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´╗┐Title: Great African Travellers - From Mungo Park to Livingstone and Stanley
Author: Kingston, William Henry Giles, 1814-1880
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Great African Travellers - From Mungo Park to Livingstone and Stanley" ***

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Great African Travellers, from Mungo Park to Livingstone and Stanley, by
W.H.G. Kingston.


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the coastal parts of Africa
were of course well-known, and in any of the territories round the
coasts there were European officials, such as consuls, and European
traders.  This becomes very apparent as you read this book, as many of
the travels described involve sorties from an existing European base.

On the other hand the very sources of the various major rivers were not
on the map, and the object of many of the travellers was to find these
sources, for instance that of the Nile, or rather, that of any one of
its major components, such as the Red Nile and the Blue Nile.

On the whole the various regions they passed through had already a
settled African regime.  In most cases this regime was friendly, but in
some cases the opposite was the case.  These explorations and travels
could only take place if the native rulers could be brought to give
assistance, and in most cases this was forthcoming.  On the other hand
some of the lesser-known early travellers were murdered, and the goods
they travelled with, stolen.  It is really only those travellers who
were able to complete their self-imposed tasks, and return to Britain,
that have become famous.

Written in an easy style, this book is a good read, and very worth the
while of even today's teenagers.  There are too many names to make an
audiobook very easily, so we have not done so, and have no comments on







When the fathers of the present generation were young men, and George
the Third ruled the land, they imagined that the whole interior of
Africa was one howling wilderness of burning sand, roamed over by brown
tribes in the north and south, and by black tribes--if human beings
there were--on either side of the equator, and along the west coast.

The maps then existing afforded them no information.  Of the Mountains
of the Moon they knew about as much as of the mountains in the moon.
The Nile was not explored--its sources unknown--the course of the Niger
was a mystery.  They were aware that the elephant, rhinoceros,
cameleopard, zebra, lion and many other strange beasts ranged over its
sandy deserts; but very little more about them than the fact of their
existence was known.  They knew that on the north coast dwelt the
descendants of the Greek and Roman colonists, and of their Arab
conquerors--that there were such places as Tangiers, Tripoli, Tunis,
Algiers with its piratical cruisers who carried off white men into
slavery; Morocco, with an emperor addicted to cutting off heads; Salee,
which sent forth its rovers far over the ocean to plunder merchantmen;
and a few other towns and forts, for the possession of which Europeans
had occasionally knocked their heads together.

From the west coast they had heard that ivory and gold-dust was to be
procured, as well as an abundant supply of negroes, whose happy lot it
was to be carried off to cultivate the plantations of the West Indies
and America; but, except that they worshipped fetishes, of their manners
and customs, or at what distance from the coast they came, their
ignorance was profound.  They possibly were acquainted with the fact
that the Portuguese had settlements at Loango, Angola, and Benguela; and
that Hottentots and Kaffirs were to be found at the Cape, where a colony
had been taken from the Dutch, but with that colony, except in the
immediate neighbourhood of Cape Town, where ships to and from India
touched, they were but slightly acquainted.

Eastward, if they troubled their heads about the matter, they had a
notion that there was a terribly wild coast, inhabited by fierce
savages, and northward, inside the big island of Madagascar, that the
Portuguese had some settlements for slaving purposes; that further north
again was Zanzibar, and that the mainland was without a town or spot
where civilised man was to be found, till the Strait of Bab el Mandeb,
at the mouth of the Red Sea, was reached.  That there, towards the
interior, was the wonderful country of Abyssinia, in which the Queen of
Sheba once ruled, and Nubia, the birthplace from time immemorial of
black slaves, and that, flowing northward, the mysterious Nile made its
way down numerous cataracts, fertilising the land of Egypt on its annual
overflows, till, passing the great city of Cairo, it entered the
Mediterranean by its numberless mouths.

About Egypt, to be sure, more was known than of all the rest of the
continent together--that there were pyramids and ruined cities, colossal
statues, temples and tombs, crocodiles and hippopotami in the waters of
the sacred river, and Christian Copts and dark-skinned Mahommedans
dwelling on its banks.  But few had explored the mighty remains of its
past glory, or made their way either to the summits or into the
interiors of its mountain-like edifices.

Those who had read Herodotus believed in a good many wonders which that
not incredulous historian narrates.  The late discoveries of
Livingstone, however, prove that Herodotus had obtained a more correct
account of the sources of the Nile than has hitherto been supposed.
Indeed, free range was allowed to the wildest imagination, and the most
extravagant stories found ready believers, there being no one with
authority to contradict them.

When, however, Bruce and other travellers made their way further than
any civilised man had before penetrated into the interior of the
continent, their accounts were discredited, and people were disappointed
when they were told that many of their cherished notions had no
foundation in truth; in fact, up to the commencement of the present
century the greater part of Africa was a _terra incognita_, and only by
slow and painful degrees, and during a comparatively late period, has a
knowledge of some of its more important geographical features been

We will now set forth and accompany in succession the most noted of the
various travellers who, pushing their way into that long unknown
interior, bravely encountering its savage and treacherous tribes, its
fever-giving climate, famine, hardships, dangers and difficulties of
every description, have contributed to fill up some of the numerous
blank places on the map.  Although, by their showing, sand enough and to
spare and vast rocky deserts are to be found, there are wide districts
of the greatest fertility, possessed of many natural beauties--elevated
and cool regions, where even the European can retain his health and
strength and enjoy existence; lofty mountains, magnificent rivers and
broad lakes, and many curious and interesting objects, not more
wonderful, however, than those of other parts of the globe, while the
inhabitants in _every_ direction, though often savage and debased,
differ in no material degree from the other descendants of Ham.

Although our fathers knew very little about Africa, their interest had
been excited by the wonders it was supposed to contain, and they were
anxious to obtain all possible information respecting it.  This was,
however, no easy matter, as most of the travellers who endeavoured to
make their way into the interior had died in the attempt.

A society called the African Association, to which the Marquis of
Hastings and Sir John Banks belonged, was at length formed to open up
the mighty continent to British commerce and civilisation.

The first explorer they despatched was Ledyard, who as a sergeant of
marines had sailed round the world with Captain Cook, and after living
among the American Indians had pushed his way to the remotest parts of
Asiatic Russia.  If any man could succeed, it was thought he would.

He proceeded to Egypt, intending to make his way to Sennaar, and thence
to traverse the entire breadth of the African continent; but, seized
with an illness at Cairo, he died just as he was about to start with a

The next traveller engaged by the society was Mr Lucas, who, having
been captured by a Salee rover, had been several years a slave in
Morocco.  He started from Tripoli, but was compelled by the disturbed
state of the country to the south of that place to put back.

It should have been said that it had been long known that two mighty
rivers flowed through the interior of Africa, one called the Gambia and
the other the Niger, or Quorra; but whereabouts they rose, or the
direction they took, or the nature of the country they traversed in
their course, no exact information was possessed.

From Arab traders, also, accounts had been received of a vast city,
situated near the banks of the Niger, far away across the desert, called
Timbuctoo, said to possess palaces, temples and numberless public
buildings, to be surrounded by lofty walls and glittering everywhere
with gold and precious stones, to rival the ancient cities of Mexico and
Peru in splendour and those of Asia in the amount of its population.

A century and a half before, two sea captains, Thompson and Jobson, sent
out by a company for the purpose, had made their way some distance up
the Gambia in boats, and early in the eighteenth century Captain Stibbs
had gallantly sailed up the same river to a considerable distance, but,
his native crew refusing to proceed, he was compelled to return without
having gained much information.

As a wide sandy desert intervened between the shores of the
Mediterranean and the centre of Africa, it was naturally supposed that
the unknown region could be more easily reached from the west coast than
over that barren district, and, soon after the return of Lucas, Major
Haughton, a high-spirited, gallant officer who had lived some time in
Morocco, volunteered to make his way along the bank of the Gambia
eastward, under the belief that a journey by land was more likely to
succeed than one by water.  Some way up that river is the the town of
Pisania, where an English factory had been established, and a few
Europeans were settled, with a medical man, Dr Laidley.  Leaving this
place, he proceeded to Tisheet, a place in the Great Desert, hoping from
thence to reach Timbuctoo; but, robbed by a Moorish chief, of everything
he possessed, he wandered alone through the desert, till, exhausted by
hunger and thirst, he sat down under a tree and died.  The news of his
fate was brought to Dr Laidley soon afterwards by some negroes.

These expeditions threw no light on the interior of the continent.  A
fresh volunteer, however, Mungo Park, then unknown to fame, was soon to
commence those journeys which have immortalised his name, and which
contributed so greatly to solve one of the chief African problems--the
course of the Niger.




Mungo Park, who long ranked as the chief of African travellers, was born
on the 10th of September, 1771, at Fowlshiels, a farm occupied by his
father on the banks of the Yarrow, not far from the town of Selkirk, in

The elder Mr Park, also called Mungo, was a substantial yeoman of
Ettrick Forest, and was distinguished for his unremitting attention to
the education of his children, the greater number of whom he saw
respectably settled in life.  The young Mungo, after receiving with his
brothers a course of education at home under a private tutor, was sent
to the Grammar School at Selkirk, and at the age of fifteen was
apprenticed to Mr Thomas Anderson, a surgeon of that town.  Hence he
removed to the University of Edinburgh, and during his vacations made a
tour with his brother-in-law, Mr Dickson, a distinguished botanist.  On
going to London he was introduced by his relative to Sir Joseph Banks,
whose interest procured for him the appointment of assistant surgeon to
the "Worcester," East Indiaman.  Returning from India, he offered his
services to the African Association, who, notwithstanding the failure of
the first expeditions they had sent out, still determined to persevere
in their efforts.

Possessed of unbounded courage and perseverance, he was admirably fitted
for the task he undertook, and his offer was gladly accepted.

Having received his final instructions from the African Association, he
sailed from Portsmouth on the 22nd of May, 1795, on board the
"Endeavour," an African trader bound for the Gambia, where he arrived on
the 21st of the following month.

His directions were to make his way to the Niger, by Bambook or any
other route, to ascertain the course of that river, and to visit the
principal towns in its neighbourhood, particularly Timbuctoo and Houssa,
and afterwards to return by way of the Gambia or any other route he
might deem advisable.

Houssa is not a city, as was then supposed, but a kingdom or province.

The vessel anchored on the 21st of June at Jillifree, where he landed
and from thence proceeded up the Gambia to Pisania.  The only white
residents were Dr Laidley and two merchants of the name of Ainsley,
with their numerous black domestics.  It is in the dominions of the King
of Yany, who afforded them protection.

Assisted by Dr Laidley, Park here set to work to learn the Mandingo
tongue, and to collect information from certain black traders called
Seedees.  During his residence at Pisania he was confined for two months
by a severe fever, from which he recovered under the constant care of
his host.

A coffle, or caravan, being about to start for the interior of Africa,
Park, having purchased a hardy and spirited horse and two asses,
arranged to accompany it.  He obtained also the services of Johnson, a
negro who spoke both English and Mandingo.  Dr Laidley also provided
him with a negro boy named Demba, a sprightly youth who spoke, besides
Mandingo, the language of a large tribe in the interior.  His baggage
consisted only of a small stock of provisions, beads, amber and tobacco,
for the purchase of food on the road; a few changes of linen, an
umbrella, pocket compass, magnetic compass and thermometer, with a
fowling-piece, two pair of pistols and other small articles.  Four
Mahommedan blacks also offered their services as his attendants.  They
were going to travel on foot, driving their horses before them.  These
six attendants regarded him with great respect, and were taught to
consider that their safe return to the countries of the Gambia would
depend on his preservation.

Dr Laidley and the Mr Ainsleys accompanied him for the two first days,
secretly believing that they should never see him again.

Taxes are demanded from travellers at every town, by the chiefs.

Madina was the first town of any size he reached.  He was here received
by King Jatta, a venerable old man, who had treated Major Haughton with
great kindness.  He was seated on a mat before his hut, a number of men
and women ranged on either side, who were singing and clapping their
hands.  Park, saluting him respectfully, informed him of the purport of
his visit.  The king replied that he not only gave him leave to pass,
but would offer up his prayers for his safety.  He warned him, however,
of the dangers he would encounter, observing that the people in the east
differed greatly from those of his country, who were acquainted with
white men and respected them.

The king having provided a guide, Park took his departure, reaching
Konjowar the next night.  Here, having purchased a sheep, he found
Johnson and one of his negroes quarrelling about the horns.  It appeals
that these horns are highly valued as being easily converted into
sheaths for keeping secure certain charms, called _saphies_.  These
_saphies_ are sentences from the Koran, which the Mahommedan priests
write on scraps of paper and sell to the natives, who believe that they
possess extraordinary virtues.  They indeed consider the art of writing
as bordering on magic; and it is not in the doctrines of the Prophet,
but in the arts of the magician that their confidence is placed.

On the 8th, entering Koloa, a considerable town, he observed hanging on
a tree a masquerading habit, made of bark, which he was told belonged to
Mumbo Jumbo, a sort of wood demon, held greatly in awe, especially by
the female part of the community.  This strange bugbear is common to all
the Mandingo towns, and much employed by the pagan negroes in keeping
their women in subjection.  As the Kaffirs, or pagan Africans, are not
restricted in the number of their wives, every one marries as many as he
can conveniently maintain; and it frequently happens that the ladies
disagree among themselves, their quarrels sometimes reaching to such a
height that the authority of the husband can no longer preserve peace in
his household,--in such cases the interposition of Mumbo Jumbo is called
in and is always decisive.  This strange minister of justice, who is
supposed to be either the husband or some person instructed by him,
disguised in the dress which has just been mentioned, and armed with the
rod of public authority, announces his coming by loud and dismal screams
in the woods near the town.

He begins the pantomime at the approach of night, and as soon as it is
dark he enters the town and proceeds to the _bentang_, or public
meeting-house, at which all the inhabitants immediately assemble.  The
women do not especially relish this exhibition; for, as the person in
disguise is entirely unknown to them, every married female suspects that
the visit may possibly be intended for her; but they dare not refuse to
appear when summoned.

The ceremony commences with songs and dances, which continue till
midnight, about which time Mumbo fixes on the offender.  The unfortunate
victim being thereupon immediately seized, is stripped naked, tied to a
post, and receives a severe switching with Mumbo's rod, amidst the
derisive shouts of the whole assembly, the rest of the women being the
loudest in their exclamations against their unhappy sister.  Daylight
puts an end to the unmanly revel.

The desert was now to be passed, in which no water was to be procured.
The caravan therefore travelled rapidly till they arrived at Koojar, the
frontier town of Woolli, on the road to Bondou, from which it is
separated by another intervening wilderness of two days' journey.

While crossing the desert, they came to a tree, adorned with scraps of
cloth, probably at first hung up to inform other travellers that water
was to be found near it; but the custom has been so sanctioned by time
that nobody presumes to pass without hanging up something.  Park
followed the example and suspended a handsome piece of cloth on one of
the boughs.  Finding, however, a fire, which the negroes thought had
been made by banditti, they pushed on to another watering-place, where,
surrounded by their cattle, they lay down on the bare ground, out of
gun-shot from the nearest bush, the negroes agreeing to keep watch by
turns, to prevent surprise.

They soon after reached Koorkarany, a Mahommedan town, which contained a
mosque, and was surrounded by a high wall.  The _maraboo_, or priest, a
black, showed Park a number of Arabic manuscripts, passages from which
he read and explained in Mandingo.

Moving on at noon of the 21st of December, the traveller...

This page and the next page are missing.

This page and the previous page are missing.

His fellow-travellers considered it necessary to journey by night till
they could reach a more hospitable part of the country.  They
accordingly started as soon as the people in the village had gone to
sleep.  The stillness of the air, the howling of the wild beasts and the
deep solitude of the forest made the scene solemn and impressive.  Not a
word, except in a whisper, was uttered; and his companions pointed out
to him the wolves and hyaenas, as they glided like shadows from one
thicket to another.

The inhabitants of Bondou are called Foulahs.  They are naturally of a
mild and gentle disposition; but the uncharitable maxims of the Koran
have made them less hospitable to strangers and more reserved in their
behaviour than the Mandingoes.

Leaving Bondou, the caravan entered the kingdom of Kajaaga.  The
inhabitants, whose complexion is jet-black, are called Serrawoollies.
The _dooty_, or chief man of Joag, the frontier town, though a rigid
Mahommedan, treated Park very civilly; but while he was staying there a
party of horseman, sent by the king, arrived to conduct him to Maana,
his residence.  When there, the king demanded enormous duties, and Park
had to pay him the five drachms of gold which he had received from the
King of Bondou, besides which his baggage was opened and everything of
value taken.  His companions now begged him to turn back, and Johnson
declared it would be impossible to proceed without money.  He had
fortunately concealed some of his property; but they were afraid of
purchasing provisions, lest the king should rob him of his few remaining
effects.  They therefore resolved to combat hunger during the day and
wait for another opportunity of obtaining food.

While seated on the ground, with his servant-boy by his side, a poor
woman came up with a basket on her head, and asked Park if he had had
his dinner.  The boy replied that the king's people had robbed him of
all his money.  On hearing this the good old woman, with a look of
unaffected benevolence, took the basket from her head, and presented him
with a few handfuls of ground nuts, walking away before he had time to
thank her.

Leaving Joag in company with thirty persons and six loaded asses, he
rode on cheerfully for some hours till the caravan reached a species of
tree for which Johnson had frequently inquired.  On seeing it he
produced a white chicken which he had purchased at Joag, tied it by a
leg to one of the branches, and then told his companions that they might
safely proceed, as the journey would be prosperous.

This incident shows the power of superstition over the minds of negroes;
for though this man had resided seven years in England, it was evident
that he still retained the superstitions imbibed in his youth.

Koomakary was the birthplace of one of Park's companions from Pisania, a
blacksmith, who had been attentive to him on the road.  On approaching
the place shouts were raised and muskets were fired.  The meeting
between the long-absent blacksmith and his relations was very tender.
The younger ones having embraced him, his aged mother was led forth,
leaning upon a staff.  Every one made way for her as she stretched out
her hands to bid her son welcome.  Being totally blind, she stroked his
arms, hands and face with great care, and seemed highly delighted that
her ears once more could hear the music of his voice.  "It was evident,"
observes Park, "that, whatever may be the difference between the negro
and European, there is none in the genuine sympathies and characteristic
feelings of our common nature."

The king, Dembo Sego, gave the traveller an audience, and appeared
well-disposed towards him.  An escort was also sent to conduct him to
the frontiers of Kaarta.

The capital of that province was reached on the 12th of February, and as
soon as he arrived a messenger came from the king, bidding him welcome,
and a large hut was at once provided for his accommodation.  The people,
however crowded in till it was completely full; when the first visitors
went, another took their place--in this way the hut being filled and
emptied thirteen different times.

Park found the king, whose name was Daisy, surrounded by a number of
attendants, the fighting men on his right-hand and the women and
children on his left.  A bank of earth, on which was spread a
leopard-skin, formed the throne.  Daisy seemed perfectly satisfied with
the account the traveller gave of himself, but warned him of the dangers
in his way on account of the war which was then raging, and advised him
to return to Kason, there to remain till it was over.  Wise as this
advice was, the approaching hot months made it important for him to
proceed, dreading as he did having to spend the rainy season in the
interior of Africa.

Daisy presented him with food, and sent a party of horse men to conduct
him to Jarra, while three of his sons, with about two hundred horsemen,
undertook to accompany him part of the way.

He had evidence of the disturbed state of the country while staying at
the next town he entered.  A body of Moors approached the gates and
carried off the cattle, and one of the horsemen was shot by a Moor.  The
wounded man was brought in, when, as he was borne along, his mother went
before, clapping her hands and enumerating the good qualities of her
son.  The ball had passed through both his legs, and as he and his
friends would not consent to have one of them amputated, he died the
same night.

Going forward, on the 18th they passed through Simbug, the frontier
village of Ludamar.  It was from hence Major Haughton wrote his last
letter, with a pencil, to Dr Laidley.  After leaving the place, when
endeavouring to make his way across the desert, he was murdered by some
savage Mahommedans, who robbed him of everything he possessed.

At this time, while Daisy was employed in fortifying a strong position
among the hills, his territory was overrun by his enemy, Mansong.

On the evening of the 5th of March Park reached the town of Dalli.  Here
the people crowded in so disagreeable a manner to see the white
stranger, that his host proposed, in order to avoid them, going in the
cool of the evening to a negro village called Samee, at a short distance

As he was now within two days' journey of the heathen kingdom of Goumba,
he had no apprehensions from the Moors, and readily accepted the
invitation.  His landlord was proud of the honour of entertaining a
white man, and Park spent the forenoon very pleasantly with these poor
negroes, their gentleness of manner presenting a striking contrast to
the rudeness and barbarity of the Moors.

While thus enjoying himself, greatly to his dismay a party of Moorish
soldiers suddenly appeared in the place.  They were sent, they said, by
their chief, Ali, to convey the white stranger to his camp at Benowm.
If he would come willingly it would be better for him, but come he must,
as they had orders to convey him by force; because Fatima, Ali's wife,
having heard much about Christians, was anxious to see one.  Park,
unable to resist, was compelled to accompany them.  The journey occupied
many days, during which both Park and his attendants suffered much from

On the evening of the 12th they came in sight of Benowm, which presented
to the eye a number of dirty-looking tents scattered without order over
a large space of ground.  Among the tents appeared large herds of
camels, cattle and goats.  As soon as he was seen the people who were
drawing water threw down their buckets and, rushing towards him, began
to treat him with the greatest discourtesy; one pulled at his clothes,
another took off his hat, while a third stopped him to examine his
waistcoat buttons.

At length the king's tent was reached, where a number of men and women
were assembled.  Ali was seated on a black leather cushion, clipping a
few hairs from his upper lip, a female attendant holding up a
looking-glass before him.

He enquired whether the stranger could speak Arabic, and being answered
in the negative he remained silent.  The ladies, however, asked a
thousand questions, inspected his apparel, searched his pockets, and
obliged him to unbutton his waistcoat to display the whiteness of his

In the evening the priests announced prayer.  Before they departed his
Moorish guide told him that Ali was about to present him with something
to eat.  On looking round he saw some boys bringing a wild hog, which
they tied to one of the tent ropes, when Ali made signs to him to kill
and dress it for supper.  Though very hungry, he did not think it
prudent to eat any part of an animal so much detested by the Moors, and
therefore replied that he never touched such food.  The hog was then
untied, in the hopes that it would run at the stranger, the Moors
believing that a great enmity subsists between hogs and Christians.  In
this, however, they were disappointed, for the animal no sooner regained
his liberty than he began to attack indiscriminately every person who
came in his way, and at last took shelter under the couch upon which the
king was sitting.

Park was after this conducted to a hut, where he found another wild
hog--tied there to a stick for the purpose of annoying him.  It
attracted a number of boys, who amused themselves by beating it with
sticks, till they so irritated the animal that it ran and bit at every
person within reach.

A number of people came in and made him take off his stockings to
exhibit his feet, and then his jacket and waistcoat to show them how his
clothes were put off and on.

Day after day he was treated in the same manner.  He was also compelled
to undertake various offices.  First, he was told to shave the head of
one of the young princes, but, unaccustomed to use a razor, he soon cut
the boy's skin, on seeing which the king ordered him to desist.

On the 18th his black servant, Johnson, was brought in as as a prisoner
before Ali by some Moors, who had also seized a bundle of his clothes
left at Jarra.  Of these Ali took possession, and Park was unable to
obtain even a clean shirt or anything he required.  The Moors next
stripped him of his gold, his watch, the amber he had remaining and one
of his pocket compasses.  Fortunately he had hidden the other in the
sand near his hut.  This, with the clothes on his back, was the only
thing Ali now left him.

Ali, on examining the compass, wished to know why the small needle
always pointed to the Great Desert.  Park, unwilling to inform him of
the exact truth, replied that his mother lived far beyond the sands of
the Sahara, and that while she was alive the piece of iron would always
point that way and serve as a guide to conduct him to her.  Ali,
suspecting that there was something magical in it, was afraid of keeping
so dangerous an instrument in his possession.

The Moors now held a council to determine what should be done with the
stranger.  Some proposed that he should be put to death, others that he
should only lose his right-hand, and one of Ali's sons came to him in
the evening and with much concern informed him that his uncle had
persuaded his father to put out his eyes.  Ali, however, replied that he
would not do so until Fatima, the queen, who was at present in the
north, had seen him.

In vain Park begged that he might be permitted to return to Jarra.  Ali
replied that he must wait till Fatima had seen him, and that then he
should be at liberty to go, and that his horse should be restored to

So wearied out was he at last with all the insults he received that he
felt ready to commit any act of desperation.

One day Ali sent to say that he must be in readiness to ride out with
him, as he intended to show him to some of his women.  They together
visited the tents of four different ladies, at every one of which he was
presented with a bowl of milk and water.  They were all remarkably
corpulent, which in that country is the highest mark of beauty.  They
were also very inquisitive, examining minutely his hair and skin, though
affecting to consider him as a sort of inferior being to themselves, and
pretending to shudder when they looked at the whiteness of his skin.
Notwithstanding the attention shown him by these fat dames, his
condition was not improved, and he was often left without even food or
water, while suffering fearfully from the heat.

Ali at length moved his camp, and Park was sent forward under the escort
of one of the king's sons.  The new encampment was larger than that of
Benowm, and situated in the midst of a thick wood, about two miles
distant from a neighbouring town, called Bubaka.  Here Park was
introduced to queen Fatima by Ali.  She seemed much pleased at his
coming, shaking hands with him, even though Ali had told her that he was
a Christian.  She was a remarkably corpulent woman, with an Arab cast of
countenance and long hair.

After asking a number of questions, with the answers to which she
appeared interested, she became perfectly at her ease and presented her
visitor with a bowl of milk.  She was, indeed, the only person who
treated Park kindly during his stay.

Both men and cattle suffered much from thirst, and though Ali had given
him a skin for containing water, and Fatima once or twice presented him
with a small supply, yet such was the barbarous disposition of the
Moors, that when his boy attempted to fill his skin at the wells, he
generally received a sound drubbing for his presumption.  One night,
having in vain attempted to obtain water, he resolved to try his fortune
himself at the wells, which were about half a mile distant.  About
midnight he set out, and, guided by the lowing of the cattle, he reached
the place.  Here a number of Moors were drawing water, but he was driven
by them from each well in succession.  At last he reached one where
there was only an old man and two boys.  He earnestly besought the first
to give him some water.  The old man complied, and drew up a bucket; but
no sooner did Park take hold of it than, recollecting that the stranger
was a Christian, and fearing that his bucket might be polluted, he
dashed the water into the trough, and told him to drink from thence.
Though the trough was none of the largest, and three cows were already
drinking in it, Park knelt down, and, thrusting his head between two of
the cows, drank with intense pleasure till the water was nearly

The rainy season was now approaching, when the Moors evacuate the
country of the negroes and return to the skirts of the Great Desert.

Ali looked upon Park as a lawful prisoner, and though Fatima allowed him
food and otherwise treated him kindly, she had as yet said nothing about
his release.

Fortunately for him, Ali had resolved to send an expedition to Jarra, of
two hundred Moorish horsemen, to attack Daisy.  Park obtained permission
to accompany them, and, through the influence of Fatima, he also
received back his bundle of clothes and his horse.

On the 26th of May, accompanied by Johnson and his boy Demba, he set out
with a number of Moors on horseback, Ali having gone on before.  On his
way Ali's chief slave came up and told Demba that Ali was to be his
master in future; then, turning to Park, said, "The boy goes back to
Bubaka, but you may take the old fool," meaning Johnson, "with you to
Jarra."  Park in vain pleaded for Demba, but the slave only answered
that if he did not mount his horse he would send him back likewise.
Poor Demba was not less affected than his master.  Having shaken hands
with the unfortunate boy, and assured him that he would do everything in
his power to redeem him, Park saw him led off by three of Ali's slaves.

At Jarra he took up his lodgings in the house of an old acquaintance,
Dayman, whom he requested to use his influence with Ali to redeem the
boy, and promised him a bill on Dr Laidley for the value of two slaves
the moment he brought him to Jarra.

Ali, however, considering the boy to be Park's principal interpreter,
would not liberate him, fearing that he would be instrumental in
conducting him to Bambarra.

Still Park was eager, if possible, to continue his journey, but Johnson
refused to proceed further.  At the same time he foresaw that he must
soon fall a victim to the Moors if he remained where he was, and that if
he went forward singly he must encounter great difficulties, both from
the want of an interpreter and the means of purchasing food.  On the
other hand he was very unwilling to return to England without
accomplishing his mission.  He therefore determined to escape on the
first opportunity at all risks.  This arrived sooner than he expected.

On the 26th of June news was brought that Daisy had taken Simbug, and
would be at Jarra the next day.  Hearing this, the people began packing
up their property and beating corn for their journey, and early in the
morning nearly half had set off--the women and children crying, the men
looking sullen and dejected.

Though Park was sure of being well treated could he make himself known
to Daisy, yet as he might be mistaken for a Moor in the confusion, he
thought it wisest to mount his horse with a large bag of corn before
him, and to ride away with the rest of the townspeople.

He again fell in with his friend Dayman and Johnson.  They pushed on two
days' journey to the town of Queira.

While Park was out tending his horse in the fields on the 1st of July,
Ali's chief slave and four Moors arrived at Queira, and Johnson, who
suspected the object of their visit, sent two boys to overhear their
conversation.  From them he learned that the Moors had come to convey
Park back to Bubaka.  This was a terrible stroke to him, and, now
convinced that Ali intended to detain him for ever in captivity, or
perhaps to take his life, he determined at all risks to attempt making
his escape.  He communicated his design to Johnson, who, though he
approved of it, showed no inclination to accompany him.  Park therefore
resolved to proceed by himself, and to trust to his own resources.




The time had arrived when, as Park felt, he must either again submit to
the tyrannical treatment of Ali, or perish possibly in attempting to
escape.  At night he got ready a bundle of clothes, consisting of two
shirts and two pair of trousers, with a cloak and a _few_ other
articles; but he had not a single bead to purchase food for himself or
his horse.  About daybreak Johnson came and told him that the Moors were
asleep.  The awful crisis had now arrived; a cold perspiration stood on
his brow as he thought of the dreadful alternative and reflected that
one way or the other his fate must be decided in the course of the day.
To deliberate was to lose the only chance of escape; so, taking up his
bundle, he stepped gently over the negroes sleeping in the air, mounted
his horse, bade Johnson farewell, desiring him to take particular care
of the papers with which he had intrusted him, and to say that he had
left him in good health, on his way to Bambarra.

He rode on, expecting every moment to be overtaken by the Moorish
horsemen.  Some shepherds he encountered followed, hooting and throwing
stones at him.  Scarcely was he out of their reach, and was again
indulging in the hopes of escaping, when he heard somebody call behind
him, and on looking back, he saw three Moors on horseback galloping at
full speed and brandishing their weapons.  To escape was vain.  He
stopped, and one of them, presenting his musket, told him that he must
go back to Ali.  The effect of this announcement was to benumb his
faculties.  He rode back with apparent unconcern, but he had not gone
far when the Moors, stopping, ordered him to untie his bundle.  Having
examined the articles, they found nothing worth taking except his cloak,
and one of them, pulling it off, wrapped it about himself.  It had
served to protect him from the rain in the day and the dews at night,
and was of the greatest value to him.  He earnestly begged the robbers
to return it, but his petition was unheeded.  As he attempted to follow
them to regain his cloak, one of the robbers struck his horse over the
head, and presenting his musket, ordered him to proceed no further.
Finding that the sole object of the Moors had been to plunder him, he
turned his horse's head towards the east, thankful to have escaped with
his life.

As soon as he was out of sight of the robbers, he struck into the woods
and pushed on with all possible speed.  He had at length obtained his
liberty--his limbs felt light, even the desert looked pleasant.  He soon
recollected, however, that he had no means of procuring food, nor a
prospect of finding water.

He directed his course by compass in the hopes of at length reaching
some town or village in the kingdom of Bambarra.

His thirst, in consequence of the burning heat of the sun, reflected
with double violence on the sand, became intense.  He climbed a tree in
the hopes of seeing some human habitation.  Nothing appeared around but
thick underwood and hillocks of white sand.

At sunset he again climbed a tree, but the same sight met his eyes.
Descending, after taking the saddle off his horse's back, he was
suddenly seized with giddiness, and fell to the ground believing that
the hour of death was fast approaching.  He recovered, however, just as
the sun was sinking behind the trees, and now, summoning up all his
resolution, he determined to make another effort to prolong his

He had gone on some distance further when he perceived some lightening
in the north-east, a delightful sight, for it promised rain, and soon he
heard the wind roaring among the bushes.  He was expecting the
refreshing drops, when in an instant he was covered with a cloud of
sand.  It continued to fly for nearly an hour; then more lightening
followed and then down came a few heavy drops of rain, enabling him to
quench his thirst by wringing and sucking his clothes.

He travelled on during the night, which was intensely dark, till he
perceived a light ahead.  Cautiously approaching it he heard the lowing
of cattle and the clamorous tongues of the herdsmen, which made him
suspect that it was a watering-place belonging to the Moors.  Rather
than run the risk of falling into their hands he retreated, but being
dreadfully thirsty, and fearing the approach of the burning day, he
thought it prudent to search for the wells which he expected to find at
no great distance.

While thus engaged he was perceived by a woman, who screaming out, two
people ran to her assistance from the neighbouring tents and passed
close to him.

Happily he escaped from them and, plunging again into the woods, after
proceeding a mile he heard a loud and confused noise.  Great was his
delight to find that it arose from the croaking of frogs, which was
music to his ears.

At daybreak he reached some shallow pools full of large frogs, which so
frightened his horse that he was obliged to keep them quiet by beating
the water till he had drank.  Having quenched his own thirst, he
ascended a tree to ascertain the best course to take, when he observed a
pillar of smoke about twelve miles off.  Directing his course to it he
reached a Foulah village belonging to Ali.  Hunger compelled him to
enter it, but he was denied admittance to the _dooty's_ house, and could
not obtain even a handful of corn.  Reaching, however, a humble hut at
which an old motherly-looking woman sat spinning cotton, he made signs
that he was hungry.  She immediately laid down her distaff, and desired
him in Arabic to come in, setting before him a dish of _kous-kous_.  In
return he gave her one of his pocket-handkerchiefs, and asked for a
little corn for his horse, which she readily brought him.

While his horse was feeding the people collected round him, and from
their conversation he discovered that they proposed seizing him and
conveying him back to Ali.  He therefore tied up his corn and, lest it
might be supposed that he was running from the Moors, driving his horse
before him he took a northerly direction, followed by the boys and girls
of the town.  Having got rid of his troublesome attendants he struck
into the woods, where he was compelled to pass the night with his saddle
for a pillow.  He was awakened by three Foulahs, who, taking him for a
Moor, told him that it was time to pray.  Without answering them he
saddled his horse and made his escape.

The next day he took shelter in the tent of a Foulah shepherd, who
charitably gave him boiled corn and dates, although he was recognised as
a Christian.  He here purchased some corn in exchange for some brass
buttons, and again took the road to Bambarra, which he resolved to
follow for the night.  Hearing some people approaching, he thought it
prudent to hide himself, which he did in the thick brushwood.  He there
sat holding his horse by the nose to prevent him neighing, equally
afraid of the natives without and the wild beasts within the forest.
The former took their departure, and he went on till past midnight, when
the croaking of frogs induced him to turn off from the road, that he and
his steed might quench their thirst.  Having discovered an open place
with a single tree in the midst of it, he lay down for the night.  He
was disturbed towards morning by the sound of wolves, which made him
once more mount.

On the morning of the 5th of July he reached a negro town in the
confines of Bambarra.  It was a small place surrounded by high walls,
inhabited by a mixture of Mandingoes and Foulahs, chiefly employed in
the cultivation of corn.  The people were suspicious of his character,
some supposing him to be an Arab, others a Moorish sultan, but the
_dooty_, or chief magistrate, who had been at Gambia, took his part, and
assured them that he was a white man.  On its being reported that he was
going to Sego, the capital, several women came and begged that he would
enquire of Mansong what had become of their children, who had been
carried off to fight.

He was allowed to take his departure without molestation, and on the 6th
reached the town of Dingyee.

When he was about to depart the next morning, the landlord begged him to
give him a lock of his hair, understanding that white men's hair made a
_saphie_, or charm, which would bestow on the possessor all their
knowledge.  This he willingly promised to do, but the landlord's thirst
for learning was such that he cropped nearly the whole of one side of
his head, and would have done the same with the other had not Park told
him that he wished to reserve some of this precious merchandise for a
future occasion.

Having reached the town of Wassiboo, shortly afterwards eight fugitive
Kaartan negroes, who had escaped from the tyrannical government of the
Moors, arrived, on their road to offer their allegiance to the king of
Bambarra.  Park gladly accepted their invitation to accompany them on
their road.

His horse at the end of three days, becoming completely knocked up, he
dismounted and desired his companions to ride on, telling them he would
follow; but they declined leaving him, declaring that lions were
numerous, and that, though they would not attack a body of people, they
would soon find out a single individual and destroy him.  One of the
party, therefore, insisted on remaining with him, and he and his friend,
after he had rested, overtook their companions, passing through several
of the numerous towns in this part of the country.  His horse, now
becoming weaker and weaker, he was obliged to drive the animal on before
him the greater part of the day, so that he did not reach Geosorro till
late in the evening.  The _dooty_ of the place refused to give him or
his companions food, so he lay down supperless to sleep.  Their host,
however, relented, and about midnight he was awakened with the joyful
information that victuals were prepared.

Next day his fellow-travellers, having better horses, went on ahead, and
he was walking barefoot, driving his own poor animal before him, when he
met a coffle, or caravan, of about seventy slaves coming from Sego.
They were tied together by their necks with thongs of bullock's hide
twisted like a rope, seven slaves upon a thong, and a man with a musket
between every seven.  They were bound for Morocco.

On arriving at the next place he found that his companions had gone on
without him, but he fell in, the following day, with two negroes going
to Sego, who afforded him their company.

In the village through which he passed he was constantly taken for a
Moor.  The people jeered at him, laughing at his tattered and forlorn
appearance.  He, however, again overtook the Kaartans, who promised to
introduce him to the king.

As they were riding along over some marshy ground, and he was anxiously
looking around for the river which he now supposed to be near, one of
his companions called out, "_Geo affilli_!"  ("See water!") and, looking
forward, he saw with infinite pleasure the great object of his mission--
the long-sought-for majestic Niger, glittering in the morning sun, as
broad as the Thames at Westminster, and flowing slowly to the east.  He
hastened to the brink, and having drunk of the water, offered up his
fervent thanks in prayer to the Great Ruler of all things for having
thus far crowned his endeavours with success.

Sego, the capital of Bambarra--at which he had now arrived--consists,
properly speaking, of four distinct towns: two on the north and two on
the south bank of the Niger.  They are surrounded by high mud walls.
The houses are built of clay, of a square form with flat roofs--some of
them of two stories, and many of them are whitewashed.  Moorish mosques
are seen in every quarter; and the streets, though narrow, are broad
enough for every useful purpose in a country where wheel-carriages are
unknown.  It contains about thirty thousand inhabitants.

While waiting to cross the river, a messenger arrived, informing him
that the king could not possibly see him until he knew what had brought
him into the country, and that he must not venture to cross the river
without his majesty's permission.  He was directed to pass the night in
a distant village; but when he reached it, no one would admit him.  He
was regarded with astonishment and fear, and was obliged to sit all day
without food in the shade of a tree.  He fully expected to have to pass
the night in the same place; but about sunset, after he had turned his
horse loose, a woman, perceiving that he was weary and dejected,
enquired into his situation.  Casting looks of pity upon him, she took
up his saddle and bridle, and told him to follow her.  Having conducted
him into her hut, she lighted her lamp, spread a mat on the floor and
signified that he might remain there for the night.  Finding that he was
very hungry, she brought him a fine fish for supper.  Having thus
attended to the stranger, telling him that he might sleep in safety she
called her women around her and desired them to resume their task of
spinning cotton, in which they continued to employ themselves the
greater part of the night, lightening their labours by songs, some of
which had reference to their white visitor.

Several days passed, when a messenger arrived from Mansong with a bag in
his hands.  He told Park that it was his Majesty's pleasure he should
forthwith depart from the neighbourhood of Sego, but that the king,
wishing to relieve a white man in distress, had sent him five thousand
cowries.  From the conversation Park had with the guide, he ascertained
that Mansong would willingly have seen him, but that he was apprehensive
of being unable to protect him against the blind and inveterate malice
of the Moorish inhabitants.  His conduct, therefore, was at once prudent
and liberal.

He was the same evening conducted to a village about seven miles to the
eastward, where he was well received.  His guide told him that if Jenne
was really the place of his destination, the journey was one of greater
danger than he might suppose; for, although that town was nominally a
part of the King of Bambarra's dominions, it was in fact a city of the
Moors--the chief part of the inhabitants being Bushreens, a fanatical
Mahommedan sect.  He heard, too, that Timbuctoo, the great object of his
search, was entirely in possession of that savage and merciless people,
who allow no Christian to live there.  He had, however, advanced too far
to think of returning with uncertain information, and he determined to

Being provided with a guide, he left the village on the morning of the
24th, travelling through a highly cultivated country, the scenery
bearing a greater resemblance to that of England than he had expected to
find in the middle of Africa.

The people were everywhere employed in collecting the fruit of the shea
trees, from which they prepared vegetable butter.  In the evening he
reached the large town of Sansanding, the resort of numerous Moorish
caravans from the shores of the Mediterranean.  In the harbour he
observed twenty large canoes, and others arrived while he was there.  He
was received into the house of the _dooty_, Counti Mamadi.  Scarcely had
he arrived when hundreds of people surrounded him, all speaking
different dialects, several of them declaring that they had seen him in
various parts of the continent.  It was evident that they mistook him
for somebody else.  One of them, a _shereef_, from Suat, declared that
if he refused to go to the mosque he would carry him there.  He had
little doubt that the Moor would have put his threat into execution had
not his host interposed in his behalf.  The latter said that, if he
would let his guest alone for the night, in the morning he should be
sent about his business.  This somewhat appeased them, but even after he
had retired to his hut the people climbed over the pailings to look at

At midnight, when the Moors had retired, Mamadi paid him a visit and
earnestly desired him to write a _saphie_, or charm, observing, "If a
Moor's _saphie_ is good, a white man's must needs be better."  Park
readily furnished him with one, which was in reality the Lord's Prayer,
a reed serving for a pen, charcoal and gum-water for ink and a thin
board for paper.

Allowed to proceed, as he and his guide were crossing an open plain with
a few scattered bushes, the guide wheeled his horse round, called loudly
to him and, warning him that a lion was at hand, made signs that he
should ride away.  His horse was too much fatigued to do this, so they
rode slowly past the bush, and he, not seeing anything himself, thought
the guide had been mistaken.  Suddenly the Foulah put his hand to his
mouth exclaiming, "God preserve us!"  To his great surprise he then
perceived a large red lion a short distance from the bush, his head
couched between his fore paws.  Park expected that the creature would
instantly spring upon him, and instinctively pulled his foot from the
stirrups to throw himself on the ground, that his horse might become the
victim rather than himself; but probably the lion was not hungry, for he
quietly allowed the traveller to pass though fairly within his reach.

The next day his horse completely broke down, and the united strength of
himself and his guide could not place the animal again upon his legs.
He sat down for some time beside the worn-out associate of his
adventures; but, finding him still unable to rise, he took off the
saddle and bridle and placed a quantity of grass before him.  While he
surveyed his poor steed as he lay panting on the ground, he could not
suppress the sad apprehension that he should himself in a short time lie
down and perish in the same manner from fatigue and hunger.  With this
foreboding he left his horse, and with great reluctance followed his
guide on foot along the banks of the river until he reached the small
village of Kea.

Here he parted from his Foulah guide, whom he requested to look after
his horse on his return, which he promised to do.

From Kea he went down the river in a canoe, and thence to Moorzan, a
fishing town on the northern bank, and was then conveyed across the
stream to Silla, a large town.  Here, after much entreaty, the _dooty_
allowed him to enter his house to avoid the rain, but the place was damp
and he had a smart attack of fever.  Worn down by sickness, exhausted
with hunger, and fatigued, half-naked, without any article of value by
which he could procure provisions, clothes, or lodgings, he began to
reflect seriously on his situation, and was convinced by painful
experience that the obstacles to his further progress were
insurmountable.  The _dooty_ approved of the resolution he had arrived
at of returning, and procured a fisherman to carry him across to
Moorzan, whence he got back to Kea.  The brother of the _dooty_ was
starting for Modiboo.  He took his saddle, which he had left at Kea,
intending to present it to the king of Bambarra.

Travelling along the banks of the river, the footprints of a lion quite
fresh in the mud were seen.  His companion, therefore, proceeded with
great circumspection, insisting that Park should walk before him.  This
he declined doing, when his guide threw down the saddle and left him
alone.  He therefore continued his course along the bank, and believing
that the lion was at no great distance, he became much alarmed, and took
a long circuit through the bushes.

He at last arrived at Modiboo.  While conversing with the _dooty_ of the
place he heard a horse neigh in one of the huts.  The _dooty_ inquired
with a smile if he knew who was speaking to him.  He explained himself
by telling Park that his horse was still alive and somewhat recovered
from his fatigue, and that he must take the animal with him.

Though tolerably well treated at the villages where he stopped, he in
vain endeavoured to obtain a guide.  The rains were now falling, and the
country, it was supposed, would soon be completely flooded.  He heard
that a report had been abroad that he had come to Bambarra as a spy and
that, as Mansong had not admitted him into his presence, the _dooties_
of the different towns might treat him as they pleased.

A little before sunset of the 11th of August he reached Sansanding.
Here even Mamadi, who had formerly been so kind to him, scarcely gave
him a welcome, and everyone seemed to shun him.  Mamadi, however, came
privately to him in the evening, and told him that Mansong had
despatched a canoe to bring him back, and advised him to set off from
Sansanding before daybreak, cautioning him not to stop at any town near
Sego.  He therefore resumed his journey on the 12th, and in the
afternoon reached the neighbourhood of Kabba.

As he approached, one of several people who were standing at the gate
ran towards him and, taking his horse by the bridle, led him round the
walls of the town and, pointing to the west, told him to go along or it
would be the worse for him.  He in vain represented the danger of being
benighted in the woods, exposed to the inclemency of the weather and the
fury of wild beasts.  "Go along," was the only answer he received.  He
found that these negroes had acted thus from kindness, as the king's
messengers who had come to seize him were inside the town.

Being repulsed from another village, he went on till he reached a small
one somewhat out of the road, and sat down under a tree by a well.  Two
or three women came to draw water and, perceiving the stranger, enquired
where he was going.  On Park telling them to Sego, one of them went in
to acquaint the _dooty_.  In a little time the _dooty_ sent for him, and
permitted him to sleep in a large hut.

Next day he again set forward, meeting with the same inhospitable
treatment as before, and having for three days to subsist on uncooked
corn.  He was repulsed in like manner from the gates of Taffara; and at
the village of Sooha, which he reached next day, he in vain endeavoured
to procure some corn from the _dooty_, who was sitting by the gate.
While Park was speaking to the old man, he called to a slave to bring
his paddle along with him, and when he brought it, told him to dig a
hole in the ground, pointing to a spot at no great distance.  While
the slave was thus engaged, the _dooty_ kept muttering the
words--"Good-for-nothing!  A real plague!"  These expressions, coupled
with the appearance of the pit the lad had dug, which looked much like a
grave, made Park think it prudent to decamp.  He had just mounted his
horse, when the slave who had gone into the village returned, dragging
the corpse of a boy by a leg and arm, which he threw into the pit with
savage indifference, and at once began to cover it up with earth.

At sunset Park reached Koohkorro, a considerable town, and the great
market for salt.  Here he was received into the house of a Bambarran
who, once a slave to a Moor, had obtained his freedom and was now a
merchant.  Finding that his guest was a Christian, he immediately
desired him to write a _saphie_, saying that he would dress him a supper
of rice if he would produce one to protect him from wicked men.  Park
therefore covered the board on both sides, when his landlord, wishing to
have the full force of the charm, washed the writing from the board into
a calabash with a little water and, having said a few prayers over it,
drank the whole draught; after which, lest a single word should escape,
he licked the board until it was quite dry.  The _dooty_ of the place
next sent to have a _saphie_ written--a charm to procure wealth.  So
highly satisfied was he with his bargain that he presented the traveller
with some meal and milk, and promised him in the morning some more milk
for his breakfast.

When Park had finished his supper of rice and salt, he lay down upon a
bullock's hide and slept quietly until morning, this being the first
good meal and refreshing sleep he had enjoyed for a long time.

After leaving this place, having been misdirected as to his road, he
reached a deep creek.  Rather than turn back, he went behind his horse
and pushed him headlong into the water; then, taking the bridle in his
teeth, he swam to the other side.  This was the third creek he had
crossed in this manner since he had left Sego.  His clothes were,
indeed, constantly wet from the rain and dew; and the roads being very
deep and full of mud, such a washing was sometimes pleasant.

At Bammakoo, which he reached on the evening of the next day, he was
received into the house of a negro merchant, of whom there are many
wealthy ones in the place, trading chiefly in salt.  He was feasted also
by a number of Moors, who spoke good Mandingo, and were more civil to
him than their countrymen had before been.  One of them had travelled to
Rio Grande, and spoke highly of the Christians.  From this man he
received a present of boiled rice and milk.  He also met a slave
merchant who had resided some years on the Gambia, who informed him
about the places which lay in his intended course to the westward.  He
was told that the road was impassable at this season of the year, and
that there was a rapid river to cross.  Having, however, no money to
maintain himself, Park determined at all risks to push on, and, having
obtained a singing man who said he knew the road over the hills, set off
the next day.  His musical conductor, however, lost the right path and,
when among the hills, leaping to the top of a rock as if to look out for
the road, suddenly disappeared.  Park managed, however, just before
sunset, to reach the romantic village of Koomah, the sole property of a
Mandingo merchant and surrounded by a high wall.  Though seldom visited
by strangers, whenever the weary traveller did come to his residence the
merchant made him welcome.

Park was soon surrounded by the harmless villagers, who had numberless
questions to ask and in return for the information he gave them brought
corn and milk for himself and grass for his horse, and kindled a fire in
the hut where he was to sleep.

Accompanied by two shepherds as guides, he set out the next day from
Koomah.  The shepherds, however, walked on ahead, troubling themselves
but little about him.

The country was very rough, and the declivity so great that a false step
would have caused him and his horse to be dashed to pieces.

As he was riding on, the shepherds being about a quarter of a mile
before him, he heard a loud screaming as from a person in great
distress.  Supposing that a lion had taken off one of the shepherds, he
hurried on to ascertain what had happened.  The noise had ceased, and in
a short time he perceived one of the shepherds lying among the long
grass near the road, and concluded that the man was dead; but when he
came close to him the shepherd whispered to him to stop, telling him
that a party of armed men had seized upon his companion and shot two
arrows at him.  While considering what to do, he saw at a little
distance a man sitting upon the stem of a tree, and also the heads of
six or seven more who were crouching down among the grass, with muskets
in their hands.  It being impossible to escape, he rode forward towards
them, hoping that they were elephant hunters.  By way of opening the
conversation he inquired if they had shot anything; but in answer one of
them ordered him to dismount, and then, as if recollecting himself,
waved with his hand as a sign that Park might proceed.  He had ridden
some way when they shouted to him again to stop, and told him that the
King of the Foulahs had sent them to carry him to Fooladoo.  Without
hesitating, Park turned and followed them.

They had reached a dark part of the wood when one of them observed in
the Mandingo language, "This place will do," and immediately snatched
his hat from his head.  Feeling that resistance was useless, he allowed
them to proceed till they had stripped him quite naked.  While they were
examining their plunder, Park begged them to return his pocket compass;
but, on his pointing to it as it lay on the ground, one of the banditti
cocked his musket, swearing that he would shoot him if he presumed to
take it.  After this some of them went away with his horse, and the
remainder stood considering whether they should leave him quite naked or
allow him something to shelter him from the sun.  Humanity at last
prevailed, and they returned the worst of his two shirts and a pair of
trousers; one of them also threw back his hat, in the crown of which he
kept his memorandums--probably the reason why they did not wish to keep

Here he was in the midst of a vast wilderness in the depth of the rainy
season, naked and alone, and surrounded by savage animals and men still
more savage, five hundred miles from the nearest European settlement.
His spirits began to fail, but he reflected that no human prudence could
possibly have averted his present sufferings, and that, though a
stranger in a strange land, he was still under the protecting eye of
that Providence who has condescended to call Himself the stranger's
friend.  At this moment the extreme beauty of a small moss in
fructification caught his eye.  Though the whole plant was not much
larger than the top of one of his fingers, he could not contemplate the
delicate conformation of its roots, leaves, and capsules without
admiration.  "Can that Being," he thought, "who brought this plant to
perfection look with unconcern upon the situation and sufferings of
creatures formed after his own image?  Surely not."  He started up and,
disregarding both hunger and fatigue, travelled forward, assured that
relief was at hand.

In a short time he overtook the two shepherds who had come with him from
Koomah.  They were greatly surprised to see him, observing that they
never doubted that the Foulahs had murdered him.  In their company he
arrived at Sibidooloo, the frontier town of the kingdom of Manding.  The
chief man in the place, called Mansa, received him most kindly, and when
Park related how he had been robbed of his horse and apparel, he
observed, with an indignant air, "Sit down.  You shall have everything
restored to you--I have sworn it."  He at once gave directions to his
people to search for the robbers.  Park was conducted into a hut, where
he was provided with food, and a crowd of people assembled, all of whom
commiserated his misfortunes and vented imprecations against the

As there was a great scarcity of provisions in the place, Park, after
spending two days there, begged Mansa to allow him to depart.  He gave
him permission to do so, provided he would remain at a town called Wanda
for a few days, until he received some account of his horse and goods.

He took his departure accordingly on the morning of the 28th, and
reached Wanda about noon of the 30th.

The head man of the place, who was a Mahommedan, acted not only as chief
magistrate, but as schoolmaster.  He kept his school in an open shed,
where the traveller was desired to take up his lodgings.  Park was very
anxious for his clothes, as those he had on were completely worn-out,
his shirt being like a piece of muslin and dirty in the extreme.

He here spent nine days suffering much from fever.  On the 6th two
people arrived from Sibidooloo, bringing his horse and clothes, but his
pocket compass, greatly to his vexation, was broken to pieces.

Every day he observed several women come to the house to receive a
certain quantity of corn.  Knowing how valuable this article was at the
present juncture, he enquired of his host whether he maintained these
poor women from pure bounty or expected a return when the harvest should
be gathered in.

"Observe that boy," said he, pointing to a fine child about five years
of age.  "His mother has sold him to me for forty days' provisions for
herself and the rest of her family.  I have bought another boy in the
same manner."

Sick as he was, Park thought it necessary to take his leave of his
hospitable landlord, to whom he presented his horse as the only
recompense he could make, desiring him to convey his saddle and bridle
as a present to Mansa of Sibidooloo.  As he was about to set out, his
host begged him to accept his spear as a token of remembrance and a
leather bag to contain his clothes.  Having converted his half-boots
into sandals, he travelled with more ease.

Although the people were suffering great distress from the failure of
the crops, he was in general most hospitably treated.  His landlord at
Kinyeto, observing that he had hurt his ankle, insisted on his remaining
several days till he could walk with the help of a staff.

Notwithstanding suffering from fever and exposed to constant rain, he
continued his journey, narrowly escaping being detained at the town of
Mansia by the inhospitable chief, who insisted on being paid for the
small amount of food he had provided.

On September 16th he reached the town of Kamalia.  He was here conducted
to the house of a Bushreen, Kafa Taura.  He was collecting a caravan of
slaves to convey to the European settlements on the Gambia, as soon as
the rains should be over.  He found Kafa seated in his house surrounded
by several _slatees_ who proposed joining the caravan.  He was reading
to them from an Arabic book, and enquired if his guest understood it.
On being answered in the negative, he desired one of the _slatees_ to
fetch a curious little book which had been brought from the west
country.  It proved to be a book of Common Prayer, and Kafa expressed
great joy on hearing that Park could read it, for some of the _slatees_,
observing the colour of his skin, now become yellow from sickness,
suspected that he was an Arab in disguise.  Kafa, however, had now no
doubt concerning him, and kindly promised him every assistance in his

Park was here laid up completely by fever, but Kafa, who had provided a
quiet hut for his accomodation, advised him to remain within it,
assuring him that if he did not walk out in the wet he would soon be

He passed five weeks in a gloomy and solitary manner, seldom visited by
any person except his benevolent landlord, who came daily to enquire
about his health.

When the rains became less frequent the country began to grow dry and
the fever left him, but in so debilitated condition that it was with
difficulty he could crawl with his mat to the shade of a tamarind tree
at a short distance, there to enjoy the refreshing smell of the
corn-fields.  The benevolent and simple manners of the negroes, and the
perusal of Kafa's little volume greatly contributed to his restoration.

In the beginning of December, Kafa began to make arrangements for his
journey, and to complete the purchase of his slaves.

As he had to be absent about his affairs for a month, Park was left
during the time to the care of a good old Bushreen, who acted as
schoolmaster to the younger people of Kamalia.

The long-wished-for day of the departure of the caravan, the 19th of
April, at length arrived, and the irons being removed from the slaves,
the _slatees_ assembled at the door of Kafa's house, where the bundles
were all tied up, and everyone had his load assigned him.

Kafa had twenty-seven slaves for sale, but eight others afterwards
joined them, making in all thirty-five.  The schoolmaster who was on his
return to Woradoo, the place of his nativity, took with him eight of his
scholars.  Altogether, the come numbered seventy-three persons.

The caravan was followed for about half a mile by most of the
inhabitants of Kamalia; and when they had arrived at the top of a hill,
from whence they had a view of the town, they were all ordered to sit
down--those belonging to the coffle with their faces towards the west,
and the townspeople with theirs towards Kamalia.  The schoolmaster, with
two of the principal _slatees_, having taken their places between the
two parties, pronounced a solemn prayer, after which they walked three
times round the coffle, making impressions in the ground with the ends
of their spears, and muttering something by way of a charm.  When this
ceremony was ended, all the people belonging to the coffle sprang up
and, without taking a formal farewell of their friends, set forward.

Another ceremony was performed when the party stopped to dine on the
road.  Before commencing the meal, when each person was seated with
their quotas arranged before him in small gourd shells, the schoolmaster
offered up a short prayer that God and the holy prophet might preserve
them from robbers and all bad people, that their provisions might never
fail nor their limbs become fatigued.

After stopping at the town of Kenytakooro till the 22nd of April, the
coffle commenced the journey through the Jallonka wilderness.  The
country was very beautiful and abounded with birds and deer; but so
anxious were they to push on, that they made fully thirty miles that
day.  Fatigued as they were, they were frequently disturbed in the night
by the howling of wild beasts and the bites of ants.

On setting out in the morning Nealee, one of Kafa's female slaves
refused to drink the gruel offered her.  The country was extremely wild
and rocky, and Park began to fear that he should be unable to keep up
with the party.  Others, however, suffered more than he did.  The poor
female slave began to lag behind; and, complaining dreadfully of pains
in her legs, her load was taken from her and given to another, and she
was ordered to keep in front of the coffle.

As the party were resting near a rivulet a hive of bees was discovered
in a hollow tree, and some of the people were proceeding to obtain the
honey, when an enormous swarm flew out, and, attacking every one, made
them fly in every direction.  Park being the first to take alarm, was
the only person who escaped with impunity.  The slaves had, however,
left their bundles behind them, and to obtain them it was necessary to
set the grass on fire to the east of the hive, when the wind driving the
flames along, the men pushed through the smoke and recovered their
bundles.  They also brought with them poor Nealee, whom they found lying
by the rivulet stung in the most dreadful manner.  On her refusing to
proceed further, she was cruelly beaten with a whip, when, suddenly
starting up, she walked for four or five hours; she then made an attempt
to run away, but, from weakness, fell to the ground.  Though unable to
rise, the whip was a second time applied, when Kafa ordered that she
should be placed on an ass.  Unable to sit on it, she was carried
afterwards on a litter by two slaves.

The unfortunate slaves, who had travelled all day in the hot sun with
loads on their heads, were dreadfully fatigued; and some of them began
to snap their fingers--a sure sign, among negroes, of desperation.  They
were, therefore, put in irons, and kept apart from each other.  Next day
poor Nealee was again placed on the ass; but unable to hold herself on,
frequently fell to the ground.  At length the cry arose
of--"_Kang-tegi_!"  ("Cut her throat!") As Park did not wish to see this
horrible operation performed, he went on ahead; but soon afterwards he
was overtaken by one of Kafa's domestic slaves with poor Nealee's
garment on the end of a bow.  On making inquiries of the man, he replied
that Kafa and the schoolmaster would not consent to her being killed,
but had left her on the road, where probably she was soon devoured by
wild animals.

Such is one example of the cruel treatment received by the unhappy
slaves.  The old schoolmaster, however, was so affected, that he fasted
the whole of the ensuing day.

The party now travelled on rapidly, everyone being apprehensive that he
might otherwise meet with the fate of poor Nealee.

The coffle had still many dangers to encounter.  Receiving information
that two hundred Jallonkas were lying in wait to plunder them, they
altered their course and travelled with great secrecy until midnight,
when they entered the town of Koba.  Here they remained some days to
escape the Jallonkas.

The next town they reached, Malacotta, was the birthplace of the
schoolmaster, whose brother came out to meet him.  The interview was
very natural and affecting.  They fell on each other's neck, and it was
some time before either of them could speak.  The schoolmaster then
turning, pointed to Kafa, saying, "This is the man who has been my
father in Manding.  I would have pointed him out sooner to you, but my
heart was too full."

They were now in the country of friends, and were well received at each
of the towns they entered.

Park, however, witnessed numerous instances of the sad effects of the
slave trade.  A singing man, the master of one of the slaves who had
travelled for some time with great difficulty, and was found unable to
proceed further, proposed to exchange him for a young slave girl
belonging to one of the townspeople.  The poor girl was ignorant of her
fate until the bundles were all laid up in the morning, and the coffle
ready to depart, when, coming with some of the other young women to see
the coffle set out, her master took her by the hand and delivered her to
the singing man.  Never was a face of serenity more suddenly changed
into one of the deepest distress; the terror she manifested on having
the load put on her head and the rope round her neck, and the sorrow
with which she bid adieu to her companions, were truly affecting.
Notwithstanding the treatment which the slaves received, they had hearts
which could feel for the white stranger amidst their infinitely greater
sufferings, and they frequently of their own accord brought water to
quench his thirst, and at night collected branches and leaves for his
bed, during that weary journey of more than five hundred British miles.

Knowing that the greater number were doomed to a life of slavery in a
foreign land, he could not part from them without feeling much emotion.

At last Pisania was reached, and Park was warmly welcomed as one risen
from the dead by the Mr Ainsleys and Dr Laidley.  They had heard that
the Moors had murdered him as they had murdered Major Haughton.  He
learned with great sorrow that neither of his two attendants, Johnson
and Demba, had returned, and that nothing was known of them.  Park gave
double the amount he had promised to Kafa, and sent a present also to
the good old schoolmaster at Malacotta.  Kafa, who had never before
heard English spoken, listened with great attention to Park, when
conversing with his friends.  His astonishment at the various articles
of furniture in the houses was very great; but it was still greater when
he saw Mr Ainsley's schooner lying in the river.  He could not
comprehend the use of the masts and sails, or conceive how so large a
body could be moved by the wind.  He was frequently heard to exclaim,
with a sigh: "Ah! black men are nothing."

After waiting at Pisania some time, finding no vessel likely to sail
direct for England, he took his passage on board a slave vessel bound
for South Carolina.  She, however, meeting with bad weather, put into
Antigua, and from thence he sailed in an English packet, and arrived at
Falmouth on the 22nd of December, having been from England about two
years and seven months.




Soon after his return to England Park married the daughter of Mr
Anderson, with whom he had served his apprenticeship, and resided a
couple of years with his mother and one of his brothers on the farm that
his father had occupied at Fowlshiels, in Scotland.  After this he
practised his profession for some time at Peebles.  But this sort of
life not satisfying his ardent temperament, on hearing from Sir Joseph
Banks that another expedition into Africa to explore the Niger was
proposed, he at once offered his services.

Nothing, however, was settled till the year 1803, when, being directed
to hold himself in readiness to proceed to Africa, he engaged a native
of Mogadore, named Sidi Omback Boubi, then residing in London, to
accompany him to Scotland for the purpose of instructing him in Arabic.

Nearly another year passed before all arrangements were concluded.  It
was finally determined that the expedition should consist of Park
himself, his brother-in-law (Mr Anderson), and Mr George Scott, who
was to act as draughtsman, together with a few boat-builders and
artificers.  They were to be joined at Goree by a party of soldiers of
the African corps stationed in that garrison.

Three months after this elapsed ere they set sail on board the
"Crescent" transport on the 30th of January, 1805; and, after touching
at Saint Jago to obtain asses for the journey, they reached Goree on the
28th of March.

There was no lack of volunteers, the whole garrison offering their
services.  Thirty-five soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Martyn
of the Royal Artillery Corps were selected, as well as two sailors from
the "Squirrel" frigate.

They left Goree on the 6th of April, the men jumping into the boats in
the highest spirits, and bidding adieu to their friends with repeated

Landing at Kayee on the northern bank of the Gambia, they commenced
their overland journey to Pisania on the 27th of April.  The weather was
intensely hot, and the asses, unaccustomed to carry loads, made their
march very fatiguing and troublesome, three of the animals sticking fast
in a muddy rice field soon after they started.

So many delays had occurred that the rainy season was already
approaching, and it would have been more prudent had the expedition
remained at Goree or Pisania till the country had become again suitable
for travelling.  It was just possible, however, that they might reach
the Niger before the middle of June, when the rainy season usually
commences, and that river could then have been navigated without much
exposure or toil.  So eager, however, was Mr Park to proceed, that he
disregarded the warnings of his friends, and determined to set forth on
his journey.

Several days were lost at Pisania in arranging the burdens of the asses
and in purchasing more animals, as those they possessed were not
sufficient for carrying all the loads.

He here engaged a Mandingo priest named Isaaco, who was also a
travelling merchant, to serve as a guide, and, on the 4th of May, all
being ready, the caravan set forth from Pisania, whence nearly ten years
before Park had commenced his adventurous journey into the interior.

The arrangements for the march were well devised.  The animals as well
as their loads were marked and numbered with red paint, and a certain
number allotted to the care of each of the six messes into which the
soldiers were divided.  Mr Scott and Isaaco generally led, Lieutenant
Martyn marched in the centre, and Anderson and Park brought up the rear.

All their forethought, however, could not guard them against the deadly
attacks of the climate.  The asses from the first gave them a great deal
of trouble--many, from being overloaded, lying down in the road, while
others kicked off their bundles--so that the caravan made but slow

They had not gone far when two of the soldiers died, and, a few days
afterwards, another lost his life.

At most of the places through which they passed they were well received;
but at the town of Bady the chief man demanded enormously high duties,
and sent a large band of armed followers to collect them.  When Isaaco
was sent over to Bady to enquire the reason of this conduct, he was
seized, his weapons taken from him, and he was tied to a tree and
flogged.  It was proposed to attack the place; but early the next day
the guide was sent back, and the matter was settled by payment of a
portion of the duties demanded.

While halting at a creek, the asses being unloaded, some of the men went
in search of honey.  Unfortunately they disturbed a large swarm of bees,
which, rushing out, attacked both men and beasts.  The asses, being
loose, galloped off, but the horses and people were fearfully stung.

A fire, which had been kindled for cooking, being deserted, spread in
all directions, setting the bamboos in flames and very nearly destroying
their luggage.  Two of the asses died here, and others were missing.

Several of the soldiers now fell sick, and were mounted on the horses
and spare asses.

At Toombin, which the caravan reached on the 16th of June, in the
neighbourhood of Malacotta, the good old schoolmaster, Park's former
friend, arrived just as the baggage had started, having travelled all
night to visit him.  Park invited him to go forward to the next place
where they should halt, that he might reward him for his former

After leaving the village he found Hinton, one of the party, to whom Mr
Anderson had lent his horse, lying under a tree, and the horse grazing
at a little distance.  Park put the sick man on the horse and drove it
before him, but was at length compelled to leave him.  A mile further on
he came to two others lying in the shade of a tree, whom he placed on
his own and Mr Anderson's horses, and carried on to the next village.
Hence he sent back for poor Hinton, and left the three in charge of the
_dooty_, giving him beads to purchase provisions for them should they
live, and to bury them if they died.

On the 22nd one of the carpenters was also left behind at his own
request.  A soldier, Bloore, lost his way in the woods while looking for
an ass which had strayed, and in the search another sick man, Walter,
was found.  He had laid himself down among the bushes.  He died soon
after being taken up, and Park with his sword, and two of the soldiers
with their bayonets, dug his grave in the desert, covering it over with
a few branches.

Thus, one by one, in rapid succession, Park's companions, attacked by
fever, either sank on the road or were left behind, too probably to

On the 30th of June both Mr Anderson and Mr Scott were attacked by the

While encamped during a violent tornado, when it was necessary to put
out the watch-fires, a peculiar roaring and growling was heard.
Supposing the sound to be that of wild boars, Park and Lieutenant Martyn
went in search of them and fired several shots into the bush.  The
natives on their return told them that they were not boars, but young
lions, and that unless a very good look out was kept they would probably
kill some of the cattle during the night.  About midnight the lions
attempted to seize one of the asses, which so alarmed the rest that they
broke the ropes and came full gallop in amongst the tents.  Two of the
lions followed so close that the sentry cut one with his sword, but
dared not fire for fear of killing the asses.

Both Anderson and Scott were worse, but Park urged them to proceed.
Alston, a seaman, had become so weak that he was unable to sit his
horse, and entreated to be left in the woods till the morning.  Park
gave him a loaded pistol and some cartridges to protect himself.

The next day, the 4th of July, the river Wanda, which they reached, was
found to be greatly swollen.  There was but one canoe.  In this the
baggage was carried over, and Isaaco endeavoured to make the asses cross
by swimming and pushing them before him.  While thus employed, just as
he reached the middle of the stream, a crocodile suddenly rose and,
seizing him by the left thigh, pulled him under water.  With wonderful
presence of mind he thrust his finger into the creature's eye; on which
it quitted its hold, and Isaaco attempted to reach the further shore,
calling out for a knife.  The crocodile returned and seized him by the
other thigh, and again pulled him under water.  He had recourse to the
same expedient, and thrust his finger into its eyes with such violence
that it again quitted him and, when it rose, after flouncing about, swam
down the stream.  Isaaco reached the other side, and as soon as the
canoe returned Park went over, and, having dressed his wounds with
adhesive plaster, he was carried to the nearest village, fortunately not
far off.  Park here found himself very ill and unable to stand erect
without feeling a tendency to faint, while all the people were so sickly
that they could with difficulty carry the loads into the tents, though
rain threatened.  Greatly to their astonishment, Ashton the sailor
arrived, with his fever much abated, but quite naked, having been
stripped of his clothes by some natives during the night.

Important as it was to push on, they found it impossible to do so
without Isaaco, whose recovery seemed doubtful, though the delay would
expose them to the full violence of the rain shortly to be expected.
Isaaco, under Park's care, notwithstanding his fears, rapidly recovered;
and on the 10th of July they were able once more to travel forward,
taking a west and north-west direction.

They were now exposed to the thieving propensities of the natives, who
took every opportunity of carrying off whatever they could lay their
hands on.  Among the chief robbers were the sons of a potentate called
Mansa Mumma, whose town they reached on the 12th.  As Park was looking
out for an easy ascent over some rocky ground, two of these young
princes, approaching, snatched his musket from his hand and ran off with
it.  He instantly sprang from his saddle and followed the robber with
his sword, calling to Mr Anderson to tell some of the people to look
after his horse.  Anderson got within musket-shot of the man, but,
seeing that he was Mumma's son, had some doubt about shooting him.  The
thief made his escape, and on Park's return he found that the other
prince had stolen his great coat.  An elder brother, who had been
engaged as a guide, told him that after what had happened he would be
justified in shooting the first who attempted to steal from the loads.
The soldiers were accordingly ordered to load their muskets and be
ready.  Notwithstanding this, a short time afterwards a man made a dash
at one of the asses which had strayed a little from the rest, took off
the load, and began to cut it open with his knife.  The soldiers fired,
but did not hit him, and he made his escape, leaving the load behind
him.  Another seized a soldier's knapsack and attempted to make off with
it.  The soldier covered him with his piece, but it flashed in the pan,
and the robber escaped.  Another robber, however, who had attempted to
carry off a great coat from an ass driven by one of the sick men, was
wounded, and Mansa's son insisted that he should be killed, as otherwise
they would not fulfil the orders of the king, who had directed that
every person be shot who stole from the caravan.

In this way, day after day, they were attacked, and they had little
doubt that one of the sick men who had fallen behind had been robbed and
murdered by these people.

A deep stream being reached, it was proposed to form a raft; but the
Mandingoes insisted that it would be necessary to build a bridge to
enable them to cross.  It was most ingeniously and rapidly constructed.
The people, however, were too sickly to carry the baggage over, and
negroes were therefore hired for the purpose, as well as to swim the
asses across.

Another of the soldiers here lay down and expired, and, as the sun was
very hot, it was impossible to stop and bury him.

As he was riding on, Park found Mr Scott lying by the side of the path,
too sick to walk, and, shortly afterwards, Lieutenant Martyn lay down in
the same state.

Pushing on to the town of Mareena, Park sent back a party to bring in
his sick companions.

Hence they proceeded to Bangassi, six miles distant, the capital of the
Chief Serenummo.  While encamped outside, one of the sick men, who had
been left under the shade of a tree, was nearly being torn to pieces by
wolves, which he found, on awakening, smelling at his feet.  Ill as he
was, he started up and rushed to the camp.

Here the corporal died, and several soldiers, as well as one of the
carpenters, insisted on being left behind.  Park handed to the _dooty's_
son a quantity of amber and other articles of trade, that the poor men
might be taken care of.

Poor Park's troubles increased.  Mr Scott, who rode his horse,
continued very ill, and the soldiers were so weak that, when the loads
fell off the asses, they were unable to lift them on again.  In the
course of one day's march Park himself had to assist in re-loading
thirteen of the animals.  The caravan was also followed by wolves, who
prowled round them during the night, showing too plainly what would be
the fate of any of the sick men who dropped behind.  Provisions also
became scarce, and thieves likewise dodged their footsteps, taking every
opportunity of robbing them.

On the 10th of August, as Park, who was bringing up the rear, reached a
stream, he found many of the soldiers sitting on the ground, and Mr
Anderson was lying under a bush, apparently dying.  He took his
brother-in-law on his back, and carried him across the stream, though it
took him up to his middle.  He had then to carry other loads, and get
the animals over, having thus to cross sixteen times.  He then put Mr
Anderson on his horse and conveyed him to the next village, where,
however, a solitary fowl was the only food he could obtain.

During the last two marches four more men had been lost, and, though Mr
Scott was somewhat recovered, Mr Anderson was in a very dangerous
state.  He struggled on, however, for another day, when, after he had
passed a number of sick men, Mr Anderson declared that he could ride no
further.  Park, having turned the horses and ass to feed, sat down in
the shade to watch the pulsations of his dying friend.  In the evening,
there being a fine breeze, Mr Anderson agreed to make another attempt
to move on, in the hopes of reaching a town before dark.  They had not
proceeded above a mile, when they heard a noise very much like the bark
of a large mastiff, but ending in a hiss like that of a cat.  Mr
Anderson was observing: "What a bouncing fellow that must be," when
another bark nearer to them was heard, and presently a third,
accompanied by a growl a short distance further.  Coming to an opening
in the bushes, three enormous lions of a dusky colour were seen bounding
over the long grass, abreast of each other, towards them.  Fearing that,
should they come near, and his piece miss fire, the lions would seize
them, Park advanced and shot at the centre one.  The animals stopped,
looked at each other, and then bounded away, and, though one again
stopped while he was loading his piece, they all disappeared.  The
lions, however, followed him; but Mr Anderson having a boatswain's
call, Park took it and whistled, and made as much noise as possible, so
that they did not again molest him.  Notwithstanding Mr Anderson's
reduced condition he persevered in travelling, and, being placed in a
hammock constructed out of a cloak, was carried along by two men.  Mr
Scott, however, complaining of sickness, shortly afterwards dropped

On entering Doomblia during heavy rain, greatly to his satisfaction Park
met Kafa Taura, the worthy negro merchant who had been so kind to him on
his former journey.  He had now come a considerable distance to see him.

From hence he sent back to enquire for Mr Scott, but no information
could be obtained about him.

On the 19th of August the sad remnant of the expedition ascended the
mountainous ridge which separates the Niger from the remote branches of
the Senegal.  Mr Park hastened on ahead, and, coming to the brow of the
hill, once more saw the mighty river making its way in a broad stream
through the plain.

Descending from thence towards Bambakoo, the travellers pitched their
tents under a tree near that town.

Of the thirty-four soldiers and four carpenters who left the Gambia,
only six soldiers and one carpenter reached the Niger, three having died
during the previous day's march.

As the only canoe Park could obtain would carry but two persons besides
their goods, he and Mr Anderson embarked in it, leaving Mr Martyn and
the men to come down by land with the asses.  He himself was suffering
greatly from dysentery.  In the evening they landed on some flat rocks
near the shore, and were cooking their supper, when the rain came down,
and continued with great violence all night.

The next day Mr Martyn and the rest of the people overtook them.

On the following day Isaaco, having performed the task he had
undertaken, of guiding them to the Niger, received the payment agreed
on; and Park likewise gave him several articles, and told him that when
the palaver was adjusted at Sego, he should have all the horses and
asses for his trouble.

He here also prepared the present he purposed to offer to Mansong, the
king of Bambarra, and which he sent forward to Sego by Isaaco.

Every day brought them some unfavourable news or other.  At one time it
was reported that Mansong had killed Isaaco with his own hand, and
threatened to do the same with all the whites who should come into
Bambarra.  These reports proved to be false, for Isaaco himself arrived
in a canoe from Sego, bringing back all the articles sent to Mansong,
who had directed that they should be taken up to Samee, and that he
would send a person to receive them from Park's own hands.  Mansong had
promised that the expedition should pass, but whenever Isaaco mentioned
it particularly, or related any incident that had happened on the
journey, Mansong began to make squares and triangles in the sand before
him with his finger, and continued to do so as long as Isaaco spoke
about them.  This the superstitious monarch probably did to defend
himself against the supposed incantations of the white man.

On the 22nd of September the chief counsellor of Mansong, Modibinne, and
four grandees, arrived by a canoe, bringing a fat milk-white bullock as
a present.  Next morning Modibinne and the grandees came to the camp and
desired Park to acquaint them with the motives which had induced him to
come into their country.  Park explained them, telling them that it was
his wish to sail down the Joliba, or Niger, to the place where it mixes
with the salt water, and that if the navigation was found open, the
white men would send up vessels to trade at Sego, should Mansong wish
it.  Modibinne replied that the object of the journey was a good one,
and prayed that God would prosper it, adding, "Mansong will protect

The presents intended for the king were then spread out, and appeared to
give great satisfaction.  Two more soldiers died that evening.  On the
26th the expedition, in open canoes, left Samee.  Park felt himself very
unwell, and the heat was intense, sufficient to have roasted a sirloin.
Isaaco, however, having formed an awning over the canoe with four sticks
and a couple of cloaks, Park found himself better.

On the 2nd two other privates died, the body of one of whom the wolves
carried off, the door of the hut having been left open.

Wishing to obtain cowries, Park opened a market at Marroboo to dispose
of his goods, and so great was the demand for them that he had to employ
three tellers at once to count his cash.  In one day he turned 25,756
pieces of money-cowries.

