Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Teesdale Angler
Author: Lakeland, R
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Teesdale Angler" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Libraries.)



THE TEESDALE ANGLER.



By

R. LAKELAND.



BARNARD CASTLE:
PRINTED AT THE OFFICE OF R. BARKER, HORSE MARKET.

1858.

R. BARKER, PRINTER, BARNARD CASTLE.



PREFACE.


I find it requisite to say something by way of preface to the Teesdale
Angler, chiefly, because I wish it to be understood that my work,
though bearing a local title, is intended as a help and guide to Trout
fishers generally, especially those of Yorkshire, Durham, Westmoreland,
and Cumberland.

To the extent of my ability, I have endeavoured to point out, and
explain the various methods, means, and devices, natural and
artificial, for taking Trout. The Artificial Fly List will I trust be
found amply sufficient for most Anglers. I have only to add, that my
treatise is the result of a considerable amount of practical Angling
experience, extending over a period of upwards of 35 years, and the
chief object I have in view will be accomplished, if the hints and
instruction contained in it, tend to aid the diversion, and promote the
amusement of those who wish to be proficient in the art of a pleasing
and fascinating recreation.

R. LAKELAND.



CONTENTS.


                                                               Page

Pisces Fluviales, River Fish                                      1
Advice to beginners                                               9
Various Useful Hints                                             11
On Fly Fishing                                                   14
The Angling Months                                               17
Natural Fly Fishing                                              27
The Stone Fly                                                    27
The Flesh Fly                                                    30
The Cow Dung Fly                                                 31
List of Palmer Flies                                             33
List of Hackle Flies                                             39
March Brown or Dun Drake                                         42
Select List of very killing Flies, both Palmers and Hackles      43
List of Hackles and Silks to suit                                44
A List of Flies likely to kill in Trout streams                  45
How to Dress the above                                           47
Red Palmer--Black Palmer--May Flies                              52
How to make a Hackle Fly                                         54
To make a Winged Fly                                             54
Materials required for making Winged and Hackle Flies            55
To make a Palmer Fly                                             56
Golden Palmer--Silver Hackle Palmer                              59
To Make Hackle Flies                                             60
Worm Fishing                                                     61
Trolling with Minnow                                             64
Maggots--Gentles--Docken Grub                                    67
Cad Bait--Worms, &c.                                             68
Salmon Roe                                                       70
Dyeing Feathers for Fly Making                                   71
To make strong White Wax                                         72
Fishing Panniers                                                 72
Landing Nets--Reels--Gut--Hair                                   73
Rods                                                             74
Lines--Hooks--Fishing Garments                                   75
Health--Caution                                                  76
The Eye the only acute faculty in Fish                           77
Transport of Trout and Greyling                                  78
The Natural Enemies of Fish                                      79
Laws relative to Angling                                         80
The Effects of Weather on Fish                                   81
What constitutes a Good Fishing Day                              82
On Early Rising in connection with Angling                       83
Over-Preservation, &c.                                           85
Angling Impediments                                              87
Barnard Castle as an Angling Station                             89
Weather Signs and Changes                                        90
Weather Table                                                    93
Notices of Rare and Curious Angling Books                        93
Addenda                                                          95



THE TEESDALE ANGLER.



_Pisces Fluviales_--RIVER FISH.

_Salmo_--The SALMON.
_Trutta_--The TROUT.
_Thymallus_--The GRAYLING.
_Capito Seu Cephalus_--The CHUB.
_Salmonidæ_--SMELTS.
_Anguilla_--The EEL.
_Various seu Phocinus_--The MINNOW.
_Cobitus Fluviatilis Barbatula_--The LOACH.[1]

      [1] This fish has only been observed in the Tees during the last
      few years.


I deem a very brief notice of the above varieties of fish
sufficient,--they have been described over and over again by much abler
pens than mine, and I advise all those who are desirous of minute
details, as to their conformation and habits, to have recourse to one
of the published Histories of British Fishes,[2] indeed all the above
fish and their varieties have been faithfully and naturally described
in (I take it for granted) every angling book that has yet been
published. As to Salmon, I need allude no further than observe (as
every one knows that they are both ocean and river fish) that they
afford, when plentiful, excellent sport to the angler, taking freely
the Minnow, Worm and Fly, that they generally select the deepest pools
of a river for their chief residence, but yet may be taken anywhere
with the fly where there is three feet of water. They generally rise
best about eleven o'clock in the forenoon, and three in the afternoon
of a day. When there is a little wind stirring, if accompanied by
rattling showers of hail or snow in the Spring, or heavy showers of
rain in Summer, so much the more likely for sport.

      [2] Very many clever men have written diffusely on Ichthyology.
      Aristotle was one of the first who divided fishes into different
      orders, he divided them into three, but Linnæus separated them
      into five.

Salmon fishing in every respect is similar in the _modus operandi_, to
that of Trout,--requiring not more, if so much skill, but more nerve
and patience with, of course, much stronger rod and tackle, and larger
flies, and if you try worms, two large lob worms well scoured, should
be put on the same hook,--you also require a Gaff for large fish. The
best Salmon Flies for the Tees (which is by no means a good Angling
river for Salmon) are the Dragon and King's Fisher, to be bought at
most tackle shops, and a fly deemed a great killer made with a bright
scarlet body, and wings from the black feather of a turkey.


THE TROUT.

The Trout almost every one knows, that the Trout is a delicious fish,
beautiful and elegant in form and appearance. Trouts vary, being
yellow, red, grey and white, the latter like Salmon, go into salt
water. Trout spawn in the winter months, after which they become sickly
and infested with a species of what may be denominated fresh water
lice. In winter he keeps to the deep water; in spring and summer he
delights in rapid streams, where, keeping his head up the water, he
waits for his expected prey. There is no other fish that affords such
good and universal sport, or that exercises the skill and ingenuity of
the angler so much. The different modes by which to effect his capture
are fully described under the different heads of fly trolling and
bottom fishing. This fish (but seldom taken any great weight) abounds
in the Tees and its tributary streams.


THE GRAYLING.

The Grayling is a beautifully formed fish, and affords the angler good
sport--he is a much better-flavoured fish than the Chub, though not
comparable to Trout. He delights in rapid streams, and during the
Summer months is rarely found in deep water. The Grayling will take the
same flies and bait as Trout--a little black fly is an especial
favourite with him, but he will spring a long way out of water to catch
a fly of any description which may be sporting above him. The Grayling
spawns at the end of April and beginning of May.


CHUB, OR CHEVIN.

The Chub is a very timorous fish, utterly worthless as food except
during the winter months. He frequents deep water, and loves shady
places, where he can shelter under the roots of trees, &c. The Chub
spawns in May and June. He is a leather-mouthed fish, so that once
hooked you are sure of him; he struggles fiercely for a moment, then
yields without further effort, and allows himself to be dragged
unresistingly to land. He will take the same flies as the Trout, also
all kinds of gentles, maggots and worms, especially small red worms; is
fond of the humble Bee, Salmon Roe, and Creeper; will take a variety of
pastes, as old white bread moistened with a little linseed oil and made
into small balls; old Cheshire cheese mixed with a little tumeric, and
bullock or sheep's brains, also bullock's blood mixed with wheaten
flour, and worked up to a proper consistency, are all good baits for
Chub in the winter months. A Cockchafer with his wings cut off is also
a very good bait for large Chub. When rivers are frozen, you may catch
Chub by breaking a hole in the ice, the fish will come to the aperture
for air, and, perceiving the bait, take it--your line need not extend
to the depth of more than a yard. Observe that your paste balls are of
consistency sufficient to adhere firmly to your hook, which should not
be larger than a small May-fly hook, or two No. 3 fly hooks tied firmly
together are much better.


SALMON SMELTS.

The growth of Salmon, as is well known, is so surprisingly quick, that
Smelts from Ova deposited by Salmon during the Autumn and Winter
months, will in some instances, by the first week in May, be found to
weigh after the rate of five or six to the pound. They rise very freely
at the fly, and afford the angler (who is fond of small fry), lots of
sport, they are partial to streams, and also to a gaudy fly. Smelts
will rise at almost any moderate sized fly, but the three most killing,
are a small black fly, with scarlet or crimson silk body, black fly,
ribbed with gold, or silver twist, golden plover's speckled feather
from the back, and gold twist. They are also rather fond of a fly made
from a partridge's breast feather, and body of crimson floss silk. The
flies must be fastened upon small hooks not larger than No. 1. Few
Smelts are to be seen after the second week in May. There is an old
saying,

    "That the first flood in May,
    Takes all the Smelts away."

Salmon Trout, or Herling as they are called in Scotland, are a
beautiful and elegantly formed fish, and rise very freely at common
Trout Flies, these fish go into salt water.


THE PINK, OR BRANDLING.

The Pink is plentiful in the Tees and many of its tributaries, it is
altogether a handsomer fish than the Trout, to which however in some
respects it bears a strong resemblance. It is seldom taken above a
quarter of a pound in weight. Is very vigorous and strong for its size,
delights in rapid streams, takes the same baits and flies as the Trout,
but when the water is low and the weather hot, is exceedingly fond of
the maggot, or brandling worm. The Cad bait, with a little hackle round
the top of the shank of the hook, kills well. The hackle should be
Landrail, or a Mallard's feather dyed yellow, the latter for choice.


THE EEL

May be termed amphibious, for about the time oats run, he has been met
with at considerable distances from water, and has even been detected
in pea fields, gorged with the usual accessories to duck, to which in
some respects he is so far analogous--that though a foul feeder he is
excellent as an edible. He inhabits mud and sand banks, and also
conceals himself under tree roots, stones and rocks. You may angle for
him with Salmon Roe, a lob-worm or Minnow after a flood and before the
water has subsided, but he is usually taken by night-lines, baited with
lob-worms or Minnows. As I have before intimated, he is not nice, and
will not refuse any kind of garbage. If you angle for him your tackle
should be strong and leaded, so as to keep your line at bottom.


THE MINNOW.

The Minnow is in deep water during winter, and the shallowest of
streams in summer; he is taken with a small red worm, or with young Cad
bait. The Minnow bites freely in fine weather, and you may take almost
as many as you please by angling for them. When the water is clear,
they may be taken by means of a large transparent glass bottle, wide at
the top of the neck but gradually narrowing, in fact a complete decoy;
inside the bottle are red worms, and the bottle, to which is attached a
string, thrown round the neck, is cast into the water; in a little time
a shoal of Minnows surround the bottle, enter, and feast. When the
bottle is tolerably full, a pull at the string brings bottle and
Minnows to land.


THE LOACH

Is found underneath stones at the bottom of rivers and brooks, and also
amongst gravel; it is a good bait for Trout and Eels. The Loach will
bite freely at small red worms. The hook same as for Minnows.


THE BULL-HEAD

Though an ugly looking fish is good to eat; you may catch him with any
small worms and small hook, he is found amongst stones and gravel.



ADVICE TO BEGINNERS.


Angling is such a popular recreation that professors of the gentle
craft are to be found amongst all classes and conditions of the _Genus
homo_. The disciples of glorious old Izaack--is not their name Legion?
In early youth, fascinated with the capture of the tiny Minnow or
glittering Gudgeon, the youthful Tyro is known in after years as the
expert Salmon and Trout fisher. To become a really expert angler,
requires a good deal of energy, perseverance, and activity, accompanied
by a suitable amount of patience and ingenuity. In the fourth chapter
of Waverly are the following observations, "that of all diversions
which ingenuity ever devised for the relief of idleness, fishing is the
worst qualified to amuse a man, who is at once indolent and impatient,
such men's Rods are quickly discarded." My advice to those who are
desirous of enjoying "the contemplative man's recreation," is that they
undergo a probationary course, under the guidance of a competent
professor. Three or four days of diligent observation employed in
watching the manual operations of an instructor, would go far towards
giving them a pretty good idea of how to set about catching a Trout
with either fly or bait; indeed much more so than any written or oral
instruction could convey. In fact if they are attentive spectators,
they may soon acquire a fund of useful practical information, with
which they may commence angling with a fair chance of success. Theory
may be very good, but practice is much better, and will only make the
complete angler. Good Rods, superb Flies, and the best of all kinds of
tackle are of little use, if any, in the hands of a person who has not
previously acquired some notion as to the proper application of them.
Doubtless many a sanguine aspirant to piscatory fame, has, after an
expensive outlay at a tackle shop, been grieviously disappointed when
trying his luck in a celebrated Trout stream,--he discovers to his
intense disgust and mortification, that the fish will "not come and be
killed." Probably, and indeed most likely, he throws down his rod,
votes fishing a bore,

    "Chews the cud of bitter disappointment o'er,
    Has fished his first and last, and so will fish no more."

The manual part of angling is one thing, the commanding success
another, the latter cannot be effected to any extent without the
sacrifice of time, perseverance and attention. It is however quite
probable that a man may be quite happy and satisfied by the capture of
a very small number of Trouts during a day's fishing, and I strongly
advise all beginners to follow so excellent an example, waiting
patiently "the good time coming." Observe, that fishing in a low water,
where an angler has just preceded you, is the _ne plus ultra_ of doing
worse than nothing; by wading in a low water the fish are so scared
that they take to their holds, and probably remain there for some
hours.



VARIOUS USEFUL HINTS.


