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´╗┐Title: Captain Cook - His Life, Voyages, and Discoveries
Author: Kingston, William Henry Giles, 1814-1880
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Captain Cook, his Life, Voyages and Discoveries, by W.H.G. Kingston.

________________________________________________________________________
This book is not a series of fictitious adventures of the great Captain
Cook, the eighteenth century navigator and explorer, but a
straightforward statement of his life and achievements.  It is therefore
more of a biography than an adventure book for boys.  However, the man
was so great that his biography can indeed be read as a well-written
book of adventures.

________________________________________________________________________
CAPTAIN COOK, HIS LIFE, VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES, BY W.H.G. KINGSTON.



CHAPTER ONE.

CAPTAIN COOK--HIS LIFE, VOYAGES, AND DISCOVERIES.

EARLY TRAINING.

Among all those Englishmen who, from a humble origin, have risen to an
honourable position, Captain James Cook is especially worthy of record.
His parents were of the peasant class--his father having commenced life
as a farm-labourer, and his mother being a cottager's daughter.
Probably, however, they were both superior to others of the same
station, as the husband, in process of time, became farm-bailiff to his
employer--a Mr Thomas Skottowe.  This was about the year 1730, and the
farm of which he had the management was called Airy-Holme, near Ayton,
in Yorkshire.  Not far from this place, at the village of Marton, near
Stockton-upon-Tees; his son James was born, on October 27, 1728.  James
was one of nine children, all of whom he survived, with the exception of
a sister who married a fisherman at Redcar.

The father of this family spent the latter years of his life with his
daughter at Redcar, and was supposed to have been about eighty-five
years old at the time of his death; so that he must have had the
satisfaction of seeing his son rising in his profession, though probably
he little thought of that son as establishing a fame which would be
handed down in history.

James Cook does not appear to have enjoyed any peculiar educational
advantages, but owed his subsequent advancement chiefly to his own
intelligence, perseverance, and diligence.  He first went to a village
school, and was afterwards sent, at the expense of Mr Skottowe, to an
ordinary commercial school, kept by a Mr Pullen.  He continued there
four years, and was then apprenticed to Mr William Sanderson, a grocer
and haberdasher at the fishing town of Straiths, ten miles from Whitby.
It may be supposed that the occupation in which he was engaged was not
suited to his taste.  The sea was constantly before his eyes, and the
desire to seek his fortune on it sprang up within him, and grew stronger
and stronger, till in about a year after he went to Straiths he obtained
a release from his engagement with Mr Sanderson, and apprenticed
himself to Messrs. Walker and Company, shipowners of Whitby.  He went to
sea for the first time when he was about eighteen, on board one of their
vessels--the Truelove collier, [Note 1] of four hundred and fifty tons
burden, trading between Newcastle and London.  The lad soon showed that
he was well fitted for his new profession, and in 1748, not two years
after he had commenced it, we find him especially directed to assist in
fitting for sea the Three Brothers, a new ship of six hundred tons.
While he served on board this ship she was hired by Government as a
transport; and on her being paid off she was employed in the Norway
trade.

After making several voyages in the Three Brothers up the Baltic, young
Cook was promoted to the rank of mate on board the Friendship.  He had
by this time gained the goodwill of his employers; and had made several
other friends on shore, who, before long, were enabled to render him
essential service.  He was now known as a thorough seamen; indeed, from
the moment he went on board ship, he had steadily applied his mind to
acquiring a knowledge of his profession.  Still he served on as mate of
the Friendship till the breaking out of the war between England and
France in 1756, when he made up his mind to push his fortunes in the
Royal Navy.  He knew that at all events there was a great probability of
his being pressed into the service, and he had good reason to hope that
he might be placed ere long on the quarter-deck, since many young men at
that time had been who went to sea, as he had done, before the mast.  He
accordingly volunteered, and entered as an able seaman on board the
Eagle, of sixty guns, then commanded by Captain Hamer, but shortly
afterwards by Captain Palliser, who became the well-known Sir Hugh
Palliser--Cook's warm and constant friend.

As soon as the young sailor's Yorkshire friends heard that he had
entered on board a man-of-war, they exerted themselves on his behalf,
and a letter of introduction was procured from Mr Osbaldeston, Member
for the county, to his captain, who, having already remarked the
intelligence and assiduity Cook exhibited in all his professional
duties, was the more ready to give him a helping hand.

Considering how best he could assist the young man, who had served too
short a time in the Navy to obtain a commission, Captain Palliser
advised that a master's warrant should be procured for him--this being a
position for which, both from age and experience, he was well fitted.
[Note 2.]  This was done; and on May 10, 1759, James Cook was appointed
to the Grampus, sloop of war, and was now in a fair way of gaining the
object of his ambition.  He had, however, to undergo a trial of patience
at the first outset of his career; for the former master returning, his
appointment was cancelled.  His friends were not idle, and four days
after this he was made master of the Garland; but on going to join her
he found that she had already sailed for her destination.  On the
following day, May 15, he was appointed to the Mercury, on the point of
sailing for the North American station to join the fleet under Sir
Charles Saunders, which, in conjunction with the army under General
Wolfe, was engaged in the siege of Quebec.  The termination of that
contest gained for Great Britain one of her finest provinces.  To this
success Cook contributed in his particular department; and it is
remarkable that he should have been in various ways instrumental in
giving to his country the three finest provinces she possesses--Canada,
the Australian settlements, and New Zealand.

James Cook was now about thirty-two years of age, and although the
position in life he had filled for the previous twelve years was not one
(especially in those days) conducive to refinement of manners, he
appears from the first to have conducted himself with propriety and
credit.  He had already shown his superiority as a seaman.  He was now
to exhibit his talents in the more scientific part of his profession, in
which officers in the Navy were in those days greatly deficient.

It was necessary to take the soundings in the channel of the Saint
Lawrence, between the Isle of Orleans and the north shore, directly in
front of the French fortified camp of Montmorency and Beauport, in order
to enable the admiral to place his ships so as to oppose the enemy's
batteries, and to cover the projected landing of the British army under
Wolfe, and a general attack on their camp.  Captain Palliser, who now
commanded the Shrewsbury, a seventy-four gun ship, recommended Cook for
this difficult and dangerous service.  He was engaged on it for many
consecutive nights, it being a work which could not be performed in the
daytime.  At length his proceedings were discovered by the French, who
laid a plan to catch him.  They concealed in a wood near the water a
number of Indians with their canoes.  As the Mercury's barge, in which
Cook was making the survey, passed, the canoes darted out on him and
gave chase.  His only chance of escape was to run for it.  He pushed for
the Isle of Orleans with a whole host of yelling savages paddling at
full speed after him.  On they came, every moment gaining on his boat.
The English hospital, where there was a guard, was before him; towards
this he steered, the bows of the Indian canoes almost touching the
barge's stern; a few strokes more, and the Indians would have grappled
him.  He sprang from his seat over the bow of his boat, followed by his
crew, just as the enemy leaped in overwhelming numbers over the
quarters.  They carried off the barge in triumph, but Cook and his
comrades escaped; and he succeeded, in spite of all difficulties, in
furnishing the admiral with a correct and complete draft of the channel
and soundings.  This was the more extraordinary, as Sir Hugh Palliser
afterwards expressed his belief that before this time Cook had scarcely
ever used a pencil, and knew nothing of drawing; and it is one of many
proofs that the ardent seaman not only threw his soul into the duties of
his profession, but that this determination enabled him quickly to
master every subject to which he applied his mind.

While his ship remained in the Saint Lawrence, Cook, at the desire of
the admiral, made an accurate survey of the more difficult parts of that
river below Quebec.  So complete and perfect was the chart which he
executed, and which, with his sailing directions, was afterwards
published, that until a late period no other was thought necessary.  So
little were the English acquainted with the navigation of the river
before this, that when, early in the season, the fleet under
Rear-Admiral Darell arrived at its mouth, some difficulty was expected
in getting up it.  Fortunately, when off the island of Caudec, the
inhabitants, mistaking the English ships for their own fleet, sent off
their best pilots.  These were of course detained, and proved of great
use in taking the English fleet up the river.

After the conquest of Canada had been accomplished, Admiral Saunders
despatched the larger ships to England, following himself in the
Somerset, and leaving the command of the fleet in North America to
Captain Lord Colvill, who had his commodore's flag flying on board the
Northumberland.  To this ship Cook was appointed as master, by warrant
from his lordship, on September 22, 1739.  The squadron wintered at
Halifax.  Cook employed the leisure which the winter afforded him in
acquiring that knowledge which especially fitted him for the service in
which he was thereafter to be engaged.  At Halifax he first read Euclid,
and began to study astronomy and other branches of science, in which,
considering the few books to which he had access, and the want of
assistance from others, he made wonderful progress.  In the following
year, 1760, a lieutenant's commission was presented to him as a reward
for his services.

In 1762 the Northumberland was engaged in the recapture of Newfoundland.
The activity which Cook displayed in surveying its harbour and heights
attracted the attention of Captain Graves, the acting governor, and
commander of the Antelope.  Captain Graves, on becoming farther
acquainted with Cook, formed a high opinion of his abilities, while he
admired the energy and perseverance he exhibited in surveying the
neighbouring coasts and harbours.

At the end of the year Cook went to England, and on December 21 he
married, at Barking, in Essex, Miss Elizabeth Batts, a young lady of
respectable family, to whom he had some time before been engaged.  As
she died in 1835, at the age of ninety-three, she must at the time of
her marriage have been twenty years old.  Her husband was tenderly
attached to her, but his married life, like that of most sailors, had
long and frequent interruptions.  She bore him six children, three of
whom died in their infancy.

Soon after Cook's marriage, peace with France and Spain was concluded.
On this Captain Graves was again appointed Governor of Newfoundland.  As
the island was of great importance to England, he obtained from the
Government, with some difficulty, an establishment for the survey of its
coasts, and offered the direction of it to Cook, who, notwithstanding
his recent marriage, accepted the offer.  In the following year, 1764,
Sir Hugh Palliser being appointed Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador,
Cook was made Marine Surveyor of the Province, the Grenville schooner
being placed under his command.  The charts made by Cook enlightened the
Government as to the value of Newfoundland, and induced them, when
drawing up articles of peace with France, to insist on arrangements
which secured to Great Britain the advantages which its coasts afford.
Not content, however, with merely surveying the shore, Cook penetrated
into the interior of the country, and discovered several lakes hitherto
unknown.

On August 5 an eclipse of the sun occurred, an observation of which was
taken by Cook from one of the Burgeo Islands, near the south-west end of
Newfoundland.  The paper that he wrote on it was published in the
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.  This fact alone proves
that he must already have become a good mathematician and astronomer.
The last time he went to Newfoundland as marine surveyor was in 1767.

We have now briefly traced the career of James Cook from his childhood
to the period when he had established his character as an able seaman, a
scientific navigator, and a good officer.  He was soon to have an
opportunity of proving to his country and to the world in general the
very high degree in which he possessed these qualities, and which
enabled him to accomplish an undertaking which has proved of inestimable
benefit to millions of the human race.  By his means, discovery was made
of fertile lands of vast extent, previously trodden only by the feet of
wandering savages; and numberless tribes, sunk in the grossest idolatry
and human degradation, were made known to the Christian world.  And
Christians, roused at length to a sense of their responsibility, began
to devise means, under the blessing of God, for teaching these, their
ignorant brethren of the human family, the knowledge of the only true
God, and the way of eternal life.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note 1.  In the biographies of Cook the name of the vessel in which he
first went to sea is given as the Freelove--evidently a misprint.  I
have never known a vessel of that name, whereas the Truelove is a
favourite name.

Note 2.  Masters in the Navy were in those days appointed by warrant,
and were very generally taken direct from the merchant service without
going through any preparatory grade, as at present.  They are now also
commissioned officers, and on retiring receive commanders' rank.



CHAPTER TWO.

FIRST VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY.  AUGUST 1768 TO JULY 1771.

In the year 1763, on the restoration of peace, the desire to explore
unknown seas and to discover new countries revived among the English,
and was warmly encouraged by King George the Third.  Two expeditions
were at once fitted out to circumnavigate the globe--one under Lord
Byron, and the other under Captains Wallis and Carteret; the former
commanding the Dolphin, in which Lord Byron had just returned, the
latter the Swallow.  As, however, Captains Wallis and Carteret
accidentally parted company at an early period of their voyage, and kept
different routes, they are generally considered as having led two
separate expeditions.

Before the return of these ships, another expedition was determined on,
the immediate object of which was to observe a transit of Venus which it
had been calculated by astronomers would occur in 1769.  It was believed
that one of the Marquesas, or one of the Friendly Islands, called, by
Tasman, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Middleburg, would be an advantageous
spot for making the proposed observation.

The King was memorialised by the Royal Society, and through his
Majesty's intervention the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty
undertook to furnish a suitable vessel and crew to convey the
astronomers and other scientific persons who might be selected to carry
out the proposed objects.  The Royal Society had fixed on Mr Alexander
Dalrymple to take the direction of the expedition; but as he was not in
the Royal Navy, Sir Edward Hawke, then at the head of the Admiralty,
would not hear of his being appointed.  Mr Dalrymple, on the other
hand, would not consent to go unless he received a brevet commission as
captain.  It was necessary, therefore, to find some one else, and Mr
Stephens, the Secretary of the Admiralty, a warm supporter of the
expedition, mentioned Cook to the Board, and suggested that Sir Hugh
Palliser's opinion should be asked respecting him.  This, as may be
supposed, was in every respect favourable; and consequently Lieutenant
Cook was directed to hold himself in readiness to take command of the
proposed expedition.  Sir Hugh Palliser was requested to select a fit
ship for the purpose, and with Cook's assistance he fixed on a barque of
three hundred and seventy tons, to which the name of the Endeavour was
given.  She mounted ten carriage and ten swivel guns; her crew, besides
the commander, consisted of eighty-four persons, and she was provisioned
for eighteen months.

The well-known Sir Joseph Banks, then Mr Banks, one of the chief
promoters of the expedition, volunteered to accompany it.  On leaving
Oxford he had visited the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, to obtain
information on scientific subjects.  Although he suffered no small
amount of hardship on that occasion, he returned home with unabated zeal
in the cause he had adopted, and ready again to leave all the advantages
which his position afforded him, for the discomfort and dangers of a
long voyage in unknown seas.  Mr Banks was, however, more than a
philosopher--he was a large-hearted philanthropist, and he was animated
with the hope of diffusing some of the advantages of civilisation and
Christianity among the people who might be discovered.  He engaged, as
naturalist to the expedition, the services of Dr Solander, a Swede by
birth, educated under Linnaeus, from whom he had brought letters of
introduction to England.  Mr Banks also, at his own charge, took out a
secretary and two artists--one to make drawings from subjects of natural
history, the other to take sketches of scenery and the portraits of the
natives who might be met with.  He had likewise four personal
attendants, two of whom were negroes.

The Government, on its part, appointed Mr Charles Green, who had long
been assistant to Dr Bradley at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, to
assist Lieutenant Cook in the astronomical department of the expedition;
and in every respect the persons engaged in this celebrated expedition
were well fitted to attain the objects contemplated.

While these preparations were going forward, Captain Wallis returned
from his voyage round the world.  He expressed his opinion that a
harbour in an island he had discovered, and called King George's Island,
since well-known as Otaheite or Tahiti, was a fit spot for observing the
transit of Venus.  That island was accordingly to be the first
destination of the Endeavour.  After having accomplished the primary
object of the voyage, the commander was directed to proceed in making
discoveries through the wide extent of the Great Southern Ocean.

Lieutenant Cook received his commission as commander of the Endeavour
(which was then in the basin in Deptford Yard) on May 25, 1768.  On the
27th he went on board, and immediately began fitting her for sea.  The
work in dockyards was not executed so rapidly in those days as it is
now, and it was upwards of two months before the vessel was ready.  On
July 30 she dropped down the river; but it was not till August 15 that
she reached Plymouth.  On Friday, August 26, the wind becoming fair, the
Endeavour finally put to sea, and commenced the first of one of the most
memorable series of voyages which have ever been performed by a single
vessel.  Next to Commander Cook in authority in the Endeavour were her
two lieutenants--Zachary Hicks and John Gore; her senior mate was
Charles Clerke, who accompanied Cook in each of his subsequent voyages,
and succeeded to the command of the third expedition on the death of his
beloved captain.  He had previously served as midshipman under Lord
Byron in his first voyage round the world.

A long sea voyage is almost always felt to be extremely tedious and dull
to landsmen; but every change in the atmosphere, the varied appearance
presented by the sea, the numberless creatures found in it, the birds
which hovered about the ship or pitched on the rigging, all afforded
matter of interest to the enlightened persons on board the Endeavour.

At Madeira the naturalists of the expedition set to work collecting
specimens.  The social condition of the people has probably altered
little since those days, though the monasteries, which then existed,
have long since been abolished.  The nuns of the convent of Santa Clara
especially amused Mr Banks and his companions by the simplicity of the
questions they put on hearing that they were philosophers.  Among
others, they requested them to ascertain by their art whether a spring
of pure water existed within the walls of their convent, and also when
the next thunderstorm would occur.

On leaving Madeira the course was shaped for Rio de Janeiro, which was
reached on November 13.  The voyagers were not treated by the viceroy
with the courtesy which might have been expected.  The object of the
voyage was utterly beyond the comprehension of that functionary, who
could form no other conception of the matter than that it had something
to do with the passing of the North Star through the South Pole.  This
ignorance and suspicion caused the voyagers a great deal of annoyance
during the whole of their stay; though the viceroy could not refuse them
water and other necessaries.  When, at length, these were procured, and
the Endeavour was going out of the harbour, she was fired at from the
forts of Santa Cruz.  Cook immediately sent on shore to demand the cause
of this act.  The excuse offered by the commandant of the port was that
he had received no orders from the viceroy to allow the ship to pass.
It appeared that the letter had been written, but that through neglect
it had not been forwarded.  Through the whole of the contest with the
viceroy, Cook behaved with equal spirit and discretion.  Among the
remarks which Cook makes in his journal on Brazil, is one on the fearful
expense of life at which the royal gold mines in that country were
worked.  No less than forty thousand negroes were annually imported to
labour in the royal mines.  In the year 1766, through an epidemic, the
number required falling short, twenty thousand more were drafted from
the town of Rio.  A very similar account may be given of the silver and
other mines on the other side of the continent; while the treacherous
system which was organised to supply the demand for labour from among
the inhabitants of the Pacific Islands must be looked on with even
greater horror and indignation than that which existed for supplying
Brazil with slave labour.  So strictly were the Brazilian gold mines
guarded, that no stranger was allowed to visit them, and any person
found on the roads leading to them was immediately hanged by the guards
stationed there.  Altogether Cook formed a very unfavourable opinion of
the inhabitants of Brazil, though few parts of the tropics surpass it in
beauty of climate, fertility of soil, and power of production.

After a stay of three weeks in the harbour of Rio, the Endeavour put to
sea on December 7, and stood down the coast of South America.  On
approaching the latitudes of the Falkland Islands, the crew, complaining
of cold, received what was called a Magellanic jacket, and a pair of
trousers made of a thick woollen stuff called Fearnought.  Instead of
going through the Straits of Magellan, as was the custom in those times,
the Endeavour was steered from the Strait of Le Maire between Helen
Island and Tierra del Fuego.  On her anchoring in the Bay of Good
Success, several of the party went on shore.  Thirty or forty Indians
soon made their appearance, but, distrustful of the strangers, quickly
retreated to a distance.  On this, Mr Banks and Dr Solander advanced,
when two of the Indians approached them and sat down.  As the Englishmen
drew near, the savages rose and each threw away from him a stick which
he had in his hand, returning immediately to their companions and making
signs to the white men to follow.  This they did, and friendly relations
were at once established between the two parties.  Three of them were
induced to go on board, and were chiefly remarkable for the entire want
of interest with which they regarded all the novelties by which they
were surrounded.  One of them, who was conjectured to be a priest, did
little else than shout all the time he was on board.  He was supposed,
by this, to be engaged in the performance of some heathenish
incantation.  When these three men were landed, their fellow-savages
showed great eagerness to learn what they had seen in the strange big
canoe, as they would probably have termed the English ship.

On December 16, Mr Banks and Dr Solander, with Mr Green, Mr
Monkhouse the surgeon, and several attendants, landed, with the
intention of ascending a mountain seen in the distance, and penetrating
as far as they could into the country.  The atmosphere when they set out
was like that of a warm spring day in England.  It being the middle of
summer, the day was one of the longest in the year.  Nothing could have
been more favourable for their expedition.  They had gone through a
wood, and were about to pass over what at a distance they had taken to
be a plain, but which proved to be a swamp covered thickly with tangled
bushes three feet high.  Still they pushed across it, and reached the
mountain, on which Mr Banks and Dr Solander commenced collecting
specimens.  Most of the party were greatly fatigued, and Mr Buchan, the
draughtsman, was seized with a fit.  He was therefore left with some of
the party while the rest went forward.  The weather, however, changed--
the cold became intense, and snow fell very thickly.  Dr Solander had
warned his companions not to give way to the sensation of sleepiness
which intense cold produces, yet he was one of the first to propose to
lie down and rest.  Mr Banks, however, not without the greatest
difficulty, urged him on, but the two black servants lay down and were
frozen to death, and a seaman who remained with them nearly shared the
same fate.  The survivors collected together at night, but their
provisions were exhausted; one or two were very ill, and they were a
long day's journey from the ship.  There appeared, indeed, a great
probability that the chief objects of the voyage would be frustrated by
the death of the principal scientific persons engaged in it.  After a
night of great anxiety, a vulture they had shot being their only food,
the snow partially cleared off, and they made their way to the beach,
which was not so far distant as they had supposed.

After this disastrous adventure the party again went on shore, and found
a tribe of savages, numbering fifty persons, living in a collection of
conical huts, rudely formed of boughs, and open on the lee side.  The
people, who are stout and clumsily formed, had their faces painted, and
were very imperfectly covered with seal-skins.  Their chief article of
clothing, indeed, was a small cloak which they wore on the side on which
the wind comes when walking or sitting.  They lived chiefly on
shell-fish, and in search of them wandered from place to place.  They
were considered as among the most dull and stupid of the human race.  No
wonder, indeed, considering the few objects on which their minds could
be expanded.  A farther acquaintance with these tribes has shown that
they have minds as capable of receiving good impressions as other human
beings, and that they are not destitute of a considerable amount of
intelligence.

The Endeavour took her departure from Cape Horn on January 26, 1769.
She ran for seven hundred leagues without land being seen.  After that
she passed several coral islands, the appearance of which is now
familiar to most people, but in those days was but little-known.  To
three of them the names of Lagoon Island, Bow Island, and Chain Island
were given; several of them were inhabited.

On April 11 she sighted Otaheite, [now known as Tahiti] called King
George's Island by Captain Wallis, which appeared high and mountainous,
and on the 13th came to an anchor in Matavai Bay.  As she approached the
land numerous canoes came off, their crews carrying young plantains and
other green branches as a sign of friendship.  Several of the boughs
were handed on board, and it was intimated that they should be placed in
different parts of the ship to show that the voyagers also wished for
peace.  The natives exhibited great satisfaction on this being done.
They gladly exchanged cocoanuts, fruit resembling apples, bread-fruit,
and small fish, for beads and other trifles.  They had a pig, which they
would not part with for anything but a hatchet; this Cook would not
allow to be given, considering that if a hatchet was given them it would
be considered from that time forward to be the proper price of a pig.

The bread-fruit, with which the voyagers now first became acquainted,
grows on a tree about the height of an ordinary oak.  Its leaves are
about a foot and a half long, of an oblong shape, deeply sinuated like
those of the fig-tree, which they resemble in consistency and colour;
they also, on being broken, exude a white, milky juice.  The fruit is
about the size and shape of a child's head, and the surface is
reticulated.  It is covered with a thin skin, and has an oblong core
four inches long.  The eatable part, which lies between the skin and the
core, is as white as snow, and of the consistency of new bread.  It must
be roasted before it is eaten, being first divided into three or four
parts.  Its taste is insipid, with a slight sweetness somewhat
resembling the crumb of wheaten bread mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke.

The first person who came off was Owhaw.  He was well-known to Mr Gore,
and to others who had been there with Captain Wallis.  It was hoped that
he would prove useful, and he was therefore taken on board and every
attention shown him.  Captain Cook at once issued a set of rules to
govern the ship's company in all their intercourse with the natives.
They were as follows:--

"1.  To endeavour by every fair means to cultivate a friendship with the
natives; and to treat them with all imaginable humanity.

"2.  A proper person or persons will be appointed to trade with the
natives for all manner of provisions, fruit, and other productions of
the earth; and no officer or seaman, or other person belonging to the
ship, excepting such as are so appointed, shall trade or offer to trade
for any sort of provision, fruit, or other productions of the earth,
unless they have leave so to do.

"3.  Every person employed on shore, on any duty whatsoever, is strictly
to attend to the same; and if by any neglect he loses any of his arms or
working tools, or suffers them to be stolen, the full value thereof will
be charged against his pay, according to the custom of the Navy in such
cases; and he shall receive such further punishment as the nature of the
case may deserve.

"4.  The same penalty will be inflicted on every person who is found to
embezzle, trade, or offer to trade with any part of the ship's stores of
what nature soever.

"5.  No sort of iron, or anything that is made of iron, or any sort of
cloth, or other useful or necessary articles are to be given in exchange
for anything but provisions."

Though there can be no doubt as to Captain Cook's own feelings and
wishes, his subordinates did not always act in accordance with them; and
his judicious and benevolent designs with regard to the natives were
thus frequently frustrated.  As soon as the ship was secured, he, with
Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and a party of men under arms, went on shore,
where they were received by hundreds of the natives, whose countenances
exhibited their friendly feelings.  At first, however, the simple people
were so struck with awe that they approached their visitors crouching
down almost on their hands and feet, while they carried in their hands
the green boughs as emblems of peace.  The leader presented Captain Cook
with a bough, which he and his companions received with looks and
gestures of kindness and satisfaction.  Each of the Englishmen also
immediately gathered a bough, and carried it in the same way the natives
did theirs.  The party then proceeded about a mile and a half towards
the place where Captain Wallis' ship, the Dolphin, had watered.  Here a
halt was called, and the natives having cleared away all the plants that
grew on the ground, the principal persons among them threw their green
branches on the bare spot, and made signs that their visitors should do
the same.  Captain Cook at once yielded to this request.  The marines
being drawn up, each as he passed dropped his bough on those of the
Indians, the officers then doing the same.  The natives now intimated to
Captain Cook that he might make use of the ground for any purpose he
desired; but as it was not suitable for the purpose of the expedition,
the offer was declined.

The party now took a circuitous route of four or five miles through
groves of trees which were loaded with cocoanuts and bread-fruit, and
afforded the most grateful shade.  Under these trees were the
habitations of the people, most of them in the daytime presenting the
appearance of a roof without walls.  Mats at night were let down to
afford such privacy and shelter as the habits of the people and the
genial climate required.  The whole scene seemed to realise to the
voyagers the poetical fables of Arcadia.

The reception Captain Wallis met with from these people was in the first
instance very different from that which Captain Cook and his companions
now received.  No sooner did the Dolphin, which the savages called a
huge canoe without an outrigger, appear, than several thousand people,
in canoes laden with stones, came off and attacked her.  Not until they
had been repeatedly fired on, and many of their number had been killed,
did they retire.  Several shots were fired at the crowds on shore before
they would disperse.  The people then saw that it would be hopeless to
contend with the strangers, and with green boughs in their hands sued
for peace.  After this, Captain Wallis was treated with great attention,
especially by a female chief, whom he called a queen or princess, and
who lived in a house much larger than any others in the neighbourhood.
On Captain Cook's arrival, no trace of her house was to be found, and
the princess herself had disappeared.  Indeed, the voyagers were
convinced that as yet they had seen none of the leading chiefs of the
island.  The next day, however, two persons of greater consequence than
any who had yet appeared came off, called Matahah and Tootahah; the
first fixing on Mr Banks as his friend, and the latter on Captain Cook.
The ceremony consisted in the natives taking off a great part of their
clothing, and putting on that of their white friends.  A similar
ceremony exists among some of the tribes of North America.  The dress of
the natives was formed from cloth made of the bark of the paper-mulberry
tree.

Captain Cook, Mr Banks, and others accompanied these chiefs on shore,
where they met another chief, Tubourai Tamaide, and formed a treaty of
friendship with him.  He invited them to his house, and gave them a
feast of fish, bread-fruit, cocoanuts, and plantains, dressed after the
native fashion.  The natives ate some of the fish raw, a feat the
Englishmen could not accomplish.  The general harmony was interrupted by
Dr Solander and Mr Monkhouse finding that their pockets had been
picked, the one of an opera glass, the other of his snuff-box.  Mr
Banks on this started up and struck the butt end of his musket violently
on the ground.  On this, most of the people ran away, but the chief
remained.  To show his concern, and that he had nothing to do with the
theft, he offered Mr Banks several pieces of native cloth as a
compensation.  When Mr Banks refused it, and let him understand that he
required only what had been taken away, the chief went out, and in half
an hour returned with the snuff-box and the case of the opera glass.
His countenance fell when he found the case empty, and taking Mr Banks
by the hand, he led him out towards the shore at a rapid rate.  On the
way, followed by Dr Solander and Mr Monkhouse, he passed a woman, who
handed him a piece of cloth, which he took, and went on till he reached
another house, where a woman received them.  He intimated that they
should give her some beads.  These with the cloth were placed on the
floor, when the woman went out, and in half an hour returned with the
glass.  The beads were now returned, and the cloth was forced on Dr
Solander, who could not well refuse it, though he insisted on giving a
present in return.  This, among other instances, shows that the people
had a sense of justice, and were raised above the savage state in which
the inhabitants of many of the surrounding islands were plunged.

A spot was at last fixed on, away from habitations, where the
astronomical instruments could be set up, protected by a fort; and on
the 10th, Captain Cook, accompanied by Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and Mr
Green, went on shore with a party of men to commence operations.  A
number of natives, on seeing them, collected to watch their proceedings;
though they had no weapons, it was intimated to them that they must not
cross a line which the captain drew in front of the ground it was
proposed to occupy.  Having taken all the precautions he considered
necessary, he left a midshipman and a party of marines to guard the
tent, and, with Mr Banks and the other gentlemen, set off on an
excursion through the woods, accompanied by Owhaw, who, however, seemed
very unwilling that they should go far from the shore.  One of their
objects was to obtain poultry and pigs.  Owhaw's unwillingness to
proceed arose, they believed, from the fact that their live-stock had
been driven into the interior by the natives lest their white visitors
should lay violent hands on them.

As fresh meat or poultry was much wanted, Mr Banks, seeing some ducks,
fired and killed three at one shot, which so astonished the natives that
most of them fell flat on the ground as if knocked down by the same
discharge.  They soon recovered, however, and proceeded with the white
men.  The Englishmen were walking somewhat apart, when, shortly after
the above-mentioned incident, two shots were heard.  Owhaw, on this,
seemed to think, as the visitors did, that something was wrong, and
signing to them to keep together, sent most of the natives away.  Three
chiefs, however, remained, who instantly broke off green boughs from the
nearest trees, and extended them towards the English, to show that they
wished to be on terms of friendship, whatever had happened.  The
Englishmen, of course, full of anxiety, hurried back to the tent.  On
their arrival they found that the natives had fled, and that one of them
had been killed.  It appeared that a native had suddenly seized the
sentry's musket and made off with it, when the midshipman, most
improperly, ordered the marines to fire.  This they did, into the very
middle of the flying crowd; but finding that the thief did not fall,
they pursued and shot him dead.  It is easy to fancy Captain Cook's
grief and annoyance at this incident.  In spite of his humane desire to
treat the natives justly and kindly, and to cultivate their goodwill,
and notwithstanding all his precautions against violence, blood had been
shed.  Though the native had acted wrongly, death was too severe a
punishment for his fault.  The chiefs who had remained with Cook behaved
very well.  Calling the people around, they enabled him to explain to
them that though the English would allow no liberties to be taken, yet
their desire was to treat them with kindness.

Notwithstanding these assurances, the next morning very few natives came
near the ship, and she was consequently warped closer in, more
effectually to protect the intended fort.  Before long, however, the
natives got over their alarm, and the two chiefs Tubourai Tamaide and
Tootahah returned, bringing in their canoes not branches only, but two
young trees, and would not venture on board till these had been received
as emblems of peace.  They each also brought, as propitiatory gifts, a
hog and bread-fruit ready dressed--both very acceptable articles at that
time.  In return, a hatchet and a nail were given to each of them.

At this time the expedition had the misfortune to lose Mr Buchan, the
landscape-painter brought out by Mr Banks.

Rapid progress was made with the forts, and on April 18, Mr Banks's
tent being set up, he slept on shore for the first time.  The natives
had by this time completely recovered from their alarm, and an abundance
of provisions was offered for sale.  Their friend Tubourai Tamaide even
brought his wife and family to the fort, and did not hesitate to throw
himself down and sleep on Mr Banks's bed.  The voyagers were gradually
gaining an insight into the manners and customs of the people.  Mr
Monkhouse, in one of his walks, learned their mode of treating their
dead.  He found the body of the poor man who had been shot.  It was
wrapped in cloth, and placed on a high platform supported by stakes,
with a roof over it; near it were some instruments of war and other
articles.  Two other bodies were seen near, in a similar position, the
bones of which were perfectly dry.  The first was near the hut in which
the man had lived.  On the approach of the white man to the bodies the
natives showed considerable uneasiness, and seemed greatly relieved when
the examination was over.

A few days afterwards Tootahah amused them by a concert.  There were
four performers on flutes having two stops, which were sounded by
application to the end of the nose, instead of the mouth; one nostril
being stopped by the hand.

Longer excursions from the shore than they had at first ventured to take
gave the explorers a good notion of the fertility and resources of the
country.  After passing a belt of fertile land, about two miles wide,
they came to a range of barren hills.  These being crossed, they
descended into a wide plain, watered by a river issuing from a fertile
valley, which was nearly a hundred yards wide, and at a considerable
distance from the sea.

This plain was thickly studded over with houses, the inhabitants of
which seemed to live in the full enjoyment of the ample productions of
their country.  As they became better acquainted with the people, it was
discovered that, amiable as the people appeared, they had many vicious
habits.  They were generally expert and pertinacious thieves, although
some of the chiefs appear to have been exempt from this vice, or to have
been ashamed of practising it on their liberal visitors.

The fort was completed on April 26, and six swivel guns were mounted on
it.  This seemed very naturally to excite the apprehensions of the
people, and some fishermen who lived near wisely moved farther off.
Owhaw, indeed, intimated by signs that the English would begin to fire
their guns in four days.  Notwithstanding this, Tubourai Tamaide and
other chiefs, with their wives, came into the fort and ate without
showing any signs of fear.  Again the commander's patience was tried by
the misconduct of one of his own people.  The butcher had taken a fancy
to a stone hatchet in the hands of the wife of the above-named chief,
and because she refused to give it to him for a nail, he threatened to
kill her.  Being proved guilty of this crime, as well as of an
infraction of the rules drawn up by the commander, he received a severe
flogging, in the presence of a number of the natives.  It speaks well
for their kind feelings that when they saw the first strokes given they
begged that the rest of his punishment might be remitted, and when
Captain Cook would not consent to this they burst into tears.  Indeed,
numberless instances proved that these people were mere children of
impulse.  They had never been taught to disguise or suppress their
feelings; easily affected by all the changes of the passing hour, their
sorrows were transient, and their joy and pleasure speedily excited.
Unaccustomed to dwell on the past, or to allow themselves to be troubled
with thoughts of the future, all they desired was to gratify the desire
of the moment.  About this time--the beginning of May--an event occurred
which threatened disappointment to the object of the expedition.  This
was the disappearance, from the middle of the fort, of the quadrant, a
large instrument in a case, on which the possibility of making the
proposed observations entirely depended.  Search was instantly made in
every direction, and at length, through the intervention of the friendly
chiefs, portions were discovered in the possession of the natives.  They
had been carried off by different people, but fortunately, not broken,
and finally all the parts were collected and the instruments set up.  At
the suggestion of the Earl of Morton, before leaving home, Captain Cook
sent out two parties to observe the transit of Venus from different
situations--one to the east, the other to the westward.  The anxiety for
such weather as would be favourable to the success of the experiment was
powerfully felt by all parties concerned; they could not sleep the
preceding night; but their apprehensions were removed by the sun's
rising without a cloud on the eventful morning of June 3.  The weather
continued with equal clearness throughout the day, so that the
observations at each post were successfully made.  At the fort Captain
Cook, Mr Green, and Dr Solander were stationed.  The passage of the
planet Venus over the sun's disc was observed with great advantage.

The explorers had been, from the first, anxious to see the person who
had been looked upon by Captain Wallis as the queen of the island, and
at length, a number of people being collected at the tents, Mr
Mollineux, the master, declared that one of the females, who was sitting
quietly among the rest, was the lady herself.  She, at the same time,
acknowledged him to be one of the strangers she had before seen.  Her
name, they soon learned, was Oberea.  She was tall and stout, and must
have been handsome in her youth.  Her countenance indicated much
intelligence, and she was also unusually fair.  She was thenceforth
treated with great attention, and many presents were offered her.  It
was curious that among them all she seemed to value most a child's doll.
On this, Tootahah, who was apparently at that time the principal chief
on the island, jealous of the favours shown to Oberea, was not content
till he also had a doll given to him.  For the moment he valued it more
than a hatchet, probably supposing that its possession conferred some
mark of dignity; or perhaps he took it for one of the gods of the white
men.  Whatever the position really held by Oberea, her moral conduct was
not superior to that of most of her countrywomen.  She seems to have
been the repudiated wife of Oamo, one of the principal chiefs of the
island.  There appeared to have been three brothers, chiefs--Whappai,
the eldest, Oamo, and Tootahah.  As soon as a son is born to a head
chief, he succeeds as king, and generally the father becomes regent.
Whappai had a son who was thus king, but Tootahah, having distinguished
himself as a leader in battle, was chosen as regent instead of Whappai,
and a son of Oamo and Oberea was the heir-apparent.  It was thus
manifest to our voyagers that even among those simple savages--"the
children of nature" as they were sometimes called--ambition for
greatness and jealousy of power were passions not unknown nor unfelt,
any more than they are among civilised and highly cultivated nations and
races of men.

Among the attendants of Oberea was Tupia, who had been her minister in
the days of her power, and was now a priest, and possessed of
considerable influence.  He from the first attached himself to the
English, and soon expressed a strong desire to accompany them whenever
they should leave the country.  As it was very important to have an
intelligent native of a South Sea island attached to the expedition,
Captain Cook gladly availed himself of this desire, and Tupia was
subsequently received on board the Endeavour as interpreter.

During his first visit to the island, Captain Cook learned very little
about the religion of the people.  He came to the conclusion that they
believed in one God or Creator of the universe, and in a number of
subordinate deities, called Etuas, as also in a separate state of
existence with different degrees of happiness.  They did not seem to
fancy that their deities took any notice of their actions.  Their
religion, such as it was, had therefore no restraining influence over
them.  Their priests were called Tahowas.  The office was hereditary.
All ranks belonged to it.  The chief priest was generally the younger
brother of a good family, and was respected in a degree next to the
king.  Of the little knowledge existing in the country the priests
possessed the greatest share, especially with regard to navigation and
astronomy.  The name Tahowa signifies, indeed, a man of knowledge.  Like
all heathen superstitions, their system was one of imposture; and the
priests supported their authority by cunning, and by working on the
credulity of the people.  Captain Cook was not aware at that time that
it was their custom to offer up human sacrifices, and that they
exercised a fearful influence over the people by selecting for victims
those who had in any way offended them.  The persons fixed on, often
young men or girls in the pride and strength of youth, were followed,
unsuspicious of the fate awaiting them, and were struck down by the
clubs of the assistant priests without warning.  They were then offered
up at their morais to the Etuas, whose anger they desired to propitiate.
The priests professed also to cure diseases by incantations very
similar to those practised by the medicine-men or mystery-men among the
Indians of North America.  A society existed, called the Arreoy, the
object of which was to set at defiance all the laws of morality which
the rest of the people acknowledged.  Many of the principal people of
the island belonged to it.  By its rules any woman becoming a mother was
compelled instantly to strangle her infant.  Both Captain Cook and Mr
Banks spoke to some who acknowledged that they had thus destroyed
several children, and, far from considering it as a disgrace, declared
that it was a privilege to belong to the association.  For a long period
this dissolute society existed, and opposed all the efforts of the
Christian missionaries to get it abolished.  From the lowest to the
highest, the people were addicted to thieving; for even the principal
chiefs could not resist temptation when it came in their way.  On one of
their expeditions Mr Banks and his companions had the greater part of
their clothes stolen from them while they were asleep.  They had no
doubt that Oberea was concerned in the robbery.

Still the people possessed qualities which won the regard of their
visitors.  In all their habits they were scrupulously clean.  They
regularly bathed three times in the day, washed their mouths before and
after eating, and their hands frequently during each meal.  It was the
custom for the chiefs to take their meals alone, seated on the ground,
with leaves instead of a cloth spread before them, and their food ready
cooked in a basket by their side.  Their chief animal food consisted of
pigs and dogs, the latter being carefully kept for the purpose, and fed
entirely on vegetable diet.  It was agreed that South Sea dog was but
little inferior to English lamb.  The meat was either broiled or baked
in earth-ovens.  A hole was dug in the ground, and a fire lighted in it,
small stones being mixed with the wood.  When the hole was sufficiently
hot, the fire was raked out, and a layer of hot stones placed at the
bottom; on this leaves were put.  The animal to be cooked was laid on
the top of them, and covered, first with more leaves, and then with the
remainder of the hot stones; the whole being then covered up with earth.
All the fish and flesh eaten by the natives was baked in the same way.

An excursion in the pinnace, made by Captain Cook and Mr Banks, round
the island, gave them a perfect knowledge of its shape and size.  It
consists of two peninsulas joined by a narrow neck of land, and was
found to be about thirty leagues in circumference.  Though they were
received in a very friendly way, the natives stole their clothes or
whatever they could lay hands on.  On this excursion they met with a
representation of one of their Etuas, or deities.  It was the figure of
a man constructed of basket-work, rudely made, and rather more than
seven feet high.  The wicker skeleton was completely covered with
feathers, which were white where the skin was to appear, and black in
the parts which it is their custom to paint or stain.  On the head was a
representation of hair; there were also four protuberances, three in
front and one behind, which the English would have called horns, but
which were called by the natives Tate Ete (little men).

In the northern peninsula they visited a burying-place, the pavement of
which was extremely neat; upon it was raised a pyramid five feet high,
covered with the fruit of two plants peculiar to the country.  Near the
pyramid, under a shed, was a small image of stone, of very rude
workmanship--the first specimen of stone-carving which had been seen
among the people.  Continuing their voyage, they came to a district
belonging to Oberea, and were entertained at her house, which, though
small, was very neat.  Not far from it they saw an enormous pile, which
they were told was the morai of Oamo and Oberea, literally their
burying-place and temple.  It was a pile of stone-work, raised
pyramidically upon an oblong base or square two hundred and sixty-seven
feet long and eighty-seven wide.  It was like the small mounds erected
for sun-dials, with steps leading on all sides to the summit.  The steps
at the sides were broader than those at the ends, and it terminated in a
ridge like the roof of a house.  There were eleven steps, each four feet
high, so that the height of the pile was forty-four feet; each course
was formed of white coral stone, neatly squared and polished; the rest
of the mass, for there was no hollow within, consisted of round pebbles.
Some of the coral stones were measured, and found to be three feet and
a half by two feet and a half.  The foundation was of stones squared,
and one of them measured four feet seven inches by two feet four inches.
It was surprising that such a structure should have been raised without
iron tools to shape the stones, or mortar to join them.  The quarried
stones must have been brought from a considerable distance by hand, and
the coral must have been raised from under the water, where, though
there is an abundance, it is at a depth of never less than three feet.
To square these stones must have been a work of incredible labour,
though the polishing might have been more easily effected by means of
the sharp coral sand from the sea-shore.  The whole pyramid was not
straight, but formed a slight curve, and made one side of a spacious
area or square of three hundred and sixty feet by three hundred and
fifty-four feet, enclosed by a stone wall, and paved throughout its
whole extent with flat stones.  Several trees, called _etoa_ and
plantains, were growing through the pavement.  On the top of the pyramid
stood the figure of a bird carved in wood, and near it lay the broken
figure of a fish carved in stone.  About a hundred yards to the west of
this building was another paved court, in which were several small
stages raised on wooden pillars seven feet high.  These were altars,
called Ewattas, and upon them were placed provisions of all sorts as
offerings to their gods.  In the neighbourhood of the morai were found
large numbers of human bones.  These were said to have been the remains
of the inhabitants killed a few months before by the people of Tirrabou,
in the south-east peninsula, who had made a sudden descent on the coast.
The jaw-bones had been carried away as trophies, as the Indians of
North America carry off the scalps of their enemies.  The natives
conjectured, probably, that the English would not approve of human
sacrifices, and therefore refrained from offering up any, or did so only
when they knew that their visitors would not interrupt them in their
horrible proceedings.

The inhabitants of Otaheite were remarkably intelligent, and their minds
were capable of a high state of cultivation.  The climate was considered
healthy, and the natural productions of the island abundant.  The
bread-fruit was, perhaps, the most valuable.  They had also cocoanuts,
thirteen sorts of bananas, plantains; a fruit not unlike an apple, sweet
potatoes, yams, cacao; a kind of _arum_, the _yambu_, the sugar-cane; a
fruit growing in a pod, like a large kidney bean; the pandana tree,
which produces fruit like the pine-apple, and numerous edible roots of
nutritious quality.  Among other trees must be mentioned the Chinese
paper-mulberry, from which their cloth was, and is still, manufactured,
and two species of fig-trees.  There were no serpents and no wild
quadrupeds on the island, except rats.  Their tame animals were hogs,
dogs, and poultry, and there were wild ducks, pigeons, paroquets, and a
few other birds.  The complexion of the people was olive or light brown;
that of the women of the upper classes being very clear, with
well-formed faces and expressive eyes, the nose only being flatter than
is admired in Europe.  In their persons, as already observed, they were
remarkably cleanly; and they certainly showed that they were neither
treacherous nor revengeful.  Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and Captain Cook
himself, were constantly in their power, often in their villages,
sleeping in separate huts, without any watch or guard.

Contrary to the usual custom, the men wore their hair long or tied up in
a bunch, while the women wore it cropped short round their ears.  The
bodies of both sexes were tattooed, but not their faces.  They
manufactured three sorts of cloth for dress.  The finest and whitest was
made from the paper-mulberry tree, and was used for the dresses of the
chief people.  The second, used by the common people, was made from the
bread-fruit tree, and the third from a tree resembling a fig-tree.  The
latter was coarse and harsh, and of the colour of the darkest brown
paper; but it was valuable because it resisted the wet, while the others
did not.  The women of the upper class wore three pieces of cloth; one,
eleven yards long and two wide, was wrapped round the waist, and hung
down like a petticoat; while the two others were formed like the South
American poncho, the head being put through a hole in the middle, so as
to leave the arms at liberty.  The men dressed in much the same way,
except that instead of allowing the cloth to hang down like a petticoat,
they brought it between their legs so as to have some resemblance to
breeches.  The higher a person's rank, the more clothes he wore, some
throwing a large piece loosely over the shoulders.  They shaded their
eyes from the sun with hats made at the moment required, of cocoanut
leaves or matting, and the women sometimes wore small turbans, or a
head-dress which consisted of long plaited threads of human hair, wound
round and round, with flowers of various kinds stuck between the folds,
especially the Cape jessamine, which was always planted near their
houses.  The chiefs sometimes wore the tail feathers of birds stuck
upright in their hair.  Their personal ornaments besides flowers were
few; but both sexes wore ear-rings of shells, stones, berries, or small
pearls.

Their houses were always built in woods, sufficient space only being
cleared to prevent the droppings from the boughs from rotting the roofs.
They were simply formed of three rows of parallel stakes for the
support of the roof, the highest part of which was only nine feet from
the ground, while the eaves reached to within three feet and a half.
The houses were thatched with palm-leaves, and the floor was covered
some inches deep with soft hay.  They were, indeed, scarcely used for
any other purpose than as dormitories, the people living almost
constantly in the open air.  The great chiefs, however, had houses in
which privacy could be enjoyed; and there were guest-houses for the
reception of visitors, or for the accommodation of the people of a whole
district.  Some were two hundred feet long, thirty broad, and twenty
high under the ridge; on one side of them was an area enclosed with low
palings.  They were maintained at the public expense.

The style of cookery among these islanders has already been described.
They baked in their earth-ovens hogs and large fish, as also the
bread-fruit.  The baked pork and fish were considered more juicy and
more equally done than by any mode of cooking known at home.  Of the
bread-fruit they made various dishes, by putting to it either water or
the milk of the cocoanut, and then beating it to a paste with a stone
pestle, and afterwards mixing it with ripe plantains and bananas.  They
made an intoxicating beverage from a plant they called _Ava_.  The
chiefs only indulged in the vice of drinking to excess, and even they
considered it a disgrace to be seen intoxicated.  They sometimes drank
together, and vied with each other in taking the greatest number of
draughts, each draught being about a pint.  They ate a prodigious
quantity of food at each meal, and would finish off by swallowing a
quart of pounded bread-fruit of the consistency of custard.

They had various amusements, and were especially fond of dancing, in
which they kept admirable time, their movements being often graceful;
but their gestures too generally showed the very debased condition of
their morals.  Their musical instruments were flutes and drums.  The
flutes were made of hollow bamboo, about a foot long.  The drums were
blocks of wood of cylindrical form, solid at one end, but scooped out
and covered at the other with shark's skin.  They were beaten by the
hands instead of sticks.  The natives sang to these instruments, and
often made extempore verses.

The men delighted especially in wrestling.  They also practised archery
and spear-throwing.  They shot, not at a mark, but to try how far they
could send an arrow; their spears, however, they threw at a mark,
generally the bole of a plantain, at the distance of twenty yards.
These spears were about nine feet long.  They also, in war, used clubs
of hard wood, often well carved, and six or seven feet long; pikes,
headed with the stings of sting-rays; and slings, which they wielded
with great dexterity.  Thus armed, they fought with obstinacy and fury,
and gave no quarter to man, woman, or child who, while their passion
lasted, fell into their hands.  Although they could not be said to live
under a regular form of government, there was a certain subordination
established among them, not unlike that of European nations under the
feudal system.

Their tools were few and rude: an adze of stone, a chisel or gouge of
bone--generally that of a man's arm between the wrist and elbow--a rasp
of coral, and the sting of a sting-ray, with coral sand as a file or
polisher.  With these tools they built their houses and canoes, hewed
stone, and felled, clove, carved, and polished timber.  Their axes were
of different sizes, but even with the largest it took them several days
to cut down a tree.  The canoes were often large, and constructed with
great labour and ingenuity.  They were of two builds: one, the _Ivaha_,
for short excursions, was wall-sided, with a flat bottom; the other, the
_Pahie_, for longer voyages, was bow-sided, with a sharp bottom.  There
was the fighting Ivaha, the fishing Ivaha, and the travelling Ivaha.
The fighting Ivaha was the largest; the head and stern were raised
sometimes seventeen feet or more above the sides, which were only three
feet out of the water.  Two of these vessels were always secured
together by strong poles about three feet apart.  Towards the head a
platform was raised, about twelve feet long, wider than the boats, and
on this platform stood the fighting men, armed with slings and spears;
for they did not use their bows and arrows except for amusement.  Below
the stage the rowers sat with reserved men, who supplied the place of
those that were wounded.  Some of their war canoes had stages or decks
from one end to the other.  The fighting Pahie was often sixty feet
long, and two were also joined together, with a large platform above
them.  One measured by Captain Cook was, though sixty feet long, only
one foot and a half at the gunwale, with flat sides; then it abruptly
widened out to three feet, and narrowed again to the keel.  The double
canoes were sometimes out a month together, going from island to island.
Some carried one, some two masts, with sails of matting, of
shoulder-of-mutton shape.  The bottom of a large Pahie was formed of
three or more trunks of trees secured together and hollowed out, above
this flooring were the sides of plank, two inches thick, and about
fifteen inches broad; and then there were the upper works, hollowed out
of trunks of trees like the bottom.  Sometimes these canoes were used
singly, but then they were fitted with outriggers like the flying Proa
of the Ladrone Islands.  The outrigger is a log of wood fixed at the end
of two poles, which lie across the vessel, projecting eight or ten feet,
according to her size.  The length and high sterns of these canoes gave
them great advantage in putting off from the shore through the surf;
they also sailed and paddled very fast.  The amount of time and labour
expended in the construction of one of these canoes must have been very
great, and speaks well for the intelligence as well as for the industry
and perseverance of the islanders.

