the end of the columella lip: length six
inches, breadth five.

This shell, at the wish of Captain King, has been named after Mr. Allan
Cunningham, the botanical collector of the voyage.

This species, although nearly allied to Haliotis midae, is quite distinct
from it.

105. Haliotis squamosa (n.s.)

Testa ovato-oblonga convexa rugoso-plicata aurantio-rubens spiraliter
costata, costis tuberculato-muncatis, fauce margaritacea, spira retusa.
Icon.

Shell ovate-oblong, convex, externally transversely rugose, plaited and
spirally ribbed; the ribs concentrically striated and furnished with
numerous raised scale-like tubercles; the row of perforations scarcely
round contains ten or twelve rather large holes; the spire slightly
raised, very near the edge, consisting of two or three very
rapidly-enlarging whorls; the inside concave, showing the external ribs,
reddish pearly; the columella lip narrow, depressed, bent; the outer lip
thin, strait, or cut out; the imperfect perforation about one-fifth the
length of the outer lip from the end of the columella lip; length two,
breadth one inch and a quarter.

This species is very distinct on account of its long form, and curved
lower face, as well as its outer surface.

106. Haliotis marmorata, Lin. Sys. Nat. 1256.
Icon. Martini. 1 t. 14. f. 139.

107. Padollus rubicundus, De Montfort, Syst. 2 115.
Padollus scalaris, Leach, Zool. Misc. 1 66.
Haliotis tricostalis, Lam. Hist. 6 2. 218.
Icon. De Montf. 2 t. 114. Leach, l.c.

This specimen, which is the largest I ever saw, measures three inches and
a half by two and a half. It was found upon Rottnest Island, on the West
Coast.

PTEROPODA.

108. Janthina fragilis, Lam. Syst. Anim.
Janthina communis, Lam. Hist. 6 2. 206.
Helix janthina, Lin. Sys. Nat. 1 1246.
Icon. Lister. t. 572. f. 24. Chemn, 5 t. 166. f. 1577, 1578.

Several specimens of this shell were taken by the towing-net in the
Indian Ocean, on the passage from the Coast of New Holland to Mauritius.

109. Janthina exigua, Lam. Hist. 6 2. 206.

Two or three species of this shell were presented to the Museum by Mr.
Hunter, the surgeon to the expedition; it is proved to be very distinct
from J. fragilis, from the description of its float by Dr. Coates in the
transactions of the Society of Natural Science of Philadelphia. See
Annals of Philosophy for 1825, page 385.

110. Hyalaea tridentata, Lam. Hist. 6 1. 286.
Monooulus telemus ? Lin. Syst. Nat. 1 1059.
Anomia tridentata, Forsk. Faun. Arab. 124.
Icon. Forsk. Faun. t. 40. f. b. Chemn. 8 Vign. 13. Cuv. Ann. Mus. 4 t.
59. Anatomy.

CEPHALOPODA.

111. Spirula fragilis, Lam. Syst. Anim. 102.
Spirula australis, Lam. Ency. Method. 465. f. 5. a. b.
Spirula peronii, Lam. Hist. 7 601.
Nautilus spirula, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1163.
Nautilus spicula, Gmel. 3371.
Icon. Lister Conch. t. 550. f.2. Martini. 1 Veg. 254. t. 20. f. 184, 185.
Ency. Method. ut supra Animal.

Captain King brought home several minute species of Nautilus, which will
be taken notice of at a future period, as they require particular
examination and minute comparison with those found upon the coasts of
Italy and other parts of Europe.

Note. Specimens of the shells in the above catalogue, to which the
following numbers refer, have been presented to the British Museum,
namely, 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, 20, 25, 28, 29, 31, 46, 48, 90, 91, 92,
94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102 and 103.

...


A FEW GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VEGETATION OF CERTAIN COASTS OF TERRA
AUSTRALIS, AND MORE ESPECIALLY OF ITS NORTH-WESTERN SHORES.

BY MR. ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, COLLECTOR TO THE ROYAL GARDENS AT KEW.

It having been resolved by the British Government to employ a colonial
vessel from the settlement of Port Jackson in New South Wales, for the
purpose of exploring the whole of the North-western Coasts of New
Holland, and that portion of the North Coast, not seen by that able
navigator, the late Captain Flinders; a most favourable opportunity was
thereby afforded for a partial examination of the plants of those unknown
shores, with a view of adding to our progressively augmenting knowledge
of the very interesting Flora of this southern continent.

Having materially profited by a twelvemonth's previous residence in New
South Wales, acquainting myself with the characters (and principal
peculiarities of structure) of many genera of plants absolutely proper to
Terra Australis; and particularly in that period, throughout the progress
of a long and very interesting journey in the interior, to the westward
of Port Jackson, I was most happy and desirous to obey an instruction I
received from the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, on behalf of the
Government, directing me to place myself under the orders of Captain P.P.
King, to whom the execution of this important service had been intrusted,
and to accompany him to those particular coasts, destined for his
investigation, in order to form and prepare such collections of their
vegetation, for the use of His Majesty's gardens at Kew, as
circumstances, and the particular season of the year proper for visiting
those shores, might afford me. My very limited knowledge of the plants of
that continent, especially of genera, that form a striking feature in its
Flora, was moreover essentially improved during our stay at King George's
Sound on the South-west Coast, previous to our arrival upon the
North-west Coast, at the commencement of the first voyage of His
Majesty's cutter the Mermaid.

Although the reader may inform himself, from Captain King's relation of
the several voyages, of the opportunities that were afforded me in
forming my collections of plants, still it appears necessary, in this
place, to take a general retrospective view of those parts of the coasts
under examination, whereon my researches were made, adverting, at the
same time, to the prevalent unfavourable seasons for flowering plants,
during which it should seem the survey of the North-west Coast could
alone be effected with safety.

During the progress of the survey of the southern extreme of the
North-west Coast (at which part Captain King commenced his examinations,
in 1818) I landed in Exmouth Gulf, then upon one of the islands of
Dampier's Archipelago, at the Intercourse Islands, and on Malus Island;
but the results of these several excursions (in some of which ample time
was afforded me) did by no means answer my expectations; herbaceous
plants being for the most part dead, and the few (hard woody) shrubs
scarcely bearing fructification: disadvantages arising, in fact, from the
extreme barrenness of the land, and more particularly from the prevalent
droughts of the season, previous to the change of the monsoon, which soon
afterwards took place, obliging us to quit the North-west Coast
altogether; the remaining periods of the voyage being employed in the
examination of certain parts of the North Coast.

We again reached the North-west Coast, in the month of September of the
following year, resuming the survey at its northern extremity, under the
most flattering views, and with a favourable season for the prosecution
of that primary object of the voyage. Between the meridians of 125 and
129 degrees, on the parallel of 14 degrees, although a large proportion
of the vegetation was for the most part destroyed by the long established
droughts, the number of specimens of plants bearing fructification,
gathered at Port Keats, Vansittart Bay, Port Warrender, and especially in
Cambridge Gulf (where we spent ten days) was nevertheless considerable
and highly interesting, belonging, however, almost wholly to established
genera of which Grevillea and Acacia were the most striking. The breaking
up of the monsoon at length again obliged Captain King to close his
examination of the coast for that season, to which we, however, returned
in September, 1820, continuing the survey westerly from the point at
which we had left those shores the preceding year. I had very eligible
opportunities of landing upon the shores of Montagu Sound, Capstan
Island, Cape Pond, York Sound, especially at the head of Hunter's River,
at Brunswick Bay, and in Careening Bay, Port Nelson; at which several
parts the collections formed were very important, but not extensive.

Our encampment on the shore of the latter bay, during the repair of the
vessel, enabled me to examine the country around, to the distance of four
or five miles; but it being at the height of the dry season,
comparatively few flowering plants were detected, and no herbaceous
plants of importance. Our prolonged stay there also enabled me to form
some idea of the Flora of its shores and neighbouring country, from which
I gathered materials for comparison with the vegetation of Endeavour
River, situated at the eastern extreme of its parallel on the opposite
shore of the continent: the identity of certain species on either coast,
together with the inference drawn therefrom, will appear stated, towards
the close of this general notice. Very few new genera were the fruits of
this third voyage, but many undescribed plants of old genera were
discovered, and with those that are frequent on the North Coast, and
tropical shores of New South Wales, some were remarked that were
originally discovered on the South Coast. The period again arrived, that
rendered it necessary to depart from the coast, independent of the leaky
state of our vessel, which materially hastened our return to Port
Jackson, when the cutter was considered wholly unfit for a fourth voyage,
in which the complete survey of the north-west, and the examination of
the line of west coasts were contemplated. To effect this important
service, the colonial government purchased a brig, subsequently named the
Bathurst, and I again accompanied Captain King from Port Jackson, in May,
1821, to those parts of the coasts then remaining unexplored, at which we
arrived at the close of July. Our very limited stay on those shores,
however, was at that season wherein all vegetation was suffering under
the excess of drought; I had nevertheless the means afforded me of
ascertaining the general identity of the plants of Prince Regent's River,
Hanover Bay, and Port George the Fourth (portions of the coast explored
in the voyage) and other parts in the vicinity, that were examined the
preceding year, at a like season, but under circumstances much more
favourable. Upon our return to the North-west Coast from the Mauritius,
early in 1822, the only part visited was Cygnet Bay, situate about 2 1/2
degrees to the south-west of the last-mentioned sound, and it happening
at a season when some rain had fallen, I met with several plants in an
abundant flowering state, of species, however, in part originally
discovered upon other coasts, and described by Mr. Brown, during the
Investigator's voyage.

Of the West Coast (properly so denominated) which was seen during the
Bathurst's voyage, very little can be said in reference to its vegetable
productions, and most probably nothing can be here advanced, tending to
augment our very scanty knowledge of its Flora, acquired in part long
since, through the medium of the celebrated navigator, Dampier, but more
especially by the botanists accompanying Captain Baudin's voyage. I had
no opportunity of examining any part of the main, during our run
northerly along its extensive shore, but I landed on Rottnest Island, and
repeatedly visited the northern extremity of Dirk Hartog's Island, off
Shark's Bay, where I gathered, under every discouragement of season, some
of the most important portions of its rich vegetation; in many instances,
however, in very imperfect conditions of fructification. Its general
features led me decidedly to assimilate it to the striking character of
the botany of the South Coast; a characteristic of which it is more than
probable the mainland largely partakes, if we may draw an inference from
its aspect at widely distant parts.

Upon those portions of the North Coast, which were chiefly surveyed
during the Mermaid's first voyage, at a period immediately subsequent to
the season of the rains, I had very favourable opportunities of
increasing my collections upon the Goulburn Islands, Ports Essington and
Raffles, Croker's Island, Mount-Norris Bay, and on the shores of Van
Diemen's Gulf; and among many described species, discovered formerly in
the great Gulf of Carpentaria, there were several most interesting new
plants. With a view towards an entire completion of the survey of the
several coasts of the continent, that part of New South Wales within the
tropic, north of Cape Bedford, which was not seen by Captain Cook,
entered into the plans of the Mermaid's second voyage; and it was highly
gratifying to my feelings to reflect that it was reserved for me to
complete several specimens discovered formerly in imperfect states by
those eminent naturalists who accompanied the above great
circumnavigator, in 1770, desiderata, that have been wanting ever since
this period of their discovery; no mediums of communication with those
particular parts of the coast having presented themselves.

The aggregate of the several collections that have been formed during the
progress of the four voyages under the general circumstances above
briefly referred to, and which, as constituting a small Herbarium, will
be thus collectively spoken of in the following remarks, does not exceed
one thousand three hundred species of Phaenogamous plants; of these five
hundred and twenty are already described by authors, the other portion
being in part unpublished species, previously discovered on other coasts
of Terra Australis, and in part absolutely new, referable, however,
mostly to well defined genera. Of Cryptogamous plants, there are but few
species, and of these, or parasitical Orchideae, none have been detected
in these voyages in addition to those already described: a circumstance,
that with respect to the North-west Coast can reasonably be accounted
for, from the non-existence of primary mountains, or land above very
moderate elevation; by the absence of lofty dense forests (points of
character necessary to that permanency of atmospheric moisture, which
constitutes an essential requisite to the existence of almost the whole
of these tribes): and the consequent general exposure to the sun of those
arid shores.

Limited in number as the new species really are, they will nevertheless
constitute, when added to the discoveries recently made, through the
medium of expeditions to the interior, from the colony of Port Jackson,
very important materials to carry on that Flora of Australia, so very
ably commenced by Mr. Brown. Since that eminent botanist has already
advanced much important matter in the valuable essay, published at the
close of the account of Captain Flinders' voyage, respecting the relative
proportions of the three grand divisions of plants in Australia, as far
as they had been discovered at that period, and has, from very extensive
materials, given us a comparative view of that portion of its Flora, and
the vegetation of other countries; I shall now simply submit a few
general remarks in this notice, on certain plants of established natural
families, that have been discovered in the progress of these voyages;
closing this paper with some observations, chiefly illustrative of the
geographical diffusion of several Australian plants known to authors,
whose localities have hitherto been exceedingly limited.

PALMAE. On considering the vast expanse of the continent of Terra
Australis, and that great extent of coast which passes through climates
favourable for the production of certain genera of this remarkable
natural family, it is singular that so few of the order should have been
discovered: a fact in the history of the Australian vegetation, which
(upon contemplating the natural economy of many other genera of plants)
can only be considered as accounted for, by the great tendency to drought
of at least three-fifths of its shores.

To Corypha, Seaforthia, and Livistona, the only three genera that have
been enumerated in the productions of the Australian Flora, may now be
added Calamus; of which a species (discovered without fructification, by
Sir Joseph Banks, during the celebrated voyage of Captain Cook) has at
length been detected bearing fruit in the vicinity of Endeavour River.
The existence of this palm, or rattan, on the East Coast, to which it is
confined, seems almost to be limited to an area within the parallels of
15 and 17 degrees South; should, however, its range be more extensive, it
is southerly one or two degrees, in which direction a remarkable primary
granitic formation of the coast continues, throughout the whole
neighbourhood of which is a peculiar density of dark moist forest,
seemingly dependent on it, and evidently indispensable to the life of
this species of Calamus; but at the termination of this geological
structure, it most probably ceases to exist. A dioecious palm of low
stature, and in habit similar to Seaforthia, was detected in the shaded
forests investing the River Hastings, in latitude 31 degrees South,
bearing male flowers; but as it may prove to be a dwarf state of a
species of that genus, which has lately been observed, with all its
tropical habits, in a higher latitude, it cannot now be recognised as a
sixth individual of the family whose fructification has been seen.

Although this order has been observed to be sparingly scattered along the
line of East Coast almost to the thirty-fifth degree of south latitude,
its range on the opposite shores of the continent is very limited. Upon
the North-west Coast, the genus Livistona alone has been remarked, in
about latitude 15 degrees South; beyond which, throughout a very
extensive line of depressed shore, towards the North-west Cape, no palms
were seen. If the structure of a coast, and its natural disposition to
produce either humidity or drought be consulted (a point, with respect to
this order, as well as certain other tropical tribes, appearing very
important) those portions of the western shores recently seen, indicate
no one character that would justify the supposition of the existence of
the Palmae in the corresponding extremes of the respective parallels that
produce them on the opposite or East Coast. Another remark relative to
the economy of this family is, that in New Holland it seems confined to
the coasts, Corypha australis, so frequent in particular shaded
situations in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, having never been
detected in the vicinity of, or upon the mountains, much less in the
distant country to the westward of that extensive boundary.

ASPHODELEAE. Among the several described plants in the Herbarium,
referred to this family, that were collected upon the East and South-west
Coasts, are specimens in complete fructification of a remarkable plant of
arborescent growth, having a caudex twenty feet high, and all the habits
of Dracaena. It probably constitutes a new genus distinct from Cordyline
of Commerson, to which, however, it appears closely allied; and has an
extensive range on the East Coast, where, although it has for the most
part been observed within the tropic, it extends nevertheless as far as
latitude 31 degrees South. The only plants of Asphodeleae remarked on the
north-western shores, were an imperfect Tricoryne, probably Tenella of
Mr. Brown, discovered by that gentleman during the Investigator's voyage
on the South Coast; and the intratropical Asparagus, which is frequent in
latitude fifteen degrees South.

CONIFERAE. To the general observations already made on that part of
Coniferae inhabiting the southern hemisphere, may be added some important
facts, to be gathered from the plants in the Herbarium of the late
voyages, that will afford a very correct view of the fructification of
some doubtful genera, as well as their limits. Among these the fruit of
Podocarpus aspleniifolia of M. Labillardiere, was observed, together with
the female fructification of another tree (the Huon pine) found also at
the southern extremes and western coast of Van Diemen's Land, which may
prove to be a Dacrydium. Callitris, of which seven species are known, and
principally found in the parallel of Port Jackson, has also been
discovered upon the North-west Coast, in about latitude 15 degrees South;
and another species, remarkable for its general robust habit, was
observed at Rottnest Island, on the West Coast. A tree, most certainly of
this family, and probably (from habit) a Podocarpus, has been seen upon
the East Coast, within the tropic, but the absence of fructification
prevented its genus being satisfactorily determined. With respect to the
extent of the order in the Islands of New Zealand, some recent specimens
gathered upon the northern, prove one of its pines to be a Podocarpus;
and another, producing a cone, and solitary, alternate scattered
elliptical leaves, shows its relation to Agathis of Salisbury, or Dammar
pine of Amboina.

URTICEAE, whose mass appears also to be confined to equinoctial
countries, may be considered very limited in those parts of Terra
Australis lying within the tropic recently explored. Ficus is the most
considerable genus of the order in that continent; and although chiefly
found on the north and north-western shores, is also traced on the East
Coast, almost to latitude 36 degrees South, where the trees attain an
enormous size. About sixteen species are preserved in the collections of
the late voyages; all small trees, and one half of which has been
gathered on the North-west Coast.

A species of Morus, bearing small white fruit, was discovered upon the
continent and islands of New South Wales within the tropic, where also a
new genus of the order, with radiated leaves, has been traced as far as
Endeavour River. Of the genus Urtica, whose numerous species can simply
be considered as of herbaceous duration, although a few of tropical
existence assume a fruticose habit, there is one plant in the vicinity of
the Colony of Port Jackson, remarkable for its gigantic, arborescent
growth; many specimens having been remarked from fifteen to twenty feet
in height, of proportional robust habit, and of highly stimulating
nature.

SANTALACEAE. Nearly three-fourths of the Australian portion of the order
described, were formerly discovered in the parallel of Port Jackson, upon
the shores of the South Coast, and in Van Diemen's Land. The genus
Choretrum, however, heretofore limited to the southern extremes of the
continent, approaches within about two degrees of the tropic on the West
Coast, having been lately observed on Dirk Hartog's Island. It is rather
remarkable that neither Leptomeria nor Choretrum form a part of the
feature of the vegetation of the arid, depressed portions of the
North-west Coast,* where several of the more harsh, rigid kinds of
plants, of various genera, of the South Coast have been remarked. Those
extensive shores (generally speaking) are not wanting in the order, for
two species of the tropical genus Santalum, Exocarpus, and a
globular-fruited Fusanus, were collected in and about the parallel of 15
degrees South.

(*Footnote. Towards the North-west Cape.)

PROTEACEAE. Since the publication of Mr. Brown's valuable dissertation on
this very extensive natural family, in which were described all the
species known at that period, a few important discoveries have been made
in Terra Australis, particularly on the North-west Coast, where the order
seems to be limited to Grevillea, Hakea, and Persoonia.

In the Herbarium formed during the late voyages, are specimens of
thirteen species of intertropical Grevillea, in various stages of
perfection; of these seven are described from specimens formerly gathered
upon the East Coast, and in the Gulf of Carpentaria; the remaining six
are, however, perfectly new, and will chiefly augment the last section of
that genus, having hard (in some instances spherical) woody follicles,
containing seeds orbicularly surrounded by a membranous wing, more or
less dilated, and a deciduous style; characters that future botanists may
deem sufficient to justify its separation from Grevillea. The range of
this division, which has been named by Mr. Brown, Cycloptera, has been
hitherto limited to the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the tropical shores of
the East Coast. Of the genus Hakea, hitherto almost wholly excluded from
the tropical parts of Australia, besides H. arborescens, the only species
formerly observed within that circle, the Herbarium furnishes at least
two plants, that have been recently discovered in about 22 degrees south
latitude, the one being H. oleifolia of King George's Sound, whilst the
other proves an entirely new species, belonging to the first section of
the genus, having long filiform leaves, and ecalcarated capsules.

Upon the East Coast in latitude 14 degrees two shrubs were observed
having all the habits of Hakea, of the South-west Coast, but being
without fructification, their identity could not be satisfactorily
determined.

Viewing the general distribution of Banksiae, it is a singular fact in
the geographical history of this genus, that its species, which have been
traced through almost every meridian of the South Coast, upon the islands
in Bass Strait, in Van Diemen's Land, and widely scattered throughout the
whole extent of New South Wales to the North Coast, at which extreme of
the continent, B. dentata has been observed as far west as longitude 130
degrees East, should be wholly wanting on the line of North-west Coast.
Why the links of this almost perfect chain should have been broken on the
seashores appears unaccountable, since they are, by reason of their
general sterility and exposure, extremely favourable to the growth of the
greater portion of the order. Our limited knowledge of the West Coast
(properly so called) does not afford us materials to hazard even a
partial conclusion, relative to the existence of this family on its
shores, excepting from the total absence of any one plant of Proteaceae
at those parts of Rottnest and Dirk Hartog's Islands visited during the
Bathurst's voyage; an inference may be drawn of the general paucity of
any part of the order on the shores of the neighbouring main. Although no
species have been found common to shores opposite to each other, in the
higher latitudes, the identity of Grevillea mimosoides, Persoonia
falcata, and Hakea arborescens, has been established upon the East Coast,
and the north-western shores, in the parallel of about 15 degrees South:
but whilst this geographical diffusion has been remarked in reference to
those particular species, the range of Grevillea gibbosa, a plant
discovered at Endeavour River by Sir Joseph Banks, is now tolerably well
defined by observations made during the late voyages, from which it
appears to be circumscribed to an area not exceeding one hundred and
twenty miles on the East Coast. In the course of the progress of the land
expedition above referred to, the discovery of another plant of this
natural order by Mr. Fraser, occurred in New South Wales, in a tract of
country west of the coastline, about the parallel of 31 degrees, where I
am informed it is a timber-tree of very large dimensions; and seemingly
it constitutes a new genus, nearly allied to Knightia of Mr. Brown, a
native of New Zealand, as I judged from a casual view of some specimens.

LABIATAE and VERBENACEAE. The mass of these orders (which are admitted to
be very nearly allied to each other) seems in Australia to exist on its
eastern coast, within and beyond the tropic, and the species in the
collection lately formed, are referred to ten established genera, of
which (as belonging to Verbenaceae) Vitex and Premna are most remarkable
on the North-western Coast.

Of Labiatae, a new species of Labillardiere's genus Prostranthera was
discovered upon Dirk Hartog's Island, where, as also at Rottnest Island,
Westringia was observed, of species, however, common to the South Coast.

BORAGINEAE. Some very important amendments, in reference to the limits of
certain genera of the order have been proposed by Mr. Brown in his
Prodromus, where the characters are remodelled to the exclusion of
certain species previously referred to them by authors. Of Cordia (to
which Varronia of Linne, and Cerdana of Ruiz and Pavon, have at length
been united) only two species have been found in Terra Australis, of
which one had been previously discovered in New Caledonia; and during the
late voyages C. orientalis has been observed on the North-west Coast,
where a third species of Tournefortia in complete fructification was
discovered; and the Herbarium contains some species of that section of
Heliotropium, having a simple straight spicated inflorescence, which were
also found on those equinoctial parts of the continent.

BIGNONIACEAE. Almost ninety species of this beautiful order are described
by authors, the greater part of which are at present incorporated among
the genuine species of Bignonia of Linne; a genus that will hereafter be
divided, according to the shape of the calyx, the number of fertile
stamina, and more especially the form of the fruit (which in some species
is an orbicular or elliptical capsule, varying in others to a long
cylindrical figure, with seeds partly cuneated, or thickened at one
extremity, and in others, a truly compressed Siliqua) together with the
relative position of the dissepiment, in respect to the valves of the
fruit.

The greater portion of Bignoniaceae appears to exist in the equinoctial
parts of America; Some, however, are natives of India, and a few occur on
the western coast of Africa, and Island of Madagascar, but in Terra
Australis the order is reduced to four plants, of which one is a recent
discovery, and may be referred to Spathodea. In that continent, the order
exists only upon the North and East Coasts; it is not, however, entirely
limited to the tropic, for Tecoma of Mr. Brown is also found in latitude
34 degrees South, on which parallel it has been traced at least three
hundred and fifty miles in the interior to the westward of the colony of
Port Jackson.

ASCLEPIADEAE and APOCINEAE. Nearly the whole of the plants in the
recently formed herbarium, that belong to these natural families, have
been described from specimens formerly discovered upon the East and North
Coasts, several of which appear to give a partial character to the
vegetation of some parts of its shores.

Hoya (hardly Asclepias carnosa of Linne) Cynanchum, Gymnema, Gymnanthus,
Sarcostemma, and probably Secamone, as belonging to Asclepiadeae, and all
the genera of Mr. Brown (Lyonsia excepted) referred to the latter order,
exist on that extensive coast, where Balfouria and Alyxia have each an
accession of species. Of Strychnos, which is also frequent, and probably
produces its flowers during the rainy season (as has been remarked of
this genus in other countries) specimens in that stage of its
fructification are still a desideratum; all that is known respecting the
plant being the form and size of its fruit, which in some species varies
considerably.

