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´╗┐Title: Dogs and All about Them
Author: Leighton, Robert, -1934
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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DOGS AND ALL ABOUT THEM

BY

ROBERT LEIGHTON

ASSISTED BY

EMINENT AUTHORITIES ON THE VARIOUS BREEDS

WITH SEVENTEEN FULL-PAGE PLATES



[Frontispiece: SMOOTH-COATED ST. BERNARD: CH. THE VIKING. (_From the
Painting by Lilian Cheviot.)]



[Transcriber's Note: The capital letter "P" has been used throughout
to represent the pound sign of British currency.]



PREFACE


The popularity of the dog as a companion, as a guardian of property,
as an assistant in the pursuit of game, and as the object of a
pleasurable hobby, has never been so great as it is at the present
time. More dogs are kept in this country than ever there formerly
were, and they are more skilfully bred, more tenderly treated, and
cared for with a more solicitous pride than was the case a generation
ago. There are fewer mongrels in our midst, and the family dog has
become a respectable member of society. Two million dog licences were
taken out in the British Isles in the course of 1909. In that year,
too, as many as 906 separate dog shows were sanctioned by the Kennel
Club and held in various parts of the United Kingdom. At the present
time there exist no fewer than 156 specialist clubs established for
the purpose of watching over the interests of the different breeds.

Recognising this advance in our national love of dogs and the growing
demand for information on their distinguishing characteristics, I
am persuaded that there is ample room for a concise and practical
handbook on matters canine. In preparing the present volume, I have
drawn abundantly upon the contents of my larger and more expensive
_New Book of The Dog_, and I desire to acknowledge my obligations
to the eminent experts who assisted me in the production of the
earlier work and whose contributions I have further utilised in these
pages. I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Stubbs for his clear exposition
of the points of the Bulldog, to Colonel Claude Cane for his
description of the Sporting Spaniels, to Lady Algernon Gordon Lennox
for her authoritative paragraphs on the Pekinese, to Mr. Desmond
O'Connell for his history of the Fox-terrier, and to Mr. Walter S.
Glynn, Mr. Fred Gresham, Major J. H. Bailey, Mr. E. B. Joachim and
other specialists whose aid I have enlisted.

In the following chapters the varieties of the dog are classified
in the order of (1) Non-Sporting and Utility breeds, (2) Hounds,
Gundogs and other Sporting breeds, (3) the Terriers, (4) Toy and
Miniature breeds.

  ROBERT LEIGHTON.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER
  1. General History of the Dog
  2. The English Mastiff
  3. The Bulldog
  4. The St. Bernard
  5. The Newfoundland
  6. The Great Dane
  7. The Dalmatian
  8. The Collie
  9. The Old English Sheepdog
 10. The Chow Chow
 11. The Poodle
 12. The Schipperke
 13. The Bloodhound
 14. The Otterhound
 15. The Irish Wolfhound
 16. The Deerhound
 17. The Borzoi, or Russian Wolfhound
 18. The Greyhound
 19. The Whippet
 20. The Foxhound
 21. The Harrier and the Beagle
 22. The Pointer
 23. The Setters
 24. The Retrievers
 25. The Sporting Spaniel
 26. The Basset-Hound
 27. The Dachshund
 28. The Old Working Terrier
 29. The White English Terrier
 30. The Black and Tan Terrier
 31. The Bull-Terrier
 32. The Smooth Fox-Terrier
 33. The Wire-Hair Fox-Terrier
 34. The Airedale Terrier
 35. The Bedlington Terrier
 36. The Irish Terrier
 37. The Welsh Terrier
 38. The Scottish Terrier
 39. The West Highland White Terrier
 40. The Dandie Dinmont
 41. The Skye and Clydesdale Terriers
 42. The Yorkshire Terrier
 43. The Pomeranian
 44. The King Charles Spaniels
 45. The Pekinese and Japanese
 46. The Maltese Dog and the Pug
 47. The Brussels Griffon
 48. The Miniature Breeds
 49. Practical Management
 50. Breeding and Whelping
 51. Some Common Ailments of the Dog and their Treatment
 52. The Dog and the Law



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

The Smooth-Coated St. Bernard, Ch. The Viking (From the painting by
Lilian Cheviot.) _Frontispiece_

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Mayor's Bulldog, Ch. Silent Duchess

Mr. George Sinclair's St. Bernard, Ch. Lord Montgomery

Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Newfoundland, Ch. Shelton Viking

Mrs. H. Horsfall's Great Dane, Ch. Viola of Redgrave

Mr. R. A. Tait's Collie, Ch. Wishaw Leader

Bloodhound, Ch. Chatley Beaufort. Bred and owned by Mrs. G. A.
Oliphant, Shrewton, Wilts.

Mrs. Armstrong's Deerhound, Ch. Talisman

Mrs. Aitcheson's Borzoi, Ch. Strawberry King

Mr. H. Reginald Cooke's Retriever, Ch. Worsley Bess

Three generations of Mr. R. de C. Peele's Blue Roan Cocker Spaniels,
Ch. Ben Bowdler (Father), Ch. Bob Bowdler (Son), and Ch. Dixon Bowdler
(Grandson)

Fox-Terriers:
 1. Mrs. J. H. Brown's, Ch. Captain Double
 2. Mr. J. C. Tinne's, Ch. The Sylph
 3. Mr. T. J. Stephen's Wire-Hair, Ch. Sylvan Result

Mr. Fred. W. Breakell's Irish Terrier, Ch. Killarney Sport

Mrs. Spencer's Dandie Dinmont, Ch. Braw Lad

A Typical Airedale Head

Mr. W. L. McCandlish's Scottish Terrier, Ems Cosmetic

Col. Malcolm's West Highland White Terriers Sonny and Sarah

Miss E. McCheane's Skye Terriers, Ch. Fairfield Diamond and Ch.
Wolverley Chummie

Toy Dogs:
 Miss Stevens' Typical Japanese Puppy
 Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Pomeranian, Ch. The Sable Mite
 Miss M. A. Bland's Pomeranian, Ch. Marland King
 Lady Hulton's Blenheim, Ch. Joy
 The Hon. Mrs. Lytton's King Charles, Ch. The Seraph

Toy Dogs:
 1. Mrs. Gresham's Pug, Ch. Grindley King
 2. Mrs. T. Whaley's Brussels Griffon, Glenartney Sport
 3. Pekinese, Ch. Chu-erh of Alderbourne



CHAPTER I

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE DOG


There is no incongruity in the idea that in the very earliest period
of man's habitation of this world he made a friend and companion of
some sort of aboriginal representative of our modern dog, and that
in return for its aid in protecting him from wilder animals, and in
guarding his sheep and goats, he gave it a share of his food, a corner
in his dwelling, and grew to trust it and care for it. Probably the
animal was originally little else than an unusually gentle jackal,
or an ailing wolf driven by its companions from the wild marauding
pack to seek shelter in alien surroundings. One can well conceive
the possibility of the partnership beginning in the circumstance of
some helpless whelps being brought home by the early hunters to be
tended and reared by the women and children. The present-day savage
of New Guinea and mid-Africa does not, as a rule, take the trouble
to tame and train an adult wild animal for his own purposes, and
primitive man was surely equally indifferent to the questionable
advantage of harbouring a dangerous guest. But a litter of woolly
whelps introduced into the home as playthings for the children would
grow to regard themselves, and be regarded, as members of the family,
and it would soon be found that the hunting instincts of the maturing
animal were of value to his captors. The savage master, treading the
primeval forests in search of food, would not fail to recognise the
helpfulness of a keener nose and sharper eyes even than his own
unsullied senses, while the dog in his turn would find a better
shelter in association with man than if he were hunting on his own
account. Thus mutual benefit would result in some kind of tacit
agreement of partnership, and through the generations the wild wolf
or jackal would gradually become gentler, more docile, and tractable,
and the dreaded enemy of the flock develop into the trusted guardian
of the fold.

In nearly all parts of the world traces of an indigenous dog family
are found, the only exceptions being the West Indian Islands,
Madagascar, the eastern islands of the Malayan Archipelago, New
Zealand, and the Polynesian Islands, where there is no sign that any
dog, wolf, or fox has existed as a true aboriginal animal. In the
ancient Oriental lands, and generally among the early Mongolians,
the dog remained savage and neglected for centuries, prowling in
packs, gaunt and wolf-like, as it prowls to-day through the streets
and under the walls of every Eastern city. No attempt was made to
allure it into human companionship or to improve it into docility.
It is not until we come to examine the records of the higher
civilisations of Assyria and Egypt that we discover any distinct
varieties of canine form.

Assyrian sculptures depict two such, a Greyhound and a Mastiff, the
latter described in the tablets as "the chained-up, mouth-opening
dog"; that is to say, it was used as a watch-dog; and several
varieties are referred to in the cuneiform inscriptions preserved
in the British Museum. The Egyptian monuments of about 3000 B.C.
present many forms of the domestic dog, and there can be no doubt
that among the ancient Egyptians it was as completely a companion
of man, as much a favourite in the house, and a help in the chase,
as it is among ourselves at present. In the city of Cynopolis it was
reverenced next to the sacred jackal, and on the death of a dog the
members of the household to which he had belonged carefully shaved
their whole bodies, and religiously abstained from using the food,
of whatever kind, which happened to be in the house at the time.
Among the distinct breeds kept in Egypt there was a massive wolf-dog,
a large, heavily-built hound with drooping ears and a pointed head,
at least two varieties of Greyhound used for hunting the gazelle,
and a small breed of terrier or Turnspit, with short, crooked legs.
This last appears to have been regarded as an especial household pet,
for it was admitted into the living rooms and taken as a companion
for walks out of doors. It was furnished with a collar of leaves,
or of leather, or precious metal wrought into the form of leaves,
and when it died it was embalmed. Every town throughout Egypt had
its place of interment for canine mummies.

The dog was not greatly appreciated in Palestine, and in both the
Old and New Testaments it is commonly spoken of with scorn and
contempt as an "unclean beast." Even the familiar reference to the
Sheepdog in the Book of Job--"_But now they that are younger than
I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to set
with the dogs of my flock_"--is not without a suggestion of contempt,
and it is significant that the only biblical allusion to the dog as
a recognised companion of man occurs in the apocryphal Book of Tobit
(v. 16), "_So they went forth both, and the young man's dog with
them_."

The pagan Greeks and Romans had a kindlier feeling for dumb animals
than had the Jews. Their hounds, like their horses, were selected
with discrimination, bred with care, and held in high esteem,
receiving pet names; and the literatures of Greece and Rome contain
many tributes to the courage, obedience, sagacity, and affectionate
fidelity of the dog. The Phoenicians, too, were unquestionably lovers
of the dog, quick to recognise the points of special breeds. In their
colony in Carthage, during the reign of Sardanapalus, they had already
possessed themselves of the Assyrian Mastiff, which they probably
exported to far-off Britain, as they are said to have exported the
Water Spaniel to Ireland and to Spain.

It is a significant circumstance when we come to consider the probable
origin of the dog, that there are indications of his domestication
at such early periods by so many peoples in different parts of the
world. As we have seen, dogs were more or less subjugated and tamed
by primitive man, by the Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks,
and Romans, as also by the ancient barbaric tribes of the western
hemisphere. The important question now arises: Had all these dogs
a common origin in a definite parent stock, or did they spring from
separate and unrelated parents?

Half a century ago it was believed that all the evidence which could
be brought to bear upon the problem pointed to an independent origin
of the dog. Youatt, writing in 1845, argued that "this power of
tracing back the dog to the very earliest periods of history, and
the fact that he then seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and
as valuable as at the present day, strongly favours the opinion that
he was descended from no inferior and comparatively worthless animal;
and that he was not the progeny of the wolf, the jackal, or the fox,
but was originally created, somewhat as we now find him, the associate
and friend of man."

When Youatt wrote, most people believed that the world was only six
thousand years old, and that species were originally created and
absolutely unchangeable. Lyell's discoveries in geology, however,
overthrew the argument of the earth's chronology and of the antiquity
of man, and Darwin's theory of evolution entirely transformed the
accepted beliefs concerning the origin of species and the supposed
invariability of animal types.

The general superficial resemblance between the fox and many of our
dogs, might well excuse the belief in a relationship. Gamekeepers
are often very positive that a cross can be obtained between a dog
fox and a terrier bitch; but cases in which this connection is alleged
must be accepted with extreme caution. The late Mr. A. D. Bartlett,
who was for years the superintendent of the Zoological Gardens in
London, studied this question with minute care, and as a result of
experiments and observations he positively affirmed that he had never
met with one well-authenticated instance of a hybrid dog and fox.
Mr. Bartlett's conclusions are incontestable. However much in
appearance the supposed dog-fox may resemble the fox, there are
certain opposing characteristics and structural differences which
entirely dismiss the theory of relationship.

One thing is certain, that foxes do not breed in confinement, except
in very rare instances. The silver fox of North America is the only
species recorded to have bred in the Zoological Gardens of London;
the European fox has never been known to breed in captivity. Then,
again, the fox is not a sociable animal. We never hear of foxes
uniting in a pack, as do the wolves, the jackals, and the wild dogs.
Apart from other considerations, a fox may be distinguished from a
dog, without being seen or touched, by its smell. No one can produce
a dog that has half the odour of Reynard, and this odour the dog-fox
would doubtless possess were its sire a fox-dog or its dam a vixen.

Whatever may be said concerning the difference existing between dogs
and foxes will not hold good in reference to dogs, wolves, and
jackals. The wolf and the jackal are so much alike that the only
appreciable distinction is that of size, and so closely do they
resemble many dogs in general appearance, structure, habits,
instincts, and mental endowments that no difficulty presents itself
in regarding them as being of one stock. Wolves and jackals can be,
and have repeatedly been, tamed. Domestic dogs can become, and again
and again do become, wild, even consorting with wolves, interbreeding
with them, assuming their gregarious habits, and changing the
characteristic bark into a dismal wolf-like howl. The wolf and the
jackal when tamed answer to their master's call, wag their tails,
lick his hands, crouch, jump round him to be caressed, and throw
themselves on their backs in submission. When in high spirits they
run round in circles or in a figure of eight, with their tails between
their legs. Their howl becomes a business-like bark. They smell at
the tails of other dogs and void their urine sideways, and lastly,
like our domestic favourites, however refined and gentlemanly in other
respects, they cannot be broken of the habit of rolling on carrion
or on animals they have killed.

This last habit of the domestic dog is one of the surviving traits
of his wild ancestry, which, like his habits of burying bones or
superfluous food, and of turning round and round on a carpet as if
to make a nest for himself before lying down, go far towards
connecting him in direct relationship with the wolf and the jackal.

The great multitude of different breeds of the dog and the vast
differences in their size, points, and general appearance are facts
which make it difficult to believe that they could have had a common
ancestry. One thinks of the difference between the Mastiff and the
Japanese Spaniel, the Deerhound and the fashionable Pomeranian, the
St. Bernard and the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier, and is perplexed
in contemplating the possibility of their having descended from a
common progenitor. Yet the disparity is no greater than that between
the Shire horse and the Shetland pony, the Shorthorn and the Kerry
cattle, or the Patagonian and the Pygmy; and all dog breeders know
how easy it is to produce a variety in type and size by studied
selection.

In order properly to understand this question it is necessary first
to consider the identity of structure in the wolf and the dog. This
identity of structure may best be studied in a comparison of the
osseous system, or skeletons, of the two animals, which so closely
resemble each other that their transposition would not easily be
detected.

The spine of the dog consists of seven vertebrae in the neck, thirteen
in the back, seven in the loins, three sacral vertebrae, and twenty
to twenty-two in the tail. In both the dog and the wolf there are
thirteen pairs of ribs, nine true and four false. Each has forty-two
teeth. They both have five front and four hind toes, while outwardly
the common wolf has so much the appearance of a large, bare-boned
dog, that a popular description of the one would serve for the other.

Nor are their habits different. The wolf's natural voice is a loud
howl, but when confined with dogs he will learn to bark. Although
he is carnivorous, he will also eat vegetables, and when sickly he
will nibble grass. In the chase, a pack of wolves will divide into
parties, one following the trail of the quarry, the other endeavouring
to intercept its retreat, exercising a considerable amount of
strategy, a trait which is exhibited by many of our sporting dogs
and terriers when hunting in teams.

A further important point of resemblance between the _Canis lupus_
and the _Canis familiaris_ lies in the fact that the period of
gestation in both species is sixty-three days. There are from three
to nine cubs in a wolf's litter, and these are blind for twenty-one
days. They are suckled for two months, but at the end of that time
they are able to eat half-digested flesh disgorged for them by their
dam--or even their sire.

We have seen that there is no authenticated instance of a hybrid
between the dog and the fox. This is not the case with the dog and
the wolf, or the dog and the jackal, all of which can interbreed.
Moreover, their offspring are fertile. Pliny is the authority for
the statement that the Gauls tied their female dogs in the wood that
they might cross with wolves. The Eskimo dogs are not infrequently
crossed with the grey Arctic wolf, which they so much resemble, and
the Indians of America were accustomed to cross their half-wild dogs
with the coyote to impart greater boldness to the breed. Tame dogs
living in countries inhabited by the jackal often betray the jackal
strain in their litters, and there are instances of men dwelling in
lonely outposts of civilisation being molested by wolves or jackals
following upon the trail of a bitch in season.

These facts lead one to refer to the familiar circumstance that the
native dogs of all regions approximate closely in size, coloration,
form, and habit to the native wolf of those regions. Of this most
important circumstance there are far too many instances to allow of
its being looked upon as a mere coincidence. Sir John Richardson,
writing in 1829, observed that "the resemblance between the North
American wolves and the domestic dog of the Indians is so great that
the size and strength of the wolf seems to be the only difference.
I have more than once mistaken a band of wolves for the dogs of a
party of Indians; and the howl of the animals of both species is
prolonged so exactly in the same key that even the practised ear of
the Indian fails at times to discriminate between them."

As the Eskimo and Indian dogs resemble the North American wolf, so
the dog of the Hare Indians, a very different breed, resembles the
prairie wolf. Except in the matter of barking, there is no difference
whatever between the black wolf-dog of the Indians of Florida and
the wolves of the same country. The same phenomenon is seen in many
kinds of European dogs. The Shepherd Dog of the plains of Hungary
is white or reddish-brown, has a sharp nose, short erect ears, shaggy
coat, and bushy tail, and so much resembles a wolf that Mr. Paget,
who gives the description, says he has known a Hungarian mistake a
wolf for one of his own dogs. Many of the dogs of Russia, Lapland,
and Finland are comparable with the wolves of those countries. Some
of the domestic dogs of Egypt, both at the present day and in the
condition of mummies, are wolf-like in type, and the dogs of Nubia
have the closest relation to a wild species of the same region, which
is only a form of the common jackal. Dogs, it may again be noted,
cross with the jackal as well as with wolves, and this is frequently
the case in Africa, as, for example, in Bosjesmans, where the dogs
have a marked resemblance to the black-backed jackal, which is a South
African variety.

It has been suggested that the one incontrovertible argument against
the lupine relationship of the dog is the fact that all domestic dogs
bark, while all wild _Canidae_ express their feelings only by howls.
But the difficulty here is not so great as it seems, since we know
that jackals, wild dogs, and wolf pups reared by bitches readily
acquire the habit. On the other hand, domestic dogs allowed to run
wild forget how to bark, while there are some which have not yet
learned so to express themselves.

The presence or absence of the habit of barking cannot, then, be
regarded as an argument in deciding the question concerning the origin
of the dog. This stumbling block consequently disappears, leaving
us in the position of agreeing with Darwin, whose final hypothesis
was that "it is highly probable that the domestic dogs of the world
have descended from two good species of wolf (_C. lupus_ and
_C. latrans_), and from two or three other doubtful species of
wolves--namely, the European, Indian, and North African forms; from
at least one or two South American canine species; from several races
or species of jackal; and perhaps from one or more extinct species";
and that the blood of these, in some cases mingled together, flows
in the veins of our domestic breeds.



CHAPTER II

THE ENGLISH MASTIFF


Of the many different kinds of dogs now established as British, not
a few have had their origin in other lands, whence specimens have
been imported into this country, in course of time to be so improved
by selection that they have come to be commonly accepted as native
breeds. Some are protected from the claim that they are indigenous
by the fact that their origin is indicated in their names. No one
would pretend that the St. Bernard or the Newfoundland, the Spaniel
or the Dalmatian, are of native breed. They are alien immigrants whom
we have naturalised, as we are naturalising the majestic Great Dane,
the decorative Borzoi, the alert Schipperke, and the frowning Chow
Chow, which are of such recent introduction that they must still be
regarded as half-acclimatised foreigners. But of the antiquity of
the Mastiff there can be no doubt. He is the oldest of our British
dogs, cultivated in these islands for so many centuries that the only
difficulty concerning his history is that of tracing his descent,
and discovering the period when he was not familiarly known.

It is possible that the Mastiff owes his origin to some remote
ancestor of alien strain. The Assyrian kings possessed a large dog
of decided Mastiff type, and used it in the hunting of lions. It is
supposed by many students that the breed was introduced into early
Britain by the adventurous Phoenician traders who, in the sixth
century B.C., voyaged to the Scilly Islands and Cornwall to barter
their own commodities in exchange for the useful metals. Knowing the
requirements of their barbarian customers, these early merchants from
Tyre and Sidon are believed to have brought some of the larger
_pugnaces_, which would be readily accepted by the Britons to
supplant, or improve, their courageous but undersized fighting dogs.

In Anglo-Saxon times every two villeins were required to maintain
one of these dogs for the purpose of reducing the number of wolves
and other wild animals. This would indicate that the Mastiff was
recognised as a capable hunting dog; but at a later period his hunting
instincts were not highly esteemed, and he was not regarded as a peril
to preserved game; for in the reign of Henry III. the Forest Laws,
which prohibited the keeping of all other breeds by unprivileged
persons, permitted the Mastiff to come within the precincts of a
forest, imposing, however, the condition that every such dog should
have the claws of the fore-feet removed close to the skin.

The name Mastiff was probably applied to any massively built dog.
It is not easy to trace the true breed amid the various names which
it owned. Molossus, Alan, Alaunt, Tie-dog, Bandog (or Band-dog), were
among the number. The names Tie-dog and Bandog intimate that the
Mastiff was commonly kept for guard, but many were specially trained
for baiting bears, imported lions, and bulls.

There is constant record of the Mastiff having been kept and carefully
bred for many generations in certain old English families. One of
the oldest strains of Mastiffs was that kept by Mr. Legh, of Lyme
Hall, in Cheshire. They were large, powerful dogs, and longer in
muzzle than those which we are now accustomed to see. Another old
and valuable strain was kept by the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth.
It is to these two strains that the dogs of the present day trace
back.

Mr. Woolmore's Crown Prince was one of the most celebrated of
Mastiffs. He was a fawn dog with a Dudley nose and light eye, and
was pale in muzzle, and whilst full credit must be given to him for
having sired many good Mastiffs, he must be held responsible for the
faults in many specimens of more recent years. Unfortunately, he was
indiscriminately bred from, with the result that in a very short time
breeders found it impossible to find a Mastiff unrelated to him.

It is to be deplored that ever since his era there has been a
perceptible diminution in the number of good examples of this fine
old English breed, and that from being an admired and fashionable
dog the Mastiff has so declined in popularity that few are to be seen
either at exhibitions or in breeders' kennels. At the Crystal Palace
in 1871 there were as many as sixty-three Mastiffs on show, forming
a line of benches two hundred yards long, and not a bad one among
them; whereas at a dog show held twenty-five years later, where more
than twelve hundred dogs were entered, not a single Mastiff was
benched.

The difficulty of obtaining dogs of unblemished pedigree and
superlative type may partly account for this decline, and another
reason of unpopularity may be that the Mastiff requires so much
attention to keep him in condition that without it he is apt to become
indolent and heavy. Nevertheless, the mischief of breeding too
continuously from one strain such as that of Crown Prince has to some
extent been eradicated, and we have had many splendid Mastiffs since
his time. Special mention should be made of that grand bitch Cambrian
Princess, by Beau. She was purchased by Mrs. Willins, who, mating
her with Maximilian (a dog of her own breeding by The Emperor),
obtained Minting, who shared with Mr. Sidney Turner's Beaufort the
reputation of being unapproached for all round merit in any period.

The following description of a perfect Mastiff, taken from the Old
English Mastiff Club's _Points of a Mastiff_, is admirable as a
standard to which future breeders should aim to attain.

       *       *       *       *       *

POINTS OF THE MASTIFF: GENERAL CHARACTER AND SYMMETRY--Large, massive,
powerful, symmetrical and well-knit frame. A combination of grandeur
and good nature, courage and docility. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF HEAD--In
general outline, giving a square appearance when viewed from any
point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and should be in ratio to length
of the whole head and face as 2 to 3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF
BODY--Massive, broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on legs wide
apart, and squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a great
desideratum, if combined with quality. Height and substance important
if both points are proportionately combined. SKULL--Broad between
the ears, forehead flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. Brows
(superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Muscles of the temples and
cheeks (temporal and masseter) well developed. Arch across the skull
of a rounded, flattened curve, with a depression up the centre of
the forehead from the medium line between the eyes, to half way up
the sagittal suture. FACE OR MUZZLE--Short, broad under the eyes,
and keeping nearly parallel in width to the end of the nose;
truncated, _i.e._ blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle
with the upper line of the face, of great depth from the point of
the nose to under jaw. Under jaw broad to the end; canine teeth
healthy, powerful, and wide apart; incisors level, or the lower
projecting beyond the upper, but never sufficiently so as to become
visible when the mouth is closed. Nose broad, with widely spreading
nostrils when viewed from the front; flat (not pointed or turned up)
in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with the septum, and
slightly pendulous so as to show a square profile. Length of muzzle
to whole head and face as 1 to 3. Circumference of muzzle (measured
midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before
the ears) as 3 to 5. EARS--Small, thin to the touch, wide apart, set
on at the highest points of the sides of the skull, so as to continue
the outline across the summit, and lying flat and close to the cheeks
when in repose. EYES--Small, wide apart, divided by at least the space
of two eyes. The stop between the eyes well marked, but not too
abrupt. Colour hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no haw.
NECK, CHEST AND RIBS--Neck--Slightly arched, moderately long, very
muscular, and measuring in circumference about one or two inches less
than the skull before the ears. Chest--Wide, deep, and well let down
between the fore-legs. Ribs arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep
and well set back to the hips. Girth should be one-third more than
the height at the shoulder. Shoulder and Arm--Slightly sloping, heavy
and muscular. FORE-LEGS AND FEET--Legs straight, strong, and set wide
apart; bones very large. Elbows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large
and round. Toes well arched up. Nails black. BACK, LOINS AND
FLANKS--Back and loins wide and muscular; flat and very wide in a
bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks. HIND-LEGS
AND FEET--Hind-quarters broad, wide, and muscular, with well developed
second thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely set when
standing or walking. Feet round. TAIL--Put on high up, and reaching
to the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root and tapering
to the end, hanging straight in repose, but forming a curve, with
the end pointing upwards, but not over the back, when the dog is
excited. COAT--COLOUR--Coat short and close lying, but not too fine
over the shoulders, neck and back. Colour, apricot or silver fawn,
or dark fawn-brindle. In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose should be
black, with black round the orbits, and extending upwards between
them.

       *       *       *       *       *

Size is a quality very desirable in this breed. The height of many
dogs of olden days was from thirty-two to thirty-three inches. The
height should be obtained rather from great depth of body than length
of leg. A leggy Mastiff is very undesirable. Thirty inches may be
taken as a fair average height for dogs, and bitches somewhat less.
Many of Mr. Lukey's stood 32 inches and over; Mr. Green's Monarch
was over 33 inches, The Shah 32 inches, and Cardinal 32 inches.

The method of rearing a Mastiff has much to do with its ultimate size,
but it is perhaps needless to say that the selection of the breeding
stock has still more to do with this. It is therefore essential to
select a dog and bitch of a large strain to obtain large Mastiffs.
It is not so necessary that the dogs themselves should be so large
as that they come from a large strain. The weight of a full-grown
dog should be anything over 160 lb. Many have turned over the scale
at 180 lb. The Shah, for instance, was 182 lb. in weight, Scawfell
over 200 lb.

One of the great difficulties that breeders of Mastiffs and all other
large dogs have to contend against is in rearing the puppies; so many
bitches being clumsy and apt to kill the whelps by lying on them.
It is, therefore, always better to be provided with one or more foster
bitches. At about six weeks old a fairly good opinion may be formed
as to what the puppies will ultimately turn out in certain respects,
for, although they may change materially during growth, the good or
bad qualities which are manifest at that early age will, in all
probability, be apparent when the puppy has reached maturity. It is,
therefore, frequently easier to select the best puppy in the nest
than to do so when they are from six to nine or ten months old.

Puppies should be allowed all the liberty possible, and never be tied
up: they should be taken out for steady, gentle exercise, and not
permitted to get too fat or they become too heavy, with detrimental
results to their legs. Many Mastiff puppies are very shy and nervous,
but they will grow out of this if kindly handled, and eventually
become the best guard and protector it is possible to have.

The temper of a Mastiff should be taken into consideration by the
breeder. They are, as a rule, possessed of the best of tempers. A
savage dog with such power as the Mastiff possesses is indeed a
dangerous creature, and, therefore, some inquiries as to the temper
of a stud dog should be made before deciding to use him. In these
dogs, as in all others, it is a question of how they are treated by
the person having charge of them.

The feeding of puppies is an important matter, and should be carefully
seen to by anyone wishing to rear them successfully. If goat's milk
is procurable it is preferable to cow's milk. The price asked for
it is sometimes prohibitory, but this difficulty may be surmounted
in many cases by keeping a goat or two on the premises. Many breeders
have obtained a goat with the sole object of rearing a litter of
puppies on her milk, and have eventually discarded cow's milk
altogether, using goat's milk for household purposes instead. As soon
as the puppies will lap they should be induced to take arrowroot
prepared with milk. Oatmeal and maizemeal, about one quarter of the
latter to three quarters of the former, make a good food for puppies.
Dog biscuits and the various hound meals, soaked in good broth, may
be used with advantage, but no dogs, either large or small, can be
kept in condition for any length of time without a fair proportion
of meat of some kind. Sheep's paunches, cleaned and well boiled, mixed
with sweet stale bread, previously soaked in cold water, make an
excellent food and can hardly be excelled as a staple diet. In feeding
on horseflesh care should be taken to ascertain that the horse was
not diseased, especially if any is given uncooked.

Worms are a constant source of trouble from the earliest days of
puppy-hood, and no puppy suffering from them will thrive; every
effort, therefore, should be made to get rid of them.

With proper feeding, grooming, exercise, and cleanliness, any large
dog can be kept in good condition without resort to medicine, the
use of which should be strictly prohibited unless there is real need
for it. Mastiffs kept under such conditions are far more likely to
prove successful stud dogs and brood bitches than those to which
deleterious drugs are constantly being given.



CHAPTER III

THE BULLDOG


The Bulldog is known to have been domiciled in this country for
several centuries. Like the Mastiff, of which it is a smaller form,
it is a descendant of the "Alaunt," Mastive, or Bandog, described
by Dr. Caius, who states that "the Mastyve or Bandogge is vaste, huge,
stubborne, ougly and eager, of a hevy, and burthenous body, and
therefore but of little swiftnesse, terrible and frightful to beholde,
and more fearce and fell than any Arcadian curre."

The first mention of "Bulldog" as the distinctive name of this now
national breed occurs in a letter, written by Prestwich Eaton from
St. Sebastian to George Wellingham in St. Swithin's Lane, London,
in 1631 or 1632, "for a good Mastive dogge, a case of bottles
replenished with the best lickour, and pray proceur mee two good
bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first shipp." Obviously the
name was derived from the dog's association with the sport of
bull-baiting. The object aimed at in that pursuit was that the dog
should pin and hold the bull by the muzzle, and not leave it. The
bull was naturally helpless when seized in his most tender part. As
he lowered his head in order to use his horns it was necessary for
the dog to keep close to the ground, or, in the words of the old
fanciers of the sport, to "play low." Larger dogs were at a
disadvantage in this respect, and, therefore, those of smaller
proportions, which were quite as suitable for the sport, were
selected. The average height of the dogs was about 16 inches, and
the weight was generally about 45 lbs., whilst the body was broad,
muscular, and compact, as is shown in Scott's well-known engraving
of "Crib and Rosa."

When bull-baiting was prohibited by law the sportsmen of the period
turned their attention to dog-fighting, and for this pastime the
Bulldogs were specially trained. The chief centres in London where
these exhibitions took place were the Westminster Pit, the Bear Garden
at Bankside, and the Old Conduit Fields in Bayswater. In order to
obtain greater quickness of movement many of the Bulldogs were crossed
with a terrier, although some fanciers relied on the pure breed. It
is recorded that Lord Camelford's Bulldog Belcher fought one hundred
and four battles without once suffering defeat.

The decline of bull-baiting and dog-fighting after the passing of
the Bill prohibiting these sports was responsible for a lack of
interest in perpetuating the breed of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 it was
said to be degenerating, and gentlemen who had previously been the
chief breeders gradually deserted the fancy. At one time it was stated
that Wasp, Child, and Billy, who were of the Duke of Hamilton's
strain, were the only remaining Bulldogs in existence, and that upon
their decease the Bulldog would become extinct--a prophecy which all
Bulldog lovers happily find incorrect.

The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in prints of that period, were
not so cloddy as those met with at the present day. Still, the outline
of Rosa in the engraving of Crib and Rosa, is considered to represent
perfection in the shape, make, and size of the ideal type of Bulldog.
The only objections which have been taken are that the bitch is
deficient in wrinkles about the head and neck, and in substance of
bone in the limbs.

The commencement of the dog-show era in 1859 enabled classes to be
provided for Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to breed them was offered
to the dog fancier. In certain districts of the country, notably in
London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, and Dudley, a number of
fanciers resided, and it is to their efforts that we are indebted
for the varied specimens of the breed that are to be seen at the
present time.

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance is of most
importance, as the various points of the dog should be symmetrical
and well balanced, no one point being in excess of the others so as
to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity
which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be
thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact.
The head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the
dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square; that is,
it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in
circumference, caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the
quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of
great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should
not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In
circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least
the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well
rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with
muscle. Length of skull--that is, the distance between the eye and
the ear--is very desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin
upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles.
The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square
and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the "stop" between
the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing
the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The
expression "well broken up" is used where this stop and furrow are
well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the
animal's expression is well finished.

The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose,
should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled.
Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained
by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog
appear smaller in head and less formidable than he otherwise would
be. Formerly this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the
use of the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron
instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumbscrews.
The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, and this colour
should extend to the lower lip; its top should be deeply set back,
almost between the eyes. The distance from the inner corner of the
eye to the extreme tip of the nose should not be greater than the
length from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The
nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line
visible between them. The largeness of nostril, which is a very
desirable property, is possessed by few of the recent prize-winners.

When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an imaginary
line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to the top of the
centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and face is known as the
lay-back, and can only properly be ascertained by viewing the dog
from the side.

The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage of the
air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. It is
apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the nose, the
nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed,
and breathing would then be stopped.

The upper lip, called the "chop," or flews, should be thick, broad,
pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the
sides, but only just joining the under lip in front, yet covering
the teeth completely. The amount of "cushion" which a dog may have
is dependent upon the thickness of the flews. The lips should not
be pendulous.

The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the tusks being
wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned upwards, should project
in front of the upper. The teeth should be large and strong, and the
six small teeth between the tusks should be in an even row. The upper
jaw cannot be too broad between the tusks. If the upper and lower
jaws are level, and the muzzle is not turned upwards the dog is said
to be "down-faced," whilst if the underjaw is not undershot he is
said to be "froggy." A "wry-faced" dog is one having the lower jaw
twisted, and this deformity so detracts from the general appearance
of the dog as seriously to handicap him in the show-ring.

The underjaw projects beyond the upper in order to allow the dog,
when running directly to the front, to grasp the bull, and, when
fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The eyes, seen from the front,
should be situated low down in the skull, as far from the ears, the
nose, and each other as possible, but quite in front of the forehead,
so long as their corners are in a straight line at right angles with
the stop, and in front of the forehead. They should be a little above
the level of the base of the nasal bone, and should be quite round
in shape, of moderate size, neither sunken nor prominent, and be as
black in colour as possible--almost, if not quite, black, showing
no white when looking directly to the front.

A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance depends on the quality, shape,
and carriage of his ears. They should be small and thin, and set high
on the head; that is, the front inner edge of each ear should, as
viewed from the front, join the outline of the skull at the top corner
of such outline, so as to place them as wide apart, as high, and as
far from the eyes as possible. The shape should be that which is known
as "rose," in which the ear folds inward at the back, the upper or
front edge curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of the
inside of the burr. If the ears are placed low on the skull they give
an appleheaded appearance to the dog. If the ear falls in front,
hiding the interior, as is the case with a Fox-terrier, it is said
to "button," and this type is highly objectionable. Unfortunately,
within the last few years the "button" and "semi-tulip" ear have been
rather prevalent amongst the specimens on the show bench.

If the ear is carried erect it is known as a "tulip" ear, and this
form also is objectionable. Nevertheless at the beginning of the
nineteenth century two out of every three dogs possessed ears of this
description.

The neck should be moderate in length, very thick, deep, muscular,
and short, but of sufficient length to allow it to be well arched
at the back, commencing at the junction with the skull. There should
be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled skin about the throat, forming
a dewlap on each side from the lower jaw to the chest.

The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, and deep,
making the dog appear very broad and short-legged in front. The
shoulders should be broad, the blades sloping considerably from the
body; they should be deep, very powerful, and muscular, and should
be flat at the top and play loosely from the chest.

The brisket should be capacious, round, and very deep from the
shoulder to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, and be well
let down between the fore-legs. It should be large in diameter, and
round behind the fore-legs, neither flat-sided nor sinking, which
it will not do provided that the first and succeeding ribs are well
rounded. The belly should be well tucked up and not pendulous, a small
narrow waist being greatly admired. The desired object in body
formation is to obtain great girth at the brisket, and the smallest
possible around the waist, that is, the loins should be arched very
high, when the dog is said to have a good "cut-up."

The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulder and
comparatively narrow at the loins. The back should rise behind the
shoulders in a graceful curve to the loins, the top of which should
be higher than the top of the shoulders, thence curving again more
suddenly to the tail, forming an arch known as the "roach" back, which
is essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortunately,
many leading prize-winners of the present day are entirely deficient
in this respect. Some dogs dip very considerably some distance behind
the shoulders before the upward curve of the spine begins, and these
are known as "swamp-backed"; others rise in an almost straight line
to the root of the tail, and are known as "stern-high."

The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then turn
downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be quite round
in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It
should be moderate in length, rather short than long, thick at the
root, and taper quickly to a fine point. It should have a downward
carriage, and the dog should not be able to raise it above the level
of the backbone. The tail should not curve at the end, otherwise it
is known as "ring-tailed." The ideal length of tail is about six
inches.

Many fanciers demand a "screw" or "kinked" tail, that is, one having
congenital dislocations at the joints, but such appendages are not
desirable in the best interests of the breed.

The fore-legs should be very stout and strong, set wide apart, thick,
muscular, and short, with well-developed muscles in the calves,
presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs must
be straight, large, and not bandy or curved. They should be rather
short in proportion to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make
the back appear long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple
him.

The elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs, so as
to permit the body to swing between them. If this property be absent
the dog is said to be "on the leg." The ankles or pasterns should
be short, straight, and strong. The fore-feet should be straight and
turn very slightly outwards; they should be of medium size and
moderately round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be
thick, compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent and
high.

The hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, should
be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in proportion, than
the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. The stifles should be
round and turned slightly outwards, away from the body, thus bending
the hocks inward and the hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well
let down, so that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the
point of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should
not be so short as those of the fore-legs. The hind-feet, whilst being
smaller than the forefeet, should be round and compact, with the toes
well split up, and the knuckles prominent.

The most desirable weight for a Bulldog is about 50 lbs.

The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, and smooth, silky
when stroked from the head towards the tail owing to its closeness,
but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction.

The colour should be whole or smut, the latter being a whole colour
with a black mask or muzzle. It should be brilliant and pure of its
sort. The colours in order of merit are, first, whole colours and
smuts, viz., brindles, reds, white, with their varieties, as whole
fawns, fallows, etc., and, secondly, pied and mixed colours. Opinions
differ considerably on the colour question; one judge will set back
a fawn and put forward a pied dog, whilst others will do the reverse.
Occasionally one comes across specimens having a black-and-tan colour,
which, although not mentioned in the recognised standard as being
debarred, do not as a rule figure in the prize list. Some of the best
specimens which the writer has seen have been black-and-tans, and
a few years ago on the award of a first prize to a bitch of this
colour, a long but non-conclusive argument was held in the canine
press. Granted that the colour is objectionable, a dog which scores
in all other properties should not be put down for this point alone,
seeing that in the dog-fighting days there were many specimens of
this colour.

In action the Bulldog should have a peculiarly heavy and constrained
gait, a rolling, or "slouching" movement, appearing to walk with
short, quick steps on the tip of his toes, his hind-feet not being
lifted high but appearing to skim the ground, and running with the
right shoulder rather advanced, similar to the manner of a horse when
cantering.

The foregoing minute description of the various show points of a
Bulldog indicates that he should have the appearance of a thick-set
Ayrshire or Highland bull. In stature he should be low to the ground,
broad and compact, the body being carried between and not on the
fore-legs. He should stand over a great deal of ground, and have the
appearance of immense power. The height of the fore-leg should not
exceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back, between
the shoulder blades.

Considerable importance is attached to the freedom and activity
displayed by the animal in its movements. Deformed joints, or
weakness, are very objectionable. The head should be strikingly
massive and carried low, the face short, the muzzle very broad, blunt,
and inclined upwards. The body should be short and well-knit, the
limbs, stout and muscular. The hind-quarters should be very high and
strong, but rather lightly made in comparison with the heavily-made
fore-parts.

It must be acknowledged that there are many strains of this breed
which are constitutionally unsound. For this reason it is important
that the novice should give very careful consideration to his first
purchase of a Bulldog. He should ascertain beyond all doubt, not only
that his proposed purchase is itself sound in wind and limb, but that
its sire and dam are, and have been, in similarly healthy condition.
The dog to be chosen should be physically strong and show pronounced
muscular development. If these requirements are present and the dog
is in no sense a contradiction of the good qualities of its
progenitors, but a justification of its pedigree, care and good
treatment will do the rest. It is to be remembered, however, that
a Bulldog may be improved by judicious exercise. When at exercise,
or taking a walk with his owner, the young dog should always be held
by a leash. He will invariably pull vigorously against this restraint,
but such action is beneficial, as it tends to develop the muscles
of the shoulders and front of the body.

When taking up the Bulldog fancy, nine out of every ten novices choose
to purchase a male. The contrary course should be adopted. The female
is an equally good companion in the house or on the road; she is not
less affectionate and faithful; and when the inevitable desire to
attempt to reproduce the species is reached the beginner has the means
at once available.

It is always difficult for the uninitiated to select what is likely
to be a good dog from the nest. In choosing a puppy care should be
taken to ensure it has plenty of bone in its limbs, and these should
be fairly short and wide; the nostrils should be large and the face
as short as possible. The chop should be thick and heavily wrinkled
and the mouth square. There should be a distinct indent in the upper
jaw, where the bone will eventually curve, whilst the lower jaw should
show signs of curvature and protrude slightly in front of the upper
jaw. The teeth from canine to canine, including the six front teeth,
should be in a straight line.

See that the ears are very small and thin, and the eyes set well
apart. The puppy having these properties, together with a domed,
peaked, or "cocoanut" shaped skull, is the one which, in nine cases
out of ten, will eventually make the best headed dog of the litter.

The breeding of Bulldogs requires unlimited patience, as success is
very difficult to attain. The breeder who can rear five out of every
ten puppies born may be considered fortunate. It is frequently found
in what appears to be a healthy lot of puppies that some of them begin
to whine and whimper towards the end of the first day, and in such
cases the writer's experience is that there will be a speedy burial.

It may be that the cause is due to some acidity of the milk, but in
such a case one would expect that similar difficulty would be
experienced with the remainder of the litter, but this is not the
usual result. Provided that the puppies can be kept alive until the
fourth day, it may be taken that the chances are well in favour of
ultimate success.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. ARTHUR MAYOR'S BULLDOG CH. SILENT DUCHESS]

Many breeders object to feeding the mother with meat at this time,
but the writer once had two litter sisters who whelped on the same
day, and he decided to try the effect of a meat _versus_ farinaceous
diet upon them. As a result the bitch who was freely fed with raw
beef reared a stronger lot of puppies, showing better developed bone,
than did the one who was fed on milk and cereals.

Similarly, in order that the puppy, after weaning, may develop plenty
of bone and muscle, it is advisable to feed once a day upon finely
minced raw meat. There are some successful breeders, indeed, who
invariably give to each puppy a teaspoonful of cod liver oil in the
morning and a similar dose of extract of malt in the evening, with
the result that there are never any rickety or weak dogs in the
kennels, whilst the development of the bones in the skull and limbs
is most pronounced.

Owing to their lethargic disposition, young Bulldogs are somewhat
liable to indigestion, and during the period of puppyhood it is of
advantage to give them a tablespoonful of lime water once a day in
their milk food.

Many novices are in doubt as to the best time to breed from a Bull
bitch, seeing that oestrum is present before she is fully developed.
It may be taken as practically certain that it is better for her to
be allowed to breed at her first heat. Nature has so arranged matters
that a Bull bitch is not firmly set in her bones until she reaches
an age of from twelve to eighteen months, and therefore she will have
less difficulty in giving birth to her offspring if she be allowed
to breed at this time. Great mortality occurs in attempting to breed
from maiden bitches exceeding three years of age, as the writer knows
to his cost.

It is desirable, in the case of a young bitch having her first litter,
for her master or mistress to be near her at the time, in order to
render any necessary assistance; but such attentions should not be
given unless actual necessity arises.

Some bitches with excessive lay-back and shortness of face have at
times a difficulty in releasing the puppy from the membrane in which
it is born, and in such a case it is necessary for the owner to open
this covering and release the puppy, gently shaking it about in the
box until it coughs and begins to breathe.

The umbilical cord should be severed from the afterbirth about four
inches from the puppy, and this will dry up and fall away in the
course of a couple of days.

In general, it is true economy for the Bulldog breeder to provide
a foster-mother in readiness for the birth of the expected litter;
especially is this so in the case of a first litter, when the
qualifications for nursing by the mother are unknown. Where there
are more than five puppies it is also desirable to obtain a
foster-mother in order that full nourishment may be given to the
litter by both mothers.

The best time of the year for puppies to be born is in the spring,
when, owing to the approaching warm weather, they can lead an outdoor
life. By the time they are six months old they should have sufficient
stamina to enable them to withstand the cold of the succeeding winter.
It has been ascertained that Bulldogs which have been reared out of
doors are the least liable to suffer from indigestion, torpidity of
the liver, asthma or other chest ailments, whilst they invariably
have the hardiest constitution.

Bulldogs generally require liberal feeding, and should have a meal
of dry biscuit the first thing in the morning, whilst the evening
meal should consist of a good stew of butcher's offal poured over
broken biscuit, bread, or other cereal food. In the winter time it
is advantageous to soak a tablespoonful of linseed in water overnight,
and after the pods have opened to turn the resulting jelly into the
stew pot. This ensures a fine glossy coat, and is of value in toning
up the intestines. Care must, however, be taken not to follow this
practice to excess in warm weather, as the heating nature of the
linseed will eventually cause skin trouble.

With these special points attended to, the novice should find no
difficulty in successfully becoming a Bulldog fancier, owner, and
breeder.

In conclusion, it cannot be too widely known that the Bulldog is one
of the very few breeds which can, with perfect safety, be trusted
alone to the mercy of children, who, naturally, in the course of play,
try the patience and good temper of the firmest friend of man.


  THE MINIATURE BULLDOG


Fifty or sixty years ago, Toy--or, rather, as a recent edict of the
Kennel Club requires them to be dubbed, Miniature--Bulldogs were
common objects of the canine country-side. In fact, you can hardly
ever talk for ten minutes to any Bulldog breeder of old standing
without his telling you tall stories of the wonderful little Bulldogs,
weighing about fifteen or sixteen pounds, he either knew or owned
in those long-past days!

Prominent among those who made a cult of these "bantams" were the
laceworkers of Nottingham, and many prints are extant which bear
witness to the excellent little specimens they bred. But a wave of
unpopularity overwhelmed them, and they faded across the Channel to
France, where, if, as is asserted, our Gallic neighbours appreciated
them highly, they cannot be said to have taken much care to preserve
their best points. When, in 1898, a small but devoted band of admirers
revived them in England, they returned _most_ attractive, 'tis true,
but hampered by many undesirable features, such as bat ears, froggy
faces, waving tails, and a general lack of Bulldog character. However,
the Toy Bulldog Club then started, took the dogs vigorously in hand,
and thanks to unceasing efforts, Toy Bulldogs have always since been
catered for at an ever increasing number of shows. Their weight, after
much heated discussion and sundry downs and ups, was finally fixed
at twenty-two pounds and under.