The sad news now reached him of the Mr Scott's death, and on the 28th
of October his brother-in-law, Mr Anderson, breathed his last.  "No
event," Park remarks, "which took place during the journey ever threw
the smallest gloom over his mind till he laid Mr Anderson in the grave.
He then felt himself left a second time lonely and friendless amidst
the wilds of Africa."

Some days before this, Isaaco had returned with a large canoe, but much
decayed and patched.  Park, therefore, with the assistance of Bolton,
one of the surviving soldiers, took out all the rotten pieces, and, by
adding on the portion of another canoe, with eighteen days' hard labour
they changed the Bambarra canoe into his Majesty's schooner "Joliba."
Her length was forty feet, breadth six feet; and, being flat-bottomed,
she drew only one foot of water when loaded.  In this craft he and his
surviving companions embarked on the 16th of November, on which day his
journal closes.  He intended next morning to commence his adventurous
voyage down the Joliba.  Besides Park and Lieutenant Martyn, two
Europeans only survived.  They had purchased three slaves to assist in
the navigation of the vessel, and Isaaco had engaged Amadi Fatouma to
succeed him as interpreter.  This increased their number to nine.

Descending the stream, they passed the Silla and Jenne without
molestation; but lower down, in the neighbourhood of Timbuctoo, they
were followed by armed canoes, which they beat off, killing several of
the natives.  They had, indeed, to fight their way down past a number of
places, once striking on the rocks, and being nearly overset by a
hippopotamus which rose near them.

Having a large stock of provisions, they were able to proceed without
going on shore.  Amadi was the only person who landed in order to get
fresh provisions.

At Yaour Park sent a present to the king by one of the chiefs, but, the
chief inquiring whether he intended to return, Park replied that he had
no purpose of doing so.  This induced the chief to withhold the presents
from the king, and who, accordingly, indignant at being thus treated,
put Amadi into irons, took all his goods from him, and sent a force to
occupy a rock overhanging the river where it narrows greatly.  On
arriving at this place, Park endeavoured to pass through, when the
people began to throw lances and stones at him.  He and his companions
defended themselves for a long time, till two of his slaves in the stern
of the boat were killed.

Finding no hopes of escape, Park took hold of one of the white men and
jumped into the water, and Martyn did the same, hoping to reach the
shore, but were drowned in the attempt.  The only slave remaining in the
boat, seeing the natives persist in throwing their weapons, entreated
them to stop.  On this they took possession of the canoe and the man,
and carried them to the king.  Amadi, after being kept in irons three
months, was liberated, and on finding the slave who had been taken in
the canoe, learned from him the manner in which Mr Park and his
companions had perished.  The only article left in the canoe had been a
sword-belt, which Isaaco, who was afterwards despatched to learn
particulars of the tragedy, obtained--the sole relic of the expedition.

Park could not have been aware of the numerous rapids and other
difficulties he would have had to encounter on descending the upper
portion of the Niger.  In all probability his frail and ill-constructed
vessel would have been wrecked before he had proceeded many miles below
the spot where he lost his life.  Had he, however, succeeded in passing
that dangerous portion, he might have navigated the mighty stream to its

Although at first the account of Park's death was not believed in
England, subsequent enquiries left no doubt that all the statements were
substantially correct.

Thus perished, in the prime of life, that heroic traveller, at the very
time when he had good reason to believe that he was about to solve the
problem of the Niger's course.




Between Park's two expeditions, several travellers endeavoured to solve
some of the many problems connected with the geography of Africa.

The first person sent out by the Association was a young German,
Frederick Horneman, in the character of an Arab merchant.  He travelled
from Alexandria to Cairo, where he was imprisoned by the natives on the
news arriving of Bonaparte's landing in the country.  He was, however,
liberated by the French, and set out on the 5th of September, 1798, with
a caravan destined for Fezzan.

On one occasion, when passing through Siwah, the bigoted Mahommedan
inhabitants surrounded the caravan, having heard that two Christians
belonged to it, and promising to let it proceed provided these were
delivered up to them.  Having, however, by his knowledge of the Koran,
satisfied them that he was a true Mahommedan, being protected by the
other members of the caravan, he was allowed to proceed.

He reached Mourzouk in safety, and there endeavoured to gain information
about the states to the south of Timbuctoo.  He, however, heard but
little, though he found that Houssa was not, as supposed, a city, but a
region embracing many kingdoms, the inhabitants of which were said to be
superior in civilisation to those of the surrounding people.

He remained here for a considerable time, and then visited Tripoli,
after which he returned to Mourzouk, and started thence in April, 1800.

From that time no information was received directly from him; but Major
Denham many years afterwards learned that he had penetrated as far as
Nyffe on the Niger, where he fell a victim to disease.

Another German, Roentgen, also sent out by the Association in 1809,
started from Mogadore and, it is supposed, was murdered by his guides.

Two Americans, one a seaman, named Adams, and the other a supercargo,
James, having been wrecked on the west coast at different periods,
travelled for a considerable distance through the north-west portion of
the continent.  Adams was carried to Timbuctoo, where he remained six
months in 1810.  He found the city chiefly inhabited by negroes; and he
describes the few religious ceremonies which took place as pagan.  The
city had lately been conquered by the king of Bambarra, who had
established there a negro government.  Even the largest houses were
little more than huts, built of timber frames filled in with earth.  He
was ultimately liberated by the British consul at Mogadore.

Riley, who was wrecked in 1815, was carried as a slave through the
country.  From a caravan merchant, Sidi Hamet, who purchased him from
his first captors, he obtained much information about the country.  From
the account he received, it appears at that time that Timbuctoo was
larger and better built than Adams described it.  Sidi Hamet also
travelled a considerable distance down the banks of the Niger, which,
though at first running due east, afterwards turned to the south-east.
Travelling sixty days, he reached Wassanah, a place twice as large as
Timbuctoo, the inhabitants being hospitable and kind-hearted.  From
thence he heard that boats with cargoes of slaves sailed two months,
first south and then west, down the river, till they came to the sea,
where they met white people in vessels armed with guns.  This was the
most correct account hitherto received of the course of the Niger.
Riley was also rescued by the English consul at Mogadore.

In 1816 the English Government sent out an expedition to proceed up the
Congo, under Captain Tuckey, but he and his followers fell victims to
the climate.

At the same time another expedition had started under Major Peddie, and
Captain Campbell, but they both, with Lieutenant Stokoe, of the navy,
died the following year.

In 1821 Major Laing, starting from Sierra Leone, made a journey in
search of the source of the Niger, but was compelled to return.

In 1819 Mr Ritchie, with Lieutenant Lyon, of the navy, started from
Tripoli, intending to proceed southward to Bornou, in order to trace the
downward course of the Niger, but Mr Ritchie died, and Lieutenant Lyon
was unable to get further than the southern frontier of Fezzan.

Owing to the judicious conduct of Mr Warrington, the British Consul at
Tripoli, the English were held in high estimation at that court, and the
pacha, who was looked upon by the wild tribes of the south as the most
potent of all monarchs, assured him that any of his countrymen could
travel with perfect safety from his territories to Bornou.

The Government, therefore, considering circumstances so favourable,
organised a fresh expedition, headed by Lieutenant Clapperton and Dr
Oudney, of the Navy.  Major Denham having volunteered his services, they
were accepted, and he joined his intended companions at Tripoli.  He was
accompanied by Mr Hillman, a shipwright, who undertook to direct the
building of a vessel on the Niger.

After visiting the pacha, and having accompanied him on a hawking party
in the desert, Major Denham set out on the 5th of March, 1822, to join
his two companions, who had gone forward to the beautiful valley of

When near Sockna, they met a _kafila_, or caravan of slaves, in which
were about seventy negroes, who told them that they came from the
different regions of Soudan, Begharmi, and Kanem.  Those from Soudan had
regular features and a pleasing expression of countenance.

On reaching Mourzouk they were disappointed in their expectation of
receiving assistance from the sultan, who declared that it was
impossible to obtain either camels or horses before the next spring, to
enable them to proceed.  Finding this, Major Denham determined to return
to Tripoli, to represent to the pacha that something besides mere
promises must be given.

Attended by his negro servant, Barca, he reached that town on the 12th
of June, and the pacha himself showing little inclination to render
assistance, he at once started for England, to represent the state of
affairs to the Government.  He was, however, overtaken at Marseilles by
a messenger from the pacha entreating him to return, and assuring him
that he had appointed a well-known caravan leader, Boo-Khaloum, with an
escort to convey him to Bornou.

On his return to Africa he found Boo-Khaloum and part of the escort
already waiting for him at the entrance of the desert.  His new friend
delighted in pomp and show, and he and his attendants entered Sockna
attired in magnificent costumes, their chief himself riding a beautiful
Tunisian horse, the saddle and housing richly adorned with scarlet cloth
and gold.  This African caravan merchant united the character of a
warlike chief and trader, his followers being trained not only to fight
in defence of his property, but to attack towns and carry off the
hapless inhabitants as slaves.  Yet Book-Haloum was superior to most of
his age; he possessed an enlarged and liberal mind, and was considered
an honourable and humane man, while so great was his generosity that he
was adored by his people.

On the 30th of October the caravan entered Mourzouk with all the parade
and pomp they could muster.  Boo-Khaloum's liberality had made him so
popular that a large portion of the inhabitants of the town came out to
welcome him.

Major Denham was greatly disappointed at not seeing his friends among
the crowd.  He found that Dr Oudney was suffering from a complaint in
his chest, and that Clapperton was confined to his bed; indeed the
climate of Mourzouk is evidently very unhealthy.

The arrangements for starting were not completed until the 29th of
November.  In the meantime the other members of the expedition had
somewhat recovered.  Major Denham had engaged a native of the Island of
Saint Vincent, of the name of Simpkins, but who, having traversed half
the world over, had acquired that of Columbus.  He spoke Arabic
perfectly, and three European languages.  Three negroes were also hired,
and a Gibraltar Jew, Jacob, who acted as store-keeper.  These, with four
men to look after their camels, Mr Hillman and themselves, made up
their household to thirteen persons.  Several merchants also joined
their party.  Besides these, the caravan comprised one hundred and ten
Arabs, marshalled in tens and twenties under their different chiefs.

The Arabs in the service of the pacha, who were to escort them to
Bornou, behaved admirably, and enlivened them greatly on their dreary
desert road by their wit and sagacity, as well as by their poetry,
extemporary and traditional.

The camels and tents having been sent on before, the party started on
horseback on the evening of the day mentioned.  Dr Oudney was suffering
from his cough, and neither Clapperton nor Hillman had got over their
ague, a bad condition in which to commence their arduous journey.

The heat when crossing the desert was great; not a bird nor an insect
was to be seen moving through the air; but the nights were beautiful and
perfectly still, gentle breezes cooling the air.  By digging a few
inches into the hot, loose soil, a cool and soft bed was obtained.
Through wide districts the surface was covered with salt, and from the
sides of hollows where it was broken, hung beautiful crystals like the
finest frost-work.

Before proceeding far, objects sufficient to create the deepest horror
in their minds were met with.  In all directions the ground was covered
with the skeletons of those who had perished in attempting to cross the
wilderness.  At first only one or two were seen, but afterwards as many
as fifty or sixty were passed in a day.  At one place a hundred were
found together, and near the wells of El Hammar they were lying too
thickly to be counted.  One morning as Denham, dozing on his horse, was
riding, he was startled by a peculiar sound of something crashing under
the animal's feet, and, on looking down, he found that he was trampling
over two human skeletons, one of the horse's feet having driven a skull
before him like a ball.  To some of the bones portions of the flesh and
hair still adhered, and the features of others were distinguishable.
Two skeletons of females lay close together, who had evidently died in
each other's arms.

The Arabs, accustomed to such scenes, laughed at the sympathy exhibited
by the English, observing, with a curse on their fathers, that they were
only blacks.  There can be no doubt that the larger group consisted of a
number of slaves captured by the Sultan of Fezzan, during a late
expedition he had made into Soudan.  His troops, having left Bornou with
an insufficient supply of provisions, allowed their unhappy captives to
perish, while they made their escape with the food intended to support

One evening the major exhibited a book of drawings made by Captain Lyon,
to Boo-Khaloum.  The portraits he understood, but he could not
comprehend the landscapes, and would look at one upside down.  On seeing
a beautiful print of sand-wind in the desert, though it was twice
reversed, he exclaimed: "Why, it is all the same!"  Probably a European,
even, who had never before cast his eye on the representation of a
landscape, would be long before he could appreciate the beauties of the
picture.  One beautiful moonlight evening Denham exhibited his
telescope.  An old _hadji_, after he had been helped to fix the glass on
the moon, uttering an exclamation of wonder, walked off as fast as he
could, repeating words from the Koran.

Few adventures were met with; but one whole day the travellers were
annoyed by a strong east wind, and the next day the wind and drifting
sand were so violent that they were compelled to keep their tents.  They
had to sit in their shirts, as the sand could thus be shaken off as soon
as it made a lodgment, which with any other articles of dress could not
be done.  Denham found the greatest relief by rubbing the neck and
shoulders with oil, and being shampooed by his servant, Barca's wife,
who, when a slave in the palace of the pacha, had learned the art.

The Tibboos, a tribe who had for some time accompanied them, went off to
obtain some sheep, an ox, honey, milk and fat.  On their return the milk
turned out sour camels' milk, full of sand, and the fat very rancid,
while a single lean sheep was purchased for two dollars.

Some of their horses were very handsome and extremely fat, which arose
from being fed entirely on camels' milk, corn being too scarce for the
Tibboos to spare them.

The girls of this tribe were pretty, but the men extremely ugly.

Their Arabs, who were sent as an escort to oppose banditti, after a time
became dissatisfied at having nothing to do, and were evidently
contemplating inroads on the inhabitants.

Denham, with Boo-Khaloum and a dozen horsemen, each having a footman
behind him, started off towards a spot where some Tibboo tents had been
seen.  On their arrival they found that the shepherds had moved off,
knowing well how they should be treated by the white people, as they
called the Arabs.  Their caution was made the excuse for plundering
them.  "What! not stay to sell their sheep? the rogues!" exclaimed the

After a time they came in sight of two hundred head of cattle and about
twenty persons--men, women and children--with camels, moving off.  The
Arabs, slipping from behind their leaders, with a shout, rushed down the
hill, part running towards the cattle to prevent their escape.  The
unfortunate people were rapidly plundered, the camels were brought to
the ground and the whole of their loads rifled.  The poor women and
girls lifted up their hands, stripped as they were to the skin, but
Denham felt that he could do nothing for them beyond saving their lives.

When Boo-Khaloum came up, however, he seemed ashamed of the paltry booty
his followers had obtained, and Denham seized the favourable moment to
advise that the Arabs should give everything back, and have a few sheep
and an ox for a feast.  He gave the order, and the property was
restored, with the exception of ten sheep and a fat bullock.

An old _maraboot_ assured Denham that to plunder those who left their
tents, instead of supplying travellers, was quite lawful.  Too often the
natives are not only plundered, but murdered, by the armed attendants of
caravans as they make their way across the desert.

The natives, as may be supposed, retaliate.  Should any animal straggle
from the main body, it is certain to be carried off.  Major Denham lost
a favourite dog, which was captured and eaten.

On reaching Lara, a small town of conical-topped rush huts, to the
delight of the travellers they saw before them, from a rising ground,
the boundless expanse of Lake Chad, glowing with the golden rays of the
sun.  They hastened down to the shores of this large inland sea, which
was darkened with numberless birds of varied plumage--ducks, geese,
pelicans and cranes four or five feet high, immense spoonbills of snowy
whiteness, yellow-legged plovers--all quietly feeding at half
pistol-shot.  A large basket to supply their larder was soon filled.

Moving along the shores of the lake, the caravan arrived at Woodie, a
negro town of considerable size.  It was here arranged that the caravan
should wait till an embassy could be sent to the Sheikh of Bornou, to
obtain permission for presenting themselves before him.

The empire of Bornou had, some twenty years before, been overrun and
subjected by the Felatahs, a powerful people to the west.  The present
sheikh, a native of Kanem, though of humble birth, had by his superior
talents and energy rallied round him a band of warriors, and, pretending
that he had received a command from the prophet, hoisted the green flag,
and had in a few months driven the invaders out of the country, which
they had never since been able to occupy, though frequently attacking
his borders.

While waiting for the sheikh's reply, Major Denham rode out early one
morning in search of a herd of a hundred and fifty elephants, which had
been seen the day before.  He found them about six miles from the town,
on ground annually overflowed by the waters of the lake.  They seemed to
cover the whole face of the country, and exceeded the number he expected
to see.  Often, when forced by hunger, they approach the towns and
spread devastation throughout their march, whole plantations being
destroyed in a single night.  Some antelopes were also seen, but they
never allowed the party to get near enough to hazard a shot.

The country for the last eighteen days of their journey had been covered
with a grass which produces a calyx full of prickles.  These adhere to
the dress and penetrate to the skin, to which they fasten themselves
like grappling-irons.  They got between the toes of the poor dog Niger,
and into every part of his long silken hair, so as to make him unable to

At the next camping-place hyaenas came close to their tents and killed a
camel, on the carcase of which a lion, when he had driven them away,
banqueted, when they returned and devoured what he had left.

Several days' journey took the caravan into the neighbourhood of Kouka.
They had been told that the sheikh's soldiers were a few ragged negroes,
armed with spears, who lived upon the plunder of the black Kaffir
countries.  Greatly to their astonishment, as they approached the town
they beheld a body of several thousand cavalry, drawn up in line and
extending right and left as far as they could see.

As the Arabs approached, a yell was given by the sheikhs people, which
rent the air; and a blast being blown from their rude instruments, they
moved on to meet Boo-Khaloum and his Arabs.  Small bodies kept charging
rapidly towards them, to within a few feet of their horses' heads,
without checking the speed of their own until the moment of their
halting; then they wheeled at their utmost speed with great precision,
shaking their spears over their heads, exclaiming, "_Baka_ _baka_!"
("Blessing! blessing!") They quickly, however, surrounded the caravan so
as to prevent it moving on, which greatly enraged Boo-Khaloum, but to no
purpose, as he was only answered by shrieks of welcome, and spears
unpleasantly rattled over the traveller's heads.  In a short time, Barca
Gana, the sheikh's first general--a negro of noble aspect, clothed in a
figured silk _tobe_, mounted on a beautiful Mandara horse--made his
appearance, and cleared away those who had pressed upon them, when the
party moved on slowly towards the city.

Arrived at the gates, Boo-Khaloum, with the English and about a dozen of
his followers, alone were allowed to enter.  They proceeded along a wide
street completely lined with spearmen on foot, with cavalry in front of
them, to the door of the sheikh's residence.  Here the horsemen were
formed up three deep, and the party halted while some of the chief's
attendants came out and, after a great many "_Baka's! baka's_!" retired,
when others performed the same ceremony.  On this, Boo-Khaloum again
lost patience, and swore by the pacha's head that he would return to his
tents, if he was not immediately admitted.  Denham advised him to
submit, and Barca Gana, appearing, invited him to dismount.  The English
were about to do the same, when an officer intimated that the Arab alone
was to be admitted.

Another half-hour, and the gates were again opened, and the four
Englishmen were called for.  The strictest etiquette appeared to be kept
up at the sheikh's court; but the major and his companions declined
doing more in the way of reverence than bending their heads and laying
their right-hands on their hearts.  They found the sheikh sitting on a
carpet, in a small, dark room.  He was plainly dressed in a blue _tobe_
of Soudan and a small turban, with armed negroes on either side of him,
and weapons hung up on the walls.  His personal appearance was
prepossessing, and he had an expressive countenance and a benevolent

After he had received the letter from the pacha, he enquired what was
their object in coming.  They answered, to see the country and to give
an account of its inhabitants, produce and appearance, as their sultan
was desirous of knowing every part of the globe.  His reply was that
they were welcome, and whatever he could show them would give him

Huts had been built for them and an abundance of provisions was
provided, though the number of their visitors gave them not a moment's
peace, while the heat was insufferable.

Next day they had another audience, to deliver their presents.  With the
firearms, especially, the sheikh was highly delighted, and he showed
evident satisfaction on their assuring him that the king of England had
heard of Bornou and himself.  Immediately turning to his councillors, he
observed: "This is in consequence of our defeating the Begharmis."  Upon
this the chief who had most distinguished himself in this memorable
battle, Bagah Furby, demanded: "Did he ever hear of me?"  The reply of
"Certainly!" did wonders for their cause.  "Ah, then your king must be a
great man!" was re-echoed from every side.

Every morning, besides presents of bullocks, camel-loads of wheat and
rice, leather skins of butter, jars of honey, and wooden bowls
containing rice with meat, and paste made of barley flour--savoury, but
very greasy--were sent to them.

In a short time--by the exhibition of rockets, a musical box, and other
wonders--Denham appeared to have entirely won the sheikh's confidence.
Reports, however, had been going about that the English had come to spy
out the land, and intended to build ships on Lake Chad, in which they
would sail about and conquer the surrounding country.  Reports were now
received that the Begharmis were approaching Bornou, and it was said
that the sheikh would immediately send a force into their country, in
order to punish their sultan for even thinking of revenge.

The sheikh, in the meantime, had given them leave to visit all the towns
in his dominions, but on no account to go beyond them.  He asked many
questions about the English manner of attacking a walled town; and, on
hearing that they had guns which carried ball of thirty-two pounds'
weight, with which the walls were breached, and that then the place was
taken by assault, his large dark eyes sparkled again, as he exclaimed:
"Wonderful! wonderful!"

Although the sheikh was the real ruler of the country, he allowed the
existence of the hereditary sultan, a mere puppet, who resided at
Birnie.  Boo-Khaloum advised that they should pay their respects to this
sovereign; and they accordingly set out for the place, which contained
about ten thousand inhabitants.  They were first conducted to the gate
of the sultan's mud edifice, where a few of the court were assembled to
receive them.  One, a sort of chamberlain, habited in eight or ten
_tobes_, or shirts, of different colours, carried an immense staff, and
on his head was a turban of prodigious size, though but a trifling one
compared to those they were destined to see at the audience on the
following morning.  A large marquee was pitched for their reception,
which they found luxuriously cool.  In the evening a plentiful repast
was brought them, consisting of seventy dishes, each of which would have
dined half-a-dozen persons with moderate appetites; and for fear the
English should not eat like the Bornouy, a slave or two arrived loaded
with live fowls for their dinner.

Soon after daylight the next morning they were summoned to attend the
sultan.  He received them in an open space in front of the royal
residence.  They were compelled to stop at a considerable distance from
him, while his own people approached to within about a hundred yards,
passing first on horseback, and, after dismounting and prostrating
themselves before him, they took their places on the ground in front,
but with their backs to the royal person.  He was seated in a sort of
cage made of cane, on a throne which appeared to be covered with silk or
satin.  Nothing could be more absurd and grotesque than the figures who
formed his court.  The sheikh, to make himself popular with all parties,
allowed the sultan to be amused by indulging in all the folly and
bigotry of the ancient negro sovereigns.  Large bellies and large heads
are considered the proper attributes of the courtiers, and those who do
not possess the former by nature, make up the deficiency of protuberance
by a wadding, which, as they sit on horseback, gives them a most
extraordinary appearance, while the head is enveloped in folds of muslin
or linen of various colours, of such size as to make the head appear
completely on one side.  The turbans are, besides, hung all-over with
charms enclosed in little red leather bags.  The horse is also adorned
in the same manner.

When the courtiers had taken their seats, the visitors were desired to
sit down.  On this, the ugliest black that can be imagined, the only
person who approached the sultan's seat, asked for the presents.
Boo-Khaloum produced them, enclosed in a large shawl, and they were
carried unopened into the presence of the sultan.  The English, by some
omission, had brought no presents.

A little to their left was an extemporary declaimer, shouting forth the
praises of his master, with his pedigree, and near him stood a man with
a long, wooden trumpet, on which he ever and anon blew a blast.

Nothing could be more ridiculous than the appearance of these people,
squatting down in their places, tottering under the weight and magnitude
of their turbans and their bellies, while the thin legs that appeared
underneath but ill accorded with the bulk of the other part.

Immediately after the ceremony the travellers took their departure for
Angornou, a town containing at least thirty thousand inhabitants.  The
market-place was crowded with people, and there were a number of
beggars.  Linen was so cheap that all the men wore shirts and trousers;
but the beggars were seen holding up the arms of an old pair of the
latter, touching the shirt at the same time, and exclaiming: "But
breeches there are none; but breeches there are none."  This novel mode
of drawing the attention of the passers-by so amused Denham that he
could not help laughing outright.

He was, however, anxious to visit a large river to the southward of
Kouka, called the Shary; but was delayed by Dr Oudney's serious
illness, and the unsettled state of Book-Haloum's affairs with the
Arabs; indeed, so mutinous had some of these become, that he was at last
compelled to send thirty of them back again to Fezzan.

Hillman had greatly pleased the sheikh by manufacturing a couple of
chests, and he was now requested to make a sort of litter, such as the
sheikh had heard were used by the sultans of Fezzan.

Among other presents, the sheikh sent them a young lion about three
months old.  It was a tame, good-natured creature, but as Denham was
under the necessity of refusing the animal a corner of his hut, it was
immediately in consequence killed.

During the illness of his companions Major Denham made an excursion to
the shores of Lake Chad, accompanied by Maraymy, an intelligent black,
to whose charge he had been committed by the sheikh, where numerous
elephants and some beautiful antelopes were seen.  The sheikh's people,
as they came near the elephants, began screeching violently.  The
animals, though moving a little away, erected their ears, and gave a
roar that shook the ground under them.  One was an immense fellow.  The
party wheeled swiftly round him, and Maraymy casting a spear at him,
which struck him just under the tail, the huge brute threw up his
proboscis in the air with a loud roar, and from it cast such a volume of
sand as nearly to blind the major, who was approaching at the time.

The elephant rarely if ever attacks, but, when irritated, he will
sometimes rush upon a man on horseback, and, after choking him with
dust, destroy him in a moment.

Pursued by the horsemen, the animal made off at a clumsy, rolling walk,
but sufficient to keep the steeds at a full gallop.  The major fired
twice at fifty yards' distance.  The first shot which struck the animal
failed to make the least impression, and the second, though wounding him
in the ear, seemed to give him a moment's uneasiness only.  After
another spear had been darted at him, which flew off his rough hide
without exciting the least sensation, the elephant made his escape.

The Shooas, the original inhabitants of the country, are great hunters.
Mounted on horseback, a Shooa hunter seeks the buffalo in the swampy
regions near the lake, and, driving the animal he has selected to the
firm ground, rides on till he gets close alongside, when, springing up,
he stands with one foot on his horse and the other on the back of the
buffalo, through which he plunges his spear, driving it with tremendous
force into its heart.

Denham heard of people called Kerdies, who inhabited islands far away in
the eastern part of the lake.  They frequently make plundering
excursions even close up to Angornou, and carry off cattle and people in
their canoes, no means being taken to oppose them.

The sheikh was very unwilling that his white visitor should cross the
Shary, for fear of the danger he would run.

At length an opportunity occurred of seeing the country, which Denham
determined not to let slip.  Boo-Khaloum, though sorely against his
will, had been induced by his Arabs to plan an expedition against the
pagan inhabitants of some villages in the mountains of Mandara, in order
to carry them off as slaves to Fezzan.  He, wishing rather to visit the
commercial regions of Soudan, long held out against these nefarious
proposals.  The sheikh, who wished to punish the people who were
constantly in arms against him, instigated the Arabs to induce
Boo-Khaloum to undertake the expedition, and at length, believing that
by no other means could he hope to make a profitable journey, he was
induced to comply.  The sheikh, however, was unwilling that Major Denham
should be exposed to the dangers he would meet with, but, as he had
determined to go, at last gave his consent, appointing Maraymy to attend
him, and to be answerable for his safety.

Boo-Khaloum and his Arabs, with the sheikh's forces under his general,
Barca Gana, had already got some distance ahead.  Accompanied by
Maraymy, Denham overtook them when several miles from the city, and was
received with great civility by Barca Gana in his tent.  He had been
kept some minutes outside while the general consulted his charm writer,
and his remark as he entered was: "If it was the will of God, the
stranger should come to no harm, and that he would do all in his power
for his convenience."

Barca Gana had about two thousand of the sheikh's soldiers under his
command.  He was himself, however, only a slave, but from his bravery
had been raised by his master to the rank of Governor of Angala and all
the towns on the Shary, as well as that of commander-in-chief of his
troops.  He was accompanied by several guards of horse and foot, and a
band of five men, three of whom carried a sort of drum, who sang
extemporary songs while they beat time; another carried a pipe made of a
reed, and a fifth blew on a buffalo's horn loud and deep-toned blasts.
As he advanced through the forest he was preceded by twelve pioneers,
who carried long forked poles, with which they kept back the branches as
the party moved forward; at the same time they pointed out any dangers
in the road.

The heat was intense.  Into a lake at which they arrived the horses
rushed by hundreds, making the water as thick as pea-soup.  As the
major's camel had not come up, he could not pitch his tent, and he was
compelled to lie down in the best shade he could find, and cover himself
completely with a cloth and a thick woollen bournous, to keep up a
little moisture, by excluding all external air.

After several days' march they arrived near the capital of Mandara,
whose sultan sent out several of his chiefs to meet them.  Near the town
of Delow the sultan himself appeared, surrounded by about five hundred
horsemen.  Different parties of these troops charged up to the front of
Barca Gana's forces, and, wheeling suddenly round, galloped back again.
They were handsomely dressed in Soudan _tobes_ of different colours--
dark blue and striped with yellow and red; bournouses of coarse scarlet
cloth, with large turbans of white or dark-coloured cotton.  Their
horses were really beautiful--larger and more powerful than any seen in
Bornou.  They managed them with great skill.

A parley was now carried on.  This sultan was an ally of the sheikh, but
the people who were to be attacked were his own subjects, though, as
they were pagans, that mattered nothing.

Boo-Khaloum was, as usual, very sanguine of success.  He said he should
make the sultan handsome presents, and that he was quite sure a Kerdie
or pagan town full of people would be given him to plunder.

The Arabs eyed the Kerdie huts, now visible on the sides of the
mountains, with longing eyes, and, contrasting their own ragged
condition with the appearance of the Sultan of Mandara's people in their
rich _tobes_, observed to Book-Haloum that what they saw pleased them;
they would go no further; this would do.  They trusted for victory to
their guns--though many were wretched weapons, and their powder was
bad--declaring that arrows were nothing, and ten thousand spears of no
importance.  "We have guns! we have guns!" they shouted.  They were soon
to find that they made a fearful mistake.

The Sultan of Mandara had assisted the Sheikh Kanemy in driving out the
Felatahs, and, since then, supported by his powerful ally, had risen
greatly in power.  The Felatahs, indeed, were his principal enemies in
the neighbourhood, and he was only waiting for such an expedition as now
joined him to attack them.

The unfortunate Kerdies, who believed that they themselves were the
objects of the raid, beheld with dread the army of Barca Gana
bivouacking in the valley.  The fires, which were visible in the
different nests of the hapless mountaineers, threw a glare on the bold
peaks and bluff promontories of granite rock by which they were
surrounded, and produced a picturesque and somewhat awful appearance.
Denham could distinguish many of them through his telescope, making off
into the mountains, while others came down bearing leopard-skins, honey,
and slaves as peace offerings, as also asses and goats, with which the
mountains abound.  They, however, on this occasion, were not destined to
suffer.  The people of Musgu, whose country it had been reported that
the Arabs were to plunder, sent two hundred slaves and other presents to
the sultan.  As they entered and left the palace they threw themselves
on the ground, pouring sand on their heads, and uttering the most
piteous cries.

The sultan all this time had not informed Boo-Khaloum what district he
would allow him to attack, but observed that the Kerdie nations, being
extremely tractable, were becoming Mussulmans without force.

Major Denham had several interviews with this intelligent but bigoted
sultan, when he was greatly annoyed by the chief doctor of the court, or
_fighi_, Malem Chadily, who, because he was a Christian, endeavoured to
prejudice the mind of the sultan against him; indeed, the bigotry of
this court far surpassed that usually found among black tribes who have
become Mahommedans.  The major had been drawing with a lead pencil, when
he was carried into the presence of the sultan.  Malem Chadily on this
occasion pretended to treat him with great complaisance.

The courtiers were much astonished at seeing the effect produced by the
pencils, and the ease with which their traces were effaced by
india-rubber.  Several words were written by the doctor and others,
which were quickly rubbed out by the major.  At last, the doctor wrote:
"_Bismillah arachmani arachemi_" ("In the name of the great and most
merciful God") in large Koran characters.  He made so deep an impression
on the paper, that after using the india-rubber the words still appeared
legible, the _fighi_ remarking: "They are the words of God, delivered to
our prophet: I defy you to erase them."  The sultan and all around him
gazed at the paper with intense satisfaction, exclaiming that a miracle
had been wrought, and Denham was well pleased to take his departure.
Even Barca Gana afterwards, when Denham visited him in his tent,
exclaimed, "Wonderful! wonderful!"  And the _fighi_, or doctor, added,
"I will show you hundreds of miracles performed alone by the words of
the wonderful book."  He then urged the major to turn Mahommedan.
"Paradise will then be opened to you," he remarked.  "Without this, what
can save you from eternal fire.  I shall then see you, while sitting in
the third heaven, in the midst of the flames, crying out to your friend
Barca Gana and myself, `Give me a drop of water!' but the gulf will be
between us and then it will be too late."  Malem's tears flowed in
abundance during this harangue, and everybody appeared affected by his

Poor Boo-Khaloum all this time was ill, from vexation more than
sickness.  At last he had another interview with the sultan, but
returned much irritated, and told the major, as he passed, that they
should move in the evening, and to the question if everything went well,
he answered: "Please God."  The Arabs, from whom he kept his destination
a secret, received him with cheers.  Whom they were going against they
cared little, so long as there was a prospect of plunder, and the whole
camp became a busy scene of preparation.  Two hours after noon the march
was commenced towards the mountains, which rose up in rugged
magnificence on either side.

As the morning of the 28th of April broke, an interesting scene
presented itself.  The Sultan of Mandara, mounted on a beautiful,
cream-coloured horse, and followed by a number of persons handsomely
dressed, was on one side.  Barca Gana's people, who were on the other,
wore their red scarves or bournouses over their steel jackets.  The
major took up a position at the general's right-hand, when the troops,
entering a thick wood in two columns, were told that at the end of it
they should find the enemy.  Maraymy kept closer to the major's side, as
danger was approaching.

As they were riding along, several leopards ran swiftly from them,
twisting their long tails in the air.  A large one was seen, which
Maraymy remarked was so satiated with the blood of a negro it had just
before killed, that it would be easily destroyed.  The Shooa soon
planted a spear, which passed through the animal's neck.  It rolled
over, breaking the spear, and bounded off with the lower half in its
body.  Another Shooa attacking it, the animal, with a howl, was in the
act of springing on the pursuer, when an Arab shot it through the head.

On emerging from the wood, the large Felatah town of Durkulla was
perceived, and the Arabs were formed in front, headed by Boo-Khaloum.
They were flanked on each side by a large body of cavalry, who, as they
moved on, shouted the Arab war-cry.  Denham thought he could perceive a
smile pass between Barca Gana and his chief, at poor Boo-Khaloum's

Durkulla was quickly burned, and another small town near it.  The few
inhabitants found in them, being infants or aged persons, unable to
escape, were put to death or thrown into the flames.  A third town,
called Musfeia, built on a rising ground, and capable of being defended
against assailants ten times as numerous as the besiegers, was next
reached.  A strong fence of palisades, well pointed, and fastened
together with thongs of raw hide, six feet in height, had been carried
from one hill to the other.  Felatah bowmen were placed behind the
palisades and on the rising ground, with a _wady_ before them, while
their horses were all under cover of the hills.  This was a strong
position.  The Arabs, however, moved on with great gallantry, without
any support from the Bornou or Mandara troops, and, notwithstanding the
showers of arrows, some poisoned, which were poured on them from behind
the palisades, Boo-Khaloum carried them in about half an hour, and
dashed on, driving the Felatahs up the sides of the hills.  The women
were everywhere seen supplying their protectors with fresh arrows, till
they retreated, still shooting on their pursuers.  The women also rolled
down huge masses of rock, killing several Arabs.  Barca Gana, with his
spearmen, at length advanced to the support of Boo-Khaloum, and pierced
through and through some fifty unfortunates, who were left wounded near
the stakes.  The major rode by his side into the town, where a desperate
skirmish took place, but Barca Gana with his muscular arm threw eight
spears, some at a distance of thirty yards or more, which all told.  Had
either the Mandara or the sheikh's troops now moved up boldly, they must
have carried the town and the heights above it.  Instead of this, they
kept on the other side of the _wady_, out of reach of the arrows.  The
Felatahs, seeing their backwardness, made so desperate an attack that
the Arabs gave way.  The Felatah horse came on.  Had not Barca Gana and
Boo-Khaloum, with his few mounted Arabs, given them a very spirited
check, not one of their band would have lived to see the following day.
As it was, Barca Gana had three horses hit under him, two of which died
almost immediately, while poor Boo-Khaloum and his horse were both
wounded.  The major's horse was also wounded in the neck, shoulder, and
hind leg, and an arrow struck him in the face, merely drawing blood as
it passed.  He had two sticking in his bournous.  The Arabs suffered
terribly: most of them had two or three wounds; one dropped with five
arrows sticking in his head, and two of Boo-Khaloum's slaves were killed
near him.

No sooner did the Mandara and Bornou troops see the defeat of the Arabs
than they, one and all, took to flight in the most dastardly manner and
the greatest confusion.  The sultan led the way, having been prepared to
take advantage of whatever plunder the success of the Arabs might throw
into his hands; but no less determined to leave the field the moment the
fortune of the day appeared to be against them.

Major Denham had reason to regret his folly in exposing himself, badly
prepared as he was for accident.  By flight only could he save himself.
The whole army, which had now become a flying mass, plunged in the
greatest disorder into the wood which had lately been left.

He had got to the westward of Barca Gana in the confusion, when he saw
upwards of a hundred of the Bornou troops speared by the Felatahs, and
was following the steps of one of the Mandara officers, when the cries
behind, of the Felatah horse pursuing, made both quicken their pace.
His wounded horse at this juncture stumbled and fell.  Almost before he
was on his legs the Felatahs were upon him.  He had, however, kept hold
of the bridle, and, seizing a pistol from the holster, presented it at
two of the savages who were pressing him with their spears.  They
instantly went off; but another, who came on more boldly just as he was
endeavouring to mount, received the contents in his shoulder, and he was
enabled to place his foot in the stirrup.  Remounting, he again
retreated, but had not proceeded many hundred yards when his horse once
more came down, with such violence as to throw him against a tree at a
considerable distance.  At this juncture, alarmed by the horses behind
him, the animal got up and escaped, leaving the major on foot and

The Mandara officer and his followers were butchered and stripped within
a few yards of him.  Their cries were dreadful.  His hopes of life were
too faint to deserve the name.  He was almost instantly surrounded, and
speedily stripped, his pursuers making several thrusts at him with their
spears, wounding his hands severely, and his body slightly.  In the
first instance they had been prevented from murdering him by the fear of
injuring the value of his clothes, which appeared to them a rich booty.
His shirt was now torn off his back.  When his plunderers began to
quarrel for the spoil, the idea of escape came across his mind.
Creeping under the belly of the horse nearest him, he started as fast as
his legs would carry him, to the thickest part of the wood.  Two of the
Felatahs followed.  He ran in the direction the stragglers of his own
party had taken.  His pursuers gained on him, for the prickly underwood
tore his flesh and impeded his progress.  Just then he saw a mountain
stream gliding along at the bottom of a deep ravine.  His strength had
almost failed him, when, seizing the long branches of a tree overhanging
the water, he let himself down into it.  What was his horror to observe
a large liffa, the most venomous of serpents, rise from its coil as if
in the very act of striking!  His senses left him, the branch slipped
from his hand, and he tumbled headlong into the water.  The shock,
however, revived him, and with three strokes of his arms he reached the
opposite bank, which with great difficulty he crawled up.  He, at
length, felt that he was safe from his pursuers.  Still, the forlorn
situation in which he was placed, without even a rag to cover his body,
almost overwhelmed him.  Yet, fully alive to the danger to which he was
exposed, he had began to plan how he could best rest on the top of a
tamarind tree, in order to escape from panthers, when the idea of
liffas, almost as numerous, excited a shudder of despair.  While trying
to make his way through the woods, he observed two horsemen between the
trees, and, still further to the east, with feelings of gratitude, he
recognised Barca Gana and Boo-Khaloum, with about six Arabs.  Although
they were pressed closely by a party of Felatahs, the guns and pistols
of the Arabs kept the latter in check.  His shouts were drowned by the
cries of those who were falling under the Felatahs' spears and the
cheers of the Arabs rallying; but, happily, Maraymy distinguished him at
a distance.  Riding up, the faithful black assisted the major to mount
behind him, and, while the arrows whistled over their heads, they
galloped off to the rear as fast as the black's wounded horse could
carry them.  After they had gone a mile or two, Boo-Khaloum rode up and
desired one of the Arabs to cover the major with a houmous.  This was
the last act of Denham's unfortunate friend.  Directly afterwards
Maraymy exclaimed: "Look, Boo-Khaloum is dead!"  The major turned his
head, and saw the caravan leader drop from his horse into the arms of a
favourite Arab.  A poisoned arrow in his wounded foot had proved fatal.
The Arabs believed he had only swooned; but there was no water to revive
him, and before it could be obtained he was past the reach of
stimulants.  At the same time, Barca Gana offered the major a horse; but
Maraymy exclaimed: "Do not mount him; he will die!"  He therefore
remained with the black.  Two Arabs, however, mounted the animal, and in
less than an hour he fell to rise no more; and, before they could
recover themselves, both the Arabs were butchered by the Felatahs.

At last a stream was reached.  The horses, with the blood gushing from
their noses, rushed into the water, and the major, letting himself down,
knelt amongst them, and seemed to imbibe new life from the copious
draughts of the muddy beverage he swallowed.  He then lost all
consciousness; but Maraymy told him that he had staggered across the
stream and fallen down at the foot of a tree.  Here a quarter of an
hour's halt was made, to place Boo-Khaloum's body on a horse and to
collect stragglers, during which Maraymy had asked Barca Gana for
another horse, in order to carry the major on, when the chief, irritated
by his defeat, as well as by having had his horse refused, by which
means he said it had come by its death, replied: "Then leave him behind.
By the head of the Prophet! believers enough have breathed their last
to-day!  What is there extraordinary in a Christian's death?"  His old
antagonist, Malem Chadily, replied: "No; God has preserved him, let us
not forsake him."  Maraymy returned to the tree, awoke the major, and,
again mounting, they moved on as before, though with less speed.

The effect produced on the horses wounded by arrows was extraordinary;
immediately after drinking they dropped and instantly died, the blood
gushing from their mouths, noses, and ears.  More than thirty horses
were lost at this spot from the effects of the poison.

After riding forty-five miles, it was past midnight before they halted
in the territories of the Sultan of Mandara, the major thoroughly
worn-out.  The bournous thrown over him by the Arab teemed with vermin,
and it was evening the next day before he could get a shirt, when a man
gave him one, on the promise of getting a new one at Kouka.  Maraymy all
the time tended him with the greatest care while he slept for a whole
night and day under a tree.

Denham here met with an unexpected act of kindness from Mai Meegamy, a
dethroned sultan, now subject to the sheikh.  Taking him by the hand,
the sultan led him into his own leathern tent, and, disrobing himself of
his trousers, insisted that the major should put them on.  No act of
charity could exceed this.  Denham was exceedingly touched by it, but
declined the offer.  The ex-sultan, however, supposing that he did so
under the belief that he had offered the only pair he possessed, seemed
much hurt, and immediately called in a slave, whom he stripped of those
necessary appendages of a man's dress, which he put on himself,
insisting that Denham should take those he had first offered him.
Meegamy was his great friend from that moment, though he had scarcely
spoken to him before he had quitted the sheikh's dominions.

In this unfortunate expedition, besides their chief, forty-five of the
Arabs were killed, nearly all were wounded, and they lost everything
they possessed, Major Denham having also lost his mule and all his

The wounds of many of the people were very severe, and several died soon
afterwards, their bodies, as well as poor Boo-Khaloum's, becoming
instantly swollen and black.  Sometimes, immediately after death, blood
issued from the nose and mouth, which the Bornou people asserted was in
consequence of the arrows having been poisoned.

The surviving Arabs, who had now lost all their arrogance, entreated
Barca Gana to supply them with corn to save them from starving, for the
Sultan of Mandara refused to supply them with food, and even kept
Boo-Khaloum's horse-trappings and clothes.

In six days the expedition arrived at Kouka.  The sheikh was excessively
annoyed at the defeat; but laid the blame, not without justice, on the
Mandara troops, who had evidently behaved treacherously to their allies.




Soon after the return of the unfortunate expedition to Mandara, the
sheikh set out on another against a people to the west, called the
Munga, who had never hitherto acknowledged his supremacy, and refused to
pay tribute.  Another complaint against them was, as he explained it,
"that they were _kaffiring_--not saying their prayers--the dogs."  This
fault is generally laid to the charge of any nation against whom true
Mahommedans wage war, as it gives them the power of making slaves of the
heathens.  By the laws of Mahomet, one believer must not bind another.

Major Denham and Dr Oudney were anxious to visit Birnie, the old
capital of Bornou, and the sheikh left one of his chief slaves, Omar
Gana, to act as their guide.  Thence they were to proceed to Kabshary,
there to await his arrival.

They set out with five camels and four servants, making two marches each
day, from ten to fourteen miles, morning and evening.

The country round Kouka is uninteresting and flat, thickly covered with

The ruins of old Birnie, which they visited, convinced them of the power
of its former sultan.  The city, though now in ruins, covered a space of
five or six square miles.  The walls, in many places standing, consisted
of large masses of red brickwork, three or four feet in thickness, and
six to eight in height.  Besides destroying the capital, the Felatahs
had razed to the ground upwards of thirty large towns during their

The whole country which they passed after proceeding some way had become
a complete desert, having been abandoned since the Felatahs commenced
their inroads, and wild animals of all descriptions abounded in great

They heard that Kabshary had been attacked by the Munga people and
burned; and news came that the Munga horse were reconnoitring all round
them, and had murdered some men proceeding to join the sheikh.

One of the means the people had taken to defend themselves against the
invaders, had been to dig deep holes, at the bottom of which
sharp-pointed stakes were fixed, the pits being then carefully covered
over with branches and grass, so as completely to conceal them.  Similar
pitfalls are used in many parts of Africa for entrapping the giraffe and
other wild animals.

The major's servant, Columbus, and his mule not making their appearance,
he was searching for him, when he found that the animal had fallen into
one of these pits, the black having by a violent exertion of strength
saved himself.  The poor mule was found sticking on four stakes, with
her knees dreadfully torn by struggling.  She was, however, got out

Escaping from various dangers, they joined the sheikh on the banks of a
large piece of water called Dummasak.  Hearing that a caravan had
arrived at Kouka from Fezzan, they were anxious to return to the
capital.  They sent word to the sheikh, but their communication was not
delivered, and, before they could see him, he and his troops had moved
off.  They were, however, on their way to Kouka, when Omar Gana overtook
them, entreating them to return to the sheikh, who, angry at their
having gone, had struck him from his horse, and directed him to bring
them to the army without delay.  They had nothing to do but to obey.

Many of the spots they passed presented much picturesque beauty.  In
several places were groups of naked warriors resting under the trees on
the borders of the lake, with their shields on their arms, while
hundreds of others were in the water, spearing fish, which were cooked
by their companions on shore.  The margin was crowded with horses,
drinking or feeding, and men bathing, while, in the centre, hippopotami
were constantly throwing up their black muzzles, spouting water.

The march of the Bornou army now commenced; but little order was
preserved before coming near the enemy, everyone appearing to know that
at a certain point an assembly was to take place.  The sheikh took the
lead, and close after him came the Sultan of Bornou; who always attended
him on these occasions, though he never fought.  The sheikh was preceded
by five flags with extracts of the Koran on them, and attended by about
a hundred of his chiefs and favourite slaves.  A negro boy carried his
shield, a jacket of mail, and his steel skull-cap, and his arms;
another, mounted on a swift _mahary_, and fantastically dressed with a
straw hat and ostrich feathers, carried his timbrel, or drum, which it
is the greatest misfortune to lose in action.  In the rear followed the
harem; but on such occasions the sheikh takes but three wives, who are
mounted astride on trained horses, each led by a slave boy, their heads
and figures completely enveloped in brown silk bournouses, with an
attendant on either side.  The sultan has five times as many attendants
as his general, and his harem is three times as numerous.

On reaching Kabshary, the sheikh reviewed his favourite forces, the
Kanemboo spearmen, nine thousand strong.  With the exception of a goat
or sheep's skin, with the hair outwards, round their middles, and a few
strips of cloth on their heads, they were nearly naked.  Their arms were
spear and shield, with a dagger on the left arm, reversed.  The shield
is made of a peculiarly light wood, weighing only a few pounds.  Their
leaders were mounted and distinguished merely by a _tobe_ of dark blue,
and a turban of the same colour.

The sheikh's attendants were magnificently dressed, but his own costume
was neat and simple, consisting only of two white figured muslin
_tobes_, with a bournous, and a Cashmere shawl for a turban: over all
hung the English sword which had been sent him.  On the signal being
made for his troops to advance, they uttered a fearful shriek, or yell,
and advanced by troops of eight hundred to a thousand each.  After
striking their spears against their shields for some seconds, which had
an extremely grand effect, they filed off on either side, again forming
and awaiting their companions, who succeeded them in the same way.

There appeared to be a great deal of affection between these troops and
the sheikh.  He spurred his horse onwards into the midst of some of the
troops as they came up, and spoke to them, while the men crowded round
him, kissing his feet and stirrups.  It was a most pleasing sight, and
he seemed to feel how much his present elevation was owing to their
exertions; while they displayed a devotion and attachment denoting the
greatest confidence.  The major assured him that, with these troops, he
need fear but little the attempts of the Fezzaners on his territories.

The next day a number of captives--women and children--were brought in:
one poor woman accompanied by four children--two in her arms and two on
the horse of the father who had been stabbed for defending those he
loved.  They were uttering the most piteous cries.  The sheikh, after
looking at them, desired that they might all be released, saying: "God
forbid that I should make slaves of the wives and children of any
Mussalman!  Go back: tell the wicked and powerful chiefs who urged your
husbands to rebel and to _kafir_, that I shall be quickly with them, and
will punish them instead of the innocent!"

This message had its effect; for, during the following day, many
hundreds of the Munga people came in, bowing to the ground, and throwing
sand upon their heads in token of submission.  Several towns also sent
their chiefs and submitted in this manner, bringing peace offerings,
when the sheikh swore solemnly not to molest them further.  Their
principal leader, Malem Fanaamy, fearing to lose his head, would not
come; but offered to pay two thousand slaves, a thousand bullocks, and
three hundred horses as the price of peace.  The offer was refused; and,
compelled by his people, Malem Fanaamy made his appearance, poorly
dressed, with an uncovered head.  The sheikh received his submission;
and, when he really expected to hear the order for his throat to be cut,
he was clothed with eight handsome _tobes_, and his head made as big as
six, with turbans from Egypt.  This matter being settled, the army
returned to the capital.

Major Denham soon after this visited a caravan which had come from
Soudan, on its way to Fezzan.  The merchants had nearly a hundred
slaves, the greater part female, mostly very young--those from Nyffe of
a deep copper colour, and beautifully formed; the males were also young,
and linked together in couples by iron rings round their legs, yet they
laughed and seemed in good condition.  It is a common practice with the
merchants to induce one slave to persuade his companions that on
arriving at Tripoli they will be free and clothed in red--a colour of
which negroes are passionately fond.  By these promises they are induced
to submit quietly until they are too far from their homes to render
escape possible.

An extraordinary event occurred here, showing the despotic power of the
sheikh.  Barca Gana, his general, a governor of six large districts, had
offended the sheikh, who sent for him, had him stripped in his presence,
and a leathern girdle put round his loins, and, after reproaching him
with his ingratitude, ordered that he should be forthwith sold to the
Tibboo merchants, for he was still a slave.  The other chiefs, however,
falling on their knees, petitioned that their favourite general might be
forgiven.  The culprit at that moment appeared to take his leave.  The
sheikh, on this, threw himself back on his carpet, wept like a child,
and suffered Barca Gana to embrace his knees, and, calling them all his
sons, pardoned his penitent slave.

Poor Dr Oudney had never risen since his return from Munga, and
Clapperton and Hillman were also dangerously ill.

News now arrived that a caravan was on its way from the north.  This was
gratifying intelligence, as the expedition hoped to obtain letters and
remittances by it.

Hillman had manufactured some carriages for two brass guns, which had
been sent to the sheikh from Tripoli.  The sheikh was delighted when the
major, the only person capable of attending to them, fired them off.  He
now thought himself able to attack all who might become hostile to him.

On the 14th of December Mr Clapperton and Dr Oudney, having somewhat
recovered, set out with a large _kafila_, bound to Kano in Soudan.  Dr
Oudney, however, was in a very unfit state to travel, being almost in
the last stage of consumption.  A few days after they had gone, a
_kafila_ arrived from the north, and with it came a young ensign of the
80th Regiment, Mr Toole, who had taken the place of Mr Tyrwhit,
detained on account of sickness.  Major Denham was much pleased with his
appearance and manners--his countenance, indeed, being an irresistible
letter of introduction.  He had made the long journey from Tripoli to
Bornou in three months and fourteen days, arriving with only the loss of
five camels.  Denham's spirits revived with the society of so pleasant a
friend, and he determined to take the first opportunity of visiting the
Shary and Loggun.  The sheikh willingly gave them permission, appointing
a handsome negro, Belial, to act as their guide and manager.  He was
altogether a superior person, and was attended by six slaves.  These,
with themselves and personal attendants, formed their party.

Their journey was commenced on the 23rd of January, 1824.  After leaving
Angornou, they proceeded east, along the borders of the lake, to Angala,
where resided Miram, the divorced wife of the sheikh, El Kanemy, in a
fine house--her establishment exceeding sixty persons.  She was a very
handsome, beautifully-formed negress about thirty-five, and had much of
the softness of manner so extremely prepossessing in the sheikh.  She
received her visitors seated on an earthen throne covered with a Turkey
carpet, and surrounded by twenty of her favourite slaves, all dressed
alike in fine white shirts which reached to their feet; their necks,
ears, and noses thickly ornamented with coral.  A negro dwarf, measuring
scarcely three feet, the keeper of her keys, sat before her,
richly-dressed in Soudan _tobes_.

The Shary was reached on the 23rd.  The travellers were surprised at the
magnitude of the stream, which appeared to be fully half a mile in
width, running at the rate of two or three miles an hour towards the

Remaining some days at the town of Showy on the banks of the river, they
embarked, accompanied by the _kaide_, or governor, and eight canoes
carrying ten slaves each.  After a voyage of nearly eight hours, they
reached a spot thirty-five miles from Showy.  The scenery was highly
interesting: one noble reach succeeded another, alternately varying
their courses; the banks thickly scattered with trees, rich in foliage,
hung over with creepers bearing variously-coloured and aromatic
blossoms.  Several crocodiles were seen, which rolled into the stream
and disappeared as they approached.

After proceeding further down the river, they returned to Showy, and
then made another excursion up the stream.

With much grief Denham perceived symptoms of illness in his companion,
who, however, complained but little.  While he was suffering they
reached a place which is so infested by flies and bees that the
inhabitants cannot move out of their houses during the day.

Their houses are literally formed one cell within another, five or six
in number, in order to prevent the ingress of the insects.  One of their
party, who went out, returned with his eyes and head in such a state
that he was ill for three days.

Hence they moved on to Zarmawha, an independent sultan, who had twice
been in rebellion against the sheikh.  Belial was received with scant
courtesy; but the sultan was very civil to the white men, to whom he
sent a variety of dishes of food, and was highly pleased with the
presents he received, observing that the English were a race of sultans.

Mr Toole's sufferings increased, though they managed to reach Loggun,
on the banks of the Shary.  As they approached, a person, apparently of
consequence, advanced towards them, bending nearly double and joining
his hands, followed by his slaves, stooping still lower than himself.
He explained that he was deputed by the sultan to welcome the white men,
and, preceding their party, conducted them to a habitation which had
been prepared for them, consisting of four separate huts, well-built
within an outer wall, with a large entrance-hall for their servants.

Next morning Denham was sent for to appear before the sultan, when he
was preceded through the streets by ten immense negroes of high birth,
with grey beards, bare heads, and carrying large clubs.  After passing
through several dark rooms, he was conducted to a large square court,
where some hundred persons were assembled, seated on the ground.  In the
middle was a vacant space to which he was led, and desired to sit down.
Two slaves in striped cotton _tabes_, who were fanning the air through a
lattice work of cane, pointed out the retirement of the sultan.  This
shade was removed, and something alive was discovered on a carpet,
wrapped up in silk _tobes_, with the head enveloped in shawls, and
nothing but the eyes visible.  The whole court prostrated themselves and
poured sand on their heads, while eight _frum-frums_ and as many horns
blew a loud and very harsh-sounding salute.

This great man, however, was not above doing a stroke of business, for,
after enquiring whether the major wished to buy female slaves, he
observed: "If you do, go no further; I have some hundreds, and will sell
them to you as cheap as anyone."

Though a much handsomer race than the Bornouese, the Loggun people are
thieves, and, judging from their chiefs, great rascals.  It appeared
that there were two sultans, father and son, both of whom applied to the
major for poison that would not lie, to be used against each other, the
younger one offering him three female slaves as a bribe.

The province of which Loggun is the capital, is called Begharmi.  The
people are in many respects similar to the Bornouese, with whom they are
constantly at war.  They possess a strong force of cavalry, clothed in
suits of thick quilted armour, with helmets of the same material, easily
penetrated however by bullets, though impervious to arrows.  Their
horses are also covered in the manner of their riders.  So unwieldy are
these warriors, that they require to be assisted when mounting their
steeds.  Their weapons are long, double-headed spears, something like
pitchforks with flattened prongs.

Shortly after this a large body of them, five thousand strong, with two
hundred chiefs were defeated by the Bornouese, when all the chiefs and a
considerable number of the men were slain.

The Loggunese, however, have made considerable progress in the arts of
peace.  The clothes woven by them are superior to those of Bornou, being
beautifully glazed, and finely dyed with indigo; and they make use even
of a current coin of iron, somewhat in the form of a horse-shoe, which
none of the neighbouring nations possess.  Their country abounds in
grain and cattle, and is diversified with forests of acacias and other
beautiful trees.

As they proceeded on their journey, poor Mr Toole grew worse.

Escaping several dangers, they returned to Angala, where at first the
major hoped his poor friend might recover, but on the 26th of February a
cold shiver seized him, and just before noon he expired, completely
worn-out and exhausted.  He had scarcely completed his 22nd year, and
was in every sense an amiable and promising young officer.

On Denham's return to Kouka, he found the sheikh with a large army
collected to attack the Begharmis, who were scouring the country.  As,
however, he was suffering from fever, he went on to Kouka, where he
heard of the death of Dr Oudney at a place called Murmur.  The sheikh's
expedition was successful, and the people were highly delighted with the
plunder which had been obtained.

Sickness, however, was at work in the city.  Omar, an Arab, who had
arrived with Mr Toole, died, and Columbus caught the fever, and had to
take to his bed.  The major, however, was cheered by the arrival of Mr
Tyrhwit, who had been sent out by the British Government to strengthen
the party.  He brought a present of two swords, two brace of pistols, a
dagger, and two gold watches, which were received by El Kanemy with
great delight.  On hearing that some rockets had also been forwarded, he
exclaimed: "What besides all these riches!  There are no friends like
these; they are all true; and I see by the book that, if the prophet had
lived only a short time longer, they would have become Moslem."

On the termination of the Rhamadan, June 1st, the sheikh again took the
field, proceeding eastward along the shores of the Chad, against a
powerful Biddomah chief, called Amanook, who held a strong position on
some islands near the shores of the lake.  The object of the expedition
had been kept a great secret till the neighbourhood of the country to be
attacked was reached.  The army marched through the country of the
Shooas, a people who live entirely in tents of leather and huts of
rushes, changing but from necessity, on the approach of an enemy or want
of pasturage for their numerous flocks.  They seldom fight, except in
their own defence.  Their principal food is the milk of camels, in which
they are rich, and also that of cows and sheep; often they take no other
nourishment for months together.  They have the greatest contempt for
and hatred of the negro nations, and yet are always tributary either to
one black sultan or another.  There is no example of their ever having
peopled a town or established themselves in a permanent home.

The sheikh having halted the main body of his army, Barca Gana advanced
with a thousand men, being joined also by four hundred Dugganahs.  They
found the chief, Amanook, posted, with all his cattle and people, on a
narrow pass between two lakes, having in front of him a lake which was
neither deep nor wide, but full of holes, with a deceitful, muddy

The sheikh's troops had long been without food, and the sight of the
bleating flocks and lowing herds was too much for them.  Barca Gana,
however, seeing the strength of the enemy's position, wished to halt,
and to send over spearmen on foot, with shields, who would lead the
attack.  The younger chiefs however exclaimed: "What! be so near them as
this, and not eat them?  No, let us on: this night their flocks and
women will be ours!"  In this cry the Shooas also joined.  The general
yielded, and the attack commenced.  The Arabs led the way with the
Dugganahs.  On arriving in the middle of the lake the horses sunk up to
their saddle-bows; most of them were out of their depth, and others
floundering in the mud; the ammunition of the riders became wet, their
guns useless.  As they neared the shore, Amanook's men hurled at them
with unerring aim a volley of their light spears, charging with their
strongest and best horses, trained and accustomed to the water, while at
the same time another body, having crossed the lake higher up, came by
the narrow pass and cut off the retreat of all those who had advanced
into the lake.  The sheikh's people now fell thickly.  Barca Gana,
although attacking against his own judgment, was among the foremost, and
received a severe spear-wound in his back, which pierced through four
_tobes_ and his iron chain armour, while attacked by five chiefs, who
seemed determined on finishing him.  One of these he thrust through with
his long spear, and his own people coming to his rescue with a fresh
horse, he was saved, though thirty of his followers were either killed
or captured by Amanook's people.

It was expected that Amanook would attack the camp, but, instead of so
doing, he sent word that he would treat with the sheikh, and that he
wished for peace.  If peace was not to be obtained, however, he swore by
the Prophet that he would turn fish, and fly to the centre of the water;
and, should even the sheikh himself come, he would bring the _wady_
against him.

The major and his companions visited the general, whom they found
suffering much from his wound, but Denham acting as surgeon, it in a
short time healed.  Barca Gana then strongly advised him to return to
Kouka, showing that his hopes of getting to the east would certainly be

A little sheikh, who had arrived from Fezzan, endeavoured to poison the
mind of El Kanemy against the English, telling him that they had
conquered India and probably fully intended to attack Bornou.

On the major's return to Kouka he found that Captain Clapperton had just
returned from Soudan.  On going to the hut where he was lodged, Denham
did not know his friend as he lay extended on the floor, so great was
the alteration in him; and he was about to leave the place, when
Clapperton called out his name.  Notwithstanding this, so great were
Clapperton's spirits, that he spoke of returning to Soudan after the
rains.  He had performed a very interesting journey, the particulars of
which will shortly be narrated.

The sheikh had just before made himself very unpopular with the female
portion of his subjects, having, in consequence of his determination to
improve the morality of his people, issued an order such as the most
savage of despots have never ventured to enact.  One morning the gates
of the city were kept closed at daylight, and sixty women who had a bad
reputation were brought before him.  Five were sentenced to be hanged in
the public market, and four flogged.  Two of the latter expired under
the lash, while the former were dragged, with their heads shaved,
through the market, with ropes round their necks, and were then
strangled and thrown by twos into a hole previously prepared.

The effect on the people was such that a hundred families quitted Kouka
to take up their abode in other towns, where this rigour did not exist.




It will be remembered that Captain Clapperton, accompanied by Dr
Oudney, set out from Kouka on the 14th of December, 1823, for the
purpose of exploring Soudan.  Their party consisted of Jacob, a Jew, two
servants, and three men of Fezzan.  They had three saddle-horses and
four sumpter mules.  They travelled in company with a _kafila_ in which
were twenty-seven Arab merchants and about fifty natives of Bornou.
Most of the Arabs rode on horseback, some having, besides, a led horse,
but all the rest of the party were on foot.

Doctor Oudney was of great service to the _hadji_, who had injured his
hand by the bursting of a gun.  He invariably pitched his tent close to
that of the doctor, who regularly dressed it for him.

Passing old Birnie, they had after two days to pass through an
undulating country, frequently wading across hollows filled with water.
Having to cross a river, the _hadji_ had provided himself with a large
raft, on which his own and his friends' baggage was carried across; but
the Arabs, who passed lower down the river, were dreadfully frightened.
The greatest difficulty was with the camels and female slaves, the women
screaming and squalling loudly.  The camels were towed across, one man
swimming before with a halter in his teeth, while another kept beating
the animal behind with a stick, while it every now and then attempted to
turn back, or bobbed its head under water.

The next day they were exposed to another danger.  The grass having been
set on fire, the flames advanced rapidly, and must have put them all to
flight, had they not sought shelter within the ruined walls of old

They passed through numerous towns and villages, the people belonging to
a tribe of Shooa Arabs.  The women were really beautiful.  They wore
their hair in a form which at a distance might be mistaken for a helmet,
a large braid at the crown having some resemblance to a crest.

They had now to pass through a country inhabited by Bedites, who had not
embraced Islamism.  Protected by the natural fastnesses of their
country, they were held in dread and abhorrence by all the faithful.
The road lay over very elevated ground, and so low was the temperature
in the morning, that the water in their shallow vessels was crusted with
thin flakes of ice, and the water-skins themselves were frozen as hard
as a board.  The horses and camels stood shivering with cold.  Dr
Oudney also became extremely ill, probably from the low temperature.

They had just entered the country of the Bedites when two men were met,
who were immediately seized by the Arabs; one was a Shooa and the other
a negro.  One of the Bornouese had inflicted a dreadful cut under the
left ear of the negro, and, notwithstanding his wound, they led the poor
fellow by a rope fastened round his neck.  Clapperton could not refrain
from beating the merciless Bornouese and at the same time threatening to
lodge the contents of his gun in his head if he repeated his cruelties.
He took occasion to impress on the minds of the Arabs how unworthy it
was of brave men to behave so cruelly to their prisoners, and he
thoroughly shamed them into good behaviour.

Having crossed the river You, they reached the city of Katagum, when a
servant of the governor met them with a present, and, accompanied by a
band of horsemen with drummers drumming and two bards singing the
praises of their master, they entered the city.  Here they remained,
while the caravan pursued its course.

This was the most eastern of the Felatah towns.  They were here visited
by a Tripolitan merchant who was very rich, possessing no less than five
hundred slaves and a vast number of horses.

Through all the towns and villages which they had passed, the sick were
brought to be cured, while numbers came for remedies against all sorts
of fancied diseases.

The governor received them in the most simple way.  They found him
seated under a rude canopy, on a low bank of earth, with three old men
attending on him.  They shook hands and then sat down on the floor.  He
was highly pleased with the presents he received, and offered anything
they might wish for, especially slaves.  Clapperton told them that a
slave was unknown in England, and that the moment one set foot on
British ground he was instantly free.  When he heard that their only
object was to see the world, he told them that they must go to the
Sultan Bello, who was a learned man and would, be glad to meet people
who had seen so much.

A lucky omen, as the natives supposed it, occurred.  Among the presents
offered by the king was ajar of honey; this one of the servants upset
without breaking the pot.  Had it been broken, the omen would have been
unfortunate; as it was, the governor was highly pleased, and ordered the
poor to be called in to lick up the honey.  They rushed in, squabbling
among themselves.  One old man, having a long beard, came off with a
double allowance, for he let it sweep up the honey and then sucked it

Dr Oudney soon after this became too weak to sit his horse, but still
he begged to be carried on.  They therefore travelled forward to the
town of Murmur.  Here they were compelled to stop, though the doctor the
next morning, after drinking a cup of coffee, with the assistance of his
companions dressed.  It was soon evident that he would be unable to
proceed.  He was carried back into his tent, where in a short time
Captain Clapperton, with unspeakable grief, witnessed his death without
a struggle or a groan.  He was but thirty-two years of age.  His friend
had a deep grave dug, and enclosed it with a wall of clay to keep off
the beasts of prey.  He had also two sheep killed and distributed among
the poor.

Ill as Captain Clapperton himself was, and now left alone among strange
people, the loss to him was severe and afflicting.  Still, his ardent
spirit triumphing over sorrow and trouble, he pursued his journey, and
on the 20th of January he entered Kano, the great emporium of the
kingdom of Haussa.  He dressed himself in his naval uniform to make an
impression on the inhabitants of the city, which, from the description
of the Arabs, he expected to see of surprising grandeur.  His
disappointment was therefore great, when he traversed the place.  He
found the houses nearly a quarter of a mile from the walls, and in many
parts scattered into detached groups between large stagnant pools of
water.  Not an individual turned his head round to gaze at him, all
being intent on their own business.  The market-place was bordered to
the east and west by an extensive swamp, covered with weeds and water
and frequented by wild ducks, cranes, and vultures.  The house which had
been provided for him was close to a morass, the pestilential
exhalations of which were increased by the sewers of the houses all
opening into the street.

Fatigued and sick, he lay down on a mat which the owner had spread for
him.  His mansion had six chambers above, extremely dark, and five rooms
below, with a dismal-looking entrance, a back court, draw-well, and
other conveniences.  Little holes, or windows, admitted a glimmering
light into the apartments.  Nevertheless, this was thought a handsome

All the Arab merchants, not prevented by sickness, who had travelled
with him from Kouka, came to see him, looking more like ghosts than men,
as almost all strangers at the time were suffering from intermittent

The governor gave him a private audience, and seemed highly pleased with
the presents he received, promising to forward them on to his master,
the Sultan Bello, at Sackatoo, after his own return from an expedition
which would occupy him fifteen days.

During the interval Captain Clapperton suffered greatly from fever.

The newspapers which he here received from Major Denham apprised him of
Belzoni's attempt to penetrate to Timbuctoo by the way of Fez.

On returning from a ride he met two large bodies of troops, who were to
accompany the governor, each consisting of five hundred horse and foot.
The latter were armed with bows and arrows, the cavalry with shields,
swords, and spears, and sumptuously accoutred.  The swords were broad,
straight, and long, and were indeed the very blades formerly wielded by
the knights of Malta, having been sent from that island to Tripoli,
where they were exchanged for bullocks and carried across the desert to
Bornou, thence to Haussa, and, at last, re-mounted at Kano for the use
of the inhabitants of almost all central Africa.  The shields were
covered with hides of animals, and were generally round; but there were
some of an oval shape, in the centre of which was scored a perfect
Maltese cross.  He observed crosses of other forms cut in the doors of
the houses.

Several camels, loaded with quilted cotton armour, both for men and
horses, were in attendance.  This armour was arrow proof; but it is
seldom worn, except in actual combat.  The saddles had high peaks before
and behind, and the stirrup-irons were in the shape of a fire-shovel.

A nephew of the Sultan Bello paid him a visit the next morning and told
him, after taking a cup of tea, which he liked very much, that he had
hitherto looked upon a Christian as little better than a monster, though
he now confessed that he liked the traveller.  Another nephew came also,
a most intelligent young man, who read and spoke Arabic with fluency,
and was very anxious to see everything, and to hear all about England.

He found the market well supplied with every necessary and luxury in
request among the people of the interior.  The sheikh, who superintended
it, however, fixed the prices of all wares, for which he was entitled to
a commission; and, after every bargain, the seller returned to the buyer
a stated part of the price by way of a blessing, or a "luck-penny" as it
would be called in England.  Cowries were here used as coins, though
somewhat cumbersome, as twenty were worth only a halfpenny; thus, in
paying a pound sterling, nine thousand six hundred shells had to be
counted out.  As he remarks: "The great advantage of the use of the
cowrie is that forgery is excluded, as it cannot possibly be imitated."
The natives show also great dexterity in counting out even the largest

The butchers were numerous, and understood showing off animals to the
best advantage.  Sometimes they even stuck a little sheep's wool on a
leg of goat's flesh, to make it pass for mutton.  When a fat bull was
brought to the market to be killed, its horns were dyed red with
_henna_, the drummers attended, a mob soon collected, the news of the
animal's size and fatness spread, and all ran to buy.  Near at hand were
small wood fires stuck round with wooden skewers, on which small bits of
fat and lean meat, the size of a penny-piece, were roasting,
superintended by a woman with a mat dish placed on her knees, from which
she served her guests, who were squatted round her.  Indeed, the market
was as busy a one as can be seen in any country.  Jugglers also, like
those of India, were practising their tricks with snakes, having
extracted the venomous fangs.

Haussa is celebrated for its boxers, the most expert of whom are found
among the butchers.  Clapperton having intimated his willingness to pay
for a performance, a number of combatants arrived, attended by two
drummers and the whole body of butchers.  A ring was soon formed, by the
master of the ceremonies throwing dust on the spectators to make them
stand back.  The drummers entered the ring, followed by one of the
boxers, who was quite naked with the exception of a skin round his
middle.  Placing himself in an attitude as if to oppose an antagonist,
he wrought his muscles into action, and then went round the ring showing
his arms to the bystanders and exclaiming: "I am a hyaena!  I am a Hon!
I am able to kill all that oppose me!"  To which the spectators replied,
"The blessing of God be upon thee!--Thou art a hyaena: thou art a lion."

A number of fighters then came forward, when they were next ranged in
pairs.  If they happened to be friends, they laid their left breast
together twice, and exclaimed: "We are lions! we are friends!"  Then one
left the ring, and another was brought forward.  If the two did not
recognise one another as friends, the combat immediately commenced.
They parried with the left hand open, and struck as opportunity offered
with the right, generally aiming at the pit of the stomach and under the
ribs.  Occasionally they closed with one another, when one seized the
other's head under his arm and beat it with his fist, at the same time
striking with the knee between his antagonist's thighs.  Indeed, much
the same brutality was exhibited as in English prize-fights.
Clapperton, hearing that they sometimes gouged out each other's eyes,
and that such combats seldom terminated without one or more being
killed, having satisfied his curiosity, ordered the battle to cease, and
gave the promised reward.

The custom in this place is to bury the people in their own houses,
which are occupied as usual by the poorer classes; but when a great man
is buried, the house is for ever after abandoned.  A corpse being
prepared for interment, the first chapter of the Koran is read over it.
The funeral takes place the same day.  The bodies of slaves are dragged
out of the town and left a prey to vultures and wild beasts in most
places; but in Kano they are thrown into the morass or nearest pool of

On the 22nd of February, Clapperton commenced his journey towards
Sackatoo, in company with an Arab merchant, Mahomet Jolly, having left
his Jew servant, Jacob, to return in case of his death, with his effects
to Bornou.

At the towns where he stopped he was generally taken for a _fighi_, or
teacher, and was pestered to write out charms.  One day his washerwoman
insisted on being paid with a charm in writing, that would induce people
to buy earthenware of her.

After travelling for some days he was met by an escort of one hundred
and fifty horsemen with drums and trumpets, sent by Sultan Bello to
conduct him to his capital, which he reached on the 16th of March.  He,
as usual, dressed himself in his naval uniform; and, as he approached
the gates, he was met by a messenger from the sultan, to bid him welcome
and to acquaint him that his master, who was out on an expedition, would
return to Sackatoo in the evening.

Large crowds were out to look at him, and he entered the city amid the
hearty welcomes of young and old.  He was conducted to the house of the
_gadado_, or vizier, where apartments were provided for him and his
servants.  The _gadado_ himself arrived in the evening, and was
excessively polite, but would not drink tea with him, as he said that he
was a stranger in their land, and had not yet eaten of his bread.

Next morning the sultan sent for him.  Clapperton found him seated on a
small carpet, between two pillars supporting the roof a thatched house.
The walls and pillars were painted blue and white in the Moorish taste.
Giving him a hearty welcome, the sultan at once entered into
conversation.  He asked numerous questions about Europe, and seemed
perfectly well acquainted with the names of the more ancient sects,
inquiring whether his visitor was a Nestorian or a Socinian.  Clapperton
replied that he was a Protestant, but had to acknowledge that he was not
sufficiently versed in religious subtleties to solve all the knotty
points on which Bello wished for information.  He then ordered some
books belonging to Major Denham to be brought, among which was his
journal, and they were all in a handsome manner returned.  He spoke with
great bitterness of Boo-Khaloum for making predatory inroads into his
territories, next putting the puzzling question: "What was your friend
doing there?"  Clapperton replied that Major Denham had no other object
than to make a short excursion into the country.

The sultan was a noble-looking man, somewhat portly, with short,
curling, black beard, a small mouth, a fine forehead, Grecian nose, and
large, black eyes.  He was habited in a light-blue cotton _tobe_, with
white muslin turban, the small end of which he wore over the nose and
mouth in the Turaick fashion.

This was the first of many visits Clapperton paid him.

He was highly pleased with the various presents which the King of
England had sent him.  He asked what he could give in return.
Clapperton replied that the most acceptable service he could render
would be to assist the King of England in putting a stop to the slave

"What!" he asked; "have you no slaves in England?  What do you do for

He was much astonished at hearing that regular wages were paid, and that
even soldiers were fed, clothed, and received pay from government.

"You are a beautiful people," he observed.

The usual question was also put: "What are you come for?"  Clapperton
replied, "To see the country--its rivers, mountains, and inhabitants,
etcetera.  My people had hitherto supposed yours devoid of all religion,
and not far removed from the condition of wild beasts, whereas I now
find them to be civilised, learned, humane, and pious."

On another occasion Clapperton exhibited a planisphere of the heavenly
bodies.  The sultan knew all the signs of the zodiac, some of the
constellations, and many of the stars by their Arabic names.  He was
greatly interested with the sextant, or, as he called it, "the
looking-glass of the sun."  Clapperton showed him how to obtain an
observation with it.

The sultan made minute inquiries as to the conquests of the English in
India, and also the reason of their attack on Algiers, evidently
suspecting that they contemplated similar proceedings against his
country.  Clapperton explained that the King of England had a vast
number of Moslems who were his willing subjects, and that their object
in India was to protect the natives and to give them good laws, not to
tyrannise over them; while, with regard to Algiers, the Algerines had
been punished because they persisted in making slaves of Europeans.

The sultan, however, as after events proved, was far from satisfied, his
fears being increased by the Arabs, who were aware that the chief object
of the English was to open up a trade from the west coast with the
country, and, should they succeed, they themselves would thus be
deprived of their trade across the desert from the north.

At Clapperton's request the sultan ordered a chart of the Quorra to be
drawn by one of his learned men, who asserted that that river entered
the sea at Fundah, near a town called Jagra, governed by one of Bello's

This made the traveller still more anxious to proceed down that river to
the coast, but the sultan, though he at first promised an escort,
ultimately declined sending it, declaring that he could not sanction so
rash an enterprise, and that his guest could only return home by the way
he had come.

From an Arab chief residing here Clapperton obtained much information
about Mungo Park and the way in which he had lost his life, which
confirmed what had previously been heard.

The sultan made an especial request that an English consul and physician
should be sent to reside at Sackatoo, and Clapperton promised that he
would represent the matter to his own government, and he had no doubt
that his request would be complied with.  He also begged that guns and
rockets might be sent out by way of Tripoli and Bornou, under the escort
of an Arab leader, El Wordee, who had conducted the last caravan.  This
Clapperton had no doubt was a device of El Wordee's, to have the
opportunity of conducting another English mission and fleecing them as
he had done the last.  When the Arab found that his plans were opposed
by the traveller, he set to work to revenge himself, and by his
machinations succeeded in compelling Clapperton to abandon his intended
journey to the sea-coast by way of Youri.