GOODENOVIAE. The Herbarium contains very few specimens of this
considerable Australian family, the greater mass existing in and to the
southward of the parallel of Port Jackson. The order is reduced to
Goodenia, Scaevola, Velleia, and the tropical Calogyne on the North-west
Coast, and the few species of the two first genera prove to have been
formerly discovered upon the South Coast during the voyage of Captain
Flinders, of which one plant has alsa a much more extensive range than
has been given it heretofore. It is Scaevola spinescens, which forms a
portion of the harsh, rigid vegetables of Dirk Hartog's Island on the
West Coast, and from that shore probably occupies a part of a very
considerable extent of barren country in the interior, in a direction
towards the East Coast, having been seen in abundance in the latitude of
Port Jackson, so near that colony as the meridian of 146 degrees 30
minutes East. A new Velleia, discovered on the North-west Coast in
latitude 16 degrees, augments that genus, belonging to the section with a
pentaphyllous calyx.

RUBIACEAE. The existence of several plants of this extensive family in
the intratropical parts of Terra Australis especially when aided by some
individuals of almost wholly exotic tribes, that form a prominent feature
in the Flora of other equinoctial countries, tend, in some measure, to
diminish the peculiar character of the vegetation of Terra Australis on
those shores, and thus it is a considerable assimilation to the Flora of
a part of a neighbouring continent that has been traced. About thirty
species are preserved in the collections of these voyages, for the most
part belonging to genera existing in India, but more abundant in the
tropical parts of South America.

Of these, Gardenia, Guettarda, Cephaelis, Coffea, Psychotria, and
Morinda, are found on the East Coast; whilst, in corresponding parallels
on the opposite, or north-western shores, the order, although not
materially reduced, is limited to the two latter genera, with Rondeletia,
Ixora, and Genipa.

It is worthy of remark, that the range of Psychotria, which has not been
observed beyond the tropics in other countries, extends in New South
Wales as far south as the latitude of 35 degrees; at the western
extremity of which it does not appear to exist.

CAPRIFOLIAE, Juss. The situation of Loranthus and Visvum, in the system,
appears to be undetermined by authors. M. Jussieu associated them with
Rhizophora, in the second section of this order, from which Mr. Brown has
separated this latter genus, and with two others found in Terra
Australis, has constructed a distinct family, named Rhizophoreae;
suggesting, at the same time, the analogy of Loranthus and Viscum to
Santalaceae, and particularly to Proteaceae. The genus Loranthus, of
which nearly the whole of its described species have been limited to the
tropics, is, however, sparingly scattered on all the Coasts of Australia,
where about eleven species have been recently observed, parasitical
chiefly upon certain trees that constitute the mass of the forests of
that vast continent; namely, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Acacia, and
Melaleuca.

A solitary and very remarkable deviation from the usual natural economy
of Loranthus, is observed in a species (L. floribunda) described and
figured by M. Labillardiere, which is found on the shores of King
George's Sound, where, in no way recognising the dependent habits of its
congeners, it rises from the soil to a tree fifteen feet high, being
never remarked relying upon other vegetables for its subsistence. Viscum
is found in the colony of Port Jackson, to which it is not confined,
having been also gathered at Endeavour River, on the same coast, within
the tropic. The southern range of the two genera seems to be nearly
beyond the fortieth degree of latitude; but in the northern hemisphere,
Loranthus exists in Siberia.

UMBELLIFERAE. The equinoctial portion of the Herbarium contains only
three or four plants of this extensive European order, belonging to
Hydrocotyle, Azorella of Cavanilles and Labillardiere (from which
Trachymene of Rudge is probably not distinct) and a suffruticose plant
referred to Cussonia, that have been collected upon the East Coast. Upon
the north-western shores, Azorella was alone remarked, of which a species
is very general upon its main and islands, and chiefly remarkable for its
gigantic herbaceous growth.

MYRTACEAE. With respect to that portion of Myrtaceae, lately discovered
upon the north-western shores of Australia, and which are alone worthy of
remark here, it is to be observed, that, considering the many points of
that coast visited during the progress of the relative voyages, the
number of species observed are comparatively few, for, including
Eucalyptus, it does not exceed sixteen plants. Of Eucalyptus itself, only
seven species were detected on those shores, and these, for the most
part, form small trees, more approaching the average dimensions of all
their congeners in the colony of Port Jackson. Melaleuca is limited to
three species, one of which was originally discovered by the celebrated
navigator, Dampier, on the West Coast, where Beaufortia has been recently
seen. Four species of Tristania, their related genus, were gathered in
about latitude 15 degrees South, where also an Eugenia, bearing fruit,
was observed; but of Leptospermum, or Baeckea, genera chiefly belonging
to the higher latitudes of New Holland, no species appeared throughout
the whole extent of coast examined.

RHAMNEAE and CELASTRINAE were formerly united among the Rhamni of
Jussieu, but disposed in sections, differing from each other in the
position of the stamina, with relation to the petals, and in the
character of the fruit; which, when viewed with other important
differences of fructification, induced Mr. Brown to modify and define
them as distinct orders.

In the Herbarium of the voyages, there are a few plants belonging to
Rhamnus, Ziziphus, Ceanothus, or Pomaderris, and Celastrus, but both
families prove to be comparatively rare in the intratropical parts of
Terra Australis, beyond which Cryptandra seems only to exist. Upon the
north-western shores, a species of Ziziphus (common to the East and North
Coasts) forms a tree of large dimensions, where also an undescribed
Celastrus has been discovered. Since Pomaderris evidently increases from
the verge of the tropic southerly towards the parallel of Port Jackson,
where its maximum exists, and as it is frequent on the South Coast, it is
highly probable the West Coast is not wanting of the genus, particularly
as traces of it were found on Dirk Hartog's Island.

LEGUMINOSEAE. There are upwards of one hundred and forty species of this
extensive natural class in the Herbarium recently formed, which bear a
proportion to the aggregate of the entire collections of about one to
nine.

Of the Australian portion of Mimoseae, which (having been met with upon
all the coasts of the continent, and equally diffused in the interior)
forms a leading characteristic of its vegetation, upwards of fifty
species have been collected, in various stages of fructification; nearly
the whole of which are unpublished plants. Several of those discovered on
the north-western shores, and islands off the West Coast, being also
extremely curious in their general form and habits; and the existence of
a few appears limited to a solitary particular situation, and no one
species was observed common to those parts, and the opposite or eastern
shores of the continent.

The Papilionaceous division exceeds seventy species, two-thirds of which
belong to established diadelphous genera, found chiefly within the
tropic, where some, peculiar to Terra Australis, and heretofore limited
to the more temperate regions, have been discovered. Thus Hovea and
Bossiaea were detected in New South Wales, in latitude 20 and 22 degrees
South, as well as on the North Coast; the latter genus being likewise
found on the north-western shores, where also two species of Kennedia
exist; and Templetonia, a genus nearly related to Bossiaea, originally
discovered on the southern shores of Australia, is abundant on an island
off the West Coast.

Upon the North-west Coast, particularly in the parallels of 14 and 15
degrees South, where an exotic feature (if the usual characteristic of
the Flora of other countries might in this case be so termed) is as
manifest, and is as strongly blended with the pure Australian character
(Eucalyptus and Acacia) in its general vegetation, as on any other parts
of those shores; Jacksonia and Gompholobium, genera of Papilionaceae,
with distinct stamens, almost limited to the parallel of Port Jackson and
the South Coast, were observed: Daviesia, almost wholly restricted to the
higher Australian latitudes, has been remarked on the North Coast. Of
Lomentaceae, Bauhinia, Caesalpinia, and the emigrant genus Guilandina,
are all of intratropical existence in New South Wales, as also upon the
North-west Coast; but Cassia, although it has an equal extensive range in
the equinoctial parts of New Holland, has also been recently traced as
far in the interior, on the parallel of Port Jackson, as the meridian of
146 degrees East.

EUPHORBIACEAE. The Herbarium contains thirty-three plants of this very
numerous order, whose maximum seems decidedly to exist in India and
equinoctial America. The whole of the Australian species are referable to
established Linnean genera, of which Croton and Phyllanthus are most
remarkable and numerous, existing on all the intratropical shores of
Terra Australis, but by no means limited to them, both genera, together
with Euphorbia and Jatropha, being found in the parallel of Port Jackson;
and Croton exists likewise at the southern extreme of Van Diemen's Land,
which is probably the limit of the genus on that hemisphere.

A Tragia (scarcely distinct from a species indigenous in India) is
sparingly scattered on the East and North Coasts; and Acalypha has been
remarked on these, as well as the north-western shores.

PITTOSPOREAE. Of this small family, whose characters and limits were
first described by Mr. Brown, there are sixteen species in the Herbarium
of these voyages, referable to Bursaria, Billardiera, Pittosporum, and
two unpublished genera.

Billardiera, whose species are wholly volubilous, and which are not found
north of the parallel of Port Jackson, is frequent on the South-west
Coast, and has been recently remarked on the West Coast of Van Diemen's
Land. Bursaria on the other hand, appearing limited to New South Wales,
has been traced within the tropic to latitude 19 degrees South on those
eastern shores, and although the genus Pittosporum is even more
extensively diffused on that coast, it has not been met with upon the
north-western shores, whilst the islands off the West Coast furnished me
with two new species.

DIOSMEAE, although very frequent in the higher latitudes of Terra
Australis, where they are so frequent as to give a peculiar character to
their vegetable productions, is comparatively rare within the tropic; for
upon the East Coast Eriostemon and Phebalium appear to be the only
genera, the latter having been recently discovered, in about latitude 20
degrees South.

With some undescribed species of Boronia, a new genus allied to
Eriostemon has been observed on the north-western shores, in the parallel
of 15 degrees South, having a remarkable pinnatified fimbriated calyx.

Of the related family ZYGOPHYLLEAE (an order proposed by Mr. Brown to be
separated from the Rutaceae of Jussieu) Tribulus is frequent on the
tropical shores of New Holland, and a species of Zygophyllum, with linear
conjugate leaves and tetrapterous fruit, was remarked upon an island off
Shark's Bay, on the West Coast.

MELIACEAE. The several genera of this order, whose maximum is in the
equinoctial parts of America, differ from each other in the form of the
remarkable cylindrical nectarium, the situation or insertion of the
antherae upon it, as well as the character of its almost wholly capsular
fruit. This structure of nectarium is most striking in Turraea, of which
a species was observed upon the East Coast, far within the tropic; where
also, as well as on all the other equinoctial shores of the continent,
Carapa, more remarkable on account of the valvular character of its
capsules, and the magnitude and irregular figure of its nuts, is very
general, and probably not distinct from the plant (C. moluccensis, Lam.)
of Rumphius, who has given us a figure in his Herbarium Amboinense volume
3 table 61, 62.

SAPINDACEAE. Of the very few plants referred to the family in the
Herbarium, two genera are only worthy of remark here, the one an
Ornitrophe, found on the East Coast, in about latitude 35 degrees, as
also within the tropic; and the other, which appears to belong to
Stadmannia, was discovered upon the same coast, in latitude 31 degrees
South, the type of the genus being the bois de fer of the French
colonists, a timber tree indigenous at the Island of Mauritius.

MALVACEAE, Juss. Tiliaceae, Juss. Sterculiaceae, Vent. Buttnericeae,
Brown. These several families, of which the first is by far the most
extensive, have been viewed by Mr. Brown, as so many allied orders of one
natural class, to which the general title of Malvaceae might be applied.
About thirty-six species of these orders collectively, are preserved in
the present Herbarium, referable at least to eleven genera, of which nine
are most abundant in (and form a characteristic feature of) the botany of
India, and the equinoctial parts of South America. Fourteen species of
Hibiscus and Sida were observed on the intratropical Coasts of Australia,
beyond which also, on the opposite shores of the continent, each genus
has been remarked. One species of Bombax with polyandrous flowers, and
subspherical obtusely pentagonal capsules, was discovered upon the East
Coast, in about latitude 14 degrees South, and on nearly the western
extreme of the same parallel, it appeared much more abundant. Of
Sterculia which is scarcely to be found beyond the tropics in other
countries, a species exists in New South Wales in the latitude of 34
degrees, on which parallel it is more frequent in the western interior,
and in that direction it has been traced to the distance of three hundred
miles from the sea-coast. The genus is also found on the North and
North-west Coasts, where the species assume more particularly the habits
of their congeners in India. Among the plants of this family in the
Herbarium is a species of Helicteris (as the genus stands at present)
which was observed on the North-west Coast bearing fruit, wanting the
contortion that characterizes the genus.

This plant, together with three other described species, having straight
capsules, may hereafter be separated from that Linnean genus, and
constitute a new one of themselves. Grewia, Corchorus, Triumfetta, and
Waltheria, have been observed upon the North-west Coast, where also
Abroma, hitherto limited to the tropical parts of New South Wales, has
been discovered bearing flowers and young fruit. One species of
Commersonia was gathered at widely-different parts of the north-western
shores, and Lasiopetalum, whose species are more general at both extremes
of the parallel of the colony of Port Jackson, has been also seen just
within the tropic on the East Coast, and at Dirk Hartog's Island, off
Shark's Bay, on the opposite shore.

CAPPARIDES. At least ten species of Capparis have been discovered upon
the coasts of Terra Australis, for the most part within the tropic, but
of these the fructification of two are wanting. A few have been detected
on the East Coast, but they are more frequent and various in their
species upon the north-western shores of the continent. Within an area on
this extensive coast, not exceeding four degrees of longitude, on the
parallel of 15 degrees South, a tree of very remarkable growth and habit,
has been traced, having all the external form and bulk of Adansonia of
the western shores of Africa. At the respective period of visiting those
parts of the North-west Coast, this gouty tree had previously cast its
foliage of the preceding year, which is of quinary insertion, but it bore
ripe fruit, which is a large elliptical pedicellated unilocalar capsule
(a bacca corticosa) containing many seeds enveloped in a dry pithy
substance. Its flowers, however, have never been discovered, but from the
characters of the fruit, it was (upon discovery) referred to this natural
family. M. Du Petit Thouars has formed a new genus of Capparis
pauduriformis of Lamarck, a plant of the Island of Mauritius, which he
has named Calyptranthus. It has one division of the calyx so formed, that
by its arcuated concavity (before expansion) it conceals the whole
flower, and the other portions of the calyx; and should this genus be
adopted by future botanists, a second species has been recently
discovered upon Dirk Hartog's Island, although of remarkably different
habit.

Cleome has been observed only in the equinoctial parts of Australia, and
like Capparis, several species exist on the North-west Coast, being
limited to C. viscosa in New South Wales.

Drosera, which Jussieu associates with these genera is generally
diffused, being found within the tropic, at Endeavour River, and on the
North-west Coast; at Port Jackson, and at the southern extremes of Van
Diemen's Land.

DILLENIACEAE. To that Australian portion of the order lately enumerated
by M. Decandolle, the present Herbarium offers, in addition, only two
species of the genus Hemistemma of M. Du Petit Thouars. The one
discovered on the North-west Coast, and allied to H. angustifolium of Mr.
Brown; the other proving also new, but approaching in character the
doubtful species, H. leschenaultii of Decandolle, and was discovered upon
Rottnest Island, off the western coast of the continent, and is the first
certain species of the genus, that is not limited to a tropical
existence.

In addition to what has been advanced in respect to certain natural
orders that appear in the Herbarium, formed under the stated
circumstances, a slight mention might be made of other detached genera,
or families sparingly observed on these coasts, that were more
particularly investigated during the progress of the late voyages; but as
these several plants form portions of orders so extremely limited, and in
themselves presenting nothing remarkable in their internal structure, or
external habit, a few remarks on a general comparison of the vegetation
of the North-west Coast, with the other shores of Terra Australis, will
conclude this notice.

It is very necessary to premise, that the plants observed and collected
upon the North-west Coast, during the late voyages, are not to be
considered as even a distant approach to an entire Flora of that
extensive line of shore; since the long-established droughts of the
seasons (as already remarked) in which the greater part of that coast was
visited, had wholly destroyed plants of annual duration, with most of the
Gramineae, and had indeed generally affected the mass of its herbaceous
vegetation. The collections, therefore, can simply be viewed as a
gleaning, affording such general outlines of characteristic feature, as
will enable the botanist to trace its affinity to the more minutely
defined vegetation of the other equinoctial shores of the continent, as
well as perceive its general, and, in some instances, almost total want
of relation to the botany of other parts, in the more temperate or higher
latitudes, where certain striking peculiarities of the Australian Flora
more particularly exist.

Upon a general comparison of those collections that were thus formed on
the North-west Coast, with the plants of the North and East Coasts, aided
also by some few observations made during the voyages, it appears that
(with the exception of Gompholobium, Boronia, Kennedia, and one or two
unpublished species not referred to any family) the genera (of which
several are proper to India) are the same, although the species are very
distinct upon the several coasts.

Notwithstanding an identity of genera has been remarked upon their
opposite shores, there are, nevertheless, certain others, frequent upon
the East Coast, that appear wholly wanting on the north-western shores:
of these, the existence of some, even in the tropical parts of New South
Wales, seems governed by the primary formation of the coast, its
mountainous structure, and consequent permanency of moisture in a greater
or less degree; namely, almost all the genera of Filices, the parasitical
Orchideae, Piper, Dracontium and Calladium (genera of Aroideae) Commelina
and Aneilema, Calamus and Seaforthia, Hellenia a solitary Australian
genus of Scitamineae, some genera of Rubiaceae, particularly Psychotria
and Coffea, certain genera of Asphodeleae, as Cordyline, and a genus
allied to it, whose fructification is at length obtained, a solitary
plant of Melastomeae, and an individual Nymphea.

Other genera also, but little influenced by those local circumstances of
situation on the East Coast, that are excluded from the opposite shores,
are Leucopogon (the only equinoctial genus of Epacrideae observed during
the late voyages) the families Bignoniaceae, Jasmineae, the genus
Erythrina, and of Coniferae, Araucaria of Norfolk Island. This absence of
several orders of plants on the north-western shores, existing in New
South Wales, or opposite coast, as well as the consideration (at the same
time) of the evident causes of such a disparity of species on the former
coast, would suggest the opinion, that such plants alone of other parts
of the continent are indigenous to the North-west Coast, as are capable
of sustaining themselves in a soil subjected to seasons of protracted
parching droughts. This may apply to some species upon that coast, but it
cannot be reduced to a general conclusion; for, on the one hand, it is
singular so few of the plants of the South and South-west Coasts, and
particularly that none other of their genera of Proteaceae (than those
already mentioned) found altogether in an arid soil, should have been
discovered throughout any part of its extensive shore; whilst, on the
other hand, at a peculiar structure of a small and limited portion of
that coast, in the vicinity of York Sound, a sufficiency of shade was
observed to be actually produced by the unusually broken character of the
country, to favour the nourishment and growth of certain plants alone to
be seen beneath the shade of dense forests. These species were Myristica
insipida, discovered by Mr. Brown, on one of the Prince of Wales group of
islands on the North Coast; Cryptocarya triplinervis, Brown; bearing ripe
fruit, Abroma fastuosa; and an undescribed Eugenia.

Although the several genera of plants lately observed on the
north-western shores are also frequent in other equinoctial parts of the
continent, there is, among the many species which are absolutely proper
to that coast, a Capparis of such extraordinary habit, as to form a
feature in the landscape of a limited extent of its shores, in the
enormous bulk of its stem and general ramification, bearing a striking
analogy to the Adansonia of the west coast of Africa.

The results of such observations on the vegetation as could only be made
in a general way, at parts approaching each extreme of the North-west
Coast, show their little affinity to each other; for the northern
extremity partakes more fully of that feature of the line of coast
contiguous to it, which (as already remarked) extends along the
north-western shores, declines materially at, and in the vicinity of
their southern limits, where the characteristic vegetation of the south,
and perhaps the west, coasts has more particularly been found. Besides
Eucalyptus and Acacia, which are abundant on every shore, and generally
diffused throughout those parts of the interior that have been
penetrated, there is another genus almost equally dispersed, which is,
however, on the North-west Coast reduced to three species. This is
Dodonaea, whose maximum is certainly in New South Wales, within and
beyond the tropic, upon the coast, and generally in the interior of the
country, extending also to the southern extremity of Van Diemen's Land.

Our very limited knowledge of the Flora of this vast continent (excepting
of a part east of longitude 144 degrees, and included between the
parallels of 31 and 35 degrees in New South Wales) is entirely confined
to the vegetation of its immediate shores, upon every distinct coast of
which, landings, more or less frequent, and under various circumstances,
have been effected; although of all, very considerable portions remain
unexplored, and of the line of West Coast (properly so denominated) the
shores of Shark's Bay, and some few parts south of it, have alone been
scientifically investigated. The interior within the tropic remains
entirely in obscurity; the continental defect of a want of large streams
having a distant source, to aid a penetration to the internal parts of
the country, together with other effectual obstacles, draw at present a
veil, and forbid all research into its Natural History and character,
which will not be removed for very considerable periods (perhaps ages)
yet to come!

It was the general remark made during a former expedition in the interior
of New South Wales, that no absolutely entire change takes place in the
vegetation east of the meridian of the new settlement named Bathurst; but
that the plants of the coast were more or less frequent at a hundred and
fifty miles from the sea, although in a country estimated at about two
thousand feet above its level. Having to this circumstance added a
remarkable and obvious sameness (arising from an extensive dispersion) of
a vein of vegetation in a large tract of country, it may be inquired, how
far these facts might, when applied to other parallels, identify a
certain portion of the Flora of the interior, and that of the sea-coast
in the same latitude; or, in other terms, how far the botany of the coast
indicates the general feature of the vegetation to a certain limit, in
the interior on the same parallel? Favourable opportunities were afforded
me, to compare the vegetation of opposite coasts within the tropic, at
the eastern and western extremes of a particular parallel; and the
results of such a comparison identified many species on the two coasts. I
have annexed a list of those plants that are common to the North-west and
East Coasts in and about the parallel of 15 degrees South, from a
contemplation of which, together with the above remarks, and a further
comparison of the species with those of the shores of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, through which that degree of latitude passes, might not a
general idea of some portion of the Flora of the expanse of intermediate
interior (far beyond the reach of actual investigation) be presumed?

A few observations relative to the geographical range of certain genera
and species, hitherto considerably circumscribed, will close this notice.

The genus Pandanus has ever been viewed by botanists as equinoctial; nor
was it till recently ascertained satisfactorily, that one of its species
(P. pedunculatus, Brown) exists on the shores of Port Macquarie in New
South Wales, in latitude 31 degrees South: and I have been credibly
informed, that the same plant is frequent in the vicinity of Port
Stephens, which is at least a degree to the southward of the above
parallel. The latitude of 32 degrees South may be considered the utmost
extreme of ranges from the equator of the genus in Terra Australis, on
the opposite shore of which, as also in all other countries, it has not
been remarked beyond the tropics.

The palms of Terra Australis, which (as previously observed) are
remarkably limited on the north-western shores, have a very considerable
diffusion on the North and East Coasts, and have even a more general
dispersion on the latter shores, than has been allowed them formerly.
Seaforthia is frequent in dense forests on the East Coast, almost to
latitude 35 degrees South, where it exhibits all the tropical habits
assumed on the northern shores, although the difference of climate, and
consequent temperature, are abundantly obvious. On the other hand, a palm
of very robust growth, with large flabelliform fronds, and spinous
foot-stalks, was remarked at the head of Liverpool River, in latitude 12
degrees South, on the North Coast; and although without fructification,
no doubt existed of its being the Corypha australis, hitherto limited to
the shores and vicinity of Port Jackson.

Araucaria excelsa. The Norfolk Island pine, which, without doubt, must
have been particularly noticed by the celebrated circumnavigator Captain
Cook, in 1770, on the discovery of New South Wales, although the
circumstance of the very general existence of a pine upon the islands and
main of that coast, north of the Percy Isles, does not appear to be
mentioned in the accounts of that particular voyage, has a far more
extensive range upon that shore than has been hitherto understood. During
the Mermaid's voyages, Araucaria was observed in the vicinity of Mount
Warning, in New South Wales, which lies in the parallel of Norfolk Island
(29 degrees South); thence northerly it was very sparingly seen towards
the tropic, within which, however, as far as latitude 14 degrees, it is
very abundant, forming upon several islands the only timber. This is
probably the nearest approach of the species to the equinoctial line; and
although it occupies an area of nine hundred miles, it is very probably
limited in Terra Australis to its immediate shores; and, as appears to be
the case with Pandanus, exists only within the influence of the sea air.

Calladium macrorhizon, Willd., formerly observed by Sir Joseph Banks, at
Endeavour River, on the East Coast, has been recently detected in moist
woods, in the country off which the Five Islands are situate, extending
on that shore to latitude 35 degrees South: and Schelhammera multiflora,
Br., a delicate plant of Melanthaceae, discovered likewise at Endeavour
River, abounds in shady forests, in latitude 31 degrees, upon the same
extensive coast.

The following plants, formerly considered as indigenous only in Van
Diemen's Land, have been recently ascertained to exist also in New South
Wales, in or about the parallel of the colony of Port Jackson.

Croton viscosum, Labill., originally discovered on the South-west Coast,
was seen in the interior, as far to the westward of the colony as
longitude 146 degrees East.

Croton quadripartitum, Labill., was observed in longitude 148 degrees.

Goodia latifolia, Salisb., was remarked sparingly in the interior, in the
meridian of 147 degrees 30 minutes East: and Daviesia latifolia of Mr.
Brown is very frequent in societies upon plains at Bathurst, in longitude
149 degrees East, where also Eryngium vesiculosum, of Labillardiere, was
observed.

Aster argophyllus and obovatus, Labill. These two species were described
by Mons. Labillardiere, from specimens gathered in the southern extremes
of the above island, and have been lately seen tolerably frequent in a
remarkable tract of country, in latitude 34 degrees, on the limit of the
colony, where the former assumes a robust, arborescent habit. Aster
phlogopappus, of the same eminent author, was recently remarked upon the
more elevated parts of the Blue Mountain Range, on the margin of a
remarkable cataract.

...

A LIST OF PLANTS COMMON TO THE EAST AND NORTH-WEST COASTS OF TERRA
AUSTRALIS, IN AND ABOUT THE PARALLEL OF FIFTEEN DEGREES SOUTH, WHERE THE
BREADTH OF CONTINENT EXCEEDS 1800 MILES.

