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Title: Papers on Health
Author: Kirk, John
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Papers on Health" ***

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PAPERS ON HEALTH



By

PROFESSOR KIRK

Edinburgh



_NEW AND COMPLETE ONE-VOLUME EDITION
REVISED AND EDITED BY_
EDWARD BRUCE KIRK


London
Simpkin Marshall Hamilton Kent & Co. Paternoster Row

Manchester
Albert Broadbent 19 Oxford Road

Glasgow
T. D. Morison 240 Hope Street

Philadelphia
The Broadbent Press 1023 Foulkrod St. Frankford

1904



COPYRIGHT
IN THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

_Printed by Hurst Bros., Shaw Heath, Stockport._



Transcriber's Note: The topic of Throat, Sore (Clergyman's) includes
advice for enunciating the vowels in their natural order ([=a], ay, ee,
o, oo). The use of [=a] indicates that the a has a macron over it,
since a macron cannot be represented in Latin 1 character set.



PREFACE.


In his later years my father often expressed to me his desire for the
reduction of the eleven volumes of his "Papers on Health" to a compact
one-volume edition; but as long as fresh papers were being written,
he saw no use in beginning this work. In the end the project was
interrupted by his last illness and death. Since then, circumstances
have prevented the work being undertaken until the present time.

Having been associated with him in his health work for some years,
and having often discussed with him all his methods, I have had
considerable advantages in undertaking to carry out his intention in
the shape of the volume now given to the public.

It represents as nearly as possible the book he planned himself; and
though greatly reduced in bulk, all that is of importance in the
original eleven volumes has been inserted in it. It is complete in
every way; and in many details of treatment, improved methods, applied
in later years by Dr. Kirk, have been substituted for the older methods
he first introduced.

The arrangement in alphabetical order has been very carefully attended
to, and the treatment for any particular trouble within the scope of
the work can be quickly turned up.

This edition is sent forth in the hope that it may have even a wider
circulation than the last, and may be still more largely blessed than
that has been, to the relief of suffering humanity.

I would appeal to those who know the value of this treatment to make
the book known to the many who would benefit by its teaching. The cost
of the original edition was considerable, but this one is sold so
cheaply that anyone may possess it.

_EDWARD BRUCE KIRK._

E. U. Manse,
    Barrhead, Scotland.
        _September, 1899._



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.


In this edition of "Papers on Health" some changes, as well as some
entirely new features are introduced.

The large demand for the first one-volume edition has made it clear
that the public approve of the methods, both of arrangement and of
condensation employed in it.

Another edition being called for, it appeared evident that several
changes were desirable, in order to bring the book in line with rapidly
increasing medical knowledge, and to give full effect to more recent
experiences in the application of Dr. Kirk's treatment.

Since the "Papers" were first written, medical, and especially
surgical, practice has very greatly changed, and some of the practices
against which Dr. Kirk most vehemently protested have passed away.
Hence, certain modifications introduced into this edition, for which
the editor accepts full responsibility. For those who wish to consult
the actual writings of Dr. Kirk, the original eleven volume edition is
still available.

Great advances have also been made in the knowledge of the causes of
disease; and preventive methods of treatment by regulation of diet and
habits of life are much better understood. To incorporate some
reference to these in a work dealing with health generally, appeared to
us absolutely necessary. For these additions also the writer accepts
responsibility.

Where it appeared to be useful, illustrations have been introduced,
which may help those to whom the treatment is quite new, to practice it
more easily and correctly, and to understand better the theories on
which it is founded.

These changes have enlarged the book, and somewhat increased the price,
which is, however, still such as to place the volume within the reach
of all classes.

It is most gratifying to know through letters received from almost all
parts of the world, that many are benefitted very greatly by the
treatments described. We have constant evidence coming before us from
our own experience with patients of the powerful effect they have in
healing the sick, and even saving life. We send out this new edition in
the hope that it may spread still more widely, the knowledge of such
simple and yet effective means of cure.

_EDWARD BRUCE KIRK_

E. U. Manse,
    Barrhead, Scotland.
        _July, 1904._



INTRODUCTION.


In this book we set forth a series of simple remedies and preventives
of many common troubles. They are all well tried and have been proved
by long experience to be effective and safe.

We give, as far as we know, the reasons why they are likely to do good,
but we acknowledge that there are things which we cannot fully explain.
For instance, we do not know why a well aired lather of M'Clinton's
Soap should have the soothing effect it undoubtedly possesses, or why
spreading handfuls of this lather over the stomach of a person
suffering from retching or indigestion should give such relief, we only
know that it does!

Some may sneer at the remedy and say it is a case of faith healing and
assert that any other application, if put on with equal credulity,
would have the same effect. But take a case that lately came under our
notice. Indigestion and colic had rendered a baby a few weeks old
restless and miserable from the day of its birth. The nurse was kept
nursing it all night long, trying to soothe it; at last the mother who
had frequently tried the soap lather for occasional attacks of
indigestion, and always with good effect, determined to try it on the
baby. It worked like a charm, the little one was at once soothed and
slept all night, only waking once for its food. This was repeated for
several nights, for until the lather was applied the child would not
settle to sleep. In a few days the child was quite well, the habit of
sleeping was established and the application was discontinued. Now it
cannot be said that faith in the remedy had anything to do with the
result in this case. We only wish every mother would have faith enough
to give this simple treatment a fair trial, making up the lather as
described in this book and not, as many do, "improving" on our method
by rubbing the soap on the wet skin and making a sort of lather with
the hand.

We may say that the soap used for making this lather is not M'Clinton's
shaving soap. The latter is specially made to give a thick durable
lather; for curative purposes use the lather from M'Clinton's toilet or
household soap.

Again, why should the use of the linen underwear we recommend have such
a beneficial effect on sufferers from rheumatism and various skin
troubles? We have suggested possible explanations, and if these seem
inadequate we can only say we know that it has these effects no matter
how they are produced.

There are many things in nature that we cannot explain, and since the
discovery of X Rays, Radium, etc., scientists are much less dogmatic in
declaring anything impossible.

The diet we recommend for health and disease is as simple and cheap as
our other treatment. That plain fare is good for both mind and body was
proved by the four youths at the Babylonian Court over 2,000 years ago,
but alas people squander that priceless boon, health, by letting
appetite rule their lives.

We only ask for our treatment a fair trial on our lines. We claim that
ours are common sense methods. Anyone can see that if a head is hot and
fevered the application of a cold towel is likely to lower that heat
and reduce the fever. But it is no use putting a little bit of wet rag
on and then saying our treatment has failed. Large towels repeatedly
changed for an hour or more may be needed, and this will give more
trouble than administering some dose from the chemist's shop, but the
results are well worth the additional work.

The day is hastening on when men and women will see what fools they
have been, not because they had no sense, but certainly because they
had failed to use the abundance which God has given to all.

Not one of the remedies we have recommended can hurt any one, as they
are only those which we have for years seen used successfully by
ordinary persons who were willing to do their best to cure the
suffering. If we can secure one night of sound sleep, or one day of
comfort for another, we are bound to do our very best, and it is a
wonderful reward to know that one has secured even this in our
suffering world. Our Heavenly Father gives no monopoly of this
blessing.

[Illustration: 1. Vertebral Column; 2. Skull; 4. Sternum; 7. Collar
Bone; 15. Hip Bone; 16. Sacrum; 18. Femur; 19. Knee Pan; 21. Fibula;
22. Tibia; 8. Humerus; 10. Radius; 11. Ulna.]

_Note._--It is earnestly requested that _the whole_ of any article, and
of those referred to in it, should be read _before_ beginning any
treatment.



PAPERS ON HEALTH.


Abscess.--Let us suppose a swelling appears on some part of the body or
limbs, but that there is no discoloration or symptom of the gathering
of the dead material beneath it. If it be cut open, a wound is made
which is often very difficult to heal. Avoid then, _cutting_ in such
cases. If the swelling develops under FOMENTATION (_see_), the uncut
flesh through which it will then break will be in a better state
eventually for healing than if cut. Where corrupt matter is clearly
present, and in seeking an outlet is endangering the surrounding
healthy tissue, the cutting open of the swelling will, on the other
hand, greatly relieve, and conduce to a more speedy cure. This is best
performed by a thoroughly good surgeon. Thorough syringing of the
cavity from which the matter comes out (_see_ Wounds, Syringing) is the
best means of cure, aided by thorough heating of the swelling and
surrounding parts with moist heat for an hour or more twice a day. This
heating must embrace a large part of the limb or body, as the case may
be. If the trouble be on the hip or groin, the armchair FOMENTATION
(_see_) should be employed. Other parts should be treated on the same
liberal principle of heating (_see_ Fomentation).

Rich diet is extremely hurtful. Egg switched in cream, rum, brandy, and
such things are to be carefully avoided. Alcoholic liquors are
especially fatal. _See_ Alcohol; Assimilation; Diet; Drinks: Foods,
etc.

Oatmeal jelly (_see_ Food in Illness), wheaten meal porridge, Saltcoats
biscuits (_see_ Biscuits and Water), form the best nutrients in such
cases. These are really much stronger diet than the egg, brandy, etc.

If the abscess be in the foot or leg, with indications of diseased
bone, the leg should be bathed in hot water up to the knee. Dissolve a
piece of M'Clinton's soap in the water used, and let it be as hot as
can be borne. After drying, rub the limb gently yet firmly with olive
oil for five minutes. Dress with oil, lint, and a proper bandage.

We have seen a limb which threatened the very life of the patient
treated as above. The general symptoms abated almost immediately;
growth, as well as healing, set in, and the limb was quite restored to
its normal condition. But patient persistence in treatment is needed
for a bad case.

If under bathing or fomentation the abscess seems to swell, such is
only the natural progress of cure, and should not be regarded as
increase of the trouble. Where the swelling shews undoubted signs of
diseased matter below the surface, it may be opened as above directed.
We know of limbs that have been long distorted, and under rubbing and
fomenting they are becoming gradually all they ought to be. No one need
fear that by such treatment they will grow worse. _See_ Armpit
Swelling; Bone, Diseased; Knee; Limbs, Inflamed, etc.


Acetic Acid.--For use in our treatment we recommend Coutts' Acetic
Acid. It is of uniform strength and purity, and can be had from most
druggists. Weak acid may be understood as one part of this to twelve
parts of water. In many cases, however, much greater weakness than this
is necessary, owing to the tenderness of the parts treated. As a
general rule, the dilute acid should only cause a _gentle_ nipping
sensation and heat in the sore. If it is painful, no good is done.
Frequent gentle applications are always much better than a few severe
ones.

Tasting the acid is a good test. If it can be swallowed without
inconvenience, it may then be tried on a tender part, and if necessary
even further reduced in strength. Where more convenient to get it,
white wine vinegar may be used instead of this weak acid; it will do
equally well.


Acidity of the Stomach.--Often caused by unwholesome food, bad or
deficient teeth, or by too rapid eating. Where these causes exist, they
should be first removed. Eat slowly, and not too much at a time, and
see that only _well-cooked_, easily digested food be taken. Pastry,
sweets and carbonaceous foods in general should not be taken alone at
the same meal, they should always accompany some form of proteid food.
If, however, pain in stomach is found after meal it will be found that
milk can be substituted with comfort. (_See_ Diet). (_See_ Food in
Health). If this does not cure, do not take soda as a remedy. Although
soda neutralises the sourness, it produces other effects, and tends to
cause disease of the stomach. A wineglassful of hot water, with a
teaspoonful of white vinegar in it, is the best cure. Although this is
itself acid, it acts so as to remove the _cause_ of the sourness in the
stomach, and is most beneficial otherwise. It is still better to take a
tablespoonful of this hot water and vinegar every five minutes for an
hour daily before dinner. Instead of the vinegar, a slice of lemon may
be put in the hot water. This will act more efficiently in some cases.
In other cases a teaspoonful of Glauber's Salts, taken in a _large_
tumblerful of hot water, half-an-hour before breakfast, for a few
weeks, will relieve almost entirely.

Readers must note not to use _both_ the salts and vinegar drink at
once. They are intended to cure different sorts of stomach acidity,
caused differently.

Look also well to the warming of COLD FEET (_see_), and see that the
whole skin be cleansed daily with soap lather (_see_ Lather and Soap)
and stimulated with olive-oil rubbing.


Aconite.--Often in cases where our treatment fails to cure, the failure
is due to the patient taking aconite as an allopathic remedy. Used
homoeopathically, it may be harmless, but if taken in considerable
doses, even once a month, it prevents all cure. It gives relief in
heart palpitation, and in case of extreme sensibility, but its other
poisonous effects far outweigh the temporary benefits. A gentle, kindly
soaping with soap lather (_see_ Lather and Soap) over all the body will
relieve extreme sensibility far better than aconite, and can be
frequently repeated without injury. Aconite must be avoided if our
treatment is to be effective.


Action, Balance of.--An excellent guide to the proper treatment of any
case is to be found in the distribution of heat in the patient's body.
Hot parts are to be cooled, and cold parts warmed, often both at the
same time, so as to restore the proper balance of vital action. _Gentle
progressive_ measures are always best in this, especially with
children. Cold feet are warmed by BATHING (_see_) and FOMENTATION
(_see_). A heated head may be cooled with COLD TOWELS (_see_) or with
soap LATHER (_see_). This principle of seeking a proper balance should
be borne in mind throughout all our treatment. Its importance can
hardly be exaggerated, as the restoration of this balance alone will
frequently effect an almost magical cure where drugs have been wholly
ineffective.


After Pains.--_See_ Child-bearing.


Air.--The Black Hole of Calcutta is an object lesson of how necessary
to life is the renewal of the air supply. Few people, however, reflect
that a deficient supply of fresh air may affect the health, though far
short of what will cause death. Many hospitable people will invite so
many friends to their houses that the amount of air each can get is
less than 1-20th of what the law insists shall be provided for the
prisoners in our gaols. Superabundant provision is made for the wants
of the stomachs of these guests, but none at all for the more important
organ--the lungs. The headaches and lack of appetite next morning are
attributed to the supper instead of the repeatedly breathed air, for
each guest gives off almost 20 cubic feet of used-up air per hour. No
one would ask their guests to wash with water others had used; how many
offer them air which has been made foul by previous use? Everyone knows
that in our lungs oxygen is removed from the air inhaled, and its place
taken by carbonic acid gas. Besides this deoxydizing, the air becomes
loaded with organic matter which is easily detected by the olfactory
organs of those who have just come in, and so are in a position to
promptly compare the air inside with what they have been breathing. The
exhilaration produced by deep breathing of pure air is well known.
What, therefore, prevents everyone enjoying it at all times? Simply the
fear of "cold"--an unfortunate name for that low form of fever properly
called catarrh, and a name which is largely responsible for this
mistaken idea. "Colds" are now known to be infectious, being often
caught in close ill-ventilated places of public assembly. Most people
suppose that it is the change from the heat to the cold outside that
gives them "cold," whereas the "cold" has been contracted inside. There
is no lack of evidence that wide open windows day and night, summer and
winter, so strengthen and invigorate that colds are rarely taken, and
when taken, generally in a mild form. This also applies to influenza.
If delicate consumptives can stand, without any gradual breaking-in to
it, unlimited fresh air, and can lie by day and night in open sheds, no
one need dread at once to adopt the open-window system. Although few
will believe it, until they try it, a wide open window does not produce
a draught as does one slightly opened, and it is safer and pleasanter
to go in for abundant fresh air than to try what might be called a
moderate course. Many think that with an open window the heat of the
fire is practically wasted. They do not know that the _radiant_ heat of
the fire will warm the person it falls on even though the temperature
of the room is very low. The Canadian hunter before his fire is
comfortably warm, though the air around him may be a long way below
zero. Extra clothing may be worn if any chilliness is felt. While the
body is warm cold air has an invigorating effect on the lungs. Indeed,
the body soon gets accustomed to the colder air, and those who practise
keeping open windows winter and summer find that they do not require
heavier clothing than those who sit with windows shut. A slight or even
considerable feeling of coldness, when due to cold air and not to
ill-health, will not harm.

This is no new idea. Dr. Henry McCormac, of Belfast, father of the
eminent surgeon, Sir William McCormac, wrote forty years ago:--"The
mainly unreasoning dread of night air, so termed, is a great impediment
to free ventilation by night. And yet day and night air is the same
virtually, does not differ appreciably. The air by night, whether damp
or dry, is equally pure, equally salubrious with the air by day, and
calls not less solicitously for ceaseless admission into our dwellings.
Air, ere it reaches the lungs, is always damp. Quite dry air is
irrespirable. It needs no peculiar or unusual habitude in order to
respire what is termed night air. Exposure to contact with the day air
equally prepares us for exposure to the contact with the night air. We
can multiply our coverings by night with even greater ease than we can
by day, and with the most perfect certainty of producing and obtaining
warmth. Good heavens! How is it that people are so wildly mistaken as
if the great wise Deity, as he does by every exquisite and perfect
adaption, did not intend that we should make use of the purest,
sweetest air day and night always? The prospective results of breathing
purest air by night are so infinitely desirable, the immediate
enjoyment is so great that it only needs a trial to be approved of and
adopted for ever.... Reasonable precautions--that is to say, adequate
night coverings--being resorted to, no colour of risk to the lungs,
even of the most delicate, can possibly ensue. For, it is stagnant air,
air pre-breathed only, and not pure unprerespired air that makes lungs
delicate. Although air, warmth, food, and cleanliness be cardinal
conditions and essential to life, still the most important of all
health factors is air--air pure and undefiled alike by day and by
night.... The constant uneasy dread of taking cold, which haunts the
minds of patients and their friends, is doubtless the one great reason
why fresh air is thrust aside. And yet cold will not be caught, were it
in Nova Zembla itself, by night, if only the sleeper's body be
adequately covered.... The pulses or puffs of air that comes in
ceaselessly, winter and summer, through open windows by night inspire
just as if one slept in the open air, a sort of ecstasy. Gush follows
gush, full of delightfulness, replacing the used-up air and purifying
the blood. It has oftimes been said to me, 'I open the windows the
moment I get out of bed;' to this I have uniformly replied, 'the moment
to open the window is before you get into bed, not when you get out of
it.' You cannot otherwise with entire certainty secure the benefit of
an ever ceaselessly renewed night air so all essential to the blood's
renewal and the maintenance of health.... With abundant night coverings
there is no shadow of risk. There is none of rheumatism, none of
bronchitis, in short no risk whatever. The only, the real risk, which
we incur, is that of closing our sleeping chamber windows, of debarring
ourselves of pure air during our repose."


Appetite.--Should be an indication that food in general or some certain
kind of food is needed by the body. Thus the appetite is the natural
test of the amount and kind of food required. Over-eating and
indulgence in stimulating foods and drinks, insufficient mastication
and bolting of the food (_see_ Over-eating, etc.) give us a false
appetite, thus causing over-eating once more. A return to a simple and
moderate diet will restore the natural appetite.


Air Bath.--This may with advantage to the health of the skin and body
in general, be indulged in every morning during some of the toilet
operations, such as shaving, or preferably, dumbell exercise or Swedish
gymnastics. If exercises are done in a nude condition the utmost
freedom for the muscles is obtained. In a short time a notable change
will be observed in the skin, which will lose its pasty appearance, and
become soft flesh and of a healthy colour. If possible have the bedroom
with windows facing the morning sun, so that the sunlight can also
shine in. There are many sanitaria on the Continent and in America
where this form of "bathing" is practised. Indeed, one of the great
benefits of sea-bathing (overlooked in this country) is the exposure of
the skin to air and light. Consequently if the weather and social
custom permits, as much time as possible should be spent after
immersion, lounging on the sand. A child's natural instinct leads it to
play about after its bath in the sea instead of coming at once to be
dressed.

A young infant will enjoy lying on a rug on the floor without any
clothing and with the window open. Older children will benefit by
running about the garden in summer time in bare feet, and with only one
garment, say a cotton frock.

It is a great mistake to clothe children too warmly, indeed, the same
may be said of adults. Garments should always be loose and porous, so
as to allow of the beneficial action of the air on the skin. One of the
objections to corsets is that they do not fulfil these conditions
(_see_ Tight Lacing, Skin, Care of.)


Air-tight Covering.--The covering of oiled silk, or guttapercha, so
frequently placed over wet bandages when these are applied to any part
of the body, is not only useless, but often positively hurtful. It is
true that the waterproof covering retains the moisture in the bandage,
but it is also true that great heat is developed, and the waste
products in the perspiration are retained on the surface of the skin.
The effect of this is injurious in a very high degree. A little soft
old linen for the wet bandage, with a piece of double new flannel over
it, will leave all the pores of the skin open, and allow all waste
products to pass away freely, while the heat and moisture are retained
as much as necessary.

In other cases two folds of moist flannel next to skin, and two folds
of the same, dry, above the moist ones, will make an excellent bandage.
This applied all over the abdomen, in case of abdominal dropsy, will
have a most beneficial result.

The reason why we often say new flannel is simply that few know how to
wash it so as to retain its soft and porous nature as it is when good
and new. That softness and porousness may be retained in a very easy
way. When you have put your soiled flannel through two good washings
with soap in the usual way, dip it in clean boiling water, and finish
cleaning it with that dipping. You will have it white and fine as when
new.

M'Clinton's soap, being made from plant ashes and not from soda, is
much less liable to shrink and harden flannel; in fact, it is best for
all fine washing.


Alcohol.--This, in various forms, as brandy, whiskey, rum, wine,
cordials, beer and stout, is a frequent prescription in many troubles.
In no cases have we known good effects from its use, which is most
strongly to be condemned. Various reasons for this statement will be
found under the heading of troubles for which alcohol is prescribed.
Here we simply give the fundamental truths as to its action on the
system.

In our system of treatment we ever seek to nurse and stimulate those
nerve-masses which constitute the sources of vital action. Every drop
of alcohol does so much to weaken and destroy these. A certain
quantity, if taken by the strongest man, will kill that man as surely
as a bullet in the brain. Half the quantity will only render him
insensible. Half that, again, only renders him incapable of controlling
his bodily movements. Half that, again, only slightly disturbs the
system; but it affects him in the very same manner in which the fatal
dose affects him, though not in the same degree. It is a narcotic, and
like all such, it always _reduces_ vital action, while nothing is more
important in all healing than to _increase_ it. Hence alcohol is the
deadly foe of healing, and one chief preparer of the system to fall
before disease. The so-called stimulating action of alcohol has been
thoroughly explained by the author of these papers in other writings,
and shewn to be simply an indirect and temporary effect, obtained at
the price of a considerable reduction of the general vitality of the
nervous system.

Young ladies, as a class, are subject to a terrible danger. Great
numbers of mothers actually make their daughters drunkards by ever and
again dosing them with brandy. This is done in secret, and imagined to
be a most excellent thing. For instance, if the bowels get lax, as is
the case in certain stages of disease, brandy is given as a remedy. How
little do those who give it know that it is lessening vital energy and
making cure impossible! But it is doing nothing else. We have many
times over seen the dying sufferer restless and ill with nothing but
the effects of constant small doses of brandy, or alcohol in some other
form.

In looseness of the bowels we give a teaspoonful of lemon juice in a
little hot water and sugar. That has as much effect as is desirable,
and it has no bad effect whatever. Or enema injections may be employed.
(_See_ Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Enema). Even infants are treated with
"brandy," till we cannot help believing they die of the drink, and
would survive if it were put away. Gradually the cruel folly of all
this will, we doubt not, dawn upon the general mind.


Amputations.--These are often performed in cases in which proper
treatment on the lines of these papers, would save both life and limb.
By all means, before consenting to such an irrevocable act as
amputating a limb, let the treatment with fomentations, hot water, and
acetic acid be well and thoroughly tried. Many limbs which were
medically condemned have been thus saved within our personal knowledge.
In some cases the disease may be obstinate; but at least let a fair
trial be given to our treatment before giving up a limb. The treatment
will be found under the headings of the various troubles and parts
affected (_see_ Armpit Swelling; Bone, Diseased; Knee-swelling; Pains,
etc.)


Angina Pectoris.--In a variety of cases, more or less severe spasmodic
pains are felt in the chest. Angina Pectoris (literally, _agony of the
chest_) is one of the worst of these. All these pains, as a rule, may
be removed completely by treatment such as the following:--

Prepare a bed (long enough for the patient to lie at full length upon
his back), with a large thick sheet folded on the lower part of it.
Spread over this sheet a blanket wrung out of hot water, so as to be
both moist (but not wet) and warm (_see_ Fomentation). See that the
blanket is not so hot as to burn the patient and add to his pain. It
must be tested with the back of the hand, and be just as warm as this
can well bear. On this let the patient lie down, and wrap him up
tightly in it from the feet up to above the haunches. Have two or three
towels folded so as to be about six inches broad, and the length of
that part of the patient's spine above the hot blanket. Wring these out
of cold water. Place one over the spine, so as to lie close along it;
on this, place a dry towel to keep the damp from the bed, and let the
patient lie down on his back, so as to bring the cold towel in close
contact with the spine. When this towel becomes warm, another cold one
must be put in its place. After about half an hour's pack and eight
changes of the cold towel, the pain in the chest should be subdued for
the time. If the cold towel does not heat in five minutes, the
patient's vitality is low, and a _hot_ cloth should be placed along the
spine, and renewed several times, and then another cold one; but as a
rule this will not be required. When taken out of the pack, let the
skin be washed with SOAP (_see_) and warm water; then a slight sponge
of nearly cold water, and a gentle rubbing with olive or almond oil.
Rub the back first, and gently "shampoo" all the muscles; that is,
knead and move the muscles under the skin so as to make them rub over
one another.

If the pain in the chest be of an inflammatory nature, the cold towels
must be applied over the place where it is felt, instead of on the
spine (_see_ Inflammation.)


Ankle Swelling.--When long continued in connection with disease or
accident, this sometimes leads to a partial withering of the limb up to
its very root. In such a case it is best to deal first with the roots
of those nerves which supply the limb, which are, in the case of the
legs, in the lower part of the back. It is important to apply light
pressure to these roots by gently squeezing the muscles of the lower
back. This raises a feeling of gentle heat, which slowly passes down
the limbs even to the toes. Then the gentle pressure and squeezing must
be carried all down the limb, avoiding any degree of pain, until all
its muscles have had their share. While progressing _down_ the limb
with his rubbing, let the rubber be careful that the individual strokes
of his hands be _upwards_, towards the hip. The blood will thus be
propelled towards the _heart_, while the _stimulus_ of rubbing is
conveyed along the nerve trunks towards the foot. The squeezing should
be done with a grasping movement of the hands, the limb being held
encircled in both hands, thumbs upwards. Warm olive oil is used in this
squeezing, and also, if the skin be hard and dry, soap lather (_see_
Lather).

Even slight displacements of bones will disappear under such treatment,
if patiently continued day after day, as the patient can bear it
without fatigue. In such gentle remedies, perseverance plays a large
part. (_See_ Abscess; Diet; Exercise).


Ankle, Twisted or Crushed.--Place the foot as soon as possible in warm
water, as hot as can comfortably be borne; keep it there until free
from pain, or for an hour, or even more if necessary. If the flesh be
torn, dress with cloths wrung out of vinegar or weak acetic acid before
placing in the water.

When the bath has done its work, and the limb comes out of the water
alarmingly swollen, good and skilful bandaging will do excellent work.
If you have at hand an old shirt, or some such thing, tear it into
strips about three inches wide, till you have as much material as will
swathe the whole limb from behind the toes up to the top of the thigh.
This need not be all in one piece, but only so that you may apply it in
such a way as to bring a very gentle pressure on the whole surface of
the injured limb. It is important that the bandaging should be
comfortable. The way in which bandaging is sometimes done is cruel in
the extreme. Cases that are a disgrace to humanity are constantly
coming under our notice, in which limbs are lost for life by the
treatment they receive in this respect. Skilful surgeons do it in the
most gentle manner; they even swathe the limbs in soft loose cotton
before they apply the bandages, so that a perfectly equal and
comforting pressure may be secured. Lay the limb to rest, well and
softly supported in a horizontal position. When the swelling falls,
gently tighten the bandage from time to time as required. Each time the
bandages are removed for this purpose, sponge the limb with warm
vinegar or weak ACETIC ACID (_see_). When the swelling subsides, the
ankle may be put again in the hot bath for half-an-hour, and then, if
any bones be broken, is the time for setting them right. The ankle will
probably turn black. If so, do not apply leeches, but allow the black
blood to be absorbed by natural process.

A twisted or bruised wrist or hand is to be treated in the same way.
The swelling may also be removed by gentle rubbing _upwards_ along the
limb, so as to help the blood in its course.


Armpit Swelling.--Often this comes as the result of a chill, or of
enfeeblement of the system from various causes. In the early stage,
such a swelling should not be treated so as to develop a sore.
Treatment with iodine is to be avoided.

The first thing, in this early stage, is to increase vital action in
the part, and also in the whole system (_see_ Abscess). Moist heat is
to be applied. Make a BRAN POULTICE (_see_), which should come right
round from over the spine, over the swelling, and over the whole
shoulder. Let this be kept hot for an hour at least. If it can be thus
applied twice a day without too much fatigue, do so. If the swelling
softens and becomes less under this treatment, a few cold cloths may be
applied to brace the part and aid its vitality. Do not, on any account,
make the patient shiver. If the swelling increases and becomes
discoloured, keep to the hot treatment until it bursts and discharges.
For treatment then, _see_ Abscess; Wounds.

During all this treatment the whole back should be gently rubbed daily
with warm olive oil for half an hour, if as much can be borne.


Assimilation.--Is the process whereby the digested food is carried into
the blood stream, and thus conveyed to the different parts of the body
where the hungry cells are in need of it.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--A bit of the inner coat of the small
intestine.]

Fine threads of blood vessels (capillaries) take it up from the stomach
and intestines. Also along the intestines there are little projections
(villi), through which the food passes into a blood stream leading to
the liver, where the blood is then purified. These projections also
contain lacteals or little vessels containing blood without its red
corpuscles. A duct carries this colourless blood mixed with absorbed
food to the left side of the neck, where it empties into the blood
stream. These lacteals have a special affinity for the fat of the food.
Most of the rest of the food, including the proteid and the
carbohydrate or starchy portion now in the form of sugar, passes into
the capillaries, and then is led to the liver.

The liver will not let through more sugar than is required, storing it
up for future use. It also acts as a careful guardian, by arresting
many poisons which would otherwise pass into the general circulation.
The liver requires for the proper performance of its functions plenty
of pure blood, hence the necessity for fresh air and exercise, that the
lungs may work well. The liver is easily influenced by alcoholic
beverages, and by getting too hard work to do through eating rich
foods. A consideration of this delicate and intricate process, whereby
the digested food is absorbed, will show that badly-digested food can
not hope to be well assimilated, consequently attention should be paid
to the quantity and quality of the food we eat (_see_ Digestion; Diet).

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Two villi containing lacteals. The white canals
are lacteals, the darker lines indicate blood vessels (capillaries).
Magnified 100 diameters. (_From "Quain's Anatomy_.")]

Whatever thus makes living substance is nourishment; whatever fails to
do so is not. If food be taken, and even digested, without being thus
assimilated, it becomes an injury to a patient instead of a help. In
cases of fever, inflammatory disease, or wasting sores, much rich food
feeds the fire. It is like laying rafters on the roof of a burning
house for purposes of repair. In such a case small quantities of milk,
or milk and hot water (_see_ Digestion), represent the total food which
can be effectively used in the body. We write on this subject that in
treatment our friends may watch not to injure by making the blood too
rich in elements which the system cannot usefully assimilate. Such
foods as oatmeal jelly and wheaten porridge will often furnish more
real nourishment than pounds of bread, beef, and potatoes. A little
careful thought will guide to correct treatment in this matter. An
easily assimilated diet is found in Saltcoats biscuits and hot water;
many inveterate stomach troubles have yielded to this, when taken as
sole diet for some weeks (_see_ Biscuits and Water).

Treatment may also be given for lack of assimilative power. The back,
especially on either side of the spine, is rubbed with gentle pressure
and hot olive oil. This pressure is so applied that a genial heat
arises along the whole spinal column. This done twice a day, for
half-an-hour at a time, and continued for several weeks, will markedly
restore assimilative power. Cases which have been perfectly helpless
for eight and even ten years are cured by this simple method,
sufficiently and carefully followed.

We had a patient who was stout, but weak and weary, with the muscles
slack and showing loss of power. The effect of back-rubbing,
accompanied by easily assimilated food in small quantities and often,
was to lessen his weight by a considerable amount. But the muscular
power at once began to increase, and the man was soon like one made
anew. Digestion had not been impaired in this case, but the blood
formed by it was not converted into good living substance. Sight and
hearing have even been restored by these means when the failure in eye
or ear has been due to waste material accumulating, as frequently is
the case.

In connection with many troubles, what may be called _local
assimilation_ has to be considered. A foot, say, with a bad abscess or
diseased bone (_see_ Pain, Severe) is cured by hot bathing and
pressure. From a shrunken and feeble limb, the leg grows to a healthy
and strong one. This occurs because the heat and pressure have so
stimulated its vitality that the material supplied by the blood can be
utilised in the leg for purposes of healthy growth. So with any other
part of the body. Such diet as we have indicated supplies easily
assimilated substance. The local heating, pressure, and bathing enable
this substance to be utilised where it is needed. A little careful
thought on this line will guide to proper treatment of almost any case
where assimilation has failed, either locally or generally, and will
lead the way to a method of cure.


Asthma exists in various forms, having equally various causes. One of
these causes, giving rise to a comparatively simple form of the
disease, is cramp of the ring-muscle of the windpipe, so contracting
the windpipe that breathing is rendered difficult. A "wheeze" is heard
in breathing, though there is no bronchitis or lung trouble present.
The cause of this cramp is an irritation of the ring-muscle's nerve. It
can be relieved by pressing cold cloths gently along the spine, from
the back of the head to between the shoulders, taking care that the
patient remains _generally warm_ during the treatment, and attending to
the feet and skin as directed below in this article. Sometimes the
cause seems to lie in the air of the place where the sufferer resides.
A change either to high ground or the seaside will often entirely
remove asthma, especially in the young. In any such case a trial should
be made of several places, if that be at all possible, and that place
fixed upon where the asthma is least felt. At SEAMILL SANATORIUM
(_see_) many asthmatic persons have found complete freedom from their
trouble from the day of their arrival, and the treatment given has made
this cure permanent.

Another cause of asthma is lack of power in the breathing muscles. In
such a case the patient clings to a particular _attitude_, in which
alone he can breathe. This is in most cases due to a lack of vitality
in the root nerve which supply the breathing muscles.

An attack of this may often be relieved by rubbing, with the points of
the fingers chiefly, gently yet firmly up and down each side of the
spine, close to the bone. Even rubbing above the clothing will
frequently relieve. The roots of the nerves supplying power to the
breathing muscles lie just on each side of the spine, and this kind of
rubbing stimulates these roots. It is not rubbing of the skin or
backbone which is wanted, but such gentle treatment of the nerve roots
on either side of the bone as makes them glow with genial warmth. This
rubbing is of course better done on the surface of the skin. See that
the patient is warm, then dip the fingers in cold water, and rub as
directed. When the water makes the patient feel chilly or he tires of
it, use fresh olive oil, warmed if necessary. Avoid all alcoholic
drinks, which simply rob the nerves of the very power needed for cure.
Temporary relief may be given by such drinks, but it is at the expense
of lowered life and reduced chances of recovery.

A tablespoonful of _hot_ water every five minutes is the best curative
drink. It may be given for several hours if required. To give this
rubbing treatment and drinking hot water fair play, however, attention
must be paid most carefully to the _feet_ and _skin_ of the patient.
The feet frequently are cold, and in bad cases swell, the skin at and
above the swelling being pale and soft. In minor cases this state of
the feet may be treated by rubbing with hot olive oil. In serious cases
rubbing is to be alternated with bathing the feet in hot water, until
the feet and limbs glow with heat. This may be done two or three times
a day, for half an hour, or even an hour. It increases very greatly the
vital power for breathing.

Again, the skin in bad cases of asthma becomes dry, hard, and a light
brown substance forms on its surface. If the skin thus fails, severe
work is thrown on the already overloaded lungs, and the breathing is
much worse. Give the patient a night's pack in the SOAPY BLANKET
(_see_). If there is not strength to stand the entire treatment, keep
in the blanket pack for a shorter time--one, two, or three hours. Not
more than two nights of this treatment should be needed at a time. The
soapy blanket greatly stimulates the skin, and opens all the closed
pores, immensely relieving the lungs. If feet, skin, and back be
treated as we have advised, even a very obstinate case of asthma should
be cured. _See_ Appendix; Bathing the Feet; Rubbing; Soap; Soapy
Blanket.


Back Failures.--Often a severe pain in the toe, foot, ankle, or lower
leg has its cause, not in anything wrong with the part which is
painful, but in some failure of nerve in the patient's _back_.
Blistering or other treatment of the painful part will often injure,
and cannot do much, in any case, to cure. Pains even in the knee and
groin sometimes have the same cause--in back failure. In other cases
the symptoms are, weariness, stiffness, inability to stoop, or stand
long without support, and pains in the stomach and thighs.

A little thought will enable any one to distinguish between pains due
to back failure and those due to local causes. If there is no
appearance of anything wrong at the part pained, then the evil is
probably in the back. It is even a good rule to consider the pain at
first as due to back failure rather than local causes, for by treatment
of the back the local trouble, when that is present, is much helped and
relieved.

In the case of pains in the arms or hands, the _upper_ part of the back
is indicated; in leg and foot troubles, the _lower_ part. Neuralgic
pains are almost always of this class.

In any case of this kind, heat may be applied to the spine, and rubbing
with hot oil given to it, at its upper or lower part as required. If
the heat and rubbing increase the pain, then cold applications may be
used. Sometimes heat and cold may be needed alternately; but common
sense must guide, and all irritation or chilling of the patient must be
carefully avoided.

The best manner of applying cold to the spine is described in article
on Angina Pectoris. Towels are folded as there directed. The moist one
(well wrung out) is placed next the spine, either over the part desired
or the whole spine. The dry one is placed over this, and the patient
lies down on his back on the top of them; or, if he cannot lie, as
sometimes happens, the towels are gently pressed with the hand against
the spine until sufficient cooling has resulted. The patient should
never be made to shiver. If he feels chilly, hot fomentations to the
feet and legs, as described in article on Angina Pectoris, may be
applied.


Balance, Loss of.--Cases where loss of balance in walking and standing
are due to St. Vitus' Dance will be treated under that head. Other
cases, where loss of power in the motor nerves causes this
unsteadiness, are treated of here. As these cases differ totally from
St. Vitus' Dance in cause and treatment, it is well carefully to
distinguish between them. In St. Vitus' Dance, then, notice that the
patient cannot lie still. In case of simple loss of power, he staggers
or falls only when moving, or trying to move. Probably also in the last
case there are cold feet and clammy skin. For this, bathe the feet at
bedtime in hot water, dry, and rub them with hot oil. Then apply to the
back on going to bed a warm cloth, covered with soap lather (_see_
Lather), with dry towel above it. Do this each night for a week. When
taking off the cloth, sponge the back with warm vinegar or weak acid
(_see_ Acetic Acid), and rub with warm olive oil.

After a week of this treatment, apply each night for two or three days,
a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_) across the loins for an hour at bedtime,
with olive oil before and after. Above all, conscientiously let the
patient _rest_. A good deal of lying in bed and on a sofa must be
taken, and good nourishment given (_see_ Assimilation, etc.). Some
weeks of alternate treatment like this should effect a great
improvement, if not a radical cure.


Balance of Action--_See_ Action, Balance of.


Band, Flannel.--A piece of fine new flannel made to cover the whole
back, and sewed under the usual underclothing, has a truly wonderful
effect when worn in certain cases of illness. The same effect is not
produced by doubling the flannels that are worn. What we have specially
to call attention to is the fact that the piece is extra to all that
which covers the rest of the body. The heat of the back, which is so
very important from the nerve structure of the spinal system, is made
to gather under a single ply of flannel, but much more quickly under
two folds of the same material. When, therefore, there is anything like
natural heat in the back, this piece of new flannel makes it gather
quickly, and keeps it stimulating the parts to which it is confined.
Then, if the front of the body is more thinly clad, it is very much the
same as when a hot bag or a bran poultice is applied to the back, and a
cold cloth in front. The effect is not so immediate, but in the course
of time it gets to be even greater. We have never been able to see much
come of "magnetic" or "electric" belts other than would result from
wearing the woollen material they are covered with; but we have seen
constantly all the good effects ascribed to the most costly appliances
produced by a bit of new flannel. If there can be a good rubbing given
with olive oil, and then the extra flannel put on, the effect is
delightful. Again, when the skin has been cleansed effectually with the
mixture for NIGHT SWEATS (_see_), put the flannel on. It causes a
gathering of heat, which stimulates the spinal nerves, and produces
good effects all over the body and limbs.

A broad band of extra new flannel round the lower half of the body is
somewhat equivalent to fomentation got in the armchair, or in the hot
pack of the lower body. Those who are exposed, as coachmen are, and
subject to lumbago and other troubles, will find a flannel band work
wonders. This flannel band on the lower back is valuable in cases of
rheumatism, sciatica, and various kidney troubles. On the upper back it
is good for bronchitis and some forms of asthma.

It may be used in connection with the other forms of treatment given
for these in separate articles. When linen underwear is worn, this band
should be worn under that, next the skin.


Bandage, Four-ply Flannel.--The four-ply flannel bandage is simply what
its name implies--a bandage of the shape and size to cover the parts
treated, and at least four-ply thick. It is wrung out of cold water,
and covered with a thick dry bandage while applied.


Bandaging.--_See_ Veins, Swollen, etc.


Barley.--If this grain is well grown and thoroughly well cooked, it
will be found to be one of the best foods for restoring an exhausted
digestive system.

Take two or three handfuls of "pot" barley; boil this in water for two
hours at least, thoroughly to burst the grain; then water and grain
together are turned into a suitable dish, and placed, covered over, in
the oven, where it may simmer for another two hours. When turned out,
it may be salted to taste. After the four hours' cooking, the grain and
water are a kind of barley pudding. A dessertspoonful of this every
half-hour, from eight in the morning till eight at night, will help
wonderfully a weak stomach, if taken as the _only diet_. This is what
is meant when "barley pudding" is prescribed in these articles.


Bathing.--Cold baths, while greatly to be recommended to those who are
strong, should not be taken by any one who does not feel invigorated by
them. As every one should, if possible, bathe daily, the following
method is worth knowing, as it combines all the advantages of hot and
cold bathing. The principle is the same as explained in Cooling in
Heating. Sponge all over with hot water and wash with M'Clinton's soap;
then sponge all over with cold water. No chilliness will then be felt.
Very weak persons may use tepid instead of cold water. These baths
taken every morning will greatly tend to prevent the person catching
cold.

Cold bathing in water which is _hard_ is a mistake, especially in
bathing of infants. The skin under its influence becomes hard and dry.
Warm bathing and M'Clinton's soap will remedy this.


Bathing the Feet.--This apparently simple treatment, if the best
results are desired, must be gone about most carefully. A foot-bath for
ten or twenty minutes, though a considerable help in many cases, is not
at all sufficient. It must be given, in most cases, for forty minutes
to give sensible relief. Some patients faint long before this time if
the feet are placed in very hot water from the beginning. To avoid this
faintness, proceed as follows: Get a vessel that will hold the feet
easily, and be deep enough to reach nearly up to the knees. Put water
in this one inch deep, and at blood heat--that is, just to feel warm to
an ordinary hand. Set the feet to be bathed in this, and have plenty of
hot water at hand. Let the patient be comfortably covered and seated,
and wait two minutes or so. Add then a little hotter water, and every
two minutes add a little more water, hotter every time, gradually
increasing the quantity and temperature of the water. In half an hour a
good strong heat and large deep bath will be reached, and in only a
very few cases will there be any faintness. If the heat is raised too
fast, give a little cold water to drink, and proceed more slowly. This
is in cases where simple stimulus to vital action is required.

If the bathing be for sores, or disease of joints, the sores should be
dressed first with cold cream or vaseline, or covered with a cloth
dipped in olive oil. If the skin becomes irritated from prolonged
bathing, cover before bathing with a cloth dipped in weak vinegar or
very weak ACETIC ACID (_see_). If the patient is too weak for bathing,
a fomentation may be applied as described in article on Angina
Pectoris, only extending, however, over the knees. Such fomentation may
also be used whenever cold cloths applied to a diseased or inflamed
part tend to cause a chill. It will quite prevent this.


Baths for Head.--In many cases of indigestion and brain exhaustion
head-baths are of great value. School teachers, business men, and many
others suffering from these, will find a daily head-bath half an hour
before dinner of the greatest value. This treatment should be given,
however, only to those who are vigorous enough to bear it. Some are too
exhausted, and for these other methods must be employed. The head-bath
is given by rubbing the whole head well with soap lather (_see_ Lather;
Soap); then wash off and treat with cold water poured over the head for
a short time--a few seconds only; then rub vigorously with a dry, warm
towel till the head glows with friction. In the case of ladies, the
hair may be thrown over the front of the head while the back of the
head is treated thus, and then thrown back while the front of the head
is treated also, the bulk of the hair being thus kept dry.


Bedsores.--There are cases in which the outer skin has been taken off
by long lying, or wearing wet compresses for a long time. A large part
of the body is reduced, as some would say, to "red flesh"--in reality
it is reduced to inner skin deprived of its outer layer. We have taken
a few handfuls of finely wrought soap lather (_see_ Lather; Soap), and
spread them as lightly as possible over this fiery surface. There was
an instant change from severe distress to perfect comfort, and healing
began at once. This treatment may be applied to any simple abrasions of
the skin. Bedsores are not likely to occur if the skin is sponged daily
with water and this mild soap, and rubbed with Rectified Spirit of
Wine, to which a small piece of camphor has been added.


Beef Tea.--It is well to bear in mind that there is scarcely any
nourishment even in home-made beef juice (the best form of any extract
of meat).

Home-made beef juice is prepared by scraping the meat into shreds,
placing in a jar, and leaving the water to soak into the meat for about
half-an-hour. Then place in a saucepan on the fire for an hour, during
which time it must not boil. After being then brought to the boil, it
should be removed immediately, and the lump of meat removed.

Some idea may be obtained of the relatively small amount of nourishment
even in this form of extract when it is remembered that the thin flaky
matter which sinks to the bottom in the bowl is practically the only
nutritive portion in the dish.

All extracts and such-like preparations are inferior to home-made beef
tea in value. We do not deny, then, the value of beef extracts as
stimulants in certain diseased conditions, but we do not recognise them
as a useful food. Further, the stimulating effect upon the heart is
largely due to the hot water they are made with (_see_ Bone Diseased).


Bile, Black.--For this take two tablespoonfuls of hot water every five
minutes for six hours per day. A good many cases, some even given up by
the doctors, have been cured by this simple, yet efficient means.


Bile on the Stomach.--Take half a teacupful of hot water every ten
minutes for ten hours. Next day take the same every twenty minutes for
a like period. The third day the same every hour. For ten days after
take the same before each meal. We have seen a case of liver complaint
of more than twenty years' standing cured thus. See also that the feet
and legs are rendered healthful, and kept so. If cold and clammy, they
should be bathed in hot water for five minutes or so, dried, and rubbed
with warm olive oil.

Care must be taken also to give a simple diet. Oatmeal jelly, wheaten
meal porridge, barley pudding (_see_ Barley), and such foods, should
form the staple nourishment. Avoid eggs, butter, cream, and beef. _See
also_ Sea-Sickness.


Biscuits and Water.--The biscuits referred to are manufactured in
Saltcoats.[A] They are made from the purest whole wheaten flour. The
late Mr. Bryden, of the Saltcoats Home, used them along with hot water
as sole diet in many serious digestive troubles, with marvellous
success. Where no food will lie on the stomach, one small, or half a
large, biscuit is to be taken three times a day, as a meal, and at
meal-times. This will prove amply sufficient to maintain the system in
such a case, until the stomach gains power for more. In the case of
SORES and ABSCESSES (_see_), such a diet of biscuits and water provides
pure blood, and makes healing by other treatment very much easier. We
have known limbs saved from amputation largely by such diet. It will
suit equally well the delicate young lady and the strong labourer. Too
much of ordinary food goes to increase ulceration and nourish disease.
The Saltcoats biscuit provides nothing for these ends, and is of
immense value as an aid to cure. One great advantage of this diet is
that it is a _dry_ one, and the biscuits _must_ be thoroughly chewed to
enable them to be swallowed at all. The saliva is thereby thoroughly
mixed with the food, which is all-important to make it digestible.
These biscuits are also so plain as not to tempt the patient to eat
more than he can digest, which is the great danger in sickness. The
slops of gruel and cornflour so often given are never chewed at all,
and often do nothing but harm. Such starchy foods really require to be
more thoroughly mixed with saliva than any other food, as unless, by
action of the saliva, the starch is converted into sugar it cannot be
assimilated in the stomach.

[Footnote A: By Mr. R. Black, baker.]


Bleeding.--In any case of this pack the feet and legs as directed in
Lungs, Bleeding from, and press cold cloths to the place the blood
comes from, stomach, womb (_see_ Miscarriage), or lungs. If it comes
from the nose, apply the cold cloths to the head and back of the neck.


Blisters.--The destruction of the skin over any painful part, by means
of blisters, is to be always avoided if possible (_see_ Burns, Knee,
Pleurisy, etc.)


Blood.--A most common trouble is anæmia, a lack of good red blood,
showing itself in a waxy paleness and whiteness of lips, often
accompanied by exhaustion and great fatigue. To remedy this, first
secure a supply of pure water, of which 80 per cent. of the blood is
made up. Give this warm in dessertspoonfuls every five minutes. Give
two tablespoonfuls, or perhaps only one, of very light food, or milk
and boiling water half and half, every half-hour. This may be done in
smaller portions every fifteen minutes, or in larger quantities every
hour or two hours, according to the state of the digestion. Fruit is a
valuable means of quenching the anæmia thirst, besides being very
beneficial for the blood. Green vegetables and salads are also most
valuable (_see_ Vegetables; Assimilation; Diet; Digestion). As much
fresh air as possible is also to be breathed by the patient. Either
much time must be spent in the open air, or, if strength forbid this,
the room must be thoroughly ventilated. Close air is the enemy of good
blood. We know of many cases cured by this simple regimen. Care must
also be taken to increase the patient's vitality by various means. If
_thoroughly good_ medical advice can be obtained, it should be taken
(_see_ Air and Appetite; Balance, Loss of, etc.)


Blood Poisoning.--(_See_ Blood, Purifying; Sores).


Blood, Purifying.--Fever arising from bad state of the blood may be
treated by careful cooling of the spine and head, with towels _well
wrung_ out of cold water, frequently changed (_see_ Fever). The pulse
in one case so treated was reduced from 130 to 96 by a few
applications. If a sore exists, treat it as in article Sores. If an
eruption in the skin breaks out, cover the surface at night with soap
lather (_see_ Lather; Soap). Wipe that off with weak acetic acid
(_see_) in the morning, and the skin will come right. Let the diet be
simple and cooling (_see_ Abscess; Assimilation; Skin; Sores; Appendix,
etc.).


Blood, Supply of.--To supply good blood in cases where it is lacking,
either from indigestion or low vitality, nothing is better than milk,
diluted with an equal quantity of _boiling water_. It may be less or
more diluted, as the patient's power of digestion is greater or less,
but in all cases half and half can be tried first. This forms a natural
blood supply. Claret, switched egg and brandy, are to be carefully
avoided. _Boiling_ water amalgamates with the milk, and care therefore
must be taken to see that it is really boiling. Give a teacupful of
this every two hours. If the patient is very weak, this may be the only
diet. But often he will be going about work or business, and yet
needing fresh, good blood supply. Then the cupful may be taken every
two hours, in addition to the usual meals. Experience will soon show
how this may be done. But two hours after a meal, the milk and water
may be given.


Boils.--The following treatment will be found effective to heal less
severe forms of boils, by soothing the whole fevered system of nerves,
and stimulating the skin in its getting rid of waste material.

Begin, then, by thoroughly soaping the head (_see_ Head, Soaping). Go
to the back next, and soap similarly. The same process may, if desired,
be carried over the whole body to the very tips of the fingers and
toes. In a delicate case, do this in portions so as not to run any risk
of exposing the patient too much.

Lay on the boil, after the soaping, and while the patient is under its
soothing influence, a large piece of thickly folded flannel, or a small
sponge, squeezed out of water as hot as the patient can bear. Continue
this, with frequent re-heating of the application for a
quarter-of-an-hour, then allow the patient to rest.

When you have soaped a patient as we have described, say twice, it is
necessary to wash off the particles that may remain on the skin with
white vinegar or weak acetic acid. Then, if you have overcooled with
the soap and acid, it will be well to rub over with warm oil. By these
simple methods of treatment you will banish all tendency to boils. You
will change great suffering into comparative comfort, not only without
expenditure of strength, but in a way in which you add vigour to the
whole frame. One very great advantage of this treatment is that you do
not need to move the patient in any distressing way. If you have only
tact and gentleness of touch, you can do all that we have described
without causing one moment's distress. The severe form of boil known as
_Carbuncle_ is very dangerous, and in such cases good surgical aid is
necessary, in addition to above treatment (_see_ Diet).


Bone, Diseased.--Diseased bone is not incurable. Bone is indeed
constantly being replaced as it disappears in the ordinary waste of the
body. Defective vitality in any part may cause an accumulation of bad
material, which forms the basis of bone disease.

To cut off a diseased foot or ankle is easy, and soon done. To cure it,
may take a long time and much patience, but is worth a great deal. We
know large numbers of limbs that are sound and good now, that were
doomed once to be amputated, but which we were able to rescue in time.

Moreover, a very short time of well-regulated fomentation improves the
general health, and prevents the diseased material spreading from the
foot or ankle through the body.

Take, then, a case in which the ankle bone has first become painful,
perhaps without any perceptible cause, or it may be as the result of an
injury to the part. It then swells and becomes inflamed. At this stage
two or three fomentations (_see_) well applied may very likely cure it
entirely. But if neglected, or leeched, blistered, and the skin spoiled
with iodine, what is called disease of the bone may set in, accompanied
with discharge of matter at one or more places on the ankle. This
discharge, where it is evidently lodging in the limb, may be assisted
to escape by careful lancing by a good surgeon. For such a case,
fomentation of as much of the limb as possible is the treatment. Let a
bath be procured, in which the limb may be immersed in hot water as
deeply as possible, even up to the very thigh. Let the water at first
be comfortably warm. Increase its temperature gradually until as hot as
can be borne without pain. Keep the limb in this bath for an hour, or
for such shorter period as the patient may be able to bear it. Gently
dry, and rub all over with warm olive oil. Wipe this gently off, and
cover the limb with clothing. Then syringe any sores with weak acid
(_see_ Acetic Acid; Wounds), and dress with bandage (_see_ Ankle,
Twisted). Do this twice each day, and persevere.

If it cannot well be bathed, let it be fomented by a large piece of
flannel soaked with boiling water, and placed round the diseased part.
We have seen a wasting bone healed entirely in a few weeks by this
means. We have seen a man with the bones of both his legs splintering
off and coming through the skin perfectly healed in a few months. It
stands to reason that it should be so. The bathing in his case, like
the fomenting in others, were so effectually done that the bones
themselves were heated, and strong healing action set in at once. We
saw lately a piece of dead bone above four inches long come out of a
young man's arm as the result of nothing else but fomentation. The arm
was soon as whole and as useful as could be desired, though it had been
to all appearance only fit to be taken off at the elbow. The steady
supply of moist heat does wonders in this way.

We have seen some most remarkable specimens of what was erroneously
thought sufficient fomentation. One was a case of diseased thigh-bone.
A bit of old flannel, about a quarter of a yard square, had been wrung
out of water slightly tepid and laid on the skin, covered by a little
cloth scarcely equal in size. The application would not have conveyed
activity to the skin on which it was laid, though it required to convey
it to the heart of a large mass of bone. The helpless complaint of the
operator was that it did no good. How in the world could it do good?
Not less than six or seven or even eight yards of a blanket are
required. That is to be folded and rolled up so that a good quantity of
boiling water may be poured first into one end of it and then into the
other. It has to be squeezed and kneaded till the heated water and
steam are fairly soaking the inside of the blanket. When this is opened
up, it is far too hot to put to the skin, but a double flannel or
strong towel may be put on first, so that the heat shall go gradually
through to the body, and by-and-by into the bone. This may be done at
least once a day--if agreeable, it may be done twice. But it must be so
well done that the heat shall effect the bone, or you cannot look for
any result of importance.

If under the bathing the skin becomes irritated, as it will often do,
cover it with cloths soaked in _weak_ vinegar till the bathing is over.
If the skin suffers from the fomentation, do the same thing, and if
this does not cure, dress it, before putting on the fomentation
flannels, with SOAP (_see_) lather as if for shaving, spread like
butter on a cloth, and made to shelter the skin from irritation till
the fomenting is done. This is of great importance in many cases; the
skin is often so sensitive that it cannot well be bathed without being
protected.

[Illustration: Preparing Blanket for Fomentation.]

In the case of hip-joint disease, the ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_) is
the best form of fomenting. For other parts, common sense will guide
how to produce an extensive and thorough heating of the diseased part
and its neighbourhood by some similar means (_see_ Bathing the Feet;
Pains, etc.). It is only heating the failed tissues, only keeping on
such heating, and all the elements of perfect cure are supplied. Even
limbs which have shrunk and become shorter, grow out to their natural
size under this patient heating.

Get "steel drops" and all such-like sent down the sewer. The rats may
have them if they are disposed. Give wheaten or oatmeal porridge, bread
or Saltcoats biscuits, with good buttermilk, and the poor creature,
half dead with poisonous "drops," begins ere long to have red on his
lips and on his cheeks, some fresh vigour in his muscles, and healthy
bone in the course of formation, where bone was only wasting before.
How is this explained? On the simple principle that the bodily system
can turn wheaten meal into all the elements wanted for good bodily
health. Beef tea, soups, "fine things" of all descriptions, never on
earth gave human beings solid strength, but in myriads of cases they
have been successfully employed to take it away. Above all, they fail
to give healthy bone.

Get the patient to take wheaten or oaten meal porridge twice a day at
least. We are not so stern as some in forbidding all else, though in
this we may fall short; but by all means let eating and drinking be
considered in the light of what we have been writing (_see_ Food in
Health).

Good air is important in this, as in all cases of ill-health.

Much depends, in this treatment, on cheerfulness of mind. Let the
patient feel that he is going to be cured. Avoid opium, tobacco,
alcoholic drinks, and all worry. This will actually increase the vital
exchange in the body and very much help the cure.


Bone, Soft.--Often, in the young, the bones are so soft that they bend
more or less, and the beginning of a distressing deformity appears.

In such a case plaster jackets and steel bands are of little use, and
often very painful. It is better to use bandages, applied so as to
support where that is necessary. Also avoid all long sitting, such as
is found at school. It is best sometimes not to permit the child to
walk at all. Better far to lose two years of schooling than to be
deformed for life. Parents should see to it, with all weakly children,
that school does not become a means of trouble. Continuous education is
not nearly so important as is sometimes supposed.

For positive treatment, let the parts be well and carefully rubbed
(_see_ Massage) every day with olive oil, in such a way as to direct a
flow of blood to the feeble bone. It must largely be left to the
healer's common sense how this is to be done, but a little thought will
show how. At many Hydropathic Establishments it may be learned.

This careful rubbing, with good diet and proper bandaging, will
gradually effect a cure in most cases. But here, as elsewhere, patience
must rule. Plenty of good porridge and milk, with abundance of fresh
air, work wonders in this disease.


Bowels, Glands of.--Symptoms of glandular trouble in the bowels
are--weariness and pallor, lack of appetite, softness and shrinking of
limbs, with swelling of the belly. In its earlier stages, before
consumption sets in, this trouble may be perfectly cured. We have seen
even apparently hopeless cases recover under proper treatment. In its
essence the trouble is a failure of power in the nervous centres upon
which health of the bowels depends. To supply this needed power, take a
small bag of cotton cloth, like a little pillow-slip, of just the size
to cover the patient's whole back. Fill this with bran, prepared as for
poultice (_see_ Bran Poultice). Oil the back before applying this, and
place, if needed, four ply or so of cloth on the back to moderate the
heat to the skin. After half-an-hour, if the patient feels desirous,
renew for another hour; do this each day at bedtime for a week at
least. Rub the body all over with warm olive oil when this is taken
off; then place a bandage with only a gentle tightness in such a way as
just to help the relaxed bowels, but only just so much--not by any
means to try and force them into what might be thought proper
dimensions. Give a teaspoonful of liquorice mixture (_see_
Constipation) thrice a day before meals in a little hot water. Feed on
wheaten porridge and generally light diet, being careful to regulate it
so as to make the bowels work easily and naturally. If not too bad a
case, this treatment will soon tell favourably. Enemas (_see_) of
either cold or warm water, as required, will also greatly help.


Bowels, Inflammation of.--This (called medically Peritonitis) is an
inflammation of the membrane covering the bowels. It results from chill
or strain, and sometimes, in the case of child-birth, from dirt
introduced into the parts by handling with unwashed hands. In such
cases, the utmost care must be taken to ensure cleanliness, which will
secure against one fertile cause of the disease. The hands should be
always fresh and clean, and all cloths, etc., should be either most
carefully washed or burnt. Where the trouble arises from strain, or
chill, these lower the vitality, and the membrane becomes gorged with
blood at fever heat. To regulate this heat, then, and free the membrane
from the blood which over-fills it, is to lead to a cure. Rub the back
with warm olive oil, place on it a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_), or an
india-rubber bag of hot water covered with _moist_ flannel; this must
in either case be large enough to cover the entire lower back. Anything
may be used, if these cannot be had, which will powerfully stimulate
the back with moist heat. Wring a small thin towel out of cold water,
and place it over the bowels. At first this must be _very gently_ laid
on. After a little, and when several times freshly applied, this cold
cloth may be very gently pressed all over the bowels. Relief will
almost certainly come ere this has been done for an hour. Then a rest
may be given for two hours, and after that a large fomentation applied
to feet and legs (_see_ Fomentation). While this is on, the cold cloths
may be changed over the bowels again, and over the chest as well. After
an hour of this, great relief should be felt. If there is great thirst
a small bit of ice may be sucked, or a few drops of vinegar in water
may be taken; but the outside cooling will probably render this
unnecessary. Avoid all alcoholic drinks.

Shivering and a feeling of cold is often the earliest symptom, and as
it is of immense importance that warming measures should be promptly
applied. Hot bricks, or bottles, placed merely to the soles of the
feet, are but poor helps: it would be vastly better to pack the feet
and legs in a hot blanket fomentation at once, and, if pain at all
shows itself, to apply a large fomentation to the lower part of the
back. The sooner this is done the better; besides, there is the
consolation that the treatment can never do any harm even if applied in
a case in which there has occurred a harmless chill. The dread which
some medical men have of cold applications is wonderful, but we know
that the front-rank men have no such fear. When care is taken to have
the hot application on first, there is, and can be, no possible danger
in any case in cooling down the burning circulation. One or two
applications have sufficed in many cases we have seen.


Bowels, Lax.--A teaspoonful of lemon juice (freshly expressed), along
with hot water and sugar, will often relieve where the bowels are
acting excessively. For infants in diarrhoea a mixture of honey and
lemon juice is an excellent cure, and has been most successful in our
experience. Avoid brandy and alcohol generally.


Bowels, Locking of.--Sometimes when one part of the bowels is much more
active than another, it passes into that other, and they become
_locked_, like a stocking half turned inside out. This causes dreadful
pain, and if not soon relieved is fatal. Purgatives are of no use, and
usually make matters worse. A surgical operation in very skilful hands
will relieve, and must be quickly performed when necessary.

In cases in which the one part of the bowels has not yet gone far into
the other, nothing more is required than a cold cloth gently pressed
over the parts. We have seen relief set in on the fifth or sixth change
of such a cloth, when nothing else was used whatever. When a hot bag,
or bran poultice, has been put on the back, and cold cloths
persistently changed over the bowels, the whole matter has been put to
rights, and natural motion of the bowels has been had within an hour
after the applications have been begun.

[Illustration: Interior of small intestine.]

There is, however, a stronger measure than merely heating the back and
cooling the front in this way. The patient may be put at once into a
sitting bath or small tub, and a panful of cold water poured or dashed
on to the bowels; they then contract so powerfully, and shorten
themselves so much, that all invagination, as it is called, is made to
cease instantly. We should be disposed to try the mildest method in the
first instance, unless the case is one in which the lock in the bowels
had just taken place. Then it might be well to dash the pailful of
water on so as to put all right at once, and afterwards simply to apply
such remedies as would tend to prevent a recurrence of the evil.

It is, however, usually the case that the distress has lasted some time
before an opportunity of doing anything occurs, inflammation, more or
less, has set in, weeks may have passed, and blundering treatment may
have done great mischief. Then it is safe to use the heat at the back,
and frequently changed cold cloths in front, so as to reduce the
inflammation, and contract the bowels more slowly, so as to remove the
obstruction. When these have been used for some time, if the
obstruction is not removed it will be well to resort to the stronger
measures. Nothing is more beautifully simple than the ordinary action
of the bowels. The healthful movement is like that by which an
earth-worm moves along the ground: so long as the tube is thus moving
its contents onward, by contraction and expansion, no part can pass
inside or outside that which is before it; but when one part loses
nervous tension, and expands without contracting quickly enough, the
part behind it tends to worm itself into it, and a "knot," as it is
sometimes called, is formed. No possible instrument can reach it except
by cutting the body outright, but the action of cold is so powerful in
contracting the tube that the "loop," as it is also called, is drawn
out, and the right state of things is produced. It is important to
remark that there are glands near the lower bowel that swell and form
tumours. The cold applications reduce these very speedily to their
usual size, and if their swelling is an obstruction, it is soon
removed. But it is the lock in the tube itself that is the real malady
of which so many die, and with which so many more narrowly escape.

The trouble is best avoided by attention to the regular action of the
bowels. It arises from great irregularity in that action.


Bowels, Reversed.--_See_ Bowels, Locking of, above.


Brain Exercise.--Proper exercise for the brain is most important. But
this is not to be found in that kind of severe mental labour which is
sometimes mistaken for it. Children at play have genuine brain
exercise. So has a man at what is called a "hobby," such as
photography, golf, or cycling. The child at school, the man in his
office, are not at exercise, but at wearing work. This distinction is
most important. Exercise, again, is not found in careless dreaming, but
in some form of "play" which calls for steady, but almost unconscious,
and altogether enjoyable thinking. Books sometimes furnish this, when
they lift the mind as far as possible out of its usual track, and
produce only pleasant thoughts. Tragedies, novels which end miserably,
or which are pessimistic, should all be avoided. Perhaps some easy
science or art is the best exercise of all, when the brain is suffering
from overstrain. But taste will guide in this. The great matter is to
have pleasurable, easy, and natural employment for the brain. This and
not work is strengthening "exercise," whether in child or man. So far
as we can we should see that the weary get it. For he who procures this
for his fellow works immense good.

We have seen, for instance, a student attacked with dysentery while in
the hardest part of the session at the university. His whole system
became prostrate, and muscular activity to a very small degree would
have killed him; so would the continued mental toil necessary to go on
with his studies. Yet his brain was in need of exercise almost from the
first appearance of his disease. He must have this or be miserable, and
not likely soon to recover. An intensely interesting book fell into his
hands, altogether away from his track of toil. He read day after day at
this book. This was his "exercise"--that is, it was the activity of
that one only part of his physical system which needed such exercise
for the time. That exercise allowed all the other organs to recuperate.


Brain, Inflammation of.--This arises often from over-schooling of young
boys and girls. Care should ever be taken to avoid this. Obstinate
constipation in the bowels, chills and exposure, are also fruitful
sources. Much worry and anxiety also bring on this serious illness. All
sometimes combine to produce a bad case. Pain in the head sets in,
followed by convulsive attacks; yet the trouble may be cured in many
cases with comparative ease. Leeches, opium, and blistering are to be
avoided as most injurious. For treatment it is well to begin at the
feet; if these are clammy and cold, wrap in hot fomentation up over the
knees (_see_ Fomentation). Proceed to give a pretty warm injection of
water into the lower bowel (_see_ Enemas). This should be repeated
several times, allowing it to pass off each time. If this increases the
pain, try an injection of cold water. This treatment of feet and bowels
is most important, and should never be neglected; it renders the
treatment of the head tenfold more effective. Cold cloths may now be
gently pressed for some time over the head. If the pulse is violent and
feverish, let several towels be well wrung out of cold or even iced
water, fold one so as to cover the entire head and back of the neck,
and have the others ready, similarly folded. Press the first on gently,
especially at the back of the head, so that the cooling cloth covers
the head all over and soothes the violently heated brain. As soon as
one towel grows warm, take a fresh cold one. Relief should come in an
hour at least, but longer may be required. During the cooling see that
the heat of the fomentation on the legs is well kept up; change if
necessary. When the more painful symptoms abate, oil the lower part of
the back, and place on it a bran poultice (as recommended in Bowels,
Inflammation of). This will go far to prevent any relapse. If the
symptoms recur, use the treatment again. _See_ Brow, Weary; Eyes,
Failing Sight. _See also_, for other brain troubles: Restlessness;
Sleeplessness.