The original aim of Miniature Bulldogs--_i.e._ to look like the larger
variety seen through the wrong end of a telescope--if not actually
achieved, is being rapidly approached, and can no longer be looked
upon as merely the hopeless dream of a few enthusiasts.

To enumerate in detail the Miniature Bulldog scale of points is quite
unnecessary, as it is simply that of the big ones writ small. In other
words, "the general appearance of the Miniature Bulldog must as nearly
as possible resemble that of the Big Bulldog"--a terse sentence which
comprises in itself all that can be said on the subject.

As companions and friends Miniature Bulldogs are faithful, fond, and
even foolish in their devotion, as all true friends should be. They
are absolutely and invariably good-tempered, and, as a rule,
sufficiently fond of the luxuries of this life--not to say greedy--to
be easily cajoled into obedience. Remarkably intelligent, and caring
enough for sport to be sympathetically excited at the sight of a
rabbit without degenerating into cranks on the subject like terriers.
Taking a keen interest in all surrounding people and objects, without,
however, giving way to ceaseless barking; enjoying outdoor exercise,
without requiring an exhausting amount, they are in every way ideal
pets, and adapt themselves to town and country alike.

As puppies they are delicate, and require constant care and
supervision; but that only adds a keener zest to the attractive task
of breeding them, the more so owing to the fact that as mothers they
do not shine, being very difficult to manage, and generally
manifesting a strong dislike to rearing their own offspring. In other
respects they are quite hardy little dogs, and--one great
advantage--they seldom have distemper. Cold and damp they particularly
dislike, especially when puppies, and the greatest care should be
taken to keep them thoroughly dry and warm. When very young indeed
they can stand, and are the better for, an extraordinary amount of
heat.


  THE FRENCH BULLDOG (BOULEDOGUE FRANCAIS)


There appears to be no doubt that the French Bulldog originated in
England, and is an offshoot of the English miniature variety Bulldog,
not the Bulldog one sees on the bench to-day, but of the tulip-eared
and short underjawed specimens which were common in London,
Nottingham, Birmingham, and Sheffield in the early 'fifties. There
was at that time a constant emigration of laceworkers from Nottingham
to the coast towns of Normandy, where lace factories were springing
into existence, and these immigrants frequently took a Bulldog with
them to the land of their adoption. The converse method was also
adopted. Prior to 1902 French Bulldogs were imported into this country
with the object of resuscitating the strain of bantam Bulldogs, which
in course of years had been allowed to dwindle in numbers, and were
in danger of becoming extinct.

There are superficial similarities between the English and the French
toy Bulldog, the one distinguishing characteristic being that in the
French variety the ears are higher on the head and are held erect.
Until a few years ago the two were interbred, but disputes as to their
essential differences led the Kennel Club to intervene and the types
have since been kept rigidly apart, the smart little bat-eared
Bulldogs of France receiving recognition under the breed name of
Bouledogues Francais.



CHAPTER IV

THE ST. BERNARD


The history of the St. Bernard dog would not be complete without
reference being made to the noble work that he has done in
Switzerland, his native land: how the Hospice St. Bernard kept a
considerable number of dogs which were trained to go over the
mountains with small barrels round their necks, containing
restoratives, in the event of their coming across any poor travellers
who had either lost their way, or had been overcome by the cold. We
have been told that the intelligent animals saved many lives in this
way, the subjects of their deliverance often being found entirely
buried in the snow.

Handsome as the St. Bernard is, with his attractive colour and
markings, he is a cross-bred dog. From the records of old writers
it is to be gathered that to refill the kennels at the Hospice which
had been rendered vacant from the combined catastrophes of distemper
and the fall of an avalanche which had swept away nearly all their
hounds, the monks were compelled to have recourse to a cross with
the Newfoundland and the Pyrenean sheepdog, the latter not unlike
the St. Bernard in size and appearance. Then, again, there is no doubt
whatever that at some time the Bloodhound has been introduced, and
it is known for a certainty that almost all the most celebrated St.
Bernards in England at the present time are closely allied to the
Mastiff.

The result of all this intermixture of different breeds has been the
production of an exceedingly fine race of dogs, which form one of
the most attractive features at our dog shows, and are individually
excellent guards and companions. As a companion, the St. Bernard
cannot be surpassed, when a large dog is required for the purpose.
Most docile in temperament and disposition, he is admirably suited
as the associate of a lady or a child.

The St. Bernard is sensitive to a degree, and seldom forgets an
insult, which he resents with dignity. Specimens of the breed have
occasionally been seen that are savage, but when this is the case
ill-treatment of some sort has assuredly been the provoking cause.

The dogs at the Hospice of St. Bernard are small in comparison with
those that are seen in England belonging to the same race. The Holy
Fathers were more particular about their markings than great size.
The body colour should be brindle or orange tawny, with white
markings; the muzzle white, with a line running up between the eyes,
and over the skull, joining at the back the white collar that
encircles the neck down to the front of the shoulders. The colour
round the eyes and on the ears should be of a darker shade in the
red; in the centre of the white line at the occiput there should be
a spot of colour. These markings are said to represent the stole,
chasuble and scapular which form part of the vestments worn by the
monks; but it is seldom that the markings are so clearly defined;
they are more often white, with brindle or orange patches on the body,
with evenly-marked heads.

In England St. Bernards are either distinctly rough in coat or smooth,
but the generality of the Hospice dogs are broken in coat, having
a texture between the two extremes. The properties, however, of the
rough and smooth are the same, so that the two varieties are often
bred together, and, as a rule, both textures of coat will be the
result of the alliance. The late M. Schumacher, a great authority
on the breed in Switzerland, averred that dogs with very rough coats
were found to be of no use for work on the Alps, as their thick
covering became so loaded with snow and their feet so clogged that
they succumbed under the weight and perished. On that account they
were discarded by the monks.

In connection with the origin of the St. Bernard, M. Schumacher wrote
in a letter to Mr. J. C. Macdona, who was the first to introduce the
breed into Great Britain in any numbers: "According to the tradition
of the Holy Fathers of the Great Saint Bernard, their race descends
from the crossing of a bitch (a Bulldog species) of Denmark and a
Mastiff (Shepherd's Dog) of the Pyrenees. The descendants of the
crossing, who have inherited from the Danish dog its extraordinary
size and bodily strength, and from the Pyrenean Mastiff the
intelligence, the exquisite sense of smell, and, at the same time,
the faithfulness and sagacity which characterise them, have acquired
in the space of five centuries so glorious a notoriety throughout
Europe that they well merit the name of a distinct race for
themselves."

From the same authority we learn that it is something like six hundred
years since the St. Bernard came into existence. It was not, however,
till competitive exhibitions for dogs had been for some years
established that the St. Bernard gained a footing in Great Britain.
A few specimens had been imported from the Hospice before Mr. Cumming
Macdona (then the Rev. Cumming Macdona) introduced us to the
celebrated Tell, who, with others of the breed brought from
Switzerland, formed the foundation of his magnificent kennel at West
Kirby, in Cheshire. Albert Smith, whom some few that are now alive
will remember as an amusing lecturer, brought a pair from the Hospice
when returning from a visit to the Continent and made them take a
part in his attractive entertainment; but the associations of the
St. Bernard with the noble deeds recorded in history were not then
so widely known, and these two dogs passed away without having created
any particular enthusiasm.

Later on, at a dog show at Cremorne held in 1863, two St. Bernards
were exhibited, each of whom rejoiced in the name of Monk, and were,
respectively, the property of the Rev. A. N. Bate and Mr. W. H. Stone.
These dogs were exhibited without pedigrees, but were said to have
been bred at the Hospice of St. Bernard. Three years later, at the
National Show at Birmingham, a separate class was provided for the
saintly breed, and Mr. Cumming Macdona was first and second with Tell
and Bernard. This led to an immediate popularity of the St. Bernard.
But Tell was the hero of the shows at which he appeared, and his owner
was recognised as being the introducer into this country of the
magnificent variety of the canine race that now holds such a prominent
position as a show dog.

The names of Tell and Bernard have been handed down to fame, the
former as the progenitor of a long line of rough-coated offspring;
the latter as one of the founders of the famous Shefford Kennel, kept
by Mr. Fred Gresham, who probably contributed more to the perfecting
of the St. Bernard than any other breeder. His Birnie, Monk, Abbess,
Grosvenor Hector, and Shah are names which appear in the pedigrees
of most of the best dogs of more recent times. When Mr. Gresham drew
his long record of success to a close there came a lull in the
popularity of the breed until Dr. Inman, in partnership with Mr. B.
Walmsley, established a kennel first at Barford, near Bath, and then
at The Priory, at Bowden, in Cheshire, where they succeeded in
breeding the finest kennel of St. Bernards that has ever been seen
in the world. Dr. Inman had for several years owned good dogs, and
set about the work on scientific principles. He, in conjunction with
Mr. Walmsley, purchased the smooth-coated Kenilworth from Mr. Loft,
bred that dog's produce with a brindle Mastiff of high repute, and
then crossed back to his St. Bernards with the most successful
results. Dr. Inman was instrumental in forming the National St.
Bernard Club, which was soon well supported with members, and now
has at its disposal a good collection of valuable challenge cups.
The dogs bred at Bowden carried all before them in the show ring,
and were continually in request for stud purposes, improving the breed
to a remarkable extent.

At the disposal of Messrs. Inman and Walmsley's kennel, there were
such admirable dogs as the rough-coated Wolfram--from whom were bred
Tannhauser, Narcissus, Leontes and Klingsor--the smooth-coated dogs,
the King's Son and The Viking; the rough-coated bitch, Judith Inman,
and the smooth Viola, the last-named the finest specimen of her sex
that has probably ever been seen. These dogs and bitches, with several
others, were dispersed all over England, with the exception of
Klingsor, who went to South Africa.

Almost all the best St. Bernards in Great Britain at the present time
have been bred or are descended from the Bowden dogs.

[Illustration: MR. GEORGE SINCLAIR'S ST. BERNARD CH. LORD MONTGOMERY
Photograph by C. Reid, Wishaw]

The following is the description of the St. Bernard as drawn up by
the members of the St. Bernard Club:

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--The head should be large and massive, the circumference of the
skull being more than double the length of the head from nose to
occiput. From stop to tip of nose should be moderately short; full
below the eye and square at the muzzle; there should be great depth
from the eye to the lower jaw, and the lips should be deep throughout,
but not too pendulous. From the nose to the stop should be straight,
and the stop abrupt and well defined. The skull should be broad and
rounded at the top, but not domed, with somewhat prominent brow.
EARS--The ears should be of medium size, lying close to the cheek,
but strong at the base and not heavily feathered. EYES--The eyes
should be rather small and deep set, dark in colour and not too close
together; the lower eyelid should droop, so as to show a fair amount
of haw. NOSE--The nose should be large and black, with well developed
nostrils. The teeth should be level. EXPRESSION--The expression should
betoken benevolence, dignity, and intelligence. NECK--The neck should
be lengthy, muscular, and slightly arched, with dewlap developed,
and the shoulders broad and sloping, well up at the withers. GENERAL
DESCRIPTION OF BODY--The chest should be wide and deep, and the back
level as far as the haunches, slightly arched over the loins; the
ribs should be well rounded and carried well back; the loin wide and
very muscular. TAIL--The tail should be set on rather high, long,
and in the long-coated variety bushy; carried low when in repose,
and when excited or in motion slightly above the line of the back.
LEGS--The fore-legs should be perfectly straight, strong in bone,
and of good length; and the hind-legs very muscular. The feet large,
compact, with well-arched toes. SIZE--A dog should be at least 30
inches in height at the shoulder, and a bitch 27 inches (the taller
the better, provided the symmetry is maintained); thoroughly well
proportioned, and of great substance. The general outline should
suggest great power and capability of endurance. COAT--In the
long-coated variety the coat should be dense and flat; rather fuller
round the neck; the thighs feathered but not too heavily. In the
short-coated variety, the coat should be dense, hard, flat, and short,
slightly feathered on thighs and tail. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--The colour
should be red, orange, various shades of brindle (the richer colour
the better), or white with patches on body of one of the above named
colours. The markings should be as follows; white muzzle, white blaze
up face, white collar round neck; white chest, forelegs, feet, and
end of tail; black shadings on face and ears. If the blaze be wide
and runs through to the collar, a spot of the body colour on the top
of the head is desirable.

The weight of a dog should be from 170 lbs. to 210 lbs.; of a bitch
160 lbs. to 190 lbs.

       *       *       *       *       *

During the past twenty-five years St. Bernards have been bred in this
country very much taller and heavier than they were in the days of
Tell, Hope, Moltke, Monk, Hector, and Othman. Not one of these
measured over 32 inches in height, or scaled over 180 lbs., but the
increased height and greater weight of the more modern production
have been obtained by forcing them as puppies and by fattening them
to such an extent that they have been injured in constitution, and
in many cases converted into cripples behind. The prizewinning
rough-coated St. Bernard, as he is seen to-day is a purely
manufactured animal, handsome in appearance certainly, but so
cumbersome that he is scarcely able to raise a trot, let alone do
any tracking in the snow. Usefulness, however, is not a consideration
with breeders, who have reared the dog to meet the exigencies of the
show ring. There is still much left to be desired, and there is room
for considerable improvement, as only a few of the more modern dogs
of the breed approach the standard drawn up by the Clubs that are
interested in their welfare.



CHAPTER V

THE NEWFOUNDLAND


The dogs which take their name from the island of Newfoundland appeal
to all lovers of animals, romance, and beauty. A Newfoundland formed
the subject of perhaps the most popular picture painted by Sir Edwin
Landseer; a monument was erected by Byron over the grave of his
Newfoundland in proximity to the place where the poet himself hoped
to be buried, at Newstead Abbey, and the inscription on his monument
contains the lines so frequently quoted:

  "But the poor dog in life the firmest friend,
   The first to welcome, foremost to defend,
   Whose honest heart is still his master's own,
   Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone.

   To mark a friend's remains these stones arise:
   I never knew but one, and here he lies."

Robert Burns, also, in his poem, "The Twa Dogs," written in 1786,
refers to a Newfoundland as being an aristocrat among dogs. Doubtless,
other breeds of dogs have been the subjects of popular pictures and
have had their praises sung by poets, but the Newfoundlands have yet
a further honour, unique amongst dogs, in being the subject for a
postage stamp of their native land. All these distinctions and honours
have not been conferred without reason for no breed of dogs has
greater claim to the title of friend of man, and it has become famous
for its known readiness and ability to save persons in danger,
especially from drowning. It is strong and courageous in the water,
and on land a properly trained Newfoundland is an ideal companion
and guard. Innumerable are the accounts of Newfoundlands having proved
their devotion to their owners, and of the many lives saved by them
in river and sea; and when Sir Edwin Landseer selected one of the
breed as the subject of his picture entitled, "A Distinguished Member
of the Humane Society," he was justified not only by the sentiment
attaching to this remarkable race of dogs, but also by the deeds by
which Newfoundlands have made good their claim to such great
distinction, and the popular recognition of this, no doubt, in some
degree added to the great esteem in which this painting has always
been held.

The picture was painted in 1838, and, as almost everyone knows,
represents a white and black Newfoundland. The dog portrayed was
typical of the breed, and after a lapse of over seventy years, the
painting has now the added value of enabling us to make a comparison
with specimens of the breed as it exists to-day. Such a comparison
will show that among the best dogs now living are some which might
have been the model for this picture. It is true that in the interval
the white and black Newfoundlands have been coarser, heavier, higher
on the legs, with an expression denoting excitability quite foreign
to the true breed, but these departures from Newfoundland character
are passing away--it is to be hoped for good. The breed is rapidly
returning to the type which Landseer's picture represents--a dog of
great beauty, dignity, and benevolence of character, showing in its
eyes an almost human pathos.

Some twenty-five to thirty years ago there was considerable discussion
among owners of Newfoundlands in this country as to the proper colour
of the true breed, and there were many persons who claimed, as some
still claim, that the black variety is the only true variety, and
that the white and black colouring indicates a cross-breed. Again
Landseer's picture is of value, because, in the first place, we may
be almost certain that he would have selected for such a picture a
typical dog of the breed, and, secondly, because the picture shows,
nearly half a century prior to the discussion, a white and black dog,
typical in nearly every respect, except colour, of the black
Newfoundland. There is no appearance of cross-breeding in Landseer's
dog; on the contrary, he reveals all the characteristics of a
thoroughbred. Seventy years ago, therefore, the white and black
variety may be fairly considered to have been established, and it
is worthy of mention here that "Idstone" quoted an article written
in 1819 stating that back in the eighteenth century Newfoundlands
were large, rough-coated, liver and white dogs. It is clear, also,
that in 1832 Newfoundlands in British North America were of various
colours. Additional evidence, too, is provided, in the fact that when
selecting the type of head for their postage stamp the Government
of Newfoundland chose the Landseer dog. Therefore, there are very
strong arguments against the claim that the true variety is
essentially black.

However that may be, there are now two established varieties, the
black and the white and black. There are also bronze-coloured dogs,
but they are rare and are not favoured. It is stated, however, that
puppies of that colour are generally the most promising in all other
respects.

The black variety of the Newfoundland is essentially black in colour;
but this does not mean that there may be no other colour, for most
black Newfoundlands have some white marks, and these are not
considered objectionable, so long as they are limited to white hairs
on the chest, toes, or the tip of the tail. In fact, a white marking
on the chest is said to be typical of the true breed. Any white on
the head or body would place the dog in the other than black variety.
The black colour should preferably be of a dull jet appearance which
approximates to brown. In the other than black class, there may be
black and tan, bronze, and white and black. The latter predominates,
and in this colour, beauty of marking is very important. The head
should be black with a white muzzle and blaze, and the body and legs
should be white with large patches of black on the saddle and
quarters, with possibly other small black spots on the body and legs.

Apart from colour, the varieties should conform to the same standard.
The head should be broad and massive, but in no sense heavy in
appearance. The muzzle should be short, square, and clean cut, eyes
rather wide apart, deep set, dark and small, not showing any haw;
ears small, with close side carriage, covered with fine short hair
(there should be no fringe to the ears), expression full of
intelligence, dignity, and kindness.

The body should be long, square, and massive, loins strong and well
filled; chest deep and broad; legs quite straight, somewhat short
in proportion to the length of the body, and powerful, with round
bone well covered with muscle; feet large, round, and close. The tail
should be only long enough to reach just below the hocks, free from
kink, and never curled over the back. The quality of the coat is very
important; the coat should be very dense, with plenty of undercoat;
the outer coat somewhat harsh and quite straight. A curly coat is
very objectionable. A dog with a good coat may be in the water for
a considerable time without getting wet on the skin.

The appearance generally should indicate a dog of great strength,
and very active for his build and size, moving freely with the body
swung loosely between the legs, which gives a slight roll in gait.
This has been compared to a sailor's roll, and is typical of the
breed.

As regards size, the Newfoundland Club standard gives 140 lbs. to
120 lbs. weight for a dog, and 110 lbs. to 120 lbs. for a bitch, with
an average height at the shoulder of 27 inches and 25 inches
respectively; but it is doubtful whether dogs in proper condition
do conform to both requirements. At any rate, the writer is unable
to trace any prominent Newfoundlands which do, and it would be safe
to assume that for dogs of the weights specified, the height should
be quite 29 inches for dogs, and 27 inches for bitches. A dog weighing
150 lbs. and measuring 29 inches in height at the shoulder would
necessarily be long in body to be in proportion, and would probably
much nearer approach the ideal form of a Newfoundland than a taller
dog.

In that respect Newfoundlands have very much improved during the past
quarter of a century. Twenty-five years ago, the most noted dogs were
stated as a rule to be well over 30 inches in height, but their weight
for height would indicate legginess, which is an abomination in a
Newfoundland. A 29-inch Newfoundland is quite tall enough, and even
that height should not be gained at the expense of type and symmetry.

The white and black variety are, as a rule, slightly taller, smaller
in loin and longer in head, but these differences in the two varieties
are being rapidly removed, and at no distant date the white and black
variety will probably be as correct in type and symmetry as the black
variety now is.

For very many years the black variety has been the better in type;
and in breeding, if blacks are desired, it will be safer as a general
rule to insist upon the absence of white and black blood in any of
the immediate ancestors of the sire and dam. But if, on the contrary,
white and black dogs are required, the proper course is to make
judicious crosses between the black and white, and black varieties,
and destroy any black puppies, unless they are required for further
crosses with white and black blood. In any case the first cross is
likely to produce both black and mis-marked white and black puppies;
but the latter, if bred back to the white and black blood, would
generally produce well-marked white and black Newfoundlands.

In mating, never be guided solely by the good points of the dog and
bitch. It is very desirable that they should both have good points,
the more good ones the better, but it is more important to ensure
that they are dissimilar in their defects, and, if possible, that
in neither case is there a very objectionable defect, especially if
such defect was also apparent in the animal's sire or dam.

[Illustration: MRS. VALE NICOLAS'S NEWFOUNDLAND CH. SHELTON VIKING
Photograph by T. Fall]

It is, therefore, important to study what were the good, and still
more so the bad, points in the parents and grandparents. If you do
not know these, other Newfoundland breeders will willingly give
information, and any trouble involved in tracing the knowledge
required will be amply repaid in the results, and probably save great
disappointment.

When rearing puppies give them soft food, such as well-boiled rice
and milk, as soon as they will lap, and, shortly afterwards, scraped
lean meat. Newfoundland puppies require plenty of meat to induce
proper growth. The puppies should increase in weight at the rate of
3 lbs. a week, and this necessitates plenty of flesh, bone and
muscle-forming food, plenty of meat, both raw and cooked. Milk is
also good, but it requires to be strengthened with Plasmon, or casein.
The secret of growing full-sized dogs with plenty of bone and
substance is to get a good start from birth, good feeding, warm, dry
quarters, and freedom for the puppies to move about and exercise
themselves as they wish. Forced exercise may make them go wrong on
their legs. Medicine should not be required except for worms, and
the puppies should be physicked for these soon after they are weaned,
and again when three or four months old, or before that if they are
not thriving. If free from worms, Newfoundland puppies will be found
quite hardy, and, under proper conditions of food and quarters, they
are easy to rear.



CHAPTER VI

THE GREAT DANE


The origin of the Great Dane, like that of many other varieties
of dogs, is so obscure that all researches have only resulted in
speculative theories, but the undoubted antiquity of this dog is
proved by the fact that representatives of a breed sufficiently
similar to be considered his ancestors are found on some of the
oldest Egyptian monuments.

A few years ago a controversy arose on the breed's proper designation,
when the Germans claimed for it the title "Deutsche Dogge." Germany
had several varieties of big dogs, such as the Hatzrude, Saufanger,
Ulmer Dogge, and Rottweiler Metzgerhund; but contemporaneously with
these there existed, as in other countries in Europe, another very
big breed, but much nobler and more thoroughbred, known as the Great
Dane. When after the war of 1870 national feeling was pulsating very
strongly in the veins of reunited Germany, the German cynologists
were on the lookout for a national dog, and for that purpose the Great
Dane was re-christened "Deutsche Dogge," and elected as the champion
of German Dogdom. For a long time all these breeds had, no doubt,
been indiscriminately crossed.

The Great Dane was introduced into this country spasmodically some
thirty-five years ago, when he was commonly referred to as the
Boarhound, or the German Mastiff, and for a time the breed had to
undergo a probationary period in the "Foreign Class" at dog shows,
but it soon gained in public favour, and in the early 'eighties a
Great Dane Club was formed, and the breed has since become one of
the most popular of the larger dogs.

The Kennel Club has classed the Great Dane amongst the Non-Sporting
dogs, probably because with us he cannot find a quarry worthy of his
mettle; but, for all that, he has the instincts and qualifications
of a sporting dog, and he has proved himself particularly valuable
for hunting big game in hot climates, which he stands very well.

Respecting the temperament of the Great Dane and his suitability as
a companion writers have gone to extremes in praise and condemnation.
In his favour it must be said that in natural intelligence he is
surpassed by very few other dogs. He has a most imposing figure, and
does not, like some other big breeds, slobber from his mouth, which
is a particularly unpleasant peculiarity when a dog is kept in the
house. On the other hand, it must be admitted that with almost the
strength of a tiger he combines the excitability of a terrier, and
no doubt a badly trained Great Dane is a very dangerous animal. It
is not sufficient to teach him in the haphazard way which might be
successful in getting a small dog under control, but even as a
companion he ought to be trained systematically, and, considering
his marked intelligence, this is not difficult of accomplishment.

The Great Dane attains his full development in about a year and a
half to two years, and, considering that puppies have to build up
in that time a very big skeleton and straight limbs, special attention
must be given to the rearing of them. The dam whelps frequently eight
puppies, and sometimes even a few more. Mr. Larke's Princess Thor
had a litter of seventeen, but even eight is too great a number for
a bitch to suckle in a breed where great size is a desideratum. Not
more than four, or at the outside five, should be left with the bitch;
the others should be put to a foster mother, or if they are weaklings
or foul-marked, it is best to destroy them. After the puppies are
weaned, their food should be of bone-making quality, and they require
ample space for exercise and play. Nothing is worse than to take the
youngsters for forced marches before their bones have become firm.

Before giving the description and standard which have been adopted
by the Great Dane Clubs, a few remarks on some of the leading points
will be useful. The general characteristic of the Great Dane is a
combination of grace and power, and therefore the lightness of the
Greyhound, as well as the heaviness of the Mastiff, must be avoided.

The head should be powerful, but at the same time show quality by
its nice modelling.

The eyes should be intelligent and vivacious, but not have the hard
expression of the terrier. The distance between the eyes is of great
importance; if too wide apart they give the dog a stupid appearance,
and if too close he has a treacherous look.

Another very important point is the graceful carriage of the tail.
When it is curled over the back it makes an otherwise handsome dog
look mean, and a tail that curls at the end like a corkscrew is also
very ugly. In former times "faking" was not infrequently resorted
to to correct a faulty tail carriage, but it is easily detected. Great
Danes sometimes injure the end of the tail by hitting it against a
hard substance, and those with a good carriage of tail are most liable
to this because in excitement they slash it about, whereas the faulty
position of the tail, curled over the back, insures immunity from
harm.

Until recently British Great Dane breeders and exhibitors have paid
very little attention to colour, on the principle that, like a good
horse, a good Great Dane cannot be a bad colour. The English clubs,
however, have now in this particular also adopted the German standard.
The orthodox colours are brindle, fawn, blue, black, and harlequin.
In the brindle dogs the ground colour should be any shade from light
yellow to dark red-yellow on which the brindle appears in darker
stripes. The harlequins have on a pure white ground fairly large black
patches, which must be of irregular shape, broken up as if they had
been torn, and not have rounded outlines. When brindle Great Danes
are continuously bred together, it has been found that they get
darker, and that the peculiar "striping" disappears, and in that case
the introduction of a good fawn into the strain is advisable. The
constant mating of harlequins has the tendency to make the black
patches disappear, and the union with a good black Great Dane will
prevent the loss of colour.

The following is the official description issued by the Great Dane
Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The Great Dane is not so heavy or massive as the
Mastiff, nor should he too nearly approach the Greyhound type.
Remarkable in size and very muscular, strongly though elegantly built;
the head and neck should be carried high, and the tail in line with
the back, or slightly upwards, but not curled over the hind-quarters.
Elegance of outline and grace of form are most essential to a Dane;
size is absolutely necessary; but there must be that alertness of
expression and briskness of movement without which the Dane character
is lost. He should have a look of dash and daring, of being ready to
go anywhere and do anything. TEMPERAMENT--The Great Dane is
good-tempered, affectionate, and faithful to his master, not
demonstrative with strangers; intelligent, courageous, and always
alert. His value as a guard is unrivalled. He is easily controlled
when well trained, but he may grow savage if confined too much, kept
on chain, or ill treated. HEIGHT--The minimum height of an adult dog
should be 30 ins.; that of a bitch, 28 ins. WEIGHT--The minimum weight
of an adult dog should be 120 lbs.; that of a bitch, 100 lbs. The
greater height and weight to be preferred, provided that quality and
proportion are also combined. HEAD--Taken altogether, the head should
give the idea of great length and strength of jaw. The muzzle, or
foreface, is broad, and the skull proportionately narrow, so that
the whole head, when viewed from above and in front, has the
appearance of equal breadth throughout. LENGTH OF HEAD--The entire
length of head varies with the height of the dog, 13 ins. from the
tip of the nose to the back of the occiput is a good measurement for
a dog of 32 ins. at the shoulder. The length from the end of the nose
to the point between the eyes should be about equal, or preferably
of greater length than from this point to the back of the occiput.
SKULL--The skull should be flat rather than domed, and have a slight
indentation running up the centre, the occipital peak not prominent.
There should be a decided rise or brow over the eyes, but no abrupt
stop between them. FACE--The face should be chiselled well and
foreface long, of equal depth throughout, and well filled in below
the eyes with no appearance of being pinched. MUSCLES OF THE
CHEEK--The muscles of the cheeks should be quite flat, with no
lumpiness or cheek bumps, the angle of the jaw-bone well defined.
LIPS--The lips should hang quite square in front, forming a right
angle with the upper line of foreface. UNDERLINE--The underline of
the head, viewed in profile, runs almost in a straight line from the
corner of the lip to the corner of the jawbone, allowing for the fold
of the lip, but with no loose skin to hang down. JAW--The lower jaw
should be about level, or at any rate not project more than the
sixteenth of an inch. NOSE AND NOSTRILS--The bridge of the nose should
be very wide, with a slight ridge where the cartilage joins the bone.
(This is quite a characteristic of the breed.) The nostrils should
be large, wide, and open, giving a blunt look to the nose. A butterfly
or flesh-coloured nose is not objected to in harlequins. EARS--The
ears should be small, set high on the skull, and carried slightly
erect, with the tips falling forward. NECK--Next to the head, the
neck is one of the chief characteristics. It should be long, well
arched, and quite clean and free from loose skin, held well up,
snakelike in carriage, well set in the shoulders, and the junction
of head and neck well defined. SHOULDERS--The shoulders should be
muscular but not loaded, and well sloped back, with the elbows well
under the body, so that, when viewed in front, the dog does not stand
too wide. FORE-LEGS AND FEET--The fore-legs should be perfectly
straight, with big flat bone. The feet large and round, the toes well
arched and close, the nails strong and curved. BODY--The body is very
deep, with ribs well sprung and belly well drawn up. BACK AND
LOINS--The back and loins are strong, the latter slightly arched,
as in the Greyhound. HIND-QUARTERS--The hind-quarters and thighs are
extremely muscular, giving the idea of great strength and galloping
power. The second thigh is long and well developed as in a Greyhound,
and the hocks set low, turning neither out nor in. TAIL--The tail
is strong at the root and ends in a fine point, reaching to or just
below the hocks. It should be carried, when the dog is in action,
in a straight line level with the back, slightly curved towards the
end, but should not curl over the back. COAT--The hair is short and
dense, and sleek-looking, and in no case should it incline to
coarseness. GAIT OR ACTION--The gait should be lithe, springy, and
free, the action high. The hocks should move very freely, and the
head should be held well up. COLOUR--The colours are brindle, fawn,
blue, black, and harlequin. The harlequin should have jet black
patches and spots on a pure white ground; grey patches are admissible
but not desired; but fawn or brindle shades are objectionable.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: MRS. H. HORSFALL'S GREAT DANE CH. VIOLA OF REDGRAVE
Photograph by Coe, Norwich]



CHAPTER VII

THE DALMATIAN


Before the Kennel Club found it necessary to insist upon a precise
definition of each breed, the Dalmatian was known as the Coach Dog,
a name appropriately derived from his fondness for following a
carriage, for living in and about the stable, and for accompanying
his master's horses at exercise. As an adjunct to the carriage he
is peculiarly suitable, for in fine weather he will follow between
the wheels for long distances without showing fatigue, keeping easy
pace with the best horses. He appears almost to prefer equine to
human companionship, and he is as fond of being among horses as the
Collie is of being in the midst of sheep. Yet he is of friendly
disposition, and it must be insisted that he is by no means so
destitute of intelligence as he is often represented to be. On the
contrary, he is capable of being trained into remarkable cleverness,
as circus proprietors have discovered.

The earliest authorities agree that this breed was first introduced
from Dalmatia, and that he was brought into this country purely on
account of his sporting proclivities. Of late years, however, these
dogs have so far degenerated as to be looked upon simply as
companions, or as exhibition dogs, for only very occasionally can it
be found that any pains have been taken to train them systematically
for gun-work.

The first of the variety which appeared in the show ring was Mr. James
Fawdry's Captain, in 1873. At that period they were looked upon as
a novelty, and, though the generosity and influence of a few admirers
ensured separate classes being provided for the breed at the leading
shows, it did not necessitate the production of such perfect specimens
as those which a few years afterwards won prizes. At the first they
were more popular in the North of England than in any other part of
Great Britain. It was at Kirkby Lonsdale that Dr. James's Spotted
Dick was bred, and an early exploiter of the breed who made his dogs
famous was Mr. Newby Wilson, of Lakeside, Windermere. He was indebted
to Mr. Hugo Droesse, of London, for the foundation of his stud,
inasmuch as it was from Mr. Droesse that he purchased Ch. Acrobat
and Ch. Berolina. At a later date the famed Coming Still and Prince
IV. were secured from the same kennel, the latter dog being the
progenitor of most of the best liver-spotted specimens that have
attained notoriety as prize-winners down to the present day.

In appearance the Dalmatian should be very similar to a Pointer except
in head and marking. Still, though not so long in muzzle nor so
pendulous in lip as a Pointer, there should be no coarseness or common
look about the skull, a fault which is much too prevalent. Then,
again, some judges do not attach sufficient importance to the eyelids,
or rather sears, which should invariably be edged round with black
or brown. Those which are flesh-coloured in this particular should
be discarded, however good they may be in other respects. The density
and pureness of colour, in both blacks and browns, is of great
importance, but should not be permitted to outweigh the evenness of
the distribution of spots on the body; no black patches, or even
mingling of the spots, should meet with favour, any more than a
ring-tail or a clumsy-looking, heavy-shouldered dog should command
attention.

The darker-spotted variety usually prevails in a cross between the
two colours, the offspring very seldom having the liver-coloured
markings. The uninitiated may be informed that Dalmatian puppies are
always born pure white. The clearer and whiter they are the better
they are likely to be. There should not be the shadow of a mark or
spot on them. When about a fortnight old, however, they generally
develop a dark ridge on the belly, and the spots will then begin to
show themselves; first about the neck and ears, and afterwards along
the back, until at about the sixteenth day the markings are distinct
over the body, excepting only the tail, which frequently remains white
for a few weeks longer.

The standard of points as laid down by the leading club is
sufficiently explicit to be easily understood, and is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The Dalmatian should represent a strong, muscular,
and active dog, symmetrical in outline, and free from coarseness and
lumber, capable of great endurance combined with a fair amount of
speed. HEAD--The head should be of a fair length; the skull flat,
rather broad between the ears, and moderately well defined at the
temples--_i.e._ exhibiting a moderate amount of stop and not in one
straight line from the nose to the occiput bone as required in a
Bull-terrier. It should be entirely free from wrinkle. MUZZLE--The
muzzle should be long and powerful; the lips clean, fitting the jaws
moderately close. EYES--The eyes should be set moderately well apart,
and of medium size, round, bright, and sparkling, with an intelligent
expression, their colour greatly depending on the markings of the
dog. In the black spotted variety the eyes should be dark (black or
dark brown), in the liver-spotted variety they should be light (yellow
or light brown). THE RIM ROUND THE EYES in the black-spotted variety
should be black, in the liver-spotted variety brown--never flesh-colour
in either. EARS--The ears should be set on rather high, of moderate
size, rather wide at the base, and gradually tapering to a round
point. They should be carried close to the head, be thin and fine
in texture, and always spotted--the more profusely the better.
NOSE--The nose in the black-spotted variety should always be black,
in the liver-spotted variety always brown. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The
neck should be fairly long, nicely arched, light and tapering, and
entirely free from throatiness. The shoulders should be moderately
oblique, clean, and muscular, denoting speed. BODY, BACK, CHEST, AND
LOINS--The chest should not be too wide, but very deep and capacious,
ribs moderately well sprung, never rounded like barrel hoops (which
would indicate want of speed), the back powerful, loin strong,
muscular, and slightly arched. LEGS AND FEET--The legs and feet are
of great importance. The fore-legs should be perfectly straight,
strong, and heavy in bone; elbows close to the body; fore-feet round,
compact with well-arched toes (cat-footed), and round, tough, elastic
pads. In the hind-legs the muscles should be clean, though
well-defined; the hocks well let down. NAILS--The nails in the
black-spotted variety should be black and white in the liver-spotted
variety brown and white. TAIL--The tail should not be too long, strong
at the insertion, and gradually tapering towards the end, free from
coarseness. It should not be inserted too low down, but carried with
a slight curve upwards, and never curled. It should be spotted, the
more profusely the better. COAT--The coat should be short, hard, dense
and fine, sleek and glossy in appearance, but neither woolly nor
silky. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--These are most important points. The
ground colour in both varieties should be pure white, very decided,
and not intermixed. The colour of the spots of the black-spotted
variety should be black, the deeper and richer the black the better;
in the liver-spotted variety they should be brown. The spots should
not intermingle, but be as round and well-defined as possible, the
more distinct the better; in size they should be from that of a
sixpence to a florin. The spots on head, face, ears, legs, tail, and
extremities to be smaller than those on the body. WEIGHT--Dogs,
55 lbs.; bitches, 50 lbs.



CHAPTER VIII

THE COLLIE


The townsman who knows the shepherd's dog only as he is to be seen,
out of his true element, threading his confined way through crowded
streets where sheep are not, can have small appreciation of his wisdom
and his sterling worth. To know him properly, one needs to see him
at work in a country where sheep abound, to watch him adroitly
rounding up his scattered charges on a wide-stretching moorland,
gathering the wandering wethers into close order and driving them
before him in unbroken company to the fold; handling the stubborn
pack in a narrow lane, or holding them in a corner of a field,
immobile under the spell of his vigilant eye. He is at his best as
a worker, conscious of the responsibility reposed in him; a marvel
of generalship, gentle, judicious, slow to anger, quick to action;
the priceless helpmeet of his master--the most useful member of all
the tribe of dogs.

Few dogs possess the fertile, resourceful brain of the Collie. He
can be trained to perform the duties of other breeds. He makes an
excellent sporting dog, and can be taught to do the work of the
Pointer and the Setter, as well as that of the Water Spaniel and the
Retriever. He is clever at hunting, having an excellent nose, is a
good vermin-killer, and a most faithful watch, guard, and companion.
Major Richardson, who for some years has been successful in training
dogs to ambulance work on the field of battle, has carefully tested
the abilities of various breeds in discovering wounded soldiers, and
he gives to the Collie the decided preference.

It is, however, as an assistant to the flock-master the farmer, the
butcher, and the drover that the Collie takes his most appropriate
place in every-day life. The shepherd on his daily rounds, travelling
over miles of moorland, could not well accomplish his task without
his Collie's skilful aid. One such dog, knowing what is expected of
him, can do work which would otherwise require the combined efforts
of a score of men.

Little is known with certainty of the origin of the Collie, but his
cunning and his outward appearance would seem to indicate a
relationship with the wild dog. Buffon was of opinion that he was
the true dog of nature, the stock and model of the whole canine
species. He considered the Sheepdog superior in instinct and
intelligence to all other breeds, and that, with a character in which
education has comparatively little share, he is the only animal born
perfectly trained for the service of man.

One of the most perfect working Collies in Scotland to-day is the
old-fashioned black and white type, which is the most popular among
the shepherds of Scotland. At the shows this type of dog is invariably
at the top of the class. He is considered the most tractable, and is
certainly the most agile. Second to this type in favour is the
smooth-coated variety, a very hard, useful dog, well adapted for hill
work and usually very fleet of foot. He is not so sweet in temper
as the black and white, and is slow to make friends. In the Ettrick
and Yarrow district the smooth is a popular sheepdog. The shepherds
maintain that he climbs the hills more swiftly than the rough, and
in the heavy snowstorms his clean, unfeathered legs do not collect
and carry the snow. He has a fuller coat than the show specimens
usually carry, but he has the same type of head, eye, and ears, only
not so well developed.

Then there is the Scottish bearded, or Highland Collie, less popular
still with the flock-master, a hardy-looking dog in outward style,
but soft in temperament, and many of them make better cattle than
sheep dogs. This dog and the Old English Sheepdog are much alike in
appearance, but that the bearded is a more racy animal, with a head
resembling that of the Dandie Dinmont rather than the square head
of the Bobtail. The strong-limbed bearded Collie is capable of getting
through a good day's work, but is not so steady nor so wise as the
old-fashioned black and white, or even the smooth coated variety.
He is a favourite with the butcher and drover who have sometimes a
herd of troublesome cattle to handle, and he is well suited to rough
and rocky ground, active in movement, and as sure-footed as the wild
goat. He can endure cold and wet without discomfort, and can live on
the Highland hills when others less sturdy would succumb. In the
standard adopted for judging the breed, many points are given for
good legs and feet, bone, body, and coat, while head and ears are
not of great importance. Movement, size, and general appearance have
much weight. The colour is varied in this breed. Cream-coloured
specimens are not uncommon, and snow white with orange or black
markings may often be seen, but the popular colour is grizzly grey.
Unfortunately the coats of many are far too soft and the undercoat
is frequently absent.

Working trials to test the skill of the sheepdog have become frequent
fixtures among shepherds and farmers within recent years, and these
competitions have done much towards the improvement of the working
qualities of the Collie. In general the excelling competitors at
working trials are the rough-coated black and white Collies. The
smooth-coated variety and the Beardie are less frequent winners. The
handsome and distinguished gentlemen of the Ch. Wishaw Leader type
are seldom seen on the trial field, although formerly such a dog as
Ch. Ormskirk Charlie might be successfully entered with others equally
well bred from the kennels of that good trainer and fancier, Mr.
Piggin, of Long Eaton. A good working Collie, however, is not always
robed in elegance. What is desirable is that the shepherd and farmer
should fix a standard of points, and breed as near as possible to
that standard, as the keepers of the show Collie breed to an
acknowledged type of perfection. Nevertheless, from a bad worker of
good descent many an efficient worker might be produced by proper
mating, and those of us skilled in the breeding of Collies know the
importance of a well-considered process of selection from unsullied
strains.

It is a pity that the hard-working dog of the shepherd does not
receive the attention in the way of feeding and grooming that is
bestowed on the ornamental show dog. He is too often neglected in
these particulars. Notwithstanding this neglect, however, the average
life of the working dog is longer by a year or two than that of his
more beautiful cousin. Pampering and artificial living are not to
be encouraged; but, on the other hand, neglect has the same effect
of shortening the span of life, and bad feeding and inattention to
cleanliness provoke the skin diseases which are far too prevalent.

There is not a more graceful and physically beautiful dog to be seen
than the show Collie of the present period. Produced from the old
working type, he is now practically a distinct breed. His qualities
in the field are not often tested, but he is a much more handsome
and attractive animal, and his comeliness will always win for him
many admiring friends. The improvements in his style and appearance
have been alleged to be due to an admixture with Gordon Setter blood.
In the early years of exhibitions he showed the shorter head, heavy
ears, and much of the black and tan colouring which might seem to
justify such a supposition; but there is no evidence that the cross
was ever purposely sought. Gradually the colour was lightened to sable
and a mingling of black, white, and tan came into favour. The shape
of the head was also improved. These improvements in beauty of form
and colour have been largely induced by the many Collie clubs now
in existence not only in the United Kingdom and America, but also
in South Africa and Germany, by whom the standards of points have
been perfected. Type has been enhanced, the head with the small
ornamental ears that now prevail is more classical; and scientific
cultivation and careful selection of typical breeding stock have
achieved what may be considered the superlative degree of quality,
without appreciable loss of stamina, size, or substance.

Twenty years or so ago, when Collies were becoming fashionable, the
rich sable coat with long white mane was in highest request. In 1888
Ch. Metchley Wonder captivated his admirers by these rich qualities.
He was the first Collie for which a very high purchase price was paid,
Mr. Sam Boddington having sold him to Mr. A. H. Megson, of Manchester,
for P530. High prices then became frequent. Mr. Megson paid as much
as P1,600 to Mr. Tom Stretch for Ormskirk Emerald. No Collie has had
a longer or more brilliant career than Emerald, and although he was
not esteemed as a successful sire, yet he was certainly the greatest
favourite among our show dogs of recent years.

Mr. Megson has owned many other good specimens of the breed, both
rough and smooth. In the same year that he bought Metchley Wonder,
he gave P350 for a ten-months' puppy, Caractacus. Sable and white
is his favourite combination of colour, a fancy which was shared some
years ago by the American buyers, who would have nothing else. Black,
tan, and white became more popular in England, and while there is
now a good market for these in the United States the sable and white
remains the favourite of the American buyers and breeders.

The best Collie of modern times was undoubtedly Ch. Squire of Tytton,
which went to America for P1,250. A golden sable with quality, nice
size, and profuse coat, he had an unbeaten record in this country.
Another of our best and most typical rough Collies was Ch. Wishaw
Leader. This beautiful dog, who had a most distinguished show career,
was a well-made black, tan, and white, with an enormous coat and
beautiful flowing white mane; one of the most active movers,
displaying quality all through, and yet having plenty of substance.
He had that desirable distinction of type which is so often lacking
in our long-headed Collies. Ormskirk Emerald's head was of good length
and well balanced, the skull sufficiently flat; his eye was
almond-shaped and dark-brown in colour, his expression keen and wise,
entirely free from the soft look which we see on many of the faces
to-day. Historical examples of the show Collie have also been seen
in Champions Christopher, Anfield Model, Sappho of Tytton, Parbold
Piccolo, and Woodmanstern Tartan.

In recent years the smooth Collie has gained in popularity quite as
certainly as his more amply attired relative. Originally he was a
dog produced by mating the old-fashioned black and white with the
Greyhound. But the Greyhound type, which was formerly very marked,
can scarcely be discerned to-day. Still, it is not infrequent that
a throw-back is discovered in a litter producing perhaps a
slate-coloured, a pure, white, or a jet black individual, or that
an otherwise perfect smooth Collie should betray the heavy ears or
the eye of a Greyhound. At one time this breed of dog was much
cultivated in Scotland, but nowadays the breeding of smooths is
almost wholly confined to the English side of the Border.

[Illustration: MR. R. A. TAIT'S COLLIE CH. WISHAW LEADER Photograph
by C. Reid, Wishaw]

The following is the accepted description of the Perfect Collie:--

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SKULL should be flat, moderately wide between the ears, and
gradually tapering towards the eyes. There should only be a slight
depression at stop. The width of skull necessarily depends upon
combined length of skull and muzzle; and the whole must be considered
in connection with the size of the dog. The cheek should not be full
or prominent. THE MUZZLE should be of fair length, tapering to the
nose, and must not show weakness or be snipy or lippy. Whatever the
colour of the dog may be, the nose must be black. THE TEETH should
be of good size, sound and level; very slight unevenness is
permissible. THE JAWS--Clean cut and powerful. THE EYES are a very
important feature, and give expression to the dog; they should be
of medium size, set somewhat obliquely, of almond shape, and of a
brown colour except in the case of merles, when the eyes are
frequently (one or both) blue and white or china; expression full
of intelligence, with a quick alert look when listening. THE EARS
should be small and moderately wide at the base, and placed not too
close together but on the top of the skull and not on the side of
the head. When in repose they should be usually carried thrown back,
but when on the alert brought forward and carried semi-erect, with
tips slightly drooping in attitude of listening. THE NECK should be
muscular, powerful and of fair length, and somewhat arched. THE BODY
should be strong, with well sprung ribs, chest deep, fairly broad
behind the shoulders, which should be sloped, loins very powerful.
The dog should be straight in front. THE FORE-LEGS should be straight
and muscular, neither in nor out at elbows, with a fair amount of
bone; the forearm somewhat fleshy, the pasterns showing flexibility
without weakness. THE HIND-LEGS should be muscular at the thighs,
clean and sinewy below the hocks, with well bent stifles. THE FEET
should be oval in shape, soles well padded, and the toes arched and
close together. The hind feet less arched, the hocks well let down
and powerful. THE BRUSH should be moderately long carried low when
the dog is quiet, with a slight upward "swirl" at the end, and may
be gaily carried when the dog is excited, but not over the back. THE
COAT should be very dense, the outer coat harsh to the touch, the
inner or under coat soft, furry, and very close, so close as almost
to hide the skin. The mane and frill should be very abundant, the
mask or face smooth, as also the ears at the tips, but they should
carry more hair towards the base; the fore-legs well feathered, the
hind-legs above the hocks profusely so; but below the hocks fairly
smooth, although all heavily coated Collies are liable to grow a
slight feathering. Hair on the brush very profuse. COLOUR in the
Collie is immaterial. IN GENERAL CHARACTER he is a lithe active dog,
his deep chest showing lung power, his neck strength, his sloping
shoulders and well bent hocks indicating speed, and his expression
high intelligence. He should be a fair length on the leg, giving him
more of a racy than a cloddy appearance. In a few words, a Collie
should show endurance, activity, and intelligence, with free and true
action. In height dogs should be 22 ins. to 24 ins. at the shoulders,
bitches 20 ins. to 22 ins. The weight for dogs is 45 to 65 lbs.,
bitches 40 to 55 lbs. THE SMOOTH COLLIE only differs from the rough
in its coat, which should be hard, dense and quite smooth. THE MAIN
FAULTS to be avoided are a domed skull, high peaked occipital bone,
heavy, pendulous or pricked ears, weak jaws, snipy muzzle, full
staring or light eyes, crooked legs, large, flat or hare feet, curly
or soft coat, cow hocks, and brush twisted or carried right over the
back, under or overshot mouth.