Frequent attempts were made to induce the traveller to turn Mahommedan,
especially by a famous old _maraboo_; but after his failure the Moslem
appeared to have given up the attempt as hopeless.

At length, on the 4th of May, he was allowed to take his departure from
Sackatoo, escorted by one the sultan's officers, with a party of
merchants and their slaves.  As the country was in a disturbed state,
they pushed on night and day through a dense underwood, which tore their
clothes and scratched the legs of the riders.  Several of the poor
natives on foot, who had taken advantage of the escort to pass through
this part of the country, overcome with fatigue and thirst, sank down
never to rise.  One of Clapperton's servants also dropped, apparently
dead; but his master had him lashed on the camel, when, throwing up a
quantity of bile, he soon appeared as fresh as ever.  The next day many
of the horses died, and all the people were overcome with fatigue and
thirst.  On the third day no less than nine men and six horses were
found to have perished on the road.

Clapperton was taken to the town of Kashna, where an old Arab chief, who
had resided there for some years, took compassion on him and sent an
elderly black slave woman to nurse him, with two younger attendants.
This was the first offer of the kind he had ever received from a
Mussulman, and under their care and attendance he soon recovered his
health and strength.

After meeting with numerous adventures and exposed to many dangers, on
the 8th of July he reached Kouka, when he found that Major Denham was
absent on a journey to the east side of the Chad.  Hillman, the
carpenter, was busily employed in finishing a covered cart, to be used
as a carriage for the sheikh's wives.  The workmanship reflected the
greatest credit on his ingenuity, though it was neither light nor

On the 16th of August, soon after Major Denham returned from the
eastward, he and Captain Clapperton, accompanied by William Hillman the
carpenter, took their departure from Kouka, with the intention of first
visiting the shores of Lake Chad and then joining the _kafila_ which was
on its way from Soudan to Tripoli.  On the morning of their departure
they went to take leave of the sheikh, whom they found in his garden.
He gave them a letter to the King of England, and a list of requests,
and expressed himself very kindly.  At parting he offered his hand,
which excited an involuntary exclamation from his attendants.

Meeting with no event of any especial interest on their visit to the
lake, they joined the caravan on the 14th of September.

Throughout the journey they found that they got on as well, if not
better than their companions, who looked to them both for safety and
protection, as well as for the direction of the route.  They had upwards
of fifty miles to cross, over a frightful waste of movable sand-hills,
to Zow; many of the poor children, panting with thirst, scarcely able to
creep along.

At Bilma they laid in a stock of dates for the next fourteen days,
during which man and beast nearly subsisted upon them, the slaves for
twenty days together mostly getting no other food.

Then came the stony desert, which the camels, already worn-out by the
heavy sand-hills, had to cross for nine days.  El Wahr is of surpassing
dreariness, the rocks a dark sandstone of the most gloomy and barren
appearance; the wind whistles through the narrow fissures, where not a
blade of grass finds nourishment, and, as the traveller creeps under the
lowering crags to take shelter for the night, he stumbles over the
skeleton of some starved human being.

On the day they made El Wahr, and the two following, camels in great
numbers dropped down and died, or were quickly killed and the meat
brought in by the hungry slaves.

Such are some of the ordinary events of a journey across the desert.

On the 21st of January, 1825, they reached Tripoli, and soon after
embarked for Leghorn.  Before leaving, however, Major Denham obtained
the freedom of a Mandara boy, whose liberation from slavery he had paid
for some months before.  He now got the pacha to put his seal on the
necessary document, the only way in which a Christian can give freedom
to a slave in a Mahommedan country.

The travellers were long detained by quarantine at Leghorn, so that the
three survivors of the expedition did not teach England till the 1st of




From the favourable report which Clapperton on his return home brought
of the Sultan Bello of Sackatoo, and his wish to open up a commercial
intercourse with the English, the Government determined at once to send
out another expedition, in the hopes that that object might be carried
out, and that means might be found for putting a check on the slave
trade in that part of Africa.

Clapperton, now raised to the rank of commander, was placed at the head
of the expedition.  Captain Pearce and a Mr Morrison, a naval surgeon,
were appointed to serve under him.  He also engaged the services of Mr
Dickson, another surgeon, and of a very intelligent young man, Richard
Lander, who was to act as his servant.

As Sultan Bello stated that two large towns under his government existed
near the coast, called Funda and Raka, and that he would send down
messengers, whom his friends would meet on their arrival, it was settled
that the expedition should proceed to the Bight of Benin, and thence
make their way to Sackatoo.  Losing no time, the very year after his
return Clapperton sailed from Portsmouth on board HM sloop "Brazen,"
and, touching at Sierra Leone, arrived at Benin on the 26th of November.

Mr Dickson, wishing to make his way alone to Sackatoo, was landed at
Whidah, taking with him Columbus, Denham's former servant, and from
thence, in company with a Portuguese of the name of De Sousa, he set off
for Dahomey.  Here he was well received and was sent forward to a place
called Shar, seventeen days' journey from Dahomey.  From thence he was
known to have set forward with another escort, but from that time
nothing whatever was heard of him or his attendant, Columbus.

At Benin Clapperton met an English merchant of the name of Houtson, who
advised him not to ascend the river, but to take a route from Badagarry
across the country to Katunga, the capital of Youriba.

Under the sanction of the King of Badagarry, the mission set out on its
long and perilous journey on the 7th of December, accompanied by Mr

At Badagarry Clapperton had engaged an old negro, who had been a sailor,
named Pasco, and who, speaking English, was likely to prove useful as an

Travelling on sixty miles, the mission entered the town of Jannah.  By
this time all its members were suffering greatly from the climate;
Captain Pearce and Dr Morrison especially were very ill, and Richard
Lander was also suffering.  Those who were able had ridden on horseback,
but the sick were carried in hammocks.

They halted in the palaver-house, an open shed, which was soon
surrounded by thousands of people making a great noise.  Here they
waited till the caboceer, or chief man, made his appearance.  He came
gorgeously attired in a large yellow silk shirt and red velvet cap, with
a silver-mounted whip ornamented with beads in one hand, and a stick
covered with bells in the other, which he rattled whenever he spoke.  He
took his seat on a large leathern cushion, placed on a scarlet cloth.
When Captain Clapperton was going to sit down on the cloth, the
attendant ladies pulled it from under him; so he took his seat on a mat.
The females then sang in chorus very beautifully.  The members of the
commission then shook hands with the caboceer, who said he was glad to
see them, and that whatever they had to say to the King of Eyeo must
first be delivered to him.  Their reply was that they had nothing to
say, except to request that the king would grant them a passage through
his country.  His answer was that he was glad, that they should see the
King of Eyeo's face, and that he would give them a good path and forward
them on without trouble; but that they must ride on horseback, as his
people were unaccustomed to carry hammocks.  They were then shown to a
house, where they remained during their stay.

As Captain Clapperton and Mr Houtson walked through the town, they were
followed by an immense crowd, who rushed over the baskets in the
market-place, the boys darting under the stalls, the women bawling after
those who had scattered their goods; yet not a word of disrespect was
uttered to the strangers.  They remarked the kind way in which the dogs
in this place were treated, their necks ornamented with collars of
different colours, and cowries.  No great man was without one, which
always has a boy to take care of it.

The people, hearing that a Brazilian brig had arrived at Badagarry, were
preparing to set out on a slaving expedition to a place to the eastward.

Slave-dealers as the people were, they deserve to be commended for their
honesty; for during the whole journey hitherto, although the mission had
had ten relays of carriers, not a single article had been stolen.

A few days after, Dr Morrison, who continued to get worse, requested to
return, hoping that the sea air would restore him.  Mr Houtson
accompanied him back to Jannah.  The next day Dawson, a seaman, who,
while suffering from ague caught at Jannah, had fallen off into the
water in the morning, died in the evening.  Three days afterwards
Captain Pearce, who, supported by his wonderful spirits, insisted upon
coming on, grew much morse, and at nine in the evening he breathed his

The death of his friend was a serious loss to Clapperton, for he was
eminently qualified by his talents and perseverance to render essential
service to the mission.

Another three days passed, when Mr Houtson returned with the sad news
that Dr Morrison had died at Jannah on the same day as Captain Pearce.

Mr Houtson, though unwell, still insisted on accompanying Clapperton.

Powerful as the king of Eyeo pretended to be, he employed his wives in
every place to trade for him, and, like women of the common class, they
were seen carrying large loads on their heads from town to town.

On the 6th of January, 1826, the travellers entered the town of Chocho,
beyond which their road lay through beautiful rocky valleys, cultivated
in many places, and planted with cotton, corn, yarns, and bananas, and
many watered by little streams.  Numbers of little huts were seen
perched on the tops and in the hollows of the hills.  Beautiful as the
country was, it was the scene of the miserable devastating wars carried
on in all parts of Africa for the purpose of obtaining slaves to be sold
on the coast.

On the 8th they entered Duffo, a town containing fifteen thousand
people.  The crowd which came to see them in the house where they were
lodged was immense.  When the people were told to go away, they said:
"No; if white man would not come out, they would come in to see him."

They passed numerous other large towns, and were received in a friendly
manner by the caboceers, and were well supplied with fowls, sheep, and
goats.  Yet the people, though kind, were exceedingly curious, and
allowed them but little rest.

Further eastward they passed a number of Felatah villages, whose
inhabitants live there as they do in most other parts of Africa,
attending to the pasturage of their cattle, without interfering in the
customs of the country, or receiving any annoyance from the natives.
Some of them, as they passed, brought them milk to drink.

Further on, however, they came to a number of villages, some of which
had been destroyed by the Felatahs, their walls being already covered
with weeds.

As they approached Katunga, the capital of Youriba, the caboceer, with
an enormous escort, came out to meet them.  His musicians kept drumming,
playing, dancing, and singing all night.

The country round was well-cultivated.  The city, as they saw it lying
below them, appeared surrounded and studded with green, shady trees,
forming a belt round the base of a granite mountain.

The king was found seated under the verandah of his house, with two red
and blue umbrellas, raised on large poles, held over him by slaves.

The crowd, as they advanced, had to be kept back with sticks and whips;
but they were used in a good-natured manner.

Clapperton was told that he must prostrate himself before the king; but
this he declined doing, saying that he would turn back unless he was
allowed to act as he would do before his own sovereign; that he would
only take off his hat, and bow, and shake hands with his majesty, if he
pleased.  The king agreed to this, and the English were introduced in
due form.

Behind the king were an immense number of ladies, so closely packed that
it was impossible to count them.  They stood up as the strangers
approached, and cheered them, shouting "Oh, oh, oh!" equivalent to
"Hurra!" while the men outside joined them.

The king had on a large white shirt, with a blue one under it, and a
pasteboard crown, covered with blue cotton, made apparently by some
European on the coast, and sent up to him as a present.

Comfortable apartments were provided for them, and in the evening the
king himself made his appearance, plainly dressed, with a long staff in
his hand, saying that he could not sleep till he had personally
ascertained how they were.

They spent two very pleasant days here, resting after the fatigues of
their journey.  The king pressed them to remain to see the national
amusements, which would begin in about two months.  On this, Mr Houtson
enquired whether they were such as took place at Dahomey, on which the
king declared that no human beings were ever sacrificed in Youriba, and
that if he ordered the King of Dahomey to desist from such a practice he
must obey him.

The king had sent forward a messenger to open the way to Nyffe, and till
he returned they were compelled to remain at the capital.

They were entertained here with a pantomime, the stage being the open
ground before his majesty's residences, the characters appearing in
masks.  One of them presented an enormous snake, which crept out of a
huge bag and followed the manager round the park while he defended
himself with a sword.  Out of another sack came a man covered apparently
with white wax, to look like a European, miserably thin and starved with
cold.  He went through the ceremony of taking snuff and rubbing his
nose.  When he walked it was with an awkward gait, treading as the most
tender-footed white man would do in walking with bare soles over rough

Clapperton pretended to be as much pleased with this caricature of a
white man as the natives were.

Between each act the king's women sang a number of choral songs, joined
by the crowd outside.

They thankfully heard, on the 6th of March, that the messengers had
returned, and that they might set out the next day, when the king
presented Clapperton with a horse and bade him farewell.

Mr Houtson, who had been for some time suffering from illness, was
compelled to return, and he, too, died on reaching the coast.

Clapperton, with his faithful attendant, Richard Lander, and the black,
Pasco, proceeded alone.  They had evidence as they advanced of the
destruction caused by the Felatahs, in the number of villages which had
been burnt down, while the inhabitants of others, who had taken to
flight, were seen returning to their homes.

A few days after starting they overtook a large caravan belonging to
Haussa, on its way from Gonga and Ashantee.  It consisted of upwards of
a thousand men and women, and as many beasts of burden.  The head man
offered to carry Clapperton's baggage to Kano for a certain sum.  He
said that he had been detained in Gonga twelve months on account of the
wars.  Their goods were carried on bullocks, mules, asses, and also by a
number of female slaves.  Some of the merchants had no more property
than they could carry on their own heads.  The chief of the town,
however, advised Clapperton not to trust the caravan leader, for, as he
had no means of conveying his luggage, he would undoubtedly leave him in
the lurch.  He therefore proceeded as he intended, alone.

On the 20th of March Clapperton entered the village of Barakina, the
inhabitants of which were noted as the best hunters in the country.  As
he entered, a hunter came in from the chase.  He wore a leopard-skin
over his shoulder, carrying a light spear in his hand, and his bow and
arrows slung over his shoulder.  He was followed by three cream-coloured
dogs, their necks adorned with collars of different-coloured leather.
He was followed by a slave carrying a dead antelope.

On leaving this village he passed through a narrow gorge, shaded by tall
majestic trees.  "Here," he thought to himself, "are the gates leading
to the Niger."

Next day he arrived before the walls of Wawa, in the neighbourhood of
the far-famed river.

Here he met with a most unexpected difficulty.  Not only did the
daughter of the governor make love to him, but a rich widow called Zuma,
the daughter of an Arab, who, though brown, considered herself a white
woman, insisted on marrying either him or his servant Richard.  Being
above twenty, she was considered past her prime; but had it not been for
her stoutness, which made her look like a walking water-butt, she would
really have been handsome.  Finding that neither of the white strangers
would accept her offers, she endeavoured to entrap them by giving a wife
to Pasco, by which, according to the customs of the country, she
obtained some sort of claim over his master.  The governor soon became
alarmed, declaring that, as the lady had a thousand slaves and enormous
wealth, she would very likely drive him from the country, and, should
the traveller accept her hand, raise him to the throne of Waiva.  In the
hopes of ending the matter, Clapperton set off for the Niger, leaving
his baggage to follow him to the ferry of Comie, while he went round by
Boussa.  Greatly to his annoyance his baggage was, however, detained by
the governor, who feared the widow Zuma's machinations, and refused to
liberate it till her return.  Clapperton had great difficulty in making
him believe that he had no sort of communication whatever with the lady.
Next day, however, the widow Zuma made her entrance into the city,
sitting astride on a fine horse, with housings of scarlet cloth trimmed
with lace.  She herself was habited in a red silk mantle, red trousers,
and morocco boots, numerous spells enclosed in coloured leather cases
being hung round her.  A large train of armed attendants followed her,
while she was preceded by a drummer decked in ostrich feathers.

Clapperton's resolution, however, was not to be overcome.  To settle the
matter he made Pasco give back his wife again, assuring the governor
that he had no intention whatever of entering into any of her designs.
She, therefore, indignantly shook the dust from her feet, and allowed
the hard-hearted stranger to proceed unmolested on his way.

He made inquiries of all who could give him any information about the
fate of Park.  They all asked him whether he intended to take up the
vessel, which they said still remained at the bottom.  The governor's
head man told him that the boat stuck fast between two rocks; that the
people in it laid down four anchors ahead, when, the water rushing down
fiercely from the rocks as the white men attempted to get on shore, they
were drowned; that crowds of people went to see them, but that the white
men did not shoot at them, nor did the natives at the people in the
boat, as they were too much frightened either to shoot at or assist
them.  They said, further, that a great many things were in the boat--
books and riches--which the Sultan of Boussa had possession of; that
there was an abundance of beef, cut in slices and salted, and that the
people of Boussa who had eaten of it had died because it was human
flesh, which it was well-known white men eat.  Another man, however,
asserted that the natives did shoot arrows because the people in the
boat had fired at them.

They all treated the affair with much seriousness, looking on the place
where the boat was wrecked with awe, and telling some most marvellous
stories about her and her ill-fated crew.

Boussa, Clapperton says in his journal, is a large town with extensive
walls, situated on an island in the Quorra, and that to reach it he had
to cross in a canoe, while his horse swam over.

After Clapperton had offered the sultan the presents he had brought for
him, he inquired about the white men who had been lost in the river.  He
seemed _very_ uneasy at the question, and replied that he was a little
boy at the time, and had nothing belonging to them; indeed, Clapperton
found that any books and papers which had been saved were in the
possession of the Sultan of Youri.

Shortly afterwards a messenger arrived from that chief, inviting him to
his town, and offering to send canoes to convey him up the river; but
Clapperton, anxious to proceed on his journey, unfortunately declined
the offer.

He was here treated in the kindest way possible, and everyone was ready
to give him information on all points, with the exception of that
connected with Park's death.

The place, however, where the boat struck and the unfortunate crew
perished was pointed out to him.  It was in the eastern of three
channels into which the river is here divided.  A low flat island of
about a quarter of a mile in breadth lies between the town of Boussa and
the fatal spot.  The banks are not more than ten feet above the level of
the water, which here breaks over a grey slaty rock, extending across to
the eastern shore.

The sultan made him a present of a fine young horse, and his brother,
with many of the principal people, accompanied him as he set out on his

As he rode towards the ford at Comie, he ascended a high rock
overlooking the river.  From hence he saw the stream rushing round low
rocky and wood-covered islands and among several islets and rocks, when,
taking a sudden bend to the westward, the water dashed on with great
violence against the foot of the rock on which he sat.  Below the
islands the river fell three or four feet, while the rest of the channel
was studded with rocks, some of which were above water.  It seemed to
him, that even had Park and Martyn passed Boussa, their vessel would
almost to a certainty have been destroyed on these rocks, where they
would probably have perished unheard of and unseen.

The traveller next entered the kingdom of Nyffe, till lately one of the
best cultivated and most flourishing in Africa, but, in consequence of
having been the prey of a desolating civil war, now almost ruined.  A
dispute had arisen between two rival princes, one of whom called in the
aid of the Felatahs, who, in their usual way, had ravaged the whole
country and placed the traitorous prince on the throne.  Two large
walled towns had, however, resisted the inroads of the invaders: one of
these was Coolfu, where Clapperton and the caravan he had now joined
halted for some days.  Although the inhabitants were professedly
Mussulmans they were exceedingly lax in their religious duties, and none
of the bigotry so prevalent in other places was discernible.  The women,
indeed, took an active part in public matters, many of them being
engaged in mercantile pursuits.  They have an odd idea about imbibing
the precepts of the Koran; and, to do so, they get some learned man to
write texts from it with black chalk on pieces of board.  These are then
washed, when the water is drunk.  They evidently consider it a fetish or
charm of some sort.

Clapperton now entered the Felatah country of Zeg-zeg.  The region, in
the neighbourhood of its capital, Zaria, was the most beautiful he had
seen in Africa, being variegated with hill and dale, resembling in many
respects the finest parts of England.  It was covered with rich pastures
and fields, now blessed with plentiful crops, while the rice grown there
was the finest in Africa.  Zaria was said to contain fifty thousand
inhabitants, a population exceeding that of Kano.

Arrived at Kano, he took up his quarters in his former residence.  The
city was, however, in a great state of agitation, in consequence of war
raging on every side.  Hostilities had broken out between the King of
Bornou and the Felatahs, while other provinces were in open rebellion,
so that a caravan had great difficulty in proceeding in any direction.

As Kano is midway between Sackatoo and Bornou, Clapperton, who purposed
visiting the latter province, determined to leave his baggage at Kano,
under charge of Richard Lander, while he himself went forward, carrying
only the presents intended for Bello.

His journey towards Sackatoo was very fatiguing; his camels were
worn-out, while he often suffered greatly from thirst.

At the town of Jaza he met his old friend the _gadado_, the sultan's
general, with a numerous train on horseback and foot.  The horsemen were
armed with spears, swords, and shields, the foot with bows and arrows.
The women came behind him, some riding on horseback astraddle, some on
camels, others on foot carrying the kitchen utensils.  The _gadado_ was
preceded by a band, with four long trumpets, two drums, and a pipe.  On
meeting Clapperton he dismounted, and taking him by the hand, walked
hand in hand with him into the house which had been prepared for his
reception.  He said that Bello had received no letters from Bornou
appointing where his messengers were to meet the mission on the coast.

Clapperton, besides suffering from hunger and thirst, lost his horse and
all his camels, which died, while his journal, ink-horn, pens, and
spectacles were stolen; nor did he ever recover them--one of the
greatest misfortunes that could happen to a traveller.

On the 15th of October, about noon, he arrived at Bello's camp, and was
immediately admitted to an audience.

The sultan's residence consisted of a number of huts, screened off by
cloth fixed on poles, making quite a village of itself.

He received the traveller in a kind and gratifying way.  He asked after
the health of the King of England, and was greatly surprised to hear
that Clapperton had remained only four months at home, and had hastened
back to Africa without seeing his friends.

Bello's army was on its march to attack Coonia, the capital of the
rebels of Goobur.  Nothing could be more disorderly than the march,
horse and foot intermingled in the greatest confusion, all rushing to
get forward; sometimes the followers of one chief tumbled amongst those
of another, when swords were half-drawn, but they ended in making faces
at each other, or putting on a threatening aspect.  This disorderly army
consisted of upwards of fifty thousand fighting men, horse and foot.

As soon as they arrived before the town, they formed a dense circle of
men and horses around it; the horse kept out of bowshot, while the foot,
as they felt courage or inclination to do so, rushed forward and kept up
a straggling fire with about thirty muskets in addition to their bows.
The Zeg-zeg troops had one French fusil, and the Kano force forty-one
muskets.  The Kano men, as soon as they fired their pieces, ran out of
bowshot to reload.  The enemy seldom threw away their arrows, not
shooting till they were sure of doing so with effect.  Occasionally a
single horseman would gallop up and brandish his spear, while he covered
himself with his large leathern shield, returning as fast as he went and
shouting: "Shields to the wall, you soldiers of the _gadado_!  Why do
you not hasten to the wall?"  Many of the soldiers answered: "You have a
large shield to cover you," and disregarded the call.  At length the
troops habited in quilted armour were marched forward, having at a
distance a somewhat fine appearance, as their helmets were ornamented
with black and white ostrich feathers, while at the sides pieces of tin
glittered in the sun, their long, quilted cloaks of gaudy colours
reaching down to the horses' tails and hanging over their flanks.  The
riders were armed with large spears, and they had to be assisted to
mount their horses.  Their quilted cloaks were so heavy that it required
two men to mount a cavalier.  Six of these warriors belonged to the
sultan and six to each governor.

The besieged possessed one musket, and with this they did wonderful
execution, for it brought down the van of the quilted cavaliers, who
fell from his horse like a sack of corn, when the footmen dashed forward
and dragged him and his steed out of harm's way.  He had been shot by
two balls, which went through his body, one coming out and the other
lodging in his quilted armour.  There were three Arabs, armed at all
points, one of whom was struck by the Coonia musket, but the others kept
carefully behind the sultan.

The most useful and bravest person was an old female slave of the
sultan, who, mounted astraddle on a long-backed horse, rode about with
half a dozen gourds filled with water, and a brass basin, from which she
supplied the wounded and thirsty.

In the evening this valiant army retired to their camp, when the Coonia
force managed to cut off the water from the stream which supplied it,
and then an alarm was raised that they were about to make an attack.  On
this the whole army, horse and foot, tumbled over each other pell-mell,
trying who should get the soonest out of danger.

Clapperton had wisely not undressed, but, making his servant saddle his
horse and load his camels, he set off in the morning with the army,
which soon afterwards retreated and returned to Sackatoo.

Though his old Arab acquaintance called upon him and pretended to be
very friendly, they were plotting his destruction.  Bello had also
received a letter from the Sultan of Bornou, warning him against the
machinations of the English.  He likewise took steps to thwart the
traveller's objects, though he did not treat him with any personal
violence.  When the chief people in the place found that their sultan
was no longer on friendly terms with the stranger, they also gave up
visiting him, and he was left very much alone.  Bello likewise insisted
on seeing the letter which Clapperton was carrying to the King of
Bornou, and when his request was refused he seized it.  He also by false
pretences induced Lander to come on to Sackatoo with the presents,
including several firearms which were intended for the King of Bornou,
that he might get them into his own possession.

This news preyed greatly on Clapperton's mind, besides which he caught a
dangerous chill from lying down while hunting, when overcome with heat
and fatigue, on a damp spot in the open air.  He was soon afterwards
seized with dysentery, which rapidly reduced his strength.  During his
illness he was watched over with the tenderest care by Richard Lander,
who was also himself suffering much from sickness.

Old Pasco, who had been dismissed at Kano for stealing, was at Lander's
suggestion forgiven, and greatly assisted their dying master.

The heat was intense, and Lander used to carry him to a couch outside
the hut, where he might enjoy the air, and return with him in the
evening.  He also daily read to him some portions of the New Testament,
and the ninety-fifth Psalm, which he was never weary of listening to.

Twenty days he continued in this state, growing weaker and weaker.  At
length he called his faithful servant to his bedside.  "Richard, I shall
soon be no more: I feel myself dying."

Almost choked with grief, Lander replied: "God forbid, my dear master!
you will live many years yet."

"Don't be so much affected, my dear boy," said Clapperton.  "It is the
will of the Almighty: it cannot be helped."

He then directed Lander how to dispose of his papers and all his
property, adding, as he took his faithful attendant's hand: "My dear
Richard, if you had not been with me I should have died long ago.  I can
only thank you with my latest breath for your kindness and attachment to
me; but God will reward you."

During their conversation Clapperton fainted from weakness, but after
this appeared to rally, and for several days Lander's hopes revived; but
one morning he was alarmed by hearing a peculiar rattling sound
proceeding from his master's throat.  At the same instant Clapperton
called out, "Richard!" in a low and hurried tone, when going to him,
Lander found him sitting upright in his bed, and staring wildly round.
Placing his master's head gently on his left shoulder, Lander gazed for
a moment at his pale and altered features.  Some indistinct expressions
quivered on his lips, and, in the attempt to give them utterance, he
expired without a struggle or a sigh.

Having done all that under the circumstances was required, he sent to
the Sultan Bello for permission to bury his master; and, in return, an
officer arrived with four slaves, and Lander was desired to follow them.
Placing Clapperton's body on the back of his camel, and throwing the
Union Jack over it, he bade them proceed, and they conducted him to a
village, situated on rising ground, about five miles to the south-east
of Sackatoo--the village of Jungavie.  Here a grave was dug; and the
faithful attendant, opening a prayer-book, read, amid showers of tears,
the funeral service over the remains of his beloved master.

Bello appeared to have regretted his treatment of the brave explorer.
He furnished Lander with the means of returning home, and gave him
permission either to proceed across the desert or to take any other
route.  Lander, not wishing to trust the Arabs, determined to take the
route by which he had come, among the better-disposed negroes.  He was
accompanied by old Pasco, who acted as his interpreter, and Mudey, a
black, who had always been faithful.

On reaching Kano he determined to proceed southward to Funda, where,
from the information he received, he hoped to be able to settle the
problem of the course of the Niger, to ascertain whether it from thence
flowed onward to the sea, or turned eastward into the interior of the
country, as by many it was supposed to do.

After travelling some distance he was warned that he would meet with a
mountainous region inhabited by cannibals, who would certainly put him
to death, and who were reported to have killed and eaten a whole caravan
a short time before.

On his way he passed through a large place called Cuttup, which
consisted of five hundred small villages clustered together.  Here he
was well received by the king, whose numerous wives were highly
delighted when he made them a present of two or three gilt buttons from
his jacket, which they, imagining to be pure gold, fastened to their

He had reached the village of Dunrera near the large city of Tacoba, in
the neighbourhood of which the Shary was said to flow in a continuous
course between Funda and Lake Chad.  This raised his spirits, and he was
expecting in ten or twelve days to solve the great problem, when, to his
dismay, four horsemen galloped into the town, their leader informing him
that the King of Zeg-zeg had sent to conduct him to Zaria.

Finding himself compelled to obey, he repaired to the capital, where the
king boasted that he had done him an essential service; for, as the
people of Funda were at war with Sultan Bello, they would certainly have
murdered him.

The king's chief object, however, was, it appears, to gratify his
curiosity, for, as he had been absent when Clapperton and Lander passed
through his capital, he had not before seen a white man.  Lander was
well treated by the king's eldest son, a remarkably handsome young man
of two and twenty.  As an especial mark of favour the prince introduced
him to his fifty wives, who were found industriously employed in
preparing cotton, making thread, and weaving it into cloth.  They no
sooner saw him than, dropping their work, they flew off and hid
themselves.  He here obtained a pack-bullock and a pony in lieu of his
asses, which were worn-out; and after some delay the king gave him
permission to proceed on his journey.

Leaving Zaria, he proceeded westward, along the route by which he had
come into the country.

Wherever he went inquiries were made about his father, as he was
supposed to be Clapperton's son, and every one expressed great grief at
hearing of his death.

The intelligence, courage, and resolution he exhibited, proved Lander to
be no ordinary person.  He not only made his way among the various
tribes he had to pass through, but carried with him in safety a large
trunk, containing Clapperton's clothes and other property, three
watches, which he had secured about his person to preserve them from the
rapacity of Bello, and all his master's papers and journals, with which,
after a journey of nine months, accompanied by three blacks, he arrived
in safety at Badagarry.

From thence he was conveyed in the English brig "Maria" to Cape Coast,
whence he obtained a passage home in the "Esk," and arrived in England
on the 30th of April.




The courage, perseverance, and judgment exhibited by Richard Lander in
making his way from Sackatoo to Badagarry after the death of Clapperton,
and the attempt he had made of his own accord to follow the course of
the Niger to the sea, pointed him out to the British Government as a fit
person to lead another expedition with that object in view.  He at once
accepted the offer made to him, and was allowed to take his younger
brother John, a well-educated and intelligent young man, as his
companion.  They were directed to proceed from Badagarry to Boussa on
the Niger, where Mungo Park was wrecked and lost his life, and down to
which he had traced the stream from the neighbourhood of Timbuctoo.
Thence, after visiting Youri, the chief of which place was supposed to
be in possession of Park's papers, he was to make his way, either down
the stream in canoes or along the banks by land, as he might find
practicable, either to the sea, if the stream was found to flow in that
direction, or eastward into Lake Chad, which at that time, it was
supposed, it might possibly do.  In the latter case, if found advisable,
he was to return home by way of Fezzan and Tripoli; but, in either case,
he was to follow its course, if possible, to its termination, wherever
that might be.

Sailing from Portsmouth on the 9th of January, 1830, the Landers reached
Cape Coast Castle on the 22nd.  Here they were fortunate enough to
engage old Pasco and his wife, with Richard's former attendant, Jowdie,
together with Ibrahim and Nimo, two Bornou men, who could speak English,
as also the Haussa language.  Hence they went to Badagarry, the chief of
which place, Adooley, entertained them hospitably.

On the 31st of March, they commenced their journey into the interior,
proceeding up the river as far as it was navigable.  Reaching Bidjii
they were supplied with horses, on which they continued their journey.
It was here Captain Pearce and Dr Morrison fell sick when accompanying
Clapperton in his last journey.  Both the brothers suffered from
sickness; but, undaunted, they pursued their course till they reached
Katunga, the capital of Youriba.

Houses in this province were formed of badly-built clay walls, thatched
roofs, and floors of mud, polished with cow-dung.  The only difference
between the residence of a chief and those of his subjects consisted in
the number, though not in the superiority, of his court-yards.  For the
most part they were tenanted by women and slaves, together with flocks
of sheep and goats, and abundance of pigs and poultry mixed
indiscriminately.  The palace of the king, however, was somewhat

The monarch had put on his robes of state to receive them, and amused
them while dinner was preparing with a concert from a number of long
drums, kettledrums, and horns.  He wore on his head an ornament like a
bishop's mitre, covered with strings of coral.  His _tobe_ was of green
silk, crimson silk, damask, and green silk velvet, sewn together like a
piece of patchwork.  He wore English cotton stockings, and sandals of
neat workmanship.  His subjects as they approached prostrated
themselves, rubbing their heads with earth, and kissing the ground
repeatedly, till their faces were covered with the red soil.

The king was so amused with the very different style with which the
Englishmen saluted him that he burst out in a fit of laughter, in which
his wives and subjects joined him.

They parted with the worthy monarch, who forwarded them on their

Avoiding Avawa, at which place the widow Zuma had laid siege to the
hearts of Clapperton and his attendant, they proceeded on to Boussa,
which, greatly to their surprise, they found standing on the mainland,
and not on an island as Clapperton's journal had stated.

The king asserted, when they had presented themselves, that he and his
court had been weeping all the morning for the death of Clapperton; but,
as no outward signs of tears were visible, the travellers rather
mistrusted the monarch's assertion.

A hut having been selected for them, they repaired to it, and were well
supplied with dishes of meat, rice, and corn for supper.

What was their astonishment the next day to receive a visit from the
widow Zuma! who appeared, however, woefully changed, being clad in very
humble apparel of country cloth.  Having quarrelled with the ruler of
Wawa, she had made her escape over the city wall in the night,
travelling on foot to Boussa, where she had since taken up her abode.

The king was highly pleased with the presents which the Landers had
brought him, and he and his wife, his chief counsellor and only
confidant, honoured them with a visit at their hut.  The queen was
dressed in a check shirt, with several pieces of blue cotton--one tied
round her waist, another hanging over her shoulder, and one covering her
head--brass rings ornamenting her great toes, and bracelets her wrists;
besides which she wore a necklace of coral and beads of gold, and small
pieces of coral stuck in the lobe of each ear.  Coral appeared to be in
great demand wherever they went, and the queen was disappointed on
finding that they had brought none.

Lander, concealing the object of his journey, informed the king that his
purpose was to go to Bornou by way of Youri, and requested a safe
conveyance through his territories.

This permission was granted, and, sending their horses by land, they
proceeded up the river in a canoe which was furnished them, towards

The scenery on the main branch of the river was interesting and
picturesque: the bank literally covered with hamlets and villages, and
fine trees bending under the weight of their dark foliage, and
contrasting with the lively verdure of the hills and plains.

After proceeding a short distance the stream gradually widened to two
miles, in some places the water being very shallow, but in others of
considerable depth.

Steering directly northward they voyaged on for four days, having
passed, they were told, all the dangerous rocks and sandbanks which are
to be found above Youri or below Boussa.

Landing at a little village on the bank, where their horses met them,
they rode a distance of eight miles to the walls of Youri.  That city
they entered through an amazingly long passage, at the end of which was
an immense door, covered with plates of iron rudely fastened to the

A habitation had been provided for them, to which they were conducted,
excusing themselves from paying their respects to the sultan on account
of the fatigues of their journey.  The following evening they visited
the sultan, whose palace consisted of a group of buildings enclosed by a
high wall.  Dismounting, they were conducted along a low, dark avenue,
with pillars on either side, and, passing through which, they entered a
large square yard, where a number of servants were hurrying about and
others seated on the ground.  They were kept waiting for some time,
till, receiving a summons to advance, they were introduced into another
square, which resembled a clean farm-yard.  Here they found the sultan
seated alone on a plain piece of carpet, with a pillow on each side of
him and a neat brass pan in front.  He was big-headed, corpulent, and,
though of advanced age, a jolly-looking man.  He expressed his annoyance
that Clapperton did not visit him, and that Lander had not done so on
his return, and they were not sorry to take their leave.

He here was shown a rich damask _tobe_, covered with gold embroidery,
which had belonged to Mr Park, and was probably part of the spoil taken
from the canoe, intended as a present to some native prince.  They were,
at first, in hopes of obtaining Park's journals; but only an old
nautical almanack was seen, and they afterwards discovered that the
journals themselves, though kept for some years, had, after Clapperton's
death, been destroyed by the person into whose hands they had fallen.
They, however, obtained a gun which had undoubtedly belonged to Park,
and which was given up to them in exchange for one of their own

The king, though he expressed his readiness to assist them, declared
that he could not forward them on their way to the eastward, as from the
disturbed state of the country he would be unable to guarantee their
safety, and that the best thing he could do was to send them back to
Boussa.  On this they immediately sent a message to the King of Boussa,
saying that as they were unable to continue their journey in the
direction they had proposed, they would feel deeply obliged if he would
lend them a canoe, by which they might proceed down the river to the
salt water, and that they would remunerate him to the best of their

The disturbances of which they had heard had been created by the widow
Zuma, who had instigated the people of Nouffie to make a raid into the
territory of the King of Wawa.  They had succeeded in carrying off some
bullocks near the walls of his town.  She had fled from Boussa to
another town, the governor of which had, however, sent her back, and she
would now probably be severely punished by the King of Boussa, or be
returned to her own sovereign, who would probably cut off her head.

On the 2nd of August they set off on their road to Boussa, but here they
were kept some weeks, during which either one or the other of the
brothers paid visits to the King of Wawa, from whom they found they had
the best chance of obtaining a canoe.  The King and Queen of Boussa were
the most amiable couple they met with on their travels, and treated them
with uniform kindness during their stay.  The king, though not equalling
the King of Wawa, is proud of his skill as a dancer, and he exhibited
his accomplishments at a grand festival which took place during their
visit.  Although advanced in life, he was as active as a boy, and
indulged largely in his favourite amusement every Friday.

On the last day of the festival, while his subjects were gathered in
large numbers on the racecourse, he appeared among them, followed by
boys carrying calabashes full of cowries, with which he rewarded the
dancers, singers, and musicians, scattering the remainder among the
crowd, to be scrambled for.  Then, to show his affection for his
subjects, unwilling to send them to their homes without giving them
another treat, he danced sideways half way up the racecourse and back
again to his residence, with much stateliness, his amiable wife smiling
with delight that she had such a spouse, while the people were louder
than ever in their shouts of approbation.

They heard here that El Kanemy, Major Denham's friend, had fallen into
disgrace with the Sultan of Bornou, who suspected him of treasonable
practices, and of the intention of usurping the sovereignty.  He had
been imprisoned, and would have lost his head had not the Mahommedan
priests interfered and obtained his liberation.

During their last visit to the King of Wawa, he exhibited a collection
of charms written on sheets of paper, glued or pasted together.  Among
them was a small edition of Watts's Hymns, on one of the blank leaves of
which was written, "Alexander Anderson, Royal Military Hospital,
Gosport, 1804," which of course had belonged to Mr Park's
brother-in-law, who died in that neighbourhood.  They had seen also two
other notes addressed to Park, one from a Mr Watson, and the other from
Lady Dalkeith.

It was not before the 30th of September that at length, having obtained
the long-wished-for canoes, they were able to embark from the Island of
Patashie, in the neighbourhood of Boussa.  Cheered by the natives, they
sprang on board, and the current rapidly bore them down the stream.

Their voyage had now begun prosperously; but they were detained at
several places by the chiefs, who wished to get as much as they could
out of them.

At Lever a priest, attended by a number of followers, told them that
they were in his power, and should not quit the town till he thought
proper.  They had hitherto always behaved in the mildest manner
possible, but now Lander replied that if the priest or any one else
attempted to hinder them from taking their departure, he should feel no
hesitation in shooting him.  In an instant the priest's manner changed,
and he became civil and humble.  They and their people were, however,
allowed to make the attempt of launching their canoe, in which, as she
was long and heavy, they were unable to succeed.  The priest and his
followers at length, ashamed of seeing the strangers labouring so hard,
came to the spot and in a few minutes carried their boats into the
water.  They passed numerous islands, many of them several miles in
length and thickly inhabited.

At Leechee the Niger was found to be three miles in width.  The
inhabitants of the place had numerous canoes.  The boatmen they engaged
here, though they had only paddled on for about forty minutes, refused
to go further, and they were compelled to wait till they could obtain a
fresh crew.  Indeed, at the different places at which they stopped, they
were vexatiously delayed on various pretexts by the natives.

At Belee Island a messenger arrived to inform them that they would be
visited in the morning by the King of the Dark Water.

They embarked at an early hour, and at about ten o'clock the sound of
voices singing, which reached their ears over the surface of the stream,
warned them of the approach of the monarch.  A small canoe came first,
and then another propelled by upwards of twenty fine young men.  In
this, under a decorated awning, with a piece of scarlet cloth ornamented
with beads and gold lace in front, sat the King of the Dark Water.  In
the stern were a number of musicians--drummers and a trumpeter--and in
the bow four little boys, neatly clad.  The king, of coal-black hue, was
a fine-looking man, well stricken in years.  He was dressed in a
bournous of blue cloth, under which was a variegated _tobe_, made of
figured satin, Haussa trousers, sandals of coloured leather, and a red
cloth cap on his head.  He was accompanied by six fine, handsome,
jet-black girls, his wives, also picturesquely dressed, their wrists
ornamented with silver bracelets and their necks with coloured

The travellers saluted him with a discharge from their muskets, and
while he went on shore, Richard arrayed himself in an old naval uniform
coat, and his brother in the handsomest dress he possessed; their
attendants put on new, white, Mahommedan _tobes_, while the British flag
flew from the bow of their boat, so that they might show him all the
respect in their power.  These arrangements being concluded, the English
led the way down the river, followed by the King of the Dark Water, and
a squadron of canoes, to the island of Zagozhi, on which a town of
considerable size was situated.  Opposite to it was the town of Rabba,
said to be very large and populous.

The Niger flows at this spot in a direction south of east.

While staying at this place, Lander was surprised by receiving an
over-warm and affectionate salutation from a little, ugly, old Arab,
whom he recognised as having been employed by Clapperton, having
afterwards acted as his own guide from Kano.  He had cheated Clapperton,
and had also stolen Captain Pearce's sword and a sum of money when sent
back to Kano, from which he had decamped.  When reminded of his
rogueries he only laughed, and then in the most impertinent manner
begged for everything he saw.  Lander consequently turned him out of the

They found here Mallam Dendow, a cousin of Bello, very old and feeble.
He was pleased with the presents he received, and through his means the
King of the Dark Water promised to supply them with canoes and a guide
to conduct them to the sea.

Funda, the town near which the Niger was supposed to flow, was, as far
as they could learn, at a considerable distance from this neighbourhood.
Mallam Dendow had lately planned an expedition against it, but it
terminated by his warriors taking fright and returning to their homes
without accomplishing anything.

These Arabs, throughout Africa, were the greatest curse of the country,
and were the chief cause of the devastating wars which were constantly
taking place, while they in no way contributed to the real civilisation
of the people.

Just as the travellers were hoping to recommence their voyage, old Pasco
returned from Mallam Dendow with the unpleasant information that the
chief was dissatisfied with the gifts he had received, and that unless
they would present him with others of more value he would take their
guns and powder from them before he would permit them to leave Zagozhi.
Having no articles left among their stores, they were most unwillingly
compelled to present him with Mr Park's _tobe_, which had been given by
the King of Boussa.  With this he was highly delighted, and now,
declaring that he would be their friend for ever after, he not only
obtained for them the restitution of their canoe, which had been seized
by the King of the Dark Water, but made them a present of a number of
handsome mats and a supply of cowries and provisions.

On the 16th they again launched into the river, firing two muskets and
uttering three cheers as a salute to the King of the Dark Water and the
hundreds of spectators gazing at them, whom they soon left out of sight.

They were now, with the exception of a few bracelets and other trifling
articles, possessed of nothing with which to make presents or pay
tribute to the chiefs.  It was, therefore, important that they should
hasten down the stream, touching at as few places as possible.

They passed a village on an island completely submerged, and were nearly
upset by striking against the roof of one of the cottages, towards which
a whirlpool had driven them.  A number of canoes were engaged in
carrying off the inhabitants.

At the island of Fofo they heard that the frontiers of Funda were three
days' journey down the Niger, and that the city itself was upwards of
three days' journey inland from the water-side, and that thus it would
be impossible for them to visit it.

After they had left Zagozhi, in between three and four days they reached
Egga, a large town situated behind a morass, several creeks leading out
of it.  A vast number of large canoes lay off the place, laden with all
kinds of merchandise.  The chief, a venerable man with a long, white
beard, examined them from head to foot and, remarking that they were
strange-looking people well worth seeing, awarded them a commodious hut.

It was a town of prodigious extent and had an immense population.  The
river varied in width from two to five and six miles.

They here observed Benin and Portuguese clothes worn by the inhabitants,
who, being very enterprising, were engaged in trading up and down the

On the 22nd they once more embarked, their crew greatly alarmed with the
prospect of meeting enemies ahead, who would, they said, very likely put
them to death.

Had they, however, remained at Egga, they would probably have been made
slaves.  They heard, indeed, dreadful reports of the character of the
people occupying both sides of the Niger between Kakunda and Bocqua.
They, however, loaded their arms and prepared to defend themselves.

One of their men, Antonio, son of a chief on the Bonny river, who had
joined them from HM brig "Clinker," was especially alarmed--not on his
own account, as he said that his life was of no consequence, but that he
feared that his two white friends, whom he loved so dearly, might be
killed.  They, accordingly, pulled on during the night, passing a large
town, from which issued a loud noise, as of a multitude quarrelling.
Once they fancied they saw a light following them, but it turned out to
be a will-o'-the-wisp.

On the 25th of October suddenly the river changed to the south-west,
running between immensely high hills, and in the evening they passed the
mouth of a considerable rivet entering the Niger from the eastward.
After pulling up some little way, they found the current so strong
against them that they were compelled to return.  This they concluded to
be the Tsadda, known, however, as the Binue.

While their men were on shore collecting firewood they came suddenly on
a village, and, the people being aroused, the travellers, seated under a
palm-tree, were quickly surrounded; but the chief, appearing, was
persuaded that they only desired peace.  Old Pasco was the only one who
had stood by them during the interval, the rest having taken to their
heels on the appearance of danger.

On landing at another place, a number of women hastened out of an
adjacent village with muskets; but, seeing the travellers sitting down
quietly without making any hostile display, they soon became friendly.

They were detained three days at Damuggoo, a very dirty town, where,
however, the people were generally dressed in Manchester cottons; that
is to say, they wore pieces of them round their waists, extending to the

Continuing their voyage down the river, they observed the large market
town of Kirree.  Near it were a number of canoes of considerable size,
with flags flying on long bamboos.  Shortly afterwards a fleet of fifty
canoes appeared ahead, with flags of all nations, among which the Union
Jack was most conspicuous.  All the people were dressed in European
clothes, with the exception of trousers, which the chiefs alone are
allowed to wear.

Lander, overjoyed by the sight, supposing that they must be friends,
approached without fear, when a huge man of most forbidding countenance
beckoned him to come on board his canoe.  The next instant the sound of
drums was heard, and several men levelled their muskets at the
traveller.  In addition to the muskets, each canoe had a long four or
six-pounder in its bow, besides which the crews were armed with swords
and boarding-pikes.  In an instant their luggage was transferred to the
canoes of their opponents, while some of them seized Pasco's wife, and
were dragging her out of the canoe.  On this Lander, calling to his men
to assist him, determined to sell his life as dearly as he could; and,
having dragged back Pasco's wife, they fought so determinedly that they
were able to effect their escape.  None of the other canoes had
interfered, and, seeing that which had plundered them making its way to
the market, Lander pulled after her as fast as he could go, in the hopes
of recovering their property.  On their way they encountered another
canoe, in which a person, apparently of consequence, hailed them with
the words: "Hilloa, white man!  You French; you English?"

"English," answered Lander.  "Come here in my canoe," was the reply.
Lander accordingly got into his canoe, while the chief put three men
into Lander's that they might assist in pulling to the market.  He at
once treated Lander with great kindness and promised him every
assistance in his power.

Soon after this, what was Richard Lander's dismay to see the canoe of
which his brother John had command followed by the villains who had
attacked him, capsized, and sunk, while their luggage went to the
bottom--his brother and crew being left struggling in the water.
Richard was on the point of leaping in to help him, when he saw him
dragged into another canoe, the other men swimming on shore.  It was
some time before he was able to reach him, when, with their new friend,
they repaired to the market.  Here they found a number of Damuggoo
people and others who sided with them, and a Mahommedan from Funda urged
them to keep up their spirits, and that all would be made right.  Search
was then commenced for their property.  One of their journals and a box
of books, with the medicine chest and a few articles of clothing were
found, and after a palaver were restored; but the whole of Richard
Lander's journal with the exception of one note-book, Mr Park's gun and
thirty-six of their cutlasses and pistols, some elephant tusks, ostrich
feathers, leopard-skins, and a variety of seeds had all been lost, as
well as their remaining cowries, buttons, and needles, which were so
important to enable them to purchase food.

The people who had attacked them were from Eboe, and had come this
distance on a plundering expedition, intending to trade when unable to
carry off property without fighting.  The leading man who had attacked
them was put into irons and doomed to die by the people of Kirree; and
it was decided that if the king of Eboe, whose subject he was, should
refuse to put him to death, no more of his canoes should be allowed to
come to the country to trade.

Escorted by six war-canoes from Damuggoo, the travellers left Kirree and
continued their voyage down the river, passing through a large lake-like
expanse of the Niger, till on the evening of the 8th they reached the
town of Eboe.

The houses were neatly built of yellow clay, plastered over and thatched
with palm leaves.  Yards were attached to each, in which plantations of
bananas and cocoa-nut trees grew.

Here they were addressed in English by several brawny fellows with
stentorian voices, who shook hands, asking them "how they did"--one
calling himself Gun, though Blunderbuss or Thunder would have been as
appropriate a name, then stating that his brother was King Boy and that
his father was King Forday, who with King Jacket governed all the Brass
country.  He also informed them that a Spanish schooner and an English
brig, the "Thomas," of Liverpool, were lying in the first Brass river.

After resting for some time they were conducted to the palace of the
dreaded Obie, king of the Eboe country.  Instead of the savage monster
they expected to see, a door opened, when a sprightly young man, with a
mild countenance and an eye which indicated quickness and intelligence,
appeared before them and cordially shook hands.  His dress was so
covered with a profusion of coral ornaments that he might appropriately
have been styled the "Coral King."  On his head he wore a sugar-loaf
hat, thickly adorned with strings of coloured beads and pieces of broken
looking-glass, while several strings of beads were tightly fastened
round his neck.  He had on a short Spanish surtout of red cloth,
ornamented with gold epaulettes, and a pair of trousers of the same
material, while both his legs and wrists were covered with strings of
beads, and to each leg, above the naked ankles and feet, was suspended a
string of little brass bells, which jingled as he walked.

An account of what had happened at Kirree was narrated to him, and he
declared his intention of settling the matter.  Notwithstanding his
protestations, however, the fair-spoken king detained the travellers,
and would have kept them and their followers in slavery had not King
Boy, the eldest son of the King of Brass Town, volunteered to pay their
ransom on receiving a written promise that it should be repaid to him by
the master of the "Thomas," then lying in the Brass River, or by any
other merchantman captain who might be found there.  King Boy wished to
send the document down to the brig at once; but fortunately Lander told
him that he was sure the captain would not pay it till he had been
received on board.  On this the King of Eboe allowed them to embark in
King Boy's canoe.  It was a large craft, paddled by forty men and boys,
in addition to whom there were, besides the king and his wife and their
own party, several slaves, so that the number on board amounted to fully
sixty people.  There were also cannon lashed to the bows, and a number
of cutlasses and chests of spirits, silk, and cotton goods.

Thus laden, the Brass canoe took her way down the river, her unfortunate
English passengers dreadfully cramped for room--John Lander one night,
while suffering from fever, having the feet of the royal couple in his

On the 15th of November they landed at the excessively dirty town of
King Forday, situated in the middle of a marsh.  Here they took up their
quarters at Boy's house.

Soon after their arrival they were cheered by recognising the features
of a European in the midst of a crowd of savages.  He proved to be the
master of a Spanish schooner lying in the Brass River for slaves.  He
was affable and courteous, and told them that six of his crew were ill
of fever and that the rest were suffering.

Their residence, which its owner called an English house, was built
close to the water, of yellow clay, but with several windows, all
furnished with shutters.

Having paid his respects to King Forday, Richard Lander, leaving his
brother and his men at the town, set off, in King Boy's canoe, to go
sixty miles down the river to the brig.

His feelings of delight may be imagined when he had ocular evidence that
he had at length succeeded in tracing the mysterious Niger down to the
ocean, by seeing before him two vessels, one the Spanish slaver, the
other the English brig on board which he fully expected to receive the
assistance he so greatly required.

To his utter surprise and consternation, on going on board, Captain
Lake, though almost himself at death's door from fever, flatly refused
to give him a single thing.  By his language and behaviour he showed
himself to be a greater savage than the ignorant blacks among whom
Lander had been travelling.  Lander in vain expostulated with the
captain; fearful oaths and flat refusals were the only answers he made.
At last, when Lander suggested that he had five men, who might be useful
in working his vessel out of the river, he softened a little, and gave
him a change of linen and some provisions for his brother.

King Boy was ultimately induced to go back to bring John Lander and the
rest of the men, on Richard's reiterated promise that he would at some
time or other obtain the goods they had promised him.  He presented him
also with some silver bracelets, which they had before overlooked, and a
native sword.  These articles Boy accepted, but when John Lander offered
him his watch it was refused with disdain, the savage not knowing its

The captain of the brig had in the meantime loaded his guns and got his
arms ready, and when Boy came up to him once more, to demand the bars
which had been promised, he replied, in a voice of thunder: "I no will!"

As the pilot, to whom the captain had also refused to pay his demand,
could not be trusted to take the brig out, she narrowly escaped
shipwreck on the bar, but happily at length getting clear of the river,
she steered a course for Fernando Po, where the travellers landed.
Hence they sailed for Rio de Janeiro, which they reached on the 16th of
March, and from that port obtained a passage on board the "William
Harris" to England, which they reached safely on the 10th of June.

Thus, with very humble means, by the energy and courage of two
unpretending men, was the long-disputed problem of the course of the
Niger at length completely solved.

Besides the payment which the Government had promised to Richard Lander,
he received a premium of fifty guineas, placed at the disposal of the
Royal Geographical Society by the king, and his brother John obtained
employment under Government suitable to his abilities.




The British Government had, in 1849, appointed Mr Richardson, an
experienced traveller in Africa, to the command of an expedition which
was to start from Tripoli, on the north coast, and thence endeavour to
penetrate to the central part of the continent.  By the recommendation
of the Chevalier Bunsen Dr Barth, who had spent three years travelling
through Barbary and the desert tracts to the westward bordering the
shores of the Mediterranean, was allowed, accompanied by another German,
Dr Overweg, to join the expedition.

A light boat, which was divided into two portions and could be carried
on the backs of camels, was provided, and a sailor to navigate her
either on Lake Chad or down the Niger.

Dr Barth and his countryman at once pushed on for Tripoli, in the
neighbourhood of which they made long excursions while waiting for the
arrival of Mr Richardson, who had remained in Paris for despatches.

One of the principal objects of the expedition was the abolition of the
slave trade, which it was known was carried on to a fearful extent in
those regions.  The principal employment of the Moorish tribes on the
borders of the territories inhabited by blacks is still, as it was in
the days of Mungo Park and Clapperton, slave-hunting.  Villages are
attacked for the purpose, when the prisoners captured are carried
northward across the desert and sold in Morocco and the other Barbary

Another object was the opening up a lawful commercial intercourse with
the people who might be visited, and the exploration of the country for
scientific purposes, as well as to discover the course of the great
river which the Landers had seen flowing into the Niger in their
adventurous voyage down that stream.

On the arrival of Mr Richardson the travellers at length set out from
Tripoli, on the 24th of March, 1850.  They rode on camels, a
considerable number of which were also required to carry their baggage.
The boat had unfortunately been divided only into two pieces instead of
four, thus causing much trouble.

We may picture them setting forth with their long line of camels and
numerous attendants, servants, camel-drivers, and guides, and
accompanied by Mr Crowe, the consul, Mr Reade, the vice-consul, and
other friends who came forth to see them start; or with their tents
pitched on a moonlight night, amidst a few date and olive trees, in a
green meadow--a little oasis surrounded by sand.

The two doctors alone required eight camels for their luggage, besides
those they rode.  Dr Barth had procured an excellent one of the
renowned Bu-Saef breed.  The travellers were well-armed, as they had to
pass through disturbed districts, and were likely to encounter open
enemies, and might have to keep treacherous attendants in awe.

During the first part of their journey their way lay along cultivated
and flourishing corn-fields in the narrow _wady_, or valley, of Majenin.
At the further end of it Mr Richardson with his party overtook them
and pitched his enormous tent.  It was not till the 2nd of April that
they fairly set out on their expedition.  Keeping to the west of a
rugged range of hills, they entered the rocky _wady_ of Haera, where
they filled their water-skins from the pools formed by the rain.

The long oars and poles of the boat caused the camels which carried them
much fatigue; but the boat, which was now cut into quarters, was more
easily packed.

The country over which they passed was stony and rocky, intercepted by
dry water-courses, and, as they proceeded, here and there adorned with
clusters of date-trees.  They frequently passed the ruins of Roman
temples, tombs, monuments, and other buildings, and also numerous Roman
milestones: the Romans, indeed, had extensive colonies in this district.

Their chief object, when seeking a spot for encamping, was water.
Sometimes it was found in pools: at others in wells, being drawn to the
surface by oxen.

Travellers in Africa cannot proceed at railroad speed.  Camels journey
much after their own inclination, straying to the right or left--nipping
here a straw, and there browsing on a bush--and, being obstinate
creatures, it is difficult to urge them forward faster than they like.
The doctor would have preferred a horse, but it would have been
necessary to carry barley and water for it, as it cannot live like the
camel without drinking when crossing the desert.  The expense, too,
would have been very great.

Their course was nearly due south, directed in the first place towards
the town of Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan.

Their general rate of marching was at from two to two and a half miles
an hour.  The heat was very great.  The doctor's Arab servant, who had
gone off to see his family in the neighbourhood, on his return arrived
at the encampment after they had started.  He, accordingly, set off to
overtake the caravan.  Though he had a skin of goat's milk, yet it
became so hot that he could not drink it; and, as he was obliged to
march the whole of the day without water, he suffered greatly and
arrived in a very exhausted state.

Among the monuments passed was one adorned with rich carving, proving
that these regions, now so poor, must have once supported a population
sufficiently advanced in taste and feeling to admire works of a refined
character.  They also found ruins of Christian churches of a later

They were now travelling through a district known as the Hammada--a
high, level, stony region, destitute of wells or pools.  Here and there,
however, small green patches of herbage were found, affording a welcome
meal to the camels.

They were accompanied by a little green bird, called the "asfir," which
lives entirely upon the caravans as they pass along, by picking off the
vermin from the feet of the camels.

At a green oasis, El Wueshkeh, where grew a few stunted palm-trees,
their camel-drivers killed a number of a venomous lizard, called
"bu-keshash."  At night a cold wind, accompanied by rain, began to blow;
their tent was overturned, and they had much trouble in pitching it
again.  The next day a number of truffles were found, which afforded
them some delicious truffle soup.

They met, soon after starting, two caravans--the largest consisting of
fifteen camels laden with ivory.  With the latter was a woman sitting
comfortably in a little cage on the camel's back.

Passing through a narrow ravine between gloomy cliffs, they reached a
sandy waste, passing across which they at length arrived at some
crumbling ruins surrounding a well, where they and their camels could
quench their thirst.  Though the great watering-place on this desert
road, it has not a cheerful aspect; but, as the water is always bubbling
up and keeps the same level, the largest caravan might be fully
supplied.  A day was spent here, as both camels and men required rest.

Day after day they travelled on, passing through rocky _wadies_ and
narrow defiles, out of the sides of which projected jet-black masses of
sandstone, giving a wild air to the desolate region.

One day two gazelles were caught, an addition to their bill of fare.

At length in the distance appeared a town on the top of a broad,
terraced rock.  They took long to reach it.

It is rarely such a place is seen in that part of the world.  The rock
rose in the midst of a valley, occupying a position which in days of
yore must have made it a place of great importance.  It is called Ederi.
Amidst the sand-hills which surround it are green fields of wheat and
barley, and here and there groves of date-trees.

Before them now lay a series of sand-hills, intermingled with small
clusters of palm-trees.  Sometimes the ascent of the sand-hills was most
trying for the camels.  They extend for five days' march or more, but
are nothing in comparison with those in the direction of the Natron
Lakes: so one of their guides told them.

Often, while crossing this sandy waste, thirsty travellers are deceived
by the effects of the curious mirage, when lakes glittering in the sun,
with towers, domes, and minarets reflected on their surface, appear
before their eyes, to vanish suddenly as they approach.

Their camel-drivers had led them them to the left, in order to visit
their own village of Ugrefe.  It consisted of about thirty light and low
dwellings made of clay and palm branches.  In an open space near it they
encamped beneath two splendid ethel-trees, or tamarisks.

At length, on the 6th of May, they reached the plantations surrounding
Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan.  The walls are built of a sort of clay
glittering with saline incrustations.  Going round the whole of the
western and northern sides, which have no gateway wide enough for a
caravan, they halted on the eastern side of the town, not far from the
camp of the pilgrims who were returning from Egypt to Morocco.  They
were here welcomed by Mr Gagliuffi, a Greek merchant, who received them
into his house.

The buildings are mostly of one story, with flat roofs and parapets,
with interior courts, and broad porticoes supported by pillars in front.
The town contains a bazaar and barracks for two thousand Turkish
troops.  It is a thoroughfare rather than the seat of a commerce.

They were here joined by a man of influence named Mahomet Boro, an
elderly, respectable-looking personage, wearing a green bournous over
white under-clothes.  He was to act as mediator between them and the
inhabitants of the countries they were to visit.  He was now on his
homeward journey from a pilgrimage to Mecca.

On the 13th of June they left Mourzouk by the eastern gate.  Some chiefs
from Ghat had arrived, to whose charge Mr Gagliuffi had committed the
travellers.  At this Mahomet Boro became very indignant, and threatened
that he would take care that they should be attacked on the road by his
countrymen, nor were these empty threats.

It is remarkable that while the Mahommedan religion in general is
sinking to corruption along the coast, there are ascetic sects rising up
in the interior which unite its last zealous followers by a religious
bond.  From some of these sects travellers receive much ill-treatment
and annoyance.  On the 15th of July the doctor determined to visit a
remarkable mountain which appeared in the distance.  Being unable to
obtain any guide, he set off, taking with him as provisions only dried
biscuits and dates--the worst possible food in the desert when water is
scarce.  Making his way over the pebbly ground, he saw a pair of
beautiful antelopes, which stopped, gazing at him and wagging their

The distance proved far greater than he had imagined; indeed, there was
a deep valley between him and the side of the mountain.  Still, eager to
reach its summit, he pushed on.  The sun began to put forth its power;
there was not the slightest shade around.  At length he reached the
height at which he was aiming, but, on looking round, he in vain sought
for any traces of the caravan.  Having but a small supply of water in
his water-skin, he could only venture to sip a few drops, while he could
with difficulty eat his dry biscuit and dates.

Fearing that the caravan might push on believing him to be in advance,
he immediately descended the mountain, in order to follow its course.
At noon he swallowed the remainder of his water, but, taken on an empty
stomach, it did not restore his strength.  Believing that his party were
to encamp at no great distance from the mountain, he strained his sight
in hopes of seeing his friends; but no living being was visible.  Having
walked some distance, he ascended a mound crowned with an ethel-bush,
where he fired his pistols; but a strong east wind blowing against him,
he in vain waited for an answer.  Crossing some sand-hills, he again
fired, and, at last convinced that there could be nobody in that
direction, he supposed that his party were still behind him, and
unluckily kept more to the east.  At last some small huts appeared in
the distance.  He hastened towards them, but they were empty, nor was a
drop of water to be obtained.  His strength being exhausted, he sat down
on the bare plain, hoping that the caravan would come up.  For a moment
he thought he saw a string of camels passing in the distance, but it was
a delusion.

He mustered strength sufficient to scramble to an ethel-tree on an
elevated spot, intending to light a fire, but, unable to move about, he
could gather no wood.  Having rested after dark for an hour or two, he
once more rose, and discovered in the south-west a large fire.  Again he
fired his pistols, but no answer was returned.  Still the flames rose
towards the sky, telling him where deliverance was to be found, but he
was unable to drag his weary limbs so far.  Having waited long, he fired
a second time, yet no answer came.  At last he resigned himself to the
care of the Merciful One and tried to sleep, but in vain--he was in a
high fever.  The long night wore away and dawn was drawing nigh.  All
was repose and silence: he was sure that he could not choose a better
time for trying to inform his friends by signal of his whereabouts.
Collecting his remaining strength, he loaded his pistol with a heavy
charge and fired once and then again.  His companions seemed not to have
heard his signals.  The sun he had half longed for, half looked-forward
to with terror, at last rose.  His condition, as the heat increased,
became more dreadful.  He crawled round the tree, trying to enjoy the
little shade afforded by the leafless branches.  About noon there was
only sufficient shade left to shelter his head.  He suffered greatly
from the pangs of thirst, till at last, becoming senseless, he fell into
a sort of delirium, from which he only recovered when the sun went down
behind the mountain.  Crawling from beneath the shade of the tree and
throwing a glance over the plain, suddenly the cry of a camel reached
him.  It was the most delightful music he had ever heard in his life.
Raising himself a little, he saw a mounted Tarki passing at some
distance and looking eagerly around.  The Tarki had discovered his
footprints in the sandy ground.  Crying as loud as his faint strength
would allow, "_aman! aman_!"  ("Water! water!") he was rejoiced to see
the Tarki, Musa by name, approaching, and in a few moments he was at his
side, washing and sprinkling his head.  His throat was, however, too dry
to enjoy the draught which Musa poured into it.  His deliverer then
placed him on his camel, mounted himself in front, and carried him to
the tents.

The strength of a European is soon broken in those climes, if for a
single day he is prevented from taking his usual food.  Next day,
however, the doctor was able to continue his journey.

Ghat, well situated in the centre of an oasis, was next reached.  It is
surrounded by mud walls, with flat-roofed houses, while outside are
plantations of date-trees.

On the 26th of July the caravan again set out.  On the 29th they
commenced their ascent to the greatest elevation of the desert, four
thousand feet above the sea.  The path winding along through loose
blocks of stone, the precipitous ascent proved very difficult.  Several
loads were thrown off the camels, and the boat frequently came in
contact with the rocks.  It is indeed the wildest and most rugged region
of the whole desert.  At one place the road meandered in a remarkable
way, sometimes reduced to a narrow crevice between curiously-terraced
buttresses of rocks.  Two hours were occupied in descending.

At the bottom was a _wady_ between steep, precipitous cliffs looking
almost like walls erected by the hand of man.  They were more than a
thousand feet high, with a pond of rainwater at the bottom.  The valley
is called Aegeri.

They had now to pass a region of sand-hills.  During their passage the
mirage set before their eyes beautiful sheets of water, which quickly
disappeared as they approached.

Desolate as the country appears, large herds of wild oxen rove over it.
Though the men tried to catch some of them, they were unsuccessful, as
the animal, sluggish as it seems, rapidly climbs the rocks and is soon
lost to sight.

The travellers, having now entered the tropics, expected to reach
pleasanter regions than they had hitherto passed through.  Their guides,
however, were leading them further to the west than they wished, their
great desire being to reach Negroland as soon as possible.

On the 18th of August they were quietly pursuing their road, when one of
their party was seen running up behind them, swinging his musket over
his head and crying: "Lads, our enemy has come!"  Alarm was spread
through the caravan: everyone seized his arms, and those who were riding
jumped from their camels.  The man reported that a number of Tawarek,
mounted on camels, had been seen rapidly approaching, with the evident
intention of attacking the caravan.  A warlike spirit prevailed, and
all, the doctor thought, would fight valiantly.  Freebooting parties,
however, do not attack openly.  They first introduce themselves in a
peaceable way, when, having disturbed the little unity which exists in
most caravans, they gradually throw off the mask.

After some time they came to the conclusion that it was not likely that
they would be attacked by daylight.  They, therefore, sent off a body of
archers to gain information from a small caravan which was coming from
Soudan, consisting of a few Tebus, ten camels, and about forty slaves.
The unfortunate Tebus were soon afterwards attacked by a fierce tribe,
the Haddanara, who, disappointed at getting nothing from the English
expedition, murdered the whole of them and carried off their camels and

Soon after the party had encamped at night three strangers made their
appearance; but, although they were known to be robbers, and that a
number of their companions were not far off, they were allowed to lie
down for the night.  The experienced old Sheikh of the Kafeila warned
Barth to be on his guard, and exhorted his attendants to be staunch.
Everybody was crying for powder.  Their clever servant, Mahomet, placed
his four pieces of boat on the outside of the tents, that they might
afford shelter in case of an attack.  They kept watch the whole night,
and the strangers, seeing them well on their guard, did not venture to
assail them.  In the morning they went slowly away to join their
companions, who had kept behind a rocky ridge in the distance.  There
was indeed much cause for anxiety.  Suddenly an alarm was raised that
the camels had been stolen.  The old chief, taking advantage of this
state of things, urged Barth and Overweg to confide their property to
him and another chief.  This was not entirely disinterested advice; for,
if anything had happened to the travellers, the chief would, of course,
have been their heir.

At an early hour they started with an uneasy feeling.  With the first
dawn the true believers had been called together for prayer; and the
bond which united the Mahommedan members of the caravan with the
Christian travellers, it was seen, had been loosened in a very
conspicuous manner.

Instead of, as usual, each little party starting off as soon as they
were ready, they all waited till the whole caravan had loaded their
camels, when they began their march in close order, to be ready in case
of being attacked.

After advancing some distance they saw four men seated ahead of them, on
an eminence.  The doctor, being in the first line of the caravan,
dismounted and led forward his camel.  A party of archers had been
despatched to reconnoitre.  What was his surprise to see them and the
unknown individuals executing a wild sort of armed dance.  Suddenly two
of the dancers rushed upon him and grasped the rope of the camel, asking
for tribute.  Barth seized his pistols, when, just in time, he was told
they were friends.

The eminence is an important locality in the modern history of the
country.  It was here, when the Kel-owi, a pure Berber tribe, took
possession of the territory of old Gober, that a covenant was entered
into between the red conquerors and the black natives, that the latter
should not be destroyed, and that the principal chief of the Kel-owi
should only be allowed to marry a black woman.  As a memorial of this
transaction, when caravans pass the spot where the covenant was entered
into, the slaves make merry and are authorised to levy upon their
masters a small tribute.

The black man who had stopped the doctor was the chief of the slaves.
As the caravan proceeded, the merry creatures executed another dance,
and the incident would have been of great interest if the members of the
caravan had not been depressed with the forebodings of mishap.

They now reached a small village of leathern tents, inhabited by a
people of the tribe of Fade-ang, in a valley on the frontier region of
Aire.  The chief was respected as a person of great authority, and, it
was said, was able to protect them against the freebooting parties which
their guests of the other day, who had gone on before, were sure to
collect against them.  He had been invited to the camp; but he sent his
brother instead, who, it was soon evident, could render them no
assistance.  The travellers were soon surrounded by the inhabitants, to
whom a number of small presents were given.  These men were very
inferior in appearance even to the common Taki freebooter, and extremely
degraded in their habits.

While resting in their tents they were alarmed by a report that a body
of sixty Mehara were about to attack them, and again everybody was
excited, all calling out for powder and shot.  It was evident that there
was an entire want of union among the members of the caravan.

The scene which followed in the bright moonlight evening, and lasting
through the night, was animating and interesting in the extreme.  The
caravan was drawn up in line of battle, the left wing being formed by
the travellers and the detachment of the Kel-owi who had posted
themselves in front of their tents, while the Timylkum and the Sfaksi
formed the centre, the rest of the Kel-owi with Boro the right wing,
leaning upon the cliffs, the exposed left being defended by the four
pieces of boat.  About ten o'clock a small troop of Mehara, so-called
from riding on _mehara_, or swift camels, made their appearance.
Immediately a heavy fusillade was commenced over their heads, and was
kept up with shouting during the night.

The enemy hovered around them during the whole of the next day, and
prevented them from making excursions.

Leaving their camping ground on the 24th of August, they travelled on
without molestation; but, soon after their tents had been pitched the
next evening in a valley full of talha trees and oat-grass, the
marauders again made their appearance, mounted on camels, and,
dismounting within pistol-shot of the tents, discussed, with wild,
ferocious laughter, their projects with their Azkar confederates in the
caravan.  Some of these soon afterwards came and told them that they
might sleep with perfect security; others, however, warned them that
they must on no account rest during the night.  Preparations for an
attack were therefore made, and their camels were brought close to the
tents; but the Kel-owi left theirs outside.

In the morning it was found that all the camels had been carried off.
On this, Boro led on the more warlike members of the caravan in pursuit.
The enemy were overtaken, and, alarmed by the appearance of the
bayonets, which they saw would place the Europeans on an equality even
after the guns had been fired, offered to come to terms.  They declared
that they had only come against the white men because they were
Christians, and immediately all sympathy for the travellers ceased in
the caravan.  The rebels were allowed to retain their booty and were
treated besides with an enormous quantity of _mohamsa_.

They now hoped to proceed without further molestation; and the Merabet
chief, who had accompanied and sanctioned the expedition against them,
was allowed to join their party, as it was thought to be the best means
of preventing any further molestation.  Boro, who passed the evening
with Mr Richardson's interpreter, in reading the Koran, treated him

They were expecting to reach Selufiet, where they hoped to be in safety.
When about eight miles from it, the chiefs insisted on encamping, and a
number of Merabetin, a fanatical tribe, insisted that they should turn
Mohammedans.  Their friends and servants urged them to do so, as the
only means of saving their lives.  They were kept seated in their tent
while the fanatics discussed the subject.  The travellers sat in
silence.  At last Mr Richardson exclaimed: "Let us talk a little.  We
must die.  What is the use of sitting so mute?"  For some minutes death
seemed really to hover over their heads.  Mr Richardson proposed trying
to escape for their lives, when the kind-hearted Sliman rushed into the
tent, exclaiming in a tone of sincere sympathy: "You are not to die."
The Merabetin were content instead to receive a heavy tribute.
Unfortunately, the merchandise they carried, instead of consisting of a
_few_ valuable things, was composed of worthless, bulky objects; and, as
they had also ten iron cases filled with dry biscuits, the ignorant
people supposed that they carried enormous wealth.  In consequence, when
all the claims had been settled, the rebels threatened to fall upon the
rest of the baggage.  Their friendly chief on this declared that some of
it was his own, and also dashed to pieces one of the iron cases, when,
to the astonishment of the simple people, instead of beholding heaps of
dollars, they saw a dry and tasteless sort of bread!

Meanwhile, the persecuted Christians made off under the escort of the
Kel-owi, and the whole caravan was once more collected together.

On the 4th of September they encamped on the summit of a sand-hill, in a
broad valley, near the village of Tintellust, the residence of the chief
Amur, under whose protection they were now to proceed.  The chief
received them in a friendly way, and assured them that, even though
Christians, the dangers and difficulties they had gone through would
suffice to wash off their sins, and that they had nothing to fear but
the climate and the thieves.  He told them that they were welcome to
proceed to Soudan at their own risk; but that if they wished for his
protection, they must pay him handsomely.

While the camp remained here, Dr Barth paid a visit to the town of
Agades, a place once of great importance, and still containing about
seven thousand inhabitants, a large number engaged as tradesmen or in
commerce.  It is situated on the borders of the desert, surrounded by
lawless tribes.  He performed his journey on the back of a bullock, with
his luggage behind him.  He was received in a very friendly way by the
sultan, who told him that he had never before heard of the English--not
suspecting from whom the gunpowder he used was obtained.  The doctor,
after placing the treaty before the sultan, said that the English wished
to enter into friendly relations with all the chiefs and great men of
the earth, in order to establish commercial intercourse with them.  He
then told him that they had been deprived of nearly all the presents
they were bringing for himself and the other princes of Soudan.  At this
he expressed the greatest indignation.

After spending two months at Agades, the doctor returned to Tintellust.
Here the expedition was detained six months waiting for an escort,
without which they could not proceed with any degree of safety to
Soudan.  At length, on the 5th of December, the first body of the
salt-caravan, for which they had been waiting, arrived from Bilma, and
on the 12th of December, 1850, they began to move.  The caravan looked
like a whole nation in motion: the men on camels or on foot; the women
on bullocks or asses, with all the necessaries of the little household,
as well as the houses themselves; a herd of cattle, another of
milk-goats, and a number of young camels running playfully alongside,
and sometimes getting between the regular lines of the laden animals.
The old chief walked ahead like a young man, leading his _mahary_ by the

The ground was very rocky and rugged, and looked bare and desolate in
the extreme.  Several high peaks, which characterise this volcanic
region, rose on either side.

The whole caravan consisted of about two thousand camels, of whom two
hundred were laden with salt.  At night their camp presented many lively
and merry scenes, ranging as it did over a wide district illuminated by
large fires.  Dancing was going forward and the drummers were vying with
each other, one especially rivalling their drummer Assam, and performing
his work with great skill, caused general enthusiasm among the dancing

On their journey on the 29th of December, they found the ground covered
with _had_, a plant regarded by the Arabs as the most nutritious of all
the herbs of the desert for the camel.  Numerous footprints of the
giraffe were seen, besides those of gazelles and ostriches, and also of
the large and beautiful antelope (_Leucoryx_).  Here, too, was seen the
_magaria_, a tree which bears a fruit of the size of a cherry, of a
light brown colour.  When dry it is pounded and formed into little
cakes, and is thus eaten.

On the 1st of January, 1851, they fell in with a tribe of the Tagana,
whose morality is of the lowest order.  Hunting, together with
cattle-breeding, is their chief occupation, and on their little swift
horses they catch the large antelope as well as the giraffe.

A steep descent of a hundred feet conducted the caravan off the high
region of the Hammada to a level plain.

On the 7th they came in sight of a village, where they saw for the first
time that style of architecture which extends over the whole of central
Africa.  The huts are composed entirely of the stalk of the Indian corn,
with only a slight support from the branches of trees.  They are
somewhat low, curved over at the top.  Amid them were seen small stacks
of corn, raised on scaffolds of wood about two feet high, to protect
them from the white ant and mouse, as also from the _jerboa_, which is
so pretty an object to look at as it jumps about the fields, but is an
especial foe to the natives.  The people came forth from the villages to
offer cheese and Indian corn.  They were black pagans and slaves, meanly
and scantily dressed, but far more civilised in reality than the
fanatical people among whom Barth and his companions had hitherto been

On the 9th of January the travellers reached Tagelel.  From this place
there was little danger in their proceeding singly, and it was agreed,
in consequence of the low state of their finances, that they should
separate, in order to try what each might be able to accomplish
single-handed and without ostentation, till new supplies should arrive
from home.




Parting from Mr Richardson, the two Germans continued on to Chirak,
where Overweg quitted Dr Barth, who intended to proceed to Tassawa.
The doctor, disposing of a favourite camel, obtained horses for the
remainder of the journey and now went on alone; but, accustomed to
wander by himself among strange people, he felt in no degree oppressed.
His companion was a black, Gajere, a Mahommedan, and, though
communicative, rather rude and unable to refrain from occasionally
mocking the stranger who wanted to know everything but would not
acknowledge the prophet.  Mounted on an active steed, he and his
attendants soon reached Tassawa, the first large place of Negroland
proper which he had seen.  Everywhere were unmistakable marks of the
comfortable, pleasant sort of life led by the natives.  The court-yards,
fenced with tall reeds, closed to a certain degree the gaze of the
passer-by, without securing to the interior absolute secrecy.  Near the
entrance was a cool shady hut for the transaction of ordinary business
and the reception of strangers.  The lower portions of most of the
houses consisted of clay, and the upper part of wicker-work, while the
roof was composed of reeds only.  The dwellings were shaded with
spreading trees, and enlivened with groups of children, goats, fowls,
pigeons, and, where a little wealth had been accumulated, by a horse, or
pack-ox.  The men wore white shirts, and trowsers of dark colour, while
their heads were generally covered with light caps of cotton cloth.
Only the wealthier wore the shawl thrown over the shoulders like the
plaid of a Highlander.  The dress of the women consisted almost entirely
of a large cotton cloth of dark colour, fastened round the neck with a
few strings of glass beads.