Before quitting the island, Mr Banks planted a quantity of seeds of
water-melons, oranges, lemons, limes, and other plants and trees which
he had collected at Rio de Janeiro.  He had prepared the ground for them
in the neighbourhood of the fort, in as many varieties of soil as he
could select.  He also gave away seeds liberally to the natives, and
planted others in the woods.  The plants from some melon-seeds which
were sown on their first arrival were flourishing, and the natives
eagerly begged for more.

Many articles manufactured by the natives have not yet been described.
The mode of making cloth from the bark of the paper-mulberry was
curious.  When the trees were of a fit size, they were pulled up, and
the tops and roots being cut off, the bark was slit longitudinally, and
was this easily removed.  It was then placed under stones in running
water.  When sufficiently softened, the coarser parts were scraped away
with a shell, the fine fibres of the inner coat only remaining.  They
were then placed on plantain-leaves, in lengths of about twelve yards,
one by the side of the other, for about a foot in width.  Two or three
layers were also placed one on the other, care being taken that the
thickness should be equal throughout.  In this state it remained till
the following morning, when all the water it contained being drained off
or evaporated, the fibres were found to adhere so closely together that
the whole piece could be lifted up and carried home.  There it was
placed on a long, smooth board, to be beaten by the women.  The
instrument they used was a four-sided piece of wood, with a long handle.
This mallet was scored with grooves of different finenesses, those on
one side being wide enough to receive a small pack-thread, the size of
the grooves diminishing by degrees till those on the last side were fine
as the finest silk.  The fabric was beaten with the coarser side first,
the women keeping time, and it spread rapidly under their strokes.  The
finest side was the last used, and the groove marked the cloth so as to
give it the appearance of having been made of fine thread.  It was then
almost as thin as English muslin, and became very white on being
bleached in the air.  The scarlet dye used was very brilliant, and was
extracted from the juice of a species of fig; a duller red was from the
leaves of another tree.  A yellow pigment was extracted from the root of
the _Morinda citrifolia_.  A brown and a black dye were also used.

The natives, when visited by Cook, manufactured mats of various
descriptions, some of them exceedingly fine and beautiful.  One sort
served them for clothing in wet weather.  They made also coarse mats of
rushes and grass, to sit or sleep on, plaiting them with great rapidity
and facility.  They produced every variety of basket-work of great
beauty; they also made ropes and string of all sorts; their
fishing-line, made from the bark of a species of nettle, was far
stronger than any English line of the same thickness.  Their
fishing-nets, though coarse, answered their purpose.  They were often
eighty fathoms in length.  Harpoons, made of cane, were used to catch
fish, and fish-hooks of mother-of-pearl.  One used for trawling had a
white tuft of dog's or hog's hair attached to it, to look like the tail
of a fish.  The fishermen watched for the birds which always follow a
shoal of bonetas, and seldom returned without a prize.  Both sexes were
expert swimmers, and would dash out through the fiercest foam, diving
under the breaking seas as they rolled in, and coming up on the other
side.  One of their amusements was to tow out a small raft on which they
would sit, and allow themselves to be carried in on the top of a high
foaming sea, amid which no boat could live for an instant.  They were
not without the comfort of artificial light.  Their candles were made of
the kernels of a kind of oily nut, which were stuck one over another on
a skewer running through the middle.  The upper one being lighted burnt
down to the second, which took fire, the part of the skewer which went
through the first being consumed, and so on to the last.  These candles
burnt a considerable time, and gave a very tolerable light.

From the brief description which has been given of their manufactures it
will be seen that the islanders of Otaheite possessed a considerable
number of the conveniences of life.  Had they but been blessed with true
religion and a good government, they would already have had most of the
elements of a happy existence, without further intercourse with the rest
of the world.

That a life such as was apparently led by these South Sea islanders--a
life of comparative ease, and in a luxurious and enervating but inviting
climate--should have presented charms to such men as chiefly composed
the crew of the Endeavour, can excite no surprise.  Rude, ignorant, and,
for the most part, vicious themselves, in spite of the boasted
civilisation of their country, they saw nothing repulsive in the
rudeness, ignorance, and vices of the dusky natives.  On the other hand,
they were attracted by visions of indolence and savage freedom from
care.  Some of them also had formed attachments not easy to be broken;
and they were willing to barter their distant homes, connections, and
prospects for the licentious pleasures so near at hand.  It was very
difficult for them to resist these enticements; and notwithstanding the
vigilance of the commander of the expedition, two marines managed to
desert from the ship.  In order to recover these deserters, Captain Cook
thought himself under the necessity of detaining several of the
principal people of the island on board the Endeavour.  This led to
reprisals; for on a party being sent on shore to bring off the
deserters, they were, in turn, seized by the natives, who made it
understood that they should not be restored till their chiefs were set
at liberty.  A stronger party was consequently sent from the ship, with
a message from Tootahah (one of the captives), desiring that the
Englishmen should be released.  This, happily, had the desired effect,
and the deserters, as well as the other men, were immediately sent back.
Thus, in this, as in previous transactions, the prudence and mildness
of the islanders averted a quarrel which, had it proceeded to
extremities, would have left the civilised visitors little to boast of,
beyond the superior power they possessed.  And it must be a source of
deep regret to every Christian reader that in the protracted intercourse
which had been carried on between these professed Christians on the one
hand, and the poor heathens on the other, not one attempt, so far as is
known, had been made to impart a knowledge of that glorious Being who is
the "Light of the world" and "the Saviour of men;" nor of God the Holy
Spirit, who is the Giver of the only true and eternal life.  The
scientific objects of the voyage had, indeed, thus far been successful,
and, to a great extent, had been rendered so by the goodwill of the
islanders; but to the silent appeal for religious teaching and spiritual
aid made to the philosophers of that party by the ignorance of their
hosts there was no reply.

The fort was now completely dismantled, and preparations were made for
sailing.  At a last interview with the chiefs, all differences were
settled, and the voyagers parted from the islanders on the most friendly
terms.  The latter, indeed, were loud in their demonstrations of grief.
Tupia, who still adhered to his determination of sailing in the
Endeavour, though he shed tears, bade farewell to his countrymen in a
dignified manner, and as far as he was able, concealed the sorrow he
evidently felt.  The Endeavour had remained exactly three months at the
island.  It was high time for her to leave; for the season for cocoanuts
and bread-fruit being over, the natives could no longer spare any of
their provisions for the strangers.  Tupia, who had gone on shore,
returned again on board with his servant, a lad of thirteen, called
Tayeto, and on July 13, 1769, the Endeavour sailed from Otaheite to
continue her voyage towards the west.

Tupia informed Captain Cook that four islands, called Huaheine, Ulietea,
Otaha, and Bolabola, lay at the distance of between one and two days'
sail of Otaheite, and that refreshments in abundance might be procured
at them.  In consequence, however, of light winds, the Endeavour did not
get off Huaheine till the morning of the 16th.  Tupia probably fancied
that he could impose on the white men as he did on his own people, for
in his character of priest he began to offer prayers, or rather to
perform incantations, as soon as he saw the prospect of a breeze
springing up.

Upon the ship's getting close in with the land, several canoes came off,
but kept at a distance till they discovered Tupia.  In one of them were
Oree, king of the island, and his wife.  On receiving reiterated
assurances that they would be treated as friends, they ventured on
board.  Though at first struck with astonishment at what they saw, they
soon became familiar with their visitors, and the king expressed his
wish to change names with the captain, who was henceforth called Captain
Oree, while the chief took the name of King Cookee.  The ship having
anchored in a small, excellent harbour called Owharee, the captain, Mr
Banks, Dr Solander, and Mr Monkhouse, with Tupia and King Cookee, went
on shore.  On landing Tupia stripped himself to the waist, and desired
Mr Monkhouse, whom he seems to have looked on as a brother priest, to
do the same; and sitting down in a large guest-house, full of people,
opposite the king, he began a sort of incantation, the king answering in
what appeared to be set responses.  During this he made presents of some
handkerchiefs, beads, two bunches of feathers, and plantains to the
Etua, or god of the island, and received in return a hog, two bunches of
feathers, and some young plantains, as presents to the white man's God.
[Note 3.]

These he ordered to be carried on board.  On the treaty, as the ceremony
was supposed to be, being concluded, every one went his way, and Tupia
repaired to worship at a morai.  The next day, as Tupia was much engaged
with his friends in the island, the captain and Mr Banks took Tayeto as
their companion in their rambles.  The most interesting object they met
with was a chest or cask, the lid of which was nicely sewed on, and
neatly thatched with palm-leaves.  It was fixed on two horizontal poles,
and supported on arches of wood neatly carved.  The object of the poles
seemed to be to remove it from place to place.  There was a circular
hole at one end, stopped, when it was first seen, with cloth.  The chest
was, on a second visit, found to be empty.  The general resemblance
between it and the ark of the Lord among the Jews was remarkable.  The
boy called it _Ewharre no Etua_ (the house of the god).  He, however,
could give no account of its use.

Some hogs were exchanged for axes, and some medals bestowed on the king,
and no accident having happened to mar their friendly intercourse with
the natives, the voyagers took their departure.  The people were
superior in size and appearance to the general run of the natives of
Otaheite, and the women fairer and better-looking.  Not having
experienced the effects of the guns of the Dolphin, they were less timid
than the people of Otaheite, and did not fall down on hearing a musket
fired.  On one of them being detected in thieving, his companions
prescribed a good beating, which was at once administered.

The next island visited was Ulietea, where, within the coral reef, the
ship anchored in a good harbour.  Two canoes at once came off, each
bringing a woman and a pig--the one as a mark of confidence, the other
as a present.  The ladies each received a spike-nail and some beads,
greatly to their delight.  On landing, the Union-Jack was hoisted, and
the three islands in sight taken possession of in the name of his
Britannic Majesty.  Here was a large morai, called Tapodeboatea, which
was visited, and found to be different from those of Otaheite.  It
consisted only of four walls, eight feet high, built of coral stones--
some of immense size--enclosing an area of five-and-twenty yards square,
filled up with smaller stones.  On the top of it many carved planks were
set on end, and at a little distance was an altar, on which lay a hog of
about eighty pounds weight, roasted whole, supposed to have been a
sacrifice.  Round it were four or five arks resting on poles like that
seen at Huaheine.  In the interior of one of them Mr Banks found a
package done up tightly in mats.  He had opened several folds, but the
last resisted all his attempts; and as he saw that his proceeding gave
great offence, he was compelled to desist.  Not far off was a long
house, where, among rolls of cloth, was the model of a canoe, about
three feet long, to which were tied eight human jaw-bones.  Other
jaw-bones were seen near the ark, and Tupia affirmed that they were
those of natives of the island.

Bad weather detained the ship in the harbour of Oopoa for two more days,
and when at length she got out, she was in imminent danger of striking
on a reef, having got unexpectedly close to the edge of one, which was
discovered from the water being shallow on one side, though deep enough
under the keel to float her.  Some time was expended in endeavouring to
beat up to an anchorage off Bolabola, and several smaller islands were
visited.

A leak having been discovered, and some more ballast being required,
Captain Cook put into a harbour in Ulietea, at the opposite side of the
island to that he had before visited.  While the ship's company were
taking in ballast and water, Mr Banks and Dr Solander went on shore,
and were everywhere received with the greatest respect by the natives,
who seemed conscious that their white visitors had the power, though not
the desire, to do them every possible harm.  Men, women, and children
crowded round them, and followed them wherever they went; but no one was
guilty of the least incivility.  On the contrary, the men vied with each
other in lifting them over any dirt or water in the way.

On approaching the first house, they saw the people arrange themselves
on either side of a long mat spread on the ground, at the farther end of
which sat some young girls and very pretty children, dressed with the
greatest neatness and taste, who kept their position, evidently
expecting the strangers to come up and make them presents.  At one
house, at the end of a mat thirty feet long, sat a girl about six years
old; her dress was red, and a large quantity of plaited hair was wound
round her head.  She was leaning on the arm of a good-looking woman,
supposed to be her nurse.  The gentlemen walked up to her, and as soon
as they approached she stretched out her hands for the beads which they
offered, and received them with a grace which no princess in Europe
could have surpassed.  The people, in consequence of these gifts, seemed
to be so pleased with their visitors that they employed every means in
their power to amuse them.  The master of one of the houses where they
stopped ordered a dance to be performed before them, different from any
they had yet witnessed.  It was executed by one man, who put on a high
head-dress of feathers, edged round with sharks' teeth.  As he moved
slowly round he made it describe a circle, bringing it often close to
the faces of the spectators so as to make them start back, always to the
great amusement of the rest.

In the course of their walk the next day they met a company of dancers--
two women and six men, with three drums--who were making a tour of the
island for their own amusement, for they received no pay, and were said
by Tupia to be among the principal people of the country.  The women
wore graceful head-dresses of long braids of hair and flowers.  The
upper parts of their bodies were without clothing; but they were amply
clothed from the breast downwards in black, and they wore pearls in
their ears.  The dances were of the immoral kind general in the islands.
Regular dramas were also represented before the strangers.

It appeared that the island had lately been conquered by the subjects of
Opoony, King of Bolabola, whose acquaintance Captain Cook wished to
make.  Instead of seeing a fine-looking warrior as he had expected, he
found a withered, decrepit wretch, half blind with age; yet it seemed
that he was the terror of all the surrounding islands.

A good supply of hogs, poultry, and other provisions having been
obtained at Ulietea, and her leak being stopped, the Endeavour sailed on
August 9.  As Bolabola was difficult of access, Captain Cook gave up his
intention of touching there.  To gratify Tupia, however, he fired a shot
towards the island, though it was seven leagues distant.  The object of
Tupia appeared to be that of showing his resentment against the king of
that island, as well as of exhibiting the power of his new allies.

To the six islands which had been visited or seen, namely, Ulietea,
Otaha, Bolabola, Huaheine, Tubai, and Maurua, Captain Cook gave the name
of the Society Islands.  Otaheite was not included in the group, but
continued to be known as King George's Island.  [Note 1.]

The voyagers were much disappointed in finding that they could not keep
their live-stock.  The hogs would not eat European grain of any sort,
nor bread-dust; and the fowls were seized with a disease which made them
hold their heads between their legs till they died.

Nothing worthy of notice occurred till the 13th, when an island, called,
by Tupia, Oheteroa, was seen.  The next morning Mr Gore was sent in the
pinnace to attempt a landing, accompanied by Mr Banks, Dr Solander,
and Tupia.  As the boat approached the land a number of natives, armed
with long lances, appeared.  The main body sat down, while two walked
abreast of the boat as she pulled along the shore.  At length they
leaped into the water and swam towards the boat, but were left behind.
Two others followed, but were soon distanced.  At last, one man, running
on, got up to the boat.  Mr Banks, wishing to gain the goodwill of the
natives by kind treatment, urged Mr Gore to take him in; but he
declined doing so.  On the English attempting to land, soon after this,
several natives came off in a canoe and boarded the boat, evidently with
the intention of capturing her; indeed, it was not till muskets were
fired over their heads that the savages leaped out and swam ashore.  As
no harbour or good landing-place was discovered in the circuit of the
island, and as the natives were everywhere hostile, the attempt to land
was abandoned.  The clothing of the inhabitants was considered superior
to that of the natives of the islands before visited.  The cloth of
which their dresses were made was richly coloured.  One piece of red or
yellow was crossed on the breast, and sewed round the waist as a sash.
They had also head-dresses of white or lead-coloured cloth, shaped like
a small turban; and some wore the feathers of the native birds round
their heads.  They had well-finished lances in their hands, twenty feet
long, and highly carved and polished clubs and pikes.  The canoe also,
though small, was richly carved; and her head and stern were ornamented
with white feathers.  Tupia stated that there were numerous islands
between the south and north-west, at different distances from Oheteroa;
and that there was one, three days' sail to the north-east, called
Manua, or Bird Island.  The most distant island with which he was
acquainted to the south was Mouton, but his father had told him of
islands to the south of that.  But considering the uncertainty of this
information, Captain Cook determined not to lose time in looking for
islands, but to steer to the south in search of a continent.

In leaving these islands we cannot help expressing regret that the
voyagers were so forgetful, as they appear to have been, of their
obligations to the religion they professed, and of the eternal welfare
of those among whom they sojourned.  They found a people sunk in
idolatry and superstition, and should have endeavoured to do as the
Apostle Paul did at Athens, where, finding an altar inscribed "To the
unknown God," he said to the assembled multitude, "Whom therefore ye
ignorantly worship, Him declare I unto you," and then began to preach
Jesus Christ and His great salvation.  But so far from imitating this
example, they, in many instances, took part in their idolatrous and
superstitious ceremonies.  It is vain to attempt an excuse of these
Englishmen by saying either that it was the fashion of the times to pass
by the heathen without a thought for their wretched lost condition, or
that the party of philosophers and scientific men and discoverers were
not Christian missionaries.  Every Christian ought to look upon himself
as a missionary, when work for his Lord can be done by him; and it was a
bad fashion to follow, surely, that of suffering heathens to perish
without one effort made for their salvation.  No doubt there were great
physical and natural impediments in the way of Cook and his associates
making anything known to the natives of those islands; but these
impediments were overcome in relation to other matters.

The Endeavour sailed from Oheteroa on August 15, 1769.  The 25th was the
first anniversary of the day she had quitted the shores of England.  To
celebrate it a Cheshire cheese was cut, and a cask of porter broached,
and both were found excellent.  Those who have been long at sea and away
from home can best understand the importance attached to such trifles,
and the pleasure they afford.

On the morning of the 30th a comet was seen in the east, a little above
the horizon.  Tupia, who observed it with others, instantly cried out
that as soon as the people of Bolabola perceived it they would attack
the inhabitants of Uhetea, who would have to fly to the mountains to
save their lives.  Meeting with a heavy sea and strong gales from the
westward, on September 1 Captain Cook wore and stood to the northward.
On the weather moderating he continued his course to the westward during
the whole of September.  Several seals were seen asleep on the surface
of the water, and various birds were perceived, a sure indication that
the ship was approaching land.  On October 6 land was seen from the
mast-head, bearing west by north.  In the evening it could be seen from
the deck.  It was not till the evening of the next day that the voyagers
got near enough to observe the nature of the country, when it appeared
of great extent, with four or five ranges of hills rising one over the
other, and beyond them a lofty chain of mountains.  The general opinion
was that they had found the _Terra Australia incognita_.  A bay was
seen, and smoke rising from the shore, but night coming on, they were
obliged to stand off till daylight.  The next day, on standing in again,
some small but neat houses were seen, and a considerable number of
people seated on the beach.  Farther on was discovered a tolerably high
and regular paling, enclosing the whole of the top of a hill.  Some on
board supposed it to be a park for deer, others an enclosure for oxen or
sheep.  In the afternoon the ship came to an anchor in a bay off the
mouth of a river.  The sides of the bay were white cliffs of great
height; the middle was low land, with hills rising behind and
terminating in a chain of lofty mountains.

Captain Cook, with Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and a party of men in the
yawl and pinnace, landed on the east side of the river; but some people
being perceived on the west side, the yawl crossed over, and while the
gentlemen landed, four boys were left in charge of her.  On the approach
of the Englishmen the natives ran away, and the former advanced towards
some huts two or three hundred yards from the water's edge.  When,
however, they had got some distance from the yawl, four men with long
lances rushed out of the woods towards her, and would have cut her off
had not the people in the pinnace covered them, and called to the boys
to drop down the stream.  This they did, but the natives pursued in
spite of two musket-shots fired at them.  At length, one of the natives
was poising his spear to dart it at the boys, when the coxswain of the
pinnace fired a third time, and shot the native dead.  The other three
at first attempted to drag off the dead body, but fear soon made them
drop it and take to flight.

On the captain and his companions returning to the boat they stopped to
examine the body, which had been shot through the heart.  It was that of
a man of middle stature, of a brown, but not very dark complexion.  One
side of his face was tattooed in spiral lines of regular figure, and his
hair tied in a knot on the top of his head, but no feathers in it.  He
wore a garment of a fine cloth, of a manufacture new to the English.
When the voyagers returned on board, they could hear the natives talking
very loudly.  The next day the captain and the same party landed with
Tupia, and the marines were afterwards sent for.  A large body of
natives had collected on the opposite side of the river, apparently
unarmed; but on the approach of the English they started up, each man
holding a spear or dart, and made signs to the strangers to depart.  The
marines being drawn up, the visitors again approached the natives, when
Tupia addressed them in the language of Otaheite, which they perfectly
understood.  He told them that their visitors wanted provisions and
water, and would pay them with iron, the properties of which he
explained as well as he could.  They replied that they were willing to
trade if the English would cross over to them.  Captain Cook consented
to do this, provided they would put aside their arms.  This they would
not consent to do.  Tupia warned the English, during the conversation,
that the natives were not friendly.  Captain Cook then invited the
natives to come across to them.  At last, one of them stripped himself
and swam over without his arms.  He was soon after followed by others,
to the number of twenty, most of whom came armed; and though iron and
beads were offered them, they set no value apparently on either, for a
few feathers were offered in return, and they at once showed their
hostile disposition by endeavouring to snatch the weapons from the hands
of their visitors.  They were told, through Tupia, that if they
continued to proceed in that manner they would be killed;
notwithstanding this, one of them seized Mr Green's hanger from his
side, and ran off with it.  Mr Banks on this fired at him with small
shot; but though hit, he still continued to wave the hanger round his
head.  Mr Monkhouse, seeing this, fired at him with ball, when he
instantly dropped.  Upon this, the main body, who had retired to a rock
in the middle of the river, began to return.  Two that were near the man
who had been killed tried to drag off the body.  One seized his weapon
of green talc; and the other tried to secure the hanger, which Mr
Monkhouse had but just time to prevent.  As the whole body were now
returning with threatening gestures, those who had their guns loaded
with small shot fired.  The effect was to make the natives turn back,
and to retreat up the country, several of them being wounded.  Such was
the first unhappy attempt of the English to open up an intercourse with
the inhabitants of New Zealand, for that was the magnificent country
Captain Cook and his companions had now reached.  Painful as it is to
reflect on the sacrifice of human life which often in those days
attended the first intercourse of civilised Europeans with the savage
inhabitants of newly-discovered countries, and the cruelties and
injuries inflicted, we must not judge our countrymen too harshly.  Much
less value was set on human life a century ago than is the case at
present, and dark-skinned savages were scarcely regarded as beings of
the same nature as white men.  Captain Cook was, however, undoubtedly a
kind and humane man, and was sincere in his expressions of regret at the
blood his followers so frequently shed whenever they met with opposition
from the natives of the lands they visited.

Having no longer any hope of establishing a friendly intercourse with
the inhabitants of this place, and finding that the water in the river
was salt, Captain Cook proceeded with the boats round the head of the
bay, in search of fresh water, intending also, if possible, to surprise
some of the natives, and, by kind treatment and presents, to obtain
their friendship.  Everywhere, however, a dangerous surf beat on the
coast, and he was unable to land.  But seeing two canoes coming in
towards the shore, one under sail, and the other moved by paddles, he
judged it necessary for the object he had in view to intercept them.
Supposing that they were fishermen without arms, he hoped to do this
without bloodshed.  Notwithstanding the way in which he had placed the
boats, one of the canoes managed to escape; but the other, under sail,
came directly into the middle of the English boats without perceiving
what they were.  On discovering the strangers, the natives lowered their
sail and took to their paddles.  Tupia called out to them that those in
the boats wished to be friends; but the natives preferred trusting to
their paddles, and continued their flight.  On this, a musket was fired
over their heads, when they ceased paddling and began to strip, not to
swim to the shore but to fight to the last.

When the boat came up they attacked the English with paddles, stones,
and other weapons, and showed a determination not to be taken alive.
The English, in their own defence, fired, when four out of the seven
people in the canoe were killed.  The other three were lads--the eldest
of whom, about nineteen years old, leaped into the sea, swimming
vigorously, and resisting every effort made to capture him.  At last he
was seized and taken into the boat, as were the two younger lads,
without further attempt to escape.  As soon as they were in the boat,
the lads squatted down, evidently expecting instant death.  Every effort
was made to win their confidence, and with so much success that by the
time the ship was reached they appeared not only reconciled to their
fate, but in high spirits.  On food being offered them, they ate it
voraciously, and asked and answered questions with every appearance of
pleasure.  At night, however, they sighed, and seemed to be mourning for
the friends they had lost; but, encouraged by Tupia, they quickly
regained their cheerfulness, and in the morning ate another enormous
meal.  On being told that they would be put on shore where the English
had landed the previous day, they expressed great alarm, and said that
the inhabitants were their enemies and would eat them.  At last, on
landing on the other side of the bay, after hesitating for some time,
the lads cried out that they saw, among a large body of natives who were
approaching, one of their relations.  Still they seemed doubtful about
joining them, and evidently regretted leaving their new friends.  The
body of the native who had been killed the previous day still lay on the
shore.  The boys, seeing it, went and covered it with some of the
clothes they had received on board the Endeavour.  Soon after, a man,
who proved to be the uncle of one of the boys, swam over with a green
bough in his hand, which was here, as at Otaheite, an emblem of peace.
Tupia received the branch, and several presents were made to the native.
Notwithstanding this, he refused to go on board the strange ship.
Breaking off another bough, he then approached the dead body, before
which he performed numerous ceremonies.  When this was done he returned
to his companions, and held with them a long consultation.  The boys
refused to go back to their countrymen, and begged again to be taken on
board.  The natives, after this, were observed from the ship to cross
the river, and to carry off the dead body on a kind of bier.

Later in the day, the captain directed Tupia to ask the boys if they had
any longer a fear of landing, the body having been carried off, which
was supposed to be a ratification of peace.  They replied that they were
perfectly ready to go, and stepped with alacrity into the boat which was
prepared to carry them on shore.

On the boat reaching the shore they landed willingly, but soon after,
when she put off, waded back into the water, and entreated to be taken
on board.  As the midshipman in charge of the boat had received strict
orders not to receive them, their request was not granted.  After a time
a man came and took them across the river, on a raft, to where a large
number of people were assembled.  They appeared to be well received, and
shortly after were seen standing on the beach, when they waved their
hands three times and stepped nimbly back to their companions.

Captain Cook gave the name of Poverty Bay to the place where these
events occurred; and in his journal he strongly expresses his regret at
the destruction of the four unfortunate fishermen, saying that, had he
supposed they would have resisted, he would not have attempted to stop
them; but that, as it was, he could not allow his people to be knocked
on the head by the savages.  It may be asked, why were the savages not
permitted to escape?  The reply of Captain Cook is, that he considered
it his duty, in prosecution of his enterprise, to open a communication
with the natives by force if he could not succeed by gentle means.  In
pursuance of that object, and in accordance with this supposed duty, our
countrymen had little scruple in shedding the blood and taking the lives
of their fellow-men, even when violence was not necessary for their own
safety.

The next morning the Endeavour sailed from Poverty Bay, but, being
becalmed, several canoes came off to her.  The natives in one canoe
setting the example, the rest were easily persuaded to come on board, to
the number of fifty men.  Only two weapons were seen among them; these
were made of green talc, and called _patoo-patoo_, being shaped somewhat
like a pointed battledore, with a short handle and sharp edges.  They
were well contrived for close fighting, and would certainly split the
thickest skull at a single blow.  The sad truth of this some of our
countrymen were afterwards to experience, when not far from this spot
the greater part of a ship's company were destroyed, each savage
producing one of these weapons from under his cloak, and singling out a
victim for instant destruction.  Presents were made by the officers of
the Endeavour to the natives, who were all so eager for the white men's
goods that they afterwards exchanged everything they had with them, even
to the paddles of their canoes.  Inquiries were made for the poor boys,
and the captain was assured that no harm had happened to them, and that
it was in consequence of the account they had given of their reception
on board that the present party had come off to the ship.

An hour before sunset the natives paddled off, leaving three of their
number below.  As soon as this was discovered they were hailed, but
would not return, nor did the deserted natives seem to be alarmed.  The
next morning, however, when they discovered that the ship was at a
distance from the land, their consternation was excessive, and Tupia had
great difficulty in pacifying them.  On standing in again, a canoe with
an old chief came off, but he and his followers would not venture on
board till Tupia had used numerous arguments to persuade them--among
others, an assurance that the strangers did not eat men.  This remark,
coupled with those of the boys, gave the English their first suspicions
of the horrible propensity of the people with whom they were now
attempting to open up an intercourse.  The old chief, after remaining a
short time on board, returned with the three men to the shore.

The point of land first made to the north of Poverty Bay proved to be
the most eastern part of New Zealand, and was called East Cape.  The
Endeavour was now steered to the south.  An island close to the main was
passed, which, from its similarity to Portland in Dorsetshire, received
the same name.  A number of natives were here seen seated on the cliffs
watching the ship's movements.  When she suddenly got close to a reef,
and there was some sign of confusion on board, they showed a disposition
to attack her.  Canoes at different times came off, and in one the
people performed certain ceremonies, sometimes offering peace, and then
threatening war.  Five large canoes full of armed men soon after came
off.  As the boat's crew were sounding, it was necessary to drive them
away.  A musket fired over their heads had no effect, but a four-pounder
charged with grape shot, though fired wide, put them to flight.

Farther along the coast, the next morning, nine or ten large canoes,
which must have contained little short of two hundred men, came off.
When the first five were within a hundred yards of the ship, the natives
began to sing their war-songs and to brandish their weapons.  Tupia, on
this, was ordered to inform them of the power and effects of the English
thunder-making arms, and a four-pounder loaded with grape was fired wide
of them.  The result was satisfactory, and the natives went peaceably
away.  The following day another fleet of canoes came alongside, and
though they had only stale fish to sell, Captain Cook accepted it for
the sake of encouraging traffic.  The natives, however, showed every
disposition to take advantage of the strangers, and one of them having
agreed to exchange a black cloak for a piece of red cloth, on receiving
the cloth, packed it in a basket with the cloak, which he refused to
give up, and made off with both cloth and cloak.  Among those who were
leaning over the ship's side to hand up the articles purchased from the
natives was Tupia's boy, Tayeto.  One of the natives, watching his
opportunity, suddenly seized the boy, and dragging him over, held him
down in the canoe, which made off.  The marines on deck were ordered to
fire, and to aim at the end of the canoe farthest away from the boy.
One of the natives was seen to fall, when the other let go his hold of
Tayeto, who leaped overboard and swam to the ship.  A boat was lowered,
and he was taken up unhurt, but dreadfully frightened.  The canoes made
towards the shore, and it was observed that three men were lifted out of
them, either killed or badly wounded.

In this instance the natives actually deserved the punishment they
received.  Captain Cook called the headland off which this circumstance
occurred Cape Kidnappers.  When Tayeto recovered from his fright he took
a fish to Tupia, that he might offer it to his Etua.  Tupia praised him,
and ordered him to throw it into the sea.

Captain Cook having now stood to the southward for a considerable
distance without finding a harbour, tacked and stood to the northward,
in hope of being more successful in that direction.  The ship was off a
high bluff headland with yellowish cliffs, which was accordingly called
Cape Turnagain.  Soon afterwards two chiefs and their three attendants
paddled off, and willingly came on board.  One of the chiefs had a very
pleasing and honest expression of countenance.  Though they would not
eat, they seemed disposed to be very friendly, so much so that they
insisted on remaining on board all night.  The next morning they were
somewhat surprised at finding themselves so far from the shore, but went
away without hesitation.  As the ship sailed along, several canoes came
off to her, a few at a time.  In one were two old chiefs, who, with many
expressions of goodwill, invited the strangers on shore.  The surf
prevented their going, but in the evening, the wind moderating, Captain
Cook, with Mr Banks and Dr Solander, landed, and were received in a
most friendly manner.  The natives took care not to appear in large
bodies, the members of two or three families only keeping together.
These little companies sat on the ground, and by signs invited their
visitors to draw near.  These indications of a friendly disposition
determined the commander to fill his casks with water at this place.

The next morning, while this operation was going forward, Mr Banks and
Dr Solander walked along the shore of the bay by themselves without
anxiety, and collected numerous plants.  They visited several huts, and
found the inhabitants at dinner, their food consisting, at this time of
the year, of fish and the root of a large fern.  The roots were prepared
by scorching them over a fire, and then beating them till the charred
bark fell off.  The remainder was a clammy, soft substance, not
unpleasant to the taste, but mixed with three times its bulk of fibres,
which could not be swallowed.  This part was spat out into baskets ready
at hand for its reception.  No animals were seen, except some ugly
little dogs.  Carefully cultivated and closely fenced plantations of
sweet potatoes and other vegetables were seen.  The women were plain,
and had their faces painted with red ochre and oil; the men generally
did not follow the latter custom, but one man was observed who had a
piece of yellow ochre in his hand, with which he renewed the coloured
decorations on his person whenever he supposed them to be deficient.
Mr Banks and others, having remained on shore after the boats had gone
off with the casks, were brought on board by the natives in one of their
canoes.  Indeed, all the intercourse with the people in this place was
carried on in the most friendly manner.

At the watering-place the natives entertained their visitors with a
war-song, in which the women joined, with horrid distortions of
countenance, rolling their eyes, thrusting out their tongues and heaving
deep sighs, all keeping perfect time.  A canoe was seen here,
sixty-eight feet and a half long, five broad, and three feet and a half
deep; she had a sharp bottom, consisting of three trunks of trees
hollowed; the side planks were sixty-two feet long in one piece, carved
in bas-relief; the head being still more richly carved.  A large
unfinished house was also visited; the side ports were carved in a
masterly style, though with whimsical taste.  The bay was called by the
natives Tolaga.

Wood and water, and an abundance of wild celery, which proved an
excellent anti-scorbutic, having been got on board, the Endeavour
weighed and stood to the north.  The wood they had cut was like the
English maple; and a cabbage-tree was met with and cut down for the sake
of the cabbage, or the succulent soft stem, so-called by the voyagers
from its taste when boiled.  The country abounded with plants, and the
woods with birds in an endless variety, and exquisitely beautiful.
After rounding each cape, numerous villages were seen, and much
cultivated ground.  Some way on an immense canoe with sixteen paddles on
each side, and carrying sixty armed men, gave chase to the ship.  To
prevent an attack, a round shot was fired near them, when they paddled
off; the headland near at hand was therefore called Cape Runaway.  After
this, a large number of canoes came off to trade; but the natives were
disposed to cheat.  At length some linen hanging over the bows to dry
was carried off by a man, who, though fired at, deliberately packed it
up and made off with it.  As the natives continued to insult the
English, a shot was fired close to them, which went bounding over the
water far ahead, and made them paddle away at great speed.

Several villages were seen larger than any before observed, built on
eminences near the sea, and fortified on the land side by a bank and
ditch, with a high paling within it, carried all round; some of them had
also outworks.  They were supposed to be the fortified villages called
by the natives Pahs or Hippahs.  There seems to have been much doubt in
the minds of the officers of the Endeavour as to whether the land on
which they were now coasting was an island or part of a vast continent.
The captain seems to have held to the former opinion, his officers to
the latter.

The ship was now near a cluster of islands to which the names of the
Mayor and the Court of Aldermen were given.  Farther on more villages
were in sight, with some hundreds of large canoes drawn up on the beach
under them.  The whole country from Cape Turnagain, thus far, was said
to be under the rule of a single chief, called Teratu.  A large inlet
was next entered, and here the ship anchored.  Several canoes of a less
ornamental description came alongside, and tried to steal the buoy of
the anchor.  Three times during the night they repeated the attempt,
hoping, it seemed, to catch the crew asleep.  Again they came at
daylight, and sang a war-song, preparatory to an attack.  Tupia,
however, expostulated with them, and explained so successfully that they
would certainly be the sufferers in case of a skirmish, that instead of
fighting, they began to trade.  Here, again, a native made off with two
pieces of cloth, both of which he had got for one weapon, which he
refused to deliver up.  A musket-ball was fired through his canoe; but
he would not return.  It was curious that the people in the other canoes
paid no attention to him, though he was bleeding, but continued to trade
as if nothing had happened.  Soon afterwards, indeed, the same trick was
played by others.  Two muskets were fired, the bullets going through the
sides of the canoe between wind and water.  This only made the savages
pull off more rapidly.  As the commander intended to remain in this
place for some days, to observe the transit of Mercury, it was necessary
to make the natives understand the superiority of the English; and a
round shot was therefore fired over their heads.

All the natives, however, were not alike dishonest.  One chief, in
particular, had behaved with great propriety during the day, neither
attempting to cheat nor showing any fear of the English.  He came off
the next morning, and soon established friendly relations with them.  He
said that the people were generally convinced of their power, and would,
he hoped, behave properly in future.  His name was Toiava.

An officer, with the marines and a party of men, was sent on shore to
cut wood.  No houses were seen; but there were a number of people, who
seemed to have slept under the bushes.  The state of warfare in which
the people existed was shown by Toiava when on board one day.  Two
canoes were perceived coming in from the opposite side of the bay, when,
saying that they were enemies, he hastened off to the shore with all his
canoes.  He soon returned, however, they not being the people he
supposed.  A large number of mackerel were obtained here from the
natives, the sailors salting enough to last for a month.

Fortunately, a fine day enabled the commander and Mr Green to obtain a
satisfactory observation of Mercury; and the name of Mercury Bay was,
therefore, given to the harbour on the shore of which it was taken.
While they were on shore another case, of cheating by a native occurred.
The thief and his companions having pulled off in their canoe, sang
their war-song, and shook their paddles in defiance.  This so provoked
Mr Gore, the officer in charge, that he fired and killed the man, a
circumstance for which Captain Cook expressed his deep regret.  Though
at first alarmed, the natives on shore, on inquiring into the matter,
seemed to think that the man had received his deserts, and the friendly
intercourse begun between them and the English was not further
interrupted.

A little before sunset, the natives retired to eat their supper,
consisting of birds, fish, and lobsters.  Some were roasted, stuck on
sticks inclined towards the fire; others were baked in ovens on the
ground, in the way practised by the people of Otaheite.  Among the
natives was a woman mourning for the death of a relative.  She sat on
the ground by herself, and cut herself all over with pieces of shell
till she was covered with blood, singing in a mournful voice, at the
same time, a song the meaning of which Tupia could not understand.

The shore abounded with clams, cockles, and, in some places,
rock-oysters.  Numerous wild-fowl also were seen, and several were shot.
The boats rowed up a river at the head of the bay for four or five
miles, and near it a deserted fort of considerable strength was visited.
Several beds of oysters were also discovered, dry at half-ebb, and a
boat being sent to fetch some, returned completely laden, so that the
ship's company had a regular feast of them.  Fish, also in abundance,
were brought off by the natives.  On the north side of the bay, a pah,
small, but very strong and beautifully situated, was visited.  It stood
on the top of a rock detached from the mainland, surrounded at
high-water.  The centre part was perforated by an arch sixty feet in
height, and of considerable width.  The only way of reaching the top was
by a very narrow winding path.  Here there was room only for four or
five huts.  Farther on was a much larger fortified village, the
inhabitants of which, to the number of a hundred, came out and invited
the strangers to visit them, and seemed highly pleased when their
invitation was accepted.

This pah, or fort, was examined with much interest, and afterwards
minutely described by the English visitors.  It seemed, indeed, a place
which, if resolutely defended, was capable of holding out against any
number of assailants famished only with such arms as were seen in the
hands of the natives.  It was curious that men capable of constructing
so elaborate a fortification should have invented simply such weapons as
lances, small and large battle-axes, and clubs; for not a sling nor a
bow was seen among them, nor any other weapon but those mentioned.  When
stones were used they were thrown by the hand.

The Endeavour, having taken an ample supply of celery on board, sailed
from Mercury Bay.  The most successful generals of ancient and modern
times were able to take advantage of their greatest victories by having
paid careful attention to their commissariat; and Cook, for the same
reason, could prolong his researches for a greater length of time than
any previous navigator, and keep his crew in tolerable health, more
especially preserve them from that fearful scourge of seamen, the
scurvy.  Of course he was greatly indebted to the experienced botanists
on board, who were able to discover any anti-scorbutic plants grown on
the shores they visited.  Probably the lives of thousands of seamen
might have been saved had the commanders been acquainted with the wild
plants that the loving God has everywhere provided for the use of His
creatures, capable of preventing that dire complaint.

About fifty miles to the north of Mercury Bay, the natives came off and
threw stones at the ship, nor would they listen to the expostulations
and advice of Tupia, till a musket-ball was sent through the bottom of
one of their canoes, when they were convinced of the truth of his
account respecting the power of the strangers.

On the 19th a large inlet was entered, in which the ship brought up.
Immediately natives came off, who said that they had heard of the
strangers from Toiava.  One young man introduced himself as his
grandson, and received several presents.  They also addressed Tupia by
name, showing that they had heard of the English from their friends.
The commander and his usual companions proceeded in the boats nine miles
up the inlet, which they discovered terminated in a river.  This they
entered with the flood, and found fresh water three miles from the
mouth.  Here they saw a large village on a sand-bank entirely surrounded
by mud, probably considered a sufficient protection from their enemies.
They were particularly struck by the great size of the pine trees which
grew on the banks.  One measured nineteen feet eight inches in girth at
the height of six feet from the ground.  From the root to the first
branch it was eighty-nine feet, and as straight as an arrow, tapering
very little in proportion to its height.  It probably contained, by the
captain's computation, three hundred and sixty-six cubic feet of solid
timber.  Others still larger were seen.  A small one was cut down, and
found to be similar to the pitch pine, too heavy for masts, but the
carpenter was of opinion that, by tapping, the wood would be lightened,
and that then the trees would make the finest masts in the world.  These
trees were the celebrated Kauri pine, from which a valuable gum is
extracted.  It also makes very fine planking.  This tree, the flax
plant, and the gigantic fern are among the characteristic productions of
New Zealand.

The name of the Thames was given to the river explored.  The natives in
the neighbourhood behaved in the most friendly manner; but while the
commander and Dr Solander were on shore, and Mr Banks with Tupia and
some of the natives were below, a lad took possession of a half-minute
glass from the binnacle.  Mr Hicks, who was commanding officer, ordered
the lad to be triced up and a dozen lashes given to him.  His countrymen
interfered, and called for their arms from the canoes alongside.  In
vain Mr Banks, hearing the noise, and coming on deck, expostulated with
the lieutenant.  Tupia at length pacified the natives by explaining what
was to happen, and allowed the punishment to proceed.  As soon as it was
over, an old man, supposed to be the father of the boy, gave him a
beating and sent him into the canoe; but the confidence of the natives
was gone, and though they promised to come back, no more was seen of
them.

The natives on most occasions were ready to steal and cheat, whenever
they thought they could do so with impunity.  This occurred nearly every
day as the Endeavour proceeded along the coast.  In one day, at
different times, nearly five hundred natives were on board or alongside,
showing that the country was very populous.  One of these was making off
with an article of which he had possessed himself without giving
anything in return, when the midshipman to whom it belonged hove a lead
with a hook secured to it at the end of a line, with such aim that the
hook caught the thief, but broke off.  While at anchor in another part
of this bay, which is known as the Bay of Islands, the commander gave a
piece of cloth to an old chief, one of several hundred natives crowding
round the ship.  Notwithstanding this, some of them tried to steal the
buoy, and not till one of them was hit by a musket-ball would they give
it up.  After this, the commander, with Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and two
boats' crews, landed in a little cove.  They had not been there long,
before they saw nearly three hundred people rushing towards them from
behind the heads of the cove, and over the top of the hill.  Some of the
savages rushed to the boats to seize them, and others, led by a chief,
advanced towards the English.  The commander, Mr Banks, and two of the
man fired with small shot.  The natives, though at first they fell back,
soon again rallied and advanced.  On this Dr Solander fired again, and
hit the chief, who, with the rest, ran off.  The natives still continued
in a body, and, as seen from the ship, appeared very numerous.  A few
round shot fired over their heads dispersed them.  Happily not a single
life was lost, and only two men were slightly wounded.  As it happened,
the old chief to whom the cloth had been given in the morning had, with
some of his family, concealed himself in a cave.  While the party were
collecting celery he was discovered, and was soon put at his ease.  He
said that one of the men who had been hit with small shot was his
brother, and inquired anxiously whether he would die.  He was assured
that he would not; and a bullet and small shot being shown to him, he
was told that those who were hit with the first would die, but that the
wounds made by the last were seldom mortal.  He and his companions now
came and sat down by the English, who gave them a few trifles.

Several days were passed in the Bay of Islands, and a friendly
intercourse was maintained during the remainder of the time with the
natives.  On going out of it the ship grazed a rock to windward of her
with great violence, but received no injury.  This part of the country
was evidently very densely inhabited; and the people seemed to live on
friendly terms with each other, though no head or leading chief was
heard of.  Fishing seemed to be one of their principal occupations, and
nets of great length were seen--one of not less than from three to four
hundred fathoms.  Their towns were all fortified.  Farther on, while
becalmed, some people who came off told the voyagers that at the
distance of three days' rowing the land would take a sharp turn to the
south, and extend no more to the west.  It was conjectured, therefore,
that this headland was one seen by Tasman, and called by him Cape Maria
Van Diemen; and an eager lookout was kept for the important headland.

At six in the morning on December 16 land was seen from the mast-head,
which proved to be North Cape.  It lies in latitude 34 degrees 22
minutes South, and longitude 186 degrees 55 minutes West.  The isthmus
which joins this head to the mainland is low, which gives it the
appearance of an island.  On the cape a hippah, or village, was seen,
with several inhabitants.  Soon after this, when off Cape Maria Van
Diemen, the Endeavour met with a gale which, though it was in the middle
of the summer of that hemisphere, Captain Cook says, for its strength,
and the length of time it lasted, was such as he had scarcely ever been
in before.  The ship was three weeks getting ten leagues to the
westward, and five weeks in getting fifty leagues.  During the gale the
ship was a considerable distance from the land, or it is highly
probable, he says, they would not have returned to relate their
adventures.

It is not necessary to mention the various courses run for several days,
as no communication was held with the shore.  At length a lofty peak was
seen towering above the clouds, and covered with snow, to which the name
of Mount Egmont was given.  It was surrounded by a flat country of a
pleasant appearance, being clothed with verdure and wood.  Near it a bay
was entered, in a safe and convenient cove of which the ship anchored.
Some canoes at once paddled off, and much against the wishes of his
people, an old chief from one of them came on board.  He was received
with all possible friendship, and after some time was dismissed, with
many expressions of kindness, to his companions.  This treatment had a
beneficial effect, though some of the natives showed an inclination to
try how far they might go with the strangers.  On one occasion they
pursued the long-boat as it was going on shore with casks; but some
small shot quickly made them desist.

The bay where they were at anchor was found to be about fifteen miles
south of one visited by Tasman, though none of the people among whom
Tupia made inquiries had any tradition of his having been on the coast.
The commander, with Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and others, on their way
one day to visit a cove two miles off, saw the body of a woman floating,
having apparently been dead for some days.  Immediately on landing they
found a family who seemed greatly alarmed at their approach, and ran
away.  In a short time, however, they were induced to return, and
confidence being established, became very communicative.  The body of
the woman was that of a relation whom they had buried at sea fastened to
a stone, from which they supposed it had broken.  The family were
dressing some provisions, and as the gentlemen cast their eyes into one
of the baskets which stood near, two bones were perceived, which, upon
nearer examination, were found to be those of a human body.  The
natives, on being questioned by Tupia, acknowledged, without the
slightest hesitation, that they were the bones of a man whom they had
eaten; that a canoe belonging to their enemies had come into the bay
five days before; that seven persons in her had been killed, and that
this man was one of them.  On Tupia asking why they did not eat the body
of the woman, they replied that she was a relation, and that they only
eat the bodies of their enemies killed in battle.  One of the natives
took hold of his own forearm, and intimated that the bone Mr Banks held
in his hand had belonged to that part of the human body; he also bit and
gnawed the bone which Mr Banks had taken, drawing it through his mouth,
and showing by signs that it had afforded a delicious repast.  A woman
of this family of cannibals had her arms, legs, and thighs frightfully
cut, in token of her grief for the loss of her husband, who had lately
been killed and eaten by their enemies.

Mr Banks and Dr Solander were several times on shore, but their walks
were much circumscribed by climbing plants of luxuriant growth, which
completely filled up the spaces between the trees, so as to render the
woods impassable.  Preparations had been made for erecting a durable
memorial of the Endeavour's visit, and their old friend promised that it
should never be removed.  Presents of coins and spike-nails, with the
king's broad arrow on them, were given to the natives, and two posts, of
which the memorial was to be constructed, were taken to the highest part
of the island near which the ship lay.  The Union-Jack was then hoisted,
and formal possession was taken of the country in the name of His
Majesty King George the Third; the name of Queen Charlotte's Sound being
given to the inlet.  A bottle of wine was then drunk to Her Majesty's
health, and the empty bottle given to the old man, who seemed highly
delighted with it.

The Endeavour left the sound on February 6, and soon after, during a
calm, was very nearly driven on shore by the strong current setting
through the straits between the northern and middle island, now known as
Cook's Straits.  Over the land was seen a mountain of stupendous height,
covered with snow.  Passing through the straits, the Endeavour steered
north again, and continued on till, the weather clearing, Cape Turnagain
was distinctly seen.  Captain Cook on this asked his officers whether
they were satisfied that Eaheinomauwe was an island.  They replying in
the affirmative, the Endeavour hauled her wind and stood to the
eastward.  Eaheinoniauwe was the name given by the natives to the
northern island, Poenammoo to the southern, or rather, as it is now
called, the middle island.

The Endeavour was now steered down the eastern coast of the last-named
portion of New Zealand.  Some lofty mountains were seen, partially
covered with snow, and inferior in height to Mount Egmont.  During a
calm, when close in shore, Mr Banks went out in a small boat for the
purpose of shooting.  While he was away four double canoes were seen to
put off from the shore, and to pull towards him.  Captain Cook trembled
for his friend's safety, for Mr Banks could not see the signals made to
hasten his return.  At length he noticed the natives, and his boat's
head was turned towards the ship.  The natives also approached.  He,
however, got on board before them, thankful for his escape.  Probably,
indeed, their attention had been so engrossed with the ship that they
had not seen him.  When they came about a stone's throw off, they
stopped and gazed at the ship with vacant astonishment; but even Tupia's
eloquence could not induce them to come on board.  After surveying the
ship, they made towards the shore, but it was dark before they could
have reached it.  This was the only sight Captain Cook had of the
inhabitants of the middle island, or _Tovy Poenammoo_.

An island about twenty-four leagues in circumference, and five leagues
from the main, was discovered, to which the name of Banks's Island was
given.  Some persons on board asserting that they saw land to the
south-east, the commander, though believing that they were mistaken,
steered in that direction; but no land being discovered, the ship wore,
and was steered east-south-east.  Tovy Poenammoo was found to be very
much larger than Captain Cook expected to find it, from the description
of the natives in Queen Charlotte's Sound.  Heavy gales and rough seas
were encountered, and on one occasion, at dawn, rocks were seen close
under the ship's bows, she having in the night passed close to another
dangerous reef, some leagues from the main.  The land discovered
appeared green and well wooded, but destitute of inhabitants.  Several
whales and seals were observed, whereas none had been seen off the north
island.  At length, on March 5, the South Cape was rounded.  At the time
Captain Cook was doubtful whether it was part of the large island or a
separate island, though he marked it in his chart as the former.
Nothing of importance occurred during the passage back to the entrance
of Cook's Straits, on the northern shore of which, in a bay called
Admiralty, the Endeavour again anchored, that she might fill up with
wood and water.  This was accomplished by March 31, 1770, when a course
was shaped by which it was hoped the eastern coast of New Holland would
be reached.  It was intended, after visiting that coast, to return home
by the East Indies and the Cape of Good Hope.  Captain Cook himself had
wished to return by Cape Horn, with the view of settling the question of
a great southern continent; but the ship was deemed unfit to brave the
tempests to be expected in a high southern latitude in the most
inclement season of the year.  The name of Cape Farewell was given to
the last point of land seen as the Endeavour quitted the coast of New
Zealand.  The manners and customs of the inhabitants, as well as the
features of New Zealand, are now almost as well-known as those of any
country in Europe, and we are able to judge of the extraordinary
accuracy of all Captain Cook's descriptions whenever he had an
opportunity of observing them.

Cape Farewell was left on March 31, and the Endeavour sailed westward.
Nine days afterwards a tropical bird was seen, and on the 15th the
voyagers caught sight of an egg-bird and a gannet; and as these birds
never fly far from land, the lead was constantly heaved through the
night.  No bottom, however, was found; and it was not till six o'clock
on the morning of April 19 that land was seen by Mr Hicks, the first
lieutenant.  This land proved to be part of the vast country of New
Holland, since better known as Australia.  The coast first seen was that
of New South Wales.