Gleichenia Hermanni, Br.
Eriocaulon fistulosum, Br.
Philydrum lanuginosum, Gaertn.
Flagellaria indica, L.
Dioscorea bulbifera, L.
*? Pandanus pedunculatus, Br.
Cycas angulata, Br.
Santalum oblongatum, Br.
Exocarpus latifolia, Br.
Persoonia falcata, Br.
Grevillea mimosoides, Br.
Hakea arborescens, Br.
Buchnera ramosissima, Br.
Adenosma coerulea, Br.
Orthostemon erectum, Br.
Tabernaemontana orientalis, Br.
Carissa ovata, Br.
Strychnos lucida, Br.
Alyxia obtusifolia, Br.
Ipomoea longifiora, Br.
Ipomoea denticulata, Br.
Ipomoea maritima, Br.
Evolvulus villosus, R. et Pav.
Cuscuta carinata, Br.
Cordia orientalis, Br.
* Clerodendrum inerme, Br.
* Avicennia tomentosa, L.
Chionanthus axillaris, Br.
Olea paniculata, Br.
Maba laurina, Br.
Sersalisia obovata, Br.
Mimusops parvifolia, Br.
Terminalia, sp. allied to Catappa, Lam.
Cleome viscosa, L.
Capparis sepiaria, L.
Hibiscus tiliaceus, L.
Abroma fastuosa, Br.
Bombax australis.
Jacksonia thesioides.
Bauhiniae sp.
Caesalpiniae sp.
Cassia occidentalis, L.
Guilandina Bonduc, L.
Morinda citrifolia, L.
* Carapa moluccensis, Lam.
Zizyphus melastomoides.
* Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Lam.
Casuarina equisetifolia, Lam.

Should the botany of the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, in the
vicinity of those parts, through which the above parallels pass,
generally correspond (on comparison) with the above list, it is more than
probable that these several species occupy portions of the intermediate
interior bounded by the meridians of 125 and 145 degrees East; those
plants excepted, having an asterisk prefixed to them, which as forming
mangroves, or from other causes exist only on the sea shore.

...

A LIST OF PLANTS OBSERVED DURING THE LATE VOYAGES ON THE SHORES OF TERRA
AUSTRALIS, THAT ARE ALSO COMMON TO INDIA OR SOUTH AMERICA.

Acrostichum alcicorne, Sw.
Polypodium acrostichoides, Sw.
Nephrodium exaltatum, Br.
Nephrodium unitum, Br.
Vittaria elongata, Sw.
Asplenium nidus, L.
Daval1ia flaccida, Br.
Gleichenia Hermanni, Br.
Flagellaria indica, L.
Dioscorea bulbifera, L.
Calladium ? macrorhizon, Willd.
Aristolochia indica, L.
Daphne indica, L.
Salicornia indica, Willd.
Deeringia celosioides, Br.
Plumbago zeylanica, L.
Dischidia nummularifolia, Br.
Acanthus ilicifolius, L.
Acanthus ebracteatus, L.
Ipomea Turpethum, Br.
Ipomea denticulata, Br.
Ipomea maritima, Br.
Evolvulus villosus, R. et Pav.
Trichodesma zeylanica, Br.
Tournefortia argentea, L.
Cordia orientalis, Br.
Plectranthus scutellarioides, Br.
Clerodendrum inerme, Br.
Vitex ovata, L.
Vitex trifolia, L.
Avicennia tomentosa, L.
Mimusops kauki, L.
Aegiceras fragrans, C. Koenig.
Scaevola koenigii, Vahl.
Cleome viscosa, L.
Capparis sepiaria, L. ?
Calophyllum inophyllum, L.
Morinda citrifolia, L.
Carapa moluccensis, Lam.
Sophora tomentosa, L.
Cassia occidentalis, L.
Guilandina bonduc, L.
Abrus precatorius, L.
? Acacia scandens, Willd. ?
Hibiscus tiliaceus, L.
Suriana maritima, Jacqu.
Pemphis acida, Forst.
Rhizophora mangle, L. ?
Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Lam.
Sonneratia acida, L.
Abroma fastuosa, Br.
Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst.

...

CHARACTER AND DESCRIPTION OF KINGIA, A NEW GENUS OF PLANTS FOUND ON THE
SOUTH-WEST COAST OF NEW HOLLAND: WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF
ITS UNIMPREGNATED OVULUM; AND ON THE FEMALE FLOWER OF CYCADEAE AND
CONIFERAE.

BY ROBERT BROWN, ESQUIRE, F.R.S.S.L. AND E. F.L.S.

(READ BEFORE THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON, NOVEMBER 1 AND 15, 1825.)

In the Botanical Appendix to the Voyage to Terra Australis, I have
mentioned a plant of very remarkable appearance, observed in the year
1801, near the shores of King George the Third's Sound, in Mr. Westall's
view of which, published in Captain Flinders' Narrative, it is
introduced.

The plant in question was then found with only the imperfect remains of
fructification: I judged of its affinities, therefore, merely from its
habit, and as in this respect it entirely agrees with Xanthorrhoea,
included the short notice given of it in my remarks on Asphodeleae, to
which that genus was referred.* Mr. Cunningham, the botanist attached to
Captain King's voyages, who examined the plant in the same place of
growth, in February, 1818, and in December, 1821, was not more fortunate
than myself. Captain King, however, in his last visit to King George's
Sound, in November, 1822, observed it with ripe seeds: and at length Mr.
William Baxter, whose attention I had particularly directed to this
plant, found it, on the shores of the same port in 1823, both in flower
and fruit. To this zealous collector, and to his liberal employer, Mr.
Henchman, I am indebted for complete specimens of its fructification,
which enable me to establish it as a genus distinct from any yet
described.

(*Footnote. Flinders Voyage volume 2 page 576.)

To this new genus I have given the name of my friend Captain King, who,
during his important surveys of the Coasts of New Holland, formed
valuable collections in several departments of Natural History, and on
all occasions gave every assistance in his power to Mr. Cunningham, the
indefatigable botanist who accompanied him. The name is also intended as
a mark of respect to the memory of the late Captain Philip Gidley King,
who, as Governor of New South Wales, materially forwarded the objects of
Captain Flinders' voyage; and to whose friendship Mr. Ferdinand Bauer and
myself were indebted for important assistance in our pursuits while we
remained in that colony.

KINGIA.

ORD. NAT. Junceae prope Dasypogon, Calectasiam et Xerotem.

CHAR. GEN. Perianthium sexpartitum, regulare, glumaceum, persistens.
Stamina sex, fera hypogyna: Antheris basi affixis. Ovarium triloculare,
loculis monospermis; ovulis adscendentibus. Stylus 1. Stigma tridentatum.
Pericarpium exsuccum, indehiscens, monospermum, perianthio scarioso
cinctum.

Planta facie Xanthorrhoeae elatioris. Caudex arhorescens cicatricibus
basibusve foliorum exasperatus? Folia caudicem terminantia confertissima
longissima, figura et dispositione Xanthorrhoeae. Pedunculi numerosi
foliis breviores, bracteis vaginantibus imbricatis tecti, floriferi
terminales erecti, mox, caudice parum elongato foliisque novellis
productis, laterales, et divaricati vel deflexi, terminati capitulo denso
globoso floribus tribracteatis.

Kingia australis. Table C.

DESC. Caudex arborescens erectus simplicissimus cylindraceus, 6-18-pedes
altus, crassitie femoris. Folia caudicem terminantia numerosissima
patula, apicibus arcuato-recurvis, lorea, solida, ancipitia apice
teretiusculo, novella undique tecta pilis adpressis strictis acutis
laevibus, angulis lateralibus et ventrali retrorsum scabris. Pedunculi
numerosi teretes 8-12-pollicares crassitie digiti, vaginis integris
brevibus imbricatis hinc in foliolum subulatum productis tecti. Capitulum
globosum, floridum magnitudine pruni minoris, fructiferum pomum parvum
aequans. Flores undique dense imbricati, tribracteati, sessiles. Bractea
exterior lanceolata breve acuminata planiuscula erecta, extus villosa
intus glabra, post lapsum fructus persistens: duae laterales
angusto-naviculares, acutissimae, carina lateribusque villosis,
longitudine fere exterioris, simul cum perianthio fructifero, separatim
tamen, dilabentibus. Perianthium sexpartitum regulare subaequale
glumaceum: foliola lanceolata acutissima disco nervoso nervis immersis
simplicissimis, antica et postica plana, lateralia complicata lateribus
inaequalibus, omnia basi subangustata, extus longitudinaliter sed extra
medium praecipue villosa, intus glaberrima, aestivatione imbricata.
Stamina sex subaequalia, aestivatione stricta filamentis sensim
elongantibus: Filamenta fere hypogyna ipsis basibus foliolorum perianthii
quibus opposita leviter adhaerentia, filiformia glabra teretia: Antherae
stantes, ante dehiscentiam lineares obtusae filamento paulo latiores,
defloratae subulatae vix crassitie filamenti, loculis parallelo-contiguis
connectivo dorsali angusto adnatis, axi ventrali longitudinaliter
dehiscentibus, lobulis baseos brevibus acutis subadnatis: Pollen simplex
breve ovale laeve. Pistillum: Ovarium sessile disco nullo squamulisve
cinctum, lanceolatum trigono-anceps villosum, triloculare, loculis
monospermis. Ovula erecta fundo anguli interioris loculi paulo supra
basin suam inserta, obovata lenticulari-compressa, aptera: Testa in ipsa
basi acutiuscula foramine minuto perforata: Membrana interna respectu
testae inversa, hujusce nempe apici lata basi inserta, ovata apice
angustato aperto foramen testae obturante: Nucleus cavitate membranae
conformis, ejusdem basi insertus, caeterum liber, pulposus solidus, apice
acutiusculo laevi aperturam membranae internae attingente. Stylus
trigonus strictus, infra villosus, dimidio superiore glabro, altitudine
staminum, iisdem paulo praecocior, exsertus nempe dum illa adhuc inclusa.
Stigmata tria brevissima acuta denticuliformia. Pericarpium exsuccum,
indehiscens, villosum, basi styli aristatum, perianthio scarioso et
filamentis emarcidis cinctum, abortione monospermum. Semen turgidum
obovatum retusum, integumento (testa) simplici membranaceo aqueo-pallido,
bine (intus) fere a basi acutiuscula, raphe fusca verticem retusum
attingente ibique in chalazam parvam concolorem ampliata. Albumen semini
conforme dense carnosum album. Embryo monocotyledoneus, aqueo-pallidus
subglobosus, extremitate inferiore (radiculari) acuta, in ipsa basi
seminis situs, semi-immersus, nec albumine omnino inclusus.

Table C. figure 1. Kingiae australis pedunculus capitulo florido
terminatus; figure 2, capitulum fructiferum; 3, sectio transversalis
pedunculi: 4, folium: hae magnitudine naturali, sequentes omnes plus
minus auctae sunt; 5, flos; 6, stamen; 7, anthera antice et, 8, eadem
postice visa; 9, pistillum; 10, ovarii sectio transversalis; 11, ejusdem
portio longitudinaliter secta exhibens ovulum adscendens cavitatem loculi
replens; 12, ovulum ita longitudinaliter sectum ut membrana interna
solummodo ejusque insertio in apice cavitatis testae visa sit; 13, ovuli
sectio longitudinalis profundius ducta exhibens membranam internam et
nucleum ex ejusdem basi ortum; 14, bracteae capituli fructiferi; 15,
pericarpium perianthio filamentisque persistentibus cinctum; 16,
pericarpium perianthio avulso filamentorum basibus relictis; 17, semen.

OBS. 1.

It remains to be ascertained, whether in this genus a resin is secreted
by the bases of the lower leaves, as in Xanthorrhoea; and whether, which
is probable, it agrees also in the internal structure of its stem with
that genus. In Xanthorrhoea the direction of fibres or vessels of the
caudex seems at first sight to resemble in some degree the dicotyledonous
arrangement, but in reality much more nearly approaches to that of
Dracaena draco, allowance being made for the greater number, and extreme
narrowness of leaves, to which all the radiating vessels belong.*

(*Footnote. My knowledge of this remarkable structure of Xanthorrhoea is
chiefly derived from specimens of the caudex of one of the larger species
of the genus, brought from Port Jackson, and deposited in the collection
at the Jardin du Roi of Paris by M. Gaudichaud, the very intelligent
botanist who was attached to Captain De Freycinet's voyage.)

OBS. 2.

I have placed Kingia in the natural order Junceae along with Dasypogon,
Calectasia and Xerotes, genera peculiar to New Holland, and of which the
two former have hitherto been observed only, along with it, on the shores
of King George's Sound.

The striking resemblance of Kingia, in caudex and leaves, to
Xanthorrhoea, cannot fail to suggest its affinity to that genus also.
Although this affinity is not confirmed by a minute comparison of the
parts of fructification, a sufficient agreement is still manifest to
strengthen the doubts formerly expressed of the importance of those
characters, by which I attempted to define certain families of the great
class Liliaceae.

In addition, however, to the difference in texture of the outer coat of
the seed, and in those other points, on which I then chiefly depended in
distinguishing Junceae from Asphodeleae, a more important character in
Junceae exists in the position of the embryo, whose radicle points always
to the base of the seed, the external umbilicus being placed in the axis
of the inner or ventral surface, either immediately above the base as in
Kingia, or towards the middle, as in Xerotes.

OBS. 3.

ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIMPREGNATED OVULUM IN PHAENOGAMOUS PLANTS.

The description which I have given of the Ovulum of Kingia, though
essentially different from the accounts hitherto published of that organ
before fecundation, in reality agrees with its ordinary structure in
Phaenogamous plants.

I shall endeavour to establish these two points; namely, the agreement of
this description with the usual structure of the Ovulum, and its
essential difference from the accounts of other observers, as briefly as
possible at present; in tending hereafter to treat the subject at greater
length, and also with other views.

I have formerly more than once* adverted to the structure of the Ovulum,
chiefly as to the indications it affords, even before fecundation, of the
place and direction of the future Embryo. These remarks, however, which
were certainly very brief, seem entirely to have escaped the notice of
those authors who have since written on the same subject.

(*Footnote. Flinders Voyage 2 page 601, and Linnean Society Transactions
12 page page 136.)

In the Botanical Appendix to the account of Captain Flinders' Voyage,
published in 1814, the following description of the Ovulum of Cephalotus
follicularis is given: Ovulum erectum, intra testam membranaceam
continens sacculum pendulum, magnitudine cavitatis testae, and in
reference to this description, I have in the same place remarked that,
"from the structure of the Ovulum, even in the unimpregnated state, I
entertain no doubt that the radicle of the Embryo points to the
umbilicus."*

(*Footnote. Flinders Voyage loc. cit.)

My attention had been first directed to this subject in 1809, in
consequence of the opinion I had then formed of the function of the
Chalaza in seeds;* and sometime before the publication of the observation
now quoted, I had ascertained that in Phaenogamous plants the
unimpregnated Ovulum very generally consisted of two concentric
membranes, or coats, enclosing a Nucleus of a pulpy cellular texture. I
had observed also, that the inner coat had no connexion either with the
outer or with the nucleus, except at its origin; and that with relation
to the outer coat it was generally inverted, while it always agreed in
direction with the nucleus. And, lastly, that at the apex of the nucleus
the radicle of the future Embryo would constantly be found.

(*Footnote. Linnean Society Transactions 10 page 35.)

On these grounds my opinion respecting the Embryo of Cephalotus was
formed. In describing the Ovulum in this genus, I employed, indeed, the
less correct term sacculus, which, however, sufficiently expressed the
appearance of the included body in the specimens examined, and served to
denote my uncertainty in this case as to the presence of the inner
membrane.

I was at that time also aware of the existence, in several plants, of a
foramen in the coats of the Ovulum, always distinct from, and in some
cases diametrically opposite to the external umbilicus, and which I had
in no instance found cohering either directly with the parietes of the
Ovarium, or with any process derived from them. But, as I was then unable
to detect this foramen in many of the plants which I had examined, I did
not attach sufficient importance to it; and in judging of the direction
of the Embryo, entirely depended on ascertaining the apex of the nucleus,
either directly by dissection, or indirectly from the vascular cord of
the outer membrane: the termination of this cord affording a sure
indication of the origin of the inner membrane, and consequently of the
base of the nucleus, the position of whose apex is therefore readily
determined.

In this state of my knowledge the subject was taken up in 1818, by my
lamented friend the late Mr. Thomas Smith, who, eminently qualified for
an investigation where minute accuracy and great experience in
microscopical observation were necessary, succeeded in ascertaining the
very general existence of the foramen in the membranes of the Ovulum. But
as the foramina in these membranes invariably correspond both with each
other and with the apex of the nucleus, a test of the direction of the
future Embryo was consequently found nearly as universal, and more
obvious than that which I had previously employed.

To determine in what degree this account of the vegetable Ovulum differs
from those hitherto given, and in some measure, that its correctness may
be judged of, I shall proceed to state the various observations that have
been actually made, and the opinions that have been formed on the
subject, as briefly as I am able, taking them in chronological order.

In 1672, Grew* describes in the outer coat of the seeds of many
Leguminous plants a small foramen, placed opposite to the radicle of the
Embryo, which, he adds, is "not a hole casually made, or by the breaking
off of the stalk," but formed for purposes afterwards stated to be the
aeration of the Embryo, and facilitating the passage of its radicle in
germination. It appears that he did not consider this foramen in the
testa as always present, the functions which he ascribes to it being
performed in cases where it is not found, either, according to him, by
the hilum itself, or in hard fruits, by an aperture in the stone or
shell.

(*Footnote. Anatomy of Veget. begun page 3. Anatomy of Plants page 2.)

In another part of his work* he describes and figures, in the early state
of the Ovulum, two coats, of which the outer is the testa; the other, his
middle membrane, is evidently what I have termed nucleus, whose origin in
the Ovulum of the Apricot he has distinctly represented and described.

(*Footnote. Anatomy of Plants page 210 table 80.)

Malpighi, in 1675,* gives the same account of the early state of the
Ovulum; his secundinae externae being the testa, and his chorion the
nucleus. He has not, however, distinguished, though he appears to have
seen, the foramen of Grew, from the fenestra and fenestella, and these,
to which he assigns the same functions, are merely his terms for the
hilum.

(*Footnote. Anatome Plant. page 75 et 80.)

In 1694, Camerarius, in his admirable essay on the sexes of plants,*
proposes, as queries merely, various modes in which either the entire
grains of pollen, or their particles after bursting, may be supposed to
reach and act upon the unimpregnated Ovula, which he had himself
carefully observed. With his usual candour, however, he acknowledges his
obligation on this subject to Malpighi, to whose more detailed account of
them he refers.

(*Footnote. Rudolphi Jacobi Camerarii de sexu plantarum epistola page 8
46 et seq.)

Mr. Samuel Morland, in 1703,* in extending Leeuwenhoek's hypothesis of
generation to plants, assumes the existence of an aperture in the Ovulum,
through which it is impregnated. It appears, indeed, that he had not
actually observed this aperture before fecundation, but inferred its
existence generally and at that period, from having, as he says,
"discovered in the seeds of beans, peas, and Phaseoli, just under one end
of what we call the eye, a manifest perforation, which leads directly to
the seminal plant," and by which he supposes the Embryo to have entered.
This perforation is evidently the foramen discovered in the seeds of
Leguminous plants by Grew, of whose observations respecting it he takes
no notice, though he quotes him in another part of his subject.

(*Footnote. Philosophical Transactions volume 23 n. 287 page 1474.)

In 1704, Etienne Francois Geoffroy,* and in 1711, his brother Claude
Joseph Geoffroy,** in support of the same hypothesis, state the general
existence of an aperture in the unimpregnated vegetable Ovulum. It is
not, however, probable that these authors had really seen this aperture
in the early state of the Ovulum in any case, but rather that they had
merely advanced from the observation of Grew, and the conjecture founded
on it by Morland, whose hypothesis they adopt without acknowledgment, to
the unqualified assertion of its existence, in all cases. For it is to be
remarked, that they take no notice of what had previously been observed
or asserted on the more important parts of their subject, while several
passages are evidently copied, and the whole account of the original
state and development of the Ovulum is literally translated from
Camerarius' Essay. Nor does the younger Geoffroy mention the earlier
publication of his brother, from which his own memoir is in great part
manifestly derived.

(*Footnote. Quaestio Medica an Hominis primordia Vermis? in auctoris
Tractatu de Materia Medica tome 1 page 123.)

(**Footnote. Mem. de l'Acad. des Sc. de Paris 1711 page 210.)

In 1718; Vaillant,* who rejects the vermicular hypothesis of generation,
supposes the influence of the Pollen to consist in an aura, conveyed by
the tracheae of the style to the ovula, which it enters, if I rightly
understand him, by the funiculus umbilicalis: at the same time he seems
to admit the existence of the aperture in the coat.

(*Footnote. Discours sur la Structure des Fleurs page 20.)

In 1745, Needham,* and in 1770, Gleichen,** adopt the hypothesis of
Morland, somewhat modified, however, as they consider the particles in
the grains of Pollen, not the grains themselves, to be the embryos, and
that they enter the ovula by the umbilical cord.

(*Footnote. New Microscopical Discoveries page 60.)

(**Footnote. Observ. Microscop. page 45 et 61 paragraph 118.)

Adanson, in 1763,* states the Embryo to exist before fecundation, and
that it receives its first excitement from a vapour or aura proceeding
from the Pollen, conveyed to it through the tracheae of the style, and
entering the Ovulum by the umbilical cord.

(*Footnote. Fam. des Plant. tom. 1 page 121.)

Spallanzani,* who appears to have carefully examined the unimpregnated
Ovula of a considerable variety of plants, found it in general to be a
homogeneous, spongy, or gelatinous body; but in two Cucurbitaceae to
consist of a nucleus surrounded by three coats. Of these coats he rightly
supposes the outermost to be merely the epidermis of the middle membrane
or testa. Of the relative direction of the testa and inner coat in the
two plants in question he takes no notice, nor does he in any case
mention an aperture in the Ovulum.

(*Footnote. Fisica Anim. e Veget. tome 3 page 309 to 332.)

Gaertner, who, in the preface to his celebrated work, displays great
erudition in every branch of his subject, can hardly, however, be
considered an original observer in this part. He describes the
unimpregnated Ovulum as a pulpy homogeneous globule, whose epidermis,
then scarcely distinguishable, separates in a more advanced stage, and
becomes the testa of the seed, the inner membrane of which is entirely
the product of fecundation.* He asserts also that the Embryo constantly
appears at that point of the ovulum where the ultimate branches of the
umbilical vessels perforate the inner membrane; and therefore mistakes
the apex for the base of the nucleus.

(*Footnote. Gaert. de Fruct. et Sem. 1 page 57, 59 et 61.)

In 1806 Mons. Turpin* published a memoir on the organ, by which the
fecundating fluid is introduced into the vegetable ovulum. The substance
of this memoir is, that in all Phaenogamous plants fecundation takes
place through a cord or fasciculus of vessels entering the outer coat of
the ovulum, at a point distinct from, but at the period of impregnation
closely approximated to the umbilicus, and to the cicatrix of this cord,
which itself is soon obliterated, he gives the name of Micropyle: that
the ovulum has two coats, each having its proper umbilicus, or, as he
terms it, omphalode; that these coats in general correspond in direction;
that more rarely the inner membrane is, with relation to the outer,
inverted; and that towards the origin of the inner membrane the radicle
of the embryo uniformly points.

(*Footnote. Annal. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 7 page 199.)

It is singular that a botanist, so ingenious and experienced as M.
Turpin, should, on this subject, instead of appealing in every case to
the unimpregnated ovulum, have apparently contented himself with an
examination of the ripe seed. Hence, however, he has formed an erroneous
opinion of the nature and origin, and in some plants of the situation, of
the micropyle itself, and hence also he has in all cases mistaken the
apex for the base of the nucleus.

A minute examination of the early state of the ovulum does not seem to
have entered into the plan of the late celebrated M. Richard, when in
1808 he published his valuable and original Analyse du Fruit. The ovulum
has, according to him, but one covering, which in the ripe seed he calls
episperm. He considers the centre of the hilum as the base, and the
chalaza, where it exists, as the natural apex of the seed.

M. Mirbel, in 1815, though admitting the existence of the foramen or
micropyle of the testa,* describes the ovulum as receiving by the hilum
both nourishing and fecundating vessels,** and as consisting of a uniform
parenchyma, in which the embryo appears at first a minute point,
gradually converting more or less of the surrounding tissue into its own
substance; the coats and albumen of the seed being formed of that portion
which remains.***

(*Footnote. Elem. de Physiol. Veg. et de Bot. tome 1 page 49.)

(**Footnote. Id. tome 1 page 314.)

(***Footnote. Id. loc. cit.)

In the same year, M. Auguste de Saint Hilaire,* shows that the micropyle
is not always approximated to the umbilicus; that in some plants it is
situated at the opposite extremity of the ovulum, and that in all cases
it corresponds with the radicle of the embryo. This excellent botanist,
at the same time, adopts M. Turpin's opinion, that the micropyle is the
cicatrix of a vascular cord, and even gives instances of its connexion
with the parietes of the ovarium; mistaking, as I believe, contact, which
in some plants unquestionably takes place, and in one family, namely,
Plumbagineae, in a very remarkable manner, but only after a certain
period, for original cohesion, or organic connexion, which I have not met
with in any case.

(*Footnote. Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 2 page 270 et seq.)

In 1815 also appeared the masterly dissertation of Professor Ludolf
Christian Treviranus, on the development of the vegetable embryo,* in
which he describes the ovulum before fecundation as having two coats: but
of these, his inner coat is evidently the middle membrane of Grew, the
chorion of Malpighi, or what I have termed nucleus.

(*Footnote. Entwick. des Embryo im Pflanzen-Ey.)

In 1822, Mons. Dutrochet, unacquainted, as it would seem, with the
dissertation of Professor Treviranus, published his observations on the
same subject.* In what regards the structure of the ovulum, he
essentially agrees with that author, and has equally overlooked the inner
membrane.

(*Footnote. Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. tome 8 page 241 et seq.)