Brain Rest.--The need for this is often indicated by irritability of
temper. This coming on is generally a warning that a period of rest
must be taken. An overheated brow is also another indication. If this
shows itself in a child during or after school, together with
listlessness and excitability, all idea of lessons should at once be
laid aside for a time. It is nothing less than cruelty to work an
overheated brain in such a case. Let the child go free from school till
all the head trouble is removed. Also let the head be soaped (_see_
Head, Soaping).

Sometimes pain in the head sets in from overwork. Even in the young,
fainting may show itself. Rest is essential, and will prove a perfect
cure, together with a little brain exercise of the kind described in
article Brain Exercise, always avoiding fatigue. Let all readers
remember that it is better to lose six months in rest than become
permanently incapable, therefore let old and young take rest in time.


Bran Poultice.--Get a sufficient quantity of good bran in an ordinary
washhand basin. _Heat_ the basin before beginning operations. Have also
a boiling kettle at hand. Pour the boiling water by little and little
into the bran, and mix and stir it up until it is all a moist mass, but
not _wet_. The thing is to avoid putting in more water than the bran
can easily absorb and hold. Then have ready a flannel bag of the size
and shape required for the poultice. Fill this with the bran, and it is
ready. The skin to which it is applied should first be oiled with olive
oil. The poultice may be fastened on with flannel bands. In any case it
must lie tightly on the skin. The patient must lie on it, if it be
applied to the back. One or two tablespoonfuls of mustard may be added
if great power is required, not otherwise.

Instead of this poultice, an india-rubber bag full of hot water may be
used, with two or three ply of moist flannel between it and the skin.
Our only reason for recommending bran is that many could not afford the
india-rubber bag.


Bread, Wheaten.--In some cases the bran in whole wheaten bread and
Saltcoats biscuits is found to irritate the stomach and bowels. As diet
for those able to digest the bran, nothing is better. Where it cannot
be digested, ordinary bakers' bread boiled in water to soft pap is
found to make a good substitute. This must not be boiled with milk
unless where there is diarrhoea to be cured, as milk tends to produce
bile and costiveness. Oatmeal jelly (_see_ Food in Illness) is also a
good substitute for biscuits and wheaten bread.

Often the water with which bread is baked causes it to be difficult of
digestion. Hard water is bad for this. For an invalid, bread baked with
distilled water, or pure rain water, is often a means of great comfort
and help. A slight admixture of pure CANE SYRUP (_see_) or liquorice
juice in the water will tend to prevent bile and costiveness. A
sufficient action of the bowels is of great importance for where good
nutrition is desired.

Bread, especially when fresh, is made much more digestible by slowly
toasting it in the oven till it is a golden brown throughout. It is
then known as "zweibach" (twice baked). When eaten dry, it requires
considerable mastication, and for that reason is much better than soft
bread. It can be also broken up and eaten with hot milk and sugar.


Breast with Corded Muscles.--Often a slight hardness shows itself in a
woman's breast, when the muscular tissue becomes what is called
"corded." It is well, first of all, in all cases of breast trouble to
avoid alarming the patient. Great anxiety is often endured through fear
of cancer when there is no need. A "corded" breast may usually quite
easily be cured, and the patient should be made perfectly easy in mind
about it.

Take a good lather of soap (_see_ Lather; Soap). Apply this night and
morning, gently lathering the breast for some time. After this, each
time, rub the back well with hot olive oil, so as to produce a thorough
glow of heat all over it. Sometimes the swelling will disperse under
this treatment. It may, however, grow larger and show a tendency to
break. In this case treat as in next article.

We shall also probably find, on examining, that the skin was failing to
do its part well. If rubbed with Cayenne lotion the clean, healthy skin
will send off much more waste than was allowed to pass through it
before.


Breast, Swelling in.--A blow on the breast, or the drain of nursing a
child, along with a chill, often produces swelling, sometimes hard and
painful. This, if left uncured, may even develop into an ABSCESS
(_see_). As it sometimes arises from dirt being left on the nipples,
all nursing mothers should be particular about cleanliness, which
itself prevents many ills.

For cure, bathe the feet in hot water (_see_ Bathing Feet), rub them
over with warm olive oil, and wear good cotton stockings if in bed. If
going about, put a pair of woollen stockings over the cotton ones. Rub
the back as recommended above, using first a little hot vinegar, then
the oil. The feet bathing may be every three days, and rubbing the
same. If the swelling does not yield to this, place the patient
comfortably in bed. Put a good-sized basin of hot water, which has been
boiled and allowed to cool so far, tightly under the breast, so that it
may be bathed with a sponge. Do not use too hot water, but just
comfortably hot. Keep up fresh supplies, and bathe for an hour if
patient can bear it. If she becomes fatigued, lay her down to rest for
fifteen minutes or so, and then continue treatment. No poulticing is
needed when this is well done. A thorough heating of the whole breast
is what is wanted; rub gently with olive oil, and cover warmly after
bathing (_see_ Cancer).


Breast, Sore Nipples on.--Take a little warm vinegar or weak acid
(_see_ Acetic Acid). Bathe the sore nipple with this, _avoiding pain_,
for about ten minutes. Every two minutes dry, and anoint gently with
warm olive oil. We have seen _one application_ cure a bad nipple; but
apply twice daily as long as needed.


Breath and Blood.--Often difficulty of breathing, especially in close
air, mistaken even for asthma, is due simply to the quality of blood
supplied to the lungs. Sometimes giving up the use of sugar effects a
cure, for sugar produces an excess of carbon in the blood, which
requires an excess of oxygen in the lungs to purify it. Thus breathing
is difficult, especially where oxygen is deficient in the air breathed.
Sometimes the lungs are not strong enough to stand the necessary fresh
air required in such cases, or other troubles may prevent a delicate
person from exposing themselves. Then it is of importance so to
regulate the diet that less oxygen will do all that is needed in the
lungs. "Rich" food, much fatty matter, sugar, and all sweets and
sweetened things, are to be avoided. If this be done, the need for much
oxygen disappears, and the patient will have no difficulty of breathing
in suitably ventilated places.

But the best treatment is hot oil rubbing along the spine, over the
stomach, and even down the limbs to the ankles. An hour of this every
day will work wonders. Or a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_) may be laid
across the back for an hour twice a day. Cultivate also all cheerful
thoughts, and banish sad ones as far as possible. Sad thoughts greatly
diminish nerve power.


Breath, and the Heart.--Stout people are usually more or less "scant of
breath." Accumulations of fatty material, or changing of muscle into
fat, cause this, especially if about the chest and heart. To reduce the
fat, and grow healthy muscle instead, will perfectly cure the
difficulty of breath. Moderate open-air exercise and simple food, such
as Saltcoats biscuits, oatmeal jelly, and barley puddings will largely
help this. Avoid also all alcoholic liquors, the use of which is often
_the sole cause_ of the trouble. Keep the skin active (_see_ Skin).

The hot FOMENTATION (_see_) to feet and legs is a truly powerful remedy
for all lack of force in the system, especially if followed by the
massage treatment described in MASSAGE (_see_).


Breath, Hot.--This may be felt either because the breath is actually
hot, or because the membranes of the tongue and mouth are unusually
tender, and _feel_ the breath hot in consequence when it is not really
so. This latter case is usually accompanied by a sore tongue. To heal
the tongue, it must be soaked freely with vinegar or weak ACETIC ACID
(_see_), so diluted as to give only a very slight feeling of smarting
after even prolonged application. Apply it with a good camel's hair
brush, and brush with a little fine almond or olive oil after the acid.
The mouth may be rinsed with the acid, but brushing is best.

But where real heat is found in the breath, it arises from an
overheated state of the body internally. This frequently arises from
failure in the stomach to digest properly. If the hot breath arises
from this, small drinks of hot water, frequently taken, will usually
cure it. A warm bran poultice, placed on the back at bedtime opposite
the stomach, will prove a more powerful remedy in addition to the hot
water. More powerful effect still will be found in such stimulus to the
skin as washing it all over twice a week with vinegar or weak acetic
acid. On other days let the patient be rubbed over with good olive oil,
mixed with enough CAYENNE "TEA" (_see_) to cause a slight burning
sensation. Let this also be done twice a week, and twice a week also
wash all over with M'Clinton's soap and hot water. A plain diet of
course, should be observed (_see_ Digestion; Dyspepsia; Food; Teeth,
etc.).


Breath, and Muscles.--Sometimes difficulty of breathing is due, not to
anything wrong with lungs or windpipe, but to failure in the diaphragm
(or large muscular "floor" of the chest), and the other chest muscles,
which work the lungs. A feeling of sinking and weakness round the waist
indicates in such a case diaphragm failure. Gentle heat at the small of
the back, and olive oil rubbing, form treatment for this. For other
chest muscles, give a warm washing each night with SOAP (_see_) over
the body, and rub, especially the back and chest, with hot olive oil.
You soon bring the muscles into good trim.


Breath, and Nerve.--Difficult breathing, especially in ascending a
hill, is often due simply to the lack of the nerve power by which the
breathing muscles work. A teacupful of hot water half-an-hour before
each meal, by helping digestion, will often remove the difficulty. Rub
each evening along the spinal cord with hot olive oil.


Breath, and the Skin.--The organs of breathing remove much waste from
the system, but the skin also removes a very large part. If either
fails, the other has more work thrown upon it, as we see in the severe
"night sweats" which accompany chest and lung failure. In such cases,
rub with CAYENNE LOTION (_see_ and Night Sweats). Avoid the use of hard
water in washing and bathing, especially with infants.

Cold baths for the weakly, chills, damp beds, and such things, cause
rheumatism and colds by stopping the proper discharge of waste by the
skin. After such chill, or cold in damp bed, a hot wash and good hot
oil rubbing will avert all evil. This may not always be available; but,
if it can be got at all, should be given as soon as possible. The use
of the soapy blanket is of the utmost value in severe cases (_see_
Soapy Blanket). Strict cleanliness of person and underwear should be
observed. The AIR BATH (_see_) will also give tone to the skin (_see_
Skin and Underwear).


Breathing, and Bronchia.--The _bronchia_ are the branching small tubes
which lead from the windpipe to all parts of the lungs. Two different
states of these often pass as bronchitis. In one of these the tubes are
swelled, congested, and full of fiery heat. The whole body is also
fevered, and breathing is difficult, with cough. This is true
BRONCHITIS (_see_). But often, with difficult breathing and irritating
cough, there is no heat and fever. In this case bronchitis treatment
gives no relief. This is, indeed, only an irritated state of the lining
of the tubes, and far from dangerous. A change of climate to a drier
atmosphere will often entirely cure it. Often also a time spent in a
room, where the air is kept dry but fresh, and at one steady
temperature of about 60 deg., will cure. Our chief purpose in
mentioning it, however, is that this comparatively slight trouble may
not be mistaken for true bronchitis.

[Illustration: The Lungs and other internal organs.]


Breathing, Correct Method of.--The capacity of an ordinary pair of
lungs is about 250 cubic inches. In ordinary breathing, however, we
only take in from 20 to 30 cubic inches. Hence the necessity for
practising correct deep breathing.

Correct breathing requires cultivation and effort at first, afterwards
it will become unconscious. The head should be thrown back, the
shoulders squared, and a slow deep breath gradually inspired through
the nose till the lungs are filled throughout with air. The expiration
should be just as gradual with relaxation of every muscle. It is most
important that the _lower_ part of the chest should first be filled by
depressing the diaphragm (the muscular floor of the lungs). Some
practise is needed before this habit is acquired, but it is well worth
cultivating. Place the hands on the sides of the abdomen while
inspiring, to feel that _this_ is expanding. Teachers of singing insist
on diaphragmatic breathing, which is also of great benefit to the
stomach, liver, and other organs. By the movement it gives to the
intestines their action is also assisted, and constipation is
prevented.

This deep breathing may be practised several times each day (say ten
breaths at a time) till the habit of correct breathing is acquired. It
will be found to have a wonderfully soothing and calming effect (_see_
Worry). Such exercise should always be taken in the open-air, or in a
room with a widely open window. A good plan is to take them in bed
before rising, with little or no clothes on, while lying flat on the
back.

Paleness, langour, irritability, and general ill-health result from
insufficient breathing. Furthermore, the system becomes unable to
resist disease. We know no aid to beauty more effective than the
practice of deep breathing.


Breathing, in Going Uphill.--_See_ Breath, and Nerve.


British Cholera is to a certain extent epidemic--that is, it affects a
large number of people in a particular place, being, it is believed,
conveyed mainly by the common house flies. War should be waged against
these, and great care taken to guard food, especially that of children,
against them, by using covers, etc. If this were done the appalling
death-rate in summer from this disease among the young would be largely
reduced. Typhoid fever and other diseases are probably also spread by
flies. Care should be taken to remove promptly all refuse from about
the house, and so prevent flies breeding on it.

In ordinary diarrhoea, injections of cold water by the enema will
usually cure, especially if a little vinegar or a few drops of acetic
acid be added to the water. But in British Cholera this proves
insufficient.

This is not an affection of merely one part of the system, but of the
whole. If, then, you brace with the cold enema one part, no doubt so
far you do good and not harm, but you cannot by this, cure an affection
of the whole system. British Cholera is a sweating from the surfaces of
the whole alimentary organs. This internal sweat flows into the stomach
and causes vomiting, and into the bowels causing purging that cannot be
stayed by any application to the lower part merely.

The problem to be solved is how to give more life force. Whenever the
injection of cold water fails, and especially when it rather increases
the complaint, and vomiting or sickness shows that the attack is of the
nature of British Cholera, you will do well to pack feet and legs in a
good blanket fomentation. Put a little olive oil on before and after
such a packing. One application may be sufficient; but it may be
necessary to repeat the packing. Give frequent sips of hot water. It
will be well also to use the cold injection, as it will be found to
take good effect whenever the vital force has been increased by the hot
packing. If cramp has shown itself, it will be needful to cool the
spinal nerves (_see_ Angina Pectoris), but this only when you are
effectually heating the limbs.

The first injection may be followed by even an excessive motion, but if
that is followed up with another injection still of cold water, there
will be nothing experienced after but perfect comfort, and no more
trouble with the bowels.

The violent irritation that follows after a very simple over-action of
the lower bowel is quite prevented when this remedy is effectually
used. In less severe cases, where fermentation of food is the cause of
the disease, frequently a dessertspoonful of castor oil, or other
simple purgative, will prove sufficient to cure.

Brandy often gets the credit of curing in such cases. It does so simply
because the cases in which it _kills_ are not taken into account. It
always _lessens_ vital energy, and in British Cholera increase of this
is urgently required.


Bronchitis.--This frequent and severe trouble results most usually from
chill to the skin throwing overwork on the lungs and bronchial tubes.
These last become inflamed and swollen. A fiery heat and pain in the
chest follows, the whole system becomes fevered, and breathing is
difficult, and accompanied by severe cough.

Kneipp linen underwear, which is porous, and has a stimulating effect
on the skin, assists it to perform its functions, and will therefore
prove useful to sufferers from Bronchitis.

Abundance of fresh air will often entirely prevent Bronchitis. We have
known people who suffered from it every winter for years who never had
it again after learning the value of the constantly open window.

At the earliest stage, when the chill is first felt, let the patient go
to bed. First sponge up and down the back quickly with hot soap and
water. Dry this off, and sponge or rub gently with hot vinegar. Dry
this off, and rub with warm olive oil. This will often ward off an
attack entirely.

When the trouble has fairly obtained hold, treatment must be applied to
the back and chest as follows. Place on the upper part of the back a
BRAN POULTICE (_see_), large enough to cover the entire shoulders and
upper back. Let the patient lie in bed comfortably on this. Then apply
towels wrung out of _cold_ water on the chest where pain and
breath-catching are felt. Let the towels be large, and at least four
ply. Change for a fresh one as soon as that on the chest becomes
heated. When this has been done as long as the poultice keeps hot, take
all off, rub back and chest with hot vinegar, dry off, rub with hot
oil, dry off, and cover all with warm new flannel. If needful, repeat
the application. We have seldom seen it required twice.

If the fever is very great, use no olive oil, and for a strong patient
the cold towels may be used without the poultice. But immediately these
reduce the fever, the poultice should be used as directed.

In many cases where medical men have given up hope, this treatment has
effected a cure.


Brow, The Weary.--Sometimes in the case of a child at school, the
result of overwork shows itself in a weariness and weight in the brow.
Often parents are glorying in the school successes of their children,
when these are having their brains destroyed. Careful watching should
ever be given to the young. The aim in education should be to draw out
the faculties, and teach the young to think for themselves, rather than
to cram in a mass of facts which will enable them to take prizes and
pass examinations with honours.

The results of continued overwork are fatal, but in its earlier stages
it is easily remedied. Hence the need for watching and treating such an
early symptom as head weariness. For treatment see that the feet are
warm, bathing them if necessary (_see_ Bathing Feet). Stop school at
once, and give as much exercise in the open air, at play, as possible.
Then rub gently with both hands up and over the brow and sides of the
head over the ears, then up the back and over top of the head. Rub all
over the head with the finger points (not nails), so as to raise a glow
in the skin of the scalp. This treatment is best done while the patient
sits, and the operator stands behind or beside him. Gentleness of touch
there must be, and no irritation of the patient. With abstention from
all lessons, it will soon cure.


Bruises.--For slight bruises, such as children frequently get by
falling, a little butter or vaseline, applied immediately, is an
excellent remedy. For more serious injuries, such as bruised nails of
the fingers or toes, or such as result from violent knocks on any part,
the best remedy is hot fomentation or hot bathing, whichever may be
most convenient in application. Persistent and repeated treatment in
this way, with oil dressing, will cure in almost any case not so severe
as to be beyond remedy. Even where it is thought wise to send for a
surgeon, this bathing is the proper first treatment, and will do much
to relieve the inevitable pain.


Burns.--For _slight_ burns, immerse the injured part in cold water, and
keep there till the pain abates. This is where only redness of skin is
produced. In case of a blister forming, do not break or cut it, but
perseveringly cool with cold water, and leave the blister till it comes
away of itself, when the sore will be found healed beneath it.

Where a large surface is injured, some other part of the body must be
_fomented_; best the legs and feet, or the back, while the injured part
is persistently cooled. Thus a dangerous chill is avoided. The ARMCHAIR
FOMENTATION may be used, or a large BRAN POULTICE (_see both these_),
and thus the heat of the body kept up while cold water is applied to
the burns. If these cannot be immersed, as in the case of the face,
cover them with an air-tight covering, and apply iced or cold cloths
above this. The linseed oil and lime-water known as "Carron Oil" forms
the best dressing to apply. If a burn has, however, gone so far as to
become, owing to neglect, a festering sore, then warm water treatment
is required, as recommended for ABSCESS (_see_). _See also_ Wounds.


Buttermilk.--Where we prescribe this, either for drinking or for
external use in poultices or bathing, it is very important it should be
pure and fresh. If kept too long, it causes often terrible pain when
applied to eruptive sores. There must be no "watering" or doctoring
with cream of tartar, if good results are desired. If the milk be too
long kept, and cannot be had fresh, it may be mixed with a little sweet
milk and all churned well together. Then it may be used. If still
painful, mix again with more sweet milk. To soak diseased skin in good
fresh buttermilk is so powerful a means of cure, that to procure it a
good deal of trouble is well spent. It is also invaluable as a daily
drink for regulating the bowels, and maintaining health. Sterilise all
sweet milk used.

If buttermilk cannot be had, acetic acid or vinegar, or the juice of
lemons, may be mixed with sweet milk or even water, until the mixture
attains about the usual sourness of buttermilk. This makes an efficient
substitute.


Buttermilk Poultice.--Boiled potatoes beaten up with fresh buttermilk
make an excellent poultice for all eruptive sores, scabbed heads, and
heated skin affections. After these always apply soap lather (_see_
Lather). If buttermilk cannot be had, use acetic acid or vinegar, as
above.


Cancer.--Swellings in the breast often arouse fear of cancer, but are
generally very simple affairs and easily yield to treatment as in
article Breast, Swelling in. If not, we should chill the diseased
growth so as to arrest it. Now this, as we have proved, may be
effectually done, and the sorely tried patient may be saved a world of
pain, and perhaps cured. We have seen more than one apparently
desperate case, even where the breast had been cut off and the evil was
again showing itself, in which effective cooling arrested the growth
and saved the sufferer. When a growth of this kind has gone a certain
length, there is severe pain. The cooling removes this, and secures the
patient unspeakably precious rest without narcotics. But this is not
all: it puts an effectual stop to the swelling. If the case has not
gone very far, the swelling falls, and may disappear; but even when it
has gone too far for this, the disease is stayed, and all symptoms of
it are lessened. All swelling but the actual separate growth is
removed. For instance, when the swelling has passed from the breast
into the armpit it has been dispelled, and entirely confined to the
actual substance of the tumour. This is managed simply by the
persistent and vigorous use of cold towels. They must be large enough
to allow of fourfold covering of the whole breast. They are wrung out
of cold water at first, and, if possible, cooled with ice instead of
being wrung out after. One at a time is kindly pressed all round and
over the swollen breast. It is heated in one or two minutes, and must
be changed. The second is pressed round and all over the breast in the
same way. It is soon heated too, but you may have three of them in a
circle, and if you have a bit of ice for those that are cooling, you
have cold enough. Some would put on an ice-bag, and let it lie, but we
have never been able to advise this, as it is very apt to destroy the
outer skin by too severe cold. This treatment requires work--no doubt
of that--but the effects are well worth it.

When the cooling treatment, given twice a day, or oftener if it can be
without discomfort, has reduced the swelling and put back the tumour,
till it may fairly be regarded as capable of absorption, it will be
well to try the effect of hot fomentation by bathing (_see_ Breast,
Swelling in). This will not do harm, but good, if it is only used so
far as to try whether the stage for hot treatment has been reached. If
the hot bathing is agreeable, and instead of causing pain, rather
soothes and comforts, it may be strongly tried. But this will be only
if the effectual cooling has put back the disease, or if it has been
really mastered. So long as it shows a tendency to increase, it will be
well to continue the cooling.

Even if it be not possible to remove the disease, its progress may be
arrested, and it may be rendered dormant for the rest of life. We know
persons sent off to die with growths who are now quite well and have
been so for many years, with these growths only rendered dormant. Even
if this is not possible, it may be that we render the growth so slow
that it shall come to nothing important in the remainder of even a long
life. We should never hesitate to do our utmost in any case.

Besides the local treatment given above, vital action in the whole
bodily system has to be increased on a definite line. This is the
ripening and removing used-up substance from the body. It is sluggish
ripening of substance to which we trace the morbid living growth; that
sluggishness must be overcome. The first and most important means for
this is fresher air for the lungs. The seaside home, if there are no
drugs or drinks prescribed in ignorance, nor any other drawback, will
be found of immense value here.

Next in importance to fresh air is pure distilled water. It should be
used both in preparing food and for drinking. This constant use of
distilled water is one of the most important remedies in cases of
cancer. Comfortable clothing (_see_ Underwear) should be worn by night
and day, and damp avoided. The food should be such as can be most
easily assimilated. Whole wheaten meal in various forms and pure water
work wonders on "hopeless cases."

But when all these conditions have been supplied, "pack" the whole body
at eight o'clock at night in cloths lightly wrung out of hot vinegar
and water, half and half, and covering these with dry sheets and
blankets, give the patient an hour in this "pack." On taking out of
this, rub gently all over with hot olive oil, dry that off and put to
bed. In the morning, at half-past seven or so, pack in a soapy blanket
for an hour, then sponge with vinegar and rub with oil. Take a stick of
good liquorice, with half an ounce of senna leaves, and put these in a
quart of water, boil the whole down to a pint, giving a teaspoonful of
this in a little hot water three times a day.


Cancer in Face.--Treat as far as possible as recommended for breast
cancer.


Cancer in Foot.--We have noted one case in which "Cancerous Gangrene"
in the foot, pronounced incurable by the medical attendant, was cured
by our instructions in the following simple manner. Buttermilk
poultices (_see_) were used over the whole foot to thoroughly cleanse
the sores. These were then carefully lathered with soap (_see_ Lather
and Soap). Vinegar or weak acid was applied with sponges and syringe
after this, and made thoroughly to penetrate all the sores to the
bottom. This was done twice a day, and in one week improvement set in.
In a comparatively short time the patient could walk miles without
fatigue. This treatment may be applied to all angry sores.


Cane Syrup.--In the original edition, good treacle was recommended as a
laxative. This treacle, which was prepared from cane sugar, we
understand is now not to be had--what is sold as treacle being largely
mixed with glucose. We therefore recommend instead the use of golden
syrup made from pure cane sugar. This can be had (in tins), guaranteed
by the makers to be genuine.


Carbuncle.--_See_ Boil.


Catarrh.--Is simply an inflammation due to impurity of the blood. These
impurities arise from bad air or wrong food, and remain in the body
till a chill of some kind or other forces the blood and the impurities
with the blood to some part, resulting in inflammation. Catarrh in the
mucous membrane, connected with respiration, is commonly called a
"cold," and is decidedly infectious (_see_ Air). A cold must be
regarded as an effort of Nature to get rid of these impurities.
Breathing of fresh, even cold air, will expedite, not hinder the cure.

Washing the hands and face in _cold_ water, and drying vigorously, will
often cure it when beginning as "cold in the head." Cold, applied in a
certain way, cures the after effects of chill, but it must be so
applied as only to affect the part to which it is applied, while the
general heat of the body is kept up. Catarrh may occur in any internal
membrane of the body. If these can be reached, as the nostrils, or even
the bowels, may be by syringing, then nothing is better to effect a
cure than cool water and vinegar, or weak acetic acid. Brush the
nostrils often with this, and cold in the head will soon be cured. It
can be applied still better by means of a nasal douche. Syringing the
bowels with this cool acid mixture in the more serious catarrh of these
will also cure. Patient perseverance is wanted, however, in the latter
case. Get also the external skin to act thoroughly. Where the cause of
internal catarrh is exhaustion, through overwork or worry, the cause
must be removed. Let the sufferer learn trust in a living Heavenly
Father, and cast all burdens upon Him, and the physical treatment will
have a fair chance to cure. _See_ Breath and Skin.


Cauliflower Growths.--These begin like warts, and in the earlier stages
poulticing and soaking with weak acid almost invariably cure. After
some months the growth looks like the head of a cauliflower, and
becomes dangerous if on a vital region. It is not really a parasite,
but rather a diseased state of the skin, which is perfectly curable.
First every part is carefully cleansed with a small camel's-hair brush
and weak acid (_see_ Acetic Acid). Then the buttermilk poultice is
applied all night, or even night and day (_see_ Buttermilk Poultice).
Cleanse again after poulticing. Careful and persevering continuance of
this treatment will effect a cure.


Cayenne and Mustard.--Mustard spread on a _cold_ towel and applied to
the spine or lumbar region of the back is often an effective aid to the
cold treatment. If such applications have to be made more than once,
cayenne pepper is preferable to the mustard, and equally powerful. When
cold cloths alone fail, this more powerful treatment may be tried. Pain
and burning after cayenne are relieved by applying olive oil.


Cayenne Lotion, or "Sweating Mixture."--This is made with one or two
tablespoonfuls of cayenne pepper (as desired weak or strong), half a
pint of white vinegar, and a pint of boiling water. These are mixed and
infused for half-an-hour. The mixture is then carefully strained so as
to remove the pepper grains. Dilute, if too strong, with water.


Cayenne "Tea."--Infuse an ounce of good cayenne pepper in a pint of
boiling water. Strain out the pepper. This produces a glow of heat on
the skin when rubbed on, and may be a valuable adjunct to oil rubbing
where that is intended to raise such a glow.


Changing Treatment.--To wisely alter and arrange the treatment in any
case is of the utmost importance. Treatment which at first gives great
relief will often become ineffective or even painful. Then some other
way of cure must be tried. Sometimes cold applications will become
painfully cold. Heating for a time is then effective, and cooling can
again be given after the heating. Soapy lather on an inflamed part will
do delightful service for a while, then it may become painful. Warm oil
may then be used instead. When this becomes irritant, a return to the
soap will cure. Or the hot bathing of a sore knee may be most effective
for a while, and then may give rise to sore pain. In such a case, cease
the bathing, and for a time apply the soapy lather. Do not despair
because a thing "loses its effect." Its apparent loss of power only
indicates a needed change of treatment. Common sense will guide in
this, and the true healer and nurse will be able to judge what is best
to do.

We have a case in which, after long rubbing with acetic acid, the skin
seemed to become so used to it that little or no effect was produced.
For a few days an alkali, in the simple form of "hartshorn" (ammonia)
was rubbed on instead of the acid. The acid rubbing was then resumed,
and produced its usual effect. Such plans will occur to all who are
thoughtful, and do not just blindly follow instructions.

Cold-water cloths have got in certain circles to be fashionable, so
that they are used exclusively in all cases. A knee joint has got
wrong, and it is deemed the right thing to wear a cold bandage
constantly round it. But this fails to have the desired effect. It may
not fail entirely, so long as there is some vital energy on which to
"come and go," as we say, the effect of the reaction will be to give a
measure of relief. But in very many cases this vital energy is
deficient. If in such a case the person advising it has only thought
enough to have recourse to an hour's hot fomentation once or twice a
day, the effect desired may not be long delayed. Supposing something
like inflammation of the lungs has to be dealt with. Cold is applied on
the chest, as it is often most successfully applied, when there is
still a good deal of energy to be drawn upon. But in this case there is
not sufficient energy. Well pack the feet and legs in a thoroughly hot
fomentation, such as will renew a full supply of heat all over the
body. Then you will find the cooling of the chest thoroughly effectual.
In a very considerable correspondence we meet often with this resolve:
"We shall continue to do as you direct till we hear from you again." We
remember telling a young man to put a hot bran poultice between his
shoulders for a troublesome cough. We saw him no more for months, but
when we did meet him he apologised for not continuing the application.
He said, "I poulticed my shoulders for three weeks, and they began to
get soft, so I stopped doing it." We certainly thought his head had
been soft to begin with! Why should not sensible men and women get a
little independent thought of their own?

It may be well to remark that the cessation of all treatment is a
change, and often a very beneficial one too. If you do not know what to
do when any treatment is "losing its effect," or having the opposite
effect to that which it had, just cease to do anything till you see
manifestly what is needed. The rest of a week, or even two, may be just
the thing wanted. If it is, it will ease the pain; if it does not, you
will see that probably the opposite of what you had been doing will
suit.


Chapped Hands.--Our idea is that this is caused by the soda in the soap
used. At any rate, we have never known any one to suffer from chapped
hands who used M'Clinton's soap _only_.

It is made from the ash of plants, which gives it a mildness not
approached by even the most expensive soaps obtainable.

If the hands have become chapped, fill a pair of old loose kid gloves
with well wrought Lather (_see_), putting these on just when getting
into bed, and wearing till morning. Doing this for two or three nights
will cure chapped, or even the more painful "hacked" hands, where the
outer skin has got hard and cracked down to the tender inner layer.


Chest Pains.--_See_ Angina Pectoris.


Chest Protectors.--These are often piled on the front of the body,
while the far more important _back_ is left exposed. In many cases of
delicacy and cough, particularly with women, it is far more effective
to protect the upper back with warm extra flannel than to place
covering on the chest. This alone will sometimes cure distressing
coughs. In every case, such "protection," whether to back or breast,
should be such as to secure free escape of perspiration (_see_
Underwear). A sheet of fine wadding is excellent. Where less heat is
desired, new flannel is the best. Often, also, chest trouble is best
helped by protecting the soles of the feet. If these and the back are
kept warm, there is little fear or harm at the front of the chest. Let
the back covering, where it is used, come down as far as the top of the
hip bones.


Chilblains.--These occur in hands and feet where the circulative power
is feeble, either from weakness or from tight pressure of boots or
gloves. The cold has power, owing to lack of circulation, to partly
kill the skin, which thus becomes painfully inflamed, and swells. To
increase and maintain circulation in the part is to cure it. In the
early stages, when heat and itching are felt, a good rubbing with hot
olive oil and cayenne tea will often cure. But if this fail, pack the
foot or hand in cloths soaked with vinegar. If the pain is great, place
the packed foot or hand in hot water for a few minutes or more. After
this immersion repack with vinegar-soaked cloths, cover well up with
dry flannel, and wear this packing all night. In cases where weakness
is the root of the trouble, rub the back once a day with hot oil until
a glow of heat arises all over it. Do this daily for a fortnight _at
least_. Where tight boots or gloves are the cause, these must be
discarded for more easily fitting ones.


Child-bearing.--Simple remedies such as we advocate are found of
immense service in mitigating both the pains of child-birth and the
troubles coming before and after it.

To see that the medical man is one thoroughly competent is the first
duty of those responsible in such a case. Incompetent and careless
doctors are the cause of much trouble. Get, then, the _best you can_.
Much may be done, however, to prevent trouble by very simple means.

The sufferings usually accompanying pregnancy and the birth of children
in civilized countries are largely confined to the higher classes.
Working women escape much of the pain their more luxurious sisters have
to endure. Travellers tell us how, among the Red Indians, Negroes,
South Sea Islanders and others who live more in a state of nature than
we, the women suffer but little in childbirth, and return to their
ordinary occupations almost immediately after the event. The adoption
of a simple and natural diet, healthy exercise combined with sufficient
rest and rational clothing, have been found to ensure an easy delivery
as well as good health for mother and child.

The _diet_ of the pregnant mother is of great importance. Too much food
is worse than useless. Food should only be taken of such a kind and
quality as can be easily assimilated. The mother is best who takes only
so much light food as she can easily convert into good blood. More,
simply loads the system with useless waste or fat.

The diet during pregnancy should be mainly vegetables, fruit, salad,
rice, tapioca, milk, eggs in moderation, and a small amount of
wholemeal bread. A little meat or fish once a day is allowable for
those whom it suits, but rich, spicy dishes, pastry, strong tea, coffee
and all alcoholic drinks are very injurious. Three meals a day with no
"snacks" of any kind between, are sufficient. For those who have reason
to dread a hard confinement, oatmeal is best avoided. To avoid fluids
while eating is important, especially for those who have a weak
digestion. One may drink half-an-hour before meals or three hours
after, but if plenty of fruit and salad is eaten and little salt used
with the food there will be little thirst. Too much fluid should not be
drunk, if thirst is felt, water very slowly sipped will quench it
better than copious draughts. During pregnancy there is often a craving
for acid fruits, this is nature's call for what is needful at such a
time. Fruits and green vegetables supply a large quantity of most
valuable salts which go to make good blood and build up all parts of
the body. Never force the appetite. Food that is neither relished nor
digested will do more harm than good.

It must never be forgotten that the blood of the child is being
directly derived from that of the mother, consequently if the diet is
of such a nature as to induce over-abundance of fat, the child will be
born too fat. This does not mean a healthy child by any means, and it
may mean considerable extra pain for the mother. A mother inclined to
thinness need not fear that this diet will reduce her. The taking of
cream, eggs, bacon and other fat foods often has the opposite effect
from that desired. A thin person adopting the above light diet will
generally get into good condition.

Under the head of _exercise_, the first we would recommend is general
housework, provided windows are kept open, avoiding the more laborious
parts, and always being careful not to get over-fatigued. Light
gardening, walks, if not too long, and light gymnastic exercises are
all beneficial. The exercises described in the appendix, practised for
ten minutes at a time, once or twice a day, are quite suitable for the
expectant mother, while deep breathing (_see_ Breathing, Correct Method
of) is most valuable.

The subject of _dress_ should be particularly studied. Garments which
are light, warm, porous, and which in no way impede or restrict the
movements and natural functions of the body, should be worn. It has
been found that those who wear no corset nor tight band or bodice will
suffer but little, if at all, from morning sickness. Corsets, by
holding immobile the waist muscles, prevent their getting strong.
Anyone who is accustomed to corsets, when she leaves them off for a day
will complain of "such a tired feeling, as if she would break in two."
This is easily accounted for, the muscles, unused to the task of
holding up the body, are flabby and useless. These same muscles when
called on, at the moment of delivery, are totally unfit for their work,
hence comes a large amount of the unnecessary suffering. The remedy
is--discard the corsets, bear with the tiredness for a week or two and
regularly practice the exercises recommended above, especially the
waist exercises of bending and turning. The muscles will soon gain
strength, and the corset be found to be quite unnecessary and most
uncomfortable.

In the commencement of pregnancy, when there is sickness and vomiting,
we have seen it cured, even when so severe as to threaten life, by
spreading over the patient's irritated stomach, a soft, fine soap
lather (_see_ Lather and Soap). It acts in such cases like a charm. The
lather is well and _gently_ spread with a _soft_ brush all over the
stomach. Wipe it gently off with a _soft_ cloth. Cover again with fresh
lather. Do this five or six times. Then treat the back in the same
manner, behind the stomach. In half-an-hour all retching should cease.
When the stomach has had a rest of some hours, a small quantity of
light food may be given. Half a Saltcoat's biscuit (_see_) thoroughly
masticated, and a little milk and boiling water may be enough to take
at one time. Do not force the appetite, wait until a desire for food is
felt. Pass by degrees to ordinary food.

If the mother, at any time, feels faint, on no account give brandy.
Drop five drops of tincture of cayenne on a lump of sugar. Dissolve it
in half a teacupful of hot water, and give this instead. In cases of
heartburn, take small drinks of hot water, say a tablespoonful every
five minutes. A very great help to the expecting mother is found in the
cold sitz-bath (_see_ Sitting Bath). Baths known as "Matlock Baths" may
be had, which suit very well for this purpose; but a tub for washing,
of a suitable size, would do very well, or even a large sized bedroom
basin will serve. Put in cold water, three inches deep, and let the
patient sit in it. In winter have the water cold, but not freezing. The
rest of the body may be kept warm with a wrap, and if the patient feels
cold, the feet may be placed in hot water. Taken once or twice a day
this bath will have a tonic effect on the whole system, and a markedly
cheering effect on the mind. The time in the bath is shorter or longer
according to the patient's strength and power of reaction. Feeling will
be the best guide, but even a dip of half-a-minute will do good.

In regard to the actual birth, we repeat that those concerned should
see to the attendance of a _really_ skilful medical man. Chloroform in
the hands of such a doctor is of immense value, but in unskilful hands
it is dangerous. Therefore let expense be no bar, where it is possible,
to the obtaining the best medical aid that can be had.

Many trivial matters greatly affect the mother during child-birth, and
the few succeeding hours. We have known a stupid remark by an
incompetent nurse spoil a mother's health for months. The greatest care
must be exercised by all concerned to say only cheerful and soothing
things to the sufferer. Even the aspect of the room is important. It
should look sunwards, if possible, and hideous pictures should be
removed, while perhaps some text speaking comfortably of the Good
Shepherd, who "will gently lead those that are with young," may be hung
up. Trifles these, but their effect is no trifle.

Do not keep the patient in too hot a room; fresh air is of great value.
Do not leave her for nine days in an unchanged bed. The necessary
sponging and changing should be done daily. Cleanliness means comfort
here, and comfort health. It is not early sponging and washing, but a
nine days' steaming in unchanged bedclothes which causes chills. After
cool sponging, a gentle rubbing under the bedclothes with hot olive
oil, over the body and limbs, will be very refreshing. All clothes,
etc., and the hands of the attendants should be most carefully washed
and cleaned before they touch the patient. Too much care in this matter
of cleanliness cannot be taken, as it is of the _first importance_ as a
preventative of many troubles.

What are called "After Pains" often give much distress. Drugs and
alcohol should be strictly avoided. The difficulty here is in the
objection so many have to cold applications. These, after child-birth,
are not dangerous, but form a short and simple road to health. Making
handfuls of soapy lather (_see_ Lather) and rubbing these gently over
the pains, both back and front, is most powerfully soothing, and has no
tendency to chill.

Where severe pains, indicating inflammatory action, are felt in the
bowels, this lather should at once be applied, and followed up with
cold cloths over the bowels, applied as to the chest in Bronchitis
(_see_). The bran poultice should always be applied at the same time,
putting it on before the cold towels, over all the lower back (_see_
Bran Poultice). Sips of hot water will also powerfully help in all
cases of such pain.

Treatment on these lines will deal with even very severe cases of After
Pains.


Children and Teachers.--Children are of the utmost value to society;
through any one of them the divine light may shine which will bless
many generations. They are very easily hurt by unwise treatment and
teaching. We would have the teacher and parent impressed with the
preciousness of even the most delicate child. _Health of mind and
body_, not attainment, must be the _first consideration_ in the
teaching of the young. It ought to be as much the teacher's business to
see that pupils do not suffer in health as to see that lessons (often
quite useless) are learned (_see_ articles on Brow, Weary, and Eyes,
Failing Sight). We would again emphasise the truth that no child should
be undervalued for its delicate health. Delicate children have often
become men and women without whom the world would be vastly poorer.


Children in Fever.--Fevered children, whether in any actual fever, as
scarlet, typhoid, or any other, or merely heated from some minor
ailment, should be treated as under Fever. Have two small towels, wring
them tightly out of cold water, fold one gently round the head. _Press
it gently_ all round and over the head. It will be heated in one minute
in some cases, longer in others. Change it for the other then, and
proceed alternately till the head is cooled. Perhaps that may take
half-an-hour. The time will be less for a young infant, more for a boy
or girl in their teens. Common sense, and an examination of the pulse,
will guide as to the proper time. The head is the chief consideration
in this treatment, but attention to the state of the stomach and bowels
is also very important. Any indigestible substance must be removed, and
sips or small drinks of hot water will greatly help in this, as well as
proper medicine. Castor oil is a good, simple drug for ordinary cases.
If there is coldness in the feet in such fevered cases, a fomentation
may be applied over the legs, or even up to the haunches. This will
greatly reinforce the cooling of the head, and prevent any possible
chill. The water used for cooling should be about 50 deg. F., or at
least near that temperature, in the case of infants. Water which has
stood some time in an ordinary room will do excellently. It should
neither be icy nor warm. Typhoid fever itself has been cured with this
head cooling alone.


Children's Clothing.--An infant's clothing should be soft, warm, and
light in weight, covering all parts of the body with equal warmth.
Tight bands and long, heavy skirts should never be used, the dress and
petticoat being just long enough to keep the feet covered and warm. If
from the first a baby is "held out" always after being nursed, it
learns to urinate at that time, and the clumsy diapers can be dispensed
with in a few months. _No ordinary pins_ should be used, and as few
safety pins as possible. Tapes properly arranged will keep all secure.

Flannelette should never be used, being so very inflammable (_see_
Children's Dangers).

With infants, as with older children, it is a mistake to heap on too
much clothing. Many children by such coddling, which is intended to
prevent them catching cold, are rendered delicate and susceptible to
chills. Just enough clothing should be worn to keep the little one
comfortably warm and no more. The same applies to bed-clothes; they
should be light and not excessive, only enough to keep the child
comfortable.

Babies thoroughly enjoy a time every day without clothes, when they can
kick to their hearts' content. If this is begun by degrees, a short
time at first, gradually getting longer every day, there will be no
danger of giving the child cold through letting it lie unclothed, on a
rug on the floor for half-an-hour at a time, with the window open. The
air-bath will invigorate and strengthen the system. Rubbing with the
hand all over the little ones body during this time will be enjoyed,
and effectually prevent any chilliness, if it is dreaded.


Children's Dangers.--Avoidance of the causes of disease requires some
idea of the dangers to which children are exposed in the usual
upbringing. For instance, sitting on damp ground, cold stones, or even
a cool window-sill, is a fruitful cause of bowel trouble. The remedy
for such an exposure is proper warm FOMENTATION (_see_) of the chilled
parts, followed by hot olive oil rubbing and careful clothing.

Again, _rich diet_, especially for delicate children, is a great cause
of trouble. What we have written concerning food, and the article
Assimilation, should be read to guide on this.

Again, the child is exposed to falls, and falls into water, leading
sometimes to drowning. Timely thought would prevent nearly all such
accidents. Do not wait until the trouble comes. Protect exposed streams
and wells near the house. Shut doors and gates in time. Also the
directions of the Humane Society for the recovery of the partly drowned
(_see_ Drowning) should be in every house, and as soon as possible both
boys and girls should learn to swim.

Again, children are in danger through careless attendants. They may be
let fall, or capsized in perambulators. Spinal injury is often caused
by such falls. In case of any broken or disjointed limbs, the bandaging
of infants should be of a gentle kind, and encasement in starch or
plaster jackets should be avoided. In every way the natural growth and
circulation should be helped, not hindered by strapping and tight
bandaging. The timely consulting of a _really good_ doctor will often
prevent serious trouble in any case of a fall.

Another source of danger is the exposure of children to the possibility
of burning or scalding. Wherever there are young children fires should
be guarded, and matters so arranged that they cannot come in the way of
boiling water. Much that seems impossible in such protection becomes
easy enough to a determined person, and a great deal of sore illness
can be averted by taking a little trouble. A child should never be in
the place where there is a pan of boiling water on the floor, nor in
any house should it be _possible_ for a child to pull a kettle full of
boiling water on its head.

If, however, scalding occur, apply the cold treatment as detailed in
the article on Burns.

In case of contracted limbs or features, occurring from severe burning,
the rubbing treatment (_see_ Children's Healthy Growth), will be
effective as a cure.

Children's clothing should never be made of flannelette, it is so
liable to take fire if the child approaches the grate. At hundreds of
inquests coroners have directed attention to the terrible loss of life
from this cause.

Medicines and all poisonous substances should be carefully labelled,
and kept out of children's reach. If by accident a child should have
taken poison administer an antidote (_see_ Poisoning). Should a child
swallow a nail, button or some such hard substance, do not give any
purgative medicine. It will pass out more safely when embedded in solid
fæces. Examine the stools carefully so that anxiety may be allayed when
the foreign substance is seen.


Children's Deformed Feet.--_See_ Club Foot.


Children's Healthy Growth.--Often either the whole system or some part
fails to grow properly. In this way the spine or legs may become
curved, or generally the child is small and feeble. Growth depends
largely on the organic nerve centres. Lack of power there causes even
deformity itself. Treatment, therefore, must be such as to restore to
these centres their energy, and increase it. Do not force the child to
stand or walk when wearied. If he uniformly refuses these attitudes,
have patience till he gathers power. Wash all over at bedtime with warm
water and M'Clinton's soap. Dry, and rub all over with warm olive oil.
Wipe this also gently off. Let the rubbing be such, along each side of
the spine, as will bring the organic nerves into action. Gentle, slow,
steady motion of the hand is best for this. All painful or irritating
rubbing is positively hurtful. Let this be done every night, and even
incipient deformity will be cured in time.

The nerves are in some cases irritable, and great restlessness and
involuntary movement, accompanied even with twisting of the neck, shows
itself. This will yield to skilful cooling of the spinal nerves with
damp cloths. _See_ St. Vitus' Dance.

An opposite kind of nervous failure shows itself as paralysis. The hand
and arm, or foot, trails helplessly, owing to motor nerve failure. This
will often yield to the spinal rubbing and poulticing mentioned above.
Another state of failure is indicated by "numbness" in the fingers and
toes. The spinal rubbing and poulticing with bran will also be
effective for this. Sometimes lack of nerve force shows itself as
failure to walk at the proper time. The child cannot use its limbs
properly, although these are right enough in shape and size. The cure
for this is persistent gentle rubbing with warm oil, as recommended
above, over the whole body, but especially over the back. Feel for the
muscles and bones, and adapt your hand to their shape, going down into
the hollows immediately on each side of the spine, and paying
particular attention to the _upper_ part in the failure of the _arms_,
and the _lower_ part in failure of the _legs_. This rubbing is a most
powerful remedy, but it must be patiently and well applied twice a day
for a length of time. Bear in mind that gradual cures are most
permanent. Even creeping paralysis in adult persons yields to this
rubbing. No doubt it is _work_, but it is well repaid. All troubles
where failing nerves are concerned may be treated with some
modification of this heat and rubbing. Our readers can easily adapt it
to particular needs by a little thought. _See_ Spine, Misshapen, and
Massage.


Children's Limbs.--Frequently a failure of some kind shows itself in
the limbs of some children. Usually it appears as either _bending_ or
inability to walk at the proper age, or both together. To use "steel
boots" and kindred appliances is to ignore the true nature of the
trouble, and most likely to increase it. What is wanted is proper
growth in the limb. To secure this, the nerve system of the spine must
be stimulated, and there is no better stimulus to be had than
"massage." When any substance is rubbed on, it is almost always the
rubbing, rather than the substance, which has the good effect. Hence we
recommend rubbing with simply good olive oil. For an infant, the back
must be massaged very gently, taking care not to hurt the child in any
way. It should be applied especially up and down each side of the back
bone, where there is a softer region, full of important nerve centres.
The limbs may also be gently rubbed. A genial heat should be raised in
all the infant's body by these means, and, if rightly done, the child
will eagerly wish for it again. Half-an-hour a day may be given to
this. It is well to persevere for a long time, and never give up hope.
Many a weak-limbed child has grown up a strong, healthy man or woman.
_See_ Massage.

The food in such cases should be good ordinary food. We have never been
able to see the good of cod liver oil that is so generally recommended.
It seems to us a most unnatural thing for a human being, young or old.
Cream and butter will supply a far more easily assimilated fat at much
lower cost. We may also say that honey is more wholesome and fattening
than malt extract, and costs only one-fifth of the price.

The feeding of children on corn flour, often made with but little milk,
is a fruitful source of rickets. The same may be said of white bread,
the flour having been largely deprived of its food salts. Giving
children lime water, with the idea that the body can convert it into
bone (as a hen makes her egg shells out of old mortar) is an entire
mistake. The human system cannot use such inorganic material. The men
of best bone, so far as we can judge, are those who have been nourished
in great measure on good oatmeal.


Children's Nerves.--The nervous system of children is often damaged by
shock or fright, sometimes very seriously, so that paralysis or
hysterical affections come on.

Blindness, deafness, loss of speech, every possible loss of function
may follow a violent shock to a child's mind or bodily system. Care
must be taken to avoid this. The moment you see the child affected by
any strange sight or sound have, if possible, the child removed or the
affecting object put away, or have some one who can soothe the child
brought to calm its mind. This properly done, and done quickly, will
usually prevent any evil effects. If, however, these come on, treatment
can do a very great deal to remedy the ill. If fits come on, lay the
child flat on his back, with head slightly raised. Place a piece of
cork or wood between the teeth, fastened so as to prevent the
possibility of its being swallowed, and loosen all the clothes, until
the fit is over. Continue to soothe the mind, and instil happy thoughts
such as God gives every Christian the right to think, even in the worst
times of trial. Bring before the child's mind some cheery tales or
interesting objects. Allay all fears, and soothe all sorrows, as far as
possible.

If, however, the fits come on again, with blackening of the face, _do
not treat harshly_, but apply a cold towel along the spinal cord in the
morning in bed. This will soothe even unreasonable passion, and remove
stubbornness. Or if the fit is "on," put warmly to bed, and then apply
the cold towel. Medical aid, when available, should also be summoned.
If a faint comes on, that points to the need of a hot fomentation along
the spine instead of a cold towel. It is not difficult as a rule to
distinguish between the fit, with its frequent convulsive cramps and
blackening of the face, and the simple faint of exhaustion. In the
first the patient is all "strung up," and in the last the very
opposite.


Children's Sleep.--This most important matter of good sleep for the
child depends not only on health of body but on ease of the infant's
mind. It is wrong to treat the child otherwise than through the
understanding, where he is afraid, or in a strange place. Waking up,
after being put to sleep in a strange room, the little one may receive
a shock which may prevent sleep for the rest of the night. If he be
patiently soothed and matters explained, all will be well; but it is a
great cruelty to thrash or threaten in such a case. To frighten a child
with ghost stories, or "Bogies," IS TO COMMIT A SERIOUS CRIME. It is
not dealt with by the law, but it certainly deserves to be. Never bring
before a child's mind any _imaginary terrors_; rather teach it to
understand them in such a way as to remove any cause of fear. But do
not _force_ a child to examine an object which it fears, you may do
terrible damage before you can explain. All fears should be most
carefully dealt with, and no force employed; the little one who has no
imaginary terrors, and is kindly taught to think every fearful image at
bottom some innocent cloak or shadow, will sleep soundly and grow
healthy in mind.

When, however, ill-health is the cause of wakefulness, other means must
be used. Cold feet, and chilly feelings generally, frequently keep
children from sleep. Pack in such cases the lower limbs up to the waist
in thick folded flannel FOMENTATION (_see_). This will often not only
give sleep, but prevent more serious trouble. All soothing powders and
narcotic drugs should be most strictly avoided.

Often the child is sleepless from feverish heat instead of coldness;
then cooling applications should be used (_see_ Children in Fever).
These may take the form of two caps for the head of thickest cotton
cloth: one, tight fitting, to be wrung out of cold water and put on,
the other, looser and dry, to be put on over the first. This alone will
often secure a night's sleep. Or the head may be soaped (_see_ Head,
Soaping). It is inadvisable to rock a child to sleep, it will go to
sleep if comfortable.


Children's Strength.--The question often arises as to the ability of
children to bear certain kinds of treatment. It must ever be
remembered, both in hot and cold applications, that the infant should
be _gently_ dealt with. Violent cold and burning heat must alike be
avoided.

With a gentle application of heat before bracing cold is used,
considerable power of endurance is imparted. Strong blisters and
violent medicines should never be used. Very much less treatment will
affect the infant than that required for an older child. And in almost
every case the most durable cures are reached by gradual progress.


Children's Swellings.--Sometimes these occur as merely relaxed tissue
full of blood. In this case everything about the part seems right and
healthy except the swelling. The skin is right and the temperature
also. Treatment such as restores nerve energy will usually cure these
(_see_ Children's Nerves). In other cases the tumour will be full of
watery waste, or there may be a simple dropsical swelling owing to
failure in kidney action. This last is usually easily cured. It ought
never to be "tapped," as this draws off the strength desired. A simple
FOUR-PLY BANDAGE (_see_) of new flannel worn round the body will often
be enough to cure infants of even dropsical tumours. In other cases
this is used in conjunction with the bran poultice and rubbing
recommended above for cases of nerve failure.

Wherever the swelling is, increase the vital force that supplies the
gland, and so you will cure the whole evil at its source. Many will
tell you to "purify the blood," but there is no blood purifier like the
system which God himself has provided, in the organs of the body made
for the purpose. Only increase the action of these, and you will have
pure everything as well as pure blood. You will do it by good
fomentation, by good rubbing, by judicious clothing, and also by wise
feeding. You will do it to some extent even by good kind words. You
will help the process by good, clean washing, such as warm vinegar
gives over a weakened surface. You will scarcely fail to gain your end
if you use these means in time.


Children's Teething.--_See_ Teething.


Children's Treatment.--This should always be managed so as to soothe
and not excite the little patients. They are very sensitive to heat and
cold. When these are applied the child often cries, so that the
"treatment" is condemned and given up. What should be condemned is the
nurse's want of skill. In every case the cold or hot application should
be so managed as to be agreeable. Very gentle heat at first may be
succeeded by stronger heat without shock. So mildly cool applications
may be followed by colder ones in the same way. There is no sense or
benefit in dashing a burning poultice or freezing towel on a delicate
person, either infant or adult, and sense is above all our guide in
these pages.


Chills.--(1) Nerve or imaginary chills. These are _feelings_ of cold,
where there is no real chilling; the back feels as if cold water were
poured down it, or even the whole body feels chilled, when an
examination will show that there is no real chill whatever. Nervous
patients are peculiarly liable to this, and often are greatly alarmed
at it. The treatment in such cases is partly mental; let the patient
know that the chilly feeling is only a _feeling_, and nothing alarming.
This will often of itself remove it; so will a cheery thought or a
cheery talk. Physical treatment may begin with such a rubbing of the
head as is recommended in Eyes, Squinting. Then treat the whole body to
a gentle massage on similar principles. This will sometimes cause nerve
chills at first to increase; but the patient will soon disregard this,
and the squeezing very gently of the muscles will stimulate and revive
the organic nerves. Warm olive oil used in this squeezing process will
help greatly. It may be that a considerable time will be required
before these nerve states are entirely overcome, but with anything like
careful treatment they will gradually be so. Keep the patient warm in
bed the while. Give easily assimilated food (_see_ Assimilation). A
mixture of milk and _boiling_ water in equal quantities may be freely
taken. This treatment will besides greatly help nervousness of every
kind.

(2) In the case of _real_ chill to the surface of the body, _shivering_
is an early symptom. If the frame is strong, the shiver may pass off
and no evil results follow: but frequently this is not the case, and
trouble is apt to intervene. In such a case give a thorough rubbing all
over the body, and especially the back and chilled part, with warm
olive oil; this, if applied early enough, will probably prevent all ill
consequences,--it will at least mitigate them. If the chill has passed
into feverishness however, this treatment will not suit; but we only
deal here with the cold shivering stage. The rubbing will be greatly
assisted by a good hot fomentation to the feet, or even up to the
haunches. The use of Kneipp linen underwear, by promoting a healthy
action of the skin, and rapidly conducting away the perspiration from
its surface, will do much to prevent chills, either real or imaginary.
_See_ Angina Pectoris, Underwear, Massage.


Chloroform.--_See_ Child-bearing.


Circulation of the Blood.--Nothing is more important for the health or
healing of any organ or part of the body than a good supply of arterial
blood. Venous blood, collected by the veins after it has done its work
all over the body, or blood stagnating in congested organs, is useless
for growth and healing. To promote a vigorous circulation of blood in
any part we wish to cure is, then, of great importance; this may be
done by helping the heart in various ways, especially if that be weak.
Lying down, and lying comfortably on the face, greatly assists
circulation. Placing a fainting person in this position will often
suffice to restore him. In congestion of any part, if possible keep
that part,--head, hand, or foot, as the case may be--above the level,
so that the escape of blood from it may be easy. _Raising_ an inflamed
finger or toe thus, and keeping it up, will often relieve severe pain.
In inflamed kidneys, make the sufferer lie on his face as much as
possible. Other positions in other cases will be suggested by common
sense.

Again, heat expands the vessels of the body, and cold contracts them.
Cooling a congested part assists to drive excess of blood out of it,
and heating some other part opens accommodation for the blood so
expelled. This explains our hot poultice and fomentation as used with
cold cloths. Common sense will show us how to apply it as a principle
of treatment in many cases.

Again, a congested limb may often be very greatly relieved by proper
rubbing along the soft parts, the strokes being firm and steady, and
directed from the extremity of the limb towards the body. This rubbing
along the thigh relieves very much all swellings in the foot, ankle,
leg and knee. This principle may be widely applied by a little
common-sense thought.


Climate and Soil.--The soil on which one lives is a matter of primary
importance; it may be a matter of life or death for a weakly person,
but it is important for every one. First, as regards the subsoil on
which a house is built. If this be clay, or impervious rock, then no
possible system of drainage can make the site a dry one; this condition
of affairs will be very bad indeed for health. No house should be built
on such a soil if at all possible to avoid it. Light open gravel and
sand, as subsoil, make the very best health conditions. The surface
soil is also important. If this be such that streets and garden walks
dry quickly after rain, you have elements of health; if they remain
long wet, then you have elements of unhealthiness. If the soil be
right, then the climate is to be considered. The mere situation of two
houses, only half a mile apart, will make all the difference in this,
and should be carefully watched. A house sheltered on the south and
west, exposed to the north and east, is badly situated; the opposite
exposure is usually good. Plenty of sun should fall upon the house all
day, and on all sides, if that be possible. Yet it must be seen that no
hollow or stagnant air be chosen; it is nearly as bad as stagnant
water, for in mild winds, dryness of soil and air, and abundant sun,
lie much virtue for health and healing.


Clothing.--Clothing should be light yet warm, and sufficiently free so
as not to interfere with bodily movements. The clothing next the skin
should, we think, be linen, as being more porous and absorbent than
wool (_see_ Underwear). No woman who values her health should submit to
any tight lacing. The organs of the body require every inch of space
for the proper performance of their functions, and if they are unduly
squeezed many serious complaints may result. Besides the skin is a
breathing organ, and it is most important that air should readily reach
it (_see_ Tight Lacing).

Long trains should not be worn, as they are most effective agents for
sweeping up germs of diphtheria, consumption, etc. Skirts should not be
hung from the waist, but from the shoulders, and should be light in
weight. Tight boots and high heels are both to be condemned.

The practice of wearing mufflers, or any tight wrapping round the neck
region, is injurious and enervating to this part of the body. The
sailor, though exposed to more rough weather than any other class, is
free from throat or chest trouble, and can stand both heat and cold
better than soldiers. Sailors are, indeed, the only sensibly dressed
men in our country. Soldiers, in their tight-fitting tunic and stiff
collars, are the worst. They constantly die of heat and apoplexy, when
farm labourers doing more work are nothing the worse.


Club Foot.--Children are not unfrequently born with this deformity in
one or other of its various shapes. The cause is to be sought in such a
defective state of the nervous system as hinders the proper growth of
these parts. If the nerves are treated rightly, the limbs will so grow
that the defect will disappear. We speak from positive knowledge of
cases so cured.

Treatment must first stimulate the spinal nerves; gentle, continued
rubbing on each side of the spine with hot olive oil will do this.
Proceed, after some time of this, to rub and knead the haunch, thigh,
and leg with the same hot oil. Continue this, gradually descending,
until the defective foot is reached and similarly treated. We have
known even adults cured in this way, with perseverance. Ten or fifteen
minutes of this treatment before a fire, or in a warm room, every
night, will do wonders. A skilful surgeon can do much to remedy this,
but one _really_ skilful should be chosen. _See_ Massage.


Cold in the Head.--Infants often are prevented sucking by this form of
cold closing up the nostrils. In such a case have a small cap of cotton
to fit the head. Wring this out of cold water, and fit it on the
child's head. Put on over it a rather larger and thicker cap of the
same material. Often the nostrils will open in two or three seconds,
and the cold will speedily be cured, if no more be wrong. Observe that
the child be _warm_ during this treatment. If the case is obstinate,
secure good medical aid, for constitutional weakness, or even some
deformity of the nostrils, may be present as cause, where the trouble
exists from birth.

For adults similarly affected, a towel wrung out of cold water and
wrapped round the head, with another _dry_ one above, will answer the
purpose.

For severe cases, pack the feet and legs in hot fomentation for an
hour, and apply a cold towel as above. This last method should always
be pursued where the patient feels chilly. Cold in the head may often
be checked by use of dilute vinegar. _See_ Nostrils.


Cold, Settled.--A cold is often easily overcome. At other times it
"sits down," as country people say, and refuses to be cured, a hard dry
cough continuing for a long time, and causing sleeplessness and general
weakness. In such a case first try to secure an increase generally of
vital energy. At night rub the feet and legs with hot olive oil. Pack
them for three-quarters of an hour in a good _large_ blanket
fomentation, open out, and dry well, oil and dry again, put on a pair
of cotton stockings, and put the patient to bed. In the morning, place
a towel tightly wrung out of cold water all round the back and breast.
Cover this well with dry towels, and tuck the patient in, so that he
becomes warm and comfortable. In three-quarters of an hour open out,
dry the skin, oil it and dry again. Then the ordinary clothing may be
put on. The second evening it will be well to pack in the SOAPY BLANKET
(_see_). Next morning the towel envelope should be repeated as before.
The third evening, put a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_) between the
shoulders. While this is on apply cold to the chest, as in treatment
for BRONCHITIS (_see_). It is good to take sips of hot water at any
time if the cough is troublesome. A teaspoonful of boiled liquorice and
linseed two or three times a day has a good effect. This treatment
usually cures a pretty severe case.


Cold, Taking.--Where cold is easily "taken," it is the skin which is
defective in its action. The cure must therefore deal with it. Even
spasmodic asthma can be traced to the failure of the skin to throw off
waste sufficiently. Men exposed to great heats and chills, women and
children whose nervous energy is small, are liable to this skin
failure. Kneipp linen underwear, besides being more absorbent of
perspiration than woollens, has a stimulating effect on the skin owing
to a certain hardness (by no means unpleasant) of the fibre. Wearing it
is an excellent preventive of skin failure (_see_ Underwear). This may
also be treated by careful, kindly rubbing over the whole body with
warm olive oil, the patient being kept warm during the operation. This
rubbing may with advantage come after a sponging with M'Clinton's soap
(_see_ Soap). To face the wintry blast at half-past five in the morning
is for many severely trying. This treatment the night before will give
immense help to those who are so exposed. It is the best preventive
against taking cold known to us.

There is one great difficulty that stands in the way of such a remedy
as we have suggested--that is, the "trouble" which it implies, not so
much to ourselves as to others. Many a useful life is lost lest
"trouble" should be given. It needs to be well understood that this is
a temptation. If we can buy a quantity of some drug from a chemist
according to the prescription of some medical man, and just quietly
swallow it, that "troubles" nobody. So powders to sweat us, and powders
to stop our sweating, are readily "taken," greatly to increase all
tendency to "take cold." Our relatives and others have, as the fruit of
such a system, worlds of serious trouble and loss that might all be
saved if only a very little trouble were given in the more natural and
reasonable way.


Cold Cloths.--_See_ Towels, Cold Wet.


Constipation.--This trouble is often only aggravated and made chronic
by the use of purgatives. Some simple change of diet, such as a ripe
uncooked apple, eaten before breakfast, or a fruit diet for a day or
two may put all right. So also with the use of wheaten meal porridge or
bread. When this can be taken with pure CANE SYRUP (_see_), the two
together will make such a change in the food as will frequently banish
all inaction of the bowels. Rest must be reckoned on, especially if the
patient has been using purgatives freely. Do not act as if castor oil
were a necessary article of diet. When the constipation is more
obstinate, in the case of a child, good golden syrup may be given, a
teaspoonful after each meal. A quarter of a pound of the best Spanish
liquorice, costing sixpence, should be boiled in a pint of water down
to three-quarters of a pint and strained. A dessertspoonful of this
after each meal may be given instead of the treacle. It is the best
tonic we know, and infinitely better than quinine and other costlier
drugs. If a stronger mixture be desired, put half-an-ounce of senna
leaf in the juice while being boiled. This may be increased to a whole
ounce of senna if still stronger effect be desired.

Some are more liable than others to attacks of constipation, but
chronic constipation may generally be put down to errors in diet, or
want of sufficient exercise. Indigestible foods, such as pastry and
heavy puddings, as well as foods which leave little residue in the
intestine, such as white bread, puddings, arrowroot, are highly
constipating. Tea has also a similar effect, also large quantities of
meat. Constipation is seldom found in vegetarians, since vegetables and
fruits act as a stimulus to the intestine. Brown bread and oatmeal
porridge have also an aperient effect. If it is suspected that milk has
been a cause of constipation in any particular case, it may be boiled
and used with coffee instead of tea.

Much may be done by judicious exercise to relieve chronic constipation,
and help the liver to work (_see_ Appendix; Physical Culture). Deep
breathing will also affect the intestines and urge a motion. Bathing
and massage of the abdomen are also useful (_see_ Massage). Clothing
should be light and loose, tight lacing being a frequent cause of
constipation.

Every effort should be made to keep the bowels regular, as protracted
constipation leads to many painful affections, such as headaches,
piles, and even inflammation of the intestine, the various products of
putrefaction being absorbed and carried through the blood stream. A
daily motion should invariably be solicited at a regular hour. On
rising, before the morning bath, is a good time, though some prefer
just before retiring to bed, and more, probably, go immediately after
breakfast. The great thing is to get into the habit of going daily at a
fixed time; nothing should be allowed to interfere with this, and it is
highly desirable that children should be accustomed to this habit.
Parents should, therefore, see that the schools selected have
sufficient closet accommodation, as schools in private houses often
have but the one closet for a large number. As a result of this
restricted accommodation, the habit of using aperient medicines is
acquired with _very_ injurious results, for if the call of nature is
neglected the desire passes away, and constipation is inevitable. It
soon comes to be a settled condition and will often be the cause of
life-long ill-health. The evils from the formation of such a physical
habit will far outweigh all the so-called accomplishments that may be
acquired.

Hot or cold water taken in sips throughout the day has often proved a
most valuable cure for constipation.

When artificial means are required to move the bowels, an enema is much
to be preferred to drugs. The way to administer it, so as to be most
effective, is as follows: Use a fountain enema holding three quarts.
Put into it two or three quarts of water as warm as can be comfortably
borne. A teaspoonful of salt added to the water will make it more
effective, or soapy water may be used, made from M'Clinton's soap. The
fountain should be hung up as high above the patient as the
india-rubber tube will allow. The patient should lie on the right side,
with knees drawn up. The tube should then be introduced into the
rectum, and should be three or four inches in. The water may then be
turned on with the thumb valve. If the abdomen can be rubbed by an
attendant in an upward direction it will be better. The water should be
retained, if possible, twenty minutes or half-an-hour.

A HOT FOMENTATION (_see_) over the liver, before using the enema, will
make it more effective.

A bulb enema syringe may be used instead of the fountain, and less
water--a pint or even less, and the water tepid or cold, may be
preferred by some. The disadvantage of a bulb syringe is however that
sometimes air gets in along with the water, causing pain and
discomfort.


Consumption, Prevention of.--This most insidious and deadly disease is
caused by a tiny vegetable growth derived from persons or animals
already suffering from tuberculosis. The spit of consumptive patients
swarms with such germs, and when it dries and becomes dust the germs
may be stirred up and breathed, or may mix with food, _e.g._, milk, and
so enter the body. A dried handkerchief may also carry the infection.

But these germs, though continually carried into the lungs of almost
all, do not develop in all. The healthy body can resist them, and it is
only in the body which possesses little resistance, owing to a low
state of health, that they take root, and so start the disease.