The Endeavour now coasted along about three leagues from the shore, and
as the weather was clear, a pleasant landscape presented itself before
the eyes of the explorers.  The land was of moderate elevation,
diversified by hills and valleys, ridges and plains.  Here and there
were open spaces clothed with verdure, but in general the country was
covered with timber.  Smoke was in several places seen, showing that the
country was inhabited.

Several days were spent--the Endeavour coasting along the shore to the
northward; but on account of a northerly wind the voyagers were seldom
near enough to remark the features of the country.  At last a bay was
discovered which seemed to be well sheltered from all winds, and Captain
Cook determined to anchor in it.  Just before this several natives had
been seen on the shore, four of them carrying a canoe, but they did not
come off, and when the yawl, in which the commander attempted to land,
approached, they all ran away.  So heavy a surf broke on the beach that
it was found impossible to go ashore.

The pinnace was now sent ahead with the master to sound, while, the wind
being out, the ship beat into the bay.  A smoke being seen on shore, the
glasses were directed towards it, when ten men were observed sitting
round a fire, which they presently left, and then ascended a slight
eminence, whence they could observe the proceedings of the English
visitors.  As the pinnace pulled along the shore most of the natives
kept abreast of her.  Some of them used threatening gestures,
brandishing their weapons: there were two especially, whose faces seemed
to have been dusted with a white powder, and their bodies painted with
broad streaks, also white, which, passing obliquely over their breasts
and backs, looked not unlike the cross-belts worn by soldiers.  The same
kind of streaks were also drawn round their legs and thighs, like broad
garters.  They were armed with long spears, and each of these men held
in his hand a weapon curved like a scimitar, and which appeared to be
about two feet and a half long.  The Endeavour anchored two miles within
the bay, in six-fathom water, abreast of a small village consisting of
six or eight huts.  On the two points on either side of the entrance a
few huts, and men, women, and children, were seen, as were four small
canoes, with a man in each engaged in fishing, so intent on their
occupation that they took no notice of the ship.  An old woman also,
followed by three children, came out of a thicket, laden with fire-wood,
each of the children having its burden.  When she reached the huts three
more children came out to meet her.  She looked often at the ship, but
manifested no surprise, and went on with her occupation and kindled a
fire.  Presently the men landed, hauled up their canoes, and began to
dress the fish, apparently unconcerned at the stranger ship within half
a mile of them.  None of the savages had on a particle of clothing.  It
was a curious scene, like that of a drama in which the actors take no
notice of the spectators.

In this instance, however, the actors were not so indifferent as they at
first appeared; for when Captain Cook and several companions approached
the shore in one of the boats, although the greater number of the people
ran away, two men armed with lances came down on the rocks to dispute
the landing of the strangers.  [Note 2.]  It was not an inapt
representation on a small scale of the contest which, ere many years had
rolled by, was to begin on these shores between savagedom and
civilisation, when the latter would, with giant strides, sweep over and
subdue the land.  The two brave savages kept flourishing their lances
and shouting in discordant tones, and Captain Cook, unwilling to injure
them, ordered his crew to lie on their oars while he tried to parley
with them.  To show also his goodwill, he threw them nails, beads, and
other trifles, which they took up and seemed pleased to obtain.  They
then waved their hands and seemed to invite their visitors on shore, but
as soon as the boat approached they hurried again to oppose a landing.
Captain Cook, as a last resource, fired a musket between them.  On
hearing the report the youngest dropped a bundle of lances, but quickly
picked them up; while the eldest, as if in defiance, threw a stone at
the intruders.  Upon this a musket with small shot was fired at his
legs, on which he scampered off to the huts.  It was hoped that the
contest was now over, and accordingly the English stepped on the shore
of that vast territory which was to become the heritage of millions of
the Anglo-Saxon race.  Still the savage was not subdued, and appeared
once more with a shield on his arm, and advancing, made one more
significant protest against the intrusion of the white man, by hurling a
spear into the very midst of the strangers.  Happily, no one was hurt,
and a third musket loaded with small shot being fired at them, after
another spear had been thrown by one of the brave natives, they both
took to flight, and the English claimed to be, by right of conquest, the
lords of the soil.  They might have pursued and overtaken the savages,
but Mr Banks suggested that the spears were possibly poisoned, and that
it would be imprudent to venture into the woods.

On entering one of the huts some little children were seen partially
concealed, but they were not disturbed, and when the English went away,
some beads, ribbons, and pieces of cloth were left in the huts as
presents, which it was hoped would gain the goodwill of the natives.
Fifty spears, from six to fifteen feet long, found lying about, were
carried off.  It was at first supposed that they were poisoned, but on
further examination it was found that they were used for spearing fish,
and that the green substance found sticking to them was seaweed.

The next morning a stream was found at which the casks could be filled.
While this operation was going on, the natives came down and watched the
proceedings with wonder, but did not venture to approach the strangers,
though Mr Hicks advanced towards them with presents in his hands,
making every sign of friendship he could think of.  That the bay was
full of fish, and capable of giving food to a large population, Captain
Cook had ample proof; for going with Mr Banks and Dr Solander to a
cove on the north side of the bay, in three or four hauls with the seine
they took above three hundredweight of fish.

An expedition into the country was planned the same day by the
commander, Mr Banks, Dr Solander, and seven others, and from it a very
fair idea of the general face of the country was obtained.  On visiting
the huts they found that the natives had not taken away the presents
that had been left for them; and others, therefore, of greater value,
were added.  Presents were left also at all the huts which were passed,
in the hope of thus gaining the goodwill of the natives.  The trees were
tall, straight, and without underwood, and at such a distance from each
other that the land might be cultivated without cutting down a tree.
The ground was covered with an abundance of grass, growing in tufts
close together, about as large as could well be grasped in the hand.
Although numerous huts were seen, the natives kept themselves carefully
concealed, though probably watching the strangers at a distance; a
glimpse only was caught of one man, who instantly ran away.  A transient
view was got of an animal as big as a rabbit, and of the tracks of
another of the size of a wolf, clawed like a dog; traces of a third,
which fed on grass, and judged to be not less than a deer in size, were
also seen.  The trees overhead abounded with birds of various kinds,
among which were many of exquisite beauty, particularly loriquets and
cockatoos, which flew in scores together.  The trees, however, were not
of many species; among others was one which yielded a gum not unlike the
_sanguis draconis_.

Many other excursions were made on shore, especially by Mr Banks and
Dr Solander, in search of plants, of which they found vast quantities;
and from this circumstance Captain Cook gave the place the name of
Botany Bay, a name the whole country commonly bore for more than half a
century afterwards.

Every effort to establish a friendly intercourse with the natives
failed.  They had undoubtedly watched, though unperceived, the effect of
the white men's weapons, and from awe and terror kept at a distance;
still, when they had an opportunity, they showed their hostility to the
strangers, and Mr Monkhouse narrowly escaped a spear thrown at him
while he was wandering in the woods.

During the ship's stay in Botany Bay, Captain Cook had the English
colours hoisted every day on a flag-staff on shore, and caused the
ship's name, and the date of her visit, to be engraved on a tree near
the watering-place.

At daybreak, on Tuesday, May 6, 1770, the Endeavour sailed from Botany
Bay, and at noon the same day, in latitude 33 degrees 50 minutes South,
she was abreast of a fine-looking harbour, to which Captain Cook gave
the name of Port Jackson.  Northerly winds prevented the ship from
making much progress till, in latitude 32 degrees 40 minutes, another
harbour was seen, and called Port Stephens.  The ship continued her
course to the north; smoke was frequently seen, and occasionally the
natives were observed.  The land increased considerably in height as she
advanced, and in many places exhibited a pleasing variety of ridges,
hills, valleys, and plains, all clothed with wood.  A wide, open bay was
passed in latitude 27 degrees 6 minutes, and called Moreton Bay.

It had now become necessary to lay the ship ashore, and Captain Cook's
object was to find a place where this might be accomplished with safety.
Had he entered Port Jackson, he would have found one of the finest
harbours in the world for his purpose.  He several times anchored while
proceeding along the coast, and landed to explore the country--the
natives, as before, running off and hiding themselves.  Rockingham Bay
was passed and named, in latitude 17 degrees 59 minutes.  Hitherto the
Endeavour had met with no misfortune; but as she was now to make
acquaintance with it, the point seen farthest to the north was called
Cape Tribulation.  It lies in latitude 16 degrees 4 minutes South, and
longitude 145 degrees 26 minutes East.

One beautiful moonlight night, as the ship was speeding on her course
with a fair wind, among the shoals of that coral sea, and while most of
the officers and crew were tranquilly asleep, she suddenly struck upon a
reef, and instantly roused every one on board to the horrors of
shipwreck on an inhospitable coast, where they might linger for years
without succour.  However, the captain and his officers and crew were
equal to the emergency, and by throwing everything weighty overboard
that could be spared, the ship floated, but was making water rapidly.
Had the weather been at all stormy, no human power could have saved
their vessel.  As it was, the fine weather continued long enough to
enable them to draw a sail over the leak.  This served the purpose of
keeping her in sailing trim, until she was safely moored at the mouth of
a creek, which was named Endeavour River.  This was on June 17, and they
remained there repairing the damage to the ship, as well as
circumstances permitted, until August 4.

Although the Endeavour was now out of danger, her captain had still
abundant cause for anxiety on another account: in spite of all his care,
the fearful malady of scurvy had gained, and was still gaining ground
among the ship's company.  Poor Tupia, who all his life had been
accustomed to fresh fruit and vegetables, was among the chief sufferers,
and symptoms were showing themselves which proved that the malignant
disease had already made rapid progress.  Mr Green, the astronomer, was
also, among many others, stricken and disabled.  As soon as possible,
therefore, a tent was put up on shore for the reception of the sick, and
recourse was had to nets, for providing fresh fish for the invalids.

The ground in the immediate neighbourhood of the river was either
swampy, sandy, or stony.  Mr Banks, who went on shore with his gun, saw
great quantities of pigeons and crows: of the former, which were very
beautiful, he shot several.  He also saw some deserted human
habitations, but no natives.

Four guns having been got up from the hold, were mounted on the
quarter-deck of the ship, and the heavy stores and powder were landed,
that her damages might be examined.  It was, indeed, both wonderful and
providential that she had escaped destruction; for not only had the
sharp rock torn off the planking and worked its way into the timbers,
but one point had cut a hole right through the bottom, and, breaking
off, had happily remained fixed.  Had it fallen out, no human power
could have prevented the ship from foundering.  Besides the leak, which
was on the starboard side, the ship had sustained very extensive injury
on the larboard.  The sheathing from the bow on that side was torn off,
and a great part of the false keel was gone.  The carpenters at once
commenced their work; and the forge was set up, that the smiths might
make bolts and nails.

While this was going on, some of the people were sent on shore to shoot
pigeons for the sick, and on their return they reported that they had
found a stream of fresh water, and had seen several native huts, and an
animal as large as a greyhound, of slender form, mouse-coloured, and
very swift.  The next day Captain Cook himself saw the same animal; it
had a long tail, and leaped liked a hare or deer, and the prints of its
feet were like those of a goat.  For some time afterwards nothing more
was seen of the animal, which Mr Banks, the naturalist, considered must
be of some hitherto unknown species; so, indeed, it was, for it had no
congeners in any quarter of the globe previously visited; though now the
kangaroo is familiar enough to all readers of natural history, and it
forms part of the arms of the colony of New South Wales.

Mr Banks likewise captured an Australian opossum, a female, with two
young ones.  This class of animal was formerly supposed to be peculiar
to America, from whence its name is derived.  Being nocturnal in their
habits, nothing is to be seen of them in the daytime, unless you can
catch a glimpse of one at noontide, sleeping soundly in the hollow of a
tree.  When night comes, they leap from bough to bough with the greatest
animation, especially if it be moonlight.  Some species, with thin
membranes between the fore and hind paws, can take a flying leap of,
sometimes, thirty yards from tree to tree; and hence they are called
flying squirrels, though perfectly distinct in their nature, and in some
of their habits, from that animal.

The carpenters continued to work hard on the ship whenever the tide
permitted them.  The position in which she was now placed, with her bow
on the bank, naturally threw all the water aft, and from this
circumstance the world was very nearly losing the results of Mr Banks's
labours.  For greater security he had placed his collection of plants in
the bread-room, into which the water ran, and covered them completely.
By great care most of them were dried, but many were entirely spoilt.

In consequence of the carpenters being able to work only at low tide,
the repairs of the ship proceeded very slowly.  In the meantime,
however, the people benefited from being on shore, and every effort was
made to obtain fresh provisions, calculated to improve their health.
The commander himself went to superintend the hauling of the seine; but
this was attended with little success, for during one evening only
between twenty and thirty fish were caught.  A root with leaves like
spinach, many cabbage-trees, and a wild plantain, were found, with a
fruit of a deep purple colour, of the size of a pippin, which improved
on keeping; Mr Banks also discovered a plant, called, in the West
Indies, Indian kale, which served for greens.  These greens, with a
large supply of fish afterwards caught, afforded great relief to the
voyagers, who had so long been compelled to live on salt meat.  Their
fresh provisions were further varied by some large cockles, one of which
was of such size that it furnished an ample meal for two men.  What was
of still greater value was the discovery of some fine turtle by the
master, three of which he caught when out surveying; though afterwards,
when sent out expressly to find more, he seems to have purposely
thwarted the wishes of his commander, who, indeed, had too much cause to
complain of the narrow-mindedness and ignorance of several of his
officers.  Many other turtles were, however, afterwards caught, of a
species called the green turtle.

Some time elapsed before one of the animals which had been so much the
subject of speculation was shot by Mr Gore.  This was a young one, but
others were seen equal in size to sheep; the larger sort are, indeed,
much larger than sheep.  The fore legs of this specimen were only eight
inches long, and the hind legs two-and-twenty; its mode of progress
being by a succession of hops and leaps, helped by its long tail, with
which also it balances itself in its progress.  It is easy to imagine
the interest with which this curious animal, now seen for the first time
by civilised men, was examined by Mr Banks and his brother naturalists.
The next day their kangaroo (for so the animal was called by the
natives) was dressed for dinner, and proved most excellent.  The
explorers might now have been said to fare sumptuously every day; for
they had an abundance of green turtle, fish, and vegetables of different
sorts, with an occasional kangaroo.  It was indeed fortunate for the
crew of the Endeavour that the accident happened to her in this
latitude, instead of farther south, where, although the soil amply
rewards the labours of men, yet its spontaneous productions are very
inferior to those of the north.  Kangaroos certainly would have been
found in abundance, and perhaps fish, but scarcely any vegetables fit
for the food of man.

Favourably, however, as the navigators were situated for diet, their
position in other respects was unsatisfactory.  This was ascertained by
the captain, who, with Mr Banks, one day started on a long walk
northward, partly to obtain a view of the country, but chiefly to take
note of appearances seaward.  After traversing the country about eight
miles, they ascended a high hill, and were soon convinced that the
danger of their situation was at least equal to their apprehensions; for
in whatever direction they turned their eyes, they saw rocks and shoals
without number, and no passage out to sea but through the winding
channels between them, which could not be navigated without the last
degree of difficulty and peril.  The reports of the master were equally
unsatisfactory with regard to the shoals and dangers off the mouth of
the harbour, and it seems surprising that the ship should have escaped
them on her passage up the coasts.  Still, as she had got in, there was
no doubt that she might get out, could the right passage be found.  They
had other causes for hope and thankfulness: the natives were not likely
to prove troublesome, the climate was healthy, and food abundant.

Besides kangaroos, wild dogs were seen, which were supposed to be foxes
or wolves, as they partly resembled both these animals.  With the
natives for some time no intercourse was opened.  At last some appeared
on the opposite side of the river, very black, totally naked, and with
lances in their hands.  The commander judiciously ordered his people to
take no notice of them, as the best means of drawing them near.  This
plan succeeded so well that two of them came off in a canoe to within a
musket-shot, and talked very loudly.  They were answered in the same
tone, and by degrees they drew nearer, when some cloth, nails, beads,
paper, and other trifles were thrown to them.  Of these things, however,
they seemed to take no notice, but were highly pleased when a fish was
offered them.  Some of them afterwards landed where Tupia and the rest
of the crew were sitting, and he prevailed on them to lay down their
arms, and to come forward without them.  He then made signs that they
should sit down by him.  With this they complied, and seemed to be under
no apprehension or constraint, although on more people going on shore
they expressed by their gestures some fear lest the newcomers should get
between them and their arms.  More presents were made to them, to show
the goodwill of the strangers, and their desire to continue on friendly
terms.  To prove this the Englishmen made signs that they were going to
dinner, and invited the blacks to eat with them; the latter, however,
declined the honour, and went away in their canoes.  These men were of
the common stature, but their limbs were remarkably small; their hair
was black, but not woolly, some of them wearing it short cropped, others
lank and long, and others had it curled.  Their colour was dark
chocolate, but the tint was owing somewhat to the dirt which covered
their skins.  They had lively eyes, and their teeth were even and white.
The tones of their voices were soft and musical, and there was a
flexibility in their organs of speech which enabled them to repeat, with
great facility, many English words.

The next day three of the same party of natives paid the strangers a
visit with a fourth, whom they introduced as Yaparico.  This personage
was distinguished by having the bone of a bird, six inches long, thrust
through the cartilage of his nose.  He seemed to prize this strange
ornament as much as a young dandy does his newly raised silken
moustache.  On examination, all his companions were found to have holes
in their ears, as he also had, while on the upper part of their arms
they wore bracelets of plaited hair; thus evincing a taste for ornament,
although they had not a rag of any sort of clothing.  The previous day
the only gift they seemed to prize was a fish which was offered them.
To-day they brought one in return.  They were, however, excessively
jealous and suspicious, and in consequence of one of the gentlemen
examining their canoe, they at once jumped into her and paddled away.

The following day three natives ventured down to Tupia's tent, and were
so well pleased with the way he received them that they went away and
brought two others, whom they introduced to him formally by name; a
ceremony they never omitted.  Some fish were given to them, but after
eating a small portion, they threw the rest to Mr Banks's dog.  They
could not be persuaded to go far from their canoe, which was about ten
feet long, fitted with an outrigger, and though very inferior, like
those of the Society Islands.  They used paddles, and in shallow water
poled it along.

One day, on the commander's return from an excursion on shore, he found
several natives on board.  Of all the articles exhibited to them,
nothing seemed to have attracted their attention so much as the turtles,
of which there were no less than twelve on deck.  Two days afterwards
they came again, bringing with them a greater number of lances than
before.  These they placed in a tree, with a man and a boy to watch
them.  It was evident that their object was to get one of the turtles.
They asked for one by signs, and being refused, appealed to everybody
who appeared to them to have any authority.  Then seizing one, they
attempted to drag it overboard.  On its being taken from them, they
jumped into their canoe in a rage, and went on shore.  Here Mr Banks
and others followed them.  Before they could be stopped they seized
their arms, and, snatching a brand from under a pitch-kettle, they
whirled it round with great dexterity and rapidity, and set fire to the
grass, which was six feet or more high, and dry as stubble.  The fire
burnt with fearful rapidity.  The woodwork of the smith's forge was
destroyed; it caught a sow and some young pigs, one of which was
scorched to death, and Mr Banks had great difficulty in saving his
tent, which had been set up for Tupia on shore.  Happily most of the
stores, with the powder, had been taken back to the ship, or the
consequences might have been more serious.

In another place the seamen were washing, and a quantity of linen and
the nets were spread out to dry.  Here the natives, disregarding all
threats and entreaties, again set fire to the grass.  By great exertions
the fire was extinguished before it had done much damage, but where it
had first been kindled it burnt with great fury, and spread into the
woods to a long distance.  A gun loaded with small shot was now fired at
the natives, which put them to flight, one of them being wounded; and to
give them a lesson, a bullet was fired to pass near them, and this of
course hastened their retreat.  It was thought that now they would give
no more trouble; but in a short time they came back, and Mr Banks and
others went out to meet them.

An old man among the natives then advanced, having a lance in his hand
without a point.  He came forward slowly, stopping several times, and
the English made signs to him that they wished to be friends.  On this
he turned round and addressed his companions, and they, having set up
their arms against a tree, also came forward in a friendly manner.  The
lances which had been taken from them were then returned; this evidently
afforded them great satisfaction, and the reconciliation was considered
complete.

Several strangers who were among the party were now introduced by name;
and on receiving some presents they went away highly contented.

The next day no natives appeared, but the hills all round, for many
miles, were on fire, the effects of which by night were very striking.
Had the voyagers been compelled by circumstances to remain on that
coast, the result of these fires would have been serious, as the
conflagration would have driven the kangaroos and the feathered tribes
to a distance, and thus deprived the crew of the Endeavour of some of
their principal means of support.  But the ship was now ready for sea,
though the master had been unable to find any channel to the northward
by which an escape could be made from among the coral reefs which hemmed
her in.

It was necessary, however, to make the attempt without delay, as
provisions and stores were running short, and the proper time for
navigating the Indian seas was passing by.  They were doomed to have
their patience yet further tried, for when all was ready heavy gales
prevented the ship from putting to sea.

On July 29 the weather moderated, the wind came off the land, and
everything appeared favourable for sailing, when it was found that there
was not sufficient water on the bar for the ship to pass over it.  For
several days more the ship was detained by the unfavourable state of the
weather: the detention would have been of still greater consequence had
not the boats sent out to catch fish and turtle been tolerably
successful.  At length, on August 4, Captain Cook had the satisfaction
of sailing out of Endeavour Harbour.  The ship was surrounded by shoals,
and he was yet in doubt whether he should beat back to the southward, or
seek a passage to the north or east.  He had now a most anxious time,
for it was clear that there was no way to sea except through the
labyrinth of shoals amid which the ship lay.  The navigation of a ship
among coral rocks is at all times dangerous, for the lead gives no
notice of their vicinity, their sides rising up like walls from almost
unfathomable depths.

Night now approaching, the Endeavour anchored, when soon afterwards it
came on to blow very hard, and at eleven she began to drive.  More cable
was veered away, and this brought her up; but in the morning, it coming
on to blow harder, she drove again.  All the appliances of seamanship
were put into operation, but still she drove, when topgallant masts were
got down, and yards and topmasts struck; and now, at length, she rode
securely.

In this position she continued till the 10th, when, Captain Cook having
resolved to search for a passage close in shore to the northward, she
got under way, and stood in that direction with the boats exploring
ahead.  Nothing but the greatest caution, perseverance, and first-rate
seamanship could have taken the Endeavour free of the dangers which
surrounded her.  Hour after hour the sagacious commander was at the
mast-head, or away in a boat searching for a passage, while the rest of
the boats were employed in a similar service.  At length a passage was
discovered, and with the boats piloting ahead, the Endeavour stood
through it.

A long rolling swell convinced the voyagers that they had no rocks or
shoals to fear, but at the same time proved to them that they must not
place the same confidence in their ship as before she had struck; for
the seas she now encountered so widened the leaks that they admitted no
less than nine inches of water an hour, which, considering the state of
the pumps and the navigation before them, was a matter of serious
consideration.

The great object Captain Cook had now in view was to ascertain whether
the coast of New Holland, along which he was sailing, was or was not
united to that of New Guinea.  He was afraid that, if he stood on long
to the north, he might overshoot the passage, should one exist.  At six
in the evening, therefore, he brought the ship to with her head to the
north-east, no land being in sight.  The next morning sail was made, and
land seen; and as the day advanced a reef appeared over which the sea
broke heavily, extending from north to south as far as the eye could
reach, with an occasional break between the ship and the land.  The wind
was then east-south-east; but scarcely had the sails been trimmed to
haul off it than the wind shifted to east-by-north, which made it very
doubtful whether the ship could clear the reef.  The lead was kept going
all night while the ship stood to the northward, but no bottom was
found, yet at four o'clock the roaring of the surf was distinctly heard,
and at break of day it was seen foaming to a vast height at not more
than a mile off.  The seas, too, which rolled in on the reef rapidly
carried the ship towards it.  The wind fell to a dead calm, and the
depth made it impossible to anchor.  The only prospect of saving the
ship was by rowing; but the pinnace was under repair and useless: the
long-boat and yawl were, however, sent ahead to tow, and sweeps were got
out.

Still these efforts could only delay the destruction which seemed
inevitable.  The ship continued to drive on towards the fatal reef; she
was within a hundred yards of it, and the same billow which washed her
side broke on the reef to a tremendous height the very next time it
rose.  The carpenters had been working at the pinnace, and she was now
lowered, but even with her assistance the Endeavour drove nearer and
still nearer to the reef.  At the very moment that her doom seemed fixed
a light air sprang up, and, with the help of the boats, gave her once
more head-way.  Scarcely, however, had ten minutes passed before the
wind again dropped, and the ship was driven back towards the roaring
breakers.  Again the gentle breeze returned, and lasted another ten
minutes.  During this time an opening had been discovered, and the ship
was towed towards it, but so strong a current set through it that she
was driven fully a quarter of a mile away from the reef.  Aided by the
boats, the ebb tide carried her nearly two miles away by noon.  When the
flood made, however, she was once more carried back towards the reef;
but in the meantime the first lieutenant had discovered a passage, and a
light breeze springing up, it was resolved to attempt it.  The boats
continued towing ahead; the raging, roaring sea leaped up on either
side; the breeze filled the sails; the tide swept rapidly onward; and in
a short time the Endeavour was within the reef, safe from present
danger, and anchored in nineteen-fathom water.

Captain Cook now resolved to keep the land close on board, in spite of
all dangers, for fear of missing the channel.  Numerous islands and
headlands were passed and named, and rocks and reefs were escaped, and
at length perseverance and sagacity were rewarded by the discovery of
York Cape, the northern promontory of the country, and the southern side
of Torres Straits, through which the Endeavour triumphantly passed.

As Captain Cook was now about to leave the eastern coast of New Holland,
which he had followed up from latitude 38 degrees, and which he was
confident no European had ever before seen, he landed on an island,
which he named Possession Island, and once more took formal possession
of the whole eastern coast of the mainland, in right of His Majesty King
George the Third.  He gave to the country, with all its bays, rivers,
and islands, the name of New South Wales.  Three volleys of small arms
were then fired, and these were answered by the same number from the
ship.  Ten natives were seen on the island when this ceremony was
performed, and seemed astounded, as they very well might be.

They were seen to be armed with spears; one of them had also a bow and a
bundle of arrows, which weapons had not before been seen.  Two of them
had large ornaments of mother-of-pearl hanging round their necks.  It
was expected that when the boats approached they would have made a show
of opposing a landing, but instead of that, they walked leisurely away.
They and their descendants have never been disturbed in their possession
of the island, and at the present day it is exactly in the state it was
when Cook visited it.

Some time was occupied in the intricate navigation of the straits, and
the Endeavour then steered north, along the south-western coast of New
Guinea, but the water being shallow, at such a distance from the shore
that it could scarcely be seen from the ship.  Still, as the commander
wished to ascertain the character of the country and the appearance of
the inhabitants, he steered in for the land till about three or four
miles from it, and in three-fathom water, when the ship came to an
anchor on September 3.

The pinnace being hoisted out, Captain Cook, with Mr Banks and his
servants, Dr Solander and the boat's crew, in all twelve persons, well
armed, embarked in her and pulled directly for the shore.  But the water
was so shallow that they could not reach it by about two hundred yards;
they therefore waded the rest of the way, and left two seamen to take
care of the boat.  As yet no inhabitants had been seen, but when the
party landed they discovered the print of feet on the sand below
high-water mark, showing that people had lately been there.  A thick
wood came down to within a hundred yards of the water.  To avoid the
risk of being cut off by an ambush, the explorers proceeded cautiously,
skirting the wood till they came to a grove of cocoanut trees of small
growth which stood on the bank of a little stream.  The trees were well
hung with fruit, and near them was a small hut, round which lay a number
of the freshly picked shells.  Tempting as was the fruit, it was not
considered safe to climb the trees to obtain it; they were obliged,
therefore, to leave the grove without tasting a nut.  Farther on they
met with a bread-fruit tree and some plantains, and had got about a
quarter of a mile from the boat when three blacks rushed out of the wood
with a hideous shout, and ran towards them.  The foremost threw
something from his hand which burnt like gunpowder, and the other two
darted their lances at the strangers.  As it was necessary to keep these
savages at a distance, they were fired at with small shot, but as this
did not make them retreat, and they threw another dart, some bullets
were discharged at them.  The effect was to make them run; but it was
hoped that none of them were wounded.  As Captain Cook says, he had no
desire to invade the country, either to gratify appetite or curiosity;
he judged it right and merciful to retreat at once, so as not to have to
destroy more of the ignorant savages.  There was no time to lose, as the
men in the boat made signs that more natives were collecting.  They had
succeeded in getting safely on board, when they saw nearly a hundred
savages, who shouted and threw fire-darts, several at a time, towards
them.  On board ship it was supposed, from the effect produced, that the
natives had fire-arms, and even from the boat, had they not been so
near, the English would have fancied, from the flash and smoke, that the
blacks were firing musketry; the sound only was wanting.  Some muskets
being fired over their heads, they walked leisurely away.

In appearance these natives were very similar to those of New Holland,
though their skin was not quite so dark.  They were all stark naked.
The land was low, and covered with a luxuriance of wood and herbage that
can scarcely be conceived.  Some of the officers wished to send on shore
to cut down the cocoanut trees for the sake of the fruit, but the
commander refused to comply with their proposal, feeling that it would
be cruel and criminal to risk the lives of the natives, who would
certainly try to defend their property, merely for the sake of a
transient gratification.  The boat was therefore hoisted in, and sail
made to the westward.

The more interesting portion of Captain Cook's first voyage round the
world was now accomplished.  He had successfully made the important
observation for which he was sent out; he had become intimately
acquainted with the inhabitants of Otaheite and several of the adjacent
islands, though, from the cunning of the people, he had failed to
discover that it was among the darkest of "the dark places of the
earth."  He had shown that if there was a great southern continent it
must be in a very high latitude; he had proved that New Zealand
consisted of two great islands, and had cause to suspect the existence
of a third smaller one.  He had sailed along the coast of New Holland,
and had made the acquaintance of its inhabitants and many of its animal
and vegetable productions.  Though he had seen the coast of Tasmania,
and admired its beauty, he had not discovered that it was separated from
New Holland; but he had settled the point before in dispute--whether
that little-known land was or was not joined to New Guinea--by sailing
between them; and he had shown that the eastern coast of the
island-continent of Australia was fit to become the habitation of
civilised men.  This great fact was, after all, the most important
result of the voyage.

The condition of the Endeavour had, by this time, become very critical.
So battered were her lower timbers and planks, and so out of order were
her pumps, that a heavy sea might at any moment have sent her to the
bottom.  It was absolutely necessary to find a harbour where she might
be hove down to undergo a complete refit.  Under these circumstances the
commander of the expedition determined to go to Batavia, the capital of
the Dutch settlements in the island of Java, and at that time the centre
of commerce in those seas.  He had, indeed, no option, for there was not
another port which he could hope to reach, where the ship would receive
the necessary repairs.  He was not, indeed, ignorant of the
unhealthiness of the climate; but he hoped not to be detained there
long, and that his hardy crew would be able for a short time to
withstand its ill effects.

The first island of any size which the Endeavour sighted after leaving
New Guinea was Timor, along the shore of which she coasted.
Notwithstanding the wishes of some of his officers, Captain Cook
declined to put in there, as he was anxious to reach Batavia without
delay.  Between that island and Java, however, he fell in with a small
island, which at first he thought was a new discovery; but on steering
for it, and getting close in with the north side, houses, plantations,
and numerous flocks of sheep were seen.  The temptation of obtaining
fresh meat and vegetables was not to be resisted, as there were many
sick on board; and accordingly Mr Gore was sent on shore to open a
communication with the natives.  Two persons were seen riding on the
hills as if for their amusement, and often stopping to look at the ship.
This made the voyagers suspect that there must be a settlement of
Europeans on the island.  Such was in fact the case.  The Dutch East
India Company had a short time before taken possession of it, and sent a
resident to superintend their affairs, though the native rajah or chief
was still retained as the nominal ruler of the island.  This island
proved to be Savu, at that time so little known that it was not to be
found on any of the charts on board.  It is about thirty miles long, and
was then very thickly populated.

In the evening the ship entered a bay before a large native town, over
which the Dutch colours were flying, and three guns were fired.  The
native chief treated the strangers very courteously, and was evidently
ready to supply them with all they desired.  They were informed that the
island abounded in buffaloes, sheep, horses, asses, goats, hogs, dogs,
cats, fowls, and pigeons, with most of the fruits of the tropics.  The
resident, Mr Lange, however, though polite in his manners, very soon
showed that he was determined to make a gain of the visitors, and asked
the most exorbitant prices for all the provisions they required, besides
insisting that they should be paid for in gold.  Fortunately, by a
well-timed present to an old man, the rajah's prime minister, his
services were engaged, and ultimately, through his means, all the
provisions which were required were procured at fair prices.  The island
was divided into five provinces, with a rajah over each, who could
altogether muster upwards of seven thousand fighting men.  All the
rajahs were said to live on friendly terms with each other, and the
inhabitants were described by Mr Lange as being particularly well
conducted and moral.  Their religion was a kind of paganism, but of a
most liberal description, according to the account given by Mr Lange,
each man having the liberty to set up a god in his own house, and to
worship it after his own fashion.  Although, in many instances, the
Dutch have been sadly unmindful of the spiritual as well as temporal
interests of the inhabitants of their colonial possessions, they had
sent to this island a Dutch officer, and a native woman who had been
brought up a Christian, charged with the education of the people, and
their instruction in the principles of Christianity.  The Dutch had also
printed versions of the New Testament, a catechism, and several tracts
in the language of this and the neighbouring islands.  The number of
Christians in the township of Seba alone was estimated at six hundred.
If the character given by Mr Lange of these islanders was correct, a
true Christian missionary would have found a prolific field open to him
among them.

The Endeavour left the interesting island of Savu on September 21, 1770,
and made Java Head, at the west end of Java, on October 1.  Poor Tupia
was very ill, and on the morning of the next day a boat was sent on
shore to procure some fresh fruit for him, and some grass for the
buffaloes, which, with sheep, pigs, and fowls, had recently been got on
board.  On passing through the Straits of Sunda, the Endeavour was
boarded by the Dutch authorities, and various official inquiries were
made as to whence she had come, and the object of her voyage.  These
being answered, she proceeded to Batavia.

Captain Cook and his companions were received into port by the Dutch
governor with all the courtesy and kindness which could be expected.
Permission was given them to take up their abode in private residences,
although strangers were, as a rule, compelled to live at an hotel, under
the direct supervision of the authorities.  Leave was also obtained to
heave down the ship in order to repair her damages, which were found on
inspection to be of a very serious nature.  Indeed, in one place the
planking was so worn by the grinding on the rocks, that it did not
exceed the thickness of the sole of a man's shoe.  Her frame in many
places was much shattered, and her pumps had become rotten and utterly
useless.

Batavia had long had the reputation of being very unhealthy.  The crew,
however, thought themselves thoroughly seasoned to all climates, and
their rosy countenances contrasted favourably with the pale faces of
those who had been even a few weeks at the place.  All, indeed, with the
exception of Tupia, were in good health when they entered the port.
Even he revived at the strange sights which met his gaze as he entered,
for the first time, a civilised town.  The houses, carriages, streets,
people, and a number of other novel objects had the effect on him of
fascination.  Tayeto expressed his wonder and delight with still less
restraint, and danced along the street in a kind of ecstasy, examining
every object with a restless and eager curiosity.  Tupia, remarking the
various dresses of the people of different countries, desired likewise
to put on his native costume.  South Sea cloth was therefore sent for
from the ship, in which he immediately equipped himself.

In the course of a few days, however, the effects of the climate began
to be felt.  Poor Tupia, after the excitement caused by the novelties he
witnessed had subsided, experienced a reaction, and every day grew worse
and worse.  Young Tayeto also was seized with an inflammation of the
lungs, and both Dr Solander and Mr Banks and his two servants were
taken seriously ill; indeed, almost all the people belonging to the
ship, on board or ashore, were sick, affected by the low swampy
situation of the place, and the numberless dirty canals which
intersected the town in all directions.

Tents were then set up on shore, on Cooper's Island, for the ship's
company, and one was also pitched, by Mr Banks's desire, for Tupia, who
was anxious to escape from the close air of the town.  Mr Banks
accompanied him, and remained with him for two days, till compelled by
his own illness (a regular tertian ague) to return to his lodgings.  Mr
Monkhouse, the surgeon of the ship, was the first victim, and Dr
Solander could with difficulty crawl out of lied to attend his funeral,
which Mr Banks, from illness, was unable to do.  On the 9th the poor
young boy Tayeto died, and Tupia, who loved him as a son, was so much
affected that he rapidly sank, and in two days followed him to the
grave.  The lives of Mr Banks and Dr Solander were saved by their
removal to a healthy spot, some miles from the city.  Altogether, seven
persons who had come in the ship were buried at Batavia; but many others
imbibed the seeds of disease, which, in a short time, proved fatal.

Every possible assistance which Captain Cook required was given by the
Dutch governor, and on December 26th, 1770, having taken leave of him
and the principal people in the place, the voyagers set sail from
Batavia with a light breeze from south-west.  At that time the number of
sick on board amounted to forty, and the rest of the ship's company were
in a very feeble condition.  Every man had been ill except one, the
sail-maker, who was upwards of seventy years of age; he, however, was
among those who died on the passage to the Cape of Good Hope.

After leaving Java, the Endeavour touched at Prince's Island, where she
took in water and fresh provisions.  Shortly afterwards, dysenteries and
slow fevers appeared, and so violent were the symptoms that the ship was
a complete hospital, those who were able to move about being
insufficient to attend to the sick in their hammocks.  Mr Banks was so
ill that his life was despaired of.  Mr Green, Mr Sporing, Mr
Parkinson, the natural history painter, with Mr Monkhouse, and many
others, three-and-twenty persons in all, in addition to the seven buried
at Batavia, died before the ship reached the Cape of Good Hope.  On
March 15 the Endeavour anchored in Table Bay, near the Cape of Good
Hope, where Captain Cook's first care was to provide a place for the
sick on shore.  Here the greater number recovered, though some were
still ill when again taken on board.  The country appeared to the
voyagers to be of a most sterile and forlorn character, and from the
accounts they received of the great distances from each other at which
the settlers were situated, they conjectured that such must be the
general nature of the country in the interior.  Possibly the Dutch
settlers may not have been anxious to praise it to the English, as it
must have been obvious that it would prove a very important possession,
on account of our extensive commerce with the East Indies.

Cape Town, at that time, consisted of about a thousand houses, neatly
built of brick, and white-washed on the outside, with thatched roofs.
The streets were broad and commodious, and through the principal street
ran a canal, with rows of oaks planted on either side, but, on account
of the slope of the ground, having numerous locks.  The healthiness of
the climate of Cape Town contrasted favourably with that of Batavia, and
most of the sick rapidly recovered.  The Dutch, at this time, appear to
have been living on friendly terms with all the neighbouring tribes of
natives, nor did Captain Cook seem to be aware that any of the
Hottentots were reduced to a state of slavery.  He speaks only of their
being servants to the Dutch farmers, and taking care of their cattle.
Their only enemies were the bushmen, who never engaged in open warfare,
but stole the cattle of their neighbours at night, being armed with
lances and poisoned arrows.

The Endeavour left Table Bay on April 14, and after calling at Robin
Island, a Dutch convict station, she proceeded with her voyage on the
25th.  On that day she lost her master, whose health had been destroyed
by intemperate habits, and just before she reached England her first
lieutenant, Mr Hicks, died of consumption, from which he had been
suffering the greater part of the voyage; thus making up a long
catalogue of deaths since the ship left England.  Mr Hicks was
succeeded by Mr Charles Clerke, who accompanied Captain Cook in his
subsequent voyages, and was highly esteemed by his commander, as well as
by all who sailed under him.

On May 1 the Endeavour called off Saint Helena, then known only as the
summit of a submarine mountain, the water round it being of unfathomable
depth; although the island was of especial importance to Indiamen, as it
was the only British possession at which they could call on their
voyage.  Here the Endeavour found the Portland man-of-war, commanded by
Captain Elliot, and twelve sail of Indiamen.  In company with this
fleet, she stood out of the roads on May 4.  But finding that his ship
sailed more heavily than the rest of the fleet, Captain Cook deposited
his logs, or ship's papers, and some of the journals of his officers,
with Captain Elliot; and on the 23rd not one of the ships was in sight.

By this time the rigging and sails of the Endeavour had become so bad
that every day something was giving way.  But, notwithstanding this, she
continued her course in safety, and on June 10 land, which proved to be
the Lizard Point, was seen by Nicholas Young, the same boy who first
sighted New Zealand.  On the 12th the ship came to an anchor in the
Downs, and Captain Cook went on shore at Deal.

The importance of the voyage just described can be better appreciated by
the present generation than it could have been by those who were alive
at the time of its conclusion.  Captain Cook's own modest summary of it
is interesting.  He says:--

"I sailed from Deptford July 30, 1768; from Plymouth August 26; touched
at Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, and Straits of Le Maire; and entered the
South Pacific Ocean, by Cape Horn, in January, the following year.

"I endeavoured to make a direct course to Otaheite, and, in part,
succeeded; but I made no discovery till I got within the tropic, when I
fell in with Lagoon Island, Two Groups, Bird Island, Chain Island, and
on April 13 arrived at Otaheite, where I remained three months, during
which time the observations on the transit of Venus were made.

"I then left it; discovered and visited the Society Isles, and Oheteroa;
thence proceeded to the south till I arrived in the latitude of 40
degrees 22 minutes, longitude 147 degrees 29 minutes West; and on
October 6 fell in with the east side of New Zealand.  I continued
exploring the coast of this country till March 1, 1770, when I quitted
it and proceeded to New Holland, and having surveyed the eastern coast
of that vast country, which part had not before been visited, I passed
between its northern extremity and New Guinea; landed on the latter,
touched at the island of Savu, thence to Batavia, the Cape of Good Hope,
Saint Helena, and arrived in England on July 12, 1771."

On their arrival in London, Cook and his companions were received by the
scientific, as well as by the great and fashionable world, with the
attention and respect they so well-deserved; for no previous expedition
undertaken by England had been more generally successful.  Cook was
promoted to the rank of Commander, his commission being dated August 29,
1771.  He was also introduced to the King at Saint James's Palace, and
had the honour of presenting the journal of his voyage, illustrated by
maps and charts; while their Majesties the King and Queen, and numerous
people of high rank and attainments, took delight in listening to the
accounts given by the explorers of their adventures, and in examining
the specimens of manufactures and of natural history which they had
brought home.

It was not, however, present _eclat_, nor the apparent magnitude of the
discoveries made, but their consequences, which rendered this voyage of
real importance.  The ultimate result was the founding of two nations of
the Anglo-Saxon race; and whatever cause there may be to question, if
not to condemn, the manner in which possession has been obtained of
distant countries, and in which, also, their colonisation has been
effected, in almost every instance, and by almost all nations having the
power which civilisation gives, it must still be borne in mind that God
has overruled, and is overruling, these transactions for His own glory
and for the spiritual benefit of the world.  He makes not only "the
wrath," but the ambition, and pride, and cupidity of man "to praise
Him;" and then the remainder "He restrains."  And all circumstances are
made, in His infinite wisdom and power, to advance the spread of "the
glorious Gospel of the blessed God," and to usher in the kingdom of Him
whose right it is to reign, even of Christ Jesus, the Prince of peace,
the Lord of lords, and the King of kings.

With regard to the discoveries made in the voyage just recorded, it is
almost superfluous to say that the countries then visited for the first
time by our countrymen have, after the lapse of a century, become
familiar as household words to the whole world.  Australia, Tasmania,
and New Zealand have become component parts of the British empire, and
have already been made the home of hundreds of thousands of the crowded
population of the British Isles, as well as of emigrants from other
European countries; and these lands will, probably, before another
century has passed away, become centres, not only of civilisation, but
of evangelical truth and saving faith.  And herein the Christian reader
will and must rejoice.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note 1.  The names of several places visited by Captain Cook have, in
course of time, been varied or altered.  In this work, however, it has
been thought proper generally to adhere to the original nomenclature.

Note 2.  A tablet has been placed to mark the spot where Captain Cook
and his party landed, and may be seen in the engraving.

Note 3.  If this was so understood at the time, we must lament that our
countrymen should have consented to take part in what must be considered
as a profane farce.



CHAPTER THREE.

SECOND VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY.  JUNE 1772 TO JULY 1775.

It had long been the opinion of geographers that a great southern
continent existed; and in 1738 a French expedition, under Monsieur
Lozier Bouvet, had been sent out in search of it.  On January 1, 1739,
he got sight of land, in latitude 45 degrees 20 minutes, and longitude
25 degrees 47 minutes East from Teneriffe.  It was, according to his
description, a lofty and steep cape, backed by mountains mostly covered
with snow, while the coast had so broad a fringe of ice that it was
impossible to approach it near enough to make any thorough examination.
In remembrance of the day of discovery, the cape, which was supposed to
be part of the southern continent, was called _Cape de la Circoncision_.

It had been supposed, before the return of Cook from his first voyage,
that New Zealand, New Holland, and New Guinea formed part of the great
southern land, which was generally denominated Terra Australis
Incognita.

Cook, indeed, dispelled this idea by proving that these three
territories were islands; but the question as to the existence of the
great southern land still remained to be proved.

The subject was under discussion by men of science when the Endeavour
returned from her first voyage; and the Royal Society soon afterwards
resolved to recommend the despatch of another expedition, for the
purpose of attempting to settle the question.  An offer of the command
of this exploratory voyage was at once made to Captain Cook, who gladly
accepted it--the selection of ships suitable for the purpose being
wisely left to his judgment.  The qualities he considered essential were
great capacity, or stowage room, a rig easily worked, a size not too
large to enter small harbours, and a build which would enable the vessel
to take the ground and be easily got off again.

The Endeavour, having been sent out to the Falkland Islands as a store
ship, was not available; two more vessels, therefore, made by the same
ship-builder as the Endeavour, were purchased at Hull.  The largest,
named the Resolution, was of four hundred and sixty-two tons burden; and
the other, called the Adventure, was three hundred and thirty-six tons.
Captain Cook took possession of the former, as commander of the
expedition; and Tobias Furneaux, who had been second lieutenant with
Captain Wallis, was promoted and appointed to serve under Cook in
command of the Adventure.

Captain Cook's first lieutenant was Robert Cooper; his second, Charles
Clerke, who had accompanied him on his previous voyage, as had also his
third lieutenant, Richard Pickersgill, and the lieutenant of marines,
John Edgecombe, with two of the warrant and several of the petty
officers.

Mr Banks and Dr Solander had intended going, but not finding the
accommodation on board which they considered necessary for the comfort
and convenience of themselves and their attendants, they gave up the
project.  So great, however, was the public enthusiasm on the subject of
the expedition, that, according to Boswell, even Dr Johnson thought of
applying for leave to accompany it, though, if he ever seriously
entertained the wish, it was speedily abandoned.

Two astronomers, Mr William Wales and Mr William Bayley, were engaged
by the Board of Longitude--the former sailing in the Resolution, the
latter in the Adventure.  The Admiralty appointed, as landscape-painter,
Mr William Hodges; and Mr John Reinhold Forster, and his son, were
engaged to attend to the department of natural history.  The Board of
Longitude also amply furnished the expedition with the best astronomical
and other instruments which might be required, and with four
watch-machines, as chronometers were then called.  Lord Sandwich, who
was at the head of the Admiralty Board, anxiously watched the equipment
of the ships, visiting them from time to time to satisfy himself that
everything was done in the best way to secure the success of the
undertaking and the comfort and health of those on board.

Captain Cook had, in his former voyage, paid great attention to the
means best adapted for preserving the health of his crew, and he had
seen the importance of having an ample supply of provisions of an
anti-scorbutic character.  He also endeavoured to have the ship well
dried and ventilated, and determined, as far as possible, that the men's
clothes should be kept dry, and their persons clean.  Each ship had two
years and a half provisions on board, and among other articles were
wheat and sugar (in lieu of oatmeal), oil, malt, salted cabbage,
portable broth, mustard, marmalade of carrots, and inspissated juice of
wort, from which beer could be at once made.  The frame of a vessel of
twenty tons was put on board each ship, to be set up, if found
necessary, to serve as tenders, or to enable the crews to escape should
the ships be wrecked.  The Resolution had a complement of one hundred
and twelve officers and men, and the Adventure of eighty-one.
Fishing-nets and hooks of all sorts, articles to barter with the natives
or to bestow as presents, and additional clothing for the crews were put
on board.  Medals also were struck, with the likeness of his Majesty on
one side, and of the two ships on the other, to be given to the
inhabitants of newly-discovered countries, as memorials of the
explorers' visit.  Indeed, no expedition with a similar object in view
had ever left the shores of England so well equipped in every respect as
was the one now about to sail.

The Resolution, being ready for sea, sailed from Deptford on April 9,
1772; but after being joined by the Adventure, she was detained by
contrary winds till May 10, when, both again sailing, the Resolution was
found to be so crank [Note 1] that it was necessary to lower her upper
works, and for this purpose she put into Sheerness.  Lord Sandwich and
Sir Hugh Palliser went down to see the alterations made in an effectual
manner.  On June 22, the ship, being again ready for sea, sailed from
Sheerness and joined the Adventure in Plymouth Sound on July 3.  Thus it
will be seen that there was a delay of nearly three months after the
expedition was supposed to be ready, before it was fully prepared for
sea.  Lord Sandwich and Sir Hugh Palliser again visited the ships in
Plymouth Sound, and the chronometers being set going in the presence of
the astronomers and the chief officers, the ships at length, on July 13,
set sail and shaped a course for Madeira.

Anchoring in Funchal Roads on the 29th, and having taken on board fresh
beef and vegetables, including onions, for sea stores, the ships sailed
again on August 1.  Finding their water run short, they put into Porto
Praya, in the island of Saint Jago, one of the Cape de Verde Islands,
for a supply.  On October 29 the land of the Cape of Good Hope was made,
but as the ships were unable to get in before dark, they stood off and
on during the night.  In the evening the phosphorescence of the sea
became unusually brilliant; and to convince Mr Forster, who differed
from Mr Banks and Dr Solander that it was caused by insects, some
buckets of water were drawn up from alongside.  On examination he found
that the water was full of globular insects of the size of a pin's head,
and quite transparent.

The next day the ships anchored off Cape Town, where Captain Cook and
his officers were received by the Governor and other authorities with
attention and respect.  The Governor informed Captain Cook that a French
ship had discovered land in the meridian of the Mauritius, in latitude
48 degrees South; and also that in the previous March two French ships,
under Monsieur Marion, had touched at the Cape on their way to explore
the South Pacific.

The expedition quitted the Cape of Good Hope on November 22, and steered
a course towards Cape Circumcision, which was the first object for which
they were directed to search.  They soon found the weather very cold,
when warm clothing was issued; and having encountered a heavy gale, with
hail and rain, which drove them far to the eastward of their course, all
hope of reaching the looked-for cape was given up.  Owing, also, to the
severity of the weather, and the sudden transition from dry heat to
extreme cold and wet, the ships' companies suffered a severe misfortune
in the loss of nearly all the live-stock (consisting of sheep, hogs, and
geese) which they had brought with them from Cape Town.  This weather
continued for the greater part of the time the ships remained in that
high latitude.  On December 10 an island of ice was seen in latitude 50
degrees 40 minutes South and 2 degrees 0 minutes East of the Cape of
Good Hope.  After this thick, hazy weather again came on, with sleet and
snow.  The ships continued their course, the Resolution leading, when an
iceberg, directly for which they were steering, was discovered through
the mist not a mile off.  It was about fifty feet high, flat at top,
about half a mile in circumference, and its sides, against which the sea
broke furiously, rose perpendicularly from the ocean.  Captain Furneaux,
who was astern, took this ice for land, and hauled off from it; and
there is no doubt that many navigators who have reported land in these
latitudes have been deceived in the same way.

Nothing could be more trying to the explorers than the navigation in
which they were now engaged, day after day tacking off and on among
large fields of ice, through which they in vain endeavoured to find a
passage to the southward, with the constant risk, in thick weather, of
running foul of icebergs, or of getting fast in the packed ice which
might any moment enclose them, while all the time they were exposed to
storms of snow and sleet, with a constant frost, although it was the
middle of summer.  Dangerous as it was sailing among icebergs, or, as
Captain Cook calls them, ice-rocks, especially in thick weather, the
ships were in still greater peril when surrounded by packed ice, which
consisted of huge slabs, of great thickness, varying from thirty or
forty feet down to three or four feet square, packed close together, and
often piled one on another.  Stout as were the ships, it was not
expected that they could resist the enormous pressure to which they
would be subjected should they get caught in such frozen bonds.  It was
the opinion of those on board that this sort of ice was formed only in
bays and rivers, and that therefore they must be near land, which was
eagerly though vainly looked-for.  So severe was the cold that an
iceberg examined by the master had no water running down it, as is
generally the case in summer.