CHAPTER IX

THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEPDOG


Intelligent and picturesque, workmanlike and affectionate, the Old
English Sheepdog combines, in his shaggy person, the attributes at
once of a drover's drudge and of an ideal companion. Although the
modern dog is seen less often than of old performing his legitimate
duties as a shepherd dog, there is no ground whatever for supposing
that he is a whit less sagacious than the mongrels which have largely
supplanted him. The instincts of the race remain unchanged; but the
mongrel certainly comes cheaper.

Carefully handled in his youth, the bob-tail is unequalled as a stock
dog, and he is equally at home and efficient in charge of sheep, of
cattle, and of New Forest ponies. So deep-rooted is the natural
herding instinct of the breed that it is a thousand pities that the
modern shepherd so frequently puts up with an inferior animal in place
of the genuine article.

Nor is it as a shepherd dog alone that the bob-tail shines in the
field. His qualifications as a sporting dog are excellent, and he
makes a capital retriever, being usually under excellent control,
generally light-mouthed, and taking very readily to water. His
natural inclination to remain at his master's heel and his exceptional
sagacity and quickness of perception will speedily develop him, in
a sportsman's hands, into a first-rate dog to shoot over.

These points in his favour should never be lost sight of, because
his increasing popularity on the show bench is apt to mislead many
of his admirers into the belief that he is an ornamental rather than
a utility dog. Nothing could be further from the fact. Nevertheless,
he has few equals as a house dog, being naturally cleanly in his
habits, affectionate in his disposition, an admirable watch, and an
extraordinarily adaptable companion.

As to his origin, there is considerable conflict of opinion, owing
to the natural difficulty of tracing him back to that period when
the dog-fancier, as he flourishes to-day, was all unknown, and the
voluminous records of a watchful Kennel Club were still undreamed
of. From time immemorial a sheepdog, of one kind or another, has
presided over the welfare of flocks and herds in every land. Probably,
in an age less peaceable than ours, this canine guardian was called
upon, in addition to his other duties, to protect his charges from
wolves and bears and other marauders. In that case it is very possible
that the early progenitors of the breed were built upon a larger and
more massive scale than is the sheepdog of to-day.

The herd dogs of foreign countries, such as the Calabrian of the
Pyrenees, the Himalayan drover's dog, and the Russian Owtchah, are
all of them massive and powerful animals, far larger and fiercer than
our own, though each of them, and notably the Owtchah, has many points
in common with the English bob-tail. It is quite possible that all
of them may trace their origin, at some remote period, to the same
ancestral strain. Indeed, it is quite open to argument that the
founders of our breed, as it exists to-day, were imported into England
at some far-off date when the duties of a sheepdog demanded of him
fighting qualities no longer necessary.

Throughout the nineteenth century, one finds conclusive evidence that
the breed was very fairly represented in many parts of England,
notably in Suffolk, Hampshire, and Dorsetshire, and also in Wales.
Youatt writes of it in 1845, Richardson in 1847, and "Stonehenge"
in 1859. Their descriptions vary a little, though the leading
characteristics are much the same, but each writer specially notes
the exceptional sagacity of the breed.

The dog was well known in Scotland, too, under the title of the
Bearded Collie, for there is little doubt that this last is merely
a variant of the breed. He differs, in point of fact, chiefly by
reason of possessing a tail, the amputation of which is a recognised
custom in England.

With regard to this custom, it is said that the drovers originated
it. Their dogs, kept for working purposes, were immune from taxation,
and they adopted this method of distinguishing the animals thus
exempted. It has been argued, by disciples of the Darwinian theory
of inherited effects from continued mutilations, that a long process
of breeding from tailless animals has resulted in producing puppies
naturally bob-tailed, and it is difficult, on any other hypothesis,
to account for the fact that many puppies are so born. It is certainly
a fact that one or two natural bob-tails are frequently found in a
litter of which the remainder are duly furnished with well-developed
tails.

From careful consideration of the weight of evidence, it seems
unlikely that the breed was originally a tailless one, but the modern
custom undoubtedly accentuates its picturesqueness by bringing into
special prominence the rounded shaggy quarters and the characteristic
bear-like gait which distinguish the Old English Sheepdog.

Somewhere about the 'sixties there would appear to have been a revival
of interest in the bob-tail's welfare, and attempts were made to bring
him into prominence. In 1873 his admirers succeeded in obtaining for
him a separate classification at a recognised show, and at the Curzon
Hall, at Birmingham, in that year three temerarious competitors
appeared to undergo the ordeal of expert judgment. It was an
unpromising beginning, for Mr. M. B. Wynn, who officiated found their
quality so inferior that he contented himself with awarding a second
prize.

But from this small beginning important results were to spring, and
the Old English Sheepdog has made great strides in popularity since
then. At Clerkenwell, in 1905, the entries in his classes reached
a total of over one hundred, and there was no gainsaying the quality.

This satisfactory result is due in no small measure to the initiative
of the Old English Sheepdog Club, a society founded in 1888, with
the avowed intention of promoting the breeding of the old-fashioned
English Sheepdog, and of giving prizes at various shows held under
Kennel Club Rules.

The pioneers of this movement, so far as history records their names,
were Dr. Edwardes-Ker, an enthusiast both in theory and in practice,
from whose caustic pen dissentients were wont to suffer periodical
castigation; Mr. W. G. Weager, who has held office in the club for
some twenty years; Mrs. Mayhew, who capably held her own amongst her
fellow-members of the sterner sex; Mr. Freeman Lloyd, who wrote an
interesting pamphlet on the breed in 1889; and Messrs. J. Thomas and
Parry Thomas.

Theirs can have been no easy task at the outset, for it devolved upon
them to lay down, in a succinct and practical form, leading principles
for the guidance of future enthusiasts. It runs thus:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A strong, compact-looking dog of great symmetry,
absolutely free from legginess, profusely coated all over, very
elastic in its gallop, but in walking or trotting he has a
characteristic ambling or pacing movement, and his bark should be
loud, with a peculiar _pot casse_ ring in it. Taking him all round,
he is a thick-set, muscular, able-bodied dog, with a most intelligent
expression, free from all _Poodle_ or _Deerhound_ character.
SKULL--Capacious, and rather squarely formed, giving plenty of room
for brain power. The parts over the eyes should be well arched and
the whole well covered with hair. JAW--Fairly long, strong, square
and truncated; the stop should be defined to avoid a Deerhound face.
_The attention of judges is particularly called to the above
properties, as a long, narrow head is a deformity_. EYES--Vary
according to the colour of the dog, but dark or wall eyes are to be
preferred. NOSE--Always black, large, and capacious. TEETH--Strong
and large, evenly placed, and level in opposition. EARS--Small, and
carried flat to side of head, coated moderately. LEGS--The fore-legs
should be dead straight, with plenty of bone, removing the body to
a medium height from the ground, without approaching legginess; well
coated all round. FEET--Small, round; toes well arched and pads thick
and hard. TAIL--Puppies requiring docking must have an appendage left
of one and a half to two inches and the operation performed when not
older than four days. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck should be fairly
long, arched gracefully, and well coated with hair; the shoulders
sloping and narrow at the points, the dog standing lower at the
shoulder than at the loin. BODY--Rather short and very compact, ribs
well sprung, and brisket deep and capacious. The loin should be very
stout and gently arched, while the hind-quarters should be round and
muscular, and with well let down hocks, and the hams densely coated
with a thick long jacket in excess of any other part. COAT--Profuse,
and of good hard texture, not straight but shaggy and free from curl.
The undercoat should be a waterproof pile, when not removed by
grooming or season. COLOUR--Any shade of grey, grizzle, blue or
blue-merled, with or without white markings, or in reverse; any shade
of brown or sable to be considered distinctly objectionable and not
to be encouraged. HEIGHT--Twenty-two inches and upwards for dogs,
slightly less for bitches. Type, character, and symmetry are of the
greatest importance, and on no account to be sacrificed to size alone.

       *       *       *       *       *

Turning to the questions of care and kennel management, we may start
with the puppy. It is obvious that where bone and substance are
matters of special desirability, it is essential to build up in the
infant what is to be expected of the adult. For this reason it is
a great mistake to allow the dam to bring up too many by herself.
To about six or seven she can do justice, but a healthy bitch not
infrequently gives birth to a dozen or more. Under such circumstances
the services of a foster-mother are a cheap investment. By dividing
the litter the weaklings may be given a fair chance in the struggle
for existence, otherwise they receive scant consideration from their
stronger brethren.

At three or four days old the tails should be removed, as near the
rump as possible. The operation is easy to perform, and if done with
a sharp, clean instrument there is no danger of after ill effects.

If the mother be kept on a very liberal diet, it will usually be found
that she will do all that is necessary for her family's welfare for
the first three weeks, by which time the pups have increased
prodigiously in size. They are then old enough to learn to lap for
themselves, an accomplishment which they very speedily acquire.
Beginning with fresh cow's milk for a week, their diet may be
gradually increased to Mellin's or Benger's food, and later to gruel
and Quaker Oats, their steadily increasing appetites being catered
for by the simple exercise of commonsense. Feed them little and often,
about five times a day, and encourage them to move about as much as
possible; and see that they never go hungry, without allowing them
to gorge. Let them play until they tire, and sleep until they hunger
again, and they will be found to thrive and grow with surprising
rapidity. At six weeks old they can fend for themselves, and shortly
afterwards additions may be made to their diet in the shape of
paunches, carefully cleaned and cooked, and Spratt's Puppy Rodnim.
A plentiful supply of fresh milk is still essential. Gradually the
number of their meals may be decreased, first to four a day, and later
on to three, until at six months old they verge on adolescence; and
may be placed upon the rations of the adult dog, two meals a day.

Meanwhile, the more fresh air and sunshine, exercise, and freedom
they receive, the better will they prosper, but care must be taken
that they are never allowed to get wet. Their sleeping-place
especially must be thoroughly dry, well ventilated, and scrupulously
clean.

As to the adult dog, his needs are three: he must be well fed, well
housed, and well exercised. Two meals a day suffice him, but he likes
variety, and the more his fare can be diversified the better will
he do justice to it. Biscuits, Rodnim, Flako, meat, vegetables,
paunches, and sheep's heads, with an occasional big bone to gnaw,
provide unlimited change, and the particular tastes of individuals
should be learned and catered for.

As to the bob-tail's kennel, there is no need whatever for a
high-priced fancy structure. Any weatherproof building will do,
provided it be well ventilated and free from draughts. In very cold
weather a bed of clean wheat straw is desirable, in summer the bare
boards are best. In all weathers cleanliness is an absolute essential,
and a liberal supply of fresh water should be always available.

Grooming is an important detail in a breed whose picturesqueness
depends so largely on the profuseness of their shaggy coats, but there
is a general tendency to overdo it. A good stiff pair of dandy brushes
give the best results, but the coats must not be allowed to mat or
tangle, which they have a tendency to do if not properly attended
to. Mats and tangles, if taken in time, can generally be teased out
with the fingers, and it is the greatest mistake to try and drag them
out with combs. These last should be used as little as possible, and
only with the greatest care when necessary at all. An over-groomed
bob-tail loses half his natural charm. Far preferable is a muddy,
matted, rough-and-tumble-looking customer, with his coat as Nature
left it.



CHAPTER X

THE CHOW CHOW


The Chow Chow is a dog of great versatility. He is a born sportsman
and loves an open-air life--a warrior, always ready to accept battle,
but seldom provoking it. He has a way of his own with tramps, and
seldom fails to induce them to continue their travels. Yet withal
he is tender-hearted, a friend of children, an ideal companion, and
often has a clever gift for parlour tricks. In China, his fatherland,
he is esteemed for another quality--his excellence as a substitute
for roast mutton.

Though in his own country he is regarded as plebeian, just a common
cur, he is by no means a mongrel. That he is of ancient lineage is
proved by the fact that he always breeds true to type. He yields to
the Pekinese Spaniel the claim to be the Royal dog of China, yet his
blood must be of the bluest. If you doubt it, look at his tongue.

Outwardly, the Chow worthily embodies the kind, faithful heart and
the brave spirit within. His compact body (weighing 40 lbs. or more),
with the beautiful fur coat and ruff, the plume tail turned over on
his back and almost meeting his neck-ruff, the strong, straight legs
and neat, catlike feet, gives an impression of symmetry, power, and
alertness. His handsome face wears a "scowl." This is the technical
term for the "no nonsense" look which deters strangers from undue
familiarity, though to friends his expression is kindness itself.

Though the Chow has many perfections, the perfect Chow has not yet
arrived. He nearly came with Ch. Chow VIII.--long since dead,
alas!--and with Ch. Fu Chow, the best Chow now living, his light
coloured eyes being his only defect. With many judges, however, this
dog's black coat handicaps him sadly in competition with his red
brethren. Chow VIII. is considered the best and most typical dog ever
benched, notwithstanding his somewhat round eyes. Almond eyes are
of course correct in Chinamen. Ch. Red Craze owns the head which is
perfect with the correct ear-carriage and broad muzzle, and the scowl
and characteristic expression of a good Chow.

Dark red is the accepted colour of the Chow. Modern judges will not
look twice at a light or parti-coloured dog, and it is to be feared
that if even Ch. Chow VIII. could revisit the scenes of his bygone
triumphs, his beautiful light markings would prove a fatal bar to
his success. The judges would be quite wrong, but if you want a dog
for show you must be sure to get a good whole-coloured dark red. If,
on the other hand, you have a Chow as a companion and friend, do not
be at all troubled if his ruff, yoke, culottes and tail are white
or cream-coloured. These are natural, correct and typical marks,
though present-day fanciers are trying to "improve" them away.

A list of points as drawn up by the Chow Chow Club some years ago
is added. The points are fairly right, but the tongue of a live Chow
is never black. It should be blue, such a colour as might result from
a diet of bilberries.

       *       *       *       *       *

POINTS OF THE CHOW CHOW: HEAD--Skull flat and broad, with little stop,
well filled out under the eyes. MUZZLE--Moderate in length, and broad
from the eyes to the point (not pointed at the end like a fox).
NOSE--Black, large and wide. (In cream or light-coloured specimens,
a pink nose is allowable.) TONGUE--Black. EYES--Dark and small. (In
a blue dog light colour is permissible.) EARS--Small, pointed, and
carried stiffly erect. They should be placed well forward over the
eyes, which gives the dog the peculiar characteristic expression of
the breed--viz., a sort of scowl. TEETH--Strong and level.
NECK--Strong, full, set well on the shoulders, and slightly arched.
SHOULDERS--Muscular and sloping. CHEST--Broad and deep. BACK--Short,
straight, and strong. LOINS--Powerful. TAIL--Curled tightly over the
back. FORE-LEGS--Perfectly straight, of moderate length, and with
great bone. HIND-LEGS--Same as fore-legs, muscular and with hocks
well let down. FEET--Small, round and catlike, standing well on the
toes. COAT--Abundant, dense, straight, and rather coarse in texture,
with a soft woolly undercoat. COLOUR--Whole-coloured black, red,
yellow, blue, white, etc., not in patches (the under part of tail
and back of thighs frequently of a lighter colour). GENERAL
APPEARANCE--A lively, compact, short coupled dog, well-knit in frame,
with tail curled well over the back. DISQUALIFYING POINTS--Drop ears,
red tongue, tail not curled over back, white spots on coat, and red
nose, except in yellow or white specimens.

N.B.--Smooth Chows are governed by the same scale of points, except
that the coat is smooth.

       *       *       *       *       *

As to the weight, bitches scale about 30 lbs., but dogs are heavier.
Ch. Shylock weighed 47-3/4 lbs., and Red Craze 38 lbs.



CHAPTER XI

THE POODLE


The Poodle is commonly acknowledged to be the most wisely intelligent
of all members of the canine race. He is a scholar and a gentleman;
but, in spite of his claims of long descent and his extraordinary
natural cleverness, he has never been widely popular in this country
as the Collie and the Fox-Terrier are popular. There is a general
belief that he is a fop, whose time is largely occupied in personal
embellishment, and that he requires a great deal of individual
attention in the matter of his toilet. It may be true that to keep
him in exhibition order and perfect cleanliness his owner has need
to devote more consideration to him than is necessary in the case
of many breeds; but in other respects he gives very little trouble,
and all who are attached to him are consistent in their opinion that
there is no dog so intensely interesting and responsive as a
companion. His qualities of mind and his acute powers of reasoning
are indeed so great that there is something almost human in his
attractiveness and his devotion. His aptitude in learning is never
denied, and many are the stories told of his marvellous talent and
versatility.

Not merely as a showman's dog has he distinguished himself. He is
something more than a mountebank of the booths, trained to walk the
tight rope and stand on his head. He is an adept at performing tricks,
but it is his alertness of brain that places him apart from other
animals. There is the example of the famous Munito, who in 1818
perplexed the Parisians by his cleverness with playing cards and his
intricate arithmetical calculations. Paris was formerly the home of
most of the learned Poodles, and one remembers the instance of the
Poodle of the Pont Neuf, who had the habit of dirtying the boots of
the passers-by in order that his master--a shoe-black stationed
half-way across the bridge--might enjoy the profit of cleaning them.
In Belgium Poodles were systematically trained to smuggle valuable
lace, which was wound round their shaven bodies and covered with a
false skin. These dogs were schooled to a dislike of all men in
uniform, and consequently on their journey between Mechlin and the
coast they always gave a wide berth to the Customs officers. On the
Continent Poodles of the larger kind are often used for draught work.

There can be little doubt that the breed originated in Germany, where
it is known as the _Pudel_, and classed as the _Canis familiaris
Aquaticus_. In form and coat he would seem to be closely related to
the old Water-dog, and the resemblance between a brown Poodle and
an Irish Water Spaniel is remarkable. The Poodle is no longer regarded
as a sporting dog, but at one period he was trained to retrieve
waterfowl, and he still on occasion displays an eager fondness for
the water.

Throughout Europe and in the United States--wherever these dogs are
kept--it is usual to clip the coat on the face, the legs, and the
hinder part of the body, leaving tufts of hair on the thighs and a
ring of hair on the pasterns. The origin and purpose of the custom
are not apparent, but now that Poodles are almost always kept as house
dogs, this mode of ornamentation at least commends itself by reducing
the labour of daily grooming if the coat is to be maintained in good
condition and the dog to be a pleasant associate.

The profuse and long coat of this dog has the peculiarity that if
not kept constantly brushed out it twists up into little cords which
increase in length as the new hair grows and clings about it. The
unshed old hair and the new growth entwined together thus become
distinct rope-like cords. Eventually, if these cords are not cut
short, or accidentally torn off, they drag along the ground, and so
prevent the poor animal from moving with any degree of comfort or
freedom. Some few owners, who admire and cultivate these long cords,
keep them tied up in bundles on the dog's back, but so unnatural and
unsightly a method of burdening the animal is not to be commended.

Corded Poodles are very showy, and from the remarkable appearance
of the coat, attract a great deal of public attention when exhibited
at shows; but they have lost popularity among most fanciers, and have
become few in number owing to the obvious fact that it is impossible
to make pets of them or keep them in the house. The reason of this
is that the coat must, from time to time, be oiled in order to keep
the cords supple and prevent them from snapping, and, of course, as
their coats cannot be brushed, the only way of keeping the dog clean
is to wash him, which with a corded Poodle is a lengthy and laborious
process. Further, the coat takes hours to dry, and unless the newly
washed dog be kept in a warm room he is very liable to catch cold.
The result is, that the coats of corded Poodles are almost invariably
dirty, and somewhat smelly.

At one time it was suggested that cordeds and non-cordeds were two
distinct breeds, but it is now generally accepted that the coat of
every well-bred Poodle will, if allowed, develop cords.

Curly Poodles, on the other hand, have advanced considerably in
favour. Their coats should be kept regularly brushed and combed and,
if washed occasionally, they will always be smart and clean, and
pleasant companions in the house.

The four colours usually considered correct are black, white, brown,
and blue. White Poodles are considered the most intelligent, and it
is certain that professional trainers of performing dogs prefer the
white variety. The black come next in the order of intelligence, and
easily surpass the brown and blue, which are somewhat lacking in true
Poodle character.

No strict lines are drawn as regards brown, and all shades ranging
from cream to dark brown are classed as brown. Mrs. Robert Long a
few years ago startled her fellow-enthusiasts by exhibiting some
parti-coloured specimens; but they were regarded as freaks, and did
not become popular.

The points to be looked for in choosing a Poodle are, that he should
be a lively, active dog, with a long, fine head, a dark oval eye,
with a bright alert expression, short in the back, not leggy, but
by no means low on the ground, with a good loin, carrying his tail
well up; the coat should be profuse, all one colour, very curly, and
rather wiry to the touch.

If you buy a Poodle puppy you will find it like other intelligent
and active youngsters, full of mischief. The great secret in
training him is first to gain his affection. With firmness, kindness,
and perseverance, you can then teach him almost anything. The most
lively and excitable dogs are usually the easiest to train. It is
advantageous to teach your dog when you give him his meal of biscuit,
letting him have the food piece by piece as a reward when each trick
is duly performed. Never attempt to teach him two new tricks at a
time, and when instructing him in a new trick let him always go
through his old ones first. Make it an invariable rule never to be
beaten by him. If--as frequently is the case with your dogs--he
declines to perform a trick, do not pass it over or allow him to
substitute another he likes better; but, when you see he obstinately
refuses, punish him by putting away the coveted food for an hour or
two. If he once sees he can tire you out you will have no further
authority over him, while if you are firm he will not hold out against
you long. It is a bad plan to make a dog repeat too frequently a trick
which he obviously dislikes, and insistence on your part may do great
harm. The Poodle is exceptionally sensitive, and is far more
efficiently taught when treated as a sensible being rather than as
a mere quadrupedal automaton. He will learn twice as quickly if his
master can make him understand the reason for performing a task. The
whip is of little use when a lesson is to be taught, as the dog will
probably associate his tasks with a thrashing and go through them
in that unwilling, cowed, tail-between-legs fashion which too often
betrays the unthinking hastiness of the master, and is the chief
reason why the Poodle has sometimes been regarded as a spiritless
coward.

The Poodle bitch makes a good mother, rarely giving trouble in
whelping, and the puppies are not difficult to rear. Their chief
dangers are gastritis and congestion of the lungs, which can be
avoided with careful treatment. It should be remembered that the dense
coat of the Poodle takes a long time to dry after being wetted, and
that if the dog has been out in the rain, and got his coat soaked,
or if he has been washed or allowed to jump into a pond, you must
take care not to leave him in a cold place or to lie inactive before
he is perfectly dry.

Most Poodles are kept in the house or in enclosed kennels, well
protected from draught and moisture, and there is no difficulty in
so keeping them, as they are naturally obedient and easily taught
to be clean in the house and to be regular in their habits.

The coat of a curly Poodle should be kept fleecy and free from tangle
by being periodically combed and brushed. The grooming keeps the skin
clean and healthy, and frequent washing, even for a white dog, is
not necessary. The dog will, of course, require clipping from time
to time. In Paris at present it is the fashion to clip the greater
part of the body and hind-quarters, but the English Poodle Club
recommends that the coat be left on as far down the body as the last
rib, and it is also customary with us to leave a good deal of coat
on the hind-quarters.

Probably the best-known Poodle of his day in this country was Ch.
The Model, a black corded dog belonging to Mr. H. A. Dagois, who
imported him from the Continent. Model was a medium-sized dog, very
well proportioned, and with a beautifully moulded head and dark,
expressive eyes, and I believe was only once beaten in the show ring.
He died some few years ago at a ripe old age, but a great many of
the best-known Poodles of the present day claim relationship to him.
One of his most famous descendants was Ch. The Joker, also black
corded, who was very successful at exhibitions. Another very handsome
dog was Ch. Vladimir, again a black corded, belonging to Miss
Haulgrave.

Since 1905 the curly Poodles have very much improved, and the best
specimens of the breed are now to be found in their ranks. Ch. Orchard
Admiral, the property of Mrs. Crouch, a son of Ch. The Joker and Lady
Godiva, is probably the best specimen living. White Poodles, of which
Mrs. Crouch's Orchard White Boy is a notable specimen, ought to be
more widely kept than they are, but it must be admitted that the task
of keeping a full-sized white Poodle's coat clean in a town is no
light one.

Toy White Poodles, consequently, are very popular. The toy variety
should not exceed fifteen inches in height at the shoulder, and in
all respects should be a miniature of the full-sized dog, with the
same points.

       *       *       *       *       *

POINTS OF THE PERFECT POODLE: GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a very
active, intelligent, and elegant-looking dog, well built, and carrying
himself very proudly. HEAD--Long, straight, and fine, the skull not
broad, with a slight peak at the back. MUZZLE--Long (but not snipy)
and strong--not full in cheek; teeth white, strong, and level; gums
black, lips black and not showing lippiness. EYES--Almond shaped,
very dark, full of fire and intelligence. NOSE--Black and sharp.
EARS--The leather long and wide, low set on, hanging close to the
face. NECK--Well proportioned and strong, to admit of the head being
carried high and with dignity. SHOULDERS--Strong and muscular, sloping
well to the back. CHEST--Deep and moderately wide. BACK--Short,
strong, and slightly hollowed, the loins broad and muscular, the ribs
well sprung and braced up. FEET--Rather small, and of good shape,
the toes well arched, pads thick and hard. LEGS--Fore-legs set
straight from shoulder, with plenty of bone and muscle. Hind-legs
very muscular and well bent, with the hocks well let down. TAIL--Set
on rather high, well carried, never curled or carried over back.
COAT--Very profuse, and of good hard texture; if corded, hanging in
tight, even cords; if non-corded, very thick and strong, of even
length, the curls close and thick, without knots or cords.
COLOURS--All black, all white, all red, all blue. THE WHITE POODLE
should have dark eyes, black or very dark liver nose, lips, and
toe-nails. THE RED POODLE should have dark amber eyes, dark liver
nose, lips, and toe-nails. THE BLUE POODLE should be of even colour,
and have dark eyes, lips, and toe-nails. All the other points of
White, Red, and Blue poodles should be the same as the perfect Black
Poodle.

N.B.--It is strongly recommended that only one-third of the body be
clipped or shaved, and that the hair on the forehead be left on.



CHAPTER XII

THE SCHIPPERKE


The Schipperke may fitly be described as the Paul Pry of canine
society. His insatiate inquisitiveness induces him to poke his nose
into everything; every strange object excites his curiosity, and he
will, if possible, look behind it; the slightest noise arouses his
attention, and he wants to investigate its cause. There is no end
to his liveliness, but he moves about with almost catlike agility
without upsetting any objects in a room, and when he hops he has a
curious way of catching up his hind legs. The Schipperke's disposition
is most affectionate, tinged with a good deal of jealousy, and even
when made one of the household he generally attaches himself more
particularly to one person, whom he "owns," and whose protection he
deems his special duty.

These qualities endear the Schipperke as a canine companion, with
a quaint and lovable character; and he is also a capital vermin dog.
When properly entered he cannot be surpassed as a "ratter."

Schipperkes have always been kept as watch-dogs on the Flemish canal
barges, and that, no doubt, is the origin of the name, which is the
Flemish for "Little Skipper," the syllable "ke" forming the diminutive
of "schipper."

The respectable antiquity of this dog is proved by the result of the
researches Mr. Van der Snickt and Mr. Van Buggenhoudt made in the
archives of Flemish towns, which contain records of the breed going
back in pure type over a hundred years.

The first Schipperke which appeared at a show in this country was
Mr. Berrie's Flo. This was, however, such a mediocre specimen that
it did not appeal to the taste of the English dog-loving public. In
1888 Dr. Seelig brought over Skip, Drieske, and Mia. The first-named
was purchased by Mr. E. B. Joachim, and the two others by Mr. G. R.
Krehl. Later on Mr. Joachim became the owner of Mr. Green's Shtoots,
and bought Fritz of Spa in Belgium, and these dogs formed the nucleus
of the two kennels which laid the foundation of the breed in England.

It was probably the introduction of the Schipperke to England that
induced Belgian owners to pay greater attention to careful breeding,
and a club was started in 1888 in Brussels, whose members, after "long
and earnest consideration," settled a description and standard of
points for the breed.

Not long afterwards the Schipperke Club (England) was inaugurated,
and drew up the following standard of points, which was adopted in
December, 1890, and differed only very slightly from the one
acknowledged by the Belgian society and later by the St. Hubert
Schipperke Club.

       *       *       *       *       *

STANDARD OF POINTS OF THE SCHIPPERKE CLUB, ENGLAND: HEAD--Foxy in
type; skull should not be round, but broad, and with little stop.
The muzzle should be moderate in length, fine but not weak, should
be well filled out under the eyes. NOSE--Black and small.
EYES--Dark brown, small, more oval than round, and not full; bright,
and full of expression. EARS--Shape: Of moderate length, not too
broad at the base, tapering to a point. Carriage: Stiffly erect,
and when in that position the inside edge to form as near as possible
a right angle with the skull and strong enough not to be bent
otherwise than lengthways. TEETH--Strong and level. NECK--Strong and
full, rather short, set broad on the shoulders and slightly arched.
SHOULDERS--Muscular and sloping. CHEST--Broad and deep in brisket.
BACK--Short, straight, and strong. LOINS--Powerful, well drawn up
from the brisket. FORE-LEGS--Perfectly straight, well under the body,
with bone in proportion to the body. HIND-LEGS--Strong, muscular,
hocks well let down. FEET--Small, catlike, and standing well on the
toes. NAILS--Black. HIND-QUARTERS--Fine compared to the fore-parts,
muscular and well-developed thighs, tailless, rump well rounded.
COAT--Black, abundant, dense, and harsh, smooth on the head, ears
and legs, lying close on the back and sides, but erect and thick round
the neck, forming a mane and frill, and well feathered on back of
thighs. WEIGHT--About twelve pounds. GENERAL APPEARANCE--A small cobby
animal with sharp expression, intensely lively, presenting the
appearance of being always on the alert. DISQUALIFYING POINTS--Drop,
or semi-erect ears. FAULTS--White hairs are objected to, but are not
disqualifying.

       *       *       *       *       *

The back of the Schipperke is described as straight, but it
should round off at the rump, which should be rotund and full,
guinea-pig-like. The continued straight line of a terrier's back
is not desirable, but it will frequently be found in specimens that
have been docked. The Belgian standard requires the legs to be "fine,"
and not have much bone. The bone of a terrier is only met with in
coarse Schipperkes. As to size, it need only be noted that the maximum
of the small size, viz., 12 lbs., is that generally preferred in
England, as well as in Belgium. Further, it is only necessary to
remark that the Schipperke is a dog of quality, of distinct
characteristics, cobby in appearance, not long in the back, nor high
on the leg; the muzzle must not be weak and thin, nor short and blunt;
and, finally, he is not a prick-eared, black wire-haired terrier.

The Schipperke's tail, or rather its absence, has been the cause of
much discussion, and at one time gave rise to considerable acrimonious
feeling amongst fanciers. On the introduction of this dog into Great
Britain it arrived from abroad with the reputation of being a tailless
breed, but whether Belgian owners accidentally conveyed that
impression or did it purposely to give the breed an additional
distinction is difficult to say. Anyhow the Schipperke is no more
"tailless" than the old English Sheepdog. That is to say a larger
number of individuals are born without any caudal appendage or only
a stump of a tail than in any other variety of dogs. It is said that
a docked dog can be told from one that has been born tailless in this
way; when the docked animal is pleased, a slight movement at the end
of the spine where the tail was cut off is discernible, but the
naturally tailless dog sways the whole of its hind-quarters.



CHAPTER XIII

THE BLOODHOUND


The Bloodhound was much used in olden times in hunting and in the
pursuit of fugitives; two services for which his remarkable acuteness
of smell, his ability to keep to the particular scent on which he
is first laid, and the intelligence and pertinacity with which he
follows up the trail, admirably fit him. The use and employment of
these dogs date back into remote antiquity. We have it on the
authority of Strabo that they were used against the Gauls, and we
have certain knowledge that they were employed not only in the
frequent feuds of the Scottish clans, and in the continuous border
forays of those days, but also during the ever-recurring hostilities
between England and Scotland.

Indeed, the very name of the dog calls up visions of feudal castles,
with their trains of knights and warriors and all the stirring
panorama of these brave days of old, when the only tenure of life,
property, or goods was by the strong hand.

This feudal dog is frequently pictured by the poet in his ballads
and romances, and in "The Lady of the Lake" we find the breed again
mentioned as

  "--dogs of black St. Hubert's breed,
   Unmatched for courage, breath, and speed."

These famous black Bloodhounds, called St. Huberts, are supposed to
have been brought by pilgrims from the Holy Land. Another larger
breed, also known by the same name, were pure white, and another kind
were greyish-red. The dogs of the present day are probably a blend
of all these varieties.

[Illustration: BLOODHOUND CH. CHATLEY BEAUFORT. BY CH. CHATLEY
BLAZER--CHATLEY FRIVOL. BRED AND OWNED BY MRS. G. A. OLIPHANT,
SHREWTON, WILTS]

The Bloodhound, from the nobler pursuit of heroes and knights, came
in later years to perform the work of the more modern detective; but
in this also his services were in time superseded by the justice's
warrant and the police officer. We find it recorded about 1805,
however, that "the Thrapston Association for the Prevention of Felons
in Northamptonshire have provided and trained a Bloodhound for the
detection of sheep-stealers."

The reputation it obtained for sagacity and fierceness in the capture
of runaway slaves, and the cruelties attributed to it in connection
with the suppression of the various negro risings, especially that
of the Maroons, have given the animal an evil repute, which more
probably should attach to those who made the animal's courage and
sagacity a means for the gratification of their own revolting cruelty
of disposition. It has been justly remarked that if entire credence
be given to the description that was transmitted through the country
of this extraordinary animal, it might be supposed that the Spaniards
had obtained the ancient and genuine breed of Cerberus himself.

Coming again to this country, we find the Bloodhound used from time
to time in pursuit of poachers and criminals, and in many instances
the game recovered and the man arrested.

There is no doubt that the police in country districts, and at our
convict prisons, could use Bloodhounds to advantage; but public
sentiment is decidedly against the idea, and although one of His
Majesty's prisons has been offered a working hound for nothing, the
authorities have refused to consider the question or give the hound
a trial.

Half a century ago the Bloodhound was so little esteemed in this
country that the breed was confined to the kennels of a very few
owners; but the institution of dog shows induced these owners to bring
their hounds into public exhibition, when it was seen that, like the
Mastiff, the Bloodhound claimed the advantage of having many venerable
ancestral trees to branch from. At the first Birmingham show, in 1860,
Lord Bagot brought out a team from a strain which had been in his
lordship's family for two centuries, and at the same exhibition there
was entered probably one of the best Bloodhounds ever seen, in Mr.
T. A. Jenning's Druid. Known now as "Old" Druid, this dog was got
by Lord Faversham's Raglan out of Baron Rothschild's historic bitch
Fury, and his blood goes down in collateral veins through Mr. L. G.
Morrel's Margrave, Prince Albert Solm's Druid, and Mr. Edwin Brough's
Napier into the pedigrees of many of the celebrated hounds of the
present day.

Another famous Druid--grandsire of Colonel Cowen's hound of the
name--was owned by the Hon. Grantley Berkeley. This typical dog was
unsurpassed in his time, and his talent in following a line of scent
was astonishing. His only blemish was one of character; for, although
usually as good-tempered as most of the breed are, he was easily
aroused to uncontrollable fits of savage anger.

Queen Victoria at various times was the possessor of one or more fine
specimens of the Bloodhound, procured for her by Sir Edwin Landseer,
and a capital hound from the Home Park Kennels at Windsor was
exhibited at the London Show in 1869, the judge on the occasion being
the Rev. Thomas Pearce, afterwards known as "Idstone." Landseer was
especially fond of painting the majestic Bloodhound, and he usually
selected good models for his studies. The model for the hound in his
well-known picture, "Dignity and Impudence," was Grafton, who was
a collateral relative of Captain J. W. Clayton's celebrated Luath XI.

Four superlative Bloodhounds of the past stand out in unmistakable
eminence as the founders of recognised strains. They are Mr. Jenning's
Old Druid, Colonel Cowen's Druid, Mr. Reynold Ray's Roswell, and
Captain Clayton's Luath XI.; and the owner of a Bloodhound which can
be traced back in direct line of descent to any one of these four
patriarchs may pride himself upon possessing a dog of unimpeachable
pedigree.

Among breeders within recent years Mr. Edwin Brough, of Scarborough,
is to be regarded as the most experienced and successful. No record
of the breed would be complete without some acknowledgment of the
great services he has rendered to it. Bloodhounds of the correct type
would to-day have been very few and far between if it had not been
for his enthusiasm and patient breeding. Mr. Brough bred and produced
many hounds, which all bore the stamp of his ideal, and there is no
doubt that for all-round quality his kennel stands first in the
history of the Bloodhound. His most successful cross was, perhaps,
Beckford and Bianca, and one has only to mention such hounds as
Burgundy, Babbo, Benedicta, and Bardolph to recall the finest team
of Bloodhounds that has ever been benched.

Mrs. G. A. Oliphant, of Shrewton, Wilts, whose kennels include Chatley
Blazer and Chatley Beaufort, has of late years been a keen supporter
of the breed. Mrs. Oliphant, who is the president of the ladies'
branch of the Kennel Club, is a great believer in hounds being workers
first and show hounds second, and her large kennels have produced
many hounds of a robust type and of good size and quality. There is
no doubt that as far as hunting is concerned at the present moment
this kennel stands easily first. But admirable Bloodhounds have also
given distinction to the kennels of Mr. S. H. Mangin, Dr. Sidney
Turner, Mr. Mark Beaufoy, Mr. F. W. Cousens, Mr. A. O. Mudie, Lord
Decies, Mr. Hood Wright, Mr. A. Croxton Smith, Dr. C. C. Garfit, Dr.
Semmence, and Mrs. C. Ashton Cross, to mention only a few owners and
breeders who have given attention to this noble race of dog.

The description of a perfect type of dog, as defined by the
Association of Bloodhound breeders, is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL CHARACTER--The Bloodhound possesses, in a most marked degree,
every point and characteristic of those dogs which hunt together by
scent (_Sagaces_). He is very powerful and stands over more ground
than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to the
touch and extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable about
the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds. HEIGHT--The mean
average height of adult dogs is 26 inches and of adult bitches 24
inches. Dogs usually vary from 25 inches to 27 inches and bitches
from 23 inches to 25 inches; but in either case the greater height
is to be preferred, provided that character and quality are also
combined. WEIGHT--The mean average weight of adult dogs in fair
condition is 90 pounds and of adult bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain
the weight of 110 pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater weights
are to be preferred, provided (as in the case of height) that quality
and proportion are also combined. EXPRESSION--The expression is noble
and dignified and characterised by solemnity, wisdom and power.
TEMPERAMENT--In temperament he is extremely affectionate, quarrelsome
neither with companions nor with other dogs. His nature is somewhat
shy, and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by his master.
HEAD--The head is narrow in proportion to its length and long in
proportion to the body, tapering but slightly from the temples to
the end of the muzzle thus (when viewed from above and in front)
having the appearance of being flattened at the sides and of being
nearly equal in width throughout its entire length. In profile the
upper outline of the skull is nearly in the same plane as that of
the foreface. The length from end of nose to stop (midway between
the eyes) should be not less than that from stop to back of occipital
protuberance (peak). The entire length of head from the posterior
part of the occipital protuberance to the end of the muzzle should
be 12 inches, or more, in dogs, and 11 inches, or more, in bitches.
SKULL--The skull is long and narrow, with the occipital peak very
pronounced. The brows are not prominent, although, owing to the
deep-set eyes, they may have that appearance. FOREFACE--The foreface
is long, deep, and of even width throughout, with square outline when
seen in profile. EYES--The eyes are deeply sunk in the orbits, the
lids assuming a lozenge or diamond shape, in consequence of the lower
lids being dragged down and everted by the heavy flews. The eyes
correspond with the general tone of colour of the animal, varying
from deep hazel to yellow. The hazel colour is, however, to be
preferred, although very seldom seen in red-and-tan hounds. EARS--The
ears are thin and soft to the touch, extremely long, set very low,
and fall in graceful folds, the lower parts curling inwards and
backwards. WRINKLE--The head is furnished with an amount of loose
skin which in nearly every position appears super-abundant, but more
particularly so when the head is carried low; the skin then falls
into loose, pendulous ridges and folds, especially over the forehead
and sides of the face. NOSTRILS--The nostrils are large and open.
LIPS, FLEWS, AND DEWLAP--In front the lips fall squarely, making a
right-angle with the upper line of the foreface, whilst behind they
form deep, hanging flews, and, being continued into the pendent folds
of loose skin about the neck, constitute the dewlap, which is very
pronounced. These characters are found, though in a less degree, in
the bitch. NECK, SHOULDERS, AND CHEST--The neck is long, the shoulders
muscular and well sloped backwards; the ribs are well sprung, and
the chest well let down between the forelegs, forming a deep keel.
LEGS AND FEET--The fore-legs are straight and large in bone, with
elbows squarely set; the feet strong and well knuckled up; the thighs
and second thighs (gaskins) are very muscular; the hocks well bent
and let down and squarely set. BACK AND LOINS--The back and loins
are strong, the latter deep and slightly arched. STERN--The stern
is long and tapering and set on rather high, with a moderate amount
of hair underneath. GAIT--The gait is elastic, swinging, and free--the
stern being carried high, but not too much curled over the back.
COLOUR--The colours are black-and-tan, red-and-tan, and tawny--the
darker colours being sometimes interspersed with lighter or
badger-coloured hair and sometimes flecked with white. A small amount
of white is permissible on chest, feet, and tip of stern.



CHAPTER XIV

THE OTTERHOUND


The Otterhound is a descendant of the old Southern Hound, and there
is reason to believe that all hounds hunting their quarry by nose
had a similar source. Why the breed was first called the Southern
Hound, or when his use became practical in Great Britain, must be
subjects of conjecture; but that there was a hound good enough to
hold a line for many hours is accredited in history that goes very
far back into past centuries. The hound required three centuries ago
even was all the better esteemed for being slow and unswerving on
a line of scent, and in many parts of the Kingdom, up to within half
that period, the so-called Southern Hound had been especially
employed. In Devonshire and Wales the last sign of him in his purity
was perhaps when Captain Hopwood hunted a small pack of hounds very
similar in character on the fitch or pole-cat; the _modus operandi_
being to find the foraging grounds of the animal, and then on a line
that might be two days old hunt him to his lair, often enough ten
or twelve miles off.

When this sort of hunting disappeared, and improved ideas of
fox-hunting came into vogue, there was nothing left for the Southern
Hound to do but to hunt the otter. He may have done this before at
various periods, but history rather tends to show that otter-hunting
was originally associated with a mixed pack, and some of Sir Walter
Scott's pages seem to indicate that the Dandie Dinmont and kindred
Scottish terriers had a good deal to do with the sport. It is more
than probable that the rough-coated terrier is identical with the
now recognised Otterhound as an offshoot of the Southern Hound; but
be that as it may, there has been a special breed of Otterhound for
the last eighty years, very carefully bred and gradually much improved
in point of appearance. They are beautiful hounds to-day, with heads
as typical as those of Bloodhounds, legs and feet that would do for
Foxhounds, a unique coat of their own, and they are exactly suitable
for hunting the otter, as everyone knows who has had the enjoyment
of a day's sport on river or brook.

The greatest otter hunter of the last century may have been the Hon.
Geoffrey Hill, a younger brother of the late Lord Hill. A powerful
athlete of over six feet, Major Hill was an ideal sportsman in
appearance, and he was noted for the long distances he would travel
on foot with his hounds. They were mostly of the pure rough sort,
not very big; the dogs he reckoned at about 23-1/2 inches, bitches
22: beautiful Bloodhound type of heads, coats of thick, hard hair,
big in ribs and bones, and good legs and feet.

Major Hill seldom exhibited his hounds. They were seen now and then
at Birmingham; but, hunting as hard as they did through Shropshire,
Staffordshire, Cheshire, and into Wales, where they got their best
water, there was not much time for showing. Their famous Master has
been dead now many years, but his pack is still going, and shows great
sport as the Hawkstone under the Mastership of Mr. H. P. Wardell,
the kennels being at Ludlow race-course, Bromfield.

The leading pack in the Kingdom for the last sixty years, at any rate,
has been the Carlisle when in the hands of Mr. J. C. Carrick, who
was famous both for the sport he showed and for his breed of
Otterhound, so well represented at all the important shows. Such
hounds as Lottery and Lucifer were very typical specimens; but of
late years the entries of Otterhounds have not been very numerous
at the great exhibitions, and this can well be explained by the fact
that they are wanted in greater numbers for active service, there
being many more packs than formerly--in all, twenty-one for the
United Kingdom.

The sport of otter-hunting is decidedly increasing, as there have
been several hunts started within the last six years. There can well
be many more, as, according to the opinion of that excellent
authority, the late Rev. "Otter" Davies, as he was always called,
there are otters on every river; but, owing to the nocturnal and
mysterious habits of the animals, their whereabouts or existence is
seldom known, or even suspected. Hunting them is a very beautiful
sport, and the question arises as to whether the pure Otterhounds
should not be more generally used than they are at present. It is
often asserted that their continued exposure to water has caused a
good deal of rheumatism in the breed, that they show age sooner than
others, and that the puppies are difficult to rear. There are,
however, many advantages in having a pure breed, and there is much
to say for the perfect work of the Otterhound. The scent of the otter
is possibly the sweetest of all trails left by animals. One cannot
understand how it is that an animal swimming two or three feet from
the bottom of a river-bed and the same from the surface should leave
a clean line of burning scent that may remain for twelve or eighteen
hours. The supposition must be that the scent from the animal at first
descends and is then always rising. At any rate, the oldest Foxhound
or Harrier that has never touched otter is at once in ravishing
excitement on it, and all dogs will hunt it. The terrier is never
keener than when he hits on such a line.

The Foxhound, so wonderful in his forward dash, may have too much
of it for otter hunting. The otter is so wary. His holt can very well
be passed, his delicious scent may be overrun; but the pure-bred
Otterhound is equal to all occasions. He is terribly certain on the
trail when he finds it. Nothing can throw him off it, and when his
deep note swells into a sort of savage howl, as he lifts his head
towards the roots of some old pollard, there is a meaning in it--no
mistake has been made. In every part of a run it is the same; the
otter dodges up stream and down, lands for a moment, returns to his
holt; but his adversaries are always with him, and as one sees their
steady work the impression becomes stronger and stronger that for
the real sport of otter-hunting there is nothing as good as the
pure-bred Otterhound. There is something so dignified and noble about
the hound of unsullied strain that if you once see a good one you
will not soon forget him. He is a large hound, as he well needs to
be, for the "varmint" who is his customary quarry is the wildest,
most vicious, and, for its size, the most powerful of all British
wild animals, the inveterate poacher of our salmon streams, and
consequently to be mercilessly slaughtered, although always in
sporting fashion. To be equal to such prey, the hound must have a
Bulldog's courage, a Newfoundland's strength in water, a Pointer's
nose, a Retriever's sagacity, the stamina of the Foxhound, the
patience of a Beagle, the intelligence of a Collie.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PERFECT OTTERHOUND: HEAD--The head, which has been described as
something between that of a Bloodhound and that of a Foxhound, is
more hard and rugged than either. With a narrow forehead, ascending
to a moderate peak. EARS--The ears are long and sweeping, but not
feathered down to the tips, set low and lying flat to the cheeks.
EYES--The eyes are large, dark and deeply set, having a peculiarly
thoughtful expression. They show a considerable amount of the haw.
NOSE--The nose is large and well developed, the nostrils expanding.
MUZZLE--The muzzle well protected from wiry hair. The jaw very
powerful with deep flews. NECK--The neck is strong and muscular, but
rather long. The dewlap is loose and folded. CHEST--The chest, deep
and capacious, but not too wide. BACK--The back is strong, wide and
arched. SHOULDERS--The shoulders ought to be sloping, the arms and
thighs substantial and muscular. FEET--The feet, fairly large and
spreading, with firm pads and strong nails to resist sharp rocks.
STERN--The stern when the hound is at work is carried gaily, like
that of a rough Welsh Harrier. It is thick and well covered, to serve
as a rudder. COAT--The coat is wiry, hard, long and close at the
roots, impervious to water. COLOUR--Grey, or buff, or yellowish, or
black, or rufus red, mixed with black or grey. HEIGHT--22 to 24
inches.