By keeping your tackle-book neat and tidy, you will always have your
silks, hooks, lines, flies, &c. in their proper places. When the twine
that holds your two-piece Rod together has been thoroughly wet, then
when dry, and before using it again, wax well. If any portion of a Rod
of three or more pieces is so fast at the joints that you cannot draw,
then hold over the flame of a candle or by the fire, and then try, the
result is generally satisfactory. Let your gut soften in the water
before you commence fishing. Examine old stintings of gut and hair to
see there are no flaws by wear and tear, if there are, repair, or
discard altogether, carelessness in such matters always brings
disappointment in the long run. See that the points of your hooks are
sharp, and that the hooks are all right, as broken or crooked hooks are
of course useless. Make it a rule to examine closely any place where
you have had your book out dressing flies, &c., so that you leave
nothing behind. If your flies or hooks are fast to any impediment which
you cannot reach, don't pull like a savage, but go tenderly and
cautiously to work; a release is often effected by a little time and
patience; when the case is utterly hopeless, and a breakage becomes
inevitable, then try to save as much of your tackle as possible. Never
loose your temper because you loose your fish, let hope "whisper a
flattering tale" for the next you hook. When you have hooked a fish,
don't let him run if you can possibly help it, so as to slacken your
line, if you do, you stand a chance of loosing him, as the sudden
cessation of a strain upon the line frequently disengages the hold. If
you want to discover what fish are feeding upon, open the first you
catch, and then you will be able to judge correctly. Never strike a
fish hard with the fly, either on gut or hair, if the latter, a
breakage is almost sure to follow a violent jerk. Stormy, showery days
in summer and sometimes in spring, are days on which you will generally
take the best fish with the fly. After a flood, with a rising
barometer, and not too much wind, expect good sport. If the fish do not
like the worm after you have tried a few likely places, change for the
fly, and if you do not succeed with that, wait twenty minutes or so,
and probably you may then find them disposed to feed. Whenever you find
fish shy in taking the worm, I mean when they will neither take it nor
let it alone, pulling at it but not attempting to gorge it, strike
either very quickly, as soon in fact as you perceive they have touched
it, or what will generally answer much better, exchange for the fly.
Sometimes, however, fish will take worm very well, although they may be
seen rising freely at the fly. Cold dark days are not favourable for
worm fishing, and in low water the worm is entirely useless on such
days. Put your Minnows for trolling in tin cases, with partitions for
each Minnow with a little bran in each, this method keeps them nice and
fresh. Observe, that Loaches, if you can get them are tougher than
Minnows, and quite as good if not better bait. Never buoy yourself up
with the hope of having any diversion, either at top or bottom in an
easterly wind. Also after a frosty night followed by a bright day, fly
fishing need not be attempted with any chance of success. Put your
worms when you are going to use them in a woollen bag in Spring, canvas
in Summer. In May-fly season, if there comes a flood, go at the rising
of the water and secure as many as possible, you will find them scarce
afterwards. If, when fishing up water you meet an angler coming down,
you had better wait twenty minutes before you try the stream recently
fished. Guard against your shadow falling upon the water, at least as
much as possible. If you purpose wading, be careful not to over-heat
yourself during your walk to the water side. If, when the morning has
been cloudy, and the fish have risen tolerably at the fly, should the
sun appear about noon, coming out strong and likely to continue, you
will find the fish cease to rise, and it is very probable that they
will feed no more until evening. After a white hoar frost, either in
the Spring, or further on in the season, fish rarely feed until the
afternoon of that day, and not always then. When a thick mist rises
from the water early on a Summer morning, fish will not feed until the
vapour rising from the water has passed away. On stormy days try mostly
that part of the water where there is the best shelter to be had.



ON FLY FISHING.


In _Thompson's Seasons_ what an admirable description of Fly fishing!
It is indeed inimitable: it charms an angler by its vivid and truthful
deliniation, and after reading it, makes him long "to increase his
tackle, and his rod retie." Of all the devices for taking Trout, fly
fishing is decidedly the most pleasant, ingenious and amusing, and
where fish rise freely, there is nothing comparable to the artificial
fly, as a means to an end, in the shape of filling a pannier. The quick
eyed Trout, is completely deceived by a cunning fabrication, the
inanimated thing of feathers, silk and fur, so closely resembles the
natural fly, that he rises and seizes upon it for a real living
fly--But ah! too late, the little monster (for he is one in his way)
feels the treacherous hook, "indignant at the guile," he springs aloft,
makes for his well known hold, or resting place, exhausts his strength
in the unequal contest, and floats almost lifeless into the landing net
held out for his reception. He has fallen a legitimate prize to the
skill of his captor, who has only to extract the hook from his gills,
before he again makes another light and deadly cast. Thus fish after
fish is deposited in his nicely woven pannier, and on he goes
rejoicing, carefully trying his favourite streams, until the weight
upon his shoulder, unmistakably intimates, that it is time to be
homeward bound. In fly fishing, the best plan is to cast your line
athwart the stream, by pulling it against it; your flies probably show
to more advantage, yet you will not take so many fish, as by throwing
up or across the stream, the reason is obvious, the current somewhat
retards the progress of the fish in the act of rising, and thus it
happens that they so frequently come short of the hook. There is also
another consideration, your fly coming down or athwart the water is
more natural, and fish observe it sooner coming down, than a fly pulled
up stream, because fish when on the feed, invariably lay with their
heads up water.

    "With pliant rod athwart the pebbled brook,
    Let me with judgment cast the feather'd hook,
    Silent along the grassy margin stray,
    And with a fur wrought fly delude the prey."--GAY.

In log, or still water fishing, make as fine and light casts as you
possibly can. If you see a fish rise, throw your flies about a foot
above him, and then let them gently float over the place where he rose.
In stream fishing, have a quick eye, and ready hand, and strike
immediately you perceive the fish to have risen at your fly; and
observe that if you have the luck to hook two Trouts at the same time,
net the one lowest down your line first, for should a novice
inadvertently attempt to net the one upon the higher fly, he will very
probably loose them both. The heads and tails of streams are favourite
resorts of Trout, and ought to be carefully and diligently fished; but
as a general rule, wherever you see a fish rise, have a try for him. In
the Spring and Autumn, your diversion with the artificial fly is much
more certain than during the Summer months, but even then there are
certain days, (especially if the wind be Easterly), that they will not
take even the natural fly, and I have on such days seen thousands of
flies on the water, yet scarcely a fish on the move. When the fish rise
freely at the natural fly, and also rise, but do not take those you
offer, you may safely conclude your fly is not what suits, so try them
with something different. The best plan is to catch the natural, and
make the artificial fly as close a copy as possible, for the nearer you
approach to nature the greater in all cases is your chance of success.
And here, in concluding this chapter on Fly Fishing, let me advise
every angler to make or learn to make his own flies; by so doing he
will never be at a loss for a fly to suit the fickle Trout. Really,
many of the flies from the tackle shops look neat and gaudy enough, but
like Hodge's razors, are they not made to sell? When a man makes a fly
for himself, he makes, I take it, to kill.



THE ANGLING MONTHS.


MARCH.--During this month the fells and hills of north Yorkshire and
Durham are frequently capped with snow, which, dissolved by the
increasing power of the sun, fills rivers and brooks with what is
usually termed snow broth, which, accompanied with chilling east or
north-east winds, effectually retard angling operations. Trout however
keep gradually improving in condition, and from the middle to the end
of the month will, under the influence of a kindly atmosphere, rise
tolerably well at the fly during the middle of the day. The worm is
also taken in brooks after rain. But as a fly fishing month, March
seldom affords, in the north of England at least, any good or certain
diversion. In the face however of all obstacles, some really keen hands
will wet their lines, and if the weather is at all genial, may succeed
in taking a few fish.

The advent of our annual visitor, the swallow, indicates, or nearly so,
when fly fishing commences with some certainty of sport;[3] you will
observe but few flies on the water, (and consequently no inducement to
fish to be on the look out), before those great insect killers appear.
The principal flies for the month, are the March Brown, the Blue
Dun,[4] and small Black, or Light coloured flies.

      [3] Under favourable circumstances you may begin to troll with
      the Minnow about the middle of the month.

      [4] The Duns are first-class flies all the season, beginning
      with the Blue Dun in March and April,--The Yellow Dun, little
      Iron Blue Dun on cold windy days,--July Dun Cut, Blue Gnat, and
      Willow Fly.

Some anglers fish with four flies upon a stretcher, I much prefer
three, and never, except for Lake fishing, use more--a stretcher for
three flies should consist of about a yard and a half of either gut or
hair. What are termed water knots are the best for tying your gut or
hair together, the tighter they are drawn the faster they become. Every
angler is no doubt partial to some particular flies, and probably he
will have no great difficulty in selecting his favourites from the
copious lists given in the Teesdale Angler; but for the benefit of
those anglers who have not had much experience, I beg to observe that
they should never have three flies at once on their stretcher, that
closely resemble each other. In the Spring the Blue, Brown and Dun
Drakes are certain killers, and as for hackle flies, if they select the
Brown, Blue and Black, they will do well. During the Summer months
there is such a great variety of feed upon the water that it is
difficult, nay, almost impossible to give any certain rule, because the
set of flies that kill well one day, may be rejected the next. I may
however venture to affirm, that one dark and two light flies are the
most likely, either as regards hackle or winged flies. By catching the
natural fly, you will never be at a loss either in Spring or Summer, as
to the colour of the silk you require for the body of your fly. In
Summer when the midges are on, use the Black, Blue and Dun midges, and
when they disappear, try the larger flies.

APRIL.--The month of sunshine and showers is generally, and especially
towards the latter end of it, most favourable for angling; in fact if
the water is in order, and the weather temperate for the season, it is
the very best fly month in the year. Trout are now sure to rise well
and freely at the fly. Every day between the hours of eleven and three
o'clock the feed is on the water. The fish, full of life and motion,
are hungry and voracious, and in full pursuit of the Dun or Brown
Drake, which any gleam of sunshine brings on the surface of the water.
The Blue Dun (a better fly than the Brown for cold stormy days), and
the Grannam, or Green Tail, are frequently on at the same time, and it
is a pleasant sight to anglers to see thousands of these flies settling
on the water, and the fish rising at them in all directions. During
these feeds I venture to predict that any person who has suitable
flies, and who can manage to make a tolerable light cast, cannot well
miss taking some fish. With respect to the Grannams, you may on bright
mornings begin to fish with them as early as six o'clock, and again
after the large Browns have disappeared, I mean for that day. If you
commence fishing, say any time between six and eleven a.m., use the
small flies, viz., the Grannam or Green Tail, the small Blue Dun, and
Black Flies, dressed on No. 2. hooks.--During this month (April) it is
frequently so cold that to dress a fly by the water side is almost an
impossibility, or at least a matter of some difficulty, therefore,
always be provided with a supply, ready for use when wanted. I also
strongly recommend fine round Gut in preference to Hair at this season,
on account of the size and weight of the large hooks on which the Brown
Drake requires to be dressed; and which Hair will not retain so safely
as Gut; and also, though you may probably rise more fish with Hair, yet
taking the breakages you are liable to by using it, and the loss and
hinderance you suffer thereby, especially if broken in the midst of a
feed, which perhaps does not last above a quarter of an hour, taking
these matters into consideration, I have long since arrived at the
conclusion that Gut is much better for Spring fishing than Hair. But in
the long Summer day, when your fingers are not benumbed with the cold,
and you can dress flies or repair and arrange your tackle at your
pleasure or convenience, then, when the water is low and fine, there is
nothing comparable to strong, fine round Hair, it falls much lighter
than Gut on the water, and therefore, for log or still water is much
superior. But really good Hair for angling purposes is exceedingly
difficult to meet with, and if you use inferior, many losses and
disappointments are sure to occur. Good Hair has the advantage over Gut
in these respects,--it is sooner wet, falls lighter on the water, and
is free from that glistening and shiny quality which detracts so much
from Gut, and which no staining will entirely obliterate; it wears out
by use in a great measure, but having come to that point, cannot be
depended upon, and if you lay it aside for any length of time when in
that state, you will find, if you attempt to make use of it, that it is
utterly worthless. The shaved Gut is good, but expensive. The best I
ever purchased was at Rowell's, at Carlisle.

MAY, "charming, charming May," is generally a delightful Angling month,
for if the water is in order, good diversion may be had almost every
day. A great variety of flies now make their appearance at which the
Trout rise very greedily, full of life, vigour and activity, they roam
everywhere after their prey, and scarcely a fly settles upon the water
but falls a victim to the quick eyed and hungry fish. Trolling, and
worm fishing become now very good, and it is advisable to fish with
either one or the other in the early part of the day. When the flies
have not made their appearance, and before fish rise of themselves, it
is of little use trying the fly, it is only labour lost, "_to call
spirits from the vasty deep, who will not come when you do call for
them_." Indeed, on the best of fishing days, there are some half hours
when a man who understands what he is about, will lay down his rod,
because he knows the fish have done feeding for a time, and that
flogging the water to no purpose may be exercise, but not sport. In
this leisure half hour then, let the angler smoke, eat, examine his
Tackle, or lay out and admire his fish, this last way of killing time,
brings to my recollection the lines of Wordsworth,--

    "He holds a small blue stone,
    On whose capacious surface is outspread,
    Large store of gleaming crimson spotted trouts,
    Ranged side by side in regular ascent,
    One after one still lessening by degrees,
    Up to the Dwarf that tops the pinnacle,
    The silent creatures made a splendid sight together
        thus exposed;
    Dead, but not sullied or deformed by death,
    That seemed to pity what he could not spare."

    WORDSWORTH.

JUNE, loveliest of the Summer months, introduces to the notice of
anglers a large and daily increasing number of the insect tribe;
"variety may be charming," but the most expert and knowing of anglers
will now occasionally be somewhat puzzled in making a selection of
flies adapted to suit the capricious whims, or fastidious appetite of
the Trout, now in their prime, fat, strong, and somewhat satiated by a
succession of dainty morsels. Now is the time to rise with, or rather
indeed before the lark, and try your luck with the creeper and stone
fly, you may begin to fish with either as soon as you can see to put
them on the hook, and always bear in mind that the early morn is the
best part of the day for these baits, you also have a good chance again
in the evening, but in the middle of the day they are, upon the whole,
but indifferently good; and the small fly will generally be found to
answer better,--and frequently the worm proves destructive when the day
is hot, and the water low. It is a good plan to procure your May-flies
and creepers during the day or evening preceding that on which you
intend using them, searching for them in the morning when you want to
fish is not quite pleasant. You may do a great deal of execution with
the small flies just now. Trout glutted with the May-fly and creeper,
take them well on cloudy and windy days. Should rain fall at this
season, after the water has been low for some time, Trout will take a
minnow exceedingly well.