Want of pure air, such as is caused by badly ventilated rooms, dark,
damp, and dirty houses, want of good food, or bad food, alcoholic
drinks, frequent illnesses, dirty habits, are powerful causes in
producing this low state of health, which is so favourable to the
growth of the consumptive germ. Therefore we insist on fresh air,
especially for children in schools, for employees in factories, for
clerks in offices. All places of public resort should be provided with
proper ventilation. The breath from the lungs is loaded with poisonous
organic matter, and if continually re-breathed poisons the blood. The
smell of a room is often an indication of whether the air is pure or
not, especially in the nostrils of one entering from the outer air. Let
all windows be kept open day and night, and let fresh air and sunlight
continually flood the room. Nothing will kill disease germs quicker.
Avoid choosing a residence with but little open spaces around, such as
basement tenements and back to back houses. Have an open fireplace in
the room. Gas or oil for lighting, heating, or cooking renders the air
impure, and in need of constant renewal. _See_ Air.

Dirt, either in the house or around, poisons the air, and refuse should
be removed to a distance from the dwelling. Tea leaves should be
sprinkled on floors before being swept. Remove dust with damp dusters,
which should be boiled. Cleanliness should be strictly attended to, and
schools and factories should be plentifully supplied with soap and
water.

The food consumed by the vast majority of people is far from being as
nourishing as it should be. Tea and white bread have replaced porridge
and milk. This should not be. Cocoa might with advantage replace tea,
and porridge and milk by itself would make a highly nutritious meal
(_see_ articles on Diet).

Stimulants are not required by the healthy body, and intemperance is a
fruitful predisposing cause of consumption. Skim milk is not a suitable
food for the young. _See_ Infants' Food.

Infectious diseases, such as Typhoid and Scarlatina, are frequently
conveyed by cow's milk. There is also reason to believe that in certain
cases of Tuberculosis the infection has been conveyed by milk from
tuberculous cows. These risks can only be absolutely avoided by
sterilising the milk, _i.e._, by placing the jug in a pan of water and
bringing the water to the boil, keeping it so for twenty minutes. If
the milk is kept covered, and rapidly cooled by placing in another pan
of cold water, but little boiled taste will be felt. Sometimes,
however, sterilised milk disagrees with an infant; if so, the strictest
watch must be kept on the history of the milk used.

It should be remembered that this disease is not hereditary. It is only
the delicacy of constitution predisposing to the disease that is
inherited. This delicacy may, especially in childhood, be remedied. We
have known hundreds of tender children made strong by liberal daily
MASSAGE (_see_). In all cases where hereditary weakness is feared this
should be resorted to. In many cases nothing more is needed to banish
consumption out of families than the stimulation of the skin by this
massage. Wearing linen underwear (_see_ Underwear) also assists in this
direction and prevents chills. As it is of prime importance to increase
the chest capacity, and this is most easily done in youth, great
attention should be paid to chest expanding exercises (_see_ Appendix)
and deep breathing. The cultivation of singing will greatly help.


Consumption, Treatment of.--Turning now to the case when consumption
has actually shown itself, the above treatment is exactly the course to
be pursued. But we would emphasise the fact that unlimited fresh air
and good nourishing foods are the only cure. If the patient can afford
it, it is best to go to one of the Sanatoria for consumptives in order
that he may see how the fresh air cure is practically carried out. It
means simply breathing every mouthful of air as pure as it can possibly
be obtained. Sleeping out in a hut, with the side completely open, and
with protection only from the rain, with abundance of clothing, and, if
necessary, hot-water jars to supply the required heat, is strongly
recommended, and every hour of the day, as far as possible, should be
spent in the open air, reclining or taking gentle exercise.

The food should be nourishing and abundant. Plenty of milk, butter, and
eggs should form the basis of the diet. The strictest precautions
should be taken against spreading infection, and the patient be made to
understand that these measures are intended not only to protect the
public and his friends, but to allow of his social intercourse with
them, and to assist his own cure. The source of danger being the spit,
it should be collected in a pocket spittoon or piece of paper, and be
destroyed before it has time to dry. Spitting on floors or elsewhere is
highly dangerous. The spittoon should be boiled carefully. A
consumptive should not swallow his phlegm, as the disease may thus be
conveyed to parts of the body not already infected. Kissing a
consumptive person on the lips is attended with risk, and consumptive
patients should not wear a heavy moustache or beard, as the phlegm
drying on the hair is a source of danger.

The bed on which the consumptive lies should not be in a corner, but
out from the wall, so as to admit of cleaning and ventilation. Curtains
and carpets are dust catchers; reduce the amount of such articles as
much as possible. In the event of a death from consumption, the room
occupied by the invalid should not be used again until it has been
thoroughly disinfected. The Public Health Authorities are usually ready
to carry out this work. If not, the floor and woodwork should be wiped
with damp dusters, and then scoured with soap and water. If the walls
are papered, the paper should be well damped, stripped off, and burnt.
If the walls have been white-washed, this should be renewed with
limewash, containing a quarter of a pound of chlorinated lime to the
gallon of limewash. The quilt, pillow case, blankets, and sheets of the
patient's bed should be steeped in boiling water and then washed.

Often consumption is associated with wasting sores on the neck or other
parts, which are extremely difficult to heal. These should be soaked in
warm weak ACETIC ACID (_see_) daily, and dressed with olive oil. They
may be greatly mitigated, if not cured, by this simple means. _See_
Abscess; Bone, Diseased. The directions as to diet in cases of abscess
apply also to these cases. Besides such outward applications, the
rubbing along each side of the spine should be applied. _See_
Children's Healthy Growth. The ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_) may also be
used.

The very rapid pulse, and extreme fever, which accompany advanced and
rapid consumption, may often be greatly mitigated by cooling cloths
applied over the heart. Sponging over the whole body with vinegar or
weak ACETIC ACID (_see_) also greatly refreshes the patient. It may be
done under the bedclothes, so as to avoid all possibility of chill.
Cold cloths over the heart and chest, if they cause chilliness, may be
accompanied with fomentation of the feet and legs.

The temperature of a consumptive should be recorded three times a day,
and if above normal the patient should stay in bed till it is reduced.

When the temperature has been reduced, gentle exercise is very useful.
Gradually increasing walks should be taken each day.


Contraction of Sinews.--This often occurs at the knee, bending the
joint so that the patient cannot stretch his limb or walk properly. The
injury in such a case is usually at the ends of the sinews, where they
are inserted into the bone. If the limb be straightened and put up in
splints, so as to secure perfect rest, it is well to see that once
every twenty-four hours it be removed from its fastenings and treated
in some way to obtain a cure. Otherwise the whole limb will harden into
a straight and unbendable condition, worse than its original bend. When
the fastenings are removed, then, each day, let the limb be rubbed and
bathed for an hour. Treat the whole body with soaping and oil rubbing
(_see_ Lather and Massage). While bathing the limb it is to be rubbed
with this soap, and the lather rubbed gently into all the skin. Rub,
after soaping and drying, with hot olive oil. Dry this off, and wrap
the limb in warm flannel. With this treatment no splints or plaster
jackets are at all likely to be required. The limb usually soon comes
right.

Sometimes this contraction affects the hip joint, and causes great
distress and lameness. The upper end of the thigh bone is even
sometimes drawn a little out of its proper position. For this, the
muscles of the back, and specially of the side and hip which is lame,
are rubbed with gentle pressure and hot olive oil as often and as long
as may be convenient. Strong fomentations are also applied for
half-an-hour daily (_see_ Armchair Fomentation). We know of one case in
which this treatment has cured such contraction both of the knee and
hip joint. Whether the cause be rheumatism or other trouble, or an
injury, the treatment is the same.


Convulsions.--For an ordinary convulsive attack in the case of a child,
hold the child's head over a basin and pour tepid water (blood heat, 98
deg. F.) over the head. This will usually be sufficient. If not, seat
the child in a bath of hot water nearly up to the waist. If bad,
indigestible food causes the fit, give teaspoonfuls of hot water every
few minutes for some hours. If the case is obstinate, a BRAN POULTICE
(_see_) may be put over the lower back, and cold towels gently pressed
over the stomach and bowels.

Fits from children's teething are more troublesome. They may often be
prevented by placing a compress wrung out of cool water along the spine
while the infant is warm in the cradle, and changing it so as to
maintain the cooling effect. A handkerchief folded eight ply does very
well. Four or five changes may be sufficient. Rub with a little warm
oil when the cloth comes off. If the fits do come on, treat as above
directed for fits from indigestion.


Cooking.--The cooking of vegetables requires particular care. The
valuable salts and other nutritive ingredients they contain are easily
dissolved by water, and when they are drained, and the water thrown
away, as is usually done, all this nutriment is lost. Double cooking
pots are easily procurable for meat, porridge, etc. These are quite
suitable for vegetables--cabbage, turnips, carrots, peas, etc. The
vegetable should be placed, without water, in the inner pot; it will
take somewhat longer to cook than when boiled in the usual way. The
outer vessel should be partly filled with water kept boiling. Any juice
which comes out of the vegetable should be served in the dish along
with it. It may be thickened with a little flour and butter, or if a
regular white sauce is being made, the juice should be used instead of
part of the water. If no double boiler is procurable, an ordinary tin
can, inside a saucepan will serve very well. Many who consider certain
vegetables indigestible, as usually prepared, will find that when
cooked in this way they agree with them perfectly. The fact that the
colour of cabbage, peas, etc., is not so green as when boiled in a
great deal of water, is not of importance, when the flavour and
wholesomeness are so much increased. In stews and vegetable soups the
salts are, of course, preserved.


Cooling in Heating.--Often it is difficult to get a sufficient cooling
effect by means of cold cloths without unduly chilling the patient.
When the head has to be cooled, as in the very dangerous disease
meningitis, the effect must pass through the mass of the skull before
reaching the brain. A large and long continued application is needed
for this. The surface is apt then to be overcooled before the interior
of the head is affected. In such a case the surface of the head, when
the patient feels it too cold, should be gently rubbed, as directed in
Eyes, Squinting, until this feeling goes off. Then the cooling may be
resumed. Or if rubbing be disagreeable, a warm cloth may be applied for
a short time, and cooling then resumed. In this way a succession of
_waves_ of heating and cooling can for a long time be sent through the
surface, with good effect and no chill. The short heating restores the
surface, and does not interfere with the cooling effect reaching the
interior parts. The same principle applies to cooling any part of the
body (_see_ Bathing). Any _deep-seated_ inflammation is best reached in
this way.

For instance, in the large hip-joints it is of vast importance to reach
inflammatory action in parts that are not near the surface, and cold
cloths, pressed constantly, produce distress in the surface, if there
is no intermission in supplying them. The patient is apt to rush to the
conclusion that he must just yield to be blistered, painted with
iodine, covered with belladonna plaster, or burned with red-hot irons!
That is, he will yield to be made a great deal worse in every respect
than he is, because he is not aware that it is quite possible to cure
him without making him worse even for a moment.


Coughs.--These will be found treated under the various heads of Colds,
Bronchitis, Consumption, etc., but some particular cases of _mere
cough_ demand special attention. A tickling cough sometimes comes on,
and seems to remain in spite of all efforts to get rid of it. It is
worse at night, and keeps the sufferer from sleeping, causing much
distress. Where the breathing organs are weak, this cough is caused by
an extra flow of blood to them, especially on lying down, the blood
acting as an irritant by pressing where it should not. In such cases a
BRAN POULTICE (_see_) applied as directed for Bronchitis, with cooling
applications to the part where the tickling is felt, should soon effect
a cure. _See_ Restlessness.

We had a case lately in which these features were very marked. It
seemed as if the patient had caught cold and this was showing itself in
severe and alarming coughing. The skin was yellow, and there were other
signs of failure in the organs that purify the blood. Irritating
substances were passing into the lungs because of failure in the liver
and kidneys, and not from anything in the lungs themselves. In such
cases the cough is merely a way of throwing off everything which ought
not to be in the breathing organs.

The remedy is very simple. Let the patient take about three
tablespoonfuls of hot water every ten minutes for four hours. Before
these four hours are expired, the substances causing irritation will be
so diluted that they will cease to irritate, and the organs failing to
do their duty will be in full working order.


Cramp in the Limbs.--The treatment of this is to apply cold cloths to
the roots of the nerves which govern the affected limb or limbs. For
the legs, the cold is applied to the lower spine; for the arms or
hands, it is applied to the upper part. The limbs affected should also
be rubbed briskly with the hands, or a rough towel. Often the
irritating heat causing the cramp is in but a small part of the spine,
and the whole body is cold, or at least too chilly to make the cold
cloths a pleasant cure. In such a case FOMENTATION (_see_) of the feet
and legs will supply sufficient heat to make the cure by cold pleasant
and safe.


Cramp in the Stomach.--This very severe trouble, though resisting
ordinary methods of treatment, is not difficult to cure by right means.
If help is at hand, the patient may be placed in a shallow bath, and
cold water splashed with a sponge or towel against the back. A bad case
has been cured with two minutes of this treatment. After it, the
patient must be well dried and put to bed.

When help is not available, a substitute for the cold splashing is a
thick cold compress, the length of the spine, which must be laid on the
bed, and the patient lie down on it. This must be changed when it grows
hot, and a few changes usually give relief.

Persons who are suffering have often very strong prejudices. For
example, one who has decided most firmly that he "cannot do at all with
anything cold," is suffering from cramp, and nothing but cold will
relieve him, but you must not even hint at any such application. You
must in such a case consider how this prejudice took its rise. You will
probably find that cold has been unskilfully applied to this patient,
and bad effects have been produced, not by the cold, but by its
unskilful application. For instance, in a case of cramp the irritation
and excess of heat may be both confined to a very small space, no more
than that which is filled by the root of one nerve; the rest of the
body may be cold rather than hot. There is need first that this general
cold should be dealt with, and a general heat produced by some means or
other. This is usually best done by packing feet and legs in a hot
blanket fomentation. But this again is not an easy matter when cramp
prevails. If you move the limbs in the least the cramp comes on, and
the patient screams with pain. Still, you need not be defeated; you can
let the limbs lie, and heat them from above by placing the hot blanket
over them as they lie. As soon as you get heat raised in the body
generally, by some such means as this, you are safe enough to apply all
the cold that is needed. That may be so little that a common
pocket-handkerchief will be enough. This wrung out of cold water, and
folded so as to cover about three inches square of the lower part of
the spine, may be gently pressed. If this is really well done, there
will be no shivering from the cold, and there probably will be a
cessation of the cramp. The one thing wanted is that the cold cloth
shall be placed right over the root of the nerve which is irritated,
and consequently overheated. The prejudice is thus overcome, and it is
seen that cold is not to be absolutely avoided, because it has been
once or twice, or many times, wrongly applied.

To prevent the cramp returning, means must be adopted to increase vital
energy in the system. Entire mental rest for an hour after meals must
be taken. If the patient says "I cannot get this," then he simply will
soon have to give up all work, and perhaps narrowly escape a departure
from this working world altogether.

Each morning before rising, the compress should be applied as above for
a short time; the back should then be rubbed with hot olive oil before
dressing. This treatment, and proper rest, will prevent return of the
cramp. If the patient falls asleep on the compress, allow this sleep to
continue unbroken: it is invaluable. So also is the avoidance of all
anxious thought, which is best secured by complete trust in a loving
God and Saviour.


Croup, Less Serious Form.--The less serious croup proceeds from a
nervous closing of the windpipe, the attack being brought on by any
causes of irritation in the nervous system. In this case, when the fit
reaches a certain stage, the throat opens, and breathing proceeds as
usual. This croup is a cramp of the windpipe; the cramp is caused by an
irritation of the nerves controlling it, which are already in a
condition to be easily irritated. The cure is to apply cooling cloths
to the spine. Take the child warm in bed in the morning, and rub the
little back with warm olive oil. Ring out a towel of _cool_, not quite
cold, water; fold this into a narrow compress, and place it along the
spine; place a dry towel above it and wrap up warm. Change for a fresh
cool towel in two or three minutes. If the child falls asleep on this,
leave him till he wakes voluntarily. Rub the back again with oil before
dressing. The cooling may continue for an hour or so. If this treatment
fail, the child may be given medicine to produce vomiting, which
frequently relieves. Before putting to bed at night wash the child all
over with plenty of M'Clinton's SOAP (_see_), dry and rub over with
warm olive oil. Continue this treatment for some days.


Croup, More Serious Form.--This is caused by an accumulation of
material in the windpipe, which is coughed up in pieces of pipe-like
substance, and which, if not removed, threatens suffocation. For
treatment, first give sips of hot water (distilled water is best)
frequently. We have seen only five teaspoonfuls of this taken by a
child followed by the throwing off of such a quantity of matter from
the throat as had nearly caused suffocation. The further treatment is
the bran poultice between the shoulders, and cold cloths on the chest,
as prescribed in the article on Bronchitis. These may not cure in all
cases, but will do so in many apparently otherwise hopeless. The moment
the symptoms are perceived, treatment should be begun, as this disease
is very rapid in its progress.

When an actual attack of croup of this kind comes on, and is severe, it
is usual to put the child in a warm bath. If the water is a little
below blood heat, and laved on the back, this will go far to relieve;
but it will not have a tenth of the effect which a cold towel will
have, if placed along the spine. It is indeed wonderful how spasms and
the various forms of cramp give way to this. When a little warm olive
oil is first rubbed on and then off, there is no danger of cold or of
any bad effect (_see_ Cramp in Stomach). If this croup is obstinate,
there may be more serious disease of the throat, and good medical
advice should be had.


Cures Losing their Effect.--After a fortnight's treatment often matters
seem to come to a standstill in a case, and then the attendants are apt
to despair. Such a state of things indicate only the need for some
change in treatment, or perhaps for a rest from treatment for some
days. Common sense must guide, and the case may be more keenly looked
into: it may have changed its character in the time that has passed,
and different treatment require to be given. It is well not to give up
until all has been tried which in any way seems likely to suit the
case. All the various articles bearing on it should be carefully read
and pondered, and no doubt the way to change the treatment will open
up. _See_ Changing Treatment.


Cures, as Self-Applied.--Often young people in lodgings are in
difficulty for want of some one to apply the necessary treatment in
their own case. It is often, however, possible to treat oneself quite
successfully by exercising care and common sense. Help should always be
got if possible, but where it cannot, it may be done without. In the
case of applying cold cloths to any part, when it is necessary to
change these frequently, a basin of cold water may stand by the bedside
so that the patient can wring out towels without getting up. A still
better plan is to have several towels wrung out to begin with--these
may be hung over a rail or chairs until required. When the first has
been heated it must be hung over the rail or chair so as to be as much
spread out as possible. Evaporation will then cool it sufficiently to
be used when its turn comes again. Each towel is to be treated in a
similar way in turn. Four towels will give an hour's cooling with very
little trouble in this way. So a bran poultice may be prepared and laid
on the bed, so that one can lie down on it, and with the cold towels
handy, as above, most effective treatment given. Common sense is the
guide here, as everywhere in our treatment, and a little thought will
solve difficulties at first apparently insoluble.


Damp Beds.--An ordinary bed which has not been slept in for some weeks,
although perfectly dry to begin with, will _become_ damp, even in a dry
house, and, unless properly dried, will be a great danger to its next
occupant. This is a preventable danger, and all who entertain guests
should see that they are not exposed to it. Many a fatal illness is due
to the culpable carelessness of those who put a guest into such a bed.
Ignorance in such a matter is shameful. All who have charge in a house
should fully understand their responsibility in this matter.

But if you are put into such a bed it is infinitely better to rise and
dress, and make the best of a night of discomfort, than to sleep among
the damp. If, however, you have so slept, and feel the bad effect, the
best cure will be the SOAPY BLANKET (_see_). If this cannot be had, a
good hot footbath, with the heat kept just comfortable for half-an-hour
or more, will do very well. This should be done at the earliest
possible moment.

It will add greatly to the efficiency of such treatment if hot water
can be had to drink in small quantities, and often. A few drops of
cayenne "tea" in the water will act as a gentle stimulant.
Old-fashioned folk place great confidence in a "hot drink" in such a
case. This is all very well if they only keep the alcohol out of it:
that destroys vital resources, but never supplies them. We have known
cases in which all power was lost through a single night in a damp bed.
Possibly in these cases it might not have been easy to restore the lost
vitality by any amount of treatment; but we rather think that a speedy
application of genial heat all over would have restored it. In some
apparently hopeless instances it has done so.


Deafness.--_See_ Hearing.


Decline.--_See_ Consumption.


Declining Limb, A.--_See_ Limbs, Drawn up.


Delirium in Fever.--The best way of treating this truly distressing
symptom is by cooling and soothing applications to the head. We have
seen in one case large cool cloths applied to the head for some time
every three hours or so. An almost immediate cessation of the delirium
followed this application, and it only returned a few minutes before
the time for the next cooling. If the pulse becomes rather slow than
rapid, and the body rather cool than hot, while delirium still
continues, then hot cloths may be applied to the head. When either hot
or cold appliances are removed, rub olive oil into the roots of the
hair, and dry off.

An excellent treatment is also to cover the whole head with soap
lather. _See_ Head, Soaping.

It is to be noted that the state of the patient determines the
treatment. If he is hot, cold treatment is required. If he is cool or
chilly, then give the warm treatment. If he _changes_ from hot to cold,
then alter the treatment accordingly.

In some diseases delirium occurs, not because of fever, but because of
poisonous elements in the blood supplied to the brain. This is the case
in liver and kidney troubles, when waste products are not got rid of by
these organs as they should be.

To get these organs to work, the best thing is to drink half a
teacupful of hot water every ten minutes for two hours at a time. Do
this once a day for two days. Probably it will cause purging, but that
is part of the cure. If the case does not yield in any way to this, a
large hot bran poultice should be placed over the whole of the _right_
side under the arm, from the spine right round to the breast-bone
(_see_ Bran Poultice). This should be renewed if necessary, so as to
keep up the heat for an hour. Next day place a similar poultice over
all the lower part of the back, so as to help the kidneys and bowels.
Dry after these poultices, and rub gently with warm olive oil. The
delirium will usually yield to a few days of such treatment. We have
seen the reason under such treatment return with a rapidity that
astonished the medical attendant. He had given the patient three months
to gain what was complete in less than one. _See_ Fever.


Depression.--This is usually a bodily illness, though often regarded as
mental only. It appears in loss of interest in all that otherwise would
be most interesting. A mother loses interest in her children, a man in
his business, and so on. Students, and children overpressed at lessons,
are apt to suffer from it. It is simply the result of a drain of energy
from the system, until the brain has an insufficient supply. Those who
have the care of the young would do well to watch carefully against
this state coming on. If it appears, all work should be given up, and
as much play take its place as possible. No cramming of ideas into a
weakening mind can ever be equal to the possession of health and
energy, as a preparation for life.

Treatment should be such as to restore energy. The whole back should be
fomented with a large blanket fomentation, being rubbed with olive oil
before and after. Let this be done for an hour in the morning; in the
evening give the ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_). Carry this on for a
week, and then rest for another week, only rubbing the back with a
little hot olive oil each night. Cultivate open-air life; sleep as much
as possible--eight hours at least, or better nine. Carefully prepared
and easily digested food should be given, and change of company, scene,
and climate are most effective helps; but rest from work is the chief
matter. _See_ Restlessness and Worry.


Diabetes.--There are two more or less distinct stages of this serious
trouble; the first stage is generally curable, the second stage
generally incurable. Yet good natural means of cure will very much
alleviate even the incurable stage. The earlier as well as the later
stages are marked by extreme _thirst_. This, in the case of some poor
sufferers, is enormous. Gallons of water are taken, and the more is
taken the more is wanted. But this thirst is not the effect of heat, as
fever thirst is. It cannot be quenched by means of cold cloths often
changed over the stomach, as fever thirst can. A sufferer in this
disease will set a large pitcher down at the bedside to serve for the
night, and drink it all before morning; but there is no extra heat
anywhere to account for this. The thirst is more like that which is
caused by eating very salt food. It points to the character of the
juices which are affecting the stomach, and not to any heated condition
of the stomach itself. The drinking is a desperate effort to dilute
these juices; and, at least by cold water, that cannot be done. A
wineglassful of hot water taken every ten minutes for an hour, or two
hours, or three, or ten hours, as is felt to be comfortable, will do
wonders in the early stages of this disease. This water, when taken at
the right heat, at once mixes with the strongly concentrated juices of
the stomach, and causes them to be easily managed by that and other
organs. It is truly wonderful what this very simple remedy will effect
by itself alone. The next thing to be noticed is the excessive hunger.
The food, whatever it may be, fails to quell this hunger. Here, again,
it is clearly the stomach with which we have to do. When the hunger is
developed we should think the case further advanced than when thirst
alone is experienced. The hot water meets this symptom as it meets the
other. It is also of the very greatest moment to give right food.
Oatmeal and buttermilk steeped together for a time and then moderately
boiled, a very little salt or sugar being added, produces a food which
we do not expect to see excelled by the most costly that can be got
anywhere. Wheaten meal, or barley meal, will do as well as, and perhaps
in some cases better than, oatmeal, but these may be chosen according
to taste. The chief thing is the ease with which this food is converted
into a large supply of the best of blood for all purposes of
nourishment. Food containing much starchy matter, as white bread, rice,
and all sugar, must be forbidden. To make up for this, an abundance of
fat should be consumed. The bowels should be kept open by a suitable
diet and exercise.

Now we come to the excessive urinary discharge which is so strong a
feature of this disease. The body seems as if it were melting away in
this.

We can benefit the kidneys vastly through acting on the liver, as well
as on themselves. By a large hot bran poultice over the liver we can
add new life to that, and whatever does so tends to benefit the
kidneys. After using this large poultice, with plenty of oil rubbed on
before and after, say three or four times, place it over the kidneys
and use it as often there. If the heat is well kept up for an hour at a
time, one poultice a day would do, but, if the patient desires it,
twice a day will be all the better. It is good to do the best that can
be done with the skin. By means of soap and oil rubbing, and the
cleansing effects of diluted acetic acid, very considerable help may be
gained. Good can be done by a hot fomentation of the feet and legs to
the knees, with oiling after, so as to have these extremities in a
comfortable state. Tea, coffee, and sugar _must be avoided_.


Diarrhoea.--Sudden attacks of this, though in a mild form, are very
troublesome. An enema of _cold_ water is in such cases often an
immediate cure. The first injection may be followed by even an
excessive motion, but if a second cold injection be given this will
cease. But in more troublesome cases, where the patient is an infant,
or very weak, this is not applicable. For such cases, mix equal
quantities of honey and lemon juice (one or two teaspoonfuls of each),
and add enough boiling water to dilute it for taking. Give this three
or even four times a day. It will usually and speedily cure, and is
relished by infants.

Often the cause of diarrhoea in infants is the infection of milk by
flies (_see_ British Cholera), or from dirty feeding bottles. Bottles
with tubes should _never_ be used. The india-rubber teat should be
smelt to see that it is perfectly sweet and clean before the bottle is
filled. Unsuitable or too rich food will bring this trouble on.

A tablespoonful of blackberry (or brambleberry as it is also called)
jelly may be given--it is a powerful and simple remedy. In adults, a
dose of castor oil, with a few drops of laudanum in it, will probably
remove all trouble, if it be due to nothing more than indigestible
food. Where the cold enema is dreaded, one of hot thin starch, with
fifteen drops of laudanum in it, may be used for adults.

Stale vegetable or animal food, also impure water, are fruitful sources
of diarrhoea.

The mind has a great effect on this trouble, anxiety and worry are
frequent causes. _See_ Worry. A comfortable seat by the fire, and an
interesting book, will often relieve.

When the diarrhoea is very serious, use the four-ply flannel bandage.
_See_ Bandage; British Cholera; Dysentery.


Diet.--The composition of different articles of food varies. A turnip
is not the same as a piece of cheese. It is more watery, and has more
fibre in it, and we speak of it as less nutritious. There are, however,
in almost all foods certain chemical substances present which have
different duties to perform in the body, and which are present in
widely different proportions in the various articles we use for food.

_Water_ is the most common of these substances. Soups, vegetables,
fruits, puddings, are largely water. Some foods contain less of it than
others, but on the whole a very large, if not the largest, part of all
food consists of water. This large amount is needed. Water makes up
two-thirds of the body, and nearly two quarts are given off daily in
the various excretions and secretions. If enough be not taken the
tissues get dry, and Nature indicates her want in thirst.

Another of these substances is _starch_, or its equivalent, sugar.
Rice, bread, and vegetables in general, are largely made up of this
starchy or sugary substance, which, as it contains a considerable
quantity of carbon, we speak of as the _carbonaceous_ element in food.
This is the substance which goes to feed the muscles, replacing the
waste from work done, just as fuel is required for the fires of an
engine.

Yet another substance in food is _fat_. It may be animal, such as beef
or mutton fat, and butter, or vegetable, as the oils in nuts, in the
olive, etc. Fat, like carbonaceous food, also goes to feed the muscles,
but both are required in a healthy diet.

Of the first importance, however, is the _proteid_ element in food.
Meat, milk, cheese, eggs, peas, etc., contain proteid in considerable
quantities. Its use is to repair the exhausted tissues themselves. The
muscles and nerves get worn out in their daily work, and require
rebuilding. This is what proteid goes to do, and from this, its high
import in animal economy, is called Proteid (protos--first). Finally,
in all natural foods there are certain _salts_, which also build up,
_e.g._, lime, which goes to make up bone. These salts may be seen in
the ash of any common vegetable after being burnt.

These four kinds of food substance make up our daily food, and a
certain amount of each substance is required to replace the daily
expenditure, a proportion which varies, however, under different
circumstances. _See_ Food in Health.

As the relative amount of proteid, carbonaceous matter, water, and
salts, may vary considerably in different articles, we rightly have
combinations of food at our meals. A pudding of corn-flour and water
contains no building material, hence we add milk and eggs, which do. A
meal of meat and cheese requires bread and potatoes, etc., etc.

Appetite is a good test of the amount and also of the particular kind
of food required, provided the appetite is in a healthy condition. If a
healthy man refrain from carbonaceous foods for a day or so, he feels a
great longing for them, a sign that the body really needs them. It is
of immense importance, then, that the appetite should not be accustomed
to over-indulgence, for then it is no guide in our selection of foods
(_see_ Appetite). If disease indicates such over-indulgence, food
should be restricted till the appetite is accustomed to a smaller diet.
Bilious people, for example, may have accustomed their appetite to
desire more carbonaceous and fatty foods than necessary. On the
contrary, badly-fed people often require a coaxing of the appetite to
eat strengthening foods, such as oatmeal, cheese, and brown bread.

In order to regulate our diet, it is of importance to have some idea of
the composition of common articles of food. We get our food, as
everybody knows, from the vegetable and animal kingdoms. The majority
of the Anglo-Saxon race live on a diet of animal and vegetable
combined, but many exclude flesh from their diet. In Southern Asia, for
example, the vast bulk of the people rarely, or never, touch meat. The
vegetable kingdom supplies us largely with the carbonaceous or
muscle-forming food, whereas the animal kingdom is rich in proteid, or
tissue-forming food. Much proteid, however, can be obtained from the
vegetable kingdom--peas, beans, lentils, dried fruits, and nuts being
particularly rich in it. We should endeavour to cultivate an appetite
for these vegetables containing proteid, as it is a great mistake to
rely entirely for this element on meat, as so many of our race do. The
animal products--such as cheese, milk, and eggs--will also form an
efficient substitute for much flesh-food. This simple diet suits both
the brain-worker and the athlete, though each will have to make a
selection of those foods most required by him. Certainly much animal
food is liable to produce kidney disease, gout, and kindred troubles.
If we have a tendency to corpulence (and many have this in advancing
years), to resort to an exclusive meat diet will produce these
troubles. Far better abstain from vegetables, such as potatoes, and
from sweet dishes, pastry, etc., and eat largely of the green-leaf
vegetables and fruits with the articles of a simple diet which build
but do not fatten the body. (_See_ Diet and Corpulence; Diet for Middle
Age, and the Aged.)

Fruit is a very useful article of food. The acid helps to keep the
blood alkaline (which alkalinity is necessary for the normal
performance of its functions). It prevents acidity of the stomach. The
dried fruits, such as dates, figs, raisins, are very rich in proteid.
Nuts also are rich in proteid and in fat; they require, however,
careful mastication. Mills can be purchased cheaply for grinding nuts;
the ground meal, either alone or made into a cream, forms a delicious
adjunct to stewed fruit.

Green vegetables are a much neglected food. The salts they contain are
very useful. They require careful cooking. A cabbage boiled in the
ordinary way loses in the water its valuable salts. In case of
flatulence arising from indigestion, the use of vegetables may,
however, require to be restricted, at least for a time. Some vegetables
are palatable raw, such as salads and celery. Indeed, raw vegetables
have a tonic effect on the bowels.

Bread should never be too fresh, and should be thoroughly chewed.
Zwieback (twice baked) can be recommended, especially for those who
suffer from indigestion. It is made by cutting bread, preferably
wheaten, in thin slices, and putting these in a slow oven till
thoroughly dry and lightly browned. Wholemeal bread should always be
present on the table, as its use prevents constipation. Indian corn can
be made into a number of palatable cakes, and is a very nutritious
food. Home-made jam and honey are digestible forms of sugar, but like
all sugar foods should be consumed in moderation, especially by
sedentary individuals. Condiments should be avoided, the healthy
appetite is better without them, and they irritate the stomach.

Regarding animal foods, they are often spoilt by over-cooking, and it
should be remembered that when lightly done they are easiest to digest.
White fish, tender steak, or juicy joint and cutlet are superior to the
oily fish, and kidney, liver, and heart. These internal organs should
be avoided, as they contain even more than the rest of the animal
certain extracts liable to produce URIC ACID (_see_). Milk, cheese,
eggs, and butter are not open to these objections. Cheese is a food
very rich in proteid. It requires careful chewing, and may with
advantage be grated before use. Buttermilk is a valuable and
strengthening food. A generation or so ago the Scotch peasants lived
almost exclusively on buttermilk and oatmeal, and were a magnificent
type of men in every respect. Whey is a pleasant drink, and may be made
a substitute for tea where the latter is prohibited. It is also
beneficial for the kidneys. Jellies are a pleasant addition to the diet
of convalescents, but have little nutritive value.

We would strongly urge upon our readers the advantages of simple diet.
We mean by this the avoidance of all those rich and spiced dishes which
are made up in so many ways to tempt the appetite, of alcohol in every
form, of meat to the extent often consumed by the well-to-do, of pastry
and such indigestible food as heavy cakes, of fried food in general;
and, on the other hand, the adoption of a diet largely consisting of
milk, cheese, eggs, butter, cereals, root and green vegetables, fruits,
and nuts. It will not be found an expensive diet; on the contrary, it
is remarkably cheap; it will give little trouble, for but little
cooking will be needed. It may require some little effort at first, and
some breakings with social customs, but far less of both than will be
imagined. Seeing that a large part of disease is ultimately traceable
to a rich and stimulating diet, and to too much food in general,
simplicity is imperative on all who seek for the preservation of
health. Eat less, eat better (or more slowly, with perfect
mastication), eat simpler foods at your meals, eat at these meals only
when you require it, and never between your meals. Such eating will
ensure good digestion, good assimilation, good blood, and good health.


Diet and Corpulence.--A tendency to obesity should always be carefully
checked by attention to diet and exercise (_see_ Exercise). The
fattening foods are those which contain either fat or carbonaceous
substances. Carbonaceous substances are found in bread, sugar,
arrowroot, puddings in general, pastry, potatoes. The fats, such as
butter, cream, and animal fat, should be much restricted in their use.
As we have above indicated, however, it is not wise, as many corpulent
people do in their efforts to get rid of this superabundance of fat, to
make up for their restriction by an increase in the quantity of meat
consumed. Cheese, peas, beans, buttermilk, and oatmeal might with
advantage be drawn upon instead. At the same time, if the circulation
is good it is well with such proteid diet to increase the amount of
water drunk during the day, as this helps to eliminate the waste which
would otherwise overtax the kidneys. Green vegetables and fruits should
form a large part of the diet.

It must be remembered that it is dangerous to strike out at once all
fattening foods from the diet; many have injured their health
permanently by such injudicious haste, and brought on floating kidneys,
etc. Remember, also, that exercise is a much safer reducer of fat than
a very great reduction in diet, unless there has been a decided
tendency to continually overeat. All alcoholic beverages must be
strictly forbidden.


Diet for the Lean.--To a large extent the preceding article will
suggest what is suitable here, remembering, however, that regular
exercise will be also necessary in order to enable the muscles to
increase in size. Green vegetables and fruits should be largely used in
addition to the carbonaceous foods, as their FOOD SALTS (_see_) are
necessary to keep the blood in a condition to allow of proper
assimilation. In the case of nervous and consumptive patients, the more
digestible forms of fat, such as cream and butter, are to be
recommended. Some thin people do not seem able to assimilate much fat.
These cases will do better on a smaller quantity. Remember always that
it is not what is eaten, but what is assimilated, that goes to increase
the weight, therefore if any particular food is found, after a careful
trial, to constantly disagree, it must be accepted that for that one at
all events, it is not a suitable article of diet.


Diet for Middle Age and the Aged.--In advancing years when less
exercise is, as a rule, taken, a restriction in the amount of food
consumed is highly desirable. The increasing corpulence, which often
begins to show itself from 30 to 40, is far from being a healthy sign;
indeed, is often the premonitory symptom of serious disease. It should
be remembered that a lessening quantity of food is required from middle
life on. This applies to all the elements of food. It is noticeable
that a fat person seldom lives to old age, most octogenarians being
thin and wiry, and almost all attribute their long life to increasing
watchfulness over their health, and largely over what they eat.

When a person is young and taking active exercise, a good deal of
surplus food can be worked off, and if the excess be too great, a
bilious attack tends to prevent any more being taken, for a time at
least.

But as we get on in life, the surplus food, if much is eaten, is
deposited in various parts of the body as fatty or gouty accumulations.
The liver becomes deranged, and loss of health and strength are at once
apparent.

It is then, as Sir Henry Thompson has well pointed out, that the fond
but foolish wife often does her husband incalculable harm by her
efforts to "keep up his system." She urges and tempts him to take more
food, fetching him, between meals, cups of beef-tea, soup, or cocoa,
when he really would be greatly the better of total abstinence from all
food for several days. What we have said about appetite being the best
guide applies to the old especially, and if they could but realize what
a very small quantity of food is necessary, they would not be perturbed
to find that their appetite guided them to eat very much less than at a
younger age.

Milk, which is the ideal food for the very young, is for that reason
often undesirable for the old, and it is a great mistake for such to
drink much of it with solid food.

Diet for the very aged becomes mainly a question of invalid diet, and
it must be remembered that much should be granted to the individual's
choice and liking. All foods for the aged should be light and easily
digested, and careful attention paid to proper cooking.

A striking example of lost health recovered and life and activity
prolonged to a great age, by strict temperance in food, is Cornaro, a
Venetian nobleman of the sixteenth century, who lived over 100 years.
He says:--"Our kind mother Nature, in order that old men may live to
still greater age, has contrived matters so that they should be able to
subsist on little, as I do, for large quantities of food cannot be
digested by old and feeble stomachs. By always eating little, the
stomach, not being much burdened, need not wait long to have an
appetite. It is for this reason that dry bread relishes so well with
me.... When one arrives at old age, he ought to divide that food of
which he was accustomed to make but two meals into four, and as in his
youth he made but two collations in a day, he should in his old age
make four, provided he lessen the quantity as his years increase. And
this is what I do, agreeably to my own experience; therefore my
spirits, not oppressed by much food, but barely kept up, are always
brisk, especially after eating, nor do I ever find myself the worse for
writing immediately after meals, nor is my understanding ever clearer,
or am I apt to be drowsy, the food I take being in too small a quantity
to send up fumes to the brain. Oh, how advantageous it is for an old
man to eat but little! Accordingly, I, who know it, eat but just enough
to keep body and soul together."


Digestion.--Digestion is the process whereby the food we eat is turned
into material fit to be assimilated by the blood. It begins in the
mouth by the mechanical grinding and crushing of the food, and the
chemical conversion of the starchy part into sugar, in which form alone
it can be assimilated. This conversion is carried out by the saliva.
Hence the necessity for thorough mastication, even of sloppy foods that
do not seem to require it, and for attention to the teeth in order that
they may thoroughly chew. Alcohol and tobacco, as they spoil the
saliva, are very unfavourable to digestion, and should always be
avoided. Twenty minutes longer to chew one's dinner is worth a whole
box of pills, and no one need expect good digestion who neglects
thorough chewing and salivation of the food. This may, with advantage,
be increased to an extent which most people would think quite absurd.
It has been proved that when all food is chewed until completely
reduced to a liquid, its nutritive qualities are so increased that
about half as much will suffice. This is of immense importance in all
cases of weak digestion, or indeed whenever an absence of vigorous
health renders the economy of vital energy important.

[Illustration: Digestive System.]

In the stomach the food meets with the gastric juice, which has the
property of turning proteid (_see_ Diet for the various substances
contained in food) into material ready for assimilation. The walls of
the stomach are muscular, and their contraction churns the food with
the juice. The gastric juice is secreted by glands embedded in the
walls of the stomach, and is poured out when food is taken.

The whole food, now in the form of a paste, passes into a pipe about 12
inches long (the Duodenum), into which pours the secretion of the
pancreas and that of the liver (bile). The pancreatic juice acts upon
the starch which has escaped the action of the saliva, and also
continues the work of the stomach. It furthermore emulsifies the fat or
divides it into extremely fine drops.

The food passes now into a long coiled pipe--the small intestine. This
secretes the intestinal juice which further assists the pancreatic
juice. Absorption has been proceeding from the stomach onwards (_see_
Assimilation). The mass of undigested food is pushed along the small
intestine by means of muscles in its walls and passes into the large
intestine where a similar process to that of the small intestine goes
on, the remains of the food ultimately reaching the vent in a semi
solid form, consisting of the undigested part and the débris of
digestion.

During this complex process much blood and energy is needed for the
abdominal region, therefore hard work or exercise should not
immediately follow a meal. It will be noticed that each stage of
digestion prepares the food for the next stage _e.g._, the mouth
prepares the food for the stomach. Now, as the food ceases to be under
our control when it leaves the mouth, every effort should, as we have
said, there be made to prepare the food for its reception by the
stomach. Chew food dry as far as possible, for that excites saliva. It
is best not to drink till after the meal. The digestive powers often
become weakened in advancing years, but may be greatly preserved, and
even restored to health after long debility, by careful attention to
the above hints.

Drinks made of lemon juice or orange juice and water are often very
good to help an invalid digestion, but nothing is better than sips of
hot water for some time before a meal. Distilled water is especially a
most valuable drink. Cooling applications to a fevered stomach and warm
fomentations to a cold one will often promote digestion marvellously.
The feet and legs may be fomented if cold while the cold cloth is
pressed over the stomach, especially if the process be long continued.
Where heat is necessary it should be gradually and cautiously applied,
so that sickening the patient may be avoided. (_See also_ Assimilation,
Food in Health, Indigestion).


Diet, Economy in.--Dr. Hutchison, one of our greatest authorities on
the subject of Dietetics, has well said--

"The dearest foods are by no means the best. 'Cheap and nasty' is not a
phrase which can be applied to things which you eat. A pound of Stilton
cheese at 1s. 2d. contains no more nutriment than a pound of American
cheese at sixpence. A given weight of bloater will yield more building
material than the same quantity of salmon or sole.

"The upper classes in this country eat too much. The labouring classes
are insufficiently fed--much worse fed than their brethren in America.
One of the chief consequences is an undue craving for alcoholic
stimulants; another is that our poor are not properly armed against
tuberculosis and epidemic disease.

"How can this be rectified? Anyone who knows anything about the poor
man's budget knows that he already spends as much on food as he is
able. As it is, 50 per cent. of a workman's wages are absorbed in its
purchase, so that half the struggle for life is a struggle for food.

"The only remedy is to buy the things which are the most nourishing and
which yield the most energy. Quite a good diet can be obtained for
fourpence a day, yet the average working man spends sevenpence.

"I advise the buying of more vegetable foods, particularly peas, beans,
and lentils, and the cheaper varieties of fish. The working classes
should also be taught how to cook cheese, and thus make it more
digestible, as the Italians do. Cheese contains much building material,
and is therefore a valuable article of diet.

"I strongly recommend one good meal of oatmeal a day, instead of so
much bread, butter, and tea, which is the staple diet of so many poor
families, because it is easily prepared, and because of human laziness.

"Skimmed milk is better than no milk at all, for it contains all the
original proteids, and has only lost its fat. More dripping and
margarine should be eaten, instead of jam; margarine being quite as
digestible and nourishing as butter."

Vegetable oils are, however, more digestible than animal fats. Cocoanut
butter is a cheap and excellent substitute for margarine or butter. As
it contains no water it will go much further.

Another instance of bad economy is the use of cod liver oil. Butter or
even cream are quite as fattening and much more digestible.

Malt extract is much dearer than honey, which is superior to it in
value as a food.

To supply a healthy man with the amount of proteid required by him
daily in beef extracts would cost 7s., in milk (a comparatively
expensive food) would only cost about 1s.


Diphtheria.--The most striking symptom of diphtheria is the growth of a
substance in the upper part of the windpipe, which threatens to close
it entirely. Good medical skill is of first importance here, yet much
may be done where that is not available. We have often seen the
swallowing of a little hot water and treacle enable the children to
throw up the entire obstruction and make the breathing perfectly free.
Mark at once whether the feet are cold or warm. If cold, oil them well
with olive oil, and pack in a hot blanket fomentation to the knees.
When the feet and knees are thoroughly warm in this, put a cold cloth
on the back of the neck down between the shoulders. Change this as
often as felt comfortable. The throat may be brushed out with a weak
solution of Condy's Fluid, but a strong solution of common salt will do
very well. Good white vinegar and water (_see_ Acetic Acid) is perhaps
best of all. We have never seen this fail in changing the character of
such growths, and if the windpipe can be washed out repeatedly with it,
we should feel sure of a desirable result. Now, we have seen a humble
working man's wife wash out the throat of her son as well as any
medical man could do it, using Condy's Fluid for the purpose with full
success. When you can, have the help of a medical man, but when you are
so placed that such help is impossible, you need not fear to try
yourself. If there is much fever, cold cloths may be applied to the
head to reduce the heat. As the disease is strongly infectious, care
should be taken to isolate the patient, and attendants should avoid his
breath. Abundance of fresh air and light should be allowed to enter the
room, and one window at least should be open as far as possible.


Douche, Cold.--In its most powerful form this is a _solid_ stream of
water directed down on the patient's shoulders and spine. It may be
applied either by an apparatus fixed up for the purpose, or by merely
pouring from a watering-can _without_ a rose. Its power depends on the
great heating in the skin which springs up when it is withdrawn. This
heating power again depends on the strong shock given to the system
when it is applied. Thus it will be seen that what is called a "Spray"
or "Spray Douche" is of little use for the same purpose, as it gives
little or no primary shock. It is with this application as with many.
The patient's feeling benefit is the great and true evidence of the
treatment being right. When the douche issues in bodily comfort and
cheering to the mind, all is right. If it issues in discomfort, then
some other treatment must be tried.


"Downbearing."--This expression will cover many troubles especially
common among women, where the weight of the internal organs becomes
distressingly felt. These are usually supported without our being
conscious of their weight at all. But in weakness, or after long
fatigue and standing, it becomes felt as a severe downward pressure.
This is often caused by the pressure of corset and skirts upon the
waist. In cases where it is troublesome, much help will be derived by
adopting some device for suspending the clothes from the shoulders.
This may quite cure the trouble (_see_ Tight Lacing). For more serious
cases, take daily a short SITZ-BATH (_see_) in cold water, with the
feet in hot water. Internal syringing is often required, which is best
done with the "Fountain Enema," and very weak acetic acid and water
(_see_ Acetic Acid). A more powerful application is to have cold water
poured over the front of the body while sitting in the sitz-bath, from
a watering-can with a garden rose on the spout. This must be done
gently at first, and afterwards more strongly and with colder water.
This also prevents the troublesome "flooding" from the womb, which so
often accompanies "down-bearing." The water employed in the douche must
be _cold_, but it need not be icy cold. Ordinary cold tap water does
very well. In serious cases medical advice should be sought, as the
womb may be displaced. A golden rule for the prevention of this
distressing ailment is to pass water frequently. If women would always
do this before pushing heavy furniture, hanging up pictures, &c., many
internal ailments would be prevented, as when the bladder is empty
there is little danger of the womb being displaced.

After the system has been weakened by a miscarriage, this flooding
often occurs. Apply the above treatment: it checks the flooding, and
braces the parts.


Drinks, Refreshing.--This is a matter of great importance to the sick.
Nor is anything more important to be said on them than this, that the
foundation of all such drinks must be _water_. This water must be
_pure_, and is best distilled, or boiled and filtered. Long boiling
will spoil water, and half-an-hour is long enough to boil. To add to
this pure water, we may take the juice of half a lemon, sweetened to
taste. Few patients will fail to relish this. A whole orange may be
used instead of half a lemon. A substitute may be made by taking
half-a-teaspoonful of good white vinegar instead of the orange or
lemon. Also in many cases where the cold drink is not relished, it may
be taken warm.


Dropsy.--This trouble is rather a symptom than a disease. It rises from
accumulation of watery waste in the body, owing to improper action of
the skin, lungs, or kidneys, and sometimes follows scarlet or other
fevers and lung affections. By far the greatest danger in such cases
arises from fashionable medicines. It is of the last importance that
nothing should be given to lessen life by injuring already weakened
vital action. It is when this is done by metallic preparations that
such cases become very grave and even hopeless. There is a prominent
error in connection with all dropsical tendencies, which should be
removed. That is the idea that the "water" which collects in such
swellings is similar to good drinking water, and that giving the
thirsty patient water to drink is increasing his illness. The so-called
"water" which swells the face, or the feet, or any other part of the
body, in dropsy, is used-up matter such as is, in good health, removed
(imperceptibly, in greatest measure) by the organs fitted for that
purpose.

Water, especially if given about blood heat, is at once used for most
important vital purposes. This hot fresh water mingling with the
poisonous "water" of dropsy dilutes it--renders it not only so much
less injurious, but tends powerfully to its removal. The thirst of the
patient is in perfect harmony with this truth, as all natural symptoms
are ever in harmony with nature. If there are convulsive attacks, they
are the result of used-up matter returning into the circulation, and
reaching even the brain and central parts of the nervous system. The
cure is gained when the defective organs are brought to act well. It is
shortsighted action to deal with the kidneys alone in this trouble.
They often fail because they are overloaded through the failure of
lungs and skin to do their part. First, it is well to act on the lungs
by gentle rubbing with hot olive oil between the shoulders and over all
the back--done best in a warm room by the fire, or in bed. This may be
continued for half-an-hour or more twice daily. The skin may be
stimulated by a smart sponging with vinegar or weak acetic acid, and a
rubbing all over with soap lather, and afterwards with hot olive oil.
This lathering and rubbing to be done at another time from the first
rubbing for the lungs. Then apply a large warm bran poultice to the
lower part of the back behind the kidneys.

We have often found the following simple treatment effectual, where the
patient is not very weak. If there are any signs of heart failure, do
not use it. But if the patient is fairly strong, it is most beneficial.
You have a case, say, of dropsy in the abdomen: put on two folds of
soft flannel, wrung out of cold water; put two folds dry over the moist
ones. Keep away all oiled silk and everything of the kind. You will
very soon have an astonishing outflow of insensible perspiration, but
it passes off through the soft porous flannel without any obstruction
whatever. You will find that under this the swelling soon comes down,
and even disappears entirely. It is necessary, in such treatment, to
renew the bandage so as to keep all fresh and healthful, but your work
is abundantly rewarded. In such a case as this the matter to be passed
off is so great that a cotton or ordinary linen bandage may fail, as
being too impervious, when a flannel bandage will succeed. A Kneipp
linen bandage is perfectly porous, and will not irritate the skin as
flannel often does. Worn-out underwear can be kept for this purpose.

If stronger heat seems to be needed, a soft cloth four-ply thick, large
enough to cover the whole lower back, should be dipped in CAYENNE
LOTION (_see_), slightly squeezed, and placed on the back. Over this a
dry cloth should be placed, and the patient should lie down on a bran
poultice or hot-water bag for an hour or two. Afterwards the back
should be rubbed with olive oil, and a band of soft new flannel worn
round the body.

Even if the swelling is caused by rupture this treatment is the best.
The rupture must be reduced (_see_ Rupture) and sustained by a proper
truss, for which the patient should apply to a responsible surgical
instrument maker. This treatment alone has cured many dropsical
patients. Where failure of the heart's action complicates the trouble,
this treatment will usually relieve the heart as well as kidneys. For
drink in such cases see article Drinks. For food give whatever is most
easily digested and passed into good blood. Wheaten-meal food, oatmeal
jelly, etc., are good. _See also_ Biscuits and Water.


Drowning.--Many valuable lives have been saved by an elementary
knowledge of what to do in the case of one apparently suffocated or
drowned.

Commence treatment immediately in the open air, with the face down,
neck and chest exposed, and all tight clothing such as braces removed.

The points to be aimed at are--first and _immediately_, the Restoration
of Breathing; and secondly, after breathing is restored, the promotion
of Warmth and Circulation. The efforts to restore Breathing must be
commenced immediately and energetically, and persevered in for one or
two hours, or until a medical man has pronounced that life is extinct.
Efforts to promote Warmth and Circulation beyond removing the wet
clothes and drying the skin must not be made until the first appearance
of natural breathing, for if circulation of the blood be induced before
breathing has recommenced the restoration to life will be endangered.

[Illustration: Turning on the Chest.]

_First_: Roll the patient over on his chest, with one of the arms under
the forehead, when the water will readily leave the mouth. _Second_: If
breathing does not recommence then, place him on his face, supporting
the chest on a roll of clothing. Turn the body gently on the side, then
briskly on the face repeating these movements, about 15 times in the
minute. (By placing him on his chest the weight of the body forces the
air out; when turned on the side air enters the chest). Five minutes is
the longest that can be afforded to this treatment. _Third_: Turn him
on his back, draw his tongue forward, keeping it forward by a band
passing over it and under the chin, placing the roll of clothing under
the shoulder blades. Then, kneeling at his head, grasp the arms just
below the elbows, draw them above the head, keeping them stretched for
about two seconds. Then turn down the arms and press them firmly for
two seconds against the sides of the chest. (The outstretched position
allows air to be drawn into the lungs, the other position allows it to
be pressed out.)

[Illustration: Arms extended.]

When a spontaneous effort to respire is observed, proceed to induce
Circulation and Warmth. This is accomplished by rubbing the limbs
upwards with firm grasp and pressure underneath the warm blankets, or
over the dry clothing which through bystanders or other means should
have been already procured, apply hot flannels, hot water bottles,
heated bricks, etc., to the pit of the stomach, the armpits, between
the thighs and the soles of the feet.

Allow abundance of fresh air to play about the patient. Administer a
teaspoonful of warm water, and then if the power of swallowing have
returned, give hot milk, coffee, etc., in small quantities. The patient
should be kept in bed and a disposition to sleep encouraged.

The above treatment should be persevered in for some hours, as it is an
erroneous opinion that persons are irrecoverable because life does not
soon make its appearance, persons having been restored after
persevering for many hours. The appearances which generally accompany
Death, are: Cessation of the heart's action, eyes half-closed, pupils
dilated, tongue approaching to the inner edges of the lips, lips and
nostrils covered with a frothy mucus. Coldness and pallor of surface
increase.

[Illustration: Elbows on the Chest.]

_Cautions_: Prevent crowding, avoid rough usage; if the body is on the
back have the tongue secured. Never hold up the body by the feet. Never
place the body in a warm bath, unless under medical direction, and even
then only momentarily.


Dwining.--We give this name to a trouble from which we have been able
to save some patients, as expressing best the general failure and
weakness which sometimes constitute a serious danger, even where all
specific symptoms are wanting. Some cases of this kind we have cured,
when they were supposed to be hopelessly dying, by the use of simple
soap lather. The skin of the patient is usually dry, and the pulse
feverish. In such a case take lather, made as directed in article Head,
Soaping, and spread it gently all over the stomach and heart. Repeat
this six or seven times, keeping the patient warm in bed. Then, after
drying, do the same thing to the back. This does immense good. For the
general skin stimulation, rub over with the mixture for NIGHT SWEATS
(_see_). The skin is rubbed over with this five or six times, once a
day.

Where there is no feverishness, but rather cold feelings, then use the
_warm_ lather as directed, and rub well all over afterwards with hot
olive oil. This treatment alone we know to have cured many.


Dysentery.--This is an affection of the bowels of the nature of
diarrhoea, but much worse, as in it _blood_ accompanies the bowel
discharge. It usually begins as diarrhoea, and at this stage may be
cured by either warm vinegar and water or simple cold water injected
into the bowel (_see_ Diarrhoea). Where there is any reason to suspect
the water supply, that should be boiled for half-an-hour and cooled
before use. Attention to the diet, taking for a time _milk_ diet alone,
is also important. Nothing can be better than boiled bread and milk,
giving no more than the sufferer feels he needs. When the diarrhoea has
passed into true dysentery, with blood discharge, or the trouble begins
as such, then enemas of weak acetic acid, or vinegar and water, given
_warm_ (_i.e._, a little over blood heat), must be used instead of cold
water. As much vinegar should be used as will make the mixture (_see_
Acetic Acid) very slightly smarting when applied to a tender part of
the skin--say, to the corner of the eye. What is wanted is just as much
acid as will act healingly on the injured vessels, and no more. An
enema of this water mixed with acid may be repeated as long as required
with perfect safety and good effect every time. Even if the disease has
made very serious progress, this will tell upon it powerfully. These
warm enemas should be very resolutely followed up as long as they give
the least comfortable feeling. No one who has not felt their magical
effect can conceive how powerful they are. We have seen a patient on
the point of giving in and lying down as a helpless invalid made
perfectly fit for work in less than an hour by this mode of treatment.

Where the trouble has passed into that stage where the patient is much
weakened, in addition to this the ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_) should
be employed; or if the patient be too weak, the fomentation may be
properly wrapped round him in bed without rising. If the patient be too
weak for wrapping round the body, he may be first wrapped round the
legs, and so strengthened as to stand the stronger remedy. Olive oil
must be rubbed on the skin before and after fomenting. The heat may be
kept up for an hour. If too weak to stand even this, the feet and legs
may be first fomented, and afterwards the body. This treatment has
saved many cases from disaster. _See also_ British Cholera; Diarrhoea.


Dyspepsia.--_See_ Indigestion.


Earache.--In the common form this is purely neuralgic. The nerves are
in shape and distribution like some tender plant, the root in the brain
or spinal cord, and the ends of the branches in the organs supplied by
them with nerve power. They are best affected, and most easily cured,
by applications to the root rather than the branch ends. This is
greatly the case with earache, which is a trouble of the nerves of the
ear--not those of hearing, but the ordinary nerves supplying the part.
The remedy is to press cold cloths on the _back of the head and neck_.
This will often give instant relief. It is best done when the patient
is thoroughly warm. If he be cold and clammy in feeling, the feet and
legs must be well fomented before applying the cooling. Rub all parts
treated with warm olive oil when the treatment is finished.


Ears, Running.--In this trouble there is indicated a failure somewhere
of the clearance of waste from the body. This matter gathers locally in
the ear, where suppuration and discharge take place. A cure must not be
directed to the ear alone, but first the general waste-removing system
should be stimulated with special reference to its service in the ear.
Rubbing the back with hot olive oil and gentle pressure for a long
time, say forty minutes daily, will go further to cure the ears than
anything which can be done to themselves. Gatherings, by this
treatment, are often quickly dissolved and dispersed.

Where actual waste matter runs out of the ear, the treatment is to have
a round camel's-hair brush and soak the interior of the ear, using the
brush, with warm weak vinegar, or weak acetic acid, just sour to the
taste; then brush with a little fine almond oil, and wipe very gently
as dry as possible.

Another way is to syringe the ears very gently with this dilute acetic
acid; do not force the acid strongly against the internal parts of the
ear, but rather let it soak in. It may be continued as long as is felt
agreeable. Do this twice a day; have also a good warm bran poultice
placed at the back of the head and neck for an hour each day, oiling
the skin before and after. This is best done at bedtime. If this
treatment be pursued carefully, the ears should soon come right.


Ears, Singing in the.--Partial deafness is often accompanied by noises
in the ear, which are very annoying. This is caused by the internal
state of the ear, and is often due especially to the state of the aural
nerve. Similar noises are heard also when we place our fingers in our
ears, or when we hold a shell or hollow vessel against one of them. In
the latter case, what we hear is the rush of blood in the vessels of
the ear. In this way, singing in the ears often arises in the course of
the treatment recommended in the last article for running ears. If it
become too loud, a cessation of the heating at the back of the head,
and a brief cooling application, will relieve it. Therefore, in such
cases, it is well to use COOLING IN HEATING (_see_).


Eczema.--Skin eruptions, known under this name, have very various
causes. Treatment must vary accordingly.

Where the cause is a failure of the skin to act properly, the _whole_
skin of the body, especially the chest and back, will be dry and hard.
In this case apply SOAPY BLANKETS (_see_).

If the soapy blanket be too severe on the patient, then apply general
lathering with M'Clinton's Soap. Use a badger's-hair shaving brush, and
have the lather like whipped cream with _no free water_ along with it.
We have known a few of these applications cure a case of long standing.

Where general debility is present, along with the disease, use all
means to increase the patient's vitality. Simple diet is best (_see_
Diet, Saltcoats' Biscuits, Barley, Assimilation, Digestion), and
abundance of fresh air, within and without the house, by night and by
day.

Where the disease results from a parasite, some ointment should be
used, and is best applied under the immediate direction of a specialist
in Diseases of the Skin.


Elbow Joint.--See Armpit Swelling and Bone.


Enemas, Cold Water.--Prejudice often exists against _cold_ treatment of
any kind, but it must be overcome, unless the sick would lose some of
the most precious means of relief which we possess. The Enema Syringe,
or Fountain Enema, may be had from any druggist, and is used to inject
liquid into the lower bowel. To inject _cold water_ by this means is a
most efficient method of relief for internal heat and irritation, as
well as for DIARRHOEA (_see_). Sick headaches are also often instantly
cured by this means. What we are here concerned with, however, is to
say that this remedy is as _safe_ as it is simple, so long as
discomfort is not felt by the patient. Cold enemas may be given
repeatedly, where they are felt to be comforting, without any danger
whatever. If the bowels move after the first application, there is no
need to be alarmed. Repeat the cold injection, and the diarrhoea will
cease. The _cold_ enema does not produce or aggravate constipation; on
the contrary, it often relieves and cures the sluggish bowels. In cases
where medicine has to be almost constantly taken, its use, and the
disuse of the drugs, will often effect a complete cure. In many
instances in which outward cooling cannot be borne, the thermometer
will indicate that there is excessive internal heat, and the pulse will
be quick also. In such cases it will be possible to give the most
delightful relief by cautiously applied internal cold.

Fever that might be relieved by cold packing and sponging with vinegar,
or some such means, will be far more speedily reduced by these cold
injections, and fever which cannot be reduced by these means alone will
give way when this is added.

There are cases in which a sort of paralysis of the lower bowel renders
what is called "opening medicine" constantly necessary. The consequence
of these continued doses is to produce greater and greater paralysis,
and ultimately death itself; in these cases the cold enema is of great
value. If there is lack of power in the bowel, it is well to increase
it by a warm bran poultice, or hot bag on the back, and to brace the
vessels and muscles within with the cold enema. (_See_ Constipation.)


Epidemics.--The key to action in case of epidemics prevailing in the
district is found, when we consider that always, many residing amid
infection escape it. They do so in virtue of better resisting power,
rather than because no seeds of disease ever reach them. In case of
epidemic, then, besides daily sponging with acetic acid or vinegar, and
_scrupulous cleanliness_, everything should be done to increase health
and vitality in the household. Plenty of fresh air and sunlight, open
windows day and night, and good plain food, are most powerful aids to
resisting disease. The milk and water used in the household should all
be boiled and _allowed to cool_ before use, the boiling lasting
half-an-hour. The family where all this is done may expect to escape
infection, and therefore may maintain that calmness and freedom from
fear which is itself a very important help against it.


Epilepsy.--The first sign of such an illness is a brief and slight
attack of "absence." We notice once or twice that the person "loses
himself" for a few moments, but recovers so speedily that we scarcely
are sure whether anything of importance has occurred. He is perfectly
unaware that he has so "lost himself" or been "absent" at all. That
part of the brain on the activity of which consciousness depends has
been for the moment inactive.

There is another symptom--that is, the "falling" which gives one of its
titles to this malady. It is called "the falling sickness." There is a
peculiarity in the falling of one who is affected in this way. In some
cases consciousness partially remains, but the balancing power of the
brain is lost. A patient in this case sees the ground rise till it
strikes him violently on the forehead. We remember a friend telling us
that he was walking along a railway, when all at once the rail seemed
to rise and strike him in the face: he had fallen on the rail, and
seriously wounded himself. The same thing occurs to the person who has
taken enough alcohol to deprive him for the time of brain action for
the usual balancing of his body. Just as there is a certain part of the
brain which gives men consciousness, so is there a part which gives
muscular control, such as we use in balancing the body, and there is a
stream of vital action flowing from the nerve sources by which both are
supplied. If this stream is diverted from these organs, "absence" and
"falling" are the natural and necessary result.

There are many cases in which there are only "absence" and "falling,"
but in others, symptoms much more alarming appear. The next of these
which we notice introduces us to a totally distinct element in our
explanation. It is found in the "screaming" that follows instantly on
unconsciousness, and precedes the "falling" generally. The sufferer is
entirely unaware of all that occurs with him, and screams by no
voluntary act on his part. The symptom is purely bodily, and expresses
no thought or feeling, good or bad, though it is similar to the scream
of terror, and makes the same impression on the uninformed hearer. The
muscles are used in the scream of epilepsy, just as the muscles of
ordinary movement are used in St. Vitus' Dance, but there is nothing of
the mind whatever in the movement. The organ of the mind is unsupplied
with vital action, but the organs of voice are over-supplied. It is
beyond doubt this over-supply which shows itself in the scream, for
there is nothing else to account for it.

The same thing is true of the movements of the jaw that are so terribly
strong, and so sorely wound the tongue, in the case of those suffering
in this way. The jaws open and shut with great force, and without the
mind regulating their movement. All the motor nerves are convulsed with
strong action, and the muscles they supply are wrought to the utmost,
while all consciousness and control are entirely suspended. There is
such an overwhelming supply of activity to the mere muscular system
that the sources of that supply are soon exhausted, and the motion
ceases for a time. Consciousness does not at once return fully, but the
convulsions cease, and something like a sleep follows before the brain
has its needed supply.

How is it that vital action seizes these mere motor nerves and leaves
the brain? There is a symptom in cases of epilepsy which tends to throw
some light on this question. It is seen in the extreme activity of the
brain, indicated by the incessant talking of the patient before a
series of convulsions come on, when taken along with the extreme
depression and silence that follow such a series. During whole nights,
even, the sufferer will talk, till every organ is exhausted; then comes
a series of violent convulsions, then a season of perfect silence and
bewilderment.

This explanation of the disease points to the remedy. That which will
nurse the brain, and at the same time lessen nervous force in the
system, will tend to cure the evil. Strong fomentations round the lower
part of the body may be used. Soap in fine LATHER (_see_) should be
made to cover the skin at bedtime, and washed off with weak ACETIC ACID
(_see_) in the morning. Easily digested food should be taken, and all
so-called stimulants strictly avoided. We should endeavour to secure
the soothing of the spinal system of nerves. This is done in a degree
that is incredible to those who have not actually witnessed it by a
persevering use of the cold treatment of the back. The best time is
early in the morning, after the patient has had a good night's sleep.
For a whole hour spinal treatment should then be used. We have no faith
in any royal road to success in such a cure, but we have faith in
common sense and right good work. Taking three towels, and putting two
of them in cold water, the "operator" is ready to begin. It will be
well first to rub the patient's back gently with a little warm olive
oil. This will obviate all danger of shock or shiver when the cold
cloth is placed on the skin. Then wring out one of the cold towels
thoroughly, so as to have it damp and not dripping; fold it lengthways
eight ply. Put the one over the other, place both on the centre of the
patient's back as he is sitting up in bed to receive them, keeping the
damp towel next the skin. Adjust these cloths nicely, make the patient
lie down upon them, and cover him snugly up with the bedclothes. So
long as the feeling is nice, let well alone. When the towel becomes
hot, wring out the second, and change it on the back. Carry this out
for a full hour, and if the patient is disposed to go to sleep again,
encourage him to do so.

Continued for weeks every morning this humble treatment, without any
addition, has an incredibly soothing effect on an excitable system. But
it will be well to add to it some nursing of the head and feet, so that
every encouragement may be given to a diffusion of nerve action over
the body. At night, before going to bed, the feet and legs should be
bathed in hot water for a quarter of an hour, dried, rubbed gently with
warm olive oil, and a pair of soft cotton stockings drawn on. While the
patient is being treated, every possible wearing and irritation of the
brain must be avoided, and when lying on the cold towel, the head
should be soothingly rubbed by a gentle hand. If an actual violent
attack comes on, loose all tight clothes, place a piece of cork between
the patient's teeth to prevent biting the tongue, give plenty of fresh
air, and keep the patient in a recumbent position.

Everything should be done, by training, to increase the patient's
self-control, and all stimulants should be avoided as most injurious.
_See_ Head, Rubbing the.