CHAPTER XV

THE IRISH WOLFHOUND


It is now some thirty years since an important controversy was carried
on in the columns of _The Live Stock Journal_ on the nature and
history of the great Irish Wolfhound. The chief disputants in the
discussion were Captain G. A. Graham, of Dursley, Mr. G. W. Hickman,
Mr. F. Adcock, and the Rev. M. B. Wynn, and the main point as issue
was whether the dog then imperfectly known as the Irish Wolfdog was
a true descendant of the ancient _Canis graius Hibernicus_, or whether
it was a mere manufactured mongrel, owing its origin to an admixture
of the Great Dane and the dog of the Pyrenees, modified and brought
to type by a cross with the Highland Deerhound. It was not
doubted--indeed, history and tradition clearly attested--that there
had existed in early times in Ireland a very large and rugged hound
of Greyhound form, whose vocation it was to hunt the wolf, the red
deer, and the fox. It was assuredly known to the Romans, and there
can be little doubt that the huge dog Samr, which Jarl Gunnar got
from the Irish king Myrkiarton in the tenth century and took back
with him to Norway, was one of this breed. But it was supposed by
many to have become extinct soon after the disappearance of the last
wolf in Ireland, and it was the endeavour of Captain Graham to
demonstrate that specimens, although admittedly degenerate, were
still to be found, and that they were capable of being restored to
a semblance of the original type.

At the time when he entered into the controversy, Captain Graham had
been actively interesting himself for something like a score of years
in the resuscitation of the breed, and his patience had been well
rewarded. By the year 1881 the Irish Wolfhound had been practically
restored, although it has taken close upon a quarter of a century
to produce the magnificent champions Cotswold and Cotswold Patricia,
those brilliant examples of the modern breed--a brace of Wolfhounds
who bear testimony to the vast amount of energy and perseverance which
Captain Graham and his enthusiastic colleague Major Garnier displayed
in evolving from rough material the majestic breed that holds so
prominent a position to-day.

There is little to be gathered from ancient writings concerning the
size and appearance of the Irish Wolfhounds in early times.
Exaggerated figures are given as to height and weight; but all
authorities agree that they were impressively large and imposing dogs,
and that they were regarded as the giants of the canine race.

It seems extraordinary that so little should have been accurately
known and recorded of a dog which at one time must have been a
familiar figure in the halls of the Irish kings. It was no mere
mythical animal like the heraldic griffin, but an actual sporting
dog which was accepted as a national emblem of the Emerald Isle,
associated with the harp and the shamrock.

As regards the origin of the Irish Wolfhound, more than one theory
is advanced. By some authorities it is suggested that it was the dog
which we now know as the Great Dane. Others hold that as there were
rough-coated Greyhounds in Ireland, it is this dog, under another
name, which is now accepted. But probably the late Captain Graham
was nearer the truth when he gave the opinion that the Irish hound
that was kept to hunt wolves has never become extinct at all, but
is now represented in the Scottish Deerhound, only altered a little
in size and strength to suit the easier work required of it--that
of hunting the deer. This is the more probable, as the fact remains
that the chief factor in the resuscitation of the Irish Wolfhound
has been the Scottish Deerhound.

The result of Captain Graham's investigations when seeking for animals
bearing some relationship to the original Irish "Wolfe Dogge" was
that three strains were to be found in Ireland, but none of the
representatives at that time was anything like so large as those
mentioned in early writings, and they all appeared to have
deteriorated in bone and substance. Sir J. Power, of Kilfane, was
responsible for one line, Mr. Baker, of Ballytobin, for another, and
Mr. Mahoney, of Dromore, for the remaining strain. From bitches
obtained from two of these kennels, Captain Graham, by crossing them
with the Great Dane and Scottish Deerhound, achieved the first step
towards producing the animal that he desired. Later on the Russian
Wolfhound, better known as the Borzoi, an exceedingly large hound,
was introduced, as also were one or two other large breeds of dogs.

The intermixture of these canine giants, however, was not at first
very satisfactory, as although plenty of bone was obtained, many were
most ungainly in appearance and ill-shaped animals that had very
little about them to attract attention. Captain Graham, however, stuck
to his work, and very soon the specimens that he brought forward began
to show a fixity of type both in head and in general outline. Brian
was one of his best dogs, but he was not very large, as he only stood
just over thirty inches at the shoulder. Banshee and Fintragh were
others, but probably the best of Captain Graham's kennel was the bitch
Sheelah. It was not, however, until towards the end of the last
century that the most perfect dogs were bred. These included O'Leary,
the property of Mr. Crisp, of Playford Hall. O'Leary is responsible
for many of the best dogs of the present day, and was the sire of Mrs.
Percy Shewell's Ch. Cotswold, who is undoubtedly the grandest Irish
Wolfhound ever bred. In height Cotswold stands 34-1/2 inches and is
therefore perhaps the largest dog of any breed now alive.

In 1900 Mr. Crisp bred Kilcullen from O'Leary, this dog winning the
championship at the Kennel Club Show at the Crystal Palace in 1902
under Captain Graham. This was the year the Irish Wolfhound Club
presented the hound Rajah of Kidnal as a regimental pet to the newly
formed Irish Guards.

Rajah of Kidnal, who was bred and exhibited by Mrs. A. Gerard, of
Malpas, was the selection of Captain Graham and two other judges.
This dog, which has been renamed Brian Boru, is still hearty and well,
and was at his post on St. Patrick's Day, 1909, when the shamrock
that had been sent by Her Majesty Queen Alexandra was handed to the
men.

Mrs. Gerard owned one of the largest kennels of Irish Wolfhounds in
England, and amongst her many good dogs and bitches was Cheevra, who
was a wonderful brood bitch, and included amongst her stock were
several that worked their way up to championship honours; she was
the dam of Rajah of Kidnal.

Besides Ballyhooley, Mr. W. Williams owned a good dog in Finn by Brian
II. Finn produced Miss Packe's Wickham Lavengro, a black and tan dog
that has won several prizes. Some judges are opposed to giving prizes
to Irish Wolfhounds of this colour, but Captain Graham did not object
to it. Finn was a very heavy dog, and weighed 148 lbs.

A hound that has been of great benefit to the breed in Ireland is
Ch. Marquis of Donegal, the property of Mr. Martin.

Amongst the bitches that have been instrumental in building up the
breed to its present high state of excellence is Princess Patricia
of Connaught who is by Dermot Astore out of Cheevra, and is the dam
of Ch. Cotswold Patricia. She is one of the tallest of her race, her
height being 33 inches; another bitch that measures the same number
of inches at the shoulder being Dr. Pitts-Tucker's Juno of the Fen,
a daughter of Ch. Wargrave.

Mr. Everett, of Felixstowe, is now one of the most successful
breeders. He exhibited at the 1908 Kennel Club show a most promising
young dog in Felixstowe Kilronan, with which he was second to Mrs.
Shewell's Ch. Cotswold, of whom he is now kennel companion. At the
same show Miss Clifford, of Ryde, exhibited a good hound in Wildcroft,
another of Dermot Astore's sons, and other supporters of the breed
are Lady Kathleen Pilkington, Mr. T. Hamilton Adams, Mr. G. H.
Thurston, Mr. Bailey, Mrs. F. Marshall, Mr. J. L. T. Dobbin, and Miss
Ethel McCheane.

The following is the description of the variety as drawn up by the
Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The Irish Wolfhound should not be quite so heavy
or massive as the Great Dane, but more so than the Deerhound, which
in general type he should otherwise resemble. Of great size and
commanding appearance, very muscular, strongly though gracefully
built; movements easy and active; head and neck carried high; the
tail carried with an upward sweep, with a slight curve towards the
extremity. The minimum height and weight of dogs should be 31 inches
and 120 pounds, of bitches 28 inches and 90 pounds. Anything below
this should be debarred from competition. Great size, including height
at shoulder and proportionate length of body, is the desideratum to
be aimed at, and it is desired firmly to establish a race that shall
average from 32 inches to 34 inches in dogs, showing the requisite
power, activity, courage, and symmetry. HEAD--Long, the frontal bones
of the forehead very slightly raised and very little indentation
between the eyes. Skull not too broad; muzzle long and moderately
pointed; ears small and Greyhound-like in carriage. NECK--Rather long,
very strong and muscular, well arched, without dewlap and loose skin
about the throat. CHEST--Very deep, breast wide. BACK--Rather long
than short. Loins arched. TAIL--Long and slightly curved, of moderate
thickness, and well covered with hair. BELLY--Well drawn up.
FORE-QUARTERS--Shoulders muscular, giving breadth of chest, set
sloping, elbows well under, neither turned inwards nor outwards.
Leg--Forearm muscular and the whole leg strong and quite straight.
HIND-QUARTERS--Muscular thighs, and second thigh long and strong as
in the Greyhound, and hocks well let down and turning neither in nor
out. FEET--Moderately large and round, neither turned inwards nor
outwards; toes well arched and closed, nails very strong and curved.
HAIR--Rough and hard on body, legs, and head; especially wiry and
long over eyes and under jaw. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--The recognised
colours are grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn, or any colour
that appears in the Deerhound. FAULTS--Too light or heavy in head,
too highly arched frontal bone, large ears and hanging flat to the
face; short neck; full dewlap; too narrow or too broad a chest; sunken
and hollow or quite level back; bent fore-legs; over-bent fetlocks;
twisted feet; spreading toes; too curly a tail; weak hind-quarters,
cow hocks, and a general want of muscle; too short in body.



CHAPTER XVI

THE DEERHOUND


The Deerhound is one of the most decorative of dogs, impressively
stately and picturesque wherever he is seen, whether it be amid the
surroundings of the baronial hall, reclining at luxurious length
before the open hearth in the fitful light of the log fire that
flickers on polished armour and tarnished tapestry; out in the open,
straining at the leash as he scents the dewy air, or gracefully
bounding over the purple of his native hills. Grace and majesty are
in his every movement and attitude, and even to the most prosaic mind
there is about him the inseparable glamour of feudal romance and
poetry. He is at his best alert in the excitement of the chase; but
all too rare now is the inspiring sight that once was common among
the mountains of Morven and the glens of Argyll of the deep-voiced
hound speeding in pursuit of his antlered prey, racing him at full
stretch along the mountain's ridge, or baying him at last in the
fastness of darksome corrie or deep ravine. Gone are the good romantic
days of stalking beloved by Scrope. The Highlands have lost their
loneliness, and the inventions of the modern gunsmith have robbed
one of the grandest of hunting dogs of his glory, relegating him to
the life of a pedestrian pet, whose highest dignity is the winning
of a pecuniary prize under Kennel Club rules.

Historians of the Deerhound associate him with the original Irish
Wolfdog, of whom he is obviously a close relative, and it is sure
that when the wolf still lingered in the land it was the frequent
quarry of the Highland as of the Hibernian hound. Legend has it that
Prince Ossian, son of Fingal, King of Morven, hunted the wolf with
the grey, long-bounding dogs. "Swift-footed Luath" and "White-breasted
Bran" are among the names of Ossian's hounds. I am disposed to affirm
that the old Irish Wolfhound and the Highland Deerhound are not only
intimately allied in form and nature, but that they are two strains
of an identical breed, altered only in size by circumstance and
environment.

Whatever the source of the Highland Deerhound, and at whatever period
it became distinct from its now larger Irish relative, it was
recognised as a native dog in Scotland in very early times, and it
was distinguished as being superior in strength and beauty to the
hounds of the Picts.

From remote days the Scottish nobles cherished their strains of
Deerhound, seeking glorious sport in the Highland forests. The red
deer belonged by inexorable law to the kings of Scotland, and great
drives, which often lasted for several days, were made to round up
the herds into given neighbourhoods for the pleasure of the court,
as in the reign of Queen Mary. But the organised coursing of deer
by courtiers ceased during the Stuart troubles, and was left in the
hands of retainers, who thus replenished their chief's larder.

The revival of deerstalking dates back hardly further than a hundred
years. It reached its greatest popularity in the Highlands at the
time when the late Queen and Prince Albert were in residence at
Balmoral. Solomon, Hector, and Bran were among the Balmoral hounds.
Bran was an especially fine animal--one of the best of his time,
standing over thirty inches in height.

Two historic feats of strength and endurance illustrate the tenacity
of the Deerhound at work. A brace of half-bred dogs, named Percy and
Douglas, the property of Mr. Scrope, kept a stag at bay from Saturday
night to Monday morning; and the pure bred Bran by himself pulled
down two unwounded stags, one carrying ten and the other eleven tines.
These, of course, are record performances, but they demonstrate the
possibilities of the Deerhound when trained to his natural sport.

[Illustration: MRS. ARMSTRONG'S DEERHOUND CH. TALISMAN]

Driving was commonly resorted to in the extensive forests, but
nowadays when forests are sub-divided into limited shootings the deer
are seldom moved from their home preserves, whilst with the use of
improved telescopes and the small-bore rifle, stalking has gone out
of fashion. With guns having a muzzle velocity of 2,500 feet per
second, it is no longer necessary for sportsmen stealthily to stalk
their game to come within easy range, and as for hounds, they have
become a doubtful appendage to the chase.

Primarily and essentially the Deerhound belongs to the order
_Agaseus_, hunting by sight and not by scent, and although he may
indeed occasionally put his nose to the ground, yet his powers of
scent are not remarkable. His vocation, therefore, has undergone a
change, and it was recently ascertained that of sixty deer forests
there were only six upon which Deerhounds were kept for sporting
purposes.

Happily the Deerhound has suffered no decline in the favour bestowed
upon him for his own sake. The contrary is rather the case, and he
is still an aristocrat among dogs, valued for his good looks, the
symmetry of his form, his grace and elegance, and even more so for
his faithful and affectionate nature. Sir Walter Scott declared that
he was "a most perfect creature of heaven," and when one sees him
represented in so beautiful a specimen of his noble race as St.
Ronan's Rhyme, for example, or Talisman, or Ayrshire, one is tempted
to echo this high praise.

Seven-and-twenty years ago Captain Graham drew up a list of the most
notable dogs of the last century. Among these were Sir St. George
Gore's Gruim (1843-44), Black Bran (1850-51); the Marquis of
Breadalbane's King of the Forest, said to stand 33 inches high; Mr.
Beaseley's Alder (1863-67), bred by Sir John McNeill of Colonsay;
Mr. Donald Cameron's Torrum (1869), and his two sons Monzie and Young
Torrum; and Mr. Dadley's Hector, who was probably the best-bred dog
living in the early eighties. Torrum, however, appears to have been
the most successful of these dogs at stud. He was an exceedingly grand
specimen of his race, strong framed, with plenty of hair of a blue
brindle colour. Captain Graham's own dog Keildar, who had been trained
for deerstalking in Windsor Park, was perhaps one of the most elegant
and aristocratic-looking Deerhounds ever seen. His full height was
30 inches, girth 33-1/2 inches, and weight, 95 lbs., his colour bluish
fawn, slightly brindled, the muzzle and ears being blue. His nearest
competitor for perfection was, after Hector, probably Mr. Hood
Wright's Bevis, a darkish red brown brindle of about 29 inches. Mr.
Wright was the breeder of Champion Selwood Morven, who was the
celebrity of his race about 1897, and who became the property of Mr.
Harry Rawson. This stately dog was a dark heather brindle, standing
32-3/8 inches at the shoulder, with a chest girth of 34-1/2 inches.

A few years ago breeders were inclined to mar the beauty of the
Deerhound by a too anxious endeavour to obtain great size rather than
to preserve the genuine type; but this error has been sufficiently
corrected, with the result that symmetry and elegance conjoined with
the desired attributes of speed are not sacrificed. The qualities
aimed at now are a height of something less than 30 inches, and a
weight not greater than 105 lbs., with straight fore-legs and short,
cat-like feet, a deep chest, with broad, powerful loins, slightly
arched, and strength of hind-quarters, with well-bent stifles, and
the hocks well let down. Straight stifles are objectionable, giving
a stilty appearance. Thick shoulders are equally a blemish to be
avoided, as also a too great heaviness of bone. The following is the
accepted standard of merit.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--The head should be broadest at the ears, tapering slightly to
the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose. The
muzzle should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. The head
should be long, the skull flat rather than round, with a very slight
rise over the eyes, but with nothing approaching a stop. The skull
should be coated with moderately long hair which is softer than the
rest of the coat. The nose should be black (though in some blue-fawns
the colour is blue) and slightly aquiline. In the lighter-coloured
dogs a black muzzle is preferred. There should be a good moustache
of rather silky hair, and a fair beard. EARS--The ears should be set
on high, and, in repose, folded back like the Greyhound's, though
raised above the head in excitement without losing the fold, and even,
in some cases, semi-erect. A prick ear is bad. A big, thick ear,
hanging flat to the head, or heavily coated with long hair, is the
worst of faults. The ear should be soft, glossy, and like a mouse's
coat to the touch, and the smaller it is the better. It should have
no long coat or long fringe, but there is often a silky, silvery coat
on the body of the ear and the tip. Whatever the general colour, the
ears should be black or dark-coloured. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck
should be long--that is, of the length that befits the Greyhound
character of the dog. An over-long neck is not necessary, nor
desirable, for the dog is not required to stoop in his work like a
Greyhound, and it must be remembered that the mane, which every good
specimen should have, detracts from the apparent length of neck.
Moreover, a Deerhound requires a very strong neck to hold a stag.
The nape of the neck should be very prominent where the head is set
on, and the throat should be clean-cut at the angle and prominent.
The shoulders should be well sloped, the blades well back, with not
too much width between them. Loaded and straight shoulders are very
bad faults. STERN--Stern should be tolerably long, tapering, and
reaching to within 1-1/2 inches of the ground, and about 1-1/2 inches
below the hocks. When the dog is still, dropped perfectly straight
down, or curved. When in motion it should be curved when excited,
in no case to be lifted out of the line of the back. It should be
well covered with hair, on the inside thick and wiry, underside
longer, and towards the end a slight fringe is not objectionable.
A curl or ring tail is very undesirable. EYES--The eyes should be
dark: generally they are dark brown or hazel. A very light eye is
not liked. The eye is moderately full with a soft look in repose,
but a keen, far-away gaze when the dog is roused. The rims of the
eyelids should be black. BODY--The body and general formation is that
of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. Chest deep rather than broad,
but not too narrow and flat-sided. The loin well arched and drooping
to the tail. A straight back is not desirable, this formation being
unsuitable for going uphill, and very unsightly. LEGS AND FEET--The
legs should be broad and flat, a good broad forearm and elbow being
desirable. Fore-legs, of course, as straight as possible. Feet close
and compact, with well-arched toes. The hind-quarters drooping, and
as broad and powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart.
The hind-legs should be well bent at the stifle, with great length
from the hip to the hock, which should be broad and flat. Cow hocks,
weak pasterns, straight stifles, and splay feet are very bad faults.
COAT--The hair on the body, neck, and quarters should be harsh and
wiry, and about 3 inches or 4 inches long; that on the head, breast,
and belly is much softer. There should be a slight hairy fringe on
the inside of the fore and hind-legs, but nothing approaching to the
feathering of a Collie. The Deerhound should be a shaggy dog, but
not over coated. A woolly coat is bad. Some good strains have a slight
mixture of silky coat with the hard, which is preferable to a woolly
coat, but the proper covering is a thick, close-lying, ragged coat,
harsh or crisp to the touch. COLOUR--Colour is much a matter of fancy.
But there is no manner of doubt that the dark blue-grey is the most
preferred. Next come the darker and lighter greys or brindles, the
darkest being generally preferred. Yellow and sandy-red or red-fawn,
especially with black points--_i.e._, ears and muzzle--are also in
equal estimation, this being the colour of the oldest known strains,
the McNeil and the Chesthill Menzies. White is condemned by all the
old authorities, but a white chest and white toes, occurring as they
do in a great many of the darkest-coloured dogs, are not so greatly
objected to, but the less the better, as the Deerhound is a
self-coloured dog. A white blaze on the head or a white collar should
entirely disqualify. In other cases, though passable, an attempt
should be made to get rid of white markings. The less white the
better, but a slight white tip to the stern occurs in the best
strains. HEIGHT OF DOGS--From 28 inches to 30 inches, or even more
if there be symmetry without coarseness, which, however, is rare.
HEIGHT OF BITCHES--From 26 inches upwards. There can be no objection
to a bitch being large, unless she is too coarse, as even at her
greatest height she does not approach that of the dog, and, therefore,
could not well be too big for work, as over-big dogs are. Besides,
a big bitch is good for breeding and keeping up the size. WEIGHT--From
85 pounds to 105 pounds in dogs; from 65 pounds to 80 pounds in
bitches.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the more prominent owners of Deerhounds at the present time
are Mrs. H. Armstrong, Mrs. W. C. Grew, Mrs. Janvrin Dickson, Miss
A. Doxford, Mr. Harry Rawson, and Mr. H. McLauchin. Mrs. Armstrong
is the breeder of two beautiful dog hounds in Talisman and Laird of
Abbotsford, and of two typically good bitches in Fair Maid of Perth
and Bride of Lammermoor. Mrs. Grew owns many admirable specimens,
among them being Blair Athol, Ayrshire, Kenilworth, and Ferraline.
Her Ayrshire is considered by some judges to be the most perfect
Deerhound exhibited for some time past. He is somewhat large, perhaps,
but he is throughout a hound of excellent quality and character,
having a most typical head, with lovely eyes and expression, perfect
front, feet and hind-quarters. Other judges would give the palm to
Mr. Harry Rawson's St. Ronan's Ranger, who is certainly difficult
to excel in all the characteristics most desirable in the breed.



CHAPTER XVII

THE BORZOI OR RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND


Of the many foreign varieties of the dog that have been introduced
into this country within recent years, there is not one among the
larger breeds that has made greater headway in the public favour than
the Borzoi, or Russian Wolfhound. Nor is this to be wondered at. The
most graceful and elegant of all breeds, combining symmetry with
strength, the wearer of a lovely silky coat that a toy dog might envy,
the length of head, possessed by no other breed--all go to make the
Borzoi the favourite he has become.

He is essentially what our American cousins would call a "spectacular"
dog. Given, for example, the best team of terriers and a fifth-rate
team of Borzois, which attracts the more attention and admiration
from the man in the street? Which does he turn again to look at? Not
the terriers! Add to this that the Borzoi makes a capital house dog,
is, as a rule, affectionate and a good companion, it is not to be
wondered at that he has attained the dignified position in the canine
world which he now holds.

In his native country the Borzoi is employed, as his English name
implies, in hunting the wolf and also smaller game, including foxes
and hares.

Several methods of hunting the larger game are adopted, one form being
as follows. Wolves being reported to be present in the neighbourhood,
the hunters set out on horseback, each holding in his left hand a
leash of three Borzois, as nearly matched as possible in size, speed,
and colour. Arrived at the scene of action, the chief huntsman
stations the hunters at separate points every hundred yards or so
round the wood. A pack of hounds is sent in to draw the quarry, and
on the wolves breaking cover the nearest hunter slips his dogs. These
endeavour to seize their prey by the neck, where they hold him until
the hunter arrives, throws himself from his horse, and with his knife
puts an end to the fray.

Another method is to advance across the open country at intervals
of about two hundred yards, slipping the dogs at any game they may
put up.

Trials are also held in Russia. These take place in a large railed
enclosure, the wolves being brought in carts similar to our deer
carts. In this case a brace of dogs is loosed on the wolf. The whole
merit of the course is when the hounds can overtake the wolf and pin
him to the ground, so that the keepers can secure him alive. It
follows, therefore, that in this case also the hounds must be of equal
speed, so that they reach the wolf simultaneously; one dog would, of
course, be unable to hold him.

Naturally, the dogs have to be trained to the work, for which purpose
the best wolves are taken alive and sent to the kennels, where the
young dogs are taught to pin him in such a manner that he cannot turn
and use his teeth. There seems to be no reason why the Borzoi should
not be used for coursing in this country.

One of the first examples of the breed exhibited in England was owned
by Messrs. Hill and Ashton, of Sheffield, about 1880, at which time
good specimens were imported by the Rev. J. C. Macdona and Lady Emily
Peel, whose Sandringham and Czar excited general admiration. It was
then known as the Siberian Wolfhound. Some years later the Duchess
of Newcastle obtained several fine dogs, and from this stock Her Grace
founded the kennel which has since become so famous. Later still,
Queen Alexandra received from the Czar a gift of a leash of these
stately hounds, one of them being Alex, who quickly achieved honours
as a champion.

The breed has become as fashionable in the United States as in Great
Britain, and some excellent specimens are to be seen at the annual
shows at Madison Square Gardens.

To take the points of the breed in detail, the description of the
perfect Borzoi is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--This should be long, lean, and well balanced, and the length,
from the tip of the nose to the eyes, must be the same as from the
eyes to the occiput. A dog may have a long head, but the length may
be all in front of the eyes. The heads of this breed have greatly
improved the last few years; fewer "apple-headed" specimens, and more
of the desired triangular heads being seen. The skull should be flat
and narrow, the stop not perceptible, the muzzle long and tapering.
Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of the head being
well filled up before the eyes. The head, from forehead to nose,
should be so fine that the direction of the bones and principal veins
can be seen clearly, and in profile should appear rather Roman nosed.
Bitches should be even narrower in head than dogs. THE EYES should
be dark, expressive, almond shaped, and not too far apart. THE EARS
like those of a Greyhound, small, thin, and placed well back on the
head, with the tips, when thrown back, almost touching behind the
occiput. It is not a fault if the dog can raise his ears erect when
excited or looking after game, although some English judges dislike
this frequent characteristic. The head should be carried somewhat
low, with the neck continuing the line of the back. SHOULDERS--Clean
and sloping well back, _i.e._, the shoulder blades should almost touch
one another. CHEST--Deep and somewhat narrow. It must be capacious,
but the capacity must be got from depth, and not from "barrel" ribs--a
bad fault in a running hound. BACK--Rather bony, and free from any
cavity in the spinal column, the arch in the back being more marked
in the dog than in the bitch. LOINS--Broad and very powerful, showing
plenty of muscular development. THIGHS--Long and well developed, with
good second thigh. The muscle in the Borzoi is longer than in the
Greyhound. RIBS--Slightly sprung, very deep, reaching to the elbow.
FORE-LEGS--Lean and straight. Seen from the front they should be
narrow and from the side broad at the shoulder and narrowing gradually
down to the foot, the bone appearing flat and not round as in the
Foxhound. HIND-LEGS--The least thing under the body when standing
still, not straight, and the stifle slightly bent. They should, of
course, be straight as regards each other, and not "cow-hocked," but
straight hind-legs imply a want of speed. FEET--Like those of the
Deerhound, rather long. The toes close together and well arched.
COAT--Long, silky, not woolly; either flat, wavy, or curly. On the
head, ears and front-legs it should be short and smooth; on the neck
the frill should be profuse and rather curly; on the chest and the
rest of the body, the tail and hind-quarters, it should be long; the
fore-legs being well feathered. TAIL--Long, well feathered, and not
gaily carried. It should be carried well down, almost touching the
ground. HEIGHT--Dogs from 29 inches upwards at shoulder, bitches from
27 inches upwards. (Originally 27 inches and 26 inches. Altered at
a general meeting of the Borzoi Club, held February, 1906.)
FAULTS--Head short and thick; too much stop; parti-coloured nose;
eyes too wide apart; heavy ears; heavy shoulders; wide chest; "barrel"
ribbed; dew-claws; elbows turned out; wide behind. Also light eyes
and over or undershot jaws. COLOUR--The Club standard makes no mention
of colour. White, of course, should predominate; fawn, lemon, orange,
brindle, blue, slate and black markings are met with. Too much of
the latter, or black and tan markings, are disliked. Whole coloured
dogs are also seen.

       *       *       *       *       *

The foregoing description embodies the standard of points as laid
down and adopted by the Borzoi Club, interpolated with some remarks
for the further guidance of the novice.

The Borzoi Club was founded in 1892, and now consists of about fifty
members, with the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle as joint-presidents.
It does much good work for the breed, guaranteeing classes at shows,
where otherwise few or none would be given, encouraging the breeding
of high-class Borzois by offering its valuable challenge cups and
other special prizes, and generally looking after the interests of
the breed.

Although the Club standard of height has been raised from 27 and 26
inches to 29 and 27 inches for dogs and bitches respectively, it must
be borne in mind that the best dogs of to-day far exceed these
measurements, and, unless _exceptionally_ good in other points, a
dog of 29 inches at shoulder would stand little or no chance in the
showing under the majority of English judges; indeed, bitches of 29
to 30 inches are by no means uncommon.

Not many of us can afford to start at the top of the tree, and, except
for the favoured few to whom money is no object, and who can buy
ready-made champions, there is no better way of starting a kennel
than to purchase a really good bitch, one, say, capable of winning
at all but the more important shows. She must be of good pedigree,
strong, and healthy; such an one ought to be obtained for P15 upwards.
Mate her to the best dog whose blood "nicks" suitably with hers, but
do not waste time and money breeding from fourth-rate stud dogs, for
if you do it is certain you will only meet with disappointment. On
the other hand, if you have had little or no experience of dogs, you
may possibly prefer to start with a puppy. If so, place yourself in
the hands of a breeder with a reputation at stake (unless you have
a friend who understands the breed). It is a fact that even a "cast
off" from a good strain that has been bred for certain points for
years is more likely to turn out a better dog than a pup whose dam
has been mated "haphazard" to some dog who may or may not have been
a good one. Big kennels also generally possess the best bitches and
breed from them, and the bitch is quite as important a factor as the
sire. If, however, you prefer to rely on your own judgment, and wish
to choose a puppy yourself from a litter, select the one with the
longest head, biggest bone, smallest ears, and longest tail, or as
many of these qualities as you can find combined in one individual.
Coat is a secondary matter in quite a young pup; here one should be
guided by the coat of the sire and dam. Still, choose a pup with a
heavy coat, if possible, although when this puppy coat is cast, the
dog may not grow so good as one as some of the litter who in early
life were smoother.

As regards size, a Borzoi pup of three months should measure about
19 inches at the shoulder, at six months about 25 inches, and at nine
months from 27 to 29 inches. After ten or twelve months, growth is
very slow, although some continue adding to their height until they
are a year and a half old. They will, of course, increase in girth
of chest and develop muscle until two years old; a Borzoi may be
considered in its prime at from three to four years of age. As regards
price, from P5 to P10 is not too much to pay for a really good pup
of about eight to ten weeks old; if you pay less you will probably
get only a second-rate one. Having purchased your puppy, there are
three principal items to be considered if you intend to rear him well;
firstly, his diet must be varied; secondly, the pup must have
unlimited exercise, and never be kept on the chain; thirdly, internal
parasites must be kept in check. For young puppies "Ruby" Worm Cure
is most efficacious, and does not distress the patient.

Food should be given at regular intervals--not less frequently than
five times a day to newly weaned puppies--and may consist of porridge,
bread and milk, raw meat minced fine, and any table scraps, with
plenty of new milk. Well-boiled paunch is also greatly appreciated,
and, being easily digested, may be given freely.

One important part of the puppy's education that must by no means
be neglected is to accustom him to go on the collar and lead. Borzoi
pups are, as a rule extremely nervous, and it requires great patience
in some cases to train them to the lead. Short lessons should be given
when about four months old. If you can induce the puppy to think it
is a new game, well and good--he will take to it naturally; but once
he looks upon it as something to be dreaded, it means hours of patient
work to break him in.

If you decide on commencing with a brood bitch, see that she is dosed
for worms before visiting the dog; that she is in good hard
condition--not fat, however; and, if possible, accompany her yourself
and see her mated. For the first week rather less than her usual
quantity of food should be given; afterwards feed as her appetite
dictates, but do not let her get too fat, or she may have a bad time
when whelping. For two days before the puppies are due give sloppy
but nourishing diet, and this should be continued, given slightly
warm, for four or five days after the pups are born. Borzois as a
rule make excellent mothers, but to rear them well they should not
be allowed to suckle more than five--or, if a strong, big bitch,
six--pups. If the litter is larger, it is better to destroy the
remainder, or use a foster mother.

[Illustration: MRS. AITCHESON'S BORZOI CH. STRAWBERRY KING]

Whatever they may be in their native land--and the first imported
specimens were perhaps rather uncertain in temper--the Borzoi, as
we know him in this country, is affectionate, devoted to his owner,
friendly with his kennel companions and makes a capital house dog.
As a lady's companion he is hard to beat; indeed, a glance at any
show catalogue will prove that the majority of Borzois are owned by
the gentle sex. No one need be deterred from keeping a Borzoi by a
remark the writer has heard hundreds of times at shows: "Those dogs
are _so_ delicate." This is not the case. Once over distemper
troubles--and the breed certainly does suffer badly if it contracts
the disease--the Borzoi is as hardy as most breeds, if not hardier.
Given a good dry kennel and plenty of straw, no weather is too cold
for them. Damp, of course, must be avoided, but this applies equally
to other breeds.

The adult hound, like the puppy, should never be kept on chain; a
kennel with a railed-in run should be provided, or a loose box makes
a capital place for those kept out of doors, otherwise no different
treatment is required from that of other large breeds.



CHAPTER XVIII

THE GREYHOUND


The Greyhound is the oldest and most conservative of all dogs, and
his type has altered singularly little during the seven thousand years
in which he is known to have been cherished for his speed, and kept
by men for running down the gazelle or coursing the hare. The earliest
references to him are far back in the primitive ages, long before
he was beautifully depicted by Assyrian artists, straining at the
leash or racing after his prey across the desert sands. The Egyptians
loved him and appreciated him centuries before the pyramids were
built. In those days he wore a feathered tail, and his ears were heavy
with a silken fringe of hair. His type was that of the modern Arabian
Slughi, who is the direct and unaltered descendant of the ancient
hound. The glorious King Solomon referred to him (Proverbs xxx. 31)
as being one of the four things which "go well and are comely in
going--a lion, which is strongest among beasts, and turneth not away
from any; a Greyhound; an he goat also; and a king against whom there
is no rising up."

That the Greyhound is "comely in going," as well as in repose, was
recognised very early by the Greeks, whose artists were fond of
introducing this graceful animal as an ornament in their decorative
workmanship. In their metal work, their carvings in ivory and stone,
and more particularly as parts in the designs on their terra-cotta
oil bottles, wine coolers, and other vases, the Greyhound is
frequently to be seen, sometimes following the hare, and always in
remarkably characteristic attitudes. Usually these Greek Greyhounds
are represented with prick ears, but occasionally the true rose ear
is shown.

All writings in connection with Greyhounds point to the high
estimation in which the dog has always been held. Dr. Caius, when
referring to the name, says "The Greyhound hath his name of this word
gre; which word soundeth gradus in Latin, in Englishe degree, because
among all dogges these are the most principall, occupying the chiefest
place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the gentle kinde
of Houndes."

It was not until the reign of Queen Elizabeth that coursing in England
was conducted under established rules. These were drawn up by the then
Duke of Norfolk. The sport quickly grew in favour, and continued to
increase in popularity until the first coursing club was established
at Swaffham in 1776. Then in 1780 the Ashdown Park Meeting came into
existence. The Newmarket Meeting in 1805 was the next fixture that
was inaugurated, and this now remains with the champion stakes as
its most important event. Afterwards came the Amesbury Meeting in
1822, but Amesbury, like Ashdown, although for many years one of the
most celebrated institutions of the description, has fallen from its
high estate. Three years later came the Altcar Club. But it was not
until eleven years after this period that the Waterloo Cup was
instituted (in 1836), to win which is the highest ambition of
followers of the leash.

At the present time the run for the Waterloo Cup, which at the
commencement was an eight dog stake, is composed of sixty-four
nominations, the entry fee for which is P25. The winner takes P500,
and the cup, value P100, presented by the Earl of Sefton, the runner
up P200, the third and fourth P50 each, four dogs P36 each, eight
dogs P20 each, and sixteen dogs P10 each. The thirty-two dogs beaten
in the first round of the Cup compete for the Waterloo Purse, value
P215, and the sixteen dogs run out in the second round for the
Waterloo Plate, value P145. The winner in each case taking P75, and
the runner up P30, the remainder being divided amongst the most
forward runners in the respective stakes. The Waterloo Cup holds the
same position in coursing circles as the Derby does in horse racing.

The National Coursing Club was established in 1858, when a stud book
was commenced, and a code of laws drawn up for the regulation of
coursing meetings. This is recognised in Australia and other parts
of the world where coursing meetings are held. The Stud Book, of which
Mr. W. F. Lamonby is the keeper, contains particulars of all the
best-known Greyhounds in the United Kingdom, and a dog is not allowed
to compete at any of the large meetings held under Coursing Club rules
unless it has been duly entered with its pedigree complete. In fact,
the National Coursing Club is more particular in connection with the
pedigrees of Greyhounds being correctly given, than the Kennel Club
is about dogs that are exhibited; and that is saying a great deal.
It holds the same position in coursing matters as the Jockey Club
does in racing. It is in fact, the supreme authority on all matters
connected with coursing.

Various opinions have been advanced as to the best size and weight
for a Greyhound. Like horses, Greyhounds run in all forms, and there
is no doubt that a really good big one will always have an advantage
over the little ones; but it is so difficult to find the former, and
most of the chief winners of the Waterloo Cup have been comparatively
small. Coomassie was the smallest Greyhound that ever won the blue
ribbon of the leash; she drew the scale at 42 lbs., and was credited
with the win of the Cup on two occasions. Bab at the Bowster, who
is considered by many good judges to have been the best bitch that
ever ran, was 2 lbs. more; she won the Cup once, and many other
stakes, as she was run all over the country and was not kept for the
big event. Master McGrath was a small dog, and only weighed 53 lbs.,
but he won the Waterloo Cup three times. Fullerton, who was a much
bigger dog, and was four times declared the winner of the Cup, was
56 lbs. in weight.

There are very few Greyhounds that have won the Waterloo Cup more
than once, but Cerito was credited with it three times, namely, in
1850, 1852, and 1853, when it was a thirty-two dog stake. Canaradzo,
Bit of Fashion, Miss Glendine, Herschel, Thoughtless Beauty, and
Fabulous Fortune, are probably some of the best Greyhounds that ever
ran besides those already alluded to. Bit of Fashion was the dam of
Fullerton, who shares with Master McGrath the reputation of being
the two best Greyhounds that ever ran. But Master McGrath came first.
During his remarkable career in public he won thirty-six courses out
of thirty-seven, the only time that he was defeated being the 1870
at his third attempt to win the Waterloo Cup, and the flag went up
in favour of Mr. Trevor's Lady Lyons. He, however, retrieved his good
fortune the following year, when he again ran through the stake.

Fullerton, who, when he won all his honours, was the property of
Colonel North, was bred by Mr. James Dent in Northumberland. Colonel
North gave 850 guineas for him, which was then stated to be the
highest price ever paid for a Greyhound. He ran five times altogether
for the Waterloo Cup, and was declared the winner on four occasions.
The first time was in 1889, when he divided with his kennel companion
Troughend. Then he won the Cup outright the three following years.
In 1893, however, after having been put to the stud, at which he
proved a failure, he was again trained for the Cup, but age had begun
to tell its tale, and after winning one course he was beaten by Mr.
Keating's Full Captain, in the second. This was one of the two
occasions upon which out of thirty-three courses he failed to raise
the flag. On the other he was beaten by Mr. Gladstone's Greengage,
when running the deciding course at Haydock Park.

It appears like descending from the sublime to the ridiculous to
mention the Greyhound as a show dog, after the many brilliant
performances that have been recorded of him in the leash, but there
are many dogs elegant in outline with fine muscular development that
are to be seen in the judging ring. Mr. George Raper's Roasting Hot
is one of the most prominent winners of the day; he is a fawn and
white, as handsome as a peacock and, moreover, is a good dog in the
field. On one occasion after competing successfully at the Kennel
Club Show at the Crystal Palace, he was taken to a coursing meeting
where he won the stake in which he was entered. A brace of very
beautiful bitches are Mr. F. Eyer's Dorset Girl and Miss W. Easton's
Okeford Queen.

Although, as a rule, the most consistent winners in the leash have
not been noted for their good looks, there have been exceptions in
which the opposite has been the case. Fullerton was a good-looking
dog, if not quite up to the form required in the show ring. Mr.
Harding Cox has had several specimens that could run well and win
prizes as show dogs, and the same may be said of Miss Maud May's fine
kennel of Greyhounds in the North of England. In the South of England
Mrs. A. Dewe keeps a number of longtails that when not winning prizes
at the Crystal Palace and elsewhere are running at Plumpton and other
meetings in Sussex.

The following is the standard by which Greyhounds should be judged.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Long and narrow, slightly wider in skull, allowing for
plenty of brain room; lips tight, without any flew, and eyes
bright and intelligent and dark in colour. EARS--Small and fine
in texture, and semi-pricked. TEETH--Very strong and level, and not
decayed or cankered. NECK--Lengthy, without any throatiness, but
muscular. SHOULDERS--Placed well back in the body, and fairly
muscular, without being loaded. FORE-LEGS--Perfectly straight, set
well into the shoulders, with strong pasterns and toes set well up
and close together. BODY--Chest very deep, with fairly well-sprung
ribs; muscular back and loins, and well cut up in the flanks.
HIND-QUARTERS--Wide and well let down, with hocks well bent and close
to the ground, with very muscular haunches, showing great propelling
power, and tail long and fine and tapering with a slight upward curve.
COAT--Fairly fine in texture. WEIGHT--The ideal weight of a dog is
from 60 pounds to 65 pounds, of a bitch from 55 pounds to 60 pounds.



CHAPTER XIX

THE WHIPPET


For elegance of style, cleanliness of habit, and graceful movement,
few dogs can equal the Whippet, for which reason his popularity as
a companion has increased very greatly within the past decade. No
more affectionate creature is to be found, yet he possesses
considerable determination and pluck, and on occasion will defend
himself in his own way.

Too fragile in his anatomy for fighting, in the ordinary sense of
the word, when molested, he will "snap" at his opponent with such
celerity as to take even the most watchful by surprise; while his
strength of jaw, combined with its comparatively great length, enables
him to inflict severe punishment at the first grab. It was probably
owing to this habit, which is common to all Whippets, that they were
originally known as Snap-Dogs.

The Whippet existed as a separate breed long before dog shows were
thought of, and at a time when records of pedigrees were not
officially preserved; but it is very certain that the Greyhound had
a share in his genealogical history, for not only should his
appearance be precisely that of a Greyhound in miniature, but the
purpose for which he was bred is very similar to that for which his
larger prototype is still used, the only difference being that rabbits
were coursed by Whippets, and hares by Greyhounds.

This sport has been mainly confined to the working classes, the
colliers of Lancashire, Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumberland being
particularly devoted to it. As a rule the contests are handicaps,
the starting point of each competitor being regulated by its weight;
but the winners of previous important events are penalised in
addition, according to their presumed merit, by having a certain
number of yards deducted from the start to which weight alone would
otherwise have entitled them. Each dog is taken to its stipulated
mark according to the handicap, and there laid hold of by the nape
of the neck and hind-quarters; the real starter stands behind the
lot, and after warning all to be ready, discharges a pistol, upon
which each attendant swings his dog as far forward as he can possibly
throw him, but always making sure that he alights on his feet. The
distance covered in the race is generally 200 yards, minus the starts
allotted, and some idea of the speed at which these very active little
animals can travel may be gleaned from the fact that the full distance
has been covered in rather under 12 seconds.

In order to induce each dog to do its best, the owner, or more
probably the trainer stands beyond the winning post, and frantically
waves a towel or very stout rag. Accompanied by a babel of noise,
the race is started, and in less time than it takes to write it the
competitors reach the goal, one and all as they finish taking a flying
leap at their trainer's towel, to which they hold on with such
tenacity that they are swung round in the air. The speed at which
they are travelling makes this movement necessary in many cases to
enable the dog to avoid accident, particularly where the space beyond
the winning mark is limited. For racing purposes there is a wide
margin of size allowed to the dogs, anything from 8 lbs. to 23 lbs.,
or even more, being eligible; but in view of the handicap terms those
dogs which possess speed, and scale 9 to 12 lbs. amongst the
light-weights, and over 17 lbs. in the heavy ones, are considered
to have the best chance.

Probably there is no locality where the pastime has maintained such
a firm hold as in and around Oldham, one of the most famous tracks
in the world being at Higginshaw, where not infrequently three hundred
dogs are entered in one handicap. The Borough grounds at Oldham and
the Wellington grounds at Bury are also noted centres for races. It
is a remarkable but well recognised fact that bitches are faster than
dogs, and in consequence the terms upon which they are handicapped
are varied. The general custom is to allow a dog 2-1/2 to 3 yards
advantage for every pound difference in weight between it and the
gentle sex.

One of the fastest dogs that ever ran was Collier Lad, but he was
almost a Greyhound as regards size. Whitefoot, whose owner challenged
the world, and was considered to be quite unbeatable, was a Whippet
in every sense of the word, and was a nice medium weight, though
probably Capplebank's time of 11-1/2 seconds stands alone. The best
of the present-day racing dogs are Polly fro' Astley (15 lbs.) and
Dinah (11-1/2 lbs.), and of those which promise well for the future,
Eva, whose weight is only 9-3/4 lbs., is most prominent.

The training of Whippets is by no means easy work, and is more
expensive than most people imagine. The very choicest food is deemed
absolutely necessary, in fact a Whippet undergoing preparation for
an important race is provided with the most wholesome fare. Choice
mutton-chops, beef-steaks and similar dainties comprise their daily
portion. Of course exercise is a necessity, but it is not considered
good policy to allow a dog in training to gambol about either on the
roads or in the fields. Indeed, all dogs which are undergoing
preparation for a race are practically deprived of their freedom,
in lieu of which they are walked along hard roads secured by a lead;
and for fear of their picking up the least bit of refuse each is
securely muzzled by a box-like leather arrangement which completely
envelops the jaws, but which is freely perforated to permit proper
breathing. Any distance between six and a dozen miles a day, according
to the stamina and condition of the dog, is supposed to be the proper
amount of exercise, and scales are brought into use every few days
to gauge the effect which is being produced. In addition to this
private trials are necessary in the presence of someone who is
accustomed to timing races by the aid of a stop-watch--a by no means
easy task, considering that a slight particle of a second means so
many yards, and the average speed working out at about 16 yards per
second--nearly twice as fast as the fastest pedestrian sprinter, and
altogether beyond the power of the fleetest race-horse.

Colour in the Whippet is absolutely of no importance to a good judge,
though possibly what is known as the peach fawn is the favourite among
amateur fanciers. Red fawns, blue or slate coloured, black, brindled
of various shades, and these colours intermingled with white, are
most to be met with, however. In some quarters the idea is prevalent
that Whippets are delicate in their constitution, but this is a
popular error. Probably their disinclination to go out of doors on
their own initiative when the weather is cold and wet may account
for the opinion, but given the opportunity to roam about a house the
Whippet will find a comfortable place, and will rarely ail anything.
In scores of houses Whippets go to bed with the children, and are
so clean that even scrupulous housewives take no objection to their
finding their way under the clothes to the foot of the bed, thereby
securing their own protection and serving as an excellent footwarmer
in the winter months.

Probably in no other breed, except the Greyhound, do judges attach
so little importance to the shape of the head; so long as the jaws
are fairly long and the colour of the eyes somewhat in keeping with
that of the body, very little else is looked for in front of the ears.
As in the case of racing competitors, really good dogs for show
purposes are much more difficult to find than bitches. The best of
the males are not so classical in outline as the females, though some
of them are as good in legs and feet--points which are of the greatest
importance. Though it is not quite in accordance with the standard
laid down by the club, it will be found that most judges favour dogs
which are about 17 lbs. weight, and bitches which are between 15 lbs.
and 16 lbs., the 20 lbs. mentioned in the standard of points, without
variation for sex being considered altogether too heavy. Appearances
are sometimes deceptive, but these dogs are rarely weighed for
exhibition purposes, the trained eye of the judge being sufficient
guide to the size of the competitors according to his partiality for
middle-size, big, or little animals.

The South Durham and Yorkshire Show at Darlington has the credit for
first introducing classes for Whippets into the prize ring. Previous
to this it had not long been generally recognised as a distinct breed,
and it is within the last twenty years that the Kennel Club has placed
the breed on its recognised list.

The following is the standard of points adopted by the Whippet Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Long and lean, rather wide between the eyes and flat on
the top; the jaw powerful yet cleanly cut; the teeth level and
white. EYES--Bright and fiery. EARS--Small, fine in texture and
rose shape. NECK--Long and muscular, elegantly arched and free from
throatiness. SHOULDERS--Oblique and muscular. CHEST--Deep and
capacious. BACK--Broad and square, rather long and slightly arched
over the loin, which should be strong and powerful. FORE-LEGS--Rather
long, well set under the dog, possessing a fair amount of bone.
HIND-QUARTERS--Strong and broad across stifles, well bent thighs,
broad and muscular; hocks well let down. FEET--Round, well split up,
with strong soles. COAT--Fine and close. COLOUR--Black, red, white,
brindle, fawn, blue, and the various mixtures of each. WEIGHT--Twenty
pounds.



CHAPTER XX

THE FOXHOUND


There is plenty of proof that Foxhounds were the very first of the
canine races in Great Britain to come under the domination of
scientific breeding. There had been hounds of more ancient origin,
such as the Southern Hound and the Bloodhound; but something different
was wanted towards the end of the seventeenth century to hunt the
wild deer that had become somewhat scattered after Cromwell's civil
war. The demand was consequently for a quicker hound than those
hitherto known, and people devoted to the chase began to breed it.
Whether there were crosses at first remains in dispute, but there
is more probability that the policy adopted was one of selection;
those exceptionally fast were bred with the same, until the slow,
steady line hunter was improved out of his very character and shape.
At any rate, there are proofs that in 1710 hounds were to be found
in packs, carefully bred, and that at that time some of the hunts
in question devoted attention to the fox.