On the 1st of February Dr Barth approached the important city of Kano.
Almost all the people he met saluted him kindly and cheerfully, only a
few haughty Fellani passing without a salute.

The villages were here scattered about in the most agreeable way, such
as is only practicable in a country in a state of considerable security.
Some of them were surrounded by a bush like the broom, growing to a
height of ten or twelve feet.  The doctor and his native companions
passed through a village in which was a large market-place consisting of
several rows of well-built sheds.  The market women who attached
themselves to their cavalcade assured them that they would be able to
reach the city that day, but that they ought to arrive at the outer gate
before sunset, as at that time it is shut.  The party accordingly pushed
on; but, after entering the gate, it took them forty minutes to reach
the house of Bawu, and, as it was quite dark, they had some trouble in
taking possession of the quarters assigned to them by their host.

Kano had been sounding in the traveller's ears for more than a year; it
had been one of the great objects of his journey.  It is the chief
central point of commerce, a great storehouse of information, and was,
Barth considered, the point from whence a journey to more distant
regions might be most successfully attempted.  At length, after nearly a
year's exertions, he had reached it.  He was, however, greatly
inconvenienced by not being provided with ready cash, instead of which
merchandise had been provided for the expedition, which they had been
assured would not only be safer than money, but would also prove more

Barth had now to pay away a large sum, and all the smaller articles,
which had been carried for barter, having been expended by the heavy
extortions to which they had been subjected on the road to Aire--he was
placed in much difficulty for want of means.  He soon found also that
Bawu, Mr Gagliuffi's agent, could not be implicitly relied on.

The currency of the country consists of cowrie shells, or _kurdie_,
which are not, as in regions near the coast, fastened together in
strings of one hundred each, but are separate, and must be counted one
by one.  The governors of towns make them up in sacks containing twenty
thousand each.  Private individuals will not receive them without
counting them out; those even who made but a few small purchases had to
count out five hundred thousand shells.

The doctor had now to borrow two thousand _kurdie_, which did not amount
to the value of a dollar.

He was forbidden to leave his quarters until he had seen the governor,
and he was thus kept within them for several days, till he was attacked
by fever.  At length, on the 18th of February, he received a summons to
attend the great man.

Although the distances in Kano are less than those of London, they are
very great, and the ceremonies to be gone through are almost as tedious
as those of any European court.

Arousing himself, and putting on his warm Tunisian dress, wearing over
it a white _tobe_ and a white bournous, he mounted his poor black nag
and followed his advocates, Bawu Elaiji and Sidi-Ali, the two latter of
whom showed him the most disinterested friendship.  It was a fine
morning: before him lay the whole scenery of the town, in its great
variety of clay houses, huts, sheds, green open places affording pasture
for oxen, horses, camels, donkeys, and goats, in motley confusion, with
many beautiful specimens of the vegetable kingdom--the slender
date-palm, the spreading _alleluba_, and the majestic silk-cotton tree--
the people in all varieties of costume, from the almost naked slave up
to the most gaudily-dressed Arab, all formed a most animating and
exciting scene.

Passing through the market-place, they entered the quarters of the
ruling race--the Fulbe or Fellani, where conical huts of thatched work
and the gonda-tree are prevalent.

They first proceeded to the house of the _gadado_, the lord of the
treasury.  It was an interesting specimen of the domestic arrangements
of the Fulbe, who do not disown their original character of nomadic
cattle-breeders.  Its court-yard, though in the middle of the town,
looked like a farm-yard, and could not be commended for its cleanliness.

The treasurer having approved of the presents and appropriated to
himself a large gilt cup, the doctor and his companions were conducted
to the audience-hall.  It was very handsome, and even stately for this
country.  The rafters of the elevated ceiling were concealed by two
lofty arches of clay, very neatly polished and ornamented.  At the
bottom of the apartment were two spacious and highly-decorated niches,
in one of which the governor was reposing on the _gado_ spread with a
carpet.  His dress consisted of all the mixed finery of Haussa and
Barbary.  He allowed his face to be seen, the white shawl hanging down
far below his mouth, over his breast.

The governor was highly pleased with the handsome presents he received,
and the doctor, notwithstanding the fatigue he had gone through, quickly
recovered from his fever.

The next day he rode round the town.  Here were a row of shops filled
with articles of native and foreign produce, with buyers and sellers in
every variety of figure, complexion, and dress, yet all intent upon
their little gain.  There a large shed full of naked half-starved slaves
torn from their homes--from their wives or husbands, from their children
or parents--ranged in rows like cattle, and staring desperately upon the
buyers, anxiously watching into whose hands it should be their destiny
to fall.  In another part were to be seen all the necessaries of life;
here a rich governor dressed in silk and gaudy clothes, mounted upon a
spirited and richly-caparisoned steed, and followed by a host of idle,
insolent slaves; there a poor blind man, groping his way through the
multitude, and fearing at every step to be trodden down.  There were
pleasant scenes too, a snug-looking cottage with the clay walls nicely
polished, beneath the shade of a wide-spreading alleluba-tree; or a
_papaya_ unfolded its large leather-like leaves above a slender, smooth
and undivided stem; or the tall date-tree, waving over the whole scene;
a matron, in clean black cotton gown, busy preparing the meal for her
absent husband or spinning cotton, and at the same time urging the
female slaves to pound the corn, and children, naked and merry, playing
about in the sun, or chasing a straggling, stubborn goat; earthenware
pots and wooden bowls, all cleanly washed, standing in order.  In one
place dyers were at work, mixing with the indigo some coloured wood in
order to give it the desired tint, others drawing a shirt from the
dye-pot or hanging it up on ropes fastened to the trees.  Further on, a
blacksmith, busy with his rude tools making a dagger, a formidable
barbed spear, or some more useful instrument of husbandry.  Here a
caravan appears from Gonga bringing the desired kola-nut, chewed by all
who have ten _kurdie_ to spare; or another caravan laden with natron; or
a troop of A'sbenawa going off with their salt to the neighbouring
towns; or some Arabs leading their camels, heavily laden with the
luxuries of the north and east.  Everywhere human life was to be seen in
its varied forms, the most cheerful and the most gloomy closely mixed
together--the olive-coloured Arab, the dark Kanuri with his wide
nostrils, the small-featured, light, and slender Ba-fellanchi, the
broad-faced Mandingo, the stout, large-boned, and masculine Nupe female,
the well-proportioned and comely Ba-haushe woman.

The doctor met with many friends, and was very kindly treated at Kano.
He was again attacked with illness, but, recovering, prepared to set out
for Kukawa, where he had arranged with Mr Richardson to arrive in the
beginning of April.  The capital of the large province of Sackatoo
contains sixty thousand inhabitants during the busy time of the year,
about four thousand of whom belong to the nation by whom the people were
conquered.  The principal commerce consists in native produce, viz.,
cotton cloth, woven and dyed here and in the neighbouring towns in the
forms either of _tobes_, the oblong piece of dress of dark colour worn
by the women, or plaids of various colours, and the black _litham_.  A
large portion of it is sent to Timbuctoo, amounting to three hundred
camel-loads annually, thus bringing considerable wealth to the
population, for both cotton and indigo are produced and prepared in the
country.  Leathern sandals are also made with great neatness and
exported in large quantities.  Tanned hides and red sheep-skins are sent
even as far as Tripoli.  The chief article of African produce sold in
the Kano market is the kola-nut, which has become to the natives as
necessary as coffee or tea to Europeans.  The slave trade is an
important branch of commerce, though the number annually exported from
Kano does not exceed five thousand; but very many are sold into domestic
slavery, either to the inhabitants of the province itself or to those of
the adjoining districts.

The greatest proportion of European goods is still imported by the
northern road; but the natural road by way of the great eastern branch
of the so-called Niger will in the course of events be soon opened.  The
doctor deeply regretted that after the English had opened that noble
river to the knowledge of Europe, they allowed it to fall into the hands
of the American slave-dealers, who began to inundate Central Africa with
American produce, receiving slaves in return.  Happily an end has come
to this traffic.  The English did not appear to be aware of what was
going on.  Space will not allow us to speak further of the various
articles of commerce.  The principal English goods brought to the market
of Kano are bleached and unbleached calicoes and cotton prints from
Manchester, French silks, and red cloth from Saxony, beads from Venice
and Trieste, a coarse kind of silk from Trieste, paper, looking-glasses,
needles and small ware from Nuremberg, sword blades from Solingen,
razors from Styria.  It is remarkable that so little English merchandise
is seen in this great emporium of Negroland.

On the 9th of March the doctor, with immense satisfaction, mounted on
his ugly little black nag, rode out of Kano.  He had but one servant,
his faithful Gatroni, to load his three camels.  He was, however,
attended by a horseman to see him to the frontier of the Kano territory.
The latter, being showily dressed and well mounted, gave himself all
possible airs as they rode through the narrow streets into the open
fields.  Hence he took an easterly course towards Bornou proper.

After passing a number of interesting places, on the 22nd of March the
doctor entered the region of Bornou proper.  It is here that the
dum-palm exclusively grows in Negroland.

He enjoyed an interesting and cheerful scene of African life in the
open, straggling village of Calemri, amid which, divided into two
distinct groups by a wide, open space, were numerous herds of cattle
just being watered.  How melancholy came afterwards the recollection of
that busy scene, when on his return, three and a half years later, he
found it an insecure wilderness, infested by robbers, the whole of the
inhabitants having been swept away!

On the 24th, as he was approaching a more woody district than he had
hitherto passed, a richly-dressed person rode up to him and gave him the
sad intelligence of the death of Mr Richardson at Kukawa.  He still
could scarcely believe the news; but it was confirmed afterwards by
another party of horsemen whom he met.  At first he felt as if the death
of Mr Richardson involved the return of the mission; but after some
consideration he resolved to persevere by himself.  On the 2nd of April,
pushing on ahead of his camels, on horseback, he approached Kukawa, or
Kouka, the capital of Bornou.  Proceeding towards the white clay wall
which encircles the town, he entered the gate, gazed at by a number of
people, who were greatly surprised when he enquired for the residence of
the sheikh.  Passing the daily market, crowded with people, he rode to
the palace, which bordered a large promenade on the east.  It was
flanked by a mosque, a building of clay with a tower on one side, while
houses of grandees enclosed the place on the north and south sides.

On approaching the house of the vizier, to whom he had been directed, he
found assembled before it about two hundred gorgeously-dressed horsemen.
The vizier, who was just about to mount his horse in order to pay his
daily visit to the sheikh, saluted him cheerfully and told him that he
had already known him from the letter which had been despatched.  While
he rode to the sheikh he ordered one of the people to show the doctor
his quarters.

Some days passed before he was introduced to the sheikh.  In the
meantime he had a good deal of trouble regarding the means of paying Mr
Richardson's servants.  By great firmness he obtained possession of all
Mr Richardson's property, which would otherwise have been appropriated
by the chiefs.  He found the sheikh reclining upon a divan in a fine,
airy hall.  He was of a glossy black colour, with regular features, but
a little too round to be expressive; dressed in a light _tobe_, with a
bournous wrapped round his shoulder, and a dark red shawl round his head
with great care.

The doctor spent a considerable time in Kukawa, devoting himself to the
study of the language, and making enquiries about the surrounding
country.  Kukawa was not so bustling a place as Kano, but thickly
inhabited, and on market-day crowded with people.

He became acquainted with many visitors to the place, among them a
_hadji_, Ibrahim.  On one occasion Ibrahim, being unwell, asked the
doctor for medicine, and received in return five doses, which he was to
take on successive days; but Ibrahim, being in a great hurry to get
well, took the whole at once, and was very nearly dying in consequence--
an event which would have placed the doctor in a very dangerous

His stay at Kukawa was agreeably interrupted by an excursion to Ngornu
in which he accompanied the sheikh, and from thence paid a visit to the
shores of Lake Chad.  Attended by two horsemen and his servants, he set
out for the lake.  After an hour's ride they reached swampy ground, and
had to make their way through the water, often up to their knees on
horseback.  After the dry and dreary journey over sands, he found it
very pleasant thus wading through deep water.  Two boats were seen with
men in them, watching evidently to carry off into slavery any of the
blacks who might come to cut reeds on the banks of the lagoon.  Further
on they reached another creek inhabited by hippopotami, which were
snorting about in every direction, and by two species of crocodile.
There were no elephants seen, however, as that animal always likes to
secure a dry couch on the sand, elevated above swampy ground, where it
may be free from mosquitoes.  On the northern part of the lake, where
there are ranges of low sand-hills, immense herds are to be met with.

At the village of Maduwari, he made the acquaintance of a chief, Fugo
Ali, who treated him with great kindness and continued his friend ever
afterwards.  It was at his house, a year and a half later, poor Dr
Overweg was destined to expire.  Accompanying Fugo Ali, he made a long
excursion in the neighbourhood of the lake, which is difficult to be
reached, as it is surrounded by forests of reeds and broad creeks.  He,
however, got to one of these, a fine, open sheet of water, now agitated
by a light east wind, which sent the waves rippling on the shore.  The
surface was covered with water-plants, and numberless flocks of fowl of
every description played about.  To reach it he had to pass through very
deep water which covered his saddle, though he was mounted on a tall
horse; and one of his companions on a little pony was swamped
altogether, his head and his gun alone being visible from time to time.

The inhabitants on the shores of the lake subsist chiefly on fish, which
they catch in an ingenious way.  The fisherman takes two large gourds,
which he connects by a bamboo of sufficient length to allow him to sit
astraddle between them.  He then launches forth on the water, taking his
nets.  These are weighted by little leathern bags, filled with sand and
supported by bits of bamboo.  Having shot his net, he paddles about with
his hands, driving the fish into it, and then, taking them out, kills
them with a club, and throws them into the gourds.  When they are full,
he returns to the shore.

Returning to Kukawa, Dr Barth found encamped outside the town a large
slave caravan.  There were seven hundred and fifty slaves in the
possession of the merchants who went with it.  Slaves were at that time
the principal export from Bornou.

Soon after this Dr Overweg arrived, looking greatly fatigued and much
worse than when the doctor parted from him four months before.

On the 29th of May, 1851, Dr Barth and Dr Overweg set out on a journey
to Adamawa, in the south.  As they advanced their camels were objects of
great curiosity and wonder to the natives, that animal seldom getting
thus far south, as it will not bear the climate for any length of time.

The country was generally level, with high conical mountains, separated
from each other, rising out of it.  Though at first swampy, it became
woody and well-watered, in many parts densely inhabited, with numerous
villages, where even the Mahommedans have penetrated.

At last Mount Alantika appeared in sight, eight thousand feet above the
plain.  Near it flows the Binue, that long looked-for stream, supposed
to make its way westward to the Niger, and which it had been Barth's
great object to reach.  There were no signs of human industry near the
river, as, during its floods, it inundates the country on both sides.
His feelings may be imagined when he stood at length on the banks of the
stream, which here flowed from east to west in a broad and majestic
course through an entirely open country, from which only here and there
detached mountains rose up in solitary grandeur.  Not far-off another
river, the Faro, rushed forth, not much inferior to the principal river,
descending from the steep sides of the Alantika.

On reaching Yola, the capital of the province of Adamawa, he was,
greatly to his disappointment, compelled by the governor to turn back.

Slavery exists on an immense scale in this province, many private
individuals having more than a thousand slaves.  The governor, Mohamet
Lowel, is said to receive five thousand every year in tribute, besides
horses and cattle.

This is one of the finest districts in Central Africa, irrigated as it
is by numerous rivers besides the Binue and Faro, and being diversified
with hill and dale.  Elephants were exceedingly plentiful, both black
and grey and yellow, and the rhinoceros is also met with in the river.
Barth was told that there lives in the river an animal resembling the
seal, which comes out at night and feeds on the fresh grass.

His adventurous journey obtained the doctor so much fame at Kukawa that,
on his return, a party of horsemen galloped out to salute him, and led
him in procession to his house.  Mr Overweg, who had in the meantime
been exploring Lake Chad in a boat, now rejoined him.  His next
excursion was to Kanem, on the east of Lake Chad, for which he set out
on the 11th of September by the way of its northern shores.  He had
received a valuable horse from the vizier, which was his companion for
the next three years.  He was attended by two Arabs and a couple of
Fezzan lads he had taken into his service.  He soon felt revived by the
fresh air of the country.  The region through which he passed was
usually rich, partly forest and partly cultivated.

On the 18th he was joined by Mr Overweg, who arrived accompanied by a
band of horsemen.  The horsemen treated the natives with the utmost
cruelty, stealing their property wherever they went.  One day, meeting
some cattle-breeders, they plundered them of their milk and of the very
vessels which contained it.  On applying to Dr Barth for redress, he
was enabled not only to restore to them their vessels, but to make them
a few small presents.

Descending from the high ground, they continued their course between the
sand-hills and a blue inlet of the lake to the south.  Some way to the
right they caught sight of a whole herd of elephants, ranged in regular
array like an army of rational beings, slowly proceeding to the water.

It had been supposed that Lake Chad is salt.  This is not the case.  The
natron or soda, which is procured in the neighbourhood, is found alone
in the ground.  When an inundation reaches a basin filled with soda, the
water of course becomes impregnated.  The soda, indeed, has very little
effect so long as the basin is deep, and does not begin to make itself
felt till the water becomes shallow.

Shortly afterwards, passing a grove of mimosa, two of the horsemen who
had been in front came galloping back with loud cries.  On approaching
the spot they saw a large snake hanging in a threatening attitude from
the branches of a tree.  On seeing the strangers it tried to hide
itself, but after several balls had struck it, it fell down, and its
head was cut off.  It measured eighteen feet seven inches in length, and
five inches in diameter.

They now joined themselves to a party of Arabs, by whom they hoped to be
protected on their journey.  The expedition was not without danger.  One
night they were aroused by a terrible screaming and crying from the
women, and shouts of "Mount! mount!"  Another band of freebooters had
attacked the camels, and, having put to flight two or three men and
killed a horseman, had driven off part of the herd.  The robbers were
pursued and overtaken, when they gave up their booty.  The lamentations
of the females for a man who had been slain sounded woefully through the
remainder of the night.

Two days afterwards the Arabs were in great commotion, in consequence of
the most handsome among the female slaves, who composed part of the
spoil that was to be taken to the vizier, having made her escape during
the night.  They were eagerly searching for her from dawn of day, but
could not find her.  At length they discovered her necklace and clothes,
and the remains of her bones--evident proofs that she had fallen a prey
to the wild beasts.

As they advanced eastward the situation of the Arab robbers became daily
more dangerous; nothing was thought of but to retrace their steps

The doctor was lying in his tent suffering from fever, when the alarm
was given that the enemy had arrived within a short distance of the
camp.  He heard firing, when Overweg, mounting his horse, galloped off,
calling on his friend to follow him.  The doctor, while his servant was
saddling his horse, flung his bournous over himself, and, grasping his
pistols and gun, mounted and started off towards the west, ordering
Mahomet to cling fast to his horse's tail.  Not a moment was to be lost,
as the enemy had begun to attack the east side of the camp.  Soon
afterwards, however, he saw the Arab horsemen rallying to attack the
enemy, who had dispersed in order to collect the spoil, and, overtaking
Mr Overweg, informed him that the danger was over.

On returning to the camp they found that their luggage and even their
tent had gone.  The Arabs, however, pursuing the enemy, got back most of
their things.

The natives again attacked the camp in the evening, but were beaten off.
Hearing, however, that a large body of Wadey horsemen were to join
their enemies, the Arabs retreated, and the doctor and his friends,
finding a caravan on its way to Kukawa, returned with it on the 25th of

After a rest of ten days the persevering travellers again set forth with
the sheikh and his vizier on an expedition against Mandara, the
principal object of which was to replenish their coffers and
slave-rooms, a secondary one to punish the prince of that small country,
who, protected by its mountains, had behaved in a very refractory
manner.  The vizier treated the travellers with great courtesy, and
desired them to ride by his side.  The army, which was of considerable
size, advanced in regular order.  At first they amused themselves with
hunting.  One day a giraffe was caught.  The vizier was attended by
eight female slaves and horsemen, and the same number of led horses.
The unfortunate natives had to provide grain for the army wherever it
marched.  They spent a day at a village where the troops had to lay in a
supply of corn, as they were about to pass the border region, between
the cities of the Mahommedans and those of the Pagan tribes, which, as
is generally the case in this part of the world, have been reduced to
desolation.  The vizier made Mr Overweg a present of a small lion.  On
a previous occasion he had given him a ferocious little tiger cat, which
though young was extremely fierce, and quite mastered the young lion.
They, however, soon died, in consequence of the continual swinging
motion they had to endure on the backs of the camels in the heat of the

Passing through a dense forest region, frequented by numerous elephants,
they arrived at Gabari, the northernmost of the Musgu villages,
surrounded by fields of native grain.  The inhabitants had fled; for,
though nominally under the protection of the rulers of Bornou, they had
thought it prudent to take care of their own safety.  Their village was
completely plundered, the soldiers thrashing out their grain and loading
their horses with it, while their goats, fowls, and articles of
furniture fell a prey to the greedy host.  The village had presented an
appearance of comfort, and exhibited the industry of the inhabitants.
Its dwellings were built of clay; and each court-yard contained a group
of from three to six huts, according to the number of wives of the

Continuing their march, on the 28th of December they reached the country
devoted to destruction.  The country was pleasant in the extreme;
stubble-fields surrounded numerous groups of huts and wide-spreading
trees, on whose branches was stored up the nutritious grass of those
swampy grounds for a supply in the dry season.  Broad, well-trodden
paths, lined by thick fences, wound along through the fields in every
direction.  Near the village were regular sepulchres, covered in with
large well-rounded vaults, surrounded by an earthen urn.  While the
doctor was contemplating this scene he found that the vizier and his
party had galloped on in advance.  On looking round he saw only a few
Shooa horsemen.  Following them, he soon found that he was entirely cut
off from the main body of the army.  A scene of wild disorder presented
itself; single horsemen were roving about to and fro between the fences
of the villages; here a poor native, pursued by sanguinary foes, running
for his life in wild despair; there another dragged from his place of
refuge; while a third was seen stealing by, under cover of a fence, and
soon became a mark for numerous arrows and balls.  A small troop of
Shooa horsemen were collected under the shade of a tree, trying to keep
together a drove of cattle which they had taken.  Accompanying another
band, the doctor at length rejoined the vizier.  News had just been
received that the pagans had broken through the line of march near the
weakest point, and that the rear had been dispersed.  Had these poor
pagans been led on by experienced chieftains, they would have been able
in their dense forests, where cavalry is of little use, to do an immense
deal of damage to their cowardly invaders, and might easily have
dispersed them altogether.

A large number of slaves had been caught, and in the evening a great
many more were brought in, altogether between five hundred to a
thousand.  To the horror of the travellers, not less than one hundred
and seventy full-grown men were mercilessly slaughtered in cold blood,
the greater part of them being allowed to bleed to death, a leg having
been severed from the body.  The unwarlike spirit and dilatory
proceedings of the army, large as it was, enabled the inhabitants of
other villages to make their escape.

The village of Demmo was next to be attacked.  On reaching it, however,
a large watercourse, two miles in width, appeared before them, across
which the natives made their escape.  The scene on its banks was highly
interesting, and characteristic of the equatorial regions of Africa.
Instead of the supposed lofty range of the Moon, only a few isolated
mountains had been seen, and in place of a dry desolate plateau they had
found wide and extremely fertile plains, less than one thousand feet
above the level of the sea, and intersected by innumerable broad

The village, which only a few moments before had been the abode of
comfort and happiness, was destroyed by fire and made desolate.
Slaughtered men, with their limbs severed from their bodies, were lying
about in all directions.

Led by a treacherous Musgu chief, the army attacked other places, till
the river Loggun put a stop to their further advance.  These unfortunate
Musgus are ugly-looking fellows.  Only the chiefs wear clothing,
consisting merely of the skins of wild animals, thrown over their
shoulders.  They adorn their heads with strange-looking feather caps,
and their bodies with red paint, staining their teeth of the same
colour.  Their weapons are long spears, and formidable knives for
throwing at their foes, while they ride strong, active horses, without
saddles, guiding them by halters fastened round their muzzles.

Having accomplished these mighty deeds, the army halted for two days,
for the purpose of distributing the slaves taken during the expedition.
The proceeding was accompanied by the most heart-rending scenes, caused
by the number of young children and even infants who were distributed,
many of the poor creatures being mercilessly torn from their mothers,
never to see them again.  There were scarcely any full-grown men.

Another expedition was undertaken by a part of the army, when, as they
reached the river, a dozen courageous natives were seen occupying a
small elevated island with steep banks, separated from the shore by a
narrow but deep channel.  Here they set at defiance the countless host
of enemies, many of whom had firearms.  Not one of the small band of
heroes was wounded, either the balls missed their aim, or else, striking
upon the wicker-work shields of the pagans, were unable to penetrate.
The doctor was urged to fire, and on his refusing to do so was abused by
the soldiers.

The doctor and his companion returned to Kukaka on the 1st of February,

On the 4th of March, Dr Barth again set out on a journey to Begharmi, a
considerable distance to the south-east of Lake Chad.  His only
conveyance was his own horse and a she-camel for his luggage.  The next
day Ovenveg, who had resolved to explore Lake Chad in a boat, parted
from him, and he proceeded on his hazardous expedition alone, his course
being to the south-east, along the shores of the lake.  He passed
several towns in a state of decay.  In that of Ngla the palace of the
governor was of immense size for Negroland.  It had large and towering
clay walls, having the appearance of an enormous citadel.

He was hospitably treated at the large town of Loggun.  Here the river
of the same name, which falls into Lake Chad, is from three hundred and
fifty to four hundred yards across.  About forty or fifty boats of
considerable size floated on the stream.  He made an excursion on the
river, when he excited great admiration by firing at a crocodile, though
he did not kill the creature.  The sultan formed so high an estimation
of the traveller, that he wished him to remain to assist him in fighting
his enemies, but the doctor, being anxious to proceed eastward, induced
him at length to let him take his departure.

On the 16th of March he left Loggun to endeavour to penetrate into
regions never before trodden by European foot.  He crossed the river in
a boat, while his horse and camel swam over.  Passing through a dense
forest, he observed the footprints of the rhinoceros, an animal unheard
of in the western parts of Negroland.  It is greatly feared by the
inhabitants.  Little further in advance he suddenly beheld through the
branches of the trees the splendid sheet of a river far larger than that
of Loggun.  All was silence, the pellucid surface undisturbed by the
slightest breeze; no vestige of human or animal life, with the exception
of two hippopotami which had been basking in the sun on shore, and now
plunged into the water.  This was the real Shary, the great river of the
Kotoko, which with the river Loggun forms a large basin, giving to this
part of Negroland its characteristic feature.

After some time a ferry-boat appeared, but the ferrymen declined
carrying the party over before they had informed their master.  While
waiting for them, a large troop of pilgrims on their way to Mecca,
mostly from the western parts of Negroland, came up, and the doctor made
them a present of needles.  The boatmen, returning, declared that the
chief of the village would not allow him to pass.  He was, however, not
to be defeated, and, proceeding along the banks of the river, at length
found some ferrymen who did not hesitate to take him across.  He was,
however, soon again stopped, and, after repeated attempts to push on,
was compelled to take up his residence at a place called Bakada.

Here the white ants waged relentless war against his property.  Though
he had placed his bed on the top of some poles, he found that they not
only had reached the summit, but had eaten through both the coarse mats,
finished a piece of his carpet, and destroyed other articles.

The doctor had sent a messenger to the capital, but as he did not
return, he determined to set out.

He had reached Mela, on the bank of the river, when, as he was seated in
his tent, the head man of the village arrived, followed by a number of
others, and he found himself suddenly seized and his feet placed in
irons, his property being carried off.  He was conveyed to an open shed,
where he was guarded by two servants of the lieutenant-governor.  His
servants were also seized, but ultimately set at liberty that they might
attend on him.  He was liberated, however, the next day by the arrival
of Hacik, whose friendship he had formed at Bakada, and who promised
that he should without further difficulty visit the capital.

On the 27th of April Mas-ena, the capital, appeared beyond a fine extent
of verdure.  He had a good house provided for him, and numbers of people
came to visit him; among them was Faki Sambo, who was totally blind.  He
had travelled much and was well versed in Arabic literature, having read
even portions of Aristotle and Plato, translated into Arabic.  The
doctor had many interesting conversations with this wonderfully
well-informed man.

The lieutenant-governor, however, grew suspicious of the traveller, as
did many of the people.  He had a narrow escape by being called in to
visit a sick man, when, convinced that his illness was serious, he
refused to give any medicine.  The man died a few days afterwards, and
his death would, had he done as he was asked, have been attributed by
the savage people to him.

On the 6th of July the caravan from Fezzan arrived, bringing despatches
from Kukawa, sent out from England, authorising him to carry on the
objects of the expedition on a more extensive scale, while means were
placed at his disposal for doing so.  It was hoped in England that he
and his companion would be able to cross the unknown region of
equatorial Africa and reach the south-east coast; but, as the state of
his health made this impossible, he was glad to find that Lord
Palmerston suggested he should endeavour to reach Timbuctoo.  To this
plan, therefore, he turned his attention.  He, however, found it very
difficult to leave the city.  The sultan, after some time, gave him an
audience; that is to say, the doctor saw him, but the great man did not
allow himself to be seen.  Earth presented his gifts, and received in
return, at his request, a supply of the manufactures of the country,
instead of a female slave and a white camel, which the sultan offered
him.  He heard that the sultan entertained the fear that he might poison
or kill him by a charm, and that he had repeatedly consulted his learned
men, or councillors, how he should protect himself against his

After repeated delays, on the 10th of August he was allowed to take his
departure.  The sultan had set his eyes on his horse, and, just as he
was starting, sent to ask him to sell it; but this he positively
declined doing, and no attempt was made to seize the animal.

He reached Kukawa after an interesting journey, without a mishap, on the
21st of August.  He found Mr Overweg very sickly.  Unhappily, he
thought himself strong enough to go out shooting, and was so imprudent
as to go into deep water after water-fowl, and remain all the day
afterwards in his wet clothes.  He was seized with a severe illness in
consequence, but believed that he should get better if removed to the
country home of their friend Fugo Ali.  He here became much worse, and
in two days died.  A grave was dug for him near the borders of the lake
in the exploration of which he had taken so much interest.

Dejected at his lonely situation, and unwilling any longer to stay in a
place which had become intolerable to him, Barth determined to set out
as soon as possible on his journey towards the Niger.




On the 25th of November, 1852, all arrangements being made, Dr Barth
set out on his venturesome expedition to Timbuctoo, intending to proceed
first to the town of Say, on the banks of the Niger.  He had parted on
friendly terms with the sheikh, who sent him two fine camels as a
present.  He had as head servant his faithful Gatroni, who had gone to
Fezzan and had lately returned, five other freemen, and two slaves,
besides another personage, who acted as his broker, well accustomed to
travel in Negroland; but, being an Arab, the doctor only put confidence
in him as long as circumstances were propitious.

He encamped, as was his custom on commencing a journey, only two miles
from the city.  It was the coldest night he had experienced in
Negroland, the thermometer being only nine degrees above the

On the 25th of December he arrived at Zinder, the frontier town of
Bornou, built round and about masses of rock, which rose out of the
ground, the picturesqueness of the place being increased by groups of
date-palms.  Water, which collects at short depths below the surface,
fertilises a number of tobacco-fields, and gives to the vegetation
around a very rich character.

On the 5th of February, 1853, the party entered the town of Katseena,
where he laid in a supply of articles.  Here they were detained for a
considerable time, as an expedition was setting out against the Fulbe,
and it would have been dangerous to proceed until it was known what
direction the hostile army would take.  By the 25th of March, however,
he was ready to continue his journey, the governor himself having
arranged to accompany him for some days, as the whole country was
exposed to imminent danger, and, further on, a numerous escort was to
attend them.

Interesting as his journey was, it is impossible to describe the various
places he visited or the adventures he met with.  Day after day he
travelled on, sometimes detained for weeks and months together, at one
town or another, though he was never idle, always employing himself in
gaining information, or in studying the language of the district through
which he was to pass.

On the 19th of June he was close to the Niger, and hoped that the next
day he might behold with his own eyes that great river of Western Africa
which has caused such immense curiosity in Europe, and the upper part of
the large eastern branch of which he had himself discovered.  Elated
with such feelings, he set out early the next morning, and, after a
march of two hours through a rocky wilderness covered with dense bushes,
he obtained the first sight of the river, and in another hour reached
the place of embarkation, opposite the town of Say.  Here he beheld, in
a noble, unbroken stream, the mighty Niger gliding along in a
north-north-east and south-south-west direction, though at this spot,
owing to being hemmed in by rocky banks, only about seven hundred yards
broad.  It had been seen by Mungo Park flowing eastward, and it was
therefore, till the Landers descended it, supposed that it might
possibly make its way into some vast lake in Central Africa.  On the
flatter shore opposite, a large town lay spread out, the low ramparts
and huts of which were picturesquely overtopped by numbers of slender

After waiting some time the boats he had sent for, which were about
forty feet in length and four to five in width, arrived.  They were
formed by hollowing out two trunks of trees, which were sewn together in
the centre.  His camels, horses, people, and luggage having crossed in
safety, he followed in the afternoon, intending to survey the course of
the river between the point where it has become well-known by the
labours of Mungo Park, Caillie, and the Landers.

The language spoken here, the Songhay, differs materially from that with
which he was acquainted, and he therefore was less able to converse with
the people than he had been before.

Quitting Say, he left the Niger behind him, or rather on his right-hand
side, proceeding north-west towards Timbuctoo.  The country on this side
of the Niger is thickly inhabited, and he passed numerous towns and
villages on his way.

At the village of Namantugu he met an Arab from the west, called
Wallati, who undertook to escort him safely to the town of Timbuctoo.
He was a handsome fellow.  His dress consisted of a long black gown,
with a black shawl wound round his head, and he moved along at a solemn
pace; he reminded the doctor of the servants of the Inquisition.

The inhabitants of this place were clothed in the purest white, even the
little children wearing round their heads turbans composed of strips of
white cotton.

They had now entered a region full of water, the soil presenting very
little inclination to afford it the means of flowing off.

He was detained some time in the populous town of Dore, and on the 21st
of July set out on the most dangerous stage of his journey to Timbuctoo.
Many large sheets of water had to be crossed, and occasionally swamps,
which greatly impeded their progress.  It was the rainy season, and he
was thus at times unable to proceed.

As he had now to traverse the province of Dellah, which is ruled by a
governor subject to the fanatical chief of Mas-ena, who would never
allow a Christian to visit his territory, the doctor was obliged to
assume the character of an Arab.

At the town of Bambarra, situated among the creeks and back-waters of
the Niger, he met an Arab native of Tisit, who had made the pilgrimage
to Mecca.  The stranger cross-questioned him very narrowly about the
place from which he came, and the doctor had reason to fear he should be
discovered.  However, the man's whole appearance inspired him with such
confidence that he felt sure that he might be trusted.

On the 27th of August the doctor set out on his last journey by land, in
order to reach Sarawano, the place where he was to embark on the river.

It is only during the rainy season that there is communication by water
to Timbuctoo, which lies directly north from this place.

He here engaged a boat with two cabins of matting, one in the prow and
the other in the stern.  She was built of planks sewn together in a very
bungling manner.

A labyrinth of creeks, back-waters, and channels spreads over the whole
of this country, affording water-communication in all directions.

On the 1st of September the voyage commenced, and the doctor naturally
felt in high spirits when he found himself floating on the river which
was to carry him all, the way to the harbour of Timbuctoo.  The water
was greatly obstructed by long grass, which made rowing impossible, and
the boat was therefore impelled by poles, generally moving at the rate
of between two and three miles an hour.  At night, a storm threatening,
the boat was moored in a wide grassy creek; but the numerous swarms of
mosquitoes molested them greatly during the night.  The barking sounds
of some animals were heard, which the doctor found proceeded from young

On the 2nd of September the boatmen made use of their oars, sometimes
passing broad open spaces, and again getting into narrow channels.

Barth and his attendants were tolerably well supplied with fish, which
they either purchased or which were caught by the boatmen with a

They at last entered a large confluent of the Niger, and glided
pleasantly along, a short distance from the northern bank, which was
thickly clothed with trees, till at length, darkness approaching, they
crossed, fully a thousand yards, to the opposite bank, where the vessel
was moored near a village.  Most of the party slept on shore, but others
made themselves comfortable in the boat and on the top of the matting
which formed the cabins.

The next day, they entered the mighty stream, along which they
proceeded, here running from the west to the east.  It was at this spot
about a mile across, and its magnitude and solemn magnificence, as the
new-moon rose before them, with with the summer lightning at times
breaking through the evening sky, inspired his servants with awe and
alarm, while he stood on the roof, looking out for the city, the great
object of his journey.

Leaving the Niger and passing along a series of channels, the doctor
landed at the village of Kabara on the 5th of September.  Here he took
up his quarters in a comfortable house while he despatched messengers to
the city.  On their return, accompanied by the brother of the Sheikh El
Bakay, Sidi Alawate (who turned out a great rogue and cheated him in
every way), with several followers, on the 7th of September his
cavalcade set out for Timbuctoo.

The short distance was soon traversed, the doctor riding on ahead to
avoid the questions of those who met the party, as, had they felt the
slightest suspicion with regard to his character, they might have
prevented his entering the town, and thus endangered his life.
Unfortunately he encountered a man who addressed him in Turkish, a
language he had almost forgotten, and he had some difficulty in making a

Traversing the rubbish accumulated round the clay walls of the city, and
leaving on one side a row of dirty reed huts which encompassed the
place, he entered some narrow streets and lanes which scarcely allowed
two horses to proceed abreast.  He was not a little surprised at the
populous and wealthy character which this quarter of the town exhibited,
many of the houses rising to the height of two stories, their _facades_
evincing even an attempt at architecture and adornment.

On passing the house of the Sheikh El Bakay, he was desired to fire a
pistol to do him honour, but, as his arms were loaded with ball, he
declined doing this, and soon reached the house destined for his
residence, thankful to find himself safely in his new quarters.

Timbuctoo has never been the real capital of a negro empire, but, on
account of its becoming the seat of Mahommedan learning and worship, it
enjoyed greater respect than Gogo, which was the real capital; and, on
account of its greater proximity to Morocco, the little commerce which
remained in that distracted region was here concentrated.  It has,
however, undergone many changes during the fearful convulsions which
constantly occur in that region.

During the absence of the sheikh the doctor found it prudent to remain
within the walls of his house, though he received visits from numerous
people.  From the flat roof of his house he was, however, able to enjoy
air and exercise, and at the same time obtained a view of what was going
on in the city.  For some time he suffered severely from fever, while
rain and thunder-storms occurred nearly _every_ day.

He here heard much about Major Laing, who, after being almost killed by
the Tawarek, was kindly received in the camp of the sheikh's father.  He
tried to obtain the major's papers, but found that they had all been
destroyed.  He was much pleased with the Sheikh El Bakay, who treated
him with real kindness, and regretted that he could not keep his
troublesome brother Alawate in order.  On one occasion he made the
doctor fire off his six-barrelled pistol, in front of his house, before
a numerous assemblage of people.  This excited great astonishment, and
exercised much influence upon his future safety, as it made the people
believe that he had arms all over his person, and could fire as many
times as he liked.

The city of Timbuctoo is about three miles in circumference.  The town
is laid out partly in rectangular, partly in winding streets, covered
with hard sand and gravel.  Besides two market-places there are few open
areas.  There are about nine hundred and eighty clay houses, and a
couple of hundred conical huts, of matting mostly, on the outskirts.
Three large mosques and three smaller ones are the only places of
worship, there being no other public buildings of any size.  It is
divided into quarters, one of which is especially inhabited by
Mahommedans, though the larger number of the people profess to have
faith in the Prophet.  There are about thirteen thousand settled
inhabitants, and, during the time of the greatest traffic, from five to
ten thousand people visit the city.

A fanatical party, hearing that a Christian had come to the place, made
various attempts to destroy him.  By the advice of his kind protector,
the sheikh, he determined to leave the city with him, and take up his
residence in the desert.  As he rode forth on his white mare, the
natives thronged the streets in order to get a glance at the Christian
stranger.  He was thankful to find himself once more in the fresh air of
the desert.  Here he passed several days in the most quiet and retired
manner, much recovering his health.

He then paid another visit to Timbuctoo, and was able to explore the
city and the great mosque, Jingere-Ber, which made a great impression on
his mind by its stately appearance.  He had again, however, to return to
the camp of El Bakay, where the perils of his position kept increasing,
and he in vain urged his dilatory protector to enable him to make his
escape.  His enemies were legion--fresh parties arriving constantly to
seize him, dead or alive.  A band of them actually made a descent on the
camp, but were driven back by the bold front his friends exhibited.

He had an interesting visit from an Arab chief, who was acquainted with
Mungo Park, and gave him a full account of the way in which he had been
attacked by the Tawarek as he descended the great river in his boat.

On the 12th of December Barth heard that Ali, a fanatical chief of the
Berabish, had arrived with a large body of followers, to take his life.
Suddenly, however, Ali fell ill and died, and the people believed that
it was a judgment on him, as his father had killed Major Laing, whose
son it was supposed the doctor was.  Many of the Berabish, indeed, came
to El Bakay to beg his pardon and to obtain his blessing, saying that
they would no longer impede the stranger's departure.

The river had gradually been rising, and on the 25th of December the
water entered the wells situated to the south of the town.

On the 4th of January, 1854, the first boat from Kabara reached
Timbuctoo, and other boats arriving laden with corn, the supply shortly
became plentiful and cheap.

The inundation attained its greatest height towards the end of January,
an event possessing almost the same importance as that of the rising of
the Nile.

The city depends entirely upon commerce, the only manufactures being
confined to the art of the blacksmith and a little leather-work.

Another year, 1854, of the persevering traveller's stay in Negroland,
began with the fervent prayer that he might return home before the end
of it.  His hopes were raised that he might soon be able to set off.
Numberless disappointments, however, occurred.

On the 17th of March, by the advice of his friends, he returned to the
camp, such a step being deemed essential for the security of the town
and their own personal interests.  He was here kept till the 19th of
April, and even then his friend the Sheikh El Bakay, could not overcome
his habitual custom of taking matters easy, and the sun was already high
in the sky and very hot before the camels were loaded and the caravan
began to move.

In consequence of the progress the French were making in Algiers at this
time, much suspicion was attached to the doctor, as the people could not
but think that his journey to the country had some connection with them.
Even after this he was detained till the 17th of May, at an encampment
amidst swamps, when at last the news arrived that the sheikh, who had
left them, had gone on ahead, and all was joy and excitement.

On overtaking the sheikh, who, as he awoke from his slumbers, received
the doctor with a gentle smile, despatches were delivered to him from
England.  One from Lord John Russell expressed the warmest interest in
his proceedings, and others informed him that Dr Vogel, with two
sergeants, had set out to join him, and that he would probably meet them
in Bornou.  He was much surprised that he received no news from his
friend the vizier, as the parcel had evidently come by way of Bornou--
little aware, at the time, of the murder of that friendly officer.

The following day they passed through a dense forest, said to be
frequented by lions.  Keeping along the course of the river, which was
here very shallow, crocodiles were seen in abundance, and anxiety was
felt for the horses, which were pasturing on the fine rank grass at its

Owing to the dilatory character of his friend the sheikh, the progress
was very slow, but he was thus enabled to enter into conversation with
the natives, and obtained much information.

On his way he visited Gogo, situated at the southern limits of the Great
Desert, one portion on the banks of the river, and another on an island,
that to the east having been inhabited by the Mahommedans, the other by
idolators.  He found the place, however, in a most ruinous condition,
even the mosque itself being in a dilapidated state.  Indeed, the once
great city of Negroland now consists only of from three to four hundred
huts, grouped in separate clusters and surrounded by heaps of rubbish,
which indicated its former site.  Here it is believed that Mungo Park
was buried.

While encamped at a place called Borno, close to the banks of the river,
a number of hippopotami made their appearance, snorting fiercely at
being disturbed, and put their horses to flight.  At times they
interrupted the intercourse between the banks, and in the evening became
still more noisy, when they wanted to come out for their usual feed.

He was fortunate in having so able a protector as the Sheikh El Bakay,
who, in consequence of his supposed sacred character, was treated with
honour whenever he went.

After visiting a number of places, both on the banks and eastward of it,
he reached, on the 24th of August, Sackotoo.  Here he received
intelligence of the arrival of five Christians, with a train of forty
camels, at Kukawa, and had little doubt that it was the expedition under
Dr Vogel.

On the 14th of October he arrived in Kano, where he found everything
prepared for his reception.  He here received the intelligence that
Sheikh Omar, of Kukawa, had been dethroned, his vizier slain, and that
in a fierce battle a number of his other friends had fallen.  He had
made up his mind, therefore, to proceed to Aire, instead of returning to
Bornou; but, subsequently hearing that Omar had been again installed, he
kept to his former determination.

At length, escaping from greedy rulers, hostile populations, wild
beasts, swamps, rains and fevers, he at length reached Bundi, near
Kouka, on the 30th of November.

He had again left that place, when, riding through the forest with his
head servant, he saw advancing towards him on horseback a young man, of
fair complexion, dressed in a _tobe_, with a white turban, and
accompanied by two or three blacks, also on horseback.  The stranger was
Dr Vogel, who dashed forward, when the two travellers gave each other a
hearty reception on horseback.  Dismounting in the forest, they unpacked
their provisions and sat down to enjoy a social repast, Barth, however,
being greatly disappointed that not a bottle of wine, for which he had
an extraordinary longing, had been brought.

Vogel, with Corporal Church and Private Macguire, had come out to
strengthen the expedition and to follow up Barth's discoveries.  Vogel
succumbed to the climate about a year afterwards, on a journey to
Adamawa.  After his death Macguire was killed on his way home, and
Church returned with Dr Barth.

While Vogel pursued his journey to Zinda, Barth proceeded on to Kukawa.
He found the village of Kaleemri, which, on his outward journey, was so
cheerful and industrious, now a scene of desolation--a few scattered
huts being all at present to be seen.  Such is, unhappily, the fate of
numerous towns and villages in this distracted country.

His old friend, the Sheikh Omar, who had been reinstated, sent out a
body of horsemen to give him an honourable reception on his return to
Kukawa.  Here he had to remain four months, greatly troubled by
financial difficulties, and finding that a considerable portion of his
property had been stolen by the rascality of one of his servants.  His
health, too, was greatly shattered.

It was not till the 4th of May that, in company with a Fezzan merchant,
Kolo, he commenced his return journey, with a small caravan, towards
Tripoli.  At Barruwa they laid in a supply of dry, ill-smelling fish,
which constitutes the most useful article of exchange in the Tebu
country.  The region to his right, over which he had previously passed,
was now entirely covered with water from the overflowing of the Chad,
which had submerged several villages.

He met with no unusual adventures during his long, tedious journey
northward across the desert.

At Mourzouk he had the pleasure of meeting Mr Frederick Warrington.  He
here remained six days, discharging some of his servants, and among them
his faithful Gatroni.

Some tribes of Arabs had here rebelled against the Turks, and he was in
some danger while in their hands.  Escaping, however, from them, he
reached Tripoli in the middle of August, and, embarking at the end of
four days, arrived safely, on the 6th of September, in London.

Although much of the country he had passed over was already known, no
previous African traveller more successfully encountered and overcame
the difficulties and dangers of a journey through that region.

The most important result of his adventurous journey was the discovery
of a large river, hitherto unknown, falling into the Chad from the
south, and of the still larger affluent of the Quorra, the mighty Binue,
which, rising in the far-off centre of the continent, flows through the
province of Adamawa.

The courage and perseverance of Dr Barth, while for five years
travelling many thousand miles, amidst hostile and savage tribes, in an
enervating climate, frequently with unwholesome or insufficient food,
having ever to keep his energies on the stretch to guard himself from
the attacks of open foes or the treachery of pretended friends, have
gained for him the admiration of all who read his travels, and place him
among the first of African travellers.




Captain, then Lieutenant, John Hanning Speke, the son of a gentleman of
property in England, was an officer in the Indian army, and had taken
part under Lord Gough in the great battles of Ramnugger, Chillianwalla,
and others.  He had, at intervals during leave, travelled in the
Himalaya Mountains, as well as through other parts of India and in
Thibet, for the purpose of collecting specimens of the fauna of those
regions to form a museum in his father's house.  While thus occupied, he
formed the design of traversing Africa as soon as he could obtain
furlough, visiting the Mountains of the Moon and descending the Nile
with the same object in view.

At the end of ten years' service, on obtaining furlough, hearing that an
expedition was to be sent by the Indian Government, under the command of
Lieutenant Burton, to explore the Somali country, a large tract lying
due south of Aden, and separated from the Arabian coast by the Gulf of
Aden, he offered his services, and was accepted.  Two other Indian
officers, Lieutenants Stroyan and Heme, also joined the expedition.

The Somali are Mahommedans, descendants of Arabs who have intermarried
with negroes.  They are a savage, treacherous race, noted for their
cheating and lying propensities; in figure tall, slender, light, and
agile, scarcely darker than Arabs, with thin lips and noses, but woolly
heads like negroes.  Their ancestors, having taken possession of the
country, drove out its former Christian inhabitants, who retreated

Caravans, however, pass through their country to their only port and
chief market, Berbera, which at the time of the fair is crowded with
people, though entirely deserted for the rest of the year.

It was proposed that the expedition should follow the route of these
caravans, or accompany one of them, and thus penetrate through the
country, into the interior.

Considerable time was spent in making excursions for short distances,
during which Lieutenant Speke shot a large number of wild animals; but
unfortunately the _abban_, or petty chief, who undertook to be his
protector and guide, proved to be a great rascal, and cheated and
deceived him in every possible way.

The Somali are keen and cunning sportsmen, and have various methods of
killing elephants, ostriches, and gazelles.  They fearlessly attack an
elephant, on foot, one man only being mounted on a horse, who gallops in
front, and while the animal pursues him, the others rush in and
hamstring him with their knives.  Ostriches are caught by throwing down
poison at the spots where they feed.  The Somali also hunt them, on the
backs of their hardy little ponies.  The ostrich is a shy bird, and is
so blind at night that it cannot feed.  A Somali, knowing this,
providing himself with provisions for two or three days, sets off in
search of them; showing himself to the ostriches, he is discovered, but
takes care to keep at a distance.  They stalk off, and he follows at the
same rate, but never approaches sufficiently near to scare them.  At
night the birds, unable to see, stop, but cannot feed.  He, meantime,
rests and feeds with his pony, resuming the chase the next day.  He
follows the birds in the same way as at first, they from constant
fasting becoming weaker, till after the second or third day he is able
to ride in among them and knock them down in succession.

The party had at length secured, after considerable trouble, the camels
and horses they required, and were encamped at Berbera, which was
completely deserted by its inhabitants, when they were surprised at
night by a large band of robbers.  Lieutenant Stroyan was killed and
Lieutenant Speke was made prisoner and desperately wounded, but,
springing to his feet just as a robber was about to run him through with
his spear, he knocked over his assailant with his hands, though bound
together, and made his escape to the sea-shore, to which the rest of the
party had already fled.  They were here taken on board a vessel, which
had providentially put in the day before, and in her returned to Aden.

Although his first expedition had terminated so disastrously, on his
arrival in England Lieutenant Speke again volunteered to accompany
Lieutenant Burton on an expedition to survey that part of the centre of
Africa, in the neighbourhood of the Mountains of the Moon, where an
enormous lake was supposed to exist, equal in size to the Caspian Sea.

Returning to Bombay, Lieutenant Speke and Lieutenant Burton obtained
their outfit, and set sail on the 3rd of December, 1856, for Zanzibar,
on board the HEIC sloop of war, "Elphinstone."

At Zanzibar they were warmly welcomed by the consul, Colonel Hamerton,
and well received by the Sultan Majid, who, from his intelligence and
good disposition, appeared likely to be a favourite with his people.

As they had arrived during the dry season, they were unable to commence
their journey, and some time was spent in visiting different parts of
the coast.

Their intention was to proceed to Ujiji, on the shores of Lake
Tanganyika, which was then supposed to be the southern end of the great
central lake.  They engaged as their _kafila bashi_, or head of their
caravan, a well-disposed man, Sheikh Said.  A body of the sultan's
Belooch soldiers, under a _jemadar_, or officer, and a party of slaves
armed with muskets, formed their escort.  Besides them, they had their
private servants, Valentine and Gaetano, Goa men, who spoke Hindostanee,
and a clever little liberated black slave, Bombay by name, who had been
captured from his native place, Uhiyou, to the east of Lake Nyanza, and
sold to an Arab merchant, by whom he was taken to India.  Having served
this master for several years, on his death he obtained his liberation,
and made his way to Zanzibar.  Here he took service in the army of the
sultan, and was among those engaged by Lieutenant Speke.  He was a
remarkably quick, clever, honest little fellow, and in most instances
could thoroughly be trusted.

Crossing to Kaole, on the mainland, on the 16th of June, 1857, they were
detained there collecting baggage animals.  The first five hundred miles
of their journey to Caze, a place in the centre of Unyamuezi, the Land
of the Moon, was performed with comparative ease, and they were
subjected only to annoyances from the savage people and the grasping
chiefs on the way.

Caze is occupied by Arab merchants as a central trading depot, and is
rapidly increasing.  It was supposed that Ujiji would be found much of
the same character.  Here they arrived on the 7th of November, 1857.
They were kindly received by the Arab merchants, especially by Sheikh
Snay, and had a house appropriated to them.

The houses of the Weezee, the people among whom they were living, are
built of mud, generally with flat tops: this description is called a
_tembe_.  Others, however, are in the form of haystacks, and are
constructed with great care; the door is very small, so that only one
person can enter at a time.  The villages are surrounded with a strong
fence, having taller stakes on each side of the entrance, which are
decorated either with blocks of wood or the skulls of those who have
been put to death.

The flat-roofed houses are built round a large court, the outer walls
serving as the walls of the villages, all the doors opening into the

Some time was usefully spent in gaining information from the Arabs and
others, who told them that the Nyanza was a separate lake to that of
Ujiji, and that from the latter a river ran out to the northward--
though, at first, they had stated that it ran into it.  Besides this
they heard that vessels frequented some waters to the north of the
equator--a fact of which Speke had heard when travelling in the Somali

Their porters, who had come from this part of the country, all left
them, and they found the greatest difficulty in procuring others.

Captain Burton here fell dangerously ill, and, as he believed that he
should die unless he could be moved, his companion had him carried to
Zimbili, where, by degrees, he recovered.  At length a sufficient number
of porters being obtained, they broke ground on the 10th of January,

Proceeding due west about one hundred and fifty miles, when moving over
the brow of a hill, they came in sight of the lovely Tanganyika lake,
which could be seen in all its glory by everybody but Lieutenant Speke,
who was suffering from inflammation of the eyes, caught by sleeping on
the ground while his system was reduced by fevers and the influence of
the vertical sun.  It had brought on almost total blindness, and every
object before him appeared clouded by a misty veil.

They were now standing on the eastern horn of a large, crescent-shaped
mass of mountains, overhanging the northern half of the lake.  These
mountains Speke supposed to be the true Mountains of the Moon.

Reaching the margin of the lake, a canoe was hired to carry them to
Ujiji, the chief place on its shores, frequented by Arabs.  The lake at
which they now arrived was supposed to be three hundred and eighty miles
long, and thirty to forty broad.  Its waters are sweet and abound with
fine fish.  The sides of the lake are thickly inhabited by numerous
negro tribes, among whom are the Wabembe cannibals, into whose territory
the Arabs dare not venture.

The explorers took up their abode in the deserted house of an Arab
merchant, at a small village called Kawele; but, unfortunately, the
chief of the place, Kannina, was a tyrannical extortioner, and caused
them much trouble.  They wished to engage an Arab dhow for navigating
the lake, sufficiently large to carry provisions and to resist hostile
attacks, but could only obtain a canoe.  It was long and narrow,
hollowed-out of the trunk of a single tree.  She carried Bombay,
Gaetano, two Belooch soldiers, and a captain, with twenty stark-naked
savage sailors.  In this Speke set out on the 3rd of March, 1858, while
Burton, too sick to move, remained at Ujiji.  Speke and his attendants
had moved but a short distance along the shore, when a storm came on,
and they had to camp till the afternoon of the 5th, when all got on

To pack so many men together was no easy matter.  Speke had his bedding
amidships, spread on reeds; the cook and bailsman sat facing him, and
Bombay and one Belooch behind him.  Beyond them, in couples, were the
crew, the captain taking post in the bows.  The seventeen paddles dashed
off with vigour.  Steering southwards, they passed the mouth of the
Ruche river.  They paddled on all night, and after dawn landed in a
secluded nook for breakfast.  All were busily occupied.  Gaetano dipped
his cooking-pot in the sea for water, greatly to the annoyance of the
natives, who declared that the dregs from it would excite the appetites
of the crocodiles, who would be sure to follow the boat.  They have as
great an aversion to the crocodile as English seamen have to a shark.

Suddenly there was a cry that foes were coming.  All, jumping up, rushed
to the boat, some seizing one thing, some another, the greater number
being left on the ground.  A breathless silence followed; then one
jumped on shore to secure a pot, and then another, and, gaining courage,
they searched around, crawling cautiously in the bush, others stealthily
moving along, till at last a single man was pounced upon, with an arrow
poised in hand.  He was one of eight or ten men of a tribe whom they
declared to be a rough, lawless set of marauders.  They therefore broke
his bow and arrows, and, though some of the crew proposed taking his
life, he was allowed to go.  The sailors, on their return, each vaunted
the part he had taken in the exploit, boasting as though a mighty battle
had been won.

They passed along a border of aquatic reeds, tenanted by crocodiles and
hippopotami, the latter staring, grunting, and snorting, as if vexed at
the intrusion on their privacy.  Many parts of the shore were desolate,
the result of slave-hunting and cattle-lifting parties.

"At night Speke's tent is pitched; the men build huts for themselves
with boughs, covering the top with grass, two men at the most occupying
a hut.  When it rains they are covered by their mats, but, as they are
all stark-naked, the rain can do them no harm.

"Interesting shells, unknown to the conchological world, are picked up,
numbers of which are lying on the pebbly beach.

"They are delayed again by another storm.  The superstitious captain
will answer no questions, for fear of offending the _ugaga_, or church,
whilst at sea; he dreads especially to talk of places of departure and
arrival, for fear ill luck should overtake them.

"Fourteen hours are occupied in crossing the lake, when they reach a
group of islands belonging to Sultan Casanga.  The sailors and his
people fraternise, and enjoy a day of rest and idleness.  At night they
are attacked by a host of small black-beetles, one of which gets into
Speke's ear and causes him fearful pain, biting its way in, and by no
means can he extract it.  It, however, acts as a counter-irritant, and
draws away the inflammation from his eyes.

"The population of the neighbouring shore is considerable, the
inhabitants living in mushroom huts, and cultivating manioc, sweet
potato, and maize, and various vegetables.  The people dress in
monkey-skins, the animals' heads hanging in front and the tails
depending below.  They are very inquisitive, and, by their jabberings
and pointings, incessantly, want Speke to show everything he possesses.

"He gets away the next day, and reaches a fish market, in the little
island of Kabizia, in time to breakfast on a large, black-backed,
scaleless monster, the _singa_.  The sailors considering it delicious,
are disinclined to move on.

"Again detained by a high wind, they cross, at noon on the 11th, to
Kasenge, where Sheikh Hamer, an Arab merchant, receives Speke with warm
and generous hospitality.  His house is built with good, substantial
walls of mud, and roofed with rafters and brushwood, the rooms being
conveniently partitioned off to separate his wife and other belongings,
with an ante-room for general business.  His object in coming to the
remote district is to purchase ivory, slaves, and other commodities.  He
is the owner of the dhow which Speke is anxious to obtain; but though he
professes his readiness to lend it, he makes numberless excuses, and
finally Speke has to continue his voyage in his small canoe.

"Slavery is the curse of this beautiful region.  Here for a loin-cloth
or two a mother offers eagerly to sell one of her offspring and deliver
it into perpetual bondage to his Belooch soldiers.  Whole villages are
destroyed, in the most remorseless manner, by the slave-hunters to
obtain their victims.  The chiefs of the interior are as fond of gain as
those on the coast, and this sets one against the other, for the sake of
obtaining slaves to sell.

"From Hamed Speke learns that a large river runs from the Mountains of
the Moon into the northern end of the lake.

"On the 13th the dhow comes in, laden with cows, goats, oil, and _ghee_;
but, though Speke offers five hundred dollars for her hire, the Arab
merchant still refuses to lend her.

"On the 27th Speke commences his return voyage, and arrives on the 31st
at Ujiji.

"Captain Burton is somewhat recovered, and, though unfit to travel,
insists on starting in the canoe to explore the head of the lake--the
chief, Kannina, offering to accompany them.  Their object is to examine
the river which is said to fall into it.  They start in two canoes, the
chief and Captain Burton being in the largest.  In eight days they
arrive at Uvira.  The chief, however, will go no further, knowing that
the savages of the Warundi are his enemies.  He confirms the statement
that the Rusizi River runs into the lake.

"The black naked crews are never tired of testing their respective
strengths.  They paddle away, dashing up the water whenever they succeed
in coming near each other, and delighting in drenching the travellers
with the spray.  Their great pleasure appears in torturing others, with
impunity to themselves.  They, however, wear mantles of goat-skins in
dry weather, but, as soon as rain comes on, they wrap them up, and place
them in their loads, standing meantime trembling like dogs which have
just emerged from the water.

"In no part of Africa have they seen such splendid vegetation as covers
this basin from the mountain-tops to the shores."

On returning to Ujiji, Speke wished to make a further survey of the
lake, but was overruled by Captain Burton, who considered that their
means were running short; indeed, had not an Arab merchant arrived,
bringing supplies, they would have been placed in an awkward position.
This timely supply was one of the many pieces of good fortune which
befell them on their journey.  Help had always reached them when they
most required it.

Captain Burton, being too ill to walk, was carried in a hammock, and,
setting out, they returned safely to Caze.

They were here again received by their friend, Sheikh Snay, who gave
Speke an account of his journey to the Nyanza Lake.  His statements were
corroborated by a Hindoo merchant called Musa, who gave him also a
description of the country northward of the line, and of the rivers
which flowed out of the lake.

Eager to explore the country, Speke arranged to set off, leaving Captain
Burton at Caze.  Sheikh Snay, however, refused to accompany him, and he
had in consequence some difficulty in arranging with the Belooch guard.

On the 9th of July, 1858, he was able to start his caravan, consisting
of twenty porters, ten Beloochs, and his servants.  The Beloochs were,
from the first, sulky and difficult to manage, while the _pagazis_, or
porters, played all sorts of tricks, sometimes leaving their loads and
running off to amuse themselves, and in the evening they would dance and
sing songs composed for the occasion, introducing everybody's name, and
especially Mzimza, the wise or white man, ending with the prevailing
word, among these curly-headed bipeds, of "_Grub! grub! grub_!"

The Weezee villages are built in the form of a large hollow square, the
outer wall of which serves for the backs of the huts; another wall forms
the front, and the intermediate space is partitioned off by interior
earthen walls.  The roofs are flat, and on them are kept firewood,
grain, pumpkins, and vegetables.  Each apartment contains a family, with
their poultry and cooking utensils; some, however, are devoted
exclusively to goats and cows.

They passed through forests of considerate size; caravans from the north
were also met with.  At one place the country was found to be governed
by a sultana, the only one they met with in their travels.  She did her
utmost to detain Speke, not allowing him an interview till the next day.
On paying the lady a visit, he was received by an ugly, dirtily-garbed
old woman, though with a smiling countenance, who, at his request,
furnished him eggs and milk.  At length the sultana appeared--an old
dame with a short, squat figure, a nose flabby at the end, and eyes
destitute of brows or lashes, but blessed with a smiling face.  Her
dress consisted of an old _barsati_, dirtier even than her maid's.  Her
fingers were covered with rings of copper wire, and her legs staggered
under an immense accumulation of anklets, made of brass-wire wound round
an elephant's tail or that of a zebra.  On her arms were solid brass
rings, and from other wire bracelets depended a variety of brazen, horn,
and ivory ornaments.

Squatting by his side, the sultana, after shaking hands, felt Speke all
over, wondering at his dress.  She insisted on his accepting a bullock;
but, anxious to be off, he declined waiting for it.  She at last
consented to send it after him by some of his porters, who were to
remain for the purpose.

He was constantly detained by the laziness of his _ftagazis_, who, when
getting into a rich country, preferred eating the meat, eggs, and
vegetables they could obtain.

He unfortunately had only white beads with him, which which were not the
fashion: with coloured beads he could have purchased provisions at a
much cheaper rate.  Had the people also been addicted to wearing cloth,
instead of decorating themselves with beads, he would with his cloth
have been able to make his purchases much more advantageously.  As the
country is overstocked with common beads, it is far more economical to
obtain high-priced than low-priced beads when preparing to start from

As warfare was going on, it was necessary to make a tortuous track to
avoid the combatants.

The _jemadar_ and two Beloochs complained of sickness and declared they
could not march, and poor Gaetano fell ill and hid himself in the
jungle, being thus left behind.  Men were sent off to search for him,
and the next day the Beloochs brought him in, looking exactly like a
naughty dog going to be punished.

The sultans, however, of the different villages were generally friendly.

When a desert tract had to be passed, the men went on well enough,
hoping to obtain food at the next cultivated district.

On the 30th of July Speke discerned, four miles off, a sheet of water
which proved to be a creek at the most southern portion of the Nyanza,
called by the Arabs the Ukerewe Sea.

Passing amidst villages and cultivated grounds, they descended to a
watercourse which he called the Jordan.  It is frequented by
hippopotami, and rhinoceros pay frequent visits to the fields.

Iron is found in abundance in this district, and nearly all the iron
tools and cutlery used in this part of Eastern Africa is manufactured
here: it is, in truth, the Birmingham of the land.  The porters
therefore wished to remain to make purchases of hoes.

A rich country was passed through, and on the 4th of August the caravan,
after leaving the village of Isamiro, ascended a hill, when the vast
expanse of the pale blue waters of the Nyanza burst suddenly on the
travellers' gaze.  It was early morning.  The distant sea-line of the
north horizon was defined in the calm atmosphere between the north and
west points of the compass.  An archipelago of islands intercepted the
line of vision to the left.  The sheet of water extended far away to the
eastward, forming the south and east angle of the lake, while two large
islands, distant about twenty or thirty miles, formed the visible north
shore of this firth.  _Ukerewe_ is the name by which the whole lake is
called by the Arabs.  Below, at no great distance, was the debouchure of
the creek along which he had travelled for the last three days.

This scene would anywhere have arrested the traveller by its peaceful
beauty.  He writes enthusiastically--

"The islands, each swelling in a gentle slope to a rounded summit
clothed with wood, between the rugged, angular, closely-cropping rocks
of granite, seen mirrored in the calm surface of the lake, on which is
here and there detected the a small black speck--the tiny canoe of some
Muanza fisherman.  On the gentle-shelving plain below me blue smoke
curled above the trees, which here and there partially concealed
villages and hamlets, their brown thatched roofs contrasting with the
emerald green of the beautiful milk-bush, the coral bunches of which
clustered in such profusion round the cottages, and formed alleys and
hedgerows about the villages, as ornamental as any garden shrub in

"But the pleasure of the mere view vanished in the presence of those
more intense and exciting emotions which were called up by the
consideration of the commercial and geographical importance of the
prospect before me.  I no longer felt any doubt that the lake at my feet
gave birth to that interesting river the source of which has been the
subject of so much speculation and the object of so many explorers.  The
Arab's tale was proved to the letter.  This is a far more extensive lake
than the Tanganyika: so broad, you could not see across it, and so long
that nobody knew its length."

To this magnificent lake Speke gave the name of Victoria Nyanza.

Note.  It has since been proved to be only one and the least
considerable of the sources of the White Nile, by the later discoveries
of Baker and Livingstone.

He now descended to Muanza, on the shores of the lake, having altogether
performed a journey of two hundred and twenty-six miles from Caze.

He was here kindly treated by Sultan Mahaya, with whom an Arab merchant,
named Mansur, was residing, who gave him much valuable information.

Taking a walk of three miles along the shores of the lake, accompanied
by Mansur and a native, the greatest traveller of the place, he ascended
a hill whence he could obtain a good view across the expanse of water
spread out before him.  Several islands were seen, but some so far-off
as scarcely to be distinguishable.  Facing to the west-north-west was an
unbroken sea horizon, and he calculated that the breadth of the lake was
over a hundred miles.  The native, when asked the length of the lake,
faced to the north, and, nodding his head, indicated by signs that it
was something immeasurable, adding that he thought it probably extended
to the end of the world.

Poor Mansur had been robbed of his merchandise, by a sultan whose
territory was on the shore of the lake, and he had very little chance of
obtaining redress.

Sultan Mahaya was considered the best and most just ruler in those
quarters; and when Speke proposed crossing the lake to the island of the
Ukerewe, he urged him on no account to make the attempt.  Mansur also
did his best to dissuade him, and, boats not being obtainable, he was
compelled to give up his design.

Speke, arguing from the fact that the source of the Nile at the highest
spot which had been reached, two thousand feet above the level of the
sea, is considerably lower than the surface of the lake, which is four
thousand feet, is of opinion that the waters of the lake must flow into
it.  The lake has, however, numerous feeders which flow from the
Mountains of the Moon.  Indeed, from that and several other reasons, he
felt convinced that the lake is the real and long-looked-for source of
the Nile.

As no boats of any size were to be obtained, and having gained all the
information he could, regretting that he was unable to extend his
explorations, he bade the Sultan and his Arab friend adieu, and on the
6th of August commenced his return journey.

The country through which he passed abounds in game.  Elephants are
finer here than in any other part of the world, and some have tusks
exceeding five hundred pounds the pair in weight.  The people are mostly
agricultural; and when a stranger comes among them, they welcome him,
considering his advent as a good omen, and allow him to do what he

His black attendants were in much better humour on the return journey,
as they were now going home, and, as the country was well stocked with
cattle, they could obtain as much meat as was required.  One village
through which he passed, being full of sweet springs, had a dense
population possessing numerous herds of cattle.

"If they were ruled by a few score of Europeans, what a revolution a few
years would bring forth!  An extensive market would be opened to the
world, and industry and commerce would clear the way for civilisation
and enlightenment," Speke remarks.

The country is also, he says, high, dry, and healthy, while the air is
neither too hot nor too cold.

On the evening of the 25th of August he marched into Caze, under the
influence of a cool night and bright moon, his attendants firing off
muskets and singing, while men, women, and children came flocking out,
piercing the air with loud, shrill noises.  The Arabs all came forth to
meet him and escort him to their depot, where Captain Burton, who had
been very anxious as to his safety, greeted him, numerous reports having
been set afloat about him.

Captain Burton being now restored to health, they set off together for
Zanzibar, whence they shortly afterwards returned to England.




Captain Speke, who had already made two expeditions into Africa, which
have been described--on the second of which he discovered the great
lake, Victoria Nyanza--started, on the 20th of July, 1858, on a third
expedition, in the hopes of proving that the Nile has its source in that
lake.  He was accompanied by an old Indian brother officer, Captain

Having reached the island of Zanzibar, where some time was spent in
collecting a sufficient band of followers, they left Zanzibar on the
25th of September, in a corvette placed at their disposal by the sultan,
and crossed over to Bagomoyo, on the mainland.

They had, as their attendants, ten men of the Cape Mounted Rifles, who
were Hottentots; a native commandant, Sheikh Said; five old black
sailors, who spoke Hindostanee; in addition to Bombay, Speke's former
attendant, factotum, and interpreter; a party of sixty-four Waguana
blacks, emancipated from slavery; and fifteen porters of the interior.
The two chief men, besides Said, were Bombay and Baraka, who commanded
the Zanzibar men.  Fifty carbines were distributed among the elder men
of the party, and the sheikh was armed with a double-barrelled rifle,
given to him by Captain Speke.  The sultan also sent, as a guard of
honour, twenty-five Beloochs, with an officer, to escort them as far as
Uzaramo, the country of the Wazaramo.  They had also eleven mules to
carry ammunition, and five donkeys for the sick.

Their whole journey was to be performed on foot.  As there were no
roads, their luggage was carried on the backs of men.

Some time was spent among the porters in squabbling, and arranging their
packs.  Their captain, distinguishable by a high head-dress of ostrich
plumes stuck through a strip of scarlet flannel, led the march, flag in
hand, followed by his gang of woolly-haired negroes, armed with spears
or bows and arrows, carrying their loads, either secured to
three-pronged sticks or, when they consisted of brass or copper wire,
hung at each end of sticks carried on the shoulder.  The Waguana
followed in helter-skelter fashion, carrying all sorts of articles, next
came the Hottentots, dragging the mules with the ammunition, whilst
lastly marched the sheikh and the Belooch escort, the goats and women,
the sick and stragglers bringing up the rear.

One of the Hottentot privates soon died, and five others were sent back
sick.  About thirty Seedees deserted, as did nearly all the porters,
while the sheikh also soon fell sick.

On the 2nd of October, having bid farewell to Colonel Rigby, the British
consul at Zanzibar, who took deep interest in the expedition, and
afforded it every assistance in his power, the march began.

They had first before them a journey of five hundred miles to Caze, the
capital of the country of the Moon, in latitude 5 degrees south,
longitude 33 degrees east, being due south of Lake Victoria Nyanza.
This was a small portion, however, only of the distance to be performed.

Captains Speke and Grant divided the duties of the expedition between
them, the first mapping the country, which is done by timing the rate of
march, taking compass-bearings, noting the water-shed, etcetera.  Then,
on arriving in camp, it was necessary to boil the thermometer to
ascertain the altitude of the station above the sea-level, and the
latitude by the meridional altitude of a star; then, at intervals of
sixty miles, lunar observations had to be taken to determine the
longitude; and, lastly, there was the duty of keeping a diary,
sketching, and making geological and zoological collections.  Captain
Grant made the botanical collections and had charge of the thermometer.
He kept the rain-guage and sketched with water colours, for it was found
that photography was too severe work for the climate.

The march was pursued before the sun was high, then came breakfast and a
pipe before exploring the neighbourhood, and dinner at sunset, then tea
and pipe before turning in at night.

Scarcely had they commenced the journey than the petty chiefs demanded
tribute, which it was necessary to pay.  The porters also struck for
higher wages; but, the leaders going on, they thought better of the
matter, and followed.

The poor Hottentots suffered much from the climate, and were constantly
on the sick-list.  The Waguana treated them with great contempt, and one
day, while a little Tot was trying to lift his pack on his mule a large
black grasped him, pack and all, in his muscular arms, lifting them
above his head, paraded him round the camp amid much laughter, and then,
putting him down, loaded his mule and patted him on the back.

"A day's march being concluded, the sheikh and Bombay arrange the camp,
issuing cloths to the porters for the purchase of rations, the tents are
pitched, the Hottentots cook, some look after the mules and donkeys,
others cut boughs for huts and fencing, while the Beloochs are supposed
to guard the camp, but prefer gossiping and brightening their arms,
while Captain Grant kills two buck antelopes to supply the larder."

The country through which they were passing belongs to to the tribe of
Wazaramo.  It is covered with villages, the houses of which are mostly
of a conical shape, composed of hurdle-work and plastered with clay, and
thatched with grass or reeds.  They profess to be the subjects of the
Sultan of Zanzibar.  They are arrant rogues, and rob travellers, when
they can, by open violence.  They always demand more tribute than they
expect to get, and generally use threats as a means of extortion.  One
of their chiefs, the Lion-Claw, was very troublesome, sending back the
presents which had been made him, and threatening dire vengeance if his
demands were not complied with.  Further on, Monkey's-Tail, another
chief, demanded more tribute; but Speke sent word that he should smell
his powder if he came for it; and, exhibiting the marksmanship of his
men, Monkey's-Tail thought better of it, and got nothing.

The people, though somewhat short, are not bad-looking.  Though their
dress is limited, they adorn themselves with shells, pieces of tin, and
beads, and rub their bodies with red clay and oil, till their skins
appear like new copper.  Their hair is woolly, and they twist it into a
number of tufts, each of which is elongated by the fibres of bark.  They
have one good quality, not general in Africa: the men treat the women
with much attention, dressing their hair for them, and escorting them to
the water, lest any harm should befall them.

Kidunda was reached on the 14th of October.  Hence the Belooch escort
was sent back the next day, with the specimens of natural history which
had been collected.

Proceeding along the Kinganni River they reached the country of the
Usagara, a miserable race, who, to avoid the slave-hunters, build their
villages on the tops of hills, and cultivate only just as much land
among them as will supply their wants.  Directly a caravan appears, they
take to flight and hide themselves, never attempting resistance if
overtaken.  Their only dress consist of a strip of cloth round the

Captain Grant was here seized with fever, and the sickness of the
Hottentots much increased.

A long day's march from the hilly Usagara country led the party into the
comparatively level land of Ugogo.  Food was scarce, the inhabitants
living on the seed of the calabash to save their stores of grain.

The country has a wild aspect, well in keeping with the natives who
occupy it.  The men never appeared without their spears, shields, and
_assegais_.  They are fond of ornaments, the ordinary one being a tube
of gourd thrust through the lower lobe of the ear.  Their colour is
somewhat like that of a rich plum.  Impulsive and avaricious, they
forced their way into the camp to obtain gifts, and thronged the road as
the travellers passed by, jeering, quizzing, and pointing at them.

On the 27th, they encamped on the eastern border of the largest clearing
in Ugogo, called Kanyenye, stacking their loads beneath a large
gouty-limbed tree.  Here eight of the Wanyamuezi porters absconded,
carrying off their loads, accompanied by two Wagogo boys.

Speke set off to shoot a rhinoceros at night.  Having killed one, two
more approached in a stealthy, fidgetty way.  Stepping out from his
shelter, with the two boys carrying his second rifle, he planted a ball
in the largest, which brought him round with a roar in the best position
for receiving a second shot; but, on turning round to take his spare
rifle, Speke found that the black boys had scrambled off like monkeys up
a tree, while the rhinoceros, fortunately for him, shuffled away without
charging.  He hurried back to let his people know that there was food
for them, that they might take possession of it before the hungry Wagogo
could find it.  Before, however, they had got the skin off the beast,
the natives assembled like vultures, and began fighting the men.  The
scene, though grotesque, was savage and disgusting in the extreme; they
fell to work with swords and hatchets, cutting and slashing, thumping
and bawling, up to their knees in the middle of the carcass.  When a
tempting morsel was obtained by one, a stronger would seize it and bear
off the prize--right was now might.  Fortunately no fight took place
between the travellers and the villagers.  The latter, covered with
blood, were seen scampering home, each with a part of the spoil.

The Sheikh Magomba did his utmost to detain them, sending his chief,
Wazir, in an apparently friendly manner, to beg that they would live in
his palace.  The bait, however, did not take--Speke knew the rogue too
well.  Next day the sheikh was too drunk to listen to anyone, and thus
day after day passed by.  The time was employed in shooting, and a
number of animals were killed.  Magomba, however, induced nearly the
whole of the porters to decamp, and there was great difficulty in
obtaining others to take their places.  An old acquaintance, whom they
met in a caravan, urged them not to attempt to move, as he thought that
it would be impossible for them to pass through the wilderness depending
only on Speke's and Grant's guns for their support.