It is important that those liable to these attacks should be kept
employed. Nothing is so harmful as idleness. Everything tending to good
health is of value, but the essentials of the treatment are found in
soothing the spine as above, and stimulating the brain by the head
rubbing. Unless in cases in which the very structure of the system has
been, so to speak, altered by long-continued disease of this sort, we
should look for good results from such treatment as this. Even in the
worst cases it would be possible to mitigate the severity of the
distress.

A difference in the focus of the eyes often causes a strain on the
brain in the effort to adjust them. This sometimes causes epilepsy, and
we have known many cases cured by the use of spectacles made to correct
this inequality. In all cases of this disease, therefore, an optician
should be consulted, to see if there is any defect in the eyes.

Other illnesses are sometimes mistaken for epilepsy: for example, the
liver and kidneys in a defective state and impurities passing in the
blood to the brain, will explain certain forms of that which passes as
epilepsy. It is often easy to cure attacks of this nature by merely
bringing the liver and kidneys into working order. If there is a
yellowness of the skin, or other signs of the blood failing to be
purified in a natural way, then that should first be dealt with, and
the fits will often be removed as soon as good action is established in
the purifying organs. But in all cases in which there is anything like
real "fits," it will be found of great importance to study the
over-and-under-actions of the nerve system as by far the most essential
elements in the disease. _See_ Jaundice.


Eruptions.--_See_ Hives; "Outstrikes;" Saltrome, etc.


Erysipelas.--This troublesome disease is also known as St. Anthony's
Fire, or the Rose. The skin becomes fiery red or even purplish in hue.
A violent heat and pain in the part accompany this, and fever and
general disturbance of the system follow in a severe case. Swelling of
the parts follows, with much distress and danger. _Air_ irritates
violently the sore parts, and is usually excluded.

In curing the trouble, regard must be had to the cause, which is
usually a general failure of strength from overwork, worry, or some
other disease. If a cure is to be effected, _rest_ of mind and body is
necessary, and must be secured at any possible cost. For local
application, the sore parts are thickly dusted with fine fresh flour,
and covered with soft wadding or surgeon's lint. The air is excluded,
and all is kept _strictly dry_. A waterproof covering over the lint
will help this, but is not absolutely necessary.

But, now, is there nothing that can be done to quicken that inner
action, the slowness of which has paved the way for all this mischief?
This might be done in two ways. After the affected parts, say the face,
have been secured in this pack of flour, it will be easy to place a hot
blanket, soaked partly, but not at all _wet_, with boiling water, all
round the head of the patient. As soon as the heat begins to enter the
head, a sense of comfort will be experienced. Care must be taken to
keep the _inner cloths dry_, and heat is best given by an india-rubber
bag. When this cannot be had, however, the blanket may be used. At
intervals, as the patient feels it desirable, this fomentation may be
renewed. It will hasten recovery as well as arrest the spreading of the
malady, while it will secure such recovery as will not readily dispose
to a return of the evil. The feet and legs are likely to be cold. As
the sufferer lies still in bed, but not when the other fomentation is
on, these should be wrapped in a hot fomentation, allowed to lie in it
for a good half-hour, taken out of it and dried, rubbed with warm olive
oil, and covered with a pair of soft cotton stockings. If this
treatment is at all well carried out, the feeling of comfort given will
soon tell how it is working. Of course, if the feet and legs are the
parts affected, the fomentation must be applied elsewhere, say on the
back, or on the haunches.

Where erysipelas appears in connection with wounds or sores, the same
treatment is to be pursued, as far as possible consistent with dressing
the sores. These should be carefully cleansed, dusted with boric acid,
and covered with a layer of wadding bandage. The limb should be raised
to a horizontal position. Simple food should be given, and the sufferer
kept quiet. In all cases of skin trouble, linen should be worn next the
skin. _See_ Underwear.


Exercise.--Where this is advised medically, it is often taken in a
manner far from wise. For weakly people seeking strength, exercise
should never be pursued to the extent of fatigue. Up to a certain point
it does good; beyond that, harm. The beginning of harm is indicated by
the feeling of weariness. At the same time it must be remembered that
what is felt as weariness may be merely laziness. This must be
energetically combated. There is no royal road to health any more than
to learning.

In some cases this disinclination for exercise may arise from too much
or too rich food, and a more sparing diet may remove it. _See_
Appendix; Physical Culture.

When even walking is out of the question, a kind of exercise may be
given by gently massaging the limbs while the patient is in bed. The
back muscles should also be gently rubbed and kneaded, so as to cause
them to move under the skin, without effort on the patient's part. But
no fatigue must be caused. The amount may be gradually increased as the
patient can stand it. _See_ Brain Exercise; Massage.


Exhaustion.--Often very serious trouble takes the form of simple
overwhelming weariness. The patient's system has been wrought down till
it can no longer respond even to stimulus, and life itself seems ebbing
away. In such cases treat as for DEPRESSION (_see_) avoiding too
energetic treatment, and gradually infusing new life by massage and
fomenting.


Expectoration.--What is commonly called a "cough and spit" is sometimes
due to some serious trouble of the lungs, and in all cases a doctor
should be consulted at once. Often, however, it is due to the failure
of the skin or other organs duly to carry off the waste of the body,
which then accumulates in the air tubes. If we get a good revivifying
treatment of the skin, such cough and spit will speedily be cured. A
mild vapour bath, with thorough SOAPING (_see_ Soap) will usually be
sufficient in a slight case.

Sometimes there is a sweating of the skin itself which does not cure
expectoration, but which must itself be cured. That is the night or
early morning sweating, which is very reducing. It is the insensible
perspiration which is needed to remove the spit. Give one good sponging
over the body with acetic acid; follow this the evening after with
cayenne "tea," afterwards rubbing with warm olive oil. For two or three
evenings repeat this treatment. There should then be a loosening of the
phlegm, and a lessening of the flow through the lungs. The sufferer may
be very weak, and yet these things may be so gently and kindly done,
that no fatigue is experienced.

If above treatment does not cure, the SOAPY BLANKET (_see_) may be used
once a week, with daily sponging with vinegar or weak acetic acid, and
rubbing with warm olive oil. This should cure in a few weeks, where
there is no real disease.


Eyes, Accidents to.--Three distinct classes of these are to be
considered. They require very different treatment.

When the eyeball is cut or pierced, if the cut be deep or large, a
surgeon must deal with it. But if small, a drop or two of castor oil
let fall into the eye will often be all that is required. Where
inflammation comes on, the tepid pouring recommended below for bad eyes
will greatly help. If more severe, the treatment for inflamed eyes may
be given. _Perfect rest_ and _thorough exclusion of light_ are very
important.

If the eye is bruised, bathe with warm water, to which a little vinegar
or boracic acid has been added. If after bathing, pain continues, drop
in castor oil, and on the outside of the eyelid lay a pad dipped in a
mixture of equal parts of laudanum and water. Change this cloth
frequently until the pain is relieved.

Treat in this way also for insects stinging the eye.

When the eye is burned, either by sparks or by some burning chemical
substance, cold cloths should be persistently applied to the eye. The
softest rags or surgeon's lint should be cut up into small pieces that
will just cover the eye. Dip these in the coldest water, and press it
out a little, so that it will not run off. Place these little bits of
wet cloth one after another on the eye or eyes affected. The patient
will not be able to endure pressure further than the weight of the
cloths themselves. These can be taken off and changed for cold ones as
the feeling of the sufferer directs. After a time the cooling will be
felt to have gone far enough, and the cloths may be allowed to lie;
when they get too warm they can be taken off, or if the heat and pain
return they can be renewed.

While this treatment is going on it will be necessary to open the
eyelids at intervals, so as to let off the tears that collect in such
cases and cause great distress. These will flow out when in the most
gentle way you have laid one thumb on the upper eyebrow, and the other
just below the lower eyelid, so that you can draw the lids just
slightly open.


Eyes, Cataract on.--This disease has been arrested, and in earlier
stages even cured, by the treatment described in, Eyes, failing sight.
By means of this treatment we have seen a totally blind eye restored in
a few weeks.


Eyes, Danger to Sight of.--Where inflammation has gone so far as to
lead to suppuration, or even to ulceration of the eyes, there is grave
danger of blindness, and this is often the case with infants and
children who have been wrongly treated or neglected. In such a case,
cease at once all irritating and painful treatment and drugs. First,
wash the eyes by gently dropping over them distilled water, or boiled
rain water which has been cooled. The water should be used about blood
heat.

After an hour or so, have another warm bathing by means of gentle
pouring over the eyes, but do not rub the eyelids. Let there be no
friction beyond that of the soft and warm water running over the face
in the bathing. Rather have patience till that washes all waste matter
away than run any risk of irritating the eyeball. All this time watch
what the sufferer evidently likes, and follow his likings--that is, as
to warmer or colder water, and so on. It will not be very long before
you have thoroughly cleaned the eyes, while at the same time you have
infused fresh life into them. To the water used a little vinegar or
acetic acid should next be added, or Condy's fluid may be used when it
is convenient. But care must be taken that no great smarting is caused.
_See_ Acetic Acid.

As the discharge from ulcerated eyes is very infectious, care should be
taken not to communicate it to other persons' eyes. Strict cleanliness
should be observed, and all rags employed should be burnt, and
disinfectants used to cleanse the patient's and nurse's hands, etc.
Towels should be boiled for half-an-hour before being washed, after
they have been used in such a case.

Now a most important matter must be attended to. Castor oil is the most
soothing that can be used with the eyes. Fresh olive oil comes next,
but it is usually just as easy to get the one as the other. With a
feather, or fine camel's-hair brush, and as gently as possible, cover
the eyelids with this oil heated to about blood heat. Do not try to
force it on the eyeballs, but if the lids open so much as to let it in,
allow it to lubricate the eyeball also. Rub it gently over the eyebrows
and all round the eyes, and dry it gently off. Cover the eyes then with
a soft covering, and let them have perfect rest.

It sometimes happens that a tiny piece of dust or iron may stick in the
surface of the eye, and refuse to be washed away by the tears. Take a
square inch of writing paper, curve one of the sides of it, and draw it
lightly and quickly over the spot. Never use any sharp instrument or
pin. Repeat the operation a few times if unsuccessful.

Diet as recommended in article Eyes, Hazy Sight.


Eyes, Failing Sight.--This often comes as the result simply of an
over-wearied body and mind, without any pain or accident whatever. It
appears as an inability to see small distant objects, or to see at all
in dusky twilight. The sight is also variable--good when the patient is
not wearied, and bad when he is tired. When this comes on under thirty
years of age, the eyes have almost certainly been overworked, and need
rest. Rest from all reading and other work trying for the eyes is the
best cure. If this can be had, it should be taken, with much outdoor
exercise. Fresh air is a fine tonic for the eyes. Where total rest
cannot be had, take as much as possible, and nurse the failing nerves
as follows. Apply the bran poultice, as directed for inflamed eyes,
just as long as it is felt to be comforting--with one patient it will
be longer, with another shorter. Now there is a cooling of the brow and
of the eyes themselves, which is as important almost as the heating of
the back of the head. We always find, as a matter of fact, that a cold
application opposed to a hot one produces a vastly better result that
two hot ones opposed, or one hot one by itself alone. So we find in the
case of the eyes. We have now, as we write these lines, eyes under our
care that are mending every day by means of a bran poultice at the back
of the head and neck, and a cold cloth changed on the brow and eyes.
They do not mend anything like so well if heat alone is used. Rub the
back of the head and neck with hot olive oil before and after
poulticing, and dry well. Do this for an hour at a time, _twice_, or if
possible _three times_, a day. Continue for a fortnight, cease
treatment for a week, and again treat for another fortnight. This
should make such improvement as to encourage to further perseverance
with the cure. Sometimes failing sight follows neuralgia. In this case
the rubbing described in Eyes, Squinting, given twice a day for fifteen
or twenty minutes each day, will be useful in addition to above
treatment.

Even in cases in which "cataract" is fully formed, we find that the
disease is arrested, and the patient at least gets no worse. But where
this malady is only threatened the haze soon passes away. We most
earnestly wish and pray that this simple treatment should be as widely
known as there are failing eyes in this world of trial.


Eyes, Hazy Sight.--Frequently, after inflammation, and even when that
has ceased, the sight is left in a hazy condition. The eyes may be in
such cases rather cold than hot, and not amenable to the cooling
applications. The whole system also lacks vital action. First, in such
a case, wash the back thoroughly all over at night with hot water and
SOAP (_see_). Dry well and rub hot olive oil into the skin until dry.
In the morning rub the back for a few minutes with vinegar or weak
ACETIC ACID (_see_) before getting out of bed, dry, and rub with warm
olive oil. A strip of new flannel should be sewn on the underclothing,
so as to cover the whole back. The feet and legs should be bathed
(_see_ Bathing Feet) twice a week. All alcoholic drinks, and most
drugs, should be avoided, while only such food should be taken as can
be converted into good blood. Half a teacupful of _distilled_ water
should be taken before each meal. The whole of this diet tends to
produce healthy blood, which is the great means of dissolving all
haziness in the lenses and humours of the eyes.

Every drop of alcohol does so much to reduce that action. We have heard
this beautifully described by one of the foremost of living medical
men. He began by stating, what no one can doubt, that a certain
quantity of alcohol taken by the strongest man will kill that man as
effectually as if he were shot through the head with a rifle bullet.
Now a certain portion of alcohol takes a man's sight entirely away.
Half that quantity will only render his vision "double"--that is, unfit
him to see objects as they really are. Half that again will only
perceptibly impair the power of the eyes; but the action of the
smallest particle of the substance is the same in nature as that of the
largest quantity. Hence that action is to reduce the very efficiency of
the nerves of the eye, which it is of such immense importance to nurse
to the uttermost. No mere dictum, however strongly expressed, can hold
for a moment against this transparent reason. Hence, if a person must
take alcoholic liquor, the cure of inflammation in his eyes, and of the
thickening of the transparent portions of these organs, is simply out
of the question unless the disease is comparatively slight, and his
nervous constitution strong.

The very same reason holds good of tobacco. So of opium. So of every
other narcotic, whatever it may be called. Hundreds of men lose their
eyesight by the use of tobacco alone. We have seen their eyeballs
gradually becoming sightless when no change could be detected in their
eyes--only the optic nerve gradually lost its sensibility till they
were entirely blind. We are perfectly aware that there are those who
will scout the idea of such an effect, and prescribe these very
narcotics largely in such cases; it is because such drugs are used and
ordered that we are compelled thus to reason about them. In all cases
of failing eyesight they should be carefully avoided. So should all
foods which are not easily converted into healthful blood.


Eyes, Healthy.--Cheap, ill-printed literature is responsible for much
eye trouble, and it is well worth while to pay, if possible, a little
extra for books well printed, especially in the case of those who read
much. When reading sit erect, with the back to the light, so that it
falls over the shoulder. Too fine work, dim light, wrong diet, and want
of exercise produce the dull and strained eye, which eventually becomes
seriously diseased. Opening the eyes under cold water will help to
strengthen them, and massaging the muscles of the eye by passing the
finger and thumb round the socket (with scarcely any pressure on the
ball itself) will be found of advantage.


Eyes, Inflamed.--For all kinds of burning inflammatory pain in the
eyes, the following treatment is most effective. Place a hot BRAN
POULTICE (_see_) beneath the back of the head and neck while the
patient lies on the back. Press gently fresh cool damp cloths,
frequently changed, all over the eyeballs and sockets, so as to draw
out the heat. No one who has not seen this done can imagine how
powerful a remedy it is. It may also be necessary, if the feet be cold,
to foment up to the knees. This last fomentation is best done at
bedtime, and the feet and legs should be rubbed with olive oil, and a
pair of cotton stockings put on to sleep in, to keep the feet
comfortable.

If the eyes are very sensitive the treatment should go on in dim light,
as may be felt necessary. The poultice and cold cloths may be used for
an hour twice a day. In bad cases, where sight has been seriously
affected, a good rubbing of all the skin of the head with the finger
tips may be given before the poultice is applied. This rubbing must not
be a trial to the patient, but gently done, with kindly good will, and
it must be pursued for fifteen or twenty minutes, until the whole head
is in a warm glow.


Eyes, Inflamed, with General Eruptions over the Body.--In some cases
the eye trouble is only a part of a general skin inflammation,
accompanied with heat all over the body, and an acrid, irritating
discharge from eruptions on the face and elsewhere, especially on the
head. The cold cloths and poultice will not work in such a case. The
chief agent in the cure is fine soap lather (_see_ Head, Soaping). Let
the head be shampooed with it for half-an-hour. The whole body should
then be lathered and shampooed for a short time in a warm bath; this is
best done at bedtime. Much water is not needed; warm soapy lather, well
rubbed all over, is what is required. Ordinary soap will make the skin
worse; only M'Clinton's will do to soothe and heal it (_see_ Soap). If
white specks show on the eyes, the treatment in article on Eyes, Danger
to Sight of, will cure these. When this complaint is obstinate and
refuses to heal, medical advice should be sought, as blood poisoning is
probably present.


Eyes, Paralysis of.--The partial paralysis of the muscles of one eye
produces double vision, so that the patient sees two similar objects
where there is only one. This double vision is often, however, the
result of stomach derangement. If so, it may soon pass away. The true
paralysis is more persistent. To cure this, rub the entire skin of the
head gently and steadily with the hands and finger-tips (stroking
always _upwards_) for some fifteen minutes. Then apply cold cloths to
the eyes as already directed. If the cold cloths are uncomfortable, hot
ones should be tried. Do this for fifteen minutes also. Continue
alternately for an hour twice or three times a day. We have known one
such day's treatment remove the double vision _entirely_, and no
relapse occur, but in most cases the treatment must be persevered in
and returned to until the paralysis is overcome.


Eyes, Spots on.--These spots are of two different kinds, and yet they
are very much the same in nature and substance. What is called "a
cataract" is of a different character. We refer not to this, but to the
spots that form on the surface of the eyeball, and those that form in
the membrane of the eyelid. When inflammation has gone on for some time
on the eyeball itself, portions of whitish matter form on the glassy
surface and soon interfere with the sight. When inflammation has gone
on in the eyelid, little knots like pin-heads form, producing a feeling
as if sand were in the eye. Afterwards these knots grow large and swell
the eyelid, and at times the matter in them grows hard, and seems to
take up a lasting abode in that tissue. Strong and destructive liquids
or powders are sometimes applied, that so affect the whole substance of
the eye as to cause blindness. Nothing of this nature is required at
all. First, the skin of the head must be dealt with. You will find that
this is hot and dry, and somewhat hard on the skull. Rub this gently
with the dry hands for a few minutes, then press a cloth tightly wrung
out of cold water all round the head. Rub and cool alternately for
half-an-hour or more if it continues to produce an agreeable feeling.
When the head is all soothed, and good action has been secured, at
least on its surface, begin with the eye itself. The same treatment is
required for both classes of cases. The eye will be shut at first. You
take a fine camel's-hair brush, such as is used by artists, and some
vinegar or acetic acid, so weak that you can swallow a portion of it
without hurting your throat. This is a very good test of strength for
the acid. You carefully brush over the outside of the eyelids and all
round the eye with this weak acid. This must be done most carefully and
patiently for a length of time, till all sweatiness is washed off, and
a fine warm feeling is produced by the acid. The matter softens and
breaks up, so that it begins to pass away. We have seen a little ball
of hard white matter break up and come away after a single brushing
carefully done. When the matter is in the eyelid, and is so situated
that you can brush over it in the inside of the lid, it is well to do
so; but this operation must be gently and carefully done. When you have
brushed with the acid long enough, dry the eyelids and cheek carefully,
and rub with a little fresh olive or almond oil. It will be well to
cover the eye from the cold, and from any dust that might irritate. You
will soon find that it is as clear and sound as could be wished.


Eyes, Squinting.--Various affections of the eyeball muscles cause this.
To cure it is often easy, sometimes very difficult. The method of
treatment is to stimulate all the nerves of the head and face, and at
the same time to soothe their irritation. This is accomplished by
massaging the brow and entire head. It must be gently and soothingly
done. The open hands are drawn upwards over the brow from the eyebrows,
the rubber standing behind the patient. Then both sides of the head and
the back of the head are stroked similarly. After this the whole head
is rubbed briskly with the finger-points. This should be done often,
even four or five times in the day. If the patient objects, it is being
unskilfully done; the right sort of rubbing is always pleasant. A
squinting eye has been cured in a few rubbings, where the case was a
simple one. If the head becomes very hot, it may be cooled as directed
above for Children's Sleep. Squinting may be produced or increased by
that state of the stomach and bowels in which worms are bred.


Face, Skin of.--To secure a healthy appearance of this is worth much
trouble, and any eruption or unhealthy redness is a great trial,
especially to ladies. To cure and prevent these, it is usually
necessary to look first to the _diet_. A disagreeable redness of the
nose, and pimples in various places, is the common result of too much
rich food, not to speak of alcoholic drink, which is always most
injurious to the face skin. The use of corsets is another fertile
source of this trouble, and many in their desire to improve their
figure ruin their faces. Plain, easily digested food is to be taken.
Tea must only be used _at most_ twice in the day, and should be
exceedingly weak. Half-a-teacupful of hot water should be taken before
every meal, and everything possible done to promote digestion. The
whole skin must be brought into a healthy state by daily washing with
M'Clinton's soap (_see_ Soap); no other should be used for toilet
purposes. It is far better than the boasted and expensive "complexion
soaps," and can now be had in various forms. Many faces are injured by
the kind of soap used in washing. The use of the kind we recommend is
remarkably pleasant and beneficial, and a full account of it, and of
our motives in recommending it, will be found under article Soap. If,
however, the face will not stand the touch of water at all, good
BUTTERMILK (_see_) forms the best wash and cooling application. Also a
_cloth mask_ may be worn all night, lined inside with soft creamy soap
lather. In violent face irritation this last treatment is especially
valuable.

For pimples on the face, the general treatment for the skin mentioned
above (_see_ Eyes, Inflamed) is to be used, especially applied to the
skin of the back. The buttermilk wash may also be used, but the best
effect comes from the general treatment of the skin.


Fainting.--Fatigue, excessive heat, fright, loss of blood, hunger,
etc., are common causes.

The action of the heart is temporarily interfered with, and pallor, a
sweat on the forehead, with an indescribable feeling of sinking away,
precede unconsciousness.

The first thing to do is to bend down the patient's head till it
touches the knees, and keep it there for a few minutes. After he has
partially recovered consciousness, the clothing should be loosened, and
all tight bands or braces removed. The face and hands should be bathed
in cold water, slapping the face with a wet towel. Some stimulant, such
as hot tea, coffee, or sal volatile, may then be given.

If there is a wound causing loss of blood, it should be attended to at
once.

In case fainting is due to hunger, the greatest care should be taken to
give only small quantities of food after recovery, as a large amount
may prove fatal.

A sip of cold water, or bathing the face with cold water, will
generally prevent a threatened fainting. If there appears any immediate
danger of a relapse, keep the patient in a horizontal position for some
time.

Persons liable to fainting fits should be careful to avoid extremes of
temperature, such as very hot or very cold baths.


Fall, A.--After a fall from a height, where there is no apparent
outward injury, there is often such a severe shock to the spinal cord
and brain that continued unconsciousness occurs. In such a case, foment
the spine at first, to remove the effects of the concussion. This may
bring on serious difficulty of breathing, owing to congestion of the
spinal cord. This can be removed by applying cold cloths along the
spine. If the difficulty of breathing be present from the first, then
apply the cold at once. The first effect of such a fall is to deprive
the brain and spinal cord of vital force. This must be restored by
_heat_. Subsequent effects due to congestion can be removed by cold.
The effects of a shock in a railway accident may be similarly treated.
Common sense will guide in using heat or cold by watching the effect.
Where heat fails try cold. This is the simple rule. It is good also to
give the patient some simple purgative medicine, and some warm drink.
_Avoid all doses of alcoholic drinks._ We have known the flickering
flame of life almost extinguished by a teaspoonful of brandy.


Feeding, Over.--It is well to remember that over-feeding is a relative
term. To take more than a weak stomach can digest, is to over-feed,
although very little be taken. We give some invalids food every two
hours but that food is only two-thirds of a teacupful of milk, mixed
with a third of boiling water. In every case we must watch to give the
right amount, no less and no more. Every case will require to be
considered by itself in the light of common sense. The amount of food
eaten should be just sufficient to supply the body with material to
replace that consumed in work, build up its wasted tissues and leave a
slight surplus over for reserve store. Anything more is harmful. In
youth, if too much be eaten, nature relieves herself by giving the
transgressor of her laws a bilious attack, during which there is no
appetite, and so the excess is worked off. In later years this safety
valve does not work, and the surplus is generally stored as useless
fat, impeding the action of the heart or other internal organs, or as
gouty deposits in various parts. The Anglo-Saxon race at all events
does not limit its diet as we think it should, and Sir Henry Thompson,
M.D., has stated that in his opinion more ill-health arises from
over-eating than from the use of intoxicating liquor, great a source of
illness as this last undoubtedly is.

Temperance in diet is absolutely necessary therefore, if one would be
healthy, and the avoidance of stimulating foods, with a restriction of
flesh foods especially, is a precept which the great majority of
well-to-do people need to attend to.

Bilious attacks, headaches, indigestion, etc., are simply nature's
protest against the excess of food being forced upon her, and the
natural cure is to severely restrict, or still better, entirely stop
the food supply for a day or two. The idea that "the system must be
kept up" is a very foolish one; people have lived for forty days and
upwards on water alone, and a few days' fasting is a far safer remedy
for the troubles we have mentioned than purgative drugs.

Those who have a stomach which quickly rebels against too much or
unsuitable food, may, as Sir Henry Thompson says, congratulate
themselves on having a good janitor preventing the entrance of what
would injure. The man who can and does eat anything, rarely lives to
old age.

The perfect appetite which comes from the moderate use of simple foods
is a relish which must be experienced to be appreciated.

One way in which the amount of food needed to satisfy the appetite and
build up the body may be very largely reduced, is by increasing the
amount of mastication. If each bite of food is chewed and chewed until
it is all reduced to a liquid state, the amount required will be less
than half of what is usually taken, and so much less strain will be
thrown on the excretory organs.


Feet, Cold.--Continued coldness of the feet gives rise to many more
serious troubles, and should always be attended to. There is no better
cure than daily BATHING THE FEET (_see_), followed by rubbing for
several minutes, say five, with hot olive oil after drying. Rub
briskly, until the feet glow. Put on dry warm stockings, and see that
all foot-gear is kept as dry as possible. Another method of curing cold
_sweaty_ feet is to rub the soles with CAYENNE "TEA" (_see_), and
afterwards with warm olive oil. Dry carefully, and wear an extra pair
of dry cotton socks or stockings. When the sweating is very abundant
and obstinate, there is usually more or less failure in the nerves
which keep the skin in order. The feet must then be properly _bathed_
(_see_ Bathing the Feet), then dried and treated with cayenne lotion as
above.


Feet Giving Way.--Where there is a great deal of standing to be done by
any one, the feet sometimes yield more or less at the arch of the
instep. This becomes flattened, and even great pain ensues; lameness
sometimes follows. Young girls who have to stand much are especially
liable to suffer in this way. In the first place _rest must be had_.
Wise masters will provide due rest for their employees, foolish ones
overwork them. Rest is not against, but in favour of work; work cannot
be well done without due rest. The proper rest for feet such as we
speak of will be the most easy and comfortable position. _Comfort_ is
the test of the right treatment. Bathe the feet in hot water for a good
while, using plenty of soap. Rub gently with hot olive oil, pressing
any displaced bones into, or near, their place. Carefully avoid giving
pain. Massage similarly with oil the whole limb, and also the back
(_see_ Massage). Do this every day at least once. You may have months
to wait, but a sound limb is worth a good deal of patience. When
standing is absolutely necessary, strips of strong sticking plaster
passed down from above the ankle bones, and round under the instep,
help greatly.

Boots are better than shoes, and should be comfortably easy, with low
heels.


Fever.--In all fevers, to _cool down_ the excessive heat of the patient
(_see_ Heat, Internal) is the best process of treatment. This may be
best done by continued cooling of the head. Have a towel well wrung out
of cold water. Fold it so as to envelop the head. Press it gently to
the head all round, changing the place of pressure frequently. Have a
second towel ready, and continue cooling with freshly cooled towels
perhaps for an hour or an hour-and-a-half. Then leave the last cold
towel on, and put a dry towel above it. The next cooling, when the
fever heat again arises, may be given, if it can be managed, by placing
a cold towel along the spine. Cover this with a dry one, and let the
patient lie on it. Change this, though not quite so frequently as in
the case of the head. Work _carefully and gently_, so as not to annoy
the patient. If ice can be had, it may be put in the water used to cool
the cloths. If the feet be cold, foment them in a blanket (_see_
Fomentation). Keep this on the feet for an hour. There will most likely
be great relief with even one course of such treatment. It must,
however, be _persevered in_ until the fever be conquered. In any case
of fever, when a patient is too weak to bear the hot fomentation and
cold towels, we would recommend rubbing the feet and limbs if cold with
hot oil, and the stomach and chest, and if possible the back with soap
lather. It is well at first to soap the stomach only, and for some
time; and each time till the last it is well to wipe off what you have
rubbed on, so that the skin may be as clean as possible for the next.
To do this only once is often quite sufficient to soothe, so that the
patient falls off into a gentle, natural sleep.

Now, no one need imagine that there is any difficulty in the way of
anyone carrying out the right treatment. We have known a young sister
who saw her brother brought home in fever. The medical man predicted a
long and serious illness, and the necessity of being prepared for all
the usual features of such a case. The sister heard all in thoughtful
silence, but when the doctor went away she said to herself, "May not I
lower this flame? At any rate I will try." So through the night she so
effectually cooled her brother's head that when the medical man came
next day he expressed his most agreeable disappointment, saying, "It is
to be a very light case after all." So it turned out to be, but it
would not have been so but for that brave sister's aid. We cannot but
earnestly beseech all who have the opportunity to go and do likewise.
Often, especially among the poor, dirt and hot, close air have made the
fever room a source of frightful danger to all around. Absolute
cleanliness, abundance of pure air, and disinfection of the stools,
should always be attended to.


Fever at Night.--Frequently, in illness, a fever sets in as night
approaches, and increases toward midnight, passing away during the day.
The treatment may be as below for Intermitting Fever.


Fever, Delirium in.--_See_ Delirium.


Fever, Gastric.--In this fever, now known as a form of Typhoid, the
disease spreads a sort of blight over the nervous centres, and from the
first greatly lowers their power. The patient is too weak to bear the
powerful cooling recommended in Fever; there is also a tendency to
prolonged and "low" fever. First of all, in such a case, the feet and
legs must be fomented. Watch against burning the patient, but get as
good and powerful a heat as possible right up over the knees. Then
after about fifteen minutes the cooling of the head may proceed as in
fever. Both cooling and heating must proceed together.

We must think of not merely relieving, but of curing the patient, by
attacking the poisonous substance where it has lodged in the nerve
centres of the bowels. Pure water, with just as much acetic acid or
vinegar dropped into it as will make it taste the least sour, should be
given in tablespoonfuls (and hot) as frequently as the patient can take
it without discomfort. If possible it should be distilled water, or
rain water filtered, but certainly as pure and soft as can be procured.
There is no drug that can be prescribed that is equal to pure water,
and no acid better than common white vinegar. These three things--the
strong fomentation of the feet and legs, the cooling of the head, and
the dissolution of the poisonous substances by means of pure water, and
their counteraction by means of acid in very small strength--will do
wonders in gastric fever. The "turn" may be secured in a week instead
of three, if these things are skilfully and persistently applied. We
should say that the strong fomentation and cooling of the head should
not be done oftener than twice a day, and only once if the patient
feels too weak for twice. But as a general rule, the person who is ill
will wish these things at least twice a day. The sips of water should
be given, say in a dozen separate tablespoonfuls at a time, at least
thrice a day--oftener if desired by the patient.

For food there is nothing equal to good fresh buttermilk. All alcoholic
drinks are damaging in a high degree in such an illness as this. Sweet
milk, if somewhat diluted with good water, will do, but there is
nothing so good as the buttermilk fresh from the churn.

Absolute rest in bed is necessary, and no solid food should be given to
the patient until his temperature has been ten days at normal point.
All food given in the illness should be liquid enough to pass through
the meshes of a milk strainer. Care should be taken in this matter, as
death has often followed the taking of solid food, when otherwise
recovery would have come.

Milk should always form the largest portion of the diet, and may be
given with arrowroot or oatflour. Beef tea is of little use, and is
always to be avoided if there is a tendency to diarrhoea. Plenty of
cold water may always be given.

In a community which is visited by gastric fever as an epidemic this
fact is striking--only a portion of the people are affected by the
visitation. Here is one man who drinks the water which gives gastric
fever to another; that water goes into his stomach as it does into that
of his neighbour, and passes through his system the same, yet death is
the result in one case, and not even sickness or inconvenience in the
other. In the latter case the system has the power of resistance, and
our aim should be to increase this. Therefore we say by all means look
to the healthful state of the lungs and bowels when you have the least
reason to fear that bad water may bring gastric fever to you or yours.
If there is any tendency to constipation get some liquorice, and boil
it thoroughly with about half an ounce of senna leaves to a twopenny
stick. Strain well, and let all in any danger have a teaspoonful of
this thrice a day. It will do wonders in keeping matters in a good
state within. If possible, give a good rubbing all over once a week
with hot vinegar, and follow that up with warm olive oil. That will do
a great deal to keep things right outside. Take and give more rest than
usual to the toil-worn when such danger is near, and have as good food
provided for all as is possible. There may be danger in the air, and
still worse danger in the water to those whose vital force has got low,
while there is none in either to those whose systems are in good tune.

You are, perhaps, ready to ask if we care nothing about bad water?
Certainly; we care a great deal about it, as we do about bad air. By
all means condemn wells and streams that are corrupted, and insist on
the opening of better ones. Make it a first condition of having
anything to do with a place for habitation that it has good air and
good water. We are only pointing out the best safeguard when neither
the one nor the other can be insured.

In all cases where water is suspected, it should be boiled before use.

There is, in great numbers of persons, both old and young, what may be
called the natural aptitude of healing. They are kept back from trying
to help because it is regarded as so dangerous a thing to go near
fever, and also to interfere where only professional skill is legally
allowed. To apply such a remedy as that which we have here sketched for
gastric fever is perfectly safe in both senses. No medical man worthy
of being regarded will find any fault with it, and there is no danger
to either the patient or the person applying it.

The mode we have pointed out involves nothing that may not be easily
had by the very poorest. What is wanted is only one or two who shall be
Christian enough to care just a little for human bodies as well as
human souls, and who shall study such simple and accessible remedies,
and be ready to guide their fellow-creatures in a time of trouble.


Fever, Hay.--_See_ Hay Fever.


Fever, Influenza.--This is a slow, smouldering kind of fever. For
treatment, pack the feet and legs in hot fomentation over the knees,
and apply cold cloths over the stomach and heart, taking care in
applying the cold if the patient is weak. In such a case only
moderately cool cloths should be used. Carry out these two processes
effectively, and a cure should soon result. Give light food--milk and
water, and milk diet generally. Give small quantities frequently rather
than a good deal at once.


Fever, Intermitting.--For this the treatment may be given as in gastric
fever, and, in addition, the stomach and bowels should be carefully
lathered over with soap lather (_see_ Lather). This has a wonderfully
soothing effect. It may be spread with the hand over the skin, and
fresh supplies gently rubbed on until much of the fever is removed.
Some five minutes' lathering at a time is enough--this may be done
several times a-day. Carefully dry after it, and let the patient rest.

It will be well to anticipate such attacks by softening the skin when
it shows a tendency to be hard and dry. A gentle rubbing now and again
with fine lather and good olive oil will secure this. We say lather and
oil because, when there is no fever heat, lather by itself is too
cooling, but when mixed with a little oil the mixture is comforting
rather than chilling, and softens nicely.


Fever, Rheumatic.--This results from severe damp chills, usually
following exhaustion from some cause. Its best treatment at an early
stage is by heat applied to the spinal nerves. If the trouble be
chiefly in the legs, treat the lower back; if in the arms, treat the
upper back. The heat is best applied by a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_).
A teaspoonful of tincture of Guaiacum may be given before each
poulticing, which may be done twice a day for an hour. We have known an
illness that threatened to last six weeks cured in one week by this
means. Give also teaspoonfuls of hot water from time to time.

Where the trouble has advanced to severe fever, and swelling of the
joints, an entirely different treatment is best. Let a lather of soap
be made (_see_ Lather), and spread over the chest first, and afterwards
gradually over the whole body. After four or five coats of lather have
been put on, wipe off with a dry cloth, and proceed to lather again. We
have seen half-an-hour of this treatment, well done, greatly relieve
the fever; it was continued twice a day, and in three days the trouble
was conquered. Care must be taken not to chill the patient. The soaping
can be accomplished with only a small part of the body uncovered at
once, and, with proper precautions, the bed can be kept perfectly dry.
If a proper liniment is procured and lints sprinkled with it wrapped
round the joints, the pain will be wonderfully relieved. But such
liniments are only to be had on the prescription of a really good
medical man, who will not, if he really seeks to heal, and knows his
business, object to our treatment being applied.

Sometimes, after rheumatic fever, one or more of the joints become
stiff. This stiffness varies in different cases from an apparently
complete solidifying of the joint to only a slight inconvenience in its
use. We have seen many such joints, even very bad cases, completely
cured by a proper use of _heat_ and _massage_. It is, however, no
trifling matter to undertake the necessary work, and perseverance is an
absolute requisite. Even very obstinate stiffening will _in time_ be
overcome by frequent and strong fomentation, followed by rubbing with
olive oil in such a way as to squeeze gently all the muscles and sinews
of the limb, and move them under the skin. This should be followed by
_gentle_ bending of the joint, back and forward as far as it will go
_without pain_. It may need to be done twice a day for many weeks, yet
the result is worth even more trouble, when you literally make the
"lame to walk" (_see_ Rheumatism).


Fever, Scarlet, or Scarlatina.--As a first precaution, when an epidemic
of this exists, children should be sponged twice a week all over with
hot vinegar before being put to bed. This is a powerful preventive. If
anything like sore throat appears, bathe the child's feet in hot water
until a free perspiration is produced. Dry well, _under a blanket_, and
rub all over with hot vinegar, then put the patient to bed. If in the
morning there is no evident fever, repeat the sponging with hot
vinegar, dry well, rub with hot olive oil, and dry again. If the fever
definitely develops, place the child in a light airy room, from which
all unnecessary carpets, curtains and furniture have been removed. No
one should enter this room except those on duty in nursing, nor should
any from the house ride in public conveyances or attend meetings. These
precautions are just as necessary in slight as in severe cases, as
infection from a mild case may cause a fatally severe attack in another
person.

Where the rash of the fever seems reluctant to appear, the SOAPY
BLANKET (_see_) will bring it out very speedily. But the above simple
treatment is usually sufficient. When vomiting is almost the first
symptom, six teaspoonfuls of hot water are to be taken every ten
minutes for an hour; then treat as above with foot-bath, hot vinegar,
and oil.

In a severe case have medical aid if at all possible. Where there is
great fever spread a large dry towel or sheet on the bed. Lay one wrung
out of lukewarm water on it; let the patient lie down on this.
Carefully wrap him up in the damp cloth, then over that wrap the dry
one, with a blanket outside over all, and the bedclothes above. This
will certainly soothe for a time. It may be repeated every two hours,
for twenty minutes or half-an-hour at a time, night and day, till the
fever is subdued.

For nourishment in succeeding weakness, give milk and boiling water,
mixed in equal parts, every two hours. If stimulants are required, give
CAYENNE "TEA" (_see_), reduced in strength until it just _slightly_
burns the mouth, half a teacupful every half-hour. Cool the head also
if necessary, as directed for typhoid fever.


Fever, Typhoid.--Treat as under Fever, Gastric, and Fever. In addition,
great care should be taken to disinfect and destroy any stools, and
especially to prevent these getting into any drinking water.

Keep the patient at rest in bed.

No solid food should be given during the _whole course_ of the illness.
Milk mixed with an equal quantity of boiling water is best. Give only a
wineglassful at a time, as often as the patient can take it. If the
patient craves solid food, it must _on no account_ be given. It is
almost certain to cause a relapse.


Fits.--_See_ Convulsions; Nervous Attack.


Flannel Bands.--_See_ Band, Flannel.


Flatulence.--This is the accumulation of gases in the body, usually
caused by fermentation of the food at some part of the digestive
process. A failure of the vital energy in the stomach and related
organs is generally the cause. Over-exertion, worry, grief, any
prolonged strain, will cause this failure. As first treatment, then,
the _cause_ should be removed, if this be at all possible. Do less
work, cultivate simple faith in God instead of worry. Do not sorrow
over-much. The best material remedy is to take tablespoonfuls of hot
water every few minutes for several hours. If cold, the feet should be
bathed (_see_ Bathing Feet), or fomented, for about an hour at a time.
These two simple remedies will generally prove sufficient, if
persevered in.


Flushings, Hot.--These are often a really serious trouble, especially
to women, at certain stages of life. Most often they come about the age
of fifty, but in weakly persons may occur at any time. A disturbance in
the nervous system, due to lack of energy, is the cause of such
feelings. They are often accompanied by DEPRESSION (_see_). Any
treatment ought to be directed to strengthening the nervous system. A
good plain diet, easy to digest, is a most important matter. Soaping
with soap lather over all the body (_see_ LATHER) will greatly restore
the tone of the nerves of the skin. This may be done every night, and
the CAYENNE LOTION (_see_) rubbed all over every morning for a week or
two. This treatment will usually prove successful in curing.


Fomentation.--Some general remarks on this important treatment we give
here. First, no fomenting should be done for at least an hour after a
meal. And it should usually be followed by a period of complete rest. A
very good way to foment any part of the back or front of the body is by
an india-rubber bag of hot water of the proper size and shape, with two
or three ply of moist flannel between the bag and the skin. These bags
can now be had of very various sizes and shapes, and one or more should
be in every house. In fomenting a knee, foot, or ankle, a good sized
half or even whole blanket is necessary. Fold this one way until it is
twenty inches broad. Lay it out on a clean floor or table, and sprinkle
_sparingly_ boiling water across one end. Roll this end over and
sprinkle the roll, turn over again and sprinkle again, and so on until
the whole is rolled up. Thoroughly knead and twist it, so that all is
penetrated by the moist heat (_see_ illustration, page 32). Or it may
be prepared by soaking the blanket in boiling water, and wringing it
out with a wringing machine. It may then be unrolled and unfolded so as
to permit proper wrapping round the limb to be fomented. Care must be
taken not to _burn_ the patient, or give any shock by applying the
fomentation too hot. It must be comfortable. _See_ Heat And Weakness.

Sometimes fomentation may seem to increase the pain, say in a swelled
limb, and yet we should persevere in the treatment. This may seem to
contradict our dictum that we should be guided by the feelings of the
patient. The reason is that if some dead matter has lodged deep down in
the limb, it will have to be brought up to the surface ere the diseased
state can be remedied. If strong fomentation is used in such a case, it
is not unlikely to increase the painfulness of the limb, and a swelling
may appear. It will at once be said that the disease is "getting
worse." This is quite a mistake--the increased pain is arising from
such stirring of life as will bring about a complete cure. If the
treatment is continued, the swelling will by-and-by come to a head and
burst, and can be treated as in Abcess.


Fomentation, Armchair.--This is applied as follows. Over a large
armchair spread a folded sheet. Provide a good large blanket prepared
as above in Fomentation. Then rub the haunches, thighs, lower back and
abdomen of the patient with a little olive oil. Wrap these parts in a
warm dry towel. Open up the hot blanket and spread it (still some
three-ply thick) on the sheet on the armchair. Let the patient sit down
upon it as soon as it is cool enough not to hurt. Fold the blanket all
round the patient's lower body and thighs. Draw the sheet over all, and
cover up well to retain the heat. At the end of an hour, or such less
time as the patient can endure, a smart washing with hot vinegar, and a
gentle rub with warm olive oil, will complete the treatment. This is
best done at bedtime, as the patient must go to bed immediately after
it.

In cases of failure of the large hip-joints, or of the lower limbs, in
sciatica and lumbago, the armchair fomentation is of great use; also
when running sores exist from one of the hips or lower back, or even in
numbness or lack of vitality in the feet and toes. It is referred to
under the headings of the troubles in which it is of advantage.

Suppose that we are dealing with lack of vitality in some organ in the
lower part of the body. We argue that the nerves supplying this organ
are needing in some way to be increased in force. This is to be done by
getting them heated. There is an arrangement in nature which hinders
this being quickly done. The rapid circulation of the blood which is
going on all round these nerves tends to keep them about the same
temperature. The heat, as it is applied, passes off rapidly in the
stream of the blood. But if the heating process is carried on long
enough, the whole blood of the body becomes gently raised in
temperature, and by-and-by the heat applied to the surface reaches the
roots of the nerves, not only by means of the circulation, but by
gradually passing through the skin muscles, and the bones that are near
it. New life is infused, and that where it is specially required. The
flagging organ soon shows that it responds to this true stimulant.
After a few such fomentations it begins to act as perhaps it has ceased
to act for months, and even for years. We speak of what we have seen
again and again in cases where distress was caused by what is called
"sluggishness" in some important organ, or when such an organ was
altogether ceasing to act properly. The armchair fomentation is more
successful than the hot sitz-bath, though this is by no means to be
despised.


Food and Mental Power.--Unsuitable or ill-cooked food has a most
serious effect on the mental powers; and when we take the case of a
mental worker, we see that, in order to carry this power right on
through a long life, proper diet is of great importance. Also many good
mental workers are more sensitive than ordinary men: they are more
easily destroyed by strong drink or opium. The nip of brandy, the
soothing draught, are terrible dangers to such. Instances of brain
power continued far into old age are always lessons in plainness of
diet and temperance. One such temperate man will do as much work as ten
who are luxurious eaters, tipplers, and smokers. Diet for mental
workers should be light and easily digested, with a preponderance of
proteid food (_see_ Diet). Rich, tough and fatty foods, and hot
stimulating drinks should be avoided. As mental work is generally
sedentary work, and consequently having a constipating tendency, some
of the vegetable foods giving a stimulus to the muscles of the
intestines should form a part of the diet, such as green vegetables,
fruits, and oatmeal.


Food in Health.--As will be seen from many of these articles, the
question of diet is one of the greatest importance, in health as well
as in disease. The onset of disease is, in fact, often due to
long-continued abuse of the whole digestive system through the use of
unsuitable food. By unsuitable food, we mean not so much food that is
bad in itself, but rather that which is not suited to the temperament
or work of the eater, or to the climate and circumstances in which he
finds himself. A ploughman or fisherman, for example, may thrive on
diet which will inevitably produce disease in the system of one whose
work confines him to the house for the most of his time. One condition
of a healthy life is, therefore, careful consideration of our work and
circumstances before deciding on our diet. Also, a man of excitable and
irritable temperament will need different diet from one of a slow and
quiet nature. The food which will only stimulate the latter will
over-excite the former, and may even make him quite ill. What is
commonly called bad temper is often only the result of wrong diet, and
will disappear under a milder course of food. It will, of course, be
seen at once from this, that the case of every man must be considered
by itself. A decision as to proper diet can therefore only be made when
all the facts about a case are known, and in this matter the man
himself must decide a good deal for himself; nevertheless some general
directions can be given which will help our readers to a decision in
their own case.

In the first place, we would guard against a very common error--viz.,
that a smaller quantity of food, _chemically_ of a less nutritive kind,
means less nourishment to the body. On this head we refer to the
articles on Digestion and Assimilation. It may only be remarked here
that what the _body actually uses_, and what is _taken into the
stomach_, are two very different things. It is often the case that food
containing less actual nourishment will give greater nourishment to the
body than chemically richer food, because the former fits the state of
the digestive system better. What each one must consider is, not what
food has most of the chemical elements needed by the body, but what
food will give up to his own body the most of these elements.

Another error is that the use of medicine can for long assist the body
to use heavier food. In a case of disease, medicine often is of the
greatest value as a temporary aid to digestion, but its continual use
is the parent of great evils, and at last defeats the very end for
which it was given. If a person needs continually to use medicine,
there is probably either some organic disease present, _or, more
commonly, great errors in the diet taken_. Avoiding medicine, then,
except as a very temporary resource, and remembering that food is to be
judged more by the way it agrees with us than by its chemical
constitution, what rules can we give for diet in certain common cases?

First, diet should vary in summer and winter as the season varies.
Foods rich in fat, such as ham and bacon, should be for winter use
only, and should even then be more or less used as the weather is cold
or mild. For summer diet, milk foods, such as milk puddings, etc., ripe
fruits, and green vegetables should predominate, being varied also with
the heat or coolness of the weather. In very hot summer weather, animal
food should be very sparingly partaken of. It must also be borne in
mind that warm clothing or heated rooms may convert a winter climate
into a summer one.

Second, diet should vary according to the occupation of the eater. The
writer and brain-worker will do best, as a rule, on little butcher
meat, taking chiefly fish, eggs, and light milk foods, with vegetables
and fruits. Alcohol in any form is especially fatal to brain-workers,
and must be avoided, if there is to be really good health.

Third, food must vary according to temperament, age, etc. To give rules
under this head is almost impossible. The growing boy will need
proportionately more food than the adult, the man more than the woman.
It is indeed true here that what is one man's food is another man's
poison, and that every man must find out for himself what he needs. It
may be generally said that the food which digests without the eater
being aware in any way of the process is the best for him.

It may safely be affirmed in relation to this question of food in
health, that the middle and upper classes eat quite too much. Hence the
stomach trouble and goutiness (often in a disguised form) that they
suffer from. Too much carbonaceous food will produce corpulency, and
too much animal food URIC ACID (_see_). On the other hand, the poor,
for want of knowledge of really economical nourishing foods, suffer
from want of nutrition.

An opportunity is always present, in case of sickness among the poor,
by philanthropic persons to inculcate the value of good food. Instead
of bringing a basket of beef tea, tea, and jelly, take oatmeal, fruit,
milk, and vegetables.

What we have said should be sufficient as a hint to those who wish to
regulate their diet on common-sense principles. A little careful
thought should enable any one to work out a satisfactory scheme of diet
for his own particular case. Regularity in meals is of great
importance. There should be fixed hours for meals, with which nothing
should be allowed to interfere, no matter how pressing the business may
be. Do not assume, however, that it is necessary to eat at meal times,
no matter whether appetite for food be present or not. To eat without
appetite is an infringement of natural law, and it is far better to go
without the meal if nature does not demand it than to yield to custom,
or to imagine it necessary to eat because the dinner bell has rung. If
not hungry do not eat at all, wait till the next meal time; do not take
a "snack" in an hour or two. Three meals are, as a rule, better than
more, and many have found two suit them best. Probably one-half the
human race (the inhabitants of China and Hindostan) live on two meals a
day.


Food in Illness.--Light, easily digested food is of the first
importance in many illnesses. To know easily procured and simple foods,
which are really light, is a great matter. Saltcoats biscuits (_see_
Biscuits and Water) form one of the best and most nourishing foods. So
does oatmeal jelly, prepared by steeping oatmeal in water for a night,
or for some hours, straining out the coarse part, and boiling the
liquor until it will become jelly-like when cold. Oatmeal steeped in
buttermilk for a time, and then moderately boiled, makes an excellent
diet. Wheaten meal or barley meal may be used for these dishes instead
of oatmeal, according to taste. Many other dishes, with rice,
arrowroot, sago, etc., will suggest themselves to good cooks; but for
sustaining the invalid and producing healthy blood, none surpass those
described.


Fright.--Some most distressing troubles come as the result of frights.
In many cases much may be done to relieve such troubles, which arise
from severe shock to the brain and nervous system. The results may be
very various--from mere stomach troubles to paralysis--but the cure in
all cases lies mainly in giving fresh energy to the nervous system.

If a blanket fomentation is placed all up and down the back, over a
rubbing of warm olive oil, and the excited person is laid on that, one
good step will have been taken in the way of restoration. Then this may
be aided by cool cloths very cautiously laid over the stomach and
bowels, so as to cool in front, while heat is given at the back. This
will be specially desirable if the heat at the back is rather high.
When the blanket loses its heat it need not be taken off, but a
poultice of bran, highly heated, may be placed under it, so that the
heat from the bran may come gradually and comfortably through, and pass
into the body in that gradual way. So soon as a sense of genial comfort
spreads over the back, it will be found that a right state is stealing
over the organs that were threatened by paralysis through the alarm.
The defect very soon disappears.


Gangrene.--_See_ Cancer in Foot.


Gatherings.--_See_ Abscess; Ankle; Armpit; Bone, Diseased.


Giddiness and Trembling.--This comes very often as the result of loss
of nerve power in the spinal system, due to weakness, shock, or simply
old age. A great deal may be done to relieve, and in many cases to
completely cure, by the following simple means. Wrap the patient round
the middle in a soapy blanket, rubbing well afterwards with hot olive
oil. Give an hour's fomentation at a time each night for a few nights;
rest for a day or two, and repeat. The fomentation must be a blanket
one, but should only extend from the armpits to the hips, not over the
limbs. For treatment of giddiness arising from the stomach see
Indigestion. Half a teacupful of hot water every ten minutes for five
hours is usually an effective cure. This should be done daily for three
days. Let it be kept in mind that we must not have "hard" water--that
is, water impregnated with mineral substances, such as lime or iron. We
must have "soft" water, that is, such as rain water nicely filtered, or
"distilled" water, which can be had from any good chemist for twopence
a quart.


Glands of Bowels.--_See_ Bowels.


Glands, Swollen.--This is a very common trouble, especially in the
young. To restore the skin to healthy action is the first important
matter. This may be done by bathing the feet (_see_ Bathing the Feet)
until free perspiration ensues, wrapping the patient meanwhile in a
warm blanket. Dry well, and sponge with hot vinegar and water; dry
again, rub with hot olive oil, and put to bed. As a diet, Saltcoats
biscuits and water for some time have of themselves formed a complete
cure (_see_ Biscuits and Water). The _comfort_ of the patient will
regulate the amount of bathing. Do this every night for a fortnight,
except on the Sabbath (when rest from all treatment seems best). If the
swelling be slight, two days' treatment may cure it; if the case be
severe and of long standing, a longer time will be required.

For treatment of the neck, if there is no sore, put round it a cloth
dipped in hot vinegar, and a good poultice of bran or moist hot bag
round over this. Put this on for half-an-hour before rising in the
morning. After taking them off, rub with warm olive oil, and wipe that
off gently. Put a single band of fine new flannel round the neck for
the day. If there be suppuration, or running sores, treat in the same
way unless the vinegar prove painful, when it may be weakened with
water until comfortable. This treatment will, we know, cure even a very
bad case of tubercular glands. _See_ Wounds.

There are men so skilful in medicine that they can aid wonderfully in
such cases, and surgeons so apt at operating that they too, can do much
good. But we should not for a moment think of leaving patients to
depend on what can be swallowed, or what lancet and probe can do, when
the very sources of life itself are neglected, and cures waited on for
months that may be secured in a week or even less. Above all, when you
know how to do it, infuse new life in the body, and promote the
throwing off of that used-up matter which is showing itself in the
disease. How many parents bow down before the idea that swollen glands
are constitutional to their children, when the fact is that these
children have very fine skins, and need to have these kept in extra
good order, not merely in the way of washing, but so that they shall
perform their part of throwing off this used-up material of the body
efficiently. Some of the most beautiful of our race are thus lost to
the world when they might easily be saved.

In some cases swollen glands are caused by bad teeth, running from the
EAR (_see_), sores or insects on the head, or inflamed tonsils. If such
causes are present, they should be removed. Extract bad teeth, cure
running ears, and properly cleanse the head. Gargle the throat for
swollen and inflamed tonsils with warm water, in which a little salt is
dissolved.


Gout.--Some have a predisposition to this most painful disease, and
require to keep a strict watch on their diet. Meat, specially the
internal organs, meat extracts, alcohol, tea, and coffee must be
avoided, and milk, buttermilk and porridge, cheese, eggs, and
vegetables, especially green vegetables, made into light and digestible
dishes, should be relied on solely. Further, the diet should be a small
one, most thoroughly and slowly masticated, and plenty of pure water is
advisable, in order to help the elimination of the waste which causes
the trouble. _See_ Uric Acid.

If the feet be affected, apply gentle heat to the lower part of the
spine by Fomentation (_see_). Sometimes a cold cloth on the lower spine
will soothe, but more often heat is the true cure. Wrap the sore foot
in softest cotton, and foment _very gently_ through this, using only
_warm_ cloths, and taking care to avoid giving pain. The cloths should
be just a little _below_ blood heat. Cold cloths are a serious mistake,
but at a temperature a little below blood heat a gentle soothing is
produced. Care must in every case be taken to do only what the patient
feels comforting.


Gravel.--Sometimes mere internal inflammation is mistaken for this
disease. In the case of inflammation of the bladder, apply a large hot
BRAN POULTICE (_see_) to the lower back, and change cold towels over
the front of the body where the pain is. Afterwards rub all parts over
with hot olive oil, and wipe dry. Take only plain food, oat or
wheat-meal porridge, Saltcoats biscuits, etc.

Where actual stones are formed, or a tendency to their formation
exists, all water drunk should be distilled, or boiled rain water.
Where stones are present the heat may be applied to the back, but _no
cold in front_. The soft water tends to dissolve the stones, the heat
assists in their expulsion from the body. Diet same as in GOUT (_see_).


Growth of Body.--See Limb, Saving a.


Guaiacum.--This drug is a West Indian gum, and is one of those remedies
we are glad to say will do no harm, while in rheumatism and gout it is
most beneficial. A teaspoonful of the tincture in a cup of hot water,
or one or two of the tabloids now so easily had, may be taken three
times a day.


Hæmorrhage.--See Bleeding; Wounds.


Hair Coming off.--There are many forms of this disfiguring trouble,
both in the case of young and old persons. It is chiefly due to a wrong
state of the skin of the head, which is best treated with careful
rubbing with vinegar or weak acetic acid, and finishing with good olive
oil. The acid must not be used too strong--not stronger than ordinary
vinegar. This may be done every evening, and should be rubbed on for
fifteen minutes, till a comfortable feeling is aroused. Dry the head,
and then rub on olive oil for five minutes. The vinegar should rather
be dabbed than rubbed on. Wash all over in the morning with M'Clinton's
soap. Or this treatment may be applied every other night, and on
alternate nights the head may be packed up with lather (_see_ Head,
Soaping). This treatment is quite safe, and will usually effect a cure,
which is more than can be said of the expensive hair washes so much
advertised. Many of these are most dangerous. As far as possible go
with the head uncovered, and brush the hair frequently. Brushing
stimulates the grease glands, and causes the hair to become glossy.
Probably the reason men lose their hair so much more than women is that
the brushing and combing the latter must give it stimulates the hair
roots. Massaging the skin of the scalp with the fingers night and
morning will greatly promote growth of the hair. _See_ Head, Massaging.


Hands, Clammy.--Rub the hands and arms well twice a day with CAYENNE
LOTION (_see_).


Hands, Cold.--Much more than is readily believed depends on the state
of the hands and feet. We are already familiar with the subject of
coldness in the feet, but we meet with cases in which the coldness of
the hands is as striking. It is not readily thought that cold hands
have anything to do with such illness, for instance, as that of bad
action in the stomach. There are cases in which a very great deal can
be done to relieve a congested state of the vessels of the stomach, and
even a similar state of the lungs, by only bathing the hands in hot
water and then rubbing them with hot oil till they have been thoroughly
heated and reddened, as they are when effectually warmed.
Half-an-hour's bathing of hands in water just a little above blood heat
produces a wonderful effect on an invalid when there is too great
weakness to stand longer treatment. This is well known to be true of
half-an-hour's good feet bathing. In some cases bathing both of hands
and feet is much needed. The overburdened heart finds it a vast benefit
when by such a bathing the blood is allowed to flow easily through the
vessels of the feet and hands.


Hands, Dry and Hard.--Pack the hands in SOAP LATHER (_see_) mixed with
a little fine olive oil. The soap must be finely lathered with a brush,
not _melted_. Pure soft water, never too hot nor too cold, should be
used, and the hands thoroughly dried after washing. _See_ Chapped
Hands.


Hay Fever.--A most effective preventive and cure for this is the
inhaling through the nostrils the vapour of strong acetic acid. The
acid may be on a sponge enclosed in a smelling bottle, and its vapour
may be freely inhaled. Sponge all over each night with hot acid and
water. The head also may be wet with pretty strong acid, and tied up so
as to keep in the vapour. Do not, however, use a waterproof covering.


Headache.--There is a vast variety of ailments associated with what is
called headache. In itself, it is just more or less _pain_ in the head.
When there is such pain, it means that some of the nerves in the head
are in a wrong state, probably in nearly all cases a state of more or
less _pressure_. This pressure hinders the free flow of vital action
along the nerve, and this hindrance we feel as pain. To remove the
pressure is, then, to relieve the pain. Pressure from overwork often
causes headache on week-days, which goes off on Sabbath. The _rest_
here removes the pressure, and so the pain. The pressure results from a
failure of energy in some part of the head, slight swelling then taking
place. To increase the energy is to effect a cure. This may be done by
first, at bedtime, soaping the back with warm water and SOAP (_see_).
Then dry, and rub firmly yet gently with hot olive oil, until the whole
back glows with warmth. This may take perhaps fifteen minutes. Then
give three minutes of warm water pouring over the back. Dry again, and
oil with hot oil, and put the patient to bed. Avoid much tea. Avoid
altogether tobacco and alcoholic liquors, which of themselves will
often cause the trouble. This treatment applies to all that numerous
class of headaches which arise from overwork and fag. A cure may often
be had by its means, without taking a holiday. But where this can be
done, it is well to take it.

The headache, however, may be caused indirectly by the failure of some
of the organs to do their duty, when other methods must be adopted. The
use of tobacco so injuriously affects the whole system that headache
often results, and refuses to be cured unless the tobacco be given up.
It is hard to do this, but the difficulty must be faced. Cold, damp
feet are a common cause of headaches. Let these be well bathed (_see_
Bathing Feet) for some days, even twice or three times a day, and many
kinds of headaches will be cured. Constipation, or sluggish action of
the bowels, frequently causes headache. The cure is obvious (_see_
Constipation). Imperfect action of the kidneys also causes it. In such
a case apply a large, warm bran poultice (_see_) across the back behind
the kidneys. Oil the skin before and after poulticing. Do this once a
day at bedtime for a week, if necessary, but not longer than a week at
a time. Take half a teacupful of water before each meal. Use freely the
lemon drink described in Drinks, Refreshing.


Headache, Sick.--The stomach and head affect each other powerfully, and
a disordered stomach causes severe headache, known as _sick headache_.
In many cases a few tablespoonfuls of hot water, taken at intervals of
five minutes, will effect a cure. He is himself "simple" who laughs at
this as "simple." If a dose of hot water _cures_, and removes any need
for expensive drugs, that is a matter for thankfulness and not for
laughter. When some substance not easily dissolved has lodged in the
stomach, hot water is often all that is needed to remove the trouble.
But it must be remembered that over-eating, or the eating of
indigestible food, must be given up, and the food must be masticated
till it is reduced to a liquid condition.

Many will say they have not time for this, but time must be taken, and
half the quantity of food well masticated will nourish better than the
whole imperfectly masticated.

Headache on waking in the morning is a frequent result of stomach
disorder. In such a case take two teacupfuls of hot water, with an
interval of ten minutes between. In many cases a slice of lemon in the
hot water powerfully aids to cure. Especially is this the case where
pains in the bowels are felt along with the headache. If lemons cannot
be had, a few drops of vinegar will form a good substitute. Continue to
take half a teacupful at intervals all day.

Sick headache may, however, arise from the head causing disorder in the
stomach. The head may then be fomented gently, and if necessary soaped
(_see_ Head, Skin of) or massaged (_see_ Head, Rubbing, Massage), which
should in most cases remove the trouble if carefully and well done.

Headaches are frequently caused by anxiety and worry, which have all
the marks of sick headache. Dull pain and heat, more or less
persistent, also arise from this cause. The treatment for such cases is
given in the preceding article for pressure from overwork. It is well
to see, in such cases, that the mental and spiritual cures be applied,
as well as the material. Let there be resolute putting away of all
worrying ideas at night, and during every leisure time. Let perfect
trust in a loving Heavenly Father relieve us of all burdens. Much may
thus be done to cure even a sore head and weary brain. We are of "more
value than many sparrows" to One whose power and wisdom are really
infinite. Take both sides of this great truth, the spiritual and the
material, and you will find it a glorious help in worry and
disappointing failure. What a remedy it is when good medical treatment
and true faith in God come together to give peace to the weary one!
_See_ Worry.


Head Baths.--_See_ Baths for Head.


Head, Massaging the.--This is so important in many cases of neuralgia,
headache, and eye troubles, that we here describe it. The brow is first
gently stroked _upward_ from behind, with the palm of the hand, while
the back of the patient's head rests against the chair or other
support. The sides of the head are then similarly treated, using a hand
for each side simultaneously. Then the back of the head is stroked
upward also. After this is well done, the top of the head is stroked
similarly from front to back. Then the whole head, except the forehead,
is rubbed briskly but lightly with the tips of the fingers with a
scratching motion, but _not_ using the nails. This is best done piece
by piece, taking care to do every part in turn. This treatment may be
often alternated with the cooling of the head with cold towels, with
the best results. In all cases of head uneasiness and neuralgia it is
_invaluable_ (_see_ Eyes, Paralysis of; Eyes, Squinting; Massage).
Frequently a small part of the head will be found where the rubbing
with the finger tips is particularly soothing. Special attention, of
course, should be given to this, as it is nature's guide to relief. But
if pain and uneasiness result from the rubbing, it should be stopped,
and some other cure substituted. Understand that what you have to do is
to gently press the returning stream of venous blood on in its course
from the weighted brow back over the top of the head. Rub very slowly
and deliberately, as the stream you are affecting flows slowly. The
frequency with which you change from the rubbing to the cold cloth, and
from that again to the rubbing, will depend a good deal on the heat
that you find persistent in the head, but usually you may rub two
minutes and cool during one minute. More or less relief will come in a
very short time, and in ten minutes or a quarter of an hour there will
be a very great change for the better.

[Illustration]

We had a very curious case lately. A little girl was brought to us one
morning who had been quite blind of one eye for a fortnight. We tried
the eye with a rather powerful lens, but she could see nothing. That
eye had a squint, which was also of a fortnight's standing. The pupil
of the eye was dilated, but nothing else seemed wrong. The girl was
affected with worms in some degree, but otherwise healthy. We gave her
head a massaging, such as we have been describing, for some ten minutes
or so. She was given the first of four or five doses of santolina next
morning, which her mother said she threw up and some bilious matter
besides. She was brought to us an hour or so after, and we found that
she had forgotten which had been the blind eye. She now saw perfectly
with both, and the squint was gone. We had not tried whether the
rubbing had had the curative effect before the santolina was given, or
whether it was after the latter that the sight was restored, but we are
disposed to think that the squinting and blindness both had given way
to the head's improvement by the massaging.


Head, Skin of the.--The nerves of sensibility are very largely supplied
to the skin of the head, and many large nerves pass under it. It is
therefore an important matter that it be kept in a right condition. In
various troubles it becomes hard and dry, and even contracts and
presses very painfully upon the head, feeling as if it were dried
parchment. The pain thus caused is different from neuralgia, and cannot
be relieved by cooling, but is easily cured by soaping the head (_see_
Head, Soaping). This may be done every night, and the head tied up with
the soap lather until morning. It may then be sponged, dried, and a
little hot olive oil rubbed into the skin. In a serious case, where the
patient is in bed, this treatment may be given night and morning.
Always, in treating such a head, be very gentle, for the least touch is
often painful to the irritated skin. The use of a pure and proper
pomade, such as some preparation of vaseline, is of importance where
the skin is dry, and tends powerfully to preserve the skin and hair in
healthy condition.

Careful brushing of the hair, and rubbing of the skin of the scalp
will, too, be of use. _See_ Hair.


Head, Soaping.--Have a piece of M'Clinton's soap, a good shaving brush,
and a bowl of warm water. Rub the wet brush on the soap, and work the
lather up in the hollow of the left hand, taking more soap and water in
the brush as necessary, until the left hand is full of creamy, thick
lather. Lay this on all over the patient's head. Make another handful,
and lay that on also. The lather may be wrought into the mass of hair
until it reaches the skin, the brush being dipped in the warm water,
and used to work the lather well into the skin of the head. This must
be continued until the whole head is thickly covered with fine white
lather, like a wig in appearance. You need have no difficulty with ever
so much hair. You only comb that nicely back at first, and place the
soap lather on the fore part of the head. Then you bring the hair
forward, and soap the back part. You may work on at this process for
half-an-hour. You will by that time have produced a most delightful
feeling in both body and mind of your patient. Tie a soft handkerchief
over all, and leave for as long as needed--even all night if required.
When removing the lather, use a sponge and warm vinegar or weak acid
(_see_ Acetic Acid), and dry gently with a soft towel. This application
can be used with good effect in all cases of hard, dry skin on the
head, and formation of white scurf. It preserves the hair, and
stimulates its growth. It also removes the painful sensitiveness to
touch so often felt in the hair and head skin. Care must ever be taken
to do it all with a gentle hand. So done it is priceless in its
soothing and healing effects on irritable nerves.