JULY.--The scorching suns of Summer are upon us, and the vivid rays of
the great luminary have a powerful effect upon all creatures, and upon
the finny tribe in particular. The water during this month is often so
low and fine, that artificial fly fishing is labour in vain, and
provided it is not, fish have become so shy and cautious in the
selection of their food, that it is a difficult matter to offer for
their acceptance anything artificial which they will take freely. A
well scoured worm, maggot, gentle or natural fly, offered to them in an
artistic way, seldom however fails to attract their notice,--of natural
flies the Flesh Fly is the best. Evening fishing, towards dusk, with
the brown and white Moths, and also with the white Bustard, may be
pursued with success; you may fish with the Bustard (which you will
find performing aerial evolutions over the meadows in a fine evening)
the whole night through, and though perhaps you cannot see the fish
(which is generally a good one) rise, you must always strike quickly,
yet gently, when you feel him--use a May fly hook. If you can find any
May-flies, the fish will now take them again very greedily, during the
last fortnight of this month very few fish can be taken under any
circumstances with either natural or artificial flies, the fish are too
fat and indolent to take the trouble to rise. A well scoured maggot on
a bright hot day tempts them best, they will take that when flies and
all other baits have proved a failure.

The Spring and Autumn fishing are easy enough, but the Summer tests the
Angler,--and

    "Who then his finest skill and art must ply,
    And all devices, natural and artificial try,
    For now the Trout becomes an epicure indeed,
    And only on the daintiest baits and flies will feed."

AUGUST.--The same Flies as in July, with the addition of the little Red
and Black Ant Flies, which usually appear about the 10th or 12th of
this month; observe that from the 12th to the end of the month, fish
take the fly much better than they have done--they are on the move
again.

SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER.--Use the same Flies as in Spring, the willow fly
in September must however be added to the list of Blues, Duns, and
Browns. About the middle of October I deem it high time to lay aside
the Trout Rod, let "the gentle angler" for a brief space bid adieu to
his favourite piscatorial haunts, in doing so perhaps he may call to
mind the farewell of the Tyne fisher to his favourite streams, from a
work printed for Emmerson Charnly, at Newcastle, in 1824.

    Mine own sweet stream! thy rugged shores are stripped of all
        their vesture sheen,
    And dark December's fury wars where grace and loveliness have
        been,
    Stream of my heart! I cannot tread thy shores so bleak and
        barren now,
    They seem as if thy joys were dead, and cloud with care my
        anxious brow.

In reference to the above, I must observe that very few anglers will
think of fishing during the winter months; at the conclusion of the
second week in October, the Trout Rod ought to be carefully stowed
away. The angler should by all means refrain from killing Trout so
close upon the spawning season, besides they are becoming as food quite
worthless. Truly "Othello's occupations gone."



NATURAL FLY FISHING.


THE STONE FLY.

The Stone Fly is invariably converted into the May-fly, by anglers who
fish the Tees and its tributary streams; but the actual and properly
named May-flies are the Green and Yellow Drakes, which do not appear
upon our Teesdale waters. If the weather has been warm, and the water
low, May-flies (for by so calling them I shall be best understood), may
be found the last week in May, or at all events in the beginning of
June, some indeed, but very few may be seen as early as April, and as
late as September. This fly is easily found, his whereabouts indicated
by his old coat, or husk, which he has discarded, and left on the
outside of his mansion, which is generally a flat stone near the edge
of the water. This fly is generally but an indifferent killer in the
middle of the day, mornings and evenings, (when not glutted and the
weather propitious), Trout take it with avidity, provided there has
been no frost during the night, and the water is free from the steaming
sort of mist prevalent about this season. You may begin to fish with
the May-fly as soon as you can see to put the fly on the hook, the
earlier you commence the better chance of large fish, especially if the
water is clear, and very low, or even moderately so. In fishing with
this fly, have your cast line light and strong, tapering gradually to
the end, to which attach about three-quarters of a yard of fine round
Gut, the best you can procure, on which tie your hook which must be at
least a size larger than the Palmer hook; arm this hook with a strong
pig's bristle, which must lay on the back of the hook, protruding a
short way over the top of the shank. In putting on the fly, insert the
point of the hook under the head of the fly, passing through the body,
bring it out underneath the tail, then take and press the fly upwards
over the head of the bristle on your hook, bringing it so far down that
it may pass through the back, behind the head of the fly, then set to
work by throwing your fly into rapid streams, eddies caused by rocks,
or other impediments; cast your fly always up and let it come down the
stream floating on the surface of the water in a natural and easy way;
if a fish rises and does not swallow it, do not pull your fly away, the
odds are he will follow and take it, his motive I suppose in the first
instance being to disable; however when Trout are fairly glutted with
the May-fly, they may rise, but will not even touch it. When a fish has
seized your fly, do not strike too hard or hastily, numbers of fish are
lost by doing so, let them always turn their heads either in stream or
log water before you strike. On dark cold windy days, during the
May-fly season you will find the small fly a much better killer than
the May-fly. On bright and very hot days a well scoured Brandling Worm
or Creeper may be used to advantage, after your morning's fishing with
the May-fly is done, for on such days the artificial fly is entirely
out of the question. A Bullock's horn with a few small holes bored in
it, is perhaps the best and handiest thing you can put your flies into.

Observe that the Alder or Orl fly, is a capital killer when the May-fly
is on. Who shall say that the May-fly short as is its life, has not
undergone all the vicissitudes of a long and eventful life, that it has
not felt all the freshness of youth, all the vigour of maturity, all
the weakness of old age, and all the pangs of death itself?

    TO THE MAY-FLY.

    Thou art a frail and curious thing,
      Engender'd by the sun,
    A moment only on the wing,
      And thy career is done.

    Thou sportest in the evening beam,
      An hour, an age to thee,
    In gaity above the stream,
      Which soon thy grave shall be.

    BORTON WILFORD.


THE FLESH FLY.

The Flesh-fly, when the water is low and clear, is one of the most
alluring flies that can be offered to the Trout, but great skill, care,
and judgment are requisite in the use of it; in the hands of an expert
angler, on a close hot day during the month of July, it is a sure and
certain adjunct towards filling a pannier. The fish will take it when
they will not look at an artificial; you will take as large fish with
it as are to be had with any kind of fly, either natural or artificial.
The flies are easily procured in shady places, in woods or fields,
where cattle and horses have left recently made soil. After having
struck them with a bundle of twigs and killed, or stunned, as many as
will answer your purpose, put them into a horn, or anything suitable,
so that they do not escape. Your cast line must be of a length
proportioned to the size of the river or brook where you fish, as a
general rule (if you wade in the water), about a little longer than the
length of your rod,--let your cast line be exceedingly fine, and have
attached to it three-quarters of a yard of the finest round silk-worm
gut,--your hook should be No. 2, put your fly on by inserting the point
of the hook under the head of the fly, and running it through the body,
bringing it out at the tail--you need not make above two or three casts
at a place, and follow the same rule as with the May-fly, viz., to let
the fish turn his head downwards before you strike. Streams are the
likeliest places where they have not time to scan the fly, in that
curiously suspicious and shy manner in which they generally come to it
in smooth water. However when they are in the humour they will take it
anywhere if you can only contrive to keep out of sight, _hie labor
hoc opus est_; this is the trouble and difficulty in a low water;
and note, it is not worth while attempting to fish with the Flesh Fly
on cold windy days, let the water be in ever such fine condition. Trout
take this fly best when the temperature ranges somewhere about seventy
Farenheit. This fly is often taken when the May-fly is refused.


THE COW DUNG FLY.

The Cow Dung Fly is a good and enticing fly, it is easily procurable,
as its name intimates, on foil left by cattle: if the water is low and
clear, with a brisk wind stirring, you may use it advantageously,
because the wind usually carries great quantities of them upon the
water, which induce the fish to rise. These flies are found from May to
October; fish with them in the same way as the Flesh Fly; a No. 2 hook
is quite large enough for them. Wherever you see a fish rise, when
fishing with this or the Flesh Fly, you may count upon him as your own
four times out of six, if you only contrive to make a light and
dexterous cast, over the place where you observe the fish rise. Dapping
or Dibbing, or perhaps more properly Dipping,--this is another method
of using the natural flies, and a very killing way too; your rod for
this fishing must be of a good length, with a stiff top; your line
composed solely of good, fine, strong gut, must be about but not less
than a yard in length,--put your flies on the same sized hooks, and
after the same way as you are directed to adopt in the other method
where a longer line is used. Having stationed yourself out of sight,
behind a bush, tree or rock, let your fly drop gently on the surface of
the water, keep lifting and letting it fall so as just to cause the
slightest perceptible dimple on the water, and if there is a fish at
all hungry in your locality, you are pretty sure to have him. If a good
fish is hooked, let your winch line go, because he will struggle
furiously when he feels the hook, and the hold might give way, provided
you were too hasty and anxious to land him. In dibbing, almost any kind
of fly will answer. The day suitable for this should be warm, and the
water rather low and clear.



LIST OF PALMER FLIES FROM MARCH TO OCTOBER.


The following list of flies will take fish in all Trouting streams of
Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland.

MARCH.

Dark Brown.
Great Whirling Dun.
Early Bright Brown.
Blue Dun.
Little Black Gnat.

APRIL.

Dark Brown.
Violet Fly.
Little Whirling Dun.
Small Bright Brown.

MAY.

Dun Cut.
Stone Fly.
Camlet Fly.
Cow Dung Fly.

JUNE.

Stone Fly.
Ant Fly.
Little Black Gnat.
Brown Palmer.
Small Red Spinner.

JULY.

Orange Fly.
Wasp Fly.
Black Palmer.
July Dun.

AUGUST.

Late Ant Fly.
Fern Fly.
White Palmer.
Pale Blue.
Harry Long Legs.

SEPTEMBER.

Peacock Harl.
Camel Brown.
Late Badger.
September Dun.

OCTOBER.

Same Flies as in March.

It is best to make your Flies in a warm room, or in warm weather out of
doors,--your silk will then wax kindly, which is of great consequence
in making Flies.

The three best winged Flies for Spring, are the Red Fly, Blue, Dun and
Brown.

The three principal Flies for AUTUMN are the little Whirling Blue, Pale
Blue, and Willow Fly.

FEBRUARY.--Red Fly.

MARCH.--Red Fly, Dun Fly and Brown Drake.

APRIL.--The same as March with the addition of the Grannam or Green
Tail, and the Spider Fly.

MAY.--The Black Caterpillar, the Little Iron Blue, the Yellow Sally
Fly, the Oak Fly and the Orl Fly.

JUNE.--Sky Coloured Blue, the Cadiss Fly, the Blue Gnat, Large Red Ant
Fly, Black Ant Fly, Little Whirling Blue, Pale Blue.

JULY.--Some of the same Flies as June, with the addition of the Wasp
Fly, Black Palmer, July Dun, and Orange Fly.

AUGUST.--Small Red and Black Ant Flies, Willow Flies.

SEPTEMBER.--Pale Blues, and Whirling Blue.

OCTOBER.--Same as March, with the addition of the Dark and Pale Blues.

_March._--1. The Dark Brown--dubbed with the brown hair of a cow, and
the grey feather of a Mallard for wings. 2. The Great Whirling
Dun--dubbed with squirrels fur, for wings, grey feather of mallard. 3.
Early Bright Brown--dubbed with brown hair from behind the ears of a
spaniel dog, wings from a mallard. 4. The Blue Dun--dubbed with down
from a black greyhound's neck, mixed with violet coloured blue worsted,
wings pale part of a starling's wing. 5. The Black Gnat--dubbed with
black mohair, the wings of the lightest part of a starling.

_April._--1. The Dark Brown,--brown spaniel's hair mixed with a little
violet camlet, warp with yellow silk, wings, grey feather from mallard.
2. The Violet Fly--dubbed with dark violet stuff, and a little dun
bear's hair mixed with it, wings from a mallard. 3. The Little Whirling
Dun--dubbed with fox cubs fur, ash coloured, ribbed about with yellow
silk, wings a pale grey feather from a mallard. 4. Small Bright
Brown--dubbed with camel's hair, and marten's yellow fur mixed, wings
pale feather of a starling.

_May._--The Dun Cut--dubbed with brown hair, a little blue and yellow
mixed with it, wings, woodcock, and two horns at the head from a
squirrel's tail. 2. The Stone Fly--dubbed with dun bear's hair, mixed
with a little brown and yellow camlet, so placed that the fly may be
yellower on the belly and towards the tail than any where else, place
two hairs from a black cat's beard, in such a way that they may stand
upright, rib the body with yellow silk, and make the wings very large
from the dark grey feathers of a mallard. 3. The Camlet Fly--dubbed
with dark brown shining camlet, ribbed over with green silk, wings,
grey feather of a mallard. 4. Cow Dung Fly--dubbed with light brown and
yellow camlet mixed, or dirty lemon coloured mohair with the hackle of
a landrail.[5]

      [5] A good Fly on cold windy days.

_June._--1. The Ant Fly--dubbed with brown and red camlet mixed, wings,
starling's feather, pale. 2. Little Black Gnat--dubbed with black
strands from an ostrich, wings, light feather from underneath
starling's wing. 3. Brown Palmer--dubbed with light brown seal's hair,
warped with ash coloured silk and a red hackle over the whole. 4. The
Small Red Spinner--dubbed with yellow hair from behind the ear of a
spaniel, ribbed with gold twist, a red hackle over the whole, the wings
from a starling.[6]

      [6] This fly kills well when the water is low and fine.