Still Speke resolved to push on, and most of the men who had deserted
came back.

To keep up discipline, one of the porters, who had stolen seventy-three
yards of cloth, which was found in his kit, received three dozen lashes,
and, being found to be a murderer and a bad character, he was turned out
of the camp.

They spent New Year's Day at Round Rock, a village occupied by a few
Wakimbu, who, by their quiet and domestic manners, made them feel that
they were out of the forest.  Provisions were now obtained by sending
men to distant villages; but they were able to supply the camp with
their guns, killing rhinoceros, wild boar, antelope and zebra.

On the 23rd of January they entered Unyamuezi, or the country of the
moon, little inferior in size to England, but cut up into numerous
pretty states.  The name is abbreviated to Weezee.

On the 24th they reached Caze, where Speke had remained so long on his
former visit.  His old friend, Musa, came out to meet them, and escorted
them to his _tembe_, or house, where he invited them to reside till he
could find porters to carry their property to Karague, promising to go
there with them himself.  They found here also Sheikh Snay, who, with
other Arab merchants, came at once to call on them.  Snay told him that
he had an army of four hundred slaves prepared to march against the
chief, Manua Sera, who was constantly attacking and robbing their
caravans.  Speke advised him not to make the attempt, as he was likely
to get the worst of it.  The other Arab merchant agreed that a treaty of
peace would be better than fighting.

Musa gave him much information about the journey northward, and promised
to supply him with sixty porters from his slave establishment, by which
arrangement Speke would have a hundred armed men to form his escort.

Musa loudly praised Rumanika, the King of Karague, through whose
dominions the expedition was to pass.

Some time, however, was of necessity spent at Caze in making
preparations for the journey, the two travellers employing themselves
during it in gaining information about the country.

The Wanyamuezi, among whom they were residing, are a polite race, having
a complete code of etiquette for receiving friends or strangers; drums
are beat both on the arrival and departure of great people.  When one
chief receives another, he assembles the inhabitants of the village,
with their drums and musical instruments, which they sound with all
their might, and then dance for his amusement.  The drum is used, like
the bugle, on all occasions; and, when the travellers wished to move,
the drums were beaten as a sign to their porters to take up their
burdens.  The women courtesy to their chief, and men clap their hands
and bow themselves.  If a woman of inferior rank meets a superior, she
drops on one knee and bows her head; the superior then places her hand
on the shoulder of the kneeling woman, and they remain in this attitude
some moments, whispering a few words, after which they rise and talk

The Wanyamuezi, or, as they are familiarly called, the Weezee, are great
traders, and travel to a considerable distance in pursuit of their

When a husband returns from a journey, his favourite wife prepares to
receive him in a peculiar manner.  Having put on all her ornaments, to
which she adds a cap of feathers, she proceeds, with her friends, to the
principal wife of the chief, when, the lady coming forth, they all dance
before her, taking care to be thus occupied when the husband makes his
appearance, a band of music playing away and making as much noise as
possible with their instruments.

On the 7th of February news was brought that Sheikh Snay had carried out
his intention of attacking Manua Sera, whom he found ensconced in a
house at Tura.  Manua, however, made his escape, when Snay plundered the
whole district, and shot and murdered every one he fell in with,
carrying off a number of slaves.  The chief, in consequence, threatened
to attack Caze as soon as the merchants had gone off on their
expeditions in search of ivory.

Soon after this it was reported that Snay and other Arabs had been
killed, as well as a number of slaves.  This proved to be true.

Finding that nothing more could be done at Caze, the travellers,
assembling their caravan, commenced their march northward on the 17th of

On the 24th they reached Mininga, where they were received by an ivory
merchant named Sirboko.  Here one of Sirboko's slaves, who had been
chained up, addressed Speke, piteously exclaiming: "Oh, my lord, take
pity on me!  When I was a free man, I saw you on the Tanganyika lake; my
people were there attacked by the Watuta, and, being badly wounded, I
was left for dead, when, recovering, I was sold to the Arabs.  If you
will liberate me, I will never run away, but serve you faithfully."
Touched by this appeal, Speke obtained the freedom of the poor man from
his master, and he was christened Farham, or Joy, and enrolled among his
other freemen.

The abominable conduct of the Arabs, who persisted in attacking the
natives and devastating the country, placed the travellers in an awkward
position.  The Hottentots, too, suffered so much from sickness that, as
the only hope of saving their lives, it was necessary to send them back
to Zanzibar.  Speke therefore found it necessary to return to Caze,
which he reached on the 2nd of May, leaving Grant, who was ill, behind
at Mininga.

He here heard of a tribe of cannibals, who, when they cannot get human
flesh, give a goat to their neighbours for a dying child, considering
such as the best flesh.  They are, however, the only cannibals known in
that district.

They were still in the country of the Weezee, of whose curious customs
they had an opportunity of seeing more.  Both sexes are inveterate
smokers.  They quickly manufacture their pipes of a lump of clay and a
green twig, from which they extract the pith.  They all grow tobacco,
the leaves of which they twist up into a thick rope like a hay-band, and
then coil it into a flattened spiral, shaped like a target.  They are
very fond of dancing.  A long strip of bark or cow-skin is laid on the
ground, and the Weezee arrange themselves along it, the tallest man
posting himself in the centre.  When they have taken their places the
musicians begin playing on their instruments, while the dancers commence
a strange chant, more like a howl than a song.  They bow their heads,
putting their hands on their hips and stamping vigorously.  The men not
dancing look on, encouraging their friends by joining in the chorus,
while the women stand behind without speaking.  Meantime, the elders sit
on the ground drinking _pomba_.  On one of these occasions the chief,
who was present, drank more _pomba_ than any of the people.

While the party were thus engaged, two lads, with zebra manes tied over
their heads, and two bark tubes, formed like huge bassoons, in their
hands, leaped into the centre of the dancers, twisting and turning and
blowing their horns in the most extraordinary manner.  The men, women,
and children, inspired by the sound of the music, on this began to sing
and clap their hands in time.

_Pomba_ is a sort of spirituous liquor, produced from a kind of grain
grown in the country, which is cultivated by women, who nearly entirely
superintend the preparation of the drink.

They received a visit from Sultan Ukulima, of Unyamuezi, a fine hale old
man, who was especially fond of this beverage, drinking it all day long.
He was pleasant enough in manner, and rather amusing when he happened
not to be tipsy.  Being fond of a practical joke, he used to beg for
quinine, which he would mix slyly with _pomba_, and then offer it to his
courtiers, enjoying the wry faces they made when partaking of the bitter
draught.  He used to go round to the houses of his subjects, managing to
arrive just as the pomba-brewing was finished, when he would take a
draught, and then go on to the next.  He sometimes sucked it through a
reed, just as a sherry cobbler is taken, while one of his slaves held
the jar before him.

The women and men do not drink it together.  It is the custom of the
ladies to assemble in the house of the sultana, and indulge in it in her

The women, as has been said, are employed in the cultivation of the
grain from which it is made.  When it is green, they cut off the ears
with a knife.  These are then conveyed to the village in baskets, and
spread out in the sun to dry.  The men next thrash out the grain with
long, thin flails.  It is afterwards stacked in the form of corn-ricks,
raised from the ground on posts, or sometimes it is secured round a tall
post, which is stuck upright in the ground, swelling out in the centre
somewhat in the shape of a fisherman's float.  When required for use, it
is pounded in wooden mortars, and afterwards ground between two stones.

Speke reached Mininga again on the 15th, where he found Grant greatly
recovered.  During his absence three villagers had been attacked by a
couple of lions.  The men took to flight, and two gained the shelter of
their hut, but the third, just as he was about to enter, was seized by
the monsters and devoured.

Difficulties of all sorts beset them: the chief was obtaining porters;
Musa, too, who pretended to be so friendly, did not keep faith with
them; but, rather than be delayed, Speke paid the beads demanded, and
once more set off.

At length he obtained a _kirangozi_, or leader, by name Ungurue, which
may be translated the Pig.  He had frequently conducted caravans to
Karague, and knew the languages of the country.  He proved to be what
his name betokened--a remarkably obstinate and stupid fellow.

Speke was still detained by the difficulty of procuring porters, some
being engaged in harvest, while others declared that they feared the
Watuta and other enemies in the districts through which they would have
to pass.

An Arab caravan which had followed them was in the same condition.

At length, having obtained a part of the number he required, a camp was
formed at Phunze, where Grant, with Bombay to attend on him, remained in
charge of part of the baggage, while Speke, with the Pig as his guide
and Baraka as his attendant, pushed on ahead.

The chiefs of every district through which they passed demanded _hongo_,
or tribute, without which the travellers could not move forward.  This
caused numberless provoking delays, as the chiefs were often not content
with what was offered to them.

On the 9th of June he arrived in a district governed by a chief called
Myonga, famed for his extortions and infamous conduct, in consequence of
which no Arabs would pass that way.  On approaching his palace, war
drums were heard in every surrounding village.  The Pig went forward to
obtain terms for the caravan to pass by.  Myonga replied that he wished
to see a white man, as he had never yet set eyes on one, and would have
a residence prepared for him.  Speke declined the favour, but sent
Baraka to arrange the _hongo_.  Baraka amused himself, as usual, for
some hours, with firing off volleys of ammunition, and it was not till
evening that the palace drums announced that the _hongo_ had been
settled, consisting of six yards of cloth, some beads, and other
articles.  On this Speke immediately gave orders to commence the march,
but two cows had been stolen from the caravan, and the men declared that
they would not proceed without getting them back.  Speke knew that if he
remained more cloths would be demanded, and as soon as the cows arrived
he shot them and gave them to the villagers.  This raised a mutiny among
his men, and the Pig would not show the way, nor would a single porter
lift his load.  Speke would not enter the village, and his party
remained, therefore, in the open all night.  The next morning, as he
expected, Myonga sent his prime minister, who declared that the ladies
of his court had nothing to cover their nakedness, and that something
more must be paid.  This caused fresh difficulties, the drums beat, and
at length, much against his inclination, Speke paid some more yards of
cloth for the sake of Grant, who might otherwise have been annoyed by
the scoundrel.

This is a specimen of some of the lighter difficulties which the
travellers had to encounter on their journey.

Having passed a number of villages, they entered a tract of jungle in
which a stream formed the boundary between the great country of the Moon
and the kingdom of Uzinga.

The district Speke next entered was ruled by two chieftains descended
from Abyssinians.  They were as great extortioners, however, as any of
the pure negro race.

The Pig continued his tricks, and the travellers were heavily taxed and
robbed at every step.  The porters, too, refused to advance, declaring
that they should be murdered, as the Watuta, their great enemies, were
out on a foray: finally, they ran away and hid themselves.  These
Watuta, they said, were desperate fellows, who had invaded their country
and killed their wives and children, and had despoiled them of
everything they held dear.  Baraka also showed the white feather.
Speke, however, put on a bold front, and declared that he would return
to Caze and collect men who would not be afraid to accompany him to
Usui.  He carried his plan into execution, rejoined Grant, and obtained
two fresh guides, Bui and Nasib, a steady old traveller.  Still he was
unable to obtain fresh porters to carry on his baggage, and he was once
more obliged to part from Grant.

Having gone some way, Speke was taken seriously ill, while, again, his
guides refused to proceed.  This occurred while he was in the district
of a chief, named Lumeresi, who insisted on his coming to his village,
feeling jealous that he had remained in that of another inferior chief.
Lumeresi was not in when Speke arrived, but on his return, at night, he
beat all his drums to celebrate the event, and fired a musket; in reply
to which Speke fired three shots.  The chief, however, though he
pretended to be very kind, soon began to beg for everything he saw.
Speke, who felt that his best chance of recovering from his illness was
change of air, ordered his men to prepare a hammock in which he might be
conveyed.  Although he had already given the chief a handsome _hongo_,
or tribute, consisting of a red blanket, and a number of pretty common
cloths for his children, no sooner did he begin to move than Lumeresi
placed himself in his way and declared that he could not bear the idea
of his white visitor going to die in the jungle.  His true object,
however, was to obtain a robe, or _deole_, which Speke had determined
not to give him.  However, at length, rather than be detained, he
presented the only one which he had preserved for the great chief,
Rumanika, into whose territories he was about to proceed.  Scarcely had
the chief received it, than he insisted on a further _hongo_, exactly
double what had previously been given him.  Again Speke yielded, and
presented a number of brass-wire bracelets, sixteen cloths, and a
hundred necklaces of coral beads, which were to pay for Grant as well as

When about to march, however, Bui and Nasib were not to be found.  On
this, Speke determined to send back Bombay to Caze for fresh guides and
interpreters, who were to join Grant on their return.

In the meantime, while lying in a fearfully weak condition, reduced
almost to a skeleton, he was startled, at midnight, out of his sleep by
hearing the hurried tramp of several men.  They proved to be Grant's
porters, who, in short excited sentences, told him that they had left
Grant standing under a tree with nothing but a gun in his hand; that his
Wanguann porters had been either killed or driven away, having been
attacked by Myonga's men, who had fallen upon the caravan, and shot,
speared, and plundered the whole of it.




We must now return to Captain Grant, who had been left in the Unyamuezi
country, about which, during his stay, he made numerous observations.

"In a Weezee village," he tells us, "there are few sounds to disturb the
traveller's night rest.  The horn of the new-comers, and the reply to it
from a neighbouring village, an accidental alarm, the chirping of
crickets, and the cry from a sick child occasionally, however, broke the
stillness.  At dawn the first sounds were the crowing of cocks, the
lowing of cows, the bleating of calves, and the chirruping of sparrows
(which might have reminded him of Europe).  Soon after would be heard
the pestle and mortar shelling corn, or the cooing of wild pigeons in
the neighbouring palm-grove."  The huts were shaped like corn-stacks,
dark within as the hold of a ship.  A few earthen jars, tattered skins,
old bows and arrows, with some cups of grass, gourds, and perhaps a
stool constitute the furniture.

Different tribes vary greatly in appearance.  Grant describes some as
very handsome.  He mentions two Nyambo girls, who, in the bloom of
youth, sat together with their arms affectionately twined round each
other's neck, and, when asked to separate that they might be sketched,
their arms were dropped at once, exposing their necks and busts, models
for Greek slaves.  Their woolly hair was combed out, and raised up from
the forehead and over their ears by a broad band from the skin of a
milk-white, cow, which contrasted strangely with their transparent,
light-copper skins.  The Waha women are like them, having tall, erect,
graceful figures and intelligent features.

An Arab trader, whom they had met, had sixty wives, who lived together
in a double-poled tent, with which he always travelled.  One of them was
a Watusi, a beautiful, tall girl, with large, dark eyes, and the
smallest mouth and nose, with thin lips and small hands.  Her noble race
will never become slaves, preferring death to slavery.

The Wanyamuezi treat the Watusi with great respect.  When two people of
these tribes meet, the former presses his hands together, the Watusi
uttering a few words in a low voice.  If a Watusi man meets a woman of
his own tribe, she lets her arms fall by her side, while he gently
presses them below the shoulders, looking affectionately in her face.

The class of Arabs met with were a most degraded set: instead of
improving the country, they brought ruin upon it by their imperiousness
and cruelty.  All traded in slaves and generally treated them most
harshly.  Several gangs were met with in chains.  Each slave was dressed
in a single goat's skin, and at night they kept themselves warm by lying
near a fire.  Never, by day or night, is the chain unfastened; should
one of them require to move, the whole must accompany him.  All ate
together boiled sweet potato, or the leaves of the pumpkin plant, and
were kept in poor condition to prevent their becoming troublesome.

Any meat or bones left from the travellers' dinners were therefore given
them, and accepted thankfully.  One gang was watched over by a small
lad, whose ears had been cut off, and who treated them with unfeeling
coarseness.  A sick slave having recovered, it was the boy's duty to
chain him to his gang again, and it was grievous to see the rough way he
used the poor, emaciated creature.

They had not much work to do, the sole object of the owner being to keep
them alive and prevent their running away till sold at the coast.  They
generally looked sullen and full of despair; but occasionally, at night,
they danced and became even riotous, till a word from the earless imp
restored them to order.

Among them was a poor fellow who had been five years in chains.  The
travellers took compassion on him, and released him from bondage.  His
chains were struck off with a hammer, and, once on his feet, a freedman,
he seemed scarcely to believe the fact; when, however, attired in a
clean calico shirt, he strutted about and soon came to make his new
master his best bow.  On his body were numerous spear-wounds.  He had
been captured by the Watuta, who had cut off several of his toes.  This
man never deserted them during the journey, accompanying them to Cairo,
having gained the character of a faithful servant.

The Arab in Africa takes presents for everything he does, and it was
believed that the white men would do the same.  If a bullet was
extracted, a gun repaired, an old sultan physicked, or the split lobe of
an ear mended, a cow or cows were at hand to be paid when the task was

When slaves were brought for sale and declined by the Englishmen, the
natives could not understand their indifference to such traffic, but
would turn from them with a significant shrug, as much as to say: "Why
are you here then?"  The most horrible punishments are inflicted on
those who offend against the laws of the country.  A woman and lad, who
had been accused of bewitching the sultan's brother, were found with
their arms tied behind them, writhing in torture on their faces.  No
sympathy was shown them from the jeering crowd.  The lad at last cried
out: "Take me to the forest; I know a herb remedy."  He was allowed to
go, while the woman was kept in the stocks near the sick patient.  The
lad was put to death, and Captain Grant suspected, tortured before a
fire.  Another man, for a crime in the sultan's harem, was stripped,
tied to railings, and his person smeared with grease and covered with
greased rags, which were then set fire to, when he was dragged forth to
a huge fire outside the village.  On his way, _assegais_ were darted at
him by the son and daughter-in-law of the sultan, and when he fell he
was dragged out by one leg.

Grant had the same difficulties in moving that Speke had experienced.

At length, on the 12th of September, he got away, but on the 16th, as he
was passing through the territory of Sultan Myonga, his men moving in
Indian file, a band of two hundred natives, armed with _assegais_ and
bows and arrows, burst upon him, springing over the ground like cats.
The uplifted _assegais_ and the shouts of the robbers frightened the
porters, who gave up their loads and attempted to escape from the
ruffians, who were pulling their clothes and loads from them.  Grant
endeavoured without bloodshed to prevent this, but, as he had only one
of his gun-men and two natives by him, he could do nothing.  Little
Rohan the sailor, one of his Zambesi men, was found with his rifle in
hand at full cock, defending two loads against five men.  He had been
urged to fly for his life.  The property, he answered, was his life.
Grant made his way, however, to Myonga, seeing as he went the natives
dressed out in the stolen clothes of his men.  Though honour was dear,
the safety of the expedition was so likewise, and one false step would
have endangered it.

Myonga pretended to be very indignant, and said that he had cut off the
hand of one of his men, and promised that the property should be
restored.  Some of the loads were given back, but others had been broken
open and rifled, and the chief demanded an enormous _hongo_ for
permitting Grant to proceed.  This was the origin of the alarming
intelligence Captain Speke had received.

At length the two travellers united their forces, and together they
continued their journey towards Karague.  To reach it they had first to
pass through the province of Usui, the chief of which, Suwarora,
pillaged them as usual.  Here the little grass-hut villages were not
fenced by a _boma_, but were hidden in large fields of plantains.
Cattle were numerous, kept by the Wahuma, who would not sell their milk,
because the Englishmen eat fowls.  Their camp, night after night, was
attacked by thieves.  One night, as Speke was taking an observation, a
party of these rascals enquired of two of the women of the camp what he
was about.  While the latter were explaining, the thieves whipped off
their clothes and ran away with them, leaving the poor creatures in a
state of absolute nudity.  Speke had not taken much notice of the goats
and other things which had been stolen, but, in consequence of this, he
ordered his men to shoot any thieves who came near.  A short time
afterwards, another band approaching, one of the men was shot, who
turned out to be a magician, and was till then thought invulnerable.  He
was tracked by his blood, and afterwards died of his wound.  The next
day some of Speke's men were lured into the huts of the natives by an
invitation to dinner, but, when they got them there, they stripped them
stark-naked and let them go again.  At night the same rascals stoned the
camp.  After this another thief was shot dead and two others were
wounded.  Bombay and Baraka gave their masters also a good deal of
trouble.  The former, who was looked upon as an excellent fellow, more
than once got very drunk, and stole their property in order to purchase
a wife for himself, besides which the two men quarrelled desperately
with each other.

At length, however, the travellers got free of Usui and the native guard
who had been sent to see them over the borders, and entered Karague, to
their great relief and happiness.

They had now, for some distance, wild animals alone to contend with, and
these they well knew how to manage.  Soon after pitching their tent they
were greeted by Kachuchu, an officer sent by the king, Rumanika, to
escort them through his country.  He informed them that the village
officers were instructed to supply them with food at the king's expense,
as there were no taxes gathered from strangers in the kingdom of

The country was hilly, wild, and picturesque, the higher slopes dotted
with thick bushes of acacias, the haunts of the white and black
rhinoceros, while in the valley were large herds of harte-beestes.  The
further they proceeded into the country, the better they liked it, as
the people were all kept in good order.  A beautiful lake was seen,
which at first they supposed to be a portion of the Nyanza, but it
proved to be a separate lake, to which the name of Windermere was given.

They now attained the delightful altitude of five thousand odd feet, the
atmosphere at night feeling very cool.  Away to the west some bold
sky-scraping cones were observed, and, on making enquiries, Speke was
convinced that those distant hills were the great turn-point of the
Central African water-shed.  Numerous travellers, whom he collected
round him, gave him assistance in forming his map.  He was surprised at
the amount of information about distant places which he was able to
obtain from these intelligent men.

As they approached the palace, the king, Rumanika, sent them a supply of
excellent tobacco and beer manufactured by his people.  On drawing near
his abode, the bearers were ordered to put down their loads and fire a
salute, and the two travellers at once received an invitation to visit
the king.  He was found sitting cross-legged with his brother Nnanaji,
both men of noble appearance and size.  The king was plainly dressed in
an Arab black _choba_; he wore on his legs numerous rings of rich
coloured beads, and neatly-worked wristlets of copper.  Nnanaji, being a
doctor of high credit, was covered with charms; he wore a checked cloth
wrapped round him.  Large clay pipes were at their sides, ready for use.
In their rear sat the king's sons, as quiet as mice.

The king greeted them warmly and affectionately, and in an instant both
travellers felt that they were in the company of men who were totally
unlike the common order of the natives of the surrounding districts.
They had fine oval faces, large eyes, and high noses, denoting the best
blood of Abyssinia.  They shook hands in the English style, the
ever-smiling king wishing to know what they thought of his country.  He
observed that he considered his mountains the finest in the world: "And
the lake, too; did not they admire it?"  He seemed a very intelligent
man, and enquired how they found their way over the world, which led to
a long story, describing the proportions of land and water, the way
ships navigate the ocean, and convey even elephants and the rhinoceros
to fill the menageries of Europe.  He gave them their choice of having
quarters in his palace or pitching their tents outside.  They selected a
spot overlooking the lake, on account of the beautiful view.  The young
princes were ordered to attend on them, one of whom, seeing Speke seated
in an iron chair, rushed back to his father with the intelligence.
Speke was accordingly requested to return, that he might exhibit the
white man sitting on his throne.  Rumanika burst into a fresh fit of
merriment at seeing him, and afterwards made many enlightened remarks.
On another visit Speke told the king that if he would send two of his
children, he would have them instructed in England, for he admired his
race, and believed them to have sprung from the friends of the English,
the Abyssinians, who were Christians, and had not the Wahuma lost their
knowledge of God, they would be so likewise.  A long theological and
historical discussion ensued, which so pleased the king that he said he
would be delighted if Speke would take two of his sons to England.  He
then enquired what could induce them to leave their country and travel,
when Speke replied that they had had their fill of the luxuries of life,
and that their great delight was to observe and admire the beauties of
creation, but especially their wish was to pay visits to the kings of
Africa, and in particular his Majesty.  He then promised that they
should have boats to convey them over the lake, with musicians to play
before them.

In the afternoon Speke, having heard that it was the custom to fatten up
the wives of the king and princes to such an extent that they could not
stand upright, paid a visit to the king's eldest brother.  On entering
the hut, he found the old chief and his wife sitting side by side on a
bench of earth strewed over with grass, while in front of them were
placed numerous wooden pots of milk.  Speke was received by the prince
with great courtesy, and was especially struck by the extraordinary
dimensions, yet pleasing beauty of the immoderately fat fair one, his
wife.  She could not rise.  So large were her arms that between the
joints the flesh hung like large loose bags.  Then came in their
children, all models of the Abyssinian type of beauty, and as polite in
their manners as thorough-bred gentlemen.  They were delighted in
looking over his picture-books and making enquiries about them.  The
prince, pointing to his wife, observed: "This is all the product of
those pots, as, from early youth upwards, we keep those pots to their
mouths, being the custom of the court to have very fat wives."

The king, having supposed that the travellers had been robbed of all
their goods, was delighted with the liberal presents he received, above
all that of a coat of handsome scarlet broadcloth.  He told them that
they might visit every part of his country, and when the time arrived
for proceeding to Uganda, he would escort them to the boundary.

Altogether, Rumanika was the most intelligent and best-looking ruler the
travellers met with in Africa.  He had nothing of the African in his
appearance, except that his hair was short and woolly.  He was fully six
feet two inches in height, and the expression of his countenance was
mild and open.  He was fully clothed in a robe made of small
antelope-skins and another of dark cloth, always carrying, when walking,
a long staff in his hand.  His four sons were favourable specimens of
their race, especially the eldest, named Chunderah.  He was somewhat of
a dandy, being more neat about his lion-skin covers and ornaments than
his brothers.  From the tuft of wool left unshaven on the crown of his
head to his waist he was bare, except when his arms and neck were
decorated with charmed horns, strips of otter-skin, shells, and bands of
wool.  He was fond of introducing Friz, Speke's head man, into the
palace, that he might amuse his sisters with his guitar, and in return
the sisters, brothers, and followers would sing Karague music.  The
youngest son was the greatest favourite, and on one occasion, the
travellers having presented him with a pair of white kid gloves, were
much amused with the dignified way in which he walked off, having coaxed
them on to his fingers.

Rumanika, contrary to the usual African custom, was singularly
abstemious, living almost entirely on milk, merely sucking the juice of
boiled beef.  He scarcely ever touched plantain wine or beer, and had
never been known to be intoxicated.  The people were generally
excessively fond of this wine, the peasants especially drinking large
quantities of it.

Rumanika was not only king, but priest and prophet; indeed, his
elevation to the throne was due, as his friends asserted, to
supernatural agency.  After the death of his father, his two brothers
and he claimed the throne.  Their pretentions were to be settled by an
ordeal.  They possessed a small magic drum, and, it being placed on the
ground, he who could lift it was to take the crown.  His brothers were
unable to stir it, though exerting all their strength, but Rumanika
raised it with his little finger.  This test, however, not satisfying
the chiefs, they insisted on Rumanika going through another trial.  He
was seated on the ground, and it was believed that if he was the
appointed king, the portion of soil on which he sat would rise up in the
air, but if not, it would collapse, and he would be dashed to pieces.
According to the belief of his subjects, no sooner had Rumanika taken
his seat, than he was raised into the sky, and was therefore
acknowledged king.

One of the most curious customs which Rumanika holds in his character of
high priest, is his new-moon _levee_, which takes place every month, for
the purpose of ascertaining the loyalty of his subjects.  On the evening
of the new-moon the king adorns himself with a plume of feathers on his
head, a huge white beard descending to his breast.  He takes post behind
a screen.  Before him are arranged forty long drums on the ground, on
the head of each of which is painted a white cross.  The drummers stand
each with a pair of sticks, and in front is their leader, who has a
couple of small drums slung round his neck.  The leader raises first his
right arm and then his left, the performers imitating him, when he
brings down both sticks on the drums with a rapid roll, they doing the
same, until the noise is scarcely to be endured.  This having continued
for some hours, with the addition of smaller drums and other musical
instruments, the chiefs advance in succession, leaping and
gesticulating, and shouting expressions of devotion to their sovereign.
Having finished their performance, they kneel before him, holding out
their knobbed sticks that he may touch them, then, retiring, make room
for others.

Civilised as the country is in some respects, marriage is a matter of
barter between the father and the intended husband, the former receiving
cows, slaves, sheep, etcetera, for his daughter.  Should, however, a
bride not approve of her husband, by returning the marriage gifts she is
again at liberty.  The chief ceremony at marriages consists in tying up
the bride in a skin, blackened all over, and carrying her with a noisy
procession to her husband.

The ladies of this country lead an easy life in many respects, their
chief object, apparently, being to get as fat as possible.  Many of them
succeed wonderfully well, in consequence of their peculiar constitution,
or from the food they eat being especially nutritious.  Five of
Rumanika's wives were so enormous that they were unable to enter the
door of any ordinary hut, or to move about without being supported by a
person on either side.  One of his sisters-in-law was of even still
greater proportions.  Speke measured her; round her arm was one foot
eleven inches; chest, four feet four inches; thigh, two feet seven
inches; calf, one foot eight inches; height, five feet eight inches.  He
could have obtained her height more accurately could he have had her
laid on the floor; but, knowing the difficulties he would have had to
contend with in such a piece of engineering, he tried to get her height
by raising her up.  This, after infinite exertion, was accomplished,
when she sank down again, fainting, for the blood had rushed into her
head.  Meanwhile the daughter, a lass of sixteen, sat before them,
sucking at a milk-pot, on which the father kept her at work by holding a
rod in his hand; for, as fattening is one of the first duties of
fashionable female life, it must be duly enforced with the rod if
necessary.  The features of the damsel were lovely, but her body was as
round as a ball.

The women turn their obesity to good account.  In exchanging food for
beads it is usual to purchase a certain quantity of food, which shall be
paid for by a belt of beads that will go round the waist.  The women of
Karague being on an average twice as large round the waist as those of
other districts, food practically rises a hundred per cent, in price.
Notwithstanding their fatness their features retain much beauty, the
face being oval and the eyes fine and intelligent.  The higher class of
women are modest, not only wearing cow-skin petticoats, but a wrapper of
black cloth, with which they, envelope their whole bodies, merely
allowing one hand to be seen.

The travellers were allowed to move about the country as they liked, and
the king sent his sons to attend on them, that they might enjoy such
sport as was to be found.  They heard of no elephants in that district,
but harte-beestes, rhinoceros, and hippopotami were common.

One day Captain Grant saw two harte-beestes engaged in a desperate
combat, halting calmly between each round to breathe.  He could hear,
even at a considerable distance, the force of every butt as their heads
met, and, as they fell on their knees, the impetus of the attack,
sending their bushy tails over their backs, till one, becoming the
victor, chased the other out of the herd.

Several varieties of antelope and the mountain gazelle were seen
bounding over the hills.  Pigs abounded in the low grounds, and
hippopotami in the lake.

Captain Speke went out in search of rhinoceros, accompanied by the
prince, with a party of beaters.  In a short time he discovered a fine
male, when, stealing between the bushes, he gave him a shot which made
him trot off, till, exhausted by loss of blood, he lay down to die.  The
young princes were delighted with the effect of the Englishman's gun,
and, seizing both his hands, congratulated him on his successes.

A second rhinoceros was killed after receiving two shots.  While
pursuing the latter, three appeared, who no sooner sighted Speke, than
they all charged at him in line.  His gun-bearers, however, were with
him, and, taking his weapons, he shot the three animals in turn.  One
dropped down a little way on, but the others only pulled up when they
arrived at the bottom of the hill.  The fore legs of another were
broken, when the natives set on him; but he kept charging with so much
fury that they could not venture to approach till Speke had given him a
second ball, which brought him to the ground.  Every man then rushed at
the creature, sending his spear, _assegai_, or arrow into his sides
until he sank like a porcupine covered with quills.  The heads were sent
to the king, to show what the white man could do.  Rumanika exhibited
the greatest astonishment, declaring that something more potent than
powder had been used; for, though the Arabs talk of their shooting
powers, they could not have accomplished such a feat.  "It is no
wonder," he added, "that the English are the greatest men in the world."

Rumanika, like great men in other countries, had his private band.  The
instruments were of a somewhat primitive character, while the musicians
differed in appearance considerably from those of Europe.  The most
common instruments are the drums, which vary greatly in size: one hung
to the shoulder is about four feet in length, and one in width.  It is
played with the fingers, like the Indian _tom-tom_.  The drums used at
the new-moon _levee_ are of the same shape, but very much larger.  The
war drum is beaten by women.  At its sound the men rush to arms, and
repair to their several quarters.  There are also several stringed
instruments.  One of these, which Captain Grant describes, was played by
an old woman; it had seven notes, six of which were a perfect scale.
Another, which had three strings, was played by a man: they were a full,
harmonious chord.  A third instrument called "the laced _nanga_" formed
of dark wood, in the shape of a tray, had three crosses in the bottom,
and was laced with one string, seven or eight times, over bridges at
either end.

The prince sent the best player to be found to entertain his guest.  The
man entered, dressed in the usual Wanyambo costume, looking a wild,
excited creature.  After resting his spear against the roof of his hut,
he took a _nanga_ from under his arm and began playing, his wild yet
gentle music and words attracting a number of admirers.  It was about a
favourite dog, and for days afterwards the people sang that dog song.

There is another stringed instrument, called the _zeze_, somewhat
similar to the _nanga_.  They have two wind instruments, one resembling
a flageolet, and another a bugle.  The latter is composed of several
pieces of gourd, fitted one into another, in telescope fashion, and is
covered with cow-skin.

Rumanika's band was composed of sixteen men, fourteen of whom had
bugles, and the other two hand-drums.  On the march they form in three
ranks, the drummers being in the rear, swaying their bodies in time to
the music, while the leader advances with a curiously active step,
touching the ground alternately with each knee.  They also, when the
king rested on a march, or when out hunting, played before him, while he
sat on the ground and smoked his pipe.

The Wahuma, like most Africans, have great faith in the power of charms,
and believe that by their means persons can be rendered invulnerable.
They also believe in the constant presence of departed souls, supposing
that they exercise a good or evil influence over those whom they have
known in life.  When a field is blighted or a crop does not promise
well, a gourd is placed in the pathway; passengers set up a wailing cry,
which they intend as a prayer to the spirits to give a good crop to
their mourning relatives.  Rumanika, in order to propitiate the spirit
of his father, was in the habit of sacrificing annually a cow on his
tomb, and also of placing offerings on it of corn and wine.  These and
many other instances show that, though their minds are dark and
misguided, the people possess religious sentiments which might afford
encouragement to missionaries of the gospel.

The commencement of 1862 found the travellers still guests of the
enlightened king.  Hearing that it was the English custom on Christmas
Day to have an especially good dinner, he sent an ox.  Captain Speke in
return paid him a visit.  He offered him the compliments of the season,
and reminded him that he was of the old stock of Abyssinians, who were
among the oldest Christians on record, and that he hoped the time would
come when white teachers would visit his country, to instruct him in the
truths which he and his people had forgotten.

News now arrived which induced them to believe that Mr Petherick was
indeed on his road up the Nile, endeavouring to reach them.  Rumanika
was highly delighted to hear this, as he was especially anxious to have
white men visit his country from the north.

Active preparations were now made for the departure of the travellers,
but unhappily Captain Grant was suffering from so severe a complaint in
one of his legs, that he was compelled to remain behind, under the
protection of the hospitable sovereign, while Speke set off for Uganda.




On the 10th of January a large escort of smartly-dressed men, women, and
boys, leading their dogs and playing their reeds, under the command of
Maula, arrived from Mtesa, King of Uganda, to conduct the travellers to
his capital.  Maula informed them that the king had ordered his officers
to supply them with everything they wanted while passing through his
country, and that there would be nothing to pay.

Speke set forth, in the hopes that before long he should settle the
great Nile problem for ever.  It was, however, not believed that he
would be able to proceed north from Uganda, Rumanika especially
declaring that he would be compelled to return to the southward.

Passing through a remarkably rich country, famous for its ivory and
coffee productions, they descended from the Mountains of the Moon to an
alluvial plain, where Rumanika keeps thousands of cows.  Once elephants
abounded here, but, since the increase of the ivory trade, these animals
had been driven off to the distant hills.

On the 16th they reached the Kitangule River, which falls into the
Victoria Nyanza.  It was about eighty yards broad and so deep that it
could not be poled by the canoe-men, while it runs at a velocity of from
three to four knots an hour.  It is fed from the high-seated springs in
the Mountains of the Moon.  Speke believed that the Mountains of the
Moon give birth to the Congo as well as the Nile, and also the Shire
branch of the Zambesi.

The country through which they passed was a perfect garden of
plantations, surprisingly rich, while along the banks of the river
numberless harte-beestes and antelopes were seen.

At a village, where they were compelled to stop two days, drumming,
singing, screaming, yelling, and dancing went on the whole time, during
the night as well as day, to drive the _phepo_, or devil, away.  In
front of a hut sat an old man and woman, smeared with white mud, and
holding pots of _pomba_ in their laps, while people came, bringing
baskets full of plantain squash and more pots of _pomba_.  Hundreds of
them were collected in the court-yard, all perfectly drunk, making the
most terrific uproar.

The king sent messengers expressing his desire to see the white man, and
they were informed that he had caused fifty big men and four hundred
small ones to be executed because he believed that his subjects were
anxious to prevent them.

Speke now sent back to Grant, earnestly urging him to come on if he
possibly could, as he had little doubt that they would be able to
proceed across the country to the northward.

On approaching the capital, a messenger came to say that the king was so
eager to meet the white man that he would not taste food until he had
seen him.

The neighbourhood was reached on the 19th of February.  Speke says it
was a magnificent sight; the whole hill was covered with gigantic huts,
such as he had never before seen in Africa.  He proposed going at once
to the palace; but the officers considered that such a proceeding would
be indecent, and advised him to draw up his men and fire his gun off to
let the king know that he had arrived.  He was excessively indignant at
being shown the dirty huts for his accommodation, in which the Arabs put
up when they came to the place.  Speke declared that, unless better
quarters were found him, he would return; but the officer entreated that
he would not be so hasty.  Rain, coming on, prevented a _levee_ being
held that day.  The presents being got ready, Speke marshalled his
procession: the king's officers and pages, with himself, marched on the
flanks; the Union Jack, carried by his guide, led the way, followed by
twelve of his men, as a guard of honour, dressed in red flannel cloaks,
carrying their arms sloped, with fixed bayonets, while in the their rear
came the rest of his attendants, each bearing some article as a present.

He was surprised at the extraordinary dimensions of the palace, and the
neatness with which it was kept.  The whole brow and sides of the hill
were covered with gigantic grass-huts, neatly thatched and fenced all
round with the tall, yellow reeds of the tiger-grass, while, within the
enclosures, the lines of huts were joined together or partitioned off
into courts, with the walls of the same grass.

These huts formed the residence of Mtesa's three or four hundred wives,
the rest living chiefly with his mother, the queen dowager.  The ladies
were seen at the doors, making their remarks and enjoying their jokes.
At each gate they passed, officers opened and shut them, jingling the
big bells hung upon them to prevent stealthy entrance.

As they advanced, courtiers of high dignity stepped forward to greet the
white man, dressed in the most scrupulously neat fashions.  Men, women,
bulls, dogs, and goats were led about by strings, cocks and hens were
carried in men's arms, and little page-boys with rope turbans rushed
about conveying messages, as if their lives depended on their swiftness,
every one holding his skin cloak tightly round him, lest his naked legs
should by accident be shown, a crime which in that kingdom, if happening
in the presence of the king, meets with instant death.

These huts are well-built of reed, which grows to a great height.  They
have double roofs formed of thick grass thatch, in order to exclude the
heat of the sun.  The outer roof comes nearly to the ground on all
sides.  The structure is supported by stout poles, on which are hung
sacks of corn, meat, and other provisions.  The interior is divided into
two portions by a high screen, the inner serving as a sleeping-room, in
which a bedstead formed of cane is placed.  There are no windows nor
chimneys, and only one door in front.

When Speke, however, was desired to sit down outside to wait the
appearance of the monarch, he, considering this an act of discourtesy,
refused to comply.  After waiting five minutes, as the king did not
appear, he thought it right to walk home again, giving Bombay directions
to leave his present on the ground.  He was followed soon afterwards by
Bombay, who told him that he might bring his own chair, as the king was
anxious to show him every respect, although no one but the monarch was
allowed in Uganda to sit on an artificial seat.

On his return, he found the king, a good-looking, well-figured, tall
young man of twenty-five, sitting on a red blanket, which formed his
throne, in the state hut.  His hair was cut short, with the exception of
a ridge on the top which ran stem to stern, like a cockscomb.  He wore
on his neck a large ring with beautifully-worked small beads.  On one
arm was another bead ornament, and on the other a wooden charm, and on
every finger and toe he had alternately brass and copper rings, while
above the ankles, half way up to the calf, he had stockings of very
pretty beads.

In front of him were his nobles, squatting on the ground, all habited in
skins, mostly cow-skins, some few--the sign of royal blood--having
leopard-skins girded round their waists.  Speke was desired to halt and
sit in the glaring sun, while he was advancing hat in hand.  He donned
his hat, mounted his umbrella, and quietly sat down, to observe what was
going on.  A white dog, spear, shield, and woman, the Uganda cognisance,
were by the side of the king, as also a knot of staff-officers, with
whom he kept up a brisk conversation, while he took copious draughts
from neat little gourd cups, offered by his ladies-in-waiting.

The traveller could not speak his language, and his interpreter dared
not address the king, it being contrary to etiquette.  Conversation was
therefore impossible, and he was very glad, therefore, when at length
his Majesty got up and retired, with a gait which was intended to be
very majestic.  It was to represent the step of a lion, but the outward
sweep of the legs looked only like a ludicrous waddle.  The king had in
reality gone to eat his breakfast, as he had not broken his fast since
hearing of the traveller's arrival.  He quickly returned, and Speke was
again invited in, with his men.  He found the king standing on a red
blanket, talking and laughing to a hundred or more of his admiring
wives, who were all squatting on the ground outside, forming two groups.
His men dared not advance upright, but, stooping, with lowered head and
averted eyes, came cringing after him, it being a high crime to look
upon the ladies of the court.  It was difficult, however, to carry on
conversation with him, as every answer had to be passed through the
interpreter, and then delivered to the king's chief officer, and
frequently another question was asked before the first was answered.
The most important questions had reference to opening up a passage
across the country.  Before Speke could explain his views, the king put
another question.

Mtesa was a perfect despot and tyrant, the lives of all his subjects,
from the highest to the lowest, being in his power.  When the whim
seized him, he did not hesitate to kill as many as he chose.

The king's subjects approach in the most cringing attitudes, and, on
receiving any favour, throw themselves on the ground, floundering about,
shrieking out: "_Nynzig! nynzig_!"  He is attended by a number of young
pages, with rope turbans on their heads, who are seen rushing about in
every direction to obey his behests, and directly a wife or courtier
offends the despot, rush upon the unhappy individuals and drag them off
to immediate execution.

Speke, however, won his favour by blistering and doctoring him.  He
managed to keep up his own dignity by refusing to submit when improperly
treated.  He also gained great credit with the monarch by exhibiting his
skill as a sportsman; and Mtesa was delighted to find that after a
little practice he himself could kill birds and animals.  He did not,
however, confine himself to shooting at the brute creation, but
occasionally killed a man or woman who might have been found guilty of
some crime.

After a considerable lapse of time Speke obtained a residence at what
was looked upon as the "west end" of the city.  It was in a garden, in
view of the palace, so that he could hear the constant music and see the
throngs of people going to and fro.  Having selected the best hut for
himself, and giving the other to his three officers, he ordered his men
to build barracks for themselves in the form of a street from his hut to
the main road.  He could now visit the palace with more ease, and
obtained better opportunities of seeing the king and endeavouring to
gain the important ends he had in view.

The sights he witnessed were very often painful.  Scarcely a day passed
that he did not see one, and sometimes more, of the unhappy female
inmates of the palace dragged off to execution by one of the body-guard,
the poor creature shrieking out, as she went to premature death: "Oh, my
lord, my king, my mother!" and yet no one dared to lift a hand to
preserve her.

He made several sporting excursions with the king, who was always
delighted when he shot a bird or an animal, jumping and leaping, and
shouting: "_Woh! woh! woh_!" to express his delight.  One of these was
to the Lake Nyanza, after Speke had somewhat ingratiated himself with
the sovereign.  It was somewhat of a picnic party, and the king was
accompanied as usual by a choice selection of his wives.  Having crossed
over to a woody island some distance from the shore, the party sat down
to a repast, when large bowls of _pomba_ were served out.  They then
took a walk among the trees, the ladies apparently enjoying themselves
and picking fruit, till, unhappily, one of the most attractive of them
plucked a fruit and offered it to the king, thinking, probably, to
please him.  He took it, however, as a dire offence, and, declaring that
it was the first time a woman had had the audacity to offer him food,
ordered the pages to lead her off to execution.  No sooner had the words
been uttered than the abominable little black imps rushed at her like a
pack of beagles, slipping off their cord turbans and throwing the ropes
round her limbs.  She, indignant at being touched, remonstrated and
attempted to beat them off, but was soon overcome and dragged away,
crying out the names of "_Kamraviona!  Mzungu_!" the title applied to
Speke, for help and protection, while the other women clasped the king
round the legs, imploring him to pardon their unhappy sister.  His only
reply was to belabour the miserable victim with a thick stick.  Speke
had carefully abstained heretofore from interfering with any of the
king's acts of arbitrary cruelty.  On hearing, however, his own name
imploringly pronounced, his English blood was up, and, rushing at the
tyrant, he stayed his uplifted arm, and demanded the poor creature's
life.  He, of course, ran a great risk of losing his own; but the
novelty of the event seemed to tickle the capricious chief, and he at
once ordered the woman to be released.

This was, however, one of the only occasions on which he was successful.

Day after day both men and women were led off to execution.  On one
occasion a poor girl had run away from the ill-treatment of her master,
and had taken refuge in the house of a decrepit old man.  The two were
brought up for judgment, when the king sentenced them to death, and
decreed that their lives should not be taken at once, but that they
should be fed and dismembered, bit by bit, as rations for his vultures
every day until life was extinct.  The dismayed criminals, Speke says,
struggling to be heard, were dragged away to the drowning music of horns
and drums.

After he had been some time in the palace, he was introduced to the
queen dowager.  Her majesty was fat, fair, and forty-five.  He found her
seated in the front part of her hut, on a carpet, her elbow resting on a
pillow.  An iron rod, like a spit, with a cup on the top, charged with
magic powder, and other magic wands were placed before the entrance, and
within the room four Mabandwa sorceresses, or devil-drivers,
fantastically dressed, with a mass of other women, formed the company.
They being dismissed, a band of musicians came in, when _pomba_ was
drunk by the queen, and handed to her visitor and high officers and
attendants.  She smoked her pipe, and bid Speke to smoke his.  She
required doctoring, and Speke had many opportunities of seeing her, so
completely winning her regard that she insisted on presenting him with
various presents, among others a couple of wives, greatly to his
annoyance.  She appeared to be a jovial and intelligent personage.  On
another occasion Speke, when introduced, found her surrounded by her
ministers, when a large wooden trough was brought in and filled with
_pomba_.  The queen put her head in and drank like a pig from it, her
ministers following her example.  If any was spilled by her, they
dabbled their noses in the ground, or grabbed it up with their hands,
that not a particle might be lost, as everything that comes from royalty
must be adored.  Musicians and dancers were then introduced, exhibiting
their long, shaggy, goat-skin jackets, sometimes dancing upright, at
others bending or striking the ground with their heels like hornpipe

The plaguy little imps of pages were constantly playing tricks, and
seemed to delight in mischief.

One of the great officers of the court having offended the king, they
came with a message to Speke's attendants while he himself was away,
ordering them all to attend the king with their arms.  Instead of being
led to the palace, they were guided to the house of the refractory
officer, when they were ordered to rush in and spare nothing, men,
women, children, _mbugus_, or cowries, all alike.  Speke's men, firing
their guns, did as they were ordered.  One of the inmates was speared,
but the rest were taken, and brought in triumph to his camp.  He, of
course, ordered all the seizures to be at once given up to the king's
chief officer, and shut himself up in his house, declaring that he was
ashamed to show his face.  In vain the king sent to him to come and
shoot.  The reply was: "Bana" (the name by which the king called Speke)
"is praying to-day that Mtesa may be forgiven the injury he has
committed by sending his soldiers on such a duty; he is very angry about
it, and wishes to know if it was done by the kings orders."  The boys
replied that nothing could be done without the king's orders.  Speke
also insisted on sending the red cloth cloaks worn by his men, because
they had defiled their uniform when plundering women and children.  He
took this opportunity of teaching the barbarian a lesson.

On his next visit the king told him that he had wished to see him on the
previous day, and begged that whenever he came he would fire a gun at
the waiting hut, that he might hear of his arrival.  The king was much
pleased with a portrait Speke made of him, as also with his coloured
sketches of several birds he had killed, but was still more delighted
with some European clothes, with which he was presented.  When Speke
went to visit him, he found his Majesty dressed in his new garments.
The legs of the trousers, as well as the sleeves of the waistcoat, were
much too short, so that his black feet and hands stuck out at the
extremities as an organ-player's monkey's do, while the cockscomb on his
head prevented a fez cap, which he wore, from sitting properly.  On this
visit twenty new wives, daughters of chiefs, all smeared and shining
with grease, were presented, marching in a line before the king, utterly
destitute of clothes, whilst the happy fathers floundered, _nynzigging_,
on the ground, delighted to find their darling daughters appreciated by
the monarch.  Speke burst into a fit of laughter, which was imitated not
only by the king but by the pages, his own men chuckling in sudden
gusto, though afraid of looking up.

The king at last returned Speke's visit.  Having taken off his turban,
as Speke was accustomed to take off his hat, he seated himself on his
stool.  Everything that struck his eye was admired and begged for,
though nothing seemed to please him so much as the traveller's
wide-awake and mosquito curtains.  The women, who were allowed to peep
into Sana's den, received a couple of sacks of beads, to commemorate the

A few days afterwards he was accompanying the king when an adjutant-bird
was seen in a tree.  The king had a gun Speke had given him, but he had
little more than one charge of powder remaining.  Speke had left his gun
at home.  The king at the second shot killed the bird, greatly to his
delight, shouting his usual "_Woh! woh_!"  He was so delighted that he
insisted upon carrying the bird to show to his mother.

Before entering the palace, however, he changed his European clothes for
a white goat-skin wrapper.  Directly afterwards a battalion of his army
arrived before the palace, under the command of his chief officer, whom
Speke called Colonel Congou.  The king came out with spear and shield in
hand, preceded by the bird, and took post in front of the enclosure.
His troops were divided into three companies, each containing about two
hundred men.  After passing in single file, they went through various
evolutions.  Nothing, Speke says, could be more wild or fantastic than
the sight which ensued.  The men, nearly naked, with goat or cat-skins
depending from their girdles, and smeared with war-colours according to
the taste of each individual, one half of the body red or black, the
other blue, in irregular order; as, for instance, one leg would be red,
the other black, whilst the upper part would be the opposite colours,
and so with the chest and arms.  Each man carried two spears and one
shield, held as if approaching an enemy.  They thus moved in three lines
of single rank and file at fifteen or twenty paces asunder, with the
same high action and elongated step, the ground leg only being bent to
give their strides the greater force.  The captains of each company
followed, even more fantastically dressed.  The great Colonel Congou,
with his long, whitehaired goat-skins, a fiddle-shaped leather shield,
tufted with white hair at all six extremities, bands of long hair tied
below the knees, and the helmet covered with rich beads of several
colours, surmounted with a plume of crimson feathers, from the centre of
which rose a stem, tufted with goat-hair.  Finally the senior officers
came charging at their king, making violent protestations of faith and
honesty, for which they were applauded.

Speke was now, towards the end of May, looking forward to the arrival of

To propitiate the despot he sent a compass, greatly to the delight of
Mtesa, who no sooner saw it than he jumped and "_wohed_" with intense
excitement, and said it was the greatest present Bana had ever given
him, for it was the thing by which he found out all the roads and

It had been arranged that Grant should come by water; but the natives,
fearing to trust themselves on the lake, brought him all the distance on
a litter.

At length, on the 27th, the sound of guns announced the arrival of
Grant, and Speke hurried off to meet his friend, who was now able to
limp about a little, and to laugh over the accounts he gave of his

The travellers forthwith began to make arrangements for proceeding on to
Unyoro, governed by a chief named Kamrasi, of despicable character and
considered merciless and cruel, even among African potentates,
scattering death and torture around at the mere whim of the moment;
while he was inhospitable, covetous, and grasping, yet too cowardly to
declare war against the King of the Waganda, who had deprived him of
portions of his dominions.  The Waganda people were, therefore, very
unwilling to escort the travellers into his territory; and Colonel
Congou declared that if compelled to go, he was a dead man, as he had
once led an army into Unyoro.

The travellers' great object was to reach the spot where the Nile was
supposed to flow out of the Victoria Nyanza, and proceed down the stream
in boats.

Speke had written to Petherick, and on the 28th of June news arrived
that white men were at Gani enquiring for the travellers.  Speke
consequently informed the king that all he required was a large escort
to accompany them through Usoga and Kidi to Gani, as further delay in
communicating with Petherick might frustrate the chance of opening the
Nile trade with Uganda.  The king replied that he would assemble his
officers, and consult them on the subject.  He exhibited his folly,
however, by allowing his people to make an inroad into Unyoro and carry
off eighty cows belonging to Kamrasi.  To their horror, Kyengo, the
chief magician, informed them that the king, being anxious to pry into
the future, had resolved to adopt a strong measure with that end in
view.  This was the sacrifice of a child.  The ceremony, which it fell
to the lot of Kyengo to perform, is almost too cruel to describe.  The
magician, having placed a large earthen pot full of water on the fire,
arranges a platform on the top, and on this he binds a young child and a
fowl, covering them with another pot, which he inverts over them.  After
the fire has burned for a given time the upper pot is removed.  If both
victims are dead, it is considered that war must be deferred for the
present; but, if either should be alive, it may be commenced
immediately.  When the army is about to proceed to war, the magician
flays the young child, and lays the bleeding body in the path, that the
warriors may step over it, thereby believing that they will gain
immunity for themselves in the approaching combat.

During the expedition, which Speke made with the king to the Nyanza,
they landed on an island inhabited by a magician and his wife, who were
supposed to be priests of of the water-spirit of the lake.  His head was
decorated with numerous mystic symbols, among them a paddle, the badge
of his high office.  He was dressed in a little, white, goat-skin apron,
adorned by various charms, and, instead of a walking-stick to support
his steps, he used a paddle.  Though not an old man, he pretended to be
so, walking slowly and deliberately, coughing and mumbling like one.
Seating himself, he continued coughing for half an hour, when his wife
came in, much in the some manner, without saying a word, and assuming
the same affected style.

The king, who was seated near the door, with his wives behind him, asked
Speke what he thought of it.  No voice was heard but that of the old
wife, who croaked like a frog for some water, and when some was brought,
croaked again because it was not the purest of the lake's produce, and
had the first cup changed, wetted her lips with the second, and hobbled
away in the same manner as she had come.

The water-spirit's chief priest now summoned several of the king's
officers to draw round him, and then, in a low voice, gave them all the
orders of the deep, and walked away.  His revelations appeared to have
been unpropitious, for the party immediately repaired to their boats and
returned to their quarters.

During this excursion, the king went off on the lake, leaving Speke by
himself on shore.  He took the opportunity of visiting an hospitable old
lady, who treated him and his attendants to the last drop of _pomba_ in
her house, smoking her pipe with him, and did not hesitate to speak of
the horrors of the Uganda punishments.  When his servant told her that
he had saved the life of one of the women, she seemed astonished at the
daring of the stranger and at the leniency of the monarch.  The king's
servants had robbed her of nearly everything in her house.

The most barbarous orders of the despot are obeyed with the utmost
alacrity by his officers, who would to a certainty, if they hesitated,
be themselves put to death.  His horrible little pages are his chief
emissaries.  At his command a dozen start off together, each striving to
outrun the others, their dresses, streaming in the wind, giving them the
resemblance at a distance of a flight of birds.  On one occasion, Speke
having given Mtesa a rifle, the king, after examining the weapon, loaded
it and told a page to go out and shoot some one, to ascertain if it
would kill well.  In a moment a report was heard, and the urchin came
back grinning with delight at his achievement, just like a schoolboy who
has shot his first sparrow.  Nothing was heard about the unfortunate
wretch who had served as a target, the murder of a man being by far too
common an incident to attract notice.

Many of the people expressed the greatest horror of the king's cruelty;
but all his subjects were abject slaves, and no union existed among them
which would have afforded them any hope in rebellion or in bringing
about a better state of things.




By the 7th of July the arrangements for their journey were made.  The
king presented them with a herd of cows for their provisions, as well as
some robes of honour and spears, and he himself came out with his wives
to see them off.  Speke ordered his men to turn out under arms and
_nynzig_ for the favours received.  Mtesa complimented them on their
goodly appearance and exhorted them to follow their leader through fire
and water, saying that, with such a force, they would have no difficulty
in reaching Gani.

It was arranged that Grant should go on to Kamrasi direct, with the
property, cattle, etcetera, while Speke should go by the river to
examine its exit from the lake, and come down again, navigating as far
as practicable.

They now commenced their march down the northern slopes of Africa,
escorted by a band of Waganda troops, under the command of Kasora, a
young chief.  They had proceeded onwards some days, when Kari, one of
Speke's men, had been induced to accompany some of the Waganda escort to
a certain village of potters, to obtain pots for making plantain wine.
On nearing the place, the inhabitants rushed out.  The Waganda men
escaped, but Kari, whose gun was unloaded, stood still, pointing his
weapon, when the people, believing it to be a magic horn, speared him to
death, and then fled.

On the 21st, after passing through a country covered with jungle, Speke
reached the banks of the Nile.  The shores on either side had the
appearance of a highly-kept park.  Before him was a magnificent stream,
six or seven hundred yards wide, dotted with islets and rocks--the
former occupied by fishermen's huts, the latter by sterns and
crocodiles, basking in the sun--flowing between fine, high, grassy
banks, covered with trees and plantations.  In the background herds of
_nsunnu_ and harte-beestes could be seen grazing, while the hippopotami
were snorting in the water, Florican and Guinea fowl rising at their
feet.  Here Speke had some fine sport, killing _nsunnu_ and other deer.

The chief of the district received them courteously, and accompanied
Speke to the Isamba Rapids.

"The water ran deep between its banks, which were covered with fine
grass, soft cloudy acacias, and festoons of lilac convolvuli; while here
and there, where the land had slipped above the rapids, bare places of
red earth could be seen like that of Devonshire.  There, too, the
waters, impeded by a natural dam, looked like a huge mill-pond, sullen
and dark, in which two crocodiles, floating about, were looking out for
prey."  From the high banks Speke looked down upon a line of sloping
wooded islets lying across the stream, which, by dividing its waters,
became at once both dam and rapids.  "The whole scene was fairy-like,
wild, and romantic in the extreme," says Captain Speke.

Proceeding southward they reached the Rippon Falls on the 28th, by far
the most interesting sight he had seen in Africa.

"Though beautiful, the scene was not exactly what I expected, for the
broad surface of the lake was shut out from view by a spur of hill, and
the falls, about twelve feet deep and four to five hundred feet broad,
were broken by rocks; still it was a sight that attracted one to it for
hours.  The roar of the waters, the thousands of passenger fish leaping
at the falls with all their might, the fishermen coming out in boats,
and taking post on all the rocks with rod and hook, hippopotami and
crocodiles lying sleepily on the water, the ferry at work above the
falls, and cattle driven down to drink at the margin of the lake, made
in all, with the pretty nature of the country--small grassy-topped
hills, with trees in the intervening valleys and on the lower slopes--as
interesting a picture as one could wish to see."

Here, then, he had arrived at what he considered the source of the
Nile--that is, the point from where it makes its exit from the Victoria
Nyanza; and he calculated that the whole length of the river is, thus
measuring from the south end of the lake, two thousand three hundred

He and his party now returned northward, and reached Urondogani again on
the 5th of August.  The difficulty was next to obtain boats.  The
fishermen, finding that the strangers were to be supplied with fish by
the king's order, ran away, though the cows they had brought furnished
the travellers with food.  At length five boats, composed of five planks
lashed together and caulked with rags, were forthcoming.  Speke, with
his attendants, Kasora, and his followers embarked, carrying goats,
dogs, and kit, besides grain and dried meat.  No one, however, knew how
many days it would take to perform the voyage.

Tall rushes grew on either side of the broad river, which had in places
a lake-like appearance.  The idle crew paddled slowly, amusing
themselves by sometimes dashing forward, and then resting, while Kasora
had the folly to attack the boats of Wanyoro he met coming up the river.

The frontier line was crossed on the 14th, but they had not proceeded
far when they saw an enormous canoe of Kamrasi's, full of well-armed
men, approaching them.  The canoe turned, as if the people were afraid,
and the Waganda followed.  At length, however, the chased canoe turned,
and the shore was soon lined with armed men, threatening them with
destruction.  Another canoe now appeared.  It was getting dark.  The
only hope of escape seemed by retreating.  Speke ordered his fleet to
keep together, promising ammunition to his men if they would fight.  The
people in one boat, however, were so frightened that they allowed her to
spin round and round in the current.  The Wanyoro were stealing on them,
as they could hear, though nothing could be seen.  One of the boats kept
in-shore, close to the reeds, when suddenly she was caught by
grappling-hooks.  The men cried out: "Help, Bana! they are killing us."
Speke roared in reply: "Go in, and the victory will be ours."  When,
however, three shots were fired from the hooked boat, the Wanyoro fled,
leaving one of their number killed and one wounded, and Speke and his
party were allowed to retreat unmolested.

Speke, after proceeding up the river some distance, determined to
continue the journey by land, following the track Grant had taken.

Grant's camp was reached on the 20th, and the next day a messenger
arrived from Kamrasi, saying that the king would be glad to see them,
and the march was ordered to Unyoro.

The frontier was again passed, when the country changed much for the
worse.  Scanty villages, low huts, dirty-looking people clad in skins,
the plantain, sweet potato, _sesamum_, and millet forming the chief
edibles, besides goats and fowls.  No hills, except a few scattered
cones, broke the level surface of the land, and no pretty views cheered
the eye.  They were now getting to a distance from the rain-attractive
influences of the Mountains of the Moon, and vegetation decreased
proportionately.  Their first halt was on the estate of the chief
Kidjwiga.  Scarcely had they been established than a messenger page from
Mtesa, with a party of fifty Waganda, arrived to enquire how Bana was,
and to remind him of the gun and other articles he had promised to send
up from Gani.

The natives ran off as they passed through the country, believing them
to be cannibals.  They supposed that the iron boxes which the porters
carried on their shoulders each contained a couple of white dwarfs,
which were allowed to fly off to eat people.  They, however, gained
confidence, and soon flocked round the Englishmen's huts.

On arriving at the end of their day's march on the 2nd of September,
they were told that elephants had been seen close by.  Grant and Speke,
therefore, sallied forth with their guns, and found a herd of about a
hundred, feeding on a plain of long grass.  Speke, by stealing along
under cover of the high grass, got close to a herd, and fired at the
largest.  The animals began sniffing the air with uplifted trunks, when,
ascertaining by the smell of powder that their enemy was in front of
them, they rolled up their trunks, and came close to the spot where he
was lying under a mound.  Suddenly they stopped, catching scent of the
white man, and lifting their heads high, looked down upon him.  Speke
was now in a dangerous position, for, unable to get a proper front shot
at any of them, he expected to be picked up or trodden to death.  As he
let fly at their temples, they turned round and went rushing away at a
much faster pace than they came.  They, however, soon stopped, and began
to graze again.  Though several were wounded, none were killed.

Bombay was now despatched to King Kamrasi, with a request from the
travellers for an early interview.  Goats, flour, and plantains were
brought to them, and Kidjwiga became very indignant that the flour was
not all given to him, as he, having been appointed their guide and
protector, considered that it ought to have been.

At last they received an invitation from Kamrasi.  As on a previous
occasion, only some dirty huts were offered to Speke.  He insisted on
being lodged in the palace.  Bombay, who had been kept there, now
arrived, and they were informed that better accommodation was preparing
for them.  The king had been very communicative to Bombay.

The monarch, however, got tipsy, and was consequently unable to receive
his guests.  Next day he sent some _pomba_, fowls, and plantains as a

They were, however, after this still kept waiting several days.  At last
Speke sent to say that if the king did not wish to see the white men,
they would proceed on their journey to Gani.  This had the desired
effect; and, in their usual style, with the Union Jack floating above
their heads, they approached the palace.

They found the monarch seated on a wooden stool, with cow-skins below
and leopards' above, on an elevated platform of grass, looking like a
pope in state, calm and motionless.  His arms were adorned with
brass-wire rings, and his hair was worked up into peppercorn-like knobs;
his eyes were of a long shape, his face narrow, and nose prominent; yet,
though a well-made man, being above six feet high, he was inferior in
size to Rumanika.

Speke endeavoured to impress on the stupid-headed king that his only
object was to open up a communication along the Nile, by which boats
could bring up the produce and manufactures of other countries, to
exchange with his ivory.

The king evidently wished to detain them, in order that they might
assist him in putting down an insurrection which his two brothers had
raised against him.  At last they determined to send Bombay on to
ascertain whether boats were really waiting for them.

Kamrasi was as eager to obtain gifts as any of the other chiefs, and,
having heard of their chronometer, which they had been observed using,
he was especially desirous to possess it, believing it to be some magic
instrument, and the means by which the travellers guided themselves
about the country.  Speke told him that it was not his guide, but a
time-keeper, made for the purpose of knowing at what time to eat his
dinner.  He told him it was the only one he possessed, but that, if he
would wait with patience, he would send him up one on his arrival at
Gani.  He was too eager to possess the wonderful instrument to consent
to delay, and at last Speke, to satisfy him, placed it on the ground and
said it was his.  He said he should like to buy another, and was
surprised to hear that it would cost five hundred cows.  This increased
the surprise of the whole party, who could not believe that any person
in his senses would give five hundred cows for the mere gratification of
seeing at what time his dinner should be eaten.

Kamrasi was a thorough tyrant, and, at the same time, an arrant coward.
He kept up a perfect system of espionage, by which he knew everything
going forward in the country.  His guards, in order that they might be
attached to his person, were allowed to plunder at will the rest of his
unfortunate subjects, who, if they offended him, were put to death
without mercy.  If an officer failed to give him information, he was
executed or placed in the shoe, an instrument of torture not unlike the
stocks.  It consists of a heavy log of wood, with an oblong slit through
it; the feet are placed in this slit, and a peg is then driven through
the log between the ankles, so as to hold them tightly.  Frequently the
executioner drives the peg against the ankles, when the pain is so
excessive that the victim generally dies from exhaustion.

After the travellers had moved into better quarters, they were told that
Kamrasi intended to pay them a visit.  The room was accordingly prepared
for his reception--hung around with mats, horns, and skins of animals,
and a large box, covered with a red blanket, was placed as a throne for
him to sit on.  Speke then called out his men to form a guard of honour,
and ordered them to fire as soon as he appeared.  No sooner did he
arrive than he wanted everything he saw: first their gauze mosquito
curtains, then an iron camp bed, next the sextant and thermometer.  When
any books were shown him of birds and animals he wanted them, and was
much surprised when Speke positively refused.  The important question
was put to him whether he would wish English traders to come up to his
country, and, in reply, he answered that it was what he desired above
all things; but, if the English would advance with guns, he would march
out with his army, and that, between them, his brothers, who were now
acting in rebellion, would be destroyed.  He was evidently, however,
very angry at receiving no presents, and, getting up, walked straight
out of the hut.  No _pomba_ was sent by him next day.  They, however,
presented him with a gun.  At first he was much afraid of firing it off,
and called one of Speke's men to do it for him.

One morning they found that their rain-guage had been removed, so they
sent Kidjwiga to say that they wished a magician to come at once and
institute a search for it.  He soon returned with the adept: "An old
man, nearly blind, dressed in strips of old leather fastened to the
waist, and carrying in one hand a cow's horn primed with magic powder,
carefully covered on the mouth with leather, from which dangled an iron
bell.  The old creature jingled the bell, entered their hut, squatted on
his hams, looked first at one and then at the other, enquired what the
missing things were like, grunted, moved his skinny arm round his head
as if desirous to catch the air from all four sides of the hut, then
dashed the accumulated air on the head of his horn, smelt it to see if
all was going right, jingled the bell again close to his ear, and
grunted his satisfaction.  The missing article must be found.  To carry
out the incantation more effectually, all the men were sent for to sit
in the open air before the hut, when the old doctor rose, shaking the
horn and tinkling the bell close to his ear.  He then, confronting one
of the men, dashed the horn forward as if intending to strike him on the
face, then smelt the head and dashed it at another, and so on, till he
became satisfied that Speke's men were not the thieves.  He then walked
into Grant's hut, inspected that, and, finally, went to the place where
the bottle had been kept.  There he walked about the grass with his arm
up, and jingling the bell to his ear, first on one side and then on the
other, till the track of a hyaena gave him a clue, and in two or three
more steps he found it.  A hyaena had carried it into the grass and
dropped it.  Bravo for the infallible horn, and well done the king for
his honesty in sending it.  Speke gave the king the bottle and gauge,
which delighted him amazingly, and the old doctor, who begged for
_pomba_, got a goat for his trouble."

News reached them soon after this of the death of Budja, one of the
officers who had attended them, and who it was said had died from being
bewitched by a charm put into a pot of _pomba_ by one of Kamrasi's
frontier officers, the poor fellow having evidently been poisoned.

The travellers were now in some anxiety about Bombay, who had not
returned from Gani.  They received intelligence that the coronation
formalities of Mtesa were taking place, when upwards of thirty of his
brothers were to be burned to death.

Kamrasi had been presented with a Bible.  As soon as he got hold of it,
he began to count the leaves, supposing that each page or leaf
represented one year of time since the beginning of creation.  After
getting through a quarter of the book, he shut it up, on being told that
if he desired to ascertain the number more closely he had better count
the words.

Six weeks had been uselessly spent, when at length Bombay returned, his
attendants dressed in cotton jumpers and drawers, presents given them by
Petherick's outposts, though Petherick himself was not there.  The
journey to and fro had been performed in fourteen days' actual
travelling, the rest of the time being frittered away by the guides.

Two hundred Turks were stationed at Gani, who were all armed with
elephant-guns, and had killed sixteen elephants.

On this, Speke sent a present to Kamrasi, and prepared for his
departure.  The king, however, complained that he had not received
enough, and insisted on having the chronometer.  He had himself sent a
present of spears; but Speke refused to accept them unless permission
for his departure was given.  The only way indeed to treat these black
potentates is to act with the greatest firmness and determination.

At last the king promised to give them a parting interview, and to send
a large escort to accompany them to Petherick's boats.  Several days,
however, passed before the interview took place, when the king again
asked for more presents, and even begged for the rings which he saw on
Grant's fingers, but without success.  Speke had wished to take two of
the king's sons to be educated in England, but instead, he sent two
orphan boys, who, being both of the common negro breed, were so
unattractive in appearance that Speke declined receiving them.  They had
been kept the whole time almost as prisoners, without being allowed by
the suspicious king to move about the neighbourhood, while no one had
been permitted to visit them.  They were therefore thankful when at last
they persuaded the savage monarch to allow them to take their departure.
Canoes had been provided, and on the 9th of November they embarked in
one of them on the river Kuffo.  Crowds were collected on the banks to
see them depart, shouting and waving adieus as they shot down the
stream.  Among them was the only lady of rank they had seen, dressed in
yellow bark cloth, striped with black; she was flat-featured and plain.
Their canoes were formed of logs bound together.

Proceeding down the Kuffo, they entered, a few miles below Kamrasi's
residence, the White Nile, down which they floated four days to the
Falls of Karuma.  The river had the appearance of a large lake, and
without a pilot they would have found it impossible to guess what
direction to take.  It then assumed the appearance of a river a thousand
yards wide, covered with numberless moving and stationary islands,
amidst which hippopotami reared their heads.  These islands were perfect
thickets of thorns, creepers, and small trees.  Some went rolling round
and round, moved by the stream, which ran at the rate of a mile an hour.
Amidst them were seen the lofty papyrus, bending to the breeze, which
as they drove on, continually changing their relative positions, looked
like a fleet of felucca-rigged vessels.

On the third day, a strong breeze coming on, these floating islands
melted away or were driven on shore.  They landed every evening to
sleep, having to push their way between a wide belt of reeds, rushes,
and convolvuli.

They passed some attractive scenery.  In one place a hill rose eight
hundred feet above the water, and on the Kidi side the ground was
undulating and wild, covered with handsome trees, with flowering
creepers clinging to their boughs, now in rich bloom and presenting
every variety of colour.

The king having given his officers directions to supply the travellers
with food, they had some exciting chases after canoes, which took to
flight as soon as their object was discovered.  No sooner was one
overtaken than their Wanyoro escort robbed her of bark, cloth, liquor,
beads, spears, and everything on board, the poor owners being utterly
helpless.  Their Seedees, however, seeing the injustice of this,
recovered the stolen property, and restored it to the proper owners.

Their cattle and the main body of their escort had gone by land.

On the 19th of November they reached the Karuma Falls, so-called, the
blacks say, because the familiar of a certain great spirit placed stones
across the river to break its waters as they flow down, and, as a reward
for his services, the spot was called after him.

They were here kept some days, preparing to cross the Kidi wilderness.

They were still in the territories of Kamrasi.  The governor of the
district, a very great man, who sits on a throne only a little inferior
to the king's, called upon them, and was provided accordingly with a box
on which to rest.  His idea was that his own people had been once half
black and half white.  He could only account for it by supposing that
the country formerly belonged to white men, who had been driven out by
the blacks, and that the former were now coming back to retake it.  The
travellers relieved his apprehensions by telling him that his ancestors
were all at one time white, till they crossed the sea and took
possession of the country.

Before they started, Kidjwiga sacrificed two kids, one on each side of
the river, flaying them, with one long cut, each down their breasts and
bellies; the animals were then spread eagle-fashion on the grass, that
the travellers might step over them and obtain a prosperous journey.

A messenger arrived from the king urging them to stop, as he was afraid
that his rebel brother, Rehonga, might attack them; but they, believing
that he had interested motives, commenced their march.  The day was
rainy, and the road lay across swamps, through thick jungle and long
grasses.  This continued for a couple of days, when, at length, they
found themselves on the borders of a high plateau.  Elephants and
buffaloes were seen, and the guide, to make the journey propitious,
plucked a twig, stripped off the leaves and branches, and, waving it up
the line of march, broke it in two, and threw portions on either side of
the path.

They had, however, again quickly to plunge into the tall grass, above
their heads, and to cross numerous swamps.

On the 29th they reached the habitations of men at Koki, in Gani--a
collection of conical huts on the ridge of a small chain of hills.
Knots of naked men were seen perched like monkeys on the granite blocks,
anxiously watching their arrival.  A messenger was sent to the governor,
Chongi, who despatched the principal people in the place to welcome
them.  These people, covered with war paint--something like clowns in a
fair--rushed down the hill with their spears full tilt, and, performing
various evolutions, conducted them to the governor, who advanced,
attended by his familiar--he holding a white hen, the latter a gourd of
_pomba_ and a little twig.

The chief, having greeted them cordially, and swinging the fowl by one
leg and sprinkling the contents of the gourd over them, led them to his
magic-house, which being sprinkled in the same way, he finally spread a
cow-skin under a tree, bidding them sit on it, and then presented them
with a bowl of _pomba_.

These people were entirely naked, but were covered with beads and brass
ornaments, even the women having only a few fibres hanging like tails
before and behind.  Their hair was dressed in the most fantastic
fashion.  They also carried diminutive stools, on which they sat
wherever they went.

The travellers had great difficulty, in getting porters, who would never
agree until the king's soldiers had seized their women and cattle, and
they frequently had to zig-zag from village to village to obtain them.

These curious people might be seen sitting on the rocks or in the shade
of the trees, dressing each other's hair or forming their pigtails,
which are turned up and covered with fine wire.  Indeed, they seemed to
have little else to do, and were generally observed standing in
conceited or ridiculous attitudes.  The children are carried on the
backs of the women, supported by straps, and the head of the infant is
shaded by a reversed gourd from the heat of the sun.

The country had assumed a more attractive appearance, with forests,
undulating ground covered with grass, and clusters of habitations,
frequently intercepted by running streams.

The party had now entered the country of the Madi, who are savage in
their appearance, and are similar to the Gani.  Their houses are
cylinders of bamboo wicker-work, with steep roofs of bamboo and grass,
and are plastered inside, making them very warm.

On the 3rd of December, having pushed on in spite of the attempts of the
friendly chiefs to detain them, they came in sight of what they supposed
to be Petherick's outposts, in north latitude 3 degrees 10 minutes 33
seconds.  The Seedees immediately began firing away their carbines.
Directly afterwards bang, crack, bang! was heard from the distant camp,
when, in an instant, every height was seen covered with men.  The
travellers and their attendants hastened on, when before them appeared
three large red flags, heading a military procession which marched out
of the camp, with drums and fifes playing.  Speke's party halted, when a
black officer, Mahamed, in Egyptian regimentals, hastened from the head
of his ragamuffin regiment, a mixture of Nubians, Egyptians, and slaves
of all sorts, which he had ordered to halt, and, throwing himself into
Speke's arms, began to hug and kiss him.

Petherick was enquired for.  "He is coming," was the answer.  "What
colours are those?"

"Oh, they are Debono's."

"Who is Debono?" was asked.  "The same as Petric," answered Mahamed.

Mahamed soon had dinner for them, and they enjoyed a better repast than
they had done for many a day.  Then the greatest treat was to come--
water with which to wash their hands, and the luxury of soap.  The
remains of their repast was then placed before their faithful Seedees.

On retiring to their hut at night they offered up a prayer of
thankfulness to the Almighty for having preserved them through so many
difficulties, and at length, by His all-protecting arm, brought them in
safety to the boundary of civilisation after twenty-six months of
unceasing toil and anxiety.  They had still, however, a considerable
distance to march before they were to meet with civilised men.

Their host, Mahamed, was little better than a land pirate, who plundered
and shot down the natives without compunction.  Among his troops there
was not a true Turk, wool predominating on their heads.  They were
adventurers, born from negro stock in the most southern Egyptian
dominions.  Numbers of such characters are found at Khartoum, ready for
any employment.  The merchants engage them there, and send them into the
interior under the command of a chief to collect ivory and slaves.  They
were all married to women of the country, whom they had dressed in
cloths and beads.

Mahamed, like the black chiefs, wished to detain the travellers, that
they and their party might guard his camp, while he went off on an
expedition on his own account.  He succeeded by depriving them of their
porters, and then marched out with his army--drums and fifes playing,
colours flying, guns firing, officers riding, some on donkeys, others on
cows.  On the 31st the army returned, after having burned down and
plundered three villages, laden with ivory and driving in four slave
girls and thirty head of cattle.

A few days afterwards another example of Turkish barbarity came under
their notice.  The head man of a village arrived with a large tusk of
ivory with which to ransom his daughter.  Fortunately for him it had
been considered by the Turks wise to keep on terms with so influential a
man; and therefore, on receiving the tusk, Mahamed gave back the damsel,
adding a cow to seal their friendship.

At length, weary of Mahamed's procrastination, on the 11th of January
Speke ordered the march, telling Mahamed he might follow if he wished.

At first the villagers, supposing that the travellers were Turks, made
their escape in every direction, carrying what stores and cattle they
could; while others pulled down their huts, and marched off with the
materials to a distant site, to escape from their persecutors.