Head, Sounds in.--As the result and accompaniment of deafness these are
sometimes most distressing, even preventing the patient from sleeping.
They are often caused by chill producing some inflammation of the ear,
and stoppage of the internal or external air passages. Have a large
FOMENTATION (_see_) carefully packed round the whole head. If properly
done, the patient will be comfortable in it for an hour. The
fomentation must then be taken off, the head rubbed quite dry, and a
warm covering put on. Do this before bedtime for three or four nights.
Then desist for three nights. After this place a hot BRAN POULTICE
(_see_) on the back of the head, neck, and spine, so that the patient
can lie comfortably upon it for an hour. Oil before and after with
olive oil. Give this at bedtime for three or four nights, and rest
again for three or four days more. Avoid exposure during this
treatment. It is suitable for all cases of ear trouble through chill.

It will be specially important to see that the feet are comfortable,
and that health generally is looked to. _See_ Ears; Hearing.


Health and Money.--It will be noticed that the remedies we recommend
are in almost every case very cheap--even, like hot water, costing
nothing, as they are in every house. This very simplicity and
commonness has turned many against our treatment. We know, indeed, of
one curious case where olive oil was derided and despised by a
rheumatic patient, until his friends got it labelled "Poison, for
external use only." It was then eagerly applied, and effected a cure.
We warn our readers very seriously against this folly. It is traded in
by some who sell the simplest things as secret cures at exorbitant
prices, and impoverish still further those who are poor enough already.
The _price_ of a drug or appliance is no indication of its value as a
cure. Neither is its lack of price. Nor is the price of any particular
food or drink an indication of its value. Good and nutritious foods are
generally cheap and easily procured. _See_ Diet, Economy in. Our effort
has been to find out cures within the reach of every household; and we
have found that, as God has put water and air freely within man's
reach, so has He put those things which best cure disease within the
reach of the poorest. Let us not then despise such things because they
are common.


Hearing.--We have had so much success in helping the deaf that we feel
warranted in seeking to spread the knowledge of our methods as widely
as possible.

Deafness is caused in many ways--very often by exposure of the head to
a chill, especially in infancy. We have seen it even arise from
enclosing the head in a bag of ice with a view to extreme cooling. What
is called "throat deafness" is a different matter, but yields to the
same treatment as the cases of chill. The process of cure is very
similar to that used in cases of failing sight (_see_ under Eyes), for
the aural nerve has to be stimulated as the optic nerve in these cases.
Rub the back of the head and neck, using hot olive oil, and continuing
gently, yet firmly, until all the parts are in a glow of heat. Do this
some time during the day. At night apply the BRAN POULTICE (_see_),
oiling before and after, to the back of head and neck, the patient
lying down on it for an hour at bedtime. _Gently_ syringe the ears with
tepid water, but only so far as to cleanse them. Rub with ACETIC ACID
(_see_) behind the ears, but _not so as to cause soreness_. In an
obstinate case continue treatment for a month, then rest for a
fortnight, and continue for another month.

Cases of deafness arising from dryness and hardness in the ears are to
be treated differently. The ear is brushed internally with soap lather
(_see_ Lather and Soap). Dip a brush, such as is used for water-colour
drawing, into hot water, rub it on the soap, and gently brush the
inside of the ear. Renew the lather frequently, keeping up the heat.
With another brush moisten the same parts with fine almond oil. Gently,
but thoroughly, dry out the ear with a fine roll of lint or _soft_
cotton. In a fortnight we have seen great benefit from this done daily
or twice a day. Be careful not to use pressure on the inside of the ear
when washing or drying, as this may cause the wax to harden into balls,
pressing on the drum. The whole head may also be rubbed with acetic
acid, not so as to cause pain, but simply a strong heat in the skin. In
all treatment of so delicate an organ as the ear, avoid giving _pain_.

If the deafness proceed simply from a relaxed state of the tissues in
the tubes of the ear, the cold douche applied to the head, with careful
drying and rubbing afterwards, will often effect a cure. But it is only
a _sudden_, _brief_, cold splash which is wanted, not a stream directed
for any time on the head, which might do serious injury. In this
connection it may be noticed that a child should never be punished by
"boxing its _ears_." Children have had their hearing permanently
injured by this thoughtless practice.


Heartburn.--_See_ Acidity in Stomach.


Heat and Weakness.--We have over and over again shown in these papers
how heat passes into vital action, and gives strength to failing organs
and nerves. But the heat supplied to these organs must be at a certain
temperature. All experience goes to show that _gentle_ heating will do
all that is required. Moreover, too hot a fomentation, especially if a
large one, will weaken the patient, and defeat its own ends. In such a
case it is folly to throw up the treatment, and say that heat weakens,
when all that is needed is to apply heat at a lower temperature. The
right degree of warmth is indicated by the comfort of the patient. It
will vary in almost every individual case, and must be found by careful
trial. Also it may vary from hour to hour. The heat comfortable during
the day may be found insufficient or too great by night, and so on. We
must in these matters apply our common sense, and make a real effort of
thought, if we wish to be successful.


Heat, Internal.--There is a usual (normal) temperature in all the blood
and tissues of the body. If the body be either warmer or colder than
this point (98.4 deg. Fahr.), its health is interfered with. A
"clinical thermometer" is used to ascertain whether the bodily
temperature is normal or not. It is to be had at every druggist's, and
is of great importance in a household. By its means the rise of
temperature can be detected often before any serious symptoms set in,
and due means taken to check trouble in its early stages. The
instrument is used by putting it under the armpit, or, with children,
between the legs, so that the mercury bulb is entirely enfolded and
hidden between the arm, or leg, and the body. Left in this position for
five minutes, it is taken out and read. It may also be held in the
mouth, under the tongue, with lips close on it.

Where a good deal of fever is shown, as by a rising of the mercury to
101 deg., measures to reduce it should at once be taken, as shown in
the articles on various kinds of Fever. By watching the temperature,
and taking it from time to time, we can see when cooling is sufficient.
Where the temperature is too low--that is, below 98-2/5 deg.--rub all
over with warm olive oil, and clothe in good soft flannel. Other
methods for increasing vital action may also be tried, as given in many
of our articles.


Heel, Sprained.--Often in sprains all attention is given to the bruised
and torn _muscles_, while similarly bruised and torn _nerves_ are
overlooked; yet upon the nerves the perfect healing of the muscles
depends. Hence, in a sprain of the heel we must be careful not to
direct attention to the heel exclusively. That may be bathed (_see_
Bathing Feet) and duly rubbed with oil. A good plan is to apply cloths
dipped in cold water and vinegar. Keep the limb perfectly still, and do
not attempt to use it for at least a fortnight. After this it may be
cured to all appearance, yet a weakness may be left which prevents
anything like the full and free use of the limb. It may be all right
when resting, but suffers when used for any length of time: this
indicates pretty plainly that _rest_ is needed, and is an essential
thing for cure. But besides this rest, the foot should be packed during
the night in soap lather (_see_ Lather and Soap). Wash the foot in
vinegar or weak acetic acid, rub the whole limb from the ankle
_upwards_ in such a way as to draw the blood up from the foot, avoiding
all down-strokes. Use a little olive oil in this rubbing. Note that the
whole limb needs treatment. The juice of _Lady Wrack_, such as is to be
found on the west coast of Scotland, is an excellent remedy for
sprained joints; but we only mention it, as it must be inaccessible to
many of our readers.


Hiccup.--Though often but slight, disappearing in a few minutes by some
simple device, such as holding the breath, when long continued this
becomes most serious. Very often it is an added distress in trouble
which is itself incurable; but while the patient's life cannot be
saved, the hiccup may be relieved. In the common case of infant hiccup,
a lessening of the over-supply of food may be all that is required. One
or two teaspoonfuls of hot water given to the infant will usually give
immediate relief. For a grown-up person with a slight attack, one or
two teacupfuls of the same will also usually prove a remedy. For
serious cases the treatment is a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_) placed on
the back, opposite the stomach. Well oil the back before and after the
poultice, and leave it on for an hour. If this fails, after a little,
prepare a blanket as directed under Fomentation. Roll it up until it is
the size of the patient's back, and let him lie down on it. (Read here
article on Heat and Weakness.) Then a small cold towel may be passed
gently over the stomach. This will generally relieve. It may be
repeated if necessary.


Hip-Joint Disease.--Thorough heating, with moist heat is the best
treatment for this trouble. This implies time, work, and patience; but
all these are well spent. Let a strong fomentation be given twice a day
to the hip joint, with oiling before and after, each application
lasting at least an hour (_see_ Cooling in Heating; Fomentation; Heat
and Weakness). In all probability a gathering of matter will come to
the surface and discharge itself. Treat this as recommended in article
on Abscess, and persevere until the joint is thoroughly renovated. It
may take a time, and the treatment should always be intermitted on
Sabbath, and sometimes a few days' rest be given. The patient's
_comfort_ is the safe guide in this.


Hives.--_See_ Rash.


Hoarseness.--This trouble we may consider in _three_ ways:--First, as
the effect of overstrain in using the voice; in this case rest must be
taken from speaking or other such work. Remedies which restore the
voice without rest are very likely to do permanent injury. For
application to the throat, use vinegar or weak ACETIC ACID (_see_) of
such strength as to cause just slight smarting of the throat when
applied as a gargle, or with a proper brush, such as any chemist will
supply. This may be done frequently, and, together with rest, will
rarely fail to cure. Rubbing the throat externally with acetic acid of
full strength until a rash appears is often very helpful. Those engaged
in public speaking would do well, especially in youth, to cultivate the
habit of correct breathing (_see_ Breathing, Correct Method of).
Articulation should be clear, and the words formed sonorously, and from
the stomach, as it were. This, indeed, will apply to everyone. Such a
method of producing the voice will not only be harmonious, but will
exercise insensibly a beneficial influence on the nervous system and
mental tone of the individual.

It is a fact that actors who study the method of voice production do
not suffer from that form of sore throat known as clergymen's sore
throat, simply because they have learned to produce their voice in this
way.

Secondly, hoarseness may arise from exposure to cold, damp air. In this
case it is best to apply mild heat to the _roots_ of the nerves which
supply the voice organs. This is best done by applying a bran poultice
to the back of the neck, oiling before and after with olive oil.
Carefully dry the skin, and wear a piece of new flannel, for a time,
over the part poulticed. This may be supplemented by brushing as above
with the vinegar.

Thirdly, failure of skin action, or of the proper action of other
waste-removing organs, may be the cause of hoarseness. In addition to
the treatment recommended above, we must in this case stimulate the
skin: this is best done by rubbing with Cayenne "Tea" (_see_) all over
the body at bedtime. Let this be done for four or five nights, and the
throat treatment be given in the morning, when a cure may be looked
for. _See_ Underwear.


Hooping Cough.--_See_ Whooping Cough.


Hope and Healing.--The mind has always an influence on the body. Life
rises and falls under the influences of ideas, so as to prove that
these are a matter of life and death to man. To give an invalid _hope_
is, then, to help mightily in healing the disease, whereas to tell
patients that they are incurable is the sure way to make them so. But
there is, on the other hand, little good in falsehood and false hope:
this has often been found to fail and leave the patient in complete
despair. No one can tell the immense power for healing which is exerted
when one who truly hopes for the patient looks brightly into his eyes,
and speaks with a genuine ring of hope of the possibility of cure. So
many cases found incurable by the usual treatment have yielded to that
recommended in these papers, that in almost all cases we may see some
ground for hope, if not of cure, at least of great alleviation. To give
this impression to a patient is to half win the battle.

There are many who speak most carelessly, even wickedly, to those in
trouble. They think it a duty to dash their hopes and predict gloomy
things. Such should never enter a sick-room, and should, indeed, change
entirely their manner of speech. To go about the world sowing doubt and
gloom in men's hearts is a sorry occupation, and one that will have to
be accounted for to Him who is emphatically the "God of hope."

Look, then, in treatment for every least sign of improvement.
Discourage all doubts and encourage all hopes, and you will make what
would be a really hopeless case, if the patient were left to despair,
one that can be comparatively easily cured. "A word to the wise is
enough."


Hot Flushings.--_See_ Flushings.


Hot-water Bags.--The flat rubber bags of various shapes, to be had from
all rubber shops, make excellent substitutes for poultice or
fomentation; but care must be taken to have two or more ply of _moist_
flannel between the bag and the skin of the patient. This ensures a
supply of moist heat, which is in almost every case the best.


Housemaid's Knee.--To cure a swelling on the knee-joint is, as a rule,
easy. _Rest_ is a first and paramount necessity. Bathing with hot
water, not too hot for comfort, for at least an hour each day is
usually sufficient. If the knee has been blistered, or leeched, it is
more difficult to cure; but a cure may be expected if the bathing be
continued for a long enough time. It is best done by wrapping a cloth
dipped in vinegar round the knee, and placing the foot in a bath, then
pouring hot water on the bandaged knee, lifting it from the bath in a
jug.

When pain in bending is felt in the very centre of the knee-joint, this
hot pouring may be needed for a month, or even longer. During the
intervals of pouring a large cold compress should be worn, first well
oiling the knee. Cover the compress with oiled silk. This will soften
even a very stiff knee, so as at least to bring about ability to bend
without pain. Of course, if there is any disjointing, good surgical aid
must be had, if possible, to replace the bones in their natural
position.


Hydrocele.--_See_ Dropsy.


Hysteria.--This is usually brought on by some excessive strain upon the
brain nerves, and may show itself either in the violent or in the
fainting form; it may even pass from the one to the other, fainting
alternating with violent movements and cries. It may often be checked
by plunging the patient's hands into _cold_ water.

In the silent stage, where sometimes unconsciousness continues for
hours, a dry blanket should be laid on a bed, and another blanket must
be rolled up and prepared with hot water as directed in Fomentation.
Fold this until it is the size and shape of the patient's back, and lay
her down on it, so that the whole back is well fomented. Take care not
to burn the patient: soothing heat, not irritation, is required.
Consciousness will usually return almost immediately. All except
attendants should be excluded from the room. Allow the patient to rest
in this comfortable warmth until signs of discomfort appear, then
gently rub the back with hot olive oil, dry, and leave to rest or sleep
if possible. Do all with great _steadiness of temper and kindness_;
such a condition in the nurse is especially essential in these cases.
Where the fit is violent, apply every mental soothing influence
available, and remove from the room all excited persons. Then apply
cold cloths to the spine to soothe the irritated nerves and brain. Two
may gently and kindly hold the patient, while a third presses on the
cooling cloths. In about half-an-hour the fit should be overcome. A
difficulty in treating such cases is the terrifying effect of the
violent movements, or unconsciousness; but these should not create
fear. As a rule, a little patience and treatment as above remove all
distress. Where there is a hysterical tendency, give abundance of good
food, and let the patient live as much in the open-air as possible.

The patient should be kept employed. God made us all to be workers, and
this sad affliction is frequently the punishment of idleness. No one
has any excuse for this, for the world is full of those who are
overworked and whose burden could be lightened. The girl whose only
task is to exchange her armful of novels at the library will never know
what true happiness is, nor deserve to. _See_ Imaginary Troubles.


Illness, The Root of.--In treating any trouble it is well to get to the
root of it. On one occasion a patient complained that the doctor never
struck at the _root_ of his illness. The doctor lifted his
walking-stick and smashed the brandy bottle which stood on the table,
remarking that his patient would not have to say that again. This will
illustrate what we mean. Liquor drinking must be given up: it is the
root of multitudinous ills; so must excessive tea drinking. Tobacco is
one of the most insidious of poisons in its effects on the nerves, and
is to be absolutely given up if a cure is expected in nervous cases.
Chloral, laudanum, and opium in other forms, may give temporary relief;
but they are deadly poisons, paralysing the nerves and ultimately
completely wrecking the system. The continued use of digitalis for
heart disease is a dreadful danger. We mention these by name as most
common, to illustrate the truth that it is vain to treat a patient
while the _cause_ of his illness is allowed to act. If any evil habit
of indulgence has given rise to trouble, that habit must be given up; a
hard fight may have to be fought, but the victory is sure to those who
persevere. Often dangerous symptoms appear, but these must be faced: to
relieve them by a return to drugs is to fasten the chains more surely
on the patient. It is better to suffer a little than to be all one's
life a slave.


Imaginary Troubles.--These are of two kinds, the one purely imaginary,
the other where bodily trouble is mixed with the imagined. In the first
case the patient is in agony with a pain, when nothing wrong can be
discovered in the part, or even elsewhere, to account for it. In such a
case, proper treatment of the BRAIN or SPINE (_see_) will often
relieve. Again, a patient has set up such a standard of health that
what would not trouble any ordinary person at all, gives him much
distress. An intermitting pulse often is a source of great anxiety; but
we have known people with intermitting pulses continuing in good health
for forty years, and living to old age. So with many other heart
symptoms that need give no concern at all. Sprains to some muscles are
often taken for serious internal inflammation, and a slight cough and
spit are taken for consumption. Care must be taken to resist all such
fancies, and if not otherwise removable, _thoroughly competent_ medical
advice will often put the patient right. In such a case a medical man
of undoubted high standing is best consulted, for an inferior
practitioner may nearly kill the patient by arousing needless fears,
which are afterwards difficult to remove. _See_ Hysteria.

It must be remembered that diseases of the imagination are as actually
painful to the patient as if they really were organic troubles. It is,
therefore, useless to laugh at or pooh pooh the trouble, or suggest
that the sufferer is only humbugging. Attention must be paid to diet,
exercise, and to material, mental, and moral surroundings, so as in
every way to relieve the patient from those apparent troubles that so
annoy him. Great gentleness, firmness, hopefulness, and sympathy will
often bring about an almost unconscious cure. If the trouble has been
brought about by over-work and worry, complete rest will often be
needed. If there is something in the surroundings that jars, a change
may be advisable.


Indigestion.--(See also Digestion; Assimilation.) This subject leads
naturally to a consideration of _food_ in relation to it. The trouble
usually is that food easily enough digested by others causes distress
to the patient. Here we at once see that _cooking_ plays a most
important part. Potatoes, for example, when steeped for half-an-hour in
hot water, which is changed before they are boiled, are much more easy
of digestion. The water in which they have been steeped is found
_green_ with unripe sap, which is all removed. Where _unripe_ juice is
present in any root, this method of cookery is a good one. Eggs placed
in boiling water, and allowed to remain so till the water is getting
cool--say _half-an-hour_--are often found to be much more easily
digested than as usually prepared. What we aim at in these
illustrations is to show that digestion depends on the _relation of the
food taken to the juices of the stomach which are to dissolve it_. It
must be brought into a digestible state if weak stomachs are to deal
with it.

Greasy, heavy dishes must always be avoided. Also unripe fruit. The
diet should be spare, as very often indigestion proceeds simply from
the stomach having had too much to do.

A very easily digested food is fine jelly of oatmeal made in the
following way:--Take a good handful of the meal and put it in a basin
with hot water, sufficient to make the mixture rather thin. Let it
steep for half-an-hour. Strain out all the rough particles, and boil
the milky substance till it is a jelly, with a very little salt. To an
exceedingly weak patient you give only a dessertspoonful, and no more
for half-an-hour. If the patient is not so weak you may give a
tablespoonful, but nothing more for half-an-hour. In that time the very
small amount of gastric juice which the stomach provides has done its
work with the very small amount of food given. Really good blood,
though only very little, has been formed. The step you have taken is a
small one, but it is real. You proceed in this way throughout the whole
day. The patient should not swallow it at once, but retain it in the
mouth for a considerable time, so that it may mix with the saliva.

By this, or by porridge made from wheaten meal, you may secure good
digestion when the gastric juice is scanty and poor; but we should not
like to be restricted to that. We want a stomach that will not fight
shy of any wholesome thing. We must treat it so that when suitable food
is offered it may be comfortably digested.

Now, there is an exceedingly simple means for putting the glands in
order when they are not so. About half-an-hour before taking any food,
take half a teacupful of water as hot as you can sip it comfortably.
This has a truly wonderful effect. Before food is taken, the mucous
membrane is pale and nearly dry, on account of the contracted state of
the arteries. In many cases the glands that secrete the gastric juice
are feeble; in others they seem cramped, and far from ready to act when
food is presented. The hot water has the same effect on them as it has
everywhere else on the body--that of stimulating the circulation and
bringing about natural action. It looks a very frail remedy; but when
we can, as it were, see these glands opening and filling with arterial
blood the instant they are bathed in this same water, and see how ready
they become to supply gastric juice for digestion, the remedy does not
look so insignificant.

We have, in scores of cases, seen its effects in the most delightful
way. Persons who have to our knowledge been ill and miserable with
their stomachs for years have become perfectly well from doing nothing
but taking half a teacupful of hot water regularly before taking any
food. It is true that great good is effected in cases of this kind by
giving the weakened organ light work to do for a time. Wonders are done
by feeding with wheaten-meal biscuits and water for some time,
beginning with a very small allowance, and seeing that every mouthful
is thoroughly chewed. Great things, too, are accomplished with such
wheaten-meal porridge as we have already mentioned. But we feel
disposed to regard the half-teacupful of hot water regularly before
eating as the chief means of cure. It is wonderfully cheap: it goes
hard with the druggist if his customers need nothing but a little hot
water. Still, from what we have seen, and from what some of the very
highest authorities have told us, we come more and more to look to this
simple remedy as about all that is required inwardly to cure the worst
cases of indigestion.

A little pepsin added to the hot water may be of use; also in cases of
acidity a few drops of white vinegar mixed with the water will be found
beneficial.

Soda, iron, lime, charcoal, even tar pills are used as remedies for
indigestion; but none of them do much good, and some are highly
injurious. If used at all, their use should be temporary, and under
good medical advice.

If pain is felt, the stomach may be greatly soothed by soft fine lather
(_see_ Lather and Soap). It acts in such cases like a charm. Spread it
gently over the stomach, and wipe it off with a soft cloth. Cover again
with fresh lather. Do this five or six times, and cover up the last
coat with a soft cloth.

All indulgences which tend to weaken the stomach are to be avoided.
Alcohol and tobacco must be given up. Over-excitement must be avoided,
and abundance of fresh air breathed, if a cure is to be expected.

Where sudden and violent pain comes on after meals, a poultice or hot
fomentation applied directly over the stomach is the best remedy at the
time. _See_ Flatulence.


Infant Nursing.--A mother who has had strength to bear a child is, as a
rule, quite strong enough to nurse it. Suckling is natural, and usually
most beneficial to health. Many women have better health and appetite
at such a time than at any other. Every mother ought, therefore, unless
her health forbids it, to nurse her own child; no other food is so good
for it as that which nature provides. We cannot too strongly condemn
the mother who from indolence or love of pleasure shirks this sacred
duty. By so doing she violates the laws of nature, which can never be
done with impunity. Many troubles follow, and her constitution is
seriously injured. Alas that we should ever have to say, with Jeremiah:
"Even the sea monsters draw out the breast, they give suck to their
young ones; the daughter of my people is become cruel, like the
ostriches in the wilderness."

If a wet-nurse must be employed, great care should be exercised in
choosing a healthy person with a child as near as possible to the age
of the infant.

Let mothers remember that there is great _variety_ in milk. Not only
does one mother's milk differ from another, but the same mother's milk
varies from time to time. Variation in health and diet affects the milk
very much. Many cases of infant trouble are traceable to the mother's
milk, which should not be overlooked as a possible cause.

Again, an _abundance_ of milk is not always good. An infant may thrive
better on a scanty supply of good milk than on an abundance of bad
milk. Milk derived from drinking ale, porter, or alcoholic drinks of
any kind, though abundant, is very far indeed from good, that produced
by plain and simple diet is always best.

Again, the _state of the mother's mind_ has a great deal to do with the
quality of her milk. A fright, or continued worry, may transform good
milk into most injurious food for the child.

There need be no fear caused by these ideas: it is only in exceptional
cases that nursing need be given up; the natural way is always the
best. But where necessary there need be no hesitation in putting an
infant on the bottle. The milk of a healthy cow, or condensed milk of
first-rate brand, is much to be preferred to that of a wearied,
worn-out, and worried mother.


Infants' Food.--For infants who cannot be nursed at the breast, cows'
milk in the "bottle" is the best substitute. But all milk used from the
cow should be sterilised and cooled before use. That is unless it is
found on trial that the child thrives better on unsterilised milk. It
is not necessary to have "one cow's milk;" but it is important to have
the milk adapted in strength to the infant's need. If the milk be too
rich, the infant will often break out into spots, or will vomit. A
little more boiling water in the bottle mixture will remedy this, and
often prevent serious trouble. The same proportion of water and milk
will not always do. One dairy's milk, and even one cow's milk, differs
from another; and so does the digestive power of infants. We have to
find out that strength of milk to suit our own baby, and not be led
astray by the advice of other mothers. In health the young infant does
not require food oftener than every two hours, sometimes even every
three. It may cry because of cold, wet, or discomfort, not from want of
food. To overload the stomach with food is harmful and leads to serious
disorders. Its food requires a certain time for digestion, even in an
infant, and as the child grows, the intervals between meals ought to be
increased.

A good mixture is two parts of cow's milk to one of water. To every
pint of this add four teaspoonfuls of sugar, and a tablespoonful of
cream. Barley water may be used instead of common water. The water
should be boiling, and should be poured into the milk. The bottle
should be thoroughly cleansed, and boiled in boiling water before
re-filling. It must be remembered that the saliva does not possess the
property of turning starch into sugar till the child is six months old;
therefore starchy food, such as bread, arrowroot, etc., should on no
account be given before that age. Preparations for weaning may then
begin, by giving the child _small_ quantities of oatmeal jelly and
milk, or even of porridge and milk, so that the weaning comes on
gradually. The time of nursing should not exceed nine months. If,
however, a child afterwards be ill, there is no harm in going back for
a time to the bottle, even at two years old. Common sense must guide,
and not hard-and-fast rule. Easily assimilated food must ever be
chosen; and as a food for children, oatmeal porridge, well boiled,
holds the first place--far before bread sops. If porridge be not easily
digested, try oatmeal jelly. Most of the infant foods so largely
advertised cannot be recommended.

                *        *        *        *        *

It is now suspected that tuberculosis is transmitted to children mainly
from the milk of cows affected with this disease. Cows are exceedingly
liable to tuberculous disease of the udder. It is therefore very
difficult to get milk guaranteed free from the tubercle bacillus, and
recent examinations of that coming into Manchester and Liverpool showed
that from 18 to 29 per cent. contained this deadly germ. (Strange to
say, tubercular disease of the mother's breast is practically unknown,
and children never derive the disease from their mother's milk.) It is
therefore of the greatest importance that only the milk of cows proved
free from this disease should be used. The disease is easily detected,
and if a demand were created for milk guaranteed free from the germs,
dairymen would soon supply it.

Unless it is _absolutely certain_ the cows supplying the milk are free
from disease, the milk should be sterilised by heating to near boiling
point, and then cooling _rapidly_. If kept twelve hours, the boiled
taste goes off it, and children soon get to like it. Though sterilised
milk will keep for some time without getting sour, it should be
sterilised each day, specially if for infant use.

This treatment makes the milk keep without the use of preservatives,
such as boric acid. We regret to say the use of these is not illegal,
and they are largely used in preserving milk, butter, hams, etc. We
have seen very serious illnesses produced in children (and adults too)
by the heavy doses they have got when both the farmer and milk vendor
have added these preservatives. This they often do at the season when
the milk easily turns sour. Every care should therefore be taken to get
milk guaranteed free from these noxious drugs; and if this is
impossible, condensed milk should be used instead. As there is a great
variety of brands of condensed milk in the market, always choose one
which guarantees that the milk taken has been whole milk, and also
unsweetened.


Infants' Sleep.--_See_ Children's Sleep.


Infection.--Few things have so great and distressing effect as the fear
of infection in disease. As a rule this fear is not justified by the
facts, where ordinary precautions are taken. These precautions, too,
need not be costly, and involve in many cases little more than some
careful work. Where scarlet fever has shown itself in any household,
the very first thing is to see to the continuous freshening of the air
in the sick-room and in all the house. Ventilation is, indeed, the
first and most important method of disinfection. Chloride of lime and
other disinfecting fluids will decompose the offensive and noxious
odours, but pure air will sweep the organisms of disease themselves
away. Fresh air kills the microbes of certain diseases, _e.g._,
consumption, and is hostile to all disease. The stools of typhoid
patients should be disinfected, and great care taken that no water or
other fluid is contaminated by them through imperfect sanitation, etc.
(_see_ Fever, Typhoid). Seeing that the seeds of disease are all around
us, the best method of warding off their attacks is to keep the body in
a state to resist their inroads by strict attention to diet, exercise
and ventilation. Let all be done also, by fires if necessary, to
thoroughly _dry_ the room and house. See that all the family breathe
fresh air by night as well as by day; have open windows where and when
possible.

Acetic acid is as powerful a disinfectant as carbolic acid, in
proportion to its strength, and has the advantage of being harmless,
unless in the glacial form.

In all cases of infectious disease these precautions are almost certain
to prevent its spread, with, in addition, the special ones given under
the head of the disease.


Inflammation, Deep-seated.--Often inflammation occurs in the centre of,
or beneath, a mass of muscle, as the hip or thigh. We refer not to the
formation of an ABSCESS (_see_), but to the violent, hot inflammatory
action that often _issues_ in an abscess. For this the treatment should
be strong moist heat applied to the back, where the _nerve roots_ of
the inflamed part lie, and _persistent_ cooling of the part which is
painful. The heat may be by bran poultice, fomentation, or hot-water
bag and moist flannel. The cold must not be ice, but only cold water
cloths frequently renewed.

It is curious to see how people are frightened at the only thing that
gives relief, and not at all at that which does the most damage. A
gentleman wrote us once that he had had eighteen blisters on, but was
afraid to apply a cold cloth. We wrote him that if he still lived after
eighteen fly blisters, he would surely not die under a cold cloth. They
will say they have tried so many things. We reply, that if they had
tried a million wrong things, and shrunk from the right one, they would
be only so much the worse.

If there is local swelling, and signs that an abscess is forming, then
treat as recommended for Abscess.


Inflammation of the Bowels.--_See_ Bowels.


Inflammation of the Brain.--_See_ Brain. _See also_ Knee; Limbs,
Inflamed; Lungs, etc.


Inflammatory Outbreaks.--Sometimes a severe out-break and eruption will
occur in and around the nostrils or lips, and spread over the face. (If
of the nature of erysipelas, treat as under that head.) In ordinary
cases, there is need for more than local treatment, as it is probable
that more or less failure in the skin exists. Also the feet will be
most probably cold and damp. Let these be bathed (_see_ Bathing Feet),
and dried. Then rub them with CAYENNE LOTION (_see_) for some ten
minutes, until in a glow of heat. Dry well, rub on hot olive oil, and
dry again. Do this twice a day for a week. Warm and dry stockings must
be worn. The skin of the back will probably be found dry and rough.
Wash it down daily with SOAP (_see_) and hot water, and rub with warm
olive oil. After a week of this treatment, probably the eruption will
be much lessened. If it is still troublesome, apply cool cloths to the
whole head, avoiding the sore parts, until it is generally cooled down
and the skin softened, or the head may be, instead of this, packed in
lather of the soap already mentioned. (_See_ Head, Soaping). For the
sore itself, apply weak vinegar or _very weak_ ACETIC ACID (_see_), and
a little olive oil after. But it is best if it can be healed in such
cases without any local application, through the general treatment of
feet and skin.


Internal Relaxation.--Pain is often felt in parts of the back or sides
which will yield to no medicine such as usually relieves. This most
probably arises from relaxation and swelling of some internal part of
the body, so that there is more or less constant pressure on some
nerves. It will be worse after fatigue or long standing, or any mental
worry and excitement. This shows us that one thing necessary to cure is
_rest_: entire rest if possible, if not, as much as can be taken. It is
well to find out the _easiest_ posture in which to lie, and spend as
much time as possible in that posture. Seek, also, by applying cold
cloths to the painful parts, to reduce the swollen tissue. There may
also be required fomenting of the feet and legs (_see_ Angina Pectoris)
to prevent chill during this cooling. Often pain in the urinary organs
is due to nothing but this relaxation, and yields to such treatment.
Rest, however, is a primary necessity in all such cases.


Itch.--_See_ Rash.


Jaundice.--This disease, or its approach, may be known by several
signs: a more or less yellow colour of the skin where otherwise white;
a yellowness of the whites of the eyes, and failure of the bowels to
act sufficiently, with lack of appetite. It may come on gradually, or
may be induced suddenly by some disgusting mouthful or sight which
affects the nervous system, and through this the liver and stomach.
Where a disgust, or, as the Scotch call it, a "scunner," is taken at
any food, especially with children, they should never be forced to eat
it. Jaundice may follow if they are so forced. Those having the care of
children should always remember this.

The cure is found first in nursing the sympathetic nerves, by a
fomentation for an hour of the whole length of the middle of the back,
oiling before and after with olive oil. Four hours later treat the
stomach and bowels in the same way. In another four hours foment the
feet and legs similarly. All this time give a tablespoonful of hot
water every ten minutes. Then rest for twelve hours, and repeat the
cycle of treatment. During the twelve hours' rest, the hot water may be
taken in sips, as desired by the patient. If there is pain in the
region of the liver, foment that region more strongly. If severe, place
a bran poultice on above the liver, and keep it on all day, or even for
twenty-four hours if the patient is comfortable in it. By the second
day there should be a marked improvement.


Kidney Complaints.--_See_ Urinary Troubles.


Knee, Swelling of, or Pain in.--For ordinary slight injuries, complete
rest, and rubbing with spirit lotion, should be sufficient. But where
there is previous weakness, or constitutional tendency, even slight
pain and stiffness, caused by wet or some blow or wrench, the joint
must be treated thoroughly. Careless and wrong treatment may be given,
and result in severe lameness. We wish, however, to point out that the
treatment here recommended has cured many cases where this lameness
appeared hopeless, and even restored walking power in limbs which had
been ordered to be amputated by surgeons.

In the early stages of the trouble, it should be easy to cure in five
or six days. First apply the SOAPY BLANKET (_see_) at bedtime. Then,
about eleven o'clock in the fore-noon, place the leg so that the knee
is over a small tub or bath full of very hot water, as hot as can be
borne without pain. Pour this over the knee with a sponge or large soft
cloth for an hour, adding hot water as it cools. If the patient becomes
sick or faint, discontinue the bathing for a time. Dry the limb, rub
with olive oil, and dry again gently. At five in the afternoon repeat
the treatment of the knee. At bedtime sponge all over with hot vinegar,
rub with hot olive oil, and put to bed. If the joint has been
stiffened, gentle efforts to move it may be made during the treatment.

Sometimes during this treatment boils will break out over the knee and
discharge a good deal, but as soon as their work in removing disease is
done, these will heal up. Generally, however, this will not occur. The
diet may be such as we recommend in cases of ABSCESS (_see_).

In bad cases, the treatment may be continued for weeks before much
favourable change is noted. Patience and perseverance, however, will
win the day. The soapy blanket should not be given oftener than three
times a week, and a rest from all treatment on the Sabbath is best.
_See also_ Housemaid's Knee.

Often in cases of knee pain and trouble, when local applications have
little power, a BRAN POULTICE (_see_) on the lower back will effect a
speedy cure. Sensible people will, of course, study and apply fresh
treatment in such cases. Where the knee, for instance, is in the _hot_
stage of inflammation, hot applications will be injurious. In such a
case, cold cloths on the knee, with bran poultice on the lower back,
will be the proper treatment. Try heat first, and if it is hurtful,
vary the treatment to cold and heat, continued as above.

Here, again, is a knee which gives its owner excruciating pain, and
shows only a little swelling and no sign of diseased matter whatever.
The hot fomentation and cold towels have both been tried, but there are
now and again symptoms that show us that the root of the evil has not
been reached. We try cold cloths on this knee, but they greatly
increase the pain. We at length suspect that it is not the knee that is
seriously diseased, but the root of one or more of the nerves that
supply the link from the lower part of the spine. By this time the pain
has returned into the knee dreadfully, and everything has failed. But
very soon after a large, thick towel, folded and wrung out of cold
water, having plenty of mustard spread on it, is placed across the
haunches, relief is given in the most charming fashion. The cold cloth
absorbs superfluous heat, and superfluous vital action to a certain
extent, but the mustard draws it out so much more speedily and
powerfully that the deep-seated roots of the nerves are reached and
cooled down to their normal action. The pain ceases, and the poor
sufferer blesses the mustard. We are just describing what actually
occurs.

Sometimes a prejudice arises against heat. If, for example, an inflamed
knee has been strongly heated during the hot stage of the trouble, the
pains and injury will have been greatly increased. But one way or other
that hot stage of the trouble has been got over, and now without heat
it is impossible to cure. The patient, however, and probably the nurse
waiting upon him, are decided against all hot appliances. These do so
much mischief that it is believed to be out of the question to try them
again. It may be that the prejudice is so strong that you simply can do
nothing; it may not be quite so invincible as that. If you are able to
point out that it was only because the heat was applied at a wrong
time, or in far too great strength, and that now, since the
inflammatory power is spent, heat will be sure to have a good effect,
if it is only carefully applied, the prejudice may be removed. We have
seen a patient in this stage, and with both knees bad, wrapped in a
large hot blanket fomentation from the ankles to above the knees; and
he was constrained to exclaim, "That's the right thing, beyond all
doubt." Then there is no more prejudice.

Sufferers should not be disappointed if for a week or two they are not
sensibly better. In some cases the effect is apparent in four or five
days, but generally a fortnight or three weeks pass without much
encouragement. We see great despondency sometimes just before all pain
disappears. Still, as a rule, the new health is seen in the cheek and
eye very soon. Where a _violent_ inflammation is obviously proceeding
in the knee, the TURNIP POULTICE (_see_) is the best remedy. If there
be great heat in all the body, there will be little or no need for
heating any part; judgment must be used for each individual case in
these matters. While resting as much as possible, the patient will find
it best to lie on the back, with the sore knee supported a little
higher than the body. A gently applied bandaging of the whole limb is
also very beneficial, and may be used for all weak limbs, even when the
patient is walking about.

In the treatment of stiffened knees, even where accidental bending of
the joint gives very great pain, it is a grave mistake to put the knee
in splints to prevent bending. What is wanted is to encourage bending
as far as that can be done without much pain, so that the joint may not
permanently stiffen. Even where, by the use of splints, permanent
stiffness seems to have been brought on, the warm-water treatment
recommended above will bring about a loosening and softening of the
joint, which will permit first of a slight bending, and then, with
gentle encouragement, a complete flexibility. The _complete_
restoration of the limb should be the object kept in view. No case of a
stiffened joint, although it may be free from pain and disease, can be
regarded as satisfactory, and hence treatment should be persevered in
until all stiffness is gone. Common sense will direct as to hot and
cold applications, when to apply each, and how long to continue either;
the patient's comfortable feeling being the very best guide. We are
glad to know of very many apparently hopeless limbs saved by our
treatment, even where it has been imperfectly carried out.


Lacing, Tight.--This produces such serious deformity, and in many ways
so interferes with the health of women, that we are constrained to
write upon the subject. We find in cases which come before us that
lacing, both of the feet and the waist, as practised by our women, has
caused disease, and prevents our curing it. To begin with the lacing of
boots. There is a certain form and size of foot which are supposed to
be graceful. To obtain this, boots unsuitable in shape, and far too
small in size, are used, and tightly laced down upon the foot and
ankle, preventing circulation of the blood in these important parts.
This causes corns and misshapen toes and nails; but its bad effects are
also felt throughout all the body. We have pointed out in other
articles the great curative power of bathing or fomenting the feet. The
tight lacing of boots produces exactly the opposite effect. It is as
powerful to injure as the other to cure. Cold feet are the cause of
many most serious troubles. To keep tight-booted feet warm is almost
impossible. True neatness abhors all such mistaken treatment of the
feet. Moreover, no supposed good shape, in body or feet, can ever
produce the impression of beauty which good health never fails to give,
so that the tightly-booted high-heeled girl or woman defeats her own
object.

A yet more serious evil is the wearing of corsets. From this comes very
much of the ill-health from which women suffer. The stomach, liver, and
other organs are forced downward, their proper blood supply is cut off,
and indigestion, constipation, headache and backache are the inevitable
consequence. The pressure of these organs causes falling of the womb
and the terrible troubles which employ two-thirds of the fashionable
surgeons. These have not failed to denounce the folly which brings so
many patients to them.

Dr. Herbert Snow, the great authority on cancer, and physician to the
London Cancer Hospital, attributes almost wholly to the use of corsets
the fact that for one man who dies of cancer two women die of it. The
compression of the womb makes it specially liable to be attacked, while
the rubbing of the hard edge of the corset on the breast sets up cancer
there.

Besides its evil effects on the abdominal organs, the lungs also
suffer, the ribs are prevented from expanding and so the wearer can
never breathe as deeply as is necessary. The muscles of the abdomen and
trunk are greatly weakened; indeed to this is due the fact that a woman
who is accustomed to corsets has great difficulty in giving them up.
She feels as if she would "come to pieces" if not supported by them.

The exercises given in the appendix will help to restore tone to these
muscles, and with perseverance in these, vigor and health will return,
and the deformities such as flat or hollow chest, drooping shoulders,
and protuberant abdomen, caused by muscular weakness, will disappear.

[Illustration: A Normal Waist.]

[Illustration: A Corset formed Waist.]

As we have said (_see_ Skin, Care of) clothing should be loose and
porous in order that the skin may perform its functions. Corsets are
both tight and impervious. The constriction of any part of the body by
tight bands, and the hanging of the clothes from the hips, are highly
injurious.

It is frequently urged that corsets are necessary if a woman is to have
well-fitting clothes and a neat figure, but this is by no means the
case. We illustrate a "good health waist" which has the advantage of
allowing freedom of movement and respiration, producing no constriction
of any part, and yet being well-fitting. Buttons are arranged, as shown
in the illustration, to support the skirts so that their weight falls
equally from the shoulders. This waist can be had from the Good Health
Supply Department, 451 Holloway Road, London, N., who will send
particulars on receipt of a post card.

[Illustration: Good Health Waist (_back view_)
               Good Health Waist (_front view_)]


Lancing Swellings.--See Abscess.


Lather, How to make.--One of the most powerful soothing influences
which can be had, is found in the lather of M'Clinton's soap, so often
recommended in these pages. Applied to the skin over a stomach which
has been rejecting all food, and even retching on emptiness, for hours,
it will almost at once stop the irritation. Applied to the head it is
invaluable (_see_ Brain; Head; Hearing, etc.), and in many cases we
have known it perform almost miracles of soothing effect. But the
lather must be rightly made, and none but this soap used, if good
results are to be got. Lather is first _Soap_, secondly _Water_, and
thirdly _Air_, so wrought together to make a mass like whipped cream,
or only a little more fluid. To get this, dip a _good_ shaving brush in
hot water, rub it on the soap a little, take another slight dip of hot
water, and work the brush in the hollow of the left hand patiently,
until you have a handful of fine creamy foam, sufficiently solid not to
run like water, and yet as soft in its consistency as cream. There is
in the hand just the temperature, consistency, and shape that are
required for working the lather, and no dish can properly replace it.
The lather is to be gathered from the hand with the brush (a soft
badger's-hair one preferred), and laid with it on the skin of the
patient wherever necessary. Then another handful is quickly made, and
so on until the required surface is covered. Or the lather may be
transferred to a hot dish, placed over a bowl of boiling water, till
enough is ready. After the application, a soft handkerchief may be laid
loosely on, and, if the lather is to remain on as a pack, a dry
covering put over this.

[Illustration: Lather ready for application.]

In many cases where it is inconvenient to apply the lather direct to
the skin, it may be spread on a warm cloth of soft and clean linen or
cotton, and this laid over the part to be treated before it is cold.
This will also apply where the patient is too weak to sit or lie in the
position required for lathering the skin. A dry cloth must be put on
the top of the soapy one, and all fastened on by proper wrapping. In
cases, however, where the skin has to be lathered in order to soothe
the nervous system or to allay irritation of internal organs, it is
well, if at all possible, to apply the lather direct to the skin, as
described above.

Lather of this soap, made in this way, may be spread on the most
sensitive sores (when ulcers have eaten through both outer and inner
skins) with only a very slight feeling of smarting to the patient, and
with the most healing effect. It is very different with soda soap made
in the usual way. When the skin of the head has got inflamed (as we saw
in the case of a child the other day, where the back of the head was a
matted mass of most distressing sores), it is charming to see the
effect of this lather. We took a number of handfuls of it, and soaked
the matted hair and inflamed skin till the poor child looked up with an
expression of astonished relief.


Legs, Pricking Pains in.--Sometimes curious pricking pains are felt in
the legs, becoming so severe as even to confine a patient to bed.
Nothing can be seen on the skin, and no swelling or other visible sign
of trouble is present. Evidently this requires treatment more
particularly of the nerves, which go to maintain a proper balanced
state of feeling in the skin where the pricking is felt. The patient
must give up using alcohol in any form, and should rest in bed. In
treatment we do not look to the skin itself, but rather to the nerves,
to effect a cure. There is a failure at the nerve roots, and indeed the
patient will usually be weak and nervous generally. A popular remedy in
such a case might be arsenic, which must be avoided, as likely greatly
to injure instead of help. The cure is in increased nutrition of the
nerve substances, by rest and light dietary. _See_ Biscuits and Water,
Diet.


Limb, Saving a.--The proper growth of the body in any part depends on
the power furnished by the nervous system and the cells of that part.
This power enables these cells to use the nutritive substance in the
blood for the formation of new tissue. By this process, growth in the
healthy body is continuous through life, replacing equally continuous
waste. But this all depends on a due balance of power in the process.
Suppose one eats more than can be changed into healthy tissue, the food
may all go into blood, but the nervous power of the cells is
insufficient to deal with it. Sluggish living in bad air, tobacco, or
alcoholic drinks, will all cause this. Then some slight wound or bruise
is received, and the overloaded blood fails to act healthfully and heal
this. A sore is formed, most likely somewhere in the foot or leg, and
the limb goes from bad to worse in spite of all efforts, while this
_inequality_ between the blood and the tissues continues. This goes on
perhaps for years, and no effort is made to remedy it. Such a case may
often be very easily cured, even where doctors pronounce it hopeless,
if the patient will submit to proper regimen and treatment. Let the
limb be thoroughly bathed, as far above the knee as possible, with
water as hot as can be borne (_see_ Bathing Feet). Pour into the water
about half-a-pint of strong vinegar. Keep up the heat for an hour.
Repeat three times each day--at 11 a.m., 4 p.m., and at bedtime. Rest
from treatment on the Sabbath. When perspiration follows this bath, dry
the patient all over, and rub with vinegar. Dry this off and rub with
olive oil. Dry again, and put on clothes.

When we have to foment a foot or knee in long heatings or bathings, we
find it well sometimes to cool the lower part of the spinal nerves, and
remove all irritation of them.

Then for _diet_, let the patient go on good wholesome wheaten biscuits
(_see_ Biscuits and Water) three times a day as food, and pure water,
with no alcohol of any kind, to drink. And let him give up the use of
tobacco entirely. Many times over, when limbs have been condemned by
the medical men, we have seen them saved in this way. We have seen the
same treatment save arms and fingers, reducing them from swollen and
unsightly sores to perfect shape and complete usefulness.


Limbs, Disjointed, or Sprained.--In the case of an overstretch, or
sprain, which has resulted in a hardened, swollen, and painful state of
the muscles of the arm, bathe the arm in hot water, using plenty of
SOAP (_see_). While the arm lies in this bath, gently squeeze it with
both hands, so as to make the muscles work gently over one another, and
the blood run out and in to the stiff parts. Care must be taken to
avoid hurting the patient. No such effort is needed as to require great
strength--only so much squeezing as urges the blood out of the part
squeezed, and lets it in again when the pressure is taken off.
Persevere in this for half-an-hour, dry, and rub with warm olive oil.
Do this twice daily until the arm is restored.

In the case of a broken or disjointed arm, FOMENTATION (_see_) should
be vigorously applied until proper surgical aid can be had to set the
bones. Even where a joint has been a long time out, such fomentation
persevered in will soften the part, and permit of proper setting of the
bones. Cold is unfavourable--cold water a decided mistake in such a
case.

Of course a surgeon should be employed; but if no medical aid can be
obtained, a person who understands anatomy may replace a disjointed
limb by fomenting and oiling the muscles thoroughly, and then watching
for a time when they are relaxed, and when the patient's attention is
not fixed on the joint. This is the moment to slip the bone into its
place. If medical aid can be obtained, it is always safe, while waiting
for the doctor, to foment the broken or disjointed limb. Also a wet
compress worn over the disjointed limb will, with the fomentation, make
it much easier for him, when he comes, properly to set the bones.

When two bones in any part of the body are disjointed, the cords and
muscles which tend to keep them firm in their ordinary position usually
draw the ends past each other so that they overlap. To get the joint
right, the bones must be drawn until the ends can pass each other, and
then they must be brought into their proper position. Compare the
disjointed bones with those same bones in a right position in some
one's body, and thus you will see how they may be drawn right. There is
a way of manipulating the muscles and tendons that in most cases
renders it unnecessary to use much force, therefore the inexperienced
should never draw forcibly. Sometimes a joint will repeatedly fail in
this way. In such a case it may be supported; but means must be used by
hot fomentations to strengthen the joint, and general rubbing,
especially on the spine, must be used to increase vital force.


Limbs, Drawn-up.--We have had many cases of contracted limbs, arising
from various causes. Some of these have been completely cured, even
when the tendons or _cords_ which were contracted were going to be
_cut_ by medical advice. In one case, however, of which we knew, the
medical man ordered the very treatment we employ.

In the first place we must have EXERCISE (_see_). This may be given by
massaging the back and limbs with a gentle squeezing motion for
half-an-hour twice a day (_see_ MASSAGE). Use hot olive oil for this
rubbing, and _persevere_. If the feet be sweaty, rub them with the
CAYENNE LOTION (_see_). But the effective cure will be found in the
careful and persevering rubbing and pressure.

Sometimes we find that a failure occurs in the large haunch joint
itself, and that is not only shown by pain and stiffness, but by one or
more sores that discharge matter, indicating that the bone is diseased.
At the same time, the sinews of the limb affected give signs of
contraction, and the heel soon refuses to come to the ground in
walking. There is clearly a lack of vital energy, such as is wanted to
heal the bone and nourish the leaders in this limb: this lack may have
been showing itself for years. Apply the ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_).
Soon the sores begin to put on a healthier appearance, and ere long
they heal up. With this and the rubbing, the sinews begin to relax and
lengthen out, so that the heel comes nearer the ground. The limb may
even have become smaller than the other, but it grows so as to come up
with the healthy one: this will be the case though the fomentation is
done equally to both. It is a curious thing that the body is so
constituted that general healthy growth tends to bring on weaker parts
more rapidly than stronger ones, so as to restore proper proportions.
The new force applied to the roots of nerves on both sides of the spine
does not make the healthy limb grow so as to keep in advance of the
weakened one; it makes the weakened one grow so as to come up with the
healthier. You do not therefore need to confine the fomenting to one
side; it is better to apply it equally to both sides, and to leave the
laws of the constitution to arrange all matters as to proportion. These
laws never fail to do so perfectly. In the hands of a really skilful
surgeon, much may be done to remedy diseased bone by the modern methods
of antiseptic treatment and operation, but where these are not
available, the above treatment has most excellent effects, and has
sometimes cured where the surgeon has failed.


Limbs, Fractured.--It is not always easy to say definitely whether a
bone is broken or not. In general, however, the following are signs of
fracture:--(1) Loss of power in the limb; (2) Swelling or pain at the
injured spot; (3) Distortion of the limb, usually shorter than natural;
gentle pulling makes it temporarily regain its natural position; (4)
When the limb is gently moved, it moves at some spot between the
joints, and a grating sound is heard; (5) In case of a bone which lies
near the skin, a touch will perceive the irregularity due to the
fracture.

Pending the surgeon's arrival, if there is a fracture, do not attempt
to move the patient till the limb is so secured that the broken bone is
prevented from moving. If the arm bone is broken, put one splint inside
and another outside the arm, and tie two bandages, one on each side of
the fracture. Sling the arm in a small arm-sling like the straw
envelope of a bottle.

If the thigh be fractured, get a long splint, such as a broom handle or
a rifle, placing it from the pit of the arm to the foot. Bandage around
the chest, the hip bones, legs, and feet, and then by two bandages, one
above and the other below the fracture.

[Illustration: A Broken Thigh.]

If the leg bone or bones be broken, an umbrella makes a good splint.
Another splint should be applied on the inside of the leg, the two
firmly bandaged together, and finally the legs tied together.

[Illustration: A Broken Leg.]

If the knee-cap only be fractured, tie the leg on a splint from hip to
foot, and keep the limb raised.

Almost any firm substance which can keep the limb at rest can be used
for a splint, but if hard it should be padded. If the fracture is
accompanied with severe bleeding, stop the flow first before attending
to the fracture. (_See_ Wounds.)


Limbs, Inflamed.--Entirely different treatment from the above is needed
for such a thing as inflammation of the elbow, wrist, shoulder-joint or
knee.

Say it is an inflamed elbow that is to be treated. We describe this;
but similar treatment, with very slight variation, such as common sense
will suggest, answers for the other joints.

Have two large plain towels wrung out of cold water, and folded so as
to wrap six ply thick round the elbow. See that the patient is
otherwise warm. Place one of the towels round the joint, and gently
press it (avoiding pain) so as to draw the heat out of every part. When
this is hot substitute the other, and continue with fresh cooling--for
an hour if necessary. The cloth may require to be changed perhaps
thirty times; but the guide to this is furnished by its heating. When
hot, change it. This may be repeated frequently, until the inflammation
is subdued.


Limbs, Uncontrollable.--This trouble is found in the double form;
first, of limbs which will not move when their owner desires to move
them; and, second, limbs moving in excessive jerks when they are not
desired to do so. These cases are often combined, the limbs being rigid
at one time and jerking violently at another. There is no wasting or
unhealthy appearance. We have found this condition caused by excessive
walking, running, and standing, combined with exposure to frequent
wettings. The result is, in essence, that _motor_ power in the limbs is
in excess, while _controlling_ power is defective: the case is indeed
similar to St. Vitus' Dance (_see_). Bathe the feet (_see_ Bathing
Feet) in hot water, and apply cold towels folded and wrung out of cold
water (but not iced) along the spine. Keep this up for an
hour-and-a-half at a time. By that time the hard rigid feeling in the
limbs will probably have disappeared, but great helplessness will be
felt. You have removed the excess of motor energy, and must now
increase the voluntary energy. This will be accomplished by gently
rubbing the back and limbs with hot olive oil, as in Limbs, Drawn-up.
This treatment, repeated daily, will usually soon cure.


Liquorice.--_See_ Constipation.


Liver, The.--Where biliousness prevails, without any symptom of real
liver disease, it is well first to look to the state of the stomach and
bowels. Take a teacupful of hot water twenty minutes before meals, and
the liquorice mixture (_see_ Constipation) after meals. Then give a
strong blanket fomentation to the feet and legs for an hour in the
evening. If there be pain or feverish heat in the region of the bowels,
press cold cloths over the painful part while the feet are fomented.

When the liver is really swollen, hardened, or painful, the pulse will
either be quick with feverish symptoms or slow with coldness. If it be
a feverish case, press cold cloths over the liver, changing them when
warm, for an hour: at the same time foment the feet and legs as
directed above. See that there is heat enough to make the patient
comfortable under the cold applications. Inflammation of the liver will
readily yield to this treatment.

When the case is a _cold_ one with slow pulse, use no cold cloths, but
apply fomentations over the liver, as well as to the feet and legs.
Smoking and alcoholic drinks must be entirely given up--these habits
are peculiarly severe on the liver. The treatment will not be likely to
cure in a day or in a week, but patient perseverance with the
fomentations should eventually effect a cure. Too rich food throws a
great strain on the liver, and a plain and spare diet with prolonged
mastication is necessary with above treatment if a cure is to be
effected.


Locomotor Ataxia.--This disease is a most difficult one to deal with,
and any healing is very slow work. Patients past middle life are
specially difficult cases, but we have known cure, or at least great
mitigation in younger persons by the following treatment. Beginning,
say on a Tuesday, let the lower back be well rubbed with hot olive oil,
the patient sitting with the back to the fire, and well covered, except
where being rubbed. Continue this rubbing for half-an-hour and not
longer than three-quarters-of-an-hour. On Wednesday, soap the back well
with soap lather (_see_) and after the soap rub with oil again. Next
night, rub with acetic acid (Coutts's) full strength, until the skin is
red and smarts moderately. Repeat this on Friday, and on Saturday and
Sabbath do nothing. On Monday rub with acid again, and on Tuesday,
etc., proceed as before. All treatment is best done at night, and the
patient must be kept warm. He should also spend as much time as
possible in the open air.


Lumbago.--Lumbago differs from both paralysis and cramp of the lower
back in that it is not chiefly nervous, as these are, but is a trouble
in the muscular substance itself. The muscles are either sprained or
chilled, so as to have lost for the time their elasticity. Blistering,
burning, and all such irritating treatment are only so many helps to
the disease. The true method is found in gentle moist heating of the
lower back by a BRAN POULTICE (_see_), not too hot, but renewed, if
need be, for an hour each evening. Follow this up with a rubbing with
hot olive oil. Wear a belt of new flannel round the body night and day
in winter, or if exposed to cold. The treatment is simple, but if
persevered in, cures most obstinate cases.


Lungs, Bleeding from.--This is usually taken as a most alarming, and
even hopeless, symptom. It is not necessarily so at all, and even when
a considerable amount of blood is lost, the patient may recover.
Therefore, let friends not be frightened when this occurs, but bend
their energies to proper treatment, and all danger may be averted. All
alcohol must be avoided; it is most hurtful in such cases. Pack the
feet and legs in a hot blanket FOMENTATION (_see_) and press cold
cloths gently and equally over the chest or back where the blood is
felt to be coming from: thus you stimulate the enfeebled nerves and
brace the relaxed lungs at one and the same time. Relief will usually
be felt at the end of two or three minutes. Continue the application
till all pain and uneasiness are gone.

_Before_ taking the legs out of the warm pack, dry the chest carefully,
rub it with warm olive oil, and wrap it up in good new flannel. Then
take out the feet and dry them well; rub them gently and well with warm
oil, put on a pair of soft cotton stockings, and allow the patient to
rest. Squeeze an orange and give him an orange drink (_see_ Drinks).

When you have used this fomentation to the feet, and cold cloths once
or twice, it will be well to place a large bran poultice across the
lower part of the back, taking care again that this is only comfortably
hot. When you have had the benefit of this once or twice, you may place
a similar poultice between the shoulders; but this only after you have
so far succeeded in cooling down the inflamed lung or lungs, as the
case may be. During the whole of the treatment it will be well to watch
what is agreeable to the sufferer. It is not only that a certain
treatment, or degree of treatment, comforts, but that it comforts
because it heals. Move the patient as little as possible during
treatment, and do and say all possible to soothe the mind.

The whole treatment should be gone over a second time within twelve
hours. The second day give one application of the treatment only, and
repeat once again the third day. Except for the first time, the
treatment may be limited to half-an-hour. Avoid hot food or drink, but
it is not necessary to have it positively _cold_. This treatment we
have found perfectly successful in many cases.


Lungs, Congestion of the.--Treatment as below. Read preceding and
succeeding articles.


Lungs, Inflammation of the.--This is a common trouble in our climate,
and, fortunately, one not difficult to cure if taken in time and
properly treated. It is usually the result of a chill, and is
accompanied with pain and inability to breathe properly, distressing
fever, and often delirium. To begin with, all its evils arise from the
relaxing of the vessels of the lungs, so that these swell, and the
excess of blood causes inflammatory action to supervene. To guard
against it, then, those influences must be avoided which reduce
vitality; where they cannot be avoided, all must be done to counteract
them. Mere exposure to cold or wet, unless accompanied by exhaustion
from hunger, or grief, or other influence of the kind, rarely causes
this trouble.

Where the trouble has set in, the treatment is the same as recommended
above in Lungs, Bleeding from. If the patient be a very strong person,
and the fever very great, the fomentation to the feet may be dispensed
with; but if any uncomfortable coldness is felt, or the patient not
above average strength, it should always be applied. No one who has not
seen it can imagine the magical effect such treatment has. It is
simple, but its efficiency has been demonstrated in a very large number
of cases of cure.


Malaria.--Is now known to be conveyed by the bite of a certain kind of
mosquito. Those who live in a malarious district should carefully
exclude these from their houses, and by draining swamps and covering
water butts prevent their breeding, which is always in stagnant water.
If, however, exposure to infection cannot be prevented, much may be
done to strengthen the system to resist it. Firstly, note that there is
a great deal in the _food and drink_ of a family compelled to live in
such a district. If they live largely on animal food, and drink
alcoholic liquors, they will seriously add to the power of malarial
influence. The use of simple food and _pure water_ will very much
lessen it. Let us note that the very opposite of the popular
superstition is the truth. A single glassful of gin, whiskey, or
brandy, instead of "fortifying" against such infection, actually knocks
down the "fortifications" which nature has reared against its power.
These drinks, then, must be strictly avoided.

[Illustration: Muscles of Back
               (Surface muscles removed on right side exposing the
                deeper ones).]

[Illustration: Massaging the Back.]

[Illustration: Massaging the Back.]


Massage.--This seems a very simple thing to do, but is by no means easy
to do right, and it is very desirable that any one who can see it done
by a qualified person should take advantage of the opportunity. The
rubber must keep his attention closely fixed on the work, and though
this is fatiguing to body and mind, it is absolutely necessary if the
patient is to derive full benefit from the treatment. The skin should
first be lightly rubbed with olive oil; except in very special cases
"friction" between hand and skin is to be avoided. The hand should move
the skin to and fro over the muscles and bones beneath, and should be
always elastic, so as to go easily in and out of the hollows, and avoid
violent contact with projecting bones in the case of emaciated
patients. The good rubber should know anatomy so far as to understand
where bones and muscles lie (_See_ Diagram, page 216). An intelligent
moving of all the muscles of a part is almost equal in benefit to
gymnastic exercise, and can of course be given to those for whom
gymnastics are out of the question. Yet such rubbing may fatigue a very
weak patient, and care must be taken not to carry it too far at one
time. There should also never be any hurting of the skin. Where the
hands are felt too rough, the back may be covered with a soft cloth,
oiled with olive oil. All _strong_ strokes in rubbing the limbs should
be directed _inwards_ to where the limb joins the body. The lighter
strokes should be outwards. It is always well to have a light and heavy
stroke, as a joiner has in sawing.

As an instance of how to squeeze, let us take an arm that has got wrong
somehow. If you take this arm between your two hands very gently, you
feel that it is harder than it should be. The large muscles, even when
the arm is at perfect rest, have a hard feeling to your hands, and not
the soft, nice feeling which a perfectly healthy arm has. Probably the
muscles have been over-stretched, and sprained, or they have been
chilled, and so have lost their elasticity and softness. Well, it will
be so far good if you can bathe this arm in hot water. It will be
better still if the hot water used is full of SOAP (_see_). You can
make this bathing ten times more effective, if you only know what is
meant by a proper squeezing of the muscles. You use your two hands in
the water of the soapy bath, and taking the arm between them, gently
press the muscles between your hands, with a sort of working upon them
that makes the blood in the stiff parts rush out and in, according as
you press or relieve the pressure. If you can only get hold of the
idea, it will not be difficult to do this right. It may be that the
cords of the arm are not only hard, but also contracted, so that the
arm cannot be straightened or bent as it ought to be, but it is still
so squeezable that you can squeeze the blood out of it, and it is still
so elastic that when you relieve it of the pressure of your hands the
blood rushes back into it. If this squeezing is kindly and slowly done,
it will feel very pleasant, and very soon its good effect will be
perceptible.

[Illustration: Massaging the Arm.]

It is sometimes thought that there is some "magic" in one person's
hands that is not in another's. Here is a case in which one person has
rubbed, he thinks, perfectly right, and no relief has come. Another
brings relief in a few minutes. It is concluded that some mysterious
"gift" is possessed by the latter. This may do well enough for an
excuse when you do not care to have the trouble of curing your
fellow-creatures, but it is not true. If we are to "covet earnestly the
best gifts," it must be possible for all of us to get them. "The gift
of healing" is surely one worth "coveting," and we think must be within
reach, or we should not be told so to covet it. _See also_ Head,
Rubbing the.

[Illustration: Massaging the Arm.]


Measles.--An attack of this disease generally begins with a feeling of
weariness. Then it appears as running and irritation of the eyes and
nostrils, at which stage it is often taken for a common cold, the
symptoms being very similar. Then this irritation spreads more or less
over all the breathing apparatus, and finally the eruption appears in
smaller or larger red patches, sometimes almost covering the face and
other parts. The usual advice given is to keep the sufferer warm. It is
good to do this so far as _avoiding chills_ is concerned, but if the
room be overheated and kept close and dark, only harm will ensue. The
blinds of the windows should be kept drawn up to their full height, to
admit as much _light_ as possible. _Fresh air_ should be admitted by
keeping windows open. If the patient complains of sore eyes, these may
be shaded by a screen, but not by lowering the blinds. This admission
of free air and light is a very great preventive of the "dregs" which
form so troublesome a feature in measles. The room can easily be kept
sufficiently warm by fire in winter, even if the window be open. The
patient must not be allowed to read or use his eyes much, or very
serious mischief may ensue.

When it first appears in eyes and nose, a good large BRAN POULTICE
(_see_) should be placed at the back of the neck and down between the
shoulders. Cold cloths should then be pressed over the brow and upper
face. Do this for an hour. Give to drink lemon or orange drinks (_see_
Drinks), taken hot, and in small quantities at a time. If this
treatment is well done several times, the trouble may possibly be
checked at the beginning. Where it has gone further, and cough shows
irritation of the air tubes and lungs, then foment the feet and legs
while applying cold cloths over the chest, as in BRONCHITIS (_see_). If
there be fever, and no signs of rash, then, to bring it out, pack in
the SOAPY BLANKET (_see_). Where this cannot well be done, a most
effectual pack is a small sheet wrung out of warm water and wrapped
round the whole body, with a blanket wrapped well round it outside to
retain the steam about the skin. But the soap is better. As a rule,
there is not much need for further treatment when the rash fully
develops. If, however, fever still remains, rub all over with hot
vinegar. This is best done in the evening.

When all fever has subsided, a good rubbing of the _back only_ may be
given with warm olive oil. This may be done once a day. The feet should
be watched lest they get clammy or cold.

For food, wheaten-meal porridge and milk food generally is the best. Do
not give too much food at first, and keep the bowels well open.


Medicines.--The delusion that health can be restored by swallowing
drugs is so widespread that we think it well to quote the following
wise words from the _Lancet_:--

"An eminent physician not long deceased was once giving evidence in a
will case, and on being asked by counsel what fact he chiefly relied
upon as establishing the insanity of the testator, replied without a
moment's hesitation: 'Chiefly upon his unquestioning faith in the value
of my prescriptions.' It might perfectly well be contended that this
evidence failed to establish the point at issue, and that faith in the
prescriptions of a physician hardly deserved to be stigmatised in so
severe a manner. But admitting this, there is still little to be said
in favour of the sagacity, even if we admit the sanity, of the numerous
people who spend money and thought over the business of physicking
themselves, and who usually, if not indeed always, bring this business
to an unfortunate conclusion. The whole tendency of what may be called
popular pharmacy during the last few years has been in the direction of
introducing to the public a great variety of powerful medicines, put up
in convenient forms, and advertised in such a manner as to produce in
the unthinking, a belief that they may be safely and rightly
administered at all times and seasons, as remedies for some real or
supposed malady. All this, of course, has been greatly promoted by
column after column of advertisement in magazines and lay newspapers;
but we are compelled to admit that the medical profession cannot be
held free from some amount of blame in the matter or from some
responsibility for the way in which drugs have lately been popularised
and brought into common use as articles of domestic consumption.
Medical men have failed, we think, sufficiently to impress upon the
public and upon patients that the aim of reasonable people should be to
keep themselves in health rather than to be always straying, as it
were, upon the confines of disease and seeking assistance from drugs in
order to return to conditions from which they should never have
suffered themselves to depart. The various alkaline salts and
solutions, for example, the advertisements of which meet us at every
turn, and which are offered to the public as specifics, safely to be
taken, without anything so superfluous as the advice of medical men,
for all the various evils which are described by the advertisers as
gout or as heartburn, or as the consequences of 'uric acid,' do
unquestionably, in a certain proportion of cases, afford temporary
relief from some discomfort or inconvenience. They do this
notwithstanding persistence in the habit or in the indulgence, whatever
it may be, the over-eating, the want of exercise, the excessive
consumption of alcohol or of tobacco, which is really underlying the
whole trouble which the drugs are supposed to cure and which at the
very best they only temporarily relieve, while they permit the
continuance of conditions leading ultimately to degeneration of tissue
and to premature death. This is the moral which it is, we contend, the
duty of the profession to draw from the daily events of life. The
natural secretions of the human stomach are acid, and the acidity is
subservient to the digestive functions. It cannot be superseded by
artificial alkalinity without serious disturbance of nutrition; and the
aim of treatment, in the case of all digestive derangements, should be
to cure them by changing the conditions under which they arise, not to
palliate them for a time by the neutralisation of acid, which may,
indeed, give relief from present trouble, but which leaves unaltered
the conditions upon which the trouble really depends. Those who look
down the obituary lists of the newspapers will be struck by the fact
that large numbers of people, in prosperous circumstances, die as
sexagenarians from maladies to which various names are given but which
are, as a rule, evidences of degeneration and of premature senility,
while many who pass this period go on to enter upon an eighth or ninth
decade of life. The former class, we have no doubt, comprise those who
have lived without restraint of their appetites, and who have sought to
allay some of the consequences thence arising by self-medication, while
the latter class comprises those who have lived reasonably, and who, if
annoyed by imperfect digestion, have sought relief by ascertaining and
by abandoning the errors from which it sprang."