_July._--1. Orange Fly--dubbed with brown fur of a badger, warped with
red silk, wings from dark grey feather of mallard, with a head made of
red silk. 2. The Wasp Fly--dubbed with brown bear or cow's hair, ribbed
with yellow silk, and the wings of the inside of starling's wing. 3.
The Black Palmer--dubbed with black copper coloured peacock's harl, and
a black cock's hackle over that, wings, blackbird. 4. The July
Dun--dubbed with the down of a watermouse, mixed with bluish seal's
fur, or with the fur of a mole, mixed with a little marten's fur,
warped with ash coloured silk, wood-pigeon's wing feather for wings.--A
good killer.

_August._--The Late Ant Fly--dubbed with the blackish brown hair of a
cow, warp some red silk in for the tag of the tail, the wings from a
woodcock. 2. The Fern Fly--dubbed with the fur from a hare's neck,
which is of a fern colour, wings dark grey feather of mallard. 3. The
White Palmer--dubbed with white peacock's harl, and a black hackle over
it. 4. The Pale Blue--dubbed with very light blue fur, mixed with a
little yellow marten's fur, and a blue hackle over the whole, the wings
from a blue pigeon.--A very killing fly. 5. The Harry Longlegs--dubbed
with darkish brown hair, and a brown hackle over it, head rather large.

_September._--The Peacock Harl--dubbed with ruddy peacock's harl,
warped with green silk, and a red cock's hackle over that. 2. The Camel
Brown--dubbed with old brownish hair, with red silk, wings dark grey
feather from mallard. 3. The Late Badger--dubbed with black fur of a
badger or spaniel, mixed with the soft yellow down of a sandy coloured
pig, wings dark mallard. 4. The September Dun--dubbed with the down of
a mouse, warped with ash coloured silk, wings feather of a starling.

_October._--Same as March.

As I never fished for Trout in November, I attempt no list of Flies for
that month. From Michaelmas to the middle of February, all anglers
should refrain from killing Trout.

_Moths Brown and White for Evening Fishing._--The Brown--from the
feathers of a brown Owl, dubbed with light mohair, dark grey Cock's
hackle for legs, and red head. White Moth--strands from an Ostrich,
wings from a white Pigeon, a white hackle for legs, and a black
head.--Hooks No. 2 or 3. Good killers at dusk on a Summer's evening.



LIST OF HACKLE FLIES FROM FEBRUARY TO NOVEMBER.


_February._--Small black flies, made from Starling's breast or Black
bird, with black or purple silk--hook No. 1. Inside and out of
Woodcock's wing and yellow silk. Plover's breast or Dottrel's wing
feather and yellow silk--hooks No. 1 or 2; red Cock's hackle and yellow
silk.

_March._--Inside of Woodcock's wing and yellow silk, No. 2 hook. Dark
Woodcock, and dark orange silk, No. 2 hook. Dottrel and yellow silk,
No. 2 hook. Dark Snipe and crimson silk, No. 2 hook. Dark Snipe and
purple silk, No. 1 hook.

_April._--Woodcock's as for March. Inside of Woodcock's wing and yellow
silk, No. 2 hook. Freckled Snipe and yellow silk. No. 2 hook. Dark
Snipe and crimson silk, No. 2 hook. Dottrel and yellow silk,--inside of
Snipe's wing, and pale yellow silk,--hooks No. 2.

_May._--All the above April flies are taken, also, Partridge's breast
and yellow or crimson silk, very light Dottrel's or plover's breast and
fawn coloured silk, Blackbird and purple silk, Blackbird and dark
crimson silk, sea Swallow and primrose silk, inside of Woodcock's wing
and crimson silk--hooks, 1 or 2 according to water.[7]

      [7] When there is much water some of the Spring and Autumn
      Hackle flies may be dressed on No. 3 Hooks.

_June._--Most of the above, to which add Dottrel and orange silk,
Plover and light orange silk, dark Snipe and orange silk, Freckled
Snipe and orange silk, freckled Snipe and crimson silk. Hooks No. 1 or
two according to size of water. Dottrel's breast and yellow
silk,--Hooks No. 1.

_July._--Many of the above, with Sandpiper and yellow or purple silk,
Plover's breast and crimson silk Wren's tail and orange silk, Dottrel
and bright scarlet silk; Plover's back feather with gold twist and
orange silk, Landrail and bright red silk, dark Snipe and sky coloured
blue silk.--Hooks No. 1 or 2 at discretion. If the water is very clear,
use hooks as small as possible.

_August._--Some of the July flies for the first fortnight, with dark
Snipe and green, Snipe's breast and purple silk, Dottrel and black
silk, Landrail and red silk, dark Snipe or Starling's breast and red
silk, Grouse hackle and bright scarlet silk.--Hooks 1 and 2 according
to water.

_September._--Some of the August Flies, with Landrail and yellow silk,
pale blue from sea Swallow and primrose silk, pale blue from ditto and
crimson silk,--Hooks 1 and 2.

_October._--Inside of Snipe's wing feather and yellow silk,
Woodpigeon's feather and pale yellow silk, dark outside feather of
Snipe's wing and crimson or orange silk, outside feather of Dottrel's
wing and yellow silk--hooks No. 1 or 2.

_November._--Same Flies as February.

The Blue, Black and Dun Gnats are at times on the water from May to
August, and when the fish are taking them they generally refuse the
larger flies.

The Blue Gnat may be made thus: A blue feather from a Titmouse's tail
for wings, body from pale blue floss silk, on a cypher hook, which
means the smallest hook made; or the wings may be had from Heron's
plumes, with same or primrose silk.

Black Gnat--Starling's breast and black silk, cypher hook; or black
Ostrich strand and inside wing feather of Starling for wings.

Dun Gnat--from inside wing feather of a Landrail and fawn coloured
silk--cypher hook.

Observe, that you may put more feather on your hackle flies in the
Spring than in the Summer; when the water is low and clear, a very
small quantity of hackle is sufficient, and it should by no means
descend much, if any, below the bend of the hook.

In low waters, except when the blue, dun and brown drakes are on, the
hackle flies will generally be found to kill better than the winged
flies.



REMARKS ON THE MARCH BROWN OR DUN DRAKE.


The March Brown is well known to all anglers as a fly to which they are
chiefly indebted for the greatest portion of their sport in the Spring,
commencing as its name indicates in March, and continuing the whole of
April and into May. They appear on the water each succeeding day about
eleven in the forenoon, and retire about half-past two p.m. Few rivers
or brooks produce March Browns that are exactly alike;--I mean with
regard to the same shade of colour, even in the same river there are
frequently darker and lighter flies. For the lighter one I recommend
the hen pheasant's or brown owl's wing feather, dubbed with hare's ear
and yellow silk; for the dark, the tail feather of a partridge, a brown
red hackle underneath the wings, and dark orange silk, or a woodcock's
feather for wings, and a dark red hackle with dark orange silk,--kills
exceedingly well. When the water is low and fine, I consider your
chance of killing fish far greater with two, than three of the large
spring flies. If you put the brown, and blue dun on your stretcher,
three quarters of a yard apart, you will find your cast will be much
lighter with the two than three; this plan also holds good in reference
to hackle flies, provided that you know what the fish are taking.



SELECT LIST OF VERY KILLING FLIES, BOTH PALMERS AND HACKLES.


If these flies do not answer, it is very rare that you will succeed
with any other. They are suitable for all the rivers and brooks of
Yorkshire, Durham, Westmoreland and Cumberland; about thirty years
experience has convinced me of their entire excellence, and probably
the ingenuity of man cannot devise any to supersede them.

Palmers for March, April, and first week in May,--The March Brown or
Dun Drake,--The Blue Dun,--Early Bright Brown.

_May._--The Dun Cut,--The Cow Dung Fly, and also the March Brown and
Blue Dun are on the waters in late seasons to the middle of the month.

_June._--Little Black Gnat,--The Brown Palmer,--Little Red Spinner--and
Alder Fly.

_July._--The Wasp Fly,--Black Palmer,--July Dun.

_August._--The Late Ant Fly,--The Pale Blue.

_September._--The September Dun,--The Camel Brown and Willow Fly.

_October._--Blue Dun, Pale Blue, and Dun Drake.

NOTE.--If there are no Flies on the water when you begin to angle, try
a Palmer till you find what Flies the fish are taking. One Palmer and
two small hackle Flies on your stretcher give a tolerable good chance.



LIST OF HACKLES AND SILKS TO SUIT.


(GOOD KILLERS.)

_For March and April._--Dark Snipe and crimson silk,--Dark Snipe and
Purple silk.--Hooks No. 1 and 2.--Outside feather of Woodcock's wing
and dark orange silk.--Inside feather of Woodcock's wing and yellow
silk.--Dottrel's back or neck feather and yellow silk.--Hooks No. 2 or
3.

_May._--Inside and outside feathers of Woodcock's wing, with orange and
yellow silk,--Starling or Blackbird's breast and black silk,--Freckled
Snipe and yellow silk,--Dark Snipe and crimson silk.--Hooks No. 1 and
2.

_June._--Blackbird and orange silk,--Plover and orange silk.--Dottrel's
breast and yellow silk,--Freckled Snipe and crimson silk,--Partridge's
breast and crimson or yellow silk,--Dark Snipe and yellow silk,--Freckled
Snipe and orange silk,--Sandpiper and purple or yellow silk.--Hooks No. 1
or 2.

_July._--Light Dottrel and scarlet silk,--Inside of Landrail's wing
and yellow silk,--Blackbird and dark red silk,--Feather from neck
of a Grouse and scarlet silk,--Plover's breast and bright yellow
silk,--Sandpiper and purple silk.--Hooks No. 1 or 2.

_August._--Most of the July hackles for the first fortnight, to which
add dark Snipe and green silk,--Snipe's breast feather and purple
silk,--Dottrel and black silk,--Landrail and red silk.--Hooks No. 1 and
2.

_September._--Some of the August Flies with Landrail and yellow
silk,--pale blue from Sea Swallow's wing and yellow or primrose
coloured silk,--pale blue from Sea Swallow and crimson silk.

_October._--Same as March,--with inside of Snipe's wing and yellow
silk,--Woodpigeon's feather and yellow silk,--Dottrel and pale yellow
silk.--Hooks No. 1 or 2.

I deem _November_ like February, not worth a list.



A LIST OF FLIES THAT WILL, OR AT LEAST ARE LIKELY TO KILL,
IN ALL TROUT STREAMS.


FLIES FOR MARCH.

1. Dark Blue,--one of the earliest. 2. Olive Blue,--March and April,--a
good Fly in cold weather. 3. Red Clock,--April and March. 4. Little
Brown,--March and April, the dark first, then the lighter,--good on
warm days. 5. Blue Midge,--early in Spring and late in Autumn. 6. Great
Brown, or March Brown,--March, April and first week in May. 7. Yellow
Legged Blue,--from the latter end of March to the end of April, on cold
days, particularly in April.


FLIES FOR APRIL.

1. Dark Blue,--yellow or Dun Midge from middle of April to middle of
May. 2. Spider Legs,--end of April and May,--kills best in a wind. 3.
Land Fly,--end of April till towards the end of May 4. Green Tail or
Grannam, from six in the morning till eleven again in the evening, when
the Browns are off. 5. Ash Fly,--from April to the end of June,--a good
killer on windy days.


FLIES FOR MAY.

1. Grey Midge,--the latter end of April and all Summer. 2. Yellow Sally
Fly,--all May. 3. May Brown,--latter end of May till latter end of
June. 4. Pale Blue,--from middle of May and all through June,--good in
the evenings. 5. Yellow Fly,--the greatest parts of May and
June,--kills best on cold windy days. 6. Little Stone Blue,--from the
middle of May till the Autumn. 7. May or Stone Fly,--if the weather is
genial, the last week in May, and continues through June.


FLIES FOR JUNE.

1. Hawthorn Fly,--all June. 2. Little Dark and Pale Blue,--the dark
during the middle of the day, the light in the evening. 3. June
Dun,--about the middle of June,--suits showery weather. 4. Twitch
Bell,--continues till the middle of July,--best in the evening,--Stone
fly.


FLIES FOR JULY.

1. Little Olive Blue,--the greater part of July and August 2. Black and
Red Ant Flies,--in July, August and September. 3. Little Blue,--July
and August,--best in the middle of the day.


FLIES FOR AUGUST.

1. August Brown,--comes on about the latter end of July, continuing
through August and till the middle of September. 2. Light
Blue,--August, September and October,--a capital Fly on cold days. 3.
Orange Stinger,--hot days in August. 4. Grey Grannam,--showery days in
August and September.


FLIES FOR SEPTEMBER.

1. Light Olive Blue. 2. Small Willow Fly. 3. Large Willow
Fly,--September and October.


FLIES FOR OCTOBER.

1. Blue Bottle and House Fly. 2. Small Olive Blue. 3. Dark Grey Midge.



HOW TO DRESS THE ABOVE.


FOR MARCH.

1. Dark Blue,--dark feather inside of Waterhen's wing; body,--dark red
brown silk, black hackle for legs--tail two strands of the same. 2.
Olive Blue,--feather of Starling's wing, body light olive silk, and red
hackle. 3. Red Clock,--wings and legs red; Peacock's brown herl, and
bright red silk for body. 4. Little Brown,--feather from inside of
Woodcock's wing, red copper coloured silk for body, and brown hackle
for legs. 5. Blue Midge,--feather of Waterhen's neck,--lead coloured
silk for body, grizzled hackle for legs. 6. Great Brown,--feather from
the hen Pheasant's wing,--dark orange silk for body, brown red hackle
for legs,--tail do. 7. Yellow Legged Blue,--feather from inside of
Teal's wing, or lightest part of Starling's wing,--straw coloured silk
for body, legs yellow hackle,--tail do.


FOR APRIL.