It is remarkable that neither of these observers should have noticed the
foramen in the testa. And as they do not even mention the well-known
essays of MM. Turpin and Auguste de St. Hilaire on the micropyle, it may
be presumed that they were not disposed to adopt the statements of these
authors respecting it.

Professor Link, in his Philosophia Botanica, published in 1824, adopts
the account given by Treviranus, of the coats of the ovulum before
impregnation:* and of M. Turpin, as to the situation of the micropyle,
and its being the cicatrix of a vascular cord. Yet he seems not to admit
the function ascribed to it, and asserts that it is in many cases
wanting.**

(*Footnote. Elem. Philos. Bot. page 338.)

(**Footnote. Id. page 340.)

The account which I have given of the structure of the vegetable ovulum,
differs essentially from all those now quoted, and I am not acquainted
with any other observations of importance respecting it.

Of the authors referred to, it may be remarked, that those who have most
particularly attended to the ovulum externally, have not always examined
it at a sufficiently early period, and have confined themselves to its
surface: that those who have most minutely examined its internal
structure, have trusted too much to sections merely, and have neglected
its appearance externally: and that those who have not at all examined it
in the early stage, have given the most correct account of its surface.
This account was founded on a very limited observation of ripe seeds,
generalized and extended to the unimpregnated ovulum, in connexion with
an hypothesis then very commonly received: but this hypothesis being soon
after abandoned, their statement respecting the ovulum was rejected along
with it.

In the ovulum of Kingia, the inner membrane, with relation to the
external umbilicus, is inverted; and this, as I have already observed,
though in direct opposition to M. Turpin's account, is the usual
structure of the organ. There are, however, several families in each of
the two primary divisions of phaenogamous plants, in which the inner
membrane, and consequently the nucleus, agrees in direction with the
testa. In such cases the external umbilicus alone affords a certain
indication of the position of the future embryo.

It is an obvious consequence of what has been already stated, that the
radicle of the embryo can never point directly to the external umbilicus
or hilum, though this is said to be generally the case by the most
celebrated carpologists.

Another observation may be made, less obviously a consequence of the
structure described, but equally at variance with many of the published
accounts and figures of seeds, namely, that the radicle is never
absolutely enclosed in the albumen; but, in the recent state, is either
immediately in contact with the inner membrane of the seed, or this
contact is established by means of a process generally very short, but
sometimes of great length, and which indeed in all cases may be regarded
as an elongation of its own substance. From this rule I have found one
apparent deviation, but in a case altogether so peculiar, that it can
hardly be considered as setting it aside.

It is necessary to observe, that I am acquainted with exceptions to the
structure of the ovulum as I have here described it, In Compositae its
coats seem to be imperforated, and hardly separable, either from each
other or from the nucleus, in this family, therefore, the direction of
the embryo can only be judged of from the vessels of the testa.* And in
Lemna I have found an apparent inversion of the embryo with relation to
the apex of the nucleus. In this genus, however, such other peculiarities
of structure and economy exist, that, paradoxical as the assertion may
seem, I consider the exception rather as confirming than lessening the
importance of the character.

(*Footnote. Linnean Society Transactions 12 page 136.)

It may perhaps be unnecessary to remark, that the raphe, or vascular cord
of the outer coat, almost universally belongs to that side of the ovulum
which is next the placenta. But it is at least deserving of notice, that
the very few apparent exceptions to this rule evidently tend to confirm
it. The most remarkable of these exceptions occur in those species of
Euonymus, which, contrary to the usual structure of the genus and family
they belong to, have pendulous ovula; and, as I have long since noticed,
in the perfect ovula only of Abelia.* In these, and in the other cases in
which the raphe is on the outer side, or that most remote from the
placenta, the ovula are in reality resupinate; an economy apparently
essential to their development.

(*Footnote. Abel's China page 377.)

The distinct origins and different directions of the nourishing vessels
and channel through which fecundation took place in the ovulum, may still
be seen in many of those ripe seeds that are winged, and either present
their margins to the placenta, as in Proteaceae, or have the plane of the
wing at right angles to it, as in several Liliaceae. These organs are
visible also in some of those seeds that have their testa produced at
both ends beyond the inner membrane, as Nepenthes; a structure which
proves the outer coat of scobiform seeds, as they are called, to be
really testa, and not arillus, as it has often been termed.

The importance of distinguishing between the membranes of the
unimpregnated ovulum and those of the ripe seed, must be sufficiently
evident from what has been already stated. But this distinction has been
necessarily neglected by two classes of observers. The first consisting
of those, among whom are several of the most eminent carpologists, who
have regarded the coats of the seed as products of fecundation. The
second of those authors who, professing to give an account of the ovulum
itself, have made their observations chiefly, or entirely, on the ripe
seed, the coats of which they must consequently have supposed to be
formed before impregnation.

The consideration of the arillus, which is of rare occurrence, is never
complete, and whose development takes place chiefly after fecundation,
might here, perhaps, be entirely omitted. It is, however, worthy of
remark, that in the early stage of the ovulum, this envelope is in
general hardly visible even in those cases where, as in Hibbertia
volubilis, it attains the greatest size in the ripe seed; nor does it in
any case, with which I am acquainted, cover the foramen of the testa
until after fecundation.

The testa, or outer coat of the seed, is very generally formed by the
outer membrane of the ovulum; and in most cases where the nucleus is
inverted, which is the more usual structure, its origin may be
satisfactorily determined; either by the hilum being more or less
lateral, while the foramen is terminal; or more obviously, and with
greater certainty where the raphe is visible, this vascular cord
uniformly belonging to the outer membrane of the ovulum. The chalaza,
properly so called, though merely the termination of the raphe, affords a
less certain character, for in many plants it is hardly visible on the
inner surface of the testa, but is intimately united with the areola of
insertion of the inner membrane or of the nucleus, to one or other of
which it then seems entirely to belong. In those cases where the testa
agrees in direction with the nucleus, I am not acquainted with any
character by which it can be absolutely distinguished from the inner
membrane in the ripe seed; but as a few plants are already known, in
which the outer membrane is originally incomplete, its entire absence,
even before fecundation, is conceivable; and some possible cases of such
a structure will be mentioned hereafter.

There are several cases known, some of which I have formerly noticed,* of
the complete obliteration of the testa in the ripe seed; and on the other
hand it appears to constitute the greater part of the substance of the
bulb-like seeds of many Liliaceae, where it no doubt performs also the
function of albumen, from which, however, it is readily distinguished by
its vascularity.** But the most remarkable deviation from the usual
structure and economy of the outer membrane of the ovulum, both in its
earliest stage and in the ripe fruit, that I have yet met with, occurs in
Banksia and Dryandra. In these two genera I have ascertained that the
inner membrane of the ovulum, before fecundation, is entirely exposed,
the outer membrane being even then open its whole length; and that the
outer membranes of the two collateral ovula, which are originally
distinct, cohere in a more advanced stage by their corresponding
surfaces, and together constitute the anomalous dissepiment of the
capsule; the inner membrane of the ovulum consequently forming the outer
coat of the seed.

(*Footnote. Linnean Society Transactions 12 page 149.)

(**Footnote. Ibid.)

The inner membrane of the ovulum, however, in general appears to be of
greater importance as connected with fecundation, than as affording
protection to the nucleus at a more advanced period. For in many cases,
before impregnation, its perforated apex projects beyond the aperture of
the testa, and in some plants puts on the appearance of an obtuse, or
even dilated stigma; while in the ripe seed it is often either entirely
obliterated, or exists only as a thin film, which might readily be
mistaken for the epidermis of a third membrane then frequently
observable.

This third coat is formed by the proper membrane or cuticle of the
Nucleus, from whose substance in the unimpregnated ovulum it is never, I
believe, separable, and at that period is very rarely visible. In the
ripe seed it is indistinguishable from the inner membrane only by its
apex, which is never perforated, is generally acute and more deeply
coloured, or even sphacelated.

The membrane of the nucleus usually constitutes the innermost coat of the
seed. But in a few plants an additional coat, apparently originating in
the inner membrane of Grew, the vesicula colliquamenti or amnios of
Malpighi also exists.

In general the Amnios, after fecundation, gradually enlarges, till at
length it displaces or absorbs the whole substance of the nucleus,
containing in the ripe seed both the embryo and albumen, where the latter
continues to exist. In such cases, however, its proper membrane is
commonly obliterated, and its place supplied either by that of the
nucleus, by the inner membrane of the ovulum, or, where both these are
evanescent, by the testa itself.

In other cases the albumen is formed by a deposition of granular matter
in the cells of the nucleus. In some of these cases the membrane of the
amnios seems to be persistent, forming even in the ripe seed a proper
coat for the embryo, the original attachment of whose radicle to the apex
of this coat may also continue. This, at least, seems to me the most
probable explanation of the structure of true Nymphaeaceae, namely,
Nuphar, Nymphaea, Euryale, Hydropeltis, and Cabomba, notwithstanding
their very remarkable germination, as observed and figured in Nymphaea
and Nuphar by Tittmann.*

(*Footnote. Keimung der Pflanzen page 19 et 27 table 3 et 4.)

In support of this explanation, which differs from all those yet given, I
may here advert to an observation published many years ago, though it
seems to have escaped every author who has since written on the subject,
namely, that before the maturity of the seed in Nymphaeaceae, the
sacculus contains along with the embryo a (pulpy or semi-fluid)
substance, which I then called Vitellus, applying at that time this name
to every body interposed between the albumen and embryo.* The opinion
receives some confirmation also from the existence of an extremely fine
filament, hitherto overlooked, which, originating from the centre of the
lower surface of the sacculus, and passing through the hollow axis of the
Albumen, probably connects this coat of the Embryo in an early stage with
the base of the nucleus.

(*Footnote. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Holl. 1 page 306.)

The same explanation of structure applies to the seeds of Piperaceae and
Saururus; and other instances occur of the persistence either of the
membrane or of the substance of the amnios in the ripe seed.

It may be concluded from the whole account which I have given of the
structure of the ovulum, that the more important changes consequent to
real, or even to spurious fecundation, must take place within the
nucleus: and that the albumen, properly so called, may be formed either
by a deposition or secretion of granular matter in the utriculi of the
amnios, or in those of the nucleus itself, or lastly, that two substances
having these distinct origins, and very different textures, may co-exist
in the ripe seed, as is probably the case in Scitamineae.

On the subject of the ovulum, as contained in an ovarium, I shall at
present make but one other remark, which forms a necessary introduction
to the observations that follow.

ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE FEMALE FLOWER IN CYCADEAE AND CONIFERAE.

That the apex of the nucleus is the point of the ovulum where
impregnation takes place, is at least highly probable, both from the
constancy in the appearance of the embryo at that point, and from the
very general inversion of the nucleus; for by this inversion its apex is
brought nearly, or absolutely, into contact with that part of the
parietes of the ovarium, by which the influence of the pollen may be
supposed to be communicated. In several of those families of plants,
however, in which the nucleus is not inverted, and the placentae are
polyspermous, as Cistineae,* it is difficult to comprehend in what manner
this influence can reach its apex externally, except on the supposition,
not hastily to be admitted, of an impregnating aura filling the cavity of
the ovarium; or by the complete separation of the fecundating tubes from
the placentae, which, however, in such cases I have never been able to
detect.

(*Footnote. This structure of ovulum, indicated by that of the seed, as
characterizing and defining the limits of Cistineae (namely, Cistus,
Helianthemum, Hudsonia and Lechea) I communicated to Dr. Hooker, by whom
it is noticed in his Flora Scotica (page 284) published in 1821; where,
however, an observation is added respecting Gaertner's description of
Cistus and Helianthemum, for which I am not accountable.)

It would entirely remove the doubts that may exist respecting the point
of impregnation, if cases could be produced where the ovarium was either
altogether wanting, or so imperfectly formed, that the ovulum itself
became directly exposed to the action of the pollen, or its fovilla; its
apex, as well as the orifice of its immediate covering, being modified
and developed to adapt them to this economy.

But such, I believe, is the real explanation of the structure of
Cycadeae, of Coniferae, of Ephedra, and even of Gnetum, of which Thoa of
Aublet is a species.

To this view the most formidable objection would be removed, were it
admitted, in conformity with the preceding observations, that the apex of
the nucleus, or supposed point of impregnation, has no organic connexion
with the parietes of the ovarium. In support of it, also, as far as
regards the direct action of the pollen on the ovulum, numerous instances
of analogous economy in the animal kingdom may be adduced.

The similarity of the female flower in Cycadeae and Coniferae to the
ovulum of other phaenogamous plants, as I have described it, is indeed
sufficiently obvious to render the opinion here advanced not altogether
improbable. But the proof of its correctness must chiefly rest on a
resemblance, in every essential point, being established, between the
inner body in the supposed female flower in these tribes, and the nucleus
of the ovulum in ordinary structures; not only in the early stage, but
also in the whole series of changes consequent to fecundation. Now as far
as I have yet examined, there is nearly a complete agreement in all these
respects. I am not entirely satisfied, however, with the observations I
have hitherto been able to make on a subject naturally difficult, and to
which I have not till lately attended with my present view.

The facts most likely to be produced as arguments against this view of
the structure of Coniferae, are the unequal and apparently secreting
surface of the apex of the supposed nucleus in most cases; its occasional
projection beyond the orifice of the outer coat; its cohesion with that
coat by a considerable portion of its surface, and the not unfrequent
division of the orifice of the coat. Yet most of these peculiarities of
structure might perhaps be adduced in support of the opinion advanced,
being apparent adaptations to the supposed economy.

There is one fact that will hardly be brought forward as an objection,
and which yet seems to me to present a difficulty, to this opinion;
namely, the greater simplicity in Cycadeae, and in the principal part of
Coniferae, of the supposed ovulum which consists of a nucleus and one
coat only, compared with the organ as generally existing when enclosed in
an ovarium. The want of uniformity in this respect may even be stated as
another difficulty, for in some genera of Coniferae the ovulum appears to
be complete.

In Ephedra, indeed, where the nucleus is provided with two envelopes, the
outer may, perhaps, be supposed rather analogous to the calyx, or
involucrum of the male flower, than as belonging to the ovulum; but in
Gnetum, where three envelopes exist, two of these may, with great
probability, be regarded as coats of the nucleus; while in Podocarpus and
Dacrydium, the outer cupula, as I formerly termed it,* may also, perhaps,
be viewed as the testa of the ovulum. To this view, as far as relates to
Dacrydium, the longitudinal fissure of the outer coat in the early stage,
and its state in the ripe fruit, in which it forms only a partial
covering, may be objected.** But these objections are, in a great
measure, removed by the analogous structure already described in Banksia
and Dryandra.

(*Footnote. Flinders Voyage volume 2 page 573.)

(**Footnote. Id. loc. cit.)

The plurality of embryos sometimes occurring in Coniferae, and which, in
Cycadeae, seems even to be the natural structure, may also, perhaps, be
supposed to form an objection to the present opinion, though to me it
appears rather an argument in its favour.

Upon the whole, the objections to which the view here taken of the
structure of these two families is still liable, seem to me, as far as I
am aware of them, much less important than those that may be brought
against the other opinions that have been advanced, and still divide
botanists on this subject.

According to the earliest of these opinions, the female flower of
Cycadeae and Coniferae is a monospermous pistillum, having no proper
floral envelope.

To this structure, however, Pinus itself was long considered by many
botanists as presenting an exception.

Linnaeus has expressed himself so obscurely in the natural character
which he has given of this genus, that I find it difficult to determine
what his opinion of its structure really was. I am inclined, however, to
believe it to have been much nearer the truth than is generally supposed;
judging of it from a comparison of his essential with his artificial
generic character, and from an observation recorded in his Praelectiones,
published by Giseke.*

(*Footnote. Praelect. in Ord. Nat. page 589.)

But the first clear account that I have met with, of the real structure
of Pinus, as far as regards the direction, or base and apex of the female
flowers, is given, in 1767, by Trew, who describes them in the following
manner: "Singula semina vel potius germina stigmati tanquam organo
feminino gaudent,"* and his figure of the female flower of the Larch, in
which the stigmata project beyond the base of the scale, removes all
doubt respecting his meaning.

(*Footnote. Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Curios. 3 page 453 table 13 figure 23.)

In 1789, M. de Jussieu, in the character of his genus Abies,* gives a
similar account of structure, though somewhat less clearly as well as
less decidedly expressed. In the observations that follow, he suggests,
as not improbable, a very different view, founded on the supposed analogy
with Araucaria, whose structure was then misunderstood; namely, that the
inner scale of the female amentum is a bilocular ovarium, of which the
outer scale is the style. But this, according to Sir James Smith,** was
also Linnaeus' opinion; and it is the view adopted in Mr. Lambert's
splendid monograph of the genus published in 1803.

(*Footnote. Gen. Pl. page 414.)

(**Footnote. Rees Cyclop. art. Pinus.)

In the same year in which Mr. Lambert's work appeared, Schkuhr*
describes, and very distinctly figures, the female flower of Pinus,
exactly as it was understood by Trew, whose opinion was probably unknown
to him.

(*Footnote. Botan. Handb. 3 page 276 table 308.)

In 1807, a memoir on this subject, by Mr. Salisbury, was published,* in
which an account of structure is given, in no important particular
different from that of Trew and Schkuhr, with whose observations he
appears to have been unacquainted.

(*Footnote. Linnean Society Transactions 8 page 308.)

M. Mirbel, in 1809,* held the same opinion, both with respect to Pinus
and to the whole natural family. But in 1812, in conjunction with M.
Schoubert,** he proposed a very different view of the structure of
Cycadeae and Coniferae, stating, that in their female flowers there is
not only a minute cohering perianthium present, but an external
additional envelope, to which he has given the name of cupula.

(*Footnote. Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. tome 15 page 473.)

(**Footnote. Nouv. Bulletin des Sc. tome 3 pages 73, 85 et 121.)

In 1814 I adopted this view, as far, at least, as regards the manner of
impregnation, and stated some facts in support of it.* But on
reconsidering the subject, in connexion with what I had ascertained
respecting the vegetable ovulum, I soon after altogether abandoned this
opinion, without, however, venturing explicitly to state that now
advanced, and which had then suggested itself.**

(*Footnote. Flinders Voyage 2 572.)

(**Footnote. Tuckey Congo page 454 et Linnean Society Transactions volume
13 page 213.)

It is well known that the late M. Richard had prepared a very valuable
memoir on these two families of plants; and he appears, from some
observations lately published by his son, M. Achille Richard,* to have
formed an opinion respecting their structure somewhat different from that
of M. Mirbel, whose cupula is, according to him, the perianthium, more or
less cohering with the included pistillum. He was probably led to this
view, on ascertaining, which I had also done, that the common account of
the structure of Ephedra was incorrect,** its supposed style being in
reality the elongated tubular apex of a membranous envelope, and the
included body being evidently analogous to that in other genera of
Coniferae.

(*Footnote. Dict. Class. d' Hist. Nat. tome 4 page 395 et tome 5 page
216.)

(**Footnote. Dict. Class. d'Hist. Nat. tome 6 page 208.)

To the earliest of the opinions here quoted, that which considers the
female flower of Coniferae and Cycadeae as a naked pistillum, there are
two principal objections. The first of these arises from the perforation
of the pistillum, and the exposure of that point of the ovulum where the
embryo is formed to the direct action of the pollen; the second from the
too great simplicity of structure of the supposed ovulum, which, I have
shown, accords better with that of the nucleus as existing in ordinary
cases.

To the opinions of MM. Richard and Mirbel, the first objection does not
apply, but the second acquires such additional weight, as to render those
opinions much less probable, it seems to me, than that which I have
endeavoured to support.

In supposing the correctness of this opinion to be admitted, a question
connected with it, and of some importance, would still remain, namely,
whether in Cycadeae and Coniferae the ovula are produced on an ovarium of
reduced functions and altered appearance, or on a rachis or receptacle.
In other words, in employing the language of an hypothesis, which, with
some alterations, I have elsewhere attempted to explain and defend,
respecting the formation of the sexual organs in Phaenogamous plants,*
whether the ovula in these two families originate in a modified leaf, or
proceed directly from the stem.

(*Footnote. Linnean Society Transactions volume 13 page 211.)

Were I to adopt the former supposition, or that best agreeing with the
hypothesis in question, I should certainly apply it, in the first place,
to Cycas, in which the female spadix bears so striking a resemblance to a
partially altered frond or leaf, producing marginal ovula in one part,
and in another being divided into segments, in some cases nearly
resembling those of the ordinary frond.

But the analogy of the female spadix of Cycas to that of Zamia is
sufficiently obvious; and from the spadix of Zamia to the fruit-bearing
squama of Coniferae, strictly so called, namely, of Agathis or Dammara,
Cunninghamia, Pinus, and even Araucaria, the transition is not difficult.
This view is applicable, though less manifestly, also to Cupressinae; and
might even be extended to Podocarpus and Dacrydium. But the structure of
these two genera admits likewise of another explanation, to which I have
already adverted.

If, however, the ovula in Cycadeae and Coniferae be really produced on
the surface of an ovarium, it might, perhaps, though not necessarily, be
expected that their male flowers should differ from those of all other
phaenogamous plants, and in this difference exhibit some analogy to the
structure of the female flower. But in Cycadeae, at least, and especially
in Zamia, the resemblance between the male and female spadices is so
great, that if the female be analogous to an ovarium, the partial male
spadix must be considered as a single anthera, producing on its surface
either naked grains of pollen, or pollen subdivided into masses, each
furnished with its proper membrane.

Both these views may at present, perhaps, appear equally paradoxical; yet
the former was entertained by Linnaeus, who expresses himself on the
subject in the following terms, Pulvis floridus in Cycade minime pro
Antheris agnoscendus est sed pro nudo polline, quod unusquisque qui
unquam pollen antherarum in plantis examinavit fatebitur.* That this
opinion, so confidently held by Linnaeus, was never adopted by any other
botanist, seems in part to have arisen from his having extended it to
dorsiferous Ferns. Limited to Cycadeae, however, it does not appear to me
so very improbable, as to deserve to be rejected without examination. It
receives, at least, some support from the separation, in several cases,
especially in the American Zamiae, of the grains into two distinct, and
sometimes nearly marginal, masses, representing, as it may be supposed,
the lobes of an anthera; and also from their approximation in definite
numbers, generally in fours, analogous to the quaternary union of the
grains of pollen, not unfrequent in the antherae of several other
families of plants. The great size of the supposed grains of pollen, with
the thickening and regular bursting of their membrane, may be said to be
circumstances obviously connected with their production and persistence
on the surface of an anthera, distant from the female flower; and with
this economy, a corresponding enlargement of the contained particles or
fovilla might also be expected. On examining these particles, however, I
find them not only equal in size to the grains of pollen of many
antherae, but, being elliptical and marked on one side with a
longitudinal furrow, they have that form which is one of the most common
in the simple pollen of phaenogamous plants. To suppose, therefore,
merely on the grounds already stated, that these particles are analogous
to the fovilla, and the containing organs to the grains of pollen in
antherae of the usual structure, would be entirely gratuitous. It is, at
the same time, deserving of remark, that were this view adopted on more
satisfactory grounds, a corresponding development might then be said to
exist in the essential parts of the male and female organs. The increased
development in the ovulum would not consist so much in the unusual form
and thickening of the coat, a part of secondary importance, and whose
nature is disputed, as in the state of the nucleus of the seed,
respecting which there is no difference of opinion; and where the
plurality of embryos, or at least the existence and regular arrangement
of the cells in which they are formed, is the uniform structure in the
family.

(*Footnote. Mem. de l'Acad. des Scien. de Paris 1775 page 518.)

The second view suggested, in which the anthera in Cycadeae is considered
as producing on its surface an indefinite number of pollen masses, each
enclosed in its proper membrane, would derive its only support from a few
remote analogies: as from those antherae, whose loculi are sub-divided
into a definite, or more rarely an indefinite, number of cells, and
especially from the structure of the stamina of Viscum album.

I may remark, that the opinion of M. Richard,* who considers these
grains, or masses, as unilocular antherae, each of which constitutes a
male flower, seems to be attended with nearly equal difficulties.

(*Footnote. Dict. Class. d'Hist. Nat. tome 5 page 216.)

The analogy between the male and female organs in Coniferae, the
existence of an open ovarium being assumed, is at first sight more
apparent than in Cycadeae. In Coniferae, however, the pollen is certainly
not naked, but is enclosed in a membrane similar to the lobe of an
ordinary anthera. And in those genera in which each squama of the amentum
produces two marginal lobes only, as Pinus, Podocarpus, Dacrydium,
Salisburia, and Phyllocladus, it nearly resembles the more general form
of the antherae in other Phaenogamous plants. But the difficulty occurs
in those genera which have an increased number of lobes on each squama,
as Agathis and Araucaria, where their number is considerable and
apparently indefinite, and more particularly still in Cunninghamia, or
Belis,* in which the lobes, though only three in number, agree in this
respect, as well as in insertion and direction, with the ovula. The
supposition, that in such cases all the lobes of each squama are cells of
one and the same anthera, receives but little support either from the
origin and arrangement of the lobes themselves, or from the structure of
other phaenogamous plants: the only cases of apparent, though doubtful,
analogy that I can at present recollect occurring in Aphyteia, and
perhaps in some Cucurbitaceae.

(*Footnote. In communicating specimens of this plant to the late M.
Richard, for his intended monograph of Coniferae, I added some remarks on
its structure, agreeing with those here made. I at the same time
requested that, if he objected to Mr. Salisbury's Belis as liable to be
confounded with Bellis, the genus might be named Cunninghamia, to
commemorate the merits of Mr. James Cunningham, an excellent observer in
his time, by whom this plant was discovered; and in honour of Mr. Allan
Cunningham, the very deserving botanist who accompanied Mr. Oxley in his
first expedition into the interior of New South Wales, and Captain King
in all his voyages of survey of the Coasts of New Holland.)

That part of my subject, therefore, which relates to the analogy between
the male and female flowers in Cycadeae and Coniferae, I consider the
least satisfactory, both in regard to the immediate question of the
existence of an anomalous ovarium in these families, and to the
hypothesis repeatedly referred to, of the origin of the sexual organs of
all phaenogamous plants.