The people do this because the Turks, when they arrive at a village,
often pull down the huts and carry off the roofs to form a camp for
themselves outside the enclosure.

They also without ceremony rob the corn-stores, and should the owner
remonstrate, he is knocked down with the butt of a musket, and told he
is fortunate to escape being shot.

Finding that Speke was determined to move, Mahamed broke up his camp,
the whole party, including porters to carry the ivory tusks, amounting
to nearly a thousand men.

The Turks, as they marched along, helped themselves from the half-filled
bins of the unfortunate natives, who were starving, while the chiefs at
the different villages were quarrelling among themselves.

One night a party of warriors from another place appeared in front of
the village near which they were encamped, and the next morning the
villagers turned out and killed two of them.  The enemy, as they
retired, cried out that as soon as the guns were gone the villagers must
look out for themselves.

Speke and Grant, however, kept their own pots boiling by shooting
antelopes and other game.  The Turks ate anything they could get hold
of.  Greatly to the disgust of the Seedees, they devoured a crocodile
which was killed; they also feasted off crocodiles' eggs.

They were now passing through the Bari country.  Villages were numerous,
but the inhabitants fled as soon as they appeared.  Whenever the Turks
halted, they sacked the villages of provisions.

At Doro, which they reached on the 13th of February, the Turks having
plundered the nearest villages, the natives turned out with their arms,
and war drums were beaten as a sign that they intended to attack the
camp.  As soon as darkness set in, they attempted to steal into the
camp, but, being frightened off by the patrols, hundreds collected in
front and set fire to the grass, brandishing torches in their hands,
howling like demons, and swearing that they would annihilate their
enemies in the morning.

On the 15th of February the travellers approached Gondokoro, and to
their delight saw in the distance a white speck, which marked the
position of the Austrian mission-house.  Soon afterwards the masts of
the Nile boats could be seen.

The Toorkees halting to fire a _feu de joie_, the party marched in

While making enquiries for Petherick, they caught sight of a sturdy
English figure approaching them.  Uttering a hearty cheer and waving
their hats, they rushed forward and, greatly to their delight, found
themselves shaking hands with Mr, now Sir Samuel, Baker, the elephant
hunter of Ceylon, who had bravely come out in search of them.

They had had no news from England later than April, 1860, and it was now
February, 1863.  It was believed in England that they never would have
been able to get through the savage tribes.  They had reason to be
grateful for the kind sympathy of their friends and countrymen.

The long-looked-for Petherick was away on a trading expedition, and had,
as yet, made no attempt to succour them.

They waited at Gondokoro till the 26th, that Speke might ascertain, by
lunar observation, the longitude, which was 31 degrees 46 minutes 9
seconds east, the latitude being 4 degrees 54 minutes 5 seconds north.
The thermometer ranged between 94 degrees and 100 degrees in the shade.
The climate was considered better than that of Khartoum.

While Mr Baker, accompanied by his devoted wife, continued his journey
southward, they proceeded down the Nile in his boats to Khartoum.

At Gondokoro an Austrian mission has been established for thirty years;
but, owing to utter want of success, it was now about to be abandoned.

They here found three Dutch ladies--the Baroness Capellen, Madame Tinne,
and her daughter--who had, in the most spirited way, come up the Nile in
a steamer for the purpose of assisting them, intending to proceed
overland to Fernando Po.

They had, while at Gondokoro, been shocked by seeing a number of slaves,
attacked by small-pox, thrown overboard by the native traders.  These
noble and philanthropic ladies had rescued some of the unfortunate
natives from slavery.  Unhappily, overcome by the climate, Madame Tinne
and most of her companions some time afterwards died, and their proposed
expedition was arrested.

The voyage down the Nile to Khartoum took from the 26th of February to
the 30th of March, and was performed in a _diabeah_, the usual Nile
boat, the after part being covered with a deck, on which was built a
comfortable poop cabin.  Their Seedees followed them in two large boats.
They were hospitably welcomed by Ali Bey, and by a number of European
and Turkish inhabitants.

They now felt themselves in a civilised country.  Fifty years ago
Khartoum was a mere military post on the Egyptian frontier; it now
contains quarters for fifteen thousand troops.

At a banquet, given in their honour by an Italian hunter, Monsieur
Debono, upwards of twenty gentlemen and four ladies were present.  They
here met also Mr Aipperly, a minister of the Pilgrim Mission from the
Swiss Protestant Church.  He was stationed at Gallabat, and, having
learned blacksmith's work and other trades, he was able to make friends
with the natives by assisting them to put up their irrigation wheels and
other carpenter's work.

Among other interesting places they visited was a Coptic church.  In the
centre was a desk, at which a man was reading aloud to a number of other
persons wearing large turbans, their shoes placed on one side, and
several children, all sitting on a carpet, listening devoutly.  On the
walls were draperies and pictures of the Saviour, and within a doorway
was a high altar, covered with a cloth marked with the figure of the
cross.  The service was in Arabic.  A handsome old man entered, bearing
a staff surmounted by a golden cross.  After kneeling at the altar, he
invited the strangers to his house to have coffee.  Grant says that he
never saw a finer face than that of this venerable Copt, Gabriel by
name, who is at the head of the Coptic Church at Khartoum.

They left Khartoum on the 15th of April, and continued their journey
down to Berber by water.  Here they landed, and had a fatiguing camel
ride across the desert to a place called Korosko, whence they continued
it by water to Cairo.  Here they were to part from their faithful
Seedees, of whom Bombay was appointed captain.  The Seedees received
three years' pay, and an order for a freeman's garden to be purchased
for them at Zanzibar, when each man was to receive ten dollars more as
soon as he could find a wife.  They ultimately, after many adventures,
reached their destination.

The two travellers, whose adventures we have thus far followed, embarked
for England, on the 4th of June, on board the "Pera," where they safely
arrived, after an absence of eleven hundred and forty-six days.

His friends had shortly afterwards to mourn Captain Speke's untimely
death, from his gun accidentally going off while at shooting.  His
gallant companion, now Colonel Grant, survives.

Although not, as he supposed, the discoverer of the remotest source of
the Nile, Speke was undoubtedly the first European who saw the Victoria
Nyanza, while the adventurous and hazardous journey he and Grant
performed together deservedly places them in the first rank of African
travellers.  They also opened up an extensive and rich district hitherto
totally unknown, into which the blessings of Christianity and commerce
may, in a few years, be introduced.  It is to be hoped that King
Rumanika, the most intelligent ruler with whom they came in contact,
still survives, as he would afford a cordial welcome both to
missionaries and legitimate traders, and his beautiful and healthy
country might become the centre of civilisation in that part of Eastern
Africa.  Were a mission sent to him by way of Zanzibar, backed by a body
of disciplined, well-armed men, he would probably greatly assist in
clearing the district intervening between the north of his dominions and
that lately brought under subjection by Sir Samuel Baker, and a speedy
end might be put to the horrible cruelties of the barbarous Mtesa, King
of Uganda.  It is sad to reflect, however, that while Mahommedan Turks
and Arabs are allowed to range at will over the wide regions of Africa
and proselytise the heathen, so few Christian merchants or missionaries
have made their way into the interior with the advantages their superior
civilisation and pure faith would bestow on the hapless inhabitants.

We may yet hope with Captain Burton that, "as the remote is gradually
drawn nigh, and the difficult becomes accessible, the intercourse of
man--strongest instrument of civilisation in the hands of Providence--
will raise Africa to that place in the great republic of nations, from
which she has hitherto been unhappily excluded."




David Livingstone comes of a race whose chief pride was that they were
honest men.  His great grandfather fell at the battle of Culloden.  His
grandfather was a small farmer in Ulva, one of the western islands of
Scotland.  Here his father was born, but his grandfather after that
event migrated to a large cotton factory at the Blantyre Works, situated
on the Clyde, above Glasgow.  His uncles all entered His Majesty's
service either as soldiers or sailors, but his father remained at home,
and his mother, being a thrifty housewife, in order to make the two ends
meet, sent her son David, at the age of ten, to the factory as a piecer.

He was fond of study, and with part of his first week's wages he
purchased "Ruddiman's Rudiments of Latin," and for many years afterwards
studied that language at an evening school after his work was done.  He
also, when promoted at the age of nineteen to cotton-spinning, took his
books to the factory, and read by placing one of them on a portion of
the spinning-jenny, so that he could catch sentence after sentence as he
passed at his work.  He was well paid, however, and having determined to
prepare himself for becoming a medical missionary in China, was enabled,
by working with his hands in summer, to support himself while attending
medical and Greek classes in Glasgow in winter, as also the divinity
lectures of Dr Wardlow.  He was thus able to pass the required
examinations, and was at length admitted a licentiate of the Faculty of
Physicians and Surgeons.

The war in China preventing him from proceeding thither, he offered
himself as a missionary to the London Missionary Society, and embarked
for Africa in 1840.

After reaching Cape Town, he went round to Algoa Bay, whence he
proceeded about eight hundred miles into the interior to Kuruman, the
missionary station of the Reverend R.  Moffat, whose daughter he
afterwards married.

Thence he went to Lepelole, where, to gain a knowledge of the language
and habits of the inhabitants, the Bakwains, he cut himself off from
European society for six months.  The Bakwains, however, being driven by
another tribe from their country, he was unable, as he had intended, to
form a station at that place.

He was more successful at Mabotsa, also inhabited by the Bakwains, to
which place he removed in 1843.  It was here, while in chase of a lion,
that he nearly lost his life.  He had fired both the barrels of his gun,
and was re-loading, when the lion, though desperately wounded, sprang
upon him, catching his shoulder, both man and beast coming to the ground
together.  Growling horribly, the fierce brute shook the doctor as a
terrier dog does a rat.  The shock produced a stupor similar to that
which seems to be felt by a mouse after the first shake of a cat.  The
gun of his companion, a native schoolmaster, who came to his assistance,
missed fire, when the lion, leaving Dr Livingstone, attacked him.
Another native came up with a spear, when the lion flew at him also, but
the bullets at that moment taking effect, the fierce brute fell down

The chief of the Bakwains, Sechele, became a Christian, and exerted
himself for the conversion of his people, restoring his wives to their
fathers, and living in every respect a thoroughly consistent life.

The Dutch Boers, who had pushed forward to the confines of the country,
proved, however, most adverse to the success of the mission, by carrying
off the natives and compelling them to labour as slaves.

By the advice of Dr Laidley, Sechele and his people moved to Kolobeng,
a stream about two hundred miles to the north of Kuruman, where Dr
Livingstone formed a station.

He here built a house with his own hands, having learned carpentering
and gardening from Mr Moffat, as also blacksmith work.  He had now
become handy at almost any trade, in addition to doctoring and
preaching, and, as his wife could make candles, soap, and clothes, they
possessed what may be considered the indispensable accomplishments of a
missionary family in Central Africa.

Among the gentlemen who had visited the station was Mr Oswell, in the
East India Company's service.  He deserves to take rank as an African
traveller.  Hearing that Dr Livingstone purposed crossing the Kalahara
Desert in search of the great Lake Ngami, long known to exist, he came
from India on purpose to join him, accompanied by Mr Murray,
volunteering to pay the entire expenses of the guides.

The Kalahara, though called a desert from being composed of soft sand
and being destitute of water, supports prodigious herds of antelopes,
while numbers of elephants, rhinoceros, lions, hyenas, and other animals
roam over it.  They find support from the astonishing quantity of grass
which grows in the region, as also from a species of water-melon, and
from several tuberous roots, the most curious of which is the
_leroshua_, as large as the head of a young child, and filled with a
fluid like that of a turnip.  Another, the _mokuri_, an herbaceous
creeper, the tubers of which, as large as a man's head, it deposits in a
circle of a yard or more horizontally from the stem.  On the
water-melons especially, the elephants and other wild animals revel

Such was the desert Dr Livingstone and his party proposed to cross when
they set out with their wagon on the 1st of June, 1849, from Kolobeng.
Instead, however, of taking a direct course across it, they determined
to take a more circuitous route, which, though longer, they hoped would
prove safer.

Continuing on, they traversed three hundred miles of desert, when, at
the end of a month, they reached the banks of the Zouga, a large river,
richly fringed with fruit-bearing and other trees, many of them of
gigantic growth, running north-east towards Lake Ngami.  They received a
cordial welcome from the peace-loving inhabitants of its banks, the

Leaving the wagons in charge of the natives, with the exception of a
small one which proceeded along the bank, Dr Livingstone embarked in
one of their canoes.  Frail as are the canoes of the natives, they make
long trips in them, and manage them with great skill, often standing up
and paddling with long light poles.  They thus daringly attack the
hippopotami in their haunts, or pursue the swift antelope which ventures
to swim across the river.  After voyaging on the stream for twelve days,
they reached the broad expanse of Lake Ngami.  Though wide, it is
excessively shallow, and brackish during the rainy season.  They here
heard of the Tamunacle and other large rivers flowing into the lake.

Livingstone's main object in coming was to visit Sebituane, the great
chief of the Makololo, who live about two hundred miles to the
northward.  The chief of the district, Sechulatebe, refused, however,
either to give them goods or to allow them to cross the river.  Having
in vain attempted to form a raft to ferry over the wagon, they were
reluctantly compelled to abandon their design.  The doctor had been
working at the raft in the river, not aware of the number of alligators
which swarmed around him, and had reason to be thankful that he escaped
their jaws.

The season being far advanced, they determined to return to Kolobeng,
Mr Oswell generously volunteering to go down to the Cape and bring up a
boat for the next season.

Half the royal premium for the encouragement of geographical science and
discoveries was awarded by the council of the Royal Geographical Society
to Dr Livingstone for the discoveries he made on this journey.

Sechele, the Christian chief of the Bakwains, who was eager to assist
him in reaching Sebituane, offered his services, and with him as a
guide, accompanied by Mrs Livingstone and their three children, he set
out, in April, 1850, taking a more easterly course than before.

They again reached the lake, but the greater number of the party being
attacked by fever, he was compelled to abandon his design of visiting

He here heard of the death of a young artist, Mr Rider, who had shortly
before visited the lake for the purpose of making sketches.

The natives inhabiting the banks of the rivers falling into Lake Ngami
are famed for their skill in hunting the hippopotamus.  In perfect
silence they approach in their light canoes, and plunge their sharp
spears, with thongs attached, into the back of one of the huge
creatures, which dashes down the stream, towing the canoe at a rapid
rate.  Thus the animal continues its course, the hunters holding on to
the rope, till its strength is exhausted, when, other canoes coming up,
it is speared to death.  Frequently, however, the hippopotamus turns on
its assailants, bites the canoe in two, and seizes one of them in its
powerful jaws.  When they can manage to do so, they tow it into shallow
water, and, carrying the line on shore, secure it to a tree, while they
attack the infuriated animal with their spears, till, sinking exhausted
with its efforts, it becomes their prey.

Mr Oswell, who had arrived too late for the journey, spent the
remainder of the season in hunting elephants, liberally presenting Dr
Livingstone with the proceeds of his sport, for the outfit of his

The third journey was commenced in the spring of 1851, when, rejoined by
Mr Oswell, he set out once more, accompanied by Mrs Livingstone and
their children.

First travelling north, and then to the north-east, through a region
covered with baobab-trees, abounding with springs, and inhabited by
Bushmen, they entered an arid and difficult country.  Here, the supply
of water being exhausted, great anxiety was felt for the children, who
suffered greatly from thirst.  At length a small stream, the Mababe, was
reached, running into a marsh, across which they had to make their way.
During the night they traversed a region infested by the _tsetse_, a fly
not much larger than the common house-fly, the bite of which destroys
cattle and horses.  It is remarkable that neither man, wild animals, nor
even calves as long as they continue to suck, suffer from the bite of
this fearful pest.  While some districts are infested by it, others in
the immediate neighbourhood are free, and, as it does not bite at night,
the only way the cattle of travellers can escape is by passing quickly
through the infested district before the sun is up.  Sometimes the
natives lose the whole of their cattle by its attacks, and travellers
frequently have been deprived of all means of moving with their wagons,
in consequence of the death of their animals; some, indeed, have
perished from being unable to proceed.

Having reached the Chobe, a large river, which falls into the Zambesi,
leaving their attendants encamped with their cattle on an island, Dr
Livingstone and his family, with Mr Oswell, embarked in a canoe on the
former river, and proceeded down it about twenty miles to an island,
where Sebituane was waiting to receive them.

The chief, pleased with the confidence the doctor had shown in bringing
his wife and children, promised to take them to see his country, that
they might chose a spot where they might form a missionary station.  He
had been engaged in warfare nearly all his life, under varying fortunes,
with the neighbouring savage tribes, and had at length established
himself in a secure position behind the Chobe and Leeambye, whose broad
streams guarded him from the inroads of his enemies.  He had now a
larger number of subjects and was richer in cattle than any chief in
that part of Africa.

The rivers and swamps, however, of the region produced fever, which had
proved fatal to many of his people.  He had long been anxious for
intercourse with Europeans, and showed every wish to encourage those who
now visited him to remain in his territory.

Unhappily, a few days after the arrival of his guests the chief was
attacked with inflammation of the lungs, originating in an old wound,
and, having listened to the gospel message delivered by the doctor, he
in a short time breathed his last.

Dr Livingstone says that he was decidedly the best specimen of a native
chief he had ever met.  His followers expressed the hope that the
English would be as friendly to his children as they intended to have
been to himself.

The chieftainship devolved at his death on a daughter, who gave the
visitors leave to travel through any part of the country they chose.
They accordingly set out, and traversing a level district covered with
wild date-trees, and here and there large patches of swamp, for a
distance of a hundred and thirty miles to the north-east, they reached
the banks of the Zambesi, in the centre of the continent.

From the prevalence of the _tsetse_, and the periodical rise of its
numerous streams causing malaria, Dr Livingstone was compelled to
abandon the intention he had formed of removing his own people thither
that they might be out of the reach of their savage neighbours, the
Dutch boers.  It was, however, he at once saw, the key of Southern and
Central Africa.

The magnificent stream, on the bank of which he now stood, flows
hundreds of miles east to the Indian Ocean--a mighty artery supplying
life to the teeming population of that part of Africa.  He therefore
determined to send his wife and children to England, and to return
himself and spend two or three years in the new region he had
discovered, in the hopes of evangelising the people and putting a stop
to the trade in slaves, which had already been commenced even thus far
from the coast.

He accordingly returned to Kolobeng, and then set out with his family a
journey of a thousand miles, to Cape Town.  Having seen them on board a
homeward-bound ship, he again turned his face northward, June, 1852.

Having reached Kuruman, he was there detained by the breaking of a
wagon-wheel.  During that time the Dutch Boers attacked his friends, the
Fakwains, carrying off a number of them into slavery, the only excuse
the white men had being that Sechele was getting too saucy--in reality,
because he would not prevent the English traders from passing through
his territory to the northward.  The Dutch plundered Dr Livingstone's
house, and carried off the wagons of the chief and that of a trader who
was stopping in the place.  Dr Livingstone therefore found great
difficulty in obtaining guides and servants to proceed northward.  Poor
Sechele set out for Cape Town, intending, as he said, to lay his
complaint before the Queen of England, but was compelled by want of
funds to return to his own country, where he devoted himself to the
evangelisation of his people.

Parting with the chief, Dr Livingstone, giving the Boers a wide berth,
proceeded across the desert to Linyanti, the capital of the Makololo,
where he had visited the Chief Sebituane in 1851.  The whole population,
amounting to nearly seven thousand souls, turned out to welcome him.  He
found that the princess had abdicated in favour of her brother Sekeletu,
who received him with the greatest cordiality.  The young king, then
only nineteen, exclaimed: "I have now got another father instead of
Sebituane."  The people shared this feeling, believing that by the
residence of a missionary among them they would obtain some important
benefits, though of the real character of the blessing they might
receive they were totally ignorant.

A rival of the young king existed in the person of a cousin, Mpepe, who
had been appointed by the late king chief over a portion of his
subjects, but whose ambition made him aim at the command of the whole.

Half-caste Portuguese slave-traders had made their way to Linyanti, and
one, who pretended to be an important person, was carried about in a
hammock slung between two poles, which looking like a bag, the natives
called him "the father of the bag."  Mpepe favoured these scoundrels, as
he hoped by their means to succeed in his rebellion.  The arrival of Dr
Livingstone, however, somewhat damped their hopes.

As the chief object of the doctor was to select a spot for a settlement,
he ascended, accompanied by Sekeletu, the great river Zambesi, which had
been discovered in the year 1851.

The doctor had taught the Makololo to ride on their oxen, which they had
never before done, though, having neither saddles nor bridles, they
constantly fell off.

He and Sekeletu were riding along side by side, when they encountered
Mpepe, who, as soon as he saw them, ran towards the chief with his axe
uplifted; but Sekeletu, galloping on, escaped him.  On their arrival at
their camp, while the chief and the doctor were sitting together, Mpepe
appeared, his men keeping hold of their arms.  At that moment the rebel
entered; but the doctor, unconsciously covering Sjkeletu's body, saved
him from the assassin's blow.  His cousin's intention having been
revealed to Sekeletu, that night Mpepe was dragged off from his fire and
speared.  So quietly was the deed done that Dr Livingstone heard
nothing of it till the next morning.

Dr Livingstone was soon after this attacked by fever, when his hosts
exhibited the interest they felt for him by paying him every attention
in their power.  His own remedies of a wet sheet and quinine were more
successful than the smoke and vapour baths employed by the natives.

It is important that the position of Linyanti should be noted, as from
it Dr Livingstone set out on his journey westward to Loanda, on the
West Coast, and, returning to it, commenced from thence that adventurous
expedition to the East Coast, which resulted in so many interesting
discoveries.  Its latitude is 18 degrees 17 minutes 20 seconds south;
longitude 23 degrees 50 minutes 9 seconds east.




Having recovered from his fever, Dr Livingstone, accompanied by
Sekeletu and about one hundred and sixty attendants, mostly young men,
associates of the chief, set out for Sesheke.  The intermediate country
was perfectly flat, except patches elevated a few feet only above the
surrounding level.  There were also numerous mounds, the work of
_termites_, which are literally gigantic structures, and often wild
date-trees were seen growing on them.

The party looked exceedingly picturesque as, the ostrich feathers of the
men waving in the air, they wound in a long line in and out among the
mounds.  Some wore red tunics or variously-coloured prints, and their
heads were adorned with the white ends of ox tails or caps made of
lions' manes.  The nobles walked with a small club of rhinoceros horn in
their hands, their servants carrying their shields; while the ordinary
men bore burdens, and the battle-axe men, who had their own shields on
their arms, were employed as messengers, often having to run an immense

The Makololo possess numerous cattle, and the chief, having to feed his
followers, either selected oxen from his own stock or received them from
the head men of the villages through which they passed, as tribute.

Dr Livingstone and the chief had each a little gipsy tent in which they
slept, though the Makololo huts, which are kept tolerably clean,
afforded them accommodation.  The best sort of huts consist of three
circular walls, having small holes to serve as doors, through which it
is necessary to creep on all fours.  The roof resembles in shape a
Chinaman's hat, and is bound together with circular bands.  The
framework is first formed, and it is then lifted to the top of the
circle of poles prepared for supporting it.  The roof is next covered
with fine grass and sewed with the same material as the lashings.  Women
are the chief builders of huts among the Makololo.

Reaching the village of Katonga on the banks of the Leeambye, some time
was spent there in collecting canoes.  During this delay Dr Livingstone
visited the country to the north of the village, where he saw enormous
numbers of buffaloes, zebras, elans, and a beautiful small antelope
called the _tinyane_.  He was enabled, by this hunting expedition, to
supply his companions with an abundance of food.

At length, a sufficient number of canoes being collected, they commenced
the ascent of the river.  His own canoe had six paddlers, while that of
the chief had ten.  They paddled standing upright, and kept stroke with
great exactness.  Being flat-bottomed, they can float in very shallow
water.  The fleet consisted altogether of thirty-three canoes and one
hundred and sixty men.

The Makololo are unable to swim, and, a canoe being upset, one of the
party, an old doctor, was lost, while the Barotse canoe-men easily saved
themselves by swimming.

Numerous villages were seen on both banks of the river, the inhabitants
of which are expert hunters of the hippopotamus, and are excellent
handicraft-men.  They manufacture wooden bowls with neat lids, and show
much taste in carving stools.  Some make neat baskets, and others excel
in pottery and iron.

On their arrival at the town of the father of Mpepe, who had instigated
his son to rebellion, two of his chief councillors were led forth and
tossed into the river.

Mpepe had encouraged the slave-dealers to come into the country, and a
large party of his supporters, the Mambari, had taken shelter in a
stockade.  It was proposed to attack them; but Dr Livingstone urged his
friends to refrain from so doing, especially as the enemy possessed
firearms.  It was then agreed that they would starve them out.

"Hunger is strong enough for that," observed a chief, "he is a very
great fellow;" but here again, as the unfortunate slaves who were
chained in gangs would have suffered, the doctor interceded, and they
were allowed to depart.

Naliele, the capital of the Barotse, the tribe inhabiting the district
in which they now were, is built on an artificially-constructed mound,
as are many other villages of that region, to raise them above the
overflowing of the river.  From finding no trace of European names among
them, Dr Livingstone was convinced that the country had not before been
visited by white men; whereas, after he had come among them, great
numbers of children were named after his own boy, while others were
called Horse, Gun, Wagon, etcetera.

Here again numbers of large game were seen.  Eighty-one buffaloes
defiled in slow procession before the fire of the travellers one evening
within gun-shot, and herds of splendid elans stood at two hundred yards'
distance, without showing signs of fear.  Lions, too, approached and
roared at them.  One night, as they were sleeping on the summit of a
large sandbank, a lion appeared on the opposite shore, who amused
himself for hours by roaring as loudly as he could.  The river was too
broad for a ball to reach him, and he walked off without suffering for
his impertinence.  Dr Livingstone saw two as tall as common donkeys,
their manes making their bodies appear of still greater size.

The doctor was visited at his camp by two Arabs, who had made their way
thus far west.  They professed the greatest hatred of the Portuguese
because they eat pigs, and they disliked the English because they thrash
them for selling slaves.

On their journey they visited the town of Ma-Sekeletu, or the mother of
Sekelutu, where, as it was the first visit the king had paid to this
part of his dominions, he was received with every appearance of joy.  A
grand dance was got up, the men standing nearly naked in a circle, with
clubs or small battle-axes in their hands, roaring at the loudest pitch
of their voices, while they simultaneously lifted one leg, stamped twice
with it, then lifted the other and gave one stamp with that.  The arms
and head were thrown about in every direction, the roaring being kept up
with the utmost vigour, while the dust ascended in clouds around them.

Returning down the stream at a rapid rate, they quickly reached

During this nine-weeks' tour Dr Livingstone had been in closer contact
with heathenism than ever before, and though, including the chief,
everyone had been as attentive as possible, yet the dancing, roaring,
singing, jesting, quarrelling, added to the murdering propensities of
these children of nature was painful in the extreme.  He took a more
intense disgust of heathenism than he had ever before felt, and formed a
higher opinion of the latent effects of missions in the south among
tribes which were once as savage as the Makololo.

The chief and his followers, agreeing that the object of Dr
Livingstone's proposed expedition to the west was most desirable, took
great pains to assist him in the undertaking.  A band of twenty-seven
men was appointed to accompany him by the chief's command, whose eager
desire was to obtain a free and profitable trade with the white men, and
this, Dr Livingstone was convinced, was likely to lead to their
ultimate elevation and improvement.  Three men whom he had brought from
Kuruman having suffered greatly from fever, he sent them back with
Fleming, a trader, who had followed his footsteps.  His new attendants
he named Zambesians, for there were only two Makololo men--the rest
consisting of Barotse, Batoka, and other tribes.  His wagon and
remaining goods he committed to the charge of the Makololo, who took all
the articles into their huts.  He carried only a rifle and
double-barrelled smooth-bore gun for himself, and gave three muskets to
his people, by means of which he hoped game might be obtained for their
support.  Wishing also to save his followers from having to carry loads,
he took for his own support but a few biscuits and a pound of tea and
sugar, about twenty of coffee, a small tin canister with some spare
shirting, trousers, and shoes, another for medicines, and a third for
books, while a fourth contained a magic lantern.  His ammunition was
distributed in portions among the whole luggage, that, should an
accident occur to one, the rest might be preserved.  His camp equipage
consisted of a gipsy tent, a sheep-skin mantle, and a horse-rug as a
bed, as he had always found that the chief art of successful travelling
consisted in taking as few impediments as possible.  His sextant,
artificial horizon, thermometer, and compasses were carried apart.

On the 11th of November, 1853, accompanied by the chief and his
principal men to see him off, he left Linyanti, and embarked on the
Chobe.  The chief danger in navigating this river is from the bachelor
hippopotami who have been expelled their herd, and, whose tempers being
soured, the canoes are frequently upset by them.  One of these
misanthropes chased some of his men, and ran after them on shore with
considerable speed.

The banks of the river were clothed with trees, among them the _ficus
indica_, acacias, and the evergreen _motsouri_, from the pink-coloured
specimens of which a pleasant acid drink is obtained.

Leaving the Chobe, they entered the Leeambye, up which they proceeded at
somewhat a slow rate, as they had to wait at different villages for
supplies of food.  Several varieties of wild fruit were presented to

The crews of the canoes worked admirably, being always in good humour,
and, on any danger threatening, immediately leaped overboard to prevent
them coming broadside to the stream, or being caught by eddies, or
dashed against the rocks.

Birds, fish, iguanas, and hippopotami abounded; indeed the whole river
teemed with life.

On November 30th the Gonye Falls were reached.  No rain having fallen,
it was excessively hot.  They usually got up at dawn--about five in the
morning--coffee was taken and the canoes loaded, the first two hours
being the most pleasant part of the day's sail.

The Barotse, being a tribe of boatmen, managed their canoes admirably.

At about eleven they landed to lunch.  After an hour's rest they
embarked, the doctor with an umbrella overhead.  Sometimes they reached
a sleeping-place two hours before sunset.  Coffee was again served out,
with coarse bread made of maize meal, or Indian corn, unless some animal
had been killed, when a potful of flesh was boiled.

The canoes were carried beyond the falls, slung on poles placed on men's

Here as elsewhere the doctor exhibited his magic lantern, greatly to the
delight of the people.

Nothing could be more lovely than the scenery of the falls.  The water
rushes through a fissure and, being confined below by a space not more
than a hundred yards wide, goes rolling over and over in great masses,
amid which the most expert swimmer can in vain make way.

The doctor was able to put a stop to an intended fight between the
inhabitants of two villages.  Several volunteers offered to join him,
but his followers determined to adhere to the orders of Sekeletu, and
refused all other companions.

They were treated most liberally by the inhabitants of all the villages,
who presented them with more oxen, milk, and meal than they could stow
away.  Entering the Leeambye, Dr Livingstone proceeded up that stream
in his canoe, while his oxen and a portion of his men continued their
journey along its banks.

The rain had fallen, and nature put on her gayest apparel: flowers of
great beauty and curious forms grew everywhere, many of the forest trees
having palmated leaves, the trunks being covered with lichens, while
magnificent ferns were seen in all the moister situations.  In the cool
morning the welkin rang with the singing of birds, and the ground
swarmed with insect life.

Livingstone did not fail to preach the Gospel to his attendants, as well
as to the inhabitants of the villages, ever having in mind the value of
human souls.

Alligators were in prodigious numbers, children and calves being
constantly carried off by them.  One of his men was seized, but,
retaining his presence of mind when dragged to the bottom, he struck the
monster with his javelin and escaped, bearing the marks of the reptile's
teeth on his thigh.

The doctor's men had never before used firearms, and, proving bad shots,
came to him for "gun medicine" to enable them to shoot better.  As he
was afraid of their exhausting his supply of powder, he was compelled to
act as sportsman for the party.

Leaving Leeambye, he proceeded up the Leeba.  Beautiful flowers and
abundance of wild honey was found on its shores, and large numbers of
young alligators were seen sunning themselves on the sandbanks with
their parents.

They had now reached the Balonda country, and received a visit from a
chieftainess, Manenko, a tall strapping woman covered with ornaments and
smeared over with fat and red ochre as a protection against the weather.
She invited them to visit her uncle Shinti, the chief of the country.

They set out in the midst of a heavy drizzling mist; on, however, the
lady went, in the lightest marching order.  The doctor enquired why she
did not clothe herself during the rain; but it appeared that she did not
consider it proper for a chief to appear effeminate.  The men, in
admiration of her pedestrian powers, every now and then remarked:
"Manenko is a soldier."  Some of the people in her train carried shields
composed of reeds, of a square form, five feet long and three broad.
With these, and armed with broadswords and quivers full of iron-headed
arrows, they looked somewhat ferocious, but are in reality not noted for
their courage.

The doctor was glad when at length the chieftainess halted on the banks
of a stream and preparations were made for their night's lodging.

After detaining them several days she accompanied them on foot to
Shinti's town.  The chief's place of audience was ornamented by two
graceful banyan-trees, beneath one of which he sat on a sort of throne
covered with a leopard-skin.  He wore a checked shirt and a kilt of
scarlet baize, edged with green, numerous ornaments covering his arms
and legs, while on his head was a helmet of beads, crowned with large
goose feathers.  At his side sat three lads with quivers full of arrows
over their shoulders.

Dr Livingstone took his seat under the shade of another tree opposite
to the chief, while the spokesman of the party, who had accompanied
them, in a loud voice, walking backwards and forwards, gave an account
of the doctor and his connection with the Makololo.

Behind the chief sat a hundred women clothed in red baize, while his
wife was seated in front of him.  Between the speeches the ladies burst
forth into a sort of plaintive ditty.  The party was entertained by a
band of musicians, consisting of three drummers and four performers on
the _marimba_, a species of piano.  It consists of two bars of wood
placed side by side; across these are fixed fifteen wooden keys, each
two or three inches broad and about eighteen long, their thickness being
regulated by the deepness of the note required.  Each of the keys has a
calabash below it, the upper portion of which, being cut off to hold the
bars, they form hollow sounding-boards to the keys.  These are also of
different sizes according to the notes required.  The keys are struck by
small drumsticks to produce the sound.  The Portuguese have imitated the
_marimba_, and use it in their dances in Angola.

The women in this country are treated with more respect by the men than
in other parts of Africa.

A party of Mambari, with two native Portuguese traders, had come up to
obtain slaves, and, while Dr Livingstone was residing with Shinti, some
young children were kidnapped, evidently to be sold to them.

The day before he was to recommence his journey, the doctor received a
visit in his tent from Shinti, who, as a mark of his friendship,
presented him with a shell on which he set the greatest value,
observing: "There, now you have a proof of my affection."

These shells, as marks of distinction, are so highly valued that for two
of them a slave may be bought, and five will purchase an elephant's tusk
worth ten pounds.

The old chief had provided a guide, Intemese, to conduct them to the
territory of the next chief, Katema.  He also gave an abundant supply of
food, and wished them a prosperous journey.

Dr Livingstone again started on the 26th of January, Shinti sending
eight men to assist in carrying his luggage.  He had now to quit the
canoes and to proceed on ox-back, taking a northerly direction.

He and his party received the same kind treatment in the country as
before, the villagers, by command of their chiefs, presenting them with
an abundance of food.  They found English cotton cloth more eagerly
enquired after than beads and ornaments.

On arriving at a village the inhabitants lifted off the roofs of some of
their huts, and brought them to the camp, to save the men the trouble of
booth-making.  On starting again the villagers were left to replace them
at their leisure, no payment being expected.

Heavy rains now came on, and the doctor and his party were continually
wet to the skin.

Polite as the people were, they were still fearful savages.  Messengers
arrived from the neighbouring town to announce the death of their chief,
Matiamvo.  That individual had been addicted to running a-muck through
his capital and beheading any one he met, till he had a large heap of
human heads in front of his hut.  Men were also slaughtered
occasionally, whenever the chief wanted part of a body to perform
certain charms.

The Balonda appear to have some belief in the existence of the soul, and
a greater feeling of reverence in their composition than the tribes to
the eastward.  Among their customs they have a remarkable one.  Those
who take it into their heads to become friends, cement their friendship.
Taking their seats opposite one to the other, with a vessel of beer by
the side of each, they clasp hands.  They then make cuts on their
clasped hands, the pits of their stomachs, their foreheads, and right
cheeks.  The point of a blade of grass is then pressed against the cuts,
and afterwards each man washes it in his own pot of beer; exchanging
pots, the contents are drunk, so that each man drinks the blood of the
other.  Thus they consider that they become blood relations and are
bound in every possible way to assist each other.

These people were greatly surprised at the liberty enjoyed by the

The travellers paid a visit to Katema, the chief of the district, who
received them dressed in a snuff-brown coat, with a helmet of beads and
feathers on his head, and in his hand a number of tails of _gnus_ bound
together.  He also sent some of his men to accompany them on their

The rains continued, and the doctor suffered much from having to sleep
on the wet ground.

Having reached the latitude of Loanda, Dr Livingstone now directed his
course to the westward.

On the 4th of March he reached the outskirts of the territory of the

As he approached the more civilised settlements, he found the habits of
the people changed much for the worse: tricks of all sorts were played
to detain him and obtain tribute; the guides also tried in every way to
impose on him.  Even his Makololo expressed their sorrow at seeing so
beautiful a country ill cultivated and destitute of cattle.

He was compelled to slaughter one of his riding oxen for food, as none
could be obtained.

The Chiboque coming round in great numbers, their chief demanded
tribute, and one of their number made a charge at Dr Livingstone, but
quickly retreated on having the muzzle of the traveller's gun pointed at
his head.  The chief and his councillors, however, consenting to sit
down on the ground, the Makololo, well drilled, surrounded them and thus
got them completely in their power.  A mutiny, too, broke out among his
own people, who complained of want of food; but it was suppressed by the
appearance of the doctor with a double-barrelled pistol in his hand.
They never afterwards gave him any trouble.

Similar demands for payment to allow him to pass through the country
were made by other chiefs, his faithful Makololo giving up their
ornaments, as he had done nearly all the beads and shirts in his
possession.  The most extortionate of these chiefs was Ioaga Panza,
whose sons, after receiving payment for acting as guides, deserted him.

All this time Dr Livingstone was suffering daily from the attacks of
fever, which rendered him excessively weak, so that he could scarcely
sit his ox.

The country appeared fertile and full of small villages, and the soil is
so rich that little labour is required for its cultivation.  It is,
however, the chief district whence slaves are obtained, and a feeling of
insecurity was evident amongst the inhabitants.

A demand was now made by each chief for a man, an ox, or a tusk as
tribute.  The first was of course refused, but nearly all the remainder
of the traveller's property had to be thus paid away.

On the 4th of April they reached the banks of the Quango, here a hundred
and fifty yards wide.  The chief of the district--a young man, who wore
his hair curiously formed into the shape of a cone, bound round with
white thread--on their refusing to pay him an extortionate demand,
ordered his people not to ferry them across, and opened fire on them.
At this juncture a half-caste Portuguese, a sergeant of militia,
Cypriano Di Abreu arrived, and, obtaining ferrymen, they crossed over
into the territory of the Bangala, who are subject to the Portuguese.
They had some time before rebelled, and troops were now stationed among
them, Cypriano being in command of a party of men.  Next morning he
provided a delicious breakfast for his guest, and fed the Makololo with
pumpkins and maize, while he supplied them with farina for their journey
to Kasenge, without even hinting at payment.

The natives, though they long have had intercourse with the Portuguese,
are ignorant and superstitious in the extreme.  Many parts of the
country are low and marshy, and they suffer greatly from fever.  Of the
use of medicine they have no notion, their only remedies being charms
and cupping.  The latter operation is performed with a small horn, which
has a little hole in the upper end.  The broad end is placed on the
flesh, when the operator sucks through the hole; as the flesh rises, he
gashes it with a knife, then replaces the horn and sucks again, till
finally he introduces a piece of wax into his mouth, to stop up the
hole, when the horn is left to allow the blood to gush into it.

It took the travellers four days to reach Kasenge, a town inhabited by
about forty Portuguese traders and their servants.  Though told by the
doctor that he was a Protestant minister, they treated him with the
greatest kindness and hospitality.

Here the Makololo sold Sekeletu's tusks, obtaining much better prices
than they would have done from the Cape traders, forgetting, however,
that their value was greatly increased by the distance they had been

The Makololo here expressed their fears, from what they had heard, that
they were about to be led down to the sea-coast to be sold, but when
Livingstone asked them if he had ever deceived them, and that he would
assure them of their safety, they agreed to accompany him.

The merchants of Kasenge treated the doctor with the most disinterested
kindness, and furnished him with letters to their friends at Loanda.

He was escorted by a black corporal of militia, who was carried in a
hammock by his slaves.  He could both read and write, and was cleanly in
all his ways; he was considerate also to his young slaves, and walked
most of the way, only getting into his hammock on approaching a village,
for the sake of keeping up his dignity.  He, however, had the usual
vices in a land of slaves, and did not fail to cheat those he was sent
to protect.

Sleeping-places were erected on the road about ten miles apart, as there
is a constant stream of people going to and coming from the coast.

Goods are either carried on the head or on one shoulder, in a sort of
basket, supported by two poles five or six feet long.  When the carrier
feels tired and halts, he plants them on the ground, allowing his burden
to rest against a tree, so that he has not to lift it up from the ground
to the level of his head.

On arriving at a sleeping-place, the sheds were immediately taken
possession of by the first comers, those arriving last having to make
huts with long grass for themselves.  Women might then be seen coming
from their villages with baskets of manioc meal, yams, garlic, and other
roots for sale.

As Dr Livingstone had supplied himself with calico at Kasenge, he was
able to purchase what was necessary.

The district of Ambaca, through which he now passed, was excessively
fertile.  Large numbers of cattle exist on its pastures, which are
well-watered by flowing streams, while lofty mountains rise in the
distance.  It is said to contain forty thousand souls.

The doctor was delighted with Golcongo Alto, a magnificent district--the
hills bedecked with trees of various hues, the graceful oil-yielding
palm towering above them.

Here the commandant, Lieutenant Castro, received him in a way which won
the doctor's affectionate regard.

He calculated that this district has a population of a hundred and four

The lieutenant regretted, as does every person of intelligence, the
neglect with which this magnificent country has been treated.

As they proceeded, they passed streams with cascades, on which mills
might easily be formed; but here numbers of carpenters were converting
the lofty trees which grew around into planks, by splitting them with

At Trombeta the commandant had his garden ornamented with rows of trees,
with pineapples and flowers growing between them.  A few years ago he
had purchased an estate for 16 pounds, on which he had now a coffee
plantation and all sorts of fruit-trees and grape-vines, besides grain
and vegetables growing, as also a cotton plantation.

As they approached the sea the Makololo gazed at it, spreading out
before them, with feelings of awe, having before believed that the whole
world was one extended plain.  They again showed their fears that they
might be kidnapped, but Dr Livingstone reassured them, telling them
that as they had stood by each other hitherto, so they would do to the

On the 31st of May they descended a declivity leading to the city of
Loanda, where Dr Livingstone was warmly welcomed by Mr Gabriel, the
British commissioner for the suppression of the slave trade.  Seeing him
so ill, he benevolently offered the doctor his bed.  "Never shall I
forget," says Dr Livingstone, "the luxurious pleasure I enjoyed in
feeling myself again on a good English couch, after for six months
sleeping on the ground."

It took many days, however, before the doctor recovered from the
exposure and fatigue he had endured.  All that time he was watched over
with the most generous sympathy by his kind host.  The Portuguese Bishop
of Angola, and numerous other gentlemen, called on him and tendered
their services.

Her Majesty's ship "Polyphemus" coming in, the surgeon, Mr Cockin,
afforded him the medical assistance he so much required, and on the 14th
of June he was sufficiently recovered to call on the bishop, attended by
his Makololo followers.  They had all been dressed in new robes of
striped cotton cloth, and red caps, presented by Mr Gabriel.

The bishop, acting as head of the provisional government, received them
in form, and gave them permission to come to Loanda and trade as often
as they wished, with which they were greatly pleased.

The Makololo gazed with astonishment at all they witnessed, the large
stone houses and churches especially, never before having seen a
building larger than a hut.  The commanders of the "Pluto" and
"Philomel," which came into the harbour, invited them on board.  Knowing
their fears, Dr Livingstone told them that no one need go should they
entertain the least suspicion of foul play.  Nearly the whole party,
however, went.

Pointing to the sailors, the doctor said: "Now, these are all my
countrymen, sent by our queen for the purpose of putting down the trade
of those that buy and sell black men."

They replied: "Truly they are just like you," and all their fears

Going forward amongst the men, they were received much the same as the
Makololo would have received them, the jolly tars handing them a share
of the bread and beef they had for dinner.  They were allowed to fire
off a cannon, at which they were greatly pleased, especially when the
doctor observed: "That is what they put down the slave trade with."

This visit had a most beneficial effect, as it raised Dr Livingstone
still more highly than ever in the opinion of the natives.

They were not so much struck at the high mass which they witnessed at
the cathedral, observing that they had seen the white men charming their

During August the doctor was again attacked by a severe fit of fever.

His men, while he was unable to attend to them, employed themselves in
going into the country and cutting firewood, which they sold to the
inhabitants of the town.  Mr Gabriel also found them employment in
unloading a collier, at sixpence a day.  They continued at this work for
upwards of a month, astonished at the vast amount of "stones that burn"
which were taken out of her.  With the money thus obtained they
purchased clothing, beads, and other articles to carry home with them.
In selecting calicoes they were well able to judge of the best, and
chose such pieces as appeared the strongest, without reference to

Saint Paul de Loanda, once a considerable city, has now fallen greatly
into decay.  There are, however, many large stone houses, and the palace
of the governor, and the government offices, are substantial structures.
Trees are planted throughout the town for the sake of shade.  Though
the dwellings of the native inhabitants are composed merely of wattle
and daub, from the sea they present an imposing appearance.

Though at first the government lost its chief revenue from the
suppression of the slave trade, it has again gradually increased by the
lawful commerce now carried on by its merchants.  The officers are,
however, so badly paid that they are compelled to engage in mercantile
pursuits, and some attempt by bribes to assist the slave-dealers.

From the kind and generous treatment Dr Livingstone received from the
Portuguese, they rose deservedly high in his estimation.

He now prepared for his departure.  The merchants sent a present to
Sekeletu, consisting of specimens of all their articles of trade and two
donkeys, that the breed might be introduced into his country, as the
_tsetse_ cannot kill those beasts of burden.  The doctor was also
furnished with letters of recommendation to the Portuguese authorities
in Eastern Africa.  The bishop likewise furnished him with twenty
carriers, and sent forward orders to the commandants of the districts to
the east to render him every assistance.  He supplied himself with
ammunition, and beads, and a stock of cloth, and he gave each of his men
a musket.  He had also purchased a horse for Sekeletu.  His friends of
the "Philomel" fitted him out also with a new tent, and, on the 20th of
September, 1854, he and his party left Loanda, escorted by Mr Gabriel,
who, from his unwearied attentions and liberality to his men, had become
endeared to all their hearts.

Passing round by the sea, he ascended the River Bengo to Icollo-i-Bengo,
once the residence of a native king.  While Mr Gabriel returned to
Loanda, Dr Livingstone and his party proceeded to Golcongo Alto, where
he left some of his men to rest, while he took an excursion to Kasenge,
celebrated for its coffee plantations.  On his return he found several
of them suffering from fever, while one of them had gone out of his
mind, but in a short time recovered.

The doctor had the satisfaction of returning the kindness he received
from Mr Canto, the commandant, by attending him during a severe attack
of illness.

He had thus an opportunity of watching the workings of slavery.  The
moment their master was ill, the slaves ate up everything on which they
could lay their hands, till the doctor himself could scarcely obtain
even bread and butter.  Here Sekeletu's horse was seized with
inflammation, and the poor animal afterwards died on its journey.

On the 28th of February they reached the banks of the Quango, where they
were again received by Cypriano.

The coloured population of Angola are sunk in the grossest superstition.
They fancy themselves completely in the power of spirits, and are
constantly deprecating their wrath.  A chief, named Gando, had lately
been accused of witchcraft, and, being killed by the ordeal, his body
was thrown into the river.

Heavy payment was demanded by the ferrymen for crossing in their
wretched canoes; but the cattle and donkeys had to swim across.

Avoiding their friend with the comical head-dress, they made their way
to the camp of some Ambakistas, or half-caste Portuguese, who had gone
across to trade in wax.  They are famed for their love of learning, and
are keen traders, and, writing a peculiarly fine hand, are generally
employed as clerks, sometimes being called the Jews of Angola.

The travellers were now in the country of the Bashinji, possessing the
lowest negro physiognomy.  At a village where they halted, they were
attacked by the head man, who had been struck by one of the Makololo on
their previous visit, although atonement had been made.  A large body of
the natives now rushed upon them as they were passing through a forest,
and began firing, the bullets passing amid the trees.  Dr Livingstone
fortunately encountered the chief, and, presenting a six-barrelled
revolver, produced an instant revolution in his martial feelings.  The
doctor then, ordering, him and his people to sit down, rode off.

They were now accompanied by their Portuguese friends, the Londa people,
who inhabit the banks of the Loajima.

They elaborately dress their hair in a number of ways.  It naturally
hangs down on their shoulders in large masses, which, with their general
features, give them a strong resemblance to the ancient Egyptians.  Some
of them twist their hair into a number of small cords, which they
stretch out to a hoop encircling the head, giving it the resemblance of
the glory seen in pictures round the head of the Virgin Mary.  Others
adorn their heads with ornaments of woven hair and hide, to which they
occasionally suspend the tails of buffaloes.  A third fashion is to
weave the hair on pieces of hide in the form of buffalo horns,
projecting on either side of the head.  The young men twine their hair
in the form of a single horn, projecting over their forehead in front.
They frequently tattoo their bodies, producing figures in the form of
stars.  Although their heads are thus elaborately adorned, their bodies
are almost destitute of clothing.

Reaching Calongo, Dr Livingstone directed his course towards the
territory of his old friend, Katema.

They were generally well received at the villages.

On the 2nd of June they reached that of Kanawa.  This chief, whose
village consisted of forty or fifty huts, at first treated them very
politely, but he took it into his head to demand an ox as tribute.  On
their refusing it, Kanawa ordered his people to arm.  On this, Dr
Livingstone directed his Makololo to commence the march.  Some did so
with alacrity, but one of them refused, and was preparing to fire at
Kanawa, when the doctor, giving him a blow with his pistol, made him go
too.  They had already reached the banks of the river when they found
that Kanawa had sent on ahead to carry off all the canoes.  The
ferrymen, supposing that the travellers were unable to navigate the
canoes, left them, unprotected, on the bank.  As soon as it was dark,
therefore, the Makololo quickly obtained one of them, and the whole
party crossed, greatly to the disgust of Kanawa when he discovered in
the morning what had occurred.

They now took their way across the level plain, which had been flooded
on their former journey.  Numberless vultures were flying in the air,
showing the quantity of carrion which had been left by the waters.

They passed Lake Dilolo, a sheet of water six or eight miles long and
two broad.

The sight of the blue waters had a soothing effect on the doctor, who
was suffering from fever, after his journey through the gloomy forest
and across the wide flat.

Pitsane and Mohorisi, Livingstone's chief men, had proposed establishing
a Makololo village on the banks of the Leeba, near its confluence with
the Leeambye, that it might become a market to communicate westward with
Loanda, and eastward with the regions along the banks of the Zambesi.

Old Shinti, whose capital they now reached, received them as before in a
friendly way, and supplied them abundantly with provisions.

The doctor left with him a number of plants, among which were orange,
cashew, custard, apple, and fig-trees, with coffee, acacias, and papaws,
which he had brought from Loanda.  They were planted out in the
enclosure of one of his principal men, with a promise that Shinti should
have a share of them when grown.

They now again embarked in six small canoes on the waters of the Leeba.
Paddling down it, they next entered the Leeambye.  Here they found a
party of hunters, who had been engaged in stalking buffaloes,
hippopotami, and other animals.  They use for this purpose the skin of a
deer, with the horns attached, or else the head and upper part of the
body of a crane, with which they creep through the grass till they can
get near enough to shoot their prey.

The doctor, wishing to obtain some meat for his men, took a small canoe
and paddled up a creek towards a herd of zebras seen on the shore.
Firing, he broke the hind leg of one of them.  His men pursued it, and,
as he walked slowly after them, he observed a solitary buffalo, which
had been disturbed by others of his party, galloping towards him.  The
only tree was a hundred yards off.  The doctor cocked his rifle in the
hope of striking the brute on the forehead.  The thought occurred to
him, but what should his gun miss fire?  The animal came on at a
tremendous speed, but a small bush a short distance off made it swerve
and expose its shoulder.  The doctor fired, and as he heard the ball
crack, he fell flat on his face.  The buffalo bounded past him towards
the water, near which it was found dead.  His Makololo blamed themselves
for not having been by his side, while he returned thanks to God for his

On reaching the town of Lebouta, they were welcomed with the warmest
demonstrations of joy, the women coming out, dancing and singing.
Thence they were conducted to the _kotlar_, or house of assembly, where
Pitsane delivered a long speech, describing the journey and the kind way
in which they had been received at Loanda, especially by the English

Next day Dr Livingstone held a service, when his Makololo braves,
arrayed in their red caps and white suits of European clothing,
attended, sitting with their guns over their shoulders.

As they proceeded down the Barotse Valley, they were received in the
same cordial manner.

The doctor was astonished at the prodigious quantities of wild animals
of all descriptions which he saw on this journey, and also when
traversing the country further to the east--elephants, buffaloes,
giraffes, zebras, antelopes, and pigs.  Frequently the beautiful
springbok appeared, covering the plain, sometimes in sprinklings and at
other times in dense crowds, as far as the eye could reach.

The troops of elephants also far exceeded in numbers anything which he
had ever before heard of or conceived.  He and his men had often to
shout to them to get out of their way, and on more than one occasion a
herd rushed in upon the travellers, who not without difficulty made
their escape.  A number of young elephants were shot for food, their
flesh being highly esteemed.  To the natives the huge beasts are a great
plague, as they break into their gardens and eat up their pumpkins and
other produce; when disturbed they are apt to charge those interrupting
their feast, and, following them, to demolish the huts in which they may
have taken refuge, not unfrequently killing them in their rage.

Resting at Sesheke, they proceeded to Linyanti, where the wagon and
everything that had been left in it in November, 1853, was found
perfectly safe.

A grand meeting was called, when the doctor made a report of his journey
and distributed the articles which had been sent by the governor and
merchants of Loanda.  Pitsane and others then gave an account of what
they had seen, and, as may be supposed, nothing was lost in the
description.  The presents afforded immense satisfaction, and on Sunday
Sekeletu made his appearance in church dressed in the uniform which had
been brought down for him, and which attracted every man's attention.

The Arab, Ben Habed, and Sekeletu arranged with him to conduct another
party with a load of ivory down to Loanda; they also consulted him as to
the proper presents to send to the governor and merchants.  The Makololo
generally expressed great satisfaction at the route which had been
opened up, and proposed moving to the Barotse Valley, that they might be
nearer the great market.  The unhealthiness of the climate, however, was
justly considered a great drawback to the scheme.

The doctor afterwards heard that the trading party which set out reached
Loanda in safety, and it must have been a great satisfaction to him to
feel that he had thus opened out a way to the enterprise of these
industrious and intelligent people.

The donkeys which had been brought excited much admiration, and, as they
were not affected by the bite of the _tsetse_, it was hoped that they
might prove of great use.  Their music, however, startled the
inhabitants more than the roar of lions.




Dr Livingstone now began to make arrangements for performing another
adventurous journey to the East Coast.  In the mean time he was fully
occupied in attending to the sick, as also in preaching the Gospel to
the people generally.

He was advised to wait till the rains had fallen and cooled the ground;
and as it was near the end of September, and clouds were collecting, it
was expected that they would soon commence.  The heat was very great:
the thermometer, even in the shade of his wagon, was at 100 degrees,
and, if unprotected, rose to 110 degrees; during the night it sank to 70

His notes made during the time abound with descriptions of the habits
and customs of the people.  The children strongly resemble in many
respects those of other nations.  "They have merry times, especially in
the cool of the evening.  One of their games consists of a little girl
being carried on the shoulders of two others.  She sits with
outstretched arms as they walk about with her, and all the rest clap
their hands and, stopping before each hut, sing pretty airs, some
beating time on their little skirts of cow-skin, and others making a
curious humming sound between the songs.  Excepting this and the
skipping-rope, the play of the girls consists in imitating the serious
work of their mothers--building little huts, making small pots and
cooking, pounding corn in miniature mortars, or hoeing tiny gardens.
The boys play with small spears and shields, or bows and arrows, or make
little cattle-pens and cattle in clay, often showing much ingenuity in
their imitations of the animals, especially of their horns."  However,
we must accompany Dr Livingstone on his journey.  Among other routes
which were proposed, he selected that by the north bank of the Zambesi.
He would, however, thus have to pass through territories in the
possession of the Matabele, who, under the powerful Chief Mozelekatse,
had driven away the Makololo, its original possessors.

Notwithstanding this he had no fears for himself, as that chief looked
upon Mr Moffat, his father-in-law, as his especial friend.  A
considerable district, also, of the country was still inhabited by the
Makololo, and by them he was sure to be kindly treated.  The Makololo,
it must be understood, are a mixed race, composed of tribes of Bechuanas
who formerly inhabited the country bordering the Kalahara Desert.  Their
language, the Bechuana, is spoken by the upper classes of the Makololo,
and into this tongue, by the persevering labours of Mr Moffat, nearly
the whole of the scriptures have been translated.  Thus means already
existed of making known the Gospel among them.  The bulk of the people
are negroes, and are an especially fine, athletic, and skilful race.

As soon as Dr Livingstone announced his intention of proceeding to the
east, numerous volunteers came forward to accompany him.  From among
them he selected a hundred and fourteen trustworthy men, and Sekeletu
appointed two, Sekwebu and Kanyata, as leaders of the company.  Sekwebu
had been captured, when a child, from the Matabele, and his tribe now
inhabited the country near Tete; he had frequently travelled along the
banks of the Zambesi, and spoke the various dialects of the people
residing on them, and was, moreover, a man of sound judgment and
prudence, and rendered great service to the expedition.

On the 3rd of November Dr Livingstone, bidding farewell to his friends
at Linyanti, set out, accompanied by Sekeletu and two hundred followers.
On reaching a patch of country infested by the _tsetse_ it became
necessary to travel at night.  A fearful storm broke forth, sometimes
the lightning, spreading over the sky, forming eight or ten branches
like those of a gigantic tree.  At times the light was so great that the
whole country could be distinctly seen, and in the intervals between the
flashes it was as densely dark.  The horses trembled, turning round to
search for each other, while the thunder crashed with tremendous roars,
louder than is heard in other regions, the rain pelting down, making the
party feel miserably cold after the heat of the day.  At length a fire,
left by some previous travellers, appeared in the distance.  The
doctor's baggage having gone on before, he had to lie down on the cold
ground, when Sekeletu kindly covered him with his own blanket, remaining
without shelter himself.  Before parting at Sesheke, the generous chief
supplied the doctor with twelve oxen, three accustomed to be ridden on,
hoes and beads to purchase a canoe, an abundance of fresh butter and
honey; and, indeed, he did everything in his power to assist him in his

Bidding farewell to Sekeletu, the doctor and his attendants sailed down
the river to its confluence with the Chobe.  Having reached this spot,
he prepared to strike across the country to the north-east, in order to
reach the northern bank of the Zambesi.  Before doing so, however, he
determined to visit the Victoria or Mozioatunya Falls, of which he had
often heard.  The meaning of the word is: "Smoke does sound there," in
reference to the vapour and noise produced by the falls.  After twenty
minutes' sail from Kalai they came in sight of five columns of vapour,
appropriately called "smoke," rising at a distance of five or six miles
off, and bending as they ascended before the wind, the tops appearing to
mingle with the clouds.  The scene was extremely beautiful.  The banks
and the islands which appeared here and there amid the stream, were
richly adorned with trees and shrubs of various colours, many being in
full blossom.  High above all rose an enormous baobab-tree surrounded by
groups of graceful palms.

As the water was now low, they proceeded in the canoe to an island in
the centre of the river, the further end of which extended to the edge
of the falls.  At the spot where they landed it was impossible to
discover where the vast body of water disappeared.  It seemed, indeed,
suddenly to sink into the earth, for the opposite lip of the fissure
into which it descends was only eighty feet distant.  On peering over
the precipice the doctor saw the stream, a thousand yards broad, leaping
down a hundred feet and then becoming suddenly compressed into a space
of fifteen or twenty yards, when, instead of flowing as before, it
turned directly to the right, and went boiling and rushing amid the

The vapour which rushes up from this cauldron to the height of two or
three hundred feet, being condensed, changes its hue to that of dark
smoke, and then comes down in a constant shower.  The chief portion
falls on the opposite side of the fissure, where grow a number of
evergreen trees, their leaves always wet.  The walls of this gigantic
crack are perpendicular.  Altogether, Dr Livingstone considered these
falls the most wonderful sight he had beheld in Africa.

Returning to Kalai the doctor and his party met Sekeletu, and, bidding
him a final farewell, set off northwards to Lekone, through a beautiful
country, on the 20th of November.  The further they advanced the more
the country swarmed with inhabitants, and great numbers came to see the
white man, invariably bringing presents of maize.

The natives of this region have a curious way of saluting a stranger.
Instead of bowing they throw themselves on their backs on the ground,
rolling from side to side and slapping the outsides of their thighs,
while they utter the words "_Kina bomba! kina bomba_!"  In vain the
doctor implored them to stop.  They, imagining him pleased, only tumbled
about more fiercely and slapped their thighs with greater vehemence.

These villagers supplied the party abundantly with ground nuts, maize,
and corn.

When the doctor addressed them and told them of Jesus as their Saviour--
how He had come on earth to bring peace and goodwill to men--they
replied: "We are tired of flight.  Give us rest and sleep,"--though, of
course, they could not understand the full import of the message.

These people appeared humbled by the scourgings they had received from
their enemies, and seemed to be in a favourable state for the reception
of the Gospel.

Their chief, Monze, came one Sunday morning, wrapped in a large cloth,
when, like his followers, he rolled himself about in the dust, screaming
out "_Kina bomba_!"  He had never before seen a white man, but had met
with black native traders, who came, he said, for ivory, but not for
slaves.  His wife would have been good-looking, had she not followed the
custom of her country by knocking out her teeth.  Monze soon made
himself at home, and presented the travellers with as much food as they

As they advanced, the country became still more beautiful, abounding
with large game.  Often buffaloes were seen standing on eminences.  One
day, a buffalo was found lying down, and the doctor went to secure it
for food.  Though the animal received three balls they did not prove
fatal, and it turned round as if to charge.  The doctor and his
companions ran for shelter to some rocks, but, before they gained them,
they found that three elephants had cut off their retreat.  The enormous
brutes, however, turned off, and allowed them to gain the rocks.  As the
buffalo was moving rapidly away the doctor tried a long shot, and, to
the satisfaction of his followers, broke the animal's fore leg.  The
young men soon brought it to a stand, and another shot in its brain
settled it.  They had thus an abundance of food, which was shared by the
villagers of the neighbourhood.  Soon afterwards an elephant was killed
by his men.

Leaving the Elephant Valley, they reached the residence of a chief named
Semalembue, who, soon after their arrival, paid them a visit, and
presented five or six baskets of meal and maize, and one of ground nuts,
saying that he feared his guest would sleep the first night at his
village hungry.  The chief professed great joy at hearing the words of
the Gospel of Peace, replying: "Now I shall cultivate largely, in the
hopes of eating and sleeping in quiet."

It is remarkable that all to whom the doctor spoke, eagerly caught up
the idea of living in peace as the probable effect of the Gospel.

This region Sekwebu considered one of the best adapted for the residence
of a large tribe.  It was here that Sebituane formerly dwelt.

They now crossed the Kafue by a ford.  _Every_ available spot between
the river and hills was under cultivation.  The inhabitants select these
positions to secure themselves and their gardens from their human
enemies.  They are also obliged to make pit-holes to protect their
grounds from the hippopotami.  These animals, not having been disturbed,
were unusually tame, and took no notice of the travellers.  A number of
young ones were seen, not much larger than terrier dogs, sitting on the
necks of their dams, the little saucy-looking heads cocked up between
the old one's ears; when older, they sit more on the mother's back.

Meat being required, a full-grown cow was shot, the flesh of which
resembled pork.

The party now directed their course to the Zambesi near its confluence
with the Kafue.  They enjoyed a magnificent view from the top of the
outer range of hills.  A short distance below them was the Kafue,
winding its way over a forest-clad plain, while on the other side of the
Zambesi lay a long range of dark hills.  The plain below abounded in
large game.  Hundreds of buffalo and zebras grazed on the open spaces,
and there stood feeding two majestic elephants, each slowly moving its
proboscis.  On passing amidst them the animals showed their tameness by
standing beneath the trees, fanning themselves with their large ears.  A
number also of red-coloured pigs were seen.  The people in the
neighbourhood having no guns, they are never disturbed.

A night was spent in a huge baobab-tree, which would hold twenty men

As they moved on, a herd of buffaloes came strutting up to look at their
oxen, and only by shooting one could they be made to retreat.  Shortly
afterwards a female elephant, with three young ones, charged through,
the centre of their extended line, when the men, throwing down their
burdens, retreated in a great hurry, she receiving a spear for her

They were made aware of their approach to the great river by the vast
number of waterfalls which appeared.  It was found to be much broader
than above the falls: a person might indeed attempt in vain to make his
voice heard across it.  An immense amount of animal life was seen both
around and in it.

Pursuing their course down the left bank, they came opposite the island
of Menyemakaba, which is about two miles long and a quarter broad.
Besides its human population it supports a herd of upwards of sixty
buffalo.  The comparatively small space to which the animals have
confined themselves shows the luxuriance of the vegetation.  The only
time that the natives can attack them is when the river is full and part
is flooded: they then assail them from their canoes.

The inhabitants of the north side of the Zambesi are the Batonga; those
on the south bank the Banyai.

Both buffalo and elephants are numerous.  To kill them the natives form
stages on high trees overhanging the paths by which they come to the
water.  From thence they dart down their spears, the blades of which are
twenty inches long by two broad, when the motion of the handle, aided by
knocking against the trees, makes fearful gashes which soon cause death.
They form also a species of trap.  A spear inserted in a beam of wood
is suspended from the branch of a tree, to which a cord is attached with
a latch.  The cord being led along the path when struck by the animal's
foot, the beam falls, and, the spear being poisoned, death shortly

At each village they passed, two men were supplied to conduct them to
the next, and lead them through the parts least covered with jungle.

The villagers were busily employed in their gardens.  Most of the men
have muscular figures.  Their colour varies from a dark to a light
olive.  The women have the extraordinary custom of piercing the upper
lip, and gradually enlarging the orifice till a shell can be inserted.
The lip appears drawn out beyond the nose, and gives them a very ugly
appearance.  As Sekwebu remarked: "These women want to make their mouths
like those of ducks."  The commonest of these rings are made of bamboo,
but others are of ivory or metal.  When the wearer tries to smile, the
contraction of the muscles turns the ring upwards, so that its upper
edge comes in front of the eyes, the nose appearing through the middle,
while the whole front teeth are exposed by the motion, exhibiting the
way in which they have been clipped to resemble the fangs of a cat or a

On their next halt Seole, the chief of the village, instead of receiving
them in a friendly way, summoned his followers and prepared for an
attack.  The reason was soon discovered.  It appeared that an Italian,
who had married the chief's daughter, having armed a party of fifty
slaves with guns, had ascended the river in a canoe from Tete, and
attacked several inhabited islands beyond Makaba, taking large numbers
of prisoners and much ivory.  As he descended again with his booty, his
party was dispersed and he himself was killed while attempting to escape
on foot.  Seole imagined that the doctor was another Italian.

This was the first symptom of the abominable slave trade they met with
on the east side of the continent.  Had not the chief with whom they had
previously stayed arrived to explain matters, Seole might have given
them much trouble.

Mburuma, another chief of the same tribe, had laid a plan to plunder the
party by separating them, but the doctor, suspecting treachery, kept his
people together.  They had on a previous occasion plundered a party of
traders bringing English goods from Mozambique.

On the 14th of January they reached the confluence of the Loangwa and
the Zambesi.

Here the doctor discovered the ruins of a town, with the remains of a
church in its midst.  The situation was well chosen, with lofty hills in
the rear and a view of the two rivers in front.  On one side of the
church lay a broken bell, with the letters IHS and a cross.  This he
found was a Portuguese settlement called Zumbo.  The conduct of Mburuma
and his people gave Dr Livingstone much anxiety, as he could not help
dreading that they might attack him the next morning.  His chief regret
was that his efforts for the welfare of the teeming population in that
great region would thus be frustrated by savages, of whom it might be
said: "They know not what they do."

He felt especially anxious that the elevated and healthy district which
he had now discovered, stretching towards Tete, should become known.  It
was such a region as he had been long in quest of as a centre from which
missionary enterprise might be carried into the surrounding country.

While the party were proceeding along the banks of the river, passing
through a dense bush, three buffaloes broke through their line.  The
doctor's ox galloped off, and, as he turned back, he saw one of his men
tossed several feet in the air.  On returning, to his satisfaction he
found that the poor fellow had alighted on his face, and, although he
had been carried twenty yards on the animal's horns, he had in no way
suffered.  On the creature's approaching him he had thrown down his load
and stabbed it in the side, when it caught him and carried him off
before he could escape.

Soon after this they had evidence that they were approaching the
Portuguese settlements, by meeting a person with a jacket and hat on.
From this person, who was quite black, they learned that the Portuguese
settlement of Tete was on the other bank of the river, and that the
inhabitants had been engaged in war with the natives for some time past.

This was disagreeable news, as Livingstone wished to be at peace with
both parties.

As they approached the village of Mpende, that chief sent out his people
to enquire who the travellers were.  The natives, on drawing near,
uttered strange cries and waved some bright red substance towards them.
Having lighted a fire, they threw some charms into it and hastened away,
uttering frightful screams, believing that they should thus frighten the
strangers and render them powerless.  The Makololo, however, laughed at
their threats, but the doctor, fully believing that a skirmish would
take place, ordered an ox to be killed to feast his men, following the
plan Sebituane employed for giving his followers courage.

At last two old men made their appearance and enquired if the doctor was
a Bazunga, or Portuguese.  On showing his hair and white skin, they
replied: "Ah, you must be one of the tribe that loves black men."

Finally the chief himself appeared, and expressed his regret that he had
not known sooner who they were, ultimately enabling them to cross the

After this they were detained for some time by the rains on the south

In conversation with the people they exhibited the greatest hatred of
the slave-traders.

Meeting with native traders, the doctor purchased some American calico
in order to clothe his men.  It was marked "Lawrence Mills, Lowell,"
with two small tusks, an interesting fact.

Game laws existed even in this region.  His party having killed an
elephant, he had to send back a considerable distance to give
information to the person in charge of the district, the owner himself
living near the Zambesi.  Their messenger returned with a basket of
corn, a fowl, and a few strings of beads, a thank-offering to them for
having killed it.  The tusk of the side on which the elephant fell
belonged to the owner, while the upper was the prize of the sportsman.
Had they begun to cut up the animal before receiving permission they
would have lost the whole.  The men feasted on their half of the
carcass, and for two nights an immense number of hyaenas collected
round, uttering their loud laughter.

The people inhabiting the country on this side of the Zambesi are known
as the Banyai.  Their favourite weapon is a huge axe, which is carried
over the shoulder.  It is used chiefly for ham-stringing the elephant,
in the same way as the Hamran Arab uses his sword.  The Banyai, however,
steals on the animal unawares, while the Hamran hunter attacks it when
it is rushing in chase of one of his comrades, who gallops on ahead on a
well-trained steed.

Those curious birds, the "honey guides," were very attentive to them,
and, by their means, the Makololo obtained an abundance of honey.  Of
the wax, however, in those districts no use appears to be made.

Though approaching the Portuguese settlement, abundance of game was
still found.  The Makololo killed six buffalo calves from among a herd
which was met with.

They were warned by the natives that they ran a great risk of being
attacked by lions when wandering on either side of the line of march in
search of honey.  One of the doctor's head men, indeed, Monahin, having
been suddenly seized with a fit of insanity during the night, left the
camp, and, as he never returned, it was too probable that he had been
carried off by a lion.

It was not till the 2nd of March that the neighbourhood of Tete was
reached.  Livingstone was then so prostrated that, though only eight
miles from it, he could proceed no further.  He forwarded, however, the
letters of recommendation he received in Angola to the commandant.  The
following morning a company of soldiers with an officer arrived,
bringing the materials for a civilised breakfast, and a litter in which
to carry him.  He felt so greatly revived by the breakfast, that he was
able to walk the whole way.

He was received in the kindest way by Major Sicard, the commandant of
Tete, who provided also lodging and provision for his men.

Tete is a mere village, built on a slope reaching to the water, close to
which the fort is situated.  There are about thirty European houses; the
rest of the buildings, inhabited by the natives, are of wattle and daub.

Formerly, besides gold-dust and ivory, large quantities of grain,
coffee, sugar, oil, and indigo were exported from Tete, but, on the
establishment of the slave trade, the merchants found a more speedy way
of becoming rich, by selling off their slaves, and the plantations and
gold washings were abandoned, the labourers having been exported to the
Brazils.  Many of the white men then followed their slaves.  After this,
a native of Goa, Nyaude by name, built a stockade at the confluence of
the Luenya and Zambesi, took the commandant of Tete, who attacked him,
prisoner, and sent his son Bonga with a force against that town and
burned it.  Others followed his example, till commerce, before rendered
stagnant by the slave trade, was totally obstructed.

On the north shore of the Zambesi several fine seams of coal exist,
which Dr Livingstone examined.  The natives only collect gold from the
neighbourhood whenever they wish to purchase calico.  On finding a piece
or flake of gold, however, they bury it again, believing that it is the
seed of the gold, and, though knowing its value, prefer losing it rather
than, as they suppose, the whole future crop.

Dr Livingstone found it necessary to leave most of his men here, and
Major Sicard liberally gave them a portion of land that they might
cultivate it, supplying them in the mean time with corn.  He also
allowed the young men to go out and hunt elephants with his servants,
that they might purchase goods with the ivory and dry meat, in order
that they might take them back with them on returning to their own
homes.  He also supplied them with cloth.  Sixty or seventy at once
accepted his offer, delighted with the thoughts of engaging in so
profitable an enterprise.  He also supplied the doctor with an outfit,
refusing to take the payment which was offered.

The forests in the neighbourhood abound with elephants, and the natives
attack them in the boldest manner.  Only two hunters sally forth
together--one carrying spears, the other an axe of a peculiar shape,
with a long handle.  As soon as an elephant is discovered, the man with
the spears creeps among the bushes in front of it, so as to attract its
attention, during which time the axe-man cautiously approaches from
behind, and, with a sweep of his formidable weapon, severs the tendon of
the animal's hock.  The huge creature, now unable to move in spite of
its strength and sagacity, falls an easy prey to the two hunters.

Among other valuable productions of the country is found a tree allied
to the cinchona.  The Portuguese believe that it has the same virtues as

As soon as the doctor had recovered his strength he prepared to proceed
down the river to Kilimane, or Quillimane, with sixteen of his faithful
Makololo as a crew.  Many of the rest were out elephant hunting, while
others had established a brisk trade in firewood.

Major Sicard lent him a boat, and sent Lieutenant Miranda to escort him
to the coast.

On their way they touched at the stockade of the rebel, Bonga, whose
son-in-law, Manoel, received them in a friendly way.

They next touched at Senna, which was found in a wretchedly ruinous
condition.  Here some of the Makololo accepted employment from
Lieutenant Miranda to return to Tete with a load of goods.  Eight
accompanied the doctor, at their earnest request, to Quillimane.

He reached that village on the 20th of May, 1856, when it wanted but a
few days of being four years since he started from Cape Town.  He was
hospitably received by Colonel Nunes.  A severe famine had existed among
the neighbouring population, and food was very scarce.  He therefore
advised his men to go back to Tete as soon as possible, and await his
return from England.  They still earnestly wished to accompany him, as
Sekeletu had advised them not to part with him till they had reached
Ma-Robert, as they called Mrs Livingstone, and brought her back with

With the smaller tusks he had in his possession he purchased calico and
brass-wire, which he sent back to Tete for his followers, depositing the
remaining twenty tusks with Colonel Nunes, in order that, should he be
prevented from revisiting the country, it might not be supposed that he
had made away with Sekeletu's ivory.  He requested Colonel Nunes, in
case of his death, to sell the tusks and deliver the proceeds to his
men, intending to purchase the goods ordered by Sekeletu in England with
his own money, and, on his return, repay himself out of the price of the

He consented, somewhat unwillingly, to take Sekwebu with him to England.

After waiting about six weeks at Quillimane, HM brig "Frolic" arrived,
on board which he embarked.  A fearful sea broke over the bar, and the
brig was rolling so much that there was great difficulty in reaching her
deck.  Poor Sekwebu looked at his friend, asking: "Is this the way you
go?"  The doctor tried to encourage him; but, though well acquainted
with canoes, he had never seen anything like it.

Having been three and a half years, with the exception of a short
interval in Angola, without speaking English, and for thirteen but
partially using it, the doctor found the greatest difficulty in
expressing himself on board the "Frolic."

The brig sailed on the 12th of July for the Mauritius, which was reached
on the 12th of August.  Poor Sekwebu had become a favourite both with
men and officers, and was gaining some knowledge of English, though all
he saw had apparently affected his mind.  The sight of a steamer, which
came out to tow the brig into the harbour, so affected him that during
the night he became insane and threatened to throw himself into the
water.  By gentle treatment he became calmer, and Dr Livingstone tried
to get him on shore, but he refused to go.  In the evening his malady
returned; and, after attempting to spear one of the crew, he leaped
overboard and, pulling himself down by the chain cable, disappeared.
The body of poor Sekwebu was never found.

After remaining some time at the Mauritius, till he had recovered from
the effects of the African fever, our enterprising traveller sailed by
way of the Red Sea for old England, which he reached on the 12th of
December, 1856.

Dr Livingstone, in the series of journeys which have been described,
had already accomplished more than any previous traveller in Africa,
besides having gained information of the greatest value as regards both
missionary and mercantile enterprise.  He had as yet, however, performed
only a small portion of the great work his untiring zeal and energy have
prompted him to undertake.




After spending rather more than a year in England, Dr Livingstone again
set out, on the 10th of March, 1858, on board HMS "Pearl," at the head
of a government expedition for the purpose of exploring the Zambesi and
the neighbouring regions.  He was accompanied by Dr Kirk, his brother
Charles Livingstone, and Mr Thornton; and Mr T.  Baines was appointed
artist to the expedition.

A small steamer, which was called the "Ma-Robert," in compliment to Mrs
Livingstone, was provided by the government for the navigation of the

The East Coast was reached in May.

Running up the river Luawe, supposed to be a branch of the Zambesi, the
"Pearl" came to an anchor, and the "Ma-Robert," which had been brought
out in sections, was screwed together.  The two vessels then went
together in search of the real mouth of the river, from which Quillimane
is some sixty miles distant, the Portuguese having concealed the real
entrance, if they were acquainted with it, in order to deceive the
English cruisers in search of slavers.