1. Dark Blue,--same as March. 2. Dun Midge,--lightest part of a Thrush's
quill feather,--pale yellow silk, ribbed with light orange,--legs
yellow hackle. 3. Spider Legs,--rusty coloured feather from Feldfare's
back,--lead coloured silk for body, grizzled hackle for legs. 4. Sand
Fly,--ruddy mottled feather of hen Pheasant's wing,--reddish fur from
Hare's neck, ribbed with light brown silk,--ginger coloured hackle for
legs. 5. Green Tail or Grannam,--wings inside of hen Pheasant's
wing,--body lead coloured silk, with Peacock's green herl for
tail,--legs ginger hackle. 6. Inside of Woodcock's wing,--body orange
coloured silk neatly ribbed,--hackle from a grouse for legs.


FOR MAY.

1. Grey Midge,--feather from Woodcock's breast,--body of pale yellow
silk. 2. Yellow Sally,--pale yellow feather,--body yellow silk,--legs
yellow hackle. 3. May Brown,--ruddy grey,--feather from Partridge's
back,--olive coloured silk ribbed with light brown for body,--legs,
hackles of an olive colour, tail do. 4. Pale Blue,--Sea Swallow for
wings,--yellow pale silk for body, ribbed with sky blue,--pale yellow
hackles for legs,--tail do.,--Little Stone Blue,--feather from
Blackbird inside the wing, or Swift,--brown silk for body, brown hackle
for legs. Stone Fly,--Mallard's feather from the back,--very large for
wings,--two strands of yellow, and one of drab,--Ostrich herl neatly
ribbed,--tie with brown silk.--horns and tail, black cat's whiskers.


FLIES FOR JUNE.

1. Little Dark Blue,--inside of Waterhen's wing,--lead coloured silk
for body, legs yellowish dun hackle, tail Rabbit's whisker. 2. Pale
Blue--light part of Starling's quill feather for wings, pale yellow
silk for body, pale yellow dun hackle for legs and tail. 3. June Dun--a
feather from Dottrel's back, hackled on a body of blue Rabbit's fur and
drab silk, dun hackle for legs. 4. Twitchbell--inside of lightest part
of Starling's quill feather for wings, brown hackle for legs, brown
Peacock's herl for body.


FLIES FOR JULY.

1. Little Olive Blue--Feather of Starling's wing dyed in onion
peelings, lead coloured silk for body, ribbed with yellow, dun hackle
for legs, stained like the wings, Rabbit's whiskers for tail. 2. Little
Black Ant--feather of a Bluecap's tail for wings, black Ostrich herl
dressed small in the middle for body, brown hackle for legs. 3. Red
Ant--Lark's Quill feather for wings, cock Pheasant's herl from tail for
body, red hackle for legs. 4. Little Blue--Bullfinch's tail feather for
wings, dark blue silk for body, dark blue hackle for legs, tail do.


FLIES FOR AUGUST.

1. August Brown--feather from hen Pheasant's wing,--fern coloured fur
from Hare's neck, ribbed with pale yellow silk,--grizzled hackle for
legs,--tail do. 2. Light Blue,--inside of Snipe's wing,--body light
Drab silk,--tail and legs grizzled hackle. 3. Cinnamon Fly,--feather
from Landrail,--orange and straw coloured silk for body,--ginger hackle
for legs. 4. Light Blue,--inside of Snipe's wing,--light drab silk for
body,--legs and tail grizzled hackle. 5. Dark Blue,--feather from
Waterhen inside the wing,--reddish brown silk for body,--legs and tail
brown hackle. 6. Orange Stinger,--taken from middle of August to the
end of September--feather from Starling's quill,--the head brown--the
tail orange silk,--for body and legs, furnace hackle. 7. Grey
Grannam,--dark feather from night Hawk or brown Owl,--red Squirrel's
fur and fawn coloured silk for body,--ginger hackle for legs.


FLIES FOR SEPTEMBER.

1. Light Olive Blue,--Dottrel's wing,--body pale white French
silk,--legs and tail pale blue hackle. 2. Dark Olive Blue,--wings
inside of Waterhen's wing,--body lead coloured silk,--black hackle for
legs,--tail Hare's whiskers. 3. Small Willow Fly,--wings inside of
Woodcock's wing feather,--body mole's fur and yellow silk,--brown
hackle for legs.


OCTOBER.

1. House Fly,--lark's quill feather,--light brown silk,--ribbed with
dark Ostrich herl for body,--legs grizzled hackle. 2. Small Olive
Blue,--wings Starling's feather stained with onion peelings,--yellow
silk for body,--legs olive stained hackle. 3. Dark Grey Midge,--wings
dark grey feather of a Partridge,--body brown silk,--legs grey
Partridge hackle.



RED PALMER.

Body greenish herl of Peacock,--ribbed with gold tinsel,--wrapt with
red silk,--red hackle over all.


BLACK PALMER.

Body dark Peacock's herl,--ribbed with gold tinsel,--green silk, black,
brown or red hackle over all.


MAY FLIES.

THE YELLOW, GREY, AND GREEN DRAKES.

These flies, which are known as May flies, afford great sport. Trout
and Greyling are so partial to them that they refuse all others during
the time they are on the water, but they are not common to all rivers.
The Driffield, Derwent and other Yorkshire streams, have them in great
abundance. The best chance with the artificial May fly, is when there
is wind stirring sufficient to cause a pretty considerable curl on the
water. The _Yellow Drake_ may be made in this way,--a Mallard's back
feather dyed yellow; for wings, Cock's hackle dyed yellow; underneath
the wings to make them stand upright, yellow camlet, ribbed with brown
silk for body; tail, two hairs from Squirrel's tail. _Grey Drake_,--wings
from Mallard's back feather, black Cock's hackle underneath; body sky
blue camlet ribbed with copper coloured Peacock's herl; tail from
Squirrel. _Green Drake_,--same as yellow except the wings, which must
be from a Mallard's feather dyed a yellowish green.

I have not deemed it requisite to introduce any illustrations of flies,
because I cannot conceive that any really beneficial results are
obtainable by merely showing the difference on paper between natural
and artificial flies. Catch the natural fly, imitate it as closely as
possible; put your made fly into a tumbler of clear water, then if the
size and the prevailing colours as to body and wings resemble your
copy, you are all right. This appears to me the best comparative
illustration.

I beg to suggest to those who have opportunity and leisure, that they
might at the cost of a little trouble, make a collection of all the
flies that come on the waters, where they are accustomed to angle. They
are easily caught and preserved, and if classed according to the months
during which they were found, would be useful and interesting to
themselves and friends, if only to refer to when manufacturing flies.



HOW TO MAKE A HACKLE FLY.


Take a hook of the required size, between the finger and thumb of your
left hand, with the point towards the end of your finger, place the gut
along the top of the shank, and with the silk bind them tightly
together, beginning half way down the shank, and wrap the end, take two
turns back again which will form the head of the fly; lay the feather
along the hook, the point towards your left hand, and take three turns
over it with the silk, clip off the points of the feather, and bind it
neatly round till the fibre is consumed, bring the silk round the root
of the feather to bind to the end of the tail of the fly. Cut off all
superfluities and fasten off by the drawn knots, then with a needle
trim the fibres and your fly is made.



TO MAKE A WINGED FLY.

Have your materials ready, wings silk &c., of the colour you require,
then take a hook between the forefinger and thumb of your left hand,
with the point towards your forefinger, place the gut at the top of the
shank, and with the silk bind them tightly together, bind all tight
within two or three turns of the shank of the hook. Take the feather
for wings, lay the feather's point the proper length between your
finger and thumb along the hook, and take two or three turns over it
for the head of the fly, and bind the gut between the second and third
fingers of your left hand, and with the scissors clip off the root end
of the feather, wrap the silk back again once under the wings, setting
them upwards; with the point of the needle divide equally the wings
crossing the silk between them. Lay the hackle for legs, root end
towards the bend of the hook, wrap your silk over it and so make the
body of your fly, then take the fibre end of the hackle, rib the body
of the fly neatly with it, till you reach the silk hanging down, wind
the silk twice or thrice over the hackle, fasten with the usual knots,
and your fly is complete.



MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR MAKING WINGED AND HACKLE FLIES.


In the manufacture of winged flies a great variety of feathers are
required. Procure those of a Mallard, Teal, Partridge, especially the
tail feathers; also, the wings of a Starling, Jay, Landrail, Waterhen,
Blackbird, Fieldfare, Pheasant Hen, Pewitt's Topping, Peacock's Herl,
green and copper coloured, black Ostrich herl, Snipe, Dottrel, Woodcock
and golden Plover's wings, the tail feathers of the blue and brown
Titmouse, and also Heron's plumes. Dubbing is to be had from old Turkey
Carpet, Hare ears, Water Rat's fur, Squirrel, Mohair, old hair cast
from young cattle, of a red, blue, brown, black and fawn colour from
behind a Spaniel's ears, and from the fur of a Mouse, and note,
Martin's fur is the best yellow that can be had. In regard to Silks be
careful to suit the colour of the silk (at least as much so as you
possibly can,) to the hackle you select for dubbing with. Thus with a
Dun hackle, use yellow silk; a black hackle, sky blue; a brown or red
hackle, red or dark orange do.

The above selection of silks and dubbing are for Palmers and winged
flies generally. It is a good plan however to take and wet your dubbing
previous to making use of it, because when dry it may appear the exact
colour you need, yet wetted quite the reverse. To acquire an accurate
knowledge of any dubbing, hold it between the sun and your eyes.
Mohairs may be had of all colours, black, blue, yellow and tawny, from
_feuille morte_ a dead leaf, and Isabella which is a whitish yellow
soiled buff.



TO MAKE A PALMER FLY.


Take a length of fine round silk worm gut, half a yard of silk well
waxed, (wax if possible of the same colour,) take a No. three or four
hook, hold it by the bend between the forefinger and thumb of the left
hand, with the shank towards your right hand, and with the point and
beard of your hook not under your fingers, but nearly parallel with the
tips of them, then take the silk and hold it about the middle of it
with your hook, one part laying along the inside of it to your left
hand, the other to your right; then take that part of the silk which
lies towards your right hand between the forefinger and thumb of that
hand, and holding that part towards your left tight along the inside of
the hook, whip that to the right three or four times round the shank of
the hook towards the right hand, after which take the gut and lay
either of its ends along the inside of the shank of the hook, till it
comes near the bend of it, then hold the hook, silk and gut tight
between the forefinger and thumb of your left hand, and afterwards put
that portion of silk into your right, giving three or four more whips
over both gut and hook, until it approaches the end of the shank, then
make a loop and fasten it tight, then whip it neatly again over both
silk, gut, and hook, until it comes near to the end of the hook, make
another loop and fasten it again; now wax the longest end of the silk
again, then hold your Ostrich strand, dubbing on whatever you have
selected, and hook as at first with the silk just waxed anew, whip them
three or four times round at the bend of the hook, making them tight by
a loop as before, then the strands to your right hand and twisting them
and the silk together with the forefinger and thumb of the right hand,
wind them round the shank tight, till you come to the place where you
fastened, then loop and fasten again, then take your scissors and cut
the body of the Palmer into an oval shape, that is, small at the head
and the end of the shank, but full in the centre; don't cut too much of
the dubbing off. Now both ends of the silk are separated, one at the
bend, the other at the end of the shank, wax them afresh, then take the
hackle, hold the small end of it between the forefinger and thumb of
your left hand, and stroke the fibres of it with those of your right,
the contrary way to what they are formed; hold your hook as at the
beginning, and place the point of the hackle on its bend with that side
growing next to the Cock's neck upwards, then whip it tight to the
hook, but in fastening, avoid if possible, tying the fibres; the hackle
now being fast, take it by the large end and keeping that side which
lies to the neck of the Cock to the left hand, begin with your right
hand to wind it up the shank upon the dubbing, stopping every second
turn, and holding what you have wound tight with the fingers of your
left hand, whilst with a needle you pick out the fibres unavoidably
left in; proceed in this manner till you come to where you first
fastened, and where an end of the silk remains; then clip off the
fibres of the hackle which you hold between your finger and thumb close
to the stem, and hold the stem close to the hook, afterwards take the
silk in your right hand and whip the stem fast to the hook, and make it
tight: clip off the remaining silk at both bend and shank of the hook,
and also all fibres that start or don't stand well, and then your fly
is complete.



GOLDEN PALMER.


Take the hair of a black Spaniel for dubbing, ribbed with gold twist,
and a red hackle over all.


SILVER HACKLE PALMER.

The same dubbing as for the Golden Palmer, silver twist over that, and
a brown red hackle, and note, when you make Golden or Silver Palmers,
and when whipping the end of the hackle to the head of the hook, do the
same to the twist whether Gold or Silver, first winding on the dubbing,
observing that they lie flat on it, then fasten off and proceed with
the hackle, or you may wind the hackle on the dubbing first, and rib
the body with either of the twists afterwards. Palmers may be made so
as to suit all waters by making them of various colours and sizes, and
it is a good plan to fish with a Palmer until you know to a certainty
what fly is on the water. Hackles for Palmers should consist of red,
dun, yellow, orange and black, they should not by any means exceed half
an inch in length. A strong brown red hackle is exceedingly valuable.
Any person who can make a Palmer will make winged flies without
difficulty.



TO MAKE HACKLE FLIES.


Select a feather the colour you want, and whose fibres are of the
length suitable for the size of the fly you wish to dress. Strip off
all superfluous fibres, leaving on the stem of the feather no more than
you require for your fly, then having previously waxed about half a
yard of fine silk of whatever colour you deem best, take your gut or
hair and hook into your left hand, lay the gut inside the shank of the
hook nearly down to the bend, then whip the gut and hook, at the end of
your hook together, then lay your feather the reverse way from the top
of the feather on to the gut and hook, make fast the feather with your
silk, then wind your silk on the hook as far as you intend the fibres
to extend, holding the hook, gut and silk in your left, with your right
wind the fibres down to the silk and make all fast, then wind the
remaining part of the gut and hook as far as nearly the bend of the
hook with your silk, and fasten; wind your silk back again to the
feather, make all fast, cut off the remains of the silk, smooth down
the fibres, press them between your finger and thumb, and having
arranged them to your mind, the fly is completed. Instead of carrying
the silk back again to the feather from the bend of the hook, you may
finish there, if you prefer doing so. I prefer the former. Making
hackle flies is such an easy matter, that any person with any ingenuity
and attention, may soon become a proficient in fabrication of them, and
by diligent observation as to the size, colour, and peculiarities of
the great variety of natural flies, which make their appearance on the
water at particular seasons and hours of the day, he will at all times
be enabled to pursue his diversion with the best chance of success.
Nature best followed best secures the sport.