The first known kennel of all was at Wardour Castle, and was said
to have been established in 1696; but more reliable is the date of
the Brocklesby, commenced in 1713. The first record of a pack of
hounds being sold was in 1730, when a Mr. Fownes sold his pack to
a Mr. Bowles. The latter gentleman showed great sport with them in
Yorkshire. At that time Lord Hertford began to hunt the Cotswold
country, in Gloucestershire, and was the first to draw coverts for
fox in the modern style. Very soon after this it became the fashion
of the day to breed hounds. Many of the nobility and large landowners
devoted much of their time and money to it, and would take long
journeys to get fresh blood. It was the rule to breed hounds on the
most scientific principles, and by 1750 there were fifty such
breeders, including the fifth Duke of Beaufort, Lord Lincoln, Lord
Stamford, Lord Percival, Lord Granby, Lord Ludlow, Lord Vernon, Lord
Carlisle, Lord Mexbro, Sir Walter Vavasour, Sir Roland Winns, Mr.
Noel, Mr. Stanhope, Mr. Meynell, Mr. Barry, and Mr. Charles Pelham.
The last-named gentleman, afterward the first Lord Yarborough, was
perhaps the most indefatigable of all, as he was the first to start
the system of walking puppies amongst his tenantry, on the Brocklesby
estates, and of keeping lists of hound pedigrees and ages. By 1760
all the above-named noblemen and gentlemen had been breeding from
each other's kennels. The hounds were registered, as can be seen now
in Lord Middleton's private kennel stud book, through which his
lordship can trace the pedigrees of his present pack for a hundred
and sixty years to hounds that were entered in 1760, got by Raytor,
son of Merryman and grandson of Lord Granby's Ranter. Another pedigree
was that of Ruby, who is credited with a numerous progeny, as she
was by Raytor out of Mr. Stapleton's Cruel by Sailor, a son of Lord
Granby's Sailor by Mr. Noel's Victor. This shows well how seriously
Foxhound breeding was gone into before the middle of the eighteenth
century. Portraits prove also that a hound approaching very closely
to those of modern times had been produced at this early period. By
such evidence the Foxhound had outstripped the Harrier in size by
nearly five inches, as the latter does not appear to have been more
than eighteen inches, and the early Foxhound would have been
twenty-three inches. Then the heavy shoulder, the dewlap, and jowl
of the Southern Hound had been got rid of, and the coat had been
somewhat altered. The old school of breeders had evidently determined
upon great speed and the ability to stay, through the medium of deep
ribs, heart room, wide loins, length of quarter, quality of bone,
straightness of fore-leg, and round strong feet; the slack loined,
loosely built, and splayfooted hound of former generations had been
left behind. To such perfection, indeed, had the Foxhound attained,
that long before the close of the eighteenth century sportsmen were
clamouring as to what a Foxhound could do.

With so much prominence given to the Foxhound in the comparatively
short period of forty or fifty years, it is no wonder that individual
hounds became very celebrated in almost every part of the country.
Mr. Pelham's Rockwood Tickler and Bumper were names well known in
Yorkshire, and Lord Ludlow's Powerful and Growler were talked of both
in Lincolnshire and Warwickshire. From the first, indeed, it appeared
that certain hounds were very much better than others, and old
huntsmen have generally declared for one which was in the whole length
of their careers (sometimes extending to fifty years) immeasurably
superior to all others they had hunted. Harry Ayris, who was for just
half a century with Lord FitzHardinge, declared to the day of his
death that nothing had equalled Cromwell; Osbaldeston said the same
of Furrier, and Frank Gillard never falters from the opinion that
Weathergage was quite by himself as the best hound he ever hunted.
The Foxhound Kennel Stud Book abounds in the strongest proofs that
hereditary merit in their work has been transmitted from these
wonderful hounds, and they really make the history of the Foxhound.

There have been many great hounds; but there must be the greatest
of the great, and the following twelve hounds are probably the best
England has ever seen:--Mr. Corbet's Trojan (1780), Lord Middleton's
Vanguard (1815), Mr. Osbaldeston's Furrier (1820), Lord Henry
Bentinck's Contest (1848), Lord FitzHardinge's Cromwell (1855), Mr.
Drake's Duster (1844), Sir Richard Sutton's Dryden (1849), the Duke
of Rutland's Senator (1862), Duke of Rutland's Weathergage (1874),
the Earl of Coventry's Rambler (1874), Mr. E. P. Rawnsley's Freeman
(1884), and the Grafton Woodman (1892).

Breeding Foxhounds is one of the most fascinating of all the pleasures
of animal culture, as the above list, so full of extreme merit, can
be traced for nearly a hundred and thirty years.

It cannot be said that the prices paid for Foxhounds in very recent
times have greatly exceeded those of the past. In 1790 Colonel
Thornton sold Merkin for four hogsheads of claret, and the seller
to have two couples of the whelps. Then in 1808 Mr. John Warde sold
a pack of hounds to Lord Althorpe for 1,000 guineas, and the same
gentleman sold another pack for the same sum a few years later. In
1838 Lord Suffield offered 3,000 guineas for Mr. Lambton's pack, and
afterwards sold it to Sir Matthew White Ridley for 2,500. In 1834
Osbaldeston sold ten couples of bitches, all descendants of Furrier,
for 2,000 sovereigns, or P100 a hound--a record that was almost
eclipsed at the sale of Lord Politmore's hounds in 1870, when
twenty-two couples of dog-hounds sold for 3,365 guineas.

Of late years there has been the sale of the Quorn for, it was said,
P3,000, and the late Lord Willoughby de Broke valued the North
Warwickshire for the county to purchase at P2,500. In 1903 the
Atherstone was valued by Mr. Rawlence, the well-known representative
of Tattersall's, at P3,500, or something like P50 a hound, and that
has been considered very cheap. If, therefore, modern prices have
not greatly exceeded those of the far past, there has not been any
particular diminution, and there is no doubt about it that if certain
packs could be purchased the prices would far exceed anything ever
reached before.

Foxhounds have very much improved in looks during the past
five-and-twenty years, and unquestionably they are quite as good
in the field or better. Whenever hounds have good foxes in front of
them, and good huntsmen to assist or watch over them, they are as
able as ever, notwithstanding that the drawbacks to good sport are
more numerous now than they used to be. The noble hound will always
be good enough, and ever and anon this is shown by a run of the Great
Wood order, to hunt over five-and-twenty to thirty miles at a pace
to settle all the horses, and yet every hound will be up. There has
been a slight tendency to increase size of late years. The Belvoir
dog-hound is within very little of 24 inches instead of 23-1/2, the
standard of twenty years ago, and this increase has become very
general. In elegance of form nothing has been lost, and there can
be no other to possess beauty combined with power and the essential
points for pace and endurance in the same degree as a Foxhound.

A detailed description of the Foxhound is here given:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Somewhat broad, not peaked like the Bloodhound, but long from
the apex to the frontal bones, eyebrows very prominent, cheeks cut
clean from the eye to the nostril, ears set low and in their natural
condition thin and shapely, but not large, nose large, jaw strong
and level, and small dewlaps, expression fierce, and with the best
often repellent. EYES--Very bright and deeply set, full of
determination, and with a very steady expression. The look of the
Foxhound is very remarkable. NECK--Should be perfectly clean, no skin
ruffle whatever, or neck cloth, as huntsmen call it. The length of
neck is of importance, both for stooping and giving an air of majesty.
SHOULDERS--The blades should be well into the back, and should slant,
otherwise be wide and strong, to meet the arms, that should be long
and powerful. LEGS AND FEET--The bone should be perfectly straight
from the arm downward, and descend in the same degree of size to the
ankles, or, as the saying is, "down to his toes." The knee should
be almost flat and level; there should be no curve until coming to
the toes, which should be very strong, round, cat-shaped, and every
toe clean set as it were. FORE-RIBS AND BRISKET--Deep, fine ribs are
very essential, and the brisket should be well below the elbows. BACK
AND LOINS--Back should be straight. A hollow back offends the eye
much, and a roach back is worse. The loin wide, back ribs deep and
long, a slight prominence over the croup. QUARTERS AND HOCKS--The
quarters cannot be too long, full, showing a second thigh, and meeting
a straight hock low down, the shank bone short, and meeting shapely
feet. COAT--The coat is hard hair, but short and smooth, the texture
is as stiff as bristles, but beautifully laid. COLOUR--Belvoir tan,
which is brown and black, perfectly intermixed, with white markings
of various shapes and sizes. The white should be very opaque and
clear. Black and white, with tan markings on head and stifles. Badger
pied--a kind of grey and white. Lemon pied, light yellow and white.
Hare pied, a darker yellow and white. STERN--Long and carried gaily,
but not curled; often half white. HEIGHT--Dogs from 23-1/2 to 24
inches; bitches from 22 to 22-1/2 inches.



CHAPTER XXI

THE HARRIER AND THE BEAGLE


The Harrier is a distinct breed of hound used for hunting the hare--or
rather it should be said the Association of Masters of Harriers are
doing their utmost to perpetuate this breed; the Harrier Stud Book
bearing witness thereto: and it is to be deplored that so many Masters
of Harriers ignore this fact, and are content to go solely to Foxhound
kennels to start their packs of Harriers, choosing, maybe, 20 inch
to 22 inch Foxhounds, and thenceforth calling them Harriers. It is,
indeed, a common belief that the modern Harrier is but a smaller
edition of the Foxhound, employed for hunting the hare instead of
the fox, and it is almost useless to reiterate that it is a distinct
breed of hound that can boast of possibly greater antiquity than any
other, or to insist upon the fact that Xenophon himself kept a pack
of Harriers over two thousands years ago. Nevertheless, in general
appearance the Harrier and the Foxhound are very much alike, the one
obvious distinction being that of size.

Opinions differ as to what standard of height it is advisable to aim
at. If you want to hunt your Harriers on foot, 16 inches is quite
big enough--almost too big to run with; but if you are riding to them,
20 inches is a useful height, or even 19 inches. Either is a good
workable size, and such hounds should be able to slip along fast
enough for most people. Choose your hounds with plenty of bone, but
not too clumsy or heavy; a round, firm neck, not too short, with a
swan-like curve; a lean head with a long muzzle and fairly short ears;
a broad chest with plenty of lung room, fore-legs like gun barrels,
straight and strong; hind-legs with good thighs and well let down
hocks; feet, round like cats' feet, and a well-set-on, tapering stern.
Such a make and shape should see many seasons through, and allow you
to be certain of pace and endurance in your pack. It is useless to
lay down any hard and fast rule as to colour. It is so much a matter
of individual taste. Some Masters have a great fancy for the dark
colouring of the old Southern Hound, but nothing could look much
smarter than a good combination of Belvoir tan with black and white.
Puppies, as a rule, a week or two after they are whelped, show a
greater proportion of dark marking than any other, but this as they
grow older soon alters, and their white marking becomes much more
conspicuous. As in the case of the Foxhound, the Harrier is very
seldom kept as a companion apart from the pack. But puppies are
usually sent out to walk, and may easily be procured to be kept and
reared until they are old enough to be entered to their work.
Doubtless the rearing of a Harrier puppy is a great responsibility,
but it is also a delight to many who feel that they are helping in
the advancement of a great national sport.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is nothing to surpass the beauty of the Beagle either to see
him on the flags of his kennel or in unravelling a difficulty on the
line of a dodging hare. In neatness he is really the little model
of a Foxhound. He is, of course, finer, but with the length of neck
so perfect in the bigger hound, the little shoulders of the same
pattern, and the typical quarters and second thighs. Then how quick
he is in his casts! and when he is fairly on a line, of course he
sticks to it, as the saying is, "like a beagle."

Beagles have been carefully preserved for a great many years, and
in some cases they have been in families for almost centuries. In
the hereditary hunting establishments they have been frequently found,
as the medium of amusement and instruction in hunting for the juvenile
members of the house; and there can be nothing more likely to instil
the right principles of venery into the youthful mind than to follow
all the ways of these little hounds.

Dorsetshire used to be the great county for Beagles. The downs there
were exactly fitted for them, and years ago, when roe-deer were
preserved on the large estates, Beagles were used to hunt this small
breed of deer. Mr. Cranes' Beagles were noted at the time, and also
those of a Colonel Harding. It is on record that King George IV. had
a strong partiality for Beagles, and was wont to see them work on
the downs round about Brighton. The uses of the Beagle in the early
days of the last century, however, were a good deal diversified. They
were hunted in big woodlands to drive game to the gun, and perhaps
the ordinary Beagle of from 12 inches to 14 inches was not big enough
for the requirements of the times. It is quite possible, therefore,
that the Beagle was crossed with the Welsh, Southern or Otterhound,
to get more size and power, as there certainly was a Welsh
rough-coated Beagle of good 18 inches, and an almost identical
contemporary that was called the Essex Beagle. Sixty years ago such
hounds were common enough, but possibly through the adoption of the
more prevalent plan of beating coverts, and Spaniels being in more
general use, the vocation of the Beagle in this particular direction
died out, and a big rough-coated Beagle is now very rarely seen.

That a great many of the true order were bred became very manifest
as soon as the Harrier and Beagle Association was formed, and more
particularly when a section of the Peterborough Hound Show was
reserved for them. Then they seemed to spring from every part of the
country. In 1896 one became well acquainted with many packs that had
apparently held aloof from the dog shows. There was the Cheshire,
the Christ Church (Oxford), Mr. T. Johnson's, the Royal Rock, the
Thorpe Satchville, the Worcestershire, etc., and of late there have
been many more that are as well known as packs of Foxhounds. One hears
now of the Chauston, the Halstead Place--very noted indeed--the
Hulton, the Leigh Park, the Stoke Place, the Edinburgh, the Surbiton,
the Trinity Foot, the Wooddale, Mrs. G. W. Hilliard's, Mrs. Price's,
and Mrs. Turner's.

Beagle owners, like the masters of Foxhound kennels, have never been
very partial to the ordinary dog shows, and so the development of
the up-to-date Beagle, as seen at recent shows, is somewhat new. It
is just as it should be, and if more people take up "beagling" it
may not be in the least surprising. They are very beautiful little
hounds, can give a vast amount of amusement, and, for the matter of
that, healthy exercise. If a stout runner can keep within fairly easy
distance of a pack of well-bred Beagles on the line of a lively Jack
hare, he is in the sort of condition to be generally envied.

       *       *       *       *       *

DESCRIPTION OF THE BEAGLE: HEAD--Fair length, powerful without being
coarse; skull domed, moderately wide, with an indication of peak, stop
well defined, muzzle not snipy, and lips well flewed. NOSE--Black,
broad, and nostrils well expanded. EYES--Brown, dark hazel or hazel,
not deep set nor bulgy, and with a mild expression. EARS--Long, set
on low, fine in texture, and hanging in a graceful fold close to the
cheek. NECK--Moderately long, slightly arched, the throat showing
some dewlap. SHOULDERS--Clean and slightly sloping. BODY--Short
between the couplings, well let down in chest, ribs fairly well
sprung and well ribbed up, with powerful and not tucked-up loins.
HIND-QUARTERS--Very muscular about the thighs, stifles and hocks well
bent, and hocks well let down. FORE-LEGS--Quite straight, well under
the dog, of good substance and round in the bone. FEET--Round, well
knuckled up, and strongly padded. STERN--Moderate length, set on high,
thick and carried gaily, but not curled over the back. COLOUR--Any
recognised hound colour. COAT--Smooth variety: Smooth, very dense
and not too fine or short. Rough variety: Very dense and wiry.
HEIGHT--Not exceeding 16 inches. Pocket Beagles must not exceed 10
inches. GENERAL APPEARANCE--A compactly-built hound, without
coarseness, conveying the impression of great stamina and vivacity.



CHAPTER XXII

THE POINTER


It has never been made quite clear in history why the Spaniards had
a dog that was very remarkable for pointing all kinds of game. They
have always been a pleasure-loving people, certainly, but more
inclined to bull-fighting than field-craft, and yet as early as 1600
they must have had a better dog for game-finding than could have been
found in any other part of the world. Singularly enough, too, the
most esteemed breeds in many countries can be traced from the same
source, such as the Russian Pointer, the German Pointer, the French
double-nosed Griffon, and, far more important still, the English
Pointer. A view has been taken that the Spanish double-nosed Pointer
was introduced into England about two hundred years ago, when
fire-arms were beginning to be popular for fowling purposes. Setters
and Spaniels had been used to find and drive birds into nets, but
as the Spanish Pointer became known it was apparently considered that
he alone had the capacity to find game for the gun. This must have
been towards the end of the seventeenth century, and for the next
fifty years at least something very slow was wanted to meet the
necessities of the old-fashioned flintlock gun, which occupied many
minutes in loading and getting into position. Improvements came by
degrees, until they set in very rapidly, but probably by 1750, when
hunting had progressed a good deal, and pace was increased in all
pastimes, the old-fashioned Pointer was voted a nuisance through his
extreme caution and tortoise-like movements.

There is evidence, through portraits, that Pointers had been
altogether changed by the year 1800, but it is possible that the
breed then had been continued by selection rather than by crossing
for a couple of decades, as it is quite certain that by 1815 sportsmen
were still dissatisfied with the want of pace in the Pointer, and
many sportsmen are known to have crossed their Pointers with Foxhounds
at about that time. By 1835 the old Spanish Pointer had been left
behind, and the English dog was a perfect model for pace, stamina,
resolution, and nerve. The breed was exactly adapted to the
requirements of that day, which was not quite as fast as the present.
Men shot with good Joe Mantons, did their own loading, and walked
to their dogs, working them right and left by hand and whistle. The
dogs beat their ground methodically, their heads at the right level
for body scent, and when they came on game, down they were; the dog
that had got it pointing, and the other barking or awaiting
developments. There was nothing more beautiful than the work of a
well-bred and well-broken brace of Pointers, or more perfect than
the way a man got his shots from them. There was nothing slow about
them, but on the contrary they went a great pace, seemed to shoot
into the very currents of air for scent, and yet there was no
impatience about them such as might have been expected from the
Foxhound cross. The truth of it was that the capacity to concentrate
the whole attention on the object found was so intense as to have
lessened every other propensity. The rush of the Foxhound had been
absorbed by the additional force of the Pointer character. There has
been nothing at all like it in canine culture, and it came out so
wonderfully after men had been shooting in the above manner for about
forty years.

It was nearing the end of this period that field trials began to
occupy the attention of breeders and sportsmen, and although Setters
had been getting into equal repute for the beauty of their work, there
was something more brilliant about the Pointers at first. Brockton's
Bounce was a magnificent dog, a winner on the show bench, and of the
first Field Trial in England. Newton's Ranger was another of the early
performers, and he was very staunch and brilliant, but it was in the
next five years that the most extraordinary Pointer merit was seen,
as quite incomparable was Sir Richard Garth's Drake, who was just
five generations from the Spanish Pointer. Drake was rather a tall,
gaunt dog, but with immense depth of girth, long shoulders, long
haunches, and a benevolent, quiet countenance. There was nothing very
attractive about him when walking about at Stafford prior to his
trial, but the moment he was down he seemed to paralyse his opponent,
as he went half as fast again. It was calculated that he went fifty
miles an hour, and at this tremendous pace he would stop as if
petrified, and the momentum would cover him with earth and dust. He
did not seem capable of making a mistake, and his birds were always
at about the same distance from him, to show thereby his extraordinary
nose and confidence. Nothing in his day could beat him in a field.
He got some good stock, but they were not generally show form, the
bitches by him being mostly light and small, and his sons a bit high
on the leg. None of them had his pace, but some were capital
performers, such as Sir Thomas Lennard's Mallard, Mr. George
Pilkington's Tory, Mr. Lloyd Price's Luck of Edenhall, winner of the
Field Trial Derby, 1878; Lord Downe's Mars and Bounce, and Mr. Barclay
Field's Riot. When Sir Richard Garth went to India and sold his kennel
of Pointers at Tattersall's, Mr. Lloyd Price gave 150 guineas for
Drake.

The mid-century owners and breeders had probably all the advantages
of what a past generation had done, as there were certainly many
wonderful Pointers in the 'fifties, 'sixties, and 'seventies, as old
men living to-day will freely allow. They were produced very
regularly, too, in a marvellous type of perfection.

Mr. William Arkwright, of Sutton Scarsdale, Derbyshire, has probably
the best kennel in England at the present time. He discovered and
revived an old breed of the North of England that was black, and bred
for a great many years by Mr. Pape, of Carlisle, and his father before
him. With these Mr. Arkwright has bred to the best working strains,
with the result that he has had many good field trial winners. For
a good many years now Elias Bishop, of Newton Abbot, has kept up the
old breeds of Devon Pointers, the Ch. Bangs, the Mikes, and the
Brackenburg Romps, and his have been amongst the best at the shows
and the field trials during the past few years. There are, of course,
exceptions to the rule that many of the modern Pointers do not carry
about them the air of their true business; but it would appear that
fewer people keep them now than was the case a quarter of a century
ago, owing to the advance of quick-shooting, otherwise driving, and
the consequent falling away of the old-fashioned methods, both for
the stubble and the moor. However, there are many still who enjoy
the work of dogs, and it would be a sin indeed in the calendar of
British sports if the fine old breed of Pointer were allowed even
to deteriorate. The apparent danger is that the personal or individual
element is dying out. In the 'seventies the name of Drake, Bang, or
Garnet were like household words. People talked of the great Pointers.
They were spoken of in club chat or gossip; written about; and the
prospects of the moors were much associated with the up-to-date
characters of the Pointers and Setters. There is very little of this
sort of talk now-a-days. Guns are more critically spoken of. There
is, however, a wide enough world to supply with first-class Pointers.
In England's numerous colonies it may be much more fitting to shoot
over dogs. It has been tried in South Africa with marvellous results.
Descendants of Bang have delighted the lone colonist on Cape partridge
and quails, and Pointers suit the climate, whereas Setters do not.
The Pointer is a noble breed to take up, as those still in middle
life have seen its extraordinary merit whenever bred in the right
way. As to the essential points of the breed, they may be set down
as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Should be wide from ear to ear, long and slanting from the top
of the skull to the setting on of the nose; cheek bones prominent;
ears set low and thin in texture, soft and velvety; nose broad at
the base; mouth large and jaws level. NECK--The neck should be very
strong, but long and slightly arched, meeting shoulders well knit
into the back, which should be straight and joining a wide loin. There
should be great depth of heart room, very deep brisket, narrow chest
rather than otherwise, shoulders long and slanting. LEGS AND
FEET--Should be as nearly like the Foxhound's as possible. There
should be really no difference, as they must be straight, the knees
big, and the bone should be of goodly size down to the toes, and the
feet should be very round and cat-shaped. HIND-QUARTERS--A great
feature in the Pointer is his hind-quarters. He cannot well be too
long in the haunch or strong in the stifle, which should be well bent,
and the muscles in the second thigh of a good Pointer are always
remarkable. The hocks may be straighter than even in a Foxhound, as,
in pulling up sharp on his point, he in a great measure throws his
weight on them; the shank bones below the hock should be short.
COLOUR--There have been good ones of all colours. The Derby colours
were always liver and whites for their Pointers and black breasted
reds for their game-cocks. The Seftons were liver and whites also,
and so were the Edges of Strelly, but mostly heavily ticked.
Brockton's Bounce was so, and so were Ch. Bang, Mike, and Young Bang.
Drake was more of the Derby colour; dark liver and white. Mr.
Whitehouse's were mostly lemon and whites, after Hamlet of that
colour, and notable ones of the same hue were Squire, Bang Bang, and
Mr. Whitehouse's Pax and Priam, all winners of field trials. There
have been several very good black and whites. Mr. Francis's,
afterwards Mr. Salter's, Chang was a field trial winner of this
colour. A still better one was Mr. S. Becket's Rector, a somewhat
mean little dog to look at, but quite extraordinary in his work, as
he won the Pointer Puppy Stake at Shrewsbury and the All-Aged Stake
three years in succession. Mr. Salter's Romp family were quite
remarkable in colour--a white ground, heavily shot with black in
patches and in ticks. There have never been any better Pointers than
these. There have been, and are, good black Pointers also. HEIGHT
AND SIZE--A big Pointer dog stands from 24-1/2 inches to 25 inches
at the shoulder. Old Ch. Bang and Young Bang were of the former
height, and the great bitch, Mr. Lloyd Price's Belle, was 24 inches.
For big Pointers 60 pounds is about the weight for dogs and 56 pounds
bitches; smaller size, 54 pounds dogs and 48 pounds bitches. There
have been some very good ones still smaller.



CHAPTER XXIII

THE SETTERS


I. THE ENGLISH SETTER.--In some form or other Setters are to be found
wherever guns are in frequent use and irrespective of the precise
class of work they have to perform; but their proper sphere is either
on the moors, when the red grouse are in quest, or on the stubbles
and amongst the root crops, when September comes in, and the partridge
season commences.

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, is supposed to have been the first
person to train setting dogs in the manner which has been commonly
adopted by his successors. His lordship lived in the middle of the
sixteenth century, and was therefore a contemporary of Dr. Caius,
who may possibly have been indebted to the Earl for information when,
in his work on _English Dogges_, he wrote of the Setter under the
name of the Index.

Though Setters are divided into three distinct varieties,--The
English, the Irish and the Gordon, or Black and Tan--there can be
no doubt that all have a common origin, though it is scarcely
probable, in view of their dissimilarity, that the same individual
ancestors can be supposed to be their original progenitors. Nearly
all authorities agree that the Spaniel family is accountable on one
side, and this contention is borne out to a considerable extent by
old illustrations and paintings of Setters at work, in which they
are invariably depicted as being very much like the old liver and
white Spaniel, though of different colours. Doubt exists as to the
other side of their heredity, but it does not necessarily follow that
all those who first bred them used the same means. Of the theories
put forward, that which carries the most presumptive evidence must
go to the credit of the old Spanish Pointer. Where else could they
inherit that wonderful scenting power, that style in which they draw
up to their game, their statuesque attitude when on point, and, above
all, the staunchness and patience by which they hold their game
spellbound until the shooter has time to walk leisurely up, even from
a considerable distance?

But, apart from the question of their origin, the different varieties
have many other attributes in common; all perform the same kind of
work, and in the same manner; consequently the system of breaking
or training them varies only according to the temper or ideas of those
who undertake their schooling.

Few dogs are more admired than English Setters, and those who are
looked upon as professional exhibitors have not been slow to recognise
the fact that when a really good young dog makes its appearance it
is a formidable rival amongst all other breeds when the special prizes
come to be allotted.

Seen either at its legitimate work as a gun dog or as a domestic
companion, the English Setter is one of the most graceful and
beautiful of the canine race, and its elegant form and feathery coat
command instant admiration. Twenty years ago it was known by several
distinct names, among the more important being the Blue Beltons and
Laveracks, and this regardless of any consideration as to whether
or not the dogs were in any way connected by relationship to the stock
which had earned fame for either of these time-honoured names. It
was the great increase in the number of shows and some confusion on
the part of exhibitors that made it necessary for the Kennel Club
to classify under one heading these and others which had attained
some amount of notability and the old terms have gradually been
dropped.

Doubtless the English Setter Club has done much since its institution
in 1890 to encourage this breed of dog, and has proved the usefulness
of the club by providing two very valuable trophies, the Exhibitors'
Challenge Cup and the Field Trial Challenge Cup, for competition
amongst its members, besides having liberally supported all the
leading shows; hence it has rightly come to be regarded as the only
authority from which an acceptable and official dictum for the
guidance of others can emanate.

The following is the standard of points issued by the English Setter
Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--The head should be long and lean, with well-defined stop. The
skull oval from ear to ear, showing plenty of brain room, and with
a well-defined occipital protuberance. The muzzle moderately deep
and fairly square; from the stop to the point of the nose should be
long, the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly equal length; flews
not too pendulous. The colour of the nose should be black, or dark,
or light liver, according to the colour of the coat. The eyes should
be bright, mild, and intelligent, and of a dark hazel colour, the
darker the better. The ears of moderate length, set on low and hanging
in neat folds close to the cheek; the tip should be velvety, the upper
part clothed with fine silky hair. NECK--The neck should be rather
long, muscular, and lean, slightly arched at the crest, and clean
cut where it joins the head; towards the shoulder it should be larger,
and very muscular, not throaty with any pendulosity below the throat,
but elegant and bloodlike in appearance. BODY--The body should be
of moderate length, with shoulders well set back or oblique; back
short and level; loins wide, slightly arched, strong and muscular.
Chest deep in the brisket, with good round widely-sprung ribs, deep
in the back ribs--that is, well ribbed up. LEGS AND FEET--The stifles
should be well bent and ragged, thighs long from hip to hock. The
forearm big and very muscular, the elbow well let down. Pasterns
short, muscular, and straight. The feet very close and compact, and
well protected by hair between the toes. TAIL--The tail should be
set on almost in a line with the back; medium length, not curly or
ropy, to be slightly curved or scimitar-shaped, but with no tendency
to turn upwards; the flag or feather hanging in long, pendant flakes;
the feather should not commence at the root, but slightly below, and
increase in length to the middle, then gradually taper off towards
the end; and the hair long, bright, soft and silky, wavy but not
curly. COAT AND FEATHERING--The coat from the back of the head in
a line with the ears ought to be slightly wavy, long, and silky, which
should be the case with the coat generally; the breeches and
fore-legs, nearly down to the feet, should be well feathered. COLOUR
AND MARKINGS--The colour may be either black and white, lemon and
white, liver and white, or tricolour--that is, black, white, and tan;
those without heavy patches of colour on the body, but flecked all
over preferred.

       *       *       *       *       *

II. THE IRISH SETTER.--Though this variety has not attained such
popularity as its English cousin, it is not because it is regarded
as being less pleasing to the eye, for in general appearance of style
and outline there is very little difference; in fact, none, if the
chiselling of the head and colour of the coat be excepted. The
beautiful rich golden, chestnut colour which predominates in all
well-bred specimens is in itself sufficient to account for the great
favour in which they are regarded generally, while their disposition
is sufficiently engaging to attract the attention of those who desire
to have a moderate-sized dog as a companion, rather than either a
very large or very small one. Probably this accounts for so many lady
exhibitors in England preferring them to the other varieties of
Setters. We have to go over to its native country, however, to find
the breed most highly esteemed as a sporting dog for actual work,
and there it is naturally first favourite; in fact, very few of either
of the other varieties are to be met with from one end of the Green
Isle to the other. It has been suggested that all Irish Setters are
too headstrong to make really high-class field trial dogs. Some of
them, on the contrary, are quite as great in speed and not only as
clever at their business, but quite as keen-nosed as other Setters.
Some which have competed within the past few years at the Irish Red
Setter Club's trials have had as rivals some of the best Pointers
from England and Scotland, and have successfully held their own.

The Secretary of the Irish Setter Club is Mr. S. Brown, 27, Eustace
Street, Dublin, and the standard of points as laid down by that
authority is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--The head should be long and lean. The skull oval (from ear to
ear), having plenty of brain room, and with well-defined occipital
protuberance. Brows raised, showing stop. The muzzle moderately deep
and fairly square at the end. From the stop to the point of the nose
should be fairly long, the nostrils wide, and the jaws of nearly equal
length; flews not to be pendulous. The colour of the nose dark
mahogany or dark walnut, and that of the eyes (which ought not to
be too large) rich hazel or brown. The ears to be of moderate size,
fine in texture, set on low, well back, and hanging in a neat fold
close to the head. NECK--The neck should be moderately long, very
muscular, but not too thick; slightly arched, free from all tendency
to throatiness. BODY--The body should be long. Shoulders fine at the
points, deep and sloping well back. The chest as deep as possible,
rather narrow in front. The ribs well sprung, leaving plenty of lung
room. Loins muscular and slightly arched. The hind-quarters wide and
powerful. LEGS AND FEET--The hind-legs from hip to hock should be
long and muscular; from hock to heel short and strong. The stifle
and hock joints well bent, and not inclined either in or out. The
fore-legs should be straight and sinewy, having plenty of bone, with
elbows free, well let down, and, like the hocks, not inclined either
in or out. The feet small, very firm; toes strong, close together,
and arched. TAIL--The tail should be of moderate length, set on rather
low, strong at root, and tapering to a fine point, to be carried as
nearly as possible on a level or below the back. COAT--On the head,
front of legs, and tips of ears the coat should be short and fine;
but on all other parts of the body and legs it ought to be of
moderate length, flat, and as free as possible from curl or wave.
FEATHERING--The feather on the upper portion of the ears should be
long and silky; on the back of fore and hind-legs long and fine; a
fair amount of hair on the belly, forming a nice fringe, which may
extend on chest and throat. Feet to be well feathered between the
toes. Tail to have a nice fringe of moderately long hair, decreasing
in length as it approaches the point. All feathering to be as straight
and as flat as possible. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--The colour should be
a rich golden chestnut, with no trace whatever of black; white on
chest, throat, or toes, or a small star on the forehead, or a narrow
streak or blaze on the nose or face not to disqualify.

       *       *       *       *       *

III. THE BLACK AND TAN SETTER.--Originally this variety was known
as the Gordon Setter, but this title was only partly correct, as the
particular dogs first favoured by the Duke of Gordon, from whom they
took the name, were black, tan, and white, heavily built, and somewhat
clumsy in appearance. But the introduction of the Irish blood had
the effect of making a racier-looking dog more fashionable, the
presence of white on the chest was looked upon with disfavour, and
the Kennel Club settled the difficulty of name by abolishing the term
"Gordon" altogether.

Very few of this variety have appeared at field trials for several
years past, but that cannot be considered a valid reason for
stigmatising them as "old-men's dogs," as some narrow-minded faddists
delight in calling them. On the few occasions when the opportunity
has been presented they have acquitted themselves at least as well
as, and on some occasions better than, their rivals of other
varieties, proving to be as fast, as staunch, and as obedient as any
of them. A notable example of this occurred during the season of 1902
and 1903, when Mr. Isaac Sharpe's Stylish Ranger was so remarkably
successful at the trials.

It is very difficult to account for the lack of interest which is
taken in the variety outside Scotland, but the fact remains that very
few have appeared at field trials within recent years, and that only
about four owners are troubling the officials of English shows
regularly at the present time.

In France, Belgium, Norway, and especially in Russia this handsome
sporting dog is a far greater favourite than it is in Great Britain,
not only for work with the gun, but as a companion, and it is a fact
that at many a Continental dog show more specimens of the breed are
exhibited than could be gathered together in the whole of the United
Kingdom.

The want of an active organisation which would foster and encourage
the interests of the Black and Tan Setter is much to be deplored,
and is, without doubt, the chief cause of its being so much neglected,
for in these strenuous days, when almost every breed or variety of
breed is backed up by its own votaries, it cannot be expected that
such as are not constantly kept in prominence will receive anything
more than scant consideration.

The Black and Tan Setter is heavier than the English or Irish
varieties, but shows more of the hound and less of the Spaniel. The
head is stronger than that of the English Setter, with a deeper and
broader muzzle and heavier lips. The ears are also somewhat longer,
and the eyes frequently show the haw. The black should be as jet,
and entirely free from white. The tan on the cheeks and over the eyes,
on the feet and pasterns, should be bright and clearly defined, and
the feathering on the fore-legs and thighs should also be a rich,
dark mahogany tan.

Amongst the oldest and most successful owners of Setters who have
consistently competed at field trials may be mentioned Colonel Cotes,
whose Prince Frederick was probably the most wonderful backer ever
known. Messrs. Purcell-Llewellyn, W. Arkwright, Elias and James
Bishop, F. C. Lowe, J. Shorthose, G. Potter and S. Smale, who may
be considered the oldest Setter judges, and who have owned dogs whose
prowess in the field has brought them high reputation. Mr. B. J.
Warwick has within recent years owned probably more winners at field
trials than any other owner, one of his being Compton Bounce. Captain
Heywood Lonsdale has on several occasions proved the Ightfield strain
to be staunch and true, as witness the doughty deeds of Duke of that
ilk, and the splendid success he achieved at recent grouse trials
in Scotland with his Ightfield Rob Roy, Mack, and Dot, the first-named
winning the all-aged stake, and the others being first and third in
the puppy stake. Mr. Herbert Mitchell has been another good patron
of the trials, and has won many important stakes. Mr. A. T. Williams
has also owned a few noted trial winners, and from Scotland comes
Mr. Isaac Sharpe, whose Gordon Setter, Stylish Ranger, has effectually
put a stop to the silly argument that all this breed are old men's
dogs.

Many of the older field trial men hold tenaciously to the opinion
that the modern exhibition Setter is useless for high-class work,
and contend that if field-trial winners are to be produced they must
be bred from noted working strains. Doubtless this prejudice in favour
of working dogs has been engendered by the circumstance that many
owners of celebrated bench winners care nothing about their dogs being
trained, in some cases generation after generation having been bred
simply for show purposes. Under such conditions it is not to be
wondered at that the capacity for fine scenting properties and the
natural aptitude for quickly picking up a knowledge of their proper
duties in the field is impaired. But there is no reason why a good
show dog should not also be a good worker, and the recent edict of
the Kennel Club which rules that no gun dog shall be entitled to
championship honours until it has gained a certificate of merit in
field trials will doubtless tend towards a general improvement in
the working qualities of the breeds whose providence is in the
finding and retrieving of game.



CHAPTER XXIV

THE RETRIEVERS


It is obviously useless to shoot game unless you can find it after
it has been wounded or killed, and from the earliest times it has
been the habit of sportsmen to train their dogs to do the work which
they could not always successfully do for themselves. The Pointers,
Setters, and Spaniels of our forefathers were carefully broken not
only to find and stand their game, but also to fetch the fallen birds.
This use of the setting and pointing dog is still common on the
Continent and in the United States, and there is no inaccuracy in
a French artist depicting a Pointer with a partridge in its mouth,
or showing a Setter retrieving waterfowl.

The Springer and the old curly-coated water-dog were regarded as
particularly adroit in the double work of finding and retrieving.
Pointers and Setters who had been thus broken were found to
deteriorate in steadiness in the field, and it gradually came to be
realised that even the Spaniel's capacity for retrieving was limited.
A larger and quicker dog was wanted to divide the labour, and to be
used solely as a retriever in conjunction with the other gun dogs.
The Poodle was tried for retrieving with some success, and he showed
considerable aptitude in finding and fetching wounded wild duck; but
he, too, was inclined to maul his birds and deliver them dead. Even
the old English Sheepdog was occasionally engaged in the work, and
various crosses with Spaniel or Setter and Collie were attempted in
the endeavour to produce a grade breed having the desired qualities
of a good nose, a soft mouth, and an understanding brain, together
with a coat that would protect its wearer from the ill effects of
frequent immersion in water.

It was when these efforts were most active--namely about the year
1850--that new material was discovered in a black-coated dog recently
introduced into England from Labrador. He was a natural water-dog,
with a constitution impervious to chills, and entirely free from the
liability to ear canker, which had always been a drawback to the use
of the Spaniel as a retriever of waterfowl. Moreover, he was himself
reputed to be a born retriever of game, and remarkably sagacious.
His importers called him a Spaniel--a breed name which at one time
was also applied to his relative the Newfoundland. Probably there
were not many specimens of the race in England, and, although there
is no record explicitly saying so, it is conjectured that these were
crossed with the English Setter, producing what is now familiarly
known as the black, flat-coated Retriever.

One very remarkable attribute of the Retriever is that notwithstanding
the known fact that the parent stock was mongrel, and that in the
early dogs the Setter type largely predominated, the ultimate result
has favoured the Labrador cross distinctly and prominently, proving
how potent, even when grafted upon a stock admittedly various, is
the blood of a pure race, and how powerful its influence for fixing
type and character over the other less vital elements with which it
is blended.

From the first, sportsmen recognised the extreme value of the new
retrieving dog. Strengthened and improved by the Labrador blood, he
had lost little if any of the Setter beauty of form. He was a
dignified, substantial, intelligent, good-tempered, affectionate
companion, faithful, talented, highly cultivated, and esteemed, in
the season and out of it, for his mind as well as his beauty.

It is only comparatively recently that we have realised how excellent
an all-around sporting dog the Retriever has become. In many cases,
indeed, where grouse and partridge are driven or walked-up a
well-broken, soft-mouthed Retriever is unquestionably superior to
Pointer, Setter, or Spaniel, and for general work in the field he
is the best companion that a shooting man can possess.

Doubtless in earlier days, when the art of training was less
thoroughly understood, the breaking of a dog was a matter of infinite
trouble to breeders. Most of the gun dogs could be taught by patience
and practice to retrieve fur or feather, but game carefully and
skilfully shot is easily rendered valueless by being mumbled and
mauled by powerful jaws not schooled to gentleness. And this question
of a tender mouth was certainly one of the problems that perturbed
the minds of the originators of the breed. The difficulty was overcome
by process of selection, and by the exclusion from breeding operations
of all hard-mouthed specimens, with the happy effect that in the
present time it is exceptional to find a working Retriever who does
not know how to bring his bird to hand without injuring it. A better
knowledge of what is expected of him distinguishes our modern
Retriever. He knows his duty, and is intensely eager to perform it,
but he no longer rushes off unbidden at the firing of the gun. He
has learned to remain at heel until he is ordered by word or gesture
from his master, upon whom he relies as his friend and director.

It would be idle to expect that the offspring of unbroken sire and
dam can be as easily educated as a Retriever whose parents before
him have been properly trained. Inherited qualities count for a great
deal in the adaptability of all sporting dogs, and the reason why
one meets with so many Retrievers that are incapable or disobedient
or gun-shy is simply that their preliminary education has been
neglected--the education which should begin when the dog is very
young.

In his earliest youth he should be trained to prompt obedience to
a given word or a wave of the hand. It is well to teach him very early
to enter water, or he may be found wanting when you require him to
fetch a bird from river or lake. Lessons in retrieving ought to be
a part of his daily routine. Equally necessary is it to break him
in to the knowledge that sheep and lambs are not game to be chased,
and that rabbits and hares are to be discriminated from feathered
game.

Gun-shyness is often supposed to be hereditary; but it is not so.
Any puppy can be cured of gun-shyness in half a dozen short lessons.
Sir Henry Smith's advice is to get your puppy accustomed to the sound
and sight of a gun being fired, first at a distance and gradually
nearer and nearer, until he knows that no harm will come to him.
Companionship and sympathy between dog and master is the beginning
and end of the whole business, and there is a moral obligation between
them which ought never to be strained.

Both as a worker and as a show dog the flat-coated Retriever has
reached something very near to the ideal standard of perfection which
has been consistently bred up to. Careful selection and systematic
breeding, backed up by enthusiasm, have resulted in the production
of a dog combining useful working qualities with the highest degree
of beauty.

A very prominent admirer and breeder was the late Mr. S. E. Shirley,
the President of the Kennel Club, who owned many Retrievers
superlative both as workers and as show dogs, and who probably did
more for the breed than any other man of his generation.

[Illustration: MR. H. REGINALD COOKE'S RETRIEVER CH. WORSLEY BESS
_From the Painting by Maud Earl_]

Mr. Shirley's work was carried on by Mr. Harding Cox, who devoted
much time and energy to the production of good Retrievers, many of
which were of Mr. Shirley's strain. Mr. Cox's dogs deservedly achieved
considerable fame for their levelness of type, and the improvement
in heads so noticeable at the present time is to be ascribed to his
breeding for this point. Mr. L. Allen Shuter, the owner of Ch. Darenth
and other excellent Retrievers of his own breeding, claims also a
large share of credit for the part he has played in the general
improvement of the breed. Mr. C. A. Phillips, too, owned admirable
specimens, and the name of the late Lieut.-Colonel Cornwall Legh must
be included. Many of Colonel Legh's bitches were of Shirley blood,
but it is believed that a breed of Retrievers had existed at High
Legh for several generations, with which a judicious cross was made,
the result being not only the formation of a remarkable kennel, but
also a decided influence for good upon the breed in general.

But since the Shirley days, when competition was more limited than
it is at present, no kennel of Retrievers has ever attained anything
like the distinction of that owned by Mr. H. Reginald Cooke, at
Riverside, Nantwich. By acquiring the best specimens of the breed
from all available sources, Mr. Cooke has gathered together a stock
which has never been equalled. His ideas of type and conformation
are the outcome of close and attentive study and consistent practice,
and one needs to go to Riverside if one desires to see the highest
examples of what a modern flat-coated Retriever can be.

Since Dr. Bond Moore imparted to the Retriever a fixity of character,
the coats have become longer and less wavy, and in conformation of
skull, colour of eye, straightness of legs, and quality of bone, there
has been a perceptible improvement.

As there is no club devoted to the breed, and consequently no official
standard of points, the following description of the perfect Retriever
is offered:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a well-proportioned bright and active
sporting dog, showing power without lumber and raciness without
weediness. HEAD--Long, fine, without being weak, the muzzle square,
the underjaw strong with an absence of lippiness or throatiness.
EYES--Dark as possible, with a very intelligent, mild expression.
NECK--Long and clean. EARS--Small, well set on, and carried close
to the head. SHOULDERS--Oblique, running well into the back, with
plenty of depth of chest. BODY--Short and square, and well ribbed
up. STERN--Short and straight, and carried gaily, but not curled over
the back. FORE-LEGS--Straight, pasterns strong, feet small and round.
QUARTERS--Strong; stifles well bent. COAT--Dense black or liver, of
fine quality and texture. Flat, not wavy. WEIGHT--From 65 lb. to 80
lb. for dogs; bitches rather less.

       *       *       *       *       *

As a rule the Retriever should be chosen for the intelligent look
of his face, and particular attention should be paid to the shape
of his head and to his eyes. His frame is important, of course, but
in the Retriever the mental qualities are of more significance than
bodily points.

There has been a tendency in recent years among Retriever breeders
to fall into the common error of exaggerating a particular point,
and of breeding dogs with a head far too fine and narrow--it is what
has been aptly called the alligator head--lacking in brain capacity
and power of jaw. A perfect head should be long and clean, but neither
weak nor snipy. The eye should be placed just halfway between the
occiput and the tip of the nose.

It is pleasing to add that to this beautiful breed the phrase
"handsome is as handsome does" applies in full measure. Not only is
the average Retriever of a companionable disposition, with delightful
intelligence that is always responsive, but he is a good and faithful
guard and a courageous protector of person and property. It has
already been said that the majority of the best-looking Retrievers
are also good working dogs, and it may here be added that many of
the most successful working dogs are sired by prize-winners in the
show ring.


  THE CURLY-COATED RETRIEVER


The curly-coated Retriever is commonly believed to be of earlier
origin than his flat-coated relative, and he is of less pure descent.
He probably owes ancestral tribute to the Poodle. Such a cross may
conceivably have been resorted to by the early Retriever breeders,
and there was little to lose from a merely sporting point of view
from this alien introduction, for the Poodle is well known to be by
nature, if not by systematic training, an excellent water dog, capable
of being taught anything that the canine mind can comprehend. During
the early years of the nineteenth century the Poodle was fairly
plentiful in England, and we had no other curly-coated dog of similar
size and type apart from the Irish Water Spaniel, who may himself
lay claim to Poodle relationship; while as to the Retriever, either
curly or flat coated, he can in no sense be assigned to any country
outside of Great Britain. The presumption is strong that the
"gentleman from France" was largely instrumental in the manufacture
of the variety, but whatever the origin of the curly-coated Retriever
he is a beautiful dog, and one is gratified to note that the old
prejudice against him, and the old indictment as to his hard mouth,
are fast giving place to praise of his intelligence and admiration
of his working abilities.

Speaking generally, it seems to be accepted that he is slightly
inferior in nose to his flat-coated cousin, and not quite so easy
to break, but there are many keepers and handlers who have discovered
in individual specimens extraordinary merit in the field combined
with great endurance. It is not certain that any great improvement
has been effected in the variety during recent years, but there are
particular dogs to-day who are decidedly better than any that existed
a dozen years or more ago, when such celebrities as True, Old Sam,
King Koffee, Ben Wonder, Doden Ben, Lad and Una, were prominent, and
there is no doubt that the curly coats attained show form in advance
of the flat-coated variety.

The coat of the curly Retriever plays a very important part in his
value and personality. There are many kinds of coat, but the only
true and proper one is the close-fitting "nigger curl," of which each
knot is solid and inseparable. A coat of this quality is not capable
of improvement by any method of grooming, for the simple reason that
its natural condition is in itself perfect. The little locks should
be so close together as to be impervious to water, and all parts of
the body should be evenly covered with them, including the tail and
legs. A bad class of coat, and one which readily yields to the faker's
art, is the thin open curl which by careful manipulation can be
greatly improved. Another bad quality of coat is one in which, upon
the withers and over the loins in particular, the curls do not tighten
up naturally, but are large, loose, and soft to the feel. Regarding
the dog as a whole, the following may be taken as an all-round
description:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a smart, active, clean-cut and alert dog,
full of go and fire--a sportsman from stem to stern. HEAD--Long and
not weedy in the muzzle, nor thick and coarse in the skull, but
tapering down and finishing with a stout broad muzzle. SKULL--Should
be flat and moderately broad between the ears, which are rather small,
and well covered with hair. EARS--Should lie close to the side of
the head, but not dead in their carriage. FACE--The face should be
smooth, and any indication of a forelock should be penalised. EYE--The
eye should in all cases be dark and not too deeply set. NECK--Well
placed in the shoulders and nicely arched, of moderate length and
yet powerful and free from throatiness. SHOULDERS--Well laid back
and as free from massiveness as possible, though there is a decided
tendency in this variety to such a fault. LEGS--Straight and well
covered with coat. The bone should show quality and yet be fairly
abundant. FEET--Compact and hound-like. BODY--Should show great power,
with deep, well-rounded ribs. As little cut-up in the flank as
possible. TAIL--Strong at the base, set on in a line with the back
and tapering to a point, the size of the curls upon it diminishing
gradually to the end. HIND-QUARTERS--Should show great development
of muscle, with bent hocks, the lower leg being strong and the hind
feet compact. Any suspicion of cow hocks should be heavily penalised.
COLOUR--Mostly a dull black. Some liver-coloured dogs are seen with
very good coats and bodies, but their heads are generally thick and
coarse, and the colour of their eyes does not always match, as it
should do, with the colour of the coat. A few dogs of this colour
have achieved distinction on the show bench.