Among the most pernicious and dangerous of all the patent medicines on
the market are the so-called "Headache Powders," whose almost
instantaneous effects testify to the potency of the drugs they contain.
Such powerful agents carry their own condemnation, for they cannot in
the nature of things _remove the cause_ of the pain; hence their action
is limited to narcotising the nerves. The disease continues, the damage
goes on, but the faithful sentinels are put to sleep. These headache
powders so increased the deaths from heart failure in New York City a
couple of years ago that it became necessary to warn the public against
them.


Memory, Loss of.--A more or less complete suspension of this faculty is
a not uncommon form of mental and bodily illness. We do not so much
mean the mere fading of past impressions as the loss of power to recall
them, so that we cannot recall what we wish to remember. This is a
result of any serious bodily weakness. It will come on through any
exhausting exertion, or prolonged and weakening illness. Stomach
disorder will also cause it. In this last case, drinking a little hot
water at intervals will usually put all right. A cup of very strong tea
will so derange the stomach in some cases as to cause temporary
suspension of memory. We mention these cases to prevent overdue alarm
at a perhaps sudden attack. The loss of mental power in such cases does
not always mean anything very serious.

Just as the stomach affects the memory, so also much use of memory and
mental strain tells severely upon the stomach. Digestive failures in
strictly temperate persons often arise from an overstrain of the mind.

We explain these two actions, the one of body on mind, and the other of
mind on body, so that care may be taken, on both sides, of the complex
nature we possess. If this is done, there will be little chance of
memory failing.


Mind in Disease.--Often a person, because of physical failure, becomes
possessed of an utterly erroneous _idea_, which no reasoning can change
or remove. Indeed, reasoning in such cases is best avoided. Attention
should rather be directed to the physical cause of the mental state,
with a view to its removal. Very probably you will find there is want
of sleep, with a dry hard state of the skin of the head, and too high
an internal temperature. You may then work wonders by soaping the head
(_see_ Head, Soaping). The back also should be soaped similarly. If too
great a cooling effect is produced by this, wipe off the soap and rub
hot olive oil on the back instead. If this is not sufficient, rub the
limbs also with the hot oil. We have seen the most pronounced insanity
yield to this treatment, where the cause has been _physical_ and not
mental. The secret of success is in so balancing the heat and cooling
applications that the utmost possible soothing can be given without any
chill.


Miscarriage.--An expectant mother should lead a quiet, orderly and
healthful life (_see_ Child-birth). By this we do not mean laziness nor
idleness, nor treating herself as an invalid. On the contrary, plenty
of work, both physical and mental, and regular exercise are most
beneficial, but care should be taken that work should not go the length
of over-fatigue, and excitement, worry and anxiety should be carefully
guarded against. The round of parties and other social functions into
which many brides are drawn, frequently becomes the cause of
miscarriage and other troubles. Any excitement, mental or physical, is
most injurious, and the husband and wife who sacrifice present
enjoyment will be richly repaid afterwards in the greater vigor and
healthiness of the child; while those who live for the present will
often have bitter regrets of what might have been.

If any weariness, heaviness, or pain are felt in the region of the
abdomen, groin, or back, half-a-day, a day, or a few days in bed
should, if possible, be taken. If any appearance of bloody discharge be
noticed, there is decided danger of miscarriage, and the patient should
immediately go to bed, remaining, as far as possible, perfectly flat on
the back until the discharge ceases. It is even useful to raise the
feet higher than the head, by placing bricks or blocks under the feet
of the bed. The covering on the bed should be light, only just what is
necessary to keep one comfortable, and the windows should be kept open.
Light food should be sparingly taken for a day or two; not much liquid,
and nothing hot should be drunk. A towel, wrung out of cold water,
placed over the abdomen or wherever pain is felt, and changed when warm
for a fresh cold towel (_see_ Bleeding), will help to soothe the pain,
allay the hemorrhage, and induce sleep. The mind should be kept at
ease, for such precautions, taken in time, will probably put all right.
After the hemorrhage has entirely ceased, and all pain disappeared,
some days should be spent in bed, and active life be only gradually and
cautiously returned to. When there is danger of miscarriage, purgatives
should be avoided; a mild enema is a safer remedy, if needful, but for
two or three days perfect rest is best, and if the food be restricted,
the absence of a motion of the bowels will not do any harm. The patient
should, of course, have the bed to herself.

Miscarriages most frequently occur from the 8th to the 12th week of
pregnancy. The time at which the menses would appear if there were no
pregnancy, is a more likely time for a miscarriage than any other.

It should be remembered that miscarriages are very weakening and
lowering to the general health, and to be dreaded much more than a
confinement. The latter is a natural process, and, under healthy
conditions, recovery of strength after it is rapid, while a miscarriage
is unnatural, and is frequently followed by months of ill-health.
Another thing to be remembered is that a habit of miscarriage may be
established; after one, or more especially after two or three, there is
likelihood of a further repetition of such accidents, resulting in
total break-up of health.


Muscular Action, Weak.--The heart is the most important of all muscles.
Sometimes the action of this is so weak that the pulse in the right
wrist is imperceptible, and that in the left extremely feeble. The
heart may be beating at the usual rate, only its stroke is much too
feeble; and the effects are found in enfeebled life generally,
sometimes shown in fainting fits. If such come on, lay the patient flat
on his back, and if consciousness does not return shortly, apply a hot
FOMENTATION (_see_) to the spine.

Sometimes this heart weakness is only a part of a general muscular
failure. Muscles elsewhere in the body may even swell and become
painful. If strychnine be prescribed, refuse it. It has only a
temporary power for good, soon passing into a wholly bad effect.
Thoroughly good vapour baths will effect some relief, and may be taken
to begin with. The best remedy is found in gentle rubbing and squeezing
the muscles in every part, specially attending to any that may be
swollen and painful. Squeeze gently the muscular mass, so as to press
the blood out of it. Relax the pressure again so as to admit the blood.
Where no help can be had, we have known a patient so squeeze herself as
to restore action to a useless limb. But of course it is best if it be
well and frequently done, say twice a day, by a really careful operator
who has some idea of anatomy. This may seem a simple remedy, but we
have known two inches added to the length of a shrunken limb by its
means, and the patient restored from apparently hopeless lameness to
fair walking power. _See_ Massage.


Muscular Pains.--These pains occur usually when a patient has been for
some time in one position, sitting or lying, and rises suddenly in a
particular way. They sometimes take such hold of the breast or back
muscles as to make it appear as if some serious disease were present;
even in the limbs they may cause great distress on any sudden motion.
They may arise from a gradual _overdoing_ of the muscles concerned.
They are similar to what is commonly called a sprain, but as they are
_gradually_ produced their cause is often overlooked, and needless
distress of mind caused by taking the pain for that of cancer or some
such trouble. We write to point out that pains do not always mean
serious disease, and before any one becomes despairing about their
health, they should make sure they understand their case thoroughly.

These pains, too, refuse to yield to ordinary hot and cold methods of
treatment. The remedy is found internally in half a teaspoonful of
_tincture of Guaiacum_ in a teacupful of hot water three times a day.
After two or three days, a teaspoonful of the tincture may be taken in
the cup of water. Continue until two ounces of tincture have been used.
Or the tabloids of _Guaiacum and sulphur_, now found in our drug shops,
may be taken, one tabloid representing the half-teaspoonful of
tincture.

Externally, rub gently yet firmly the affected muscles with warm oil
for ten minutes or so once a day for a week or ten days. Of course,
rest must be taken, and the overstress which caused the trouble avoided
in future.


Mustard Oil.--Where this is recommended the cold-drawn oil is meant,
not the essential oil. The latter is a fiery blister.


Narcotics.--The use of these to give temporary relief, often
degenerating into a habit, causes so much serious disease that we have
felt constrained to insert an article warning our readers in regard to
it. The use of tobacco we have found a fruitful source of dangerous
illness. It tends to destroy nerve power, and through this to relax the
muscular system. It has a most dangerous effect upon the mind, relaxing
the brain, and even causing some of its functions to cease. It hinders
clear reasoning, and in many cases brings on incipient paralysis. It is
a fruitful source of cancerous diseases of the mouth. It destroys
keenness of vision. It is of no use to quote exceptional cases in such
an argument. Great men have smoked, as some great men have habitually
drunk, to excess. But that is no argument for the average man of whom
we speak. The very difficulty he has in giving up the use of tobacco
indicates a diseased state of the nerves, which no wise man will
willingly bring on himself.

The effect of the continued use of opium, chloral, and many drugs taken
to gain soothing or sleep is _dreadful_: so much so that we have seen
patients who were deprived of them, after some time of continuous use,
perfectly _mad_ with agony. Let our readers remember that the relief
given in using such drugs comes from a benumbing of the vital nerves.
Their influence is _deadening_, and, if strong enough, kills as surely
as a bullet. The wise medical man will, if he does administer such
drugs, take care they are only taken once or twice. If a doctor orders
their continual use he is to be distrusted. By all means let our
readers avoid the terrible snare of ease and sleep obtained through
narcotics. It is generally easy to give relief, in the various ways
described in these papers, without resort to any such hurtful methods.

Suppose that you try a very hot application to the roots of the nerves
affected, if you can guess about where those roots are. The doctor
should help you to know this. The hot poultice is put on--we shall say
it fails to relieve. Well, you put on a cold application at the same
place. That relieves slightly. Whichever of the applications relieves
should be followed up vigorously. Do not say, "Oh, it gives relief for
a little, and then the pain returns." Follow up the little relief, and
change from heat to cold as the pain or relief indicates. You can do no
possible harm by such processes, and in multitudes of cases all will
soon be right, and no opiate required at all. But you must not think
all remedies at an end when you have tried one or two singly, and
relief does not yet come. The large hot poultice may be put on the
roots of the affected nerves, and ice-cold cloths placed on the
branches of these nerves at the same time. Then the cold ice cloths may
be placed on the roots and the hot on the branches. But remedies are
not exhausted, by any means, when you have thought of two or three
applications of heat and cold. The whole nerve system can be influenced
by the rubbing of the head and spinal region, so as to wake up a strong
increase of vital action in the nerve centres there. We have seen a
patient who had been for months under medical treatment, and in agony
except when deadened with narcotics, rendered independent of all such
things by a little skilful rubbing alone. Perhaps you object that these
remedies are "very simple." Well, that would be no great harm; but if
they are so simple, you are surely a simpleton if you let your poor
nerves be killed with morphia, while such obvious remedies are at hand.
(_See_ Massage.)


Neck, Stiff.--For this, rub the whole back with soap lather (_see_
Lather; Soap), and then with acetic acid and olive oil. Rub the neck
itself as recommended for Muscular Action.


Neck, Twisted.--This arises from the undue contraction of some of the
muscles in the neck. It generally shows itself first in the evening,
after the day's fatigue, and if neglected, or treated with blistering,
iodine, etc., may become a chronic affliction. Yet it is not difficult
to cure by right means. Opium should never be used. We have seen
terrible suffering follow its use. The true cause must be attacked,
which is an undue irritation of the nerve which controls one of the
muscles, so that it contracts and pulls the head away. The nerves of
the muscles which counteract this pull are also probably low in
vitality, so that there is a slackening on one side and a pull on the
other.

First of all, for a cure, there must be _rest_. Not more than three
hours at a time should be spent in an erect posture, and between each
spell of three hours let one hour be spent lying down. Avoid _all_
movement while lying, as far as possible. Secondly, soap the back
thoroughly with LATHER (_see_) at bedtime. Cover the well-lathered skin
with a large, soft cloth, leaving the cloth and lather on all night,
and covering over all with flannel in sufficient quantity to keep the
patient warm. If the spasmodic twitching comes on, apply cold cloths
repeatedly to the back of the neck for an hour in the morning. If this
is felt too cold, apply for a shorter time.

If the neck has become hard and fixed in a wrong position, rub as
recommended in Muscular Action. This treatment has cured many cases.


Nerve Centres, Failing.--Many diseases flow from this cause, but at
present we only consider one. That is where a "numbness" begins to show
itself in fingers and toes, and to creep up the limbs. No time should
be lost in treating such a case. It arises from failure in the spinal
nerves, and these must be nursed into renewed vitality. This will be
greatly helped by wearing over the back next the skin a piece of new
flannel. Rub (_see_ Massage) the back with warm olive oil night and
morning, working especially up and down each side of the spine. Pursue
this rubbing gently but persistently, but do not fatigue the patient,
which may easily be done. Cease rubbing the moment fatigue manifests
itself. Continue this treatment for weeks even, and also treat, as in
next articles, _mind_ as well as body. (_See_ Locomotor Ataxia.)


Nerve Pain.--_See_ Pain.


Nerve Shock.--After a fright, or some very trying experience, some part
of the nervous system is frequently found to have given way. Heat is
felt in the stomach. Then, if no treatment is given, curious feelings
come on in the back of the head. Even inflammation of the stomach and
brain may come on in severe cases. In any such trouble, alcoholic
drinks, blisters, opium, and all narcotics are to be strictly avoided.
These only lessen the already weak nerve power. Show the patient in the
first place that there is no need for anxiety, the vast majority of
such cases being easily curable by right treatment. We have seen this
relief of mind alone effect a perfect cure. Therefore see to giving it.
Wring tightly out of cold water two ply of new flannel, large enough to
go round the lower part of the body, from waist downwards to hips. Put
these round the patient, with two dry ply of the same flannel above
them. Wear this night and day for a week or a fortnight. Keep the feet
always warm and dry. Give plain, easily digested food. If St. Vitus'
Dance shows itself, treat as directed under that head. Study the case
in the light of all said on nervous troubles in these pages, and you
will be able to cure almost any symptoms which may arise.


Nerves, Shaken.--By this we mean, not the nerve trouble which follows a
sudden injury or fright, but the result of long-continued worry and
overwork. Sleeplessness, great irritability of temper, depressing
thoughts, restlessness, and even a wish for death, are all symptoms of
this trouble. In any effort to cure it, the _mind_ must be largely
considered. Thoughts of the constant care of a loving, Divine Saviour
for even the least of His children, must be encouraged. Work, which is
an intolerable burden when depressing thoughts are encouraged, will
become easy when these are removed. If you get the sufferer made
hopeful for time and for eternity too, you have half won the battle.

Again, in bodily matters, food or drink which is exciting must be given
up, or very sparingly used. Tea should only be taken weak, and _at
most_ twice a-day. Avoid long conversations, and especially discussions
and debates. Let the head be soaped (_see_ Head, Soaping) with soap
lather at night, and rub all over with hot vinegar and olive oil before
rising in the morning. Many a shaken nervous system will speedily
recover under such treatment. Take also _eight good hours_ for sleep,
and allow no ideas of business or work to intrude upon them. No more
valuable habit can be formed, by the healthy as well as by the nervous,
than this. The whole will should resolutely be bent to remove the
attention from every trying thought, when the hours of work are past,
and especially on retiring to rest. Always recollect that this _can_ be
_done_; assert mentally, or if necessary, audibly, that it shall. Do
not let initial failure disappoint you; persevere and a habit will be
formed. When the brain gets a fair rest in its hours of leisure, it is
usually equal to all demands in ordinary hours of work.

All brain workers, in their leisure hours should let the brain rest,
and if they must do something, let it be as diverse from their work,
and as easy on the thinking power as is possible. (_See_ Worry).

[Illustration: From "Furneaux's Elementary Physiology."]


Nerves, Spinal.--The spinal cord is continuous with the back part of
the brain. It is a mass of nerve fibres, and from it branch off in
pairs, all the way down from the brain, the great nerves which move the
limbs and muscles of the body, and receive the impressions of sensation
for conveyance to the brain. It is permeated by numerous blood vessels,
which supply what is needed for the upkeep of the whole mass. When
these relax, and become overfilled with blood, we have congestion of
the spinal cord. This may often be easily remedied by cold cloths
applied over the spine, with fomentations to the feet if necessary
(_see_ Children's Healthy Growth; Fall; Paralysis; St. Vitus' Dance).
If, on the other hand, the vessels are contracted, or the blood supply
defective, we have great languor and coldness. This usually may be
remedied by rubbing over the spine with hot olive oil. Violent heat, or
blistering, simply destroys the skin, and hinders healthy action.
Gentle heat, or gentle cooling, long continued, is the best treatment.
Especially is this true in the case of little children (_see_
Children's Healthy Growth). For treatment of the nervous system,
peculiar attention should always be paid to the point where all the
spinal nerves enter and issue from the brain. This is at the hollow
usually present at the base of the back of the skull, where it is
jointed on to the spinal bones. Rubbing here is most powerful, either
with acetic acid or olive oil, and hot or cold cloths should always be
well pressed into the hollow, when applied to the head or upper spine.
(_See_ Diagram, page 234).

Failures of muscular power are caused by failure in the spinal cord. If
a child cannot walk, but only trails his legs, or if he cannot hold his
head erect, skilful rubbing with hot oil on the spine will often quite
cure the defects. Do not rub too hard. Feel for the muscles around the
spine, and gently insinuate healing influence with your fingers, so as
to reach the nerves below. Use a moderate quantity of oil, and the
effects will be marvellous.


Nerves, Troubled.--Often a state of the nerves exists, without any
apparent unhealthiness, which makes the whole system so sensitive, that
ordinary sights, sounds, and smells become unbearable, and the patient
feels the ordinary round of experience, which would never be noticed
otherwise, an intolerable burden. Strange feelings all over the body,
and an indescribable series of seemingly "fanciful" troubles, come on.
It is of no use, and indeed injurious, to treat such cases as merely
fanciful. The wrong bodily condition must be righted if the mental
condition is to improve. The first thing needed is _quiet_. Quietness
rests the overstrained nervous system very much. Nerve-benumbing drugs
are most hurtful (_see_ Narcotics). Let the light in the room be
subdued, and strong smells avoided. To rest the skin nerves, wear only
Kneipp linen underclothing, and flannels _above_ this if required.
Bathe the tongue and palate by taking mildly warm water into the mouth
and ejecting it again. Soap the head, and all over the body, if it can
be done without chilling, three times a week. (_See_ Head, Soaping;
Lather, etc.).


Nervous Attacks.--What we call, for want of a better name, "nerve
force," or "nerve action," is at any one time a definite quantity. In
health it is distributed to all the sets of nerves equally, so that all
work in harmony. But if its distribution be altered in certain ways, we
find "fits" or "attacks" coming on. Action is greatly exaggerated in
one part, and as greatly lessened in another--hence violent movements
and complete unconsciousness co-exist. Children often have such fits.
Where they arise from _indigestion_ as a result of bad food, the cure
is found in teaspoonfuls of hot water, and a hot sitz-bath coming up
over the bowels. Where bad blood causes the fits, poultices over the
kidneys will usually help greatly. (For fits of teething children,
_see_ Teething.) _See also_ Epilepsy.


Nervousness.--This frequent and distressing trouble is to be traced to
a state of the nervous system in which sensibility has got the upper
hand, and self-control is partly lost. It is difficult accurately and
briefly to describe, but is an easily recognisable state. Firstly,
then, we say this is a physical trouble, and the patient must not be
blamed for it, but encouraged kindly to make every effort of _will_ to
throw it off. A strong will can be cultivated, just as a strong arm, by
_exercise_. Peaceful thoughts and Christian faith can also be
cultivated, and anxious and disturbing ideas put down. Uniform, steady
conduct on the part of all around is an enormous help to the nervous.
For physical remedies, use no alcoholic drinks. These give temporary
relief, but are fatal in their after effects. To cure nervousness is
impossible unless these are given up. The physical treatment necessary
will be found under Nerves, Shaken, and Nerves, Troubled.


Nervous Prostration.--Persons suffering from nervous prostration have
probably allowed the urgency of seeming duty to drive them on in work
till the vital energies have been fairly exhausted. At last they are
completely broken down, and the very fountains of life are dried up.
The brain itself has become incapable of giving sleep, or sound
thought. But there is no need for despondency: this trouble is
perfectly curable, only the right means must be employed.

In every case of real "nervous prostration," our question must be--How
shall we enable this vital element to recreate itself? The answer is,
with heat. Here we may detail the process which we know to be
successful. Dip a four-ply cotton cloth in cayenne lotion, and lightly
wring out. Lay this gently over the stomach and bowels, and over this
an india-rubber bag full of hot water. All must be only hot enough to
be comfortable. This application may remain on for two hours without
any change, then it is repeated. Where no bag can be had, a good thick
fomentation should be used instead. _See_ Nerves, Shaken; Nerves,
Troubled, and all articles on nervous trouble.

Much depends on consideration of the individual case, and careful
thought and strong sense are needed on the part of all dealing with
such cases. (_See_ Changing Treatment.)

Dessertspoonfuls of light food should be given every half-hour, and
increased in quantity as the patient can bear it. Avoid alcohol and all
narcotics.


Nettle Rash.--This is an eruption on the skin, often coming suddenly
and going off again, but sometimes of long standing. It resembles in
appearance the sting of a nettle--hence the name. It is accompanied by
an intolerable itching, and is a very sore trouble where it continues,
or frequently recurs. Its cause is usually defective digestion. We
should not depend on drugs for a cure, but treat first the whole spinal
system. Rub the whole back smartly with vinegar. Wipe this off, and rub
again with gentle pressure and warm olive oil. Put on the soapy cloth
(_see_ Soap) with the lather very finely wrought (_see_ Lather), and
free from excess of moisture. Over this lathered cloth put a good
blanket Fomentation (_see_), changing it once or twice, so as to keep
up the heat for half-an-hour. When all this is taken off, we should rub
again with vinegar and oil, as at first. If the case is a sudden
attack, we may soak the worst parts of the eruption with weak vinegar;
but if a chronic one, the rash is better left untouched. The treatment
to the spine may be continued daily. If the rash has been irritated
into running, scabby scores by scratching, it may be cleaned with weak
vinegar. A little cream of tartar or powdered rhubarb and carbonate of
soda mixed in equal parts may be taken internally after meals--say
about one-fourth of a teaspoonful in a little water. If this quantity
exercise too great a cooling effect, smaller doses will produce very
good results. Kneipp Linen Underwear will in many cases of such skin
trouble give great relief.


Neuralgia.--This is severe pain in one part or other of the body,
sometimes followed by swelling of the painful part, but frequently
without much sign of anything wrong at that point. It is, as the name
implies, a trouble affecting the _nerves_ which are connected with the
painful part, and usually there is nothing whatever wrong where the
pain is felt. Where, however, violent pain in the head or jaws results
from chill, there is an altogether different trouble, though it is
often called by the same name.

We have seen a man who had been in agony all night with pain all over
his head. We took a large piece of flannel, about the size of a small
blanket, rolled it up so as to get about a quart of boiling water
poured into the heart of the roll. We kneaded the whole for a little
time, to have the heat and moisture well diffused through the flannel.
We now placed a large towel fourfold on the pillow under the patient's
head, so that it could be brought as a good covering over the hot
blanket when that was on. We opened up the blanket steaming hot and
laid the head in the heart of it, bringing it carefully up all round,
then brought the large towel over all, and tucked him tidily in about
the shoulders. In less than two minutes he exclaimed, "I'm in
Paradise!" The pain was all gone, and in its place was a positive
sensation of delight. There was nothing here but a chilled skull to
deal with, and as soon as it felt the heat and relaxed, the man was
perfectly relieved. Then came the question as to how what had been got
was to be secured, so that he might continue well. After he lay about
three-quarters of an hour in this hot fomentation of the head, we took
it off, and rubbed gently some warm olive oil into the roots of the
hair, and all around the head and neck. We then gave all a good dry
rubbing with a hard towel, and covered up his head carefully, and kept
it covered for a day or two. He required no more treatment of any kind.

But when this treatment increases the pain, or fails altogether to
remove it, we have a trouble which calls for the _very opposite
treatment_. Then we have true neuralgia, which may be in any part of
the body, and which is relieved by cooling the roots of the nerves
which supply that part. For the face and jaws, cold must be applied to
the back of the head, neck, or brain generally. For pains in arms, cold
is to be applied to the upper, and for pain in legs to the lower part
of the spine; for pain in the body, cool the whole length of the spine.
The cooling is done by cloths moistened in cold water and well wrung
out, pressed on gently over the part, and renewed as they grow warm. If
the patient feels chilly, foment or bathe the feet and legs up to the
knees during the process of cooling. This may require to be done for an
hour. Finish by rubbing the parts cooled with hot vinegar and olive
oil, and wiping off.

Even young people are exposed to a great deal of suffering from this
source, and we feel sure that every one of these may be at once
relieved and cured by the vigorous use of the cold compress. When the
patient is warm in bed, the cold compress is one of the most delightful
of applications; and the warm olive oil, to keep what has been got,
make up a real blessing for the sufferer.

We have seen cases in which the cold compress has been applied up and
down the spine, but not with that full effect which could be desired.
Somehow it has not power enough in the hands applying it to reach the
roots of the evil. The want in such a case is generally of a person
sufficiently skilful in the use of the cold towel. There is a way of
pressing it gently over all the parts under which the affected nerves
lie, which secures the cooling of those roots very effectually. But
such skill is not always at hand when needed. Well, mustard is spread
over the surface of the cold towel, and the compress, thus increased in
power, is placed all along the centre of the back. We find that very
soon the pain begins to moderate, and ere long it has ceased. If it has
to be applied more than once, cayenne is greatly to be preferred. The
pepper does not hurt the skin, the mustard very soon does. A cold damp
towel, folded at least four-ply, and placed properly, after being
sprinkled well with cayenne, has an excellent effect.

In wild toothache, or bad nerve pain in the head, massage all over the
head for a considerable time will often cure. We know cases in which
agonising pain was thus removed years ago, and it has never returned.
There was first rubbing, in a gentle soothing way, over the whole head.
At a certain point, that began to lose its soothing influence. The cold
towel was then wrapped round the head, and gently pressed. As soon as
it warmed it was changed. This was done for perhaps three or four
minutes, and the rubbing repeated. The whole was kept up for about an
hour. All pain and uneasiness were then gone, and there was no return
of either.

It will be seen that it is essential properly to distinguish between
the pain requiring heat and that requiring cold for treatment. In any
case it is safe first to try the heat. Failing relief with this, the
cold may be tried. Sometimes the cooling of the head and spine succeeds
in driving off several attacks, but eventually fails to relieve. If in
such a case the cold is applied over the stomach, there is frequently
almost instant relief. Where the attacks can be traced to indigestion,
or come on always a certain time after a meal, this is the proper
method from the first. Where a decayed tooth is the cause of pain, of
course go to the dentist.


Night Coughs.--These frequently remain as the so-called dregs of some
illness, and are found very persistent. They are also frequently very
alarming, as they are thought to indicate some trouble in the lungs,
and as immediate steps should be taken to check this, it is well to
consult a good doctor. But, though coughing at night does of course
accompany lung disease, it is by no means a chief symptom. Also, it is
evident that the treatment applicable to bronchitis and other chest
inflammations will often fail to relieve a night cough, because the
night cough in question is due to nervous irritation or indigestion.
Narcotics are useless and hurtful. Great relief is frequently found
from inhaling the smoke of burning nitre or saltpetre. Blotting paper
may be soaked in a solution of saltpetre, dried and lighted. Place the
burning substance near enough the patient for him to inhale the smoke,
but not so near as to interfere with _easy_ breathing, especially in
cases where there is great weakness.

When patients are fairly strong the back should be rubbed with warm
olive oil for ten minutes or so in the morning before getting out of
bed. Then apply a cold towel, well wrung out, folded lengthwise along
the spine, and over it a dry one. Let the patient lie on this, and
renew it when heated, continuing altogether for fifteen minutes or so.
Give another fifteen minutes' rubbing with the hot oil before dressing.
If the patient feels chilly during the cooling, foment the feet and
legs at the same time.


Nightmare.--In serious cases of this trouble, the patient awakes some
time before he gains any power whatever to move, feeling held as in a
vice. But in common instances, the attack is entirely during sleep, and
accompanied by frightful dreams. A heavily-loaded stomach, pressing on
the solar plexus of the nerves, is a very common cause. The burdened
nerves partially cease action, and this gives rise to the trouble.
Anything similarly affecting these organic nerves will cause it also;
but if the stomach be at fault, reduce the food and let the last meal
be light and not later than six o'clock. This followed by a cup of hot
water, before going to bed, will work a perfect cure. When it is feared
there may be an attack, _lying on the face_ in bed will often prevent
it, even if the patient so lies for a very short time, and then turns
on the side again.

When students, or school children, are over-driven (_see_ Children,
various articles), nightmare, very persistent, is one of the symptoms.
In such cases, there is _urgent need_ of rest, or most serious
consequences may follow. Treat as recommended in Depression, and if any
nervous troubles show themselves, treat as in various articles on nerve
affections. Bad dreams, especially with children, are a sure sign of
something wrong with the health, and should always lead to
investigation, that their cause may be found and removed.


Night Pains.--If these are of the nature of _cramps_, which come on
while lying in bed, the treatment is similar to that given above as
morning treatment for Night Coughs, only the cooling must be continued
for three-quarters of an hour or longer, fomenting the legs if any
chilliness is felt. Cold towels may also be wrung out before going to
bed, and put within reach. These may be applied when the cramps come
on. They will usually relieve speedily.

Spasmodic asthma may be relieved by the same treatment. It often comes
on when lying down, and cold towels applied as above directed will
generally relieve. Fomentations must be given to the feet and legs, if
any feeling of chill is felt.

Where there is _difficulty in breathing_ on lying down, usually the
heart is at fault. Sometimes the heart is all right, and this hard
breathing is nervous, caused by too sudden lying down. To lie down,
propped up with pillows, which may be removed one by one, is often
sufficient to cure it. The treatment in the morning as in Night Coughs
will also greatly help.

Another set of night troubles are such as arise from unwise use of
foods or drinks before going to bed. Tea taken at or near bedtime will
often cause sleeplessness, and will be apt also to give spasmodic
asthma; so will all indigestible foods. These overpower weary organs
that need rest and sleep, and not food. Most people will do well to
take their last meal four hours before retiring. Taking supper is a
habit, and in many cases a very bad one.


Night Sweats.--This distressing symptom, which accompanies various
illnesses, can in most cases be easily cured. The whole skin is to be
sponged over at bedtime with CAYENNE LOTION (_see_). This is best done
under the bed-clothes. Acetic acid, the effective essence in vinegar,
has an astonishing power in healing and stimulating the skin. When it
is assisted by cayenne its healing power is very great indeed. The
nerves are stimulated, the too open pores closed, the skin cleansed,
and the whole system invigorated by such a mixture, and as a result the
night sweats disappear. Even where the case is hopeless, much suffering
may be prevented by the use of this mixture. In conjunction with other
treatment, its use may even turn the scale towards recovery.


Noise and Disease.--Perhaps nothing shows more the lack of human
feeling in many people than the manner in which they inflict sore
distress on the sick and dying by means of noise. Moreover, recovery is
retarded, and has sometimes been wholly prevented, by nothing but a
_noise_. It must be understood that talking, and also singing, which
are delightful to some, become intolerable pain to the delicate and
weak. They really are _worn out_ by them. And the wearing out is
_real_: it is a destruction of nerve substance, when the nerve of the
patient is already too feeble. Shutting doors violently, and the
endless "house noises," must be avoided. Even a long, loud prayer at
the bedside of the sick is utterly out of place. It may become
necessary, in order to prevent such abuses, to exclude from the
sick-room some who will be greatly offended thereby; but courage to
defend a patient against well-meaning intruders is one essential
qualification of a good nurse. Oil doors that _squeak_, fasten windows
that _rattle_, but above all keep quiet the tongues that _clatter_. Let
all whispering in the sick one's hearing be avoided. Speak quietly but
distinctly, so that the patient may not think you are hiding anything
from him. Wrap the coals in pieces of paper, so that they can be put on
the fire by hand, avoiding the noise of shovel or tongs.

No one has a right to do what distresses others, and especially when
they are sick. This principle should guide action. Acting thus will
give untold rest and ease to the troubled.


Nostrils, The.--The disease called Polypus, affecting the mouth or
nostril with growths which are usually removed by force, is one of
those troubles curable by proper use of vinegar or weak acetic acid.
The extraction of the Polypi is painful, and we have ourselves seen
them so completely cured, that it is a pity not to make very widely
known a method of avoiding extraction. A small glass syringe or a
"nasal douche" (rubber is best) should be got, such as may easily be
used for syringing the nostrils, or gums, if the growth be on these.
Syringe the growths well with vinegar or ACETIC ACID (_see_), so
diluted with water as only _very slightly_ to smart when it is applied.
Use this slightly warm, and force it well up the nostril, so that it
goes even back into the throat. This should be done for a considerable
time: not so as to feel painful, but long enough to produce a decided
effect, which remains on ceasing. Dry the nostrils with a little soft
lint or clean rag, and force in a little fine almond oil. Do all this
twice a day for a fortnight at least. In a bad case, a BRAN POULTICE
(_see_) may be applied to the back of the head and neck, coming down
over the spine between the shoulders.

Similar growths on other membranes, if accessible, may be cured by acid
in a similar way.

This treatment is excellent for an ordinary cold in the head.


Nourishment.--Nothing is more required in healing than properly to
_nourish_ the enfeebled body. In its commencement proper nourishment
demands a proper mixture of food and saliva. In fever, if there be
little or no saliva present, food requiring much saliva to fit it for
digestion only injures. This is the case with so-called _rich_ foods,
especially. Excessive thirst usually marks this deficiency of saliva.
Always consider carefully the flow of saliva before feeding a patient
in a weak state. Get the mouth to "water" somewhat before giving food.
We have seen a cold cloth changed several times over the stomach start
the flow of saliva almost miraculously, relieving the thirst, and
prepare for nourishment which could not be taken before.

Going further into the matter, we see that very likely the stomach
requires assistance to dispose of even well-salivated food. There may
be a lack of gastric juice. In this case, frequent and small quantities
of hot water supplied to the stomach will greatly help it. A
wineglassful of hot water taken every ten minutes for two, four, or ten
hours will be sufficient (_see_ Digestion; Indigestion). It is well to
think ten times of the readiness of the system to digest, for once of
the food to be taken. If the stomach be either burning hot or cold and
chilly, let it be cooled or warmed, as the case may be. Either use cold
towels or give hot water as above, as the case demands. When it is
brought into something like a natural state of feeling, you may then
give food. The hot water will often not only prepare the stomach, but
will start the flow of saliva in the mouth, and that even when the
cooling cloth has failed to do so.

A medical man will, at times, forbid water, however thirsty the patient
may be. He is not unlikely to be labouring under a serious mistake. It
may be just the want of water which is causing the very symptoms which
he thinks to cure by withholding it. We never saw anything but
suffering arise from withholding water from the thirsty.

Milk is a prime element in nourishing the weak. Mixed with its own bulk
of boiling water, or even with twice as much, it is immensely more easy
to digest. The simple water is of vast importance, and the milk mixed
with boiling water is quite a different substance for digestion from
the fresh pure milk. It is better to have a teaspoonful of milk and
water really digested than a pint of rich milk overloading the stomach.

Many persons put lime-water into the milk to make it digestible. In
doing so they put a difficulty in the way, in the shape of the lime. If
one tries to wash his hands in "hard" water, he sees how unfit that
water is to do the proper work of water in the blood and tissues of the
body. Now, it is not difficult to meet this evil where the only water
to be had has a great deal of lime in solution. Boiling this water
makes it deposit much of its lime. If a very, very small bit of soda is
mixed with it in the boiling, it lets down its lime more quickly and
completely.

Alcoholic drinks--wine, porter, or ale--are often given as means of
nourishment. They are hurtful in the extreme, as the spirit contained
in them spoils, so far as it acts, both the saliva and the gastric
juice. Rum and milk, sack whey, and other such preparations are equally
bad, and have killed many a patient.

While suitable nourishment is necessary for the sick, great care should
be taken to avoid giving too much. Often the amount of food the patient
requires or can assimilate is _exceedingly small_. Injudicious attempts
to "keep up the strength" by forcing down food that cannot be digested
often destroy the little that remains, and remove the only hope of
cure. (_See_ also Assimilation; Biscuits and Water; Blood; Bread;
Buttermilk; Child-Bearing; Constipation; Diet; Drinks; Dyspepsia;
Foods; Heartburn; Infants' Food.)


Nourishment, Cold in.--If a person is in fever, and is burning with
internal heat, a little bit of ice, sucked in the mouth, gives great
relief. The relief is got in this way: the melted ice, in the form of
water, is little in bulk in proportion to the heat which is absorbed in
melting it. To absorb the same heat by means of merely cold water,
would imply a great amount of water, and an inconvenient filling of the
stomach. The heat used up in melting the small bit of ice is great, and
the amount of water exceedingly small. This gives benefit without
inconvenience; hence, to suck a bit of ice is to be much preferred in
such a case to taking a drink of cold water.

Within proper limits, beyond all question, cold is, in certain cases,
essential to nourishment. For example, in a case of thirst such as we
have noticed, the heat of the stomach extending to the mouth is drying
up all the juices that should go to secure digestion and assimilation.
The saliva is dried up, and the gastric juice equally so. Cold is
applied to the pit of the stomach (not ice, but a moderate degree of
repeated cold), and the result is, these juices begin to flow.
Nourishment is the consequence, and very clearly, in such a case, it is
the consequence of cold. In other words, it is the result of reducing
the excessive internal heat, and leaving something like the proper
degree behind.

The place which cold has in nourishing is, so to speak, negative--that
is, it is useful only in reducing overheating. But when we remember how
a frosty morning sharpens appetites and makes the cheeks glow with
ruddy health, we see that such reduction of overheat is not
infrequently required.


Nourishment, Heat in.--Heat is absorbed in building up the bodily
tissues, and given off when they are disintegrated. To rightly
understand this is of great importance in all treatment. When a living
substance is growing, it demands heat. An illustration of this is the
sun's heat causing what we call "growing weather." Again, where
substances are breaking up, as in burning wood, heat is given out. In
the stomach, a certain amount of heat is needed during digestion. If it
is not given, indigestion ensues. To swallow ice, where the stomach has
already insufficient heat, is then great folly. On the other hand, to
take hot water is to do the very thing which gives the stomach what it
needs, and so to relieve the indigestion. Many times, when the stomach
simply stands still from lack of energy, it will move immediately on
getting a glass of hot water to help it. Similarly, a little genial
heat assists other failing organs. As we have shown how cold diminishes
the excessive action of inflammation and fever, so we now point out
that if you can find out what organs are feeble and acting
insufficiently, and stimulate them with gentle heat, you are on the way
to a cure.


Nursing Over.--Few vital processes are more remarkable than that by
which food fitted for adults becomes in the mother's breast food fit
for the little infant. In nursing it is well to remember that all food
is not equally fit to be so changed. Well-boiled porridge, of either
oat or wheaten meal, is probably as good as can be got. Malt liquor,
though causing a large flow of milk, most seriously deteriorates its
quality, and should be entirely avoided. But in this article we think
chiefly of the mother, and of the necessary drain of blood and vital
force which she bears in nursing. In most cases this drain is easily
borne, in others the child is fed at the mother's expense. The supply
of power, in such cases, is not equal to the loss of it in feeding the
child, and the reserve in the mother's body is slowly used up. She
becomes thin and pale, and her nervous system begins to suffer. When
this is the case, either means must be used to increase her vital
power, or nursing must at once be given up. Of course, where she may
have had insufficient or unsuitable food, a change of diet may work a
cure; but, as a rule, the drain of nursing will have to be stopped. To
help her restoration, whether she ceases to nurse or not, use the
following mixture and treatment: Boil a stick of best liquorice for
half-an-hour in a quart of good soft water. Add one quarter of an ounce
of camomile flowers, and boil for another half-hour. Keep the water up
to the quantity by adding _boiling_ water as required. Strain the
mixture, and give a dessertspoonful thrice a day before meals. If the
dessertspoonful be found too much, a teaspoonful may be taken. The
patient, if any heart trouble is felt, should go to bed early, and have
the feet and legs fomented, and cold cloths pressed over the heart.
This may be done for three or four nights. After this, each night for a
fortnight the back should be well washed with SOAP (_see_) and hot
water, and rubbed with vinegar and hot olive oil. Let each be dried off
before the other is applied.


Oil, Olive.--A little oil only should be applied to the skin at once.
Any such _smearing_ as dirties the clothes or bedclothes is quite
unnecessary.

Since the first edition of these papers was published, the use of oil
in the "massage" treatment has become so widely known that methods of
rubbing are better understood, and its results more appreciated. Hence
it is now easier to procure pure oil, and our readers should be able to
get it cheaply at any first-class grocer's.


Opium.--_See_ Narcotics.


Oranges.--Some things regarding this useful fruit require to be noted
by those using them in sickness. To eat the whole substance of an
orange except the outer rind is to give the digestive system some hard
work. We have known most serious stomach disturbance caused to the
healthy by doing so. Some parts of the inner rind and partitions of the
fruit act almost like poison. These should always be rejected. The
juice is most beneficial. It is best given to patients by squeezing the
orange into a glass, and _straining_ it through muslin into another
glass. Add its own bulk of water and a teaspoonful of sugar, if liked.
This may be taken warm or cold, and will do where even milk and water
cannot be taken. (_See_ Drinks).


"Outstrikes."--These appear on the skin from various causes. In the
case of infants, they often appear on the head and face during
teething.

An experienced medical man is cautious in the extreme of quickly
healing the distressed skin. He is afraid of "driving in" the eruption
on the brain. Perhaps he refuses to do anything whatever to heal the
head. From what we have seen, however, even in the worst cases, when
head and face and neck were one great sore, we feel assured that there
is no need why this distress should be continued at all. It may be, at
least in many cases, safely and not very slowly healed.

The _whole_ skin of the infant must be brought into vigorous and
healthy action. The head at first need not be touched; but the entire
skin not affected should be sponged with warm vinegar, and then dried,
rubbed with warm olive oil, and this wiped off carefully and gently, so
far as it does not adhere to the skin under the soft dry towel. Quite
enough remains to do all the good required; and if more is left on, a
chilliness and nastiness are felt, which prejudice many against the use
of it altogether.

It is well, in many cases, not to touch the child with _water_ or
_soap_. The vinegar and oil cleanse the skin and do all that is
required. Then vinegar very much diluted should be used warm to apply
with a soft rag to the sores. Take a teaspoonful of vinegar in a
breakfastcupful of warm water. If this causes the child to cry when
applied, then dilute still further. Vinegar weak enough to cause hardly
any feeling when it touches the sore, will _heal_; stronger vinegar
will _injure_.

We have known a nurse try to heal an outstricken face by means of good
vinegar at its full strength. She was instructed to use the vinegar
very much diluted, but fancied it would heal faster if much stronger.
She might just as well have fancied that it is better to put one's cold
hands into the fire than to hold them at some distance when wishing to
warm them. The child's face was made greatly worse, of course, and the
cure abandoned. It is therefore necessary to urge that a strength of
acid which secures only the most gentle sensation of smarting is
essential to cure. The weak vinegar is first applied to the outer and
less fiery parts of the outstrike. Try to heal from this inwards, by
gradual advances from day to day. On the less affected parts the weak
acid may be applied twice a day; on the sorer parts only when itching
is so distressing as to demand it.

We have seen a child whose head, face, and neck were one distressing
sore; we have taken the cloth with the diluted vinegar and daubed a
square inch or so of the skin on which the fiery eruption was so full,
and in less than two minutes we have seen the colour change into a
healthy pink, and remain that colour when the olive oil was applied.
The child's sores yielded gradually, till the whole illness was
removed.

Sometimes such eruptions, in adults as well as children, arise from
suppressed perspiration, or from the perspiration being of an acrid and
irritating nature. It is sometimes apparently the result of the rubbing
off of a little of the skin, or it comes on without any known accident.
For a time it seems scarcely worth noticing, and is consequently
neglected; but gradually it spreads on the surface and gives
uneasiness, especially after the patient has been some time in bed. It
goes on till a large portion of the skin from the knee to the ankle is
reddened and roughened with a moist eruption. Now remedies of various
kinds are tried, but the evil gets worse and worse. The person affected
is often a struggling mother or widow, who has to keep on her feet all
day in anxious toil, and neither gets very good food during the day nor
proper rest during the night. Month after month goes past, and no
relief comes. The positive agony which such persons suffer is
incredible to those who have not experienced anything of the kind.

Here the great difficulty often is to get the patient the very chief
condition for cure--that is, perfect rest for the affected limb. If
this can in any way be secured, all else is comparatively plain
sailing. But this is sometimes impossible: the children may not be in a
position to be left, or the little business cannot be allowed to die,
as it would in a month's time if not attended to, or some other
hindrance is in the way. We must just do the best in the circumstances.
We shall say that we are compelled to do without the rest, probably
also without certain other things. Rest is very desirable, and so is a
gentle rubbing all over the body, first with warm vinegar and then with
olive oil, but there is perhaps no one capable of doing such a thing
whose services can be secured. It is easy to "order" very useful
processes, but among many who would not be exactly called "poor people"
it is not easy to have the "order" carried out. We must often do
without this double rubbing, and yet cure the diseased skin of the
afflicted limb. Let the reader remember that it is no matter of choice
that we dispense with the rest and the rubbing. If they are possible,
by all means let them be taken advantage of to the utmost.

For treatment, unless distinct running sores are formed, bathe the limb
with warm water and M'Clinton's Soap, which will remove all crusts,
scabs, &c. Then apply zinc ointment. Do not bathe or poultice after the
first time. All secretion can be removed by a piece of cotton wool
dipped in warm olive oil. If deep running sores have formed, then we
must have a water-tight box of rough deal in which the whole leg up to
the knee can be bathed for an hour in hot water. We see no reason why
it should cost much over a shilling to get this, and it would be a sore
want if it could not be procured. It is so made that the leg and foot
can rest easily in it while it is nearly full of hot water. It need not
be wider than just to hold the limb easily. Some good-hearted joiner
will put five small boards together so as to meet this want. We shall
suppose that it is supplied. Now for a few cloths, such as will cover
the diseased parts, about three-ply all round. Then for vinegar or
acetic acid, so diluted with water that it will just cause a slight
smarting when heated and touching the affected skin. It must not be so
strong as to cause burning, nor so weak as to give no sense of its
presence at all, but between these extremes. It can be tried when too
weak, and vinegar or other acetic acid added till a gentle smarting is
felt. The cloths are dipped in the diluted and heated vinegar, allowed
to drip till no more falls off, and then laid tenderly all round the
sore. A strip of dry cloth may then be wound round so as to keep these
on, and the leg thus dressed placed in the bath. It should be kept
there, with now and again a gentle movement, and the strong comfortable
heat of the water kept up for an hour, unless the patient should feel
sickness before that time. If this comes on, the water is too hot; but,
instead of merely cooling it, the bath may cease for the time, and
water not so hot may be tried on a second occasion. Whether the hour
has been reached or not, good has been done. The leg is taken out of
the hot water and gently dried--not rubbed, but dried without rubbing.
Then as much cloth as will go twice round all is dipped in warm olive
oil, and this is pressed out a little, so that it may not run. The
oiled cloth is wrapped all round the limb. Some dry cloth is also
wrapped round, and the first treatment is completed. This should be
repeated every night before going to bed, for a week at least. It may
be required for a fortnight if the case is bad and no rest at all can
be had during the day. We should say the cure may fail for want of this
rest, but this is not likely. In the morning as soon as convenient, the
diseased skin should be soaked with a warm vinegar cloth, so that it
shall smart just a little. It should then be dressed again with the
warm olive oil. If at any time during the day or night it gets
irritated and troublesome, this morning dressing may be repeated. It
will not be very long before the one leg is as good as the other. The
general health, too, of the patient will be sensibly improved.

It is scarcely necessary to point out that a similar treatment to this
will cure "outstrikings" of the same sort in the arms and other parts
of the body, as well as upon the legs. There is required only some such
modification of the appliances as may meet the particular case. For
example, we have seen the outstriking between the shoulders, so that it
could not be reached by bathing, unless by appliances utterly out of
the question in the circumstances. But dressing with hot vinegar
cloths, allowing these to remain on for twenty minutes or so, and then
dressing with warm olive oil, allowing this to remain for two or three
hours, is quite possible to any one who is so affected; and this will
usually be sufficient for a cure.

You have, perhaps, been cured temporarily more than once with arsenic,
and the evil has returned worse and worse. In that case you may require
all the more patience and the longer application of the above
treatment; but, once cured in this way, you will not, so far as a good
long experience enables us to judge, be likely to have any relapse. In
very bad cases we have seen poultices of mashed potatoes made with
buttermilk cleanse the diseased parts most effectually, and then the
acid takes healing effect very speedily. In these cases ordinary
medical treatment had utterly and hopelessly failed.


Pain, Severe, in Limbs.--This is often not due to any trouble in the
joint itself, but to some disorder in the large nerves which have their
roots in the lower part of the back. In the case of severe pains in the
back of the leg, ankle, or knee, when a chill to the large limb nerves
has been the cause, and has raised inflammation, the patient should be
put warm in bed. Take two large towels, thoroughly wrung out of cold
water. Fold one six or eight ply thick. Gently press this, avoiding
cold shock to the patient, over the lower part of the back. When this
towel gets hot, spread it out to cool, and apply the other. Continue
this with each towel alternately, and when finished, or after an hour,
rub the skin with warm olive oil and cover up with new flannel. Similar
cold applications to the _upper_ part of the spine will cure such pains
in the wrists. If the cold application intensifies or fails to relieve
the pain, it is well to try the ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_).

Sometimes light pressure in the form of squeezing the muscles of the
lower back is very useful. A very gentle pressure on the right parts is
most pleasant to the sufferer. At first it simply relieves in some
degree the weary feeling of the limbs. When it is at all well done, it
soon raises a gentle heat, which slowly passes down the limbs, even to
the very toes. This is just life itself communicated to the limb. But
we must not confine our treatment to the spinal cord. The squeezing, or
gentle pressure, must be carried down the limb; and when new life has
been infused so far, it will be well to apply the pressure between the
hands to the swollen and painful part. _See_ Massage.


Palpitation.--Ordinarily we are not aware of the beating of the heart,
enormous as is the work it does; but in certain cases this beating
becomes distressingly violent, especially on lying down flat or in
ascending hills or stairs. The latter cases are the more serious, yet
both kinds we have found quite curable. In treatment, fomentation must
be avoided, and so must doses of the nerve-damaging drug, digitalis.
The best way is to _cool the heart_, and thus relieve its superabundant
action. But care must be taken that _cold be not applied to a feeble
heart_, but only where action is evidently superabundant. It is usually
easy to distinguish the two kinds of palpitation. The cooling can be
done by pressing towels wrung out of cold water all over the heart
region of the left side. Then rub the part so cooled with olive oil,
dry off, and let the patient rest. This may be done in the morning
before rising. In cases where the heart is feeble, the following
treatment should be carried out instead of the cold towels:--Begin at
bedtime with a cloth covered with creamy soap lather, and placed quite
warm all over the body of the patient. It should be fastened on with
the body of a dress, or thin vest, so that it may be kept close to the
skin during the night. In the morning the back should be gently washed
with hot vinegar, dried, and gently rubbed with warm olive oil. In
those cases where the palpitation is only part of a general
nervousness, which causes great distress and sleeplessness at night,
the back should be lathered all over with soap (_see_ Lather and Soap)
at bedtime, and the cloth with lather left on all night. In the
morning, dry off, rub gently with hot vinegar, and then with hot olive
oil. If the palpitation resists this treatment, then cold towels should
be gently pressed to the _spine_, until the whole system is quieted.
The back should then be rubbed with warm olive oil. So far as this
restless action is concerned, this is all that is required for complete
cure. We are writing thus in view of cases declared hopeless, but the
patients are now in perfect health. We remember one at this moment in
which the heart's action was so bad that the head could not be raised
from the pillow, but the person was in a few weeks as well as any one
could wish to be.

No one who has not seen how readily the surplus vital action passes out
of the system when simple cold is rightly applied, can imagine how
easily such cases are cured. It seems to us absurd to speak of "heart
disease" in many of the cases in which people talk of it and set the
case down as hopeless. It is absurd, simply because it is not heart
disease, but only a little more action than is comfortable, and which
is reduced in a few minutes by a cold towel. No doubt care and
willingness to work a little are required, if one would relieve a
sufferer in such a case as this, but that care and energy are sure to
have the best of all rewards.

Palpitation often arises from indigestion, in which case _see_
Indigestion.


Palsy.--_See_ Paralysis.


Paralysis.--This serious trouble in slighter forms affects one side of
the face, or even one eye only. More serious attacks involve the arm,
and even an entire half of the body. It may come suddenly, or may creep
slowly over the frame. In very old persons the case is usually
hopeless, as life itself is fading. In earlier life, and in less
serious cases, a cure is to be expected from proper treatment. Cupping,
blistering, or opiates must be avoided, as all tending to reduce vital
energy. Treatment must aim at increasing this, not reducing it. Take
first the case of paralysis slightly affecting the face. When the
patient is warm in bed, place a BRAN POULTICE (_see_) not too hot, on
the back of the head and neck. Let the patient lie on it, first rubbing
the neck and back of head with olive oil. Do this for an hour each day.
At another time wash the back of head and neck with SOAP (_see_) and
water, then with vinegar, and finally rub with hot olive oil. Keep the
parts warm with good flannel always.

If the whole side be affected, foment strongly the whole spine, and
treat it in a similar way to the back of the head, as prescribed above.
We have known cases of comparatively speedy cure by this simple means.
The heat simply vitalises the partially dead nerves. For paralysis of
the lower limbs, the treatment is applied to the lower part of the
spine principally, but also to the whole spinal system. There is no
fear of injuring the patient in this treatment, and we know of many
cases of most delightful cure secured by it. What is called the
ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_) is an excellent method of dealing with
paralysis of the lower limbs or any part of them, and may be resorted
to if the above treatment fails. Care must be taken in any case to
avoid a chill after fomenting, which might make matters worse than at
first.


Perspiration.--By this term we mean not only the sensible perspiration
which is felt as a distinct wetness on the skin during exertion or
heat, or in some illnesses, but also, and chiefly, the constant
insensible perspiration. This latter is far more important than the
former. No one could live many hours without it, for by its means
several pounds weight of waste is got rid of every day. Its importance
we saw lately in the case of a child greatly swollen in dropsy. A
flannel BANDAGE (_see_) wrung out of warm water, placed round the body,
reduced this swelling completely, without any _sensible_ sign of
excretion. A very gentle treatment, increasing this insensible
sweating, will often cure without weakening, where violent perspiring
medicines or treatment cause great weakness. A damp flannel bandage
placed round the lower half of the body all night for a few nights will
produce a remarkable increase of insensible perspiration, and in many
case forms a good substitute for sweating drugs. Along with this the
soapy lather may be used at bedtime all over the skin (_see_ Lather and
Soap). We have seen a swelling of the hand, which made a medical man
talk of amputation, cured by these means. Acetic acid, or white-wine
vinegar, rubbed over the skin, produces a similar increase of
insensible perspiration, and may be used without fear of injury. This
done once a week will go far to reduce sensitiveness to cold. Indeed,
the use of M'Clinton's soap and water, along with good acetic acid
sponging once a week, will prevent many serious ills by securing a
constant gentle excretion of hurtful waste through the stimulated skin.


Piles.--This very common trouble is caused by one or more of the veins
in the lower bowel losing their elasticity, so as to protrude more or
less from the anus, especially when the stress of a motion of the
bowels forces them out. When no blood proceeds from this swollen vein,
it is sometimes called a _blind_ pile. If blood comes, it is called a
_bleeding_ one.

There are few illnesses more prevalent than this, few that seem to be
less rationally dealt with, and yet few that are more easily cured.

It is distressing to think of what some poor people have to suffer from
this disease, while they are still compelled to go on working, and even
walking, in the most depressing sufferings. It is still more
distressing to think of the painful operations which some have to
undergo in having the relaxed portions of these veins cut out. Even
when the piles have got to a very advanced stage it is not difficult to
cure. It will generally be found that there is Constipation (_see_), so
first of all, the bowels must be regulated. This may be done by means
of liquorice and senna mixture, and strict attention to diet and
exercise. Then the nerve action in the lower back is to be stimulated
by applying to the back below the waist a large BRAN POULTICE (_see_).
Rub the back after this with hot vinegar, dry, rub with olive oil, and
wipe off the oil gently. Do this at bedtime. Into the bowels may be
injected (with the fountain enema) first one or two injections of warm
water; then an injection of warm water and white-wine vinegar. Be
particular to have this mixture not too strong. A trial may be made
with one tablespoonful of vinegar to a pint of water. If any pain is
caused, inject simple lukewarm water and use the vinegar and water next
time weaker. A very weak mixture has a wonderfully healing effect.
After one pint of this mixture has been injected, an injection of cool
water (but not cold) should follow. The vinegar should be so weak that
it will cause no pain, properly speaking,--only just the slightest
sensation of smarting. It will be possible to use the water colder and
the vinegar stronger as you get on with the cure, but in both, your own
feelings and good sense will guide you. This direction will suit other
cases of internal syringing, in which membranes have got relaxed, and
need to be braced with cold and weak acid. In all such troubles it
should be remembered that the warm or tepid water is used at first only
because the cold might be felt uncomfortable till the surfaces are
prepared for it. It is the cold that does the good. After this,
protruding piles may be gently manipulated by the fingers and pushed
back into their place. During this the patient must press outwards, as
if to discharge fæces from the bowel. The anus will then open and
permit of the piles being pressed in. The injecting treatment may be
given twice a day. If too painful, even bathing the parts with the
vinegar and cold water has great healing power.

Let the sufferer, if at all possible, have _entire rest_ for a
fortnight during the treatment, and lie down as much as convenient.

In mild cases, simply bathe the piles with cold water and press them
back into their places. A daily wash of the anus with SOAP (_see_) and
warm water, followed by a cold sponging, will do much to prevent piles.


Pimples on the Face.--_See_ Face.


Pleurisy.--The pleura is the tender double web, or membrane, which
lines the inside of the chest on the one side and covers the lung, or
rather encloses the lung with its other fold. Each of the two lungs has
its pleura in which it works, and each side of the chest is lined by
one side of this sensitive organ. The slender lining passes round the
greater part of one whole side of the body with one-fold, and round the
whole of the lung with the other. Let us suppose (which often takes
place) that the front of the body is defended with what is called a
"chest protector," but the sides and back are exposed to a chilling
atmosphere. Part of the pleura, and that part which is farthest from
the surface, is sheltered, but the greater part of it, and that nearest
the surface, has no such protection. In the case especially of women
this is the state of things. It seems as if people thought that they
only need to keep a few inches of the breast warm--that is keeping the
chest all right--though the sides just under the arms, and the back
under the shoulder-blades, are of far greater importance. The throat is
even muffled, and a "respirator" worn, so that fresh air is not allowed
to get inside the lungs, while the pleura is exposed to chill at the
back. The consequence of this is that vital action is so abstracted
from the pleura that the tension of its small vessels is relaxed, and
blood is admitted as it is not intended it should be.

Severe pain is felt on one or both sides, and round under the
shoulder-blade. A painful cough arises, and great fever is produced. In
such a case the treatment is on the same principle as that given in
Lungs, Inflammation of the, which should be read. The inflamed part
must be cooled by applying towels well wrung out of cold water round
the side, applying a fresh one when that on the part becomes warm. If
the pain does not leave in half-an-hour of this treatment, or if the
patient be weak to begin with, or if any chilliness is felt, pack the
feet and legs in a large hot fomentation. The cooling of the side may
then go on safely until a curative effect is produced. We may not be
able to give the theory of action of this treatment, but we know that
in many cases it has perfectly and very speedily been successful, and
that it leaves no bad results, as blistering and drugging are apt to
do. We know of one case in which it took twenty-four hours' constant
treatment to effect a cure. But it did effect it. Two friends took
"shifts," and saw that all was thoroughly done. This will give an idea
of the proper way to go about the matter.


Poisoning.--The following are the antidotes and remedies for some of
the more common forms of poisoning.

Alcohol.--The patient is quite helpless, and there is usually a strong
smell of alcohol. If the patient is intoxicated at the time give an
emetic. If there is evident prostration from a long bout, keep him
quiet and warm. Hot tea not too strong may be given.

Alkalis (_e.g._, ammonia, soda or potash).--Give dilute vinegar,
followed by white of egg.

Arsenic.--Emetic, followed by white of egg. Keep very warm.

Carbolic.--Readily identified by smell of tar or carbolic. Wash mouth
well with oil. Give an emetic.

Chloral.--Emetic; warm coffee, and even an enema of coffee. Artificial
respiration (_see_ Drowning) may be necessary if breathing gets very
low.

Chloroform or Ether (inhaled).--Fresh air. Pull tongue forward, and
begin artificial respiration. If heart has stopped, strike chest two or
three times over region of heart.

Chloroform or Ether (swallowed).--Emetic; enema of hot coffee; keep
awake. If necessary, artificial respiration.

Copper.--Emetic, white of egg to follow.

Laudanum.--There is intense drowsiness and contraction of pupils of
eye. Give an emetic and plenty of strong coffee. Walk patient up and
down. On no account allow him to give way to the desire for sleep.

Mineral Acids and Glacial Acetic.--If any neutralising agent, such,
_e.g._, as lime, chalk, soda, or calcined magnesia, is at hand, give it
at once. Or give an emetic, followed by oil or milk and water.

Mushrooms.--Emetic; castor oil and enema.

Nicotine (tobacco).--Emetic; stimulate and keep warm; keep patient
lying down.

Oxalic Acid.--Neutralise by chalk or lime water, but not by soda or any
alkali. Give plenty of water; apply hot fomentations to loins.

Phosphorus.--Often caused by children sucking matches. There is a
burning in the throat, and often vomiting. Give an emetic. After this
some barley water or milk may be given.

Prussic Acid.--Almost hopeless. Emetic; artificial respiration.

Snake Bite.--Suck the wound, and apply a drop or two of strong ammonia
to the bite. Ammonia may be also inhaled. Artificial respiration often
necessary.

Strychnine.--Emetic; keep quiet and darken the room. Chloral or bromide
of potassium may be given. If spasms threaten respiration, artificial
respiration is necessary.

Tartar Emetic or other Antimonial Poisons.--If vomiting is not present,
induce it by an emetic. Give doses of strong tea. Keep very warm by hot
blankets.

Good domestic emetics are a teaspoonful of mustard in a tumblerful of
water, or a tablespoonful of salt in the same quantity of water.


Poisoning, Blood.--Where this arises from a more or less putrid wound,
what is aimed at in the treatment is to stop the manufacture of the
poison in the wound by cleansing and healing it. This done, the other
symptoms will subside. The wound should be carefully brushed with a
camel's-hair brush and vinegar or dilute ACETIC ACID (_see_). This
should be followed up with a poultice of boiled potatoes or turnips,
beaten up with the same weak acid. Leave this on all night. Brush again
well with the acid in the morning. In the matter of diet eat what will
produce healthy blood, and by open-air exercise seek the same end. But
the daily brushing and poulticing, or even twice daily if necessary,
will work wonders on the poisoned wound. Care should be taken where any
cut or wound has been made in the flesh, that it is carefully washed,
and any dirt or foreign matter removed. Especially is this to be
attended to if a rusty nail or penknife has inflicted the injury.


Polypus.--_See_ Nostrils.


Potato Poultice.--Potatoes boiled and beaten up with buttermilk, spread
out in the usual way, make this useful poultice. Weak acid or vinegar
may also be used instead of buttermilk. The potatoes should be boiled
as recommended below.


Potato, The.--The proper cooking of this root is so important for
health, owing to its universal use, that we here give directions which,
if followed out, make potatoes a dish acceptable to even a very
delicate stomach. Difficulty of digestion often arises from the
potatoes not ripening properly, especially in cold soil, and since
disease has become so widespread. Their unripe juice is positively
poisonous, and when they are merely boiled is not completely expelled.
The potatoes should be _steeped_ in warm water for an hour before they
are boiled. The water in which they have been steeped will be greenish
with bad juice, and must be thrown away, and the roots boiled in fresh
water as usual, giving a thorough _drying_ after the boiling water is
poured or strained off. So prepared, the potatoes make a very
digestible dish.


Poultice, Bran.--_See_ Bran Poultice.


Prostration, Nervous.--The various articles under Nerves and
Nervousness should be read. Here we give simply the treatment for
failure in the digestion and bowel action. This arises from failure in
the great nerve centres near the middle of the body. External treatment
may be given as follows:--Dip a cotton cloth, four-ply thick, and large
enough to cover the stomach and bowels, into cayenne Lotion (_see_),
and lightly wring it. Lay this gently over the stomach and bowels. Over
this an india-rubber bag of hot water is laid. Take care that the heat
is not _too great_ or the mixture _too strong_. All must be just hot
enough to be comfortable. This application may remain on for two hours,
and then be repeated. The cayenne is greatly to be preferred to mustard
for many reasons. Give the most easily assimilated food possible. A
teaspoonful of gruel each half-hour, increased to a dessertspoonful, if
the digestion will bear it, and preceded in all cases by a
tablespoonful of hot water. This should be continued for twenty-four
hours. Proceed very cautiously then to increase the nourishment, on the
lines of Assimilation, Diet, Digestion, etc., giving oatmeal jelly,
wheaten porridge, Saltcoats biscuits, and such diet, _gradually_
bringing the patient back to ordinary food.


Pulse, Counting the.--Most valuable information as to the nature and
progress of disease is derivable from the pulse. Every one should learn
to count it, and to distinguish the broad differences in the rapidity
and nature of the beat. Such a distinction as that between BRONCHITIS
and ASTHMA (_see these articles_), which require almost directly
opposite treatment, is at once discerned from the pulse. In bronchitis
it beats much too quickly, in asthma it is natural or too slow. In many
cases we have seen asthma, which in cough and spit is very like
bronchitis, treated as bronchitis, with bad results. These would all
have been avoided if the pulse had been intelligently counted. Count
the pulse, if at all possible, for _half-a-minute_. This multiplied by
two will give the rate per minute, by which it is judged. If this rate
per minute be above 100, there is a good deal of feverish or
inflammatory action somewhere. If below 60, there is considerable lack
of vital power, requiring rest and food to restore it.

In adults the rate for males is from 70 to 75 beats per minute, and for
females 75 to 80. In infants the healthy pulse may be at birth 130 to
140 per minute, diminishing with increase of age. In the case of any
child under five and over one year, if the pulse beats, say, 108 in the
minute, it is too fast. The pulse of an adult may go down as low as 60
or even 50 per minute, but there is then something wrong.

Cooling the head is always safe with high pulse and feverishness, and
often this alone will ward off disease and restore the healthy
condition. If the pulse be low, fomentations to the feet should be
applied, along with cooling action elsewhere, if necessary.


Purple Spots on Skin.--These arise first as small swellings. The
swellings fall, and leave purple patches behind, which, if the trouble
continues, become so numerous as to spoil the appearance of the skin.
This especially occurs in children or young people, whose skin is
exceptionally delicate. What has occurred is really much the same as
the result of a blow or pinch, leaving the skin "black and blue." Some
of the delicate vessels in the skin have given way, and dark blood
collects on the spot.

The treatment is to sponge all over the body and limbs with warm
CAYENNE "TEA" (_see_), only strong enough to cause a slight smarting.
It should never cause pain. If it does so, the tea is too strong, and
should be diluted with warm water. The soapy LATHER (_see_) may also be
used, and olive oil may with advantage be rubbed on as well. Milk and
boiling water should be given to the patient every two hours during the
day, with a few drops of the cayenne "tea" in it. This is a true
stimulant, and worth all the whiskey in the world. The object of the
treatment is to nurse the patient's strength, and stimulate the skin.
An intelligent study of many articles in this book will guide the
thoughtful how to act.


Racks from Lifting.--_See_ Muscular Pains; Sprains.


Rash, or Hives.--Infants are often troubled with large red,
angry-looking spots, breaking out over the body, and causing trouble by
their heat and itching. These are commonly known as hives. If the water
in which a child is washed be hard, it will sometimes cause the skin to
inflame and become "hivey." If the soap has much soda in it, it will
also cause this. What is called glycerine soap, and much of what is
sold as peculiarly desirable, is utterly unsuitable for an infant's
skin. Soda soap will cause serious outbreaks even worse than "hives,"
and will often not be suspected at all, as a cause.

Only M'Clinton's soap, which is made from the ash of plants, should be
used on tender skins.

When the "hives" are not very troublesome, they are apt to be
neglected; but this should not be, as in most cases this is the time
they may be easily cured. The true element in cure is found in
attention to the _skin_, as distinct from the stomach or blood.
M'Clinton's soap (_see_ Soap) applied as fine creamy lather will _cure_
hives, and will never, we think, fail to do so. We know of a nurse
plastering an infant's body with this soap, so that it was blistered.
This is a totally wrong way of working. The right way is to work the
soap and hot water as described in article Lather, and to apply it
gently with the brush to the parts affected. After applying it with
gentle rubbing for some time, and leaving some on the sore places, the
infant will usually be soothed to sleep. Where over-cooling is feared,
with a weak child, a little olive oil is gently rubbed on with the
second coat of lather. In any case of itchiness the above treatment is
almost certain to cure. Often the infant is suffering from too rich
diet. (_See_ Children's Food.) In such cases, thinner milk, and a
little fluid magnesia administered internally will effect a cure.