In concluding this digression, I have to express my regret that it should
have so far exceeded the limits proper for its introduction into the
present work. In giving an account, however, of the genus of plants to
which it is annexed, I had to describe a structure, of whose nature and
importance it was necessary I should show myself aware; and circumstances
have occurred while I was engaged in preparing this account, which
determined me to enter much more fully into the subject than I had
originally intended.

...


APPENDIX C.

AN ACCOUNT OF SOME GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, COLLECTED BY CAPTAIN P.P. KING,
IN HIS SURVEY OF THE COASTS OF AUSTRALIA, AND BY ROBERT BROWN, ESQUIRE,
ON THE SHORES OF THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA, DURING THE VOYAGE OF CAPTAIN
FLINDERS.

BY WILLIAM HENRY FITTON, M.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.S.

[READ BEFORE THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 4TH NOVEMBER, 1825.]

The following enumeration of specimens from the coasts of Australia,
commences, with the survey of Captain King, on the eastern shore, about
the latitude of twenty-two degrees, proceeding northward and westward:
and as the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, previously surveyed by
Captain Flinders, were passed over by Captain King, Mr. Brown, who
accompanied the former, has been so good as to allow the specimens
collected by himself in that part of New Holland, to supply the chasm
which would otherwise have existed in the series. Part of the west and
north-western coast, examined by Captain King, having been previously
visited by the French voyagers, under Captain Baudin, I was desirous of
obtaining such information as could be derived from the specimens
collected during that expedition, and now remaining at Paris; although I
was aware that the premature death of the principal mineralogist, and
other unfavourable circumstances, had probably diminished their value:*
But the collection from New Holland, at the school of Mines, with a list
of which I have been favoured through the kindness of Mr. Brochant de
Villiers, relates principally to Van Diemen's Land; and that of the
Jardin du Roi, which Mr. Constant Prevost has obliged me with an account
of, does not afford the information I had hoped for. I have availed
myself of the notices relating to Physical Geography and Geology, which
are dispersed through the published accounts of Captain Flinders',** and
Baudin's Voyages;*** and these, with the collections above alluded to,
form, I believe, the only sources of information at present existing in
Europe, respecting the geological structure and productions of the north
and western coasts of Australia.

(*Footnote. M. Depuch, the mineralogist, died during the progress of the
voyage, in 1803; and, unfortunately, none of his manuscripts were
preserved. M. Peron, the zoologist, after publishing, in 1807, the first
volume of the account of the expedition, died in 1810, before the
appearance of the second volume. Voyage etc. 1 page 417, 418; and 2 page
163.)

(**Footnote. A Voyage to Terra Australis, etc., in the years 1801, 1802,
and 1803, by Matthew Flinders, Commander of the Investigator. Two volumes
quarto with an atlas folio; London 1814.)

(***Footnote. Voyage de Decouverte aux Terres Australes etc. Tome 1
redige par M. F. Peron, naturaliste de l'Expedition, Paris 1807. Tome 2
redige par M. Peron et M. L. Freycinet 1816. A third volume of this work,
under the title of Navigation et Geographie, was published by Capt.
Freycinet in 1815. It contains a brief and clear account of the
proceedings of the expedition; and affords some particulars connected
with the physical geography of the places described, which are not to be
found in the other volumes.)

In order to avoid the interruption which would be occasioned by detail, I
shall prefix to the list of specimens in Captain King's and Mr. Brown's
collections, a general sketch of the coast from whence they come,
deduced, principally, from the large charts,* and from the narratives of
Captains Flinders and King, with a summary of the geological information
derived from the specimens. But I have thought it necessary to subjoin a
more detailed list of the specimens themselves; on account of the great
distance from each other of many of the places where they were found, and
of the general interest attached to the productions of a country so very
remote, of which the greater part is not likely to be often visited by
geologists. The situation of such of the places mentioned, as are not to
be found in the reduced chart annexed to the present publication, will be
sufficiently indicated by the names of the adjacent places.

(*Footnote. These charts have been published by the Admiralty for general
sale.)

GENERAL SKETCH OF THE COAST.

The North-eastern coast of New South Wales, from the latitude of about 28
degrees, has a direction from south-east to north-west; and ranges of
mountains are visible from the sea, with little interruption, as far
north as Cape Weymouth, between the latitude of 12 and 13 degrees. From
within Cape Palmerston, west of the Northumberland Islands, near the
point where Captain King began his surveys, a high and rocky range, of
very irregular outline, and apparently composed of primitive rocks, is
continued for more than one hundred and fifty miles, without any break;
and after a remarkable opening, about the latitude of 21 degrees, is
again resumed. Several of the summits, visible from the sea, in the front
of this range, are of considerable elevation: Mount Dryander, on the
promontory which terminates in Cape Gloucester, being more than four
thousand five hundred feet high. Mount Eliot, with a peaked summit, a
little to the south of Cape Cleveland, is visible at twenty-five leagues
distance; and Mount Hinchinbrook, immediately upon the shore, south of
Rockingham Bay, is more than two thousand feet high. From the south of
Cape Grafton to Cape Tribulation, precipitous hills, bordered by low
land, form the coast; but the latter Cape itself consists of a lofty
group, with several peaks, the highest of which is visible from the sea
at twenty leagues. The heights from thence towards the north decline
gradually, as the mountainous ranges approach the shore, which they join
at Cape Weymouth, about latitude 12 degrees; and from that point
northward, to Cape York, the land in general is comparatively low, nor do
any detached points of considerable elevation appear there. But about
midway between Cape Grenville and Cape York, on the mainland south-west
of Cairncross Island, a flat summit called Pudding-Pan Hill is
conspicuous; and its shape, which differs from that of the hills on the
east coast in general, remarkably resembles that of the mountains of the
north and west coasts, to which names expressing their form have been
applied.*

(*Footnote. Jane's Table-Land, south-east of Princess Charlotte's Bay
(about latitude 14 degrees 30 minutes) and Mount Adolphus, in one of the
islands (about latitude 10 degrees 40 minutes) off Cape York, have also
flat summits. King manuscripts.)

The line of the coast above described retires at a point which
corresponds with the decline of its level; and immediately on the north
of Cape Melville is thrown back to the west; so that the high land about
that Cape stands out like a shoulder, more than forty miles beyond the
coastline between Princess Charlotte's Bay and the north-eastern point of
Australia.

The land near Cape York is not more than four or five hundred feet high,
and the islands off that point are nearly of the same elevation.

The bottom of several of the bays, on the eastern coast, not having been
explored, it is still probable that rivers, or considerable mountain
streams, may exist there.

Along this eastern line of shore, granite has been found throughout a
space of nearly five hundred miles; at Cape Cleveland; Cape Grafton;
Endeavour River; Lizard Island; and at Clack's Island, on the north-west
of the rocky mass which forms Cape Melville. And rocks of the trap
formation have been obtained in three detached points among the islands
off the shore; in the Percy Isles, about latitude 21 degrees 40 minutes;
Sunday Island, north of Cape Grenville, about latitude 12 degrees; and in
Good's Island, on the north-west of Cape York, latitude 10 degrees 34
minutes.

The Gulf of Carpentaria having been fully examined by Captain Flinders,
was not visited by Captain King; but the following account has been
deduced from the voyage and charts of the former, combined with the
specimens collected by Mr. Brown, who has also favoured me with an
extract from the notes taken by himself on that part of the coast.

The land, on the east and south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, is so low,
that for a space of nearly six hundred miles--from Endeavour Strait to a
range of hills on the mainland, west of Wellesley Islands, at the bottom
of the gulf--no part of the coast is higher than a ship's masthead.* Some
of the land in Wellesley islands is higher than the main; but the largest
island is, probably, not more than one hundred and fifty feet in
height;** and low-wooded hills occur on the mainland, from thence to Sir
Edward Pellew's group. The rock observed on the shore at Coen River, the
only point on the eastern side of the Gulf where Captain Flinders landed,
was calcareous sandstone of recent concretional formation.

(*Footnote. Flinders Charts Plate 14.)

(**Footnote. Flinders Volume 2 page 158.)

In Sweer's Island, one of Wellesley's Isles, a hill of about fifty or
sixty feet in height was covered with a sandy calcareous stone, having
the appearance of concretions rising irregularly about a foot above the
general surface, without any distinct ramifications. The specimens from
this place have evidently the structure of stalactites, which seem to
have been formed in sand; and the reddish carbonate of lime, by which the
sand has been agglutinated, is of the same character with that of the
west coast, where a similar concreted limestone occurs in great
abundance.

The western shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria is somewhat higher, and from
Limmen's Bight to the latitude of Groote Eylandt, is lined by a range of
low hills. On the north of the latter place, the coast becomes irregular
and broken; the base of the country apparently consisting of primitive
rocks, and the upper part of the hills of a reddish sandstone; some of
the specimens of which are identical with that which occurs at Goulburn
and Sims Islands on the north coast, and is very widely distributed on
the north-west. The shore at the bottom of Melville Bay is stated by
Captain Flinders to consist of low cliffs of pipe-clay, for a space of
about eight miles in extent from east to west; and similar cliffs of
pipe-clay are described as occurring at Goulburn Islands (see the plate,
volume 1) and at Lethbridge Bay, on the north of Melville Island: both of
which places are considerably to the west of the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Morgan's Island, a small islet in Blue-Mud Bay, on the north-west of
Groote Eylandt, is composed of clink-stone; and other rocks of the
trap-formation occur in several places on this coast.

The north of Blue-Mud Bay has furnished also specimens of ancient
sandstone; with columnar rocks, probably of clink-stone. Round Hill, near
Point Grindall, a promontory on the north of Morgan's Island, is
composed, at the base, of granite; and Mount Caledon, on the west side of
Caledon Bay, seems likewise to consist of that rock, as does also
Melville Island. This part of the coast has afforded the ferruginous
oxide of manganese: and brown hematite is found hereabouts in
considerable quantity, on the shore at the base of the cliffs; forming
the cement of a breccia, which contains fragments of sandstone, and in
which the ferruginous matter appears to be of very recent production;
resembling, perhaps, the hematite observed at Edinburgh by Professor
Jameson, around cast-iron pipes which had lain for some time in sand.*

(*Footnote. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, July 1825 page 193.)

The general range of the coast, it will be observed, from Limmen's Bight
to Cape Arnhem, is from south-west to north-east; and three conspicuous
ranges of islands on the north-western entrance of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, the appearance of which is so remarkable as to have
attracted the attention of Captain Flinders,* have the same general
direction: a fact which is probably not unconnected with the general
structure of the country. The prevailing rock in all these islands
appears to be sandstone.

(Flinders Volume 2 page 158. See hereafter.)

The line of the main coast from Point Dale to the bottom of Castlereagh
Bay, where Captain King's survey was resumed, has also a direction from
south-west to north-east, parallel to that of the ranges of islands just
mentioned. The low land near the north coast in Castlereagh Bay, and from
thence to Goulburn Islands, is intersected by one of the few rivers yet
discovered in this part of Australia, a tortuous and shallow stream,
named Liverpool River, which has been traced inland to about forty miles
from the coast, through a country not more than three feet in general
elevation above high-water mark; the banks being low and muddy, and
thickly wooded: And this description is applicable also to the Alligator
Rivers on the south-east of Van Diemen's Gulf, and to the surrounding
country. The outline of the Wellington Hills, however, on the mainland
between the Liverpool and Alligator Rivers, is jagged and irregular; this
range being thus remarkably contrasted with the flat summits which appear
to be very numerous on the north-western coast.

The specimens from Goulburn Islands consist of reddish sandstone, not to
be distinguished from that which occurs beneath the coal formation in
England. On the west of these islands the coast is more broken, and the
outline is irregular: but the elevation is inconsiderable; the general
height in Cobourg Peninsula not being above one hundred and fifty feet
above the sea, and that of the hills not more than from three to four
hundred feet.

On this part of the coast, several hills are remarkable for the flatness
of their tops; and the general outline of many of the islands, as seen on
the horizon, is very striking and peculiar. Thus Mount Bedwell and Mount
Roe, on the south of Cobourg Peninsula; Luxmoore Head, at the west end of
Melville Island; the Barthelemy Hills, south of Cape Ford; Mount Goodwin,
south of Port Keats; Mount Cockburn, and several of the hills adjacent to
Cambridge Gulf, the names given to which during the progress of the
survey sufficiently indicate their form, as House-roofed, Bastion,
Flat-top, and Square-top Hills; Mount Casuarina, about forty miles
north-west of Cambridge Gulf; a hill near Cape Voltaire; Steep-Head, Port
Warrender; and several of the islands off that port, York Sound, and
Prince Regent's River; Cape Cuvier, about latitude 24 degrees; and, still
further south, the whole of Moresby's flat-topped Range, are all
distinguished by their linear and nearly horizontal outlines: and except
in a few instances, as Mount Cockburn, Steep-Head, Mounts Trafalgar and
Waterloo (which look more like hills of floetz-trap) they have very much
the aspect of the summits in the coal formation.*

(*Footnote. Captain King, however, has informed me, that in some of these
cases, the shape of the hill is really that of a roof, or hayrick; the
transverse section being angular, and the horizontal top an edge.)

Sketch 1 of some of the islands off Admiralty Gulf (looking southward
from the north-east end of Cassini Island, about latitude 13 degrees 50
minutes, East longitude 125 degrees 50 minutes) has some resemblance to
one of the views in Peron's Atlas (plate 6 figure 7): and the outline of
the Iles Forbin (plate 8 figure 5, of the same series) also exhibits
remarkably the peculiar form represented in several of Captain King's
drawings (Sketch 2).

The red colour of the cliffs on the north-west and west coasts, is also
an appearance which is frequently noticed on the sketches taken by
Captain King and his officers. This is conspicuous in the neighbourhood
of Cape Croker; at Darch Island and Palm Bay; at Point Annesley and Point
Coombe in Mountnorris Bay; in the land about Cape Van Diemen, and on the
north-west of Bathurst Island. The cliffs on Roe's River (Prince
Frederic's Harbour) as might have been expected from the specimens, are
described as of a reddish colour; Cape Leveque is of the same hue; and
the northern limit of Shark's Bay, Cape Cuvier of the French, latitude 24
degrees 13 minutes, which is like an enormous bastion, may be
distinguished at a considerable distance by its full red colour.*

(*Footnote. Freycinet page 195.)

It is on the bank of the channel which separates Bathurst and Melville
Islands, near the north-western extremity of New Holland, that a new
colony has recently been established: (see Captain King's Narrative
volume 2.) A permanent station under the superintendence of a British
officer, in a country so very little known, and in a situation so remote
from any other English settlement, affords an opportunity of collecting
objects of natural history, and of illustrating various points of great
interest to physical geography and meteorology, which it is to be hoped
will not be neglected. And as a very instructive collection, for the
general purposes of geology, can readily be obtained in such situations,
by attending to a few precautions, I have thought that some brief
directions on this subject would not be out of place in the present
publication; and have subjoined them to the list of specimens at the
close of this paper.*

(*Footnote. See hereafter.)

In the vicinity of Cambridge Gulf, Captain King states, the character of
the country is entirely changed; and irregular ranges of detached rocky
hills composed of sandstone, rising abruptly from extensive plains of low
level land, supersede the low and woody coast, that occupies almost
uninterruptedly the space between this inlet and Cape Wessel, a distance
of more than six hundred miles. Cambridge Gulf, which is nothing more
than a swampy arm of the sea, extends to about eighty miles inland, in a
southern direction: and all the specimens from its vicinity precisely
resemble the older sandstones of the confines of England and Wales.* The
View (volume 1 plate) represents in the distance Mount Cockburn, at the
head of Cambridge Gulf; the flat rocky top of which was supposed to
consist of sandstone, but has also the aspect of the trap-formation. The
strata in Lacrosse Island, at the entrance of the Gulf, rise toward the
north-west, at an angle of about 30 degrees with the horizon: their
direction consequently being from north-east to south-west.

(*Footnote. I use the term Old Red Sand Stone, in the acceptation of
Messrs. Buckland and Conybeare, Observations on the South Western Coal
District of England. Geological Transactions Second Series volume 1.
Captain King's specimens from Lacrosse Island are not to be distinguished
from the slaty strata of that formation, in the banks of the Avon, about
two miles below Clifton.)

From hence to Cape Londonderry, towards the south, is an uniform coast of
moderate elevation; and from that point to Cape Leveque, although the
outline may be in a general view considered as ranging from north-east to
south-west,* the coast is remarkably indented, and the adjoining sea
irregularly studded with very numerous islands. The specimens from this
tract consist almost entirely of sandstone, resembling that of Cambridge
Gulf, Goulburn Island, and the Gulf of Carpentaria; with which the
trap-formation appears to be associated.

(*Footnote. The large chart Sheet 5 best shows the general range of the
shore, from the islands filling up the inlets.)

York Sound, one of the principal inlets on this part of the coast, is
bounded by precipitous rocks, from one to two hundred feet in height; and
some conical rocky peaks, which not improbably consist of quartz-rock,
were noticed on the eastern side of the entrance. An unpublished sketch,
by Captain King, shows that the banks of Hunter's River, one of the
branches of York Sound, at seven or eight miles from its opening, are
composed of sandstone, in beds of great regularity; and this place is
also remarkable for a copious spring of fresh water, one of the rarest
phenomena of these thirsty and inhospitable shores.*

(*Footnote. Narrative 1.)

The most considerable inlet, however, which has yet been discovered in
this quarter of Australia, is Prince Regent's River, about thirty miles
to the south-west of York Sound, the course of which is almost
rectilinear for about fifty miles in a south-eastern direction; a fact
which will probably be found to be connected with the geological
structure of the country. The general character of the banks, which are
lofty and abrupt, is precisely the same with that of the rivers falling
into York Sound; and the level of the country does not appear to be
higher in the interior than near the coast. The banks are from two to
four hundred feet in height, and consist of close-grained siliceous
sandstone, of a reddish hue;* and the view (Plate above) shows that the
beds are nearly horizontal, and very regularly disposed; the cascade
there represented being about one hundred and sixty feet in height, and
the beds from six to twelve feet in thickness. Two conspicuous hills,
which Captain King has named Mounts Trafalgar and Waterloo, on the
north-east of Prince-Regent's River, not far from its entrance, are
remarkable for cap-like summits, much resembling those which characterize
the trap formation. (Sketch 3.)

(*Footnote. Narrative 1 and 2.)

The coast on the south of this remarkable river, to Cape Leveque, has not
yet been thoroughly examined; but it appears from Captain King's Chart
(Number 5) to be intersected by several inlets of considerable size, to
trace which to their termination is still a point of great interest in
the physical geography of New Holland. The space thus left to be
explored, from the Champagny Isles to Cape Leveque, corresponds to more
than one hundred miles in a direct line; within which extent nothing but
islands and detached portions of land have yet been observed. One large
inlet especially, on the south-east of Cape Leveque, appears to afford
considerable promise of a river; and the rise of the tide within the
Buccaneer's Archipelago, where there is another unexplored opening, is no
less than thirty-seven feet.

The outline of the coast about Cape Leveque itself is low, waving, and
rounded; and the hue for which the cliffs are remarkable in so many parts
of the coast to the north, is also observable here, the colour of the
rocks at Point Coulomb being of a deep red: but on the south of the high
ground near that Point, the rugged stony cliffs are succeeded by a long
tract, which to the French voyagers (for it was not examined by Captain
King) appeared to consist of low and sandy land, fronted by extensive
shoals. It has hitherto been seen, however, only at a distance; so that a
space of more than three hundred miles, from Point Gantheaume nearly to
Cape Lambert, still remains to be accurately surveyed.

Depuch Island, east of Dampier's Archipelago, about latitude 20 degrees
30 minutes, is described by the French naturalists as consisting in a
great measure of columnar rocks, which they supposed to be VOLCANIC; and
they found reason to believe that the adjoining continent was of the same
materials.* It is not improbable, however, that this term was applied to
columns belonging to the trap formation, since no burning mountain has
been any where observed on the coast of New Holland: nor do the drawings
of Depuch Island, made on board Captain King's vessel, give reason to
suppose that it is at present eruptive. Captain King's specimens from
Malus Island, in Dampier's Archipelago (sixty miles farther west) consist
of greenstone and amygdaloid.

(*Footnote. Peron volume 1 page 130.)

The coast is again broken and rugged about Dampier's Archipelago,
latitude 20 degrees 30 minutes; and on the south of Cape Preston, in
latitude 21 degrees, is an opening of about fifteen miles in width,
between rocky hills, which has not been explored. From thence to the
bottom of Exmouth Gulf, more than one hundred and fifty miles, the coast
is low and sandy, and does not exhibit any prominences. The west coast of
Exmouth Gulf itself is formed by a promontory of level land, terminating
in the North-west Cape; and from thence to the south-west, as far as Cape
Cuvier, the general height of the coast is from four to five hundred
feet; nor are any mountains visible over the coast range.

Several portions of the shore between Shark's Bay and Cape Naturaliste
have been described in the account of Commodore Baudin's Expedition; but
some parts still remain to be surveyed. From the specimens collected by
Captain King and the French descriptions, it appears that the islands on
the west of Shark's Bay abound in a concretional calcareous rock of very
recent formation, similar to what is found on the shore in several other
parts of New Holland, especially in the neighbourhood of King George's
Sound; and which is abundant also on the coast of the West Indian
Islands, and of the Mediterranean. Captain King's specimens of this
production are from Dirk Hartog's and Rottnest Islands; and M. Peron
states that the upper parts of Bernier and Dorre Islands are composed of
a rock of the same nature. This part of the coast is covered in various
places with extensive dunes of sand; but the nature of the base, on which
both these and the calcareous formation repose, has not been ascertained.

The general direction of the rocky shore, from North-west Cape to Dirk
Hartog's Island, is from the east of north to the west of south. On the
south of the latter place the land turns towards the east. High, rocky
and reddish cliffs have been seen indistinctly about latitude 27 degrees;
and a coast of the same aspect has been surveyed, from Red Point, about
latitude 28 degrees, for more than eighty miles to the south-west. The
hills called Moresby's flat-topped Range, of which Mount Fairfax,
latitude 28 degrees 45 minutes, is the highest point, occupy a space of
more than fifty miles from north to south.

Rottnest Island and its vicinity, latitude 32 degrees, contains in
abundance the calcareous concretions already mentioned; which seem there
to consist in a great measure of the remains of recent shells, in
considerable variety. The islands of this part of the shore have been
described by MM. Peron and Freycinet;* and the coast to the south, down
to Cape Leeuwin, the south-western extremity of New Holland, having been
sufficiently examined by the French voyagers, was not surveyed by Captain
King.

(*Footnote. Peron volume 2 page 168 etc.)

Swan River (Riviere des Cygnes) upon this part of the coast, latitude 31
degrees 25 minutes to 32 degrees, was examined by the French expedition,
to the distance of about twenty leagues from its mouth; and found still
to contain salt water. The rock in its neighbourhood consisted altogether
of sandy and calcareous incrustations, in horizontal beds, enclosing, it
is stated, shells, and the roots and even trunks of trees. Between this
river and Cape Peron, a "great bay" was left unexplored.*

(*Footnote. Peron volume 1 page 179. Freycinet page 5. 170.)

The prominent mass of land, which stands out from the main, between Cape
Naturaliste and Cape Leeuwin, and runs nearly on the meridian for more
than fifty miles, seems to have a base of granite, which, at Cape
Naturaliste, is said to be stratified.* The same rock also occurs, among
Captain King's specimens, from Bald-head in King George's Sound; but
nearly on the summit of that hill, which is about five hundred feet high,
were Found the ramified calcareous concretions, erroneously considered as
corals by Vancouver and others;** but which appear, from Captain King's
specimens, to be nothing more than a variety of the recent limestone so
abundant throughout these shores.

(*Footnote. Peron volume 1 page 69.)

(**Footnote. Vancouver 1 49. D'Entrecasteaux 2 175. Freycinet 105.
Flinders 1 63. See the detailed descriptions hereafter; and Captain
King's Narrative volume 1.)

The south coast, and the southern portion of the east coast of Australia,
which were surveyed by Captain Flinders, are described in the account of
his voyage, and do not come within the object of the present paper.

...


GEOLOGICAL REMARKS.

1. The rocks, of which specimens occur in the collections of Captain King
and Mr. Brown, are the following:

Granite: Cape Cleveland; C. Grafton; Endeavour River; Lizard Island;
Round Hill, near C. Grindall; Mount Caledon; Island near C. Arnhem;
Melville Bay; Bald-head, King George's Sound.

Various Slaty Rocks:
Mica-State: Mallison's I.
Talc-State: Endeavour River.
Slaty Clay: Inglis' I., Clack I., Percy I.
Hornblende Rock ?: Pobassoo's Island; Halfway Bay, Prince Regent's River.

Granular Quartz: Endeavour River; Montagu Sound, North-west Coast.
Epidote: C. Clinton ?; Port Warrender; Careening Bay.

Quartzose Conglomerates, and ancient Sandstones: Rodd's Bay; Islands of
the north and north-west coasts; Cambridge Gulf; York Sound; Prince
Regent's River.

Pipe-clay: Melville Bay; Goulburn I.; Lethbridge Bay.

ROCKS OF THE TRAP FORMATION.

Serpentine: Port Macquarie; Percy Isles.

Sienite: Rodd's Bay.

Porphyry: C. Cleveland.

Porphyritic Conglomerate: C. Clinton, Percy I., Good's I.

Compact Felspar: Percy I., Repulse Bay, Sunday Island.

Greenstone: Vansittart Bay, Bat I., Careening Bay, Malus I.

Clinkstone: Morgan's I., Pobassoo's I.

Amygdaloid, with Chalcedony: Port Warrender; Half-way Bay; Bat Island;
Malus I.

Wacke ?: Bat Island.

...

Recent calcareous Breccia: Sweer's Island, N. coast. Dirk Hartog's and
Rottnest Islands, etc., West coast. King George's Sound, South coast.