       *       *       *       *       *


  THE LABRADOR


Within recent years the original smooth-coated Labrador dog has taken
its place as a recognised variety of the Retriever and become
prominent both at exhibitions and as a worker. It is not probable
that any have been imported into England for the past quarter of a
century, but without the assistance of shows or imported blood they
have survived marvellously. Thanks especially to the kennels of such
breeders as the Dukes of Buccleuch and Hamilton, the Earl of Verulam,
Lords Wimborne, Horne, and Malmesbury, the Hon. A. Holland Hibbert,
Sir Savile Crossley, Mr. F. P. Barnett, Mr. C. Liddell, Mr. O. L.
Mansel, and others equally enthusiastic.

To the Duke of Buccleuch's kennel we are probably more indebted in
the last twenty years than to any other. Its foundation was laid in
two bitches by a dog of the Duke of Hamilton's from a bitch of Lord
Malmesbury's. At Drumlanrig, as well as on the Duke's other estates,
they have been most particular in preserving the purity and working
qualities of their strain. And the same may be said of the Hon. A.
Holland Hibbert, whose principal dogs are not only typical in
appearance, but broken to perfection. The Duchess of Hamilton's
kennels have been responsible for some of the best field trial winners
of the present day. As far as looks are concerned, one cannot say
that the Labrador compares favourably with either the flat or the
curly coated Retriever, but that is immaterial so long as he continues
to work as he is doing at present.



CHAPTER XXV

THE SPORTING SPANIEL


I. THE SPANIEL FAMILY.--The Spaniel family is without any doubt one
of the most important of the many groups which are included in the
canine race, not only on account of its undoubted antiquity, and,
compared with other families, its well authenticated lineage, but
also because of its many branches and subdivisions, ranging in size
from the majestic and massive Clumbers to the diminutive toys which
we are accustomed to associate with fair ladies' laps and gaily-decked
pens at our big dog shows.

Moreover, the different varieties of Setters undoubtedly derive their
origin from the same parent stock, since we find them described by
the earlier sporting writers as "setting" or "crouching" Spaniels,
in contradistinction to the "finding" or "springing" Spaniel, who
flushed the game he found without setting or pointing it. As time
went on, the setting variety was, no doubt, bred larger and longer
in the leg, with a view to increased pace; but the Spaniel-like head
and coat still remain to prove the near connection between the two
breeds.

All the different varieties of Spaniels, both sporting and toy, have,
with the exception of the Clumber and the Irish Water Spaniel (who
is not, despite his name, a true Spaniel at all), a common origin,
though at a very early date we find them divided into two
groups--viz., Land and Water Spaniels, and these two were kept
distinct, and bred to develop those points which were most essential
for their different spheres of work. The earliest mention of Spaniels
to be found in English literature is contained in the celebrated
"Master of Game," the work of Edward Plantagenet, second Duke of York,
and Master of Game to his uncle, Henry IV., to whom the work is
dedicated. It was written between the years 1406 and 1413, and
although none of the MSS., of which some sixteen are in existence,
is dated, this date can be fairly accurately fixed, as the author
was appointed Master of Game in the former and killed at Agincourt
in the latter year. His chapter on Spaniels, however, is mainly a
translation from the equally celebrated "Livre de Chasse," of Gaston
Comte de Foix, generally known as Gaston Phoebus, which was written
in 1387, so that we may safely assume that Spaniels were well known,
and habitually used as aids to the chase both in France and England,
as early as the middle of the fourteenth century.

In the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth century the Spaniel
was described by many writers on sporting subjects; but there is a
great similarity in most of these accounts, each author apparently
having been content to repeat in almost identical language what had
been said upon the subject by his predecessors, without importing
any originality or opinions of his own. Many of these works,
notwithstanding this defect, are very interesting to the student of
Spaniel lore, and the perusal of Blaine's _Rural Sports_, Taplin's
_Sporting Dictionary and Rural Repository_, Scott's _Sportsman's
Repository_, and Needham's _Complete Sportsman_, can be recommended
to all who wish to study the history of the development of the various
modern breeds. The works of the French writers, De Cominck, De
Cherville, Blaze, and Megnin, are well worth reading, while of late
years the subject has been treated very fully by such British writers
as the late J. H. Walsh ("Stonehenge"), Mr. Vero Shaw, Mr. Rawdon
Lee, Colonel Claude Cane, and Mr. C. A. Phillips.

Nearly all of the early writers, both French and English, are agreed
that the breed came originally from Spain, and we may assume that
such early authorities as Gaston Phoebus, Edward Plantagenet, and
Dr. Caius had good reasons for telling us that these dogs were called
Spaniels because they came from Spain.

The following distinct breeds or varieties are recognised by the
Kennel Club: (1) Irish Water Spaniels; (2) Water Spaniels other than
Irish; (3) Clumber Spaniels; (4) Sussex Spaniels; (5) Field Spaniels;
(6) English Springers; (7) Welsh Springers; (8) Cocker Spaniels. Each
of these varieties differs considerably from the others, and each
has its own special advocates and admirers, as well as its own
particular sphere of work for which it is best fitted, though almost
any Spaniel can be made into a general utility dog, which is, perhaps,
one of the main reasons for the popularity of the breed.

II. THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL.--There is only one breed of dog known
in these days by the name of Irish Water Spaniel, but if we are to
trust the writers of no longer ago than half a century there were
at one time two, if not three, breeds of Water Spaniels peculiar to
the Emerald Isle. These were the Tweed Water Spaniel, the Northern
Water Spaniel, and the Southern Water Spaniel, the last of these
being the progenitors of our modern strains.

The history of the Irish Water Spaniel is in many ways a very
extraordinary one. According to the claim of Mr. Justin McCarthy,
it originated entirely in his kennels, and this claim has never been
seriously disputed by the subsequent owners and breeders of these
dogs. It seems improbable that Mr. Justin McCarthy can actually have
originated or manufactured a breed possessing so many extremely marked
differences and divergences of type as the Irish Water Spaniel; but
what he probably did was to rescue an old and moribund breed from
impending extinction, and so improve it by judicious breeding, and
cross-breeding as to give it a new lease of life, and permanently
fix its salient points and characteristics. However that may be,
little seems to have been known of the breed before he took it in
hand, and it is very certain that nearly every Irish Water Spaniel
seen for the last half century owes its descent to his old dog
Boatswain, who was born in 1834 and lived for eighteen years. He must
have been a grand old dog, since Mr. McCarthy gave him to Mr. Joliffe
Tuffnell in 1849, when he was fifteen years old; and his new owner
subsequently bred by him Jack, a dog whose name appears in many
pedigrees.

It was not until 1862 that the breed seems to have attracted much
notice in England, but in that year the Birmingham Committee gave
two classes for them, in which, however, several of the prizes were
withheld for want of merit; the next few years saw these dogs making
great strides in popularity and, classes being provided at most of
the important shows, many good specimens were exhibited.

During the last few years, however, the breed seems to have been
progressing the wrong way, and classes at shows have not been nearly
so strong, either in numbers or in quality, as they used to be. Yet
there have been, and are still, quite a large number of good dogs
and bitches to be seen, and it only needs enthusiasm and co-operation
among breeders to bring back the palmiest days of the Irish Water
Spaniel.

There is no member of the whole canine family which has a more
distinctive personal appearance than the Irish Water Spaniel. With
him it is a case of once seen never forgotten, and no one who has
ever seen one could possibly mistake him for anything else than what
he is. His best friends probably would not claim beauty, in the
aesthetic sense, for him; but he is attractive in a quaint way
peculiarly his own, and intelligent-looking. In this particular his
looks do not bewray him; he is, in fact, one of the most intelligent
of all the dogs used in aid of the gun, and in his own sphere one
of the most useful. That sphere, there is no doubt, is that indicated
by his name, and it is in a country of bogs and marshes, like the
south and west of Ireland, of which he was originally a native, where
snipe and wildfowl provide the staple sport of the gunner, that he
is in his element and seen at his best, though, no doubt, he can do
excellent work as an ordinary retriever, and is often used as such.

But Nature (or Mr. McCarthy's art) has specially formed and endowed
him for the amphibious sport indicated above, and has provided him
with an excellent nose, an almost waterproof coat, the sporting
instincts of a true son of Erin, and, above all, a disposition full
of good sense; he is high-couraged, and at the same time adaptable
to the highest degree of perfection in training. His detractors often
accuse him of being hard-mouthed, but this charge is not well founded.
Many a dog which is used to hunt or find game as well as to retrieve
it, will often kill a wounded bird or rabbit rather than allow it
to escape, while there are many Irish Water Spaniels who, under normal
circumstances, are just as tender-mouthed as the most fashionable
of black Retrievers. Besides his virtues in the field, the Irish Water
Spaniel has the reputation--a very well-founded one--of being the
best of pals.

Most people are well acquainted with the personal appearance of this
quaint-looking dog. The points regarded as essential are as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

COLOUR--The colour should always be a rich dark liver or puce without
any white at all. Any white except the slightest of "shirt fronts"
should disqualify. The _nose_ of course should conform to the coat
in colour, and be dark brown. HEAD--The head should have a capacious
skull, fairly but not excessively domed, with plenty of brain room.
It should be surmounted with a regular topknot of curly hair, a _most
important_ and distinctive point. This topknot should _never_ be
square cut or like a poodle's wig, but should grow down to a well
defined point between the eyes. EYES--The eyes should be small, dark,
and set obliquely, like a Chinaman's. EARS--The ears should be long,
strong in leather, low set, heavily ringleted, and from 18 to 24
inches long, according to size. MUZZLE AND JAW--The muzzle and jaw
should be long and strong. There should be a decided "stop," but not
so pronounced as to make the brows or forehead prominent. NECK--The
neck should be fairly long and very muscular. SHOULDERS--The shoulders
should be sloping. Most Irish Water Spaniels have bad, straight
shoulders, a defect which should be bred out. CHEST--The chest is
deep, and usually rather narrow, but should not be so narrow as to
constrict the heart and lungs. BACK AND LOINS--The back and loins
strong and arched. FORE-LEGS--The fore-legs straight and well boned.
Heavily feathered or ringleted all over. HIND-LEGS--The hind-legs
with hocks set very low, stifles rather straight, feathered all over,
except inside from the hocks down, which part should be covered with
short hair (a most distinctive point). FEET--The feet large and rather
spreading as is proper for a water dog, well clothed with hair.
STERN--The stern covered with the shortest of hair, except for the
first couple of inches next the buttocks, whiplike or stinglike (a
most important point), and carried low, not like a hound's. COAT--The
coat composed entirely of short crisp curls, not woolly like a
Poodle's, and very dense. If left to itself, this coat mats or cords,
but this is not permissible in show dogs. The hair on the muzzle and
forehead below the topknot is quite short and smooth, as well as that
on the stern. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Is not remarkable for symmetry,
but is quaint and intelligent looking. HEIGHT--The height should be
between 21 and 23 inches.

       *       *       *       *       *

III. THE ENGLISH WATER SPANIEL.--In the Kennel Club's Register of
Breeds no place is allotted to this variety, all Water Spaniels other
than Irish being classed together. Despite this absence of official
recognition there is abundant evidence that a breed of Spaniels
legitimately entitled to the designation of English Water Spaniels
has been in existence for many years, in all probability a descendant
of the old "Water-Dogge," an animal closely resembling the French
"Barbet," the ancestor of the modern Poodle. They were even trimmed
at times much in the same way as a Poodle is nowadays, as Markham
gives precise directions for "the cutting or shearing him from the
nauill downeward or backeward." The opinion expressed by the writer
of _The Sportsman's Cabinet_, 1803, is that the breed originated from
a cross between the large water dog and the Springing Spaniel, and
this is probably correct, though Youatt, a notable authority, thinks
that the cross was with an English Setter. Possibly some strains may
have been established in this way, and not differ very much in make
and shape from those obtained from the cross with the Spaniel, as
it is well known that Setters and Spaniels have a common origin.

In general appearance the dog resembles somewhat closely the Springer,
except that he may be somewhat higher on the leg, and that his coat
should consist of crisp, tight curls, almost like Astrakhan fur,
everywhere except on his face, where it should be short. There should
be no topknot like that of the Irish Water Spaniel.

IV. THE CLUMBER SPANIEL is in high favour in the Spaniel world, both
with shooting men and exhibitors, and the breed well deserves from
both points of view the position which it occupies in the public
esteem. No other variety is better equipped mentally and physically
for the work it is called upon to do in aid of the gun; and few,
certainly none of the Spaniels, surpass or even equal it in
appearance.

As a sporting dog, the Clumber is possessed of the very best of noses,
a natural inclination both to hunt his game and retrieve it when
killed, great keenness and perseverance wonderful endurance and
activity considering his massive build, and as a rule is very easy
to train, being highly intelligent and more docile and "biddable."
The man who owns a good dog of this breed, whether he uses it as a
retriever for driven birds, works it in a team, or uses it as his
sole companion when he goes gunning, possesses a treasure. The great
success of these Spaniels in the Field Trials promoted by both the
societies which foster those most useful institutions is enough to
prove this, and more convincing still is the tenacity with which the
fortunate possessors of old strains, mostly residents in the immediate
neighbourhood of the original home of the breed, have held on to them
and continued to breed and use them year after year for many
generations.

As a show dog, his massive frame, powerful limbs, pure white coat,
with its pale lemon markings and frecklings, and, above all, his
solemn and majestic aspect, mark him out as a true aristocrat, with
all the beauty of refinement which comes from a long line of cultured
ancestors.

All research so far has failed to carry their history back any further
than the last quarter of the eighteenth century. About that time the
Duc de Noailles presented some Spaniels, probably his whole kennel,
which he brought from France, to the second Duke of Newcastle, from
whose place, Clumber Park, the breed has taken its name. Beyond this
it seems impossible to go: indeed, the Clumber seems to be generally
looked upon as a purely English breed.

From Clumber Park specimens found their way to most of the other great
houses in the neighbourhood, notably to Althorp Park, Welbeck Abbey,
Birdsall House, Thoresby Hall, and Osberton Hall. It is from the
kennels at the last-named place, owned by Mr. Foljambe, that most
of the progenitors of the Clumbers which have earned notoriety derived
their origin. Nearly all the most famous show winners of early days
were descended from Mr. Foljambe's dogs, and his Beau may perhaps
be considered one of the most important "pillars of the stud," as
he was the sire of Nabob, a great prize-winner, and considered one
of the best of his day, who belonged at various times during his
career to such famous showmen as Messrs. Phineas Bullock, Mr.
Fletcher, Mr. Rawdon Lee, and Mr. G. Oliver.

There has been a great deal of lamentation lately among old breeders
and exhibitors about the decadence of the breed and the loss of the
true old type possessed by these dogs. But, despite all they can say
to the contrary, the Clumber is now in a more flourishing state than
it ever has been; and although perhaps we have not now, nor have had
for the last decade, a John o' Gaunt or a Tower, there have been a
large number of dogs shown during that time who possessed considerable
merit and would probably have held their own even in the days of these
bygone heroes. Some of the most notable have been Baillie Friar,
Beechgrove Donally, Goring of Auchentorlie, Hempstead Toby, and
Preston Shot, who all earned the coveted title of Champion.

The Field Trials have, no doubt, had a great deal to do with the
largely augmented popularity of the breed and the great increase in
the number of those who own Clumbers. For the first two or three years
after these were truly established no other breed seemed to have a
chance with them; and even now, though both English and Welsh
Springers have done remarkably well, they more than hold their own.
The most distinguished performer by far was Mr. Winton Smith's
Beechgrove Bee, a bitch whose work was practically faultless, and
the first Field Trial Champion among Spaniels. Other good Clumbers
who earned distinction in the field were Beechgrove Minette,
Beechgrove Maud, the Duke of Portland's Welbeck Sambo, and Mr.
Phillips' Rivington Honey, Rivington Pearl, and Rivington Reel.

The points and general description of the breed as published by both
the Spaniel Club and the Clumber Spaniel Club are identical. They
are as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Large, square and massive, of medium length, broad on top, with
a decided occiput; heavy brows with a deep stop; heavy freckled
muzzle, with well developed flew. EYES--Dark amber; slightly sunk.
A light or prominent eye objectionable. EARS--Large, vine leaf shaped,
and well covered with straight hair and hanging slightly forward,
the feather not to extend below the leather. NECK--Very thick and
powerful, and well feathered underneath. BODY (INCLUDING SIZE AND
SYMMETRY)--Long and heavy, and near the ground. Weight of dogs about
55 lb. to 65 lb.; bitches about 45 lb. to 55 lb. NOSE--Square and
flesh coloured. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--Wide and deep; shoulders strong
and muscular. BACK AND LOIN--Back straight, broad and long; loin
powerful, well let down in flank. HIND-QUARTERS--Very powerful and
well developed. STERN--Set low, well feathered, and carried about
level with the back. FEET AND LEGS--Feet large and round, well covered
with hair; legs short, thick and strong; hocks low. COAT--Long,
abundant, soft and straight. COLOUR--Plain white with lemon markings;
orange permissible but not desirable; slight head markings with white
body preferred. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Should be that of a long, low,
heavy, very massive dog, with a thoughtful expression.

       *       *       *       *       *

IV. THE SUSSEX SPANIEL.--This is one of the oldest of the distinct
breeds of Land Spaniels now existing in the British Islands, and
probably also the purest in point of descent, since it has for many
years past been confined to a comparatively small number of kennels,
the owners of which have always been at considerable pains to keep
their strains free from any admixture of foreign blood.

The modern race of Sussex Spaniels, as we know it, owes its origin
in the main to the kennel kept by Mr. Fuller at Rosehill Park,
Brightling, near Hastings. This gentleman, who died in 1847, is said
to have kept his strain for fifty years or more, and to have shot
over them almost daily during the season, but at his death they were
dispersed by auction, and none of them can be traced with any accuracy
except a dog and a bitch which were given at the time to Relf, the
head keeper. Relf survived his master for forty years, and kept up
his interest in the breed to the last. He used to say that the golden
tinge peculiar to the Rosehill breed came from a bitch which had been
mated with a dog belonging to Dr. Watts, of Battle, and that every
now and then what he termed a "sandy" pup would turn up in her
litters. Owing to an outbreak of dumb madness in the Rosehill kennels,
a very large number of its occupants either died or had to be
destroyed, and this no doubt accounted for the extreme scarcity of
the breed when several enthusiasts began to revive it about the year
1870. Mr. Saxby and Mr. Marchant are said to have had the same strain
as that at Rosehill, and certainly one of the most famous sires who
is to be found in most Sussex pedigrees was Buckingham, by Marchant's
Rover out of Saxby's Fan.

It was from the union of Buckingham, who was claimed to be pure
Rosehill--with Bebb's daughter Peggie that the great Bachelor
resulted--a dog whose name is to be found in almost every latter-day
pedigree, though Mr. Campbell Newington's strain, to which has
descended the historic prefix "Rosehill," contains less of this blood
than any other.

About 1879 Mr. T. Jacobs, of Newton Abbot, took up this breed with
great success, owning, amongst other good specimens, Russett, Dolly,
Brunette, and Bachelor III., the latter a dog whose services at the
stud cannot be estimated too highly. When this kennel was broken up
in 1891, the best of the Sussex Spaniels were acquired by Mr.
Woolland, and from that date this gentleman's kennel carried all
before it until it in turn was broken up and dispersed in 1905. So
successful was Mr. Woolland that one may almost say that he beat all
other competitors off the field, though one of them, Mr. Campbell
Newington, stuck most gallantly to him all through.

Mr. Campbell Newington has been breeding Sussex Spaniels for over
a quarter of a century with an enthusiasm and tenacity worthy of the
warmest admiration, and his strain is probably the purest, and more
full of the original blood than any other. His kennel has always
maintained a very high standard of excellence, and many famous show
specimens have come from it, notably Rosehill Ruler II. (a splendid
Sussex, scarcely inferior to Bridford Giddie), Romulus, Roein, Rita,
Rush, Rock, Rag, and Ranji, and many others of almost equal merit.

Colonel Claude Cane's kennel of Sussex, started from a "Woolland-bred"
foundation, has been going for some seventeen years, the best he has
shown being Jonathan Swift, Celbridge Eldorado, and Celbridge
Chrysolite.

The breed has always had a good character for work, and most of the
older writers who mention them speak of Sussex Spaniels in very
eulogistic terms. They are rather slow workers, but thoroughly
conscientious and painstaking, and are not afraid of any amount of
thick covert, through which they will force their way, and seldom
leave anything behind them.

A well-bred Sussex Spaniel is a very handsome dog. Indeed, his
beautiful colour alone is enough to make his appearance an attractive
one, even if he were unsymmetrical and ungainly in his proportions.

This colour, known as golden liver, is peculiar to the breed, and
is the great touchstone and hall-mark of purity of blood. No other
dog has exactly the same shade of coat, which the word "liver" hardly
describes exactly, as it is totally different from the ordinary liver
colour of an Irishman, a Pointer, or even a liver Field Spaniel. It
is rather a golden chestnut with a regular metallic sheen as of
burnished metal, showing more especially on the head and face and
everywhere where the hair is short. This is very apparent when a dog
gets his new coat. In time, of course, it is liable to get somewhat
bleached by sun and weather, when it turns almost yellow. Every expert
knows this colour well, and looks for it at once when judging a class
of Sussex.

The description of the breed given by the Spaniel Club is as
follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--The skull should be moderately long, and also wide, with an
indentation in the middle, and a full stop, brows fairly heavy;
occiput full, but not pointed, the whole giving an appearance of
heaviness without dulness. EYES--Hazel colour, fairly large, soft
and languishing, not showing the haw overmuch. NOSE--The muzzle should
be about three inches long, square, and the lips somewhat pendulous.
The nostrils well developed and liver colour. EARS--Thick, fairly
large, and lobe shaped; set moderately low, but relatively not so
low as in the Black Field Spaniel; carried close to the head, and
furnished with soft wavy hair. NECK--Is rather short, strong, and
slightly arched, but not carrying the head much above the level of
the back. There should not be much throatiness in the skin, but well
marked frill in the coat. CHEST AND SHOULDERS--The chest is round,
especially behind the shoulders, deep and wide, giving a good girth.
The shoulders should be oblique. BACK AND BACK RIBS--The back and
loin are long, and should be very muscular, both in width and depth;
for this development the back ribs must be deep. The whole body is
characterised as low, long, level, and strong. LEGS AND FEET--The
arms and thighs must be bony, as well as muscular, knees and hocks
large and strong, pasterns very short and bony, feet large and round,
and with short hair between the toes. The legs should be very short
and strong, with great bone, and may show a slight bend in the
forearm, and be moderately well feathered. The hind-legs should not
be apparently shorter than the fore-legs, or be too much bent at the
hocks, so as to give a Settery appearance which is so objectionable.
The hind-legs should be well feathered above the hocks, but should
not have much hair below that point. The hocks should be short and
wide apart. TAIL--Should be docked from five to seven inches, set
low, and not carried above the level of the back, thickly clothed
with moderately long feather. COAT--Body coat abundant, flat or
slightly waved, with no tendency to curl, moderately well feathered
on legs and stern, but clean below the hocks. COLOUR--Rich golden
liver; this is a certain sign of the purity of the breed, dark liver
or puce denoting unmistakably a recent cross with the black or other
variety of Field Spaniel. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Rather massive and
muscular, but with free movements and nice tail action denoting a
tractable and cheerful disposition. Weight from 35 lb. to 45 lb.

       *       *       *       *       *

VI. THE FIELD SPANIEL.--The modern Field Spaniel may be divided into
two classes. Indeed, we may almost say at this stage of canine
history, two breeds, as for several years past there has not been
very much intermingling of blood between the Blacks and those known
by the awkward designation of "Any Other Variety," though, of course,
all came originally from the same parent stock.

The black members of the family have always been given the pride of
place, and accounted of most importance, though latterly their
parti-coloured brethren seem to have rather overtaken them.

Among the really old writers there is one mention, and one only, of
Spaniels of a black colour. Arcussia speaks of them, and of their
being used in connection with the sport of hawking, but from his time
up to the middle of the nineteenth century, though many colours are
spoken of as being appropriate to the various breeds of Spaniels,
no author mentions black.

The first strain of blacks of which we know much belonged to Mr. F.
Burdett, and was obtained from a Mr. Footman, of Lutterworth,
Leicestershire, who was supposed to have owned them for some time.
Mr. Burdett's Bob and Frank may be found at the head of very many
of the best pedigrees. At his death most of his Spaniels became the
property of Mr. Jones, of Oscott, and Mr. Phineas Bullock, of Bilston,
the latter of whom was most extraordinarily successful, and owned
a kennel of Field Spaniels which was practically unbeatable between
the dates of the first Birmingham Show in 1861 and the publication
of the first volume of the Kennel Club's Stud Book in 1874, many,
if not most, of the dogs which won for other owners having been bred
by him. His Nellie and Bob, who won the chief prizes year after year
at all the leading shows, were probably the two best specimens of
their day. Another most successful breeder was Mr. W. W. Boulton,
of Beverley, whose kennel produced many celebrated dogs, including
Beverlac, said to be the largest Field Spaniel ever exhibited, and
Rolf, whose union with Belle produced four bitches who were destined,
when mated with Nigger, a dog of Mr. Bullock's breeding, to form the
foundation of the equally if not more famous kennel belonging to Mr.
T. Jacobs, of Newton Abbot.

It was Mr. Jacobs who, by judiciously mating his Sussex sires
Bachelor, Bachelor III., and others with these black-bred bitches,
established the strain which in his hands and in those of his
successors, Captain S. M. Thomas and Mr. Moses Woolland, carried all
before it for many years, and is still easily at the top of the tree,
being the most sought for and highly prized of all on account of its
"quality."

If Black Spaniels are not quite so popular at present as they were
some years ago, the fault lies with those breeders, exhibitors, and
judges (the latter being most to blame) who encouraged the absurd
craze for excessive length of body and shortness of leg which not
very long ago threatened to transform the whole breed into a race
of cripples, and to bring it into contempt and derision among all
practical men. No breed or variety of dog has suffered more from the
injudicious fads and crazes of those showmen who are not sportsmen
also. At one time among a certain class of judges, length and lowness
was everything, and soundness, activity, and symmetry simply did not
count. As happens to all absurd crazes of this kind when carried to
exaggeration, public opinion has proved too much for it, but not
before a great deal of harm has been done to a breed which is
certainly ornamental, and can be most useful as well. Most of the
prize-winners of the present day are sound, useful dogs capable of
work, and it is to be hoped that judges will combine to keep them
so.

The coloured Field Spaniel has now almost invariably at the principal
shows special classes allotted to him, and does not have to compete
against his black brother, as used to be the case in former years.

The systematic attempt to breed Spaniels of various colours, with a
groundwork of white, does not date back much more than a quarter of
a century, and the greater part of the credit for producing this
variety may be given to three gentlemen, Mr. F. E. Schofield, Dr.
J. H. Spurgin, and Mr. J. W. Robinson. In the early days of breeding
blacks, when the bitches were mated either with Sussex or liver and
white Springers or Norfolk Spaniels, many parti-coloured puppies
necessarily occurred, which most breeders destroyed; but it occurred
to some of these gentlemen that a handsome and distinct variety might
be obtained by careful selection, and they have certainly succeeded
to a very great extent. The most famous names among the early sires
are Dr. Spurgin's Alonzo and his son Fop, and Mr. Robinson's Alva
Dash, from one or other of whom nearly all the modern celebrities
derive their descent.

Those who have been, and are, interested in promoting and breeding
these variety Spaniels deserve a large amount of credit for their
perseverance, which has been attended with the greatest success so
far as producing colour goes. No doubt there is a very great
fascination in breeding for colour, and in doing so there is no royal
road to success, which can only be attained by the exercise of the
greatest skill and the nicest discrimination in the selection of
breeding stock. At the same time colour is not everything, and type
and working qualities should never be sacrificed to it. This has too
often been done in the case of coloured Field Spaniels. There are
plenty of beautiful blue roans, red roans, and tricolours, whether
blue roan and tan or liver roan and tan, but nearly all of them are
either cocktailed, weak in hind-quarters, crooked-fronted, or
houndy-headed, and showing far too much haw. In fact, in head and
front the greater number of the tricolours remind one of the
Basset-hound almost as much as they do in colour. It is to be hoped
that colour-breeders will endeavour to get back the true Spaniel type
before it is too late.

The points of both black and coloured Field Spaniels are identical,
bar colour, and here it must be said that black and tan, liver and
tan, and liver are not considered true variety colours, though of
course they have to compete in those classes, but rather sports
from black. The colours aimed at by variety breeders have all a
ground colour of white, and are black and white, blue roan, liver
and white, red roan, liver white and tan, and tricolours or
quadri-colours--_i.e._, blue or red roan and tan, or both combined,
with tan. The Spaniel Club furnishes the following description of
the Black Field Spaniel:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Should be quite characteristic of this grand sporting dog, as
that of the Bloodhound or the Bulldog; its very stamp and countenance
should at once convey the conviction of high breeding, character and
nobility; skull well developed, with a distinctly elevated occipital
tuberosity, which, above all, gives the character alluded to; not
too wide across muzzle, long and lean, never snipy nor squarely cut,
and in profile curving gradually from nose to throat; lean beneath
eyes, a thickness here gives coarseness to the whole head. The great
length of muzzle gives surface for the free development of the
olfactory nerve, and thus secures the highest possible scenting
powers. EYES--Not too full, but not small, receding or overhung;
colour dark hazel or dark brown, or nearly black; grave in expression,
and bespeaking unusual docility and instinct. EARS--Set low down as
possible, which greatly adds to the refinement and beauty of the head,
moderately long and wide, and sufficiently clad with nice Setter-like
feather. NECK--Very strong and muscular, so as to enable the dog to
retrieve his game without undue fatigue; not too short, however. BODY
(INCLUDING SIZE AND SYMMETRY)--Long and very low, well ribbed up to
a good strong loin, straight or slightly arched, never slack; weight
from about 35 lbs. to 45 lbs. NOSE--Well developed, with good open
nostrils, and always black. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--Former sloping and
free, latter deep and well developed, but not too round and wide.
BACK AND LOIN--Very strong and muscular; level and long in proportion
to the height of the dog. HIND-QUARTERS--Very powerful and muscular,
wide, and fully developed. STERN--Well set on, and carried low, if
possible below the level of the back, in a perfectly straight line,
or with a slight downward inclination, never elevated above the back,
and in action always kept low, nicely fringed, with wavy feather of
silky texture. FEET AND LEGS--Feet not too small, and well protected
between the toes with soft feather; good strong pads. Legs straight
and immensely boned, strong and short, and nicely feathered with
straight or waved Setter-like feather, overmuch feathering below the
hocks objectionable. COAT--Flat or slightly waved, and never curled.
Sufficiently dense to resist the weather, and not too short. Silky
in texture, glossy, and refined in nature, with neither duffelness
on the one hand nor curl or wiriness on the other. On chest under
belly, and behind the legs, there should be abundant feather, but
never too much, and that of the right sort, viz., Setter-like. The
tail and hind-quarters should be similarly adorned. COLOUR--Jet black
throughout, glossy and true. A little white on chest, though a
drawback, not a disqualification. GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a
sporting dog, capable of learning and doing anything possible for
his inches and conformation. A grand combination of beauty and
utility.

       *       *       *       *       *

VII. THE ENGLISH SPRINGER.--It is only quite recently that the Kennel
Club has officially recognised the variety known by the name at the
head of this section. For a long time the old-fashioned liver and
white, or black Spaniels, longer in the leg than either Sussex or
Field Spaniels, had been known as Norfolk Spaniels, and under this
title the Spaniel Club has published a description of them. There
had, however, been a considerable amount of discussion about the
propriety of this name of "Norfolk," and the weight of the evidence
adduced went to show that as far as any territorial connection with
the county of that name went, it was a misnomer, and that it probably
arose from the breed having been kept by one of the Dukes of Norfolk,
most likely that one quoted by Blaine in his _Rural Sports_, who was
so jealous of his strain that it was only on the expressly stipulated
condition that they were not to be allowed to breed in the direct
line that he would allow one to leave his kennels.

But, when this old breed was taken up by the Sporting Spaniel Society,
they decided to drop the name of "Norfolk," and to revert to the old
title of "Springer," not, perhaps, a very happy choice, as all
Spaniels are, properly speaking, Springers in contradistinction to
Setters. The complete official designation on the Kennel Club's
register is "English Springers other than Clumbers, Sussex, and
Field," a very clumsy name for a breed. There is no doubt that this
variety of Spaniel retains more resemblance to the old strains which
belonged to our forefathers, before the long and low idea found favour
in the eyes of exhibitors, and it was certainly well worth preserving.
The only way nowadays by which uniformity of type can be obtained
is by somebody having authority drawing up a standard and scale of
points for breeders to go by, and the Sporting Spaniel Society are
to be commended for having done this for the breed under notice, the
fruit of their action being already apparent in the larger and more
uniform classes to be seen at shows.

As the officially recognised life of the breed has been such a short
one, there are naturally not very many names of note among the
prize-winners. The principal breeders and owners have so far been
Mr. W. Arkwright, Mr. Harry Jones, Sir Hugo FitzHerbert, Mr. C. C.
Bethune Eversfield, and Mr. Winton Smith.

They are undoubtedly the right dogs for those who want Spaniels to
travel faster and cover more ground than the more ponderous and
short-legged Clumbers, Sussex, or Field Spaniels do, but their work
is hardly equal in finish and precision to that of either of the two
former breeds.

The following revised description of the English Springer has been
issued by the Sporting Spaniel Society:--

       *       *       *       *       *

SKULL--Long and slightly arched on top, fairly broad, with a stop,
and well-developed temples. JAWS--Long and broad, not snipy, with
plenty of thin lip. EYES--Medium size, not too full, but bright and
intelligent, of a rich brown. EARS--Of fair length, low set, and
lobular in shape. NECK--Long, strong, and slightly arched.
SHOULDERS--Long and sloping. FORE-LEGS--Of a moderate length,
straight, with flat strong bone. BODY--Strong, with well-sprung ribs,
good girth, and chest deep and fairly broad. LOIN--Rather long,
strong, and slightly arched. HIND-QUARTERS AND HIND-LEGS--Very
muscular, hocks well let down, stifles moderately bent, and not
twisted inwards or outwards. FEET--Strong and compact. STERN--Low
carried, not above the level of the back, and with a vibratory motion.
COAT--Thick and smooth or very slightly wavy, it must not be too long.
The feathering must be only moderate on the ears, and scanty on the
legs, but continued down to the heels. COLOUR--Liver and white and
black and white (with or without tan), fawn and white, yellow and
white, also roans and self colours of all these tints. The pied
colours are preferable, however, as more easily seen in cover. GENERAL
APPEARANCE--An active compact dog, upstanding, but by no means stilty.
His height at shoulder should about equal his length from the top
of the withers to the root of the tail.

       *       *       *       *       *

VIII. THE WELSH SPRINGER.--Like the English Springer, the Welsh
Springer has only very recently come into existence--officially, that
is to say; but his admirers claim for him that he has existed as a
separate breed for a long time, though not beyond the bounds of the
Principality, where he is referred to as the Starter.

When his claims were first put forward they were vigorously contested
by many who could claim to speak and write with authority upon the
various breeds of Spaniels existing in these islands, and it was
freely asserted that they were nothing but crossbreds between the
ordinary Springer and probably a Clumber in order to account for the
red or orange markings and the vine-leaf-shaped ears. Even if they
are a new breed, they are a most meritorious one, both in their
appearance, which is eminently sporting and workmanlike, and for the
excellence of their work in the field, which has been amply
demonstrated by the record earned at the field trials by Mr. A. T.
Williams and others, but those who have seen them at work have nothing
but good to say of them, and for working large rough tracts of country
in teams their admirers say they are unequalled.

In appearance they are decidedly attractive, rather more lightly built
than most Spaniels, small in size, indeed very little larger than
Cockers, invariably white in colour, with red or orange markings,
and possessing rather fine heads with small Clumber-shaped ears. Their
general appearance is that of extremely smart and active little dogs.

The Welsh Springer is described by the Sporting Spaniel Society as
follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

SKULL--Fairly long and fairly broad, slightly rounded with a stop
at the eyes. JAWS--Medium length, straight, fairly square, the
nostrils well developed, and flesh coloured or dark. A short, chubby
head is objectionable. EYES--Hazel or dark, medium size, not
prominent, not sunken, nor showing haw. EARS--Comparatively small
and gradually narrowing towards the tip, covered with feather not
longer than the ear, set moderately low and hanging close to the
cheeks. NECK--Strong, muscular, clean in throat. SHOULDERS--Long and
sloping. FORE-LEGS--Medium length, straight, good bone, moderately
feathered. BODY--Strong, fairly deep, not long, well-sprung ribs.
Length of body should be proportionate to length of leg.
LOIN--Muscular and strong, slightly arched, well coupled up and knit
together. HIND-QUARTERS AND HIND-LEGS--Strong; hocks well let down;
stifles moderately bent (not twisted in or out), not feathered below
the hock on the leg. FEET--Round, with thick pads. STERN--Low, never
carried above the level of the back, feathered, and with a lively
motion. COAT--Straight or flat, and thick. COLOUR--Red or orange and
white. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Symmetrical, compact, strong, merry,
active, not stilty, built for endurance and activity, and about 28
lb. and upwards in weight, but not exceeding 45 lb.

       *       *       *       *       *

IX. THE COCKER SPANIEL.--For the last few years the popularity of
this smaller sized branch of the Spaniel tribe has been steadily
increasing, and the Cocker classes at most of the best shows are now
remarkable both for the number of entries and the very high standard
of excellence to which they attain.

A short time ago black Cockers were decidedly more fashionable than
their parti-coloured relatives, but now the reverse is the case, and
the various roans and tricolours have overtaken and passed the others,
both in general quality and in the public esteem. The reason for this
popularity of the breed as a whole is not far to seek. The
affectionate and merry disposition of the Cocker and his small size
compared with that of the other breeds pre-eminently fit him for a
companion in the house as well as in the field, and he ranks among
his admirers quite as many of the fairer sex as he does men--a fact
which is not without a certain element of danger, since it should
never be lost sight of that the breed is a sporting one, which should
on no account be allowed to degenerate into a race of mere house
companions or toys.

Small-sized Spaniels, usually called Cockers, from their being more
especially used in woodcock shooting, have been indigenous to Wales
and Devonshire for many years, and it is most likely from one or both
of these sources that the modern type has been evolved. It is probable
too that the type in favour to-day, of a short coupled, rather "cobby"
dog, fairly high on the leg, is more like that of these old-fashioned
Cockers than that which obtained a decade or two ago, when they were
scarcely recognised as a separate breed, and the Spaniel classes were
usually divided into "Field Spaniels over 25 lb." and "Field Spaniels
under 25 lb." In those days a large proportion of the prizes fell
to miniature Field Spaniels. The breed was not given official
recognition on the Kennel Club's register till 1893, nor a section
to itself in the Stud Book; and up to that date the only real
qualification a dog required to be enabled to compete as a Cocker
was that he should be under the weight of 25 lb., a limit arbitrarily
and somewhat irrationally fixed, since in the case of an animal just
on the border-line he might very well have been a Cocker before and
a Field Spaniel after breakfast.

It is not easy to find authentic pedigrees going back further than
a quarter of a century, but Mr. C. A. Phillips can trace his own
strain back to 1860, and Mr. James Farrow was exhibiting successfully
thirty-five years ago. The former gentleman published the pedigree
of his bitch Rivington Dora for eighteen generations _in extenso_
in _The Sporting Spaniel_; while the famous Obo strain of the latter
may be said to have exercised more influence than any other on the
black variety both in this country and in the United States.

It was in 1880 that the most famous of all the "pillars" of the Cocker
stud, Mr. James Farrow's Obo, made his first bow to the public, he
and his litter sister Sally having been born the year before. He won
the highest honours that the show bench can give, and the importance
of his service to the breed both in his owner's kennel and outside
it, can scarcely be over-estimated. Nearly all of the best blacks,
and many of the best coloured Cockers, are descended from him. At
this period the type mostly favoured was that of a dog rather longer
in the body and lower on the leg than it is at present, but the Obo
family marked a progressive step, and very rightly kept on winning
under all the best judges for many years, their owner being far too
good a judge himself ever to exhibit anything but first-class
specimens.

[Illustration: THREE GENERATIONS OF MR. R. DE C. PEELE'S BLUE ROAN
COCKER SPANIELS--CH. BEN BOWDLER (Father), CH. BOB BOWDLER (Son),
and CH. DIXON BOWDLER (Grandson) _From the Painting by Lilian
Cheviot_]

Meanwhile, although the blacks were far the most fashionable--and
it was said that it was hopeless to try to get the same quality in
coloured specimens--several enthusiastic breeders for colour were
quietly at work, quite undismayed by the predilection shown by most
exhibitors and judges for the former colour. Among them was Mr. C.
A. Phillips, whose two bitches from Mr. James Freme, of Wepre Hall,
Flintshire, succeeded in breeding from one of them, whom he named
Rivington Sloe, the celebrated dog Rivington Signal, who, mated with
Rivington Blossom, produced Rivington Bloom, who was in turn the dam
of Rivington Redcoat. These dogs proved almost, if not quite, as
valuable to the coloured variety as Obo did to the blacks, and formed
the foundation of Mr. J. M. Porter's celebrated Braeside strain which
afterwards became so famous.

During the last few years Mr. R. de Courcy Peele's kennel has easily
held the pride of place in this variety. Most readers are no doubt
familiar with the many beautiful Cockers which have appeared in the
show ring and carried off so many prizes under the distinguishing
affix Bowdler. His kennel was built up on a Braeside foundation, and
has contained at one time or other such flyers as Ben Bowdler, Bob
Bowdler, Rufus Bowdler, Dixon Bowdler, Eva Bowdler, Mary Bowdler,
Blue-coat Bowdler, Susan Bowdler, and others, and Ben and Bob have
also been, as sires, responsible for the success of a good many dogs
hailing from other kennels. He has also been fairly successful with
blacks, which, however, have usually been purchased and not bred by
him, the two best being Master Reuben, bred by Miss Joan Godfrey,
and Jetsam Bowdler, a bitch who has distinguished herself both in
the ring and in the field.

Coloured Cockers are certainly "booming" just now, and as a
consequence the blacks, who are equally worthy of support, are being
rather neglected. Certainly it is the case that whereas one sees at
most shows big classes of the former filled with a good level lot
with hardly a bad specimen amongst them, the classes devoted to the
latter, besides not being so well filled, are much more uneven, and
always contain a large proportion of weeds and toys. A few years ago
the black classes were immeasurably superior to the coloured, and
it is to be hoped that in the near future they will regain at least
a position of equality with them.

At the last few Field Trial meetings the Spaniel Club has provided
classes confined to Cockers, which have filled fairly well, and
enabled the small breed to demonstrate that it can in its way be quite
as useful as its larger cousins. A Cocker can very often go and work
as well where a larger Spaniel cannot even creep, and for working
really thick hedgerows or gorse has no superior. There seems to be
every prospect of a brilliant future, and increased popularity for
this charming breed.

Its interests are looked after both by the Spaniel Club and the
comparatively newly formed Cocker Spaniel Club, and it is also quite
as much in favour on the other side of the Atlantic as it is in the
United Kingdom. Indeed, the classes in America and Canada compare
very favourably with our own.

The descriptive particulars of the breed are:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Not so heavy in proportion and not so high in occiput as in
the modern Field Spaniel, with a nicely developed muzzle or jaw; lean,
but not snipy, and yet not so square as in the Clumber or Sussex
varieties, but always exhibiting a sufficiently wide and
well-developed nose. Forehead perfectly smooth, rising without a too
decided stop from muzzle into a comparatively wide and rounded,
well-developed skull, with plenty of room for brain power. EYES--Full,
but not prominent, hazel or brown coloured, with a general expression
of intelligence and gentleness, though decidedly wideawake, bright
and merry, never goggled nor weak as in the King Charles and Blenheim
kinds. EARS--Lobular, set on low, leather fine and not exceeding
beyond the nose, well clothed with long silky hair, which must be
straight or wavy--no positive curls or ringlets. NECK--Strong and
muscular, and neatly set on to fine sloping shoulders. BODY (INCLUDING
SIZE AND SYMMETRY)--Not quite so long and low as in the other breeds
of Spaniels, more compact and firmly knit together, giving the
impression of a concentration of power and untiring activity.
WEIGHT--The weight of a Cocker Spaniel of either sex should not exceed
25 lb., or be less than 20 lb. Any variation either way should be
penalised. NOSE--Sufficiently wide and well developed to ensure the
exquisite scenting powers of this breed. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--The
former sloping and fine, chest deep and well developed, but not too
wide and round to interfere with the free action of the fore-legs.
BACK AND LOIN--Immensely strong and compact in proportion to the size
and weight of the dog; slightly sloping towards the tail.
HIND-QUARTERS--Wide, well rounded, and very muscular, so as to ensure
untiring action and propelling power under the most trying
circumstances of a long day, bad weather, rough ground, and dense
covert. STERN--That most characteristic of blue blood in all the
Spaniel family may, in the lighter and more active Cocker, although
set low down, be allowed a slightly higher carriage than in the other
breeds, but never cocked up over, but rather in a line with the back,
though the lower its carriage and action the better, and when at work
its action should be incessant in this, the brightest and merriest
of the whole Spaniel family. FEET AND LEGS--The legs should be well
boned, feathered and straight, for the tremendous exertions expected
from this grand little sporting dog, and should be sufficiently short
for concentrated power, but not too short as to interfere with its
full activity. Feet firm, round, and cat-like, not too large,
spreading, and loose jointed. This distinct breed of Spaniel does
not follow exactly on the lines of the larger Field Spaniel, either
in lengthiness, lowness, or otherwise, but is shorter in the back,
and rather higher on the legs. COAT--Flat or waved, and silky in
texture, never wiry, woolly, or curly, with sufficient feather of
the right sort, viz., waved or Setter-like, but not too profuse and
never curly. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Confirmatory of all indicated above,
viz., a concentration of pure blood and type, sagacity, docility,
good temper, affection, and activity.



CHAPTER XXVI

THE BASSET-HOUND


The Basset was not familiarly known to British sportsmen before 1863,
in which year specimens of the breed were seen at the first exhibition
of dogs held in Paris, and caused general curiosity and admiration
among English visitors. In France, however, this hound has been used
for generations, much as we use our Spaniel, as a finder of game in
covert, and it has long been a popular sporting dog in Russia and
Germany. In early times it was chiefly to be found in Artois and
Flanders, where it is supposed to have had its origin; but the home
of the better type of Basset is now chiefly in La Vendee, in which
department some remarkably fine strains have been produced.

There are three main strains of the French Basset--the Lane, the
Couteulx, and the Griffon. The Griffon Basset is a hound with a hard
bristly coat, and short, crooked legs. It has never found great favour
here. The Lane hounds are derived from the kennels of M. Lane, of
Franqueville, Baos, Seine-Inferieure, and are also very little
appreciated in this country. They are a lemon and white variety, with
_torse_ or bent legs. The Couteulx hounds were a type bred up into
a strain by Comte le Couteulx de Canteleu. They were tricolour, with
straight, short legs, of sounder constitution than other strains,
with the make generally of a more agile hound, and in the pedigree
of the best Bassets owned in this country fifteen years ago, when
the breed was in considerable demand, Comte de Couteulx's strain was
prominent and always sought for.

With careful selection and judicious breeding we have now produced
a beautiful hound of fine smooth coat, and a rich admixture of
markings, with a head of noble character and the best of legs and
feet. Their short, twinkling legs make our Bassets more suitable for
covert hunting than for hunting hares in the open, to which latter
purpose they have frequently been adapted with some success. Their
note is resonant, with wonderful power for so small a dog, and in
tone it resembles the voice of the Bloodhound.

The Basset-hound is usually very good tempered and not inclined to
be quarrelsome with his kennel mates; but he is wilful, and loves
to roam apart in search of game, and is not very amenable to
discipline when alone. On the other hand, he works admirably with
his companions in the pack, when he is most painstaking and
indefatigable. Endowed with remarkable powers of scent, he will hunt
a drag with keen intelligence.