WORM OR BOTTOM FISHING.


You may take Trout in February with the worm if the weather is mild,
and continue to do so until the end of October. It is a most alluring
and destructive bait, and requires more skill to fish it properly than
is generally supposed. After rain, when rivers or brooks are somewhat
beyond their usual bounds, a well scoured lob worm will take the best
of fish. For worm fishing you must have a yard of good gut attached to
your cast line, which line ought to be of the same thickness from the
gut to the loop of your reel line, your hooks may be a trifle larger in
the Spring than in the Summer, and should be tied on to the gut with
good strong red silk; two No. 4 or 5 shot corns, partially split, and
then fastened upon the gut about five or six inches from the hooks, and
from two to three from each other, are generally sufficient in a strong
water to sink your worm to the requisite depth, but in low and fine
waters, use two of No. 6, and sometimes one will be sufficient. In worm
fishing never attempt to fish down, but always up a stream, and when
you are aware that you have a bite, slacken your line a little in order
to give time to the fish to gorge, then strike quickly, but not too
hard, and land your prize without delay; you need not make more than
two or three casts in one place, because if there is a fish he will in
those casts either take or refuse your bait. In summer when the water
is low and fine, and the thermometer about seventy-five Farenheit,
capital sport may be had with well scoured Brandlings, perhaps this
sort of fishing is _nulli secundus_, inferior to none in the exercise
of skill and ingenuity. The immortal Shakespeare, must surely have
fished the worm in clear waters, for he says, "the finest angling 'tis
of all to see the fish with his golden fins, cleave the golden flood,
and greedily devour the treacherous hook." In the Spring you must give
your fish more time before you strike them than in the Summer; because
having been sickly and altogether out of order, and not yet having
recovered his usual strength and activity, he bites but languidly, and
does not gorge so quickly as when in prime condition. When you find
Trout pulling or snatching at the worm, which may be termed runaway
bites, and when in fact they neither take it nor let it alone, it is a
sign they are full, and the best plan to effect a capture under such
circumstance is to strike that moment they touch your bait, for if you
do not succeed by a snap, but allow them time, they will only play with
it for a few moments, and then finally leave you in the lurch. In
concluding my observations on worm fishing, I can with confidence
affirm that it is, as a bait for Trout, the most destructive and
certain agent the angler (taking the season through) can make use of.
The author of Don Juan certainly did not flatter a worm fisher, one
part of his assertion however is undoubtedly true, the worm was at one
end, but it did not necessarily follow, that a fool was at the other.
His poetic and satirical lordship probably never saw Trout taken with
the worm in a clear stream, if he had I think he would have been
satisfied that there was nothing foolish about it. Osbaldiston in his
_British Field Sports_, under the head of _Allurements for Fish_,
recommends the gum of ivy, he says, "take gum ivy and put a good deal
of it into a box made of oak, and rub the inside of it with this gum;
when you angle, put three or four worms into it, but they must not
remain long, for if they do, it will kill them, then take them and fish
with them, putting more into the worm-bag as you want them. Gum ivy
flows from the ivy tree when injured by driving nails into it,
wriggling them about and letting them remain for some time; about
Michaelmas is the best time to procure it. Gum ivy is of a red colour,
of a strong scent, and sharp pungent taste." When fish are disposed to
feed, you need not use gum ivy; the attractions of a bright and clear
scoured worm are quite sufficient without any such adjunct.



TROLLING WITH THE MINNOW.

You must for this kind of Angling, have a tolerably strong Rod and
tackle, you may begin trolling about the middle of March, and continue
to the end of October. The very best of fish are taken with the Minnow,
it is an active bait to fish with, and keeps the Angler pretty well on
the _qui vive_. When the water is in order, that is, after it is a
little swollen and discoloured by recent rain, it frequently proves a
most destructive bait, and will take Salmon as well as Trout. Those
Anglers who are desirous of a few good fish, will find it their
interest to use it on every suitable occasion, independent of the good
fish to be had with it, it is next to fly fishing, the most animating
and exciting method of angling. To make your Minnow spin well, one or
two swivels should be used, attached to the gut, which should be about
a yard in length and of fine and good quality. In fishing the Natural
Minnow with two hooks, one of them must be large enough to pass through
the body of the bait, going in at the mouth, and passing out at the
tail; the other, rather larger than a May-fly hook, should go through
the under, and pass out at the upper lip. In trolling with only two
hooks, be careful to give your fish time to gorge, otherwise by
striking too quickly, you will miss your prize by pulling the bait out
of his mouth. With three or more hooks, which is termed fishing at
snap, you cannot strike too soon as the fish is generally caught by one
of the loose hooks. If the fish you have hooked be not too heavy, the
best plan is to land him at once by a quick and sudden jerk. In fishing
the Minnow, if in still, deep water, let it sink a little at first,
then draw it quickly towards you, making the bait spin well and
briskly, which is effected by the swivel. In streams, especially if
they be rapid, cast up and down, but chiefly athwart, by so doing your
bait shows greatly to advantage. Trolling in the Tees is not much
practised; the difficulty of procuring Minnows at the precise time when
wanted, is I suppose the reason. But there are artificial Minnows which
in heavy waters will kill well; those sold by Frederick Allies, South
Parade, Worcester, and by Farlow, Tackle Maker, in the Strand, London,
are excellent, the price for Trout reasonable, two shillings and six
pence. The former is styled the Archimedean, the latter the Phantom
Minnow, which collapses when struck by a fish. The best river I have
ever trolled in, and I do not suppose there is a better in England, is
the Eden, which takes its rise a few miles from Kirby Stephen, in
Westmoreland, thence to Carlisle, and so seaward, running for the most
part over a gravelly and sandy bottom, and full of good Trout, so that
splendid sport may be had by trolling when the water is in proper
order. The Greta is an excellent trolling stream, but the fish are not
near the average weight of those in the Eden. It is not a bad plan when
the water is low and fine, and Minnows are easily procured, because you
may then see where they are, especially on a sunny day, to catch as
many as you want, (which you may do, with small hooks baited with very
small red worms,) and then cure them. Of course those cured are not so
good and durable as the fresh, but still they are found to take fish
very well. And thus provided with artificial and pickled auxiliaries,
the indefatigable troller will never be brought to a stand. For what
can be more provokingly annoying to an angler, than to have to leave
off in the very midst of sport, merely for want of baits?



MAGGOTS


May easily be had; any description of flesh exposed to the sun is soon
full of them, for choice I should prefer horse flesh; when sufficiently
large they are an excellent bait for Trout; preserve them in tin case
(with holes to admit air,) filled with bran, where they will scour a
trifle and keep alive some days; when you fish with them, use a Palmer
sized hook, and a single No. 5 shot corn, and when the water is as low
or almost as much so as it well can be, your gut need not be leaded at
all.


WASPS AND HUMBLE BEE GENTLES.

These Gentles are excellent for both Trout and Chub, preserve them the
same way as Maggots, and use the same sized hook.


DOCKEN GRUB.

This grub is found, as it name indicates, at the roots of dockens: the
body of it is somewhat similar to a Maggot, it is a good bait for Trout
and Chub, and may be kept some time in a woollen bag containing fine
sand; fish will often take it when they refuse the worm, you may begin
to fish with it in February and continue to do so during the season.
Small May-fly hook and one No. 5 shot corn.


CREEPER,

Found underneath stones having a little water and gravel or sand
underneath them, may be kept in a May-fly horn, but soon die for want
of water; a good bait early and late, or in streams on a hot day. A No.
6 shot corn and May-fly hook, fished like the worm.



CADISS, OR CAD BAIT,


Found in brooks or rivers, encased in little straw or gravel husks: a
curious little grub similar to a gentle in size, with a dirty yellow
body and black head. Palmer sized hook, shot corn No. 6, or your hook
slightly leaded on the upper part of the shank, round which have the
hackle of a Landrail or dyed Mallard. Kills well with hackle when the
water is slightly discoloured.


WORMS.

    "You must not every Worm promiscuous use."--GAY.

The best for Spring fishing are the Marl or Meadow worms, the Gilt
Tail, the Squirrel Tail and the Brandling, are excellent in Summer. A
Lob Worm well scoured is a good bait early in the morning, either in
Spring or Summer. When you fish with the Brandling, it is a killing way
to have two on your hook, letting the head of the second Brandling hang
a little way over the tail of the first, or you may put heads and tails
together; always procure your worms, and put them to some good moss,
some time before you want them; after three or four days, by adopting
this method, they will be clean, bright and tough; a glazed earthen jar
is the best thing to keep them in, and in Summer set your jar in as
cool a place as possible; by attention in changing your moss every
fourth day, or so, you may preserve and keep your worms a long time.
Moss from heaths and waste lands, is the best you can get; always be
careful to pick from the moss all blades of grass, leaves, or dirt
adhering thereto. Put your worms into water if you want them scoured
quickly, and let them remain in it for twenty minutes or half an hour,
they come out in an exhausted state, but soon recover on being put into
good clean moss. Bole Armoniac will also scour them very speedily. As
to gum ivy and ointment put to worms to entice fish, such practises I
hold to be mere matters of fancy, and I do not deem it necessary to
give instructions in reference thereto. It is my opinion only time and
trouble thrown away, and you may depend upon this as a fact, that if
fish will not take a bright clean worm, the addition of unguents will
be found useless. As I have observed elsewhere, it is the eye and not
the sense of smell (if they have any) which guides, influences, and
directs fish in their choice of food.

You may breed worms in abundance by the aid of decayed vegetables and
leaves, mixed with marl or any kind of soil; the Brandling or Red Worm
are found in Pig's and other dung, also in Tanner's bark.



SALMON ROE.


Salmon Roe is such a destructive bait for nearly all kinds of fish, and
Trout in particular, that I know nothing comparable to it. It is
moreover a bait requiring but little skill in the use of it. After a
flood, and before the water clears, is the best time for fishing with
Roe. Log, or still water having a gravelly, or sandy bottom, is the
place to be selected, and you may use three or four stiff rods, placed
at convenient distances from each other. You can also have floats if
you like, by doing so you will immediately perceive when you have a
bite. It is a good plan previous to casting in your lines, to sound the
depth of the water, which you may do easily enough with a string leaded
for the purpose; because, it is of material consequence that your Roe
should lie at, or very near the bottom of the water. A hook about the
size of a Limerick May fly hook, is quite large enough to put your roe
on, which should be in regard to size about that of a French Bean or
marrow fat Pea.

Salmon Roe is cured and preserved by spreading it upon thin layers of
cotton wool, pack the layers on each other and cover them tightly up,
so as to exclude air; glazed jars covered with bladder over the tops of
them are the best to keep your Roe in. When you want to use it, mix the
Roe with a little wheaten flour and gum water, to cause adhesion to the
hook. In concluding this notice of Roe, I cannot refrain from
expressing a hope that gentlemen will abstain from the use of it. By
the purchase of Roe they hold out a premium to Salmon poachers who
annually destroy immense numbers of spawning fish solely for the sake
of the Roe, the high price which it commands encourages them in their
illegal pursuits. If there were no buyers of Roe there would soon be a
visible increase of Salmon.



DYING FEATHERS FOR FLY MAKING.


For dying feathers use clear soft water; to strike the colour add to
each pint of water a piece of alum about the size of a walnut; to dye
white feathers yellow, boil them in onion peelings or saffron. Blue
feathers by being boiled as above become a fine olive colour. To dye
white feathers blue, boil them in Indigo, by mixing the blue and yellow
together, and boiling feathers in the mixed liquid, they become green.
Logwood dyes lilac, or pink; to turn red hackles brown, boil them in
copperas. To stain hair or gut for a dun colour, boil walnut leaves and
a small quantity of soot in a quart of water for half an hour, steep
the gut till it turns the colour you require. To stain gut or hair
blue, warm some ink, in which steep for a few minutes, then wash in
clean water immediately; by steeping hair or gut in the union dye, it
will turn a yellowish green, and in gin and ink it becomes a curious
water colour.



TO MAKE STRONG WHITE WAX.


To make strong white wax, take three parts of white rosin and one of
mutton suet; let them simmer ten minutes or so over a slow fire,
dropping in a small quantity of essence of lemon, pour the whole into a
basin of clear cold water, work the wax through the fingers, rolling it
up, and then drawing out until it is tough. It cannot be worked too
much. By using this wax the pristine colours of the silk you use in fly
making are preserved; common shoemakers wax soils the silk too much.



FISHING PANNIERS OR BASKETS.


The French Baskets are the neatest, lightest and most durable, being
closely woven, they very much exclude the air, so that fish look better
on being taken out of a pannier of that description; many of the
English made fishing baskets, are only of clumsy construction, and have
the fault of being too open in the weaving, admitting far too much air,
whereby, particularly on windy days, your fish become dry and
shrivelled.



LANDING NETS.


Landing nets round or square, are made of strong silk or best water
twine cord. Those nets having a joint in the centre of the shank, are
most convenient when travelling. It is not advisable to have too deep a
net, as your flies become very often entangled in such a one, and cause
much trouble and loss of time in extricating them; therefore a net that
is sufficiently deep to hold a good fish without admitting a
possibility of escape, is the kind of net you require.


WINCHES OR REELS.