Captain Cook now steered to the west, in the hope of getting round the
ice; but though he held on this course for some time, both to the south
and west of the supposed position of Cape Circumcision, he neither fell
in with it, nor did he observe any of the usual indications of land.
Various birds, however, were seen, and several of them were shot; but as
they would find roosting-places on the ice islands, they might have come
a very great distance from the land.  Thus, the penguins, which were
seen in great numbers on some icebergs, and are supposed never to go far
from land, might have come a very great distance over the ice from their
native haunts.  Be that as it may, no land was seen by either vessel,
notwithstanding the diligent search made for it.

On December 31, while the ships were still surrounded by ice, a strong
gale sprang up, with a heavy sea, which made it very dangerous for them
to remain in the position in which they then were.  The peril was yet
further increased by an immense field of ice which appeared to the
north, extending from north-east by east to south-west by west, and
between two and three miles off.  The ships received several severe
blows from masses of ice of the largest size.  Providentially, they got
clear by the afternoon, for at that time the wind increased so much that
it was necessary to haul the top-sails and to strike topgallant masts.
The next day the wind abated, but the weather continued thick and hazy,
with sleet and snow which froze on the rigging as it fell, and
ornamented the whole of it with icicles.  At length the longitude in
which the looked-for cape was supposed to lie was reached, and as the
ships were far to the southward of the latitude in which Captain Bouvet
stated he had seen it, no doubt remained that he had mistaken lofty
icebergs, surrounded by loose or field ice, for land, as Captain Cook
and his officers had already been deceived on the first day they fell in
with field ice.

When the weather became finer the ships were able to fill up their
water-casks with pure fresh water, by collecting masses of ice, and then
hanging them up to allow any salt which might have adhered to them to
run off.  Whenever the weather permitted, the astronomers were employed
in making observations, and the naturalists in collecting birds, the
only objects they had the means of obtaining.

The antarctic circle was crossed on January 17, in longitude 39 degrees
35 minutes East; and on the evening of that day the whole sea to the
south and west appeared covered with ice, though shortly before none was
in sight.  In this space thirty-eight ice islands, great and small, were
counted, besides loose ice in abundance, so that the ships were obliged
to luff to avoid one piece, and to bear up to escape another, as they
proceeded to the south.  At length a compact mass, from sixteen to
eighteen feet high, appearing to the south, without any opening, Captain
Cook altered his course to the north.  A number of whales were now seen
sporting about the ice, and several flocks of antarctic petrels.  The
ships did not alter their course an hour too soon, for that night a
heavy gale sprang up which would have rendered their position very
dangerous.  After this, search was in vain made for the land said to
have been seen by the French captain in the longitude of the Mauritius.

On February 8, during thick weather, the Adventure was separated from
the Resolution, and though, according to arrangement, Captain Cook
cruised for three days about the spot where his consort had last been
seen, and continued burning blue lights and firing guns, he was
compelled at last to give up the search.  On the night of the 17th the
aurora presented a very beautiful appearance.  It was first seen in the
east, and, gradually rising, formed a brilliant arch across the heavens,
with a light sufficiently strong to cast shadows on the deck, and at one
time to allow a book to be read.  A description of the incidents met
with during this part of the voyage would not prove generally
interesting.  One, however, must not be omitted.

The Resolution being off a large ice island, round which there was a
quantity of loose ice, Captain Cook sent two boats to take some on
board.  The island was not less than half a mile in circumference, and
its summit three or four hundred feet above the surface of the sea.
While the boats were thus engaged in its neighbourhood, it was seen to
bend over till it turned nearly bottom up, though it seemed by the
change not to have lost either in height or size.  The boats escaped
without damage from their dangerous position.

During all the time, up to the separation of the two ships, the crews
had enjoyed generally excellent health.  A few slight symptoms of scurvy
had appeared, but they were quickly subdued by a liberal use of the
remedies which had been supplied.  The fresh wort made from malt seems
to have been very efficacious in arresting the malady.  Occasionally,
too, when the weather allowed, the men's bedding and clothes were spread
on deck to air, and the ship was smoked and cleaned between decks.  This
prevented the crews from contracting those diseases which have proved so
fatal on board ships where they have been neglected.

At length, by the middle of March, the antarctic summer being nearly
over, and his crew requiring rest and his ship refitting, Captain Cook
shaped a course which would soon bring her into a more genial clime.  He
had purposed visiting Van Diemen's Land, but as the wind would not allow
him to shape a course for that country, he steered for New Zealand,
which was sighted on March 25.  A heavy gale compelled him to keep at
sea, but the following day he entered Dusky Bay, at the south-west end
of Tavai Poenammoo, or the Middle Island, as it is now called.  This was
on Friday, March 26, after having been one hundred and seventeen days at
sea, and sailed over three thousand six hundred and sixty leagues, or
nearly ten thousand miles, without having once sighted land.  Only one
man, and he of a naturally bad habit of body, had been seriously ill;
and Cook attributed the excellent health of his crew, partly to the
frequent airing and sweetening of the ship by fires, etcetera, and
partly to the portable broth, sweet-wort, pickled cabbage, and
sour-krout.  Although no discovery, except of a negative character, was
made during this part of the voyage, we cannot but admire the hardihood
and perseverance, the skill and courage, exhibited by the great
navigator during the whole of that trying time.

A secure harbour having been found by Lieutenant Pickersgill in Dasky
Bay, where the ship could lie close to the shore, she was warped into it
and moored, her yards being locked in the branches of the trees; there
being also, a hundred yards from her stern, a fine stream of fresh
water.  No place could have been better suited for refitting the ship
and refreshing the crew, and both officers and men enjoyed their stay at
this healthy and beautiful spot.  Places were forthwith cleared of trees
to set up the observatory, the forge, and the tents for the sail-makers
and coopers.  At the captain's suggestion, wholesome beer was brewed
from the leaves of a tree resembling the American black spruce, mixed
with the inspissated juice of wort and molasses.  The constant attention
of the great navigator to the most minute points calculated to maintain
or improve the health of those placed under his charge cannot be too
strongly commended.  Throughout his journals notices constantly occur
which show that whenever anti-scorbutic vegetables, or herbs of any
sort, were required, he did not entrust the search to others, but went
himself to look for them.  It is sad to reflect how indifferent to his
example many other navigators have been, especially the masters of
merchantmen; and that even at the present day, notwithstanding all the
assistance which science is able to render, their crews often suffer
fearfully from scurvy.

Shooting and fishing parties now went out constantly, and an ample
supply of wild-fowl was obtained.  The bay was also surveyed, and found
to contain several good harbours.  Some exploring expeditions for short
distances into the exterior were also started, but very few natives were
met with.  There appeared, indeed, to be only three or four families
settled in the neighbourhood, and it was not understood why they had
separated themselves from their countrymen; but it was conjectured that
they were the remnant of a tribe which, in one of the frequent native
wars, had escaped massacre.  Only one of these families became intimate
with the strangers, in whom they showed unusual confidence by taking up
their quarters very near to the watering-place.

These people evinced little astonishment at sight of a few sheep and
goats which, having escaped the effects of the cold, were taken on
shore, but stared at them with what appeared to be stupid insensibility;
and when various articles of European manufacture were offered to them
they received these gifts with indifference, except, indeed, hatchets
and spike-nails, the value of which they could comprehend.

After some further acquaintance, the head of this family and his
daughter were persuaded to visit the ship.  Before venturing on board,
he presented to the captain a piece of cloth and a green talc hatchet;
he gave another to Mr Forster, and the girl gave one to Mr Hodges.
This custom of making presents had been found common with the natives of
the South Sea Islands, but had not before been observed among the New
Zealanders.  After these propitiatory gifts were received, and before
stepping on to the stage which led to the deck, the native took a small
green branch in his hand, with which he several times struck the ship's
side, while he also repeated a speech or prayer.  When this ceremony was
concluded he stepped on deck.

On taking leave of this New Zealander, Captain Cook was presented by him
with another piece of native cloth, with the expression of a wish for a
cloak in return.  One of red baize was accordingly given to him, and
seemed to afford great satisfaction.  Thus far, therefore, on this
visit, intercourse with these aborigines of the new country was pleasant
and successful.

Other natives were afterwards seen by some of the explorers, who were on
a shooting expedition.  These set up a hideous noise, and were with
difficulty persuaded to approach and lay down their spears.  At last one
of them came forward, with a plant in his hand, one end of which he
presented to Captain Cook, while he himself held the other.  He then
began a long speech with frequent pauses, and as soon as the captain
replied--of course, not understanding a word that was said--the savage
proceeded in his harangue.  This done, he took off his cloak, which he
put on the captain's shoulders, and seemed to consider that their peace
was established.  The natives followed the English to the boat, and
seeing some muskets lying across the stern, desired them to be taken
away, having probably observed their effects on the wild ducks.  They
then assisted to launch the boat, but it was necessary to keep a
watchful eye on them, for they wanted to take away everything in the
boat on which they could lay hands.  No canoes were observed belonging
to these people, two or three logs of wood tied together serving them
for crossing rivers; indeed, fish and fowl were so plentiful that they
had not far to go in order to procure food.

In accordance with Cook's desire to benefit the countries he visited, he
took five geese which he had brought from the Cape of Good Hope, and
left them in a retired cove (which was on that account called Goose
Cove), in hope that they might there multiply and be useful to future
inhabitants.  A garden was also dug, and, with the same object in view,
various sorts of garden seeds were sown in it.

On April 28, the tents and other articles being taken on board, the
Resolution once more got under way, though, owing to light and contrary
winds, it was not till May 11 that she was fairly at sea.  She then
proceeded along the west coast, towards Queen Charlotte's Sound, in
Cook's Straits, between the two islands.  Nothing of importance occurred
till the ship was about three leagues to the westward of Cape Stephens,
when just as it fell calm six waterspouts appeared round her, four
between her and the land, and one outside; the sixth in the south-west,
two or three miles off.  Progressing in a crooked line to the
north-east, it passed within fifty yards of her stern.  A gun had been
got ready to fire into it when it should come nearer.  The diameter of
the base was about sixty feet, the sea within which was much agitated,
and foamed up to great height.  From this the water appeared to be
carried in a spiral stream up to the clouds.  Some of the seamen said
that they saw a bird in it, which was whirled round like the fly of a
jack.  During the time the waterspouts were in sight there were light
puffs of wind from all points of the compass, while occasionally large
drops of rain fell.

On the 18th the Resolution appeared off Queen Charlotte's Sound, where,
greatly to the satisfaction of all on board, her consort, the Adventure,
was found to be awaiting her.  Her boats soon came out, and the
Resolution was brought to an anchor in Ship Cove, close to her.  Captain
Furneaux at once came on board, and gave Captain Cook a narrative of his
proceedings after being separated from him.  Having in vain looked-for
the Resolution, he bore away to the north, till Van Diemen's Land was
sighted.  He sailed along the east coast for some distance, some parts
of which appeared fertile and thickly populated.  The Adventure lay
within Maria Island for five days, to take in wood and water, and then
proceeded to the north along shore.  For some distance no land was seen,
but as the soundings were very regular, Captain Furneaux was of opinion
that no straits existed between New Holland and Van Diemen's Land, but
only a very deep bay.  Having come to this erroneous opinion, he bore
away for New Zealand, and had been five weeks in Ship Cove when the
Resolution appeared.  He had kept up a friendly intercourse with the
natives, who frequently asked for Tupia, and seemed much concerned when
told that he was dead.

While at Queen Charlotte's Sound Captain Cook had a garden planted, as
before, and gave the natives some potatoes, explaining their use and the
mode of cultivating them.  A pair of goats and a boar and two sows were
put on shore, in the hopes of their multiplying.  A ewe and ram, which
had been brought with great trouble and care to the place, were also
landed, but the following day were found dead, from having eaten some
poisonous plant.

An idea had prevailed on board the Adventure that the natives were ready
to sell their children.  This Captain Cook soon proved to be incorrect.
Their object in bringing them on board was to obtain presents for them.
A man brought his son, a boy of about ten years of age, and at first
Captain Cook fancied from what he had heard that the object of the
father was to sell him, but he soon found that it was merely to obtain a
white shirt, which was given.  The boy was so proud of it that he went
about showing it to everybody he met, till he encountered old Will, the
goat, who, making a butt at him, knocked him over in some dirt, sadly
soiling his shirt.  The boy considered the mischief irreparable, and was
afraid of appearing before his father.  At last he was brought in by Mr
Forster, when he told a lamentable story against the great "dog"--nor
was he comforted till his shirt was washed and dried.  Captain Cook
justly remarks in his journal that this incident shows how easily people
can be deceived, when ignorant of the language, as to the customs and
habits of the natives of foreign countries.

While these friendly natives were on board, a strange canoe full of
people entered the harbour.  The natives on seeing them said they were
enemies, and two of them mounted the arm chests on the poop, one armed
with a native hatchet, and the other with a spear, and, in bravado, bade
their enemies defiance.  The rest who were on board, jumping into their
canoe, went on shore, probably to secure their women and children.  The
two who remained begged Captain Cook to fire at the strangers.  The
latter, however, came on board, apparently without having had any evil
intentions, and peace was soon established among all parties.  The
strangers at once asked for Tupia, and hearing that he was dead, one or
two expressed their sorrow in a way which appeared more formal than
real.

A brisk trade was soon established with the newcomers; but the
thoughtless seamen were so ready to give even the clothes off their
backs for the merest trifles, neither useful nor ornamental, that the
captain was compelled to dismiss the strangers.  He afterwards crossed
the harbour with Mr Forster and one of the officers to a spot where a
hundred natives--men, women, and children--were collected, with six
canoes, and apparently all their utensils.  These they seem always to
carry with them when they go even a short distance from home, lest they
should be stolen by their enemies in their absence.

The state of constant warfare and consequent distrust in which they
lived, especially in the Middle Island, was very evident, for they were
generally found on their guard, travelling or working with their weapons
in their hands; even the women were seen occasionally armed with spears.
Captain Cook had reason to believe that the entire population of the
Sound had changed since he was there in 1770, as he could not recognise
the face of a single person he then knew.  Those who asked for Tupia had
possibly not seen him, but had only heard of him from their countrymen,
among whom he was very popular.  The immorality of the natives met with
during their visit to New Zealand appears to have been very flagrant,
and it is sad to reflect that advantage was taken of it by the seamen,
without the slightest rebuke or censure from their superiors; indeed, it
cannot be discovered from the journals of the officers that they were at
all aware of their duties as a Christian people with regard to heathen
savages whose shores they visited.

The king's birthday was spent with the usual festivities, the officers
of the two ships dining together.

On June 7, 1773, the two ships put out to sea, with the intention of
exploring all the unknown parts of the ocean between the meridian of New
Zealand and Cape Horn.  In case of separation they were to rendezvous at
Otaheite, where Captain Furneaux was to wait till August 20, and then to
proceed to Queen Charlotte's Sound.  If not joined at that place before
November 20 by Captain Cook, he was to put to sea, and carry out the
instructions he had received from the Admiralty.  Cook's object in
attempting to explore in so high a latitude during the winter season was
to get some of the work done which would otherwise have occupied the
precious months of summer; and besides, he wished to show future
navigators that it would be practicable to make discoveries even in the
depths of winter.

After leaving New Zealand, the course steered was generally about
north-east, so that the ships soon got into a warm latitude, and the men
once more put on their cool clothing.  Sad news was brought on board the
Resolution at this time, June 29.  It was that scurvy had broken out on
board the Adventure; that her cook had died, and that twenty men were
ill with that complaint and the flux.  The Resolution had only three men
on the sick-list, and but one of these had the scurvy.  A few others,
showing symptoms of it, were supplied with wort, marmalade of carrots,
and thickened juice of lemons.  It appeared that the crew of the
Adventure, during the six weeks they were in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
had eaten no vegetables, partly from not knowing what herbs to gather,
and also from the inveterate dislike of the seamen to a new diet.
Captain Cook had, from the first, when he thought it necessary, insisted
on having wild celery, scurvy grass, and other herbs boiled with the
pease and wheat, both for officers and men; and though some refused to
eat it, he was firm, and would allow no other food to be served out, so
that at last the prejudice wore off.  Captain Furneaux instantly made
use of all the remedies in his power, and his people improved in health.
Still it was necessary for their sakes to put into harbour where
vegetables could be procured, and a course was accordingly steered for
Otaheite.

Several small low islands, clothed with cocoanut trees, were seen, but
the necessity of reaching a harbour without delay prevented their
examination.

On August 15, Osnaburg Island, or Maitea, was seen, and the ships then
steered for Oaiti-piha Bay, near the south-east end of Otaheite, in
order to procure there such refreshments as the place could afford.

At daybreak they found themselves not half a league from a reef, towards
which the scud of the sea rapidly sent them, the wind having completely
fallen.  The depth was too great to anchor, and the boats failed to tow
the ships off.  A number of natives came off with provisions, but seemed
totally unconscious of the dangerous position of the ships.  It was
curious that, though they recognised Captain Cook and those who had been
there before, no one asked for Tupia.

The position of the ships became more and more critical; the captain had
hoped to get round the end of the reef, but as they drew nearer and
nearer this hope vanished, and shipwreck seemed certain.  Just then a
passage was discovered through the reef, but a boat being sent ahead to
sound, it was found that there was not water sufficient for the ships to
pass over: indeed, so strongly did the flood-tide set towards it, that
the Resolution seemed nearer than ever to destruction.  The horrors of
shipwreck stared the explorers in the face; there was no wind to fill
their sails; the boats were powerless; the only means of saving the
ships was to anchor; but would the anchors hold?  They were let go, and
the Resolution was brought up in less than three-fathom water, striking
at every fall of the sea, while the Adventure brought up close on her
bow without striking.  Kedge anchors and hawsers were now carried out,
and found ground; by hauling on these the ship was got afloat, but there
was a fear that these would come home or be cut by the rocks, and
nothing could then have saved the Resolution.  Happily, they held on
till the tide turned, when a light breeze coming off the land both
vessels made sail, and got out of danger, though with the loss of
several anchors and cables.

The next day the ships anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay, about two cables'
length from the shore.  Both ships were crowded with natives, who
brought off cocoanuts, plantains, bananas, apples, yams, and other
fruits and vegetables, which they exchanged for nails and beads.
Presents of shirts and axes were made to several who called themselves
chiefs, or _earees_, and who promised to bring off hogs and fowls,
which, however, they did not do.  These earees did not scruple to pilfer
whatever came in their way, and one of them, who pretended to be very
friendly, was found handing articles which did not belong to him out of
the quarter-galley.  As his companions on deck were behaving in the same
way, they were all turned out of the ship, and two muskets were fired
over the head of the chief offender to frighten him.  On this, he jumped
out of his canoe, which, with two others, was brought on board, and a
gun was fired along shore, but so as not to hurt any one.  This soon
cleared the coast.  In one of the canoes was a little boy, who was at
first very much frightened, but beads were given to him, and he was sent
in safety on shore.  This quickly restored the confidence of the
natives, and all by the evening were again good friends.

The intercourse with the natives now went on with tolerable smoothness,
though their thieving propensities frequently nearly brought about a
rupture.  On one occasion, in Captain Cook's presence, a native seized
the musket of one of the guards on shore, and made off with it.  Some of
the seamen were sent after him, but he would have escaped had not the
natives also given chase, knocked down the thief, and brought back the
musket.  Although fear may possibly have operated on this occasion with
the natives more than a sense of justice, Captain Cook was thankful to
them, because he would certainly have lost ten times the value of the
weapon in endeavouring to recover it by force.

The following day a thief brought on board a quantity of fruit as a
present, among which were a number of cocoanuts, which, after the juice
had been extracted, had been thrown away by the seamen.  These had been
so artfully tied up in bundles that at first the cheat was not
perceived.  The chief did not seem at all ashamed when the trick was
discovered, but having opened a few himself, acknowledged that they were
empty.  On going on shore, however, he sent off a quantity of plantains
and bananas.

A supply of water, fruit, and roots having been got on board, Captain
Cook was preparing to sail for Matavai, when it was announced that
Waheatoua was coming to meet him.  He found the young chief seated in
the open air on a stool, surrounded by a large number of attendants, and
at once recollected him, having known him when a boy, under the name of
Tearee.  He had, on the death of his father, Waheatoua, taken his name.
The chief begged Captain Cook to remain some months, promising hogs and
provisions of all sorts.  He insisted on keeping the captain by his
side, and whenever they moved about the stool was carried after them,
that they might again be seated in the same position.

Before the ships had come to an anchor in Matavai Bay, the decks were
covered with natives, many of whom Captain Cook recognised.  The king,
Otoo, was among those on board, but he took fright without any apparent
reason, and landed again.  The next day an encampment was made on shore
for the sail-makers, coopers, and the sick.  This done, Captain Cook,
accompanied by Captain Furneaux, Mr Forster, and others, set off to
visit Otoo.  He was found seated on the ground, under the shade of a
tree, with a large crowd round him, all standing uncovered, as a mark of
respect; that is, not only their heads bare, but their shoulders, and
some wore no clothing above the breast--his father not excepted.
Presents were made by Captain Cook, and the king was told that they were
given in friendship, and that none would be received in return.  The
king inquired for Tupia, and for all the officers who were on board the
Endeavour on the former voyage.  Otoo, though a fine tall young man, was
very nervous, and acknowledged that he had left the ship because he was
afraid of the guns.  On the 27th, however, he came to the camp with a
large retinue, having first sent on board a quantity of cloth, fruits, a
hog, and two large fish.  He, a sister and younger brother, with several
attendants, were persuaded to visit the ship, and all received presents,
Captain Cook afterwards taking them to their home at Oparree in his
boat.

On landing, the captain met a venerable old lady, the mother of Toutaha.
She seized him by the hands, and bursting into tears, exclaimed,
"Toutaha, the friend of Cook, is dead!"  Captain Cook says that he was
so much affected that he should have wept also had not Otoo drawn him
away.  Captain Furneaux made the king a present of a male and female
goat, in the hope that they might stock the island.

On another occasion, when Otoo came on board, as he entered the cabin
several chiefs who were there immediately uncovered their shoulders,
although they did not rise or show him any other mark of respect.  He
was entertained with the bagpipes, which seemed to have especial charms
for the natives.  The seamen also danced hornpipes and country dances.
In return, the king entertained the voyagers with a dramatic
performance, in which his sister took a part.  The drama seemed to have
reference to the circumstances of the time, as Captain Cook's name was
frequently mentioned.  The lady's dress was very elegant, being
decorated with long tassels made of feathers, hanging from the waist
downwards.  The performance lasted about two hours.  So far as the
disposition of the natives was concerned, the visit seems to have been
satisfactory, though fewer hogs were obtained than were required.  Mr
Pickersgill was sent about in all directions to obtain them, and in one
of his expeditions he saw Oberea, once the person of most importance in
the island.  She had now become old, poor, and of little consequence.

Otoo was very unwilling that the ships should go, and shed tears when he
parted from Captain Cook.  A young lad, called Boreo, was taken on board
the Resolution.  Though he seemed tolerably satisfied, he could not help
weeping as he saw his native island left astern.  Two days afterwards
the ships anchored in the harbour of Owharre, in the island of Huaheine.
The two captains, on landing, were received with the greatest
cordiality by the natives, who, after a few presents had been
distributed amongst them, brought hogs, fowls, dogs, and fruit, which
they exchanged for hatchets, nails, and beads; indeed, there seemed
every prospect of an abundance of provisions being obtained.  The chief,
Oree, who had, on Cook's former visit, exchanged names with him, was
still living, and sent word that he was hastening to see him.  Before,
however, the captain was allowed to leave his boat, five young plantain
trees--the emblem of peace employed by the natives--were brought on
board separately, and with some ceremony.  Three young pigs, their ears
ornamented with cocoanut fibre, accompanied the first three, and a dog
the fourth.  Lastly, the chief sent the inscription engraved on a piece
of pewter which had been left with him in July 1769.

This ceremony ended, the guide who had come to conduct the English to
the shore requested them to decorate three young plantain trees with
looking-glasses, nails, medals, and beads.  This being done, they landed
with the trees in their hands, and were conducted to the chief through a
multitude of people, who made a lane for them to pass.  They were then
made to sit down a few paces from the chief, and the plantains were
taken from them.  One was for their god, one for the king, and the third
for friendship.  Captain Cook then wished to advance to the king, but he
was told that the king would come to him, which he did, falling on his
neck and embracing him; the tears flowing down his venerable cheeks,
showing the affectionate feelings of his heart.  His friends were then
introduced, and presents were made to them.  Cook speaks in the most
affectionate terms of Oree; indeed, all his actions showed him to have
been an upright, kind-hearted man.

The trading expeditions sent out were so successful that three hundred
hogs, besides fowls and vegetables of all sorts, were obtained.  It was
from this island that Captain Furneaux received on board a young man,
named Omai, a native of Ulietea, where he had some property, of which he
had been dispossessed by the people of Bolabola.  Omai was not a chief,
and he was so inferior in figure, complexion, and manners to the chiefs,
that Captain Cook was surprised that Captain Furneaux should have
selected him.  He was not, indeed, a favourable sample of the natives of
the Pacific Isles as far as appearance went.  Ultimately, however, Omai,
by his intelligence and good conduct, won the regard of Captain Cook,
who afterwards, in his journal, speaks of him in warm terms of
commendation.

Here, as elsewhere, there were thieves and rogues.  Mr Sparrman was
attacked while wandering in the woods, beaten, and robbed of his clothes
and hanger.  Oree, on hearing of it, shed tears, and set off in person
to recover the clothes, most of which he got back.  Altogether, however,
the chief and his subjects were among the best disposed of all the
people visited during the voyage.  He came on board the Resolution as
she was leaving the harbour, and did not quit her till he had taken an
affectionate farewell of Captain Cook, when nearly half a league out at
sea.  He then went away in a small canoe, paddled by himself and another
man, all the other natives having long before left the ship.

The following morning the ships entered the harbour of Ohamaneno, in the
island of Ulietea, where they lay safely moored.  The ships were at once
surrounded with canoes, and hogs and vegetables were offered in
abundance.  At first, none of the former would be taken, as the ships
were already crowded; but as killing and salting went on, room was made
for them; and, in all, four hundred and fifty hogs were collected at
this island.  Most of them were brought in canoes from different
directions to the ship, so that there was very little trading on shore.
It was in consequence of the exertions made by Captain Cook in
collecting provisions, and the judicious means he employed, that he was
able to remain away from home so many years, and to make so many
important discoveries.

The chief of that part of the island was Oreo.  Captain Cook paid him a
visit at his own house, and was cordially received.  He, as others had
done, inquired after Tupia and the captain's companions on his former
voyage, by name.  A play was soon got up--the chiefs daughter and seven
men being the actors.  The plot was as follows:--A theft was committed
in a masterly manner, but discovered before the thief had time to carry
off his plunder.  He and his accomplice were attacked by those who had
charge of it; but the latter were beaten off, and the rogues escaped in
triumph.  This incident gives a notion of the moral character of the
people in that respect.  On another occasion Oreo entertained the
strangers with a feast, in the native fashion.  The floor was strewed
thick with leaves, on which hot bread, fruit, and plantains were placed,
with two pigs roasted whole--one of about sixty, the other thirty
pounds.  They were admirably dressed, having been baked in the native
underground ovens, all parts being equally cooked.  Cocoanuts supplied
the beverage, but the visitors had brought some bottles of wine, which
the chief seemed to like, as he both then and always filled his glass
whenever the bottle came to him, but seemed not to be affected by it.
Plays were got up every day for the amusement of the strangers; indeed,
the natives seemed anxious in every way to please them.  The people of
this island appeared to be of a mild, amiable, and timid disposition.

A native lad about eighteen years of age, called Oedidee, joined the
Resolution at this island, in the place of Boreo, who, falling in love
with a damsel he met with, remained that he might marry her.  Oedidee
was a native of Bolabola, and a near relation of the great Opoony, chief
of that island.

On this his second visit to these islands, Captain Cook, knowing more of
the language of the people, was able to gain a better insight into their
habits and customs.  Among other points, he discovered, without doubt,
that human sacrifices were frequently offered up at their morais.  At
first the natives would only acknowledge that criminals were killed, but
afterwards they confessed that any whom the priest chose to denounce
were offered up.  Thus, a priest who had a dislike to a man might at any
moment doom him to death by pronouncing him a bad man.  He then sent out
his executioners, who, with a couple of blows from their heavy clubs,
struck the unsuspecting victim dead at their feet.  The corpse was
forthwith carried to the morais, when the chief, who was compelled to
attend such sacrifices, had the eye offered to him to eat!  At some of
the islands, the inhabitants of which Captain Cook describes as the most
happy on earth, the priests held this terrific power to a fearful
extent.  At the time of his thus writing he was not aware of the fact
which is so strikingly illustrative of the declaration of holy writ,
that "the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of
cruelty."

On September 17, 1773, the ships were again at sea.  It was the
intention of Captain Cook to get into the latitude of Middleburg and
Amsterdam, in order to touch there before hauling up for New Zealand.
At night they generally lay to, lest any land might be passed in the
dark.  Some small islets clothed with cocoanut trees were passed on the
23rd, and named Hervey's Islands, but no inhabitants were seen on shore.

Middleburg was reached on October 1, and the following day, as the ships
were beating up to an anchorage, two canoes came boldly off to them.
Directly the anchors were dropped, the ships were surrounded by canoes,
bringing cloth and other curiosities.  Among the people who came on
board was a chief, whose good services were secured by the present of a
hatchet, spike-nails, and other articles.  His name was Tioony.  He
piloted the boats to a place where the landing was very easy, and where
a large concourse of people were assembled to receive them with
commodities, which they pressed on their visitors, scarcely expecting to
receive anything in return.  At last, the chief, making the people open
right and left, conducted his visitors to his house, which was
delightfully situated about three hundred yards from the sea, at the
head of a fine lawn under the shade of some shaddock trees.  The floor
was covered with mats, on which the guests were invited to be seated,
the people arranging themselves on the ground in a circle outside.  The
piper having landed, Captain Cook ordered the bagpipes to be played,
and, in return, three young women sang with a very good grace.  A
present being made to each of these, all the other women commenced
singing.  Their songs were musical and harmonious, and in no way harsh
or disagreeable.  The chief had another house in an adjoining
plantation, to which his guests were conducted, and where they were
entertained with bananas and cocoanuts, and bowls of cava; though, on
witnessing the mode of preparing that beverage, the thirst of the
visitors was sufficiently quenched.  They were seated in an open space
in front of the house, which was surrounded with fruit and other trees,
whose fragrance filled the air.

The chief, Tioony, went on board and dined, and then, at their request,
conducted the strangers through part of the island.  There were numerous
plantations of fir trees and edible roots, laid out with great judgment,
and enclosed with neat fences made of reeds.  The ships were crowded the
whole day with people trafficking, and perfect good order prevailed.  In
the evening, on the return of the officers on board, they expressed
themselves highly delighted with the country and the very obliging
behaviour of the inhabitants, who seemed to vie with each other in doing
what they thought would please their visitors.

The group of islands, at one of which the ships now were, was called the
Tonga Islands; but Cook, from the treatment he received, named them the
Friendly Islands, by which name they are now generally known.  Tasman,
who discovered them in 1642-3, named the two principal islands Amsterdam
and Middleburg.  The former is called by the natives Tongatabu, or the
Great Tonga; the latter Ea-oo-we.  There are other volcanic islands to
the north, belonging to the group, not then known.

Leaving Ea-oo-we, or Middleburg, the ships ran down to Tongatabu,
keeping about half a mile from the shore, on which the sea broke with a
heavy surf.  With the aid of glasses it was seen that every part of the
shore was laid out in plantations, while the natives were observed
running along the shore waving small white flags, which were, of course,
looked on as an emblem of peace.  They were answered by hoisting a Saint
George's ensign.  Several canoes paddled alongside, and the people in
them, after presenting the cava root, came boldly on board.  The ships
anchored in Van Diemen's Road, just outside the breakers, with a
casting-anchor and cable to seaward in forty-seven-fathom water, to
prevent them from tailing on the rocks.  Their decks were quickly
crowded with natives, who brought off only native cloths, for which the
seamen too readily gave them clothes.  To put a stop to this proceeding,
Captain Cook ordered that no sort of curiosities should be purchased by
any person whatever.  The good effect of this order was visible next
morning, when, instead of comparatively useless articles, the natives
brought off bananas and cocoanuts in abundance, and some pigs and fowls.

Proper arrangements having been made for conducting the trade, the
captains landed under the guidance of a chief, Attago, who had at once
singled out Captain Cook as the principal person, and offered him the
usual presents.  Cook and Attago also exchanged names, the custom of so
doing being practised at the Friendly as well as at the Society Islands.
The friendly chief pointed out a creek into which the boats could run,
and on landing the visitors were seated under the shade of a tree, the
people forming a circle round them; but no one attempted to push
forward, as was the habit of the Otaheiteans.  The officers then begged
Attago to show them the country.  This, without hesitation, he at once
signified his readiness to do.

The first visit was paid to a sort of temple in an open green, raised on
the top of an artificial mound, about seventeen feet above the level
ground.  The mound was of an oblong form, enclosed by a wall, and the
building, which differed little from the ordinary dwelling-houses of the
people, was of the same shape.  On approaching this temple the people
seated themselves on the grass, about fifty yards off, when three
venerable-looking priests appeared and addressed the strangers, with
whom, as soon as their speech was finished, they came and sat down, when
some presents were made to them.  After this, Attago signified that the
strangers were welcome to examine the temple.  In the interior were some
images, but when Cook inquired if they were Etuas, or gods, Attago
kicked them over without any ceremony, to show that he did not look upon
them with reverence.  Neither Omai nor Oedidee understood the language
spoken by the natives of Tonga, consequently it was difficult to
ascertain the exact object of the building.

It appears extraordinary to us at the present day, and it is painful to
narrate, that Captain Cook should have conceived it right, as he said he
did, to make an offering at the altar.  He and his companions,
therefore, laid down some blue pebbles, coins, nails, and other
articles, as presents to the gods of these poor heathens.  Unhappily,
this proceeding was in accordance with the customs of our countrymen,
and even of the English Government in India, who, to a much later
period, furnished a money grant to the temple of Juggernaut (one of the
principal gods of the Hindoos), and it was only in comparatively modern
times that this disgraceful grant was discontinued.  In the present
instance, however, it did not appear that these offerings were looked
upon as particularly sacred, as the chief, Attago, took them up, and
placing them in the folds of his dress, appropriated them to himself.

The green in which this temple stood was at the junction of several
roads, two or three of which were very much frequented.  The high road
along which the chief led the strangers was perfectly level, and sixteen
feet broad; many others led into it, and all were enclosed on each side
with neat fences made of reeds, and shaded from the scorching sun by
fruit trees.  Not an inch of ground was waste; the roads occupied no
more space than was necessary, while the fences did not take up above
four inches on each side, and even this was not wholly lost, for many of
them were composed of useful trees or shrubs.  Numbers of people were
met, some travelling down to the ships with their burdens of fruits and
other articles for barter.  All courteously got out of the road, sitting
down or standing with their backs to the fences as their visitors
passed.

At most of the cross roads the temples just described were seen standing
on mounds, but were surrounded by palisades instead of stone walls.
After walking several miles a larger temple than usual was reached, and
near it was a house, at which the party stopped, and were treated with
fruit and other provisions, while an old priest made a long speech.
These temples at the cross roads remind us of the shrines set up to
legendary saints in Roman Catholic countries.

The party returned on board with Attago, and while at dinner they
received a visit from an old chief of superior rank, in whose presence
the former would not sit down or eat.  As soon, however, as the old man
was gone, Attago took his place, finished his dinner, and drank two
glasses of wine.

Here, as at most places, the natives of inferior rank showed a
disposition to thieve.  Poor Mr Wales was found seated on the shore,
unable to move, for having, when landing, in order to wade to the shore,
taken off his shoes and stockings, a native had run off with them, and
it was impossible for him to follow over the sharp coral rocks.  Attago,
however, soon discovered the thief, and had the stolen garments
returned.  On two or three other occasions the boats were pillaged, and
a man, having run off with a seaman's jacket, though hotly pursued and
fired at, would not abandon his prize till intercepted by some of the
English on shore.  A native also got into the master's cabin, and had
stolen some articles, when, as he was leaping through the port into his
canoe to escape, he was discovered.  He was pursued by one of the boats,
when, taking to the water, he dived under her several times, just as the
men thought they were about to catch hold of him.  Finally, he contrived
to unship the rudder, and thus rendering the boat unmanageable, made his
escape.

Just as the explorers were about to sail, it was discovered that there
was a much greater person in the island than any one they had yet seen.
Mr Pickersgill, who had met him, said that the people paid him
extraordinary respect; that some, when they approached him, fell on
their faces, and put their heads between their feet, and that no one
presumed to pass him without permission.  When, however, Captain Cook
saw the monarch, he took him for an idiot, from his stolid or sullen
manner.  On being spoken to, he neither answered nor altered a feature
of his countenance, and even when a shirt was put on him, and other
articles were placed by his side, he neither lifted an arm of his own
accord, nor put out his hand to receive them.  Probably, however, this
manner was assumed, as adding, in his opinion, to his dignity, as he was
afterwards caught laughing at something Attago said to him.

During the whole time of their stay at this island, Attago had proved
himself of great use to Captain Cook and his companions.  He had
presented himself on board the captain's ship every morning, and did not
quit his side till dark.  On the departure of the ships he earnestly
pressed the captain to return, and to bring cloth and axes, promising
hogs, fowls, fruit, and roots in abundance.  He asked also, for himself,
a uniform similar to that worn by the captain.  Among other presents
made by Cook to this friendly chief were two dogs, as there were none at
that time in the island; indeed, pigs appear to have been the only
four-footed animals in the possession of the inhabitants, although they
knew of the existence of dogs.  Besides fowls, there were pigeons,
doves, parrots, and other birds.  The whole island was thoroughly
cultivated, and produced bread-fruit, cocoanut trees, plantains,
bananas, shaddocks, yams, and other roots, the sugar-cane, and a fruit
like a nectarine.  The roads also were so well laid out that there was
an easy communication from one part of the island to the other in every
direction.  There were no towns or villages, but most of the houses
stood in the midst of plantations.  They were neatly constructed, but
not much superior to those of the Society Islands.  The floor, however,
was slightly raised, and covered with thick mats; the same sort of
matting serving to enclose them on the weather side, while on the
opposite they were left open.

The ingenuity of this people was more especially exhibited in the
construction of their canoes, which were superior to any that had been
seen in the Pacific, though their tools were made of stone, bone, or
shells, like those of the other islanders.  The canoes are built of
several pieces, sewed together in so neat a manner that on the outside
no join could be seen.  They were of two kinds, double and single.  The
single were from twenty to thirty feet long, and twenty-two inches broad
in the middle, with wedge-shaped heads and sterns, and decked over at
both ends, leaving only a third part open.  They had outriggers, and
some few carried sails, but were generally impelled by short paddles,
the blades of which were broadest in the middle.  The double canoes were
composed of two vessels, each from sixty to seventy feet long, and four
or five broad in the middle, and sharp at each end.  They were fastened
together by strong beams placed across their gunwales, which were raised
for that purpose, and they were kept about seven feet apart.  A platform
of boards was placed on these beams, and served as a deck.  They were
very strongly built, and as the canoes themselves were also decked over,
they might be immersed to the very platform without sinking.  On the
platform was a hut, serving as a cabin for the crew, and there was a
hatchway through the platform into the hulls by which the water was
baled out.  The canoes also carried, as a movable fire-hearth, a square,
shallow trough of wood, filled with stones.  They were rigged with one
mast, which could be easily lowered, and had a lateen sail of matting,
stretched on a long, slightly-bent yard, which could be quickly shifted
round when beating to windward.  These vessels were capable of making
long voyages, and the Tonga islanders were in the habit of going to
Fejee, where they built canoes for the natives, and had probably
extended their voyages to the Navigators' Group, and possibly to New
Zealand itself.  Indeed, when these vessels are seen, there is no
difficulty in understanding the means by which so large a number of the
islands of the Pacific have been peopled by the same race, some
retaining a portion of the civilisation their ancestors possessed,
others losing it altogether.

The natives of Tonga were slightly tattooed, and their natural
complexion was of a light copper colour.  The size of both men and women
was that of ordinary Europeans.  The dress of both sexes consisted of a
piece of cloth or matting, wrapped round the waist and hanging below the
knees, while their shoulders and arms were uncovered, and usually
anointed.  They wore their hair short, and had ornaments in the form of
necklaces, bracelets, and finger-rings, made of bone, shells, or
mother-of-pearl.  Their cloth was of the same material as that of
Otaheite, but coarser and more durable, because glazed so as to resist
the rain.  They used vegetable dyes of various colours--brown, purple,
yellow, red, and black.  Their baskets, made of the same material as
their mats, were very beautiful.  They had different kinds of musical
instruments: one of these was a sort of flute, which was made resonant
by the breath of the nostril; another was similar to Pandean pipes, and
composed of reeds; and a third was a drum made out of a heavy log.
Their mode of saluting was like that of the New Zealanders, by rubbing
noses together; and when anything was presented to them, they put it on
their heads as a sign of its being accepted.

The government of the country was vested in a great chief or king,
called the Areeke; and there were other chiefs under him, as governors
of districts.  It seemed pretty evident to the voyagers that the land of
the island was apportioned among certain dignitaries, for whom the rest
of the community worked, either as free labourers or slaves.  When
purchases were made by the English, although the collected goods were
brought to market by a number of natives, one person uniformly received
payment, and no bargain was struck without his consent.

Captain Cook was unable to obtain information respecting the religion of
the people, excepting that he saw their temples and tombs in his
excursions through the island.  It was observed, however, that nearly
all the adults had lost the little finger of one hand, some of both
hands, and it was conjectured that the amputation was made at the death
of parents or other relations.  The people also burnt incisions in their
cheeks, near the cheek-bone, probably also as a sign of mourning for the
dead.

The expedition sailed from Tongatabu on October 7, Captain Cook's last
act being to send off by a canoe, to his friend Attago, some wheat,
peas, and beans, which he had neglected to give him with other seeds.  A
course was then shaped for Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New Zealand,
there to take in wood and water; the commander intending afterwards to
continue his discoveries to the south and east.  The next day the lofty
island of Pilstart was seen.  It lies thirty-two leagues south by west
from the south end of Eua.  On the 21st the north end of New Zealand was
made, and the ships ran down the east coast for the purpose of
communicating with the natives, Captain Cook being very anxious to give
them seeds and animals with which to stock the country.  He had,
however, no opportunity of doing this till he reached Cape Kidnappers,
when a canoe came off with two men, who, by their dress and behaviour,
appeared to be chiefs.  To the principal of these, pigs, fowls, seeds,
and roots were given, and a promise exacted that he would not kill the
animals.  He seemed more delighted with a long spike-nail which was
offered him than with the animals.  It was evident that the people on
the coast had not forgotten what occurred on the previous voyage, as the
first words they uttered on coming on board were, "We are afraid of the
guns;" yet they seemed to understand that if they behaved properly they
would be well treated.

Soon after this a heavy gale sprang up, which lasted several days.
During its continuance the Adventure was separated from the Resolution,
and no more was seen or heard of her during the remainder of the voyage.
The stormy weather continued for some time, and the Resolution had all
her sails split before she at length came to an anchor in an inlet
discovered on the east side of Cape Teerawhitte.  While she lay at
anchor, some natives came off who were tempted on board with the offer
of nails, which they highly valued.  To one of the men two cocks and two
hens were given, but it was feared from his manner, on receiving the
present, that he would not take proper care of them.

The next day, the gale having abated, the Resolution proceeded to Ship
Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound.  Here the sails were unbent to be
repaired, and tents were set up on shore.  It was now discovered that
the bread, which was in casks, was greatly damaged.  It was therefore
examined, the copper oven was set up, and the better portions re-baked.
The natives at once visited the ship, several of whom Captain Cook
remembered, especially an old man, Goubiah by name.  Some of them
appropriated whatever they could find on shore unguarded, and, among
other things, a seaman's bag of clothes.  These were, however, recovered
by the captain, who made, he says, a "friendly application for them," a
mode of proceeding which, with a due exhibition of power, might possibly
have succeeded on other occasions under similar circumstances.  The
youngest of the two sows which Captain Furneaux had put on shore in
Cannibal Cove was seen with these people, but lame of a leg and very
tame.  It was said that the other had been killed, but this was
afterwards found not to be the case.  The people proved to be adepts in
thieving, and one chief, pretending to keep his countrymen at a proper
distance, with furious actions, was discovered putting a handkerchief
into his bosom which he had just picked out of Captain Cook's pocket.  A
fresh party, after bartering fish for cloth very fairly, stole six small
water-casks, and then made off in a fright, leaving a boar, which had
been given them, and some of their own dogs.  It is pleasant to have to
describe the persevering endeavours of Captain Cook to stock the country
with animals likely to prove useful to the inhabitants, little thinking
how largely his own countrymen would benefit by his labours, and that,
before a century would have passed by, vast flocks of sheep, and horned
cattle, and horses would be feeding on the widely extended pastures of
those fertile islands.

Before sailing, when at length one day his visitors had left him, he
took on shore three sows and a boar, two cocks and two hens, carrying
them some little way into the woods, where they were left with a supply
of food to last them for ten or twelve days.  The food was left that the
animals might remain in the woods, and not roam down to the shore, where
they might be discovered by the natives.  Some cocks and hens were also
left in Ship Cove, but as the natives occasionally went there, there was
a risk of the birds falling into their hands.  Two more goats were
landed, but the he-goat was seized with a sort of fit, and was supposed
to have rushed into the sea and been drowned, as his mate, who followed
him when he started off on his mad career, came back without him.  The
vegetables which had been planted on the former visit had thriven, and
most of the potatoes had been dug up.

All the time of the ship's stay a friendly intercourse was kept up with
the natives.  The best way of securing peace with savages, Captain Cook
observes, is by first convincing them of your superiority, and then by
being always on your guard.  A regard for their own safety will then
prevent them from being unanimous in forming any plan to attack you,
while strict honesty and kindly treatment will gain their friendship.
These principles mainly guided the great navigator in his intercourse
with the savages he visited, and it was owing to this that he was so
long able to pursue his useful discoveries.

He had ample evidence on this occasion of the savage character of the
people by whom he was surrounded.  A party of them had gone away on a
war expedition, and returned with the body of a youth whom they had
killed.  Most of the body had been eaten, when one of the officers
brought the head and a portion of the flesh on board.  This latter was
boiled and eaten by one of the natives with avidity, in the presence of
Captain Cook and most of the officers and ship's company.  This horrid
proceeding had such an effect on some of the men, as well as on the
captain, as to make them sick.  [Note 2.]  It had a still greater effect
on the native of Otaheite, Oedidee.  He at first became perfectly
motionless, and looked the personification of horror.  When aroused from
this state he burst into tears, and continued to weep and scold by
turns, telling the New Zealanders that they were vile men, and that he
would no longer be their friend.  He would not suffer them to touch him.
He used the same language to one of the crew who tasted the flesh, and
refused to accept or to touch the knife with which it had been cut.  It
would be difficult to paint more perfectly than Captain Cook has done,
in the above description, the natural horror felt by human beings when
first becoming aware of the existence of cannibalism.  It must be
remembered that the people of Otaheite and those of New Zealand
evidently sprang from the same race; and it is remarkable that the
latter should have become addicted to such an abominable practice, while
the former viewed it with unmitigated horror.  Captain Cook says that he
did not suppose the New Zealanders to have commenced the practice for
want of food, as their coasts supplied a vast quantity of fish and
wild-fowl, and they had also numerous dogs which they ate.  They had
also some vegetables and many land birds.  He was not aware that at the
distance of a few days' sail there was a race of men equal, if not
superior, in intelligence to the New Zealanders, still more addicted to
the horrible practice, the accounts of which, thoroughly authenticated
as they are, make the heart sicken at the thought of the depths of
depravity to which human nature can sink.

In vain the Adventure was looked-for.  The unanimous opinion was that
she was not stranded, nor likely to be in any neighbouring harbour; and
as no actual rendezvous had been appointed, all hopes of seeing her
again during the voyage were abandoned.  This, however, did not
discourage Cook from pursuing his researches in the South Pacific, in
which he intended to occupy the whole of the ensuing summer; while his
officers and crew expressed themselves willing to accompany him even
without their consort, wherever he might think fit to go.

On the morning of November 26 the Resolution took her departure from
Cape Palliser, and steered south, inclining to the east.  Heavy gales
were soon met with, and on the morning of December 12, in latitude 62
degrees 10 minutes South and longitude 172 degrees West, the first
iceberg was seen, as also were many antarctic birds; while the explorers
were greeted with a fresh gale and thick haze and snow, a great sea,
rolling up from the north-west and south-west, at the same time showing
that there was no continent in that direction, unless at a great
distance.  Two days afterwards more large ice islands and loose ice were
encountered; and with strong gales of wind, a heavy sea, dense
snow-storms and fogs, surrounded by masses of floating ice, the ship
pursued her course to the east.  Christmas Day was calm, and, with a
hundred ice islands in sight, the ship was allowed to drift quietly on.
Providentially, the weather was clear, with a light air, and as there
was continued daylight she was prevented from falling aboard any of the
masses of ice.  Had it been blowing, and as foggy as on the preceding
days, a miracle alone could have saved her from being dashed to pieces.
A full description of this part of the voyage would be tedious.
Especially so must the reality have been to the voyagers; and before
long all began to feel the effects of the bitter weather to which they
were exposed.  Cook himself was dangerously ill, though he concealed his
malady from the crew.

On January 30, at four in the morning, the clouds over the horizon were
perceived to be of an unusual snow-white brightness, denoting a wide
extent of ice.  By eight the ship was close to its edge, when, from the
mast-head, it was seen to extend to the brink of the southern horizon,
as well as to the east and west; while ninety-seven ice mountains were
counted rising out of it.  To penetrate this field was hopeless, and at
length the captain, to the satisfaction of all on board, announced his
intention of proceeding in search of the island of Juan Fernandez, said
to have been discovered a century before, in latitude 38 degrees, and
failing to find it, to look for Easter Island, or Davis Land, which had
been unsuccessfully sought for by Byron, Carteret, and Bougainville.
After this he purposed getting within the tropic, and had thoughts of
running as far west as the Tierra Austral del Spiritu Santo of Quiros.
In vain the island of Juan Fernandez was looked-for in the latitude in
which it was supposed to lie, and the conclusion arrived at was, that
though such an island might be in existence, it could occupy but a small
space in the ocean.

The captain was now again taken ill of what he calls a bilious colic,
which was so severe as to confine him to his bed, the charge of the ship
devolving on Mr Cooper.  Mr Patten, the surgeon, proved not only a
skilful physician, but an affectionate friend.  A favourite dog
belonging to Mr Forster fell a sacrifice, it being killed and made into
soup for the captain, there being no other fresh meat in the ship.  A
few fish were afterwards caught, which were very acceptable to him.

Early on the morning of March 11, 1774, land was seen about twelve
leagues distant, which, to the joy of all on board, ultimately proved to
be the long-sought-for Easter Island.  On getting near the coast, off a
sandy beach, two men in a canoe came off, and after sending up, by a
rope, a bunch of plantains, they returned to shore.  This showed the
good disposition of the islanders, and gave the voyagers hopes of
obtaining refreshments.  A better anchorage than this part of the coast
afforded having been found, the ship brought up here.  On the English
landing, a few potatoes, plantains, and sugar-canes were brought to
them; but the natives were such expert thieves that those on board could
scarcely keep their hats on their heads or anything in their pockets.  A
supply of potatoes was obtained; indeed, this appeared to be the chief
production of the island.  The natives had been digging them up as fast
as they could from a field close to the landing-place, till a person
arrived who appeared to be the rightful owner, and who drove all the
rest away.

As Captain Cook was unable to walk any distance, he sent Lieutenants
Pickersgill and Edgecombe, with a party of men armed, to explore the
country.  They were at first pressed on by a crowd of the natives, till
a man appeared, tattooed and painted, who drove them away, and then,
hoisting a piece of white cloth on a spear, marched forward at the head
of the party.  A considerable portion of the island was barren and
stony, but in other parts were plantations of potatoes, plantains, and
sugar-canes.  Water was very scarce, and hardly drinkable.  Some huts
were found, the owners of which came out with roasted potatoes and
sugar-canes, and as the party marched in single file on account of the
narrow path, gave some to each man as he passed by.  They distributed
water in the same manner.  On the east side, near the sea, three ruinous
platforms of stone were met with, on each of which had stood four large
statues; but most of them had fallen down and been broken.  Mr Wales
measured an entire one, and found it to be fifteen feet in length and
six feet across the shoulders.  On the head of each statue was a large
cylinder of a red-coloured stone.  One of these cylinders, which was
measured, was fifty-two inches high, and sixty-six in diameter.  There
were others, however, very much larger.  Some of them were perfectly
round, others had a cavity worked out, in the upper edge, for a quarter
of the way round.