The only information that has been published respecting the geology of
New Holland, besides what is contained in the Voyages of Captain Flinders
and Commodore Baudin, is a slight notice by Professor Buckland of some
specimens collected during Mr. Oxley's Expedition to the River
Macquarie,* in 1818; and a brief outline of a paper by the Reverend
Archdeacon Scott, entitled A Sketch of the Geology of New South Wales and
Van Diemen's Land, which has been read before the Geological Society.**
On these authorities, the following may be added to the preceding list of
rocks:

Limestone, resembling in the character of its organic remains the
mountain limestone or England: Interior of New Holland, near the east
coast; Van Diemen's Land (Buckland; Prevost manuscripts; Scott).

The Coal-formation: East coast of New Holland; Van Diemen's Land.
(Buckland-Scott.)

Indications of the new red-Sandstone (Red-Marl) afforded by the
occurrence of Salt: Van Diemen's Land. (Scott.)

Oolite: Van Diemen's Land. (Scott.)

(*Footnote. Geological Transactions volume 5 page 480.)

(**Footnote. Ann. of Phil. June 1824. I am informed that Mr. Von Buch
also has published a paper on the rocks of New Holland; but have not been
so fortunate as to meet with it.

Since this paper has been at the press, a Report presented to the Academy
of Sciences at Paris, on the Voyage of Discovery of M. Duperrey,
performed during the years 1822 to 1825, has been published; from whence
I have subjoined an extract, in order to complete the catalogue of the
rocks of Australia, according to the present state of our information.

Les echantillons recueillis tant dans les contrees voisines du Port
Jackson, que dans les Montagnes-Bleues, augmentent beaucoup nos
connoissances sur ces parties de la Nouvelle Hollande. Les echantillons,
au nombre de soixante-dix, nous offrent, 1. Les granites, les
syenites-quartziferes, et les pegmatites (granites graphiques) qui
cunstituent le second plan des Muntagnes-Bleues. 2. Les gres ferrugineux,
et renfermant d'abondantes paillettes de fer oligiste, qui couvrent non
seulement une vaste etendue de pays pres des cotes, mais encore le
premier plan des Montagnes-Bleues; et 3. Le lignite stratiforme qu'on
exploite au Mont-Yorck, a 1000 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer, et
dont la presence ajoute aux motifs qui portent a penser que les gres
ferrugineux de ces contrees appartiennent au systeme des terrains
tertiaires.

Vingt-sept echantillons ramasses a la terre de Van Diemen, dans les
environs du port Dalrymple, et pres du Cap Barren, indiquent, 1. Des
terrains de pegmatite, et de serpentine. 2. Des terrains intermediaires
coquilliers, formes du grauwacke-schistoide, et de pierre calcaire. 3.
Des terrains tres-recens, composes d'argile sablonneuse et ferrugineuse,
avec geodes de fer hydrate, et du bois fossile, a differens etats. On
distingue en outre des belles topazes blanches ou bleuatres, parmi les
galets quartzeux, qui ont ete recueillis au Cap Barren: Bulletin des
Sciences Naturelles, Octobre 1825 page 189.)

2. The specimens of Captain King's and Mr. Brown's collections, without
any exception, agree with those of the same denominations from other
parts of the world; and the resemblance is, in some instances, very
remarkable: The sandstones of the west and north-west of New Holland are
so like those of the west of England, and of Wales, that the specimens
from the two countries can scarcely be distinguished from each other; the
arenaceous cement in the calcareous breccia of the west coast is
precisely the same with that of Sicily; and the jasper, chalcedony, and
green quartz approaching to heliotrope, from the entrance of Prince
Regent's River, resemble those of the Tyrol, both in their characters and
association. The Epidote of Port Warrender and Careening Bay, affords an
additional proof of the general distribution of that mineral; which,
though perhaps it may not constitute large masses, seems to be of more
frequent occurrence as a component of rocks than has hitherto been
supposed.* The mineral itself, both crystallized and compact, the latter
in the form of veins traversing sienitic rocks, occurs, in Mr.
Greenough's cabinet alone, from Malvern, North Wales, Ireland, France,
and Upper Saxony. Mr. Koenig has found it extensively in the sienitic
tract of Jersey;** where blocks of a pudding-stone, bearing some
resemblance to the green breccia of Egypt, were found to be composed of
compact epidote, including very large pebbles of a porphyritic rock,
which itself contains a considerable proportion of this substance. And
Mr. Greenough has recently received, among specimens sent home by Mr. J.
Burton, junior, a mass of compact epidote, with quartz and felspar, from
Dokhan, in the desert between the Red Sea and the Nile. When New Holland
is added to these localities, it will appear that few minerals are more
widely diffused.

(*Footnote. See Cleaveland's Mineralogy 1816 page 297 to 300.)

(**Footnote. Plee's Account of Jersey quarto Southampton 1817 page 231 to
276.)

3. The unpublished sketches, by Captain King and Mr. Roe, of the hills in
sight during the progress of the survey of the Coasts of Australia,
accord in a very striking manner with the geological character of the
shore. Those from the east coast, where the rocks are primitive,
representing strongly marked and irregular outlines of lofty mountains,
and frequently, in the nearer ground, masses of strata highly inclined.
The outlines on the contrary, on the north, north-west, and western
shores, are most commonly uniform, rectilinear, the summits flat, and
diversified only by occasional detached and conical peaks, none of which
are very lofty.

4. No information has yet been obtained, from any of the collections,
respecting the diluvial deposits of Australia: a class of phenomena which
is of the highest interest, in an island of such vast extent, so very
remote in situation, and of which the existing animals are so different
from those of other parts of the globe. It is remarkable, also, that no
limestone is among the specimens from the northern and western shores,
except that of the recent breccia; and although negative conclusions are
hazardous, it would seem probable, from this circumstance, that limestone
cannot be very abundant or conspicuous at the places visited. No eruptive
mountains, nor any traces of recent volcanic eruption, have yet been
observed in any part of Australia.

5. The recent calcareous breccia, of which a detailed description will be
found in the subjoined list of specimens, is one of the most remarkable
productions of New Holland: It was found, during the expedition of
Commodore Baudin, to exist throughout a space of no less than twenty-five
degrees of latitude, and an equal extent of longitude, on the southern,
west, and north-west coasts;* and from Mr. Brown's specimens it appears
to occur also on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The full account
which M. Peron has given of this formation, sufficiently shows its
resemblance to the very recent limestone, full of marine shells, which
abounds on the shores of the Mediterranean, the West India Islands, and
in several other parts of the world: And it is a point of the greatest
interest in geology, to determine, whether any distinct line can really
be drawn, between those concretions, unquestionably of modern formation,
which occur immediately upon the shore; and other calcareous
accumulations, very nearly resembling them, if not identical, both in the
fossils they contain, and in the characters of the cementing substances,
that are found in several countries, at considerable heights above the
sea.

(*Footnote. Voyage 2 page 168, 169 to 216 etc.)

Dr. Buckland has described a breccia of modern formation, which occurs
upon the shore at Madagascar, and consists of a firmly-compacted
cream-coloured stone, composed of granular fragments of shells,
agglutinated by a calcareous cement.* The stone of Guadaloupe, containing
the human skeletons, is likewise of the same nature; and its very recent
production cannot be doubted, since it contains fragments of stone axes,
and of pottery.** The cemented shells of Bermuda, described by Captain
Vetch,*** which pass gradually into a compact limestone, differ only in
colour from the Guadaloupe stone; and agree with it, and with the
calcareous breccia of Dirk Hartog's Island, in the gradual melting down
of the cement into the included portions, which is one of the most
remarkable features of that rock.**** A calcareous compound, apparently
of the same kind, has been recently mentioned, as of daily production in
Anastasia Island, on the coast of East Florida;***** and will probably be
found to be of very general occurrence in that quarter of the globe. And
Captain Beaufort's account of the process by which the gravelly beach is
cemented into stone, at Selinti, and several other places on the coast of
Karamania, on the north-east of the Mediterranean,****** accords with M.
Peron's description of the progress from the loose and moveable sands of
the dunes to solid masses of rock.******* In the island of Rhodes, also,
there are hills of pudding-stone, of the same character, considerably
elevated above the sea. And Captain W.H. Smyth, the author of Travels in
Sicily, and of the Survey of the Mediterranean recently published by the
Admiralty, informs me, that he has seen these concretions in Calabria,
and on the coasts of the Adriatic; but still more remarkably in the
narrow strip of recent land (called the Placca) which connects Leucadia,
one of the Ionian Islands, with the continent, and so much resembles a
work of art, that it has been considered as a Roman fabric. The stone
composing this isthmus is so compact, that the best mill-stones in the
Ionian Islands are made from it; but it is in fact nothing more than
gravel and sand cemented by calcareous matter, the accretion of which is
supposed to be rapidly advancing at the present day.

(*Footnote. Geological Transactions volume 5 page 479.)

(**Footnote. Linnean Transactions 12 page 53 to 57.)

(***Footnote. Geological Transactions 2nd Series volume 1 page 172.)

(****Footnote. Koenig Philosophical Transactions 1814 page 107 etc.)

(*****Footnote. Bulletin des Sciences Nat. Mars 1825.)

(******Footnote. Beaufort's Description of the South Coast of Asia Minor
etc. Second edition. London 1818: pages 180 to 184 etc. In the
neighbourhood of Adalia the deposition of calcareous matter from the
water is so copious that an old watercourse had actually crept upwards to
a height of nearly three feet; and the rapidity of the deposition was
such that some specimens were collected on the grass, where the stony
crust was already formed, although the verdure of the leaf was as yet but
imperfectly withered (page 114): a fact which renders less extraordinary
M. Peron's statement that the excrements of kangaroos had been found
concreted by calcareous matter. Peron volume 2 page 116.)

(*******Footnote. Voyage 2 116.)

The nearest approach to the concreted sand-rock of Australia, that I have
seen, is in the specimens presented by Dr. Daubeny to the Bristol
Institution, to accompany his excellent paper on the geology of Sicily;*
which prove that the arenaceous breccia of New Holland is very like that
which occupies a great part of the coast, almost entirely around that
island. Some of Dr. Daubeny's specimens from Monte Calogero, above
Sciacca, consist of a breccia, containing angular fragments of splintery
limestone, united by a cement, composed of minute grains of
quartzose-sand disseminated in a calcareous paste, resembling precisely
that of the breccia of Dirk Hartog's Island: and a compound of this kind,
replete with shells, not far, if at all, different from existing species,
fills up the hollows in most of the older rocks of Sicily; and is
described as occurring, in several places, at very considerable heights
above the sea. Thus, near Palermo, it constitutes hills some hundred feet
in height; near Girgenti, all the most elevated spots are crowned with a
loose stratum of the same kind; and the heights near Castro Giovanni,
said to be 2880 feet above the sea, are probably composed of it. But
although the concretions of the interior in Sicily much resemble those of
the shore, it is still doubtful whether the former be not of more ancient
formation; and if they contain nummulites, they would probably be
referred to the epoch of the beds within the Paris basin.

(*Footnote. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 1825 pages 116, 117, 118, and
254 to 255.)

The looser breccia of Monte Pelegrino, in Sicily, is very like the less
compacted fragments of shells from Bermuda, described by Captain Vetch,
and already referred to:* and the rock in both these cases, nearly
approaches to some of the coarser oolites of England.

(*Footnote. These specimens are in the Museum of the Geological Society.)

The resemblance pointed out by M. Prevost,* of the specimens of recent
breccia from New Holland, in the museum at the Jardin du Roi, to those of
St. Hospice near Nice, is confirmed by the detail given by Mr. Allan in
his sketch of the geology of that neighbourhood;** in which the perfect
preservation of the shells, and their near approach to those of the
adjoining sea at the present day, are particularly mentioned; and it is
inferred that the date of the deposit which affords them, is anterior to
that of the conglomerate containing the bones of extinct quadrupeds,
likewise found in that country. M. Brongniart also, who examined the
place himself, mentions the recent accumulation which occurs at St.
Hospice, about sixty feet above the present level of the sea, as
containing marine shells in a scarcely fossil state (a peine fossiles)
and he describes the mass in which they occur, as belonging to a
formation still more recent than the upper marine beds of the environs of
Paris.***

(*Footnote. Prevost manuscripts. See hereafter.)

(**Footnote. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh volume 8 1818
page 427 etc. See also the previous publications of M. Risso Journal des
Mines tome 34 etc.)

(***Footnote. Brongniart in Cuvier Ossemens Fossiles; 2nd Edit. volume 2
page 427.)

The geological period indicated by these facts, being probably more
recent than the tertiary beds containing nummulites, and generally than
the Paris and London strata, accords with the date which has hitherto
been assigned to the crag beds of Suffolk, Essex, and Norfolk:* but later
observations render doubtful the opinion generally received respecting
the age of these remarkable deposits, and a full and satisfactory account
of them is still a desideratum in the geology of England. When, also, our
imperfect acquaintance with the travertino of Italy, and other very
modern limestones containing freshwater shells, is considered,** the
continual deposition of which, at the present time, cannot be questioned
(though probably the greater part of the masses which consist of them may
belong to an era preceding the actual condition of the earth's surface)
it would seem that the whole subject of these newer calcareous formations
requires elucidation: and, if the inferences connected with them do not
throw considerable doubt upon some opinions at present generally
received, they show, at least, that a great deal more is to be learned
respecting the operations and products of the most recent geological
epochs, than is commonly supposed.

(*Footnote. Conybeare and Phillips Outlines etc. page 11, Geological
Transactions 1 page 327 etc. Taylor in Geological Transactions 2nd series
Volume 2 page 371. Mr. Taylor states the important fact that the remains
of unknown animals are buried together with the shells in the crag of
Suffolk; but does not mention the nature of these remains. Since these
pages have been at the press, Mr. Warburton, by whom the coast of Essex
and Norfolk has been examined with great accuracy, has informed me that
the fossil bones of the crag are the same with those of the diluvial
gravel, including the remains of the elephant, rhinoceros, stag, etc.)

(**Footnote. Some valuable observations on the formation of recent
limestone, in beds of shelly marl at the bottom of lakes in Scotland,
have been read before the Geological Society by Mr. Lyell, and will
appear in the volume of the Transactions now in the press. See Annals of
Philosophy 1825 page 310.)

Since it appears that the accretion of calcareous matter is continually
going on at the present time, and has probably taken place at all times,
the stone thus formed, independent of the organized bodies which it
envelopes, will afford no criterion of its date, nor give any very
certain clue to the revolutions which have subsequently acted upon it.
But as MARINE shells are found in the cemented masses, at heights above
the sea, to which no ordinary natural operations could have conveyed
them, the elevation of these shells to their actual place (if not that of
the rock in which they are agglutinated) must be referred to some other
agency: while the perfect preservation of the shells, their great
quantity, and the abundance of the same species in the same places, make
it more probable that they lay originally in the situations where we now
find them, than that they have been transported from any considerable
distances, or elevated by any very turbulent operation. Captain de
Freycinet, indeed, mentions that patellae, worn by attrition, and other
recent shells, have been found on the west coast of New Holland, on the
top of a wall of rocks an hundred feet above the sea, evidently brought
up by the surge during violent storms;* but such shells are found in the
breccia of Sicily, and in several other places, at heights too great, and
their preservation is too perfect, to admit of this mode of conveyance;
and to account for their existence in such situations, recourse must be
had to more powerful means of transport.

(* Freycinet page 187. The presence of shells in such situations may
often be ascribed to the birds, which feed on their inhabitants. At
Madeira, where recent shells are found near the coast at a considerable
height above the sea, the Gulls have been seen carrying up the living
patellae, just taken from the rocks.)

The occurrence of corals, and marine shells of recent appearance, at
considerable heights above the sea, on the coasts of New Holland, Timor,
and several other islands of the south, was justly considered by M. Peron
as demonstrating the former abode of the sea above the land; and very
naturally suggested an inquiry, as to the nature of the revolutions to
which this change of situation is to be ascribed.* From similar
appearances at Pulo Nias, one of the islands off the western coast of
Sumatra, Dr. Jack also was led to infer, that the surface of that island
must at one time have been the bed of the ocean; and after stating, that
by whatever means it obtained its present elevation, the transition must
have been effected with little violence or disturbance to the marine
productions at the surface,** he concludes, that the phenomena are in
favour of a HEAVING UP OF THE LAND, BY A FORCE FROM BENEATH. The probable
nature of this force is indicated most distinctly, if not demonstrated,
by the phenomena which attended the memorable earthquake of Chili, in
November, 1820,*** which was felt throughout a space of fifteen hundred
miles from north to south. For it is stated upon the clearest evidence,
that after formidable shocks of earthquake, repeated with little
interruption during the whole night of the 19th of November (and the
shocks were continued afterwards, at intervals, for several months) IT
APPEARED, on the morning of the 20th, THAT THE WHOLE LINE OF COAST FROM
NORTH TO SOUTH, TO A DISTANCE OF ABOUT ONE HUNDRED MILES, HAD BEEN RAISED
ABOVE ITS FORMER LEVEL. The alteration of level at Valparaiso was about
three feet; and some rocks were thus newly exposed, on which the
fishermen collected the scallop-shell fish, which was not known to exist
there before the earthquake. At Quintero the elevation was about four
feet. "When I went," the narrator adds, "to examine the coast, although
it was high-water, I found the ancient bed of the sea laid bare, and dry,
with beds of oysters, mussels, and other shells adhering to the rocks on
which they grew, the fish being all dead, and exhaling most offensive
effluvia. And I found good reason to believe that the coast had been
raised by earthquakes at former periods in a similar manner; several
ancient lines of beach, consisting OF SHINGLE MIXED WITH SHELLS,
extending, in a parallel direction to the shore, to the height of fifty
feet above the sea." Such an accumulation of geological evidence, from
different quarters and distinct classes of phenomena, concurs to
demonstrate the existence of most powerful expansive forces within the
earth, and to testify their agency in producing the actual condition of
its surface, that the phenomena just now described are nothing more than
what was to be expected from previous induction. These facts, however,
not only place beyond dispute the existence of such forces, but show
that, even in detail, their effects accord most satisfactorily with the
predictions of theory. It is not, therefore, at all unreasonable to
conceive, that, in other situations, phenomena of the same character have
been produced by the same cause, though we may not at present be enabled
to trace its connexion with the existing appearances so distinctly; and
though the facts, when they occurred, may have been unnoticed, or may
have taken place at periods beyond the reach of historical record, or
even beyond the possibility of human testimony.

(*Footnote. Peron Voyage etc. volume 2 pages 165 to 183.)

(**Footnote. Geological Transactions Second Series volume 1 page 403,
404.)

(***Footnote. The statements here referred to, are those of Mrs. Graham,
in a letter to Mr. Warburton, which has been published in the Geological
Transactions Second Series volume 1 page 412, etc.; and the account is
supported and illustrated by a valuable paper in the Journal of the Royal
Institution for April 1824 volume 17 page 38 etc.) The writer of this
latter article asserts that the whole country, from the foot of the Andes
to far out at sea, was raised by the earthquake; the greatest rise being
at the distance of about two miles from the shore. The rise upon the
coast was from two to four feet: at the distance of a mile, inland, it
must have been from five to six, or seven feet, pages 40, 45.)

M. Peron has attributed the great abundance of the modern breccia of New
Holland to the large proportion of calcareous matter, principally in the
form of comminuted shells, which is diffused through the siliceous sand
of the shores in that country;* and as the temperature, especially of the
summer, is very high on that part of the coast where this rock has been
principally found, the increased solution of carbonate of lime by the
percolating water, may possibly render its formation more abundant there,
than in more temperate climates. But the true theory of these
concretions, under any modification of temperature, is attended with
considerable difficulty: and it is certain that the process is far from
being confined to the warmer latitudes. Dr. Paris has given an account of
a modern formation of sandstone on the northern coast of Cornwall;**
where a large surface is covered with a calcareous sand, that becomes
agglutinated into a stone, which he considers as analogous to the rocks
of Guadaloupe; and of which the specimens that I have seen, resemble
those presented by Captain Beaufort to the Geological Society, from the
shore at Rhodes. Dr. Paris ascribes this concretion, not to the agency of
the sea, nor to an excess of carbonic acid, but to the solution of
carbonate of lime itself in water, and subsequent percolation through
calcareous sand; the great hardness of the stone arising from the very
sparing solubility of this carbonate, and the consequently very gradual
formation of the deposit--Dr. MacCulloch describes calcareous
concretions, found in banks of sand in Perthshire, which present a great
variety of stalactitic forms, generally more or less complicated, and
often exceedingly intricate and strange,*** and which appear to be
analogous to those of King George's Sound and Sweer's Island: And he
mentions, as not unfrequently occurring in sand, in different parts of
England (the sand above the fossil bones of Norfolk is given as an
example) long cylinders or tubes, composed of sand agglutinated by
carbonate of lime, or calcareous stalactites entangling sand, which, like
the concretions of Madeira, and those taken for corals at Bald-Head, have
been ranked improperly, with organic remains.

(*Footnote. Peron Voyage etc. 2 page 116.)

(**Footnote. Transactions of the Geological Society of Cornwall volume 1
page 1 etc.)

(***Footnote. On an arenaceo-calcareous substance, etc. Quarterly Journal
Royal Institution October 1823 volume 16 page 79 to 83.)

The stone which forms the fragments in the breccia of New Holland, is
very nearly the same with that of the cement by which they are united,
the difference consisting only in the greater proportion of sand which
the fragments contain: and it would seem, that after the consolidation of
the former, and while the deposition of similar calcareous matter was
still in progress, the portions first consolidated must have been
shattered by considerable violence. But, where no such fragments exist,
the unequal diffusion of components at first uniformly mixed, and even
the formation of nodules differing in proportions from the paste which
surrounds them, may perhaps admit of explanation, by some process
analogous to what takes place in the preparation of the compound of which
the ordinary earthenware is manufactured; where, though the ingredients
are divided by mechanical attrition only, a sort of chemical action
produces, under certain circumstances, a new arrangement of the parts.*
And this explanation may, probably, be extended to those nodular
concretions, generally considered as contemporaneous with the paste in
which they are enveloped, the distinction of which, from conglomerates of
mechanical origin, forms, in many cases, a difficulty in geology. What
the degree may be, of subdivision required to dispose the particles to
act thus upon each other, or of fluidity to admit of their action,
remains still to be determined.

(*Footnote. The clay and pulverized flints are combined for the use of
the potter, by being first separately diffused in water to the
consistence of thick cream, and when mixed in due proportion are reduced
to a proper consistence by evaporation. During this process, if the
evaporation be not rapid and immediate, or if the ingredients are left to
act on each other, even for twenty-four hours, the flinty particles unite
into sandy grains, and the mass becomes unfit for the purposes of the
manufacturer. I am indebted for this interesting fact, which, I believe,
is well known in some of the potteries, to my friend Mr. Arthur Aikin.
And Mr. Herschel informs me, that a similar change takes place in
recently precipitated carbonate of copper; which, if left long moist,
concretes into hard gritty grains, of a green colour, much more
difficultly soluble in ammonia than the original precipitate.)

6. As the superficial extent of Australia is more than three-fourths of
that of Europe, and the interior may be regarded as unknown,* any
theoretic inferences, from the slight geological information hitherto
obtained respecting this great island, are very likely to be deceitful;
but among the few facts already ascertained respecting the northern
portion of it, there are some which appear to afford a glimpse of general
structure.

Captain Flinders, in describing the position of the chains of islands on
the north-west coast of Carpentaria, Wessel's, the English Company's, and
Bromby's Islands, remarks, that he had "frequently observed a great
similarity both in the ground plans, and the elevations of hills, and of
islands, in the vicinity of each other, but did not recollect another
instance of such a likeness in the arrangement of clusters of islands."*
The appearances which called for this observation, from a voyager of so
much sagacity and experience in physical geography, must probably have
been very remarkable; and, combined with information derivable from the
charts, and from the specimens for which we are indebted to Captain King
and Mr. Brown, they would seem to point out the arrangement of the strata
on the northern coasts of New Holland.

(*Footnote. The following are the proportions assigned by Captain de
Freycinet to the principal divisions of the globe. Voyage aux Terres
Australes page 107.

COLUMN 1: DIVISION OF THE GLOBE.
COLUMN 2: AREA IN FRENCH LEAGUES SQUARE.
COLUMN 3: PROPORTION.

Asia : 2,200,000 : 17.
America : 2,100,000 : 17.
Africa : 1,560,000 : 12.
Europe : 501,875 : 4.
Australia : 384,375 : 3.

The most remote points from the coast of New South Wales, to which the
late expeditions have penetrated (and the interior has never yet been
examined in any other quarter) are not above 500 miles, in a direct line
from the sea; the average width of the island from east to west being
more than 2000 miles, and from north to south more than 1000 miles.)

(*Footnote. Flinders 5 2 page 246; and Charts, Plates 14 and 15. King's
Charts, Plate 4.)

Of the three ranges which attracted Captain Flinders' notice (see the
Map) the first on the south-east (3, 4, 5, 6, 7) is that which includes
the Red Cliffs, Mallison's Island, a part of the coast of Arnhem's Land,
from Cape Newbold to Cape Wilberforce, and Bromby's Isles; and its
length, from the mainland (3) on the south-west of Mallison's Island, to
Bromby's Isles (7) is more than fifty miles, in a direction nearly from
south-west to north-east. The English Company's Islands (2, 2, 2, 2) at a
distance of about four miles, are of equal extent; and the general
trending of them all, Captain Flinders states (page 233) is nearly
North-East by East,  parallel with the line of the main coast, and with
Bromby's Islands. Wessel's Islands (1, 1, 1, 1) the third or most
northern chain, at fourteen miles from the second range, stretch out to
more than eighty miles from the mainland, likewise in the same direction.

It is also stated by Captain Flinders, that three of the English
Company's Islands which were examined, slope down nearly to the water on
their west sides; but on the east, and more especially the south-east,
they present steep cliffs; and the same conformation, he adds, seemed to
prevail in the other islands.* If this structure occurred only in one or
two instances, it might be considered as accidental; but as it obtains in
so many cases, and is in harmony with the direction of the ranges, it is
not improbably of still more extensive occurrence, and would intimate a
general elevation of the strata towards the south-east.