The goods for the expedition brought out by the "Pearl" having been
landed on a grassy island about forty miles from the bar, that vessel
sailed for Ceylon, while the little "Ma-Robert" was left to pursue her
course alone.  Her crew consisted of about a dozen Krumen and a few

At Mazaro, the mouth of a creek communicating with the Quillimane or
Kilimane River, the expedition heard that the Portuguese were at war
with a half-caste named Mariano, a brother of Bonga, who had built a
stockade near the mouth of the Shire, and held possession of all the
intermediate country.  He had been in the habit of sending out his armed
bands on slave-hunting expeditions among the helpless tribes to the
north-west, selling his victims at Quillimane, where they were shipped
as free emigrants to the French island of Bourbon.  As long as his
robberies and murders were restricted to the natives at a distance, the
Portuguese did not interfere, but when he began to carry off and murder
the people near them, they thought it time to put a stop to his
proceedings.  They spoke of him as a rare monster of inhumanity.  He
frequently killed people with his own hand in order to make his name
dreaded.  Having gone down to Quillimane to arrange with the governor,
or, in other words, to bribe him, Colonel Da Silva put him in prison and
sent him for trial to Mozambique.  The war, however, was continued under
his brother Bonga, and had stopped all trade on the river.

The expedition witnessed a battle at Mazaro, between Bonga and the
Portuguese, when Dr Livingstone, landing, found himself in the
sickening smell and among the mutilated bodies of the slain.  He brought
off the governor, who was in a fever, the balls whistling about his head
in all directions.  The Portuguese then escaped to an island opposite
Shupanga, where, having exhausted their ammunition, they were compelled
to remain.

There is a one-storied house at Shupanga, from which there is a
magnificent view down the river.  Near it is a large baobab-tree,
beneath which, a few years later, the remains of the beloved wife of Dr
Livingstone were to repose.

On the 17th of August the "Ma-Robert" commenced her voyage up the stream
for Tete.  It was soon found that her furnaces being badly constructed,
and that from other causes she was ill adapted for the work before her.
She quickly, in consequence, obtained the name of the "Asthmatical."

Senna, which was visited on the way, being situated on low ground, is a
fever-giving place.  The steamer, of course, caused great astonishment
to the people, who assembled in crowds to witness her movements,
whirling round their arms to show the way the paddles revolved.

Tete was reached on the 8th of September.  No sooner did Dr Livingstone
go on shore, than his Makololo rushed down to the water's edge, and
manifested the greatest joy at seeing him.  Six of the young men had
foolishly gone off to make money by dancing before some of the
neighbouring chiefs, when they fell into the hands of Bonga, who,
declaring that they had brought witchcraft medicine to kill him, put
them all to death.

The Portuguese at this place keep numerous slaves, whom they treat with
tolerable humanity.  When they can they purchase the whole of a family,
thus taking away the chief inducement for running off.

The expedition having heard of the Kebrabasa Falls, steamed up the
river, and on the 24th of November reached Panda Mokua, where the
navigation ends, about two miles below them.  Hence the party started
overland, by a frightfully rough path among rocky hills, where no shade
was to be found.  At last their guides declared that they could go no
further; indeed, the surface of the ground was so hot that the soles of
the Makololos' feet became blistered.  The travellers, however, pushed
on.  Passing round a steep promontory, they beheld the river at their
feet, the channel jammed in between two mountains with perpendicular
sides, and less than fifty yards wide.  There is a sloping fall of about
twenty feet in height, and another at a distance of thirty yards above
it.  When, however, the river rises upwards of eighty feet
perpendicularly, as it does in the rainy season, the cataract might be
passed in boats.

After returning to Tete, the steamer went up the Shire, January, 1859.
The natives, as they passed them, collected at their villages in large
numbers, armed with bows and poisoned arrows, threatening to attack
them.  Dr Livingstone, however, went on shore, and explained to the
chief, Tingane, that they had come neither to take slaves nor to fight,
but wished to open up a path by which his countrymen could ascend to
purchase their cotton.  On this Tingane at once became friendly.

Their progress was arrested, after steaming up a hundred miles in a
straight line, although, counting the windings of the river, double that
distance, by magnificent cataracts known to the natives as those of the
Mamvira, but called by the expedition the Murchison Falls.

Rain prevented them making observations, and they returned at a rapid
rate down the river.

A second trip up it was made in March of the same year.  They here
gained the friendship of Chibisa, a shrewd and intelligent chief, whose
village was about ten miles below the cataracts.  He told the doctor
that a few years before his little daughter had been kidnapped, and was
now a slave to the _padre_ at Tete, asking him, if possible, to ransom
the child.

From hence Dr Livingstone and Dr Kirk proceeded on foot in a northerly
direction to Lake Shirwa.  The natives turned out from their villages,
sounding notes of defiance on their drums; but the efforts to persuade
them that their visitors came as friends were successful, and the lake
was discovered on the 18th of April.

From having no outlet, the water is brackish, with hilly islands rising
out of it.  The country around appeared very beautiful and clothed with
rich vegetation, with lofty mountains eight thousand feet high near the
eastern shore.

On their return they found Quartermaster Walker, who had charge of the
steamer, dangerously ill, though he ultimately recovered.

They returned to Tete on the 23rd of June, and thence, after the steamer
had been repaired, proceeded to the Kongone, where they received
provisions from HMS "Persian," which also took on board their Krumen, as
they were found useless for land journeys.  In their stead a crew was
picked out from the Makololo, who soon learned to work the ship, and
who, besides being good travellers, could cut wood and required only
native food.

Frequent showers fell on their return voyage up the Zambesi, and, the
vessel being leaky, the cabin was constantly flooded, both from above
and below.

They were visited on their way up by Paul, a relative of the rebel
Mariano, who had just returned from Mozambique.  He told them that the
Portuguese knew nothing of the Kongone before they had discovered it,
always supposing that the Zambesi entered the sea at Quillimane.

A second trip up the Shire was performed in the middle of August, when
the two doctors set out in search of Lake Nyassa, about which they had

The river, though narrow, is deeper than the Zambesi, and more easily

Marks of large game were seen, and one of the Makololo, who had gone on
shore to cut wood, was suddenly charged at by a solitary buffalo.  He
took to flight, pursued by the maddened animal, and was scarcely six
feet before the creature when he reached the bank and sprang into the
river.  On both banks a number of hippopotamus-traps were seen.

The animal feeds on grass alone, its enormous lip acting like a mowing
machine, forming a path before it as it feeds.  Over these paths the
natives construct a trap, consisting of a heavy beam, five or six feet
long, with a spear-head at one end, covered with poison.  This weapon is
hung to a forked pole by a rope which leads across the path, and is held
by a catch, set free as the animal treads upon it.  A hippopotamus was
seen which, being frightened by the steamer, rushed on shore and ran
immediately under one of these traps, when down came the heavy beam on
its head.

The leaks in the steamer increased till the cabin became scarcely

The neighbourhood of Chibisa's village was reached on the 25th of

The doctor had now to send word to the chief that his attempts to
recover his child had failed, for, though he had offered twice the value
of a slave, the little girl could not be found, the _padre_ having sold
her to a distant tribe of Bazizulu.  Though this _padre_ was better than
the average, he appeared very indifferent about the matter.

On the 28th of August, an expedition consisting of four whites,
thirty-six Makololo, and two guides left the ship in the hopes of
discovering Lake Nyassa.  The natives on the road were very eager to
trade.  As soon as they found that the strangers would pay for their
provisions in cotton cloth, women and girls were set to grind and pound
meal, and the men and boys were seen chasing screaming fowl over the
village.  A head man brought some meal and other food for sale; a fathom
of blue cloth was got out, when the Makololo head man, thinking a
portion was enough, was proceeding to tear it.  On this the native
remarked that it was a pity to cut such a nice dress for his wife, and
he would rather bring more meal.  "All right," said the Makololo, "but
look, the cloth is very wide, so see that the basket which carries the
meal be wide too, and add a cock to make the meal taste nicely."

The highland women of these regions all wear the _pelele_, or lip-ring,
before described.  An old chief, when asked why such things were worn,
replied: "for beauty; men have beards and whiskers, women have none.
What kind of creature would a woman be without whiskers and without the

When, as they calculated, they were about a day's march from Lake
Nyassa, the chief of the village assured them positively that no lake
had ever been heard of there, and that the river Shire stretched on, as
they saw it, to a distance of two months, and then came out between two
rocks which towered to the skies.  The Makololo looked blank, and
proposed returning to the ship.

"Never mind," said the doctor, "we will go on and see these wonderful

Their head man, Massakasa declared that there must be a lake, because it
was in the white men's books, and scolded the natives for speaking a
falsehood.  They then admitted that there was a lake.  The chief brought
them a present in the evening.  Scarcely had he gone when a fearful cry
arose from the river; a crocodile had carried off his principal wife.
The Makololo, seizing their arms, rushed to her rescue; but it was too

The expedition moving forward, on the 16th of September, 1859, the
long-looked-for Lake Nyassa was discovered, with hills rising on both
sides of it.

Two months after this the lake was visited by Dr Roscher, who was
unaware of Dr Livingstone's and Dr Kirk's discovery; unhappily he was
murdered on his road back towards the Rovuma.

The travellers were now visited by the chief of a village near the
confluence of the lake and the river, who invited them to form their
camp under a magnificent banyan-tree among the roots of which, twisted
into the shape of a gigantic arm-chair, four of the party slept.  The
chief told them that a slave party, led by Arabs, was encamped near at
hand; and in the evening a villainous set of fellows, with long muskets,
brought several young children for sale; but, finding that the
travellers were English, they decamped, showing signs of fear.  The
people of the Manjanga tribe, amidst whom they were now travelling,
showed much suspicion of their object, saying that parties had come
before with the same sort of plausible story, and had suddenly carried
off a number of their people.  To allay these suspicions, Dr
Livingstone thought it best at once to return to the ship.

Soon afterwards Dr Kirk and Mr Rae, the engineer, set off with guides
to go across the country to Tete, the distance being about one hundred
miles.  From want of water they suffered greatly, while the _tsetse_
infested the district.

Dr Livingstone had resolved to visit his old friend Sekeletu; but,
finding that before the new crop came in, food could not be obtained
beyond the Kebrabasa, he returned in the "Ma-Robert" once more to the

They found Major Sicard at Mazaro, he having come there with tools and
slaves to build a custom-house and fort.

After this trip, the poor "Asthmatic" broke down completely; she was
therefore laid alongside the island of Kanyimbe, opposite Tete, and
placed under charge of two English sailors.  They were furnished with a
supply of seeds to form a garden, both to afford them occupation and

Active preparations were now made for the intended journey westward;
cloth, beads, and brass-wire were formed into packages, with the
bearer's name printed on each.

The Makololo who had been employed by the expedition received their
wages.  Some of those who had remained at Tete had married, and resolved
to continue where they were.  Others did not leave with the same good
will they had before exhibited, and it was doubtful, if attacked,
whether they would not run to return to their lately-formed friends.

All arrangements had been concluded by the 15th of May, 1860, and the
journey was commenced.

As the Banyai, who live on the right bank, were said to levy heavy
fines, the party crossed over to the left.

Dr Livingstone was stopping near the Kebrabasa village, when a man
appeared, who pretended that he was a _pondoro_; that is, that he could
change himself into a lion whenever he chose--a statement his countrymen
fully believed.  Sometimes the _pondoro_ hunts for the benefit of the
villagers, when his wife takes him some medicine which enables him to
change himself back into a man.  She then announces what game has been
killed, and the villagers go into the forest to bring it home.  The
people believe also that the souls of the departed chiefs enter into
lions.  One night, a buffalo having been killed, a lion came close to
the camp, when the Makololo declared that he was a _pondoro_, and told
him that he ought to be ashamed of himself for trying to steal the meat
of strangers.  The lion, however, disregarding their addresses, only
roared louder than ever, though he wisely kept outside the bright circle
of the camp-fires.  A little strychnine was placed on a piece of meat
and thrown to him, after which he took his departure, and was never
again seen.

Again passing Kebrabasa, the travellers enjoyed the magnificent mountain
scenery in this neighbourhood, and came to the conclusion that not only
it, but the Morumbwa could, when the river rises, be passed, so as to
allow of a steamer being carried up to run on the upper Zambesi.

On the 20th of June they reached the territory of the chief Mpende, who
had, on Dr Livingstone's journey to the East Coast, threatened to
attack him.  Having in the mean time heard that he belonged to a race
who love black men and did not make slaves, his conduct was now
completely changed, and he showed every desire to be friendly.

Game was abundant, and lions were especially numerous.

After visiting Zumbo, Dr Kirk was taken dangerously ill.  He got better
on the high ground, but immediately he descended into the valley he
always felt chilly.  In six days, however, he was himself again, and
able to march as well as the rest.

Again abundance of honey was obtained through the means of the "honey
guide."  The bird never deceived them, always guiding them to a hive of
bees, though sometimes there was but little honey in it.

On the 4th of August the expedition reached Moachemba, the first of the
Batoka villages, which owe allegiance to Sekeletu.  From thence, beyond
a beautiful valley, the columns of vapour rising from the Victoria
Falls, upwards of twenty miles away, could clearly be distinguished.

The Makololo here received intelligence of their families, and news of
the sad termination of the attempt to plant a mission at Linyanti, under
the Reverend H.  Helmore.  He and several white men had died, and the
remainder had only a few weeks before returned, to Kuruman.

At the village opposite Kalai the Malokolo head man, Mashotlane, paid
the travellers a visit.  He entered the hut where they were seated, a
little boy carrying a three-legged stool.  In a dignified way the chief
took his seat, presenting some boiled hippopotamus meat.  Having then
taken a piece himself, he handed the rest to his followers.  He had
lately been attacking the Batoka, and when the doctor represented to him
the wrongfulness of the act, he defended himself by declaring that they
had killed some of his companions.  Here also they found Pitsane, who
had been sent by Sekeletu to purchase horses from a band of Griquas.

As the new-comers were naturally anxious to see the magnificent falls,
they embarked in some canoes belonging to Tuba Mokoro ("a smasher of
canoes"), who alone, they were assured, possessed the medicine which
would prevent shipwreck in the rapids.  Tuba conducted them at a rapid
rate down the river.  It required considerable confidence in his skill
not to feel somewhat uneasy as they navigated these roaring waters.
They were advised not to speak, lest their talking might diminish the
virtue of the medicine; few indeed would have thought of disobeying the
orders of the canoe-smasher.  One man stood at the head of the canoe,
looking out for rocks and telling the steersman the course to take.
Often it seemed as if they would be dashed to pieces against the dark
rocks jutting out from the water, then in a moment the ready pole turned
the canoe aside, and they quickly glided past the danger.  As they went
swiftly driving down, a black rock, with the foam flowing over it, rose
before them; the pole slipped, the canoe struck and in a moment was half
full of water.  Tuba, however, speedily recovering himself, shoved off,
and they reached a shallow place, where the water was bailed out.  He
asserted that it was not the medicine was at fault, but that he had
started without his breakfast.

The travellers landed at the head of Garden Island, and, as the doctor
had done before, peered over the giddy heights at the further end across
the chasm.  The measurement of the chasm was now taken; it was found to
be eighty yards opposite Garden Island, while the waterfall itself was
twice the depth of that of Niagara, and the river where it went over the
rock fully a mile wide.  Charles Livingstone, who had seen Niagara,
pronounced it inferior in magnificence to the Victoria Falls.

The Batokas consider Garden Island and another further west as sacred
spots, and here, in days gone by, they assembled to worship the Deity.

Dr Livingstone, on his former visit, had planted a number of
orange-trees and seeds at Garden Island, but though a hedge had been
placed round them, they had all been destroyed by the hippopotami.
Others were now put in.  They also, as was afterwards found, shared the
same fate.

They now proceeded up the river, and, on the 13th, met a party from
Sekeletu, who was now at Sesheke, and had sent to welcome them.  On the
18th they entered his town.  They were requested to take up their
quarters at the old _kotlar_, or public meeting-place tree.  During the
day visitors continually called on them, all complaining of the
misfortunes they had suffered.  The condition of Sekeletu, however, was
the most lamentable.  He had been attacked by leprosy, and it was said
that his fingers had become like eagles' claws, and his face so
fearfully distorted that no one could recognise him.  One of their head
men had been put to death, it being supposed that he had bewitched the
chief.  The native doctors could do nothing for him, but he was under
the charge of an old doctress of the Manyeti tribe, who allowed no one
to see him except his mother and uncle.  He, however, sent for Dr
Livingstone, who gladly went to him.  He and Dr Kirk at once told him
that the disease was most difficult to cure, and that he might rest
assured he had not been bewitched.  They applied lunar caustic
externally and hydrate of potash internally, with satisfactory results;
so that in the course of a short time the poor chief's appearance
greatly improved.

Although the tribe had been suffering from famine, the chief treated his
visitors with all the hospitality in his power.

Some Benguela traders had come up to Sesheke, intending probably to
return from the Batoka country to the east with slaves; but the
Makololo, however, had secured all the ivory in that region.  As the
traders found that the trade in slaves without ivory did not pay, they
knew it would not be profitable to obtain them, for Sekeletu would allow
no slaves to be carried through his territory, and thus by his means an
extensive slave-mart was closed.

Sekeletu was greatly pleased with the articles the doctor brought him
from England, and enquired whether a ship could not bring up the
remainder of the goods which had been left at Tete.  On being told that
possibly a steamer might ascend as far as Sinainanes, he enquired
whether a cannon could not blow away the Victoria Falls, so as to enable
her to reach Sesheke.

The Makololo, who had been sent down to Benguela, came to pay the
travellers a visit, dressed in well-washed shirts, coats, and trousers,
patent leather boots, and brown wideawakes on their heads.  They had a
long conversation with their men about the wonderful things they had all

Sekeletu, who took a great fancy to Dr Kirk, offered him permission to
select any part of the country he might chose for the establishment of
an English colony.  Indeed, there is sufficient uncultivated ground on
the cool unpeopled highlands for a very large population.

The Makololo are apt to get into trouble by their propensity to lift
cattle; for if their marauding is sanctioned by the chief, they do not
look upon it as dishonourable.  This custom must be put a stop to if any
good is to be done to them, as must the gigantic evil of the slave trade
among the tribes nearer the coast.

The expedition left Sesheke on the 17th of September, 1860, convoyed by
Pitsane and Leshore.  Pitsane was directed to form a hedge round the
garden at the falls on his way.

When navigating the river the canoe-men kept close to the bank during
the day for fear of being upset by the hippopotami, but at night, when
those animals are found near the shore, they sailed down the middle of
the stream.

The canoes were wretched, and a strong wind blew against them, but their
Batoka boatmen managed them with great dexterity.  Some of these men
accompanied the expedition the whole way to the sea.

On their passage down the river, in approaching Kariba Rapids, they came
upon a herd of upwards of thirty hippopotami.  The canoe-men were afraid
of venturing among them, asserting that there was sure to be an
ill-tempered one who would take a malignant pleasure in upsetting the
canoes.  Several boys on the rocks were amusing themselves by throwing
stones at the frightened animals.  One was shot, its body floating down
the current.  A man hailed them from the bank, advising them to let him
pray to the Kariba gods that they might have a safe passage down the
rapids, for, without his assistance, they would certainly be drowned.
Notwithstanding, having examined the falls, seeing that canoes might be
carried down in safety, they continued their voyage.  The natives were
much astonished to see them pass in safety without the aid of the
priest's intercession.

Here they found the hippopotamus which had been shot, and, taking it in
tow, told the villagers that if they would follow to their
landing-place, they should have most of the meat.  The crocodiles,
however, tugged so hard at it, that they were compelled to cast it
adrift and let the current float it down.  They recovered the
hippopotamus, which was cut up at the place where they landed to spend
the night.  As soon as it was dark, the crocodiles attacked the portion
that was left in the water, tearing away at it and lashing about
fiercely with their tails.

A day or two afterwards they encamped near some pitfalls, in which
several buffaloes had shortly before been caught and one of the animals
had been left.  During the night the wind blew directly from the dead
buffalo to their sleeping-place, and a hungry lion which came to feed on
the carcass so stirred up the putrid mass and growled so loudly over his
feast, that their slumbers were greatly disturbed.

They reached Zumbo by the 1st of November.  Here their men had a scurvy
trick played them by the Banyai.  The Makololo had shot a hippopotamus,
when a number of the natives came across, pretending to assist them in
rolling it ashore, and advised them to cast off the rope, saying that it
was an encumbrance.  All were shouting and talking, when suddenly the
carcass disappeared in a deep hole.  The Makololo jumped in after it,
one catching the tail, another a foot, but down it went, and they got
but a lean fowl instead.  It floated during the night, and was found
about a mile below, on the bank.  The Banyai, however, there disputed
their right to it, and, rather than quarrel, the Makololo, after taking
a small portion, wisely allowed them to remain with the rest.

Believing that there was sufficient depth of water, they ventured down
the Kebrabasa Rapids.  For several miles they continued onward till, the
river narrowing, navigation became both difficult and dangerous.  Two
canoes passed safely down the narrow channel with an ugly whirlpool,
caused by the water being divided by a rock in the centre.  Dr
Livingstone's canoe came next, and while it appeared to be drifting
broadside into the vortex, a crash was heard, and Dr Kirk's canoe was
seen dashed against the perpendicular rock by a sudden boiling-up of the
river, which occurs at regular intervals.  Dr Kirk grasped the rock and
saved himself, while his steersman, holding on to the same ledge,
preserved the canoe, but all its contents were lost, including the
doctor's notes of the journey, and botanical drawings of the fruit-trees
of the interior.  After this the party, having had enough of navigation,
performed the remainder of the journey on shore.

On their march they met two large slave-trading parties on their way to
Zumbo.  Among them were a number of women with ropes round their necks,
and all made fast to one long rope.  They were to be sold for ivory.

Tete was reached on the 23rd of November, the expedition having been
absent rather more than six months.  They were glad to find that the two
English sailors were in good health, and had behaved very well; but
their farm had been a failure.  A few sheep and fowls had been left with
them: they had purchased more of the latter, and expected to have a good
supply of eggs, but they unfortunately also bought two monkeys, who ate
up all their eggs.  One night a hippopotamus destroyed their vegetable
garden, the sheep ate up their cotton-plants, while the crocodiles
carried off the sheep, and the natives had stolen their fowls.

Having discovered that the natives have a mortal dread of the chameleon,
one of which animals they had on board, they made good use of their
knowledge.  They had learned the market price of provisions, and
determined to pay that and no more.  When the traders, therefore,
demanded a higher price and refused to leave the ship till it was paid,
the chameleon was instantly brought out of the cabin, when the natives
sprang overboard and made no further attempt to impose upon them.

The sailors had also performed a gallant act.  They were aroused one
night by a fearful shriek, when they immediately pushed off in their
boat, supposing, as was found to be the case, that a crocodile had
caught a woman and was dragging her across a shallow bank.  Before they
reached her, the reptile snapped off her leg.  They carried her on
board, bandaged up her limb, bestowed Jack's usual remedy for all
complaints, a glass of grog, on her, and carried her to a hut in the
village.  Next morning they found the bandages torn off and the poor
creature left to die, their opinion being that it had been done by her
master, to whom, as she had lost a leg, she would be of no further use,
and he did not wish the expense of keeping her.




Once more, on the 3rd of December, the leaky "Asthmatic" was got under
way, but every day fresh misfortunes happened to her, till Rae declared:
"She cannot be worse than she is, sir."

He and his mate, Hutchings, had done their best to patch her up, but her
condition was past their skill.  On the morning of the 21st she grounded
on a sandbank and filled.  The river rising, all that was visible the
next day was about six feet of her two masts.  The property on board
was, however, saved, and the expedition spent their Christmas of 1860
encamped on the island of Chimba.

Canoes having been procured, they reached Senna on the 27th.  They here
saw a large party of slaves belonging to the commandant, who had been up
to trade with Mozelekatse, carrying a thousand muskets and a large
quantity of gunpowder, and bringing back ivory, ostrich feathers, a
thousand sheep and goats, and thirty head of fine cattle, and in
addition a splendid white bull, to show that he and the traders parted
friends.  The adventure, however, was a losing one to the poor
commandant: a fire had broken out in the camp, and the ostrich feathers
had been burned; the cattle had died from the bite of the _tsetse_, as
had the white bull, and six hundred of the sheep had been eaten by the
slaves, they thinking more of their own comfort than their master's

This is one of the many proofs of the clearness of slave labour.

Proceeding down the river in boats, the expedition reached Congo on the
4th of January, 1861.  Here a flagstaff and a custom-house (a floorless
hut of mangrove stakes roofed with stakes) had been erected.

The garrison of the place being almost starved, the provisions of the
expedition also ran short, though they obtained game in abundance.

On the 31st the "Pioneer," the steamer which had been sent to replace
the "Asthmatic," appeared off the bar, but the bad weather prevented her
entering.  At the same time two men-of-war arrived, bringing Bishop
Mackenzie at the head of the Oxford and Cambridge mission to the tribes
of the Shire and Lake Nyassa.  It consisted of six Englishmen and five
coloured men from the Cape.  The bishop wished at once to proceed up to
Chibisa; but the "Pioneer" was under orders to explore the Rovuma, and
it was ultimately arranged that the members of the mission should be
carried over to Johanna in the "Lyra" man-of-war, while the bishop
himself accompanied the expedition in the "Pioneer."

They reached the mouth of the Rovuma on the 25th of February.  The rainy
season was already half over, and the river had fallen considerably.

The scenery was superior to that on the Zambesi.

Eight miles from the mouth the mangrove disappeared, and a beautiful
range of well-wooded hills rose on either side.

Unhappily fever broke out, and the navigation of the "Pioneer" fell to
the charge of Dr Livingstone and his companions.

The water falling rapidly, it was considered dangerous to run the risk
of detention in the river for a year, and the ship returned down to the

On their voyage back they touched at Mohilla, one of the Comoro Islands,
and from thence went on to Johanna, where they received the Bishop's
followers, and proceeded back to the Kongone.  Thence they at once
directed their course up the Zambesi to the Shire.  The "Pioneer," it
was found, drew too much water for the navigation of the river, and she
in consequence frequently grounded.

Among his many duties, Charles Livingstone was engaged in collecting
specimens of cotton, and upwards of three hundred pounds were thus
obtained, at a price of less than a penny a pound, which showed that
cotton of a superior quality could be raised by native labour alone, and
that but for the slave trade a large amount might be raised in the

Wherever they went they gained the confidence of the people, and
hitherto the expedition had been eminently successful.  No sooner,
however, did they come in contact with the Portuguese slave trade than
sad reverses commenced.  Marauding parties of the Ajawa were desolating
the land, and a gang had crossed the river with slaves.  Manjanga had
gone away just before they got the ship up to Chibisa; but his deputy
was civil, and supplied them with carriers to convey the bishop's goods
up the country.

They halted at the village of their old friend, Mpende, who supplied
them with carriers, and informed them that a slave party on its way to
Tete would soon pass through his village.  They consulted together.
Should they liberate the slaves?  By a bold stroke they might possibly
put a stop to the slave trade, which had followed in their footsteps.  A
few minutes afterwards a slave party, consisting of a long line of
manacled men, women, and children, escorted by black drivers armed with
muskets, adorned with articles of finery, and blowing horns, marched by
them with a triumphant air.  Directly, however, the rascals caught sight
of the English, they darted off into the forest, with the exception of
the leader, who was seized by the Makololo.  He proved to be a slave of
the late commandant of Tete, and was well-known to them.  He declared
that he had bought the slaves; but directly his hands were released he
darted off.  The captives now, kneeling down, expressed their thanks by
clapping their hands.  Knives were soon busily at work setting free the
women and children.  It was more difficult to liberate the men, who had
each his neck in the fork of a stout stick, six or seven feet long, and
kept in by an iron rod riveted at both ends across the throat.  A saw,
produced from the bishop's baggage, performed the work.  The men could
scarcely believe what was said, when they were told to take the meal
they were carrying and cook breakfast for themselves and children.  Many
of the latter were about five years of age and under.  One of them
observed to the men: "Those others tied and starved us; you cut the
ropes, and tell us to eat!  What sort of people are you?"

Two women had been shot the previous day for attempting to untie the
thongs, and another had her infant's brains knocked out because she
could not at the same time carry her load and it.  The rest were told
that this was done to prevent them from attempting to escape.  The
bishop was not present, having gone to bathe just before; but when he
returned, he approved of what had been done.

Eighty-four persons, chiefly women and children, were thus liberated;
and being told that they might go where they liked, they decided on
remaining with the English.  The men willingly carried the bishop's

Eight others were freed in a hamlet on the road; but another party, with
nearly a hundred slaves, though followed by Dr Kirk and four Makololo,
escaped.  Six more captives were soon afterwards liberated, and two
slave-dealers were detained for the night, but being carelessly watched
by two of the bishop's black men, who had volunteered to stand guard
over them, they escaped.  The next day fifty more slaves were freed at
another village and comfortably clothed.

At Chigunda a Manjanga chief had invited the bishop to settle in his
country near Magomero, adding that there was room enough for both.  This
spontaneous invitation seemed to decide the bishop on the subject.

Marching forward, on the 22nd news was received that the Ajawa were
near, burning villages; and at once the doctor and his companions
advanced to seek an interview with these scourges of the country.  On
their way they met crowds of Manjangas flying, having left all their
property and food behind them.  Numerous fields of Indian corn were
passed, but there was no one to reap them.  All the villages were
deserted.  One, where on the previous visit a number of men had been
seen peacefully weaving cloth, was burned, and the stores of grain
scattered over the plain and along the paths.  The smoke of burning
villages was seen in front, and triumphant shouts, mingled with the wail
of the Manjanga women lamenting over the slain, reached their ears.  The
bishop knelt and engaged in prayer, and on rising, a long line of Ajawa
warriors with their captives was seen.  In a short time the travellers
were surrounded, the savages shooting their poisoned arrows and dancing
hideously.  Some had muskets, but, on shots being fired at them, they
ran off.  The main body in the mean time decamped with the captives, two
only of whom escaped and joined their new friends.  Most of the party
proposed going at once to the rescue of the captive Manjanga; but this
Dr Livingstone opposed, believing that it would be better for the
bishop to wait the effect of the check given to the slave-hunters.  It
was evident that the Ajawa were instigated by the Portuguese agents from
Tete.  It was possible that they might by persuasion be induced to
follow the better course, but, from their long habit of slaving for the
Quillimane market, this appeared doubtful.  The bishop consulted Dr
Livingstone as to whether, should the Manjangas ask his assistance
against the Ajawa, it would be his duty to give it?  The reply was: "Do
not interfere in native quarrels."  Leaving the members of the mission
encamped on a beautiful spot, surrounded by stately trees, near the
clear little stream of Magomero, the expedition returned to the ship to
prepare for their journey to Lake Nyassa.

On the 6th of August, 1861, the two doctors and Charles Livingstone
started in a four-oared gig, with one white sailor and twenty Makololo,
for Nyassa.  Carriers were easily engaged to convey the boat past the
forty miles of the Murchison Cataracts.  Numberless volunteers came
forward, and the men of one village transported it to the next.  They
passed the little Lake of Pamalombe, about ten miles long and five
broad, surrounded thickly by papyrus.  Myriads of mosquitos showed the
presence of malaria, and they hastened by it.

Again launching their boat, they proceeded up the river, and entered the
lake on the 2nd of September, greatly refreshed by the cool air which
came off its wide expanse of water.  The centre appeared to be of a deep
blue, while the shallow water along the edge was indicated by its light
green colour.  A little from the shore the water was from nine to
fifteen fathoms in depth, but round a grand mountain promontory no
bottom could be obtained with their lead-line of thirty-five fathoms.
The lake was estimated to be about two hundred miles long and from
twenty to sixty broad.

The lake appeared to be surrounded by mountains, but on the west they
were merely the edges of high table-land.

It is visited by sudden and tremendous storms.  One morning the sea
suddenly rose around them, preventing them from advancing or receding,
as the tremendous surf on the beach would have knocked their light boat
to pieces, while the waves came rolling on in threes, their crests
broken into spray.  Had one of them struck the boat, nothing could have
saved her from being swamped.  For six hours they remained at anchor a
little from the shore, thus exposed to the fury of the gale.  The crew
became sea-sick and unable to keep the boat's head to the sea, while
some of their party who had remained on shore watched them, the natives
every moment exclaiming: "They are lost! they are all dead!"

After this, every night they hauled the boat up on the beach; and, had
it not been supposed that these storms were peculiar to one season, they
would have given the Nyassa the name of the "Lake of Storms."

A dense population exists on the shores of the lake, some being a tribe
of Zulus who came from the south some years ago.  They own large herds
of cattle, and are on the increase by uniting other people to
themselves.  The marshy spots are tenanted by flocks of ducks, geese,
cranes, herons, and numerous other birds.  The people cultivate the
soil, growing large quantities of rice, sweet potatoes, maize, and
millet.  Those at the north end reap a curious harvest.  Clouds of what
appeared to be smoke rising from miles of burning grass were seen in the
distance.  The appearance was caused by countless millions of midges.
As the voyagers' boat passed through them, eyes and mouth had to be kept
closed.  The people collect these insects by night, and boil them into
thick cakes, to be eaten as a relish.  One of the cakes, which tasted
like salted locusts, was presented to the doctor.

Abundance of fish were caught, some with nets and others with hook and
line.  Women were seen fishing, with babies on their backs.

Enormous crocodiles were seen, but, as they can obtain abundance of
fish, they seldom attack men.  When, however, its proper food is scarce,
the crocodile, as is always the case, becomes very dangerous.

The lake tribes appear to be open-handed, and, whenever a net was drawn,
fish was invariably offered.  On one occasion the inhabitants, on their
arrival, took out their seine, dragged it, and made their visitors a
present of the entire haul.  The chiefs treated them also with
considerable kindness.  One at the north of Marenga, who was living in a
stockade in a forest surrounded by a wide extent of country, which he
owned, made them beautiful presents.  The doctor admiring an iron
bracelet studded with copper which the chief wore, he took it off and
presented to him, while his wife did the same with hers.

Wherever the slave trade is carried on, the people are dishonest and
uncivil, and when they found that the English did not come to buy
slaves, they immediately put on a supercilious air, and sometimes
refused to sell them food.  At one of these places a party of thieves
stole into the camp and carried off most of their goods, no one awaking,
though their rifles and revolvers were all ready.  The cloth, having
been used for pillows, escaped, but nearly all their clothing was lost,
and even their note-books and specimens.

On the high lands at the northern end, a tribe of Zulus, known as the
Mazitu, make sudden swoops on the villages of the plains, and carry off
the inhabitants and burn villages; and putrid bodies slain by Mazitu
spears were seen in all directions.  In consequence of this the land
party, composed of blacks, were afraid of proceeding, and Dr
Livingstone accordingly landed to accompany them.  While he struck
inland to go round a mountain, the boat pursued her course; but a fresh
gale compelled her to run in-shore.  On continuing her voyage, a number
of armed Mazitu were seen on a small island, with several large canoes
belonging to them.  It was evident that it was a nest of lake pirates.
Further on they met a still larger band, and the voyagers were ordered
to come on shore.  On refusing, a number of canoes chased them, one with
nine paddlers persevering a considerable time, till a good breeze
enabled the gig to get away from them.  This circumstance caused great
anxiety about Dr Livingstone.

The boat party having sailed on for fifteen miles northward, he was
still nowhere to be seen, and they therefore resolved to return.
Another gale, however, compelled them to put into a harbour, where a
number of wretched fugitives from the slave trade, who had crossed from
the opposite shore, were found; but the ordinary inhabitants had been
swept off by the Mazitu.  In their deserted gardens cotton of a fine
quality, with staple an inch and a half long, was seen growing, some of
the plants deserving to be ranked with trees.

On returning, their former pursuers tried to induce them to come on

Four days passed before Dr Livingstone with two of his party discovered
them.  He had in the mean time fallen in with the Mazitu, who were armed
with spears and shields, and their heads fantastically dressed with
feathers.  By his usual courage and determination he prevented them from
attacking him.  When they demanded presents, he told them his goods were
in the boat; and when they insisted on having a coat, the Makololo
enquired how many of the party they had killed, that they thus began to
divide the spoil; and at last, suspecting that he had support at hand,
they took to their heels.

Numerous elephants, surprisingly tame, were seen on the borders of the
lake even close to the villages, and hippopotami swarmed in all the
creeks and lagoons.  Several were shot for food during the journey.
Sometimes food was thus abundant; at others, a few sardines served for

The slave trade on the lake was being pursued with fearful activity.  A
dhow had been built by two Arabs, who were running her regularly,
crowded with slaves, across its waters.  Part of the captives are
carried to the Portuguese slave-exporting town of Iboe, while others go
to Kilwa.

The chiefs showed but little inclination to trade, their traffic being
chiefly in human chattels.

Colonel Rigby states that nineteen thousand slaves from the Nyassa
country alone pass annually through the custom-house at Zanzibar.

They, however, represent but a small portion of the sufferers.  Besides
those actually captured, thousands are killed and die of their wounds
and famine; thousands more perish in internecine war waged for slaves
with their own clansmen and neighbours.  The numerous skeletons seen
among rocks and woods, by the pools, and on the paths of the wilderness,
attest the awful sacrifice of human life.

The doctor saw that a small armed steamer on Lake Nyassa could, by
furnishing goods in exchange for ivory and other products, exercise a
powerful influence in stopping the traffic in that quarter.

The expedition had spent from the 2nd of September to the 27th of
October in exploring the lake, and their goods being now expended, it
was necessary to return to the ship.

On their way back they fell in with a number of Manjanga families,
driven from their homes by Ajawa raids, taking shelter among the papyrus
growing on Lake Pamalombe, supporting themselves on the fine fish which
abound in it.

The party reached the ship on the 8th of November, but in a weak
condition, having latterly suffered greatly from hunger.

On the 14th they received a visit from the bishop, who appeared in
excellent spirits, and believed that all promised well for future
success.  Many of the Manjanga had settled round Magomero to be under
his protection, and it was hoped that the slave trade would soon cease
in the neighbourhood.  He here arranged to explore the country, from
Magomero to the mouth of the river, and it was agreed that the
"Pioneer," her draught being too great for the upper part of the Shire,
should on her next trip not go higher than Ruo.  The bishop's hope was
to meet his sisters and Mrs Burrup, whose husband was one of his

With three hearty cheers, the "Pioneer" steamed down the river.  The
rain ceasing, she unfortunately ran on a shoal, and was detained in an
unhealthy spot for five weeks.  Here the carpenter's mate, a fine
healthy young man, was seized with fever and died.  A permanent rise in
the river enabled them at last to get on.

On reaching Ruo, they heard that Mariano had returned from Mozambique,
and was desolating the right bank of the river.  He had lived in luxury
during his nominal imprisonment, and was now able to set the Portuguese
at defiance.  An officer sent against him, instead of capturing the
rebel, was captured himself, but soon returned to Tete with a present of
ivory he had received.

The Zambesi was reached on the 11th of January, 1862, when the "Pioneer"
proceeded to the Great Luabo mouth of the river.

On the 30th HMS "Gorgon" arrived, towing the brig which brought out Mrs
Livingstone and some ladies about to join the University mission, as
well as the sections of a new iron steamer intended for the navigation
of Lake Nyassa.  The name of the "Lady Nyassa" was given to the new

The "Pioneer," with as large a portion of the vessel as she could carry,
accompanied by two of the "Gorgon's" paddle-box boats, steamed off for
Ruo on the 10th of February.  Captain Wilson, with several of his
officers and men, went on board her to render assistance.  The ladies
also took their passage in her.  Her progress was very slow, and six
months were expended before Shupanga was reached.  Here the sections of
the "Lady Nyassa" were landed, and preparations were made to screw her

Captain Wilson had kindly gone on in his boat to Ruo, taking Miss
Mackenzie and Mrs Burrup and others.  On reaching Ruo, greatly to their
dismay the chief declared that no white man had come to his village.
They thence went on to Chibisa, where the sad news was received of the
death of the bishop and Mr Burrup.  Leaving the ladies under care of
Dr Ramsay, the "Gorgon's" surgeon, Captain Wilson and Dr Kirk hastened
up the hills to render assistance to the survivors, they themselves
suffering greatly, and Captain Wilson almost losing his life.

The sad tale of the bishop's death has often been told.  He had set off
in the hopes of rescuing some of his flock who had been kidnapped, and,
undergoing fatigue and exposure to rain far greater than his
constitution could stand, having been upset in a canoe and sleeping
afterwards in his wet clothes, had succumbed to fever when returning
with his companion, Mr Burrup, to Ruo.

The Free Church of Scotland had sent out the Reverend J.  Stewart to
form a mission.  Before doing so he wisely determined to survey the
country thoroughly.  After doing this he returned to England.  He found
mere remnants of a once dense population on the banks of the Shire, now
scattered and destroyed by famine and slave-hunting.

Captain Wilson returning to the "Pioneer," she, with the ladies on
board, steamed down to Kongone, when the whole of the mission party
except one left the country in the "Gorgon."

The fever now attacked the crew of the "Pioneer," and only one man
remained fit for duty.  She, however, continued carrying up the portions
of the "Lady Nyassa" to Shupanga.

About the middle of April Mrs Livingstone was attacked by the disease.
Notwithstanding the most skilful medical aid rendered to her, her eyes
were closed in a Christian's death as the sun set on a sabbath day, the
27th of April, 1862.  Her grave was placed beneath the great baobab-tree
in the spot before described, and the Reverend J.  Stewart read the
burial service.  There rested the daughter of the Missionary Moffat,
that Christian lady who had exercised such beneficial influence over the
rude tribes of the interior, and might, it was hoped, have renewed her
labours in the country to which she had come.

The "Lady Nyassa" was now screwed together and her stores got on board;
but, as she could not be taken to the cataract before the rains in
December, the "Pioneer" sailed for Johanna to obtain mules and oxen to
convey her by land, after she had been taken to pieces, above the falls.

To fill up the time the doctor resolved, on the return of the "Pioneer,"
to explore the Rovuma in boats.  She arrived at its mouth, towed by HMS
"Orestes."  Captain Gardner and several of his officers accompanied them
two days in the the gig and cutter.  The water was now low; but when
filled by the rains, in many respects the Rovuma appears superior to the
Zambesi.  It would probably be valuable as a highway for commerce during
three-fourths of each year.

Above Kichokomane was a fertile plain, studded with a number of deserted
villages.  Its inhabitants were living on low sandbanks, though they had
left their property behind, fearing only being stolen themselves.  They
showed, however, an unfriendly spirit to the white men, not
understanding their objects.  The blacks assembled on the shore, and
evidently intended to attack the party as they passed the high bank, but
a stiff breeze swept the boats by.  Attempts were made to persuade the
natives that the travellers had only peaceable intentions, that they
wished to be their friends, and that their countrymen bought cotton and
ivory.  Notwithstanding this, these savages were not satisfied, and
their leader was seen urging them to fire.  Many of them had muskets,
while others, who were armed with bows, held them with arrows ready set
to shoot.  Still the doctor and his companions were exceedingly
unwilling to come to blows, and half an hour was spent, during which, at
any moment, they might have been struck by bullets or poisoned arrows.
The English assured them that they had plenty of ammunition, that they
did not wish to shed the blood of the children of the same Great Father,
and that if there was a fight, the guilt would be theirs.  At last their
leader ordered them to lay down their arms, and he came, saying that the
river was theirs, and that the English must pay toll for leave to pass.
As it was better to do so than fight, the payment demanded was given,
and they promised to be friends ever afterwards.

The sail was then hoisted, and the boats proceeded up, when they were
followed by a large party, as it was supposed merely to watch them, but
without a moment's warning the savages fired a volley of musket-balls
and poisoned arrows.  Providentially they were so near that six arrows
passed over their heads, and four musket-balls alone went through the
sail.  Their assailants immediately bolted, and did not again appear
till the boats had got to a considerable distance.  A few shots were
fired over their heads, to give them an idea of the range of the
Englishmen's rifles.  They had probably expected to kill some of the
party, and then in the confusion to rob the boats.

They were more hospitably treated by a Makoa chief higher up, who had
been to Iboe, and once to Mozambique with slaves.

His people refused to receive gaily-coloured prints, having probably
been deceived by sham ones before, preferring the plain blue stuff of
which they had experience.

Another old chief, on seeing them go by, laid down his gun, and when
they landed approached them.

They proceeded up to the cataracts of the Rovuma, but finding that the
distance overland was far greater to Lake Nyassa than that by
Murchison's Cataracts on the Shire, they considered it best to take
their steamer up by that route.

After having been away a month, they reached the "Pioneer" on the 9th of
October.  The ship's company had used distilled water, and not a single
case of sickness had occurred on board, while those who had been in the
boats had some slight attacks.

After this they put to sea and visited Johanna, returning to the
fever-haunted village of Quillimane.  Here they were kindly entertained
by one of the few honourable Portuguese officials they met with in that
region, Colonel Nunes.  He came out as a cabin-boy, and, by persevering
energy, has become the richest man on the East Coast.

On the 10th of January, 1863, the "Pioneer," with the "Lady Nyassa" in
tow, steamed up the Shire.

They soon met signs of the bandit slave-hunter Mariano's expedition.
Dead bodies floated by them in great numbers, and for scores of miles
the entire population had been swept away.  The river banks, once so
populous, were all now silent.  The remains of burnt villages were
everywhere seen, and oppressive silence reigned where once crowds of
eager sellers had before come off with the produce of their industry.
Their friend Tingane had been defeated, and his people killed,
kidnapped, or forced to fly.  In every direction they encountered the
sight and smell of dead bodies.  The skeletons of those who had fallen
in their flight lay everywhere on the roads, while the ghastly forms of
boys and girls in the last stage of starvation were seen crouching
beside the huts.

The grave of the good bishop was visited.  How would his heart have bled
had he lived to witness the scenes they did!

A hippopotamus was shot, and, at the end of three days after, it
floated.  As the boat was towing it, immense numbers of crocodiles
followed, and it was necessary to fire at them to keep them off.  It is
said that the crocodile never eats fresh meat; indeed, the more putrid
it becomes, the better he enjoys his repast, as he can thus tear the
carcass more easily.  The corpse of a boy was seen floating by.  Several
crocodiles dashed at it, fighting for their prey, and in a few seconds
it disappeared.  Sixty-seven of the repulsive reptiles were seen on one
bank.  The natives eat the animal, but few who had witnessed the
horrible food on which they banquet would willingly feed on their flesh.

Their former companion, Mr Thornton, here rejoined them.  Hearing that
the remaining members of the bishop's party were in want at Chibisa, he
volunteered to carry over a supply of goats and sheep to them.  Overcome
by the fatigues of the journey, he was attacked by fever, which
terminated fatally on the 21st of April, 1863.

The whole of the once pleasant Shire valley was now a scene of
wide-spread desolation.  Fearful famine had followed the slave raids,
and the sights which met their eye in every direction were
heart-rending.  The ground was literally covered with human bones.
"Many had ended their career under the shade of trees, others under
projecting crags of the hills, while others lay in their huts with
closed doors, which, when opened, disclosed the mouldering corpse with a
few rags round the loins, the skull fallen off the pillow; the little
skeleton of a child that had perished first, rolled up in a mat between
two large skeletons."

Hoping that the "Lady Nyassa" might be the means of putting a check on
the slavers across the lake, they hurried on with their work.  She was
unscrewed at a spot about five hundred yards below the first cataract,
and they began to make a road over the portage of forty miles, by which
she was to be carried piecemeal.

Trees had to be cut down and stones removed.  The first half-mile of
road was formed up a gradual slope till two hundred feet above the river
was reached, where a sensible difference in the climate was felt.
Before much progress was made, Dr Kirk and Charles Livingstone were
seized with fever, and it was deemed absolutely necessary that they
should be sent home.  Soon afterwards Dr Livingstone was himself

The "Pioneer" meantime was roofed over and left in charge of the
trustworthy gunner, Mr Young.

One day, an empty canoe was seen floating down with a woman swimming
near it.  The boat put off and brought her on board, when she was found
to have an arrow-head in the middle of her back.  A native cut it out,
and, notwithstanding the fearful character of the wound, being fed
liberally by Mr Young, she recovered.

On the 16th of June the remaining members of the expedition started for
the upper cataracts.

Cotton of superior quality was seen dropping off the bushes, with no one
to gather it.

The huts in several villages were found entire, with mortars and stones
for pounding and grinding corn, empty corn safes and kitchen utensils,
water and beer-pots untouched, but the doors were shut, as if the
inhabitants had gone to search for roots or fruits and had never
returned; while in others, skeletons were seen of persons who died
apparently while endeavouring to reach something to allay the gnawings
of hunger.

Several journeys had been made over the portage, when, on returning to
the ship on the 2nd of July, they received a despatch from Earl Russell,
directing the return home of the expedition.

Considering the utter devastation caused by the slave-hunting, and the
secret support given by the Portuguese officials to the slave-traders,
notwithstanding the protestations of their government that they wished
to put an end to the trade, it was impossible not to agree in the wisdom
of this determination.

Arrangements therefore were made to screw the "Lady Nyassa" together
again, as the "Pioneer" could not move till the floods in December.  In
the mean time it was determined to make another trip to the lake in a
boat to be carried overland past the cataracts.

The same scenes were witnessed as before.  Wild animals had taken
possession of the ruins of a large village in which on their previous
visit the inhabitants had been living in peace and plenty.

They had no idea, having before kept closer to the river, of the number
of villages, always apparently selected with a view to shade, existing
in that region, all of which were now deserted.

They at length reached a region which had hitherto escaped, where the
people welcomed them with the greatest cordiality, and were willing to
spare the small amount of food they had remaining for themselves.  But
even here news of war soon reached them, and they found that a tribe of
Zulus, the Mazitu, were ravaging the country, and that the inhabitants
were only safe within their stockades.  They soon encountered men and
women carrying grain towards these fortifications, and soon they came
upon dead bodies, first one and then another, lying in postures assumed
in mortal agony such as no painter can produce.

On their arrival at Chinsamba's stockade, they were told that the Mazitu
had been repulsed thence the day before, and the sad sight of the
numerous bodies of the slain showed the truth of the report.  The
marauders had, however, carried off large numbers of women laden with
corn, and, on being repulsed, cut off the ears of a male prisoner and
sent him back, saying that they meant to return for the corn they had
left, in a month or two.

Chinsamba urged them not to proceed to the north-west, where the Mazitu
had occupied the whole region, and they accordingly remained with him
till the 5th of September.

After this they visited Chia Lakelet.  On their way they met men and
women eagerly reaping the corn in haste, to convey it to the stockades,
while so much was found scattered along the paths by the Mazitu and the
fugitives that some women were winnowing it from the sand.  Dead bodies
and burned villages showed that they were close upon the heels of the
invaders.  Among the reeds on the banks of the lake was seen a
continuous village of temporary huts in which the people had taken
refuge from their invaders.

On visiting the village of an Arab chief, Juma, at Kota Bay, on the 10th
of September, they found him engaged with his people in building a large
dhow, or Arab vessel, fifty feet long and twelve broad.  They offered to
purchase the craft, but he refused to sell it for any amount.  It was
very evident that she was to be engaged for carrying slaves across the

They now regretted the attempt to carry an iron vessel overland, as a
wooden one might have been built at much less cost on the banks of the
lake, and in a shorter time than the transit of the "Lady Nyassa" would
have occupied.

Another extensive and interesting journey was taken in the neighbourhood
of the lake, and, on their return along the shores, they found the reeds
still, occupied by the unhappy fugitives, who were already suffering
fearfully from famine.  Numbers of newly-made graves showed that many
had already perished, and others had more the appearance of human
skeletons than living beings.

Altogether in this expedition they travelled seven hundred and sixty
miles in a straight line, averaging about fifteen miles a day, and they
reached the ship on the 1st of November, where all were found in good
health and spirits.  They were visited on board by an Ajawa chief named
Kapeni, who asserted that he and his people would gladly receive the
associates of Bishop Mackenzie as their teachers.  It showed that he and
his people had not been offended at the check which the bishop had given
to their slaving, their consciences telling them that the course he had
pursued was right.

About the middle of December news reached them of the arrival of the
successor of Bishop Mackenzie, but that gentleman, after spending a few
months on the top of a mountain as high as Ben Nevis, at the mouth of
the Shire, where there were few or no people to be taught, returned
home, while six of the boys who had been reared by Bishop Mackenzie had
been deserted and exposed to the risk of falling back into heathenism.
The poor boys, however, managed to reach the ship, expressing their
sorrow that they no longer had one to look after them, remarking that
Bishop Mackenzie had a loving heart, and had been more than a father to

On the 19th of January, 1864, the Shire suddenly rising, the "Pioneer"
was once more got underway; but, her rudder being injured, she was
delayed, and did not reach Morambala till the 2nd of February.  Here
they received on board about thirty orphan boys and girls, and a few
helpless widows who had been attached to Bishop Mackenzie's mission, and
who could not be abandoned without bringing odium on the English name.
The difference between shipping slaves and receiving these on board
struck them greatly.  The moment permission to embark was given, they
all rushed into the boat, nearly swamping her in their eagerness to be
safe on the "Pioneer's" deck.

At the mouth of the Zambesi they found HM ships "Orestes" and "Ariel,"
when the former took the "Pioneer" in tow, and the latter the "Lady
Nyassa," bound for Mozambique.

After encountering a heavy storm, when the little vessels behaved
admirably, while the "Pioneer" was sent to the Cape, the "Lady Nyassa,"
under charge of Dr Livingstone, proceeded by way of Zanzibar to Bombay,
which they safely reached, though at times they thought their epitaph
would be: "Left Zanzibar on the 30th of April, 1864, and never more
heard of."




Sir Samuel, then Mr Baker, was already an experienced traveller and a
practised sportsman, when in March, 1861, having resolved to devote his
energies to the discovery of one of the sources of the Nile, he set
forth from England to proceed up the mysterious river from its mouth,
inwardly determined to accomplish the difficult task or to die in the
attempt.  He had, however, shortly before married a young wife.  She,
with a devoted love and heroism seldom surpassed, notwithstanding the
dangers and difficulties she knew she must encounter, entreated to
accompany her husband, in a way not to be denied.

Leaving Cairo on the 15th of April, they sailed up the Nile to Korosko,
whence they crossed the Nubian Desert on camels, with the simoon in full
force and the heat intense to Berber.  Here Mr Baker, finding his want
of Arabic a great drawback, resolved to devote a year to the study of
that language, and to spend the time in the comparatively known regions
to the north of Abyssinia, while he explored the various confluences of
the Blue Nile.

They were kindly received at Berber by Halleem Effendi, the ex-governor,
who gave them permission to pitch their tents in his gardens close to
the Nile.  It was a lovely spot, thickly planted with lofty date-groves
and shady citron and lemon-trees, in which countless birds were singing
and chirruping, and innumerable ring-doves cooing in the shady palms.
The once sandy spot, irrigated by numerous water-wheels, had been thus
transformed into a fruitful garden.

Here they received visits from their host and the governor, as well as
from other officers, who expressed their astonishment when they
announced their intention of proceeding to the head of the Nile.

"Do not go on such an absurd errand," exclaimed Halleem Effendi.
"Nobody knows anything about the Nile.  We do not even know the source
of the Atbara.  While you remain within the territory of the Pacha of
Egypt you will be safe; but the moment you cross the frontier you will
be in the hands of savages."

Mr Baker, though receiving the advice _cum grano salis_, profited by

Their host sent them daily presents of fruit by a charmingly pretty
slave girl, whose numerous mistresses requested permission to pay the
travellers a visit.  In the evening a bevy of ladies approached through
the dark groves of citron-trees, so gaily dressed in silks of the
brightest dyes of yellow, blue, and scarlet, that no bouquet of flowers
could have been more gaudy.  They were attended by numerous slaves, the
head of whom requested Mr Baker to withdraw while the ladies paid his
wife a visit.

Many of them she described as young and pretty.  By distributing a
number of small presents among them, she completely won their

After a week spent at this pleasant spot, they commenced their journey
on the evening of the 10th of June, attended by a guard of Turkish
soldiers, who were to act in the double capacity of escort and servants.

Their dragoman was called Mahomet, and the principal guide Achmet.  The
former, though almost black, declared that his colour was of a light
brown.  He spoke very bad English, was excessively conceited, and
irascible to a degree.  Accustomed to the easy-going expeditions on the
Nile, he had _no_ taste for the rough sort of work his new master had

The journey across the desert tract was performed on donkeys, the
luggage being carried on camels or dromedaries.

In two days they reached the junction of the Atbara river with the Nile.
Here, crossing a broad surface of white sand, which at that season
formed the dry bed of the river, they encamped near a plantation of
water-melons, with which they refreshed themselves and their tired
donkeys.  The river was here never less than four hundred yards in
width, with banks nearly thirty feet deep.  Not only was it partially
dry, but so clear was the sand-bed that the reflection of the sun was
almost unbearable.

They travelled along the banks of the river for some days, stopping by
the side of the pools which still remained.  Many of these pools were
full of crocodiles and hippopotami.  One of these river-horses had
lately killed the proprietor of a melon-garden, who had attempted to
drive the creature from his plantation.  Mr Baker had the satisfaction
of killing one of the monsters in shallow water.  It was quickly
surrounded by Arabs, who hauled it on shore, and, on receiving his
permission to take the meat, in an instant a hundred knives were at
work, the men fighting to obtain the most delicate morsels.  He and his
wife breakfasted that morning on hippopotamus flesh, which was destined
to be their general food during their journey among the Abyssinian
tributaries of the Nile.

Game abounded, and he shot gazelles and hippopotami sufficient to keep
the whole camp well supplied with meat.

On the 23rd of June they were nearly suffocated by a whirlwind that
buried everything in the tents several inches in dust.

The heat was intense; the night, however, was cool and pleasant.  About
half-past eight, as Mr Baker lay asleep, he fancied that he heard a
rumbling like distant thunder.  The low uninterrupted roll increasing in
volume, presently a confusion of voices arose from the Arabs' camp, his
men shouting as they rushed through the darkness: "The river! the

Mahomet exclaimed that the river was coming down, and that the supposed
distant roar was the approach of water.  Many of the people, who had
been sleeping on the clean sand of the river's bed, were quickly
awakened by the Arabs, who rushed down the steep bank to save the skulls
of two hippopotami which were exposed to dry.

The sound of the torrent, as it rushed by amid the darkness, and the
men, dripping with wet, dragging their heavy burdens up the bank, told
that the great event had occurred.  The river had arrived like a thief
in the night.

The next morning, instead of the barren sheet of clear white sand with a
fringe of withered bush and trees upon its borders, cutting the yellow
expanse of desert, a magnificent stream, the noble Atbara river flowed
by, some five hundred yards in width, and from fifteen to twenty feet in
depth.  Not a drop of rain, however, had fallen; but the current gave
the traveller a clue to one portion of the Nile mystery.  The rains were
pouring down in Abyssinia--these were the sources of the Nile.

The rainy season, however, at length began, during which it was
impossible to travel.

The Arabs during that period migrate to the drier regions in the north.

On their way they arrived in the neighbourhood of the camp of the great
Sheikh Achmet Abou Sinn, to whom Mr Baker had a letter of introduction.
Having sent it forward by Mahomet, in a short time the sheikh appeared,
attended by several of his principal people.  He was mounted on a
beautiful snow-white _hygeen_, his appearance being remarkably dignified
and venerable.  Although upwards of eighty years old, he was as erect as
a lance, and of herculean stature; a remarkably arched nose, eyes like
an eagle's, beneath large, shaggy, but perfectly white eyebrows, while a
snow-white beard of great thickness descended below the middle of his
breast.  He wore a large white turban, and a white cashmere robe
reaching from the throat to the ankles.  He was indeed the perfect
picture of a desert patriarch.  He insisted on the travellers
accompanying him to his camp, and would hear of no excuses.  Ordering
Mahomet to have their baggage repacked, he requested them to mount two
superb _hygeens_ with saddle-cloths of blue and purple sheep-skins, and
they set out with their venerable host, followed by his wild and
splendidly-mounted attendants.

As they approached the camp they were suddenly met by a crowd of mounted
men, armed with swords and shields, some on horses, others on _hygeens_.
These were Abou Sinn's people, who had assembled to do honour to their
chief's guests.  Having formed in lines parallel with the approach of
their guests, they galloped singly at full speed across the line of
march, flourishing their swords over their heads, and reining in their
horses so as to bring them on their haunches by the sudden halt.  This
performance being concluded, they fell into line behind the party.

Declining the sheikh's invitation to spend two or three months at his
camp, Mr and Mrs Baker travelled on to the village of Sofi, where they
proposed remaining during the rainy season.

It was situated near the banks of the Atbara, on a plateau of about
twenty acres, bordered on either side by two deep ravines, while below
the steep cliff in front of the village flowed the river Atbara.

Their tents were pitched on a level piece of ground just outside the
village, where the grass, closely nibbled by the goats, formed a natural

Here huts were built and some weeks were pleasantly spent.  Mr Baker
found an abundance of sport, sometimes catching enormous fish, at others
shooting birds to supply his larder, but more frequently hunting
elephants, rhinoceros, giraffes, and other large game.

He here found a German named Florian, a stone-mason by trade, who had
come out attached to the Austrian mission at Khartoum, but preferring a
freer life than that city afforded, had become a great hunter.  Mr
Baker, thinking that he would prove useful, engaged him as a hunter, and
he afterwards took into his service Florian's black servant Richarn, who
became his faithful attendant.  A former companion of Florian's, Johann
Schmidt, soon afterwards arrived, and was also engaged by Mr Baker to
act as his lieutenant in his proposed White Nile expedition.  Poor
Florian, however, was killed by a lion, and Schmidt and Richarn alone
accompanied him.

Mr Baker's skill as a sportsman was frequently called into play by the
natives, to drive off the elephants and hippopotami which infested their
plantations.  One afternoon he was requested to shoot a savage old bull
hippopotamus which had given chase to several people.  Accompanied by
Mrs Baker he rode to the spot, about two miles off, where the
hippopotamus lived in a deep and broad portion of the river.  The old
hippopotamus was at home.

"The river, about two hundred and fifty yards wide, had formed by an
acute bend a deep hole.  In the centre of this was a sandbank just below
the surface.  Upon this shallow bed the hippopotamus was reposing.  On
perceiving the party he began to snort and behave himself in a most
absurd manner, by shaking his head and leaping half way out of the
water.  Mr Baker had given Bacheet, one of his attendants, a pistol,
and had ordered him to follow on the opposite bank.  He now directed him
to fire several shots at the hippopotamus, in order if possible to drive
the animal towards him.  The hippo, a wicked, solitary, old bull,
returned the insult by charging towards Bacheet with a tremendous
snorting, which sent him scrambling up the steep bank in a panic.  This
gave the brute confidence; and the sportsman, who had hitherto remained
concealed, called out according to Arabic custom: `_Hasinth! hasinth_!'
the Arabic for hippopotamus.  The brute, thinking no doubt that he might
as well drive the intruder away, gave a loud snort, sank, and quickly
reappeared about a hundred yards from him.  On this Mr Baker ordered
Bacheet to shoot to attract the animal's attention.  As the hippopotamus
turned his head, Mr Baker took a steady shot, aiming behind the ear,
and immediately the saucy old hippo turned upon his back and rolled
about, lashing the still pool into waves, until at length he

His intention of engaging a party of the Hamran Arabs, celebrated as
hunters, to accompany him in his explorations of the Abyssinian rivers
having become known, several of these men made their appearance at Son.
They are distinguished from the other tribes of Arabs by an extra length
of hair, worn parted down the centre and arranged in long curls.  They
are armed with swords and shields, the former having long, straight,
two-edged blades, with a small cross for the handle, similar to the
long, straight, cross-handled blades of the crusaders.  Their shields,
formed of rhinoceros, giraffe, or elephant-hide, are either round or
oval.  Their swords, which they prize highly, are kept as sharp as
razors.  The length of the blade is about three feet, and the handle six
inches long.  It is secured to the wrist by a leathern strap, so that
the hunter cannot by any accident be disarmed.

These men go in chase of all wild animals of the desert; some are noted
as expert hippopotamus slayers, but the most celebrated are the
Aggageers, or elephant hunters.  The latter attack the huge animal
either on horseback, or on foot when they cannot afford to purchase
steeds.  In the latter case, two men alone hunt together.  They follow
the tracks of an elephant which they contrive to overtake about noon,
when the animal is either asleep or extremely listless and easy to
approach.  Should the elephant be asleep, one of the hunters will creep
towards its head, and with a single blow sever the trunk stretched on
the ground, the result being its death within an hour from bleeding.
Should the animal be awake, they will creep up from behind, and give a
tremendous cut at the back sinew of the hind leg, immediately disabling
the monster.  It is followed up by a second cut on the remaining leg,
when the creature becomes their easy prey.

When hunting on horseback, generally four men form a party, and they
often follow the tracks of a herd from their drinking-place for upwards
of twenty miles.

Mr Baker accompanied them on numerous hunting expeditions, and
witnessed the wonderful courage and dexterity they displayed.

After spending three months at Son, he set out for the Settite River, he
and his wife crossing the Atbara River on a raft formed of his large
circular sponging bath supported by eight inflated skins secured to his

A party of the Aggageers now joined him.  Among them was Abou Do, a
celebrated old hippopotamus hunter, who, with his spear of trident shape
in hand, might have served as a representative of Neptune.  The old Arab
was equally great at elephant hunting, and had on the previous day
exhibited his skill, having assisted to kill several elephants.  He now
divested himself of all his clothing, and set out, taking his harpoon in
hand, in search of hippopotami.

This weapon consisted of a steel blade about eleven inches long and
three-quarters of an inch in width, with a single barb.  To it was
attached a strong rope twenty feet long, with a float as large as a
child's head at the extremity.  Into the harpoon was fixed a piece of
bamboo ten feet long, around which the the rope was twisted, while the
buoy was carried on the hunter's left hand.

After proceeding a couple of miles, a herd of hippopotami were seen in a
pool below a rapid surrounded by rocks.  He, however, remarking that
they were too wide-awake to be attacked, continued his course down the
stream till a smaller pool was reached.  Here the immense head of a
hippopotamus was seen, close to a perpendicular rock that formed a wall
to the river.  The old hunter, motioning the travellers to remain quiet,
immediately plunged into the stream and crossed to the opposite bank,
whence, keeping himself under shelter, he made his way directly towards
the spot beneath which the hippopotamus was lying.  "Stealthily he
approached, his long thin arm raised, with the harpoon ready to strike.
The hippopotamus, however, had vanished, but far from exhibiting
surprise, the veteran hunter remaining standing on the sharp ledge,
unchanged in attitude.  No figure of bronze could be more rigid than
that of the old river king, as he thus stood, his left foot advanced,
his right-hand grasping the harpoon above his head, and his left the
loose coil of rope attached to the buoy."

"Three minutes thus passed, when suddenly the right arm of the statue
descended like lightening, and the harpoon shot perpendicularly into the
pool with the speed of an arrow.  In an instant an enormous pair of open
jaws appeared, followed by the ungainly head and form of a furious
hippopotamus, who, springing half out of the water, lashed the river
into foam as he charged straight up the violent rapids.  With
extraordinary power he breasted the descending stream, gaining a footing
in the rapids where they were about five feet deep, thus making his way,
till, landing from the river, he started at full gallop along the
shingly bed, and disappeared in the thorny jungle.  No one would have
supposed that so unwieldy an animal could have exhibited such speed, and
it was fortunate for old Neptune that he was secure on the high ledge of
rock, for had he been on the path of the infuriated beast, there would
have been an end of Abou Do."

The old man rejoined his companions, when Mr Baker proposed going in
search of the animal.  The hunter, however, explained that the
hippopotamus would certainly return after a short time to the water.  In
a few minutes the animal emerged from the jungle and descended at full
trot into the pool where the other hippopotami had been seen, about half
a mile off.  Upon reaching it, the party were immediately greeted by the
hippopotamus, who snorted and roared and quickly dived, and the float
was seen running along the surface, showing his course as the cork of a
trimmer does that of a pike when hooked.  Several times the hippo
appeared, but invariably faced them, and, as Mr Baker could not obtain
a favourable shot, he sent the old hunter across the stream to attract
the animal's attention.  The hippo, turning towards the hunter, afforded
Mr Baker a good chance, and he fired a steady shot behind the ear.  The
crack of the ball, in the absence of any splash from the bullet, showed
him that the hippopotamus was hit, while the float remained stationary
upon the surface, marking the spot where the grand old bull lay dead
beneath.  The hunter obtaining assistance from the camp, the
hippopotamus, as well as another which had been shot, were hauled on
shore.  The old bull measured fourteen feet two inches, and the head was
three feet one inch from the front of the ear to the edge of the lip, in
a straight line.

Though hippopotami are generally harmless, solitary old bulls are
sometimes extremely vicious, and frequently attack canoes without

Many of the elephant hunts in which Mr Baker engaged were exciting in
the highest degree, and fraught with no small amount of danger.

Among the Aggageers was a hunter, Rodur Sherrif, who, though his arm had
been withered in consequence of an accident, was as daring as any of his

The banks of the Royan had been reached, where, a camp having been
formed, Mr Baker and his companions set out in search of elephants.  A
large bull elephant was discovered drinking.  The country around was
partly woody, and the ground strewed with fragments of rocks, ill
adapted for riding.  The elephant had made a desperate charge,
scattering the hunters in all directions, and very nearly overtaking Mr
Baker.  He then retreated into a stronghold composed of rocks and uneven
ground, with a few small leafless trees growing in it.  The scene must
be described in the traveller's own words.  "Here the elephant stood
facing the party like a statue, not moving a muscle beyond the quick and
restless action of the eyes, which were watching on all sides.  Two of
the Aggageers getting into its rear by a wide circuit, two others, one
of whom was the renowned Rodur Sherrif, mounted on a thoroughly-trained
bay mare, rode slowly towards the animal.  Coolly the mare advanced
towards her wary antagonist until within about nine yards of its head.
The elephant never moved.  Not a word was spoken.  The perfect stillness
was at length broken by a snort from the mare, who gazed intently at the
elephant, as though watching for the moment of attack.  Rodur coolly sat
with his eyes fixed upon those of the elephant.

"With a shrill scream the enormous creature then suddenly dashed on him
like an avalanche.  Round went the mare as though upon a pivot, away
over rocks and stones, flying like a gazelle, with the monkey-like form
of Rodur Sherrif leaning forward and looking over his left shoulder as
the elephant rushed after him.  For a moment it appeared as if the mare
must be caught.  Had she stumbled, all would have been lost, but she
gained in the race after a few quick bounding strides, and Rodur, still
looking behind him, kept his distance, so close, however, to the
creature, that its outstretched trunk was within a few feet of the
mare's tail.

"The two Aggageers who had kept in the rear now dashed forward close to
the hind quarters of the furious elephant, who, maddened with the
excitement, heeded nothing but Rodur and his mare.  When close to the
tail of the elephant, the sword of one of the Aggageers flashed from its
sheath as, grasping his trusty blade, he leaped nimbly to the ground,
while his companion caught the reins of his horse.  Two or three bounds
on foot, with the sword clutched in both hands, and he was close behind
the elephant.  A bright glance shone like lightning as the sun struck on
the descending steel.  This was followed by a dull crack, the sword
cutting through skin and sinew, and sinking deep into the bone about
twelve inches above the foot.  At the next stride the elephant halted
dead short in the midst of his tremendous charge.  The Aggageer who had
struck the blow vaulted into the saddle with his naked sword in hand.
At the same moment Rodur turned sharp round and, again facing the
elephant, stooped quickly from the saddle to pick up from the ground a
handful of dirt, which he threw into the face of the vicious animal,
that once more attempted to rush upon him.  It was impossible: the foot
was dislocated and turned up in front like an old shoe.  In an instant
the other Aggageer leaped to the ground, and again the sharp sword
slashed the remaining leg."

Nothing could be more perfect than the way in which these daring hunters
attack their prey.  "It is difficult to decide which to admire most--
whether the coolness and courage of him who led the elephant, or the
extraordinary skill and activity of the Aggageer who dealt the fatal

Thus, hunting and exploring, Mr Baker, accompanied by his heroic wife,
visited the numerous river-beds which carry the rains of the mountainous
regions of Abyssinia into the Blue Nile, and are the cause of the
periodical overflowing of the mighty stream, while its ordinary current
is fed from other far-distant sources, towards one of which the
traveller now prepared to direct his steps.

Speke and Grant were at this time making their way from Zanzibar, across
untrodden ground, towards Gondokoro.

An expedition under Petherick, the ivory-trader, sent to assist them,
had met with misfortune and been greatly delayed, and Mr Baker
therefore hoped to reach the equator, and perhaps to meet the Zanzibar
explorers somewhere about the sources of the Nile.

Proceeding along the banks of the Blue Nile, Mr and Mrs Baker reached
Khartoum on the 11th of June, 1862.  A beautiful view met their sight as
they gazed across the waters of the Nile.  "The morning sun was shining
on this capital of the Soudan provinces; the dark green foliage of the
groves of date-trees contrasted exquisitely with the numerous buildings
of many colours which lined the margin of the river, while long lines of
vessels with tapering spars gave light to the scene.  But alas! this
beauty soon vanished, both the sight and smell being outraged grievously
as they entered the filthy and miserable town."




At Khartoum Mr and Mrs Baker spent some months to recruit, occupying
the house of the British Consul, who was then absent.

On the 17th of December their preparations for a fresh start were
completed.  Three vessels had been engaged, and were laden with large
quantities of stores, with four hundred bushels of corn, and twenty-nine
transport animals, including camels, horses, and donkeys.  Their party
consisted of ninety-six souls, including Johann Schmidt and the faithful
black Richarn, and forty-nine well-armed men.

Khartoum was a nest of slave-traders, who looked with jealous eyes upon
every stranger venturing within the precincts of their holy land, and,
as Mr Baker observes: "sacred to slavery and to every abomination and
villainy that man can commit."

The Turkish officers pretended to discountenance slavery; at the same
time every house was full of slaves, and Egyptian officers received a
portion of their pay in slaves.  The authorities, therefore, looked upon
the proposed exploration of the White Nile by a European traveller as
likely to interfere with their perquisites, and threw every obstacle in
his way.

As the government of Soudan refused to supply him with properly-trained
soldiers, the only men he could get for an escort were the miserable
cut-throats of Khartoum, who had been accustomed all their lives to
murder and pillage in the White Nile trade; yet, such as they were, he
was compelled to put up with them, though he would undoubtedly have done
better had he gone without such an escort.

The voyage alone to Gondokoro, the navigable limit of the Nile, was
likely to occupy about fifty days, so that a large supply of provisions
was necessary.

Difficulties were met with from the very beginning.  The vessel's yards
were continually being carried away.

Poor Johann, who, though he had long been suffering, insisted on
accompanying his employer, died a short time after the commencement of
the voyage.

On the 2nd of January they were sailing past the country inhabited by
the Shillooks, the largest and most powerful black tribe on the banks of
the White Nile.  They are very wealthy, and possess immense herds of
cattle; are also agriculturists, fishermen, and warriors.  Their huts
are regularly built, looking at a distance like rows of button
mushrooms.  They embark boldly on the river in their raft-like canoes,
formed of the excessively light ambatch-wood.  The tree is of no great
thickness, and tapers gradually to a point.  It is thus easily cut down,
and, several trunks being lashed together, a canoe is quickly formed.  A
war party on several occasions, embarking in a fleet of these rafts,
have descended the river, and made raids on other tribes, carrying off
women and children as captives, and large herds of cattle.

Nothing can be more melancholy and uninteresting than the general
appearance of the banks of the river.  At times vast marshes alone could
be seen, at others an immense expanse of sandy desert, with huge
ant-hills ten feet high rising above them.  The inhabitants were naked
savages.  While stopping at a village on the right bank, they received a
visit from the chief of the Nuehr tribe and a number of his followers.
They were most unearthly-looking fellows; even the young women were
destitute of clothing, though the married had a fringe made of grass
round their loins.  The men wore heavy coils of beads about their necks,
two heavy bracelets of ivory on the upper portions of their arms, copper
rings upon the wrist, and a horrible kind of bracelet of massive iron,
armed with spikes about an inch in length, like leopards' claws.  The
women had their upper lips perforated and wore ornaments on their heads,
about four inches long, of beads, upon iron wires projecting like the
horn of a rhinoceros.

The chief exhibited his wife's arms and back, covered with jagged scars,
to show the use of the spiked iron bracelet.

These were among the first blacks met with.  They are almost too low in
the scale of humanity to be fit for slaves.  Mr Baker gained much
information about the slave trade of this part of the world.  Most of
those engaged in this nefarious traffic are Syrians, Copts, Turks,
Circassians, and some few Europeans.  When a speculator has determined
to enter into the trade, he engages a hundred and fifty to two hundred
ruffians, and purchases guns and ammunition, and a few pounds of glass
beads.  With these he sails up to Gondokoro and, disembarking, marches
into the interior till he arrives at the village of some negro chief,
with whom he establishes an intimacy.  The chief has probably an enemy
to attack, and his new allies gladly assist him.  Led by him, they
approach some unsuspecting village about half an hour before daybreak.
Surrounding it while the occupants are still sleeping, they fire the
grass-huts in all directions, and pour volleys of musketry through the
flaming thatch.  Panic-struck, the unfortunate victims rush from their
burning dwellings.  The men are shot down, the women and children
kidnapped and secured, while the herds of cattle are driven off.  The
women and children are then fastened together, the former secured by an
instrument, called a _sheba_, made of a forked pole.  The neck of the
prisoner fits into the fork, secured by a cross-piece also behind, while
the wrists, brought together in advance of the body, are tied to the
pole.  The children are then fastened by their necks with the rope
attached to the women, and thus form a living chain, in which order they
are marched to the head-quarters with the captured herds.  Of course,
all the ivory found in the place is carried off.  The cattle are then
exchanged with the negro chief for any tusks he may possess.

In many instances a quarrel is soon afterwards picked with him, and his
village is treated in the same way as that of his foes.  Should any
slave attempt to escape, she is punished either by brutal flogging, or
hanged as a warning to others.  The slaves are then carried down the
river, and landed a few days' journey south of Khartoum, whence they are
marched across the country, some to ports on the Red Sea, there to be
shipped for Arabia and Persia, while others are sent to Cairo.  In fact,
they are disseminated throughout the slave dealing East.

Sailing on day after day, with marshes and dead flats alone in sight,
mosquitos preventing rest even in the day, they at length arrived at the
station of a White Nile trader, where large herds of cattle were seen on
the banks.

They were here visited by the chief of the Kytch tribe and his daughter,
a girl of about sixteen, better looking than most of her race.  The
father wore a leopard-skin across his shoulder, and a skull-cap of white
beads, with a crest of white ostrich feathers.  But this mantle was the
only garment he had on.  His daughter's clothing consisted only of a
piece of dressed hide hanging over one shoulder, more for ornament than
use, as the rest of her body was entirely destitute of covering.  The
men, though tall, were wretchedly thin, and the children mere skeletons.

While the travellers remained here, they were beset by starving crowds,
bringing small gourd shells to receive the expected corn.  The natives,
indeed, seem to trust entirely to the productions of nature for their
subsistence, and are the most pitiable set of savages that can be
imagined, their long thin legs and arms giving them a peculiar gnat-like
appearance.  They devour both the skin and bones of dead animals.  The
bones are pounded between stones, and, when reduced to powder, boiled to
form a kind of porridge.

It is remarkable that in every herd they have a sacred bull, who is
supposed to have an influence over the prosperity of the rest.  His
horns are ornamented with tufts of feathers, and frequently with small
bells, and he invariably leads the great herd to pasture.

A short visit was paid to the Austrian mission stationed at Saint Croix,
which has proved a perfect failure--indeed, that very morning it was
sold to an Egyptian for 30 pounds.

It was here the unfortunate Baron Harnier, a Prussian nobleman, was
killed by a buffalo which he had attacked in the hopes of saving the
life of a native whom the buffalo had struck down.

The voyage terminated at Gondokoro on the 2nd of February.

The country is a great improvement to the interminable marshes at the
lower part of the river, being raised about twenty feet above the water,
while distant mountains relieve the eye, and evergreen trees, scattered
in all directions, shading the native villages, form an inviting
landscape.  A few miserable grass-huts alone, however, form the town, if
it deserves that name.

A large number of men belonging to the various traders were assembled
here, who looked upon the travellers with anything but friendly eyes.