The opposite side of the island to this, to which their guide conducted
them, was full of these gigantic statues, some placed in groups, on
masonry, others single, fixed only in the earth.  The latter were much
larger than the others.  One which had fallen down was twenty-seven feet
high and eight feet across the shoulders; and yet this was much shorter
than one they found standing--its shade being sufficient to shelter
their party of nearly thirty persons from the rays of the sun at about
two o'clock.  Near this place was a hill, from which a view of the whole
island was obtained.  Not a creek large enough even for a boat was seen,
nor any indication of fresh water.  In a small hollow on the highest
part of the island several cylinders were found, and Mr Wales was of
opinion that the quarry had been at that spot, and that after the
cylinders had been formed they were rolled down the hill.  There must
have been great difficulty in raising them to the heads of the statues.
It was conjectured that this was done by raising a mound round each
statue and rolling up the stone on it, the mound being afterwards
removed.  It must have required a considerable amount of mechanical
knowledge to bring the statues from the quarry, and to place them
upright.  The natives knew nothing whatever as to the origin of the
statues, nor did they look on them with any respect, nor, indeed, seem
interested in any way in them.  No quadrupeds were seen on the island,
but few birds, and only two sorts of low shrubs.

The party were greatly inconvenienced in their walk by the attempts of
the natives to steal from them, and at length one man, who ran off with
a bagful of provisions, was fired upon with small shot and wounded
slightly.  He dropped the bag, and seemed in no way offended at the
treatment he received.  The people carried short clubs and also spears
with flint heads.  The dress of the chiefs consisted of two pieces of
cloth, one round the waist and the other thrown over the shoulders; but
many were almost naked.  The men wore their hair and beards short, with
a fillet ornamented with feathers round the head; while the women wore
the hair long, and had straw caps, shaped like a Scotch bonnet, on their
heads.  Their habitations were low huts, built with sticks bent
overhead, and joined together so as to form an arch.  The longest seen
was sixty feet long, and only four or five wide.  Their canoes were very
poor, owing to the want of materials, and very few were seen.  Captain
Cook considered that there were about six or seven hundred inhabitants
on the island.  In colour, features, and language they were similar to
the inhabitants of the islands to the west, so that it was evident they
had sprung from the same race.

The Resolution left Easter Island on March 16, and stood
north-west-by-north, and north-north-west, for the Marquesas, with a
fine easterly gale.  Having reached the latitude of the group, the
course was changed to west.  On April 5 first one island and then others
in succession were seen; and the explorers were satisfied that they had
reached the Marquesas, discovered by the Spaniards in 1595.  The first
island seen was called Hood's Island, after the midshipman who
discovered it, and the others were Saint Pedro, Dominica, and Saint
Christina.  The ship, after being nearly driven on the rocks, brought up
in port in the last-mentioned island.  Directly afterwards, thirty or
forty natives came off in ten or twelve canoes, in the bow of each of
which a heap of stones was observed, while all the men had slings
fastened to their hands.  It required some address to get them
alongside, but at last a hatchet and some spike-nails induced the people
in one canoe to venture under the quarter-galley.  The rest then
followed, exchanging bread-fruit and fish for small nails.  At sunset
they all returned to the shore.  The next morning the natives returned
in greater numbers, with plantains, bread-fruit, and a pig, but soon
showed themselves ready to cheat, and to be expert thieves.  Captain
Cook was going into the boat to look for a convenient place to moor the
ship, when, seeing too many natives on board, he warned one of the
officers on deck, saying that something would be stolen.  Just then he
was told that an iron stanchion had been carried off from the opposite
gangway.  He therefore ordered the officer to fire over the canoe till
he could get round in the boat, but to be careful not to kill any one.
But the noise made by the natives prevented this last warning from being
heard, and at the third shot the unhappy thief was killed.  Two other
natives who were in the canoe leaped overboard, but soon got in again,
and threw away the stanchion.  One of them sat baling the blood and
water out of the canoe, uttering a kind of hysteric laugh, while the
other, a youth of fifteen, looked at the dead body with a serious and
dejected countenance.  The latter was found to be the son of the man who
had been killed.  Immediately on this, the natives took to flight, but
on being followed by the captain into the bay the people in one canoe
were persuaded to come alongside the boat, and to receive some nails.
This restored their confidence in some degree, but soon afterwards they
attempted to carry off the buoy of the kedge anchor.  A musket-shot on
this was fired at them, but it fell short, and they took no notice of
it; but a second bullet passing over them, they immediately let go the
buoy and made for the shore.

The natives undoubtedly were bold fellows, for, notwithstanding the
effects of the firearms which they had witnessed, before long some more
ventured off.  One of them appeared to be a person of consequence.  His
dress was similar to that of the chiefs of Otaheite.  Bound his head was
a fillet with the tail feathers of birds fixed in it, and standing
upright.  He also wore ornaments of feathers round his legs and arms.
The women wore a petticoat of native cloth, and a broad fillet made of
the fibre of the cocoanut husk, with a piece of mother-of-pearl shell
the size of a tea-saucer in front.  On either side were other ornaments
of tortoiseshell and mother-of-pearl, with feathers in the upper part.
The chief brought a pig, and was persuaded to come up to the side, but
soon went away.

The party from the Resolution who went on shore were received with
courtesy by the natives; the captain was disappointed in not obtaining
the number of pigs he had expected.  Some of the young officers, it
seemed, gave away thoughtlessly several articles which the natives
valued more than the nails, and thus spoilt the trade.  Among those
highly coveted objects were some of the red feathers obtained at Tonga.

The productions of the Marquesas Islands were similar to those of
Otaheite; the habitations were of a like character, but not so well
built, and the habits of the people were not so cleanly.  The people
were considered the handsomest that had been met with during the whole
voyage.  The men were generally tattooed, but the women and children,
who were not so, were thought to be as fair as many Europeans.  Hogs
were the only quadrupeds, and cocks and hens the only tame fowls seen,
and these were not procured in any great number.  Notwithstanding the
length of time the crew had been at sea previous to their arrival at the
Marquesas, yet, owing to the abundant supply of anti-scorbutic food, and
the watchful care of the surgeon, there was not a man seriously ill on
board.  Captain Cook therefore determined to proceed on his voyage
without further delay.

The Resolution therefore left the Marquesas on April 12, 1774; and ten
days afterwards she reached Otaheite, and anchored once more in Matavai
Bay.  In the course of this passage several low coral islands or islets
had been passed, and one of them had been visited.  This was the Island
of Tioakea, first of all discovered by Captain Byron, and formed one of
a group, called Saint George's Islands.  After passing these, the
Resolution had fallen in with four other smaller islands, not set down
in any chart; and these Captain Cook had named Palliser's Isles, in
honour of his particular friend, Sir Hugh Palliser.

Captain Cook's object in visiting Matavai Bay was that Mr Wales, the
astronomer, might correct the chronometers of the ship by a known
longitude.  The first thing done, therefore, was to erect tents, and to
land the instruments required in this operation.

As soon as the arrival of the voyagers was known, many of their old
friends paid them a visit, expressing great joy at seeing them.  Among
others came Otoo, the king, with several chiefs, and a train of
attendants, who brought with them a dozen large hogs and a quantity of
fruit, which made them very welcome.  A supply of red parrots' feathers
having been collected at Tonga, these were shown to the natives, and
took their fancy to such a degree that the principal people of both
sexes brought hogs, fruit, and everything the island afforded, in order
to obtain them.  So exhausted was his stock-in-trade that, had it not
been for these feathers, Cook says he should have found it difficult to
supply his ship with the necessary refreshments.  He had intended
remaining here only long enough to allow Mr Wales to take the
observations he desired, but he found so great an improvement in the
state of the country, and provisions so abundant, that he resolved at
once to repair and refit his ship.

When Captain Cook on one occasion went to Opparree to pay King Otoo a
visit, a formidable fleet of three hundred double war canoes was found
drawn up along the beach, while a number of armed men were seen on the
shore.  What could be the object of this armament it was difficult to
conjecture.  The Englishmen, however, on landing, were received with
great courtesy; but Otoo was not to be found, and, greatly disappointed,
they returned on board.  At length they were told that this fleet was
part of an armament intended to be sent against Eimeo, whose chief had
declared himself independent of Otaheite.

The chief next in consequence to Otoo was Towha, who seemed to be a very
sensible man, and most friendly to the English.  He showed it on a
trying occasion.  A native had been caught stealing a water-cask, and
having been kept in irons on board, was returned on shore to be flogged.
Otoo, his sister, and others, begged that the man might be set at
liberty; but Cook explained that as he flogged any of his people who
stole from them, or behaved ill in any way, so in justice, and to
preserve peace between them, he must punish any natives who behaved ill
to him.  The sentence was carried out, the natives looking on.  On the
culprit being set at liberty, the people were going away, when Towha
called them back and addressed them, recapitulating what had been said
to Otoo, condemning their present bad habits, and advising a reformation
in future.  The gracefulness of action and the attention with which he
was heard showed that he was no mean orator.  After this the marines
went through their exercises and loaded and fired in volleys, to the
utter amazement of the natives, especially to those who had seen nothing
of the kind before.

The next morning a small portion of the fleet of war canoes was observed
exercising, and Mr Hodges had the opportunity of sketching them.  The
largest had about thirty rowers, the smaller only eighteen.  The
warriors stood on the stage, and encouraged the rowers, or paddlers
rather, to exert themselves.  Some youths were seated high up on the
carved stem above the steersman, with white wands in their hands,
apparently to look out and give notice of what they saw.  The warriors
were completely equipped for war, and the quantity and weight of cloth
they had on them made it difficult to conceive how they could stand up
under it when fighting.  A large quantity was wrapped round their heads
as turbans of helmets, to guard them from the blows of their enemies.
The turbans of some of the warriors were surmounted by small bunches of
shrubs covered with white feathers, intended as ornaments.  On returning
to the shore all the rowers leaped out the moment the canoe touched the
ground, and, with the assistance of those on shore, hauled it up on the
beach.  Each man then walked off with his paddle, and so rapidly was
everything done, that in less than five minutes there was no sign of the
canoes having been lately afloat.  Afterwards, at the dockyard of King
Otoo, among many large canoes, two were seen in the course of building a
hundred and eight feet long.  They were to be united so as to form one
double canoe; the largest, Cook says, he had seen in those seas.

On another occasion an example was given of the way the warriors, in
attacking a place, are thrown on shore.  Four or more canoes were lashed
side by side, and then each division paddled in so judiciously that they
formed one unbroken line along the shore.  To do this they were directed
by a man who stood in the fore part of the centre vessel, with a long
wand in his hand, directing all their movements.  The fleet was attended
by some small double canoes, called marias.  On the fore part of each
was a sort of bed place with one division, capable of holding the body
of a man, intended for the reception of any chief who might be killed in
battle.  Cook estimated, from the number of canoes he saw furnished by
each district, that the whole island could raise and equip one thousand
seven hundred and twenty war canoes, requiring sixty-eight thousand men,
calculating forty for each canoe.  As these would not amount to a third
of the number of people in the island, he considered that it could not
contain less than two hundred and four thousand inhabitants.  He was
convinced, from the vast swarms of people he met wherever he went, that
this estimate was not too great.  This is possible; but war, disease,
and vicious habits had fearfully decreased the population before
Christianity was established among them.

Otoo and his chiefs at first appeared very anxious that Captain Cook
should accompany them in their proposed expedition, and they begged him
to help them against their enemies.  This he very properly declined
doing, but would have been glad to have accompanied them to witness the
mode in which they carried on their naval operations.  It would have
been more in accordance with the character of a Christian people had the
English tried to reconcile the contending parties, and to prove to them
the advantages and blessings of peace.  But such a thought does not
appear to have entered the mind of the sagacious navigator, or of his
companions.

Cook's endeavours to benefit the islanders in other respects appeared
likely to be successful.  Two goats had been left by Captain Furneaux.
They had had two kids, now nearly full grown, and the mother was also
again with kid.  The animals were in excellent condition, and the people
seemed very fond of them.  One of two sheep had, however, died, but
twenty cats were given to the natives, though it is difficult to
understand how they were likely to prove useful, unless mice had
threatened to overrun the island.

During this visit a man from a distant part of the island made off with
a musket and effected his escape.  The dread of the consequences to
themselves caused Otoo and several other chiefs to run away and hide
themselves, and the people were afraid to bring down provisions to the
ship.  After a considerable amount of negotiations, and the delay of
nine days, the musket and some other articles which had been stolen
were, by the intervention of the chiefs, brought back to the tents, and
confidence was restored.

Preparations were now made for leaving Otaheite.  On May 11 a large
supply of fruit arrived from all parts, some of it sent by Towha, the
admiral of the fleet, with orders to his servants to receive nothing in
return.  However, the captain thought fit to send an equivalent present
by Oedidee.  That young native had come to the resolution of remaining
at Otaheite, but was persuaded to go on in the ship to Ulietea, his
native island.  Nothing but Captain Cook's warning that it was very
probable he would be unable to return to the Pacific would have induced
him to leave the ship, so great was his affection for the English, and
his desire to visit their country.

On the 12th old Oberea, who had been supposed by Captain Wallis to be
the queen of the island, came on board, and brought a present of pigs
and fruit, and soon afterwards Otoo appeared with a retinue and a large
quantity of provisions.  Handsome presents were made in return, and the
visitors were entertained in the evening with fireworks.  A succession
of broadsides from the great guns on another occasion must have still
more astonished the natives.

Captain Cook waited in vain for the sailing of the fleet on the proposed
warlike expedition.  It was evident that the chiefs considered, since
they could not obtain the assistance of the English, that they should be
more at liberty to act if left alone, and therefore, as long as the
Resolution remained, they continued to make excuses for not setting out.
Otoo's large canoe had been called, at Cook's request, the Britannia,
and he had presented to the king a grappling-iron, a rope, and an
English Jack and pendant for her.

Several natives were anxious to accompany Captain Cook, but he firmly
resisted all their solicitations, from motives of humanity, knowing the
great probability that they would never return to their native land.  At
length, on May 14, 1774, the anchor was hove up, and the ship proceeded
out of the harbour, Otoo remaining in his canoe alongside till the ship
was under sail.  At that juncture, all the boats being hoisted in, a
gunner's mate, a good swimmer, slipped overboard, hoping to reach the
shore and remain behind.  He was, however, seen before he got clear of
the ship; a boat was lowered, and he was brought back.  He was an
Irishman by birth, but he had been long-absent from home, and he was
without any tie of kindred; Captain Cook says that he could not be
surprised at his wish to remain where he could enjoy not only all the
necessaries, but all the luxuries of life, in ease and plenty; and that
had he asked permission to remain it might, perhaps, have been granted.
He had formerly been in the Dutch service, and had come on board the
Endeavour at Batavia during the former voyage.

On the 15th the Resolution anchored in O'Wharre Harbour, in the island
of Huaheine, and immediately old Oree, the chief, and several natives
came on board, when the former presented a hog and some other articles
with the usual forms.  A friendly intercourse was kept up with Oree the
whole time of the visit, but several of the officers and men were robbed
on shore.  There appeared to exist a gang of banditti who set their
chief at defiance, and robbed every one they met.  Captain Cook,
however, landed and quietly took possession of a house with two chiefs
in it, who were kept as hostages till the articles were returned.  On
another occasion, at the request of Oree, he, with a strong party of
armed men, landed, and went in pursuit of the thieves; but Oedidee, who
was with them, became alarmed, and warned the captain that they were
being led into an ambush to be destroyed.  From the strict discipline,
however, kept up by the party, this (even should the natives have
intended treachery) was rendered impossible.  In spite of these
drawbacks the people brought cocoanuts and other fruits, and two young
chiefs presented to the captain a pig, a dog, and some young plantain
trees, the usual peace offerings.  Notwithstanding this good feeling, he
caused several volleys to be fired to show the natives the power and
effect of musketry, for the young officers and others who went on shore
shooting with muskets were so very inexpert in their use that they had
brought firearms somewhat into contempt.

On the 21st a fleet of sixty canoes was seen steering for Ulietea.  The
people on board them were Eareeoies, going to visit their brethren in
the neighbouring islands.  They formed a secret society, and seemed to
have customs which they would not explain.  Infanticide appeared to be
almost universal among them, and they had many other practices of a most
abominable character.  Cava-drinking and acting plays seemed to be the
principal amusements of the chiefs of this island.

Early on the morning of the 23rd the ship put to sea.  The good old
chief Oree was the last man who left her.  When told by the captain that
he should see him no more, he wept, and said, "Let your sons come; we
will treat them well."

The next day, it having been calm all night, the Resolution reached
Ulietea.  While warping into a secure berth, the captain's old friend,
Oreo, with several other persons, came off, bringing presents.  On
returning the visit, the captain and his companions were met at the door
of the house by five old women, who had been cutting their heads with
sharks' teeth, and now, while the blood was streaming down their faces,
insisted on saluting their visitors.  Directly afterwards they went out,
washed themselves, and returned, appearing as cheerful as any of the
company.  A large number of people had collected on shore near the ship;
they were said to be Eareeoies, and they continued feasting for several
days.  There, as at the other islands, plays were acted for the
amusement of the visitors.

Ulietea was Oedidee's native island, and here he took leave of his
English friends, whom he left "with a regret fully demonstrative of his
esteem and affection; nor could anything have torn him from them but the
fear of never returning."  The captain declares that he had not words to
describe the anguish of this young man when he went away.  "He looked up
at the ship, burst into tears, and then sank down into the canoe."

This young South Sea Islander is described as "a youth of good parts,
and of a docile, gentle, and humane disposition," and as one who would
have been--physically at least--a better specimen of the people than
Omai.  It is to be feared that he returned to his home, after his
lengthened cruise with his English patrons, without having received any
real benefit from the intercourse.  So far as can be learned, "no man
had cared for his soul."

After leaving Ulietea, the Resolution proceeded westward on her voyage,
being cautiously navigated at night, and having all sails set in the
daytime.  The first land seen was Howe Island, previously discovered by
Captain Wallis; the next was an island before unknown, to which was
given the name of Palmerston.

On June 20 more land was in sight.  This proved to be an island about
eleven leagues in circuit, and standing well out of the sea, having deep
water close into its shores.  As this island was perceived to be
inhabited, Captain Cook was induced to go on shore with a party of
explorers, and endeavoured to open communication with the natives.  They
were found, however, to be fierce and intractable, furiously attacking
the visitors with stones and darts.  Two or three muskets discharged in
the air did not hinder them from advancing still nearer, and one of them
threw a long dart or spear which narrowly missed the captain, passing
close over his shoulder.  The boldness and fury of this man nearly cost
him his life, for, aroused by the instinct of self-preservation, and
probably also by, momentary anger, Captain Cook raised a musket he
carried, and pointing it at his assailant, who was only a few paces off,
he pulled the trigger.  Happily, the weapon missed fire, and the English
commander was spared the after-remorse of needless bloodshed, for the
explorers, or the invaders and intruders, as the natives considered
them, reached their boat, and afterwards their ship, unharmed.

In consequence of the apparent disposition and the behaviour of the
people, the island received from Cook the name of Savage Island, a name
it still bears, although the inhabitants no longer merit the appellation
of Savage Islanders.

After leaving this island, the ship's course was west-south-west, and on
June 25 a string of islands was seen ahead when the wind dropped.  The
next morning more islands were seen and soundings found.  The islands in
sight proved to be those of the Tonga group to which Cook had given the
name of the Friendly Islands.  A canoe came boldly off, and the people
in her pointed out Anamocka, or Rotterdam, towards which the ship
proceeded, and anchored on the north side of the island.  The natives
came off in their canoes in great numbers, and exchanged yams and
shaddocks for nails and old rags; but, as usual, some began to pilfer,
and one man got hold of the lead-line, which he would not relinquish
till fired at.

On the captain and some of the officers going on shore, they were
received with great courtesy by the natives, who assisted in filling the
water-casks and rolling them down to the beach, contented with a few
nails as payment.  When, however, the surgeon was afterwards out
shooting by himself, having been left on shore, a fellow seized his
fowling-piece and made off with it.  Afterwards, when the watering party
were on shore, Mr Gierke's gun was snatched from him, and several of
the cooper's tools were carried off.  This style of proceeding, if
allowed, would have hazarded the safety of all on board; the captain,
therefore, who had been summoned, sent off for the marines, while two or
three guns were fired from the ship to alarm Mr Forster, who was on
shore.  Several of the natives remained, who acted with their usual
courtesy, and long before the marines arrived Mr Clerke's gun was
brought back.  As the other was not restored, two large double
sailing-canoes were seized by the marines on their landing; and one man,
making resistance, was fired at with small shot.  This showed the
natives that the English were in earnest, and the musket was returned;
but an adze had also been carried off, and it was insisted that this
also should be brought back.  The chiefs thought that the captain wanted
the man who had been wounded, and whom they said was dead.  Soon
afterwards he was brought up, stretched out on a board, and apparently
lifeless.  Captain Cook was very much shocked at first, till, examining
the body, he found that the man was alive and only slightly hurt.  His
wounds were dressed by the surgeon, who soon afterwards arrived, and a
poultice of sugar-cane was applied to prevent inflammation.  A present
recompensed to some extent what the poor man suffered.  No person of any
consequence was seen by the voyagers while they remained here.  Several
lofty islands were seen in the group--among them Amattagoa, whose summit
was veiled in clouds, and was rightly supposed to be a volcano.  Many of
the islands in the South Seas are volcanic, and in some of them the
volcanoes are in full activity.  That of Kilanea, in the Sandwich
Islands, often presents a spectacle of awful fury and grandeur.

After leaving the Friendly Islands, and calling, on July 1, at Turtle
Island, a brisk gale carried the ship on for some distance, till, on the
15th, high land was seen to the south-west.  This was the _Australia del
Espirito Santo_ of Quiros; it also went by the name of the great
Cyclades.  After exploring the coast for some days, the captain came to
an anchor in a harbour in the island of Mallicollo, where one of his
objects was to open friendly communication with the natives.

A number of these came off, some in canoes, others swimming.  They
exchanged arrows tipped with bone for pieces of cloth, while two who
ventured on deck received presents.  The next morning so many made their
appearance, and with such increased confidence, that after a large
number had boarded the ship it was found necessary to refuse admittance
to others.  Upon this one of the repulsed natives threatened to shoot a
boat-keeper in one of the boats.  In the confusion that ensued Captain
Cook came on deck, when the savage turned his arrow toward him.  Upon
this the captain, who had a gun in his hand loaded with small shot,
fired at his assailant, who, being but slightly wounded, still kept his
bow bent in a threatening attitude.  Receiving the contents of a second
musket, however, he dropped his bow and paddled off with all speed.

By this time others of the natives had begun to discharge their arrows;
neither did a musket fired over their heads frighten them.  It was not
till they heard the thunder of a four-pounder that they were seriously
alarmed; then the natives on deck and in the cabin leaped overboard,
and, with those in the canoes, made their escape as fast as they could.
Directly after the gun was fired drums were heard beating on shore,
probably to summon the people to arms.

The next day the captain landed with a green branch in his hand, and was
met by a chief who also carried one, and these being exchanged a
friendly intercourse was established.  The English made signs that they
wished to cut down wood, and permission was granted to them by the
natives to do so.  These people, however, set no value on nails or
anything their visitors possessed.  They seemed unwilling that any one
should advance beyond the beach, and were only anxious to get rid of the
strangers.  When the English left the shore the natives retired in
different directions.  In the afternoon a man was seen to bring to the
beach a buoy which had been taken in the night from the kedge anchor.
On a boat being sent it was at once put on board, the man walking off
without saying a word, and this was the only thing which was stolen
while the ship lay there.  Some houses, similar to those of the Friendly
Islands, were seen, with plantations of cocoanuts, plantains, yams, and
bread-fruit, and a number of pigs were running about.

Other parts of the shore were visited, but the people kept aloof; and
not till the ship was under way did they come off, showing then every
disposition to trade, and acting with scrupulous honesty.  Sometimes,
for instance, they had received articles, and not having given anything
in return, their canoes being shoved off by their companions, they used
every exertion to get back to the ship.  They were the most ugly,
ill-proportioned people the explorers had yet seen; dark-coloured and
rather diminutive, with long heads, flat faces, and monkey-like
countenances.  Their hair was black or brown, short and curly, but not
so soft or woolly as that of a negro.  Their beards were strong, crisp,
and bushy.  A belt round the middle curiously contracted that part of
the body, while, with the exception of a wrapper between the legs, they
went naked.  The women wore a petticoat, and a bag over their shoulders
in which the children were carried; but none came near the ship.  A
piece of white stone, an inch and a half long, with a slight curve in
it, was worn in a hole made through the nose.  Their arms were clubs,
spears, and bows and arrows.  Some of the officers were very nearly
poisoned by eating portions of two reddish fish, the size of large
bream, caught with hook and line.  They were seized with violent pains
in the head and bones, attended by a scorching heat all over the body,
and a numbness of the joints.  A pig and dog died from eating the
remainder.  It was a week or ten days before the officers quite
recovered.  The crews of Quiros had suffered in the same way.  He had
named the fish Porgos.

A number of islands were now passed, to which the names of Montagu,
Sandwich, Hitchinbrook, and Shepherd were given; the ship continuing
along the coast to the south-east.

On August 3 the Resolution approached another island, and anchored about
a mile from the shore, when several natives attempted to swim off to
her, but a boat being lowered they returned.  The next morning the
captain went off to the shore in search of wood and water, with presents
which he distributed among some people who appeared on the rocks which
line the coast.  In return, they offered, as he supposed with a friendly
feeling, to drag the boat through the surf on shore; but he declined the
offer, wishing to have a better place to land at.  This he found on a
sandy beach, in a bay where he could land without wetting his feet.  To
this spot crowds followed him, headed by a chief, who made them form a
semicircle, while with only a green branch in his hand Cook stepped on
shore.  The chief was loaded with presents, which he received
courteously; and when, by signs, water and fruit were asked for, he
immediately sent for some.  Still, as all the people were armed with
clubs, spears, bows and arrows, the captain was suspicious of their
intentions, and kept his eye on the chief.  Again signs were made by the
natives that they would haul the boat up, and just then the chief
disappeared among the crowd.  On this, Cook stepped back into the boat,
making signs that he would soon return.  The islanders, however, had no
intention of allowing him to depart, so while some of them laid hold of
the gang-board, and attempted to drag up the boat on to the beach,
others snatched at the oars, and tried to wrest them away from the
sailors.  In this predicament, and seeing that neither expostulations
nor menaces were of any avail, the captain raised his musket, pointed it
at the chief, who had again made his appearance, and pulled the trigger;
but, as on a former occasion, the piece missed fire, or only flashed in
the pan.  The savages then began throwing stones and darts, and shooting
their arrows.  The captain now felt compelled to order his men to fire.
The first discharge threw the savages into confusion, but even a second
was hardly sufficient to drive them off the beach, and they then retired
behind trees and bushes, popping out every now and then to throw a dart.
Four lay to all appearances dead; but two managed to crawl behind the
bushes.  Happily, half the muskets missed fire, or more would have been
wounded.  One of the boat's crew was badly wounded in the cheek by a
dart, and an arrow shot from a distance struck Mr Gilbert.  The
skirmish ended by the English making good their retreat.

On the arrival of the party on board, the ship was got under way and
stood closer in shore; and presently two of the natives appeared with
two oars which had been lost in the scuffle.  In a fit of exasperation,
probably on account of the treatment he had received, and of
mortification at his partial defeat, Captain Cook ordered a round shot
to be fired at the men, which, though it proved harmless, had the effect
of driving the men away.  They left the oars, however, leaning against
some bushes.

The whole of this unhappy affair seems to have been a series of
misunderstandings.  At least, it is not difficult to conceive that the
natives were, at first, friendly disposed; that their offer to haul the
boat upon the beach may have been dictated by kind motives, and that
their subsequent conduct arose from what they might have conceived to be
the suspicious actions of their strange and uninvited visitors.  As to
their being armed, and declining to lay down their arms, it is to be
remembered that the English had arms also, which they did not lay down.
It certainly does not seem improbable that if the chief of these poor
barbarians and the English captain could have interchanged a few words,
intelligible on both sides, and so convinced each other of their honest
intentions and wishes, the subsequent fracas might have been prevented;
but this, of course, was out of the question.  It is to be feared, too,
that the superiority over all uncivilised nations which the English
voyagers proudly felt themselves to possess gave an air of contemptuous
defiance to their actions which the natives might resent.  The firing of
that last shot was not unlikely (together with the previous scuffle) to
provoke feelings of deep enmity, and not only to rankle in the minds and
memories of those present, but to be handed down by tradition to the
next generation, and the next after that, so as to keep up both
detestation of all white men, and dread of their future visits.

These remarks are not uncalled for, nor will they be considered as
without point when the name of the island is given--Erromanga; a name
full of painful associations to all who take an interest in missionary
enterprise, and in the advancement, by human instrumentality, of the
kingdom of the Redeemer.  It was here that, sixty-six years afterwards,
the valuable life of one of the foremost in the ranks of modern
Christian missionaries, John Williams, was sacrificed to the hatred of
the whites of which we have just spoken.  The proximate incentive to the
murder was revenge for some ill-treatment the natives had shortly before
received from a white man, a sandal-wood trader; but it is probable that
the commencement of their strong dislike to strangers may be traced to
the visit of the Resolution to their native island in 1774.

After leaving Erromanga, the ship steered for another island, which
proved to be Tanna, being directed at night by a great light which was
seen at the east end of it, and which, in the morning, was discovered to
be that of a volcano in full activity.  A harbour was found, and two
boats, well armed, were sent in to sound.  Here the ship anchored.  A
number of armed natives were seen on shore, and soon they began to come
off, some swimming, others in canoes.  Some cocoanuts were thrown into
one of the boats, and cloths and other articles were given in return.
This induced more to venture alongside, when they proved themselves to
be most daring thieves; some attempted to knock off the rings from the
rudder, others tried to tear away the fly of the ensign, and a bold
effort was made to run away with the buoys.  A musketoon fired over
their heads had the effect of driving them off.  Even here there was an
exception to the rule.  An old man continually came off to the ship with
fruit, evidently trying to ingratiate himself with the strangers.
Although a very strong party landed in the evening, it was clear to the
voyagers that the natives would have attacked them, had they not, to
avoid bloodshed, quickly embarked.  As it was necessary to take in a
fresh supply of wood and water, the ship was warped in close to the
shore, both to overawe the natives, and more easily to get on board what
was wanted.  The natives again quickly manifested their thievish
propensities.  For instance, a man came off with a club, with which he
struck the ship's side in defiance, and then offered to exchange the
weapon for beads.  No sooner, however, did he get them, than he made off
without giving up the club.

Captain Cook had wished for an opportunity of showing the natives the
effect of firearms; some small shot were therefore sent after the thief,
and several musketoons were discharged.  As this did not seem to produce
the desired effect, the Resolution was moored with her broadside to the
shore, with her guns placed so as to command the whole harbour.  The
captain then landed, with a guard of marines and sailors, all well
armed, hoping by this means to overawe the natives, who assembled in
vast numbers on each side of the landing-place.  Instead of being
frightened by the display of strength, they began to use such
threatening gestures that it was thought necessary to file upon them.
This was the signal for the guns to open from the ship.  The savages at
once dispersed, but soon came back greatly humbled in manner.  The old
man, whose name was Paowang, was the only one who stood his ground, and
was rewarded with gifts.  Cook then drew a line on the ground, and
signified to the natives that they must not pass it.

The captain had now every reason to believe that the natives were
induced to be submissive, and taking old Paowang into the forest, he
explained that he wanted wood, and asked permission to cut some down.
This was readily granted, the old man begging only that he would not cut
down any cocoanut trees.

The watering party meanwhile filled the casks; but still the lower
orders were very troublesome.  Some buckshot, fired at a man, at last
brought them to order, and now everything seemed to go on pleasantly.
Paowang even brought an axe and several other articles which had been
left on shore; indeed, Cook's demeanour seemed to have won the respect
of the savages, and it was no longer necessary to mark a barrier line,
as they did not press near the tents nor incommode the English when at
work.  Yet, savages they were, for they acknowledged voluntarily that
they were cannibals, and asked their visitors if they also did not eat
the flesh of their enemies.  Yet they could have no excuse for the
practice, as their island abounded with pigs, and fruit of all sorts.

All this time the English were constantly on their guard; still they ran
no little risk, as they made some excursions up the country, when they
were threatened by parties of natives, who, however, retired when they
turned towards the harbour.  It is manifest, however, that the natives
were not badly disposed, but were influenced by the very natural feeling
of jealousy at seeing strangers, whose object they could not comprehend,
attempting to penetrate their country.  It would have been difficult to
convince untutored savages, who had been peppered with buckshot, and
fired at with bullets and cannon-balls, that their white visitors were
influenced by the purest feelings of philanthropy, and a disinterested
desire to do them good.  Fortunately, the muskets supplied to the
Resolution must have been kept in very bad order, as they missed fire as
often as they went off, or more lives of savages would have been
sacrificed.  There is no doubt, as has already been intimated, that
Captain Cook had no delight in exercising cruelty towards the natives of
the places he visited, and believed that he acted in self-defence when
he, as he would have said, was unfortunately called upon to wound and
perhaps to slay them.  It may be added, also, that he frequently had
great trouble in restraining the ardour of his officers, who were not
troubled with so nice a conscience as the captain's regarding the lives
of the savages.

On one occasion, for instance, some native boys (little mischievous
urchins, no doubt) who had got into a thicket near where a party were
cutting wood, and had thrown stones, were fired at by some of the petty
officers.  The captain was very much displeased at so wanton a use being
made of firearms, and took measures, as he thought, to prevent it for
the future; but not long afterwards, to his horror, he saw a sentry
level his musket, and before he could cry out, the soldier had fired and
shot a native dead.  The marine's only excuse was that he saw a native
bending his bow, an act they often performed without intending to shoot.
After all, the sentry did not kill the man who bent the bow, but
another who was standing near.

Among the excursions made by the officers was one towards the volcano,
which, however, they could not reach.  It was in such furious eruption
that the air was filled with dust and ashes, and when it rained they
were covered with mud.  On their way they passed a spot emitting columns
of smoke, and near the harbour hot springs were discovered; a
thermometer placed in one of them rose to 170 degrees.

Although the people of this island had no notion of the use of iron,
they were not so savage as at first appeared; their plantations were
carefully cultivated, and produced sugar-canes and yams, bread-fruit,
plantains, and cocoanuts.  They had, however, one of the chief
characteristics of savages--the women carried all the burdens, and were
compelled to do every description of hard work.  Though dark, they had
not the peculiarities of the negro race, but they made themselves darker
than they were by painting their skins.  They differed in many respects
from the inhabitants of the neighbouring islands, both in appearance and
language.  Their dwellings were of some size, but had no walls, being
merely roofs--looking like those of English barns taken off their walls
and placed on the ground.  Their canoes were tolerably well constructed,
but though their shores abounded with fish, they had no notion of
catching them with nets or lines, the only way being to spear them as
they swam by.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

On the morning of August 20 the ship left Resolution Harbour, [so-called
by Captain Cook, because the Resolution had anchored there,] in Tanna,
and continued the survey along the coasts of this extensive group of
islands.  A large number of natives were seen at the south-west side of
Mallicollo, and on the opposite shore a brief communication was held
with apparently another race of people, who came off in numerous small
outrigger canoes.  Though gifts were handed to them, they could not be
induced to come up the side, or even to take hold of a rope.

The scenery of the coast in all directions was much admired; the
vegetation was most luxuriant; every hill was chequered with
plantations, and every valley was watered by a sparkling stream.  The
survey of the group being at length completed, the Resolution stood away
towards New Zealand.  The supposed continent of Quiros had dwindled into
a small island, and, as Captain Cook took his departure from the
south-west point in latitude 15 degrees 40 minutes, longitude 165
degrees 59 minutes, he named it Cape Lisbourne.  The Resolution
continued her course to the south-west, from September 1 till the 4th,
when land was discovered bearing south-south-west, and extending round
for some leagues.  Breakers were seen half-way between the ship and the
shore, and inside them were several canoes, evidently coming off, but as
night fell they returned.  The night was spent in standing off and on
the land, and the next morning, the boats having discovered a channel
through the reef, the ship stood in and came to anchor.  She was
immediately surrounded by a number of natives, who came off in eighteen
canoes.  They were entirely unarmed, and apparently well disposed.  Some
presents were thrown to them, for which they offered two stale fish in
return, and, confidence being established, numbers crowded on board.
Some were asked into the cabin to dinner.  They showed, however, no
curiosity to taste the pea-soup, salt beef, or pork, but ate some yams.

Except a curious wrapper generally in use these people were entirely
naked.  They seemed intelligent, and examined with considerable interest
the goats, hogs, dogs, and cats on board, which, it was evident, they
had never before seen.  They valued spike-nails and cloth of all
colours, but red cloth they preferred.  A young chief was seen in one of
the canoes, but did not come on board.  After dinner, Captain Cook,
accompanied by a native, landed with two armed boats' crews.  The beach
was thronged with people, and the native pointed out those to whom
presents should be given, mostly old men; among them was the chief,
Teabooma, who soon calling for silence addressed the people, apparently
in favour of the strangers.  All the chiefs in succession made speeches,
the old men giving a grunt and a nod of approbation at the end of each
sentence.  The captain kept his eyes on the people all the time, and was
completely convinced of their good intentions.  Having made signs that
water was wanting, his native friend conducted them along the coast,
lined with mangroves, to a creek, on going up which, above the
mangroves, a straggling village appeared; the ground around being laid
out in well cultivated plantations of sugar-canes, plantains, yams, and
other roots, watered by rills conducted from the main stream, whose
source was in the hills.  Here was an abundance of fresh water.  Among
other things, some roots were seen baking in an earthen jar, holding
from six to eight gallons, apparently manufactured by the natives.  On
their way Mr Forster shot a duck, which the native begged to have, that
he might explain to his countrymen how it was killed.  The party
returned on board at sunset, convinced that they were not likely to
obtain provisions at the place, as it did not appear to produce more
than the inhabitants themselves required, although it was clear that
they were ready to give what they could, for a more obliging, civil,
pleasant people had not been met with during the voyage.  Hundreds came
on board the ship, but not a theft was committed.  One of them, who had
attached himself to Captain Cook, brought some roots; a few of the
others had weapons, such as clubs and darts, which they willingly
exchanged for nails and pieces of cloth.  A present had been made up for
Teabooma, who, however, slipped out of the ship, and lost it.  A good
watering-place was found, not far off, up a creek; but as only a small
boat could enter it the casks were rolled over the beach, and put on
board the launch.  Plenty of fuel could also be procured.

An excursion on shore gave the explorers a better idea of the island
than they could otherwise have possessed.  They were accompanied by
several natives, the numbers increasing as they advanced, till they had
a large _cortege_.  Reaching the summit of a rocky hill, the sea was
observed in two places on the opposite side between the heights, thus
enabling them to calculate the width of the island.  Below them was a
large valley, through which ran a river, on whose banks were several
villages and plantations, while the flat land which lay along the shore
appeared to great advantage; the winding streams running through it, the
plantations, the little straggling villages, the variety in the woods,
the shoals on the coast, with the blue sea and the white breakers, made
up a very beautiful and picturesque scene.  The country in general bore
a strong resemblance to parts of New Holland, under the same latitude;
several of its natural productions appeared to be the same; while the
forests, as in that country, were without underwood.  The general aspect
of the island was, however, that of a dreary waste; the sides of the
mountains and other places being of hard rock, or of a thin soil baked
by the sun.  Even these unpromising spots were, however, covered with a
coarse grass, which though of no use, as there were no cattle to feed on
it, would afford pasture to numberless sheep if they were to be
introduced into the island.  There was a good supply of fish on the
coast; but one day a somewhat ugly-looking one being dressed for supper,
the captain and the two Mr Forsters, though they did but taste the
liver and roe, were seized with a numbness and weakness over their
limbs.  An emetic and a sudorific considerably relieved them by the
morning, but a pig which ate the fish died.  A native who had sold the
fish did not warn the buyer, though its poisonous character seems to
have been known to the people, for, on seeing the skin hanging up the
next morning, they expressed their utmost abhorrence of it, and
intimated that it was not fit to eat.  The captain was anxious to
benefit the people as far as his short stay would allow; he, therefore,
presented a dog and a bitch to Teabooma, who seemed delighted with the
gift; indeed, he could scarcely suppose that the animals were for him.
A boar and a sow were also intended for him, but as he was not then to
be found they were given to another chief, or head man, and his family,
who promised to take care of them.  These people had made some advance
out of the purely savage state.  Their dwellings were circular, very
thickly thatched, something like a beehive, and very close and warm.
Many had two fireplaces, and some had two storeys, spread with mats and
grass.  As the entrance was very small, and there was no other outlet
for the smoke, the heat was intolerable.  It was strange that natives of
so hot a climate should delight in all the extra heat they could get.
Outside the huts were little pyramids, five together.  On the point of
the pyramids the clay pots in which they cooked their food were placed,
not upright, but on the sides, the fire being lighted beneath.  The
canoes of the islanders were large, but rude and clumsy in build; and
they constructed double canoes formed of the trunks of two trees
fastened together, much in the fashion of the other double canoes of the
Pacific.  They had sometimes one, and sometimes two, lateen sails,
composed of pieces of matting, the ropes being made of the coarse
filaments of the plantain tree.  When they could not sail they were
propelled by sculls, the handles of which rose, nearly upright, four
feet above the deck.

On standing down the coast, some objects were seen which the scientific
gentlemen insisted were basaltic pillars, like those of the Giant's
Causeway in Ireland, contrary to the opinion of the captain, who held
that they were trees of a peculiar growth.  An island was discovered to
the south of the large island, and the name of the Isle of Pines was
given to it, on account of the number of tall trees growing thereon, and
which the philosophers still maintained were basaltic pillars.  It was
not without some difficulty that, at length, the ship got near enough to
the Isle of Pines to enable the captain, with a party of officers, to
land on one of the islets connected with it.  The objects observed were
found to be a species of spruce pine, admirably fitted for masts and
spars.  After dinner, therefore, two boats went on shore with the
carpenter and his crew, and as many spars as were required were cut
down.  It was of this tree that the natives made their canoes.  The
island on which the party landed was called Botany Island.

The Resolution got under way on October 1.  Soon afterwards a gale
sprang up, which, in spite of all the exertions which could be made,
rendered the further survey of the group impossible.  She therefore bore
away for New Zealand.

New Caledonia, thus discovered, Captain Cook considered to be, with the
exception of New Zealand, the largest island in the South Pacific Ocean,
being about eighty-seven leagues long, extending from the north-west to
south-east, that is, from latitude 19 degrees 37 minutes to 22 degrees
30 minutes South, and from longitude 163 degrees 37 minutes to 167
degrees 14 minutes East, although its width is nowhere very
considerable.

The ship stood on about west-south-west till October 10, when land was
discovered--an island of good height, five leagues in circuit, to which,
as a compliment to the family of Howard, the name of Norfolk Island was
given.  The ship stood in, when after dinner two boats landed without
difficulty behind some large rocks.  The island was found to be
uninhabited, and probably no human being had ever before set foot on its
shore.  Many trees and plants common in New Zealand were observed,
especially the flax plant, which here appeared to be more luxuriant than
in any part of that country.  A spruce pine also grew in abundance, and
to a great size, and there were also found a number of cabbage palms.
They had large pinnated leaves, and the cabbage is, properly speaking,
the bad of the tree.  Each tree produces but one crown, which grows out
of the stem, and by cutting this out the tree is destroyed.  As many as
could be collected were carried on board, and proved very welcome.  The
voyage to New Zealand was then continued.

On October 17 Mount Egmont was seen, and the next day the ship anchored
at the entrance of Ship Cove, a strong wind preventing her getting in.
The day after she warped up, and being moored, the usual preparations
were made for carrying on operations on shore.  The forge was set up,
and coopers' and sail-makers' tents were erected.  For several days no
natives appeared.  The gardens were visited, and several of the plants
were in a flourishing condition.  When the natives did appear their
conduct was very strange.  At first they kept at a distance, with their
weapons in their hands; but when they recognised Captain Cook and his
officers, they danced and skipped about like madmen, though even then
they would not let any of their women come near.

Several of them talked about killing, but their language was so
imperfectly understood that no meaning could at first be gathered from
what they said.  The following story was made out, however, before
long:--The natives said that a ship like the Resolution had been lost in
the strait, and that some of the people got on shore, when the natives
stole their clothes, for which several were shot; that afterwards, when
the sailors could fire no longer, the natives rushed in and killed them
with their clubs and spears, and ate them.  The narrators declared that
they themselves had no hand in the matter, which occurred at some
distance along the coast.

Friendly relations were at once established with the natives the English
had first met, who brought a good supply of fish, which they willingly
exchanged for Otaheite cloth.  Cook's training in the merchant service
had given him some useful notions with regard to mercantile principles,
and in many other cases, as well as in this, he purchased articles with
the view of taking them to another market, where their value would be
increased.  Still, though Cook was trying to do the natives all the good
in his power, it was evident that they were shy of the English.  Their
more intimate friends at last acknowledged that the Adventure had been
there, and though the captain's mind was relieved with regard to her, he
still feared that some disaster had occurred to another vessel along the
coast.  He probably was, as usual, on his guard, and careful in
preventing any causes of dispute between his people and the natives, or
he himself might have had to experience the effects of New Zealand
treachery.

On November 10 the Resolution left Queen Charlotte's Sound for the last
time, and steered south-by-east, with a fine wind, Cook's intention
being to get into latitude 54 degrees or 55 degrees, and to cross the
ocean nearly in those parallels, thus to pass over those parts which
were left unexplored the previous summer.

On the evening of December 17 the west coast of Tierra del Fuego, near
the entrance of the Straits of Magalhaens, was made; and now Captain
Cook says that he had done with the South Pacific, but he had a sound
ship and a healthy crew, and he resolved to accomplish some more work
before returning home.  Among other things, he made a survey of the
coasts he was now on.  Nothing could be more desolate than those shores.
They seemed entirely composed of rocky mountains, without the least
appearance of vegetation, the mountains terminating in horrible
precipices, while their craggy summits shot up to a vast height.  The
mountains seen inland were covered with snow, but those nearer the sea
coasts were free from it.  The former were supposed to belong to the
mainland of Tierra del Fuego, while the latter were probably islands.

The ship at length was brought to an anchor, on December 20, in one of
the numerous harbours in which the otherwise inhospitable-looking coast
abounds.  This was called Christmas Sound, as the ship remained at
anchor during Christmas Day.  An abundance of wild-fowl were shot here,
so that the Christmas fare consisted of roast and boiled geese, goose
pie, goose stew, and goose in every form which could be thought of,
accompanied, in the cabin, by some Madeira, the only article of their
provisions which had improved by keeping.

Some natives made their appearance here in nine canoes.  They were a
little, ugly, half-starved, beardless race.  They were almost naked,
their clothing being merely two or three seal-skins, sewed together to
form a cloak reaching to the knee.  Most of them had only one seal-skin,
and the women had a sort of apron, but in other respects were clothed
like the men.  Some young children were seen entirely naked, so that
they must be inured to cold and hardships from their infancy.  They had
with them bows and arrows, and darts, or rather harpoons, made of bone,
fitted to a staff.  These were probably intended to kill fish and seals,
or perhaps whales, as the Esquimaux do.  That they were accustomed to
the use of train oil the noses of the officers had powerful evidence;
indeed, it was far from pleasant to approach them.  Their canoes were
made of bark, and in each was a fire, round which the women and children
huddled.  There was also a large seal-skin, perhaps to form a covering
to a hut on shore.  As these people seemed well acquainted with
Europeans, it was considered probable that they moved during the winter
more to the northward.  They called themselves Pecheras, at least that
word was continually in their mouths.  "Of all the people I have ever
seen, these Pecheras are the most wretched," says Cook; "they are doomed
to live in one of the most inhospitable climates in the world, without
having sagacity enough to provide themselves with such conveniences as
might render life in some measure more comfortable."  Yet, unattractive
as were these people, they had souls as precious in the sight of a
loving Saviour as those of the more intelligent and attractive
inhabitants of Otaheite.  It was in the attempt to carry the glad
tidings of salvation to people such as these that the noble-minded
Captain Allan Gardiner lost his life; and it is for the sake of people
sunk as low as were these in the scale of humanity that missionaries are
labouring in many other parts of the earth.

A good supply of wood and water having been obtained at Christmas Sound,
the Resolution got under way again on the 28th, and steered towards Cape
Horn, which she rounded the next morning.  She now steered East by North
a half East for the Straits of Le Maire, with a view of looking into
Success Bay, to ascertain if the Adventure had been there.  A boat,
commanded by Lieutenant Pickersgill, was sent on shore, but no traces of
her were found.  A notice, however, was left nailed to a tree, in case
Captain Furneaux should afterwards touch there.  Some natives appeared
who behaved very courteously to Lieutenant Pickersgill, and made signs
to him to bring in the ship.  The bay was full of whales and seals;
indeed, great numbers had been seen in the straits.  At last, the
Resolution came to an anchor near an island, on which seals had been
observed.  After dinner three boats were hoisted out and landed with a
large party of men, some to kill seals or sea-lions, and others to kill
or catch birds, fish, or whatever came in their way.  The sea-lions,
with which the island was covered, were so unaccustomed to the sight of
man that they did not attempt to escape, and were knocked on the head
with sticks and clubs.  The only danger was by getting between them and
the water, when, as they came floundering on, they were likely to knock
down and rush over any one thus placed.  A large supply of sea-lions,
bears, geese, and ducks was soon obtained.  The old lions were killed
solely for the sake of their blubber, from which oil was extracted, for
their flesh was abominable, but that of the cubs was considered very
good, and even that of the lionesses was not amiss.

Once more, on January 3, 1775, the Resolution was at sea, steering an
easterly course, in search of land said to exist in about the latitude
53 degrees or 54 degrees.  At nine o'clock on the morning of the 13th
land was seen by a man named Willis.  At first it was taken for an
iceberg, but on their drawing nearer the appearance changed, and
soundings being found, with a muddy bottom, at one hundred and
seventy-five fathoms, there was no doubt that it was really land, and
the name of the discoverer was given to it.  Passing between Willis
Island and another islet, called Bird Island, land was seen extending
for a considerable distance.  The ship ranged along it, about a league
from the shore, for part of two days, till an inlet appeared, towards
which the ship steered.  Instead, however, of the ship going in, a boat
was hoisted out, and the captain, with Mr Forster and others, embarked
in her to survey the bay.  They landed in three different places,
displayed the British flag, and took possession of the country in his
Majesty's name, under a discharge of small arms.

The appearance of the territory thus added to the dominion of Great
Britain was not attractive.  The head of the bay, as well as two
portions on either side, consisted of perpendicular ice cliffs of
considerable height.  Pieces were continually breaking off and floating
out to sea, and even while they were in the bay huge masses fell which
made a noise like the discharge of a cannon.  The inner parts of the
country were not less savage and horrible.  Wild rocks raised their
lofty summits till they were lost in the clouds, and even the valleys
were covered with everlasting snow.  Not a tree was to be seen, nor even
a shrub big enough to make a toothpick.  The only vegetation met with
was a coarse, strong-bladed grass, growing in tufts, wild burnet, and a
plant like moss, which sprang from the rocks.

Seals or sea-bears were pretty numerous, and so were penguins; some very
large, weighing from twenty-nine to thirty-eight pounds, were brought on
board.  At first it was hoped that the land now discovered was part of a
great continent, but by going partly round it it was discovered to be an
island of about seventy leagues in circuit, and the name of the Isle of
Georgia was given to it.  It seemed to answer very little purpose, for
though the island lies between the latitudes of 54 degrees and 55
degrees, the whole coast was a mass of ice and snow even in the middle
of summer.  "The disappointment I felt did not, I must confess, affect
me much," says Cook, "for to judge of the bulk by the sample, it would
not be worth the discovery."  Various other islets and rocks were seen,
when, believing that no other discovery of importance would be made
thereabouts, on January 25 the Resolution continued her course, steering
east-south-east.