(*Footnote. Flinders Volume 2 page 235.)

Now on examining the general map, it will be seen, that the lines of the
coast on the mainland, west of the Gulf of Carpentaria, between Limmen's
Bight and Cape Arnhem--from the bottom of Castlereagh Bay to Point
Dale--less distinctly from Point Pearce, latitude 14 degrees 23 minutes,
longitude 129 degrees 18 minutes, to the western extremity of Cobourg
Peninsula, and from Point Coulomb, latitude 17 degrees 20 minutes,
longitude 123 degrees 11 minutes, to Cape Londonderry, have nearly the
same direction; the first line being about one hundred and eighty
geographical miles, the second more than three hundred, and the last more
than four hundred miles, in length.* And these lines, though broken by
numerous irregularities, especially on the north-west coast, are yet
sufficiently distinct to indicate a probable connexion with the
geological structure of the country; since the coincidence of similar
ranges of coast with the direction of the strata, is a fact of very
frequent occurrence in other parts of the globe.** And it is observable
that considerable uniformity exists in the specimens, from the different
places in this quarter of New Holland which have been hitherto examined;
sandstone, like that of the older formations of Europe occurring
generally on the north and north-west coasts, and appearing to be
extensively diffused on the north-west of the Gulf of Carpentaria, where
it reposes upon primitive rocks.***

(*Footnote. It is deserving of notice, that the coast of Timor, the
nearest land on the north-west, at the distance of about 300 miles, is
also nearly straight, and parallel to the Coast of New Holland in this
quarter: part of the mountainous range, of which that island consists,
being probably more than 9000 feet high; and its length, from the
north-eastern extremity to the South-West of the adjoining island of
Rottee, about 300 miles. But, unfortunately for the hypothesis, a chain
of islands immediately on the north of Timor, is continued nearly in a
right line for more than 1200 miles (from Sermatta Island to the
south-eastern extremity of Java) in a direction FROM EAST TO WEST. This
chain, however, contains several volcanoes, including those of Sumbawa,
the eruption of which, in 1815, was of extraordinary violence. See Royal
Inst. Journal volume 1 1816 page 248 etc.

At Lacrosse Island, in the mouth of Cambridge Gulf, on the north-west
coast of New Holland, the beds rise to the North-West: their direction
consequently is from South-West to North-East; and the rise towards the
high land of Timor. The intervening sea is very shallow.)

(**Footnote. A remarkable case of this kind, which has not, I believe,
been noticed, occurs in the Mediterranean; and is conspicuous in the new
chart of that sea, by Captain W.H. Smyth. The eastern coast of Corsica
and Sardinia, for a space of more than two hundred geographical miles
being nearly rectilinear, in a direction from north to south; and,
Captain Smyth has informed me, consisting almost entirely of granite, or,
at least, of primitive rocks. The coast of Norway affords another
instance of the same description; and the details of the ranges in the
interior of England furnish several examples of the same kind, on a
smaller scale.)

(***Footnote. The coastlines nearly at rightangles to those
above-mentioned--from the South-East of the Gulf of Carpentaria to
Limmen's Bight, from Cape Arnhem to Cape Croker, and from Cape Domett to
Cape Londonderry--have also a certain degree of linearity; but much less
remarkable, than those which run from South-West to North-East.)

The horn-like projection of the land, on the east of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, is a very prominent feature in the general map of Australia,
and may possibly have some connexion with the structure just pointed out.
The western shore of this horn, from the bottom of the gulf to Endeavour
Straits, being very low; while the land on the east coast rises in
proceeding towards the south, and after passing Cape Weymouth, latitude
12 degrees 30 minutes, is in general mountainous and abrupt; and Captain
King's specimens from the north-east coast show that granite is found in
so many places along this line as to make it probable that primitive
rocks may form the general basis of the country in that quarter; since a
lofty chain of mountains is continued on the south of Cape Tribulation,
not far from the shore, throughout a space of more than five hundred
miles. It would carry this hypothesis too far to infer that these
primitive ranges are connected with the mountains on the west of the
English settlements near Port Jackson, etc., where Mr. Scott has
described the coal-measures as occupying the coast from Port Stevens,
about latitude 33 degrees to Cape Howe, latitude 37 degrees, and as
succeeded, on the eastern ascent of the Blue Mountains, by sandstone, and
this again by primitive strata:* But it may be noticed that Wilson's
Promontory, the most southern point of New South Wales, and the principal
islands in Bass Strait, contain granite; and that primitive rocks occur
extensively in Van Diemen's Land.

(*Footnote. Annals of Philosophy June 1824.)

The uniformity of the coastlines is remarkable also in some other
quarters of Australia; and their direction, as well as that of the
principal openings, has a general tendency to a course from the west of
south to the east of north. This, for example, is the general range of
the south-east coast, from Cape Howe, about latitude 37 degrees, to Cape
Byron, latitude 29 degrees, or even to Sandy Cape, latitude 25 degrees;
and of the western coast, from the south of the islands which enclose
Shark's Bay, latitude 26 degrees, to North-west Cape, about latitude 22
degrees. From Cape Hamelin, latitude 34 degrees 12 minutes, to Cape
Naturaliste, latitude 33 degrees 26 minutes, the coast runs nearly on the
meridian. The two great fissures of the south coast, Spencer's, and St.
Vincent's Gulfs, as well as the great northern chasm of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, have a corresponding direction; and Captain Flinders (Chart
4) represents a high ridge of rocky and barren mountains, on the east of
Spencer's Gulf, as continued, nearly from north to south, through a space
of more than one hundred geographical miles, between latitude 32 degrees
7 minutes and 34 degrees. Mount Brown, one of the summits of this ridge,
about latitude 32 degrees 30 minutes, being visible at the distance of
twenty leagues.

The tendency of all this evidence is somewhat in favour of a general
parallelism in the range of the strata, and perhaps of the existence of
primary ranges of mountains on the east of Australia in general, from the
coast about Cape Weymouth* to the shore between Spencer's Gulf and Cape
Howe. But it must not be forgotten, that the distance between these
shores is more than a thousand miles in a direct line; about as far as
from the west coast of Ireland to the Adriatic, or double the distance
between the Baltic and the Mediterranean. If, however, future researches
should confirm the indications above mentioned, a new case will be
supplied in support of the principle long since advanced by Mr.
Michell,** which appears (whatever theory be formed to explain it) to be
established by geological observation in so many other parts of the
world, that the outcrop of the inclined beds, throughout the stratified
portion of the globe, is everywhere parallel to the longer ridges of
mountains, towards which, also, the elevation of the strata is directed.
But in the present state of our information respecting Australia, all
such general views are so very little more than mere conjecture, that the
desire to furnish ground for new inquiry, is, perhaps, the best excuse
that can be offered for having proposed them.

(*Footnote. The possible correspondence of the great Australian Bight,
the coast of which in general is of no great elevation, with the
deeply-indented Gulf of Carpentaria, tending, as it were, to a division
of this great island into two, accords with this hypothesis of mountain
ranges: but the distance between these recesses, over the land at the
nearest points, is not less than a thousand English miles. The granite,
on the south coast, at Investigator's Islands, and westward, at Middle
Island, Cape Le Grand, King George's Sound, and Cape Naturaliste, is very
wide of the line above-mentioned, and nothing is yet known of its
relations.)

(**Footnote. On the Cause of Earthquakes. Philosophical Transactions 1760
volume 51 page 566 to 585, 586.)

...


DETAILED LIST OF SPECIMENS.

The specimens mentioned in the following list have been compared with
some of those of England and other countries, principally in the cabinets
of the Geological Society, and of Mr. Greenough; and with a collection
from part of the confines of the primitive tracts of England and North
Wales, formed by Mr. Arthur Aikin, and now in his own possession. Captain
King's collection has been presented to the Geological Society; and
duplicates of Mr. Brown's specimens are deposited in the British Museum.

RODD'S BAY, on the East Coast, discovered by Captain King, about sixty
miles south of Cape Capricorn.* Reddish sandstone, of moderately-fine
grain, resembling that which in England occurs in the coal formation, and
beneath it (mill-stone grit). A sienitic compound, consisting of a large
proportion of reddish felspar, with specks of a green substance, probably
mica; resembling a rock from Shap in Cumberland.

(*Footnote. In Captain King's collection are also specimens found on the
beach at Port Macquarie, and in the bed of the Hastings River, of common
serpentine, and of botryoidal magnesite, from veins in serpentine. The
magnesite agrees nearly with that of Baudissero, in Piedmont. (See
Cleaveland's Mineralogy 1st edition page 345.)

CAPE CLINTON, between Rodd's Bay and the Percy Islands. Porphyritic
conglomerate, with a base of decomposed felspar, enclosing grains of
quartz and common felspar, and some fragments of what appears to be
compact epidote; very nearly resembling specimens from the trap rocks* of
the Wrekin and Breeden Hills in Shropshire. Reddish and yellowish sandy
clay, coloured by oxide of iron, and used as pigments by the natives.

(*Footnote. By the terms Trap, and Trap-formation, which I am aware are
extremely vague, I intend merely to signify a class of rocks, including
several members, which differ from each other considerably in
mineralogical character, but agree in some of their principal geological
relations; and the origin of which very numerous phenomena concur in
referring to some modification of volcanic agency. The term Greenstone
also is of very loose application, and includes rocks that exhibit a wide
range of characters; the predominant colour being some shade of green,
the structure more or less crystalline, and the chief ingredients
supposed to be hornblende and felspar, but the components, if they could
be accurately determined, probably more numerous and varied, than
systematic lists imply.)

PERCY ISLANDS, about one hundred and forty miles north of Cape Capricorn.
Compact felspar of a flesh-red hue, enclosing a few small crystals of
reddish felspar and of quartz. This specimen is marked "general character
of the rocks at Percy Island," and very much resembles the compact
felspar of the Pentland Hills near Edinburgh, and of Saxony. Coarse
porphyritic conglomerate, of a reddish hue. Serpentine. A trap-like
compound, with somewhat the aspect of serpentine, but yielding with
difficulty to the knife. This specimen has, at first sight, the
appearance of a conglomerate, made up of portions of different hues,
purplish, brown, and green; but the coloured parts are not otherwise
distinguishable in the fracture: It very strongly resembles a rock which
occurs in the trap-formation, near Lyd-Hole, at Pont-y-Pool, in
Shropshire. Slaty clay, with particles of mica, like that which
frequently occurs immediately beneath beds of coal.

REPULSE ISLAND, in Repulse Bay, about one hundred and twenty miles
north-west of the Percy Islands. Indistinct specimens, apparently
consisting of decomposed compact felspar. A compound of quartz, mica, and
felspar, having the appearance of re-composed granite.

CAPE CLEVELAND, about one hundred and twenty miles north of Repulse
Island. Yellowish-grey granite, with brown mica; "from the summit of the
hill." Reddish granite, of very fine grain; with the aspect of sandstone.
Dark grey porphyritic hornstone, approaching to compact felspar, with
imbedded crystals of felspar.

CAPE GRAFTON, about one hundred and eighty miles west of north from Cape
Cleveland. Close-grained grey and yellowish-grey granite, with brown
mica. A reddish granitic stone, composed of quartz, felspar, and
tourmaline.

ENDEAVOUR RIVER, about one hundred miles west of north from Cape Grafton.
Grey granite of several varieties; from a peaked hill under Mount Cook
and its vicinity. Granular quartz-rock of several varieties: and
indistinct specimens of a rock approaching to talc-slate.

LIZARD ISLAND, about fifty miles east of north from Endeavour River. Grey
granite, consisting of brown and white mica, quartz, and a large
proportion of felspar somewhat decomposed.

CLACK ISLAND, near Cape Flinders, on the north-west of Cape Melville,
about ninety miles north-west of Lizard Island. Smoke-grey micaceous
slaty-clay, much like certain beds of the old red sandstone, where it
graduates into grey wacke. This specimen was taken from a horizontal bed
about ten feet in thickness, reposing upon a mass of pudding-stone, which
included large pebbles of quartz and jasper; and above it was a mass of
sandstone, more than sixty feet thick. (Narrative volume 2.)

SUNDAY ISLAND, near Cape Grenville, about one hundred and seventy miles
west of north from Cape Melville. Compact felspar, of a flesh-red colour;
very nearly resembling that of the Percy Islands, above-mentioned.

GOOD'S ISLAND, one of the Prince of Wales group, about latitude 10
degrees, thirty-four miles north-west of Cape York. The specimens, in Mr.
Brown's collection from this place, consist of coarse-slaty porphyritic
conglomerate, with a base of greenish-grey compact felspar, containing
crystals of reddish felspar and quartz. This rock has some resemblance to
that of Clack Island above-mentioned.

SWEER'S ISLAND, south of Wellesley's group, at the bottom of the Gulf of
Carpentaria. A stalactitic concretion of quartzose sand, and fine gravel,
cemented by reddish carbonate of lime; apparently of the same nature with
the stem-like concretions of King George's Sound: (See hereafter.) In
this specimen the tubular cavity of the stalactite is still open.

The shore, in various parts of this island, was found to consist of red
ferruginous matter (Bog-iron-ore ?) sometimes unmixed, but not
unfrequently mingled with a sandy calcareous stone; and in some places
rounded portions of the ferruginous matter were enveloped in a calcareous
cement.

BENTINCK ISLAND, near Sweer's Island. A granular compound, like sandstone
recomposed from the debris of granite. Brown hematite, enclosing
quartzose sand.

PISONIA ISLAND, on the east of Mornington's Island, is composed of
calcareous breccia and pudding-stone, which consist of a sandy calcareous
cement, including water-worn portions of reddish ferruginous matter, with
fragments of shells.

NORTH ISLAND, one of Sir Edward Pellew's group. Coarse siliceous sand,
concreted by ferruginous matter; which, in some places, is in the state
of brown hematite. Calcareous incrustations, including fragments of
madrepores, and of shells, cemented by splintery carbonate of lime.

CAPE-MARIA ISLAND, in Limmen's Bight, was found by Mr. Brown to be
composed principally of sandstone. The specimens from this place,
however, consist of grey splintery hornstone, with traces of a slaty
structure; and of yellowish-grey flint, approaching to chalcedony; with a
coarse variety of cacholong, containing small nests of quartz crystals.

GROOTE EYLANDT is composed of sandstone, of which two different varieties
occur among the specimens. A quartzose reddish sandstone, of moderately
fine grain; and a coarse reddish compound, consisting almost exclusively
of worn pebbles of quartz, some of which are more than half an inch in
diameter, with a few rounded pebbles of chalcedony. The latter rock is
nearly identical with that of Simms' Island, near Goulburn's Island on
the north coast.

CHASM ISLAND, WINCHELSEA ISLAND, and BURNEY'S ISLAND, are of the same
materials as Groote Eylandt: and sandstone was found also on the western
shore of BLUE-MUD BAY.

On the shore of the mainland, opposite to Groote Eylandt, a little north
of latitude 14 degrees, Mr. Brown observed the common sandy calcareous
stone, projecting here and there in ragged fragments.

MORGAN'S ISLAND, in Blue-Mud Bay, north-west of Groote Eylandt, is
composed principally of clink-stone, sometimes indistinctly columnar. But
among the specimens are also a coarse conglomerate of a dull purplish
colour, including pebbles of granular quartz and a fragment of a slaty
rock like potstone: the hue and aspect of the compound being precisely
those of the oldest sandstones. Reddish quartzose sandstone, of uniform
and fine grain. A concretion of rounded quartz pebbles, cemented by
ferruginous matter, apparently of recent formation.

ROUND HILL, near Cape Grindall, a prominence east of north from Blue-Mud
Bay, was found by Captain Flinders to consist, at the upper part, of
sandstone. The specimens of the rocks in its vicinity are, dark grey
granite, somewhat approaching to gneiss, with a few specks of garnet; and
a calcareous, probably concretional stone, enclosing the remains of
shells, with cavities lined with crystals of calcareous spar.

MOUNT CALEDON, on the mainland, west of Caledon Bay, consists of grey
granite, with dark brown mica in small quantity; and on the sides and top
of the hill large loose blocks of that rock were observed, resting upon
other blocks.

A small island, near Cape Arnhem, is also composed of granite, in which
the felspar has a bluish hue.

Smaller of the MELVILLE ISLANDS, north-east of Melville Bay.* A
botryoidal mass of ferruginous oxide of manganese, approaching to
hematite; the fissures in some places occupied by carbonate of lime.

(*Footnote. The relative position of the islands and bays on this part of
the coast is represented in the enlarged Map.)

MELVILLE BAY. Granite, composed of grey and somewhat bluish felspar, dark
brown mica, and a little quartz; containing minute disseminated specks of
molybdena, and indistinct crystals of pale red garnet.

RED CLIFFS, south-west of Arnhem Bay; on the line of the first chain of
islands mentioned by Captain Flinders. (See the Map, figure 3.) Friable
conglomerate, of a full brick-red colour, consisting of minute grains of
quartz, with a large proportion of ochreous matter.

MALLISON'S ISLAND. (Map, figure 4.) The cliffs of this island are
composed of a fissile primitive rock, on which sandstone reposes in
regular beds. The specimen of the former resembles gneiss, or mica slate,
near the contact with granite: the sandstone is thick-slaty, quartzose,
of a reddish hue, with mica disseminated on the surfaces of the joints;
and one face of the specimen is incrusted with quartz crystals, thinly
coated with botryoidal hematite. Light grey quartzose sandstone of a fine
grain, with a thin coating of brown hematite, was also found in this
island: And a breccia, consisting of angular fragments of sandstone,
cemented by thin, vein-like, coatings of dark brown hematite, was found
there, in loose blocks at the bottom of perpendicular cliffs. The
specimen of this breccia is attached to a plate of granular quartz, and
may possibly have been part of a vein.

The shore of INGLIS' ISLAND, the largest of the ENGLISH COMPANY'S RANGE
(2. 2. 2. in the Map) is formed of flat beds, of a slaty argillaceous
rock, which breaks into rhomboidal fragments; but the specimen is
indistinct. Ferruginous masses, probably consisting of brown hematite,
come also from this island.

ASTELL'S ISLAND, north-east of Inglis' Isle. Very fine-grained
greyish-white quartzose sandstone; identical with that of Mallison's
Island, and very closely resembling some of the specimens from Prince
Regent's and Hunter's Rivers.

Among the remaining islands of this range, BOSANQUET'S, COTTON'S, and
POBASSOO's Isles, were found by Mr. Brown to consist, in a great measure,
of sandstone, of the same character with the specimens above-mentioned.

POBASSOO'S ISLAND, a small islet south-east of Astell's Isle.
Fine-grained, somewhat reddish, sandstone. Another specimen of sandstone
is friable, of a light flesh-red colour, and apparently composed of the
debris of granite. A crystalline rock, consisting of greenish-grey
hornblende, with a very small proportion of felspar (Hornblende rock ?).
Fragment, apparently from a columnar mass, of a stone intermediate
between clink-stone and compact felspar.

Such of the English Company's Islands as were examined by Captain
Flinders, are stated by him to consist, in the upper part, of a grit, or
sandstone, of a close texture; the lower part being argillaceous, and
stratified, and separating into pieces of a reddish colour, resembling
flat tiles. The strata-dip to the west, at an angle of about 15 degrees.

South-west bay of GOULBURN'S SOUTH ISLAND, two hundred and fifty miles
west of the Gulf of Carpentaria (Narrative 1). Coarse-grained reddish
quartzose conglomerate and sandstone; resembling the older sandstones of
England and Wales, and especially the mill-stone grit beneath the coal
formation. Fine greyish-white pipe-clay; of which about thirty feet in
thickness were visible, apparently above the sandstone last mentioned.
Coarse-grained, ferruginous sandstone, containing fragments of quartz,
from above the pipe-clay. The appearance of the cliff from which these
specimens were taken, is represented in the view of the bay on the south
of Goulburn Island (volume 1); and a distant head in the view consists of
the same materials.

SIMMS ISLAND, on the west of Goulburn's south Island (Narrative 1) is
composed of a reddish conglomerate, nearly identical with some of the
specimens above-mentioned.

The western side of LETHBRIDGE BAY, on the north of MELVILLE ISLAND,
consists of a range of cliffs like those at Goulburn's Island; the upper
part being red, the lower white and composed of pipe-clay. The western
extremity of BATHURST ISLAND, between CAPE HELVETIUS and CAPE FOURCROY,
is also formed of cliffs of a very dark red colour.

LACROSSE ISLAND, at the mouth of CAMBRIDGE GULF, about one hundred miles
from Port Keats. Reddish, very quartzose sandstone; from a stratum which
dips to the south-east, at an angle of about ten or fifteen degrees.
Micaceous and argillaceous fissile sandstone, of purplish and greenish
hues, in patches, or occasionally intermixed; precisely resembling the
rock of Brecon, in South Wales, and, generally, the old red sandstone of
the vicinity of Bristol and the confines of England and Wales.
Fine-grained thin-slaty sandstone, resembling certain beds of the coal
formation, or of the millstone grit, is found in large masses, under an
argillaceous cliff, on the north side of Lacrosse Island.

The specimens from the interior of Cambridge Gulf are from ADOLPHUS
ISLAND, and consist of reddish and grey sandstone, more or less
decomposed.

VANSITTART BAY, about one hundred and forty miles north-west of Cambridge
Gulf. Reddish quartzose sandstone, or quartz-rock. Indistinct specimens
of greenstone, with adhering quartz; apparently a primitive rock.

PORT WARRENDER, at the bottom of Admiralty Gulf, about forty miles
south-west of Vansittart Bay (Narrative volume 1). Epidote and quartz, in
small crystals confusedly interlaced; apparently from veins, or nests,
but unaccompanied by any portion of the adjacent rock. The structure in
one of these specimens approaches to the amygdaloidal. A compact greenish
stone, with disseminated crystalline spots of epidote, and of quartz, and
apparently consisting of an intimate mixture of those minerals, is also
among the specimens from Port Warrender.

All these specimens are from detached water-worn masses at the foot of
Crystal Head, on the south-west of the port. The summit of the head is
flat and tabular, and the rocks in the vicinity are described by Captain
King as consisting of siliceous sandstone. Chalcedony, apparently from
amygdaloid of the trap formation, was also found at Port Warrender.

The epidote of this place is in general of a pale-greenish colour, but is
mixed with, and sometimes appears to pass into, spots of a rich
purplish-brown. The specimens resemble generally the epidote of Dauphiny
and Siberia; but Mr. Levy, who has been so good as to examine them,
informs me that the crystals exhibit some modifications not described
either by Hauy, or by Mr. Haidinger in his paper on this mineral, and
which are probably peculiar to this locality.

WATER ISLAND, on the west side of CAPE VOLTAIRE, at the south-west
entrance of Port Warrender, is described (volume 1) as consisting of
quartzose sandstone; as is also KATER ISLAND, in Montagu Sound. And the
same rock appears to occur throughout the islands on this part of the
coast. (Narrative 1.)

MONTAGU SOUND, about five-and-twenty miles south-west of ADMIRALTY GULF
(Narrative 1). Greyish granular quartz; like that of the Lickey Hill, in
Worcestershire. Fine-grained quartzose sandstone, of a purplish hue,
resembling a rock on the banks of the Severn, near Bridgenorth. Grey and
reddish sandstone; apparently composed of the debris of granite, and very
nearly resembling that of Simms Island above-mentioned.

HUNTER'S RIVER, falling into YORK SOUND, on the north-east side. Somewhat
coarse reddish-white sandstone; like that of the coal formation, and some
varieties of millstone grit. Fine-grained, reddish-grey quartzose
sandstone, having the appearance of stratification, and resembling the
rocks of Cambridge Gulf.

ROE'S RIVER, at the eastern termination of York Sound (Narrative 1) runs
between precipitous banks of sandstone, in nearly horizontal strata,
which rise to the height of three hundred feet.

CAREENING BAY, between York Sound and Prince Regent's River (Narrative
volume 1. See the plate volume 1). Crystalline epidote, and whitish
quartz, apparently from a vein. Purplish-brown epidote, with small nests
or concretions of green epidote and quartz; forming a sort of amygdaloid.
Conglomerate, containing angular fragments of yellowish-grey quartz-rock,
in a base of compact epidote. A nearly uniform greenish compound of
epidote intimately mixed with quartz, also occurs at this place. Flat
lamellar chalcedony. Very fine-grained reddish-grey quartzose sandstone,
with traces of a slaty structure, resembling that of York Sound, and
Cambridge Gulf, was found in the north-east end of this bay; and
fine-grained greenstone, on the summit of the adjacent hills.

Several of these specimens are almost identical with those of Port
Warrender; from which place Careening Bay is distant about sixty miles.

BAT ISLAND (Narrative volume 1) western entrance of Careening Bay. Quartz
from thin veins, with particles of an adhering rock, probably
chlorite-slate. Quartz, containing disseminated hematitic iron-ore and
copper pyrites. Quartz crystals, with chalcedony, from nodules in
amygdaloid. Quartz with specular iron ore. Greenstone, with chalcedony
and copper pyrites. A decomposed stone, probably consisting of wacke. The
specimens of trap-rocks from this place are from a cavern.

GREVILLE ISLAND, near the entrance of Prince Regent's River. Reddish,
coarsely granular, siliceous sandstone; in horizontal strata, intersected
by veins of crystallized quartz.*

(*Footnote. Narrative volume 2.)

HALF-WAY BAY, within Prince Regent's River on the west of the entrance,
near Greville Island. Hornblende rock ? nearly agreeing with that of
Pobassoo's Island, on the north-west of the Gulf of Carpentaria (see
above). Calcedony, apparently from nodules in amygdaloid. Greenish
quartz, approaching to heliotrope. Red, somewhat slaty jasper, mixed with
quartz and chalcedony, and containing specular iron ore.