As Mr Baker heard that a party were expected at Gondokoro from the
interior with ivory in a few days, he determined to await their arrival,
in hopes that their porters would be ready to carry his baggage.

In the mean time he rode about the neighbourhood, studying the place and

"The native dwellings are the perfection of cleanliness.  The domicile
of each family is surrounded by a hedge of euphorbia, and the interior
of the enclosure generally consists of a yard neatly plastered with a
cement of ashes, cow-dung, and sand.  Upon this cleanly-swept surface
are one or more huts, surrounded by granaries of neat wicker-work,
thatched, and resting upon raised platforms.  The huts have projecting
roofs, in order to afford a shade, and the entrance is usually about two
feet high.

"The natives are of the Bari tribe.  The men are well grown, and their
features are good, the woolly hair alone denoting their negro blood.

"They use poisoned arrows, but, as their bows are inferior and they are
bad marksmen, they do not commit much mischief with them."

Gondokoro was a perfect hell--a mere colony of cut-throats.  The
Egyptians might easily have sent a few officers and two or three hundred
men from Khartoum to form a military government, and thus impede the
slave trade; but a bribe from the traders to the authorities was
sufficient to ensure an uninterrupted asylum for any amount of villainy.
The camps were full of slaves, and the Bari natives assured Mr Baker
that there was a large depot of slaves in the interior, belonging to the
traders, that would be marched to Gondokoro for shipment a few hours
after his departure.  He was looked upon as a stumbling-block to the
trade.  Several attempts were made to shoot him, and a boy was killed by
a shot from the shore, on board his vessel.  His men were immediately
tampered with by the traders, and signs of discontent soon appeared
among them.  They declared that they had not sufficient meat, and that
they must be allowed to make a razzia upon the cattle of the natives to
procure oxen.  This demand being refused, they became more insolent, and
accordingly Mr Baker ordered the ringleader, an Arab, to be seized and
to receive twenty-five lashes.  Upon his _vakeel_ approaching to capture
the fellow, most of the men laid down their guns and, seizing sticks,
rushed to his rescue.  Mr Baker, on this, sprang forward, sent their
leader by a blow of his fist into their midst, and then, seizing him by
the throat, called to Saati for a rope to bind him.  The men, still
intent on their object, surrounded Mr Baker, when Mrs Baker, landing
from the vessel, made her way to the spot.  Her sudden appearance caused
the mutineers to hesitate, when Mr Baker shouted to the drummer boy to
beat the drum, and then ordered the men to fall in.  Two-thirds obeyed
him, and formed in line, while the remainder retreated with their
ringleader.  At this critical moment Mrs Baker implored her husband to
forgive the mutineer, if he would kiss his hand and beg his pardon.
This compromise completely won the men, who now called upon their
ringleader to apologise, and all would be right.  This he did, and Mr
Baker made them rather a bitter speech and dismissed them.

This, unhappily, was only the first exhibition of their mutinous
disposition, which nearly ruined the expedition, and might have led to
the destruction of the travellers.

A few days afterwards guns were heard in the distance, and news arrived
that two white men had arrived from "the sea"!  They proved to be Grant
and Speke, who had just come from the Victoria Nyanza.  Both looked
travel-worn.  Speke, who had walked the whole distance from Zanzibar,
was excessively lean, but in reality in good tough condition.  Grant's
garments were well-nigh worn-out, but both of them had that fire in the
eye which showed the spirit that had led them through many dangers.

They had heard of another lake to the westward of the the Nyanza, known
as the Luta Nzige, which Speke felt convinced was a second source of the

Accordingly, he and Grant having generously furnished him with as
perfect a map as they could produce, Baker determined to explore the
lake, while his friends, embarking in his boats, sailed down the Nile on
their voyage homeward.  His men, notwithstanding the lesson they had
received, still exhibited a determined mutinous disposition, and in
every way neglected their duties.  Happily for him, he had among his
attendants a little black boy, Saati, who, having been brought as a
slave from the interior, had been for a time in the Austrian mission,
from which, with many other slaves, he was turned out.  Wandering about
the streets of Khartoum, he heard of Mr and Mrs Baker, and, making his
way to their house, threw himself at the lady's feet, and implored to be
allowed to follow them.  Hearing at the mission that he was superior to
his juvenile companions, they accepted his services, and, being
thoroughly washed, and attired in trousers, blouse, and belt, he
appeared a different creature.  From that time he considered himself as
belonging entirely to Mrs Baker, and to serve her was his greatest
pride.  She in return endeavoured to instruct him, and gave him
anecdotes from the Bible, combined with the first principles of

Through the means of young Saati, Mr Baker heard of a plot among the
Khartoum escort, to desert him with their arms and ammunition, and to
fire at him should he attempt to disarm them.  The locks of their guns
had, by his orders, been covered with pieces of mackintosh.  Directing
Mrs Baker to stand behind him, he placed outside his tent, on his
travelling bedstead, five double-barrelled guns loaded with buck-shot, a
revolver, and a naked sabre.  A sixth rifle he kept in his own hands,
while Richarn and Saati stood behind him with double-barrelled guns.  He
then ordered the drum to beat, and all the men to form in line of
marching order, while he requested Mrs Baker to point out any man who
should attempt to uncover his lock when he gave the order to lay down
their arms.  In the event of the attempt being made, he intended to
shoot the man immediately.  At the sound of the drum only fifteen
assembled.  He then ordered them to lay down their arms.  This, with
insolent looks of defiance, they refused to do.

"Down with your guns this moment!" he shouted.

At the sharp click of the locks, as he quickly capped the rifle in his
hand, the cowardly mutineers widened their line and wavered; some
retreated a few paces, others sat down and laid their guns on the
ground, while the remainder slowly dispersed, and sat in twos or singly
under the various trees about eighty paces distant.  On the _vakeel_ and
Richarn advancing, they capitulated, agreeing to give up their arms and
ammunition on receiving a written discharge.  They were immediately
disarmed.  The discharge was made out, when upon each paper Mr Baker
wrote the word "mutineer" above his signature.  Finally, nearly the
whole of the escort deserted, taking service with the traders.

Not to be defeated, Baker obtained a Bari boy as interpreter, determined
at all hazards to start from Gondokoro.

A party of traders under Koorshid, who had lately arrived from Latooka
and were about to return, not only refused to allow the travellers to
accompany them, but declared their intention of forcibly driving them
back, should they attempt to advance by their route.

This served as an excuse to the remainder of his escort for not

Saati discovered another plot, his men having been won over by Mahomet
Her, the _vakeel_ of Chenooda, another trader.

Notwithstanding the danger he was running, Mr Baker compelled his men
to march, and by a clever manoeuvre got ahead of the party led by
Ibrahim, Koorshid's _vakeel_.

Finally, by wonderful tact, assisted by Mrs Baker, he won over Ibrahim,
and induced him to render him all the assistance in his power.

Aided by his new friend, he arrived at Tarrangolle, one of the principal
places in the Latooka country, a hundred miles from Gondokoro, which,
though out of his direct route, would, he hoped, enable him with greater
ease finally to reach Unyoro, the territory of Kamrasi.

In the mean time, however, several of his men had deserted and joined
Mahomet Her.  He had warned them that they would repent of their folly.
His warnings were curiously fulfilled.

News soon arrived that Mahomet Her, with a party of a hundred and ten
armed men, in addition to three hundred natives, had made a razzia upon
a certain village among the mountains for slaves and cattle.  Having
succeeded in the village and capturing a number of slaves, as they were
re-ascending the mountain to obtain a herd of cattle they had heard of,
they were attacked by a large body of Latookas, lying in ambush among
the rocks on the mountain side.

In vain the Turks fought; every bullet aimed at a Latooka struck a rock,
while rocks, stones, and lances were hurled at them from all sides and
from above.  Compelled to retreat, they were seized with a panic, and
took to flight.

Hemmed in by their foes, who showered lances and stones on their heads,
they fled down the rocky and perpendicular ravines.  Mistaking their
road, they came to a precipice from which there was no retreat.

The screaming and yelling savages closed round them.  All was useless;
not an enemy could they shoot, while the savages thrust them forward
with wild yells to the very verge of a precipice five hundred feet high.
Over it they were driven, hurled to destruction by the mass of Latookas
pressing onward.  A few fought to the last; but all were at length
forced over the edge of the cliff, and met the just reward of their
atrocities.  No quarter had been given, and upwards of two hundred of
the natives who had joined the slave-hunters in the attack, had fallen
with them.

Mahomet Her had not accompanied his party, and escaped, though utterly

The result of this catastrophe was highly beneficial to Mr Baker.

"Where are the men who deserted me?" he asked of those who still
remained with him.

Without speaking, they brought two of his guns covered with clotted
blood mixed with sand.  Their owners' names were known to him by the
marks on the stocks.  He mentioned them.

"Are they all dead?" he asked.

"All dead," the men replied.

"Food for the vultures," he observed.  "Better for them had they
remained with me and done their duty."

He had before told his men that the vultures would pick the bones of the

From that moment an extraordinary change took place in the manner both
of his _own_ people and those of Ibrahim towards him.  Unhappily,
however, the Latookas exhibited a change for the worse.  The Turks, as
usual, insulted their women, and treated the natives with the greatest
brutality; and had he not exercised much caution and vigilance, both his
own party and Ibrahim's would in all probability have been cut off.
Ibrahim had been compelled to go back to Gondokoro for ammunition, and
Mr Baker waited at Tarrangolle for his return.

On one occasion, in consequence of the misbehaviour of the Turks, the
whole of the natives deserted the town, and vast numbers collected
outside, threatening to attack it and destroy their guests.  Mr Baker,
gaining information of their intention, took command of the Turks, and
with his own men showed so bold a front that the natives saw clearly
that they would be the sufferers should they attempt to carry their
purpose into execution.

Their chief, Comonoro, came into the town, and seeing the preparations
made for its defence, agreed to persuade his people to act in a
peaceable manner.  The next morning they dispersed, and the inhabitants
returned to the town.

The Turks, after their alarm, behaved better, though they threatened,
when Ibrahim arrived with reinforcements and ammunition, that they would
have their revenge.

Mr Baker after this moved his camp to a secure position some distance
from the town, near a stream of water.  Here he formed a garden, and
lived in a far more independent way than before.

The debased state of morality prevailing among the natives was exhibited
in a variety of ways.  One of their chiefs, Adda by name, came to him
one day and requested him to assist in attacking a village, for the
purpose of procuring some iron hoes which he wanted.  Mr Baker asked
whether it was in an enemy's country.  "Oh, no!" was the reply; "it is
close here, but the people are rather rebellious, and it will do them
good to kill a few.  If you are afraid, I will ask the Turks to do it."

A funeral dance a short time after this took place in honour of those
who had been killed in the late fight.  The dancers were grotesquely got
up, and are amusingly described by Mr Baker.  "Each man had about a
dozen huge ostrich feathers in his helmet, a leopard or monkey-skin hung
from his shoulders, while a large iron bell was strapped to his loins
like a woman's bustle.  This he rang during the dance, by jerking the
hinder part of his body in the most absurd manner.  All the time a
hubbub was kept up by the shouting of the crowd, the blowing of horns,
and the beating of seven _nogaras_, or drums, all of different notes,
while each dancer also blew an antelope's horn suspended round his neck,
the sound partaking of the braying of a donkey and the screeching of an
owl.  Meantime crowds of men rushed round and round, brandishing their
lances and iron-headed maces, following a leader, who headed them,
dancing backwards.  The women outside danced at a slower pace, screaming
a wild and inharmonious chant, while beyond them a string of young girls
and small children beat time with their feet, and jingled numerous iron
rings which adorned their ankles.  One woman attended upon the men,
running through the crowd with a gourd full of wood-ashes, handfuls of
which she showered over their heads, powdering them like millers.  The
leader among the women was immensely fat; notwithstanding this she kept
up the pace to the last, quite unconscious of her general appearance."

Notwithstanding the dangers of his position, Mr Baker frequently went
out shooting, and, among other animals, he killed an enormous elephant,
but the natives carried off the tusks and flesh.  He was able, however,
with his gun, to supply his camp with food, which was fortunate, as the
natives would not sell him any of their cattle.

Soon after Ibrahim's return, the Turks, at the request of Comonoro,
attacked the town of Kayala, but were driven back by the natives, whose
cattle, however, they carried off.

It became dangerous to remain longer in the country, in consequence of
the abominable conduct of the Turks, which so irritated the natives that
an attack from them was daily expected.

They were therefore compelled to return to Obbo, the chief of which, old
Katchiba, had before received them in a friendly manner.

Here, in consequence of their exposure to wet, Mr and Mrs Baker were
attacked with fever.  By this time all their baggage animals as well as
their horses had died.  Mr Baker purchased from the Turks some good
riding oxen for himself and his wife, and, having placed his goods under
the charge of old Katchiba and two of his own men, he set out on the 8th
of January, 1864, with a small number of attendants, to proceed to
Karuma, the northern end of Kamrasi's territory, which Speke and Grant
had visited.

The Shooa country, through which he passed, is very beautiful,
consisting of mountains covered with fine forest trees, and
picturesquely dotted over with villages.  Several portions presented the
appearance of a park watered by numerous rivulets and ornamented with
fine timber, while it was interspersed with high rocks of granite, which
at a distance looked like ruined castles.

Here they found an abundance of food: fowls, butter, and goats were
brought for sale.

They had obtained the services of a slave woman called Bacheeta,
belonging to Unyoro, and who, having learned Arabic, was likely to prove
useful as an interpreter and guide.  She, however, had no desire to
return to her own country, and endeavoured to mislead them, by taking
them to the country of Rionga, an enemy of Kamrasi.  Fortunately Mr
Baker detected her treachery, and he and his Turkish allies reached the
Karuma Falls, close to the village of Atada.  A number of Kamrasi's
people soon crossed the river to within parleying distance, when
Bacheeta, as directed, explained that Speke's brother had arrived to pay
Kamrasi a visit, and had brought him valuable presents.  Kamrasi's
people, however, showed considerable suspicion on seeing so many people,
till Baker appeared dressed in a suit similar to that worn by Speke,
when they at once exhibited their welcome, by dancing and gesticulating
with their lances and shields in the most extravagant manner.  The
party, however, were not allowed to cross till permission was obtained
from Kamrasi.  That very cautious and cowardly monarch sent his brother,
who pretended to be Kamrasi himself, and for some time Baker was
deceived, fully believing that he was negotiating with the king.
Notwithstanding his regal pretensions, he very nearly got knocked down,
on proposing that he and his guest should exchange wives, and even
Bacheeta, understanding the insult which had been offered, fiercely
abused the supposed king.

His Obbo porters had before this deserted him, and he was now dependent
on Kamrasi for others to supply their places.

The king, however, ultimately became more friendly, and gave orders to
his people to assist the stranger, granting him also permission to
proceed westward to the lake he was so anxious to visit.

A few women having been supplied to carry his luggage, he and his wife,
with their small party of attendants, at length set out.

On approaching a considerable village, about six hundred
strangely-dressed men rushed out with lances and shields, screaming and
yelling as if about to attack them.  His men cried out: "Fire.  There is
a fight! there is a fight!"

He felt assured that it was a mere parade.  The warriors were dressed
either in leopard or white monkey-skins, with cows' tails strapped on
behind, and two antelope horns fixed on their heads, while their chins
were ornamented with false beards made of the bushy ends of cows' tails.

These demon-like savages came round them, gesticulating and yelling,
pretending to attack them with spears and shields, and then engaged in
sham fights with each other.

Mr Baker, however, soon got rid of his satanic escort.  Poor Mrs Baker
was naturally alarmed, fearing that it was the intention of the king to
waylay them and perhaps carry her off.

Soon after this, while crossing the Kafue river, the heat being
excessive, what was Mr Baker's horror to see his wife sink from her ox
as though shot dead.  He, with his attendants, carried her through the
yielding vegetation, up to their waists in water, above which they could
just keep her head, till they reached the banks.  He then laid her under
a tree, and now discovered that she had received a _coup de soleil_.  As
there was nothing to eat on the spot, it was absolutely necessary to
move on.  A litter was procured, on which Mrs Baker was carried, her
husband mechanically following by its side.  For seven days continuously
he thus proceeded on his journey.  Her eyes at length opened, but, to
his infinite grief, he found that she was attacked by a brain fever.

One evening they reached a village.  She was in violent convulsions.  He
believed all was over, and, while he sank down insensible by her side,
his men went out to seek for a spot to dig her grave.  On awakening, all
hope having abandoned him, as he gazed at her countenance her chest
gently heaved; she was asleep.  When at a sudden noise she opened her
eyes, they were calm and clear: she was saved.

Having rested for a couple of days, they continued their course, Mrs
Baker being carried on her litter.  At length they reached the village
of Parkani.  To his joy, as he gazed at some lofty mountains, he was
told that they formed the western side of the Luta Nzige, and that the
lake was actually within a march of the village.  Their guide announced
that if they started early in the morning, they might wash in the lake
by noon.  That night Baker hardly slept.

The following morning, the 14th of March, starting before sunrise, on
ox-back, he and his wife, with their attendants, following his guide, in
a few hours reached a hill from the summit of which "he beheld beneath
him a grand expanse of water, a boundless sea horizon on the south and
south-west, glittering in the noonday sun, while on the west, at fifty
or sixty miles distant, blue mountains rose from the bosom of the lake
to a height of about seven thousand feet above its level."

Hence they descended on foot, supported by stout bamboos, for two hours,
to the white pebbly beach on which the waves of the lake were rolling.

Baker, in the enthusiasm of the moment, rushed into the lake, and,
thirsty with heat and fatigue, with a heart full of gratitude, drank
deeply from what he supposed to be one of the sources of the Nile, not
dreaming of the wonderful discoveries Livingstone was making at that
very time many degrees to the southward.  He now bestowed upon this lake
the name of the Albert Nyanza.

The dwellers on the borders of the lake are expert fishermen, and in one
of their villages, named Vakovia, the travellers now established

His followers, two of whom had seen the sea at Alexandria, and who
believed that they should never reach the lake, were astonished at its
appearance, unhesitatingly declaring that though it was not salt, it
must be the sea.

Salt, however, is the chief product of the country, numerous salt-pits
existing in the neighbourhood, and in its manufacture the inhabitants
are chiefly employed.

Vakovia is a miserable place, and, in consequence of its damp and hot
position, the whole party suffered from fever.

Here they were detained eight days waiting for canoes, which Kamrasi had
ordered his people to supply.  At length several were brought, but they
were merely hollowed-out trunks of trees, the largest being thirty-two
feet long.  Baker selected another, twenty-six feet long, but wider and
deeper, for himself and his wife and their personal attendants, while
the luggage and the remainder of the people embarked in the former.  He
raised the sides of the canoe, and fitted up a cabin for his wife, which
was both rain and sun-proof.

Having purchased some provisions, he started on a voyage to survey the

Vakovia is about a third of the way from the northern end of the lake.
His time would not allow him to proceed further south.  He directed his
course northward, towards the part out of which the Nile was supposed to

The difficulties of the journey were not yet over.  The first day's
voyage was delightful, the lake calm, the scenery lovely.  At times the
mountains on the west coast were not discernible, and the lake appeared
of indefinite width.  Sometimes they passed directly under precipitous
cliffs of fifteen hundred feet in height, rising abruptly out of the
water, while from the deep clefts in the rocks evergreens of every tint
appeared, and wherever a rivulet burst forth it was shaded by the
graceful and feathery wild date.  Numbers of hippopotami were sporting
in the water, and crocodiles were numerous on every sandy beach.

Next night, however, the boatmen deserted, but, not to be defeated,
Baker induced his own people to take to the paddles.  He fitted a paddle
to his own boat, to act as a rudder, but the men in the larger boat
neglected to do as he had directed them.

A tremendous storm of rain came down while he was at work.  His own
canoe, however, being ready, he started.  He was about to cross from one
headland to another, when he saw the larger canoe spinning round and
round, the crew having no notion of guiding her.  Fortunately it was
calm, and, on reaching the shore, he induced several natives to serve as
his crew, while others went off in their own boats to assist the large

He now commenced crossing a deep bay, fully four miles wide.  He had
gained the centre when a tremendous storm came on, and enormous waves
rolled in over the lake.  The canoe laboured heavily and occasionally
shipped water, which was quickly bailed out.  Had this not been done,
the canoe would inevitably have been swamped.  Down came the rain in
torrents, while the wind swept over the surface with terrific force,
nothing being discernible except the high cliffs looming in the
distance.  The boatmen paddled energetically, and at last a beach was
seen ahead.  A wave struck the canoe, washing over her.  Just then the
men jumped out, and, though they were rolled over, they succeeded in
hauling the boat up the beach.

The shore of the lake, as they paddled along it, was thinly inhabited,
and the people very inhospitable, till they reached the town of
Eppigoya.  Even here the inhabitants refused to sell any of their goats,
though they willingly parted with fowls at a small price.

At each village the voyagers changed their boatmen, none being willing
to go beyond the village next them.  This was provoking, as delays
constantly occurred.

At length they reached Magimgo, situated inside an immense bed of reeds,
at the top of a hill, above the mouth of a large river.  Passing up a
channel amidst a perfect wilderness of vegetation, they reached the
shore below the town.  Here they were met by their guide, who had
brought their riding oxen from Vakovia, and reported them all well.

The chief of Magimgo and a large number of natives were also on the
shore waiting for them, and brought them down a plentiful supply of
goats, fowls, eggs, and fresh butter.

Proceeding on foot to the height on which Magimgo stands, they thence
enjoyed a magnificent view, not only over the lake, but to the north,
towards the point where its waters flow into the Nile.

Baker's great desire was to descend the Nile in canoes, from its exit
from the lake to the cataracts in the Madi country, and thence to march
direct, with only guns and ammunition, to Gondokoro.  This plan he found
impossible to carry out.

Before their return to the canoes, Mr Baker himself was laid prostrate
with fever, and most of his men were also suffering.

They had heard, however, of a magnificent waterfall up the river.  They
accordingly proceeded up it, and, as they got about eighteen miles above
Magimgo, a slight current was perceived.  The river gradually narrowed
to about a hundred and eighty yards, and now, when the paddles ceased
working, the roar of water could be distinctly heard.  Continuing on,
the noise became louder.  An enormous number of crocodiles were seen,
and Mr Baker counted, on one sandbank alone, twenty-seven of large

Reaching a deserted fishing village, the crew at first refused to
proceed further, but, on Mr Baker explaining that he merely wished to
see the falls, they paddled up the stream, now strong against them.

On rounding a point, a magnificent sight burst upon them.  On either
side of the river were beautifully-wooded cliffs, rising abruptly to a
height of about three hundred feet, rocks jutting out from the intensely
green foliage, while, rushing through a gap which cleft the rock exactly
before them, was the river.  It is here contracted from a grand stream
to the width of scarcely a hundred and fifty feet.  Roaring fiercely
through the rock-bound pass, it plunged, in one leap of about a hundred
and twenty feet, perpendicularly into the dark abyss below, the
snow-white sheet of water contrasting superbly with the dark cliff that
walled the river, while the graceful palms of the tropics, and wild
plantains, perfected the beauty of the scene.

This was the great waterfall of the Nile, and was named the Murchison
Falls, in compliment to the president of the Royal Geographical Society.
To the river itself he gave the name of the Victoria Nile.

Having taken a view of the falls, and remained for some time admiring
them, narrowly escaping being upset by a huge bull hippopotamus, they
returned down the river to Magimgo.

Starting the next morning, both Mr and Mrs Baker suffering from fever,
while all their quinine was exhausted, they found that their oxen had
been bitten by the tsetse-fly, and were in a wretched condition,
unlikely to live.  Their guide also deserted them, and the whole of
their carriers went off, leaving them on the Island of Patooam, in the
Victoria River, to which they had been ferried across.

It was now the 8th of April, and within a few days the boats in which
they had hoped to return down the Nile would leave Gondokoro.  It was,
therefore, of the greatest importance that they should set out at once,
and take a direct route through the Shooa country.

The natives, not to be tempted even by bribes, positively refused to
carry them.  Their own men were also ill, and there was a great scarcity
of provisions.  War, indeed, was going on in the country to the east,
Patooam being in the hands of Kamrasi's enemies.  It was on this account
that no Unyoro porters could be found.

They might have starved had not an underground granary of seed been
discovered, by the means of Bacheeta, in one of the villages burned down
by the enemy.  This, with several varieties of wild plants, enabled them
to support existence.

The last of their oxen, after lingering for some time, lay down to die,
affording the men a supply of beef, and Saati and Bacheeta occasionally
obtained a fowl from one of the neighbouring islands, which they visited
in a canoe.

At length both Mr and Mrs Baker fully believed that their last hour
was come, and he wrote various instructions in his journal, directing
his head man to deliver his maps and observations to the British Consul
at Khartoum.

The object, it appeared, of Kamrasi in thus leaving them, was to obtain
their assistance against his enemies, and at length their guide,
Rehonga, made his appearance, having been ordered to carry them to
Kamrasi's camp.

The journey was performed, in spite of their weak state; and on their
arrival they found ten of the Turks left as hostages with Kamrasi by
Ibrahim, who had returned to Gondokoro.  The Turks received them with
respect and manifestations of delight and wonder at their having
performed so difficult a journey.

A hut was built for their reception, and an ox, killed by the Turks, was
prepared as a feast for their people.

The next day the king notified his readiness to receive the traveller,
who, attiring himself in a Highland costume, was carried on the
shoulders of a number of men into the presence of the monarch.  The king
informed him that he had made arrangements for his remaining at Kisoona.

As now all hope of reaching Gondokoro in time for the boats had gone,
Mr Baker, yielding to necessity, prepared to make himself at home.  He
had a comfortable hut built, surrounded by a court-yard with an open
shed in which he and his wife could spend the hot hours of the day.
Kamrasi sent him a cow which gave an abundance of milk, also amply
supplying him with food.

Here the travellers were compelled to spend many months.  Their stay was
cut short, in consequence of the invasion of the country by Fowooka's
people, accompanied by a large band of Turks under the trader Debono.
Kamrasi proposed at once taking to flight; but Baker promised to hoist
the flag of England, and to place the country under British protection.
He then sent a message to Mahomet, Debono's _vakeel_, warning him that
should a shot be fired by any of his people, he would be hung, and
ordering them at once to quit the country; informing them, besides, that
he had already promised all the ivory to Ibrahim, so that, contrary to
the rules of the traders, they were trespassing in the territory.

This letter had its due effect.  Mahomet deserted his allies, who were
immediately attacked by Kamrasi's troops, and cut to pieces, while the
women and children were brought away as captives.  Among them, Bacheeta,
who had once been a slave in the country, recognised her former
mistress, who had been captured with the wives and daughters of their
chief, Rionga.

After this Ibrahim returned, bringing a variety of presents for Kamrasi,
which, in addition to the defeat of his enemies, put him in excellent

Mr Baker was able to save the life of an old chief, Kalloe, who had
been captured; but some days afterwards the treacherous Kamrasi shot him
with his own hand.

At length the Turkish traders, having collected a large supply of ivory,
were ready to return to Shooa; and Mr Baker, thankful to leave the
territory of the brutal Kamrasi, took his leave, and commenced the
journey with his allies, who, including porters, women, and children,
amounted to a thousand people.

At Shooa he spent some months more encamped among the friendly Madi.

As they were marching thence through the country inhabited by the Bari
tribe, they were attacked in a gorge by the natives.  The latter were,
however, driven back; but the following night the camp was surrounded,
and poisoned arrows shot into it.  One of the natives, who had ventured
nearer than the rest, was shot, when the rest, who could not be seen on
account of the darkness, retired.  In the morning a number of arrows
were picked up.

On reaching Gondokoro, only three boats had arrived, while the trading
parties were in consternation at hearing that the Egyptian authorities
were about to suppress the slave trade and with four steamers had
arrived at Khartoum, two of which had ascended the White Nile and had
captured many slavers.  Thus the three thousand slaves who were then
assembled at Gondokoro would be utterly worthless.

The plague also was raging at Khartoum, and many among the crews of the
boats had died on the passage.  Mr Baker, however, engaged one of them,
a _diabiah_, belonging to Koorshid Pacha.

Bidding farewell to his former opponent, Ibrahim, who had since,
however, behaved faithfully, Mr Baker and his devoted wife commenced
their voyage down the Nile.

Unhappily the plague, as might have been expected, broke out on board,
and several of their people died among them.  They chiefly regretted the
loss of the faithful little boy, Saati.

At Khartoum, which they reached on the 5th of May, 1865, they were
welcomed by the whole European population, and hospitably entertained.

Here they remained two months.  During the time the heat was intense,
and the place was visited by a dust-storm, which in a few minutes
produced an actual pitchy darkness.  At first there was no wind, and
when it came it did not arrive with the violence that might have been
expected.  So intense was the darkness, that Mr Baker and his
companions tried in vain to distinguish their hands placed close before
their eyes: not even an outline could be seen.  This lasted for upwards
of twenty minutes, and then rapidly passed away.  They had, however,
felt such darkness as the Egyptians experienced in the time of Moses.

The plague had been introduced by the slaves landed from two vessels
which had been captured, and in which the pestilence had broken out.
They contained upwards of eight hundred and fifty human beings.  Nothing
could be more dreadful than the condition in which the unhappy beings
were put on shore.  The women had afterwards been distributed among the
soldiers, and, in consequence, the pestilence had been disseminated
throughout the place.

Mr Baker had the satisfaction of bringing Mahomet Her, who had
instigated his men to mutiny at Latooka, to justice.  He was seized and
carried before the governor, when he received one hundred and fifty
lashes.  How often had the wretch flogged women to excess!  What murders
had he not committed!  And now how he howled for mercy!  Mr Baker,
however, begged that the punishment might be stopped, and that it might
be explained to him that he was thus punished for attempting to thwart
the expedition of an English traveller by instigating his escort to

The Nile having now risen, the voyage was recommenced; but their vessel
was very nearly wrecked on descending the cataracts.

On reaching Berber, they crossed the desert east to Sonakim on the Red
Sea.  Hence, finding a steamer, they proceeded by way of Suez to Cairo,
where they left the faithful Richarn and his wife in a comfortable
situation as servants at Shepherd's Hotel, and Mr Baker had the
satisfaction of hearing that the Royal Geographical Society had awarded
him the Victoria Gold Medal, a proof that his exertions had been duly
appreciated.  He also, on his arrival in England, received the honour of

Sir Samuel and Lady Baker, after a short stay at home, returned to
Egypt; Sir Samuel there having received the rank of pacha from the
Khedive, organised an expedition to convey steamers up the Nile, to be
placed on the waters of Lake Albert Nyanza, and with a strong hand to
put a stop to the slave trade, the horrors of which he had witnessed.
For many weary months he laboured in his herculean task, opposed in
every possible way by the slave-traders, and the treachery and open
hostility of the natives, overcoming obstacles which would have daunted
any but the most courageous and determined of men.

Reports of his defeat and destruction reached England; but happily they
proved to be false, and it is to be hoped that he and his heroic wife
will, ere long, return in safety to give an account of their adventures.




Notwithstanding the dangers and hardships he had endured during the many
years spent in penetrating into the interior of Africa and exploring the
Zambesi, Dr Livingstone, unwearied and undaunted, felt an ardent desire
to make further discoveries, to open up a road for commerce, and, more
than all, to prepare the way for the the spread of the Gospel among the
benighted inhabitants of the mighty continent.

A year after he performed his adventurous voyage in the "Lady Nyassa" to
Bombay, he returned to Zanzibar to make arrangements for another

For the particulars of the expedition we have to depend on the brief
letters he sent home at distant periods, and more especially on the
deeply-interesting account of Mr Stanley, who, when many had begun to
despair of the traveller's return, made his adventurous journey to find

See "How I Found Livingstone," by Henry M Stanley.  Sampson, Low and
Company, 1872.

The Governor of Bombay had given Dr Livingstone permission to take
twelve Sepoys, who, being provided with Enfield rifles, were to act as
guards to the expedition.  He had brought nine men from Johanna, and
these, with seven liberated slaves and two Zambesi men, making thirty in
all, formed his attendants, and were considered sufficient to enable him
to pass through the country without having to fear any marauding attacks
from the natives.

Leaving Zanzibar in March, 1866, he landed in a bay to the north of the
mouth of the Rovuma River, early in the following month.

On the 7th of April he began his journey into the interior, moving along
the left bank of the river.  His baggage consisted of bales of cloth and
bags of beads, with which to enable him to purchase food and pay tribute
to the chiefs through whose territories he might pass.  He had, besides,
his chronometer, sextant, artificial horizon, and thermometers carried
in cases, as also medicines, and the necessary clothing and other
articles for himself.  To carry the luggage he had also brought six
camels, three horses, two mules, and three donkeys.

The route he had chosen was beset with difficulties.  For miles on the
bank of the river he found the country covered with dense jungle,
through which the axe was required to hew a way.  There was, indeed, a
path which twisted and turned about in _every_ direction, formed by the
natives, sufficient for the passage of persons unencumbered by luggage,
but which it was found the camels could not possibly pass along, unless
the branches overhead were first cut down.

Greatly to his disappointment the Sepoys and Johanna men, unaccustomed
to such sort of labour, showed from the first a great dislike to be
employed in it, and, soon after they started, they began to use every
means in their power to ruin the expedition, in order to compel their
leader to return to the coast.  So cruelly did they neglect and ill
treat the unfortunate camels and other animals, that in a short time
they all died.  The doctor, however, obtained natives to carry on the
loads.  They then tried to prejudice him in the minds of the natives by
bringing all sorts of false accusations against him.  They likewise
behaved ill in a variety of other ways.  To lighten their own shoulders,
they laid hands on any woman or boy they could find, and compelled them
to carry their arms and ammunition.  Frequently also, after marching a
short distance, they would throw themselves down on the ground,
declaring that they were too much fatigued to move, and refused to
advance, often not making their appearance till the camp was formed in
the evening.

The doctor, feeling that even should he be attacked, they would probably
desert him, at length dismissed the whole of the Sepoys, and, providing
them with provisions, sent them back to the coast.

For several days together he and his remaining men travelled through an
uninhabited wilderness, and, being unable to obtain food, they suffered
much from hunger, while several of the men deserted.  Reaching, however,
the village of a Wahiyou chief, situated on high ground above Lake
Nyassa, their wants were supplied.

Early next month he arrived at the village of another chief, named
Mpende, near the shore of Lake Nyassa.  Here one of his attendants, in
whom he thought he could place confidence, and whom he had liberated
from slavery, insisted on leaving him, making various excuses for doing
so.  He also tried to induce another youth, named Chumah, to desert; but
the latter coming to the doctor, who suspected that he would only be
made a slave of, persuaded him to remain.

The next halt was made at the residence of a Babisa chief, who was
suffering from sickness; and here the doctor remained till he had seen
him restored to health.

While at this place an Arab arrived, and declared that he had escaped
from a marauding band of Mazitu, who had plundered him of his property.
He so worked on Musa, the captain of the Johanna men, who pretended to
believe his account, that Musa entreated the doctor to return; but when
the Babisa chief denounced the Arab as an impostor, Musa confessed that
his great object was to get back to his family at Johanna.

On finding that the doctor persevered in his intention to proceed
westward, Musa and his followers deserted him.

Thus was Livingstone left with only three or four attendants to
prosecute his journey, while those who had gone off had robbed him of
much of his property and even the greater part of his own clothes.

Leaving the Nyassa, he proceeded westward, passing through the
territories of numerous chiefs, who generally treated him hospitably,
though he had numerous difficulties to encounter, and constantly met
with misfortunes.

Continuing his course west and north-west, he came to a large river
flowing west, called the Chambezi, and, in consequence of the similarity
of its name to that of the stream he had so long navigated, he
concluded, trusting to the accounts given by Dr Lacerda, that it was
but the head water of the Zambesi.  He pushed on therefore, without
paying it the attention he otherwise would have done.  He subsequently
discovered that it fell into a large lake called Bangueolo, to the south
of which are a range of mountains which cut it off completely from the

Directing his course to the north-west, through the large province of
Londa, he reached the town of a chief named Kazembe, of whom he had
heard through Dr Lacerda.

This prince was a very intelligent man, with a fine commanding figure.
He received Dr Livingstone, dressed in a kilt of crimson stuff,
surrounded by his nobles and guards.

The doctor had previously received a visit from a chief, who called to
enquire the objects he had in view, and who now announced in due form
the reply he had received.  He stated that the white man had arrived for
the purpose of ascertaining what rivers and lakes existed in the
country, though, as he observed, it was difficult to comprehend why he
wished to gain such information.  The king then, having put various
questions to the doctor, the answers to which seemed to satisfy him,
gave him leave to travel wherever he liked throughout his dominions, and
assured him that he could do so without the risk of interference from
any of his subjects.  He had never before seen an Englishman, and he was
pleased to see one for whom he already felt a regard.  Soon after the
doctor received the announcement that the queen would honour him by a
visit, and a dignified fine-looking young woman, holding a spear in her
hand, and followed by a number of damsels also with spears, made her
appearance, evidently intending to produce an effect upon the white
stranger.  Her costume, however, and the enormous weapon she carried in
her hand, seems so to have tickled the doctor's fancy, that he burst
into a fit of laughter.  The lady herself and her attendant maidens,
unable to resist the influence of the doctor's laugh, joined in the fun,
and, wheeling about, rapidly beat a retreat.  The doctor quickly made
himself at home with his new friends, and under their protection
commenced a series of researches which occupied him for many months.

Londa, Kazembe's capital, is situated on the small Lake Mopo.  To the
north of it is a very much larger lake called Moero, surrounded by lofty
mountains, clothed to their summits with the rich vegetation of the
tropics.  The whole scenery is indeed beautiful and magnificent in the

This is, however, only one of a series of lakes which the doctor
discovered in the wide-extending province of Londa.  The most southern
is the large lake of Bangueolo, four thousand feet above the level of
the sea, its area almost equal to that of Lake Tanganyika.  It is into
this lake that the Chambezi and a vast number of other smaller streams
empty themselves.

As the Chambezi rises in the lofty plateau of Lobisa, six thousand six
hundred feet above the level of the sea, the doctor is inclined, from
the discoveries he afterwards made, to consider that it is the true
source of the Nile, which, if such is the case, would give that river a
length in direct latitude of upwards of two thousand miles, making it
only second to the Mississippi, the longest river on the face of the

This will be seen as we proceed with the account of his interesting

The next important fact to be observed is that a larger river than any
of them, called the Luapula, runs out of the lake into Lake Moero.  Out
of the northern end of the Lake Moero again another large river, the
Lualaba, runs thundering forth through a vast chasm, and then, expanding
into a calm stream of great width, winds its way north and west till it
enters a third large lake, the Kamolondo.  The doctor gave it the
additional name of Webb's River.  In some places he found it to be three
miles broad.  He perseveringly followed it down its course, and found it
again making its exit from Lake Kamolondo, till it was joined by other
large rivers, some coming from the south and others from the east, till
he reached the village of Nyangwe, in latitude 4 degrees south.  Here,
having exhausted the means of purchasing fresh provisions, and his
followers refusing to proceed further, he was compelled to bring his
journey northward to a termination.  This was not till the year 1871.

He, however, heard of another enormous lake to the northward, into which
the Lualaba empties itself, bounded by a range to the westward called
the Balegga mountains.  From the information he received, he believed
that this last-mentioned lake is connected by a series of small lakes,
or by a somewhat sluggish stream, with the Albert Nyanza, the waters of
which undoubtedly flow into the Nile.

Of course it is possible that the waters which flow out of this large
unknown lake, instead of running to the north-east into the Albert
Nyanza, may have a westerly or north-westerly course, in which case,
instead of making their way into the Nile, they may be feeders of the
Congo river.

To the south-west of Lake Kamolondo the doctor discovered another large
lake, to which he gave the name of Lake Lincoln, after the President of
the United States, the liberator of their negro population.

Another large river, the Lomame, flowing from the southward, enters this
lake, and, passing out again at its northern end, joins the Luaba, which
after this takes an almost, northerly course.

These discoveries occupied Dr Livingstone three years.  After his
discovery of Lake Moero, while residing with Kazembe, he unfortunately
became acquainted with a half-caste Moor, named Mahommed Ben Sali, who
had been detained as a prisoner by the king.  The doctor obtained his
release, and allowed the Arab to accompany him.  The villainous old
fellow, in return, did his utmost to ruin Dr Livingstone, by inducing
his attendants to desert him, and even Susi and Chumah for a time were
won over, though they ultimately returned to the doctor.

During his journeys, now to the west, now to the east, he met, in the
latter quarter, a large sheet of water, which he discovered to be the
southern end of Lake Tanganyika, and, after remaining some time with
Kazembe, he set off, and crossed over to Ujiji, which he reached about
the middle of March, 1869.  After resting here till June, he again
crossed the lake, and proceeded westward with a party of traders till he
reached the large village of Bambarra, in Manyema.

It is the chief ivory depot in that province, where large quantities are

He was here detained six months, suffering severely from ulcers in his
feet, which prevented him putting them to the ground, and from thence it
was, when again able to set out, that he discovered the course of the
Lualaba, which occupied him till the year 1871.

From Nyangwe, as before mentioned, he was compelled to return eastward
to Ujiji, a distance of seven hundred miles.  Manyema, in the province
of Ruo, lying directly to the south of it, is inhabited by heathens,
each village governed by its own chief, holding little or no
communication with their neighbours.  The people appear to be mild and
inoffensive, though perfect pagans.  They posses a considerable amount
of ingenuity, and manufacture a most beautiful fabric from fine grass,
equal to the finest grass cloth of India.

So numerous are the elephants which range through the wilds of this
region, that until the Arabs unhappily made their way into it, the
people were accustomed to form their door-posts and partially to build
their houses with ivory tusks.  The inhabitants, who were then
unacquainted with firearms, were so terrified at hearing the reports of
the Arabs' muskets and feeling their effects, that they did not attempt
to defend themselves, and already great numbers had been carried off
into slavery by the abominable kidnappers.

Dr Livingstone witnessed a horrible massacre committed by one of these
wretches, a half-caste Arab, Tagamoyo by name, with his armed slaves, on
a number of the helpless inhabitants collected in a market-place on the
bank of the Lualaba.  While the people, unsuspicious of danger, were
assembled, to the number of two thousand, eagerly carrying on their
trade, the wretch Tangamoyo suddenly appeared, and opened fire upon
them.  Numbers were shot down, others rushed to their canoes, and, in
their terror, made off without their companions, while many, throwing
themselves headlong into the water, were seized by the voracious
crocodiles.  Upwards of four hundred women and children were killed,
while a greater number were carried off into slavery.

The doctor describes the people as of light colour, with well-formed
features.  Being of gentle manners, they are eagerly sought for by the
Arabs, whose wives they sometimes become.

Further to the north he met with a race not darker than the Portuguese,
and a remarkably handsome people, who seemed to have a peculiar aptitude
for commerce.

In Ruo he discovered some rich copper mines.

On reaching Ujiji, on the 16th of October, 1871, greatly to his dismay
he found that Sherrif, into whose charge he had committed his goods,
had, believing him to be dead, sold the whole of them for ivory, which
he had appropriated.

Thus, the doctor, already suffering fearfully from illness, found
himself deprived of the means of purchasing food or paying his way back
to the coast.  The letters, stores, and provisions sent to him from
Zanzibar had been detained on the road.

What might have been his fate had he not been succoured by Mr Stanley,
who, as we are about to relate, at the head of the "New York Herald"
expedition, so nobly and gallantly made his way across to find him, it
is impossible to say.




The spirited proprietor of the "New York Herald," James Gordon Bennett,
having become deeply interested in the fate of Dr Livingstone,
determined to send out one of his special correspondents, Mr Henry M.
Stanley, then at Madrid, to Africa, in search of the traveller.

Arriving in Paris, Stanley received his instructions, which were, first
to ascertain in Egypt what Sir Samuel Baker--then about to start up the
Nile--intended to do, and, after visiting a good many other places, to
make his way _via_ Bombay, Mauritius, and the Seychelles, to Zanzibar.

He carried out his instructions, and arrived in January, 1871, at
Zanzibar, which he found to be a much more beautiful and fertile island
than he had supposed.

He soon introduced himself to Dr Kirk, and, without delay, set about
making the necessary preparations for his journey.

The great difficulty was to obtain information as to the amount of food,
or rather the articles for purchasing it, which would be required for
the hundred men he proposed enlisting in his service.

He had engaged at Jerusalem a Christian Arab boy named Selim, who was to
act as his interpreter, and he had also on the voyage attached to the
expedition two mates of merchantmen, Farquhar and Shaw, who were very
useful in constructing tents and arranging two boats and the
pack-saddles and packages for the journey, but who proved in other
respects very poor travellers.  He also secured the services of that now
well-known hero, Bombay, captain of Speke's faithfuls, and five of his
other followers, Uledi, Grant's valet, and the bull-headed Mabruki, who
had in the mean time lost one of his hands, but, notwithstanding, was
likely to prove useful.  They were the only remains of the band to be
found, the rest having died or gone elsewhere.  These six still retained
their medals for assisting in the discovery of the source of the Nile.

The boats, one of which was capable of carrying twenty people and the
other six, were stripped of their planks, the timbers and thwarts only
being carried.  Instead of the planking it was proposed to cover them
with double canvas skin, well tarred.  They and the rest of the baggage
were carried in loads, none exceeding sixty-eight pounds in weight.  Two
horses and twenty-seven donkeys were purchased, and a small cart, while
the traveller had brought with him a watch-dog, which he hoped would
guard his tent from prowling thieves.  An ample supply of beads, cloth,
and wire were also laid in, with tea, sugar, rice, and medicine.  To
Bombay and his faithfuls were added eighteen more free men, who were all
well-armed, and when mustered appeared an exceedingly fine-looking body
of soldiers.  These were to act as escort to the _pagazis_, or carriers.

On the 4th of February, 1871, the expedition was ready, and on the 5th
embarked in four dhows, which conveyed it across to Bagomoyo on the

Here it was detained five weeks while its persevering leader was
combatting the rogueries of Ali Ben Salim and another Arab, Hadji
Palloo, who had undertaken to secure one hundred and forty _pagazis_.
The packages were rearranged, the tents improved, and other necessary
arrangements made.

He found here a caravan which had been despatched by the British Consul
a hundred days before to the relief of Dr Livingstone; but which, its
leader making as an excuse that he was unable to obtain a fresh number
of _pagazis_, had hitherto remained inactive.

The climate of Bagomoyo is far superior to that of Zanzibar.

In its neighbourhood a French Jesuit mission has been for some time
established, with ten priests and as many sisters, who have been very
successful in educating two hundred boys and girls.  The priests
sumptuously entertained Mr Stanley with excellent champagne and claret,
while some of their pupils, among whom they had formed an excellent
brass band, amused them with instrumental music and French songs.

He divided his expedition into five caravans, the first of which he
started off on the 18th of February, although it was not till March 21st
that he with the largest was able to commence his journey westward.
Altogether the expedition numbered on the day of departure, besides the
commander and his two white attendants, twenty-three soldiers, four
chiefs, one hundred and fifty-three _pagazis_, and four supernumeraries.
Every possible care had been bestowed on the outfit, and in nothing
that it needed was it stinted.

Bombay proved to be as honest and trustworthy as formerly, while Ferajji
and Mabruki turned out true men and staunch, the latter, on one
occasion, finding a difficulty in dragging the cart, having brought it
along on his head rather than abandon it.

The Kinganni river was reached by a bridge rapidly formed with American
axes, the donkeys refusing to pass through the water.

The country due west of Bagomoyo was found to be covered with towns and
villages which were previously unknown.

Soon after starting, Omar, the watch-dog was missing, when Mabruki,
hastening back, found him at the previous halting-place.

One of the caravans at the same place was detained by the sickness of
three of the _pagazis_, whose places it was necessary to supply.

Stanley soon had to experience the invariable troubles of African
travellers.  His two horses died within a few hours of each other, both,
however, from disease of long standing, and not from the climate.

Few men were better able to deal with the rogueries of the petty chiefs
he met with than Mr Stanley.  He had always a ready answer, and
invariably managed to catch them in their own traps, while the "great
master," as he was called, managed to keep all his subordinates in
pretty good order.

One of his _pagazis_, Khamisi, under Shaw's command, having absconded,
Uledi and Ferajji found him, having fallen into the hands of some
plundering Washensi, who were about to kill him.  A court of eight
soldiers and eight _pagazis_, having been convened, condemned him to be
flogged with the "great master's" donkey-whip.  As Shaw ought to have
kept a better look out, he was ordered to give him one blow and the
_pagazis_ and soldiers the remainder.  This being done, the man was

Moving on, the expedition passed Simbamwenni, the capital of Useguhha,
the fortifications of which are equal to any met with in Persia.  The
area of the town is about half a square mile, while four towers of stone
guard each corner.  There are four gates, one in each wall, which are
closed with solid square doors of African teak, and carved with
complicated devices.

It is ruled by the daughter of the infamous Kisalungo, notorious as a
robber and kidnapper, another Theodore on a small scale.

Before long Stanley was attacked with fever, which greatly prostrated
his strength, though he quickly recovered by taking strong dozes of

The most painful event which occurred was the flight of Bunda Selim, who
had been punished for pilfering rations.  The men sent after him were
seized and imprisoned by the Sultana of Simbamwenni, and, though
ultimately liberated by the interference of an Arab sheikh, nothing
could be found of the missing cook.  Shaw also fell ill, and left the
task of urging on the floundering caravan through marshes and rivers to
his superior.  Several of the others followed his example, and even
Bombay complained of pains and became unserviceable.

The report from Farquhar's caravan was most unsatisfactory, he, as far
as Stanley could make out, having lost all his donkeys.  The unhappy
man, indeed, he found on overtaking him, was suffering from dropsy.  He
had also given to the _pagazis_ and soldiers no small amount of the
contents of the bales committed to his charge, as payment for the
services he had demanded of them, and in purchasing expensive luxuries.
As he could not walk and was worse than useless, Stanley was obliged to
send the sick man, under the charge of Mabruki, thirty miles away to the
village of Mpwapwa, to the chief of which place he promised an ample
reward if he would take care of him.

Worse than all the wretched Shaw, after a dispute, during the night
fired into his tent, too evidently with the intention of killing him.
He found the intended murderer pretending to be asleep, with a gun by
his side yet warm.  Unable to deny that he had fired, he declared that
in his dreams he had seen a thief pass his door; and then asked what was
the matter?  "Oh, nothing," answered Stanley; "but I would advise you in
future, in order to avoid all suspicion, not to fire into my tent, or at
least, so near me.  I might get hurt, in which case ugly reports would
get about, and this, perhaps, would be disagreeable, as you are probably
aware.  Good night!"

On reaching Mpwapwa the Chief Lencolo positively refused to take charge
of the white man unless an interpreter was left with him, and Jako, who
was the only one of the party besides Bombay and Selim who could speak
English, was ordered to remain in that capacity.

The expedition was now about to enter Ugogo.  During the passage of the
intervening desert, five out of the nine donkeys died, the cart having
some time before been left behind.

The expedition was now joined by several Arab caravans, so that the
number of the party amounted to about four hundred souls, strong in
guns, flags, horns sounding, drums, and noise.  This host was to be led
by Stanley and Sheikh Hamed through the dreaded Ugogo.

On the 26th of May they were at Mvumi, paying heavy tribute to the
sultan.  Nothing seemed to satisfy him.  Stanley suggested that as he
had twenty Wazunga armed with Winchester repeating rifles, he might make
the sultan pay tribute to him.  The sheikh entreated that he would act
peaceably, urging that angry words might induce the sultan to demand
double the tribute.

While here five more donkeys died, and their bones were picked clean
before the morning by the hyaenas.

The tribute was paid to preserve peace, and on the 27th, shaking the
dust of Mvumi off their feet, the party proceeded westward.  The country
was one vast field of grain, and thickly populated.

Between that place and the next sultan's district twenty-five villages
were counted.  Whenever they halted large groups of people assembled and
greeted with peals of laughter the dress and manner of the _mzungu_, or
white man, and more than once had to be kept at a distance by Stanley's
rifle or pistols, sometimes his thick whip coming into play.

After this a dense jungle was entered, the path serpentining in and out
of it; again open tracts of grass bleached white were passed: now it led
through thickets of gums and thorns, producing an odour as rank as a
stable; now through clumps of wide-spreading mimosa and colonies of
baobab-trees across a country teeming with noble game, which, though
frequently seen, were yet as safe from their rifles as if they had been
on the Indian Ocean.  But the road they were on admitted of no delay;
water had been left behind at noon; until noon the next day not a drop
was to be obtained, and unless they marched fast and long, raging thirst
would demoralise everybody.

After this wearisome journey Stanley was again attacked by fever, which
it required a whole day's halt and fifty grains of quinine to cure.

As may be supposed they were thankful when Ugogo was passed, and they
entered Unyanyembe.

As the caravan resumed its march after halting at noon, the Wanyamuezi
cheered, shouted, and sang, the soldiers and _pagazis_ shouting in
return, and the _kirangoza_ blew his horn much more merrily than he had
been wont to do in Ugogo.

A large district, however, presented the sad spectacle of numerous
villages burnt down, cattle carried off, and the grain-fields overrun
with jungle and rank weeds--too common a sight in that part of the

The expedition at length entered Kivihara, the capital of the province
ruled over by the aged Sultan Mkaswa, who received Stanley in a friendly
way.  The Sheikh Said Ben Salim invited him to take up his quarters in
his _tembe_, or house, a comfortable-looking place for the centre of
Africa.  Here his goods were stored, and his carriers paid off.

His three other caravans had arrived safely.  One had had a slight
skirmish, a second having shot a thief, and the third having lost a bale
when attacked by robbers.

This is the place, to the southward of Victoria Nyanza, where Captains
Burton, Speke, and Grant remained for a considerable time at different
periods during their expeditions.

Soon after, the Livingstone caravan arrived, and the goods were stored
with those of Stanley, the men being quartered with his.  The chief of
the caravan brought Stanley a package of letters directed to Dr
Livingstone at Ujiji, when, to his surprise, he found that it was marked
outside: "November 1st, 1871."  What a cruel delay was this!

After his long journey, Stanley was now laid completely prostrate, and
for two weeks was perfectly senseless.  The unhappy Shaw was also again
taken ill.  The fever rapidly destroyed both his memory and his reason.
Selim, who had hitherto faithfully watched over his master and treated
him according to the written directions he had received, was also
prostrated, and in a state of delirium for four days.

On the 28th of July, however, all had again recovered, and on the 29th
fifty _pagazis_ were ready to start with bales, beads, and wire for

Three days after this, Shaw again broke down, asserting he was dying,
and he had to be carried on the backs of his men till brought into his
leader's hut.

The road, however, ahead was closed by the chief Mirambo, who declared
that no Arab caravan should pass that way.  The Arabs, therefore, had
resolved to attack him, and mustered an army of upwards of two thousand
men.  Stanley, with his followers, determined to join them, to assist in
bringing the war to a speedy conclusion.

The palace was soon surrounded, and, though the party were received with
a volley, the fire of the defenders was soon silenced.  They took to
flight, and the village was entered.

Notwithstanding the heavy fire which had been kept on it, twenty dead
bodies only were found.

Other villages were attacked and burned.

A more serious affair occurred soon afterwards.  When Stanley was again
attacked with fever, a number of his men, notwithstanding his orders to
the contrary, joined the Arabs in an attack on a more important place,
Wilyankuru, commanded by Mirambo himself.  The result was that, though
the place was taken, the Arabs fell into an ambush, laid by Mirambo, and
were completely defeated, many of them, including some of Stanley's
soldiers, being killed.  Mirambo, following up his successes, pursued
the Arabs, and Stanley had to mount his donkey, Shaw being lifted on
his, and to fly at midnight for their lives.  His soldiers ran as fast
as their legs could carry them, the only one of his followers who
remained by his master's side being young Selim.  At length they reached
Mfuto, from which they had issued forth so valiantly a short time

Stanley had felt it his duty to assist the Arabs, though he had now
cause to regret having done so.

From the last-mentioned place he returned to Kivihara.  Here he was
detained a considerable time, during which he received authentic news of
Livingstone from an Arab, who had met with him travelling into Manyema,
and who affirmed that, having gone to a market at Liemba in three
canoes, one of them, in which all his cloth had been placed, was upset
and lost.  The news of Farquhar's death here reached him.

As he had expected, Mirambo advanced; and one of the leading Arabs and
his adopted son, who had gone out with their slaves to meet him, the
slaves having deserted, were killed.

The neighbouring village of Tabora was burned, and Kivihara itself was
threatened.  Stanley made preparations for defence, and, having
collected a hundred and fifty armed men, bored loopholes for the muskets
in the clay walls of the _tembe_, formed rifle-pits round it, torn down
the huts, and removed everything which might afford shelter to the
enemy, felt little fear for the consequences.  Mirambo, however, seemed
to have thought better of it, and marched away with his troops,
satisfied with the plunder he had obtained.

Month after month passed away, and he had great difficulty in obtaining
soldiers to supply the places of those who had been killed or died,
which was the fate of several.

He one day received a present of a little slave boy from an Arab
merchant, to whom, at Bombay's suggestion, the name of Klulu, meaning a
young antelope, was given.

On the 9th of September Mirambo received a severe defeat, and had to
take to flight, several of his chief men being slain.

Shaw gave Stanley a great deal of trouble.  Again he himself was
attacked with fever, but his white companion in no degree sympathised
with him, even little Klulu showing more feeling.  Weak as he was, he,
however, recommenced his march to the westward, with about forty men
added to his old followers.

Bombay, not for the first time, proving refractory and impudent,
received a thrashing before starting, and when Stanley arrived at his
camp at night, he found that upwards of twenty of the men had remained
behind.  He, therefore, sent a strong body back, under Selim, who
returned with the men and some heavy slave-chains, and Stanley declared
that if any behaved in the same way again he would fasten them together
and make them march like slaves.  Shaw also showed an unwillingness to
go forward, and kept tumbling from his donkey, either purposely or from
weakness, till at last Stanley consented to allow him to return to

On the 1st of October, while he and his party lay encamped under a
gigantic sycamore-tree, he began to feel a contentment and comfort to
which he had long been a stranger, and he was enabled to regard his
surroundings with satisfaction.

Though the sun's rays were hot, the next day's march was easily
performed.  On the roadside lay a dead man; indeed, skeletons or skulls
were seen every day, one, and sometimes two, of men who had fallen down
and died, deserted by their companions.

While encamped near the Gambe, its calm waters, on which lotus-leaves
rested placidly, all around looking picturesque and peaceful, invited
Stanley to take a bath.  He discovered a shady spot under a
wide-spreading mimosa, where the ground sloped down to the still water,
and having undressed, was about to take a glorious dive, when his
attention was attracted by an enormously long body which shot into view,
occupying the spot beneath the surface which he was about to explore by
a header.  It was a crocodile!  He sprang back instinctively.  This
proved his salvation, for the monster turned away with a disappointed
look, and he registered a vow never to be tempted again by the
treacherous calm of an African river.

As war was going on in the country, it was necessary to proceed with
caution.  Some of his followers also showed a strong inclination to
mutiny, which he had to quell by summary proceedings, and Bombay
especially sank greatly in his good opinion.

As they approached Lake Tanganyika all got into better humour, and
confidence returned between them.  They laughed joyously as they glided
in Indian file through the forest jungle beyond the clearing of Mrera,
and boasted of their prowess.

An ambassador from Simba, the Lion of Kasera, received two gorgeous
cloths, and other articles, as tribute--Stanley thus making that chief a
friend for ever.

After having encamped one evening, Stanley went out with his rifle,
accompanied by Klulu, to shoot some animal or other for supper.  After
in vain searching, he was returning, when he encountered a wild boar,
which, although it received several bullets after it had fallen, at the
last moment started up, and escaped into the wood.  On his return to the
camp, from which he was then three miles off, he was followed by some
large animal, which it was too dark to see plainly, but it must have
been either a lion or the ghost of the dead boar.  At all events, during
the night, the party were startled by the roar of a lion, which was soon
joined by another and another.  He turned out to shoot them, but not a
bullet took effect.  At length he went to sleep with the roar of the
monster as a lullaby.

On the evening of the 2nd of November the left bank of the Malagarazi
river was reached.  The greater part of the day had been occupied in
negotiating with the ambassador of the great Mzogera, chief of the
greedy Wavinza tribe, who demanded an enormous _hongo_.  This being
settled, the ferrymen demanded equally preposterous payment for carrying
across the caravan.  These demands, however, having at length been
settled, the next business was to swim the donkeys across.  One fine
animal, Simba, was being towed with a rope round its neck, when, just as
it reached the middle of the stream, it was seen to struggle fearfully.
An enormous crocodile had seized the poor animal by the throat; in vain
it attempted to liberate itself.  The black in charge tugged at the
rope, but the donkey sank and was no more seen.  Only one donkey now
remained, and this was carried across by Bombay the next morning, before
the voracious monsters were looking out for their breakfasts.

The next day was an eventful one.  Just before starting, a caravan was
seen approaching, consisting of a large party of the Waguhha tribe,
occupying a tract of country to the south-west of Lake Tanganyika.

The news was asked.  A white man had been seen by them who had lately
arrived at Ujiji from Manyema.  He had white hair and a white beard, and
was sick.  Only eight days ago they had seen him.  He had been at Ujiji
before, and had gone away and returned.  There could be no doubt that
this was Livingstone.  How Stanley longed for a horse! for on a good
steed he could reach Ujiji in twelve hours.

In high spirits he started, pushing on as fast as his men could move.
There were dangers, however, still in the way.  A war party of Wavinza
was out, who would not scruple even to rob their own villages when
returning victorious from battle.

Next day they travelled on in silence, but on the 5th fell in with a
party of the Wahha, who soon brought a band of warriors down upon them,
at the head of which appeared a fine-looking chief, Mionvu by name,
dressed in a crimson robe, with a turban on his head, he and his people
being armed with spears, and bows and arrows.  He asked whether it
should be peace or war?  The reply was, of course, peace.  At the same
time Stanley hinted that his rifles would quickly give him the victory
should war be declared.  Notwithstanding this Mionvu demanded a hundred
cloths as _hongo_.  Ten were offered.  Rather than pay the hundred,
Stanley asked his followers if they would fight, but Bombay urged
pacific measures, remarking that the country was open--no places to hide
in, and that every village would rise in arms.

"Pay, Bana, pay: it is better to get along quietly in this country," he

Mabruki and Asmani agreed with him.  The _hongo_ was paid.  Stanley
wisely resolved, if possible, not to come back that way.

A night march was determined on, and sufficient grain was purchased to
last the caravan six days through the jungle.  They hoped thus to escape
the extortions of other chiefs to the westward.  The men bravely toiled
on, without murmuring, though their feet and legs bled from the cutting

The jungle was alive with wild animals, but no one dared fire.

As they were halting in the morning near the Rusugi river, a party of
natives were seen, who detected them in their hiding-place, but who fled
immediately to alarm some villages four miles away.  At once the caravan
was ordered to move on, but one of the women took to screaming, and even
her husband could not keep her quiet till a cloth was folded over her

At night they bivouacked in silence, neither tent nor hut being erected,
each soldier lying down with his gun loaded by his side, their gallant
leader, with his Winchester rifle and its magazine full, ready for any

Before dawn broke, the caravan was again on its march.  The guide having
made a mistake, while it was still dark, they arrived in front of the
village of Uhha.  Silence was ordered; goats and chickens which might
have made a noise had their throats cut, and they pushed boldly through
the village.  Just as the last hut was passed, Stanley bringing up the
rear, a man appeared from his hut, and uttered a cry of alarm.

They continued their course, plunging into the jungle.  Once he believed
that they were followed, and he took post behind a tree to check the
advance of their foes; but it proved a false alarm.

Turning westward, broad daylight showed them a beautiful and picturesque
country, with wild fruit-trees, rare flowers, and brooks tumbling over
polished pebbles.

Crossing a streamlet, to their great satisfaction they left Uhha and its
extortionate inhabitants behind, and entered Ukaranga.

Their appearance created great alarm as they approached the village, the
king and his people supposing them to be Rugruga, the followers of
Mirambo, but, discovering their mistake, they welcomed them cordially.

On the 10th of November, just two hundred and thirty-six days after
leaving Bagomoyo, and fifty-one since they set out from Unyanyembe,
surmounting a hill, Tanganyika is seen before them.  Six hours' march
will bring them to its shores.

On they push, the air fresh and cool--a glorious morning.  The "stars
and stripes" float out in the breeze; repeated volleys are fired.  The
village is reached.  The faithful Chumah and Susi, Dr Livingstone's old
followers, rush out to see who the stranger is, and in a short time
Stanley is rewarded for all the dangers and hardships he has gone
through by meeting the long-looked-for traveller face to face.

His own book must give the description of the meeting; it is not the
least graphic portion of his deeply interesting work.

At the time, when reduced almost to death's door by sickness and
disappointment, the assistance thus brought to Dr Livingstone was of
inestimable worth.  What might have been his fate had he not been
relieved, it is impossible to say.  The society of his new friend, the
letters from home, the well-cooked meal which the doctor was able to
enjoy, and the champagne quaffed out of silver goblets, and brought
carefully those hundreds of miles for that especial object, had a
wonderfully exhilarating influence.

Some days were spent at Ujiji, during which the doctor continued to
regain health and strength.  Future plans were discussed, and his
previous adventures described.  The longer the intercourse Stanley
enjoyed with Livingstone, the more he rose in his estimation.

He formed, indeed, a high estimate of his character, though, he fully
believed, a just one.

"Dr Livingstone," he says, "is about sixty years old.  His hair has a
brownish colour, but here and there streaked with grey lines over the
temples.  His beard and moustache are very grey.  His eyes, which are
hazel, are remarkably bright: he has a sight keen as a hawk's.  His
frame is a little over the ordinary height; when walking, he has a firm
but heavy tread, like that of an over-worked or fatigued man.  I never
observed any spleen or misanthropy about him.  He has a fund of quiet
humour, which he exhibits at all times when he is among friends.  During
the four months I was with him I noticed him every evening making most
careful notes.  His maps evince great care and industry.  He is
sensitive on the point of being doubted or criticised.  His gentleness
never forsakes him, his hopefulness never deserts him; no harassing
anxiety or distraction of mind, though separated from home and kindred,
can make him complain.  He thinks all will come out right at last, he
has such faith in the goodness of Providence.  Another thing which
especially attracted my attention was his wonderfully retentive memory.
His religion is not of the theoretical kind, but it is constant,
earnest, sincere, practical; it is neither demonstrative nor loud, but
manifests itself in a quiet, practical way, and is always at work.  In
him religion exhibits its loveliest features; it governs his conduct not
only towards his servants, but towards the natives.  I observed that
universal respect was paid to him; even the Mahommedans never passed his
house without calling to pay their compliments, and to say: `The
blessing of God rest on you!'  Every Sunday morning he gathers his
little flock around him, and reads prayers and a chapter from the Bible
in a natural, unaffected, and sincere tone, and afterwards delivers a
short address in the Kisawahili language, about the subject read to
them, which is listened to with evident interest and attention.

"His consistent energy is native to him and his race.  He is a very fine
example of the perseverance, doggedness, and tenacity which
characterises the Anglo-Saxon spirit.  His ability to withstand the
climate is due not only to the happy constitution with which he was
born, but to the strictly temperate life he has ever led.

"It is a principle with him to do well what he undertakes to do, and, in
the consciousness that he is doing it, despite the yearning for his
home, which is sometimes overpowering, he finds to a certain extent
contentment, if not happiness.

"He can be charmed with the primitive simplicity of Ethiopia's dusky
children, with whom he has spent so many years of his life.  He has a
sturdy faith in their capability--sees virtue in them, where others see
nothing but savagery; and wherever he has gone among them, he has sought
to ameliorate the condition of a people who are apparently forgotten of
God and Christian men."

In another place Stanley says: "Livingstone followed the dictates of
duty.  Never was such a willing slave to that abstract virtue.  His
inclinations impel him home, the fascinations of which it requires the
sternest resolution to resist.  With every foot of new ground he
travelled over he forged a chain of sympathy which should hereafter bind
the Christian nations in bonds of love and charity to the heathen of the
African tropics.  If he were able to complete this chain of love by
actual discovery, and, by a description of them, to embody such people
and nations as still live in darkness, so as to attract the good and
charitable of his own land to bestir themselves for their redemption and
salvation, this Livingstone would consider an ample reward.

"Surely, as the sun shines on both Christian and infidel, civilised and
pagan, the day of enlightenment will come; and though the apostle of
Africa may not behold it himself, nor we younger men, nor yet our
children, the hereafter will see it, and posterity will recognise the
daring pioneer of its civilisation."

Yes, and Stanley might have added: with his enlarged and far-seeing
mind, this it is what encourages Livingstone to persevere in his task to
do what he knows no other man can do as well.  It might be far
pleasanter to tell crowded congregations at home about the wrongs of the
sons and daughters of Africa, but, with the spirit of a true apostle, he
remains among those whose wrongs it is the ardent desire of his soul to
right, that he may win their love and confidence, and open up the way by
which others may with greater ease continue the task he has commenced.

After they had been some weeks together at Ujiji, Stanley and
Livingstone agreed to make a voyage on Lake Tanganyika, one of the chief
objects of which was to settle the long mooted point as to whether the
Rusizi river is an effluent or an influent.  They embarked in a somewhat
cranky canoe, hollowed-out of a mvule-tree, which carried sixteen
rowers, Selim, Ferajji, the cook, and two guides, besides themselves.

The lake was calm, its waters of a dark green colour, reflecting the
serene blue sky above.  The hippopotami came up to breathe in close
proximity to the canoe, and then plunged down again, as if playing at
hide and seek with them.

At one place where they sounded, the depth was found to be thirty-five
fathoms near the shore, and further out a hundred and fifteen fathoms of
line was let down without finding bottom, and the doctor stated that he
had sounded opposite the lofty Kabogo, and attained the depth of three
hundred fathoms.

A range of hills, beautifully wooded and clothed with green grass,
sloping abruptly--almost precipitately--into the depth of the
fresh-water, towered above them, and as they rounded the several capes
or points, high expectations of some new wonder or some exquisite
picture being revealed to them were aroused: nor were they disappointed.

However, we must not venture to attempt a description of the magnificent
scenery of this enormous lake.  Each night they landed and encamped,
continuing their voyage the next day.

Generally they were well received by the natives, though they had to
avoid one or two spots where the people were said to be treacherous and

On reaching the mouth of the Rusizi, they pushed up it a short distance,
but were stopped by its shallowness, it not being navigable for anything
but the smallest canoes.  It, however, abounds in crocodiles, though not
one hippopotamus was seen.

The most important point, however, which they discovered was that the
current was flowing, at the rate of six to eight miles an hour, into the
lake.  Still the doctor asserted that there must be an outlet somewhere
to the Tanganyika, from the fact which he adduced that all fresh-water
lakes have outlets.

Coasting round the north shore, they paddled down the west coast till
nearly opposite the island of Muzimu, when they crossed back to the
shore from whence they had come, and steered southward beyond Ujiji till
they reached nearly the sixth degree of latitude, at a place called

Their voyage, altogether, took twenty-eight days, during which time they
traversed over three hundred miles of water.

On their return to Ujiji, they resolved to carry out one of the several
plans which Stanley had suggested to Livingstone.  One of them was to
return to Unyanyembe to enlist men to sail down the Victoria Nyanza in
Stanley's boats, for the purpose of meeting Sir Samuel Baker; but this,
with several others, was dismissed.  Livingstone's heart was set on
endeavouring to settle numerous important points in Manyema connected
with the supposed source of the Nile.  He, therefore, finally agreed to
allow Stanley to escort him to Unyanyembe, where he could receive his
own goods and those which Stanley proposed to deliver up to him, and
where he could rest in a comfortable house, while his friend would hurry
down to the coast, and organise a new expedition, composed of fifty or
sixty men, well-armed, by whom an additional supply of needful luxuries
might be sent.

Christmas Day was kept with such a feast as Ujiji could furnish them,
the fever from which Stanley had lately been suffering having left him
the night before.

On the 27th of December they embarked in two canoes, the one bearing the
flag of England, the other that of America; and their luggage being on
board, and having bidden farewell to Arabs and natives, together they
commenced their voyage on the lake, steering for the south.  At the same
time the main body of their men, under Asmani and Bombay, commenced
their journey, which was to be performed on foot, along the shores of
the lake.  It had been arranged that the canoes should meet them at the
mouth of every river, to transport them across from bank to bank.  Their
intention was to land at Cape Tongwe, when they would be opposite the
village of Itaga, whence, by traversing the uninhabited districts to the
east, they would avoid the exactions of the roguish Wavinza and the
plundering Wahha, and then strike the road by which Stanley had come.
This plan was completely carried out.  Stanley had procured a strong
donkey at Ujiji, that the doctor might perform the journey on its back.

Pouring rain, however, came down during the whole journey, and it was to
their intense satisfaction that at length the two friends walked into
Stanley's old quarters, who said: "Doctor, we are at home."

Here they were again busily employed in examining stores, and the doctor
in writing despatches and letters to his friends.

Mirambo still held out, and probably the Arabs would not conquer him for
many months to come.

Here the doctor resolved to remain, while Stanley went down to the coast
to enlist men and collect such further stores as were required, and to
send them back.  On their arrival, Livingstone purposed returning with
them to Ujiji, and from thence crossing over into Manyema, to make
further researches in that province and Ruo; among other things, to
examine the underground habitations which he had heard of on a previous

On the 14th of March, Stanley and Livingstone breakfasted together, and
then the order was given to raise the flag and march.  Livingstone
accompanied him some way, but they had to part at last.

The return journey was not performed without many adventures and a
considerable amount of suffering by the enterprising traveller.

Passing the stronghold of Kisalungo, a large portion had disappeared.
The river had swept away the entire front wall and about fifty houses,
several villages having suffered disastrously, while at least a hundred
people had perished.  The whole valley, once a paradise in appearance,
had been converted into a howling waste.

Further on, a still more terrible destruction of human life and property
had occurred.  It was reported that a hundred villages had been swept
away by a volume of water which had rushed over the banks of the

Passing a dense jungle, and wading for several miles through a swamp, on
the 6th of May the caravan was again _en route_, at a pace its leader
had never seen equalled.  At sunset the town of Bagomoyo was entered.

His first greeting was with Lieutenant Henn, who had come out as second
in command of the proposed Livingstone search and relief expedition.  He
next met Mr Oswald Livingstone, the doctor's second son.  The two
proposed shortly starting on their journey, having come over with no
less than a hundred and ninety loads of stores, which they would have
had no small difficulty in conveying.  Two other members of the
expedition, Lieutenant Dawson, RN, and the Reverend C New, had resigned,
for reasons which Mr Stanley fully explains.  He himself was not over
well pleased with some of the remarks made in the papers about himself,
some having regarded his expedition into Africa as a myth.

"Alas!" he observes, justly, "it has been a terrible, earnest fact with
me: nothing but haul, conscientious work, privations, sickness, and
almost death."

However, welcomed cordially by numerous friends at Zanzibar, which he
reached the following day, he soon recovered his spirits, and, having
disbanded his own expedition, he set to work to arrange the one he had
promised to form for the assistance of Dr Livingstone, Mr Henn having
in the mean time resigned, and Mr Oswald Livingstone being compelled
from ill health to abandon the attempt to join his father.

Fifty guns, with ammunition, stores, and cloth, were furnished by Mr
Oswald Livingstone out of the English expedition.  Fifty-seven men,
including twenty of those who had followed Stanley, were also engaged,
the services of Johari, chief dragoman to the American consulate, being
also obtained to conduct them across the inundated plains of the

Stanley did not perform his duty by halves.  Having engaged a dhow, he
saw them all on board, and again urged them to follow the "great
master," as they called Livingstone, wherever he might lead them, and to
obey him in all things.

"We will! we will!" they cried out.

He then shook hands with them, and, ordering them to take up their
loads, marched them down to the beach, seeing them on board, and watched
the dhow as she sped westward on her way to Bagomoyo.

Those who had accompanied him had been handsomely rewarded, and he
states to their credit, though Bombay and many others had at first
annoyed him greatly, that from Ujiji to the coast, they had all behaved

After being detained at the Seychelles for a month, Mr Stanley reached
Marseilles, _via_ Aden, when Mr Bennett, in order to fulfil Mr
Stanley's promise that he would post Dr Livingstone's letters to his
family and friends in England twenty-four hours after he had seen his
public ones published in the London journals, telegraphed two of them by
cable, at an expense of nearly two thousand pounds--"one of the most
generous acts," as he observes, "that could be conceived, after all he
had done in originating and sustaining the enterprise."




We must now bid farewell to that land of savagism, so large a portion of
which we have seen opened out to the view of the civilised world by the
gallant and enterprising men whose footsteps we have traced.  We would
gladly have accompanied many others who have contributed their _quota_
to our knowledge of the continent.  Among the first stands Burton, who
ranks as a great traveller in all parts of the world, and who, besides
his trip on Lake Tanganyika, has visited Dahomy, the Cameroon Mountains,
Abeokuta, and many other places.

We regret to have to omit the travels and wonderful adventures of Du
Chaillu through the gorilla country and other portions of tropical

Interesting journeys have been made by the enterprising travellers,
Andersson, the artist Baines, and Mr Galton, who, starting from
Walvisch Bay on the West Coast to the north of Cape Colony, visited the
Damaras, the Namaquas, the Bechuanas, and other tribes to the west of
Lake Ngami.

Several expeditions also have been made to explore the Niger, and open
up commerce with the teeming population on its banks.  One of the first,
sent out a few years after the return of the Landers, proved most
disastrous, the greater number of officers and men having perished from

Another, however, which was organised in 1854 by the Government, was far
more successful.  A small steamer, the "Pleiad," was fitted out with a
black crew and a few white officers, and in consequence of the death of
Mr Beecroft, who had been appointed to lead the expedition, it was
placed under the command of Dr Baikie, R.N.  He proceeded up the
Quorra, the proper name of the Niger, and entering the mouth of the
Binue, known as the Tsadda, discovered by Dr Barth, steamed up that
magnificent stream till the falling waters compelled him to return.

Numerous other expeditions have been made on the West Coast by
missionaries, for the purpose of extending the blessings of the Gospel.
Still more numerous have been the journeys, with the same object in
view, made from the southern part of Africa.

In this direction also no small number of sportsmen, with Gordon dimming
at their head, have penetrated far into the interior, many of them
having given accounts of their exploits to the world.

The travels of Mansfield Parkyns, and his description of life in
Abyssinia, as well as Plowden's, Stern's, and many others, are of the
deepest interest.

We would gladly also have given an account of the travels of the
enterprising ivory-trader, Mr Petherick, who has visited many of the
districts we have gone over, as well as those on both sides of the Nile.

They have all added to our knowledge of Africa; yet a considerable
amount of the interior remains unexplored.

Livingstone, undoubtedly, will have solved the problem of the sources of
the Nile; but the source of the Congo is still to be discovered, unless
the expedition which started from the West Coast to the relief of
Livingstone has ere this settled the question: while Sir Samuel Baker,
when once he gets his steamers launched on the waters of the Albert
Nyanza, is not likely to stop till he has made further discoveries to
the west and south of his vast lake.

If he is correct in his belief that the Albert Nyanza and Tanganyika are
portions of one vast lake, or united by a broad channel, a direct
highway by water exists, nine hundred miles in length, through the
interior of the continent, which cannot fail greatly to assist in the
civilisation of the teeming population in its neighbourhood.  We,
however, must await the return of Sir Samuel Baker and Dr Livingstone,
to be enlightened on this and many other deeply interesting points.

We shall rest satisfied if the work we have now brought to a conclusion
excites the interest of our readers in the numberless black races spread
over the continent, and induces them to exert all the influence they may
possess in forwarding measures for suppressing the nefarious slave trade
throughout the length and breadth of the land, and in aiding those who
go forth to carry the blessings of the Gospel to its long benighted


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