On the 31st several islands and a considerable extent of land were
discovered, to which the name of Sandwich Land, or Southern Thule, was
given, as it was the most southern land then known.  It showed a surface
of great height, everywhere covered with snow.  While the Resolution was
close in with this coast, the wind fell, and left her to the mercy of a
great westerly swell, which set right upon the shore.  A line of two
hundred fathoms found no bottom.  The weather became hazy; the coast
could not be seen.  A most fearful wreck now seemed inevitable, when the
fog cleared away, and a point (Cape Bristol) appeared, bearing
east-south-east, beyond which no land could be seen.  This discovery
relieved the explorers from the dread of being carried by the swell on
to one of the most horrible coasts in the world.  After undergoing this
and similar fearful risks, it was scarcely necessary for Cook to make
any apology for leaving this inhospitable region, and proceeding in
search of the long-sought-for Cape Circumcision.  He sailed over and
round the spot where it was said to lie, and became thoroughly convinced
that no cape, indeed no land, lies thereabouts.  He was soon sure that
if there was land it would only be a small island, from the long
southerly swell which was found in that latitude.

What we are most struck with is the hardihood and fine seamanship
displayed by Captain Cook and his officers in this run across the
Antarctic Ocean.  It was the summer season, and the nights were short;
but they had to encounter storms and bitter cold, ice, and snow, and
hail, with the risk, at any moment, of running on an iceberg or some
hidden rock; but still greater was the risk when such inhospitable
shores as those of Tierra del Fuego, or Staten Island, or the Isle of
Georgia, or Southern Thule were to be explored.

A course was now steered for the Cape of Good Hope, greatly to the
delight of all on board.  On March 16 two sails were seen in the
north-west, standing westward, one of them under Dutch colours, a sign
that they were once more approaching civilised regions.  In the evening
land was seen.  In pursuance of his instructions, the captain now
demanded of the officers and petty officers the log-books and journals
which they had kept, and which were sealed up for the inspection of the
Admiralty.  The officers and men were also especially charged not to say
where they had been until they had received the permission of the Lords
of the Admiralty.

Several other ships were now met with, one of which proved to be the
True Briton, Captain Broadly, from China, bound direct home.  With that
liberality for which commanders of East India Company's ships were
famed, Captain Broadly sent on board the Resolution a present of a
supply of fresh provisions, tea, and other articles, which were most
acceptable.  A heavy gale kept the Resolution from entering the harbour.
At length, however, on Wednesday, March 22, according to the ship's
reckoning, but with the people on shore Tuesday, the 21st, she anchored
in Table Bay.  Finding an East India Company's ship homeward bound,
Captain Cook sent by her a copy of his journal, charts, and other
drawings, to reduce the risk of the result of his enterprise being lost.
He also found here a letter from Captain Furneaux, from which the
mysterious conduct of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound was
completely explained.  It was as follows:--On December 17, 1773, the
large cutter, with ten men under charge of Mr Rowe, a midshipman, had
been sent on shore to gather greens for the ship's company, with orders
to return that evening.  On their non-appearance another boat was sent,
under the command of Lieutenant Barney, when the mutilated remains of
the cutter's crew were discovered, some parts scattered about on the
beach, and others carefully packed with fern leaves, in baskets,
evidently intended for the oven.  It was clear that some quarrel had
arisen, and that after the unfortunate men had discharged their muskets
they had been clubbed by the natives.  It was afterwards discovered, by
the acknowledgment of the natives, that they themselves had been the
aggressors, having stolen some of the seamen's clothes, and that then
they pretended to make up the quarrel, but that finding the party seated
at dinner, and utterly unsuspicious of evil, they had rushed down on
them and killed them all.  After this misfortune the Adventure sailed
for the Cape of Good Hope, and thence returned to England.

Captain Cook speaks of the great courtesy and kindness he received from
the Dutch authorities, as well as from the residents, and of the
abundance of good provisions which he obtained.  On April 27, the
repairs of the ship being completed, the Resolution sailed in company
with the Dutton, East Indiaman, for Saint Helena, and was saluted with
thirteen guns.  She was also saluted by a Spanish and Danish Indiaman as
she passed them--she, of course, returning the salutes.

At daylight on May 15 the island of Saint Helena was sighted.  It, at
that time, belonged to the East India Company, and was laid out chiefly
in pasture, in order that their ships might here obtain supplies of
fresh meat.

The Resolution anchored off Ascension on May 28, and found some vessels
from America come to load with turtle.  A good supply was taken on
board, and on the 31st she again sailed.  On June 9 the island of
Fernando de Moronha was sighted, and was found to be in possession of
the Portuguese.  Without anchoring, the Resolution continued her course
for the Azores, at one of which, Fayal, she anchored on July 13.  Among
several vessels there was one belonging to the place, which had taken in
a cargo of provisions at the Amazon, for the Cape de Verde Islands, but
had been unable to find them--a specimen of Portuguese navigation not at
all singular even in later days.  The Resolution sailed on the 19th,
passing the island of Terceira, and on the 29th made the land near
Plymouth, and the next morning anchored at Spithead.  The same day
Captain Cook landed at Portsmouth, with Messrs. Wales, Forster, and
Hodges, and set off for London.  He had been absent from England three
years and eighteen days, and during that time had lost but four men, and
only one of them by sickness.  This was owing, under Providence, to the
very great care taken of the health of the people.  All means were used
to induce the crew to keep their persons, hammocks, bedding, and clothes
clean and dry.  The ship, once or twice a week, was aired with fires,
and when this could not be done she was smoked with gunpowder mixed with
vinegar and water.  There was frequently a fire in an iron pot at the
bottom of the well.  The ship's coppers were kept carefully clean, fresh
water being taken on board whenever practicable.  Of remedies against
scurvy the sweet-wort was proved to be most valuable.  At the slightest
appearance of the disease two or three pints a day were given to each
man.  A pound of sour-krout was supplied to each man, twice a week, at
sea.  Preparations of potatoes, lemons, and oranges were served out with
good effect.  Sugar was found useful, as was wheaten flour, while
oatmeal and oil were considered to promote the scurvy--such oil, at
least, as was served to the Navy.  Olive oil would probably have had a
different effect.  Captain Cook thus concludes his journal of the
voyage:--"But whatever may be the public judgment about other matters,
it is with real satisfaction, and without claiming any merit but that of
attention to my duty, that I can conclude this account with an
observation which facts enable me to make, that our having discovered
the possibility of preserving health amongst a numerous ship's company
for such a length of time, in such varieties of climate, and amidst such
continued hardships and fatigues, will make this voyage remarkable in
the opinion of every benevolent person, when the disputes about a
southern continent shall have ceased to engage the attention and to
divide the judgment of philosophers."

In concluding this account of Captain Cook's second voyage round the
world it is well, while admitting the value of the discoveries made, and
admiring the perseverance and general prudence and kindness of the
discoverer, to express deep regret that the scrupulous and unremitting
care exercised over the physical health of the crew was not, with equal
assiduity and anxiety, manifested in respect of their spiritual health.
Those were not the days in which the souls of sailors were much cared
for; but it may be supposed that the character of this expedition,
together with the unusual number of educated gentlemen on board,
furnished facilities for Christian exertion which certainly were not
improved.  So far, indeed, as the existing records of this voyage inform
us, we are led to the conclusion that instead of setting an example of
morality and virtue to the ignorant heathen they visited, it would, in
many instances, have been better for the heathen had they never known
these so-called Christians.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note 1.  Among sailors, a ship is said to be _crank_ when the rigging is
too weighty for the hull, so as to risk being upset.

Note 2.  It seems strange that this "horrid proceeding" should have been
permitted on board the English ship; and that Captain Cook, with his
well-established character, should have stood by and witnessed it, is
unaccountable.



CHAPTER FOUR.

THIRD VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY, FROM JULY 1776 TO OCTOBER 1778.

It will be remembered that Captain Cook landed in England on July 30,
1775.  He at once received well-merited acknowledgments of the services
he had rendered to his country.  On August 9 he received post rank, and
three days afterwards was nominated a Captain in Greenwich Hospital, an
appointment that would have enabled him to spend the remainder of his
days in honourable retirement.  In February of the following year he was
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society; and on the evening of his
admission, March 7, a paper was read, in which he gave a full account of
the various means he had adopted for the preservation of the health of
his crew.

The importance of this paper, and the way in which it was received, will
be best understood by those who have read accounts of Lord Anson's and
other voyages, where the scurvy made fearful havoc among the ship's
companies.  In consequence of this paper, it was resolved by Sir John
Pringle, the President of the Council of the Society, to bestow on
Captain Cook the gold medal known as the Copley Annual Medal, for the
best experimental paper of the year.  Cook was already on his third
voyage before the medal was bestowed, though he was aware of the honour
intended him; and his wife had the pleasure of receiving it.

Sir John Pringle's words are worthy of repetition.  Having pointed out
the means by which Captain Cook, with a company of a hundred and
eighteen men, performed a voyage of three years and eighteen days, in
all climates, with the loss of only one man from sickness, he proceeds!
"I would now inquire of those most conversant with the study of the
bills of mortality, whether, in the most healthful climate, and in the
best conditions of life, they have ever found so small a number of
deaths within that space of time.  How great and agreeable, then, must
our surprise be, after perusing the histories of long navigations in
former days, when so many perished by marine diseases, to find the air
of the sea acquitted of all malignity; and, in fine, that a voyage round
the world may be undertaken with less danger, perhaps, to health, than a
common tour in Europe."  He concludes: "For if Rome decreed the civic
crown to him who saved the life of a single citizen, what wreaths are
due to that man who, having himself saved many, perpetuates in your
Transactions the means by which Britain may now, on the most distant
voyages, preserve numbers of her intrepid sons--her mariners, who,
braving every danger, have so liberally contributed to the fame, to the
opulence, and to the maritime empire of their country?"

This address ought to be read by all British shipowners and
ship-masters.  They possess ample means of preventing the approach of
the scurvy, and yet numerous vessels, even at the present day, return
home with a portion of their crews suffering from that fearful scourge.
The masters must exert themselves, must take some trouble in the matter,
no doubt; but if they will not do so, if they will not take an interest
in the welfare of their men, they are unfit to command ships; they are a
disgrace to their honourable profession.

Among those who reached England in the Adventure, with Captain Furneaux,
was Omai, the native of Ulietea.  Captain Cook did not approve at the
time of the selection Captain Furneaux had made, as Omai did not belong
to the chiefs, nor to the priestly class, while in appearance and
intelligence he was inferior to many of his countrymen.  Oedidee, who
had been received on board the Resolution, had, it will be remembered,
been left behind at Ulietea, Cook fearing that he might have no other
opportunity of restoring the youth to his native island.  Both seem to
have been inferior to Tupia, who died at Batavia.  However, Omai, as the
first native of the South Sea Islands who had been seen in England, was
made a great deal of by people of all ranks.  He was introduced to
George the Third, who settled on him a pension while he remained in
England.  He had his portrait painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Cowper
mentions him in one of his poems, while he was constantly in the society
of Dr Johnson, Madame d'Arblay, Sir Joseph Banks, Dr Burney, Lord
Sandwich, Lord Mulgrave, Granville Sharpe, and many other illustrious
persons.  The power of imitation is strong among his people, and he,
therefore, very quickly copied the manners of the people with whom he
associated, and became, in appearance, a polished gentleman.

He very slowly acquired a knowledge of English; indeed, he always
required the aid of signs and gestures to express himself.

In vain was much trouble expended in trying to teach him to write, by
Mr Sharpe, who also endeavoured, with no better success, to instruct
him in the principles of Christianity.  Such was Omai, a dark-minded
savage, amidst civilisation and enlightenment.  His great desire seems
to have been to obtain the means of successfully waging war with the men
of Bolabola, of expelling them from Ulietea, and of regaining possession
of his hereditary property.  It is with regret that we read this account
of the miserable Omai, when we reflect how eagerly and how thoroughly
many of his fellow-islanders in after years imbibed the principles of
the Christian faith, and how steadfastly they have held to them, in all
simplicity and purity.  Had Omai--like the Ethiopian eunuch of other
days--but embraced with all his heart the truths of the Gospel, and
returned to his native land, carrying with him the glad tidings of
salvation to his benighted countrymen, the light of the knowledge of the
glory of God might have been spread throughout the islands of the
Pacific even then.

For two centuries a strong desire had existed in England, among people
interested in navigation, to discover a passage by the north-west, round
the coast of North America into the Pacific, so that China and Japan and
the East Indies might be reached by a route shorter than that by the
Cape of Good Hope.  All the early expeditions had been undertaken by
private enterprise, to encourage which, an Act of Parliament was passed
in 1745, securing a reward of 20,000 pounds to any ship belonging to any
of his Majesty's subjects, which should discover the passage.  Often was
the attempt made by numerous bold adventurers, from Frobisher, in 1576,
onwards to the time of which we are writing.  In the middle of the
century public interest was again awakened by the exertions of Mr
Dobbs, who was strongly impressed with the belief that a north-west
passage could be found.  Captain Middleton was sent out by Government in
1741, and Captains Smith and Moore in 1746.  In 1773, at the instigation
of the Hon. Daines Barrington, an influential member of the Royal
Society, Lord Sandwich sent out Captain Phipps (afterwards Lord
Mulgrave) with the Racehorse and Carcase.  Captain Lutwidge commanded
the latter vessel, and had on board a young boy--Nelson, the future
naval hero.  Captain Phipps returned, unable to penetrate the wall of
ice which barred his progress.

Still, that a passage existed, and might be found, was the belief of
many enlightened men, and the Admiralty came to the resolution of
sending out another expedition, better prepared than former ones to
encounter the difficulties to be met with.  Lord Sandwich very naturally
desired to have Captain Cook's opinion on the subject, and his lordship
accordingly invited him to meet Sir Hugh Palliser, Mr Stephens, and
others at dinner, where it might freely be discussed.

The importance and grandeur of the undertaking, and, should it be
successful, the great advantage it would be to navigation and science,
thus completing the circuit of discoveries made by Cook, were
particularly dwelt on.  When it came to the point of fixing on a fit
person to recommend to his Majesty to command the proposed expedition,
Captain Cook started to his feet, and declared that he himself was ready
to take the command.

This was probably what Lord Sandwich desired.  Cook's offer was eagerly
accepted, and he was appointed to the command of the expedition on
February 10, 1776.  It was arranged that on his return to England he
should be restored to his post at Greenwich.  An Act was also at once
passed, by which the officers and ship's company of any of his Majesty's
ships discovering the north-west passage would be able to claim the
reward of 20,000 pounds offered in 1745 only to persons not in the Royal
Navy.  The usual plan of search was to be reversed, and instead of
commencing on the Atlantic side of America, and endeavouring to
penetrate into the Pacific, the expedition was to proceed round Cape
Horn, and then sailing north, attempt to work its way through Behring's
Straits eastward into the Atlantic.

Two vessels were fixed on for the intended service, the Resolution and
the Discovery.  The command of the former was given to Captain Cook,
with Mr Gore as his first lieutenant, and of the other to Captain
Clerke, while Lieutenant King went out again as second lieutenant of the
Resolution.  He had undertaken to make the necessary astronomical and
nautical observations during the voyage, in conjunction with his
captain, and for this purpose various instruments were entrusted to him.

Mr Bayley was again appointed as astronomer, to sail on board Captain
Clerke's ship, while Mr Anderson, the surgeon of the Resolution, took
charge of the department of natural history.  An artist, Mr Webber, was
selected to sail on board the Resolution, and to make sketches of any
scenes of interest which might be met with.

Every care and attention was paid to the fitting-out of the ships, and
some months passed before they were ready for sea.  The officers of the
Resolution were John Gore, James King, and John Williamson, lieutenants;
William Bligh, Master; William Anderson, surgeon; Molesworth Philips,
lieutenant Royal Marines: those of the Discovery were James Burney, John
Rickham, lieutenants; Thomas Edgar, master; John Law, surgeon.  The
latter vessel, which had been purchased into the service, was of three
hundred tons burden.

An ample supply of all the articles which past experience had shown were
likely to preserve the health of the crews was put on board these
vessels, as well as an abundance of warm clothing.  By desire of the
King, several useful animals, which were to be left at the Society or
other islands, for the benefit of the natives, were embarked, with
fodder for their support.  There were two cows and their calves, a bull,
and several sheep.  Others were to be purchased at the Cape.  The
captain was also furnished with a large variety of European garden
seeds, for distribution among the inhabitants of newly-discovered
islands.  He received, besides, by order of the Board of Admiralty, many
articles calculated to improve the condition of the natives of the
islands of the Pacific, while, for the purposes of traffic, a large
assortment of iron tools, trinkets, and other articles were sent on
board.  Nothing, indeed, was omitted which it was thought likely would
benefit the people to be visited, or would promote the success of the
voyage.  As it was not probable that another opportunity would occur of
restoring Omai to his native island, it was settled that he should
return in the Resolution.  It was supposed that this semi-civilised, and
still heathen, savage had become so impressed with the grandeur and
power of England, and so grateful for the patronage he had enjoyed and
the presents he had received, that he would (as a writer of the day
expresses it) "be rendered an instrument of conveying to the inhabitants
of the Pacific Ocean the most exalted ideas of the greatness and
generosity of the British nation."  How completely these hopes were
disappointed the following narrative will show; nor should we be
surprised at this, when we recollect how entirely superficial were all
poor Omai's accomplishments.  He appears to have learned to play very
well at chess; but that seems to have been the only science in which he
attained anything like proficiency.  The truth is, he had been made a
lion of, and had been courted and petted by the rank and fashion of the
day.  It would not have been surprising if his head had been turned.
Possibly, a man of superior mind or quicker sensibilities might have
been powerfully affected by the same amount of flattery.  On being told
that he was to go, he could scarcely refrain from tears when he spoke of
parting from his English friends, but his eyes immediately sparkled with
pleasure when his native islands were mentioned.

Captain Cook received the secret instructions for his guidance on July
6, 1776.  His chief object was to find a passage from the Pacific into
the Atlantic.  He was to leave the Cape of Good Hope early in November,
and first to search for certain islands said to have been seen by the
French, south of the Mauritius.  He was not to spend much time in
looking for them, nor in examining them if found, but to proceed to
Otaheite, touching at New Zealand, should he consider it necessary to
refresh his crews.  Thence he was to proceed direct to the coast of New
Albion, avoiding, if possible, any Spanish settlements; or should it be
necessary to touch at any, to take great care not to excite the jealousy
or ill-will of the Spaniards.  Arrived in the Frozen Ocean, he was to
examine all channels and inlets likely to lead eastward, and to take
possession of any territory on which he might land, not before
discovered, with the consent of the natives, in the name of the King of
Great Britain.  He was to winter at the Russian settlement of Saint
Peter and Saint Paul in Kamtschatka, and to return in the spring to the
north.  Each ship was supplied with a small vessel in frame, which was
to be set up, if necessary, to prosecute the search for a passage along
the northern coast of America.

Although numerous expeditions have since been sent out, they have mostly
commenced their operations on the Atlantic side of America; and it is
remarkable that the only successful one, that of Captain McClure, in the
Investigator, and Captain Collinson, in the Enterprise, in the years
1850-53, entered the Frozen Sea on the Pacific side.  [Note 1.]  Captain
McClure had, however, to abandon his ship, and to make the voyage over
the ice, till he could join one of the ships sent up Baffin's Bay to his
relief; while Captain Collinson, getting his ship free from the ice,
returned westward by the way he had come.  The question of a north-west
passage was thus solved in the affirmative; but, unless in some very
exceptional case, it is shown to be impracticable and useless for all
commercial purposes.  It is easy to conceive what would have been the
fate of Cook's ships had they proceeded eastward, and there become beset
by the ice.

Captain Cook, with Omai in his company, joined his ship on June 24,
1776, at Sheerness, and immediately sailed for Plymouth.  He did not
leave that port till July 11, and, owing to contrary winds, did not take
his departure from the Scilly Isles till the 16th.

The Discovery remained at Plymouth, Captain Clerke not having yet
arrived on board.  He was directed to proceed, as soon as he was ready
for sea, to the Cape of Good Hope, there to join the Resolution.
Captain Cook touched at Teneriffe, where he found an abundance of
supplies, and sailed again on August 4.  On the evening of the 10th,
Bonavista, one of the Cape de Verde Islands, was seen bearing south,
little more than a league off, though at the time it was supposed that
the ship was at a much greater distance from the land.  Just then
breakers were discovered directly under her lee, and for a few minutes
she was in great danger.  She happily just weathered them, and stood for
Porto Praya, where it was expected the Discovery might be.  As she was
not there, the Resolution did not go in, but continued her course to the
Cape.  On September 1 the line was crossed, and the usual ceremonies
were observed; on October 18 the ship anchored in Table Bay.  Here
arrangements were at once made to obtain a supply of fresh bread and
other provisions, which, as soon as ready, were conveyed on board, while
the tents were set up on shore, and astronomical observations diligently
carried on.  Meantime, the ship was caulked, which she much required.
On the evening of the 31st a fearful gale tore the tents to pieces, and
some of the instruments narrowly escaped serious injury.  No
communication with the Resolution was possible for those on shore.

She was the only ship in the harbour which rode out the gale without
dragging her anchors.

On November 10 the Discovery entered the bay.  She had sailed on August
1, and would have come in a week sooner but had been blown off the coast
by the late gale.  She also required caulking, which detained the
expedition some time.

On November 30 the two ships sailed together.  The Resolution had now on
board, in addition to her former stock of animals, two bulls and two
heifers, two horses and two mares, two rams, several ewes and goats, and
some rabbits and poultry--all of them intended for New Zealand,
Otaheite, and the neighbouring islands, or other places where there
might be a prospect of their proving useful.  The course steered was
about south-east.  Before long a heavy squall carried away the
Resolution's mizzen-topmast; and a mountainous sea made the ship roll so
much that it was with difficulty the animals on board could be
preserved.  Owing to this, and to the cold, several goats and sheep
died.

On December 12 two islands were seen about five leagues apart.  These,
with four others which lie in the same latitude, about nine degrees of
longitude more to the east, were discovered by two French navigators in
1772.  Cook now bestowed the name of Prince Edward's Island on the two
he had just discovered, and those of the French officers on the four
others.  They were mostly covered with snow, and where the ground seemed
free from it lichen or a coarse grass was the only herbage.

On leaving Prince Edward's Island a course was shaped to fall in with
Kerguelen's Land.  On the evening of the 24th an island of considerable
height and the next day other islands were seen.  As the ships ranged
along the coast a terrific sea rolled in on the shore, placing them in
great danger, and both had considerable difficulty in weathering the
points and reefs they met with.  Though it was midsummer the weather was
as cold as it is generally during the winter in the British Channel.  At
last a harbour was discovered, into which the ships beat and found good
anchorage, an abundance of water, innumerable penguins and other birds,
as also seals, which were so unacquainted with human beings that they
allowed themselves to be knocked on the head without attempting to
escape.  The casks were immediately landed to be filled up with water,
while a supply of seals was secured for the sake of their oil.  Not a
tree nor shrub was to be found in this inhospitable region.  A bottle
was brought to Captain Cook, containing a document left by Kerguelen,
who had discovered this land at the end of 1773, and had taken
possession of it in the name of the King of France.  The harbour in
which the ships lay was called Christmas Harbour, in commemoration of
the day on which they entered it.  The ships left this harbour on the
morning of the 28th, and continued to range along the coast, in order to
discover its position and extent.  They brought up in another harbour
just in time to escape a heavy gale, and then proceeded to the south,
towards Cape George, to determine the shape of the land.  On finally
leaving it, on December 30, the ships steered east-by-north for New
Zealand.  Captain Cook came to the conclusion that the land he had just
left was a large island, seventy or eighty miles from north to south,
and a much greater distance from east to west.  Captain Furneaux had, in
1773, passed across the meridian of this land, only seventeen leagues to
the south of Cape George, thus settling the point of its being an
island.

It seems to have been a mistake to send the ships into these inclement
regions with cattle on board, as many died, among them two young bulls
and a heifer, two rams, and several more of the goats.

The weather continued so thick that for many days together the ships did
not see each other, though by constantly firing guns they managed to
keep in company.  At length Captain Cook determined to put into
Adventure Bay, in Van Diemen's Land, where Captain Furneaux had touched
on the former voyage.  The land was made on January 24, and on the 26th
the ships brought up in the bay.  They expected to obtain a supply of
wood for fuel, and of grass for the cattle, of which they stood greatly
in need.  A supply of fish was caught, and plenty of grass brought on
board.  While the party on shore were cutting wood some natives
appeared.  They came forward with perfect confidence, only one having a
lance in his hand.  They were entirely without clothes, their skin and
hair black, their stature about the ordinary height, their figures
rather slender.  Their features were not disagreeable, as they had
neither very thick lips nor flat noses, while their eyes and teeth were
good.  Most of them had their heads and beards smeared with a red
ointment, while some had their faces painted with the same composition.
They seemed indifferent to all the presents offered them; even bread and
fish they threw away, till some birds were given them, at which they
expressed their satisfaction.

A boar and sow had been landed for the purpose of being left in the
woods, but no sooner did the natives see them than they seized them by
the ears, evidently with the intention of carrying them off and killing
them.  Captain Cook, wishing to know the use of the stick one of them
carried, the native set up a mark and threw his stick at it.  He missed
it, however, so often, that Omai, to show the superiority of the white
men's arms, fired his musket.  This very naturally made the whole party
ran off, and drop some axes and other things which had been given to
them.  They ran towards where the Adventure's people were cutting wood,
when the officer, not knowing their intention, fired a musket over their
heads, which sent them off altogether.  The boar and sow were carried to
a thick wood at the head of the bay, where it was hoped that they would
conceal themselves and escape the natives; but some cattle which it had
been intended to leave there were returned on board, as it was clear
that the natives would immediately kill them.

A calm kept the ships in harbour, and the next day, notwithstanding the
fright which the natives had received, a party of twenty or more, men
and boys, made their appearance.  Among them was one terribly deformed,
who seemed to be the acknowledged wit of the party, as he and his
friends laughed heartily at the remarks he made, and seemed surprised
that the English did not do the same.  Their language was different from
that of the tribes met with in the north.  Some of these people had
bands of fur passed several times round their necks, and others of
kangaroo-skin round their ankles.  They seemed to be unacquainted with
fishing, by the way they looked at the English fish-hooks, and their
rejection of the fish offered them; though near their fires quantities
of mussel shells were found, showing that they lived partly on
shell-fish.  Their habitations were mere sheds of sticks covered with
bark, and there were indications of their taking up their abodes in
trees hollowed out by fire or decay.  From the marks of fires it was
evident that they cooked their food, but they did not appear to have the
slightest notion of cultivating the land.  The people here described
have disappeared from the face of the earth.  The last remnant, who had
become exceedingly ferocious and mischievous, were collected and carried
to an island in Bass's Straits, where they were allowed to roam at
large, it having been found impossible to tame them.  It is believed
that they finally died out.  Mr Anderson records the beauty of the
scenery and of the climate, though he remarks that not one single
natural production could be found fit for the food of man.

The ships left Adventure Bay on January 30, when soon afterwards the
mercury in the barometer fell, and a furious gale began to blow from the
south.  At the same time the heat became almost insupportable, the
mercury in the thermometer rising from 70 degrees to near 90 degrees.
This high temperature, however, did not last long.

On February 12 the ships anchored in Queen Charlotte's Sound.  That no
time might be lost, the tents for the observatory, with the usual guard
and the water-casks, were landed, and operations were immediately
commenced.  Before long several canoes came alongside, but few of the
people in them would venture on board, the greater part being evidently
afraid that the English would punish them for their murder of the
Adventure's people.  Captain Cook recognised several of those with whom
he was well acquainted during his former visits.  They must also have
seen Omai, and remembered that he was on board the Adventure at the
time, and thus known that Captain Cook could no longer have been
ignorant of what had occurred.  He, however, did his best to make them
understand that he was not come to punish them for that act, and that he
wished to be friends with them as before.  In consequence of this the
natives very soon laid aside restraint and distrust.  After the fearful
experience he had had of their treachery, however, the captain took
extra precautions to prevent a surprise.  While the people were engaged
in their various occupations on shore, a guard was posted for their
protection, while all the men worked with their arms by their sides, Mr
King and two or three petty officers being constantly with them.  No
boat was sent to a distance unless well armed, and under charge of an
officer who could be depended on.  Captain Cook thinks that the
precautions were probably unnecessary though he felt it his duty to take
them.  The natives showed no fear, and came and built their huts close
to the ship, and many employed themselves in fishing, exchanging the
fish they caught for the usual articles of barter.

Besides the natives who settled near them, chiefs from other parts
frequently visited the ship.  Among them came a chief called Kahoora,
who was pointed out as the leader of those who attacked the crew of the
Adventure's boat, and was said actually to have killed Mr Rowe, the
officer in command.  Greatly to the surprise of the natives, as also to
that of Omai, who entreated that he might at once be killed, Captain
Cook declined seizing him, saying that he had granted an amnesty, and
that no one should be punished.  Kahoora, trusting to the captain's
promise, came frequently on board, though by thus doing he placed
himself entirely in the hands of the English.  Once only, when Omai
accused him in the cabin of having killed Mr Rowe, he hung down his
head and folded his arms, expecting instant death, but was soon
reassured by the captain, who told him that he wished to forget the
circumstance, though should a similar one occur the natives must expect
the fearful vengeance of the English.  He says that had he listened to
the suggestions and requests of the chiefs and others to kill their
enemies, he should soon have extirpated the whole race.  In no country
could life be much more insecure.  Tribes, and even families living in
the same neighbourhood, were constantly fighting with each other, and
war was carried on with the utmost cruelty and ferocity.  If a man was
unable to revenge an injury inflicted on himself or any member of his
family, it was the duty of his son to take up the quarrel, and often
many years elapsed before an opportunity occurred of wreaking his
long-delayed vengeance.  When such an opportunity arrived he and his
companions stole on their unsuspecting enemies in the night, and if they
found them unguarded they killed every one indiscriminately, not even
sparing women or children.  When the massacre was completed they either
made a horrid banquet of the slain on the spot, or carried off as many
dead bodies as they could, and devoured them at home, with acts of
brutality too shocking to be described.  As they never gave quarter nor
took prisoners the defeated party could only save their lives by flight.
More powerful chiefs made war in the same barbarous way, on a larger
scale, and depopulated whole districts if the people offended them.  On
the introduction of firearms the bloody work went on with still greater
rapidity.  In the time of George the Fourth a chief who was taken to
England and received at Buckingham Palace, and was looked upon as a
highly civilised person, on his return exchanged at Sydney all the
articles which had been given him for firearms and ammunition, and
immediately commenced a war of extermination against all the surrounding
tribes, and feasted without scruple on the bodies of his foes.  It is
not surprising that, under such circumstances, two-thirds of the
inhabitants of New Zealand have been, within the last century, swept
away by warfare.  The process of extermination had, indeed, commenced
long before Cook visited those shores, and it would probably ere now
have completed its ravages had not the Christian Church been roused to a
sense of its responsibilities, and conveyed to New Zealand, as to other
lands, the knowledge of Him who teaches us by His Word and Spirit to
love our enemies, to bless those who curse us, and to do good to those
who despitefully use us and persecute us.

The wandering propensities of the New Zealanders were shown by the
desire expressed by several youths of embarking on board the ships.
One, named Taweiharooa, eighteen years of age, the son of a dead chief,
was selected to accompany Omai, who had been desirous of having a
companion.  That Taweiharooa might be sent off in a way becoming his
rank, a boy, Kokoa, of about ten years of age, to act as his servant,
was presented by his own father with as much indifference as he would
have parted with a dog.  It was clearly explained to the youths that
they would probably never return to their native country, but, as Cook
observes, so great was the insecurity of life in New Zealand at that
time, that he felt no compunction in the matter, as the lads could
scarcely fail to improve their lot by the change.

The ships left Queen Charlotte's Sound on February 25.  No sooner had
they lost sight of land than the New Zealand adventurers were seized
with sea-sickness, which, giving a turn to their thoughts, made them
bitterly lament what they had done, while they expressed their feelings
in a sort of song which they continued to sing till they got better.  By
degrees their lamentations ceased, and in a short time their native
country and friends seemed to be forgotten, and they appeared as firmly
attached to their new friends as if they had been born among them.

On March 29, 1777, the Discovery made the signal of land in the
north-east.  It was soon found to be an island of no great extent, and
the night was spent standing off and on, in the hope that the next day a
landing-place might be found.  No landing nor anchorage, however,
appeared practicable, on account of the heavy surf which broke
everywhere, either against the island or the reef which surrounded it.
Before long a number of people appeared on the shore or wading to the
reef, most of them nearly naked, except the usual girdle, brandishing
spears and clubs.  Some of them had mantles of native cloth over their
shoulders, and turbans or wrappers round their heads.  After a time a
canoe was launched, and came off with two natives to the ship.  When
presents were offered, they asked for some for their Eatooa before they
would accept any for themselves.  Omai spoke to them in the tongue of
Otaheite, which they perfectly understood.  The principal man said that
his name was Monrooa, and that the island was called Mangaia.  His
colour was that of most southern Europeans; he was stout and well made,
and his features were agreeable.  The other man was not so good-looking.
Both of them had strong, straight black hair, tied at the crown of the
head.  They wore sandals, to protect their feet from the coral rocks.

The men would not venture on board, but when the boats were lowered and
stood towards the shore to find a landing-place, Monrooa stepped into
Captain Cook's of his own accord, and took his seat by his side.  No
landing could be found without the risk of swamping the boats; they
therefore returned, and Monrooa came on board.  He was, evidently, too
anxious about his safety to ask questions.  At last he stumbled over one
of the goats, when he inquired eagerly of Omai what strange bird that
was!  The boat conveyed him just outside the surf, when he leaped
overboard and swam through it, his countrymen being seen eagerly
gathering round him to receive accounts of what he had seen.  Cook says
he left that fine island with regret, as it seemed capable of supplying
all their wants.  [Note 2.]

Mangaia was left on March 30, and the next day, at noon, two islands
were seen--a large and a small one.  The following day the shore of the
larger island was reached, and boats at once put off to try and find a
landing-place.  At the same time several canoes came from the shore,
with one man in each.  The natives stepped on board without showing
fear, but seemed to value very little any of the gifts bestowed on them.
After the first party had gone, a man arrived in a canoe, bringing a
bunch of plantains as a present to Captain Cook, whose name he had
learned from Omai.  This present had been sent by the principal chief.
The bearer went away, well contented, with an axe and a piece of red
cloth.  Not long after a double canoe approached the Resolution, with
twelve men in her, who chanted in chorus, and when their song was
finished they came alongside and asked for the chief.  On the captain's
showing himself a pig and some cocoanuts were handed up the side, and
the natives coming on board presented some pieces of matting in
addition.  Though the natives expressed surprise at some of the things
they saw, nothing seemed to fix their attention.  They were afraid of
the horses and cows, and inquired, when they saw the goats, as the
native of Mangaia had done, what sort of birds they were.

The following day Mr Gore and Mr Barney, with Mr Anderson and Omai,
went on shore in hope of obtaining food for the cattle.  The boats
approached the surf, when some canoes came off and took the party
through it.  The day passed on, and as they did not return Captain Cook
became somewhat uneasy; his only comfort being that the natives
continued to come off to the ship as before, bringing cocoanuts, and
taking anything given them in return.  Late in the day the boats
returned; it then appeared that the party had been conducted, amid a
vast crowd, up an avenue of cocoa palms, till they reached a body of men
drawn up in two rows, armed with clubs resting on their shoulders.  In
the middle row was a chief, sitting cross-legged on the ground, and
having bunches of red feathers in his ears.  They were then introduced
to two other chiefs, one, though a young man, excessively corpulent,
also distinguished by the red feathers, and they were then entertained
by a dance, performed by twenty girls, all of whom wore red feathers.
The dancers did not leave the spot where they stood, for though their
feet moved up and down the dance consisted of various motions of the
body and hands.  The visitors were next entertained by a sham fight
between the men armed with clubs.  They now found themselves separated
from each other, and pressed on by the crowd, while they had their
pockets picked of every article they possessed, the chiefs not
interfering.  Their position was sufficiently embarrassing, for whenever
they tried to get back to the boats they were stopped.  Omai, meantime,
who was by himself, surrounded by a crowd of natives, and equally
anxious with the rest, described, in exaggerated terms, the power of the
English guns, which, he affirmed, could blow the whole island to pieces.
He had some cartridges in his pocket, and to prove his assertion he let
several of them off together.  The sudden flash and report seem to have
produced a great effect on the minds of the natives, as the party were
sent off with a large supply of cooked plantains as a gift; and a bag
containing a pistol, which Mr Anderson particularly required, was
restored.

Omai found on this island three of his own countrymen who had arrived
there, eleven years before, in a canoe.  They were the survivors of a
party of twenty persons who had been driven before the wind from
Otaheite, distant at least two hundred leagues.  They declined a passage
offered to them to return to their native island.  The circumstance was
interesting as giving an example of the way the islands of the Pacific
have been peopled.  The name of this island was Wateeoo.  The language
was equally well understood by Omai and the two New Zealanders.

Though the visit was an interesting one, the chief object in calling off
the island (that of procuring provender for the cattle) was not
attained, as nothing was sent off.  From the small island which had been
seen three days before, and to which the ships now steered, all that was
required was obtained, consisting of grass and leaves of young cocoanut
trees and of the pandanus.  Though the island, called Ota Kootaia, was
uninhabited, still, as it was occasionally visited by the natives of the
neighbouring island, Mr King left an axe and some nails in payment for
what he took away.

Captain Cook next sailed for Hervey Island, which he had supposed, when
he discovered it in 1773, to be uninhabited.  As he now approached,
however, a number of canoes came off, but the people on board behaved in
a very wild and disorderly manner.  They were of a darker colour than
the neighbouring islanders, and of a fiercer expression of countenance.
As no anchorage was found for the ships they stood away for Palmerston's
Island, which was found to be thickly covered with cocoanut trees,
pandanus, cabbage palm, and grass.  The ships stood off and on for three
days, while four or five boats' crews were busily employed in cutting
food for the cattle, and in collecting two thousand cocoanuts for the
crews of the two ships.  On leaving Palmerston's Island a course was
steered for Annamook, and on the night between April 24 and 25, Savage
Island was passed.

On the evening of the 28th the ships anchored off Komango, and the next
morning canoes came off with all sorts of provisions.  Mr King, who
went on shore, was treated very civilly by the inhabitants, and by two
chiefs, Taipa and Toobou.  As it was important to find a good harbour,
and no other, after two days' search, having been discovered, Captain
Cook came to anchor in the spot where he had been three years before.
Here the chief Toobou received him, and offered a boat, and also a house
to serve as a tent; at the same time he promptly selected a spot where
the observatories might be set up and other arrangements made.  He
conducted the captain and Omai to his house.  Round it was a fine
grass-plot, which he explained was for the purpose of enabling people to
clean their feet before entering the house.  The floor was covered with
mats, and no carpet in an English drawing-room could be kept cleaner.
Taipa, the chief, who had been among the first to introduce himself,
that he might be close to his new friends, had a house brought on men's
shoulders, full a quarter of a mile, and placed near the shed they
occupied.  The greatest man, however, had not as yet appeared, and on
May 6 a chief arrived, it was understood, from Tongataboo, who was
introduced by Taipa as Feenou, King of all the Friendly Islands.  That
he was of great power there could be no doubt, as the natives ordered
out to meet him bowed their heads as low as his feet, the soles of which
they touched, first with the palm, and then with the back of each hand.
He appeared to be about thirty years of age, tall, but thin, and had
more of the European features than any native of the South Seas yet met
with.  He showed his power by recovering a large axe which had been
stolen out of the ship.  The people of these islands were great thieves;
even the chiefs stole.  One was caught, when he was sentenced to receive
a dozen lashes, and was not set free till he had paid a hog for his
liberty.  This put a stop to the practice among the chiefs.

At Feenou's invitation Captain Cook agreed to go to Hapaee.  During the
passage the great chief came on board and remained all day, but in the
evening took his departure with Omai, while the ship remained under sail
in a somewhat perilous position, no anchorage having been found.
Several times during the day the smoke from the burning mountain of
Toofoa was seen; at night the flames were observed bursting forth, but
to no great height.

Hapaee consists of four islands, of inconsiderable elevation.
Immediately the ships came to an anchor, on the 17th, they were crowded
with natives, who brought off all sorts of provisions.  A house had been
brought down to the beach, and on Captain Cook's going on shore, he and
Omai, with Feenou, took their seats within it, the other chiefs and
people forming a circle outside.  Feenou then directed Taipa to proclaim
to the people that the strangers were going to remain five days, and
that they were to bring hogs, fowls, and fruit to the ships; that they
were not to steal, but to behave in every way politely and courteously.
After this, it was suggested by Taipa that a present should be made to
Earoupa, the chief of the island.

Omai seems to have been greatly taken with Feenou, and scarcely ever
quitted him.  The next day this chief came off, requesting the captain's
presence on shore, when a hundred men appeared, laden with bread-fruit,
plantains, yams, cocoanuts, and sugar-canes, with several pigs and
fowls, and two turtles, which were deposited in two heaps, Earoupa
seating himself near one heap, and another chief near the other.  A
number of men then appeared, armed with clubs made out of the green
branches of the cocoanut tree.  They formed two parties, and numerous
single combats took place, the victors being highly applauded by the
spectators.  These were succeeded by wrestling and boxing matches, much
in the English fashion.  In the latter several young women took part.
One of the first pair gave in within a minute, but the second fought on
till separated by two old women.  The greatest good humour prevailed,
however, though many severe blows were received.  Feenou now explained
that one-third of the presents were for Omai, and the others for Captain
Cook, who made the handsomest returns he could.  There was enough to
fill four boats; indeed, no chief in any part had ever made a present at
all equal to it.

At the desire of the chief the marines were exercised on shore, and in
return a sort of dance was performed by a hundred and five men, who had
each a paddle in his hand.  Nothing could exceed the beautiful precision
and the variety of graceful movements of the performers.  When it grew
dark their visitors greatly pleased the natives by a display of
fireworks.  After this the people collected in an open space among the
trees, where a circle was formed by lights, and just outside the circle
a number of dances were performed, some by men, and others by women,
many of the principal people taking a part.  The performances appear to
have been very graceful and perfect in every way, the natives evidently
priding themselves on them.

Making an excursion on shore, Captain Cook formed a high opinion of the
state of cultivation of Lifooga.  On his return on board he found a
large double canoe, with the silent chief who had been met with at
Tongataboo, and was supposed to be the king of the island.  Feenou was
on board, but neither great man took the slightest notice of the other.
Feenou now announced that business required his absence, and begged
Captain Cook to await his return.  He had not been gone long when a
large sailing-canoe arrived, in which was a person named Poulaho, and
whom the natives on board affirmed to be the real King of Tongataboo and
of all the neighbouring islands.  He was a sensible, sedate man,
enormously fat, and about forty years of age.  He was, of course,
invited into the cabin, but his attendants observed that that could not
be.  On this the captain sent Omai to say that he would give directions
that no one should approach the part of the deck above the cabin.  The
king, however, settled the question by going below without making any
stipulation.  Omai seemed much disappointed at discovering that the
chief he had taken to be king was no king after all.  Feenou was,
however, a very powerful chief, generalissimo of the army, and head of
the police of all the islands, so that he was held in general awe.

The king was much pleased with the presents he received, and when he
went on shore ordered two more hogs to be sent off, in addition to two
he had brought with him.  On landing he was taken up to the house
erected for his accommodation, on a board resembling a hand-barrow.  On
Feenou's return he looked rather confused on finding that the king had
paid the voyagers a visit; and he then acknowledged who and what he
really was.  After this, on one occasion, Poulaho and Feenou accompanied
the captain on board.  Feenou, however, did not presume to sit with the
king, but, saluting his foot with head and hands, retired out of the
cabin.  It appeared, indeed, that he declined to eat and drink in the
royal presence, though there were persons of much inferior rank who did
so.

At the request of Poulaho the captain paid a visit to Tongataboo, where
the ships were in considerable danger of driving on a low, sandy island,
but escaped.  At Tongataboo the English were entertained much in the
same way that they had been at Hapaee.

The king had a son, Fattafaihe, to whom great respect was paid.  His
mother was the daughter of an old chief, of large possessions and great
influence, called Mareewagee, and Feenou was his son.  That chief was,
therefore, brother-in-law to the king, and uncle to the heir-apparent.

On June 19 Captain Cook invited the chiefs and others to a meeting, that
he might present them with the animals he proposed to leave on the
island.  To the king, Poulaho, he gave a young English bull and cow; to
Mareewagee, a Cape ram and two ewes; and to Feenou, a horse and mare;
and he instructed Omai to explain their use, and that they must be
careful not to injure them, but to let them increase till they had
stocked the island.  Some goats and rabbits were also added.  It soon
appeared, however, that the chiefs were dissatisfied with this
allotment, and early next morning it was found that a kid and two
turkey-cocks were missing.  On this the captain put a guard over the
king, Feenou, and some other chiefs, whom he found in the house which
the English occupied on shore, and told them that they should not be
liberated till the animals and other articles lately stolen had been
restored.  On the captain inviting them to go on board to dinner they
readily consented.  Some objected to the king's going, but he jumped up
and said that he would be the first to go.  They were kept on board till
four, and on their return on shore the kid and one of the turkey-cocks
were brought back, and the other was promised the next day.  After this
a party of officers from both ships made an excursion into the interior,
with muskets and ammunition, and a number of articles for barter, but
the natives stripped them of everything.  The officers made application,
through Omai, for restitution, and this caused the king, Feenou, and
other chiefs hastily to go off.  Omai, however, persuaded Feenou that
nothing would be done to them, when he, and afterwards the king,
returned, and were apparently on as good terms as ever.

Captain Cook even ventured to attend a grand ceremony, held for the
purpose of introducing the young prince to certain royal privileges, the
principal of which was to be that of eating in the society of his
father.  There seemed to be great distinctions of rank among the people.
There were some who had greater honour shown to them than even to the
king himself.  His father had an elder sister, of equal rank to himself,
and she married a chief who came from Fejee.  By him she had a son, the
silent chief Latoolibooloo, who was looked upon as a madman, and two
daughters.  The king met one of these women on board the Resolution, and
would not venture to eat in her presence.  On afterwards encountering
Latoolibooloo, the king bent down and touched the silent prince's feet
with the back and palms of his hand, as he was accustomed to be treated
by his subjects.

Captain Cook here observed the taboo system.  If applied to places, they
may not be entered or approached; if to persons, they may not be
touched, or may not feed themselves; if to things, they may not be
touched.  The system, however, did not appear to be so rigidly observed
in Tonga as in some other groups of the Pacific.

With regard to the religion of the people, Captain Cook gained very
little information, and Omai, who seems to have been especially dull of
apprehension, and never to have made inquiries of his own accord, was
very little able to help him.  That great cruelty was exercised by those
in authority was evident by two or three occurrences witnessed by the
English.  On one occasion, when Feenou was on board the Resolution, an
inferior chief ordered all the people to retire from the post occupied
on shore by the English.  Some ventured to return, when the chief took
up a stick and beat them most unmercifully.  He struck one man with so
much violence on the side of the face that the blood gushed out of his
month and nostrils, and after lying for some time motionless he was
removed in convulsions.  The chief laughed when told that he had killed
the man, and seemed perfectly indifferent to the matter.

All classes, from the highest to the lowest, were found to be thieves;
and when the chiefs themselves did not steal they employed their
servants to pilfer for them.  To check this propensity Captain Clerke
suggested a plan, which was adopted with good effect.  Whenever any of
the lower orders were caught stealing he had their heads completely
shaved, so that they became objects of ridicule to their countrymen, and
did not again venture on board the ships.

It appeared that the larger portion of the land belonged to certain
great chiefs, and that the inferior chiefs held their estates under
them, while the mass of the population were mere serfs, who tilled the
soil for their masters, and received but a scanty remuneration for their
labour.

Captain Cook heard of the Fejee Islands, distant about three days' sail,
and of the savage and cannibal propensities of the inhabitants, some of
whom he saw at Tonga.  The inhabitants of Tonga held them in great
dread, on account of their prowess in war, and always endeavoured to
keep on friendly terms with them.  He concluded that the Friendly
Islanders had not, till lately, kept up any intercourse with those of
Fejee, because dogs, which are very common in the latter group, had only
been introduced into Tonga since his last visit, and to none of the
other islands.

All was ready for sailing, when the king invited Captain Cook and his
officers to the ceremony which has already been mentioned, and which
took place at Mooa, where the king resided.  During its performance they
had to sit, as did the natives, with their shoulders bare, their hair
hanging down loose, their eyes cast down, and their hands locked
together.  None but the principal people, and those who assisted at the
celebration, were allowed to be present.  These circumstances, Captain
Cook says, were sufficient evidence to him that the people considered
themselves as acting under the immediate inspection of a Supreme Being.
He was told that in about three months there would be performed, on the
same account, a far grander solemnity, on which occasion not only the
tribute of Tongataboo, but that of Hapaee, Vavaoo, and of all the other
islands, would be brought to the chief, and ten human beings from among
the inferior sort of people would be sacrificed to add to its dignity:
"a significant instance," Captain Cook remarks, "of the influence of
gloomy and ignorant superstition over the minds of one of the most
benevolent and humane nations upon earth."  King Poulaho warmly pressed
his guests to remain, that they might witness a funeral ceremony, which
was to take place the next day.

During their stay in the island they had suffered from a succession of
violent storms.  The wind raged fearfully amongst the forest trees, the
rain fell in torrents, the lightning flashed, and the thunder pealed
with an awful fury of which we, in these more temperate regions, have
little idea.  Now, however, the wind had become fair and moderate;
Captain Cook and his officers, therefore, hurried on board, and as soon
as possible the ships got under way.  As, however, they could not get to
sea before it was dark, they had to bring up for the night under
Tongataboo.  The next day they reached Eooa, where the English were well
received by Captain Cook's former acquaintance, the chief of the island,
Taoofa, or, as he then called him, Tioony.  An abundant supply of yams
and a few hogs were obtained, and the ram and two ewes of the Cape of
Good Hope breed of sheep were entrusted to the chief, who seemed proud
of his charge.

Captain Cook made an excursion into the interior, and as he surveyed,
from an elevation to which he had ascended, the delightful prospect
before him, "I could not," he says, "help flattering myself with the
pleasing idea that some future navigator may, from the same station,
behold these meadows stocked with cattle, brought to these islands by
the ships of England; and that the completion of this high benevolent
purpose, independently of all other considerations, would sufficiently
mark to posterity that our voyages had not been useless to the general
interests of humanity."  The great navigator here gives utterance to the
genuine feelings of his heart, for such were undoubtedly the principles
which animated him.  He little dreamed that those friendly natives, of
whom he had thought so highly, and whom he had praised as among the most
humane people on earth, had, headed by Feenou, laid a plot for his
destruction, and that of all his followers.  Providentially, the
conspirators could not agree as to the mode of proceeding; but all were
equally eager to possess themselves of the stores of wealth the ships
were supposed to contain.  Probably Feenou's pretended friendship for
the foolish Omai was in the hope that he would thus have a ready tool in
his hands.  He had offered to make Omai a great chief if he would remain
in Tonga, but Cook advised him not to accept the offer.

Captain Cook had settled to sail on July 15, but, pressed by Taoofa, who
promised more presents, he consented to remain a couple of days.  During
this period a seaman was surrounded by a number of people, and, being
knocked down, had every particle of clothing torn from his back; but, by
seizing on a couple of canoes and a fat hog, the English obtained the
restoration of some of the articles.

The captain kept to his purpose of sailing, but when still not far from
the land a canoe with four men came off, saying that orders had been
sent to the people of Eooa to supply the ships with fat hogs, and that
if they would return to their former station the king and a number of
chiefs would, in a couple of days, be with them.  As, however, there was
an abundant supply of provisions on board, Captain Cook declined the
offer, and continued his coarse.

It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader that more fearful
massacres of the crews of various ships were perpetrated by the
inhabitants of these islands than by any other natives of the Pacific,
from the time of the visit just recorded till they were formed into a
civilised community under their present government.

After the ships had left the Tonga group they did not see land till
August 8, when they fell in with a small island, having on it hills of
considerable elevation, covered with grass; tall trees, and numerous
plantations on a border of flat land, ran quite round it, edged with a
white sandy beach.  A number of people were on the shore, and two canoes
came off with a dozen men in them, but could not be persuaded, by all
Omai's eloquence, to venture alongside.  They spoke the language of
Otaheite, and called their island Toobouai.  It was at this island that
Christian and the mutineers of the Bounty tried to form a settlement, in
1789.  It is the scene, also, of Lord Byron's poem of "The Island,"
though he altered the name to Toobouia.  Some of the people were dressed
in native cloth, but the great mass had only girdles.  One continued to
blow a conch-shell most of the time the ships lay off their island,
while his companions made signs, inviting the strangers to land.  It is
worthy of remark that no weapons were seen among them.