The specimens from this place much resemble some of those from Sotto i
Sassi, in the Val di Fassa in the Tyrol, which I have seen in the
collection of Mr. Herschel; and which consist of reddish jasper with
chalcedony, and a greenish flinty stone, like heliotrope, the whole
belonging to the trap-formation.

POINT CUNNINGHAM, east of south from Cape Leveque, and about one hundred
and fifty miles south-west of Prince Regent's River. Very compact and
fine-grained reddish granular quartz, with a glistening lustre, and flat
conchoidal fracture. This stone, though so compact in the recent
fracture, has distinct traces of stratification on the decomposed
surface, which is of a dull reddish hue. Bright red ferruginous granular
quartz (Eisen-kiesel ?) with a glistening lustre, and a somewhat porous
texture. A specimen of the soil of the hills at Cygnet Bay, consists of
very fine reddish-yellow quartzose sand. A large rounded pebble,
consisting of ferruginous granular quartz, of a dark purplish-brown
colour, and considerable density, was found here; near a fireplace of the
natives, by whom it is used for making their hatchets; with a fragment of
a calcareous incrustation, like that of the west coast hereafter
mentioned.

The next specimens in Captain King's collection--a space of more than
three hundred miles on this coast not having been examined by him--are
from MALUS ISLAND, in Dampier's Archipelago (see Narrative volume 1) they
consist of fine-grained greenstone, and what appears to be a basaltic
rock, of amygdaloidal structure.

DIRK HARTOG'S ISLAND, west of Shark's Bay. A compound of rather
fine-grained translucent quartzose sand, cemented by carbonate of lime,
of various shades of reddish and yellowish grey. This stone has in some
places the structure of a breccia; the angles of the imbedded fragments,
which are from half an inch to two inches in diameter, being very
distinct--but in other parts, the fracture exhibits the appearance of
roundish nodules, composed of concentric shells--or bags as it were, of
calcareous matter, which vary in colour, and are filled with a mixture of
the same substance and quartzose sand: and the spaces between these
nodules are likewise occupied by a similar compound.*

(*Footnote. The following description given by the French naturalists of
the rocks at Bernier's Islands, was probably taken from a large suite of
specimens; and M. Peron states (1 page 204) that it is strictly
applicable to all the adjacent parts of the continent, and of the islands
that were examined by the French voyagers:

Le sable du rivage (de l'ile Bernier) est quartzeux, mele d'une grande
proportion de debris calcaires fortement attenues. La substance de l'ile
meme se compose, dans ses couches inferieures, d'un gres calcaire
coquillier, tantot blanchatre, tantot rougeatre, depose par couches
horizontales, dont l'epaisseur varie de 2 a 8 decimetres (7 a 11 pouces)
et qui toutes etant tres uniformes dans leur prolongement, pourroient
offrir a la maconnerie des pierres de construction naturellement
taillees.

Les coquilles incrustees dans ces massifs des roches sont presque toutes
univalves; elles apartiennent plus particulierement au genre Natice de M.
de Lamarck, et ont les plus grands rapports avec l'espece de Natice qui
se trouve vivante au pied de ces rochers. Elles sont sans doute
petrifiees depuis bien des siecles, car, outre qu'il est tres difficile
de les retirer intactes du milieu de ces gres, tant leur adhesion avec
eux est intime, on les observe encore a plus de 50 metres (150 pieds) au
dessus du niveau actuel de la mer.

Quelque regularite que ces bancs puissent affecter dans leur disposition
generale, ils ne sont cependant pas tous homogenes dans leur substance;
il est sur-tout une variete de ces roches plus remarquable par sa
structure. Ce sont des galets calcaires, agreges dans une terre
sablonneuse ocracee, qui leur est tellement adherente, qu'on ne sauroit
detruire cette espece de gangue sans les briser eux memes. Tous ces
galets affectent la forme globlueuse, et se composent d'un grand nombre
de zones concentriques, qui se developpent autour d'un noyau central d'un
gres scintillant et brunatre. Ces diverses couches ont a peine quelques
millimitres d'epaisseur, et affectent des nuances agreables, qui varient
depuis le rouge-fonce jusqu'au jaune-clair. La disposition generale de
cette breche lui donne donc quelques rapports grossiers avec le granit
globuleux de l'ile de Corse; et, par ses couches rubanees, concentriques,
elle a quelque chose de l'aspect des Agathes-Onyx...Les bancs de gres
divers dont je viens de parler, constituent, a bien dire, la masse
entiere du pays qui nous occupe, etc. (Volume 1 page 110. See also
Freycinet page 187.)

The cementing limestone in the rock of this island, is very like some of
the more compact portions of the stone of Guadaloupe, which contains the
human skeletons, the hardness and fracture being nearly the same in both.
The chief difference of these rocks seems to arise from the nature of the
cemented substances; which, in the Guadaloupe stone, being themselves
calcareous, are incorporated, or melted as it were, into the cement, by
insensible gradation;* while the quartzose sand, in that of Dirk Hartog's
Island, is strongly contrasted with the calcareous matter that surrounds
it.** But, wherever the imbedded fragments in the latter consist of
limestone, their union with the cement is complete.

(*Footnote. See Mr. Koenig's Paper. Philosophical Transactions volume 104
1814 page 107 etc.)

(**Footnote. Captain King informs me that the soundings in this part of
the coast bring up a very fine quartzose-sand like that cemented in the
breccia.)

ROTTNEST ISLAND, about four hundred and fifty miles south of Dirk
Hartog's Island. Indistinct specimens containing numerous fragments of
shells, in a calcareous cement; the substance of these shells has at
first sight the appearance of chalcedony, and is harder than ordinary
carbonate of lime.

The characters of the shells in Captain King's specimens from this place
are indistinct; but the specimens at the Jardin du Roi, which, there is
reason to suppose, have come from this part of the coast, contain shells
of several species, belonging among others to the genera, corbula, chama,
cardium, porcellanea, turbo, cerithium. M. Prevost, to whom I am indebted
for this account, observes that notwithstanding the recent appearance of
the shells, the beds which contain them are stated to occur at a
considerable height above the sea: and he remarks that the aspect of the
rock is very like that of the shelly deposits of St. Hospice, near Nice.

KING GEORGE'S SOUND, on the south coast, east of south from Cape Leeuwin.
Beautifully white and fine quartzose sand, from the sea-beach. Yellowish
grey granite, from Bald-head. Two varieties of a calcareous rock, of the
same nature with that of Dirk Hartog's Island; consisting of particles of
translucent quartzose sand, united by a cement of yellowish or
cream-coloured carbonate of lime, which has a flat conchoidal and
splintery fracture, and is so hard as to yield with difficulty to the
knife. In this compound, there are not any distinct angular fragments, as
in the stone of Dirk Hartog's Islands; but the calcareous matter is very
unequally diffused.

A third form in which this recent calcareous matter appears, is that of
irregular, somewhat tortuous, stem-like bodies, with a rugged sandy
surface, and from half an inch to an inch in diameter; the cross fracture
of which shows that they are composed of sand, cemented by carbonate of
lime, either uniformly mixed throughout, or forming a crust around
calcareous matter of a spongy texture; in which latter case they have
some resemblance to the trunks or roots of trees. A mass, which seems to
have been of this description, is stated to have come from a height of
about two hundred and fifty feet above the sea, at Bald-head, on the
South Coast of Australia. These specimens, however, do not really exhibit
any traces of organic structure; and so nearly resemble the irregular
stalactitical concretions produced by the passage of calcareous or
ferruginous solutions through sand* that they are probably of the same
origin; indeed the central cavity of the stalactite still remains open in
some of the specimens of this kind from Sweer's Island in the Gulf of
Carpentaria. The specimens from Madeira, presented to the Geological
Society by Mr. Bowdich, and described in his notes on that island,**
appear upon examination to be of the same character. But there is no
reason to suppose that the trunks of trees, as well as other foreign
substances, may not be thus incrusted, since various foreign bodies, even
of artificial production, have been so found. Professor Buckland has
mentioned a specimen of concreted limestone from St. Helena, which
contains the recent shell of a bird's egg;*** and M. Peron states that,
in the concretional limestone rock of the South Coast of New Holland, the
trunks of trees occur, with the vegetable structure so distinct as to
leave no doubt as to their nature.****

(*Footnote. Tubular concretions of ferruginous matter, irregularly
ramifying through sand, like the roots of trees, are described by Captain
Lyon as occurring in Africa. Lyon's Travels Appendix page 65.)

(**Footnote. Excursions in Madeira 1825 page 139, 140; and Bull. des
Sciences Naturelles volume 4 page 322.)

(***Footnote. Geological Transactions volume 5 page 479.)

(****Footnote. Peron 2 page 75.)


INSTRUCTIONS FOR COLLECTING GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS.

It so often happens that specimens sent from distant places, by persons
unpractised in geology, fail to give the instruction which is intended,
from the want of attention to a few necessary precautions, that the
following directions may perhaps be useful to some of those, into whose
hands these pages are likely to fall. It will be sufficient to premise,
that two of the principal objects of geological inquiry, are, to
determine, first, the nature of the MATERIALS of which the earth is
composed; and, secondly, the relative ORDER in which these materials are
disposed with respect to each other.

1. Specimens of rocks ought not, in general, to be taken from loose
pieces, but from large masses in their native place, or which have
recently fallen from their natural situation.

2. The specimens should consist of the stone unchanged by exposure to the
elements, which sometimes alter the characters to a considerable distance
from the surface. Petrifactions, however, are often best distinguishable
in masses somewhat decomposed; and are thus even rendered visible, in
many cases, where no trace of any organized body can be discerned in the
recent fracture.

3. The specimens ought not to be too small. A convenient size is about
three inches square, and about three-quarters of an inch, or less, in
thickness.

4. It seldom happens that large masses, even of the same kind of rock,
are uniform throughout any considerable space; so that the general
character is collected, by geologists who examine rocks in their native
places, from the average of an extensive surface: a collection ought
therefore to furnish specimens of the most characteristic varieties; and
THE MOST SPLENDID SPECIMENS ARE, IN GENERAL, NOT THE MOST INSTRUCTIVE.
Where several specimens are taken in the same place, a series of numbers
should be added to the note of their locality.

5. One of the most advantageous situations for obtaining specimens, and
examining the relations of rocks, is in the sections afforded by cliffs
on the seashore; especially after recent falls of large masses. It
commonly happens that the beds thus exposed are more or less inclined;
and in this case, if any of them be inaccessible at a particular point,
the decline of the strata will frequently enable the collector to supply
himself with the specimens he wishes for, within a short distance. Thus,
in Sketch 4, which may be supposed to represent a cliff of considerable
height, the observer being situated at a, the beds b, c, d, though
inaccessible at that place, may be examined with ease and security, where
they successively come down to the shore, at b prime, c prime, and d
prime.

6. To examine the interior of an unknown country, more skill and practice
are required: the rocks being generally concealed by the soil,
accumulations of sand, gravel, etc., and by the vegetation of the
surface. But the strata are commonly disclosed in the sides of ravines,
in the beds of rivers and mountain-streams; and these, especially where
they cross the direction of the strata, and be made, by careful
examination, to afford instructive sections.

7. Among the distinctive circumstances of the strata, the remains of
organized bodies, shells, corals, and other zoophytes, the bones and
teeth of animals, fossil wood, and the impressions of vegetable stems,
roots, or leaves, etc., are of the greatest importance; affording
generally the most marked characters of the strata in which they occur.
These should, therefore, be particularly sought after, and their relative
abundance or rarity in different situations noticed. The petrified bodies
should, if possible, be kept united with portions of the rock or matrix
in which they are found; and where they are numerous, in sand, clay, or
any moist or friable matrix, it is in general better to retain a large
portion of the whole mass, to be examined afterwards, than to attempt
their separation at the time of collecting.

8. The loose materials which are found above the solid rocks, in the form
of gravel, silt, rolled pebbles, etc., should be carefully distinguished
from the solid strata upon which they repose. And the more ancient of
these loose materials, found on the sides or summits of hills, etc.,
should be distinguished from the recent mud, sand, and gravel, brought
down by land-floods, or rivers. The bones and teeth of animals are not
unfrequently found in gravel of the former description; and the
collection of these remains from distant quarters of the globe, is an
object of the greatest interest to geology.

9. Besides a note of the locality, there ought, if possible, to accompany
every specimen, a short notice of its geological circumstances; as:

Whether it be found in large shapeless masses, or in strata?

If in strata, what are the thickness, inclination to the horizon, and
direction with respect to the compass, of the beds? [If these cannot be
measured, an estimate should always be recorded, while the objects are in
view.] Are they uniform in dip and direction? curved, or contorted?
continuous, or interrupted by fissures or veins?

Is the whole cliff, or mass of strata in sight, of uniform composition?
or does it consist of different kinds of stone?

If the strata be different, what is the order in which they are placed
above each other successively?

10. A label, distinctly written, should accompany every specimen, stating
its native place, its relative situation, etc., etc. And these labels
should be connected with the specimens immediately, on the spot where
they are found. This injunction may appear to be superfluous; but so much
valuable information has been lost to geology from the neglect of it,
that every observer of experience will acknowledge its necessity; and it
is, perhaps, in practice one of the most difficult to adhere to.

11. A sketch of a coast or cliff, however slight, frequently conveys more
information respecting the disposition and relations of rocks, than the
longest memorandum. If numbers, denoting the situation of the specimens
collected, be marked upon such sketches, much time may be saved at the
moment of collecting. But in all such cases, the memorandum should be
looked over soon afterwards, and labels distinctly explaining their
situation, etc., be attached to the specimens themselves.

12. The specimens should be so packed, that the surfaces may be defended
from exposure to air, moisture, and friction: for which purpose, if
strong paper cannot be obtained, dry moss, or straw, or leaves, may be
used with advantage. Where paper is used for wrapping the specimens, they
are best secured by fastening the envelope with sealing-wax.

Lastly, The collector must not be discouraged, nor be prevented from
collecting, by finding that the place which he may chance to visit in a
remote situation, has not a striking appearance, or the rocks within his
view a very interesting character; since it frequently, and even
commonly, happens, that facts and specimens, in themselves of very little
importance, become valuable by subsequent comparison; so that scarcely
any observation, if recorded with accuracy, will be thrown away.

...

The Instruments required by the geological traveller will vary, according
to the acquirements and specific objects of the individual. The most
essential are:

The Hammer (Sketch 5); which, for general purposes, may be of the form
here represented:

The head should be of steel well tempered, about 4 inches from the face
to the edge, and 1 1/4 inch square in the middle; the face flat, and
square, or nearly so; the edge placed in the direction of the handle. The
orifice for the insertion of the handle oval, a very little wider on the
outer side than within; its diameters, about 1 inch vertically, and 0.7
across; the centre somewhat more than 1 1/2 inch from the face. The
handle should be of ash, or other tough wood; not less than 16 inches
long; fitting tight into the head at its insertion, without a shoulder;
and increasing a little in size towards the end remote from the head, to
prevent its slipping. It should be fixed in the head by means of a thin,
barbed iron wedge.

For trimming specimens, smaller hammers may be employed (Sketch 6): The
form of the head, recommended for this purpose by Dr. MacCulloch,* is
rectangular. The dimensions of the face may be 1 inch by 3/4; the height
2 1/4.

(*Footnote. On the forms of Mineralogical Hammers, Quarterly Journal
Royal Institution volume 11 1821 page 1 etc.)

It will be expedient to have always some hammers, of different sizes, in
reserve.

A small miner's pick is useful for cutting out, and splitting portions of
slaty rocks; or for obtaining specimens of clays, etc.

A small stone-cutter's chisel. A chisel with a handle, of the form here
represented, will often save the hand of an inexpert collector, and
better enable him to direct his blow.

For packing the specimens. A stock of strong paper. Sealing-wax.
Writing-paper, cut into labels. Thick gum-water, to cement the labels to
the specimens.

For the Conveyance of specimens. A large bag of leather, with straps for
the shoulders. Strong canvas bags, of smaller size, are very convenient
for subdivision and arrangement. For the protection of crystals, or
delicate petrifactions, etc., wool or cotton are necessary; and small
wooden boxes (like those used for holding wafers) are sometimes required.
For distant carriage, strong wooden boxes, casks, or baskets.

The following are either essential, or useful in various degrees, for
obtaining and recording observations.

Pocket Memorandum-Books, of sufficient size to admit sketches.
A Pocket Compass.
A Measuring-Tape, of fifty feet, or more.
A Telescope.
A Camera Lucida.
A Box of Colours.

The best maps should always be sought for: And, the true economy to the
traveller being that which saves time, it is best to mark, or even colour
the map, in the field. Notes inserted on imperfect maps, or deduced
afterwards from memoranda, are less authentic; and the process is
frequently neglected.

PORTABLE-BAROMETERS, with detached thermometers, are desirable; and the
best instruments are ultimately the cheapest. But, unfortunately,
barometers of every construction are very easily damaged or deranged. The
accurate determination of heights, however, though very interesting to
physical geography, is comparatively of little importance to the
geologist.

If the collector be a surveyor, he will know best to what purpose a
Pocket Sextant, or small Theodolite, is applicable: the measurement of
distances, of heights, and of the inclination of strata, etc.

...

CONTENTS OF APPENDIX C.

GENERAL SKETCH OF THE COAST.

GEOLOGICAL REMARKS.
1. List of Rocks.
2. Rocks identical with those of Europe.
3. Aspect of the Shores.
4. Information wanting respecting Diluvial deposits: no Specimens of
Limestone: no Volcanoes.
5. Recent calcareous breccia.
6. Range of the Coastlines.

DETAILED LIST OF SPECIMENS.

...

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COLLECTING GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS.

...


APPENDIX D.

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE NATIVES, WITH SOME GENERAL
REMARKS.

COLUMN 1: ENGLISH WORD.
COLUMN 2: CALEDON BAY, GULF OF CARPENTARIA. FROM CAPTAIN FLINDERS.
COLUMN 3: ENDEAVOUR RIVER, NORTH-EAST COAST. PARTLY FROM CAPTAIN COOK AND
MR. FORSTER.
COLUMN 4: KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND, SOUTH-WEST COAST.
COLUMN 5: PORT JACKSON.
COLUMN 6: BURRAH BURRAH TRIBE. FROM MR. SCOTT.
COLUMN 7: LIMESTONE CREEK. FROM MR. OXLEY.
COLUMN 8: PORT MACQUARIE. FROM MR. HUNTER.
COLUMN 9: MACQUARIE HARBOUR, VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.

Eye : Ma-il : Me-ul : Me-al : Mi, or Me, Mego : Miki-laja : Milla : Me'-e
: Nam'-mur-uck.

Nose : Ur-ro, or Hurro : Emer-da, or Poteer, Bon-joo (Cook) : Tarmul,
Moil (Flinders) : Nogro : - : Mor-ro : Na'-ag : Me-oun.

Lips : Ta-a : Yem-be (Cook) : Tar : Willing : - : - : - : -.

Teeth : Lir-ra : Mol-ear : Orlock : Era, or Da-ra : Yerrah : Er-ra :
Te'-lah : Kouk.

Tongue : Mat-ta : Unjar : Darlin, or Thalil : Tal-lang : - : - : Mal'-way
: Mim.

Cheeks : Tac-cal : - : Ny-a-luck : Yarrin : - : - : - : -.

Chin : Na-ing : - : - : Wal-lo : - : - : - : -.

Ears : Pon-doo-roo, or Po-door-roo : Mil-kah, Melea (Cook) : Duong :
Co-roo, Goray, or Benne : Binning-huiy : Wha-da :Mo'-ko : Goun-reek.

Hair of the head : Marra : Morye : Ka-at : Kewarra, Dewarra, or Gewarroo
: Mundar : Bulla-ye-ga : Wo'l-lack : Pipe, or Bipipe.

Neck : Mo-i-ang : Doom-boo, Forster : - : Ganga, Cadlear, or Cadleang : -
: Oro- : - : Treek, or Lan-gar-ree.

Breast : Gum-mur : Coy-or (Forster) : - : Nabung : - : Be-ning : Nam-bang
: -.

Belly : Goor-ro : Melmal (Forster) : Cop-bull, or Kopul : Barrong, or
Bende : Binda : Bur-bing : War'rah : -.

Arm : Wan-na, or War-na : Aco, or Acol : Wor-nuck : Tarrang : - : Bar-gar
: Co-pah : Yir-ra-wig.

Hand : Gong : - : - : Tam-mir-ra : Morrewalla : - : - : -.

Fingers : Mingel : Mun-gal-bah : Mai (singular), Maih (plural) :
Ber-ril-le : Maranga : Nar-ra : Mah-tra : War-ra-nook.

Elbow : Le-kal, or Le-kan : Ye-er-we : - : O-nur : - : - : - :
Nam-me-rick.

Posteriors : Lam-me : Booca (Forster) : Wa'l-la-kah : Bo-ong, or Bayley :
- : - : - : -.

Leg : Bacca : Peegoorga (Forster) : - : Dar-ra : - : - : Woo'lo-loo : -.

Foot : Locko, or Nocka : Edamal (feet) : Ja-an, or Bangul : Manoe : Janna
: Dhee-nany : - : -.

Toe : Mangel-locko : Eb-e-rah : Kea (singular) Kean (plural) : - : - : -
: Teel-nah : Pe-une.

Sun : Laran-gai, or Car-ran-ghie : Gallan (Forster) : Djaat : Goona,
Coing, or Con-do-in : Bun-nail, or Mo-mat : - : Too-nigh, or Win-gin : -.

Water : Lucka, or Lucko : Poorai (Forster) : - : Ba-doo : Ajung- : - :
Bah-do : -.

Stone : Punda : Wal-bah : - : Keba : Wy-juck : - : - : -.

Kangaroo : Loi-tyo : Men-u-ah, Kan-goo-roo (Cook) : Beango : Tungo,
Patagorang, Bag-gar-ray, Wal-li-bah, Wal-lar-roo, Bou-rou, Barro-melon,
Betong, Wy-rung, Pademalion : - : - : Womboy, Pool-cot (tame), Mah-koke
(the Pademalion of Port Jackson) : Raguar.

Throwing-stick : Kail lepo : Melpairo, or Melpier (Forster) : Me-a-ra :
Wo-me-rah : - : - : - : -.

Nipples (of a man) : - : Coy-o-ber-rah, Cayo (Cook) : Be-ep : Mou-tral :
- : - : - : Nerrinook.

Dog : - : Cotta, or Kota : Tiara : Teingo, Dingo, Worregal : Med-di-gen,
War-ri-gal : - : - : -.

Nails : - : Kolke : Pera : Currungal, or Car-rung-un : - : - : - : -.

Beard : - : Wol-lar : Nyanuck : Chinis, or Wallo : - : Anany : - :
Ru-ing.

Mouth : - : - : Tatah : Karga : - : Chuang : Wel'-leck : -.

Fire : - : - : - : Gwee-yong, or Too-yong : Canby : Warrenur : Cor-yal :
Lope.

Membrum virile : - : - : Yaw-de-wit : - : - : - : Cool-kah : Lune.

Head : - : Wageegee (Forster) : - : Cob-bra : Ulangar, or Nattang :
Cah-brah : - : -.

The preceding brief collection, of words used by the natives in various
parts of the Coasts of Australia and Van Diemen's Land, has been inserted
to show the great dissimilarity that exists in the languages of the
several tribes: and it may be remarked, that of thirty-three objects, one
only, the Eye, is expressed by nearly the same term at each place. In
this list, it is true, there is a striking resemblance between the terms
used to signify the hair at Port Jackson, namely, dewarra, or kewarra, or
gewarroo, and those which denote the same thing in the language of some
of the islands of the Eastern Seas; such, for instance, as arouroo or
hooroo-hooroo of the Society Islands; lo-ooroo of the Friendly Islands;
hooroo of New Zealand; and, perhaps, oouho of the Marquesas:* but at New
Caledonia, which is situated between these places and Port Jackson, the
same thing is expressed by poon, a sound totally distinct. And to render
the anomaly still more decisive, it is only necessary to remark, that,
within two hundred miles of Port Jackson, the natives of three tribes,
Port Macquarie. Burrah-Burrah, and Limestone Creek, signify the hair, by
the words wollack, mundar, and bulla-ye-ga.

(*Footnote. Forster Observations page 283.)

The aboriginal connexion of Australia with other lands must be proved, as
far as language is concerned, by a general resemblance of the words, and
not merely by a few examples of coincidence, which can only be considered
as accidental: and as our knowledge of the Australian languages, except
in the vicinity of Port Jackson, does not yet exceed thirty or forty
words, no comparison, derived from such limited information, can be
employed with any certainty to determine the question. The connexion must
be sought for, probably, where the continent, at its north-eastern
extremity, most nearly approaches other lands; but even then the chain
will remain imperfect until New Guinea and its neighbouring islands are
explored, and correct and extensive vocabularies of their languages
obtained. Forster,* who has paid considerable attention to this subject,
and whose opinions are the more valuable from their being the result of
personal observation, seems to be convinced that the New Hollanders are
not an original race, but have derived their origin from New Guinea. It
is therefore to be hoped, that this subject will not be forgotten by our
trans-Atlantic and Australian colonists; more particularly by those of
the new settlement on the north coast at Melville Island, who, from their
vicinity to New Guinea, have the best opportunities of throwing light
upon the question.

(*Footnote. Ibid.)

...

SITUATIONS OF THE PLACES MENTIONED IN THE PRECEDING LIST WITH RESPECT TO
PORT JACKSON.

King George the Third's Sound is on the South-west Coast, 1660 miles from
Port Jackson.

Caledon Bay is near the north-west extremity of the Gulf of Carpentaria,
1500 miles from Port Jackson.

Endeavour River, in latitude about 15 degrees South, is on the North-east
Coast, about 1180 miles from Port Jackson.

Burrah-Burrah, about 90 miles in the interior, west of Port Jackson.

Limestone Creek, about 140 miles in the interior, west of Port Jackson.

Port Macquarie, on the East Coast, 168 miles north of Port Jackson.

Macquarie Harbour, on the West Coast of Van Diemen's Land.

Bruny Island, at the south-east extremity of Van Diemen's Land.



END OF VOLUME 2.





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