Winches may be bought at all tackle shops, and of any size you wish. My
remarks on them extend only to this, that they are very useful
appendages to any rod, and give you great advantage over a good fish,
enabling you to give line and play him as you like; should a breakage
of your top or other part of your rod happen, you have it safe, being
held by your reel line. A light winch that will hold from 25 to 35
yards of line is sufficient for Trout. A Salmon winch should be capable
of holding from 50 to 80 yards of line.


GUT AND HAIR.

In selecting gut for Trout fishing, choose that which is round and
fine. What is termed manufactured gut, may be had at most tackle shops,
it is exceedingly fine but not durable, the best I ever met with was at
Rowel's, at Carlisle, 1d. per length. Hair should be bright, round and
strong, chestnut hair suits moss or discoloured waters, if you can
procure hair of a light or bluish tint, that is the best of colours;
both gut and hair should be wet when knotted.



RODS.


The three distinguishing characteristics of a really good fly rod are
strength, elasticity, and lightness, such rods are to be bought in the
London tackle shops for a pound; these rods are perfect as three or
four piece rods, but I much prefer one for my own use in only two
pieces, such a rod is more readily put to, and taken from together than
one consisting of three or more joints; not so liable to get out of
order, and has a truer bend with it when subjected to pressure. I
recommend a rod having a root 9 feet, and a top of 5 feet, making
together 14 feet in length, as the most useful; a fir root, and top of
good sound lance wood, well painted, ringed and varnished, makes a neat
and serviceable rod. For trolling, your top should be stiff and strong.
For worm not so pliable as your fly top.



LINES.


Lines composed entirely of hair, are lighter on the water than those
made of silk and hair mixed, perhaps the latter is the stronger line of
the two, but it both carries more water and is more expensive. A winch
line should be for Trout from 25 to 35 yards in length, and may be
bought at all tackle shops, at the rate of a 1d., 1-1/2d. and 2d. per
yard, according to quality; at so cheap a rate, it is scarcely worth
while to make your own line, which you may do by the purchase of a
little machine for twisting, or you may use goose quills, which is
however but a slow and tedious process.


HOOKS.

The best hooks are Kendal, Limerick, and Carlisle; I prefer the
Limerick for fishing the natural flies, they are all however very good.
Some anglers are partial to the Kirby bend, but perhaps you get better
hold of your fish with the sneck bend hooks. If you purchase wholesale,
you get 120 hooks for a shilling, if by retail at tackle shops,
generally 6 a penny, or 72 for a shilling; so that wholesale you have
about 50 more hooks for your money.


REMARKS ON FISHING GARMENTS.

With Cordings, Fishing Boots, and Macintosh Coat, you are weather
proof; neither the water from above or below can affect you; by the aid
of the boots you keep your feet perfectly dry, the coat enables you to
continue fishing during the heaviest showers, and in Summer especially,
when the flies and insects are beat down by such showers, the best of
fish are then on the move; without the India Rubber Garment, you may
get thoroughly wet in ten minutes. If you find shelter you probably
loose some good sport, and if not, by continuing your fishing, you
become so cold, wet, and exceedingly uncomfortable, that you generally
deem it adviseable to proceed home with as little delay as possible.
When the day is fine, and the water repeller not needed, avoid light,
or glaring colours; brown, green, or grey garments are most suitable,
particularly when the water is low and clear.



HEALTH,--CAUTION.


If your feet are wet either in Spring or Summer, do not, if you regard
your health, sit down above two or three minutes. You may frequently
have occasion to wait some considerable time by the water side, looking
out for the expected feed, and consequent rising of the fish; at such
times keep walking about in preference to sitting, which is the best
way to avoid catching cold. When you return home loose not a moment in
changing your wet garments. Colds and Rheumatism are the pains and
penalties anglers are liable to, who do not follow the above advice.



THE EYE, THE ONLY ACUTE FACULTY IN FISH.


Trout, however quick sighted they may be, are like all the finny tribe,
supposed to be incapable of hearing, in consequence of the density of
the element in which they exist. Water has long ago been proved to be a
non-conductor of sound, and if fish are possessed of any faculty of the
kind, it must be the dullest imaginable. From the horny construction of
the palate, their taste cannot be acute, and their sense of smelling
(judging from the medium by which all odours are conveyed to them,)
must be peculiarly defective. Taking the above suppositions to be
correct, it is of course clearly apparent that they must be guided
solely by the eye in the selection of their food; for instance, when
fish are stupefied or fuddled as it is termed, I do not suppose their
olfactory organs are affected by the berry or drugs, used to intoxicate
or kill them. I am persuaded, that small balls of paste or bread would,
if offered to them at the same time, be devoured at precisely the same
rate as those prepared with unguents or drugs.

The formation of fish is peculiarly adapted to water, through which
they glide with the greatest facility; their motions being regulated by
the fins and tail; the tail indeed being to the fish precisely what a
rudder is to a ship. The air bladder in fish is another wise provision
of nature, by means of it they can remain for a long time under water;
still they must from time to time take in supplies, for if during a
severe frost the ice be not broken on ponds, the fish therein would
perish for want of air. Some fish are much more tenacious of life than
others; Roach, Perch and Tench, have been conveyed alive, for stocking
ponds, thirty miles, packed only in wet leaves or grass. One thing is
quite certain as regards all fish, viz., that they live longer out of
their natural element in cold than in hot weather. A clever invention
for the transport of fish has come under my notice; an account of this
machine may prove interesting to some persons, and therefore I insert
it.



THE TRANSPORT OF TROUT AND GREYLING.


The Apparatus consists of a tin case, separated into two parts by an
open work partition. In one of these the fish are placed, and in the
other is fixed a mechanical contrivance for keeping up a considerable
supply of air in the water.

In November, 1853, 33 Greylings were sent from the Wye at Rowley to the
Clyde at Abington, a distance of about 250 miles with the loss of only
two fish.

The Apparatus is composed of a zinc cylinder, about three feet high and
two feet in diameter, with a strong iron handle running round the
middle; to the top, a small force pump is attached, and by this fresh
air is forced through a star shaped distributor at the bottom of the
cylinder; a ring to bring the fish up for inspection, and a loose
concave rim to prevent splashing over, complete it. A drawing with
particulars was deposited with the Society of Arts, in London.



THE NATURAL ENEMIES OF FISH.


Fish have so many enemies that were it not for the millions of embryo
or spawn deposited by the female, the breed of Salmon and Trout (to say
nothing of other species) would long since have become extinct. Eels,
fish, birds, water rats, toads, frogs, and last but not least, the
water beetle,[8] prey upon the ova, spawn and young fry; floods also
sweep away and leave on banks, or rocks, a considerable quantity of
spawn, which of course comes to nothing. Escaping the above perils and
causalities, and arrived at maturity, they become the prey and food of
the otter and heron, king's fisher, gull, &c., who emulate man in their
destructive propensities. The larger fish also prey upon the smaller.
Luckily otters are not so numerous in any English river as they used to
be. Night lines, shackle, rake and flood nets, and other devices not at
all creditable to those who use them, and to which I shall not further
allude, make terrible havoc amongst fish, and mar and spoil the fair
and honest angler's sport, but in most rivers and brooks of Trouting
celebrity, such practices are greatly on the wane. Proprietors will not
sanction such wholesale destruction; and now almost universally adopts
measures for the detection and punishment of such depredators.

      [8] The water beetle is chiefly instrumental in conveying the
      spawn of various kinds of fish to waters, where such species
      had previously been unknown.



LAWS RELATIVE TO ANGLING.


It would occupy too much space to be diffuse in reference to angling
laws; I shall therefore briefly observe that all persons discovered
robbing fish ponds during the night, and all persons found poisoning
fish are liable to transportation; all persons using nets, listers,
snares or other unlawful devices, are liable to the forfeiture of such
nets, &c., and also subject to a fine at the discretion of the
magistrates before whom such offenders may be brought; and also, that
any person angling in any brook or river without the permission of the
proprietor or proprietors of such river or brook, is liable to a
penalty as a trespasser, and also to the forfeiture of any fish he may
have caught.



OBSERVATIONS IN REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF THE WEATHER ON FISH.


Your sport in angling, whether top or bottom, materially depends upon
the state of the atmosphere. He who has paid some attention to the
effects of weather on fish, knows pretty accurately the extent of the
sport to be looked for, when the wind is in particular arts. An East or
N. East wind shuts out all hope of diversion, whilst a Southerly or
South West wind, is the wind of all winds for the angler. However, as
fish must feed at some time, let the wind be as it will, an angler who
is particularly in want of a few Trout, may succeed in obtaining small
ones with the fly in an East or N. East wind, provided the wind has
been in that quarter some days, and there is feed on the water. Any
sudden change in the wind affects the fish, and they will sometimes
give over, or begin to feed, on such changes taking place, just as it
happens to veer into the wrong or right quarter. After white frosts in
the Spring of the year, you need not expect much, if any sport. Frosty
nights with bright sunny days following, accompanied with East or N.
East winds, are precisely those sort of days, when a man had better
refrain altogether from attempting to take fish with the fly, or with
any kind of bait. During the Summer months, the colder the wind blows,
the better sport you will have with the artificial fly. On cold stormy
days in Spring, with wind West or N. West, accompanied with heavy snow,
rain, or hail showers, good fish are usually roving about, and then
your sport is of the best. Either in Spring, or Summer,

    "With a Southerly wind, and a cloudy sky,
    The angler may venture his luck to try."



WHAT CONSTITUTES A GOOD FISHING DAY.


It is of the greatest consequence to acquire a correct estimate of what
really constitutes a good fishing day; and not put too much faith in
the advice of the author who wrote an article on angling, which is
published in _Brewster's Encyclopædia_, who tells us to follow the
example of the navigator, who does not wait for a favourable wind, but
goes to sea at once, to seek for one; not to sit at home on the look
out, but go to the river in all weathers. The three great essentials of
a good Trouting day, are water, wind, and cloud, if there is a failure
in all three, you are better at home, at least that is my humble
opinion. If a deficiency or partially so in any, expect only moderate
sport, but if all three are in unison, then you may fairly calculate on
excellent diversion. There is nothing like a South West wind for
holding forth a promise of a cloudy day. As to the water, the second
day after a heavy fall of rain is often the best. The wind however
sometimes (too frequently indeed) veers into the North West, or further
on that day, and if the barometer rapidly rises at the same time, there
will be too much sunshine; on the third, if the wind veers to the South
West, the day will probably be too dark; for a dull day occurring about
new and full moon, is seldom a good angling day. A man whose avocations
do not permit him to angle in all weathers, will therefore do well to
select a day, when the three great essentials of his sport, wind,
water, and cloud, are in his favour.

NOTE.--An angler is so dependent on the weather that he should omit no
opportunity of acquiring meteorological knowledge. Electric influences
guide and coerce fish in a wonderful manner.



ON EARLY RISING IN CONNECTION WITH ANGLING PURSUITS.


Thousands of the dwellers in "the modern Babylon," and indeed in all
large cities and towns, never saw the splendour of a rising sun. Tens
of thousands never heard the sylvan choristers performing their
morning's concert, filling with their melody, nature's own, the woods
and groves wherein these feathered songsters "sport, live, and have
their being." Whilst millions of men are sunk in the arms of "the
drowsy god." What is the angler about, has he slept soundly, and then
awoke in the very nick of time? Or have his slumbers been somewhat
broken and disturbed by dreams of crafty old Trout? No matter, he is
astir, he has pocketed his tackle, and not neglected something for the
inner man; rod and net in hand, he is off and away frequently before,
but seldom later, than the rising lark proclaims with joyous notes the
coming day; full well, he knows the advantages of an early move during
the Summer months; the morning is all in all, the best part of the day
to him; so, buoyant with hope he progresses at an easy rate towards the
scene of his triumphs, or disappointments, as the case may be. An
angler of early habits during the Summer months sees a great deal of
animated nature, and ought to know as much of the habits of birds,
animals, insects, &c., as any man. At early morn the great volume of
nature lies open for his inspection, if he be intelligent and curious,
he will soon become a naturalist, whether his path leads through the
woods, the lowlands, or over the uplands, he is pretty sure to meet
with something to gratify, instruct and amuse. Independent of the
varied attractions of nature, the early rising angler always has the
best Summer sport. Large fish invariably feed more freely in the
morning than during any other portion of the day, evenings occasionally
excepted; he also avoids the greater heat by getting home a.m., indeed
after twelve o'clock on a Summer's day your shadow falls more or less
upon the water, and scares the fish. Independent of that, they usually
cease to feed by that time.



OVER PRESERVATION, AND OTHER CAUSES THAT TEND TO MAKE TROUT
SMALL AND SCARCE.


In streams where piscatorial rights are cherished, and protected to
their fullest extent, Trout are frequently found to be much smaller,
than might naturally be supposed; the fact is, that in good breeding
waters strictly preserved, Trout soon become so numerous that the
supply of food is inadequate to their wants; a state of things which in
rural parlance is termed, as having more stock than the pasture will
carry; a numerical reduction, to some extent in such streams is
therefore extremely beneficial. Better fish are sometimes met with in
free waters than in preserves, solely because they have had abundance,
and variety of food. In all moor becks, plenty of small Trout are
found; such waters are excellent for breeding, but as very little
nutriment comes from peat or waste lands, they are generally dwarfish
in size, and moderate in flavour. On the contrary, in small streams
running through a fertile soil, fish are frequently killed of a most
satisfactory size and weight. In rapid rivers the beds of which are
formed of limestone rock, Trout are upon an average, not of a size
acceptable to an angler who scouts the idea of a 1/4 lb fish. In such
rivers they get knocked about very much during heavy floods, and the
rapidity with which the streams carry away the feed, either at top or
bottom, is against them.