On the 12th Maitea was seen, and soon after Otaheite hove in sight, and
the next day the ships anchored in the Bay of Oheitepeha.  Some common
people came off in canoes, but Omai took no notice of them, and they did
not seem to recognise him as a countryman.  At length his
brother-in-law, Ootee, appeared, but there was no exhibition of regard
or affection till Omai took the other into the cabin and showed him the
drawers in which he kept his red feathers.  This instantly changed the
face of affairs, and Ootee begged that they might be _tayos_, and change
names.

Soon after the ships anchored Omai's sister came on board, and the
meeting was marked with expressions of the most tender affection,
evidently not feigned.  Afterwards, on going ashore with Captain Cook,
Omai met a sister of his mother.  "She threw herself at his feet, and
bedewed them plentifully with tears of joy," says the captain, adding,
"I left him with the old lady, in the midst of a number of people who
had gathered round him."

Cook found that since his last visit two Spanish ships had twice visited
the bay; that a house had been built, and that several persons had been
left in the interval, of whom some had died, and the rest went away when
the ships came back.  They had presented the islanders with a bull, some
hogs, goats, and dogs, and had taken away four people, two of whom died,
and two came back from a place which Cook conjectured to be Lima.  The
house, which stood close to the beach, was made of planks, and as these
were all numbered they had evidently been brought ready to be set up.
It was divided into two small rooms, and in the inner one were a
bedstead, a table, a bench, some old hats, and other trifles, of which
the natives seemed to be very careful, as also of the house itself,
which had suffered no hurt from the weather, a shed having been built
over it.  There were scuttles all round which served as air-holes, and
perhaps they were intended to fire from with musketry, should it have
become necessary.  At a little distance from the front stood a wooden
cross, on the transverse part of which was only the inscription
_Christus vincit_, and on the perpendicular part _Carolus Tertius,
imperat_ 1774.  On the other side of the post Cook preserved the memory
of the prior visits of the English by inscribing, _Georgius Tertius,
Rex_, Annis 1767, 1769, 1773, 1774, and 1777.  The natives pointed out
the grave of the commodore of the two ships who died there during their
first visit.

The expeditions of the Spaniards to Otaheite and the neighbouring
islands had been undertaken in consequence of the jealousy of the
Spanish Government at the visits of the English to the South Seas.  The
first was under the command of Don Domingo Bonechea, in the Aguila
frigate, in 1772.  He gave so favourable a report of the islands that he
was again sent out in 1774, having on board two monks of the order of
Saint Francis, a linguist, a portable house, sheep, cattle, and
implements.  Having landed them at Oheitepeha Bay, as soon as the house
was up he set sail to make further discoveries.  He then returned to the
bay, and six days afterwards died, and was buried, with becoming
ceremonies, at the foot of the cross, which was erected with great pomp,
amid the chanting of masses and the discharge of musketry.

In 1775 a third visit was paid by the Aguila, sent from Callao, to
ascertain the fate of the missionaries.  They were found to be utterly
disappointed, and determined to abandon their task, having made no
progress in the conversion of the natives, and were so alarmed at the
human sacrifices constantly taking place that they would only consent to
remain under the protection of a Spanish garrison.

In God's providence, the people of Otaheite were destined to receive,
from Protestant missionaries, a simpler and purer faith than that taught
by the priests of Rome.  To that faith they have held fast, in spite of
all the efforts and machinations of the Romanists.

While in this bay, as an abundant supply of cocoanuts could be obtained,
Captain Cook proposed to his crew that, as it was important they should
economise their spirits, they should give up their grog, except on
Saturday nights, and drink cocoanut milk instead.  To this, without a
moment's hesitation, they consented, as did Captain Clerke's crew.  On
their first arrival in this place red feathers were looked on as of
great value, but as everybody had them on board they soon became a drug
in the market.  Poor Omai began very soon to exhibit his want of
judgment.  He had prepared a crown or cap of yellow and red feathers for
Otoo, the king of all the islands, which the captain recommended him to
present himself.  Instead of so doing, his vanity induced him to exhibit
it before Waheiadooa, the chief of that part, who thereupon kept the
crown himself and sent only a few tufts to the king.

On August 23 the ships moved to Matavai Bay.  The following morning the
captain landed with Omai and several officers, to pay his respects to
the king, who was attended by his father, his two brothers, three
sisters, and a large number of people.  Omai, who was becomingly
dressed, kneeled and embraced the king's legs, but very little notice
was taken of him.  He made the king a present of some red feathers and
three yards of gold cloth; and the captain gave him a suit of fine
linen, a gold-laced hat, some more red feathers, and some tools.
Captain Cook's wish had been to leave Omai with Otoo, as he thought of
landing all his animals here, and supposed that Omai would assist in
looking after them, and show their various uses.  He therefore
encouraged the friendship of Omai with the chiefs, even though it might
have depended much on his supposed wealth.  Omai, however, rejecting his
kind friend's advice, conducted himself in so imprudent a manner that he
soon lost the friendship of Otoo, and of every other person of note in
Otaheite.  He associated with none but vagabonds and strangers, whose
sole object was to plunder him; and had not the captain interfered they
would not have left him a single article worth carrying from the island.
Of course, this drew on him the ill-will of the chiefs, who found that
they could not procure such valuable presents as Omai bestowed on the
lowest of the people, his companions.

After dinner the captain and a party of officers accompanied Otoo to
Oparree, taking with them the poultry with which they were to stock the
island.  They consisted of a peacock and hen, a turkey-cock and hen, one
gander and three geese, and a drake and four ducks; all left with the
king.  A gander was found there, left by Captain Wallis, several goats,
and a fine Spanish bull, which was kept tied to a tree near Otoo's
house.  Three cows and a bull, some sheep, and the horse and mare were
also landed, greatly to the captain's satisfaction, and to that of
everybody else on board, probably, when it is considered what care and
attention it must have required to keep them alive for so many months.
A piece of ground was also cleared for a garden, and in it, among other
things, were planted several shaddock trees, which had been brought from
the Friendly Islands, two pine-apple plants, some melons and potatoes.
The Spaniards had left a vine, which flourished, but before the grapes
were ripe the natives tasted them, and finding them sour, nearly
destroyed it.  It was, however, pruned, and cuttings were taken from it,
and the natives were advised to wait till the fruit was ripe another
season.

The youth called Oedidee, whose real name was Heeteheete, who had been
seven months with Captain Cook, was here met with.  The captain gave him
a chest of tools, and some clothes had been sent out for his use; but
after a few days he declined wearing them.  One of the natives who had
been on board one of the Spanish ships had also resumed his native
garments, and "perhaps," Captain Cook observes, "Omai, who has almost
entirely assumed English manners, will do the same."

While the ships lay at Matavai news was brought that the people of Eimeo
had revolted, and it was resolved to send Towha, with a fleet, against
them.  Before the fleet could sail it was necessary that a grand human
sacrifice should be offered.  The unhappy victim--one of the common
people--had already been knocked on the head for the purpose.  Captain
Cook, wishing to ascertain the truth of the accounts he had received,
accompanied Otoo to witness the ceremony, and with him Mr Anderson and
Mr Webber, followed by Omai in a canoe.  Every facility was given them
for witnessing the barbarous and disgusting rite.  The English were
allowed to examine the victim, who was a man of middle age, and had been
killed by a blow on the right temple.  Forty-nine skulls were counted in
one heap, which, as they had suffered little change by the weather, had
belonged to people evidently not long killed.

On the captain's return he met Towha, who became very angry because he
positively refused to assist him in his proposed expedition.

Omai gave an entertainment on shore about this time, at which the king
condescended to attend; and the following day a party dined with their
old shipmate Oedidee; among other dishes, admirably dressed, was a hog
weighing about thirty pounds, which an hour or two before was alive.
Some fireworks, let off before a large concourse of people, frightened
some of them so much that they could scarcely be kept together.  On the
return of Otoo, on September 13, from assisting at another human
sacrifice, the two captains mounted the two horses, and took a ride
round the plains of Matavai, to the astonishment of a large number of
people.  The ride was repeated every day, and seemed to convey to the
natives a better idea of the greatness of the English than any of the
other novelties brought to them by their European visitors.

Most of the chiefs and other people of importance who were known to the
English during their former visit were still alive, and as the island
had enjoyed the blessings of peace, it seemed to be in a very
flourishing condition.  Omai received here one present from Towha in
return for the many he had given away; this was a handsome double canoe,
ready for sea; but when he exhibited himself on board in a suit of chain
armour, so unpopular had he become that the people would not look at
him.  He had all along entertained the idea that Captain Cook would take
him back to Ulietea, and reinstate him by force of arms on his father's
property.  This made him refuse to remain at Otaheite.

On leaving that island, on September 30, the ships proceeded to Eimeo.
Omai, in his canoe, had arrived some time before.  An excellent harbour
was found, in which the ships lay close to the shore.  The Resolution
was much infested by rats, and, as an expedient to get rid of them, she
was hauled as close in with the shore as the depth of water would allow,
and some stout hawsers were fastened to the trees to afford them a
bridge to cross over.  The natives would scarcely have thanked their
visitors for the gifts intended for them, but whether any rats were thus
got rid of is not known.  The natives managed, however, to carry off a
goat, which, as it was of value for the purpose of stocking other
islands, it was necessary to recover.  This, however, was not done till
several canoes and some houses had been burned.

The island is described as rising in one hill, with very little level
ground, and the people, especially the women, were said to be inferior
in appearance to those of the neighbouring islands.  Another day's sail
brought the ships to the entrance of the harbour of Owharre, on the west
side of the island of Huaheine.  As Omai refused to attempt the recovery
of his property in Ulietea, except by force of arms, Captain Cook
determined to leave him here, making the best terms with the chief that
he could.  The English were received on shore by a large concourse of
people, many of whom appeared to be people of consequence; the king was,
however, only a child.  It is painful to read the following account
given of the meeting:--"Omai began with making his offering to the gods,
consisting of red feathers, cloth, etcetera.  Then followed another
offering, which was to be given to the gods by the chief: each article
was laid before a priest, who presented it with a prayer dictated by
Omai, who did not forget his friends in England, nor those who had
brought him safely back.  The King of England, Lord Sandwich, Cook, and
Clerke were mentioned in every one of them."

Finally, the chief agreed to give Omai a piece of ground extending about
two hundred yards along the shore of the harbour, and reaching to the
foot of the hill.  Here observatories were set up, and the carpenters of
both ships were set to work to build a house for Omai, in which he might
secure his European commodities.  At the same time some hands were
employed on shore, making a garden for his use, planting shaddocks,
vines, pine-apples melons, and other seeds, many of which were in a
flourishing state before the English left the island.  Omai here found a
brother, a sister, and a brother-in-law, but they were not people
capable of affording him any protection.  Cook, therefore, advised him
to make handsome presents to some of the chiefs, that they might be
induced to protect him.  To increase his security, Captain Cook took
every opportunity of impressing on the inhabitants that he purposed
returning, and that should he not find Omai in the state of security in
which he left him, his enemies might expect to feel the weight of his
resentment.

On the 22nd a man found means of carrying off a sextant from Mr
Bayley's observatory.  Omai fixed on the culprit, who was a Bolabola
man, a hardened scoundrel.  He confessed that he had taken the
instrument, and would show where it was.  This did not save him,
however, from having his head and beard shaved, and both his ears cut
off, as a terror to the rest.

Omai's house being nearly finished on the 26th, many of his movables
were carried on shore.  Among a variety of other useless articles was a
box of toys, which seemed greatly to please the multitude; but his
plates, dishes, mugs, and glasses he saw would be of no use to him, and
he therefore exchanged them with the crew for hatchets and other iron
tools.  He is said to have had an electrical machine, a portable organ,
a coat of mail, and a helmet.  He had also a musket and bayonet, a
fowling-piece, two pairs of pistols, and two or three swords or
cutlasses.  The possession of these made him quite happy, though Cook
was of opinion that he would have been better without them.  A horse and
mare, a boar and two sows, and a goat with kid were likewise given to
him.

The following inscription was cut on the outside of Omai's house:--

_Georgius Tertius, Rex, 2 Novembris, 1777_.

_Naves Resolution, Jacobus Cook, Pr.  Discovery, Carolus Clerke, Pr_.

On bidding his friends farewell Omai sustained himself with firmness,
till he came to Captain Cook, when his utmost efforts failed to conceal
his tears, and he wept all the time of going on shore.  Even at last he
would have remained on board the Resolution.  The two New Zealand youths
were very anxious to remain with the English, and the younger, who was a
witty, smart boy, and consequently much noticed, had to be carried on
shore by force.

Deep interest was often expressed in England as to the fate of the
"gentle savage" who had been brought from the South Seas, and so soon
learned the manners of civilised life.  Had he devoted his talents to
the instruction of his countrymen, and raised their condition to a state
somewhat resembling what he had seen existing in England?

Many years passed before the truth was known, and yet who that has read
the account given of him by Cook, and remembers that he remained to the
last a dark idolater, could have expected otherwise from him?  Mr
Ellis, in his _Polynesian Researches_, gives the account:--

"Soon after the departure of his friends he assumed the native dress,
and at the same time gave himself up to the vices, indolence, and
barbarism of his countrymen.  The only use he made of the horses left
with him was to ride about the country for the purpose of astonishing or
frightening the more ignorant natives; and so far from lamenting the
barbarous condition of the people, and endeavouring to raise them in the
social scale, his great delight consisted in exhibiting the superiority
which his English weapons enabled him to assume.  As his firearms,
especially, had rendered him a powerful subject, he married the daughter
of a chief who made himself king, and was invested with the high title
of _Patiri_ (wise and instructed).  He had now gained the position his
philosophical friends in England had desired for him, and had a
favourable opportunity of acquiring the title of his country's
benefactor, which they had hoped he would deserve.  But how did he
employ his advantages?

"From thenceforth," adds the narrator, "he continued the inglorious tool
of the king's cruel and wanton humour, assisting him with his musket in
time of war, and in peace frequently amusing the monarch by shooting at
his subjects at a distance, or gratifying his revenge by despatching,
with a pistol, those who had incurred his wrath.

"He died within three years after his celebrated voyage, and the New
Zealanders did not long survive him.  His name is now rarely mentioned,
except with contempt or execration.  The site of his dwelling is, by the
natives, still called Beritain (Britain); and amid the ruins of the
garden they show a dark and glossy-leaved shaddock tree, which they love
to tell was planted by the hands of Cook.  The horses which he left did
not long survive; but the breeds of goats and pigs yet remain; many of
the trinkets, part of the armour, and some of the cutlasses are also
preserved; and the numerous coloured engravings of a large quarto Bible
are objects of general attraction.

"There is, perhaps, no place in the island to which greater interest is
attached; for besides its association with the name just mentioned, on
this spot was reared the first building in which the true God was
publicly worshipped in Huaheine; and here, also, was erected the first
school for the instruction of the benighted inhabitants in the knowledge
of letters and the principles of Christianity."

On leaving Huaheine the ships stood over to Ulietea, and the following
day, November 3, entered the harbour of Ohamaneno.  Here they hauled
close in with the shore, and made another attempt to get rid of their
troublesome guests the rats.  The captain's old friend, Oreo, chief of
the island, and his son-in-law, Pootoe, at once came off to visit him;
the visit was returned, and amicable relations were soon established.
In spite of this, however, thefts were continually committed; and other
circumstances arose which seemed to threaten a rupture of this
friendship.

One of these events was the desertion of a marine, who, being on duty,
went off, carrying his arms with him.  Captain Cook, with a few of his
people, instantly pursued the man, fearing that he would have escaped to
the mountains.  He was soon discovered, however, among the natives, who
readily delivered him up to the captain.  But a more serious case of
desertion took place a few days afterwards--that of a midshipman and a
seaman.  The captain, thereupon, set off with two armed boats, but could
not find the fugitives, hearing only that they had gone over to the
neighbouring island of Bolabola.

The next morning, the chief, his son and daughter, and his son-in-law
came on board the Resolution, and the three last-mentioned were invited
to the Discovery, with a view to their detention there till the
deserters should be brought back--an act of high-handed injustice of
which, one would suppose, no amount of condescension and familiarity on
the part of the English was likely to efface the remembrance.

At any rate, the step thus taken caused great consternation among the
natives, many of whom, including many women, came off in canoes under
the stern of the ship, and bewailed the captivity of the king's
daughter.  Oreo, on his part, quickly aroused himself, and sent off
canoes to Bolabola and elsewhere to find the fugitives.  The natives, in
the meantime, in a spirit of natural retaliation, formed a plan for
seizing Captain Cook while bathing, as was his custom every morning.
Failing in this, they attempted to make prisoners of Captain Clerke and
Mr Gore.  News, indeed, was brought off to the ships that they had been
captured; and Mr King, with several armed boats, was immediately
despatched to rescue them, when it was found that they had escaped the
plot, probably owing their safety to the fact that Captain Clerke
carried a pistol in his hand.  Oreo must have been aware of the plot,
for he more than once asked Captain Cook why he did not go and bathe as
usual.

The chief at length set out for Bolabola, it being arranged that the
ships should follow; but a strong wind kept them in harbour, and the
next day he returned with the two deserters, who had gone from Bolabola
to the small island of Toobaee, where they were taken by the father of
Pootoe.  The three captives were then released.  Before leaving the
island, Captain Cook presented Oreo with an English boar and sow and two
goats.  Oreo and several chiefs took a passage on board the English
ships to Bolabola, which was reached the day after they left Ulietea.  A
large concourse of people, with the great chief Opoony in their midst,
were ready to receive the English.

One object Captain Cook had in putting in here was to obtain one of the
anchors which Monsieur Bougainville had lost at Otaheite, and which,
having been taken up by the people there, had been sent as a present to
Opoony.  That chief, with remarkable honesty, positively refused to
accept any present till the anchor had been seen, not believing it worth
what was offered.  Cook's object was to manufacture it into tools and
nails, of which he had run short.  He insisted on his presents being
taken, and was glad to get the old iron for the object he had in view.
Very many years afterwards the missionary Williams was, in the same
manner, thankful to find an old anchor, out of which he manufactured the
ironwork required for the missionary vessel he was building, the
Messenger of Peace.

As a ram had before been conveyed to the island, the captain made a
present of a ewe to Opoony, hoping thus that the island might be stocked
in time with a breed of sheep.

He now prepared to take his departure for the north; and as this was the
last visit paid by Cook to these islands his opinion may be quoted,--
that it would have been better for the people of the Pacific Islands had
they never been discovered by Europeans, than once having become
acquainted with them and their goods to be afterwards left to their own
resources.  "When their iron tools are worn out, and the use of their
stone ones is forgotten, how are they to get others?" he asks; and adds,
"it is incumbent, therefore, on Europeans, to visit them once in three
or four years, in order to supply them with those conveniences which we
have introduced to them."

The minds of those enlightened and civilised visitors were occupied with
the glory of their achievements as discoverers of hitherto unknown
lands; their remaining thoughts, which they would have called patriotic,
were principally occupied with the question how these discoveries might
be turned to account for the profit and honour of England; and if a nook
remained for a benevolent wish for "the savages," the wish was limited
to the improvement of their material condition.  Otherwise, as the
English discoverer found them, so he was willing that they should
remain, satisfied with the idea that he had increased the productive
powers of the different lands he visited.

Thus, also, in the case of the wretched Omai, whose end we have seen.
It seems scarcely to have entered the minds of those who, in England,
petted and spoiled him, that he had a soul as valuable, or rather as
invaluable, as theirs; and that he needed, as all need, the transforming
influences of Divine grace to make him a future blessing, instead of a
curse, to his poor countrymen.  We are told, indeed, of his being slow
to receive Christian instruction; and we read also that, among his goods
and chattels collected in England, he had a large quarto Bible, with
coloured engravings--a book, however, which was a sealed book to him and
his countrymen.

The ships now stood north, and, on December 24, discovered an
uninhabited island, with a lagoon.  It was hoped that turtle would
abound here; they therefore came to an anchor.  The voyagers were not
disappointed, and a considerable number were taken.  Two men, while thus
employed, lost themselves in different parts of the island, and as there
was not a drop of water to be found, they suffered greatly from thirst,
especially one who would not drink turtle's blood.  They were both
happily recovered.  The telescopes were landed, and on December 30 an
eclipse of the sun was observed.  Not a trace of any inhabitants having
ever been on the island could be discovered.  There were about thirty
cocoanut trees, but the fruit was of an inferior quality.  Three hundred
turtle were taken, and as many fish as could be consumed; but not a drop
of fresh water could be found.  As Christmas was spent here, the name of
Christmas Island was given to the new discovery.  It lies in latitude 1
degrees 41 minutes North and longitude 157 degrees 15 minutes East.
Some cocoanuts and yams were planted on the island, and some
melon-seeds; while a bottle was deposited, with the names of the ships
and the date of the visit.  The ships sailed thence on January 2, 1778,
and proceeded northward.  The wind blew faintly at first, and then
freshened, and albatrosses, with other birds, were seen increasing in
number--all indications of land being near, though none was seen till
the 18th, when first one high island and then another hove in sight.  On
the 19th the first seen bore east, several leagues distant, and being to
windward could not be approached.  On standing towards the other, a
third island was discovered in the direction of west-north-west.  At
first it was doubtful whether the islands were inhabited, but that
question was soon solved by the appearance of several canoes, which came
alongside; but the people in them would not at first venture on board,
though they willingly exchanged a few fish and some sweet potatoes for
nails and other articles offered them.  They spoke the language of
Otaheite and of the other islands lately visited.  They were of a brown
colour, of an ordinary size, and the cast of their features was not
unlike that of Europeans.  Some wore their hair long, others short, but
all had stained it of a brown colour.  Some were slightly tattooed, and
all wore the usual girdle, stained red, white, and black.  As the ships
sailed along the coast, looking for a harbour, numerous villages were
observed, with plantations of sugar-canes and plantains, while vast
numbers of people crowded the shore, or collected in elevated places, to
watch the ships.

The next day, the ships again standing in, several natives ventured on
board, and showed by the wild looks and gestures with which they
regarded everything on board that they had never before been visited by
Europeans.  They knew the value of iron, however, when they saw it, and
it was supposed that they had gained their knowledge of it from the fact
that the masts and spars of a ship with iron attached, and casks with
iron hoops, had been cast on their shore.  They soon proved themselves
to be daring thieves, and unhappily, a boat being sent on shore, on
their attempting to seize the oars they were fired at, and one man was
killed.  Of this circumstance Captain Cook was not informed at the time.

As soon as Captain Cook landed, the people assembled fell flat on their
faces; nor would they rise till by expressive gestures he urged them to
do so.  He understood that this was the way they paid respect to their
own great chiefs.  Having arranged about getting a supply of water, he
walked with Messrs. Anderson and Wilder into the country, to visit an
obelisk of wickerwork, fifty feet high, standing in a morai.  A native
had been selected as a guide, and wherever they went the people fell
prostrate before the captain.  The morai was similar to those seen at
Otaheite.  In and about it were a number of idols, one having on its
head what resembled an ancient helmet.  They ascertained, without doubt,
that human sacrifices were offered up at these morais.  On the
wickerwork were pieces of grey cloth, such as was generally offered to
idols, and a piece of which had been pressed on the captain on landing.
The next day, among other articles brought off, were some beautiful
cloaks of red and other feathers, and helmets and caps of the same.

Captain Cook, in his journal, expresses his belief that the people were
cannibals.  This arose from seeing a man on board who had a piece of
salted meat done up in a cloth, and which he said that he ate to do him
good.  It seems to have been highly dried and seasoned, and to have been
taken as a stimulant.

The natives called their island Atooi, and Captain Cook gave the name of
the Sandwich Islands to the whole group.  The friendly disposition of
the natives was shown on all occasions, especially when three boats went
on shore, and, bad weather coming on, were detained for several days.
Five islands were seen on this occasion, and were distinguished by the
names of Woahoo, Atooi, Oneeheow, Oreehoua, and Tahoora.  The islands
were mostly high, well watered, and apparently thickly populated.

It was found that the taboo existed with even greater vigour than at
Tongataboo, for the people constantly asked, with signs of fear, whether
anything they desired to see, and the English were unwilling to show,
was taboo, or, as they pronounced the word, tafoo.

On February 2, 1778, the ships left the Sandwich Islands, and stood
towards the coast of America.

On March 7, early in the morning, the long-looked-for coast of New
Albion, so-called by Sir Francis Drake, hove in sight.  The ships stood
along the coast, now off and now on again, with uncertain weather, till
at length, on March 29, an inlet appeared in latitude 49 degrees 15
minutes North, and longitude 126 degrees 35 minutes East.  The ships
sailed up this inlet for several miles, when they cast anchor.  Natives
came off in three canoes, shaped like Norway yawls.  Having drawn near,
a person stood up in one of them and invited the strangers, in a speech
and by gesture, to land, at the same time strewing handfuls of red
feathers towards them, while his companions threw red dust in the same
way.  The next day a large number of people came off, who all behaved in
the most peaceable manner, and offered for sale a number of skins of
bears, foxes, wolves, deer, racoon, polecats, martens, and sea otters.
The difficulty was to find articles to exchange for these really
valuable commodities, for the natives would receive nothing but metal,
and, at last, insisted on having brass.  To supply them, whole suits of
clothes were stripped of their buttons, bureaus of their handles, and
copper kettles, tin canisters, and candlesticks went to wreck.  The
ships required a great deal of repairs, and even some fresh masts, and
for this purpose they were hauled close into the shore and securely
moored.  The natives called this inlet Nootka Sound, but Captain Cook
gave it the name of King George's Sound.

Two persons were on board the ships at this time whose names afterwards
became well-known--Mr Vancouver, then a midshipman of the Resolution,
who afterwards, as Captain Vancouver, made many important discoveries on
the coast then visited, and gave his name to a valuable island, now a
colony of Great Britain; and Corporal Ledyard, whose travels in Siberia
were of a very extraordinary character.

The clothing of the people of Nootka Sound consisted of a dress of flax,
fringed with fur, and reaching to the feet; and over it a cloak of the
same substance, with a hole cut in it, through which the head was
thrust, and which hung down over the shoulders and arms as low as the
waist.  The head was covered with a hat like a truncated cone of
matting, with a knob or tassel at the top, and strung under the chin.  A
large cloak of bear or wolf skin was occasionally worn over all.  They
also, at times, wore wooden masks.  Their habitations were made of
planks loosely put together, about seven or eight feet in height in
front, and higher at the back.  Several families resided in each, with a
very slight division between them.  Each had its own bench, and in the
centre was the fire, without hearth or chimney.  At the ends were seen
trunks of trees, carved into hideous images, and rudely painted,
supposed to be their gods, though but little veneration was paid them.
Two silver spoons, of old Spanish manufacture, were obtained here from a
native, who wore them as ornaments round his neck.

The progress of the ships along this coast can be but briefly described.
Although the mercury in the barometer fell very rapidly, Captain Cook
was so anxious to put to sea that he kept to his purpose of sailing on
April 26.  A perfect hurricane came on ere long, in which the Resolution
sprang a serious leak.  When the weather moderated one pump kept it
under.  The ships proceeded along the coast, and several islands and
headlands were seen and named.

The voyagers landed at several places, and had some intercourse with the
natives.  One inlet, where the ships brought up, was named Prince
William's Sound.  Here the natives made a daring attempt to plunder the
Discovery, a mob of them getting on board, evidently under the
impression that she was feebly guarded.  But before they had time to
carry out their nefarious design, the crew came on deck with their
cutlasses, and the plunderers went off in their canoes.

Captain Cook, believing that it was too late in the year to do anything
of importance in the way of fresh discoveries, resolved to return to the
south, and wait at the Sandwich Islands till the next season.

From Prince William's Sound the ships proceeded along the coast,
steering south-west, and passing many more capes, till the mouth of a
large river was found, up which they sailed.  A volcano was here seen,
emitting smoke, but no fire.

A number of natives, of no very prepossessing appearance, now came off
the banks of the river to the ships, and a considerable quantity of
skins were obtained from them.  It was held by some on board that this
river might be a strait, leading to Hudson's Bay; and to settle this
question Captain Cook sailed up it nearly seventy leagues from its
mouth, at which distance it still seemed to be a river, and nothing
more, upon which the explorers returned.  On June 1, Lieutenant King was
sent on shore to display the royal flag, and to take possession of the
country, as in former instances, in the name of the King of Great
Britain.  In describing this inlet Captain Cook left a blank in the
chart, and therefore the Earl of Sandwich directed that it should be
called Cook's Inlet.

Leaving Prince William's Sound, the next place reached was the island of
Oonolaschka.  Here, at different times, some canoes came off with
natives, who had bows of the European fashion, and delivered two Russian
letters, the purport of which could not be understood.

During the stay of the ships at this island a canoe was upset, and the
occupant, a fine young man, was brought on board the Resolution, when,
without hesitation, he entered the captain's cabin, and exchanged his
wet garments for a European suit of clothes, which he put on with
perfect ease.

Soon after this the expedition suffered a very great loss in the death
of Mr Anderson, the surgeon of the Resolution, who had long been
suffering from consumption.  The ships were proceeding northward at the
time, along the coast of Asia, but were compelled to return on account
of the shallowness of the water.  An island in sight was called
Anderson's Island, to perpetuate the memory of that gentleman.

On the 9th the ships anchored under a point of land to which the name of
Cape Prince of Wales was given, and which was considered the most
western point of America.  It is only thirteen leagues distant from the
eastern cape of Siberia.  Thence they stood over to the coast of Siberia
to the country of Tschutski.  Again sailing, the ships steered to the
east, and on the 18th fell in with the ice, which, in latitude 70
degrees 44 minutes, was as compact as a wall, and ten or twelve feet
high, being much higher farther to the north.  It was covered with
sea-horses, a number of which were caught, and, in spite of the
prejudices of some of the crew, were found to be superior to salt pork.
Cook continued to traverse the Arctic Sea, beyond Behring's Straits, in
various directions till the 29th, when the ice beginning to form rapidly
he abandoned all hope of attaining his object that year.

On October 3 the ships anchored in the harbour of Samganoodha, in the
island of Oonolaschka.  The carpenters at once set to work to repair the
ships.  While they lay here, each of the captains received the present
of a well-known Russian dish.  It consisted of a salmon, highly
seasoned, and baked in a coating of rye bread like a loaf.  The loaves
were accompanied by notes in Russian.  A few bottles of rum, wine, and
porter were sent in return by Corporal Ledyard, who was directed to make
the Russians understand that the strangers were English and their
friends, and to gain all the information in his power.  On the 14th a
visit was received from a Russian of considerable ability.  Cook
entrusted to his care a letter and chart for the Lords Commissioners of
the Admiralty, which were duly delivered.  The natives of this island
were the best behaved and most peaceably disposed of any yet met with,
while not one of them was found guilty of an act of dishonesty.  They
were, however, far from moral in their conduct.

Samganoodha Harbour was left on October 20, and the ships proceeded
south towards the Sandwich Islands.  Cook's intention was to spend the
winter there, and to return to Kamtschatka by the middle of May.  In
case of separation he directed Captain Clerke to meet him at the
Sandwich Islands for the first place of rendezvous, and the harbour of
Fetropaulowska, in Kamtschatka, for the second.  The rigging of the
ships had now become very bad; on board the Discovery the main-tack gave
way, killed one man, and wounded the boatswain and two others.

On November 25 one of the Sandwich Islands, called by the natives Mowee,
hove in sight.  Several canoes came off, belonging to a chief named
Terreeoboo; but as another island was discovered, called Owhyhee, [now
altered in spelling to Hawaii] which it was found possible to fetch, the
ships stood towards it, and their visitors accordingly left them.  On
the morning of December 2 the summits of the mountains of Owhyhee were
seen, covered with snow.  On the evening an eclipse of the moon was
observed.  For several weeks the ships continued plying round the
island, bartering with the natives, who came off with hogs, fowls,
fruit, and roots.  On January 16, 1779, a bay being discovered, the
masters were sent in to examine it, and having reported favourably, the
ships, on the next day, came to an anchor in Karakakooa Bay.

The ships were crowded with visitors, but not a single person had a
weapon of any sort.  There must have been at least a thousand about the
two ships, and one of them took the rudder out of a boat and made off
with it.  Cook ordered some muskets and four-pounders to be fired over
the canoe which was escaping.  The multitude, however, seemed more
surprised than frightened.

Besides those who had come off in canoes the shore of the bay was
covered with spectators, and many hundreds were swimming round the
ships, like shoals of fish.  Few of the voyagers now regretted that they
had been unable to find a north-west passage home in the summer, as they
"thus had it in their power to revisit the Sandwich Islands, and to
enrich the voyage with a discovery which, though the last, seemed in
many respects to be the most important that had hitherto been made by
Europeans throughout the extent of the Pacific Ocean."

This paragraph concludes Captain Cook's journal; they were probably the
last words he ever wrote.  Captain King is our chief authority for the
remaining transactions of the voyage.

Among the chiefs who attached themselves to the English was a young man
named Pareea, who introduced himself as an officer of the king of the
island, then gone on a military expedition to Mowee.  That he had great
influence among his people was evident, for so large a number of people
had collected on one side of the Discovery that they made her heel over;
Captain Cook pointed out the fact to him, and he immediately cleared the
ship.  Another chief, the next day, cleared the Resolution in the same
way; and one man loitering behind, he took him up in his arms and threw
him into the sea.  They brought on board a third chief, once a warrior,
now a priest, named Koah, a little old man of emaciated figure, his red
eyes and scaly skin showing he was a hard drinker of cava.  Not far from
the shore was a temple, or morai.  It was a square, solid pile of
stones, about forty yards long, twenty broad, and fourteen in height.
The top was flat and well-paved, and surrounded by a wooden rail, on
which were fixed the skulls of the victims sacrificed on the death of
their chiefs.  At one end was a kind of scaffold, and on the opposite
side, towards the sea, two small houses with a covered communication.
At the entrance were two large wooden images, with features violently
distorted, and on the head of each was a large piece of carved wood, of
a conical form, inverted.  The lower part was without form, and wrapped
round with a red cloth.  Not far off, in a retired grove by the side of
a pool, was a collection of huts, inhabited by priests who attended this
temple, of which Koah was the chief.  There were two villages on the
shores of the bay--one on the north point, called Kowrooa, and at the
bottom of the bay one still larger, called Kakooa.

Our narrative is now drawing near to the tragic scene which terminated
both the labours and life of Captain James Cook.  But, to understand
what led to that event, a preliminary explanation must be given.

The natives of Owhyhee had a legend to the effect that a certain god,
Rono, or Orono, formerly lived near Karakakooa Bay, and that, having
killed his wife in a fit of jealousy, remorse drove him from the island.
He set sail in a strangely shaped canoe, promising that he would return
on a floating island, furnished with all that man could desire.  When,
therefore, the English ships appeared, their commander was supposed to
be the long-absent Rono, come to restore peace and prosperity to the
country.

The priest Koah having dined on board the Resolution, accompanied
Captain Cook and Mr King on shore--Mr King being taken for the son of
the former.  They were met by four men, having wands tipped with dog's
hair, and who shouted a short sentence in which the word Orono was
plainly distinguishable and frequently repeated.  During this progress
the crowd either rushed away as in fear, or fell prostrate on the ground
around the party.  Koah led the way into the morai, and, chanting a
hymn, took the captain to a sort of altar, on which were arranged twelve
idols in a semicircle, while on a table, before the centre one, which
nearly resembled the idols of Otaheite, lay a putrid hog.  A tall young
man, with a beard, Kaireekeea by name, having presented Cook to the
idols, old Koah put the putrid hog to his nose, and then let it drop.
At this time a procession approached, bearing a hog and red cloth.
Kaireekeea went forward to meet them, when they all prostrated
themselves.  The hog then was offered to the captain by Koah, who wound
the red cloth round him.  Chanting followed.  Captain Cook, meanwhile,
had considerable difficulty in keeping his seat upon the rotten
scaffolding.  They then descended, and as Koah passed the images he
snapped his fingers at them, and said something in a sneering tone.  He,
however, prostrated himself before the centre figure, and kissed it, and
induced the captain to do the same.  The captain and Mr King were then
led to another division of the morai, where, in a sunk space, three or
four feet deep, they took their seats between two wooden idols, Koah
holding up one of the captain's arms, and King the other.  While here
another procession arrived, with a baked hog and vegetables.  Cook put
an end to the ceremony as soon as he could, and returned on board.

No doubt the proceedings of the old priest and the people were in some
measure incomprehensible to Captain Cook; but it is certain that, in
bearing a prominent part in the mummery just narrated, he must have been
aware that he was encouraging heathen idolatry and hero-worship in its
grossest forms.  It is not to be supposed that he was acquainted with
the legend of Rono; but the conduct of the people must have shown him
their utter debasement, and he can scarcely have failed to perceive that
by submitting to their ceremonies, and taking a part in them, he was
lowering himself to their level.

It is probable that Captain Cook expected, by yielding to the
superstitions of the natives, to obtain greater facilities for trading,
and keeping up amicable relations with them.  If so, the subsequent
events prove how baseless were these anticipations, while the reader
will scarcely fail to be reminded of the striking Scripture narrative of
the king of whom the people shouted, "It is the voice of a god, and not
of a man!" and who "gave not God the glory."

The day following that on which the events described took place, Mr
King, with a company of marines, landed, and erected an observatory near
the morai, the ground being marked off by the priests.  For some unknown
reason--but one probably connected with the previous exhibition--the
entire bay was tabooed for a day or two, and no canoes ventured off with
provisions.  The priests, however, sent to the observatory, and also to
the ships, a regular supply of hogs and vegetables for Orono, as if they
were discharging a religious duty, and would take nothing in return.
Whenever, too, after this, Captain Cook went on shore, he was attended
by one of the priests, who gave notice to the people to prostrate
themselves; and inferior chiefs often requested to be allowed to make
offerings of hogs, which they did with evident marks of fear in their
countenances.

On January 24, 1779, the bay was again tabooed on account of the arrival
of the king, Terreeoboo, who soon came off privately in a canoe, with
his wife and children.  He was found to be the same infirm old man who
had come on board the Resolution when the ships were off Mowee.  The
next day the king came off in state, on board a large canoe, attended by
two others.

In the first he himself came, dressed, as were his attendant chiefs, in
rich feathered cloaks, and armed with long spears and helmets.  In the
second were Kaoo, the chief of the priests, and his brethren, with idols
of wickerwork of gigantic size, covered with feathers of different
colours and red cloth.  Their eyes were large pearl oysters, with a
black mark fixed in the centre; while their mouths were marked with
double rows of dogs' fangs.  The whole had a most hideous appearance.
In a third canoe were hogs and vegetables.  The visitors, however, did
not go on board, but, inviting the captain on shore, returned.  Mr
King, who was at the observatory, ordered out the guard to receive the
party.  The king then threw a superb cloak over the captain's shoulders,
and placed a helmet on his head; he then spread at his feet six other
cloaks, all exceedingly beautiful; and his attendants brought four hogs,
with sugar-canes, bread-fruit, and cocoanuts.  The ceremony was
concluded by the king exchanging names with Cook.

An old seaman, greatly attached to Captain Cook, died here, and was
buried in the morai, with the usual funeral service read over him; but
the priests thought they ought to do their part, and threw a dead hog
and plantains into the grave, and for several nights sacrificed hogs,
and chanted their hymns.

When the ships were about to sail a magnificent present of provisions
was made to the captain; and Terreeoboo and Kaoo waited on him and
entreated that he would leave his supposed son, Mr King, behind.  On
February 4 the ship sailed, but met with very bad weather, during which
they picked up two canoes, driven off the land, the people in them
nearly exhausted.  In this gale, also, the Resolution sprang her
foremast, and fearing that, should the weather continue, another harbour
might not be found, Cook returned, on the 10th of the month, to
Karakakooa Bay.

It was observed by some of the explorers on this occasion that the
conduct of the natives had now undergone an ominous change.  The bay was
found to be under taboo, and several circumstances occurred which gave
evidence that, from some cause or other, the English were regarded by
the natives with suspicion.  And this breach was unhappily widened by
some of the common causes of dispute.  For instance, some people from
the island visiting the Discovery, after the taboo was removed, went off
with several articles they had stolen, whereupon the ship opened fire on
the fugitives, and a chief on shore was killed.  The stolen articles
were soon returned, but an officer commanding a party on shore not
knowing this seized a canoe belonging to Pareea.  In a squabble which
ensued that chief was knocked down.  Captain Cook, also, not knowing
that the articles had been brought back, followed the supposed thieves
for several miles in the interior, when, on its getting dark, he
returned unmolested on board.

The next morning the Discovery's cutter was found to have been carried
off, and Captain Cook resolved to seize the king, and hold him captive
till the boat was returned.  For this purpose, loading his
double-barrelled gun, he went on shore with Mr Phillips and nine
marines.  Mr King ordered the marines to remain within the tents, to
load their pieces with ball, and not to quit their arms.  He then went
up to the huts of the priests, and endeavoured to quiet their alarm,
assuring them that no one would be hurt.  Captain Cook, meantime,
proceeded to the king's house, and found him just awake.  He easily
persuaded the old man to come on board with two of his sons; but as they
were embarking, one of his wives came down and entreated him not to go
off.

A vast number of people now began to collect, armed with all sorts of
weapons and their war mats.  Captain Cook held the king's hand, and
pressed him to come on; but finding that the lives of many natives might
be sacrificed if he persisted in the attempt, he abandoned it, and only
now thought of how he might best draw off his party.  Unfortunately, the
boats stationed in the bay had fired at some canoes trying to get out,
and killed a chief of the first rank.  This news quickly reached the
hostile natives.  Mr Phillips, on this, withdrew his men to some rocks
close to the water-side.

The natives now began to throw stones, and one man, especially,
threatened the captain with his dagger.  In defence he fired.  As the
barrel was only loaded with small shot it killed no one.  The other
barrel had a ball in it, with which a man was killed.  By this time the
marines had begun to fire, and the captain turned round, either to order
them to cease or to direct the boats to come in, when a tall man struck
him on the back with a long club, and he fell forward on his hands and
knees, letting his fowling-piece drop.  A chief with a long dagger now
plunged it into his back; he fell under the water, and the natives, who
crowded round, prevented him from rising.  Nothing more was seen of him.
All was now horror and confusion.  The natives pressed on the marines,
four of whom were killed before they could reach the boats, and another,
who could not swim, remained struggling in the water, when Lieutenant
Phillips, with heroic gallantry, leaped overboard, and though badly
wounded himself brought the man safely on board the pinnace.  Though the
boats still kept up a hot fire, the chiefs were seen plunging their
daggers in the body of Cook, seemingly with the idea that they were
consecrated by the death of so great a man.  It was said that old Koah,
who had been long suspected, had been seen going about with a dagger hid
under his cloak, for the purpose, it was supposed, of killing Captain
Cook or some of his officers.

All this time Lieutenant King, with a party of men, had remained on
shore, at the observatory near the morai.  Before long the natives began
to attack them, but met with so warm a reception that they willingly
agreed to a truce.  As soon as the murderers of Cook had retired, a
party of young midshipmen pulled to the shore in a skiff, where they saw
the bodies of the marines lying without sign of life; but the danger of
landing was too great to be risked.

Mr King went on shore to try and negotiate for the body of Cook.  On
the 15th a man who had been his constant attendant came off with some
human flesh, saying that the rest had been burnt, but that the head and
bones and hands were in possession of the king.  The natives even now
would not believe that Rono was killed.  When they saw him fall they
cried out, "This is not Rono!"  Others inquired when he would come back,
and whether he would punish them.  An order had been given to fire some
houses, but unfortunately the flames communicated to the priests'
dwellings, all of which were consumed, though they had been the best
friends to the English.  Several people were shot, attempting to escape.
On the 18th King Terreeoboo sent a chief with presents to sue for
peace; and on the 20th the hands and various parts of the body of Cook
were brought on board, wrapped in a quantity of fine cloth, and covered
with a cloak of black and white feathers.  The feet and other parts were
returned the next day, and being placed in a coffin they were committed
to the deep, with the usual naval honours.

We may imagine the feelings of the members of the expedition as they
witnessed the ceremony, and thought that he who had been so long their
chief, and who had led them successfully through so many dangers, was no
more.  The officers might have felt many vain regrets; they might have
asked themselves whether all had been done that could have been done to
save the valuable life which had been so cruelly sacrificed, and whether
the object which had been attempted was adequate to the risk that had
been run.  So furious was the rage of the crews of the two ships that
they almost mutinied against their officers, when prevented from going
on shore, as they desired, to wreak their vengeance on the heads of the
natives.  It is remarkable that Captain Clerke had received orders to go
on shore and seize the king; but, suffering from the consumption which
was rapidly hurrying him to his grave, he was too weak to leave his
cabin; and, on hearing this, Cook immediately exclaimed that he would go
himself.

Captain Cook was in the fifty-first year of his age when he was thus
suddenly cut off.  He was a man of great intelligence, perseverance,
energy, and determination.  He possessed a calm judgment and cool
courage under the most trying difficulties.  As a seaman he was probably
unsurpassed.  By employing every moment he could snatch from his
professional duties, with the aid of such books as came to his hand, he
made himself a good mathematician and a first-rate astronomer, while few
officers of his day could have equalled him as a marine surveyor and
draughtsman.  All subsequent navigators, who have visited the regions he
traversed, have borne evidence to the great accuracy of his surveys, and
the exactness with which he laid down on his charts the numerous lands
he discovered.

Various opinions have been expressed as to Captain Cook's temper.  That
he was, at times, hasty and irritable, there seems to be no doubt; but
this fault was greatly counterbalanced by his kind-hearted and humane
disposition.  He seems to have had the power of attracting both officers
and men to his person; hence many who had accompanied him in his first
voyage volunteered to serve under him again in his subsequent
expeditions.  At the same time he was stern and determined, though
always just; and he considered it his duty, when necessary, to carry out
to the full the rigid discipline of the Navy in those days.  He was a
kind and affectionate husband and father, and it is said that his
portrait at Greenwich Hospital, from which numerous copies have been
made, does not convey a satisfactory idea of the ordinary expression of
his countenance.  It was painted, at the earnest desire of Sir Joseph
Banks, by Sir Nathaniel Dance, just before Cook left England on his last
expedition, and as the mind of the navigator was probably far away on
board his vessels, the grave and preoccupied expression which the
portrait exhibits is fully accounted for.

His ability as a seaman, and his calmness in danger, inspired the most
perfect confidence in all who served under him, so that in times of the
greatest trial he could always reckon on being implicitly obeyed; it is
said that, placing reliance on his officers, after he had given his
directions, he would retire to rest, and sleep as soundly as though no
danger were near.  Such is the character drawn of the great navigator by
those who knew him; but we shall form a more just estimate of him if we
consider the work he accomplished.  We have only to compare a chart of
the Pacific before Cook's time, and to note the wide blanks and the
erroneous position of lands, with one drawn from his surveys, to see at
a glance the extent of his discoveries; but a still higher estimation
will be formed of them if we judge of them by their value to the present
generation.  Let us consider the importance of his admirable survey of
the whole eastern coast of New Holland, showing its vast size and
insular character.  Not less important was his survey of the islands of
New Zealand, which, with New Holland, or Australia, are now among the
most valuable possessions of the British crown.  He discovered New
Caledonia, and surveyed most of the islands of the New Hebrides, and
other islands in the Austral Ocean.  He made known to the world the
larger portion of the Friendly Islands, or Tonga group, as also of the
Marquesas.  Nothing can surpass the general accuracy of his description
of the habits and customs of the inhabitants of Otaheite.  He completed
the discovery and survey of the Society Islands.  He was successful in
his search for Easter, or Davis Island, which had in vain been
looked-for by several previous navigators.  He visited the groups of the
Low, or Coral Archipelago, and discovered the numerous separate islands
of Norfolk, Botany, Palmerston, Hervey, Savage, Mangaia, Wateeoo,
Otakootaia, Turtle, Toobouai, and Christmas.  His most important
discovery was his last--that of the Sandwich Islands--since become an
independent and semi-civilised kingdom.  He sailed along the North
American coast, where, from unavoidable circumstances, his surveys were
less accurate than usual.  They were, however, completed, many years
after, by his follower Captain Vancouver.  He ascertained the breadth of
the strait between America and Asia to be eighteen leagues, a point left
unsettled by Behring, and many years passed before any navigator
penetrated farther to the north than he had done.  His explorations in
the Antarctic Ocean showed a hardihood and determination seldom
surpassed.  He brought to light Sandwich Land, settled the position of
Kerguelen's Land, as also the Isle Grande of La Roche, while he made a
survey, long unsurpassed, of the southern shores of Tierra del Fuego.
Such is a rough and rapid sketch of the discoveries made by Cook daring
his three voyages; but what he, with justice, chiefly prided himself on
was the means by which he successfully maintained his crews in perfect
health during his second and third voyages; and it is satisfactory to
know that his successor in the command of the expedition, by following
his system, brought home his ships' companies with few or no sick among
them.  [Note 3.]

As soon as the remains of Captain Cook had been committed to the deep
the taboo which had been placed on the bay by the chief Eappo was
removed, at the request of Captain Clerke, who said that, as the Orono
was buried, the remembrance of what had passed was buried with him.  As
soon as it was known that the people might bring their provisions as
usual the ships were surrounded by canoes, and many chiefs came on
board, expressing great sorrow at what had happened, and their
satisfaction at the reconciliation which had taken place.  Several
friends, who did not come themselves, sent presents of large hogs and
other provisions.  Among the rest came the treacherous old Koah, but he
was refused admittance.

Captain Clerke was anxious to visit the islands to leeward before the
news of the events which had occurred at Owhyhee could reach them, and a
bad effect be produced.  He therefore gave orders to unmoor, and every
preparation was made for quitting the bay.  In the evening all the
natives were sent on shore, and Eappo and the friendly Kaireekeea took
an affectionate farewell.  As the ships stood out of the bay the natives
collected in great numbers on the shore, and received the last farewells
of the English with every mark of affection and goodwill.

The first island visited was that of Woahoo, which was found to be high
and picturesque, and thickly populated; the next was the island of
Atooi.  A party was here sent on shore to fill the casks with water,
when the natives collected in great numbers, threatening to attack them,
and it was with difficulty that they were enabled to reach the boats and
return on board ship.  The next day, however, some chiefs arrived on the
spot; and the day after Mr King, who commanded the party, going on
shore, found the whole distance to the watering-place marked with little
white flags, and the English were not in the slightest degree molested.
While the ships were at this island it was ascertained that some goats
which were left there at the first visit of the English soon increased
in number, and had bidden fair to stock the island, when a quarrel took
place about them, and the animals were killed.  A contest between two
tribes or families was still going on about the matter, in which several
people had lost their lives.

It was now March 12, and preparations were made for quitting the islands
and proceeding on the search for a passage, through Behring's Straits,
into the Atlantic.  There was, from the first, very little prospect of
its success.  Captain Clerke was sinking rapidly with consumption, and
every one but himself knew that his days were numbered.  Still, in spite
of his weakness, he kept up his spirits in a wonderful manner, and
though fully aware that the cold climate he was going to encounter would
prove injurious to his health, this did not prevent him from attempting
to carry out the instructions of his late chief to the utmost of his
power.

On March 15 the ships left the Sandwich group, and steered for the
harbour of Saint Peter and Saint Paul.  The ships encountered very
severe weather on approaching the coast of Siberia.  The rigging and
decks were so completely coated with ice that it was not without great
difficulty the ropes could be handled, and the crew sensibly felt the
change from the warm temperature to which they had been so long
accustomed.  To add to their difficulties, the Resolution sprang a
serious leak, and split her second suit of sails.  As the decks below
were deluged with water, the only place in which the sail-makers could
work was in the cabin of their dying captain.  At length, on April 28,
the harbour of Saint Peter and Saint Paul was reached.  The town was
found to consist of about thirty miserable log huts, and small conical
buildings raised on poles.  The commandant was a sergeant, with a few
men under him.  The appearance of the expedition at first caused great
consternation among the inhabitants.  This arose from the circumstance
that the celebrated Polish exile Beniowski had, a short time before,
made his escape from Bolcheretsk with a couple of vessels and a
considerable number of men.  It was supposed that the exploring squadron
was in some way connected with him.  Another opinion was that the
strangers were French, at that time enemies of the Russians.
Fortunately, a German, of the name of Port, was at the place, and as Mr
Webber spoke German well, the intercommunication was speedily
established, and as soon as the Russians were convinced that their
visitors were English nothing could exceed their kindness and
hospitality.  As provisions were, however, very dear here, Captain
Clerke despatched Captain Gore and Mr King, with Mr Webber and the
German, to visit Major Behm, the Governor of Bolcheretsk, in order to
obtain a supply through him.  They travelled partly in boats and canoes,
and partly in sleighs drawn by dogs, and were well wrapped up in skins
to protect them from the cold.