Remedy, Finding a.--It will sometimes occur, in the case of those
endeavouring to cure on our system of treatment, that on applying what
is thought to be the correct remedy, the trouble becomes worse. For
example, where there are violent pains in the legs, a bran poultice is
put on the lower back, and it is rubbed with oil. The pains become
worse instead of better, and perhaps our whole system is abandoned and
condemned. Now, all that is required here is to think and try until we
find the _true_ remedy. If the pain in the legs is rheumatic, the hot
poultice is all right. If it has been cramp, what is needed is a cold
cloth on the lower back, instead of heat. In the example above given,
what is needed is not to abandon the treatment, but to rectify the
mistake, and apply cold instead of heat. In a great many forms of
illness the same principle holds good. It is safer, where there is any
doubt, to try heat first, but not in a very strong manner. If this
gentle heating makes matters worse, gentle cooling may be tried. If the
heat does good, it may be continued and increased, but never beyond the
point of comfort. If the cold does good, it also may be continued on
the same principle. What the patient feels relieving and comforting, is
almost sure to be the cure for his trouble, if persisted in. _See_
Changing Treatment.


Rest.--In every person there is a certain amount only of force which is
available for living. Also this force, or _vitality_, is _produced_ at
only a certain definite rate. Where the rate is very low, only perfect
quiet in bed for a time can bring down the expenditure far enough to
enable the vital force gradually to accumulate, and a cure to be
effected. Sitting, in such cases, may be serious overwork.

When rest is ordered, we are often met by the reply that it is
impossible, as work cannot be given up. It is, however, often possible
to get a great deal more than is taken. Every spare moment should be
spent lying down in the most restful position. It is an important
element in nursing to give such a comfortable recumbent position to a
patient as constitutes perfect rest, and the nurse who does so, does a
great deal to cure.

There is with many a prejudice against rest. It is somehow believed
that it is a weakening thing to lie still in bed. "You must get up and
take exercise, and enjoy the fresh air." This is a very good order for
a person who has the strength for bracing exercise and fresh air. But
this is absent in a person truly ill. That person's vital force is low,
and the organs that supply it are feeble in their action. The fresh air
may enter the chest, but the lungs are not in a state to make good use
of it. "Exercise and fresh air" only consume the sufferer. On the
contrary, rest and fresh air allow the weak vital force to recruit. The
sort of exercise which is wanted in such cases is given by others in
massaging or such squeezing the muscles as stimulates the organic
nerves without using vital force in the sufferer. We have repeatedly
succeeded in giving new strength by some weeks in bed, when it could
not have been given otherwise. It is all very well for a young, strong
person, only a very little out of sorts, to take a cold sitz-bath for
ten minutes, and then a walk of a mile or two in mountain or seashore
air. But this treatment would be death to one really ill. Perfect rest
in bed, with an abundant supply of air through windows open night and
day, would save the life which such "exercise and air" would send out
of the world. It requires only a little common sense to see this. "He
must be weakened by lying in bed so long." There is no such "must" in
the nature of things. On the contrary, it may be absolutely necessary
to his getting strength that he should lie still for weeks on end. You
may, no doubt, give us instances in which a person was compelled to get
up, and was thereby made to lose the delusion that he was not able to
do so; but such instances in any number will not make one strong who is
actually weak. Make sure first that vital energy is supplied, and when
that supply rises to a certain degree it will not be easy to keep your
patient in bed.

We would also note that true rest can never be had in a forced
position. A limb bound down is not resting. The agonising desire to
change its position shows this. True rest is found always in _freedom_
and _ease_. It may be necessary to put splints on a limb, but it must
never be done where rest is aimed at. Usually there is a position of
comfort to be found. Let the patient find and keep that. He will then
have rest.

For instance, an exhausted patient is lying at full length in bed, but
under the waist there is a hollow which is bridged over by the back.
This part of the back calls for a considerable amount of force to hold
it over this hollow, but we get a pillow inserted under the back, the
muscles relax, and the patient rests. In packing and fomenting an
inflamed knee, for example, it is usually better done in a slightly
_bent_ position, which is more restful than a straight one. Employ two
or three small pillows to prop it comfortably. And so on, in multitudes
of cases, the earnest healer will be guided by the patient's own
restful feelings. _See also_ Noise; Veins.


Restlessness.--In slight cases, where the patient simply cannot sleep
for tossing about in bed, a cold towel placed along the spine, with a
dry one above, will usually relieve, especially if changed and cooled
several times as it grows warm. If heat be specially in the head, then
that may be cooled in the same manner till peace settles down in the
brain.

But we must go on to consider those cases of restlessness in which
there is no extra heat in either spine or brain. Tea may have been
taken in a rather strong infusion, or so late that its peculiar
influence may be the cause of the restlessness. It is necessary to
avoid this beverage if such restlessness is to be escaped; still it
will generally be found that in cases in which tea has caused serious
wakefulness and restless tossing, that there is more than the mere
effect of the herb, and that superabundant heat is present also; then
the application already pointed out will give relief.

Now take an instance in which it seems to be the mind that causes the
tossing rather than the body. Preachers after earnest preaching are in
many cases sleepless and restless too; so are almost all persons when
currents of exciting thoughts have been set agoing in their minds.
Then, no doubt, it is necessary to get at relief from the spiritual
side, by means of thought fitted to calm down the excitement that has
been raised. But it is never well to forget that in all such cases
there is a material as well as a spiritual aspect of the experience.
Many preachers take a sitz-bath before going to bed after a day of
service, and find that somehow when sitting in the cool water the
over-driven brain begins to slacken pace. If from any cause you are
restless and cannot lie still, even after the head and spine have been
cooled as we have described, it is well to take a sitz-bath in cold
water for a few minutes. Dry and wrap up well, and you will be quiet
after. Certain forms of coughing apparently cause the most serious
restlessness. A warm poultice should be placed between the shoulders,
and cold cloths pressed gently on the breast.

If there is extreme shrinking from everything in the least degree cold,
then you need to go a step back in your treatment. A sponging of the
most gentle kind, with CAYENNE LOTION (_see_) and water, all over the
body, given very carefully for three or four days, once a day, will put
away the shrinking to which we refer. This should be done with tepid
water at first, but as the skin freshens it will be found comfortable
to do it with cool water. In tender cases the poultice or hot bag will
need to be comfortably warm, and not hot. The cool cloth must not be
wintry cold, nor even at first summer cold. It is, however, necessary
to get at the hot and irritating surfaces that are causing the cough,
with more or less that is cooling. We may do this ever so gradually,
but we must do it, if we would succeed in giving rest from the cough.
In a strong person's case there is really no difficulty. It is an easy
matter to put on cloth after cloth till the irritated part is reached
and cooled. But when the patient is spent to all but a skeleton, and
has restlessness from frequent coughing, it is a very different matter.
Still to the very last the irritating heat may be kept down, and long
sleeps given, when otherwise it would be hard work indeed to get
through the last stages of illness. We write thus because we know it is
possible to give precious relief even when it is out of the question to
save life. It is possible to make even the last night on earth
comparatively a peaceful one, instead of its being so very restless as
it often is. This is to be done just by cooling the parts that
irritate, and these only. Generally, heat may be required rather than
cold, but at the part which is irritating and keeping up the coughing,
there must be cooling. The kind and capable nurse who can carry out
this cooling is beyond all price. Those only can understand this who
have been delivered from an all but incessant cough by means that
produce no reaction. It is also well to remember that we now and again
give life by means of rest when we had no idea of giving more than
temporary comfort. We have repeatedly had cases in which there seemed
no hope of doing anything further than giving relief, but that relief
has turned out to be the commencement of cure.


Rheumatic Fever.--_See_ Fever, Rheumatic.


Rheumatism.--We feel urged, in first considering this sore and very
common trouble, to quote the old adage that "prevention is better than
cure." Many people laugh at wettings, and some foolish young ones even
seek exposure. We would impress upon all such that the effects of
exposure may be, and often are, cumulative: that is, you may escape any
direct effect for years, and then find your recklessness end in
rheumatism for the rest of your life. Let care, then, be taken to avoid
wettings, unless these lie in the way of duty. Change clothes as
speedily as possible when they are wet, and encourage the skin to all
healthy action by proper care and exercise. Even with the skin all
right, a wise man will not act in a foolhardy way, but if he must get
wet and chilled, he will probably not suffer very much.

We would strongly recommend the use of Kneipp linen underclothing
(_see_ Underwear). It powerfully stimulates the skin, and, by
conducting away the perspiration, prevents chills. We have known many
who suffered severely from rheumatism being quite cured by the use of
this material. It is as comfortable as it is hygienic.

But supposing the rheumatism does come on, it may be treated, in mild
cases, by gradual and steady moist heating. For the method of applying
this, _see_ Fomentation and Armchair Fomentation. If the case is
comparatively a fresh one, there will be need for no more than this
fomenting, repeated several times at intervals of two to four hours.

Where the nervous system has been seriously affected, the fomentation
must be gradual, and the moist heat gently insinuated into the parts
affected. Where narcotics have been used, these _must_ be given up if a
cure is to be hoped for.

In certain chronic cases, which are very largely nervous in their
origin, a powerful soothing influence is required. This is secured by
the use of soap lather (_see_ Lather; Soap). Cover the back and head,
piece by piece, with this, rubbing it on and off four or five times.
Cover the fifth application with a soft cloth, and leave it on for the
day in the morning, and for the night in the evening, the patient being
in bed. Hot olive oil or occasionally cold drawn oil of mustard is
gently rubbed on the stiff parts; when this cloth is removed, gently
knead or squeeze the oil into the muscles. If during the lathering the
patient feels too cold, a little olive oil should be mixed with the
lather. A change to a dry climate from a damp one sometimes does a
patient good, but when that is not possible, great relief, and in many
cases cure, is to be had by this treatment.


Ringworm.--This distressing and most infectious trouble is due to a
small parasite. Where that settles in the skin, a reddish _ring_ soon
appears, and gradually widens, leaving a leprous white patch of skin
within it. Care should be taken at once to cure this, as, if it spreads
widely, serious results follow. Fortunately it is slow in growth, and
can easily be checked and cured. The method of cure is to soak the
rings well with vinegar or weak acetic acid. Of strong acid use three
tablespoonfuls to a quart of water. By even the first good soaking with
this, the developed parasites are killed, but the eggs are not. These
hatch out by degrees, so that renewed soaking and "dabbing" with the
acid and a soft cloth are required. Each application may be continued
for fifteen minutes. If the hair, as on the head, interferes, it may be
cut closely, but need not be shaved. In a bad case the daily soaking
with acid may not be sufficient. Then a poultice of potatoes and
buttermilk (_see_ Buttermilk Poultice) may be applied first, and
afterwards the weak acid. Secure that there be felt, before the close
of each application, a _slight smarting_, to show that the acid has
really soaked in. It is not difficult to guard against its spreading in
a family or school. All that need be done is, once a week or so, to see
that the whole skin of those exposed to infection, head included, is
freshened by a wash all over with vinegar, and then protected with a
gentle rub of olive oil. If this is done we should have little fear of
contagion. Such a weekly freshening would ward off other evils as well
as this one.


Rose.--_See_ Erysipelas.


Rupture.--The abdomen is formed of a series of _rings_ containing the
bowels, and holding them in proper position. If the muscles and tissues
holding these rings _yield_ so as to permit them to separate a little,
what is called "rupture" takes place. It may be caused by violent
muscular efforts, heavy weight lifting, jumping from a height, etc.,
etc. The rings are not broken, but only displaced, and especially with
young persons, the "rupture" can soon be brought all right, but even
with the aged, in all cases it may be mitigated, if not cured, by
proper treatment.

The first thing is to replace any part of the bowels which may have
escaped through the opening of the rings. Lay the patient flat on his
back. He must not be treated in any other attitude. Then rub the
swelling gently _downwards_. It _must not_ be rubbed upwards, or it
will be made worse. This rubbing will soon bring the bowel into its
proper place. Give some time and kindly care to this treatment, which
is very important. Then get a surgical instrument maker to fit a proper
truss. See that this really fits. If it hurts in any way when first put
on, it does not fit well enough. Avoid for a considerable time any
effort likely to strain the part. Take light and easily digested food;
give up all alcoholic drinks and the use of tobacco.


Saliva.--_See_ Digestion; Nourishment.


Saltrome.--The disease known by this name in Canada breaks out in the
hands, especially on the palms. The skin cracks open and refuses to
heal up. Sometimes, if the hands do heal, the trouble comes out on
other parts. It is probably due to the long-continued use of bad and
strongly irritating soap in washing the hands and face, conjoined, in
Canada, with the great dryness of the air.

The treatment for prevention is the regular use of M'Clinton's soap
(_see_ Soap). Where the trouble has developed, the hands and face, if
involved, should be packed in cloths soaked in buttermilk. Then over
the packing we should foment with large hot flannel cloths (_see_
Fomentation). Renew, if necessary, the buttermilk packing, and after a
thorough fomenting, leave the buttermilk cloths on all night, with dry
ones on top. Then gently anoint with OLIVE OIL (_see_). This treatment,
with some rest and the use of the above-mentioned soap, should soon
effect a cure.


Santolina.--This plant is the _Chama Cyparissos_, or ground cypress. It
is of the greatest value as a remedy for worms in the bowels (not
tapeworm), and also acts as a stomach tonic of no small value. It is
cut at the end of the season, made up in small bunches of six stalks or
so, and hung up to dry. When required for worms, boil one of these
bunches in three teacupfuls of water until it is reduced to two
teacupfuls. Half-a-teacupful of this is given to a _child_ with worms,
each morning before any food, for four days. In the evening of the
fourth day an ordinary dose of liquorice powder is given to move the
bowels. For a _grown-up person_ the quantity is a full teacupful each
morning. If a child picks at his nostrils, or grinds his teeth while
sleeping, the santolina will cure him, even if no other symptom of
worms is noticed. It may with advantage be used in all cases where
there is indication of the failure of the mucous membrane of the
stomach and bowels.

Where required as a stomach tonic, santolina should be infused with
boiling water, as tea is. About half-an-ounce of the dried herb is
infused, and a small teacupful taken as hot as can easily be drunk
about an hour after each meal. Half the quantity will do for young
people under fourteen. Do this six days in succession. Then take none
for six days. Then again take it for three days. This treatment may be
repeated after a week.


Sciatica.--This is a severe pain in the lower back, shooting sharply
down the back and calf of the leg. It arises from inflammation of the
large nerve which supplies these parts of the leg with power. Most
commonly it is caused by exposure of the hips or lower back to cold and
damp, as by sitting on the grass or a stone seat.

The cure for it, in the earlier stages, is the application of the
ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_). This may be applied for an hour, and
renewed immediately for another hour if the patient can stand it, and
then rest given for two hours, and the fomentation applied for two
hours again, or at least for one, taking care to rub with oil and wrap
up in comfortable flannels between and after the treatment. This may be
done again on the second day. The fomentation may then be given once a
day until the pain is removed.

Be quite sure that no trifling application will succeed with such a
disease as this. It will not do to use less heat than will go through
and through the haunches of the patient; and that amount of heat is not
very small. You must have a good soft blanket if possible, your water
must be boiling hot, and you must have plenty of it.

If the hot treatment causes increase of pain, this indicates that a
stage has arrived in which _cold_ is to be applied instead of heat to
the lower back, to subdue nerve irritation. Before or after this stage,
cold application will do harm, so it is well always to try heat first,
as in the great majority of cases that is what is required. When cold
is applied, the patient _must be warm_, and if necessary the feet and
legs should be fomented.

To keep what is got either by the soothing influence of cold or by the
stimulating power of heat, it is good to rub with hot olive oil, and to
dry this off well in finishing, and also to wear a good broad band of
new flannel round the lower part of the body. This band ought not to be
so tight as to confine the perspiration. _See_ Changing Treatment;
Remedy, Finding a.


Scrofula.--The treatment under Glands, Swollen, should be followed. But
besides, the whole membranous system of the glands must be stimulated.
Daily rubbing briskly over the whole body with the cold-drawn oil of
mustard for a quarter-of-an-hour will have this effect, and even by
itself may cure.

Good, easily digested food must be taken (_see_ Abscess; Assimilation;
Diet; Nourishment), and overwork avoided. Continued work, as with a
child at school, may quite prevent a cure, while if the work ceases,
the cure will be rapid. It is better to have health and holidays than
sickness and school. Where there is a family tendency to scrofula, care
should be taken to treat promptly any case of glandular swelling.


Scurvy.--Is a disease springing from disordered digestion, and caused
sometimes by partial starvation, but more frequently by a deficiency of
vegetable acid in the food. It often manifests itself in skin
eruptions, the skin peeling off in scales. To ward off or cure this
disease, fresh food should always be used, and salted or tinned foods
avoided. Especially should abundance of green vegetables and fruit be
used, and where such cannot be obtained in sufficient quantity, lemon
juice is valuable. Too much exposure, fatigue, and impure air, aided by
a wrong diet, are the causes that formerly made scurvy so prevalent in
the navy. It has almost disappeared since a regular allowance of
vegetable acid has been served out.


Seamill Sanatorium and Hydropathic.--Very soon after the appearance of
these "Papers on Health," the need was felt for some establishment
where the treatment expounded here could be given by trained attendants
under Dr. Kirk's personal supervision. The site was fixed on the
Ayrshire coast, in the parish of West Kilbride. This region was chosen
because special advantages of soil, climate, and scenery recommended
it. The soil along the shore is almost pure sand, and dries rapidly
after rain. The climate is extremely mild, high hills sheltering the
whole region from north and east winds, and the Arran mountains,
intervening some sixteen miles over the sea to the west, collect much
of the rain. Hence, although near some very rainy districts, the
Seamill neighbourhood is peculiarly sunny and dry. In winter the sun
reflected from the water, and beating on the face of the hills, makes
the shore climate most genial, and when other places only a few miles
away are encased in ice, flowers will be blooming in the gardens at
Seamill. In the very best part of this district a villa was secured in
1880 by some gentlemen interested in the treatment, with grounds
abutting on the sand of the seashore.

Here treatment was carried on with great success, until it became
evident that larger premises were needed. In 1882 Mr. James Newbigging
was secured by Dr. Kirk as manager and head-bathman, and worked under
Dr. Kirk until the latter's death in 1886.

Mr. Newbigging then bought the establishment. Since that time, it has
constantly increased in size and efficiency until it now accommodates
close on a hundred patients.

Very many have come to Seamill almost or quite hopeless, and have left
it with health restored and vigour renewed.

It ought to be mentioned here that in all his dealings with this
establishment Dr. Kirk never had any pecuniary interest in it, always
giving his services free. Nor has the writer, or any of Dr. Kirk's
family, any pecuniary connection with the place. All information as to
the establishment may be had by writing to the Proprietor or Manager,
Seamill Sanatorium, West Kilbride, Scotland.


Sea-Sickness.--The cause of this is a nervous derangement of the
internal organs, by which the bile passes into the stomach instead of,
as it normally does, passing down into the intestines. A tight bandage
round the middle of the body, so as to oppose resistance to this, will
help _so far_. When the sickness has come on, a teacupful of hot water,
at intervals, will very largely mitigate, and will often cure it. Even
half a teacupful or a tablespoonful will prove sufficient in many cases
where the teacupful cannot be taken. If this small quantity of hot
water be taken every ten minutes, the worst effects of sea-sickness
will not be felt, and far more relief obtained than most people will
believe until they have tried it.


Sensitiveness.--When the nervous system is in a certain state, all
impressions on it are exaggerated, and the patient suffers from light
sounds, and various irritations, far more than is usual or healthy.
This state makes treatment difficult, because either cold towel or hot
flannel distresses the sufferer, and by this does more harm than good.
Narcotics only do harm, without any good, and leave the patient worse.

The nervous system may in such cases be soothed by soaping the back
with soap lather (_see_ Lather; Soap). The lather is to be blood heat,
and very soft and creamy. Spread it all over a soft cloth as large as
the back (having first warmed the cloth), and then place it gently on
the back, lather side next the skin. Let this be done at bedtime.
Fasten the cloth on the back with a bodice that will fasten closely,
and let the patient sleep on it. Wash off in the morning with warm
vinegar and water half-and-half. Rub with oil and dry off. Let the
patient take twice a-day, for eight days, a teaspoonful of well-boiled
liquorice and a tablespoonful of hot water. This treatment will usually
abate the sensitiveness in a week or so, and bring the patient within
reach of other remedies. For example, it will, after a week or so, even
in very trying cases, be possible to foment the feet and legs once a
day, and rub them with warm olive oil. It will even be possible and
well to foment with a hot blanket across the haunches, and in this way
to bring on comparatively strong health. Change of air and scene will
then be desirable: it is highly refreshing to one who is in the way of
recovering, though only harassing to one who is feeling despondent and
increasingly ill. We generally, when asked if a "change" would not be
good in such cases, reply, "Yes, if once you have got health enough to
enjoy it." When that has been fairly secured, stronger measures may be
used with advantage. We feel much sympathy with those who suffer from
sensitiveness, as so many do, and earnestly pray that these remarks may
be blessed to such sufferers.


Shampooing.--_See_ Head, Soaping.


Shingles.--Though not often fatal, this illness gives serious trouble.
Its outstanding feature is a rash which comes out as a more or less
regular belt round the body, or over one shoulder. The rash forms, if
allowed to go on, into blackish scabs, and is accompanied in some
instances by severe pains shooting through the body. It arises from a
failure of the digestive system, therefore the stomach must be as
little taxed as possible. Let hot water be sipped in teaspoonfuls for
half-an-hour at a time, several times a day. For external treatment,
wring a small sheet out of cold water and vinegar, and pack the whole
trunk of the patient in this for half-an-hour. Do not use olive oil.
The vinegar packing may be renewed in an hour, and as often as the
patient feels it agreeable. The mixture of vinegar and water must be
weak enough not to be painful on the skin. If the pains in the body
persist, then cold cloths may be applied, not very large at first, to
the spine, while the patient is warm in bed. Should the feet be cold,
this cooling of the spine must not be done until they are wrapped in a
hot fomentation up to the knees. If the scabby eruption is very
obstinate, the SOAPY BLANKET (_see_) applied daily for two or three
days should clear it away. Wheaten porridge, gruel, and milk diet is
best. A drink may be made of hot water and lemon juice, with five or
six drops of tincture of cayenne added to a tumblerful, and sweetened
to taste. _See_ Drinks.


Shivering.--This is often a trivial matter, but sometimes it is a
symptom of a serious chill. It may be only the effect of a thought, or
of some mental shock, but in any case it is a nervous disturbance, and
failure of energy, causing us to lose control of the nerves which
produce the shivering movements.

For ordinary shivering, the result of cold, treat as in Cold, Taking.
For cases where the vital action has evidently become very low, foment
the patient as directed in Angina Pectoris.

If pain in some part, as in a nursing breast or tender lung, indicates
inflammatory action there, cold towels may be applied to that part
while this fomentation is on. Renew the cold cloth as often as the
patient feels it agreeable, keeping up the heat of the fomentation all
the time. Increase the size of the cold cloth if the patient finds this
pleasant; stop if it becomes unpleasant. Many serious troubles are
checked in the first stage by treatment on these simple lines.


Sick Headache.--_See_ Headache.


Sitting (or Sitz) Bath.--This bath, in whatever form administered, is
essentially a sitting in cold water with the feet out. The feet, in
fact, are better to be warmly covered up while the patient sits in the
bath. The most important thing to be considered in all such baths is
the degree of vitality possessed by the patient. If he has much
vitality, then the bath may be deep and longer continued--as long as
even forty minutes. If the vitality be low, the bath must be brief and
very shallow--it may be even necessary to make it as short as _one
minute_, or even less. In some cases, as a beginning, a mere dip is all
that is required. This leaves a large discretion to the nurse, and is a
matter which common sense should be able to decide. To try a short bath
first, and repeat it several times, rather than to give one long one,
is the safest plan. It will soon be found out how much the patient can
bear. If the vitality be so low as to make the simple sitz-bath a
danger, the feet may be immersed, for the one or two minutes of the
bath, in a small bath of hot water, and the patient well wrapped up all
over in warm blankets.

In some cases it is necessary to _pour_ cold water on relaxed organs,
which, especially with females, will sometimes not be braced up by mere
immersion. But such pouring must be done with caution. Half-a-minute of
it is _a long time_; one quarter-of-a-minute or less will usually be
enough, even in important cases. If longer applications have only done
harm, then let our friends try the one-minute bath, or the
quarter-minute stream of water. In many cases we have known this make
all right. Such short baths may be taken twice or thrice a day.


Skin, Care of.--Among the vast majority of people air and water far too
seldom touch the skin. Want of water makes it unclean, and want of
water and air make it slow in reaction. Now, a healthy skin is of the
utmost value when one is attacked by disease. It can regulate the
temperature of the various organs, and the application of heat or cold
to it will cause a reaction at once. Much of our treatment as given in
this book is directed towards stimulating the action of the skin. It is
obvious that in health as in disease the skin can and does so act on
the internal organs.

It should be the aim of everyone that this most important part of the
body should receive careful attention by a strict watch on the diet, by
cleanliness, tonic water baths (cold, tepid, shower, as may be found to
suit), and by tonic air baths. Light clothing and porous underwear will
also be found of use. We have already drawn attention to the value of
Kneipp linen as the most suitable form of underwear (_see_).

[Illustration: Section of the Skin, showing glandular structure.
               Hairs
               Fat Cells
               Sebaceous Gland
               Sweat Gland
               Nutrient Artery
               Hair Bulb]


Skin, A Wintry.--Something like an epidemic of skin trouble is often
experienced in cold, wintry weather. First, the skin becomes dry and
hard. A moist and sticky exudation replaces the ordinary sweat, and
great irritation is felt when the skin is exposed to the air. If the
sticky exudation be completely rubbed off, this irritation ceases. In
this, and in the absence of inflammation, "wintry skin" differs
entirely from eczema. The remedy is to rub all over every night for
three or four nights with the CAYENNE LOTION (_see_). If this does not
effectually cure, lather all over with soap and olive oil (_see_
Lather; Soap), before rubbing with the cayenne lotion. If the treatment
of the whole skin at once is felt to be too severe, it may be cured by
taking it in parts.


Skin, Creeping.--A sensation sometimes very much annoys patients, which
they describe as like thousands of small creatures creeping over the
skin. It most commonly arises from defective working of the pores. A
kindred trouble may be noticed along with this creeping. It is as if a
stream of cold water were passing down the back. That causes great
discomfort in many cases.

The cure is sponging frequently with weak ACETIC ACID (_see_) or even
good buttermilk. The skin being in such cases very sensitive, it is
well to treat it bit by bit, a small part at a time. Take one limb,
then another, then part of the back, and then another part. Besides
this sponging with acid, and before it is done, the skin should be
gently covered with lather (_see_ Lather; Soap). If this treatment is
not successful, a little olive oil, with cayenne lotion, may be mixed
with the soapy lather, and will make its effect more powerful. This
creepy feeling is sometimes the result of cold, and some extra clothing
may remove it. _See_ Underwear.


Sleep.--No greater mistake could be made than to curtail the hours of
sleep. Eight hours should be taken as a minimum, and any weak person
should take ten hours. More and better work can be done by a person who
takes fully eight hours' sleep than by one who tries to do with less.

Sometimes strong tea or coffee is taken to drive away sleep, and so the
nervous system is injured and sleep will not come when it is desired.
Tea or coffee should never be taken except _very_ weak, and the person
who accustoms himself to this will very soon come greatly to prefer it.


Sleeplessness.--In search of sleep men do many things both dangerous
and foolish--sometimes even fatal. Sleeplessness arises in so many ways
and from so many causes, that it is often hard for the patient to find
a cure, and he will try anything in desperation. A little thought
should prevent this state of mind. For instance, we have a man who
tries to get sleep by fatiguing himself by long walks in the open air
or hard physical work of some kind, but he only grows worse. Now, a
little thought will show that sleep requires a certain amount of brain
energy. If the supply be below this amount, the brain is _too tired_ to
sleep. Violent exercise of any kind will only make matters worse. So
"keeping people awake" all day is tried, to make them sleep at night.
It fails from the same reason--that it _reduces_ brain power. All
narcotics in the end fail similarly. There comes a time when they have
so reduced brain power, that even an enormous dose fails to give sleep,
and the patient comes dangerously near poisoning himself--sometimes,
indeed, does so outright. In all these cases, that which has worn down
the brain _must be given up_ as a first condition of cure. Whether
brain work, over-excitement and dissipation, alcohol or tobacco, the
cause must be removed, and rest taken in the open air, or in well
ventilated rooms.

This done, we come to treatment. Soaping the head (_see_ Head,
Soaping), or even the application of towels wrung out of cold water,
will often, when the cause has been removed, do all that is needed to
give sleep. These remedies, especially the first, should be at once
applied, if the sleeplessness is accompanied, as is usual, with _heat
in the head_. Even where the fevered head is connected with
indigestion, the stomach will be powerfully helped by a good soaping of
the head at bedtime. If, on the contrary, the head is cold, then warm
fomentations to it will be the proper treatment. Perhaps the very best
guide will be to aim at what will make both head and feet perfectly
comfortable, and _both_ of natural heat. If cold, the feet must be
bathed or fomented, and the legs also up to the knees. Sometimes the
pouring of warm water in a _douche_ over the head will act perfectly,
instead of the fomentation; but pouring _cold_ water must be avoided,
or only very cautiously resorted to (_see_ Sitz-Bath and Restlessness).

Sometimes sleeplessness proceeds from the use of bad drinking water,
through its effect on the stomach and bowels. In this case, of course,
the first thing is to see that no bad water is drunk. People cannot be
too careful about a water supply. Usually boiling for half-an-hour
renders water safe enough, but this is not always the case. Care must
then be taken to see that water from any corrupted source is not used.
When it is given up, treatment as above may be applied.

If the sleeplessness be caused by a nasty tickling cough, put a BRAN
POULTICE (_see_), or similar FOMENTATION (_see_) on the back _behind_
where the cough catches. Then change cold towels _in front_ over the
same place. Soap the head, and sleep will probably soon come.

Where palpitation of the heart causes sleeplessness, change cold towels
over the heart, fomenting the feet if necessary, and the palpitation
will usually soon yield. _See_ Brain; Children's Sleep; Exercise; Head;
Rest.


Smallpox.--If an epidemic prevails in the neighbourhood, or a case
occurs in the house, after _due and carefully performed_ vaccination of
the family, the important matter to regard is _cleanliness_. Frequent
and thorough washing and changing of all the clothes worn next the skin
will do much to prevent possible infection. If the clothes are often
changed, then, and well washed, and the skin gets a daily washing with
soap and is sponged with hot vinegar, there is little danger of
infection during an epidemic of smallpox, or even when nursing the
disease. Acetic acid, or white wine vinegar, is even a more powerful
cleansing agent than carbolic acid, and has the advantage of being
non-poisonous.

It is important in treatment to attack the disease early. We have known
an attack completely defeated, and the patient cured, by a wet-sheet
pack administered at the right time. The early symptoms are a great
weariness and chilliness. In this _cold_ stage, half-a-teaspoonful of
cream of tartar, in two tablespoonfuls of hot water, should be given
every half-hour. Also (and this is important) wrap the feet and legs up
over the knees in a large hot FOMENTATION (_see_). The head also may be
packed in hot cloths. If the fever does not rise, the applications may
continue. If the fever does come on, _cold_ cloths must be persistently
changed on the head. This we have known _reduces_ the bodily
temperature two degrees in half-an-hour, when if left alone it would
probably have _risen_ two degrees. The whole body may be packed in a
damp sheet, covered with dry blanket, and this continued cooling of the
head still proceeded with.

When the eruption has appeared, and the violent itching set in, the
eruption must be persistently _soaked_ with weak ACETIC ACID (_see_),
or good white wine vinegar and water. In this soaking, avoid giving the
patient pain by too strong acid. The necessary healing power will be
found in such a mixture as will only cause the eruption slightly to
smart.

It is not necessary to treat a patient all over at once. You will do
better if you take one or two pimples at a time. You can then pass from
part to part slowly, getting over the whole. You can use a little olive
oil after this soaking with vinegar, and so keep off all danger of
chill such as might occur if too much of the surface were treated at
once.

If these simple means are well applied from the first, it must be a
very bad case indeed which will not be cured, and most likely without
any marks being left on the skin.


Snake Bites.--A snake bite is only one of a large class of injuries
which may be considered under one title. From an insect sting upwards
to the most fatal snake bite, we need to note, first, the _blow_ or
_shock_ of the bite, and then the fever symptoms which show poison
spreading in the system. The blow or shock paralyses or kills a larger
or smaller part of the nervous system. The nerve of the heart may be
almost instantly so paralysed, with fatal effect. The snake poison
especially affects the organic nervous system, and thus attacks the
very source of vitality. In smaller stings, rubbing vinegar or weak
ACETIC ACID (_see_) into the wound is sufficient almost instantly to
cure. The same substance will cure greater evils. In the case of snake
bite, first suck the wound thoroughly, watching that the lips and gums
of the person who sucks are free from wound or scratch, or use what is
called "dry cupping." Much may be done thus in a _few seconds_. But it
must not be continued longer, and hinder the next step. This is to
inject weak acetic acid _into the bite_. Where snakes are abundant, a
small syringe, such as is used to inject morphia, with a rather blunt
point, should be always carried, and acetic acid of the right strength.
The injection must be _thorough_, and of course pain must be borne to
avoid greater evil. Foment cautiously but persistently over the stomach
and along the spine. Pay special attention to the lower back if bitten
in the foot or leg, and to the upper part if in the hand or arm. During
recovery, give careful diet, and rest. Of course this treatment will
fail in some cases, as any treatment may. But if immediately applied,
it will save a very large number of lives.


Soaping the Head.--_See_ Head, Soaping.


Soap, M'Clinton's.--Those of our readers who have followed out in
practice the suggestions which we have given in these papers, will have
seen some reason to believe in the importance of soap. Probably some of
them have laughed at patients whose chief need evidently was a good
washing of the skin! But there is more in soap applications than mere
cleansing. These are found to be of immense value in cases in which
there has been no want of perfect cleanliness--in cases even in which
the skin has been habitually clean. For instance, in patients with
nerves so sensitive that almost no application of any kind can be used,
a covering of the back with a fine lather, and over this a soft cloth,
has soothed the system so effectively that a great step has been
secured by this alone in the direction of cure.

When in search of really good soap we soon find that certain soaps are
very harmful. Soaps made from "soda ash," as nearly all hard soaps are,
tend to dry and harden the skin, and if used often produce bad effects.

Soda soap does well enough for many purposes, and if it is not used
often, and the skin is strong, no great harm may be done; but when it
has to be used frequently, or is applied to a tender sensitive skin or
to parts from which the outer skin has been removed, it will not do at
all.

For years we had been seeking for somebody who could make us hard soap
without any mixture of soda. Once, when in Belfast, we spoke of this to
a friend. He took us to a soapmaker, to whom we mentioned our desire.
This gentleman at once saw what we wanted, and told us frankly that he
could not make the soap that would suit us, and that he knew only one
firm in the trade who could do so. But he assured us that that firm
made a pure hard soap which we should find exactly suitable to our
purpose. Thus we were introduced to the manufacturers of M'Clinton's
soap. This firm, we found, made the very soap we had been so long in
search of.

It is made (by a process which is, we believe, a secret in possession
of this firm alone) from the ash of plants, and so it may truly be said
that it is Nature's soap.

There is something in the composition of this soap which makes it
astonishingly curative and most agreeable on the skin. Lather made from
it, instead of drying and so far burning the skin of those using it,
has the most soothing and delightful effect.

As yet we do not feel able to explain this, not being sufficiently
chemical for the work, but we have tried the matter, and feel assured
that this soap is by a long way the best for cleansing and curative
purposes. Even soap which possesses the same chemical composition lacks
the properties of that made from plants, a fact not without parallel,
as chemists know. The substances of the plant ash differ in some
unknown way from even those chemically the same, which have been
artificially produced.

We trust that our noticing the thing in this way will have the effect
of calling attention to the whole question of soap-making and using. It
is one of those questions on which great ignorance prevails. Many
people judge toilet soaps by the perfume and price. If the former is
pleasant, and the latter high, they consider they must be getting
something specially suitable, and yet the soap itself may be very
injurious. Before we had some cases of bad diseases of the skin arising
from the use of certain soaps, it did not occur to us to think much of
the difference between one sort and another. Hence we just said, "use
lather from good soap." Now we see need for care as to the kind of soap
used, and especially to warn against all soaps, however fine-looking,
that burn the tender skin when lather made from them is much applied.

Very especially is it important to distinguish between the qualities of
soaps used on the sensitive skins of infants and invalids. If you ever
wash an infant in strongly caustic soap, you may look for a state of
discomfort in the child which will make it restless and miserable
without your being able to tell how it is so. You may ascribe to
unhappy "temper" what is due to the bad soap which you have put on the
skin. So with sensitive invalids, when they have to be washed or
soaped, so as to keep off or heal the bedsores which are apt to appear
on them, it is easy to see how much difference there must be between
the effect of a caustic soap and one really and delightfully soothing.

M'Clinton's soap is the very best and most lasting of the soaps we know
for washing purposes, so that in recommending it we are not promoting
the use of a merely medical thing, but of one for ordinary purposes of
a genuine and excellent character. Every grocer ought to have it in
stock, and if it is sought after with some vigour it will be soon
brought in general trade within reach of all. It is not one of those
things that flame on railway stations and on the covers of magazines.
The makers are most quiet, unpretending men, and one would think almost
afraid to take their light from under a bushel. But they are in
possession of a most valuable secret in knowing how to make this soap.

Several soap-makers claim to be makers of this soap, insisting that
theirs is as good as M'Clinton's. It is far cheaper. Well, we put it to
the test of use. It is not the same thing at all. It won't do, nor will
it nearly do: the soda is there beyond all doubt. We are compelled to
recommend our readers to make sure that they get M'Clinton's soap, with
this name stamped upon it.

There is a strong temptation to deception, because M'Clinton's soap
requires eight days at least to make, while the fiery stuff is made in
one day, or two at most. It is of great importance that the true soap
should be secured. The matter is so important that precious life and
health depend on so humble a thing as this.

Take care you are not cheated by a wrong substance. Do not say you have
tried our remedy and found it fail. If you have applied irritating soap
instead of soothing, the so-called remedy could not but fail. Make sure
you have the right substance, and you will have the right effect.[A]

[Footnote A: To prevent an inferior article being substituted if it is
asked for as barilla soap simply, it is in this edition called
M'Clinton's soap. It is now made solely by D. Brown & Son, Ltd.,
Donaghmore, Tyrone, Ireland, who have purchased the business and trade
secrets of the old firm, and manufacture the soap in the same way. If
not stocked by the local chemist or grocer, small samples can be had
from the manufacturers free on receipt of 2d. to cover postage, or a
large assorted box will be sent on receipt of 2s. 6d.]

Fortunately the makers of M'Clinton's soap are sternly honest men, and
their soap can be relied on: that we have found out, we think, beyond
mistake. We are happy to be able to say that they have not sent us even
a bar of soap for our "Papers" on their behalf, but only assured us
that they will "reward" our kindness by "making a genuine article." If
there is "puffing," there is at least to be no payment for it, and that
is a safe way of keeping the "puffer" to the truth!

The curative effects of M'Clinton's soap will be found dealt with in
the directions for treatment of various troubles throughout this
volume. See the articles on Abscess; Asthma; Blood, Purifying; Boils;
Cancer; Child-Bearing; Dwining; Fever; Hands; Hives; Pimples on Face;
Rheumatism; Skin; Sleeplessness; Soapy Blanket; Stomach Trouble;
Vaccination Trouble.


Soapy Blanket, The.--It seems necessary, in getting people to use the
best means for the recovery of health, carefully to consider, not the
diseases to which they are subject only, but especially the processes
of cure. We require to go into the very nature of things, so to speak,
and to make it all palpable to the inquirer. For example, you prescribe
a little olive oil on the skin, and the nurse is horrified at its being
suggested that she should "block up the pores." Her idea is that these
pores are only little holes in the skin, so that, if you fill them up
with oil, the insensible perspiration will not get through. Now let us
observe that a pore is a complete organ in itself, and has at least
three things that characterise it. (_See_ page 285). First of all, it
is a living thing. It is so as really as a finger is a living organ, or
an eye, or an ear. When it dies, it is as much an opening as ever, but
it ceases to secrete the perspiration which is constantly separated
from the current of the blood when it was healthily alive. When it is
sickly, though still living in a weak degree, it secretes, but so
sluggishly that the substance which it separates from the blood does
not pass off easily--it gets, so to speak, thick and sticky, and
remains in the pores.

In the second place, the substance which a pore secretes will not
combine with certain things, and it will chemically combine readily
with other things. When the pore is sickly, it may be aided, first, by
the introduction of heat, which becomes vital action, and secondly, by
the use of such substances as will readily combine with its secretion.
The heat makes it secrete more perfectly, and the chemical combination
makes the removal of the secretion easy. It is possible to block the
pores up, but it is not very easy to do so. A healthy pore will send
its secretions out through very close stuff. It is only by something
like very strong varnish that it can be prevented.

There is wonderfully little danger in ordinary life of any such "block"
as this. But there is very great danger of the pore being deprived of
its secretive power, and of its power to open its mouth when that is so
much wanted. Warm olive oil sets millions of pores to full work
sometimes in a few seconds.

Now let us look at the application of the soapy blanket in the light of
these remarks. Here is a poor patient, sitting in an armchair by the
fireside, labouring to get breath. It makes one feel burdened to see
him. What is wrong? Are the pores blocked up? No; but they are more
than half dead, and what they do secrete is not such an ethereal thing
as it should be. Nearly all the work of getting rid of the waste of the
body has been thrown for months upon the poor lungs. The kidneys, too,
have got far more than their share, just because the pores are sickly.

The remedy is the soapy blanket. This most valuable means of
stimulating the healthy action of the skin (as prescribed in many
articles in this volume) is prepared and applied as follows:--Have a
good blanket, and plenty of M'Clinton's soap (_see_ Lather and Soap).
Shear down a tablet or two into boiling water--as much water as the
blanket will absorb. The blanket may be prepared as directed in article
Fomentation, using these boiling _suds_ instead of water. Have the
patient's bed ready, and spread on it a double dry sheet. Soak in the
suds a piece of thick flannel large enough to go round the body under
the armpits. Wring this out and put it on the patient. Wrap the blanket
tightly round the patient from the neck downwards. Tie something round
the waist to confine it close to the body. Put the patient into bed,
and wrap the feet well up in the blanket. If it is not sufficient to
cover them, an extra piece of soapy flannel must be used. Then wrap the
sheets over the patient above the moist blanket, and cover all nicely
up. In removing the blanket, which may remain on half-an-hour, it is
well to proceed gradually, uncovering the body bit by bit, sponging
each part with hot water and vinegar or weak acetic acid (_see_ Acetic
Acid), and rubbing hot oil on after drying. Dry this oil off, and cover
each dried part of the body either with clothing or blankets before
uncovering a fresh part.

There is a modification of this treatment which suits more weakly
persons, and suits also those who must do all, or almost all, for
themselves. A long flannel or flannelette nightdress is used in this,
instead of the blanket. This is covered on the whole of the inner side
with well-made soap lather. When so covered it is put on at bedtime,
and a dry nightdress put on over it. Both are then fastened as closely
as possible to the skin, and the patient goes to sleep thus clothed. If
the night is cold, the greatest care must be taken to be well covered,
and brought to as good a heat as possible. In the morning a very great
change will have come from this treatment. When the whole body is
washed down with warm water, dried, and nicely rubbed with fresh oil,
the skin is found very considerably changed, and in case of asthma the
breathing relieved.

If cold is taken when this process is fairly gone through, it would be
very astonishing indeed; but if it is badly done, a person might get
chilled instead of comforted. Therefore every care must be taken to
keep the patient thoroughly warm. The result of one effectual pack is
usually sufficient to convince the poor sufferer that he is being
treated in the right way. The effect of the second is greater, and so
on to the fourth or fifth, beyond which he need not go as a rule. He
will do well once a day to wash with hot vinegar and rub after with the
oil. These should not be required more than a fortnight at most. If
chilliness continues, it is well to put on cotton stockings on going to
bed, and even to bathe the feet and oil them before doing so. This
bathing may be continued every night for a fortnight.


Sores.--These will be found dealt with under many headings throughout
this book (_see_ Abscess; Bone, Diseased; Blood; Boils; Breast; Cancer;
Carbuncle; Cauliflower Growth; Eruptions; Erysipelas, etc.), therefore
we here only treat generally of two kinds of common sores. The first is
the surface sore, which eats inwards; the second, the deep-seated sore,
which eats outwards. The first usually begins as a small pimple like a
pin's head, and, if neglected, breaks, and gradually increases in size.
Its origin is something which has caused the minute vessels of the skin
at the spot to give way, so that they remain congested with bad blood,
which soon becomes practically poisonous, and so the sore enlarges and
eats into the surrounding tissue. If such a sore appears on the leg, it
is often due to over-pressure through too much standing. Rest, with the
leg kept horizontal or inclined slightly upwards to the foot, will
often be enough to cure. When complete rest cannot be had, a thigh
bandage (_see_ Veins, Swollen) should be worn.

To treat the sore, it should be washed twice a day with BUTTERMILK
(_see_), and afterwards thoroughly soaked with weak ACETIC ACID
(_see_), and dressed with antiseptic lint, or, if that cannot be had,
with buttermilk cloths. A buttermilk poultice (_see_ Potato Poultice)
may be used. But if no rest can be had, the sore will be extremely
difficult, if not impossible, to heal.

The second kind of sore, arising from an abscess under the part, or
diseased bone or membrane far down beneath the skin, is to be treated
on the same principles, using weak acetic acid for the syringing, and
buttermilk only for the surface. The method of treatment is such as
will secure the contact of the weak acid with _every part_, even the
deepest, of the wound. Procure a small pointed glass syringe, which
must be kept _thoroughly clean_. The point of this may be inserted into
the sore, and care taken that the weak acid penetrates into the very
bottom, and thoroughly soaks all the diseased parts. This syringing
should be repeated until the wound is thoroughly clean in every part.
If pain is set up, the acid is too strong. Syringing with lukewarm
water will at once relieve this, and then weaker acid may be used. This
treatment may be given twice a day, and the wound properly dressed
after it. Attention must be paid in all treatment of sores or wounds to
the proper cleansing and boiling of all materials and instruments used.
Wash the hands in hot water and M'Clinton's soap, using a nail-brush,
before touching or dressing a sore.

Boil some soft clean rags for five minutes, and wash the sore with
these, using water that has been boiled and allowed to cool to
blood-heat, to which a few drops of acetic acid have been added, but
not so much as to be painful on the sore.

If a syringe is used, boil it before using, and only use boiled or
distilled water in all operations. This secures the destruction of the
germs (or Bacteria), which are now known as the cause of the
inflammation and suppuration of wounds and sores of all kinds.


Spinal Congestion.--In some cases of this trouble the symptoms are very
alarming, consisting in violent convulsive movements, which seem
altogether beyond the possibility of relief. It is something to know
that these terrible kickings and strugglings arise from simply an
accumulation of blood in the vessels of the spinal cord, irritating it
violently, as an electric current might do. Sedatives and narcotics
will be useless. Leeches applied to the spine will sometimes cure by
withdrawing the blood from it, though such treatment leaves no bracing
and strengthening effect, but the very opposite. Use the cold towel,
wrung out and placed along the spine, together with a hot blanket
FOMENTATION (_see_) to the feet and legs, up over the knees. The
patient must be gently held still, as far as possible, so that the
treatment may be applied. The applications will not be at once
successful, but after an hour's work something like permanent relief
should come. Above all, the nurse must keep cool and calm in mind and
manner. There is no need for hysterics, and any excitable person should
be kept out of the sick-room. If the skin of the back has been broken
by blistering or any such treatment, a fine lather (_see_ Lather; Soap)
should be spread over all the back, and on this a soft cloth. Above
this the cold towels may be safely and comfortably applied. It will do
no harm if the treatment be continued for even two or three hours.


Spine, Misshapen.--Often in the case of delicate infants or children,
the bones of the spine fail to have the necessary hardness to bear the
strain which comes upon them, and the spine gets more or less out of
its proper shape. If this softness of bone continues, no amount of
mechanical support, or lying down, will cure the misshapen spine.
Therefore means should be taken by proper diet and nourishment to help
the production of good bone substance in the child's body. The best
bone-making food we know is good oatmeal, as well-boiled porridge
(boiled for two or three hours), or as oatmeal jelly and gruel. Good
air and water are also essential, and such treatment as is described in
article on Children's Healthy Growth. Especially should attention be
paid to constant supply of fresh air to the child's lungs. Windows
should be wide open in all weathers, and if the child cannot walk far,
it should be wheeled out for as long as possible every day the weather
permits. Such supply of fresh air is of _vital importance_, and the
want of it is frequently the sole cause of disease.

In other cases it is not the bones which are soft, but the muscles and
ligaments which hold the spine in a proper position are defective.
Where the bone is felt to be good-sized and hard, and the surrounding
substance too soft, it is a case of this kind. To proper nourishment,
in this case, must be added proper _exercise_ of the muscles concerned.
Immovable plaster jackets are bad, because they forbid this. This
exercise may best be given by rubbing (_see_ Exercise and Massage).
Gentle rubbing and pressure over the back, with hot OLIVE OIL (_see_),
will work wonders in such a case. During the rubbing the patient should
lie down _at full length_. It must also be done so as to be _pleasant_,
or it is of no use.

See that the patient has plenty of rest, and only as much walking
exercise as is evidently enjoyed. There may be complications with other
troubles--for example, a quick pulse and some fever heat, if the
temperature is tested. That will require to be itself treated with
repeated rubbings of finely wrought lather over the stomach and bowels.
Until you have in some measure subdued this fever, you will not do much
in the way of improving the muscles of the back. In many cases you will
be able to bring the fever down completely, and then you will be free
to exercise the muscles, and so to strengthen them that they will bring
the spine to something like its proper shape. (_See_ Assimilation;
Diet; Digestion; Nerves; Nourishment; Paralysis; Massage.)


Spine, Weakness of the.--_See_ Children's Healthy Growth.


Sprains or Racks.--A sprain is usually the result of some involuntary
stress coming upon the part. If the injury be to the muscular substance
only, it is easily healed; hot fomentations should be given to the
sprained parts, with perfect rest and every possible ease and comfort
by position, etc., and nature will soon effect a cure. If the injury be
really to the _nerves_ which control the muscles, as is generally the
case, the matter is more difficult. The muscle swells, but this is
primarily due to the overstrain of the nerves in the sudden effort they
make to bear a crushing load on the muscle. The pain is from pressure
in the swelling, and also from inflammatory action.

The cure, then, must be applied to the motor nerves controlling the
muscles, and is best applied at their roots in the spinal cord. If the
arm, hand, or wrist be sprained, rub gently the upper spinal region
with warm olive oil, continuing the rubbing _gently_ down the arm to
the injured part (_see_ Rubbing) until the whole shoulder and arm glow
with comfortable warmth. But all rubbing such as causes pain must be
avoided. If such rubbing cannot be managed, then a hot BRAN POULTICE
(_see_) must be placed between the shoulders, and a warm fomentation
given to the shoulder and arm. The treatment should be given once a
day, and ere many days the sprain should be cured. For ankle and knee
sprains, the lower back and leg must be treated on similar principles.

Where the chest muscles that cover the ribs are sprained, rubbing and
moist heat should be applied over the back and round the side where the
sprain is, paying especial attention to the spine opposite the sprain,
and using hot olive oil before fomentation and after, as well as to rub
with.

If the belly be sprained, similar treatment should be given lower down
the back.

If the back muscles are sprained, then the same treatment should be
applied, taking special care to stimulate with moist heat and rubbing
the part of the spine on a level with the injury, where the roots of
the nerves lie which supply the sprained muscles. Care must ever be
taken to avoid giving pain--to give pain is to increase the injury. To
produce a glow of heat all through the parts is to cure it. (_See_
Muscular Pains.)

For a sprained heel, when there is some degree of inflammation about
it, we should pack the whole foot in fine soap lather. Let it be in
this all night, and also during the day when resting. Wash the foot
with a little weak acetic acid, after being packed in the lather, to
keep it quite clean. Now rub the whole limb from the ankle upwards in
such a way as to press the blood onwards in the veins. Use a little
oil, so that the skin may not suffer till a fine heat is raised in the
whole limb. This may be done for a quarter-of-an-hour twice or thrice a
day. It relieves the heel of all congestion, and lets good arterial
blood flow to it, as it would not otherwise. An elastic bandage, not
very tight, put on above the knee will help the cure. Sprained joints
and muscles should have _perfect rest_ for a fortnight, and be used
very cautiously for some time longer.


Spring Trouble.--Many persons are distressed by some form of eruption
or inflammation in the skin in spring. The change of atmosphere and
temperature at this time greatly increases the demands made upon the
skin as an organ of perspiration, and this strain it is in many cases
unable to stand--hence the trouble referred to. To prevent this, the
skin must be brought into a better state of health and fitness for any
extra work, so that it can bear without injury even very great changes
of air and temperature. This may be done by regular application of soap
lather (_see_ Lather and Soap) to the _entire_ skin each evening for
three or four days, and then twice a week through all the season. Good
olive oil may be rubbed on before and after the lather, or even mixed
with it in rubbing on; if the cooling effect is found too great, two or
three thick coats of lather should be put on, and then gently wiped
off, and the oil applied. This, continued during the later winter and
spring, should entirely prevent eruptions. But if these do appear, or
have already come on, the irritation is apt to be so great that only
very fine and carefully made lather can be used. It is better then to
use _buttermilk_ instead of lather. But the BUTTERMILK (_see_) must be
_new_, and if necessary weakened by addition of sweet milk; if old and
strongly acid buttermilk be used, harm may be done. Do not _rub_ the
milk on: _soak_ it into the parts by gentle _dabbing_ with a pad of
soft cloth. This done frequently, even twice or three times a day, will
almost always effect a cure.

It should be remembered that no amount of washing or bathing will do in
this state of the skin. Water somehow, especially hard water, fails to
produce this fine state of the surface. When spring trouble has set in,
we would keep water entirely from the skin. Nothing does so well as
good buttermilk. In some forms of spring eruption, a strong mixture of
salt and water may be freely applied with great advantage. If this
irritates, it should at once be discontinued, but in many cases the
eruption will disappear under a few applications. The salt solution
should be gently rubbed on, and left to dry on the skin (_see_ Skin,
Care of; Underwear).

With the increasing warm weather the body ceases to require as much
food as in the cold days. Heavy stimulating food in warm weather will
certainly cause an unhealthy skin.


Squeezing.--_See_ Rubbing.


Stammering.--This trouble is simply a loss of command of the vocal
organs, and is distinctly _nervous_ in its cause. Especially must we
look to the _roots_ of the nerves controlling the vocal organs, if we
are to see the real difficulty. There is evidently a state of
irritability and undue sensitiveness in these nerves which must be
soothed down, if a cure is to be obtained. The roots of such nerves lie
in the back of the head and neck, and they are best soothed by
application of soap lather (_see_ Lather; Soap). This must be well
wrought, and applied warm to the back of the head and neck in three or
four coats. Then mix some _hot_ OLIVE OIL (_see_) with the lather, and
apply with the brush gently to the parts. Altogether, in applying the
various latherings, and the final oil-and-lathering, an hour should be
spent, so as to continue the soothing effect during that time. The head
may be soaped one night (_see_ Head, Soaping the), and this treatment
given the alternate night. Where the case is of long standing, it may
take long to cure it, or a cure may be impossible, but some mitigation
will result from this treatment. The Sabbath should in all cases be a
day of rest from treatment, and generally common sense will indicate
that it be not continued too long. The patient may do a great deal for
himself by the strictest watch on his enunciation, speaking slowly and
deliberately, and breathing deeply. This will be difficult to maintain
at first, but practice will make the habit unconscious. An instrument
called a metronome may be had from a music shop (used for keeping time
in practising), if a book be read aloud by the stammerer, pronouncing
one syllable only to each beat, he will soon gain complete control of
his voice.


Stiffness, General.--This is often an adjunct of old age, and sometimes
occurs in the young and middle-aged as the result of chills. In
_neither_ case is it incurable, but for a cure _rest_ is a first
necessity. If there be standing and working for twelve or fourteen
hours a day, we should not expect a cure at all. Rest must be had, at
least twelve hours out of the twenty-four, and it is well if sixteen or
even eighteen hours' rest can be taken (_see_ Rest). Then there must be
heating the spine with moist heat (_see_ Fomentation). This is done to
revive the organs which supply oil to the joints, by giving fresh
vitality to the roots of the nerves which control these organs. But the
heating requisite to do this must be gently and persistently applied.
An hour's gradual heating is worth far more than half-an-hour's
_half-burning_. Then, after the spine fomentation, which must be
applied in bed, rub (_see_ Massage) the back with hot olive oil for a
considerable time--say half-an-hour, if the patient can bear it (_see_
Exercise). Then the joints may be similarly fomented and rubbed at
another time, back and joints being treated, say, every other day. If
there be costiveness, treat as in Constipation, and give easily
digested food (_see_ Assimilation; Digestion; Nourishment). Such
treatment daily should remove stiffness, even in very bad cases.


Stimulants.--_See_ Alcohol; Narcotics.


Stomach Trouble.--If you would cure thoroughly, you must first make
sure that the skin is doing its part well. Very often indigestion
arises from irritation of the stomach, caused by the impurities in the
blood which arise from defective skin action.

With strong people, exercise causing perspiration will often suffice to
cure, in other cases where exercise cannot be had the Soapy Blanket
(_see_) is effective. After the blanket, give a warm, gentle rubbing
with hot vinegar or diluted acetic acid; and, finally, a similar
rubbing with warm olive oil. This rubbing may be given by itself, where
the patient is too weak to endure the blanket, or where the lather
cannot be well applied. Even the rubbing with oil alone will do much to
cure.

The problem in this case is to remove from the blood the irritating
waste which is inflaming the stomach, and this is better done by
cleansing and stimulating the skin than by means of drastic drugs. A
lazy man will swallow a peck of pills rather than go through an ordeal
of cleansing like this, but in that case he need not be surprised if
his poor stomach become only poorer still, while his purse will not get
any heavier. Besides this cleansing, take sips of hot water as
recommended under Indigestion. A very plain and sparing diet should be
taken, and great attention given to chewing all food till reduced to a
liquid. For it must be remembered that the majority of stomach troubles
have their origin in abuse of this organ, through overloading with
food, or other dietetic errors. _See_ Diet; Assimilation; Biscuits and
Water; Constipation; Cramp in Stomach; Diarrhoea; Digestion;
Flatulence; Indigestion; Weariness.


Stomach Ulcers.--Generally the _tongue_ will tell whether the stomach
is ulcerated or not. If the tongue is fiery-looking, and small ulcers
show themselves on it, while food produces pain in the stomach, there
is little doubt of the presence of ulcers there. The tongue may at
once, in such a case, be brushed with weak acid (_see_ Acetic Acid) or
vinegar, so as to cleanse the surface and produce a _gentle_ smarting.
This brushing will quickly produce a healing change in the tongue,
which guides us to the cure of the stomach. This will be attained by
swallowing teaspoonfuls of the same weak acid. Two or three of these
should be taken at intervals half-an-hour before food. If the case is
severe, the skin over the stomach must be carefully soaped, as directed
in article on HEAD SOAPING (_see also_ Lather; Soap). The four-ply
flannel BANDAGE (_see_) should also be worn. Do not use drugs, such as
iron, arsenic, or soda, and avoid all narcotics. Persevere with the
weak acid, and a cure will come unless in very obstinate cases indeed.
Care must be taken to avoid irritating food. Milk, or milk and boiling
water is the best diet. A general symptom is severe pain after eating,
relieved by vomiting.

No fluid should be taken hotter than the finger can be held in it. This
is indeed a good rule always in matters of food and drink, which are
often taken too hot, to the injury of the stomach.


Stone.--_See_ Gravel.


Stoutness.--_See_ Breath, and the Heart.


Strangulation or Hanging.--Often accidentally caused in children or
intoxicated persons. Waste no time in going for or shouting for
assistance. At once cut the rope, necktie, or whatever else causes the
tightening. Pull out the tongue and secure it, commence artificial
respiration at once (_see_ Drowning), open the windows, make any crowd
stand back.


St. Vitus' Dance.--This proceeds from a simple irritation of the spinal
nerves, and is to be cured by soothing the spine with persistent
cooling. In mild cases this cooling is easily applied with towels wrung
out of cold water, and folded so as to lie at least four-ply thick
along the whole spine. If narcotic drugs have been largely used, and
the nervous system spoiled thereby, a severer form of the trouble comes
on, and requires a good deal of care and persistence in cooling. In all
cases the cooling of the spine must only be done when the patient is
_warm in bed_.

It will be of great importance, in carrying out this process, to use
olive oil in such a way, all over the body, as to help in maintaining
the general normal heat. In addition to these suggestions, it may be
well to remark that the appearances in such cases are, as a rule, worse
than the reality. For instance, the motion of the eyes and of the
tongue makes one imagine that the sufferer has lost all reason, and
even consciousness of normal character. But this is not so; the brain
may not be affected at all, and the worst feeling is that of weariness.
We have seen a patient smiling through the most distressing
contortions--that is, most distressing to the ordinary observer. It is
of great importance that any one who treats such cases should be _cool_
and _kind_.

It will sometimes be impossible for one person to keep the patient in
bed and covered with the clothes so as to keep warm. If so, two must do
it. It is, however, to be remembered constantly, that the patient feels
it much more agreeable to be held within even close limits than to be
allowed to throw arms and legs, and head and body about in all
directions. This is a most invaluable truth in such cases. It will not
do to hold as with an iron grasp, so that no degree of movement is
allowed; but you may hold softly, so that no motion, such as will even
disturb the bedclothes, shall take place. This must be done so that all
the body shall be comfortably warm when the cold towel is laid along
the spine and pressed gently to the centre of the back. In
comparatively mild cases, we give an hour of this cooling process every
morning only, and the warm washing and anointing with olive oil at
bedtime; but in such cases as we sometimes meet with, where drugs have
done their mischievous work, it is necessary to cool much more
frequently. For instance, when the morning cooling has laid the
irritation, and the patient is quiet for an hour, or, perhaps, only
half-an-hour, the movement returns. The persons applying the cure are
afraid to repeat it till another morning has come. But they need not be
so. Or, they apply it for five minutes, and are afraid to continue it
longer. They may quite safely apply it as long as they can keep the
rest of the body comfortably warm. If they can keep nice, soft blankets
well round the patient, as a rule it will not be difficult to keep up
all general heat. Let us suppose that, when warm in bed and asleep, the
patient wakes up, and the diseased movement begins; it will be well
then to ply the back with the cold towel. If the movement is perfectly
still in half-an-hour, a rest may be given. If the movement soon
returns, the cold can be applied till perfect quiet is had again. This
will, perhaps, be secured in twenty minutes or so. A rest and
comfortable warming may be given again. If the movement still returns,
it may be met by the same cooling process again. If only the heat is
kept up all right, the cold towel may be used till the spinal
irritation is finally gone.

This simple mode of treatment we have found to be perfectly successful,
not only in removing every symptom of nervous irritation, but in giving
most vigorous health to patients who, to begin with, were truly
miserable-looking subjects. This may be looked for, as well as the mere
removal of the malady.

It should be noted that one outstanding feature of St. Vitus' Dance is
that the movement ceases _during sleep_. If this is not the case, other
treatment is called for. _See_ Paralysis, and articles under Nerves;
Spine, etc.


Sunshine.--Is a most valuable aid to health, acting as a physical and
mental tonic. The sunbath, for either portions of the body at a time,
or for the whole body, will be found very beneficial to nervous
sufferers, and also to those having a tendency to certain skin
diseases. Its tonic effect is very noticeable on the hair, giving it
better growth and richer colour. Sunlight should be admitted freely
into bedrooms and sitting-rooms, for it is hostile to the growth of
many of those microbes which cause disease.


Tapeworm.--The only sure sign of the presence of this parasite in the
intestine is the passing from the bowels of some of its joints or ova.
Its presence in the body is a serious matter, always giving rise to
more or less inconvenience and disturbance to health. We mention it
here because we know of a very good and harmless remedy which will
completely expel the worm. This may be obtained from D. Napier & Sons,
herbalists, 17, Bristo Place, Edinburgh, postage paid, for 2s. One dose
will be sufficient.

We dislike _secret_ preparations, yet when we come across a remedy
which never fails, we confess to putting aside our dislikes and getting
it.

The best thing is, however, to prevent the worm obtaining access to the
body. All food, especially beef and pork, should be thoroughly cooked,
and all cooking processes, and all places where meat is kept should be
thoroughly clean. Where this is the case, tapeworm will never occur.


Tea.--Tea should not be infused longer than three or four minutes, and
cream should be used with it. The albuminous matter in milk tends to
throw down some of the tannic acid in an insoluble form. It should not
be taken too hot, and if taken at a meat meal (which is undesirable),
not till quite the conclusion of the meal. Much tea-drinking produces
nervousness and indigestion. If taken _very_ weak it forms a pleasing
addition to the morning and evening meal, but taken as it usually is,
and especially between meals, such as at afternoon tea, it is a serious
cause of ill-health.


Teeth.--In order to prevent decay, the teeth should be carefully
brushed at least once a day, preferably at night, but better still
after each meal. There is no better dentifrice than pure soap, and
M'Clinton's tooth soap, being specially prepared from the ash of plants
and a pure vegetable oil, does not leave the objectionable soapy taste
in the mouth which all soda soaps do.

The prevalence of bad teeth is believed by many to be due to processes
of milling, which remove the bone and enamel making properties of the
grain. So much of the natural salts of the grain are removed to make
bread white that it ceases to be the staff of life. A contributory
cause is the consumption of large quantities of sweets or candies,
especially between meals. White bread lodging in the teeth and thereby
producing acid fermentation, is believed to have a bad effect on them,
also too hot or ice-cold liquids. Remember also that the teeth cannot
be healthy if they are not exercised. The Scotch peasant when he ate
hard oat-cake had splendid teeth, as the Swedish peasants who eat hard
rye-bread still have. Sloppy foods hastily bolted will ruin the
digestion and thereby the teeth, besides depriving them of the work
essential to their good condition. If teeth do decay they should be
seen to by a dentist at once, as their presence in the mouth is
injurious to the general health.


Teething.--At the outset, it must ever be remembered that this is _not_
a disease. It is a natural growth, and often is accomplished without
any trouble at all. It is, however, a comparatively _quick_ growth,
accomplishing much in a little time, as a plant in flowering. This
_rush_ of growth in one place draws upon the vitality available for
general purposes in the child's body, and if this vitality is not very
large, trouble ensues. Diarrhoea, cold feet, and lack of spirit and
appetite thus arise. If at this stage the lower limbs and body be
carefully fomented (_see_ Fomentation), all trouble may cease at once;
at least a very great deal will be done to relieve it. Give three
teaspoonfuls of warm water, slightly sweetened with pure CANE SYRUP
(_see_), three times a day. A little of the confection of senna will do
instead of this if desired. The fomentation must never be so hot or so
long at a time as to cause discomfort. Irritation is bad for a teething
infant, and all must be done soothingly if success is to be gained.
Also it will not do to foment and rub with oil a _feverish_ child. Such
cases must be treated differently, as we shall see, and it is easy to
distinguish them from cases without fever. Meantime we would say that
in many cases where vital force is low without fever, the treatment by
fomentation as described is of great value.

In regard to the artificial "cutting" of the gum by surgical
instruments, we would say that such should only be resorted to when the
tooth is very near the surface indeed, and by a careful surgeon who
knows what he is about. The irritation in the gums which makes it
thought of at all can be usually allayed by simple means. Let the
mother dip her finger in good vinegar and water, just strong enough to
slightly smart the lips, and rub it on the irritated gum. This can of
course be done often, and is most powerfully soothing. It may indeed do
all that is required. But if more general symptoms appear, such as
sleeplessness and heat in the head, cooling of the head is required.
Have two little caps made of _thick_ cotton cloth, one slightly larger,
so as to fit on above the other on the child's head. Wring the smaller
out of cold (but not ice-cold) water, and put it on. Press it gently on
the head, and if the heat and restlessness continue, cool it again,
perhaps twice or three times. When the restlessness is relieved, leave
the damp cap on the head, and place the dry one on over it. If the heat
returns, repeat the process. This treatment, though a mere cooling of
the brain, has saved ere now both reason and life, and should never be
lightly thought of or despised.

Often the stomach is seriously disordered during teething, both
vomiting and purging resulting. In small degree these are not
dangerous, but they are better avoided. If severe, they are the
beginning of often fatal trouble.