There are now several packs of Bassets kept in England, and they show
very fair sport after the hares; but it is not their natural vocation,
and their massive build is against the possibility of their becoming
popular as harriers. The general custom is to follow them on foot,
although occasionally some sportsmen use ponies. Their pace, however,
hardly warrants the latter expedient. On the Continent, where big
game is more common than with us, the employment of the Basset is
varied. He is a valuable help in the tracking of boar, wolf, and deer,
and he is also frequently engaged in the lighter pastimes of pheasant
and partridge shooting.

The Earl of Onslow and the late Sir John Everett Millais were among
the earliest importers of the breed into England. They both had
recourse to the kennels of Count Couteulx. Sir John Millais' Model
was the first Basset-hound exhibited at an English dog show, at
Wolverhampton in 1875. Later owners and breeders of prominence were
Mr. G. Krehl, Mrs. Stokes, Mrs. C. C. Ellis and Mrs. Mabel Tottie.

As with most imported breeds, the Basset-hound when first exhibited
was required to undergo a probationary period as a foreign dog in
the variety class at the principal shows. It was not until 1880 that
a class was provided for it by the Kennel Club.

It is to be regretted that owners of this beautiful hound are not
more numerous. Admirable specimens are still to be seen at the leading
exhibitions, but the breed is greatly in need of encouragement. At
the present time the smooth dog hound taking the foremost place in
the estimate of our most capable judges is Mr. W. W. M. White's Ch.
Loo-Loo-Loo, bred by Mrs. Tottie, by Ch. Louis Le Beau out of Sibella.
Mr. Croxton Smith's Waverer is also a dog of remarkably fine type.
Among bitch hounds Sandringham Dido, the favourite of Her Majesty
the Queen, ranks as the most perfect of her kind.

The rough or Griffon-Basset, introduced into England at a later date
than the smooth, has failed for some reason to receive great
attention. In type it resembles the shaggy Otterhound, and as at
present favoured it is larger and higher on the leg than the smooth
variety. Their colouring is less distinct, and they seem generally
to be lemon and white, grey and sandy red. Their note is not so rich
as that of the smooth variety. In France the rough and the smooth
Bassets are not regarded as of the same race, but here some breeders
have crossed the two varieties, with indifferent consequences.

Some beautiful specimens of the rough Basset have from time to time
been sent to exhibition from the Sandringham kennels. His Majesty
the King has always given affectionate attention to this breed, and
has taken several first prizes at the leading shows, latterly with
Sandringham Bobs, bred in the home kennels by Sandringham Babil ex
Saracenesca.

Perhaps the most explicit description of the perfect Basset-hound
is still that compiled twenty-five years ago by Sir John Millais.
It is at least sufficiently comprehensive and exact to serve as a
guide:--

       *       *       *       *       *

"The Basset, for its size, has more bone, perhaps, than nearly any
other dog.

"The skull should be peaked like that of the Bloodhound, with the
same dignity and expression, the nose black (although some of my own
have white about theirs), and well flewed. For the size of the hound
I think the teeth are extremely small. However, as they are not
intended to destroy life, this is probably the reason.

"The ears should hang like the Bloodhound's, and are like the softest
velvet drapery.

"The eyes are a deep brown, and are brimful of affection and
intelligence. They are pretty deeply set, and should show a
considerable haw. A Basset is one of those hounds incapable of
having a wicked eye.

"The neck is long, but of great power; and in the _Basset a jambes
torses_ the flews extend very nearly down to the chest. The chest
is more expansive than even in the Bulldog, and should in the _Bassets
a jambes torses_ be not more than two inches from the ground. In the
case of the _Bassets a jambes demi-torses_ and _jambes droites_, being
generally lighter, their chests do not, of course, come so low.

"The shoulders are of great power, and terminate in the crooked feet
of the Basset, which appear to be a mass of joints. The back and ribs
are strong, and the former of great length.

"The stern is carried gaily, like that of hounds in general, and when
the hound is on the scent of game this portion of his body gets
extremely animated, and tells me, in my own hounds, when they have
struck a fresh or a cold scent, and I even know when the foremost
hound will give tongue.

"The hind-quarters are very strong and muscular, the muscles standing
rigidly out down to the hocks.

"The skin is soft in the smooth haired dogs, and like that of any
other hound, but in the rough variety it is like that of the
Otterhound's.

"Colour, of course, is a matter of fancy, although I infinitely prefer
the tricolour, which has a tan head and a black and white body."



CHAPTER XXVII

THE DACHSHUND


Persons unfamiliar with the sporting properties of this long-bodied
breed are apt to refer smilingly to the Dachshund as "the dog that
is sold by the yard," and few even of those who know him give credit
to the debonair little fellow for the grim work which he is intended
to perform in doing battle with the vicious badger in its lair.
Dachshund means "badger dog," and it is a title fairly and squarely
earned in his native Germany.

Given proper training, he will perform the duties of several sporting
breeds rolled into one. Possessing a wonderful nose, combined with
remarkable steadiness, his kind will work out the coldest scent, and
once fairly on the line they will give plenty of music and get over
the ground at a pace almost incredible. Dachshunds hunt well in a
pack, and, though it is not their recognised vocation, they can be
successfully used on hare, on fox, and any form of vermin that wears
a furry coat. But his legitimate work is directed against the badger,
in locating the brock under ground, worrying and driving him into
his innermost earth, and there holding him until dug out. It is no
part of his calling to come to close grips, though that often happens
in the confined space in which he has to work. In this position a
badger with his powerful claws digs with such energy and skill as
rapidly to bury himself, and the Dachshund needs to be provided with
such apparatus as will permit him to clear his way and keep in touch
with his formidable quarry. The badger is also hunted by Dachshunds
above ground, usually in the mountainous parts of Germany, and in
the growing crops of maize, on the lower slopes, where the vermin
work terrible havoc in the evening. In this case the badger is rounded
up and driven by the dogs up to the guns which are posted between
the game and their earths. For this sport the dog used is heavier,
coarser, and of larger build, higher on the leg, and more generally
houndy in appearance. Dachshunds are frequently used for deer driving,
in which operation they are especially valuable, as they work slowly,
and do not frighten or overrun their quarry, and can penetrate the
densest undergrowth. Packs of Dachshunds may sometimes be engaged
on wild boar, and, as they are web-footed and excellent swimmers,
there is no doubt that their terrier qualities would make them useful
assistants to the Otterhound. Apropos of their capabilities in the
water it is the case that a year or two ago, at Offenbach-on-Main,
at some trials arranged for life-saving by dogs, a Dachshund carried
off the first prize against all comers.

As a companion in the house the Dachshund has perhaps no compeer.
He is a perfect gentleman; cleanly in his habits, obedient,
unobtrusive, incapable of smallness, affectionate, very sensitive
to rebuke or to unkindness, and amusingly jealous. As a watch he is
excellent, quick to detect a strange footstep, valiant to defend the
threshold, and to challenge with deep voice any intruder, yet sensibly
discerning his master's friends, and not annoying them with prolonged
growling and grumbling as many terriers do when a stranger is
admitted. Properly brought up, he is a perfectly safe and amusing
companion for children, full of animal spirits, and ever ready to
share in a romp, even though it be accompanied by rough and tumble
play. In Germany, where he is the most popular of all dogs, large
or small, he is to be found in every home, from the Emperor's palace
downwards, and his quaint appearance, coupled with his entertaining
personality, is daily seized upon by the comic papers to illustrate
countless jokes at his expense.

The origin of the Dachshund is not very clear. Some writers have
professed to trace the breed or representations of it on the monuments
of the Egyptians. Some aver that it is a direct descendant of the
French Basset-hound, and others that he is related to the old
Turnspits--the dogs so excellent in kitchen service, of whom Dr. Caius
wrote that "when any meat is to be roasted they go into a wheel, where
they, turning about with the weight of their bodies, so diligently
look to their business that no drudge nor scullion can do the feat
more cunningly, whom the popular sort hereupon term Turnspits."
Certainly the dog commonly used in this occupation was long of body
and short of leg, very much resembling the Dachshund.

In all probability the Dachshund is a manufactured breed--a breed
evolved from a large type of hound intermixed with a terrier to suit
the special conditions involved in the pursuit and extermination of
a quarry that, unchecked, was capable of seriously interfering with
the cultivation of the land. He comprises in his small person the
characteristics of both hound and terrier--his wonderful powers of
scent, his long, pendulous ears, and, for his size, enormous bone,
speak of his descent from the hound that hunts by scent. In many
respects he favours the Bloodhound, and one may often see Dachshunds
which, having been bred from parents carefully selected to accentuate
some fancy point, have exhibited the very pronounced "peak" (occipital
bone), the protruding haw of the eye, the loose dewlap and the colour
markings characteristic of the Bloodhound. His small stature, iron
heart, and willingness to enter the earth bespeak the terrier cross.

The Dachshund was first introduced to this country in sufficient
numbers to merit notice in the early 'sixties, and, speedily
attracting notice by his quaint formation and undoubted sporting
instincts, soon became a favourite. At first appearing at shows in
the "Foreign Dog" class, he quickly received a recognition of his
claims to more favoured treatment, and was promoted by the Kennel
Club to a special classification as a sporting dog. Since then his
rise has been rapid, and he now is reckoned as one of the numerically
largest breeds exhibited. Unfortunately, however, he has been little,
if ever, used for sport in the sense that applies in Germany, and
this fact, coupled with years of breeding from too small a stock (or
stock too nearly related) and the insane striving after the fanciful
and exaggerated points demanded by judges at dog shows, many of whom
never saw a Dachshund at his legitimate work, has seriously affected
his usefulness. He has deteriorated in type, lost grit and sense,
too, and is often a parody of the true type of Dachshund that is to
be found in his native land.

To the reader who contemplates possessing one or more Dachshunds a
word of advice may be offered. Whether you want a dog for sport, for
show, or as a companion, endeavour to get a good one--a well-bred
one. To arrive at this do not buy from an advertisement on your own
knowledge of the breed, but seek out an expert amateur breeder and
exhibitor, and get his advice and assistance. If you intend to start
a kennel for show purposes, do not buy a high-priced dog at a show,
but start with a well-bred bitch, and breed your own puppies, under
the guidance of the aforementioned expert. In this way, and by rearing
and keeping your puppies till they are of an age to be exhibited,
and at the same time carefully noting the awards at the best shows,
you will speedily learn which to retain and the right type of dog
to keep and breed for, and in future operations you will be able to
discard inferior puppies at an earlier age. But it is a great mistake,
if you intend to form a kennel for show purposes, to sell or part
with your puppies too early. It is notorious with all breeds that
puppies change very much as they grow. The best looking in the nest
often go wrong later, and the ugly duckling turns out the best of
the litter. This is especially true of Dachshunds, and it requires
an expert to pick the best puppy of a litter at a month or two old,
and even he may be at fault unless the puppy is exceptionally well
reared.

To rear Dachshund puppies successfully you must not overload them
with fat--give them strengthening food that does not lay on flesh.
Lean, raw beef, finely chopped, is an excellent food once or twice
a day for the first few months, and, though this comes expensive,
it pays in the end. Raw meat is supposed to cause worm troubles, but
these pests are also found where meat is not given, and in any case
a puppy is fortified with more strength to withstand them if fed on
raw meat than otherwise, and a good dosing from time to time will
be all that is necessary to keep him well and happy.

Young growing puppies must have their freedom to gambol about, and
get their legs strong. Never keep the puppies cooped up in a small
kennel run or house. If you have a fair-sized yard, give them the
run of that, or even the garden, in spite of what your gardener may
say--they may do a little damage to the flowers, but will assuredly
do good to themselves. They love to dig in the soft borders: digging
is second nature to them, and is of great importance in their
development.

If you have not a garden, or if the flowers are too sacred, it is
better to place your puppies as early as possible with respectable
cottagers, or small farmers, especially the latter, with whom they
will have entire freedom to run about, and will not be overfed.

If you intend to show your puppies, you should begin some time in
advance to school them to walk on the lead and to stand quiet when
ordered to. Much depends on this in the judging ring, where a dog
who is unused to being on a lead often spoils his chances of appearing
at his best under the (to him) strange experiences of restraint which
the lead entails.

During the past five-and-twenty years the names of two particular
Dachshunds stand out head and shoulders above those of their
competitors: Champions Jackdaw and Pterodactyl. Jackdaw had a
wonderful record, having, during a long show career, never been beaten
in his class from start to finish, and having won many valuable
prizes. He was credited with being the most perfect Dachshund that
had ever been seen in England, and probably as good as anything in
Germany.

Ch. Jackdaw was a black and tan dog, bred and owned by Mr. Harry
Jones, of Ipswich. He was sired by Ch. Charkow, out of Wagtail, and
born 20th July, 1886. Through his dam he was descended from a famous
bitch, Thusnelda, who was imported by Mr. Mudie in the early
'eighties. She was a winner of high honours in Hanover. The name of
Jackdaw figures in all the best pedigrees of to-day.

Ch. Pterodactyl was born in 1888, and bred by Mr. Willink. He was
in a measure an outcross from the standard type of the day, and his
dam, whose pedigree is in dispute, was thought to have been imported.
After passing through one or two hands he was purchased by Mr. Harry
Jones, and in his kennel speedily made a great name in the show ring
and at the stud, and was eventually sold for a high price to Mr.
Sidney Woodiwiss, who at that period had the largest kennel of
Dachshunds in England.

"Ptero," as he was called, was a big, light red dog, with wonderful
fore-quarters and great muscular development. He also possessed what
is called a "punishing jaw" and rather short ears, and looked a
thorough "business" dog. He had an almost unbroken series of successes
at shows in England, and being taken to Germany (in the days before
the quarantine regulations), he took the highest honours in the
heavy-weight class, and a special prize for the best Dachshund of
all classes. This dog became the favourite sire of his day and the
fashionable colour.

The black and tan thereupon went quite out of favour, and this fact,
coupled with the reckless amount of inbreeding of red to red that
has been going on since Ptero's day, accounts largely for the
prevalence of light eyes, pink noses, and bad-coloured coats of the
Dachshunds, as a class, to-day.

There are, strictly speaking, three varieties of Dachshund--(_a_)
the short-haired, (_b_) the long-haired, and (_c_) the rough-haired.

Of these we most usually find the first-named in England, and they
are no doubt the original stock. Of the others, though fairly numerous
in Germany, very few are to be seen in this country, and although
one or two have been imported the type has never seemed to appeal
to exhibitors.

Both the long-haired and rough-haired varieties have no doubt been
produced by crosses with other breeds, such as the Spaniel and
probably the Irish Terrier, respectively.

In the long-haired variety the hair should be soft and wavy, forming
lengthy plumes under the throat, lower parts of the body, and the
backs of the legs, and it is longest on the under side of the tail,
where it forms a regular flag like that of a Setter or Spaniel. The
rough-haired variety shows strongly a terrier cross by his "varmint"
expression and short ears.

The Germans also subdivide by colour, and again for show purposes
by weight. These subdivisions are dealt with in their proper order
in the standard of points, and it is only necessary to say here that
all the varieties, colours, and weights are judged by the same
standard except in so far as they differ in texture of coat. At the
same time the Germans themselves do not regard the dapple Dachshunds
as yet so fixed in type as the original coloured dogs, and this
exception must also apply to the long and the rough haired varieties.

The following German standard of points embodies a detailed
description of the breed:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE AND DISPOSITION--In general appearance the
Dachshund is a very long and low dog, with compact and well-muscled
body, resting on short, slightly crooked fore-legs. A long head and
ears, with bold and defiant carriage and intelligent expression. In
disposition the Dachshund is full of spirit, defiant when attacked,
aggressive even to foolhardiness when attacking; in play amusing and
untiring; by nature wilful and unheeding. HEAD--Long, and appearing
conical from above, and from a side view, tapering to the point of
the muzzle, wedge-shaped. The skull should be broad rather than
narrow, to allow plenty of brain room, slightly arched, and fairly
straight, without a stop, but not deep or snipy. EYES--Medium in size,
oval, and set obliquely, with very clear, sharp expression and of a
dark colour, except in the case of the liver and tan, when the eyes
may be yellow; and in the dapple, when the eyes may be light or
"wall-eyed." NOSE--Preferably deep black. The flesh-coloured and
spotted noses are allowable only in the liver and tan and dapple
varieties. EARS--Set on moderately high, or, seen in profile, above
the level of the eyes, well back, flat, not folded, pointed, or
narrow, hanging close to the cheeks, very mobile, and when at
attention carried with the back of the ear upward and outward.
NECK--Moderately long, with slightly arched nape, muscular and clean,
showing no dewlap, and carried well up and forward. FORE-QUARTERS--His
work underground demands strength and compactness, and, therefore,
the chest and shoulder regions should be deep, long, and wide. The
shoulder blade should be long, and set on very sloping, the upper
arm of equal length with, and at right angles to, the shoulder blade,
strong-boned and well-muscled, and lying close to ribs, but moving
freely. The lower arm is slightly bent inwards, and the feet should
be turned slightly outwards, giving an appearance of "crooked" legs
approximating to the cabriole of a Chippendale chair. Straight,
narrow, short shoulders are always accompanied by straight, short,
upper arms, forming an obtuse angle, badly developed brisket and
"keel" or chicken breast, and the upper arm being thrown forward by
the weight of the body behind causes the legs to knuckle over at the
"knees." Broad, sloping shoulders, on the other hand, insure soundness
of the fore-legs and feet. LEGS AND FEET--Fore-legs very short and
strong in bone, slightly bent inwards; seen in profile, moderately
straight and never bending forward or knuckling over. Feet large,
round, and strong, with thick pads, compact and well-arched toes,
nails strong and black. The dog must stand equally on all parts of
the foot. BODY--Should be long and muscular, the chest very oval,
rather than very narrow and deep, to allow ample room for heart and
lungs, hanging low between front legs, the brisket point should be
high and very prominent, the ribs well sprung out towards the loins
(not flat-sided). Loins short and strong. The line of back only
slightly depressed behind shoulders and only slightly arched over
loins. The hind-quarters should not be higher than the shoulders,
thus giving a general appearance of levelness. HIND-QUARTERS--The
rump round, broad, and powerfully muscled; hip bone not too short,
but broad and sloping; the upper arm, or thigh, thick, of good length,
and jointed at right angles to the hip bone. The lower leg (or second
thigh) is, compared with other animals, short, and is set on at right
angles to the upper thigh, and is very firmly muscled. The hind-legs
are lighter in bone than the front ones, but very strongly muscled,
with well-rounded-out buttocks, and the knee joint well developed.
Seen from behind, the legs should be wide apart and straight, and
not cowhocked. The dog should not be higher at the quarters than at
shoulder. STERN--Set on fairly high, strong at root, and tapering,
but not too long. Neither too much curved nor carried too high; well,
but not too much, feathered; a bushy tail is better than too little
hair. COAT AND SKIN--Hair short and close as possible, glossy and
smooth, but resistant to the touch if stroked the wrong way. The skin
tough and elastic, but fitting close to the body. COLOUR--_One
Coloured_:--There are several self-colours recognised, including deep
red, yellowish red, smutty red. Of these the dark, or cherry, red
is preferable, and in this colour light shadings on any part of the
body or head are undesirable. "Black" is rare, and is only a sport
from black and tan. _Two Coloured_:--Deep black, brown (liver) or
grey, with golden or tan markings (spots) over the eyes at the side
of the jaw and lips, inner rim of ears, the breast, inside and back
of legs, the feet, and under the tail for about one-third of its
length. In the above-mentioned colours white markings are
objectionable. The utmost that is allowed being a small spot, or a
few hairs, on the chest. _Dappled_:--A silver grey to almost white
foundation colour, with dark, irregular spots (small for preference)
of dark grey, brown, tan, or black. The general appearance should
be a bright, indefinite coloration, which is considered especially
useful in a hunting dog. WEIGHT--Dachshunds in Germany are classified
by weight as follows:--_Light-weight_--Dogs up to 16-1/2 lb., bitches
up to 15-1/2 lb. _Middle-weight_--Dogs up to 22 lb., bitches up to
22 lb. _Heavy-weight_--Over 22 lb. _Toys_--Up to 12 lb. The German
pound is one-tenth more than the English. The light-weight dog is
most used for going to ground.



CHAPTER XXVIII

THE OLD WORKING TERRIER


There can hardly have been a time since the period of the Norman
Conquest when the small earth dogs which we now call terriers were
not known in these islands and used by sporting men as assistants
in the chase, and by husbandmen for the killing of obnoxious vermin.
The two little dogs shown in the Bayeux tapestry running with the
hounds in advance of King Harold's hawking party were probably meant
for terriers. Dame Juliana Berners in the fifteenth century did not
neglect to include the "Teroures" in her catalogue of sporting dogs,
and a hundred years later Dr. Caius gave pointed recognition to their
value in unearthing the fox and drawing the badger.

"Another sorte, there is," wrote the doctor's translator in 1576,
"which hunteth the Fox and the Badger or Greye onely, whom we call
Terrars, because they (after the manner and custome of ferrets in
searching for Connyes) creep into the grounde, and by that meanes
make afrayde, nyppe and bite the Foxe and the Badger in such sorte
that eyther they teare them in pieces with theyr teeth, beying in
the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out
of theyr lurking angles, darke dongeons, and close caues; or at the
least through cocened feare drive them out of theire hollow harbours,
in so much that they are compelled to prepare speedie flyte, and,
being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are
otherwise taken and intrapped with snayres and nettes layde over
holes to the same purpose. But these be the least in that kynde
called Sagax."

The colour, size, and shape of the original terriers are not indicated
by the early writers, and art supplies but vague and uncertain
evidence. Nicholas Cox, who wrote of sporting dogs in _The Gentleman's
Recreation_ (1667), seems to suggest that the type of working terrier
was already fixed sufficiently to be divided into two kinds, the one
having shaggy coats and straight limbs, the other smooth coats and
short bent legs. Yet some years later another authority--Blome--in
the same publication was more guarded in his statements as to the
terrier type when he wrote: "Everybody that is a fox hunter is of
opinion that he hath a good breed, and some will say that the terrier
is a peculiar species of itself. I will not say anything to the
affirmative or negative of the point."

Searching for evidence on the subject, one finds that perhaps the
earliest references to the colours of terriers were made by Daniel
in his _Field Sports_ at the end of the eighteenth century, when he
described two sorts, the one rough, short-legged, and long-backed,
very strong, and "most commonly of a black or yellowish colour, mixed
with white"--evidently a hound-marked dog; and another smooth-coated
and beautifully formed, with a shorter body and more sprightly
appearance, "generally of a reddish brown colour, or black with
tanned legs."

Gilpin's portrait of Colonel Thornton's celebrated Pitch, painted
in 1790, presents a terrier having a smooth white coat with a black
patch at the set-on of the undocked tail, and black markings on the
face and ears. The dog's head is badly drawn and small in proportion;
but the body and legs and colouring would hardly disgrace the
Totteridge Kennels of to-day. Fox-terriers of a noted strain were
depicted from life by Reinagle in _The Sportsman's Cabinet_, published
over a hundred years ago; and in the text accompanying the engraving
a minute account is given of the peculiarities and working capacities
of the terrier. We are told that there were two breeds: the one
wire-haired, larger, more powerful, and harder bitten; the other
smooth-haired and smaller, with more style. The wire-hairs were white
with spots, the smooths were black and tan, the tan apparently
predominating over the black. The same writer states that it was
customary to take out a brace of terriers with a pack of hounds, a
larger and a smaller one, the smaller dog being used in emergency
when the earth proved to be too narrow to admit his bigger companion.
It is well known that many of the old fox hunters have kept their
special breeds of terrier, and the Belvoir, the Grove, and Lord
Middleton's are among the packs to which particular terrier strains
have been attached.

That even a hundred years ago terriers were bred with care, and that
certain strains were held in especial value, is shown by the recorded
fact that a litter of seven puppies was sold for twenty-one guineas--a
good price even in these days--and that on one occasion so high a
sum as twenty guineas was paid for a full-grown dog. At that time
there was no definite and well-established breed recognised throughout
the islands by a specific name; the embracing title of "Terrier"
included all the varieties which have since been carefully
differentiated. But very many of the breeds existed in their
respective localities awaiting national recognition. Here and there
some squire or huntsman nurtured a particular strain and developed
a type which he kept pure, and at many a manor-house and farmstead
in Devonshire and Cumberland, on many a Highland estate and Irish
riverside where there were foxes to be hunted or otters to be killed,
terriers of definite strain were religiously cherished. Several of
these still survive, and are as respectable in descent and quite as
important historically as some of the favoured and fashionable
champions of our time. They do not perhaps possess the outward beauty
and distinction of type which would justify their being brought into
general notice, but as workers they retain all the fire and verve
that are required in dogs that are expected to encounter such vicious
vermin as the badger and the fox.

Some of the breeds of terriers seen nowadays in every dog show were
equally obscure and unknown a few years back. Thirty-seven years ago
the now popular Irish Terrier was practically unknown in England,
and the Scottish Terrier was only beginning to be recognised as a
distinct breed. The Welsh Terrier is quite a new introduction that
a dozen or so years ago was seldom seen outside the Principality;
and so recently as 1881 the Airedale was merely a local dog known
in Yorkshire as the Waterside or the Bingley Terrier. Yet the breeds
just mentioned are all of unimpeachable ancestry, and the circumstance
that they were formerly bred within limited neighbourhoods is in
itself an argument in favour of their purity. We have seen the process
of a sudden leap into recognition enacted during the past few years
in connection with the white terrier of the Western Highlands--a dog
which was familiarly known in Argyllshire centuries ago, yet which
has only lately emerged from the heathery hillsides around Poltalloch
to become an attraction on the benches at the Crystal Palace and on
the lawns of the Botanical Gardens; and the example suggests the
possibility that in another decade or so the neglected Sealyham
Terrier, the ignored terrier of the Borders, and the almost forgotten
Jack Russell strain, may have claimed a due recompense for their long
neglect.

There are lovers of the hard-bitten working "earth dogs" who still
keep these strains inviolate, and who greatly prefer them to the
better-known terriers whose natural activities have been too often
atrophied by a system of artificial breeding to show points. Few of
these old unregistered breeds would attract the eye of the fancier
accustomed to judge a dog parading before him in the show ring. To
know their value and to appreciate their sterling good qualities,
one needs to watch them at work on badger or when they hit upon the
line of an otter. It is then that they display the alertness and the
dare-devil courage which have won for the English terriers their name
and fame.

An excellent working terrier was the white, rough-haired strain kept
by the Rev. John Russell in Devonshire and distributed among
privileged sportsmen about Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. The
working attributes of these energetic terriers have long been
understood, and the smart, plucky little dogs have been constantly
coveted by breeders all over the country, but they have never won
the popularity they deserve.

Those who have kept both varieties prefer the Russell to the Sealyham
Terrier, which is nevertheless an excellent worker. It is on record
that one of these, a bitch of only 9 lb. weight, fought and killed,
single-handed, a full-grown dog-fox. The Sealyham derives its breed
name from the seat of the Edwardes family, near Haverfordwest, in
Pembrokeshire, where the strain has been carefully preserved for well
over a century. It is a long-bodied, short-legged terrier, with a
hard, wiry coat, frequently whole white, but also white with black
or brown markings or brown with black. They may be as heavy as 17
lb., but 12 lb. is the average weight. Some years ago the breed seemed
to be on the down grade, requiring fresh blood from a well-chosen
outcross. One hears very little concerning them nowadays, but it
is certain that when in their prime they possessed all the grit,
determination, and endurance that are looked for in a good working
terrier.

A wire-haired black and tan terrier was once common in Suffolk and
Norfolk, where it was much used for rabbiting, but it may now be
extinct, or, if not extinct, probably identified with the Welsh
Terrier, which it closely resembled in size and colouring. There was
also in Shropshire a well-known breed of wire-hair terriers, black
and tan, on very short legs, and weighing about 10 lb. or 12 lb.,
with long punishing heads and extraordinary working powers. So, too,
in Lancashire and Cheshire one used to meet with sandy-coloured
terriers of no very well authenticated strain, but closely resembling
the present breed of Irish Terrier; and Squire Thornton, at his place
near Pickering, in Yorkshire, had a breed of wire-hairs tan in colour
with a black stripe down the back. Then there is the Cowley strain,
kept by the Cowleys of Callipers, near King's Langley. These are white
wire-haired dogs marked like the Fox-terrier, and exceedingly game.
Possibly the Elterwater Terrier is no longer to be found, but some
few of them still existed a dozen years or so ago in the Lake
District, where they were used in conjunction with the West Cumberland
Otterhounds. They were not easily distinguishable from the
better-known Border Terriers of which there are still many strains,
ranging from Northumberland, where Mr. T. Robson, of Bellingham, has
kept them for many years, to Galloway and Ayrshire and the Lothians,
where their coats become longer and less crisp.

There are many more local varieties of the working terrier as, for
example, the Roseneath, which is often confused with the Poltalloch,
or White West Highlander, to whom it is possibly related. And the
Pittenweem, with which the Poltalloch Terriers are now being crossed;
while Mrs. Alastair Campbell, of Ardrishaig, has a pack of Cairn
Terriers which seem to represent the original type of the improved
Scottie. Considering the great number of strains that have been
preserved by sporting families and maintained in more or less purity
to type, it is easy to understand how a "new" breed may become
fashionable, and still claim the honour of long descent. They may
not in all cases have the beauty of shape which is desired on the
show bench; but it is well to remember that while our show terriers
have been bred to the highest perfection we still possess in Great
Britain a separate order of "earth dogs" that for pluckily following
the fox and the badger into their lairs or bolting an otter from his
holt cannot be excelled all the world over.



CHAPTER XXIX

THE WHITE ENGLISH TERRIER


This dog, one would think, ought, by the dignified title which he
bears, to be considered a representative national terrier, forming
a fourth in the distinctively British quartette whose other members
are the Scottish, the Irish, and the Welsh Terriers. Possibly in the
early days when Pearson and Roocroft bred him to perfection it was
hoped and intended that he should become a breed typical of England.
He is still the only terrier who owns the national name, but he has
long ago yielded pride of place to the Fox-terrier, and it is the
case that the best specimens of his race are bred north of the border,
while, instead of being the most popular dog in the land, he is
actually one of the most neglected and the most seldom seen. At the
Kennel Club Show of 1909 there was not a single specimen of the breed
on view, nor was one to be found at the recent shows at Edinburgh,
Birmingham, Manchester, or Islington, nor at the National Terrier
Show at Westminster. It is a pity that so smart and beautiful a dog
should be suffered to fall into such absolute neglect. One wonders
what the reason of it can be. Possibly it is that the belief still
prevails that he is of delicate constitution, and is not gifted with
a great amount of intelligence or sagacity; there is no doubt,
however, that a potent factor in hastening the decline is to be found
in the edict against cropping. Neither the White Terrier nor the
Manchester Terrier has since been anything like so popular as they
both were before April, 1898, when the Kennel Club passed the law
that dogs' ears must not be cropped.

Writers on canine history, and Mr. Rawdon Lee among the number, tell
us that the English White Terrier is a comparatively new breed, and
that there is no evidence to show where he originally sprang from,
who produced him, or for what reason he was introduced. His existence
as a distinct breed is dated back no longer than forty years. This
is about the accepted age of most of our named English terriers. Half
a century ago, before the institution of properly organised dog shows
drew particular attention to the differentiation of breeds, the
generic term "terrier" without distinction was applied to all "earth
dogs," and the consideration of colour and size was the only common
rule observed in breeding. But it would not be difficult to prove
that a white terrier resembling the one now under notice existed in
England as a separate variety many generations anterior to the period
usually assigned to its recognition.

In the National Portrait Gallery there is a portrait of Mary of
Modena, Queen Consort of James II., painted in 1670 by William
Wissing, who has introduced at the Queen's side a terrier that is
undoubtedly of this type. The dog has slight brown or brindle markings
on the back, as many English White Terriers have, and it is to be
presumed that it is of the breed from which this variety is descended.

Apart from colour there is not a great difference between the White
English Terrier and the Manchester Black and Tan. But although they
are of similar shape and partake much of the same general character,
yet there is the distinction that in the black and tan the
conservation of type is stronger and more noticeable than in the
white, in which the correct shape and action are difficult to obtain.
It ought naturally to be easier to breed a pure white dog from white
parents than to breed correctly marked and well tanned puppies from
perfect black and tans; but the efforts of many breeders do not seem
to support such a theory in connection with the English Terrier, whose
litters frequently show the blemish of a spot of brindle or russet.
These spots usually appear behind the ears or on the neck, and are
of course a disfigurement on a dog whose coat to be perfect should
be of an intense and brilliant white. It appears to be equally
difficult to breed one which, while having the desired purity of
colour, is also perfect in shape and terrier character. It is to be
noted, too, that many otherwise good specimens are deaf--a fault which
seriously militates against the dog's possibilities as a companion
or as a watch.

Birmingham and Manchester were the localities in which the English
Terrier was most popular forty years ago, but it was Mr. Frederick
White, of Clapham, who bred all the best of the white variety and
who made it popular in the neighbourhood of London. His terriers were
of a strain founded by a dog named King Dick, and in 1863 he exhibited
a notable team in Laddie, Fly, Teddie, and Nettle. Mr. S. E. Shirley,
M. P., was attracted to the breed, and possessed many good examples,
as also did the Rev. J. W. Mellor and Mr. J. H. Murchison. Mr. Alfred
Benjamin's Silvio was a prominent dog in 1877.

Silvio was bred by Mr. James Roocroft, of Bolton, who owned a large
kennel of this variety of terrier, and who joined with his townsman,
Joe Walker, and with Bill Pearson in raising the breed to popularity
in Lancashire. Bill Pearson was the breeder of Tim, who was considered
the best terrier of his time, a dog of 14 lb., with a brilliant white
coat, the darkest of eyes, and a perfect black nose.

It is apparent that the Whippet was largely used as a cross with the
English Terrier, which may account to a great extent for the decline
of terrier character in the breed. Wiser breeders had recourse to
the more closely allied Bull-terrier; Mr. Shirley's prize winning
Purity was by Tim out of a Bull-terrier bitch, and there is no doubt
that whatever stamina remains in the breed has been supported by this
cross.

The following is the description laid down by the White English
Terrier Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Narrow, long and level, almost flat skull, without cheek
muscles, wedge-shaped, well filled up under the eyes, tapering to
the nose, and not lippy. EYES--Small and black, set fairly close
together, and oblong in shape. NOSE--Perfectly black. EARS--Cropped
and standing perfectly erect. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck should
be fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to the head, with
sloping shoulders, the neck being free from throatiness, and slightly
arched at the occiput. CHEST--Narrow and deep. BODY--Short and curving
upwards at the loins, sprung out behind the shoulders, back slightly
arched at loins, and falling again at the joining of the tail to the
same height as the shoulders. LEGS--Perfectly straight and well under
the body, moderate in bone, and of proportionate length. FEET--Feet
nicely arched, with toes set well together, and more inclined to be
round than hare-footed. TAIL--Moderate length, and set on where the
arch of the back ends, thick where it joins the body, tapering to
a point, and not carried higher than the back. COAT--Close, hard,
short, and glossy. COLOUR--Pure white, coloured marking to disqualify.
CONDITION--Flesh and muscles to be hard and firm. WEIGHT--From 12
lb. to 20 lb.



CHAPTER XXX

THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER


The Black and Tan, or Manchester, Terrier as we know him to-day is
a comparatively new variety, and he is not to be confounded with the
original terrier with tan and black colouring which was referred to
by Dr. Caius in the sixteenth century, and which was at that time
used for going to ground and driving out badgers and foxes.

Formerly there was but little regard paid to colour and markings,
and there was a considerably greater proportion of tan in the coat
than there is at the present day, while the fancy markings, such as
pencilled toes, thumb marks, and kissing spots were not cultivated.
The general outline of the dog, too, was less graceful and altogether
coarser.

During the first half of the nineteenth century the chief
accomplishment of this terrier was rat-killing. There are some
extraordinary accounts of his adroitness, as well as courage, in
destroying these vermin. The feats of a dog called Billy are recorded.
He was matched to destroy one hundred large rats in eight minutes
and a half. The rats were brought into the ring in bags, and as soon
as the number was complete Billy was put over the railing into their
midst. In six minutes and thirty-five seconds they were all destroyed.
In another match he killed the same number in six minutes and thirteen
seconds.

It was a popular terrier in Lancashire, and it was in this county
that the refining process in his shape and colouring was practised,
and where he came by the name of the Manchester Terrier.

Like the White English Terriers the Black and Tan has fallen on evil
days. It is not a popular dog among fanciers, and although many good
ones may be seen occasionally about the streets the breed suffers
from want of the care and attention that are incidental to the
breeding and rearing of dogs intended for competition at shows.

There are many who hold the opinion that one of the chief reasons
for the decadence in the popularity of the Black and Tan Terrier,
notwithstanding its many claims to favour, is to be found in the loss
of that very alert appearance which was a general characteristic
before the Kennel Club made it illegal to crop the ears of such as
were intended for exhibition. It must be admitted that until very
recently there was a considerable amount of truth in the prevalent
opinion, inasmuch as a rather heavy ear, if carried erect, was the
best material to work upon, and from which to produce the long, fine,
and upright, or "pricked" effect which was looked upon as being the
correct thing in a cropped dog; hence it followed that no care was
taken to select breeding stock likely to produce the small,
semi-erect, well-carried, and thin ears required to-day, consequently
when the edict forbidding the use of scissors came into force there
were very few small-eared dogs to be found. It has taken at least
ten or a dozen years to eradicate the mischief, and even yet the cure
is not complete.

Another factor which has had a bad effect is the belief, which has
become much too prevalent, that a great deal of "faking" has been
practised in the past, and that it has been so cleverly performed
as to deceive the most observant judge, whereby a very artificial
standard of quality has been obtained.

The standard of points by which the breed should be judged is as
follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A terrier calculated to take his own part in the
rat pit, and not of the Whippet type. HEAD--The head should be long,
flat, and narrow, level and wedge-shaped, without showing cheek
muscles; well filled up under the eyes, with tapering, tightly-lipped
jaws and level teeth. EYES--The eyes should be very small, sparkling,
and bright, set fairly close together and oblong in shape.
NOSE--Black. EARS--The correct carriage of ears is a debatable point
since cropping has been abolished. Probably in the large breed the
drop ear is correct, but for Toys either erect or semi-erect carriage
of the ear is most desirable. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck should
be fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to the head, with
sloping shoulders, the neck being free from throatiness and slightly
arched at the occiput. CHEST--The chest should be narrow but deep.
BODY--The body should be moderately short and curving upwards at the
loin; ribs well sprung, back slightly arched at the loin and falling
again at the joining of the tail to the same height as the shoulders.
FEET--The feet should be more inclined to be cat- than hare-footed.
TAIL--The tail should be of moderate length and set on where the arch
of the back ends; thick where it joins the body, tapering to a point,
and not carried higher than the back. COAT--The coat should be close,
smooth, short and glossy. COLOUR--The coat should be jet black and
rich mahogany tan, distributed over the body as follows: On the head
the muzzle is tanned to the nose, which with the nasal bone is jet
black. There is also a bright spot on each cheek and above each eye;
the underjaw and throat are tanned, and the hair inside the ears is
the same colour; the fore-legs tanned up to the knee, with black lines
(pencil marks) up each toe, and a black mark (thumb mark) above the
foot; inside the hind-legs tanned, but divided with black at the hock
joints; and under the tail also tanned; and so is the vent, but only
sufficiently to be easily covered by the tail; also slightly tanned
on each side of the chest. Tan outside the hind-legs--commonly called
breeching--is a serious defect. In all cases the black should not
run into the tan, nor _vice versa_, but the division between the two
colours should be well defined. WEIGHT--For toys not exceeding 7 lb.;
for the large breed from 10 to 20 lb. is most desirable.



CHAPTER XXXI

THE BULL-TERRIER


The Bull-terrier is now a gentlemanly and respectably owned dog,
wearing an immaculate white coat and a burnished silver collar; he
has dealings with aristocracy, and is no longer contemned for keeping
bad company. But a generation or two ago he was commonly the associate
of rogues and vagabonds, skulking at the heels of such members of
society as Mr. William Sikes, whom he accompanied at night on darksome
business to keep watch outside while Bill was within, cracking the
crib. In those days the dog's ears were closely cropped, not for the
sake of embellishment, but as a measure of protection against the
fangs of his opponent in the pit when money was laid upon the result
of a well-fought fight to the death. For fighting was the acknowledged
vocation of his order, and he was bred and trained to the work. He
knew something of rats, too, and many of his kind were famed in the
land for their prowess in this direction. Jimmy Shaw's Jacko could
finish off sixty rats in three minutes, and on one occasion made a
record by killing a thousand in a trifle over an hour and a half.

The breed is sufficiently modern to leave no doubt as to its
derivation. In the first quarter of the nineteenth century attention
was being directed to the improvement of terriers generally, and new
types were sought for. They were alert, agile little dogs, excellent
for work in the country; but the extravagant Corinthians of the
time--the young gamesters who patronised the prize-ring and the
cock-pit--desired to have a dog who should do something more than kill
rats, or unearth the fox, or bolt the otter: which accomplishments
afforded no amusement to the Town. They wanted a dog combining all
the dash and gameness of the terrier with the heart and courage and
fighting instinct of the Bulldog. Wherefore the terrier and the
Bulldog were crossed. A large type of terrier was chosen, and this
would be the smooth-coated Black and Tan, or the early English White
Terrier; but probably both were used indifferently, and for a
considerable period. The result gave the young bucks what they
required: a dog that was at once a determined vermin killer and an
intrepid fighter, upon whose skill in the pit wagers might with
confidence be laid.

The animal, however, was neither a true terrier nor a true Bulldog,
but an uncompromising mongrel; albeit he served his immediate purpose,
and was highly valued for his pertinacity, if not for his appearance.
In 1806 Lord Camelford possessed one for which he had paid the very
high price of eighty-four guineas, and which he presented to Belcher,
the pugilist. This dog was figured in _The Sporting Magazine_ of the
time. He was a short-legged, thick-set, fawn-coloured specimen, with
closely amputated ears, a broad blunt muzzle, and a considerable
lay-back; and this was the kind of dog which continued for many years
to be known as the Bull-and-terrier. He was essentially a man's dog,
and was vastly in favour among the undergraduates of Oxford and
Cambridge.

Gradually the Bulldog element, at first pronounced, was reduced to
something like a fourth degree, and, with the terrier character
predominating, the head was sharpened, the limbs were lengthened and
straightened until little remained of the Bulldog strain but the
dauntless heart and the fearless fighting spirit, together with the
frequent reversion to brindle colouring, which was the last outward
and visible characteristic to disappear.

Within the remembrance of men not yet old the Bull-terrier was as
much marked with fawn, brindle, or even black, as are the Fox-terriers
of our own period. But fifty years or so ago white was becoming
frequent, and was much admired. A strain of pure white was bred by
James Hinks, a well-known dog-dealer of Birmingham, and it is no doubt
to Hinks that we are indebted for the elegant Bull-terrier of the
type that we know to-day. These Birmingham dogs showed a refinement
and grace and an absence of the crook-legs and coloured patches which
betrayed that Hinks had been using an out-cross with the English White
Terrier, thus getting away further still from the Bulldog.

With the advent of the Hinks strain in 1862 the short-faced dog fell
into disrepute, and pure white became the accepted colour. There was
a wide latitude in the matter of weight. If all other points were
good, a dog might weigh anything between 10 and 38 lbs., but classes
were usually divided for those above and those below 16 lb. The type
became fixed, and it was ruled that the perfect Bull-terrier "must
have a long head, wide between the ears, level jaws, a small black
eye, a large black nose, a long neck, straight fore-legs, a small
hare foot, a narrow chest, deep brisket, powerful loin, long body,
a tail set and carried low, a fine coat, and small ears well hung
and dropping forward."

Idstone, who wrote this description in 1872, earnestly insisted that
the ears of all dogs should be left uncut and as Nature made them;
but for twenty years thereafter the ears of the Bull-terrier continued
to be cropped to a thin, erect point. The practice of cropping, it
is true, was even then illegal and punishable by law, but, although
there were occasional convictions under the Cruelty to Animals Act,
the dog owners who admired the alertness and perkiness of the cut
ear ignored the risk they ran, and it was not until the Kennel Club
took resolute action against the practice that cropping was entirely
abandoned.

The president of the Kennel Club, Mr. S. E. Shirley, M. P., had
himself been a prominent owner and breeder of the Bull-terrier. His
Nelson, bred by Joe Willock, was celebrated as an excellent example
of the small-sized terrier, at a time, however, when there were not
a great many competitors of the highest quality. His Dick, also, was
a remarkably good dog. Earlier specimens which have left their names
in the history of the breed were Hinks's Old Dutch, who was, perhaps,
even a more perfect terrier than the same breeder's Madman and Puss.

Lancashire and Yorkshire have always been noted for good
Bull-terriers, and the best of the breed have usually been produced
in the neighbourhoods of Leeds, Bradford, Manchester, Bolton, and
Liverpool, while Birmingham also shared in the reputation. At one
time Londoners gave careful attention to the breed, stimulated thereto
by the encouragement of Mr. Shirley and the success of Alfred George.

Of recent years the Bull-terrier has not been a great favourite, and
it has sadly deteriorated in type; but there are signs that the
variety is again coming into repute, and within the past two years
many admirable specimens--as nearly perfect, perhaps, as many that
won honour in former generations--have been brought into prominence.
Among dogs, for example, there are Mr. E. T. Pimm's Sweet Lavender,
Dr. M. Amsler's MacGregor, Mr. Chris Houlker's His Highness, and Mr.
J. Haynes' Bloomsbury Young King. Among bitches there are Mrs.
Kipping's Delphinium Wild and Desdemona, Mr. Hornby's Lady Sweetheart,
Mr. W. Mayor's Mill Girl, Mr. T. Gannaway's Charlwood Belle, Dr. J. W.
Low's Bess of Hardwicke, and Mrs. E. G. Money's Eastbourne Tarqueenia.
While these and such as these beautiful and typical terriers are being
bred and exhibited there is no cause to fear a further decline in
popularity for a variety so eminently engaging.

The club description is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The general appearance of the Bull-terrier is
that of a symmetrical animal, the embodiment of agility, grace,
elegance, and determination. HEAD--The head should be long, flat,
and wide between the ears, tapering to the nose, without cheek
muscles. There should be a slight indentation down the face, without
a stop between the eyes. The jaws should be long and very powerful,
with a large black nose and open nostrils. Eyes small and very black,
almond shape preferred. The lips should meet as tightly as possible,
without a fold. The teeth should be regular in shape, and should meet
exactly; any deviation, such as pigjaw, or being underhung, is a great
fault. EARS--The ears, when cropped, should be done scientifically
and according to fashion. Cropped dogs cannot win a prize at shows
held under Kennel Club rules, if born after March 31st, 1895. When
not cropped, it should be a semi-erect ear, but others do not
disqualify. NECK--The neck should be long and slightly arched, nicely
set into the shoulders tapering to the head without any loose skin,
as found in the Bulldog. SHOULDERS--The shoulders should be strong,
muscular, and slanting; the chest wide and deep, with ribs well
rounded. BACK--The back short and muscular, but not out of proportion
to the general contour of the animal. LEGS--The fore-legs should be
perfectly straight, with well-developed muscles; not out at shoulder,
but set on the racing lines, and very strong at the pastern joints.
The hind-legs are long and, in proportion to the fore-legs, muscular,
with good strong, straight hocks, well let down near the ground.
FEET--The feet more resemble those of a cat than a hare.
COLOUR--Should be white. COAT--Short, close, and stiff to the touch,
with a fine gloss. TAIL--Short in proportion to the size of the dog,
set on very low down, thick where it joins the body, and tapering
to a fine point. It should be carried at an angle of about 45 degrees,
without curl, and never over the back. HEIGHT AT SHOULDERS--From 12
to 18 inches. WEIGHT--From 15 lb. to 50 lb.



CHAPTER XXXII

THE SMOOTH FOX-TERRIER


To attempt to set forth the origin of the Fox-terrier as we know him
to-day would be of no interest to the general reader, and would entail
the task of tracing back the several heterogeneous sources from which
he sprang. It is a matter of very little moment whether he owes his
origin to the white English Terrier or to the Bull-terrier crossed
with the Black and Tan, or whether he has a mixture of Beagle blood
in his composition, so it will suffice to take him as he emerged from
the chaos of mongreldom about the middle of the last century, rescued
in the first instance by the desire of huntsmen or masters of
well-known packs to produce a terrier somewhat in keeping with their
hounds; and, in the second place, to the advent of dog shows. Prior
to that time any dog capable, from his size, conformation, and pluck,
of going to ground and bolting his fox was a Fox-terrier, were he
rough or smooth, black, brown, or white.

The starting-point of the modern Fox-terrier dates from about the
'sixties, and no pedigrees before that are worth considering.

From three dogs then well known--Old Jock, Trap, and Tartar--he claims
descent; and, thanks to the Fox-terrier Club and the great care taken
in compiling their stud-books, he can be brought down to to-day. Of
these three dogs Old Jock was undoubtedly more of a terrier than the
others. It is a moot point whether he was bred, as stated in most
records of the time, by Captain Percy Williams, master of the Rufford,
or by Jack Morgan, huntsman to the Grove; it seems, however, well
established that the former owned his sire, also called Jock, and
that his dam, Grove Pepper, was the property of Morgan. He first came
before the public at the Birmingham show in 1862, where, shown by
Mr. Wootton, of Nottingham, he won first prize. He subsequently
changed hands several times, till he became the property of Mr.
Murchison, in whose hands he died in the early 'seventies. He was
exhibited for the last time at the Crystal Palace in 1870, and though
then over ten years old won second to the same owner's Trimmer. At
his best he was a smart, well-balanced terrier, with perhaps too much
daylight under him, and wanting somewhat in jaw power; but he showed
far less of the Bull-terrier type than did his contemporary Tartar.