On their arrival at Bolcheretsk, they were received with the greatest
kindness and hospitality by Major Behm and the officers of the garrison.
These kind-hearted and liberal men would not allow the English to pay
for such stores as the town could produce.  Among other things, they
presented the ships' companies with three bags of tobacco, of a
hundredweight each, and loaf-sugar for the officers, while Madame Behm
sent several delicacies to poor Captain Clerke.  Major Behm accompanied
the English officers to the ships, and made arrangements that stores
should be sent from Okotsk to meet them on their return, should they
fail to discover the passage of which they were in search.  It is worthy
of remark that when the English seamen received the tobacco which had
been sent them from Bolcheretsk, they begged that their own allowance of
grog might be stopped, and that it might be presented to the Russian
garrison, who, they understood, were in want of spirits.  Knowing the
value a sailor sets on his grog, the feeling of gratitude which prompted
the proposal will be the better appreciated.  The generous Russian
would, however, accept but a very small portion of what was offered.

As Major Behm was on the point of returning to Saint Petersburg, Captain
Gierke, feeling sure that he was a man of the strictest honour, resolved
to entrust him with a copy of the journal of the voyage, and an account
of all transactions up to the arrival of the ships in the harbour of
Saint Peter and Saint Paul.  Mr Bayley and Mr King also sent home an
account of all the astronomical and other scientific observations made
during the voyage.  These were duly delivered, within a few months from
the time of their being entrusted to Major Behm.

It is remarkable that on the arrival of the expedition in the harbour of
Saint Peter and Saint Paul, the whole Russian garrison of the place were
found to be suffering more or less from scurvy, many of the men being in
the last stage of that disease.  They were immediately placed under the
care of the English surgeons, and, by a free use of sour-krout and
sweet-wort, they nearly all quickly recovered.  Through the exertions of
Major Behm, a supply of rye-flour was furnished to the ships, and a
bullock was sent on board, which was served out to the men on Sunday.
It was the first fresh beef they had tasted since leaving the Cape of
Good Hope, two years and a half before.  Twenty head of cattle were
afterwards sent on board, with other supplies, and the English
themselves caught with their nets an abundance of fine fish.

On June 12 the ships were unmoored for the purpose of putting to sea,
but it was not till the 16th that they were able to get clear of the
bay.  The eruption of a neighbouring volcano took place at this time,
which covered the decks with cinders and small stones.  From the first
the ships encountered bad weather.  The intense cold severely tried the
crews.  The men had taken no care of their fur jackets and other warm
clothing, but they had been collected by their officers, and cased up in
casks, to be produced when most required.

The expedition passed through Behring's Straits on July 5, and having
run along the coast of Asia, stretched across to that of America, with
the intention of exploring it between the latitudes 68 degrees and 69
degrees.  In this attempt, however, the explorers were disappointed,
being stopped, on the 7th, by a large and compact field of ice connected
with the land.  They therefore altered their course to the westward, in
the hopes of finding some opening, and thus being able to get round to
the north of the ice.  They continued sailing in that direction till the
9th, for nearly forty leagues, without discovering an opening.  Still
their dying chief persevered in his efforts till the 27th, although
unable to penetrate farther north than 70 degrees 33 minutes, which was
five leagues short of the point which had been gained the previous year.
In the attempt the Discovery was nearly lost, and received very severe
damage.  She became so entangled by several large pieces of ice that her
way was stopped, and immediately dropping bodily to leeward she fell
broadside on to the edge of a considerable mass.  At the same time,
there being an open sea to windward, the surf made her strike violently
on it.  The mass of ice, however, at length either so far removed, or
broke, as to set the ship at liberty, when another attempt to escape was
made; but, unfortunately, before she gathered sufficient way to be under
command she again fell to leeward on another fragment.  The swell now
making it unsafe to lie to windward of the ice, and there being no
prospect of getting clear, the ship was pushed into a small opening, the
sails were furled, and she was made fast with ice-hooks.  In this
dangerous position she was seen at noon by her consort, a fresh gale
driving more ice towards her.  It is easy to conceive the anxiety felt
on board the Resolution, which was kept in the neighbourhood, firing a
gun every half-hour.  At last, towards evening, there was a shift of
wind, and by nine o'clock the Discovery appeared, having, by setting all
sail, forced her way out of the ice.  She had, however, lost a
considerable amount of sheathing from the bows, and had become very
leaky from the blows received.

While in these latitudes several sea-horses were killed, which the
seamen were persuaded, without much difficulty, to eat in preference to
their salt provisions.  Two white bears were also killed, which, though
having a somewhat fishy taste, were considered dainties.  Finding that
all prospect of carrying the ships through any passage which might exist
to the eastward was utterly hopeless, Captain Gierke announced his
intention of returning to Awatska Bay to repair damages, and thence to
continue the voyage in the direction of Japan.  Joy brightened every
countenance as soon as these resolutions were made known.  All were
heartily tired of a navigation full of danger, in which the utmost
perseverance had not been repaid with the slightest prospect of success.
Notwithstanding the tedious voyage to be made, and the immense distance
to be run, every one seemed to feel and speak as though they were once
again approaching the shores of Old England.

There was one, however--the gallant commander of the expedition, Captain
Clerke--who was destined never again to see his native land.  On the
17th he was too weak to get out of bed, and therefore gave directions
that all orders should be received from Mr King.  On the morning of
August 22 he breathed his last, to the deep regret of all who served
under him.  He had spent the whole of his life at sea, from his earliest
boyhood.  He had been in several actions, and in one, between the
Bellona and Courageux, having been stationed in the mizzen-top, he was
carried overboard with the mast, but was taken up unhurt.  He was a
midshipman in the Dolphin, commanded by Commodore Byron, on his first
voyage round the world, and afterwards served on the American station.
In 1768 he made his second voyage round the world, in the Endeavour,
under Captain Cook, and returned a lieutenant.  His third voyage of
circumnavigation was in the Resolution, and on her return, in 1775, he
was promoted to the rank of Master and Commander.  When Captain Cook's
third expedition was determined on he was appointed to command under
him.

On the 23rd the ships again anchored in the harbour of Saint Peter and
Saint Paul.  No sooner had they brought up than their old friend the
sergeant came on board, and all were greatly affected when he announced
that he had brought some fruit for their captain.

The charge of the expedition now devolved on Captain Gore, who took
command of the Resolution, while Captain King was appointed to the
Discovery.  Captain Gore immediately sent off an express to Bolcheretsk,
requesting to be supplied with sixteen head of cattle.  The stores from
the Discovery being landed, attempts were made to repair the damages she
had received.  On stripping off the sheathing, three feet of the third
strake under the wale were found to be stove in, and the timbers within
started.  The farther they proceeded in removing the sheathing, the more
they discovered the decayed state of the ship's hull.  The chief damage
was repaired with a birch tree, which had been cut down when they were
there before, and was the only one in the neighbourhood large enough for
the purpose; but Captain King gave orders that no more sheathing should
be ripped off, being apprehensive that further decayed planks might be
met with which it would be impossible to replace.  This condition of his
ship could not have been a pleasant subject of contemplation to the
commander, when he considered that he had yet more than half the circuit
of the world to make before he could reach home.

Large quantities of salmon were now caught with the seine, and salted
for sea stores, and the sea-horse blubber was also boiled down for oil,
all the candles having long been expended.

On Sunday, the 29th, the remains of Captain Gierke were interred with
all the solemnity possible, under a tree, in a spot which the Russian
Papa, or priest of the settlement, said he believed would form the
centre of a new church it was proposed shortly to build.  The officers
and men of both ships walked in procession to the grave, attended by the
Russian garrison, while the ships fired minute guns, and the service
being ended the marines fired three volleys.

The remainder of the time in the harbour was spent in waiting for
stores, in further repairing the ships, in two or three bear-hunting
expeditions, in entertaining the garrison and natives in return for the
hospitality which had been received, and in receiving a visit from the
Acting Governor and other Russian officers.

On October 9, the ships having cleared the entrance of Awatska Bay,
steered to the southward for the purpose of examining the islands to the
north of Japan, and then proceeding on to Macao.  The condition of the
ships' hulls and rigging rendered it dangerous to make any more
prolonged explorations.  Even the larger part of this plan it was found
impossible to follow, for, strong westerly winds blowing, they were
driven off the land, and after passing Japan they anchored at Macao.
Here, not without some delay and difficulty, they procured the stores
they required; Captain King having to make an excursion to Canton for
the purpose.  He here sold about twenty sea otter and other skins,
belonging chiefly to their deceased commanders, for the sum of eight
hundred dollars.  On returning, he found that the larger portion of
those on board had been sold, and had realised not much less than two
thousand pounds.  The large profits on the skins, which had been looked
upon as of little value beforehand, had so excited the minds of the men
that two of them made off with a six-oared cutter, for the purpose of
returning to North America; and as they were not overtaken, they
probably very soon perished.

The reports brought home by the expedition probably set on foot that
trade in furs with the west coast of North America which afterwards
became of considerable importance.  In consequence of hearing, at Macao,
of the war which had broken out between England and France, the ships
mounted all their guns; but Captain Gore being informed, at the same
time, that the French had issued orders to their cruisers that the ships
under the command of Captain Cook should be treated as belonging to
neutral or friendly powers, resolved himself to preserve, throughout the
remainder of the voyage, the strictest neutrality.

The expedition left Macao on January 12, 1780, and on the 20th anchored
in a harbour of Pulo Condore.  Here a supply of buffaloes was obtained.
They were large animals, and very wild.  Two were kept on board the
Discovery by Captain King, who intended to take them to England.  They
soon became perfectly tame, but, unfortunately, one of them suffered a
severe injury, and both were killed.

On leaving Pulo Condore the ships passed through the Straits of Banca,
in sight of the island of Sumatra.  The Resolution brought up off the
island of Cracatoa, in the Straits of Sunda, and filled up her casks
with water, which the Discovery was unable to do, in consequence of
being becalmed.  On reaching Cape Town the English were treated with the
same kindness and attention which they had received on their former
visits.  Here they obtained confirmation of the intelligence that the
French had given directions to their cruisers not to molest them.
Having taken their stores on board, they sailed out of Table Bay on May
9, and on June 12 passed the equator for the fourth time during their
voyage.

The ships made the coast of Ireland on August 12, but southerly winds
compelled them to run to the north.  On October 4 the ships arrived at
the Nore, after an absence of four years, two months, and twenty-two
days.  During that time the Resolution had lost but five men by
sickness, three of whom were in a precarious state of health when
leaving England, while the Discovery did not lose a man.  It is
remarkable that during the whole time they were at sea the ships never
lost sight of each other for a day together, except twice; the first
time owing to an accident which happened to the Discovery off the coast
of Owhyhee, and the second to the fogs that were met with at the
entrance of Awatska Bay.  A stronger proof cannot be given of the skill
and vigilance of the subaltern officers, to whom the merit of this
entirely belonged.

The death of Captain Cook was already known in England by means of the
despatches sent home through Major Behm.  All that a nation could do was
done to testify respect for his memory.  His widow received a pension of
200 pounds a year, and each of his children had 25 pounds a year settled
on them.  Other sums were granted to his widow, and medals were struck
to commemorate his achievements, while a coat of arms was granted to his
family.

Of his six children, three died in their infancy, and the other three
were cut off in their early manhood.  The second, Nathaniel, a promising
youth, was lost, when a midshipman, on board the Thunderer, in a
hurricane off Jamaica on October 3, 1780.  The youngest, Hugh, was
intended for the ministry, and died at Oxford, in the seventeenth year
of his age.  The eldest, James, who was in the Navy, commanded the
Spitfire sloop-of-war.  He was drowned, in 1794, at the age of thirty,
when attempting to push off from Poole, during a gale of wind, to rejoin
his ship.

It is said that the bereaved mother, on receiving tidings of the death
of her last surviving son, destroyed all the letters she had received
from her husband, in the vain hope of banishing recollection of the
past.  She survived, however, to the year 1835, when she died, at the
age of ninety-three.

A handsome piece of plate was presented to Major Behm, in acknowledgment
of the attention and liberality with which he treated the English in
Siberia; while gold medals were offered to the French king for his
generous orders with regard to the ships of the expedition, as also to
the Empress of Russia, as it was in her dominions, and by one of her
officers, that they had been so liberally treated.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note 1.  It should be mentioned that Lieutenant Pickersgill was sent
out, in 1776, with directions to explore the coast of Baffin's Bay, and
that in the next year Lieutenant Young was commissioned not only to
examine the western parts of that bay, but to endeavour to find a
passage on that side from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.  Both
officers returned without effecting anything.  The first was severely
censured for his conduct; but we who know the difficulties he would have
had to encounter may readily excuse him.

Note 2.  Amongst the presents left by Cook at Mangaia was an axe,
roughly fashioned, on the ship's arrival, out of a piece of iron.  It is
still treasured in the Island as a relic of his visit.

Note 3.  A promotion of officers necessarily followed the death of
Captain Cook.  Captain Clerke, having succeeded to the command of the
expedition, removed to the Resolution.  By him Mr Gore was appointed
Captain of the Discovery, and the rest of the lieutenants obtained an
addition of rank in their proper order.



CHAPTER FIVE.

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY OF POLYNESIA.

In the concluding pages of this work it is proposed to give a brief
sketch of the progress of Christianity and civilisation in the islands
of the Pacific visited by Captain Cook.  [Note 1.]

The accounts brought home by the discoverers of the degraded moral
condition of the islanders, stirred up the hearts of Christians in
England, and when, in 1795, the London Missionary Society was formed,
one of its first proceedings was to send to those distant lands the
Gospel of Christ's salvation.

They began their labours upon an extensive scale.  They purchased a
ship, and sent out twenty-five labourers to commence missions
simultaneously at the Marquesan, Tahitian, and Friendly Islands.

The following is the account given of the reception of this band of
Christian evangelists:--

"On March 7, 1797, the first missionaries from the Duff went on shore,
and were met on the beach by the king, Pomare, and his queen.  By them
they were kindly welcomed, as well as by Paitia, an aged chief of the
district.  They were conducted to a large, oval-shaped native house,
which has been but recently finished for Captain Bligh, whom they
expected to return.  Their dwelling was pleasantly situated on the
western side of the river, near the extremity of Point Venus.  The
islanders were delighted to behold foreigners coming to take up their
permanent residence among them, as those they had heretofore seen had
been transient visitors.

"The inhabitants of Tahiti, having never seen any European females or
children, were filled with amazement and delight when the wives and
children of the missionaries landed.  Several times during the first
days of their residence on shore large parties arrived from different
places, in front of the house, requesting that the white women and
children would come to the door and show themselves.  The chiefs and
people were not satisfied with giving them the large and commodious
`Fare Beritani' (British house), as they called the one they had built
for Captain Bligh, but readily and cheerfully ceded to Captain Wilson
and the missionaries, in an official and formal manner, the district of
Matavai, in which their habitation was situated.  The king and queen,
with other branches of the royal family, and the most influential
persons in the nation, were present; and Haamanemane, an aged chief of
Raiatea, and chief priest of Tahiti, was the principal agent for the
natives on this occasion.

"Whatever advantages the king or chiefs might expect to derive from this
settlement on the island, it must not be supposed that any desire to
receive moral or religious instruction formed a part.  A desire to
possess European property, and to receive the assistance of the
Europeans in the exercise of the mechanical arts or in their wars, was
probably the motive by which the natives were most strongly influenced.

"Having landed ten missionaries at Tongataboo, in the Friendly Islands,
Captain Wilson visited and surveyed several of the Marquesan Islands,
and left Mr Crook, a missionary, there.  He then returned to Tahiti,
and on July 6 the Duff again anchored in Matavai Bay.  The health of the
missionaries had not been affected by the climate.  The conduct of the
natives had been friendly and respectful, and supplies in abundance had
been furnished during his absence.  On August 4, 1797, the Duff finally
sailed from the bay.  The missionaries returning from the ship, as well
as those on shore, watched her course, as she slowly receded from their
view, under no ordinary sensations.  They now felt that they were cut
off from all but Divine guidance, protection, and support, and had
parted with those by whose counsels and presence they had been assisted
in entering upon their labours, but whom, on earth, they did not expect
to meet again.

"Their acquaintance with the most useful of the mechanic arts not only
delighted the natives, but raised the missionaries in their estimation,
and led them to desire their friendship.  This was strikingly evinced on
several occasions, when they beheld them use their carpenters' tools,
cut with a saw a number of boards out of a tree, which they had never
thought it possible to split into more than two, and make with these
chests and articles of furniture.  When they beheld a boat built,
upwards of twenty feet long and six tons burden, they were pleased and
surprised; but when the blacksmith's shop was erected, and the forge and
anvil were first employed on their shores, they were filled with
astonishment.  When the heated iron was hammered on the anvil, and the
sparks flew among them, they fancied it was spitting at them, and were
frightened, as they also were with the hissing occasioned by immersing
it in water; yet they were delighted to see the facility with which a
bar of iron was thus converted into hatchets, adzes, fish-spears,
fish-hooks, and other things.  Pomare, entering one day when the
blacksmith was employed, after gazing a few minutes at the work, was so
transported at what he saw that he caught up the smith in his arms, and,
unmindful of the dirt and perspiration inseparable from his occupation,
most cordially embraced him, and saluted him, according to the custom of
his country, by touching noses."  [Abridged from _Polynesian
Researches_, by the Rev. W. Ellis.]

It is not to be wondered at that the favourable reports sent home by
these missionaries encouraged those who received them to believe that
almost all difficulties had already been, or were in a fair way of being
speedily overcome, and that these distant islands were, to use the
figurative language of Scripture, "stretching out their hands unto God."
They did not know--it was wisely and mercifully hidden from them--that
a long night of toil had yet to be passed before the dawn of that better
day they longed to see, and for which they prayed and strove.

"Decisive and extensive as the change has since become," says the writer
just quoted, "it was long before any salutary effects appeared as the
result of their endeavours; and although the scene is now one of
loveliness and quietude, cheerful, yet placid as the smooth waters of
the bay, it has often worn a very different aspect.  Here the first
missionaries frequently heard the song accompanying the licentious
areois dance, the deafening noise of the worship, and saw the human
victim carried by for sacrifice.  Here, too, they often heard the
startling cry of war, and saw their frightened neighbours fly before the
murderous spear and plundering hand of lawless power.  The invader's
torch reduced the native hut to ashes, while the lurid flame seared the
green foliage of the trees, and clouds of smoke, rising up among their
groves, darkened, for a time, surrounding objects.  On such occasions,
and they were not infrequent, the contrast between the country and the
inhabitants must have been most affecting; appearing as if the demons of
darkness had lighted up infernal fires in the bowers of paradise."

These representations probably did not reach England until after the
missionaries had been some time in the islands, and meanwhile the ship
Duff was sent out a second time, with a strong reinforcement of thirty
additional labourers.

"God, however, for a time, appeared to disappoint all their
expectations; for this hitherto favoured ship was captured by the
Buonaparte privateer.  The property was entirely lost, and the
missionaries, with their families, after suffering many difficulties and
privations, returned to England."  In addition to this trial "the
Marquesan mission failed.  At Tongataboo some of the missionaries lost
their lives, and that mission was, in consequence of a series of
disastrous circumstances, abandoned."  More discouragements were in
store, for "those settled at Tahiti, under such favourable auspices,
had, from fear of their lives, nearly all fled to New South Wales; so
that, after a few years, very little remained of this splendid embassy
of Christian mercy to the South Seas.  A few of the brethren, however,
never abandoned their posts; and others returned after having been a
short time absent."

In addition to all other disappointments, these returned missionaries
and their brethren appeared to be labouring in vain and spending their
strength for nought.  "For sixteen years," we are told, "notwithstanding
the untiring zeal, the incessant journeys, the faithful exhortations of
these devoted men, no spirit of interest or inquiry appeared, no
solitary instance of conversion took place; the wars of the natives
continued frequent and desolating, and their idolatries abominable and
cruel.  The heavens above seemed to be as brass, and the earth as iron.

"At length," continues the Christian historian, "two native servants,
formerly in the families of the missionaries, had received, unknown to
them, some favourable impressions, and had united together for prayer.
To these many other persons had attached themselves, so that, on the
return of the missionaries to Tahiti, at the termination of the war,
they found a great number of `pure Atua,' or `praying people'; and they
had little else to do but to help forward the work which God had so
unexpectedly and wonderfully commenced.

"Another circumstance, demanding special observation in reference to the
commencement of the great work at Tahiti, is that, discouraged by so
many years of fruitless toil, the directors of the Society entertained
serious thoughts of abandoning the mission altogether.  A few
undeviating friends of that field of missionary enterprise, however,
opposed the measure."  Their persuasions prevailed, and after special
and earnest prayer to God, instead of a recall, "letters of
encouragement were written to the missionaries.  And while the vessel
which carried these letters was on her passage to Tahiti, another ship
was conveying to England not only the news of the entire overthrow of
idolatry, but also the rejected idols of the people.  Thus was fulfilled
the gracious promise, `Before they call I will answer, and while they
are yet speaking I will hear.'"  [Williams's _Missionary Enterprises in
the South Sea Islands_.]

Among the converts of Tahiti was the king, Pomare, who, having been
severely tried by the rebellion of some part of his subjects, became
deeply impressed with the insufficiency of his idol gods to help him,
and, after having recalled the banished missionaries, listened to their
instructions, and embraced the faith of Christianity.  His example being
followed by a majority of his people the idols were renounced, as
already mentioned; and, as soon as he was firmly re-established on his
throne, he built a Christian church, which was opened in the year 1819;
and the first baptism of a native Tahitian was administered within its
walls, in the presence of upwards of four thousand spectators, the king
himself being the subject of the rite.

Thus inaugurating a new era in his reign, Pomare introduced a code of
useful laws, and brought about many much-needed reforms in his kingdom.
He not only proved himself a warm friend of the missionaries, but gave
them valuable assistance in the important work of translating the
Scriptures into the Tahitian tongue--a fact which proves Pomare to have
been a man of no ordinary natural abilities.  He did not live long
enough, however, to see the completion of this design, but, dying in
1821, he left it to his daughter, who succeeded him in his sovereignty,
taking her father's name Pomare.

Among the laws passed in Tahiti at this time was one prohibiting the
importation and sale of ardent spirits, which had been so great a bane
to the people; and the law was found to be beneficial to the prosperity
and moral character of the country, though the foreign traders, who had
made a large profit by its importation, were enraged when this source of
gain was cut off.

In 1835 the translation of the Bible was completed, and its publication
was attended and followed by happy accompaniments and results.  At this
time the number of natives in communion with the Christian churches
throughout the island numbered over two thousand; and among the
candidates for Church fellowship were the queen herself, her husband,
and her mother.

And now arose a dark cloud which, for a time, brought great distress
upon the faithful followers of Christ in Tahiti, and was permitted to
try their constancy, while, at the same time, the freedom, and liberty,
and prosperity of the island were grievously threatened.  It may be
stated, in few words, that Louis Philippe, at that time King of the
French, had set his eyes on Tahiti, and had introduced his agents into
the country that an excuse might be found for taking possession of the
island.  First, the consuls insisted that, as the law prohibiting the
introduction of liquor interfered with trade, it should be rescinded.
This was firmly refused.  Then, two French Roman Catholic priests were
landed, but were ordered by the queen to quit the country.  They
complied; but one shortly returned with a companion, and the French
admiral, appearing directly afterwards, insisted, with his guns bearing
on the town, that they should be allowed to remain, and demanded 400
pounds for the injury they had been supposed to suffer when compelled to
quit the island.

French ships continued to be sent, at frequent intervals, and French
troops were landed; the queen fled to a neighbouring island; the people
fought bravely, but were defeated; the mission-houses and stations were
destroyed; the missionaries were driven out of the country, and Mr
Pritchard, who had been a missionary, and was now British consul, was
imprisoned and otherwise ill-treated.

The Protestant missionary societies throughout Europe and America were
indignant at this conduct of a civilised nation.  In consequence of the
representations of England, France desisted from her attacks on the
other islands, but Tahiti fell into her power in 1846.  The French,
however, could not turn the people from the simple faith they had
learned from the English missionaries.  They chose ministers from their
own people, and continued to meet and worship God with the simple forms
to which they had been accustomed, and it is a remarkable fact that
Romanism, notwithstanding its gorgeous ceremonies and corrupt practices,
did not captivate them.

One only of their beloved missionaries was allowed to remain, the Rev.
William Howe, as chaplain to the British consul, and who was ever ready
to give the native pastors the benefit of his advice and assistance,
though opposed by the Romish bishop and the priests.  At length, through
his earnest representations to the French Protestant missionary
societies, an appeal was made to the Emperor Napoleon, who permitted
French Protestant missionaries to go out.  They were cordially received
by Mr Howe and the native preachers, and the greater part of the Romish
priests were subsequently withdrawn.

In the words of a recent report of the British and Foreign Bible
Society, [that of 18 8] "The Bible still continues to supply the
inhabitants of the Tahitian group of islands with a safe guide amidst
all the errors to which they are exposed, and a sure ground of hope in
the prospect of eternity.  The sale and distribution of the Scriptures
progresses steadily, and the strong attachment of the people to the
truths of the Gospel remains unabated, and forms a security against the
seductions of Popery which it is not easy to over-estimate.  Games, and
sports, and feasts are all alike tried to seduce the natives from their
allegiance to Him whom they have learnt to love and to serve; and
though, through the weakness of the flesh, some are attracted and drawn
aside, yet, for the most part, they soon become convinced of the
emptiness and folly of these things, and return to the sound and
wholesome food which they had been tempted to forsake."

After leaving Tahiti, the first place at which Captain Cook touched was
the lovely and fertile island of Huaheine.  This became the refuge of
the first party of missionaries when, in 1808, they were driven from
Tahiti; and it was afterwards visited by John Williams, Ellis, and
others, accompanied by some chiefs from Eimeo, who purposed forming a
mission there.  As this place became, in a certain degree, the centre of
operations, that particular missionary enterprise in the Society Islands
is generally known as the Huaheine Mission.

While Mr Williams was residing at Huaheine, Tamatoa, the King of
Raiatea, who had, while visiting Eimeo and Tahiti, learned something of
the principles of Christianity, arrived with several chiefs, entreating
that missionaries might be sent to instruct their people in the truth.
Messrs. Williams and Threlkeld promptly responded to the call, and
accompanied the king back to Raiatea.  The population of the island was
at that time only thirteen hundred, though the island is the largest of
the group, and, from its reputed sanctity, and from being the centre and
headquarters of all the idolatries and abominations of the neighbouring
islands, its chiefs exercised great authority over them.

Tamatoa, instructed by the Holy Spirit, and aided by others who had
learnt something of the truths of Christianity, had for some time been
labouring among his fellow-islanders.  He had himself been converted by
what might well be considered a providential circumstance.  Two years
before, a small vessel, having on board the king, Pomare, Mr Wilson,
the missionary, and several Tahitians, had been driven by a storm from
her anchorage at Eimeo down to Raiatea.  Here they were hospitably
received, and continued three months, the whole of which time was
employed by Mr Wilson and the king in preaching the Gospel to the
inhabitants.  The chief, Tamatoa, was among their principal converts.

After their teachers had departed, Tamatoa and his fellow-inquirers felt
an earnest desire to learn more of the truth.  They built a place of
worship, met together for mutual instruction, kept holy the Sabbath, and
put away their idols and heathen practices.  Several times the heathens
laid plots to destroy them, but were each time signally foiled in their
wicked plans.

At length, Tamatoa paid that memorable visit to Huaheine which resulted
in Messrs. Williams and Threlkeld taking up their abode at Raiatea.
Having collected the hitherto scattered inhabitants into villages, he
built a substantial mission-house as a model, which was readily
imitated.  Places of worship and schoolhouses were also built; and
though many years elapsed before the abominations of heathenism were
eradicated, the great mass of the people became not only well educated
and moral, but earnest and enlightened Christians.  The satisfactory
progress made by the inhabitants of the islands where Mr Williams
resided was owing, humanly speaking, to the wonderful rapidity with
which he had acquired their language, and was able to preach to them, in
it, the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Soon after the mission at Huaheine was established Mr Ellis set up a
printing-press, from which quickly issued the Gospel by Luke, eight
hundred copies of which were sent to Raiatea.  Small school-books were
also printed in the native language.  The desire for instruction became
general wherever missionary stations were established.  Not only the
children, but adults became scholars.  During the hours of instruction
other engagements were suspended, and the various scenes of busy
occupation throughout the settlements forsaken.

Such was the picture to be seen at that time in several islands of the
Society group.  Borabora, or Bolabola, whose inhabitants in Cook's time
had been the fiercest warriors of the neighbouring islands, yielded to
the benign influence of the Gospel.  The history of the last island
visited by the great navigator before he left the eastern side of the
Pacific for New Zealand, called by him Oheteroa, but known generally as
Rurutu, is of great interest.  It is situated about two hundred and
fifty miles to the south of Raiatea.  A destructive pestilence having
visited the island, two chiefs, one named Auura, built two canoes, and,
with as many of the people as they could convey, left their native
shores in search of a happier land, and to escape from their infuriated
deities.

After touching at Tubuai, they were cast on the reef surrounding Maurua.
Here, instead of being murdered, as might once have been their fate,
the starving voyagers were received with all kindness and charity.  How
was this?  Through the agency of native teachers the people had learned
the blessed truths of the Gospel, and were trying to obey its precepts.
Auura and his companions, hearing that the white men, who had brought to
their seas that beautiful religion the practical fruits of which they
had just experienced, were living in the islands the summits of whose
mountains they could see, set sail once more, with the desire of hearing
from their own lips a fuller account of the religion they taught.  They
missed Borabora, but reached Raiatea.  Here they remained rather more
than three months.  When they were landed they were ignorant savages,
wild in appearance and habits.  Before they left Auura could read the
Gospel of Matthew, had learned the greater part of the catechism drawn
up for the natives, and could write correctly.  Several others could do
nearly as well, though previously ignorant that such an art as writing
existed.

But these earnest men were not content to go back to their people alone;
they entreated that some missionaries would accompany them.  Two native
deacons at once offered themselves, and were accepted.  Auura's great
fear was that many of his countrymen would have been carried off by the
pestilence before the glad tidings of salvation could be preached to
them.  At that time a vessel belonging to a friend of the mission
touched at Eaiatea, and the captain agreed to carry Auura and his
companions, with the missionaries, to their home.

Within fifteen months after this, Rurutu was visited by Dr Tyerman and
G. Bennet, Esquire, who had been sent out by the directors of the London
Missionary Society to visit their stations in the Pacific.  When they
reached it they were not certain what island it was, but were greatly
surprised at seeing several neat-looking white houses at the head of the
bay.  A pier, a quarter of a mile in length, had been constructed of
vast coral blocks, affording a convenient landing-place.  Besides the
two comfortable mission-houses, there was a large place of worship,
eighty feet by thirty-six, wattled, plastered, well floored and seated,
built within a twelvemonth, under the direction of the two native
missionaries, who performed much of the work with their own hands.  Many
of the chiefs were dressed in European clothing, and all were attired in
the most decent and becoming manner.  Not a vestige of idolatry was to
be seen, not an idol was to be found in the island.

Mr Turnbull, in his account of a voyage he made to the Pacific in 1804,
describes the way in which the then savage inhabitants of Raiatea
attempted to cut off the ship in which he sailed.  See the contrast in
the conduct of the people of Rurutu shortly after they had embraced
Christianity.  Captain Chase commanded the Falcon, an American trader,
which was cast away on a reef off their island.  He says; "The natives
have given us all the assistance in their power from the time the ship
struck to the present moment.  The first day, while landing the things
from the ship, they were put into the hands of the natives, and carried
up to the native mission-house, a distance of half a mile, and not a
single article of clothing was taken from any man belonging to the ship,
though they had it in their power to have plundered us of everything
that was landed.  Since I have lived on shore, I, and my officers and
people, have received the kindest treatment from the natives that can be
imagined, for which I shall ever be thankful."

Aitutaki, one of the Hervey group, was another of the islands discovered
by Captain Cook.  It contained about two thousand inhabitants, described
as especially wild and savage.  Mr Williams heard of it from Auura, and
on a voyage to Sydney, which he was compelled to take on account of the
health of his wife, he landed on its shores two native missionaries,
Papeiha and Vahapata.  On first landing they were led by the people to
the morai and given up to the gods; but their lives were spared and they
were left at liberty.  Wars broke out in the island, and all their
property was stolen; but they persevered in preaching the Gospel, and,
by degrees, gained converts.  The king, Tamatoa, became a Christian; but
his old grandfather refused to give up his gods.  While holding a high
festival in their honour, a beloved daughter was taken ill.  In vain he
besought his gods to restore her to health; she died.  In his rage, he
ordered his son to set fire to his morai, and to destroy it with his
idols; two others caught fire near it, and the son was proceeding to
burn others, when the people dragged him away, expecting to see him
struck down by the vengeance of the outraged gods.  As no evil
consequences followed, the idolaters began to call in question the power
of their deities.

Shortly after a vessel arrived from Raiatea, bringing another
missionary, with many books, and several pigs and goats, which Papeiha
and his companion had promised the people.  This raised the missionaries
in their estimation, and they with one accord threw away all their
idols, and resolved to listen to the teaching of the Gospel.  On his
return from Sydney, Mr Williams, calling at Aitutaki, found that all
the inhabitants had nominally embraced Christianity, while a chapel, two
hundred feet long, had been built for the worship of the true God.  They
have now the entire Scriptures in their own language, and their desire
after and reverence for the Word of God are very remarkable.

The description given of the inhabitants of Aitutaki applies equally to
numerous other islands of the Pacific, which have been for some time
under missionary instruction, provided there are no ports where the
crews of foreign vessels remain any length of time, and set a bad
example to the surrounding population.

Rarotonga, one of the Hervey group, about seven hundred miles south of
Tahiti, and discovered by Williams, in 1823, when the people were in the
most savage condition, is now the chief missionary station in the
Pacific.  In 1839 a missionary college was established, the buildings
consisting of a number of separate neat stone cottages, in which the
married students and their wives could reside, a lecture-room, and a
room for female classes.  Up to 1844 thirty-three native missionaries,
male and female, had received instruction, and six of the young men had
gone forth as pioneers to Western Polynesia.  Up to 1860 two hundred
students had been admitted, a considerable number of whom were married,
and the institution had been greatly enlarged in many respects.  The
course of instruction embraces theology, Church history, Biblical
exposition, biography, geography, grammar, and composition of essays and
sermons.  The students are also taught several mechanical arts, and for
two or three hours every day are employed in the workshop.  At the
printing establishment on the island a variety of works have been
translated, printed, and bound.  In three months, ending March 1859,
_Bogue's Lectures_, the _Pilgrim's Progress_, twelve hundred copies of
_Voyages of Mission Ship_, hymn-books, Scripture lessons, and several
other works were turned out of hand.  The press-work of these various
books, comprising nearly three hundred thousand sheets a year, had all
been performed by young men, the first-fruits of missionary labours
before their fathers had any written language.

We must now describe the present state of other solitary islands and
groups discovered by Captain Cook.  In the course of his second voyage
(1774) he fell in with a low, solitary island, which, from the ferocity
of the inhabitants, he called Savage Island.  The inhabitants, numbering
between three and four thousand, for very many years remained in the
condition in which Cook found them.  The first attempt to leave native
missionaries was made by the Rev. John Williams, in 1830.  But the
natives refused to receive them.  In 1840, and in 1842, other attempts
were made.  In the latter year the Rev. A. Buzacott nearly lost his
life.

Still these visits had a good effect on the younger part of the
population, who desired to see more of the strangers.  Several found
their way to Samoa, where they embraced the Gospel, and two of them,
after a course of instruction at the training college in Samoa, were
found well fitted to return, and to spread its glad tidings among their
benighted countrymen.  They were accordingly conveyed to Savage Island
in the John Williams, missionary ship, but were received with a good
deal of suspicion by the natives, and only one remained.  He narrowly
escaped being put to death, but undauntedly persevered, and, by degrees,
gathered converts around him.  When visited in 1852 by the Rev. A.W.
Murray, he had upwards of two hundred sincere believers gathered into a
church, and many heathen practices had been abandoned by others.

In 1861 the John Williams conveyed Mr and Mrs Lawes to Savage Island.
They were the first European missionaries appointed to labour there.
Hundreds of men and women, all well clothed, were assembled on the shore
to receive them.  Outwardly, not a vestige of heathenism remained among
them.  There were five good chapels in the island, one of which held
eleven hundred, but it was too small for the congregation.  Prayer
meetings were frequently held, at which all the people in the district
attended.  On each occasion when they were held by Mr Lawes not less
than eight hundred were present.  The whole of the inhabitants are now
professing Christians, and a very large proportion are earnest and
enlightened believers.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

The reader will call to mind the incidents of Captain Cook's visit to
the Tonga, or Friendly group, the high state of cultivation in which he
found the islands, the apparently friendly reception he met with from
the chiefs, and their treacherous purposes to cut off the ship, as they
shortly afterwards did a merchantman which visited their shores,
murdering most of the crew.

In consequence of Captain Cook's too favourable report, a number of
missionaries were sent out by the London Missionary Society, in the ship
Duff, already mentioned, under the command of Captain Wilson.  These
pious men landed on the islands in 1797, but they made no apparent
progress, and war breaking out, three of them lost their lives, and the
rest escaped to Sydney.  This was in the year 1800.

In 1802, Mr Lawry, of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, commenced a
mission at Nukualofa, in Tongataboo.  Though compelled for a time to
abandon it, he returned in 1826, and, through his instrumentality,
Tubou, the king, and many of his chiefs and people embraced
Christianity.  It is worthy of remark that, just before this time, the
London Missionary Society had commenced a mission on the island; but
they yielded up the field to the Wesleyans, while the latter retired
from Samoa, where they had commenced a mission.  The Wesleyans have
since then laboured exclusively, and with most encouraging success, in
the Friendly and Fiji Islands and New Zealand, leaving to the London
Missionary Society the wide scope of the Pacific.

In 1827 the Revs. Nathaniel Turner and William Cross took up their
residence at Nukualofa.  At that time Josiah Tubou was king in Tonga.
Taufaahau, now King George, was king only of Haabai, and Feenau was king
of Vavou.  The first became a Christian, as did his queen, and was
baptised on January 10, 1830.  He died in 1845, Feenau having previously
died; thus George became king in chief, and reigns over the three
groups, Tonga, Haabai, and Vavou, or the whole of the Friendly Islands.
The labours of the two zealous missionaries just mentioned were largely
blessed, and when Tubou was baptised the congregation amounted to six
hundred professing Christians.

King Josiah's reign was not altogether free from difficulties.  The
heathen party was strong, and took up arms against him, being supported
by some French Roman Catholic priests who had settled in the islands.
They tried to embroil him, as they had already done Queen Pomare, of
Tahiti, with their own government, but were unsuccessful, and with the
assistance of King George the rebels were put down.

King George had himself become a Christian and a preacher, and
contributed greatly to the spread of the Gospel among his countrymen.
He is thus described by Mr Lawry, after he had become sovereign of the
whole group; it was in the large chapel of Nukualofa: "The king was in
the pulpit.  The attention of his audience was riveted while he
expounded the words of our Lord, `I am come that ye might have life.'
The king is a tall, graceful person; in the pulpit he was dressed in a
black coat, and his manner was solemn and earnest.  He held in his hand
a small bound manuscript book, in which his sermon was written, but he
seldom looked at it.  His action was dignified, his delivery fluent and
graceful, and not without majesty.  His hearers hung upon his lips with
earnest and increasing interest.  Much of what he said was put
interrogatively, a mode of address which is very acceptable among the
Tongans.  It was affecting to see this dignified man stretching out his
hand over his people, and to observe that one of his little fingers had
been cut off: this was formerly done as an offering to a heathen god, a
custom among his people before they became Christians.  But while he
bore this mark of Pagan origin, he clearly showed that to him was grace
given to preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ."

The Tongans have been especially blessed in having had several
missionaries of high character, abilities, and zeal sent among them.
There are schools sufficient for the wants of the whole population,
under native teachers, and overlooked by the missionaries, whose duties
are somewhat arduous.  There is a training institution at Nukualofa, for
missionaries, and for masters and mistresses of schools.  There are also
schools, or colleges, for the upper classes; indeed, many of the wants
of a civilised and intelligent community are supplied in the Tonga
Islands.  The population of the whole group is supposed to amount to
between thirty and forty thousand.

The islands of Western Polynesia--New Hebrides, Loyalty, and Britannia--
were little-known, or, at all events, little thought of, till the year
1839, when they were brought into melancholy prominence by the
distressing tragedy which occurred in one of them, the island of
Erromanga.

The Rev. John Williams, after his return from England in the previous
year, sailed in the Camden missionary vessel, resolved to convey the
Gospel message to the inhabitants of these remote islands, hitherto sunk
in the deepest heathen darkness.  It is not too much to say that there
was no species of wickedness practised by heathens in any part of the
world which could not have found its parallel in those countries.
Barbarous rites, nameless abominations, and cannibalism in its most
fearful forms characterised the whole population.  Mr Williams was
accompanied by several European, and a considerable number of native
missionaries, who were to be landed as opportunities might offer, to
preach the Gospel.

Having landed missionaries at the island of Tanna and elsewhere, with
every prospect of success, the Camden proceeded to Erromanga, off which
island she arrived on November 20, 1839.  Here Mr Williams, Mr Harris,
Mr Cunningham, and Captain Morgan landed, and while the two former were
at a distance from their companions, the natives attacked and killed
them.  The murder had been provoked, not by the crew of the Camden, but
by that of some other ship, who had ruthlessly shot down several of the
natives and carried off their provisions.  Thus the innocent suffered
for the guilty, and while the life of one eminent missionary was
sacrificed, that of another was cut off at the commencement of what
might have been a course of similar usefulness.  Let it be added, as an
interesting fact, that the murderer of John Williams was afterwards
converted to God, and lived as a sincere and consistent Christian.

Notwithstanding the sad commencement of this missionary enterprise, it
was resolved to pursue it with vigour.  At Aneiteum, the first island of
the New Hebrides visited by the missionary ship in 1841, two Samoan
missionaries were landed.  These devoted men had much to endure, and it
was not till after years of toil that they saw any really satisfactory
results from their labours.  By degrees many came to seek instruction,
some of whom abandoned their heathen practices; and subsequently other
native teachers were introduced; but when, in 1848, the Rev. J. Geddie
arrived at Aneiteum, he still found the great mass of the people
fearfully degraded, and addicted to the most horrible cruelties.  Soon
after his arrival eight women were strangled--one, an interesting young
woman whose husband he had been attending till he died; he attempted to
save her, and was very nearly clubbed to death by her relatives in
consequence.

A wonderful change is now evident.  In 1858 there were sixty villages on
the island, each of which had a school-house or a chapel, with a
resident teacher.  Nearly the whole of the New Testament, and some books
of the Old, had been translated, and a large number of these lately
degraded heathens could both read and write.

Fatuna is a small island, containing about a thousand inhabitants.  Here
Williams touched just before his death; but no teachers were left there.
A couple of years afterwards, however, two Samoan evangelists, Samuela
and Apela, were landed, the former accompanied by his wife.  They
laboured for four years with some success, when a severe epidemic
breaking out among the inhabitants they were accused of being its cause,
and were killed and eaten.  Samuela's faithful wife was offered her life
if she would become one of the wives of the chief.  She replied, "I came
to teach you what is right, not to sin amongst you."  No sooner had she
uttered the words than she fell beneath the club of a savage.
Notwithstanding this tragedy, missionaries from the lately heathen
Aneiteum have gone to Fatuna, and many of the savages have been
converted.

At Tanna, supposed to possess fifteen thousand inhabitants, Mr Williams
left three missionaries the day before he was murdered at Erromanga; but
two of them soon died, the climate being more injurious to the natives
of Eastern Polynesia than to Europeans.  In 1842 Messrs. Turner and
Nisbet were sent to occupy the island, but were driven away by the
savages, and sought shelter in Samoa.  Native teachers from Aneiteum,
however, took their places, and met with some success; and in 1858
several European missionaries landed on the island; and the larger part
of the people have come to the truth.

With Erromanga the name of Williams will always be associated.  After
his death, native evangelists from Samoa and Rarotonga landed on its
shores, but died, or were compelled to leave, from the effects of the
climate.  In 1857 the Rev. G.N. Gordon, and his wife, took up their
residence on the island.  They laboured on with considerable success,
Oviladon, the chief of the district, being among the first-fruits of
their toils.  The greater number of the inhabitants of his district also
became Christians.

An epidemic, however, broke out in 1860, and the heathen inhabitants of
another district, believing that it was caused by the Christians,
attacked the settlement, and killed Mr and Mrs Gordon.  The day after
they were buried, amidst the tears and lamentations of the people; the
native teacher, who had escaped, stood beside the grave, and delivered
an address which powerfully affected the bystanders.

In the large island of Fate or Vate, Christian teachers have been landed
at different times, but some have been killed and eaten, and others have
died of disease.  In 1858, however, three teachers, with their wives,
were landed under encouraging circumstances.  From Nina, a small island
near Tanna, several of the natives, hearing of the wonderful things
taking place on the latter island, proceeded thither to procure a
teacher.  In consequence of their application, in 1858, the John
Williams took them two from Aneiteum, who are now labouring successfully
among them.

The Loyalty group must be briefly noticed.  Native teachers were landed
in 1841, and after they had induced many natives to abandon heathenism,
Messrs. Jones and Creagh arrived in the island in 1854.  Their labours
have been blessed; the Gospels and other parts of the Scriptures have
been printed in the Nengonese language, and upwards of three thousand of
the inhabitants are under Christian instruction, although a large number
of the natives still follow their heathen customs.

The mission in Lifu was not commenced till 1843, when native evangelists
were landed, and in 1858 two European missionaries arrived to take
charge of the work.  The inhabitants amount to about ten thousand, and
of these very few, if any, now remain heathens, though it is to be
feared that the great mass of the converts can only be looked on as
nominal Christians.

The small Britannia group, near New Caledonia, has been occupied by
teachers from Rarotonga and Mars since 1837, but Roman Catholic priests
have arrived on the principal island, sent, they say, by the French
governor of New Caledonia.  They have built a capital, called Porte de
France, but it is a penal colony, and free emigrants have not been
attracted to its shores.

The last islands visited by Captain Cook were those to which he gave the
name of the Sandwich Islands, and which now form the small but
independent kingdom of Hawaii, having a capital called Honolulu, with a
population of eleven thousand, not less than a thousand of whom are
white foreigners.  With its well-paved, lighted streets, its king's
palace, its houses of parliament, its cathedral church, its numerous
hotels, its police, and other accompaniments of high civilisation, it is
difficult to imagine that a hundred years ago this was the home of
tattooed savages.  To Englishmen in advanced years, indeed, the murder
of Captain Cook at Owhyhee seems like an event that happened in their
own childhood.  And, in truth, not fifty years ago the natives of Hawaii
were ignorant and idolatrous heathens, while it is but as yesterday that
a refined, elegant, and well-educated lady, the queen of those islands,
was visiting England.

When Cook was killed Kalampupua was king.  He was succeeded by his
nephew, Kamehamea the First, who made himself sovereign of the entire
group.  When visited by Captain Vancouver, in 1793, it is said that he
requested that Christian missionaries might be sent to him.  Whether
Captain Vancouver delivered the message to the English Government or
not, no attention was paid to it.  Captain Vancouver, however, returned
the next year with some horned cattle and sheep, which he presented to
the king, obtaining a promise that none should be killed for the space
of ten years.  This promise was faithfully kept; but so rapidly did the
animals increase that they became exceedingly troublesome to the natives
by injuring their fences and taro plantations.  They were accordingly
driven into the mountains, where they now form a source of considerable
wealth to the nation.

Kamehamea was about to abolish the taboo system when he died in 1819,
and was succeeded by his son Liholiho, who took the name of Kamehamea
the Second.  He carried into effect his father's intention, and also
destroyed his temples and gods.

In that very year the American Board of Missions resolved to send to the
Sandwich Islands an efficient band of missionaries with three native
youths who had been educated in the States.  Joyful and totally
unexpected news awaited them on their arrival.  Idolatry was overthrown,
and the king and most of his chiefs were ready to afford them protection
and support.  They had, however, an arduous task before them in their
efforts to impart instruction to a population numbering at least one
hundred thousand, dwelling in eight islands, with a superficial area of
seven thousand square miles; Owhyhee alone, now written Hawaii, being
four hundred and fifteen miles in circumference.

In 1824 there were fifty native teachers and two thousand scholars, and
so rapidly did education advance, that in 1831 there were eleven hundred
schools, in which fully seventeen hundred scholars had obtained the
branches of a common education, and were able to read, write, and sum up
simple accounts.  The prime minister, seven leading chiefs, and the
regent were members of the Christian Church; and a very decided change
was manifest in the general population.

Within a few years the language was reduced to a written form, and two
printing-presses were at work at Honolulu.  A large edition of the
Gospels in the Hawaii language, printed in the United States, was in
circulation and there were no less than nine hundred schools and
forty-five thousand scholars.  In 1853, after a great awakening, there
were above twenty-two thousand church members, and there were chapels at
all the stations.  One at Lahaina could hold three thousand persons.

In 1853 the mission of the American Board was dissolved, their object
having been fully realised in Christianising the people, planting
churches, and making them self-supporting.  Kamehamea the Third, the
brother and successor of the king, who died in England, reigned well and
wisely till 1854.  On his death, Prince Alexander Liholiho, a
well-educated and religiously disposed young man, became king.  His wife
is the Queen Emma who once visited England.  They lost their only son in
1862.  This so affected the king that he never recovered from the shock.

He was succeeded by his brother who reigned over the kingdom for some
years, under the title of Kamehamea the Fifth.  His uncle had
established a too democratic constitution; he has given the people one
more suited to their ideas and the state of the country.  The chamber of
nobles and that of the representatives of the people are convoked every
two years.  It is their duty to make the laws and to vote supplies.
Several foreigners are employed in the government, and the foreign
population of English, Americans, French, and Germans is increasing
rapidly.

The Hawaiians own a considerable number of vessels, which trade to
China, California, British Columbia, and other parts of the Pacific.
The national flag is composed of coloured stripes with the Union-Jack of
old England quartered in the corner.  The independence of the island
kingdom is guaranteed by England, France, and America, and it will
probably continue, as it is at present, in advance of all the other
states which may arise in the Pacific.  With these signs of prosperity,
it is no wonder that Romish priests are doing all in their power to
spread their tenets through the Sandwich Islands.  But the Bible and a
free press will, it is devoutly to be hoped, triumph.

Among other publications constantly issuing from the Hawaiian press are
several newspapers, both in English and the native language, which have
a wide circulation.  That there is a steady increase in the commerce of
the country is shown by the exports of sugar, coffee, and other produce,
while several manufactures have been introduced to give employment
especially to the women.  The port of Honolulu has long been the chief
resort of whale ships in the Pacific, and now many others, trading
between the coasts of America and Asia, call there for supplies.

Other islands and shores visited by Cook remain in much the same
condition as in his day.  The sorrowful history of the attempt to convey
the Gospel to the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, by Captain Allan
Gardiner, is too well-known to require further mention.  Java has been
restored to its original masters, the Dutch; and the Cape of Good Hope
is now a British colony.  The great southern land of which Cook went in
search has been found to exist, though its approach is guarded by
immense barriers of ice; and the great problem of a north-west passage
has been solved by the sacrifice of some of England's bravest sons.

Not much need be added in the closing paragraphs of this volume.  In
following the interesting narrative of the voyages of the eminent
discoverer whose name is a household word in English biography, the
reader, while he sees some things to regret, will award to him a
well-deserved tribute of admiration for his courage and skill, his
perseverance and enterprising spirit.  One thing was set before him, and
that one thing he did.  His main object was scientific; his first voyage
was undertaken to observe the transit of the planet Venus, the Royal
Society having represented that important service would be rendered to
the interests of astronomical science by the appointment of properly
qualified individuals to observe that phenomenon.  The second was in
search of a southern continent, which, at that time, was a favourite
object of geographical speculation.  The third and last was to endeavour
to find a passage from the Pacific into the Atlantic Ocean.  These
objects were praiseworthy, yet they were not the highest aims of the
truest and purest ambition.  To be a martyr for science was earthly
glory; but to be a willing martyr for God is glory, honour, immortality,
and eternal life.

The discoveries made by Captain Cook were barren of any results beyond
those which are necessarily doomed to perish when the world and all that
is in it shall be dissolved, until God was pleased, in His own good
time, and by the influence of His gracious Spirit operating on the minds
of His servants, to make them show forth His praise.  Then was made
manifest His almighty power, His infinite wisdom, and His amazing love,
in the triumphs of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ in the very
strongholds of Satan and sin; conveying to His waiting people the
assurance also that He had listened, and still listens, to their
aspirations and prayers.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note 1.  Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, having become parts of
the British empire, and colonised by British subjects, are not included
in this sketch; their history belongs to that of the mother country.
The wonderful progress they have made is due to the influx of European
settlers, not to the elevation of the native races.

THE END.





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