In North Yorkshire and Durham, where many Trouting streams are
recipients of the washing of the refuse ore of the lead mines, commonly
called hush, fish are not either so plentiful, or near the average size
they used to be, when the hush was not so prevalent as it is at
present. The hush must certainly be injurious to all kinds of fish, and
I think it very probable that the young fry suffer very much from it,
even to the extent of being in some instances completely destroyed by
it. But there are other causes, independent of hush, &c., why fish are
generally smaller in size and number than they used to be in "the days
of old." An increasing population has visibly increased the number of
anglers, and also of parties making use of most destructive wholesale
methods of taking fish, to which any amount of angling is indeed
comparatively harmless. Angling clubs conducted with energy and
liberality have in some places repressed nefarious practices, and some
rivers are coming round again, that previous to the protective system
were nearly cleaned out.

The artificial production of Trout and Salmon, has of late years been
tried with success. Those who are curious and interested in
pisciculture may obtain a pamphlet on the artificial production of fish
by Piscarius, published by Reeve & Co., Henrietta Street, Covent
Garden, London.



ANGLING IMPEDIMENTS.


The weather may be propitious, the humour of the fish charming, two
capital items, that can only now and then be inserted in an angler's
diary; but some things may occur to spoil a day's diversion, commenced
even under the most favourable auspices; for instance, let us suppose
that a man (who whilst "realizing the charms of solitude") is
nevertheless carefully and cautiously fishing with success in a clear
low water; how great then must be his vexation, and disappointment,
when he sees looming in the distance a rod, and net, the owner of which
is soon distinctly visible. It does not require a moment's
consideration as to what he must now do; he must either give up fishing
for that day, or seek some fresh ground, because any person coming
fishing down a low water, or even walking close to the banks of it,
scares the fish to such an extent, that making for their holds, they
will probably remain there for some hours. My object in reference to
the above suppositious statement (which many anglers will find too
often a reality) is to demonstrate to the inexperienced, what very
meagre sport any one must have in a clear, low water, previously fished
on the same day.

Reversing the case, that is to say, a day or two after a flood, and
when of course there is plenty of water, and also, when fish are not so
soon alarmed and disturbed; I hold even then, first come first served,
to be the order of the day; for when fish are inclined to feed, any
person in advance of you has a decided advantage, and particularly so,
should he be either trolling, or worm fishing. In wide rivers however,
you may (owing perhaps to a feed coming on) have excellent diversion
where a person who has preceded you half an hour, or so, has had but
indifferent success. If there is only plenty of water, companionship is
admissable, though I am inclined to suppose that (under all
circumstances) a solitaire has a decided advantage; for this reason,
that two or more persons, get over the ground far too quickly, and do
not fish in that true, steady, and careful way, they perhaps would do
if alone; just whipping the stream here and there, hurrying over the
ground, and so spending probably half their time in walking, instead of
fishing; but in free waters, where anglers are sometimes as thick as
blackberries, and a man cannot do as he likes, the "go ahead" system
often proves the best. Some way or other there is generally some sport
to be had in streams, free from hush, but many rivers are daily subject
to it, causing great interruption, to say nothing of total stoppage to
angling pursuits for many successive days. Slight hushes, when the
water is low, are so far serviceable, that by partially discolouring
the water, fish take the artificial fly, especially the Black Midge,
more boldly than they would do if the water remained clear. Taken
altogether, the hush undoubtedly levies a considerable tax on the
patience of those anglers who fish in its vicinity.



BARNARD CASTLE AS AN ANGLING STATION.


I beg to offer a few observations to strangers in reference to Barnard
Castle as an angling station. The facilities offered by a railway, the
beautiful local scenery, the fishing, and the excellent accommodations
to be had at reasonable charges, are all attractive considerations for
Tourists and Anglers, who will find Barnard Castle a central, pleasant,
and convenient place of abode, during any length of time they may
please to devote to angling or other recreations. Barnard Castle is
particularly well adapted for an angling station; the river Tees is in
close proximity to the town, the river Greta distant only about three
miles, and there are several other good streams within easy distances.

Gentlemen who obtain leave from W. S. Morritt, Esq., to fish in that
portion of the Greta which is strictly preserved, abounding in Trout,
and encompassed by those woods and banks alluded to in _Scott's
Rokeby_, will find the Inn kept by Mr. Ward, Greta Bridge, very
comfortable and convenient. A good day's sport may be had above Bowes;
when there happens to be too much water for angling purposes, some few
miles lower down.



WEATHER SIGNS AND CHANGES.


_Mists._--A white Mist in the evening over a meadow with a river, will
be drawn up by the sun next morning, and the day will be bright; five
or six Fogs successively drawn up portend rain; when there are lofty
hills, and the mist which hangs over the lower lands draws towards the
hills in the morning, and rolls up to the top, then it will be fair,
but if the mist hangs upon the hills, and drags along the woods, there
will be rain.

_Clouds._--Against much rain the clouds grow bigger and increase very
fast, especially before thunder. When the clouds are formed like
fleeces, but dense in the middle and bright towards the edges, with a
bright sky, they are signs of frost, with hail, snow or rain. If clouds
breed high in the air, with white trains like locks of wool, they
portend wind, probably rain. When a generally cloudiness covers the
sky, and small black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they are sure
signs of rain, and probably it may last some time. Two currents of air
always portend rain, and in Summer, thunder.

_Dew._--If the dew lies plentifully upon the grass after a fair day, it
is a sign of another; if not, and there is no wind, rain must follow. A
red evening shews fine weather, but if it spread too far upwards from
the horizon in the evening, and especially in the morning, it fortells
wind or rain, or both. When the sky in rainy weather is tinged with sea
green, the rain will increase; if with blue, it will be showery.

_Heavenly Bodies._--A haziness in the air which fades the sun light and
makes the orb appear whiteish or ill defined, or at night if the moon
and stars grow dim and a ring encircles the former, rain will follow.
If the Sun's rays appear like Moses' horn, white at setting or shorn of
his rays, or goes down into a bank of clouds in the horizon, bad
weather may be expected. If the moon looks pale and dim, rain may be
expected; if red, wind; and if her natural colour, with a fair clear
sky, fine weather; if the moon is rainy throughout, it will clear at
the change, and perhaps the rain return a few days after. If fair
throughout, and rain at the change, the fair weather will probably
return at the fourth or fifth day.

_Wind._--If the wind veers much about, rain is certain; in changing, if
it follows the course of the sun, it brings fair weather; the contrary,
foul; whistling of the wind is a sure sign of rain.

_Meteors._--The Aurora Borealis after warm days is generally succeeded
by cooler air; shooting stars are supposed to indicate rain.

_Animals._--Before rain, swallows fly low; dogs grow sleepy and eat
grass; waterfowl dive much; fish will not bite; flies are more than
ordinary troublesome; toads crawl about; moles, ants, bees and insects
are very busy; birds fly low for insects; swine, sheep and cattle are
uneasy; and it is not without its effect on the human frame.

_Weather Table._--The following table, ascribed to Dr. Herschel, and
revised by Dr. Adam Clark, constructed upon philosophical consideration
of the sun and moon, in their several positions respecting the earth,
and confirmed by experience of many years actual observation, furnishes
the observer without further trouble, with the knowledge of what kind
of weather may be expected to succeed, and that so near the truth, that
in a very few instances will it be found to fail.

_Observation by Dr. Kirwan._--When there has been no particular storm
about the time of the Spring Equinox (March 21st); if a storm arises
from the east on or before that day, or if a storm from any point of
the compass arise near a week after the Equinox, then in either of
these cases the succeeding Summer is generally dry four times in five,
but if the storm arises from the S.W. or W.S.W. on or just before the
Spring Equinox, then the Summer following is generally wet five times
in six.



WEATHER TABLE.


+----------------------------------------------------------+
|      NEW & FULL MOON.      |          IN SUMMER.         |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+
| If it be New or Full       |                             |
| Moon, or the Moon entering |                             |
| into the first or          |                             |
| last quarter at 12 at noon |                             |
| or between 12 and 2        |  Very Rainy                 |
|   2 and 4 in the Afternoon |  Changeable                 |
|   4 and 6 Evening          |  Fair                       |
|   6 and 8                  |  Fair if wind at N West,    |
|                            | Rainy if S, or S. West      |
|   8 and 10                 |  Ditto                      |
|   10 and 12 Night          |  Fair                       |
|   12 and 2 Morning         |  Ditto                      |
|    2 and 4 Morning         |  Cold with frequent showers |
|    4 and 6 Morning         |  Rain                       |
|    6 and 8 Morning         |  Wind and Rain              |
|    8 and 10 Morning        |  Changeable                 |
|   10 and 12 Morning        |  Frequent Showers           |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+

+----------------------------------------------------------+
|      NEW & FULL MOON.      |         IN WINTER.          |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+
| If it be New or Full       |                             |
| Moon, or the Moon entering |                             |
| into the first or          |                             |
| last quarter at 12 at noon |                             |
| or between 12 and 2        |  Snow and rain              |
|   2 and 4 in the Afternoon |  Fair and Mild              |
|   4 and 6 Evening          |  Fair                       |
|   6 and 8                  |  Fair and Frosty, if wind   |
|                            | at North or N. East, Rain or|
|                            | Snow, if South or S. West   |
|   8 and 10                 |  Ditto                      |
|   10 and 12 Night          |  Fair and Frosty            |
|   12 and 2 Morning         |  Hard frost unless wind     |
|                            | South or S. West            |
|    2 and 4 Morning         |  Snow and Storm             |
|    4 and 6 Morning         |  Ditto                      |
|    6 and 8 Morning         |  Stormy Weather             |
|    8 and 10 Morning        |  Cold Rain, if wind be      |
|                            | West, Snow if East          |
|   10 and 12 Morning        |  Cold with high wind        |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+



NOTICES OF RARE AND CURIOUS ANGLING BOOKS.


There exists a very rare and remarkable work, "_A Book of Angling or
Fishing, wherein is shewed by conference with Scriptures, the agreement
between the Fisherman, Fishes, and Fishing of both natures, spirituall
and temporall, by Samuel Gardner, Doctor of Divinitie._"--"I will make
you fishers of men."--Matt. IV. 19. London, printed for Thomas Pinfoot,
1606.

Walton tells the honest angler that the writing of his book was the
recreation of a recreation; his motto on the title page of his book
was, "Simon Peter said let us go a fishing, and they said we also will
go with thee"--John XXI. 3. This passage is not in all the editions of
the _Complete Angler_, but was engraven on the title page of the first
edition, printed in 1653.

Advertisement of Walton's angler, 1653. There is published a book of
eighteenpence price, called "_The Compleat Angler, or Contemplative
Man's Recreation, being a Discourse of Fish and Fishing, not unworthy
the perusal._"

These works may now be considered as great bibliomaniacal curiosities.



ADDENDA.


It is altogether a mistake to suppose that large flies are required for
large rivers; on the contrary, with the exception of the Palmers, small
hackle flies will be found to answer best, these, together with the
Black, Blue and Dun Midges, (Spring and Autumn excepted), have a
decided advantage in general over dubbed or hackle winged flies. In
small brooks after a flood, winged flies often kill well, those with
Orange, Black, Crimson, and Yellow bodies are the best. Grass Hoppers,
the Cabbage Caterpillar, the Breccan or Fern Clock, will all take
Trout; but as there are other natural baits to be had at the time these
are in season, which I have noted, and which are more to be depended
upon, I have not given any special instructions as to the use of the
above. The Grass Hopper and Caterpillar are tiresome baits to fish
with, and more a matter of fancy than utility; the Breccan Clock found
amongst fern, fished like the May-fly is the best of the lot, and at
times kills pretty well. Having made no allusion in my work to Lake or
Pond Fishing, I may now observe, that four flies upon a stretcher, one
yard apart from each other, are sufficient for Ponds. On Lakes, fishing
from a boat, you may have six or eight, or even more flies upon a
stretcher. In Lake and Pond fishing, the Palmers and large winged flies
are the best, particularly when there is a good curl upon the water;
but when there is no wind stirring, the small hackle or very small
winged flies will, as regards Ponds, be frequently found to kill much
better than larger flies, particularly in mornings and evenings during
Summer. As fly fishing and trolling are the only reliable angling means
and devices for taking Trout in Lakes and Ponds, I have nothing further
to add, than that a good rod and sound tackle are essential requisites.


FINIS.

R. BARKER, PRINTER, BARNARD CASTLE.



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE TEESDALE ANGLER.


W. S. Morritt, Esq., Rokeby Park, (2 copies.)
Hon. Col. Stanley, Lartington Hall.
T. Hutchinson, Esq., Eggleston Hall, (2 copies.)
Captain Davison, Startforth Hall.
S. Swire, Esq., Romaldkirk.
T. S. Edger, Esq., Gainford.
John Helmer, Esq., Romaldkirk, (2 copies.)
George Sowerby, Esq., Wycliffe Hall.
I. C. Cust, Esq., Barnard Castle.
Thos. Helmer, Esq., Romaldkirk.
R. Dent, Esq., Streatlam.
W. F. Wharton, Esq., Barningham.
Geo. Hutchinson, Esq., Gainford.
---- Kipling, Esq., Romaldkirk.
W. Raine, Esq., Romaldkirk.
H. W. Milburn, Esq., Barnard Castle.
John Jefferson, Esq., Barnard Castle.
Mr. Lionel Dent, Bowes.
" Ward, Greta Bridge.
" John Atkinson, Barnard Castle.
" James Phillips, Rokeby.
" G. Cruddas, Streatlam.
" Elliot, Jun., Greystone Hall.
" Tennick, Gainford.
" Thos. Hodgson, Barnard Castle.
" Crosby, Darlington.
" Wetherilt, Barnard Castle.
" James Tinkler, Lartington.
" J. Graham, Darlington.
" John White, Barnard Castle.
" John Atkinson, Printer, Barnard Castle.
" Wm. Heslop, Marwood.
" J. Dawson, Barnard Castle.
" Brotherton, Barnard Castle.
" Wm. Peel, Barnard Castle.
Sergeant Thos. Taylor, Barnard Castle.
Sergeant Major Morris, Barnard Castle.
Sergeant Mayo, Barnard Castle.
Sergeant Heslop, Barnard Castle.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Teesdale Angler" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home