To quiet the excited bowels, nothing is better than enemas of cool
water. It need not be too cold, but just a little under blood heat,
with a little vinegar added. One tablespoonful of vinegar to a pint of
water. Also a "baby's bottle," prepared with water at blood heat (98
deg.), _without any milk or sugar_, will greatly assist the stomach if
given to be sucked. In such cases infants usually suck this water
greedily. It is most soothing to the stomach. Half a teacupful at a
time is enough. In the evening wash the child with warm water and SOAP
(_see_) rub all over with warm olive or almond oil, especially the back
up and down. Then place a BRAN POULTICE (_see_) over all the back,
taking care to have it just comfortably warm. When this is fastened on,
an ordinary pocket-handkerchief wrung out of cold water is folded and
laid over the bowels. This is changed for a fresh one as soon as
heated, and _gently_ pressed all over. The milk, if the child is
brought up on the bottle, may be given now, reduced in strength for a
time. This treatment will often cure without enemas, which may then be
dispensed with. Great improvement in health may be expected after a few
days of such treatment. A cool handkerchief, similar to that on the
bowels, may also be applied to the head, if that is heated.

Some form of head eruption often comes on after a long time of heated
head. A little sour buttermilk, vinegar, or weak acetic acid, not
stronger than to cause a slight smarting _tried in the nurse's
nostrils_, will relieve almost instantly the itching which accompanies
this. If strong acid be used, matters are made worse, and great pain
caused. The acid, weak as we have described, at once neutralises the
irritating substance exuded from the eruption. It also prepares the way
for a cure. If astringent lotions are employed, drying the sore, and
driving it in on the brain, serious injury may be caused. But if
healing takes place under soaking with weak acid, no such result need
be feared, for this simply removes the unhealthy state of the part.
Water, especially _hard_ water, must be absolutely kept away from such
a head. No more must be used than is necessary to dilute the acid; and,
if it can be got, the acid of buttermilk is decidedly preferable. The
whole body, when feverish, may be cooled in a tepid bath, several times
a day if necessary, having the water just at blood heat.

Besides these outside effects, teething often causes brain disorders.
(_See_ various articles on Children.) The infant should be watched
carefully, and if the eye be dull, and the head heavy with feverish
symptoms, the head should be cooled at once as above directed, and if
the feverish symptoms are not marked, and the feet cold, the feet,
legs, and lower body should be wrapped in a good warm fomentation.
Where the trouble has gone so far that insensibility comes on, the
treatment is the same, only the cloths had better be wrung out of
_iced_ water if available. It is important to not only lay the cloths
on the head, but to _press_ them. Take the little head in your two
hands, and so bring the cool cloth close to every part of it, while you
lift up a prayer for help from the Great Healer. Keep at this till your
feeling tells you it is time to change the cloth. Take off the hot one
and put on the cool one. Go on with the gentle pressure again. It does
require work, but it is well worth work to save a precious life. You
must so work that you will cause the least disturbance possible to the
little sufferer. It may be you may require to keep this up for many
hours, but you will probably find that some signs of sense appear ere
you have gone on very long, and you may see that natural sleep has
succeeded the drowse that lay in the worn-out brain. If so, you will
allow the head to lie still in the cold cloth, and change only when it
gets very warm. If natural heat has been fully restored to the legs and
feet, you will let these rest also.

We know of a case where the brain seemed gone, and the medical man
abandoned hope; but the head was cooled with ice cloths, while the feet
and legs were kept in a hot fomentation, for a whole night, and all
danger was passed by the morning. So that, even in very bad cases, this
should be perseveringly tried.

For diet, in teething, the child must get easily digested food, and all
"rich" foods--brandy, beef-tea, etc.--must be avoided.

Involuntary starting, and the manifestation of great fear on waking out
of sleep, frequently arise from irritation of the spine during
teething. The cold compress applied along the spine when the child is
warm in bed will relieve this. It may be applied (_see_ Towels, Cold)
twice or thrice a day. If the feet are cold, these may be fomented at
the same time. If the head is cold, it may be fomented also. If it is
hot, cool it. This treatment relieves the irritation of the mouth, as
well as removes the starting. If _both_ head and feet are hot, then you
need only cool the spine.

In all cases, common sense must be used, but we think we have given
sufficient indication of principles to enable a thoughtful nurse or
mother to treat successfully almost any case. Where very cold cloths on
application cause shivering and crying, either use tepid cloths,
slightly cooler than the skin, or warm the _surface_ of the cold folded
cloth by holding for a short time to a fire, and then apply to the
patient. The warm surface thus first touches the skin, and afterwards
the cold in the body of the cloth penetrates gradually.


Temperature (_see_ Heat, Internal).


Tempering Treatment.--Much, if not all, of the success in any case of
treatment depends on its being properly tempered to the strength of the
patient. In putting on LATHER (_see_), for instance, a delicate and
nervous child will be greatly annoyed if soaped all over at once. But
if one arm be done and finished, then the other, then the breast, and
so on to the abdomen, the back, and the legs, _bit by bit_, the effect
will be soothing in the extreme. So with MASSAGE (_see_); so also with
applying a cold towel. If it chills and terrifies the patient when
suddenly "clapped on," common sense would suggest holding it to the
fire till the _surface_ is warm. This warm surface will give no shock
when applied to the skin, and the cold in the body of the towel will
gradually penetrate and do its work. Also, as we have frequently
repeated, the _strength_ of ACETIC ACID (_see_) must be carefully
looked to, when it is used. It must ever be remembered that some of the
finest and noblest spirits are inhabitants of frail bodies, which, with
right treatment, are strong enough, but suffer terribly in rough hands.


Thirst.--This forms a severe feature in many cases of illness, and has
to be treated variously according to its kind. It may be due first to
_dryness_ in the membranes of the throat and stomach; secondly it may
be due to a _concentrated_ or _deranged_ state of the juices of the
body; thirdly, it may be the result of a _burning heat_ in the body. It
will not be difficult for a careful person to say in any case which of
them is the cause. The nature of the disease will indicate it. A little
cold water may be given first. If this fails, a cold cloth over the
stomach (_see_ Changing Treatment) may be tried. If these are not
successful, a few tablespoonfuls of hot water may be given. The first
of these meets the simple dryness, the second cures the burning heat,
the third meets the case of concentrated and deranged juices in the
body. A few drops of vinegar, lemon juice, or other fruit acid (_see_
Drinks), will often greatly assist the hot water in its duty. All
alcoholic drinks are worse than useless in real thirst. Any power they
possess is either due to the effect they have on the artificial thirst
they create or to the water they contain. And the danger of rousing or
creating the dreadful desire of the drunkard is so great, that they
ought never to be given to relieve a patient's thirst.

If the cold water is known, from any cause, to be dangerous to the
patient, then hot water will do equally well. If the thirst arises from
some drug which has been taken, then hot water should always be given.

Again, the _locality_ of the dryness causing thirst indicates the best
method of quenching it. If only the mouth and tongue be dry, then it
will be sufficient to wash out the mouth with the water, or acid drink,
not swallowing, so as to avoid unnecessary loading of the stomach. If
throat and mouth are cool, and only the stomach burns, then the cold
towel above that is the best treatment.

There is no need, except in very special cases, for iced water. Tap
water is generally cool enough, unless stored in heated cisterns. In
this case a little ice may be used to bring it down to a temperature of
45 deg. or so, but not below 40 deg.


Throat Hoarseness.--This is best treated by a good large BRAN POULTICE
(_see_) on the back of the head and neck. While the patient lies on
this, cold towels must be changed on the front above the "apple" of the
throat. Do this for an hour twice a day. Or, if the feet be cold, give
treatment as in Teething. There must also be _rest from talking_.
Procure a good camel's-hair throat-brush from the druggist, and brush
the back of the throat well with weak ACETIC ACID (_see_) several times
a day, or simply gargle if there is difficulty with the brushing. The
brush must be carefully cleansed, and dipped in the _strong_ acid after
use.

Especially is it necessary to give up, in such cases, the use of
tobacco. Where the trouble has lasted for years, it may be slow to
heal, and the poulticing may be done only once a week. In ordinary
cases, a day or two's treatment should cure.

Many times we have seen a good fomentation of feet and legs alone give
very sensible relief. Never be satisfied with putting a hot bottle or
brick to the feet. This is a lazy way of dealing with a serious case.
Have the feet and legs up to the knees rubbed with vinegar and olive
oil, and wrapped in a large blanket fomentation. It is not the mere dry
skin of the soles of the feet that needs warming: the whole legs,
especially the muscles, require the moist heat of a thorough
fomentation. Circulation is at once accelerated just where it is
wanted, so as to lessen the pressure where the vital stream is pressing
too heavily and lodging in a dangerous congestion. It is good even if
the feet are not very cold, but only cool, to ply this part of the
remedy well. Where the patient is strong enough to sit out of bed, a
good hot foot-bath will do instead of this fomentation.


Throat, Sore.--The first question in any case of sore throat, is, What
is the temperature of the patient? (_see_ Heat, Internal). If this
cannot be ascertained, at least we can say whether the patient is
feverish or not.

Let us first take the case where there is no fever. Get the patient
warmly to bed. Foment (_see_ Fomentation) carefully all round the neck,
first rubbing on a little olive oil. Renew the fomentation every five
minutes for three-quarters-of-an-hour at least. Allow rest for an hour.
Then foment thoroughly the feet and legs up over the knees. When this
is done, and the heat kept up, cool the throat with constant fresh cold
towels. Let this go on for an hour. Finally sponge the whole body with
warm vinegar. Rub lightly over with olive oil, dry, and allow to rest.
Probably the throat will be cured. If not, repeat the treatment the
following day.

Where there is fever with the sore throat, first make sure whether the
feet are hot or cold. If cold, put on fomentations as above. Even if
the feet are only cool this should be done. While the feet and legs are
thus fomented thoroughly, change cold towels on the throat every three
minutes for an hour. Sponge all over as above directed, and allow to
rest. If the feet are hot, cold towels alone are applied to the throat;
but if the feet get at all chilled while such cooling is going on, they
must be fomented.

If there is vomiting and sickness along with the sore throat, the other
symptoms of scarlet fever should be looked for, and medical aid
obtained if possible.

But here is a case where the most experienced eye, aided by the best
possible instrument, sees nothing wrong in the throat itself, but the
cough and difficulty of breathing point to the throat. The trouble is
not there, but in the roots of the nerves by which vital energy is
supplied to the windpipe and other vocal organs. You must go to the
back of the neck, and to the back between the upper parts of the
shoulders, and there affect the roots that are really in a state of
distressing over-action. If you are skilful enough in applying cold,
and your patient has plenty of general warmth, you need nothing more
than a cold towel, changed pretty often, and nicely pressed over the
proper parts. If this fails, have recourse to a cloth with mustard
spread like thin butter on it, say about six inches broad and a foot
long. Lay this gently on the spine at the back of the neck, and down as
far as it goes. Apply your cold compresses now over this as well as you
can, and the violent spasmodic symptoms will be mitigated. If one trial
is not sufficient, sprinkle the cold cloth with cayenne. If the result
can be reached by the cold cloth alone, it will be best. If mustard or
cayenne must be applied, observe very carefully that they should never
distress the patient. As much as can be borne quite easily, and no
more, should be employed. Whenever a remedy becomes seriously
distressing, we may be pretty sure it has ceased to be remedial, for
the time at least.


Throat, Sore (Clergyman's).--Those who are in the habit of using their
voice much should be very careful to produce it in the proper way. It
is noticeable that actors (who learn to produce their voice properly)
do not suffer from what is known as clergyman's sore throat.

The voice in speaking should be pitched, as a rule, considerably lower
than is usually done, especially if speaking in public. Any tightening
of the throat muscles should be avoided, and the voice sent out from a
full chest well expanded.

Those who are musical should take a note on the piano enunciating the
vowels in their natural order ([=a], ay, ee, o, oo) on this note. Then
proceed to the next note; the whole of the octave may thus be gone
over. Choose an octave most consonant with the range of the voice.

Then add the consonants: b[=a], bay, bee, c[=a], cay, etc., etc. Thus a
perfect command over all the possible combinations of vowels and
consonants may be attained.

There is absolutely no reason why any musical person should have an
unmusical voice, especially since this bad production of the voice
often strains the muscles and inflames the mucous membrane of the
throat. In connection with this question of music, it should be
remembered that almost irretrievable injury to the voice may be done by
allowing a boy to continue singing after his voice has begun to
"break."

It is not a good plan to be constantly "clearing" the throat whilst
speaking. One gets to imagine after a while that it needs clearing when
it really does not.

Alcohol and tobacco are both undoubtedly injurious to the voice. A
little honey and lemon juice will be found the best gargle if a gargle
is required.

Deep breathing is of great assistance in endeavouring to produce the
lower note, in fact it is not possible to produce a full note except
from a full chest. In this connection it may be said that it has been
observed that deep-chested, deep-breathing, slow-speaking people are
frequently possessed of certain estimable points of character, such as
prudence, firmness, self-reliance, calmness. If one is going to be
angry, ten deep breaths might save a world of trouble. (_See_
Breathing, Correct method of).


Thumb, Bruised and Broken.--Frequently a tradesman will strike the
thumb or finger a serious blow with a hammer, in missing a stroke. If
not treated properly, the whole hand may be destroyed, but if promptly
plunged into warm clean water and kept there, even the broken bones can
be handled quite comfortably, and all pain and uneasiness pass away ere
very long. Plenty of bathing in clean warm water, and proper setting
and dressing, are all such an injury requires.


Toothache.--This trouble appears in two opposite characters. In the one
it is cured by rightly applied heat, and in the other by cold. If it is
merely the soft substance in the tooth which is affected, local cooling
applications will cure, if persisted in. If it be the nerve terminating
in the tooth which is irritated, then even the extraction of the tooth
may fail to give relief. Both cold and hot applications to the tooth or
cheek will then probably prove useless.

In such a case, apply COLD TOWELS (_see_) gently pressed over the head
and back of the neck. If the case be a bad one, the feet may be put in
a hot bath, or fomented. Persevered in for an hour, this treatment is
almost certain to cure. It may take away all pain in a few minutes.
After the pain is cured, dry well, and keep the head moderately warm.

But if the toothache is caused by a severe chill to the head, and that
be still cold, it should be packed in a hot fomentation. This gives
almost instant relief. Rub on a little oil when the fomentation comes
off, and keep the head warm.

It should not be difficult to distinguish the cases requiring heat from
those requiring cold. In any case, if the first application of either
increases the pain, try the other.


Towels, Cold Wet.--A towel of the ordinary kind, and full size, is
soaked in a basin of cold water and carefully wrung out until it is
merely damp. Prejudice against this treatment is often aroused by
putting on the cloths wet, and in a slack, blundering way, so as to
make the patient most uncomfortable. It is then folded and applied to
the skin, as directed. While applying the first, a second towel may be
in the water. It is then wrung out and applied, while the first is
placed to soak afresh. In prolonged cooling, care must be taken that
the water in the basin does not get too warm. It should be frequently
changed. The nurse should gently press the towels on the part,
frequently changing the position of her hands. They should not merely
be laid on, but gently pressed, unless this causes pain. The towels
will need to be changed when hot, and will take from two to five
minutes to lose their cooling effect, according to circumstances. Where
cold increases the patient's distress, it is almost always safe to
substitute heat. _See_ Cooling in Heating; Fomentation.


Tumours.--A large, soft, fleshy tumour is usually simply an
accumulation of waste material, which should have been excreted from
the body if all the organs were in healthy working order. Where such a
swelling exists, the first consideration is diet. For this, Barley
(_see_) as chief food will do very well. Lemon and orange juice (_see_
Drinks) should be the drinks. The barley must _not_ be cooked with
milk, and the drinks must be made with _pure water_. This plain diet
will help very much towards the removal of the tumour.

Then the back should be rubbed (_see_ Massage) with hot olive oil twice
a day. This treatment alone has often removed the disagreeable
swellings on the neck so often afflicting women.

Also, fine soap lather (_see_ Lather; Soap) should be gently rubbed
repeatedly over the tumour itself. This _alone_ we have known remove
tumours, so it is important.

The three forms of treatment, all applied carefully, will cure all but
very obstinate cases. _See also_ Armpit Swelling; Hydrocele.

Where fibrous tumours exist, the treatment is to _douche_ cold water on
the part affected, while the rest of the body is kept warm. In case of
such a growth in the abdomen, the patient sits in cold water, while the
feet are placed in hot water, and the whole body warmly wrapped in
blankets. Cold water is then thrown against the spot where the tumour
lies. If the tumour is discovered early, its growth may be entirely
stopped by this means. Such treatment for several minutes twice a day
has in our own experience cured cases pronounced incurable. _See_ Sitz
Bath.


Turnip Poultice.--Part of a raw turnip is grated down to a pulp. As
much of this is prepared as will cover the inflamed part. It is put on
next the skin, and covered with a soft cloth. All is then tied nicely
up in another cloth. In violent inflammation of the knee joint, this is
a most valuable soothing application. Placed on discoloured and
shrivelled skin, it is marvellously curative. When applied, the patient
must be _thoroughly warm_. This warmth must be maintained while the
poultice is on, as it has a powerful cooling effect.


Typhoid Fever.--_See_ Fever, Typhoid.


Ulcers.--An ulcer is an "eating sore": that is, a sore containing
matter which eats away the skin and flesh, thereby extending itself,
and increasing in depth as well. To stop this diseased process, the
virulent matter in the ulcer must be killed or neutralised, and this
can usually best be done by means of vinegar or weak ACETIC ACID
(_see_), which is most powerfully antiseptic. The only difficulty is to
avoid irritating the sore by the application of too strong acid. The
treatment by weak acid is very effective, but it must be a fairly
prolonged and thorough soaking. Apply a little at a time to the sore.
Use warm water if pain be caused. Continue the soaking for even an hour
at a time, twice or even three times a day. The wound may be dressed
with good fresh olive oil after each soaking. Usually, nothing else
will be required, but it must be thoroughly done.

In a very severe case, mix in a teacupful of hot water as much
saltpetre as the water will dissolve. Add to this a teaspoonful of
acetic acid, and use this to soak the sore instead of simple weak acid.
Then, if healing does not come, it is probably because rest is not
taken, and most likely also because there is deficient vitality in the
whole system. Let the treatment with the lotion be given in the
morning. Secure rest during the day, and in the evening, for an hour,
thoroughly foment the feet and legs up over the knees. Once a week for
two weeks give the SOAPY BLANKET (_see_) instead of this treatment, and
in the morning rub all over the body with hot vinegar. This powerfully
stimulates the vitality of the whole system. Even a very bad ulcer
should give way under a careful course of united acid soaking, rest,
and this stimulating treatment.


Unconsciousness.--There are two opposite causes of unconsciousness. One
is congestion of the brain, the other sheer nerve exhaustion. Either
will produce a prolonged suspension of consciousness very different
from a mere passing faint. In the case of congestion, the head will be
hot and the feet cold. The cure is therefore at once seen to be to cool
the head and foment the feet in a hot blanket up to the knees. This is
the treatment usually to be given to young children. When aged people,
or those much exhausted from any cause, become unconscious from lack of
vitality, there will be rather a _general_ coldness, and no special
heat in the head. We have seen such a case of "coma," which had lasted
for forty-eight hours, come all right in ten minutes, by simply
fomenting the back of the head and neck, and all down the spinal
column. Press a thickly-folded piece of flannel wrung out of hot water
carefully and gently over these parts, and often in a few minutes the
mental power comes back. Care must be taken not to scald the patient.
_See_ Fomentation.


Underwear.--There is a common and very popular error, namely, that of
putting too much clothing on our bodies, under the mistaken idea that
additional weight means additional warmth. The fact that the main
object of clothing is to preserve the natural heat of the body is lost
sight of, and little attention is paid to the selection of proper
garments for wearing next the skin. Every day the skin of an average
healthy individual gives off so many pints of moisture, which must not
be allowed to settle on the body if health is to be maintained. After
long and exhaustive trials, we have come to the conclusion that the
best material for wearing next the skin is knitted linen, and the best
knitted linen of the kind, and in fact, the only pure linen mesh
material which we have seen, is known as _Kneipp linen_, and can be
obtained from all leading retailers and outfitters in this and other
countries. The name of the nearest agent may be had by sending a card
to the Kneipp Linen Warehouse, 2 Milk St., London, E.C. In winter light
woollen underwear can be worn over the linen if desired, thus retaining
the hygienic advantages of the linen, as well as the warmth of the
wool. As the wool does not touch the skin, it will not require frequent
washing, and so will not become felted up.

Linen is the symbol of cleanliness, the priests of old, as we read in
Ezekiel, being commanded to wear it, and not wool or any garment
causing sweat.

Our reason for specially naming Kneipp linen is that we know it is
_pure linen_, whereas we know that what is sold as linen mesh is
frequently half linen and half cotton.

Linen is the most absorbent material for underwear. It soaks up
moisture very rapidly, and dries with equal rapidity. Hence linen is
always preferred for towels and bandages. Those who use it for
underwear will not require to change the clothes after exercise, as
they would if wool were worn next the skin. The ordinary woven linen is
clean but cold: Kneipp linen is so constructed as to be clean and warm.
This material retains air in its meshes, and a layer of dry air next
the body is the best method of preserving an even temperature, and thus
avoiding colds and chills, which are so prevalent in a climate such as
ours. Wool is entirely unsuited for wearing next the skin. It does not
absorb the perspiration rapidly nor radiate it freely, and after
several washings it becomes felted, and in that condition is absolutely
injurious to health. It is the material par excellence for outer
clothing, but all inner garments coming in contact with the body should
be composed of pure linen. (_See_ Skin, Care of).


Uric Acid.--This acid is found in persons of a gouty tendency, such
tendencies being a great deal more common than is imagined.

It is really a waste product formed by the activity of the body cells,
and should properly be mainly transformed into urea and so excreted. If
it is not so transformed it accumulates in the blood and deposits in
stony formations in different parts of the body, as in the joints,
kidneys and bladder, causing very serious disease. Pure air and plenty
of exercise will assist its transformation.

It is also taken into the body in various foods, particularly meat and
tea, which are very rich in it or kindred chemical substances,
therefore, anyone having such a tendency should avoid these. The
consumption of sugar should also be limited. Avoid alcohol and use
plenty of green vegetables and fruits.

The tendency to a "uric acid" constitution is hereditary, and is
prevalent among families who live high. Such should be continually on
the watch lest their diet should precipitate an attack. Water should be
freely drunk, and plenty of bathing with subsequent rubbing of the
muscles or massage is advisable.

Drugs are to be avoided as they often result in painful heart
affection, and besides do not strike at the real root of the disease.

Soda or lithia water may be taken either with or without milk. Brine
baths may be taken when practicable.


Urinary Troubles.--A healthy man usually evacuates about 30-40 ozs. of
urine daily, the excretion being greater in the winter than in the
summer, owing to the checked perspiration. The urine should be of a
pale straw colour and transparent. Where any irregularity in the urine,
either in quantity or quality, is suspected, it is wise to use soft
boiled or distilled water only, for drinking, and to take frequent sips
of it throughout the day, and especially early in the morning. Either
pure hot water, hot water and lemon juice, or whey, will help the
action of the kidneys when this is sluggish.

Where the bladder is irritated and painfully sensitive, a large hot
BRAN POULTICE (_see_) should be applied to the lower back. While the
patient lies on this, cold towels (_see_ Towels, Cold Wet) should be
changed over the bladder in front. While giving such treatment once or
twice a day, _rest_ must be taken, if a cure is to be obtained. For a
patient to say that rest cannot be had, is to say that cure is
impossible.

Where there is a tendency to stoppage of the urine, a warm sitz-bath
should be taken. The patient first sits in three inches deep of
comfortably hot water. More water at the same temperature is poured
gradually in at intervals, until it rises well up over the abdomen.
This will usually relieve even a bad case.

Treat with bran poultice and cold towels, as above recommended, after
the warm bath has given relief. It should be remembered that the _cold_
is the healing power, bracing the bladder and all its muscles and
vessels. Hence more than a slight cooling is needed. But the cooling is
only possible when good heat is kept up on the base of the back. This
treatment also cures the swelling of the bladder which often
accompanies restriction of urine.

Where a positive growth interferes with the urinary discharge, this may
often be actually _melted away_ by soaking with weak ACETIC ACID
(_see_), when it is at all possible to reach it. The power of cure
possessed by acetic acid is incredible, except to those who have seen
it exercised, and its persistent use would, we are use, save many
lives, if people would only try it.

We would also advise the four-ply flannel bandage, with two plies damp
and two dry. This round the body has a wonderfully soothing effect. So
has a nicely applied lathering with SOAP (_see_). As in most other
troubles, special care must be taken to keep the feet warm.


Vaccination Trouble.--When a child is suffering after vaccination, we
should have him gently rubbed all over--thrice at least with
M'Clinton's soap (_see_ Lather). No one who has not seen this well done
can believe how blessed are its effects on an irritated skin. It
soothes incredibly. When thoroughly covered and covered again with
well-made lather of this soap, the child will sleep beautifully. We
should soap head and all, and let the little man sleep all night in the
soap. He may be sponged in the morning with weak vinegar and water to
clean off the remains of the soap, if there are any. Now, there will
occur a most important question: Is the child cold or feverish? If
cold, then mix some good olive oil in your rubbing with the lather. If
hot, use no oil. If cold, rub all over with warm oil before applying
the lather. It will make no difference, or next to none, if the disease
has broken out as a visible skin disease, only it will be necessary to
use the vinegar on the unbroken parts of the skin and not to distress
the child by painful smarting. The soap will not need to be so
restricted. That cures the most tender sores, and soothes in a
delightful way.


Vegetables, Green, and Fruit.--We would strongly recommend our readers
to continually have these valuable foods on their tables. It is
possible to obtain them in some form or other during the entire year.
They contain very valuable salts, which are of the greatest use in
preventing disease. These salts are absolutely necessary for life, and
though found in other foods such as meat, are particularly abundant in
these vegetables. If cooked they must be carefully prepared, as the
salts are very soluble in water (_see_ Cooking). Vegetable salads and
fruit salads are to be recommended. Those of gouty or corpulent
tendencies will find these of especial use. By keeping the blood
alkaline they are a preventive of many diseases. Spinach, cabbage,
lettuce, and all the fruits offer a variety from which at each season
one may choose.

It is to be observed that common salt and salt such as bi-carbonate of
soda, do not adequately replace those food salts. Indeed,
over-consumption of common salt is harmful, besides leading to
unnatural thirst.

Fresh fruits and vegetables are always to be preferred to tinned ones.


Veins, Swollen.--The swelling of veins in the leg is a very common
trouble, especially in middle and later life. At first this may cause
no pain, one vein appearing as a little blue lump. Then as the trouble
increases, knots of veins seem to rise, especially below and behind the
knee. Great pain follows, and sometimes the veins burst, causing bad
sores, not easy to heal.

All this generally springs from _overstrain_ upon the limbs. Long
continued standing, in circumstances otherwise unfavourable to health,
is the usual cause.

This shows the primary necessity of _rest_. Let the patient lie down as
much as possible, or at least sit with the sore limb or limbs supported
on a chair so as to be nearly level. If this can be done thoroughly,
all work being given up for a month or so, a cure is not very
difficult. But where this rest cannot be had, an elastic band, such as
is used by bootmakers to make strong boot gussets, about six inches
broad and one foot long, should be procured. Fasten this round _above_
the knee, well up the thigh. This will greatly help to relieve the
blood pressure on the lower leg, and is better than elastic stockings.
Before these bands are slipped on, the leg should be well rubbed or
stroked _upwards_, as described at the end of Circulation. This rubbing
empties the swollen veins, and gives great relief.

We have seen a man with both legs full of swollen veins ready for
bursting, and most painful, get on two such bandages, and go on digging
and working with perfect ease, while the veins sensibly contracted with
no other application. But it is not necessary nor wise to confine
medical measures to the use of such bandages. Rest is in some cases
absolutely necessary.

Even where partial rest can be had, it is important to wear these bands
and rub as described. But if possible, the patient should rest in bed
for one week. To restore power to the relaxed vessels, a large bran
poultice should be applied across the haunches behind, rubbing olive
oil before and after. Apply this for fifty minutes each night during
the week in bed. Wear a broad band of new flannel over the parts after
the poultice. In the morning give the same treatment. If in a week the
veins are not better, continue the treatment for another week. The
elastic band is, of course, not worn in bed, but may be put on on
rising as a security against relapse.

We have seen persons over sixty years of age completely cured in this
way, when the necessary rest could be had.

If the _skin_ give signs, by dryness and hardness, that it is out of
order, instead of treatment with the bran poultice, the SOAPY BLANKET
(_see_) may be applied on the first night. The patient may on other
nights be lathered with soap (_see_ Lather; Soap), and the soapy cloth
worn on the back for a night or two, sponging all over with hot vinegar
in the morning.

Where the veins by bursting have caused sores, treat with weak vinegar
as directed for Ulcers, and after each acid soaking, bandage the whole
limb (putting lint on the sores and dressing them properly) with an
ordinary surgical bandage, just so tightly as to give relief, and not
tight enough to cause any pain. Over-pressure injures. This treatment,
with the necessary _rest_, will in most cases effect a cure in a few
weeks.


Vomiting.--In many cases of severe illness, the stomach rejects all
food, and the patient comes near to dying of simple starvation. On the
slightest nourishment being taken, retching and vomiting ensue, the
stomach being irritated beyond all possibility of its doing its work.
This occurs in cancer and ulcers in the stomach, as well as in various
disorders and stomach inflammations.

"Rum and milk," "claret," and all alcoholic drinks are most injurious
in such cases, and should _never_ be given. To soothe the irritation,
the stomach should be soaped in the same manner as recommended in Head,
Soaping the (_see also_ Lather). We have seen, even in very bad cases
of cancer, such an application cause all retching to cease almost at
once. When this has been carefully and gently done, give exceedingly
small quantities at first, of infants' food, or milk and boiling water.
To give any "rich" things is a fatal mistake. Oatmeal jelly may be
given also, but beginning with a teaspoonful at a time (_see_
Assimilation; Digestion; Nourishment). By gradually working up the
amount, a patient's life may be saved on this simple oatmeal jelly
which would be lost if richer things were given. Often the stomach
rejects food simply because it is surfeited. It may be that the liver
is out of order, having had too much to do. Abstinence from food for a
day or two, and then reducing the meals to two, taken, say, between 10
and 11, and 5 and 6 o'clock, will greatly help. Masticate the food till
it is reduced to a liquid, in this state the quantity required will be
wonderfully reduced and the work of the stomach lessened.


Water, Hot.--The frequent prescription in these papers of hot water, to
be taken often in small quantities, makes it of importance that some
explanation of its action should be given.

We see, frequently, such a thing as this: a person is confined to bed,
sick and ill; there is no desire for food, but rather a loathing at the
very idea of eating; distressing symptoms of various sorts are showing
that the work of digestion and assimilation is going on badly, if
really going on at all. The patient is started on a course of hot water
in half-teacupfuls every ten minutes. When this has gone on for perhaps
six or seven hours, he begins to be very hungry, and takes food with
relish, probably for the first time for months past. In the meantime a
greatly increased quantity of water has passed from the body one way
and another, but has all passed loaded with waste material. The breath
is loaded with carbonic acid and other impurities; the perspiration is
loaded with all that makes it differ from pure water; the urine,
especially, is loaded with waste separated from the blood and tissues
of the body. The space, so to speak, left vacant by all this washing
away of waste matter makes its emptiness felt by a call upon the
stomach to furnish fresh material. Some will say that the hot water
merely passes off by the kidneys without entering the circulation at
all. This is impossible, and facts, patent to everyone, demonstrate
that they are in error. The substances with which the water becomes
impregnated show that it has been mingled with the circulation, and the
wholesome effects produced prove that it has made itself useful.

"Hard" water, as it is called, will not do so well as "soft" water.
Distilled water is best of all. So much superior is it, indeed, that
its use cannot be too strongly insisted on. It can be had from the
druggist at twopence per quart.

Where nourishment is given with too little water, the food will often
fail almost entirely to enter the circulation. But a little warm water,
somewhat above blood heat, but not too hot, will make all right. This
is especially seen in nourishing infants (_see_ Infants' Food). Food,
then, will not act as water does, nor will water act as food. Even a
little sugar mixed with the hot water completely alters its effect on
the body. As it has already dissolved the sugar, it cannot dissolve
what is needed to be removed from the body. Sugar and water is not a
_bad_ mixture, but it will by no means do instead of pure water in the
cases we contemplate. On the other hand, a mixture of alcohol with the
water is ruinous, and that just in proportion to the quantity of
alcohol, small or great. Beer, for example, can never do what is
required of water, nor can wine, or any other alcoholic drink. Tea
added to the water also alters its quality. The water _alone_, and as
nearly perfect in purity as it can be got, is the only thing which will
do the necessary work.

Sometimes one finds a great prejudice against hot water. You see one
who is miserable through derangement of the stomach and digestive
organs, and you mention "hot water." The very phrase is sufficient to
put an expression of strong prejudice on the face. Yet that very hot
water is perhaps the only thing that will cure the patient. If you wait
a little, there will be an opening to explain that hot water is very
different to tepid water. Under blood heat, and yet heated, water tends
to produce vomiting; above blood heat, nothing will so well set the
stomach right. This is true, however, only when the water is taken in
very small quantities. You must see that the water is not smoked in the
heating or otherwise spoiled. And also that it be not too hot. If it
scalds the lips it is too hot. When it is comfortably warm, but not
tepid, it does its work most effectively.


Water for Drinking.--Every care should be taken to have drinking water
absolutely pure. Diarrhoea and many infectious diseases may be conveyed
by impure water. In gouty cases as much water should be taken as
possible (provided the heart is sufficiently strong) in order to wash
away the waste matter. The same applies to fevers. If there is a
suspicion of water being contaminated mere filtration should never be
relied on, the water should be boiled.

After many of the treatments given by us in this book, considerable
thirst will be experienced. Cold water in such cases may always be
given. In fact, in any internal congested condition cold water will
stimulate the nerves of these organs, and make them act on the blood
vessels. In all cases where drugs, especially mineral drugs have been
recklessly indulged in, cold water should be taken in abundance. Care
must be taken, however, not to unduly stimulate the circulation or
nervous system, and any signs of this, such as headache or want of
sleep indicate the curtailment of the amount drunk.


Water in the Head.--In cases where this trouble is suspected, very
often there is nothing wrong but a more or less congested state of the
brain, owing to some severe chill or some disease elsewhere in the
body. There may be violent heat in the head, and even the "drowsiness"
which is so serious a symptom, without any real "water in the head" at
all. Leeching and blistering in such a case are grave mistakes. Cold
towels (_see_ Towels, Cold Wet), or a gentle pouring of cool water on
the head, will often be sufficient to remove all trouble. We have seen
a bad case of brain congestion cured and consciousness return almost
immediately after the pouring had begun. The feet also may be fomented
(_see_ Fomentation). The cold towels and pouring may be used
alternately on the head, which will give a more powerful effect. Let
the water poured be almost lukewarm, a little under blood heat. There
is no need to cut the hair, or use any acid or drug in the water. The
_cooling_ is all that is needed. Incipient water in the head may in a
very large number of cases be checked and cured by the same treatment.
It can do no harm in any case, and has saved many lives.


Water on the Chest.--Sometimes a large watery swelling appears in one
part or another of the chest. It is practically a bag of liquid waste,
due to deficient action on the part of the kidneys or skin. Treatment
should be given as recommended in Dropsy, and, besides, the four-ply
moist flannel bandage should be worn over the skin. This will in many
cases speedily effect a cure.


Weakness.--Often there follows, after the cure of an inflammatory
disease, very great weakness. This in itself is sometimes a great
danger, but can usually be removed by proper care and nursing. The
common method of administering wine, brandy, or other alcoholic liquor,
is the very worst that could be adopted. Hot water will prove a
valuable stimulant, when a stimulant is required. Any NOURISHMENT
(_see_) to be given should also be just a little warmer than blood
heat. For drink, the unfermented wine made by Frank Wright, Chemist,
Kensington, London, is of great value. It is simply the pure juice of
the grape. If milk be given, it should always be diluted with an equal
bulk of boiling water. The fomentation of the feet and legs will
greatly help in restoring vigour. This should be done gently at first,
where the weakness is great. Afterwards, when the patient can bear it,
the ARMCHAIR FOMENTATION (_see_) will be found serviceable. All this,
of course, is on the assumption that only _weakness_ and no fever is
the trouble. Where fever is present, other treatment is necessary.

Sponging all over with warm vinegar is also a most invigorating thing.
Do this once, and afterwards the treatment may be varied by the real
stimulant of cayenne being used in the form of an infusion strong
enough to rouse the nerves, as is done by the acid. This has the
advantage of saving the skin, if that is tender, and keeping off
eruption, which is apt to come if the acid is often used. We think it
well to use the acid once or so, and the cayenne infusion as frequently
as anything of the kind is required. Rubbing with olive oil is also
most beneficial. But both must be done very cautiously where there is
great weakness. To rub the whole body at once will then be too much.
But it may be done bit by bit, stopping whenever fatigue or chilliness
is felt by the patient. _See also_ Heat and Weakness.


Weaning.--Many of the troubles which come in this process arise simply
from ignorance or want of thought on the part of the nurse or mother.
Sometimes the child, having been burned with a hot teaspoon, will
afterwards refuse all that is offered in such a spoon. In such a case
use an egg-spoon of bone, or a small cup. Sometimes spoons of various
metals, having peculiar tastes, are used, and the child refuses them.
When food is refused, it is well therefore always to see that it is not
the spoon or dish which is the real reason.

Again, food ill-fitted for the child's digestion is offered. In this
case the child is doing the right thing in refusing it. Milk and hot
water, in equal quantities, with a very little sugar, is a mixture
which can always be given with safety. In weaning, the nurse should
begin by using this alone. Gradually a very little thin oatmeal jelly
may be added, and the strength of the mixture increased. If there
should be indigestion, a few teaspoonfuls of hot water will usually
cure it. If the bowels are inactive, mix a little pure CANE SYRUP
(_see_) with the food. Avoid all drugs as far as possible. If the whole
process be _gradual_, there will usually be little or no trouble with
the child. If, where teething and weaning are both coming together, the
child should be seized with chill and shivering, a good blanket
FOMENTATION (_see_) may be wrapped round the body and legs. Dry after
this, and rub with warm OLIVE OIL (_see_). Generally this will induce
sleep, in which case leave the child _warm_ in the fomentation until it
awakes (_see_ Teething).

In weaning, the mother often suffers as well as the child. The supply
of milk in the breast being over-abundant, the breasts become hard and
painful, and feverishness comes on. In this case the breasts must be
emptied, either by some other person, or by the various ingenious
instruments sold by all druggists. Then a large, cold damp cloth should
be placed over the emptied breast, and changed once or twice, rubbing
afterwards with a little olive oil. This, in ordinary cases, will cause
the flow of milk to cease. Where the swelling is very hard and almost
inflammatory, the breast should be fomented for five or ten minutes,
then emptied, and a cold cloth applied as above directed. If all this
fails, a BRAN POULTICE (_see_), or hot bag with moist flannel covering,
should be applied between the shoulders. While the patient lies on
this, cold towels (_see_ Towels, Cold Wet) should be changed on the
breasts. This will usually effectually stay the secretion of milk. This
last treatment is rarely required, but is harmless and most efficient.

Where mother and child are both sickly, weaning must be carefully
conducted. But it must ever be remembered that a child is far more
healthily nourished on a bottle of good cow's milk or condensed milk
(of _first-rate quality_) than on a sickly mother's milk. This is the
case even if the child be ill. Only let the bottle not be too strong.
_See_ Children, numerous articles.


Weariness.--Where persistent weariness is felt, and the least exertion
brings on a feeling of lassitude, there is evidently an undue
exhaustion of nerve force in the body. Too rapid action of the heart is
a frequent cause. In such a case all exciting ideas and influences
should be kept from the patient's mind, and rest taken. The heart's
action should also be reduced by careful lathering with soap (_see_
Lather; Soap). Where the weariness is really serious, great care must
be exercised, and treatment very gradually administered. Rest must be
given whenever exhaustion shows itself (_see_ Heat and Weakness;
Weakness; and articles on Nerves and Nervousness). Where the heart's
action is very slow, and requires to be stimulated, REST (_see_) must
be taken, and treatment given as recommended in the case elsewhere.
_See_ Depression.

In other cases we find weariness arising from an irritated state of the
stomach. Where there is no particular nerve exhaustion, the fiery and
inflamed state of the stomach membranes forbids sleep, and causes a
great feeling of tiredness. Headache (_see_), and even fainting fits,
sometimes come on in such a case. All the nerves are excited, so that
even touching the head or skin is most painful. Yet all can be traced
to an inflamed stomach as the cause. Such a case, to be successfully
treated, requires considerable resolution. In one case the treatment
was as follows: First, the feet and legs up to the knees were wrapped
in a large FOMENTATION (_see_). A cold wet towel was then folded
lengthwise so as to be four-ply thick. The end was laid on the stomach,
and _gently pressed_. In about half-a-minute it was hot. The towel was
then shifted so that a fresh cool part lay over the stomach, and so on
throughout the length of the towel. Handfuls of finely-wrought soap
LATHER (_see_) were then prepared and laid on the stomach. Then the
cold cloth was again renewed on top of the lather. For _two hours_ this
was continued, and by that time the worst symptoms had abated. A little
fresh oil gently rubbed over the stomach completed the treatment for
that time. When the heat again arose, the same treatment was repeated,
and so on till a cure was effected. Five or ten minutes' cooling would
have been utterly useless. The heat evolved in the stomach required two
hours steady cooling, and might have required more. The feelings of the
patient are ever the best guide in such a case. As long as the cooling
feels "delightful" it may safely be continued, if the heat to the feet
is kept up.

If the weakness is very great, it may be necessary to keep to milk and
hot water, such as an infant would thrive on, for a short time. If the
weakness is not so great, it will be possible for the patient to take a
little gruel or porridge made from wheaten meal, and also good fresh
buttermilk. The stomach may be far from ready to take eggs and such
things, but quite able to digest the "poorer" food, as it is often
called. To give the really weak as perfect rest of mind and as easily
digested food as possible, are conditions that must not be overlooked
if we would be successful in their cure.


White Leg.--When a limb becomes swelled and white, pouring hot water
very gently over it with a sponge or cloth will have a blessed effect.
It may be continued for an hour at a time for several times. If this
ceases to be comforting, it should be discontinued and the limb dressed
with warm olive oil, a soft cotton rag being put next the skin, and
soft flannel above that. Of course absolute rest should be taken.


Whooping Cough.--The cough is a spasmodic action of nerves which are
otherwise healthy enough, so that when the violent action ceases, the
child's health is much as usual. Any irritation of nerves or temper
will, however, bring on an attack, and should therefore be avoided, and
all soothing mental influences should be encouraged. Three or four
teaspoonfuls of hot water taken frequently, and given whenever an
attack comes on, will give great relief. We have ourselves seen a child
thought to be dying relieved at once by nothing more than this.
Therefore it should never be neglected as too simple.

Also the feet should be bathed once in two nights (_see_ Bathing Feet)
in warm water (not too hot), dried and rubbed gently with olive oil. On
the night when the feet are not bathed, let the back be lathered with
_warm_ lather (_see_ Lather; Soap), quickly dried off, and then a
little olive oil _gently_ rubbed on.

In ordinary cases, this will be sufficient to ward off all danger in
the disease, but in severer attacks the feet and legs may be fomented
(_see_ Fomentation) while the child is in bed, and cold towels changed
along the spine while the fomentation remains on, so as to lower the
nerve action over the main centres. This is best done in the morning
before the patient arises. If anything like inflammation sets in in any
part of the chest, treat as recommended in Bronchitis or Lungs,
Inflammation of.

As far as possible, all causes of irritation to the patient must be
removed or avoided. In the time of whooping cough, the sunniest way of
managing the child is the best.

The other children, if any, in the house, should have the footbath and
oil, and the back wash, as recommended above. This will lessen danger
of infection, and make the attack lighter if they should take it.


Worms.--Where the juices and organs of the body are thoroughly healthy,
worms will not appear. Before they can breed, there must be more or
less of failure in the patient's health. This shows us that the cure
for worms is not so much some poisonous substance which will destroy
them, as such an increase of healthy action in the system as will
prevent their development. The bowels must be kept open by suitable
diet as it is most important to avoid Constipation (_see_). In case of
worms in children, stimulus and help are specially needed by the
_mucous membrane_ or inner lining of the stomach and bowels. To give
this, and at the same time to neutralise and remove waste material from
the membrane, a little vinegar and warm water may be frequently given,
in teaspoonfuls. This is best taken from an hour to half-an-hour before
meals. It is often needful to use some soothing, nourishing substance,
such as liquorice, boiled with a little camomile, taken, say after
meals, while the acid is taken before them: this has an excellent
effect. At the same time, an enema of warm water and vinegar should be
given twice a day. Where Santolina (_see_) can be procured, its use
will speedily effect a complete cure. Change of air, holiday from
lessons, and any other means of increasing the general health, should
also be utilised.


Worry.--One of the most fruitful causes of ill-health is the habit of
worrying. Many believe this to be unavoidable, and think it even an
evidence of interest in their work or of consideration for their
friends. But this is not real interest or real consideration. The
person who faces the work of the moment without anxiety for the future
or useless regret for the past will accomplish his task before the
harassed careworn man has thought out how to begin it. It is not work
that kills but worry. Illness is frequently brought on by worry. Worry
wrinkles the face, makes us look old before our time, often makes us
sour and disagreeable, always makes us more or less wanting in true
politeness, and is socially a great handicap to a man, a much greater
to a woman. Further, worry not only prevents cure but kills, and
nothing will help us more in recovering from illness than a calm,
contented spirit.

Now the first thing to do to overcome this habit is to realise that
_worry is a bad habit which it is quite possible to get rid of_. The
proof of this is that thousands of people for years slaves to it have
got rid of it. Through some means or other they have been brought to
exercise their will power and have found, sometimes to their
considerable astonishment, always to their inexpressible relief, that
they have regained a lost mental power and that their efficiency as
workers has been enormously increased.

If any matter needs much thought, devote thought to it, reflect and
weigh carefully. If it requires time, take it up at separate times.
Only make up your mind to this one thing, that you are the master and
the arbitrator as to when it shall be taken up. If it intrudes, dismiss
it as you would a servant from the room when you no longer require his
presence. It is bound to go when you do so dismiss it. When you summon
it to your consciousness concentrate your mind upon it. Want of
concentration, being a dissipation of the mental powers, is a cause of
worry.

Worry becomes doubly baneful when it is directed towards the "might
have been." Legitimate regret should be an emotion always accompanied
by the determination to learn by experience. Every aid to enable the
dispossessed will to regain its rightful throne should be employed.
Properly chosen books, companions, and surroundings, are of great use,
but perhaps quiet persistent self culture of the will, will be found to
be the best. It matters little whether you call this "self suggestion"
or not. As a matter of fact it is simply the common-sense of the
question. It is the making up of the mind to do a thing with certain
aspirations, emotions, and desires towards this thing. Thousands of
people do it every day, especially in religious matters. It needs an
adequate motive or a great ideal to carry it out. Such a motive here,
might be the realisation of the uselessness and the positive harm of
worry. Actually realise this, then affirm your determination to avoid
worry and you have well begun the battle. Go through this mental
exercise each time you feel you are worrying again. After a while you
may omit it all but the mental determination.

The mind cannot act rightly in an unsound body, and there is no doubt
that good health wards off worry. Deep breathing of fresh air by
producing well oxygenated pure blood, will do much to restore mental
balance, especially if this want of mental balance is, as is often the
case, partly due to inattention to the laws of health.

Worry is by no means a necessary concomitant of high civilisation, it
is rather an accompanying mental disease due partly to low nerve power,
which itself is due to erroneous methods of life--errors of diet, want
of pure air, cleanliness, exercise, etc. Partly, too, is this low nerve
power due to mental causes peculiarly Western. The _Asiatic_ with his
power of concentration, reflection, contemplation, with his patience,
endurance, calmness, knows nothing of this scourge of European and
American life. Even the Japanese, progressive and efficient as they
are, possess this native contented, sweet, calm disposition, a habit of
mind which, if they can retain, will be of enormous value to them in
coming years.


Wounds, Bleeding of.--After sending for a surgeon the first thing to be
looked at in case of any wound is the bleeding. Sometimes this is
trifling and needs no particular effort to staunch it. When, however, a
vein or artery has been lacerated the flow must immediately be attended
to.

If the blood be welling up from the wound and of a dark red colour it
is venous blood, if it spurt up from the wound and be of a bright red
colour it is arterial blood. What has to be done is to place a pressure
on the vein or artery to prevent the blood escaping.

Venous bleeding may generally be stopped by putting a pad of lint
dipped in cold water on the wound and tying it on with a bandage. If
the blood continues to flow, tie a bandage round the limb on the side
of the wound _away_ from the heart and keep the limb raised.

Arterial bleeding must be treated by tying on the pad and bandage, and
if the bleeding continues, stopping the flow in the artery on the side
of the wound _nearest_ the heart, and at some point where it passes
over a bone so that pressure may be efficiently applied. The bandage
for thus tying an artery may be simply made by knotting a handkerchief
(Diagram IV.), putting something solid inside the knot, then placing
the knot on the artery at the desired point and tying tightly. If
required this may be tightened by putting a stick under and twisting
round, then tying the stick in position (Diagram II.).

[Illustration: Fig. I.]

[Illustration: Fig. II.]

[Illustration: Fig. III.]

[Illustration: Fig. IV.]

[Illustration: Fig. V.]

If the palm of the hand is cut, put a pad inside the hand, close the
fingers, and tie the bandage round the clenched fist.

If the wound is in the forearm, put a pad in the bend of the elbow, and
tie the forearm firmly up on the arm. If the wound is above the elbow
stop the main artery in the way above indicated. This artery runs
pretty well under the inner seam of the sleeve of a man's coat. Diagram
I. shows how this artery may be stopped by direct pressure of the hand;
Diagram II. how a tourniquet may be applied.

For bleeding in the arm-pit, press in a pad and tie the arm down to the
side. It may be necessary here to compress the artery with the thumb.
The artery here lies behind the inner bend of the collar bone lying on
the first rib.

In case of arterial bleeding about the head apply the bandage as in
Diagram III. The pressure is here applied right over the wound, as the
skull is always behind on which to press the artery.

A wound in the leg should be treated in a similar way to a wound in the
arm. Diagram V. shows the stopping of bleeding above the knee.

Do not remove the pressure until the arrival of a medical man.


Wounds, Ill-Smelling.--For all such wounds, the best method is frequent
cleansing with vinegar or dilute ACETIC ACID (_see_) by means of a
small glass syringe, such as may be got at any druggist's (_see_
Abscess; Wounds, Syringing). We know one case where the patient was
expelled from a curative home because of the evil smell of his wounds,
three careful cleanings out with dilute acid so removed all odour that
the patient was at once readmitted. Where the wound is very tender,
soak soft cloths or lint in the dilute acid, and lay them on the wound
three or four ply thick. Remove and renew them every quarter-of-an-hour
till the smell is gone. Of course the cloths should be immediately
washed or, better, burned. In using the syringe, care should be taken
_to suck out_ the ill matter, as well as to send the dilute acid well
down into the sore. Careful cleaning of the syringe with _boiling_
water before use is necessary.


Wounds, Soothing.--During the process of _healing_, wounds often give a
great deal of pain, even when all is going well. It is this pain we
here show how to relieve. After an operation under chloroform, itself
painless, the process of healing is often very painful. We are sure
this pain need not be endured, but to prevent or cure it we need to see
what is its cause. Two causes are specially notable--_pressure_ and
_cold_. By skilful handling and bandaging, undue pressure may be
avoided by the surgeon. But a great deal can be done by any one to keep
cold from the seat of injury. Have a bag of soft flannel, as fine as
possible, made so as to surround the wounded part. This bag is filled
with _dry_ bran, heated in an oven or otherwise, without being wet. Of
course the heat must not be great enough to cause any discomfort, but
sufficient to give a fine sense of relief. This application is for a
wound which has _not_ become inflamed, but is doing well.

When inflammation has set in, and the patient is fevered, the opposite
treatment is applied. Over the dressing apply three or four folds of
dry cotton cloth, and over this again apply cold towels (_see_ Towels,
Cold Wet) until the pain is relieved. Good sense must regulate this
treatment, of course, and excess of cold be avoided. But with ordinary
care this need never cause anxiety.


Wounds, Syringing.--Very great good can often be done by a little
careful syringing of internal wounds. Take, as an illustration, a case
of a kind we have often seen. It is that of a young patient with a
wound on the lower part of the leg, a good long way below the knee.
This wound will run in spite of all that has been done to dry it up.
The opening in it is very small, and one would think it ought to be
easily cured, but it is not so. The truth is that this wound is from
two to three inches distant from where the real sore is situated in the
limb. The wound is well down towards the ankle; the real sore is well
up towards the knee. There is a corroding matter generated in the
internal sore, and that runs down under the skin, and keeps cutting its
way out at the wound. Until this is rectified, there will be no
successful healing. Ointments that might do well enough on a small
external sore have no effect in this case. The real sore, however, is
easily reached and cured by the right use of a small pointed syringe.
The kind most easily procured is made of glass, and costs about
sixpence. Choose one that has a small smooth point, which can be easily
inserted into the hole in the wound. This should be done without
causing any pain. The point of the syringe should be dipped in hot
water till it is as near as possible to blood heat: that is, it should
neither be hotter nor colder than the skin it has to touch. If you are
sufficiently careful on this point, all else will be comparatively
easy.

Before you actually try to insert the syringe, observe in what
direction the wound is likely to be extended under the skin. It will
probably be upwards--almost certainly it will be so, as the waste
matter, by its weight, tends to fall down. The sore at the top
insertion of a muscle near the knee will send its matter down the leg,
perhaps near to the ankle. Fill the syringe with warm water only, as
near blood heat as you can have it. When you have got the point of the
syringe even a very little way into the wound, you can inject a little
water, and in doing this you will probably learn more nearly where the
actual sore is to be found. The water will probably come out as fast as
you send it in, but it may not come till a good quantity has gone in.
Now, as you fill your syringe a second time with water at the same
degree of heat, you will add a single drop of strong acetic acid, or
twelve drops of white vinegar to a teacupful. You must be careful that
this is not exceeded at this stage, or you will cause great pain.
Moreover, you do no good to the sore by making the acid so strong as to
cause suffering. If it is only just so strong as to cause a comfortable
feeling of warmth, it will be all right for its curative purpose. Even
very weak acid combines with the irritating waste matter that is
keeping the sore diseased, and produces the desired healing effect. You
have only to add one drop after another of the acid to your full
teacupful of warm water, till the feeling produced by the syringing is
all that could be desired. In the case of the limb that we refer to, a
sensible mother used the syringe and the acid so skilfully as to heal
the internal sore in a very short time, and thus the external wound
quickly disappeared. Of course, if the wound is so very deep that the
acid cannot be got up to cleanse it thoroughly, surgical aid should be
sought.

It may be well, however, to take another case or two for further
illustration. Here, then, is a decayed tooth extracted, but the part
from which it is taken does not heal, as is usual. The hole in the gum
does not close, and a discharge of offensive humour flows from it
constantly. The bone of the upper jaw is evidently wasting, and the
decay has extended somehow considerably up the side of the nose. The
hole, however, is so small, that the usual glass syringe cannot enter
it. We got an exceedingly small instrument, used for the injection of
morphia under the skin. The point of this syringe is a needle with a
point that is hollow nearly to the very end. When this point was broken
off, the hollow part was so small that it entered the hole in the gum,
and so it was easy to inject the weak acid up to the bottom of the
sore, which had come to be only a little under the eye. About an inch
and a half of hollow had to be washed out with the acid. But in a very
short time all discharge ceased, and the cure was perfect. Both of
these cases are comparatively simple, but they show clearly the great
value of this use of acetic acid.

Carbolic acid is much more commonly used for such a purpose. It has the
drawback of being liable itself to melt away the healthy tissue, and to
make a wound larger. Acetic acid never does this, and so heals more
quickly and certainly.

We might take a much more difficult case. It was that of an abscess and
bad sore in the lower bowels. It was supposed to be necessary to
perform a very dangerous operation in order to try to cure this--not
much hope was held out of its being possible really to cure. It was,
however, quite possible to reach the sore by the injection of acetic
acid. The sufferer was directed to have this done regularly. In a very
short time there was a complete cure. In such a case all that is wanted
is an ordinary india-rubber enema. A much larger quantity of water is
required, but about the same strength of acid. First of all, as much
acidulated water as can be taken up with comfort is injected: after a
minute or so this is passed off. Then another is used in the same way,
and passed off also. A third syringing may be employed, when about
half-a-teacupful is taken and retained. If the acid gives no
comfortable feeling of warmth it needs to be strengthened till it does
so, but not so that it produces any pain. The operation really well
done is not in the least painful, but, on the contrary, rather
comfortable.

There is still one syringing which we may notice--that of suppurating
ears. If an ear is discharging from some internal sore, nothing is more
important than syringing with acetic acid, but it must be done with
very peculiar care. The water used should be as nearly as possible of
exact blood heat, and the acetic acid of the exact strength at which it
will give a fine comfortable feeling in the ear. It must neither feel
as if it were a mere wetting of the ear, nor that it gives the least
pain. The syringe, too, must be used gently, so as not to force the
water strongly against the internal parts that are so tender. It is a
soaking operation rather than a forcible urging of the water into the
ear which is wanted. If this is nicely done, say twice a day, the acid
will reach the sore, and we may confidently look for a cure. Even when
the bones are wasting, as we have seen in the case of the upper jaw, if
this acid can be really brought to bear upon the sore, it will be
cleansed and healed. In this simple way we have seen many, both old and
young, delivered from sore trial, and made to enjoy life and health
again.



PHYSICAL CULTURE.


Much weakness might be prevented and often cured by light gymnastic
exercises practised twice a day, say on rising and at bedtime, giving
tone to the muscles and bringing into regular use many which in
ordinary daily life are seldom or never used. The various vital organs
of the body owe much of their health to the proper exercise of the
surrounding muscles; it will be seen then how necessary a system of
regular exercise must be. The best way to learn this is to take a
course of Swedish Drill or other good system at one of the gymnasiums
which are now so common in Britain and America. But as many of our
readers live in places where such cannot be had, we shall try to
indicate by diagrams some simple movements which can be practised by
anyone.

A few general rules should be borne in mind:--

Begin with a short time, say five minutes; omit at first the more
fatiguing movements and gradually increase as the strength improves.

The time spent need never be long; fifteen or twenty minutes is long
enough at any one time.

Do the movements slowly and deliberately, stretching the muscles to
their full extent.

Fix your mind on the particular limb that is being exercised.

Practice in a room with open window, with little clothes on, or with
none; a daily air-bath is very conducive to health.

Each exercise need not be performed more than three times, until
strength is fairly great.

Never go on with the exercises so long as to be more than just a little
tired.

It is a good plan to write out the exercises clearly on a good-sized
card or sheet of stiff paper, which can be set where it will be easily
seen while one is exercising.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

1.

POSITION 1.--Stand before a glass with head well up, chin in, neck
elongated, shoulders down and back, arms hanging straight down, abdomen
in, back slightly curved, heels together, toes slightly apart.

2.

ARMS BEND.--While in position, bring the arms up at the sides so that
the tips of the fingers touch the shoulders. Return to position 1.

3.

HIPS FIRM.--Place hands on hips, well back, fingers together, and
thumbs to the back. Now, slowly bend the head back as far as it will
go, and slowly raise it again, taking care all the time to keep the
chin in. Position 1 again.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

4.

NECK REST.--Bring the arms up on a level with the shoulders, hands
straight with forearm and finger tips nearly but not quite touching
behind the neck. Head always quite erect. While in this position, bend
the body from the waist sideways, first to one side, then to the other,
as far as it will go without moving the feet. When bending to the left,
_feel_ the muscles of the right stretching and _vice versa_. Return to
position 1.

5.

Bring arms to position 2, then extend them straight upwards, rising on
the toes at same time and drawing the body to its greatest height.
Bring arms again to position 2 and then down to position 1.

6.

Bring arms to position 2 and extend them sideways, turning palms and
hands downwards. Come back to position 2 and then position 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

7.

Bring arms to position 2 and extend them forwards, return to position 2
and position 1.

8.

Hips firm (hands placed as in 3). Raise the heels a little, bend the
knees slightly outwards and keep the upper part of the body perfectly
erect. Lower the body about half-way down, then raise it again.

9.

Same as 8, only go down as low as possible. It is not easy at first to
keep one's balance, the upper part of the body erect all the time,
especially when trying to rise. Return to position 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

10.

Arms bend (_see_ 2). Place the feet sideways, about a foot apart. Now
bend the upper part of the body back, curving only the chest back,
keeping the waist still. Position 1.

11.

Bring arms to position 2 and extend upwards as in fig. 5. Now bend the
body forwards till the hands nearly touch the floor, keeping the head
between the arms, knees straight and arms straight and parallel to one
another. Return to position 5, then position 2 and then position 1.

12.

Hips firm (_see_ 3). Raise one knee till the leg is bent as in the
illustration, keep toe pointed down. Do the same with the other leg.
Return to position 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

13.

Same as 12, only stretch leg backward as in illustration, keeping knees
straight. Return to position 1.

14.

ARMS FORWARD BEND.--Bend the arms in front of the body, as in the
illustration. Extend one foot back and rest toe on ground. Position 1.

15.

Arms as in 14. Fling right arm out sideways and turn head to the right
as far as it will go without moving the rest of the body. Same to left.
Position 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

16.

Hips firm (_see_ 3). Kneel with toes extended backwards. Now bend the
body backwards from the knees, as far as possible, keeping straight and
firm as in illustration. Rise and return to position 1.

17.

One arm, HIP FIRM, the other NECK REST (_see_ 3 and 4). Bend the body
as in exercise 4. Return to position 1.

18.

Arms bend (_see_ 2). Feet stride (_see_ 10). Now turn the body at the
waist as far as possible to right, then to left, taking care not to
move the hips. Return to position 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

19.

LEAP ON THE SPOT.--Hips firm (_see_ 3). Raise the heels, slightly bend
at the knees as in illustration, jump and alight on toes again with
knees slightly bent. Straighten knees and let heels sink to the ground.
Position 1.

20.

Hips firm (_see_ 3). Stand near a chair or bed and slip one foot
sideways under a rail. Now bend sideways as far as possible. Position
1.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

21.

As 20, only stand facing the support and bend back. Position 1.

22.

Kneel as in 16. Extend arms as in 6. Now turn the body from the waist
as far to the right and as far to the left as possible. Position 1.

23.

Deep breathing (_see_ Breathing, Correct method of) should be practised
several times during these exercises. Stand in position 1. Now raise
the hands slowly to the level of the shoulders, keeping the arms
straight and moving them sideways. While raising the arms, slowly fill
the lungs with air, and when lowering them let it slowly out.



DUMBELL EXERCISE.


As an efficient and inexpensive way of developing all the muscles of
the body dumbells have no rival. Especially are they valuable for those
whose sedentary life forbids much active exercise, and as they only
require a very short time each day for their practice, do not interfere
materially with the work of the busiest. The accompanying exercises
have been given with a view to the complete and symmetrical development
of the body. They should be practised in their entirety every morning
and evening, after rising and bathing and before retiring, in as nearly
a nude a condition as practicable. And they should be practised with a
serious and complete concentration of the mind upon each muscle as it
is in turn exercised. This concentration is immensely fatiguing at
first, but is necessary in order to derive full benefit from them. Just
as in practising musical exercises for execution, a short time well
spent is more valuable than a longer time with a wandering and
uninterested mind, so in dumbell exercise it is above all the quality
and not the quantity of the exercise which is of importance.

Increase the number of times each exercise is done weekly or daily,
beginning say at 10 or 20, according to strength, and endeavouring to
be able to be double this number in a short time.

[Illustration: Fig. 1a.]

1a.--Arms by side forced well back, finger nails to front. Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 1b.]

1b.--Raise bells to shoulders, contracting biceps. Exhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 2a.]

2a.--Arms by side forced well back, finger nails to rear. Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 2b.]

2b.--Raise bells to shoulders. Exhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 3a.]

3a.--Extend arms sideways in line with shoulders, finger nails up.
Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 3b.]

3b.--Bring bells to shoulders, contracting biceps. Exhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 4a.]

4a.--Arms by sides, chest well out. Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 4b.]

4b.--Cross arms in front, contracting chest muscles. Exhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 5a.]

5a.--Arms extended in front level with chin. Exhale.

5b.--Bring bells back sideways in line with shoulders. Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 6a.]

6a.--Upper arms close to sides, bells level with shoulders. Exhale.

6b.--Raise bells above head as far as possible. Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 7a.]

7a.--Arms by sides forced well back, finger nails to rear. Inhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 7b.]

7b.--Raise arms up level with shoulders rounding back. Exhale.

[Illustration: Fig. 8a.]

8a.--Lean over to right, left knee bent, right leg straight.

8b.--Repeat to left.

[Illustration: Fig. 9a.]

9a.--Lunge out to left, right leg straight, raising left hand above
head, right hand at side.

9b.--Repeat to left.

[Illustration: Fig. 10a.]

10a.--Heels together, chest well out, hands on hips.

[Illustration: Fig. 10b.]

10b.--Sink on toes, raising heels from ground, gradually resume upright
position, keeping back straight.



SEX AND HEALTH.


The treatment of the relations of the sexes to one another, and the
enormous influence over health of both body and mind which these
exercise, cannot be attempted in a treatise such as this. Such articles
would occupy far too much space, as from the nature of the subject much
detail must be given, and explanations must be as complete as possible.
The Editor of these Papers has therefore written a book for children,
and one each for boys and girls. These will be found advertised at the
end.

Numbers of persons consult us on these matters, and much has come to
our knowledge which is astonishing and saddening as well, in regard to
the widely prevailing ignorance of both young and old regarding the sex
functions. This is largely due to culpable neglect on the part of
parents and others who have charge of the young.

Parents are often unwilling to speak of such matters, and would desire
rather to place a good book on the subject in their children's hands.
Many such books have been published, but none that we have seen have
seemed to us quite satisfactory. Due attention must be paid to both the
physical and moral sides of the matter. Hence our resolve to write as
we have indicated. The books will be found duly advertised at the end
of this volume.

It will no doubt be said that it is a pity to suggest ideas of sex to
an innocent child, but surely those who look back on their own youth
will remember that there came a time when the problem of their own
origin suggested itself.

The pretty fable that the storks or angels fetch the babies cannot long
satisfy the growing mind. Children wish to understand, yet it is easy
for them to see that parents do not wish to explain the mystery.
Curiosity is aroused, for the desire to know is natural and quite
legitimate, and the sad thing is that the explanation is generally left
to companions and servants who are devoid of delicacy or modesty.

Now there is no reason for this reticence and false shame. The whole
process of reproduction is a wonderful example of the wisdom and
goodness of the Creator, and if properly explained the child will see
that it is so.

Again, there are physical epochs through which all young people must
pass. These are quite natural, but unless explained and the children
are prepared to expect them, may cause great alarm. In their distress
they are very likely to enquire from impure companions, or get some of
the pernicious literature which is issued in quantity by the quacks who
prey upon the fears of the young, and upon their dislike to speak to
their parents on a subject which the latter have taught them by silence
is one which is unmentionable.

It may be asked when this information should be given. No rule will fit
all cases, as children vary so much in their development. We would urge
that it should be given _early_, as Miss Willard well says:--"See that
the pure thought gets in first." Besides, children grow up much faster
than their parents are apt to realize.

The evils of self-pollution are so great, and the cure so difficult,
that no risk should be run of such ever being commenced through
ignorance. In fact this is the main reason for our undertaking the
separate works on this subject. It is so saddening to reflect that a
career of vice is often entered upon through the child's ignorance of
the laws of its own body, that the natural reticence in speaking of the
subject should not be allowed to prevent the information being given.



_KIRK SEX SERIES._


"Instruct thy son and labor for him lest his lewd behaviour be an
offence unto thee."--_Ecclesiasticus 30, 13._


A Talk with Boys about Themselves

BY

EDWARD BRUCE KIRK, Editor of "Papers on Health."

Introduction by Canon Hon. ED. LYTTELTON, Headmaster of Eton College.

Every father should see that his son is not driven for information on
the origin of life to impure companions. This book makes the imparting
of this knowledge easy. Confidence will beget manliness.

_SUBJECTS TREATED:_

Origin of Life; Puberty, its meaning and responsibilities; Evils of
Self Pollution; Love and Marriage; Reproduction; Perfect Manhood;
Health and Strength.

Price 2/= net, Post Free, 2/3.


Publishers:

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co., London.
T. D. MORISON, Glasgow.
THE FOWLER & WELLS CO., New York.



_KIRK SEX SERIES._


A Talk with Girls about Themselves

By EDWARD B. KIRK, Editor of "Papers on Health."

Introduction by LADY PAGET.

This book is intended to be given by the parent to the daughter.
Besides much wise counsel about health and self-development, it gives
in delicate language, a clear answer to the many questions which must
force themselves upon the growing girl.

_SUBJECTS TREATED:_

Hints on Health; Diet; Exercise; Pure Air; Evils of Tight Lacing, etc.;
Health and Beauty, their inseparability; Courtship; Marriage; True
Womanhood; What Men Admire; Vice, its terrible punishment;
Reproduction; Pregnancy; Reading and Education.

Price 2/= net, Post Free, 2/3.

                *        *        *        *        *

The Wonder of Life

A Talk with Children about Sex,

By MARY TUDOR POLE, Author of "Fairies."

Introduction by LADY ISABEL MARGESSON.

This book is intended for young children of both sexes. It shows in
simple language the analogy between the reproductive processes in
plants and human beings.

Price 1/= net, Post Free, 1/3.


Publishers:

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co., London.
Thos. D. MORISON, Glasgow.
THE FOWLER & WELLS CO., New York.





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