This dog's antecedents were very questionable, and his breeder is
given as Mr. Stevenson, of Chester, most of whose dogs were
Bull-terriers pure and simple, save that they had drop ears and short
sterns, being in this respect unlike old Trap, whose sire is generally
supposed to have been a Black and Tan Terrier. This dog came from
the Oakley Kennels, and he was supposed to have been bred by a miller
at Leicester. However questionable the antecedents of these three
terriers may have been, they are undoubtedly the progenitors of our
present strain, and from them arose the kennels that we have to-day.

Mention has been made of Mr. Murchison, and to him we owe in a great
measure the start in popularity which since the foundation of his
large kennel the Fox-terrier has enjoyed. Mr. Murchison's chief
opponents in the early 'seventies were Mr. Gibson, of Brockenhurst,
with his dogs Tyke and Old Foiler; Mr. Luke Turner, of Leicester,
with his Belvoir strain, which later gave us Ch. Brockenhurst Joe,
Ch. Olive and her son, Ch. Spice; Mr. Theodore Bassett, Mr. Allison,
and, a year or so later, Mr. Frederick Burbidge, the Messrs. Clarke,
Mr. Tinne, Mr. Francis Redmond, and Mr. Vicary. About this time a
tremendous impetus was given to the breed by the formation, in 1876,
of the Fox-terrier Club, which owed its inception to Mr. Harding Cox
and a party of enthusiasts seated round his dinner table at 36,
Russell Square, among whom were Messrs. Bassett, Burbidge, Doyle,
Allison, and Redmond, the last two named being still members of the
club. The idea was very warmly welcomed, a committee formed, and a
scale of points drawn up which, with but one alteration, is in vogue
to-day. Every prominent exhibitor or breeder then, and with few
exceptions since, has been a member, and the club is by far the
strongest of all specialist clubs.

It will be well to give here the said standard of points.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD AND EARS--The _Skull_ should be flat and moderately narrow, and
gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much "stop" should
be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between the
forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound. The
_Cheeks_ must not be full. The _Ears_ should be V-shaped and small,
of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not
hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound's. The _Jaw_, upper
and under, should be strong and muscular; should be of fair punishing
strength, but not so in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern
English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes.
This part of the head, should, however, be moderately chiselled out,
so as not to go down in a straight line like a wedge. The _Nose_,
towards which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black. The
_Eyes_ should be dark in colour, small, and rather deep set, full
of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in
shape. The _Teeth_ should be as nearly as possible level, _i.e._,
the upper teeth on the outside of the lower teeth. NECK--Should be
clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually
widening to the shoulders. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--The _Shoulders_ should
be long and sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly
cut at the withers. The _Chest_ deep and not broad. BACK AND LOIN--The
_Back_ should be short, straight, and strong, with no appearance of
slackness. The _Loin_ should be powerful and very slightly arched.
The fore ribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs deep; and
the dog should be well ribbed up. HIND-QUARTERS--Should be strong
and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and
powerful; hocks near the ground, the dog standing well up on them
like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle. STERN--Should be
set on rather high, and carried gaily, but not over the back or
curled. It should be of good strength, anything approaching a
"pipe-stopper" tail being especially objectionable. LEGS AND FEET--The
_Legs_ viewed in any direction must be straight, showing little or
no appearance of an ankle in front. They should be strong in bone
throughout, short and straight to pastern. Both fore and hind legs
should be carried straight forward in travelling, the stifles not
turned outwards. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body,
working free of the side. The _Feet_ should be round, compact, and
not large. The soles hard and tough. The toes moderately arched, and
turned neither in nor out. COAT--Should be straight, flat, smooth,
hard, dense, and abundant. The belly and under side of the thighs
should not be bare. As regards colour, white should predominate;
brindle, red, or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this
point is of little or no importance. SYMMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARACTER--The
dog must present a general gay, lively, and active appearance; bone
and strength in a small compass are essentials; but this must not
be taken to mean that a Fox-terrier should be cloggy, or in any way
coarse--speed and endurance must be looked to as well as power, and
the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a model. The terrier, like the
hound, must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in the
leg. He should stand like a cleverly-made hunter, covering a lot of
ground, yet with a short back, as before stated. He will then attain
the highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest
length of stride that is compatible with the length of his body.
Weight is not a certain criterion of a terrier's fitness for his
work--general shape, size and contour are the main points; and if
a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters
little what his weight is to a pound or so, though, roughly speaking,
it may be said he should not scale over twenty pounds in show
condition.

DISQUALIFYING POINTS: NOSE--White, cherry, or spotted to a
considerable extent with either of these colours. EARS--prick, tulip,
or rose. MOUTH--much overshot or much undershot.

       *       *       *       *       *

In order to give some idea of the extraordinary way in which the
Fox-terrier took the public taste, it will be necessary to hark back
and give a _resume_ of the principal kennels and exhibitors to whom
this was due. In the year in which the Fox-terrier Club was formed,
Mr. Fred Burbidge, at one time captain of the Surrey Eleven, had the
principal kennels. He was the pluckiest buyer of his day, and once
he fancied a dog nothing stopped him till it was in his kennels. He
bought Nimrod, Dorcas, Tweezers, and Nettle, and with them and other
discriminating purchases he was very hard to beat on the show-bench.
Strange to say, at this time he seemed unable to breed a good dog,
and determined to have a clear out and start afresh. A few brood
bitches only were retained, and the kennels moved from Champion Hill
to Hunton Bridge, in Hertfordshire. From thence in a few years came
Bloom, Blossom, Tweezers II., Hunton Baron, Hunton Bridegroom, and
a host of others, which spread the fame of the great Hunton strain.
When the kennel was dispersed at Mr. Burbidge's untimely death in
1892, the dogs, 130 lots in all, were sold by auction and realised
P1,800; Hunton Tartar fetched P135, Justice P84, Bliss P70, and
Scramble P65.

Messrs. A. H. and C. Clarke were at this time quietly founding a
kennel, which perhaps has left its mark more indelibly on the breed
than any before or since. Brockenhurst Rally was a most fortunate
purchase from his breeder, Mr. Herbert Peel, and was by Brockenhurst
Joe from a Bitters bitch, as from this dog came Roysterer and Ruler,
their dam being Jess, an old Turk bitch; and from Rollick by Buff
was bred Ruse and Ransome. Roysterer was the sire of Result, by many
considered the best Fox-terrier dog of all time; and Result's own
daughter Rachel was certainly the best bitch of her day. All these
terriers had intense quality and style, due for the most part to
inbreeding. Very little new blood was introduced, with an inevitable
result; and by degrees the kennel died out.

No history of the Fox-terrier could be complete without mention of
Mr. Francis Redmond and his kennel, going back, as it does, to the
Murchison and Luke Turner period, and being still to-day the most
prominent one in existence. We can date his earlier efforts from his
purchase of Deacon Nettle, the dam of Deacon Ruby; Dusty was the dam
of Ch. Diamond Dust; Dickon he had from Luke Turner, and in this dog
we have one of the foundation-stones of the Fox-terrier stud-book,
as he was the sire of Splinter, who in his turn was the sire of
Vesuvian.

Mr. Redmond's next great winners were D'Orsay and Dominie, two
sterling good terriers, the former of which was the sire of Dame
D'Orsay, who, bred to Despoiler, produced Dame Fortune, the mother
of Donna Fortuna, whose other parent was Dominie. Donna Fortuna,
considered universally the best specimen of a Fox-terrier ever
produced, had from the first a brilliant career, for though fearlessly
shown on all occasions she never knew defeat. Some took exception
to her want of what is called terrier character, and others would
have liked her a shade smaller; but we have still to see the
Fox-terrier, taken all round, that could beat her.

As an outcross Mr. Redmond purchased Dreadnought, one of the highest
class dogs seen for many years, but had very bad luck with him, an
accident preventing him from being shown and subsequently causing
his early death. We must not forget Duchess of Durham or Dukedom;
but to enumerate all Mr. Redmond's winners it would be necessary to
take the catalogues of all the important shows held for the past
thirty years. To no one do we owe so much; no one has made such a
study of the breed, reducing it almost to a science, with the result
that even outside his kennels no dog has any chance of permanently
holding his own unless he has an ample supply of the blood.

The great opponent of the Totteridge Kennel up to some few years ago
was unquestionably Mr. Vicary, of Newton Abbot, who laid the
foundation of his kennel with Vesuvian, who was by Splinter, out of
Kohinor, and from whom came the long line of winners, Venio-Vesuvienne,
Vice-Regal, Valuator, Visto, and Veracity. Fierce war raged round
these kennels, each having its admiring and devoted adherents, until
one side would not look at anything but a Redmond Terrier to the
exclusion of the Vicary type. The Newton Abbot strain was remarkable
for beautiful heads and great quality, but was faulty in feet and
not absolute as to fronts, each of which properties was a _sine qua
non_ amongst the Totteridge dogs. Latter-day breeders have recognised
that in the crossing of the two perfection lies, and Mr. Redmond
himself has not hesitated to go some way on the same road.

[Illustration: FOX TERRIERS
  1. Mrs. J. H. Brown's Ch. Captain Double
  2. Mr. J. C. Tinne's Ch. The Sylph
  3. Mr. T. J. Stephen's Wire-Hair Ch. Sylvan Result
  _Photograph by Revely_]

It is fortunate for the breed of Fox-terriers how great a hold the
hobby takes, and how enthusiastically its votaries pursue it,
otherwise we should not have amongst us men like Mr. J. C. Tinne,
whose name is now a household word in the Fox-terrier world, as it
has been any time for the past thirty years. Close proximity, in those
days, to Mr. Gibson at Brockenhurst made him all the keener, and one
of his first terriers was a bitch of that blood by Bitters. With
daughters of Old Foiler he did very well--to wit, Pungent, sister
to Dorcas, while through Terror we get Banquet, the granddam of
Despoiler. He purchased from Mr. Redmond both Deacon Diamond and Daze,
each of whom was bred to Spice, and produced respectively Auburn and
Brockenhurst Dainty; from the latter pair sprang Lottery and Worry,
the granddam of Tom Newcome, to whom we owe Brockenhurst Agnes,
Brockenhurst Dame, and Dinah Morris, and consequently Adam Bede and
Hester Sorrel.

It has always been Mr. Tinne's principle to aim at producing the best
terrier he could, irrespective of the fads of this kennel or that,
and his judgment has been amply vindicated, as the prize lists of
every large show will testify. And to-day he is the proud possessor
of Ch. The Sylph, who has beaten every one of her sex, and is
considered by many about the best Fox-terrier ever seen.

No name is better known or more highly respected by dog owners than
that of the late Mr. J. A. Doyle, as a writer, breeder, judge, or
exhibitor of Fox-terriers. Whilst breeding largely from his own stock,
he was ever on the look-out for a likely outcross. He laid great store
on terrier character, and was a stickler for good coats; a point much
neglected in the present-day dog.

Amongst the smaller kennels is that of Mr. Reeks, now mostly
identified with Oxonian and that dog's produce, but he will always
be remembered as the breeder of that beautiful terrier, Avon Minstrel.
Mr. Arnold Gillett has had a good share of fortune's favours, as the
Ridgewood dogs testify; whilst the Messrs. Powell, Castle, Glynn,
Dale, and Crosthwaite have all written their names on the pages of
Fox-terrier history. Ladies have ever been supporters of the breed,
and no one more prominently so than Mrs. Bennett Edwards, who through
Duke of Doncaster, a son of Durham, has founded a kennel which at
times is almost invincible, and which still shelters such grand
terriers as Doncaster, Dominie, Dodger, Dauphine, and many others
well known to fame. Mrs. J. H. Brown, too, as the owner of Captain
Double, a terrier which has won, and deservedly, more prizes than
any Fox-terrier now or in the past, must not be omitted.

Whether the present Fox-terrier is as good, both on the score of
utility and appearance, as his predecessors is a question which has
many times been asked, and as many times decided in the negative as
well as in the affirmative. It would be idle to pretend that a great
many of the dogs now seen on the show bench are fitted to do the work
Nature intended them for, as irrespective of their make and shape
they are so oversized as to preclude the possibility of going to
ground in any average sized earth.

This question of size is one that must sooner or later be tackled
in some practical way by the Fox-terrier Club, unless we are to see
a race of giants in the next few generations. Their own standard gives
20 lb.--a very liberal maximum; but there are dogs several pounds
heavier constantly winning prizes at shows, and consequently being
bred from, with the result which we see. There are many little dogs,
and good ones, to be seen, but as long as the judges favour the big
ones these hold no chance, and as it is far easier to produce a good
big one than a good little one, breeders are encouraged to use sires
who would not be looked at if a hard-and-fast line were drawn over
which no dogs should win a prize. There are hundreds of Fox-terriers
about quite as capable of doing their work as their ancestors ever
were, and there is hardly a large kennel which has not from time to
time furnished our leading packs with one or more dogs, and with
gratifying results. It is, therefore, a great pity that our leading
exhibitors should often be the greatest delinquents in showing dogs
which they know in their hearts should be kept at home or drafted
altogether, and it is deplorable that some of our oldest judges should
by their awards encourage them.

Before concluding this chapter it may not be out of place to say a
few words as to the breeding and rearing of Fox terriers.

In the first place, _never_ breed from an animal whose pedigree is
not authenticated beyond a shadow of a doubt; and remember that while
like _may_ beget like, the inevitable tendency is to throw back to
former generations. The man who elects to breed Fox-terriers must
have the bumps of patience and hope very strongly developed, as if
the tyro imagines that he has only to mate his bitch to one of the
known prize-winning dogs of the day in order to produce a champion,
he had better try some other breed. Let him fix in his mind the ideal
dog, and set to work by patient effort and in the face of many
disappointments to produce it. It is not sufficient that, having
acquired a bitch good in all points save in head, that he breeds her
to the best-headed dog he can find. He must satisfy himself that the
head is not a chance one, but is an inherited one, handed down from
many generations, good in this particular, and consequently potent
to reproduce its like. So in all other points that he wishes to
reproduce. In the writer's experience, little bitches with quality
are the most successful. Those having masculine characteristics should
be avoided, and the best results will be obtained from the first three
litters, after which a bitch rarely breeds anything so good. See that
your bitch is free from worms before she goes to the dog, then feed
her well, and beyond a dose of castor oil some days before she is
due to whelp, let Nature take its course. Dose your puppies well for
worms at eight weeks old, give them practically as much as they will
eat, and unlimited exercise. Avoid the various advertised nostrums,
and rely rather on the friendly advice of some fancier or your
veterinary surgeon.

Take your hobby seriously, and you will be amply repaid, even if
success does not always crown your efforts, as while the breeding
of most animals is a fascinating pursuit, that of the Fox-terrier
presents many varying delights.



CHAPTER XXXIII

THE WIRE-HAIR FOX-TERRIER


The wire-hair Fox-terrier is, with the exception of its coat,
identical with the smooth Fox-terrier--full brother in fact to him.
The two varieties are much interbred, and several litters in
consequence include representatives of both; and not only this, but
it is quite a frequent occurrence to get a smooth puppy from wire-hair
parents, although for some generations neither of the parents may
have had any smooth cross in their pedigrees.

The North of England and South Wales (to a lesser extent) have ever
been the home of the wire-hair, and nearly all the best specimens
have come originally from one or the other of those districts. There
is no doubt that there was excellent stock in both places, and there
is also no doubt that though at times this was used to the best
advantage, there was a good deal of carelessness in mating, and a
certain amount in recording the parentage of some of the terriers.
With regard to this latter point it is said that one gentleman who
had quite a large kennel and several stud dogs, but who kept no books,
used never to bother about remembering which particular dog he had
put to a certain bitch, but generally satisfied himself as to the
sire of a puppy when it came in from "walk" by just examining it and
saying "Oh, that pup must be by owd Jock or Jim," as the case might
be, "'cos he's so loike 'im," and down he would go on the entry form
accordingly. However this may be, there is no doubt that the sire
would be a wire-hair Fox-terrier, and, although the pedigree therefore
may not have been quite right, the terrier was invariably pure bred.

In the early days the smooth was not crossed with the wire to anything
like the extent that it was later, and this fact is probably the cause
of the salvation of the variety. The wire-hair has had more harm done
to him by his being injudiciously crossed with the smooth than
probably by anything else.

The greatest care must be exercised in the matter of coat before any
such cross is effected. The smooth that is crossed with the wire must
have a really hard, and not too full coat, and, as there are very,
very few smooths now being shown with anything like a proper coat
for a terrier to possess, the very greatest caution is necessary.
Some few years back, almost incalculable harm was done to the variety
by a considerable amount of crossing into a strain of smooths with
terribly soft flannelly coats. Good-looking terriers were produced,
and therein lay the danger, but their coats were as bad as bad could
be; and, though people were at first too prone to look over this very
serious fault, they now seem to have recovered their senses, and thus,
although much harm was done, any serious damage has been averted.
If a person has a full-coated wire-hair bitch he is too apt to put
her to a smooth simply because it is a smooth, whom he thinks will
neutralise the length of his bitch's jacket, but this is absolute
heresy, and must not be done unless the smooth has the very hardest
of hair on him. If it is done, the result is too horrible for words:
you get an elongated, smooth, full coat as soft as cotton wool, and
sometimes as silkily wavy as a lady's hair. This is not a coat for
any terrier to possess, and it is not a wire-hair terrier's coat,
which ought to be a hard, crinkly, peculiar-looking broken coat on
top, with a dense undercoat underneath, and must never be mistakable
for an elongated smooth terrier's coat, which can never at any time
be a protection from wind, water, or dirt, and is, in reality, the
reverse.

The wire-hair has had a great advertisement, for better or worse,
in the extraordinarily prominent way he has been mentioned in
connection with "faking" and trimming. Columns have been written on
this subject, speeches of inordinate length have been delivered,
motions and resolutions have been carried, rules have been
promulgated, etc., etc., and the one dog mentioned throughout in
connection with all of them has been our poor old, much maligned
wire-hair. He has been the scapegoat, the subject of all this
brilliancy and eloquence, and were he capable of understanding the
language of the human, we may feel sure much amusement would be his.

There are several breeds that are more trimmed than the wire-hair,
and that might well be quoted before him in this connection. There
is a vast difference between legitimate trimming, and what is called
"faking." All dogs with long or wire-hair or rough coats naturally
require more attention, and more grooming than those with short smooth
coats. For the purposes of health and cleanliness it is absolutely
necessary that such animals should be frequently well groomed. There
is no necessity, given a wire-hair with a good and proper coat, to
use anything but an ordinary close-toothed comb, a good hard brush,
and an occasional removal of long old hairs on the head, ears, neck,
legs, and belly, with the finger and thumb. The Kennel Club
regulations for the preparation of dogs for exhibition are perfectly
clear on this subject, and are worded most properly. They say that
a dog "shall be disqualified if any part of his coat or hair has been
cut, clipped, singed, or rasped down by any substance, or if any of
the new or fast coat has been removed by pulling or plucking in any
manner," and that "no comb shall be used which has a cutting or
rasping edge." There is no law, therefore, against the removal of
old coat by finger and thumb, and anyone who keeps long-haired dogs
knows that it is essential to the dog's health that there should be
none.

It is in fact most necessary in certain cases, at certain times, to
pull old coat out in this way. Several terriers with good coats are
apt to grow long hair very thickly round the neck and ears, and unless
this is removed when it gets old, the neck and ears are liable to
become infested with objectionable little slate-coloured nits, which
will never be found as long as the coat is kept down when necessary.
Bitches in whelp and after whelping, although ordinarily good-coated,
seem to go all wrong in their coats unless properly attended to in
this way, and here again, if you wish to keep your bitch free from
skin trouble, it is a necessity, in those cases which need it, to
use finger and thumb.

If the old hair is pulled out only when it is old, there is no
difficulty about it, and no hurt whatever is occasioned to the dog,
who does not in reality object at all. If, however, new or fast coat
is pulled out it not only hurts the dog but it is also a very foolish
thing to do, and the person guilty of such a thing fully merits
disqualification.

Most of the nonsense that is heard about trimming emanates, of course,
from the ignoramus; the knife, he says, is used on them all, a sharp
razor is run over their coats, they are singed, they are cut, they
are rasped (the latter is the favourite term). Anything like such
a sweeping condemnation is quite inaccurate and most unfair. It is
impossible to cut a hair without being detected by a good judge, and
very few people ever do any such thing, at any rate for some months
before the terrier is exhibited, for if they do, they know they are
bound to be discovered, and, as a fact, are.

When the soft-coated dogs are clipped they are operated on, say, two
or three months before they are wanted, and the hair gets a chance
to grow, but even then it is easily discernible, and anyone who, like
the writer, has any experience of clipping dogs in order to cure them
of that awful disease, follicular mange, knows what a sight the animal
is when he grows his coat, and how terribly unnatural he looks.

The wire-hair has never been in better state than he is to-day; he
is, generally speaking, far ahead of his predecessors of twenty-five
years ago, not only from a show point of view, but also in working
qualities. One has only to compare the old portraits of specimens
of the variety with dogs of the present day to see this. A good many
individual specimens of excellent merit, it is true, there were, but
they do not seem to have been immortalised in this way. The portraits
of those we do see are mostly representations of awful-looking brutes,
as bad in shoulders, and light of bone, as they could be; they appear
also to have had very soft coats, somewhat akin to that we see on
a Pomeranian nowadays, though it is true this latter fault may have
been that of the artist, or probably amplified by him.

Perhaps the strongest kennel of wire-hairs that has existed was that
owned a good many years ago by Messrs. Maxwell and Cassell. Several
champions were in the kennel at the same time, and they were a sorty
lot of nice size, and won prizes all over the country. Jack Frost,
Jacks Again, Liffey, Barton Wonder, Barton Marvel, and several other
good ones, were inmates of this kennel, the two latter especially
being high-class terriers, which at one time were owned by Sir H.
de Trafford. Barton Marvel was a very beautiful bitch, and probably
the best of those named above, though Barton Wonder was frequently
put above her. Sir H. de Trafford had for years a very good kennel
of the variety, and at that time was probably the biggest and best
buyer.

Mr. Carrick, of Carlisle, was also a prominent owner years ago, and
showed some excellent terriers, the best being Carlisle Tack, Trick,
and Tyro. The latter was an exceptionally good dog.

Mr. Sam Hill, of Sheffield, had also a strong kennel, always well
shown by George Porter, who is now, and has been for some years, in
America, where he still follows his old love. Mr. Hill's name will
ever be associated with that of his great dog Meersbrook Bristles,
who has undoubtedly done the breed a great amount of good. Mr. Mayhew
is another old fancier, who nearly always showed a good one. Mr.
Mayhew has been in America now for many years. One dog of his, who
it is believed became a champion, viz. Brittle, did at one time a
big business at stud, perhaps not to the advantage of the breed, for
he was possessed of a very bad fault, in that he had what was called
a topknot ring, a bunch of soft silky hairs on his forehead, an
unfailing sign of a soft coat all over, and a thing which breeders
should studiously avoid. This topknot was at one time more prevalent
than it is now. Whether it is a coincidence or not one cannot say,
but it is a fact that in the writer's experience several terriers
possessed of this fault have also blue markings, which again are
almost invariably accompanied by a soft coat, and taking these two
peculiarities together it would seem that at some time, years ago,
a cross with that wonderfully game but exceedingly soft-coated
terrier, the Bedlington, may have been resorted to, though if so it
would appear that nowadays any effect of it is gradually dying out.

Mr. George Raper is one of the old fanciers who has for many years
owned some of the best specimens of the variety, Ch. Go Bang perhaps
being the most notable. Go Bang was a beautiful terrier; there was
no denying his quality. Mr. Raper sold him to Mr. G. M. Carnochan,
of New York, for something like P500, probably the biggest price that
has ever been paid for any Fox-terrier. Mr. Hayward Field is another
gentleman who has been exhibiting the breed for very many years, and
has owned several good terriers. The late Mr. Clear had also at one
time a strong kennel, the best of which by a long way was Ch. Jack
St. Leger.

Mr. Wharton was a well-known exhibitor and judge some time back. It
was he who owned that excellent little terrier Ch. Bushey Broom, who
created quite a furore when first exhibited at the Westminster
Aquarium.

Mr. Harding Cox was years ago a great supporter of the variety. He
exhibited with varying success, and was always much in request as
a judge; one knew in entering under him that he wanted firstly a
_terrier_, and further that the terrier had to be _sound_. Mr. Cox
has of course played a big part in the popularisation of the
Fox-terrier, for, as all the world knows, he was the instigator of
the Fox-terrier Club, it being founded at a meeting held at his house.
His love has ever been for the small terrier, and certainly the
specimens shown by him, whatever their individual faults, were
invariably a sporting, game-looking lot. Mr. Sidney Castle has for
many years shown wire-hair Fox-terriers of more than average merit;
and thoroughly understands the variety, indeed, perhaps as well as
anybody. Messrs. Bartle, Brumby Mutter, G. Welch, and S. Wilson, are
all old fanciers who have great experience, have bred and shown
excellent specimens.

In mentioning the names of celebrated men and terriers of years gone
by, reference must be made to a terrier shown some time ago, which
was as good, taken all round, as any that have so far appeared. This
was Ch. Quantock Nettle, afterwards purchased by a gentleman in Wales
and renamed Lexden Nettle. Of correct size, with marvellous character,
an excellent jacket and very takingly marked with badger tan and black
on a wonderful head and ears, this bitch swept the board, as they
say, and unquestionably rightly so.

No article on the wire-hair Fox-terrier would be complete without
mentioning the name of the late Mr. S. E. Shirley, President of the
Kennel Club. Mr. Shirley was a successful exhibitor in the early days
of the variety, and while his terriers were a good-looking lot, though
not up to the show form of to-day, they were invariably hard-bitten,
game dogs, kept chiefly for work.

On the question of size nearly all the principal judges of the
Fox-terrier are agreed. Their maxim is "a good little one can always
beat a good big one." The difficulty arises when the little ones are
no good, and the big ones are excellent; it is a somewhat common
occurrence, and to anyone who loves a truly formed dog, and who knows
what a truly formed dog can do, it is an extremely difficult thing
to put the little above the larger. All big dogs with properly placed
shoulders and sound formation are better terriers for work of any
sort than dogs half their size, short on the leg, but bad in these
points. It is in reality impossible to make an inexorable rule about
this question of size; each class must be judged on its own merits.



CHAPTER XXXIV

THE AIREDALE TERRIER


There is perhaps no breed of dog that in so short a time has been
improved so much as the Airedale. He is now a very beautiful animal,
whereas but a few years back, although maybe there were a few fairly
nice specimens, by far the greater number were certainly the reverse
of this.

In place of the shaggy, soft-coated, ugly-coloured brute with large
hound ears and big full eyes, we have now a very handsome creature,
possessing all the points that go to make a really first-class terrier
of taking colour, symmetrical build, full of character and "go," amply
justifying--in looks, at any rate--its existence as a terrier.

Whether it is common sense to call a dog weighing 40 lb. to 50 lb.
a terrier is a question that one often hears discussed. The fact
remains the dog is a terrier--a sort of glorified edition of what
we understand by the word, it is true, but in points, looks, and
character, a terrier nevertheless, and it is impossible otherwise
to classify him.

People will ask: "How can he be a terrier? Why he is an outrage on
the very word, which can only mean a dog to go to ground; and to what
animal in the country of his birth can an Airedale go to ground?"
Above ground and in water, however, an Airedale can, and does, perform
in a very excellent manner everything that any other terrier can do.
As a water dog he is, of course, in his element; for work on land
requiring a hard, strong, fast and resolute terrier he is, needless
to say, of great value; and he is said to be also, when trained--as
can easily be imagined when one considers his power of scent, his
strength, sagacity, and speed--a most excellent gun-dog. He is, in
fact, a general utility dog, for add to the above-mentioned qualities
those of probably an incomparable guard and a most excellent
companion, faithful and true, and ask yourself what do you want more,
and what breed of dog, taken all round, can beat him?

The Airedale is not of ancient origin. He was probably first heard
of about the year 1850. He is undoubtedly the product of the
Otterhound and the old Black and Tan wire-haired terrier referred
to in the chapters on the wire-hair Fox and the Welsh Terriers. When
one considers the magnificent nobleness, the great sagacity, courage,
and stateliness of the Otterhound, the great gameness, cheek, and
pertinacity of the old Black and Tan wire-hair, such a cross must
surely produce an animal of excellent type and character.

Yorkshire, more especially that part of it round and about the town
of Otley, is responsible for the birth of the Airedale. The
inhabitants of the country of broad acres are, and always have been,
exceedingly fond of any kind of sport--as, indeed, may also be said
of their brothers of the Red Rose--but if in connection with that
sport a dog has to be introduced, then indeed are they doubly blessed,
for they have no compeers at the game.

Otter-hunting was formerly much indulged in by the people living in
the dales of the Aire and the Wharfe, and not only were packs of
Otterhounds kept, but many sportsmen maintained on their own account
a few hounds for their personal delectation. These hounds were no
doubt in some instances a nondescript lot, as, indeed, are several
of the packs hunting the otter to-day, but there was unquestionably
a good deal of Otterhound blood in them, and some pure bred hounds
were also to be found. Yorkshire also has always been the great home
of the terrier. Fox-terriers, as we now know them, had at this time
hardly been seen. The terrier in existence then was the Black and
Tan wire-hair, a hardy game terrier, a great workman on land or in
water.

Whether by design or accident is not known, but the fact remains that
in or about the year mentioned a cross took place between these same
hounds and terriers. It was found that a handier dog was produced
for the business for which he was required, and it did not take many
years to populate the district with these terrier-hounds, which soon
came to be recognised as a distinct breed. The Waterside Terrier was
the name first vouchsafed to the new variety. After this they went
by the name of Bingley Terriers, and eventually they came to be known
under their present appellation.

The specimens of the Airedale which were first produced were not of
very handsome appearance, being what would now be called bad in
colour, very shaggy coated, and naturally big and ugly in ear. It,
of course, took some time to breed the hound out at all satisfactorily;
some authorities tell us that for this purpose the common fighting
pit Bull-terrier and also the Irish Terrier were used, the latter
to a considerable extent; and whether this is correct or not there
is no doubt that there would also be many crosses back again into
the small Black and Tan Terrier, primarily responsible for his
existence.

In about twenty years' time, the breed seems to have settled down
and become thoroughly recognised as a variety of the terrier. It was
not, however, for some ten years after this that classes were given
for the breed at any representative show. In 1883 the committee of
the National Show at Birmingham included three classes for Airedales
in their schedule, which were fairly well supported; and three years
after this recognition was given to the breed in the stud-book of
the ruling authority.

From this time on the breed prospered pretty well; several very good
terriers were bred, the hound gradually almost disappeared, as also
did to a great extent the bad-coloured ones. The best example amongst
the early shown dogs was undoubtedly Newbold Test, who had a long
and very successful career. This dog excelled in terrier character,
and he was sound all over; his advent was opportune--he was just the
dog that was wanted, and there is no doubt he did the breed a great
amount of good.

A dog called Colne Crack, who was a beautiful little terrier was
another of the early shown ones by whom the breed has lost nothing,
and two other terriers whose names are much revered by lovers of the
breed are Cholmondeley Briar and Briar Test.

Some years ago, when the breed was in the stage referred to above,
a club was formed to look after its interests, and there is no doubt
that though perhaps phenomenal success did not attend its efforts,
it did its best, and forms a valuable link in the chain of popularity
of the Airedale. It was at best apparently a sleepy sort of concern,
and never seems to have attracted new fanciers. Some dozen or so years
ago, however, a club, destined not only to make a great name for
itself, but also to do a thousandfold more good to the breed it
espouses than ever the old club did, was formed under the name of
the South of England Airedale Terrier Club, and a marvellously
successful and popular life it has so far lived. The younger club
was in no way an antagonist of the older one, and it has ever been
careful that it should not be looked upon in any way as such. The
old club has, however, been quite overshadowed by the younger, which,
whether it wishes it or not, is now looked upon as the leading society
in connection with the breed.

At a meeting of the first club--which went by the name of the Airedale
Terrier Club--held in Manchester some eighteen or twenty years ago,
the following standard of perfection and scale of points was drawn
up and adopted:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Long, with flat skull, but not too broad between the ears,
narrowing slightly to the eyes, free from wrinkle; stop hardly
visible, and cheeks free from fullness; jaw deep and powerful, well
filled up before the eyes; lips light; ears V-shaped with a side
carriage, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog;
the nose black; the eyes small and dark in colour, not prominent,
and full of terrier expression; the teeth strong and level. The neck
should be of moderate length and thickness, gradually widening towards
the shoulders and free from throatiness. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--Shoulders
long and sloping well into the back, shoulder-blades flat, chest deep,
but not broad. BODY--Back short, strong and straight; ribs well
sprung. HIND-QUARTERS--Strong and muscular, with no drop; hocks well
let down; the tail set on high and carried gaily, but not curled over
the back. LEGS AND FEET--Legs perfectly straight, with plenty of bone;
feet small and round with good depth of pad. COAT--Hard and wiry,
and not so long as to appear ragged; it should also be straight and
close, covering the dog well over the body and legs. COLOUR--The head
and ears, with the exception of dark markings on each side of the
skull, should be tan, the ears being a darker shade than the rest,
the legs up to the thigh and elbows being also tan, the body black
or dark grizzle. WEIGHT--Dogs 40 lb. to 45 lb., bitches slightly less.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the time of the formation of the Southern club the state of the
Airedale was critical; possessed of perhaps unequalled natural
advantages, lovely dog as he is, he had not made that progress that
he should have done. He had not been boomed in any way, and had been
crawling when he should have galloped. From the moment the new club
was formed, however, the Airedale had a new lease of life. Mr. Holland
Buckley and other keen enthusiasts seem to have recognised to a nicety
exactly what was required to give a necessary fillip to the breed;
they appear also to have founded their club at the right moment, and
to have offered such an attractive bill of fare, that not only did
everyone in the south who had anything to do with Airedales join at
once, but very shortly a host of new fanciers was enrolled, and crowds
of people began to take the breed up who had had nothing to do with
it, or, indeed, any other sort of dog previously.

Some few years after the foundation of this club, a junior branch
of it was started, and this, ably looked after by Mr. R. Lauder
McLaren, is almost as big a success in its way as is the parent
institution. Other clubs have been started in the north and elsewhere,
and altogether the Airedale is very well catered for in this respect,
and, if things go on as they are now going, is bound to prosper and
become even more extensively owned than he is at present. To Mr.
Holland Buckley, Mr. G. H. Elder, Mr. Royston Mills, and Mr. Marshall
Lee, the Airedale of the present day owes much.

The Airedales that have struck the writer as the best he has come
across are Master Briar, Clonmel Monarch, Clonmel Marvel, Dumbarton
Lass, Tone Masterpiece, Mistress Royal, Master Royal, Tone Chief,
Huckleberry Lass, Fielden Fashion, York Sceptre and Clonmel Floriform.
Nearly everyone of these is now, either in the flesh or spirit, in
the United States or Canada.

In all probability, the person who knows more about this terrier than
anyone living is Mr. Holland Buckley. He has written a most
entertaining book on the Airedale; he has founded the principal club
in connection with the breed; he has produced several very excellent
specimens, and it goes without saying that he is--when he can be
induced to "take the ring"--a first-rate judge. Mr. Buckley has
frequently told the writer that in his opinion one of the best
terriers he has seen was the aforesaid Clonmel Floriform, but, as
this dog was sold for a big price very early in his career, the writer
never saw him.

Most of the articles that have been written on the Airedale have come
from the pen of Mr. Buckley, and therefore but modest reference is
made to the man who has worked so whole-heartedly, so well, and so
successfully in the interests of the breed he loves. It would be
ungenerous and unfair in any article on the Airedale, written by
anyone but Mr. Buckley, if conspicuous reference were not made to
the great power this gentleman has been, and to the great good that
he has done.

The Airedale is such a beautiful specimen of the canine race, and
is, in reality, in such healthy state, that every one of his
admirers--and they are legion--is naturally jealous for his welfare,
and is wishful that all shall go well with him. It is gratifying to
state that he has never been the tool of faction, though at one time
he was doubtless near the brink; but this was some time ago, and it
would be a grievous pity if he ever again became in jeopardy of
feeling the baneful influence of any such curse.

There is one serious matter in connection with him, however, and that
is the laxity displayed by some judges of the breed in giving prizes
to dogs shown in a condition, with regard to their coats, which ought
to disentitle them to take a prize in any company. Shockingly
badly-trimmed shoulders are becoming quite a common thing to see in
Airedales. There is no necessity for this sort of thing; it is very
foolish, and it is impossible to imagine anything more likely to do
harm to a breed than that the idea should get abroad that this is
the general practice in connection with it.



CHAPTER XXXV

THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER


This gamest of all the terriers has been known as a distinct and
thoroughly British breed for over a century, which is, I think, a
fairly ancient lineage. There are various theories as to its original
parentage, but the one which holds that he was the result of a cross
between the Otterhound and the Dandie Dinmont suggests itself to me
as the most probable one. His characteristics strongly resemble in
many points both these breeds, and there can be but little doubt of
his near relationship at some time or other to the Dandie.

The earliest authentic record we have of the Bedlington was a dog
named Old Flint, who belonged to Squire Trevelyan, and was whelped
in 1782. The pedigree of Mr. William Clark's Scamp, a dog well known
about 1792, is traced back to Old Flint, and the descendants of Scamp
were traced in direct line from 1792 to 1873.

A mason named Joseph Aynsley has the credit for giving the name of
"Bedlington" to this terrier in 1825. It was previously known as the
Rothbury Terrier, or the Northern Counties Fox-terrier. Mr. Thomas
J. Pickett, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, was perhaps the earliest supporter
of the breed on a large scale, and his Tynedale and Tyneside in
especial have left their names in the history of the Bedlington.

The present day Bedlington, like a good many other terriers, has
become taller and heavier than the old day specimens. This no doubt
is due to breeding for show points. He is a lathy dog, but not shelly,
inclined to be flatsided, somewhat light in bone for his size, very
lively in character, and has plenty of courage. If anything, indeed,
his pluck is too insistent.

The standard of points as adopted by the National Bedlington Terrier
and The Yorkshire Bedlington Terrier Clubs is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

SKULL--Narrow, but deep and rounded; high at the occiput, and covered
with a nice silky tuft or topknot. MUZZLE--Long, tapering, sharp and
muscular, as little stop as possible between the eyes, so as to form
nearly a line from the nose-end along the joint of skull to the
occiput. The lips close fitting and without flew. EYES--Should be
small and well sunk in the head. The blues should have a dark eye,
the blues and tans ditto, with amber shades; livers and sandies, a
light brown eye. NOSE--Large, well angled; blues and blues and tans
should have black noses, livers and sandies flesh-coloured.
TEETH--Level or pincher-jawed. EARS--Moderately large, well formed,
flat to the cheek, thinly covered and tipped with fine silky hair.
They should be filbert shaped. LEGS--Of moderate length, not wide
apart, straight and square set, and with good-sized feet, which are
rather long. TAIL--Thick at the root, tapering to a point, slightly
feathered on lower side, 9 inches to 11 inches long and scimitar
shaped. NECK AND SHOULDERS--Neck long, deep at base, rising well from
the shoulders, which should be flat. BODY--Long and well-proportioned,
flat ribbed, and deep, not wide in chest, slightly arched back, well
ribbed up, with light quarters. COAT--Hard, with close bottom, and
not lying flat to sides. COLOUR--Dark blue, blue and tan, liver, liver
and tan, sandy, or sandy and tan. HEIGHT--About 15 inches to 16
inches. WEIGHT--Dogs about 24 pounds; bitches about 22 pounds. GENERAL
APPEARANCE--He is a light-made, lathy dog, but not shelly.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is a tendency nowadays towards excess of size in the Bedlington.
It is inclined to be too long in the body and too leggy, which, if
not checked, will spoil the type of the breed. It is, therefore, very
important that size should be more studied by judges than is at
present the case. The faults referred to are doubtless the result
of breeding for exceptionally long heads, which seem to be the craze
just now, and, of course, one cannot get extra long heads without
proportionately long bodies and large size. If it were possible to
do so, then the dog would become a mere caricature.

As a sporting terrier the Bedlington holds a position in the first
rank. He is very fast and enduring, and exceedingly pertinacious,
and is equally at home on land and in water. He will work an otter,
draw a badger, or bolt a fox, and he has no superior at killing rats
and all kinds of vermin. He has an exceptionally fine nose, and makes
a very useful dog for rough shooting, being easily taught to retrieve.
If he has any fault at all, it is that he is of too jealous a
disposition, which renders it almost impossible to work him with other
dogs, as he wants all the fun to himself, and if he cannot get it
he will fight for it. But by himself he is perfect. As a companion
he is peculiarly affectionate and faithful, and remarkably
intelligent; he makes a capital house-dog, is a good guard and is
very safe with children.

Bedlingtons are not dainty feeders, as most writers have asserted,
nor are they tender dogs. If they are kept in good condition and get
plenty of exercise they feed as well as any others, and are as hard
as nails if not pampered. They are easy to breed and rear, and the
bitches make excellent mothers. If trained when young they are very
obedient, and their tendency to fight can in a great measure be cured
when they are puppies; but, if not checked then, it cannot be done
afterwards. Once they take to fighting nothing will keep them from
it, and instead of being pleasurable companions they become positive
nuisances. On the other hand, if properly broken they give very little
trouble, and will not quarrel unless set upon.



CHAPTER XXXVI

THE IRISH TERRIER


The dare-devil Irish Terrier has most certainly made his home in our
bosom. There is no breed of dog more genuinely loved by those who
have sufficient experience and knowledge to make the comparison. Other
dogs have a larger share of innate wisdom, others are most
aesthetically beautiful, others more peaceable; but our rufous friend
has a way of winning into his owner's heart and making there an
abiding place which is all the more secure because it is gained by
sincere and undemonstrative devotion. Perhaps one likes him equally
for his faults as for his merits. His very failings are due to his
soldierly faithfulness and loyalty, to his too ardent vigilance in
guarding the threshold, to his officious belligerence towards other
canines who offend his sense of proprietorship in his master. His
particular stature may have some influence in his success as a chum.
He is just tall enough to rest his chin upon one's knee and look up
with all his soul into one's eyes. Whatever be the secret of his
attraction 'tis certain that he has the Hibernian art of compelling
affection and forgiveness, and that he makes one value him, not for
the beauty of his ruddy raiment, the straightness of his fore-legs,
the set of his eye and ear, the levelness of his back, or his ability
to win prizes, but rather for his true and trusty heart, that exacts
no return and seeks no recompense. He may be but an indifferent
specimen of his kind, taken in as a stranger at the gates; but when
at length the inevitable time arrives, as it does all too soon in
canine nature, one then discovers how surely one has been harbouring
an angel unawares.

Statistics would probably show that in numbers the Fox-terrier
justifies the reputation of being a more popular breed, and the
Scottish Terrier is no doubt a formidable competitor for public
esteem. It is safe, however, to say that the Irish Terrier shares
with these the distinction of being one of the three most popular
terriers in the British Isles.

This fact taken into consideration, it is interesting to reflect that
thirty years ago the "Dare-Devil" was virtually unknown in England.
Idstone, in his book on dogs, published in 1872 did not give a word
of mention to the breed, and dog shows had been instituted sixteen
years before a class was opened for the Irish Terrier. The dog
existed, of course, in its native land. It may indeed be almost
truthfully said to have existed "as long as that country has been
an island."

About the year 1875, experts were in dispute over the Irish Terrier,
and many averred that his rough coat and length of hair on forehead
and muzzle were indubitable proof of Scotch blood. His very
expression, they said, was Scotch. But the argument was quelled by
more knowing disputants on the other side, who claimed that Ireland
had never been without her terrier, and that she owed no manner of
indebtedness to Scotland for a dog whose every hair was essentially
Irish.

In the same year at a show held in Belfast a goodly number of the
breed were brought together, notable among them being Mr. D.
O'Connell's Slasher, a very good-looking wire-coated working terrier,
who is said to have excelled as a field and water dog. Slasher was
lint white in colour, and reputed to be descended from a pure white
strain. Two other terriers of the time were Mr. Morton's Fly (the
first Irish Terrier to gain a championship) and Mr. George Jamison's
Sport.

The prominent Irish Terriers of the 'seventies varied considerably
in type. Stinger, who won the first prize at Lisburn in 1875, was
long-backed and short-legged, with a "dark blue grizzle coloured back,
tan legs, and white turned-out feet." The dam of Mr. Burke's Killeney
Boy was a rough black and tan, a combination of colours which was
believed to accompany the best class of coats. Brindles were not
uncommon. Some were tall on the leg, some short; some were lanky and
others cobby; many were very small. There were classes given at a
Dublin show in 1874 for Irish Terriers under 9 lb. weight.

Jamison's Sport is an important dog historically, for various reasons.
He was undoubtedly more akin to our present type than any other Irish
Terrier of his time of which there is record. His dark ears were
uncropped at a period when cropping was general; his weight
approximated to our modern average. He was an all coloured red, and
his legs were of a length that would not now be seriously objected
to. But in his day he was not accepted as typical, and he was not
particularly successful in the show ring. The distinguished terrier
of his era was Burke's Killeney Boy, to whom, and to Mr. W. Graham's
bitch Erin, with whom he was mated, nearly all the pedigrees of the
best Irish Terriers of to-day date back. Erin was said to be superior
in all respects to any of her breed previous to 1880. In her first
litter by Killeney Boy were Play Boy, Pretty Lass, Poppy, Gerald,
Pagan II., and Peggy, every one of whom became famous. More than one
of these showed the black markings of their granddam, and their
progeny for several generations were apt to throw back to the
black-and-tan, grey, or brindle colouring. Play Boy and Poppy were
the best of Erin's first litter. The dog's beautiful ears, which were
left as Nature made them, were transmitted to his son Bogie Rattler,
who was sire of Bachelor and Benedict, the latter the most successful
stud dog of his time. Poppy had a rich red coat, and this colour
recurred with fair regularity in her descendants. Red, which had not
at first been greatly appreciated, came gradually to be the accepted
colour of an Irish Terrier's jacket. Occasionally it tended towards
flaxen; occasionally to a deep rich auburn; but the black and brindle
were so rigidly bred out that by the year 1890, or thereabout, they
very seldom recurred. Nowadays it is not often that any other colour
than red is seen in a litter of Irish Terriers, although a white patch
on the breast is frequent, as it is in all self-coloured breeds.

In addition to the early celebrities already named, Extreme
Carelessness, Michael, Brickbat, Poppy II., Moya Doolan, Straight
Tip, and Gaelic have taken their places in the records of the breed,
while yet more recent Irish Terriers who have achieved fame have been
Mrs. Butcher's Bawn Boy and Bawn Beauty, Mr. Wallace's Treasurer,
Mr. S. Wilson's Bolton Woods Mixer, Dr. Smyth's Sarah Kidd, and Mr.
C. J. Barnett's Breda Muddler.

Naturally in the case of a breed which has departed from its original
type, discussions were frequent before a standard of perfection for
the Irish Terrier was fixed. His size and weight, the length or
shortness of his limbs, the carriage of his tail, the form of his
skull and muzzle, the colour and texture of his coat were the subjects
of controversy. It was considered at one juncture that he was being
bred too big, and at another that he was being brought too much to
resemble a red wire-hair Fox-terrier. When once the black marking
on his body had been eliminated no one seems to have desired that
it should be restored. Red was acknowledged to be the one and only
colour for an Irish Terrier. But some held that the correct red should
be deep auburn, and others that wheaten colour was the tone to be
aimed at. A medium shade between the two extremes is now generally
preferred. As to size, it should be about midway between that of the
Airedale and the Fox-terrier, represented by a weight of from 22 to
27 lb.

The two breeds just mentioned are, as a rule, superior to the Irish
Terrier in front legs, and feet, but in the direction of these points
great improvements have recently been observable. The heads of our
Irish Terriers have also been brought nearer to a level of perfection,
chiselled to the desired degree of leanness, with the determined
expression so characteristic of the breed, and with the length,
squareness, and strength of muzzle which formerly were so difficult
to find. This squareness of head and jaw is an important point to
be considered when choosing an Irish Terrier.

Opinions differ in regard to slight details of this terrier's
conformation, but the official description, issued by the Irish
Terrier Club, supplies a guide upon which the uncertain novice may
implicitly depend:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Long; skull flat, and rather narrow between ears, getting
slightly narrower towards the eye; free from wrinkles; stop hardly
visible except in profile. The jaw must be strong and muscular, but
not too full in the cheek, and of a good punishing length. There
should be a slight falling away below the eye, so as not to have a
Greyhound appearance. Hair on face of same description as on body,
but short (about a quarter of an inch long), in appearance almost
smooth and straight; a slight beard is the only longish hair (and
it is only long in comparison with the rest) that is permissible,
and this is characteristic. TEETH--Should be strong and level.
LIPS--Not so tight as a Bull-terrier's, but well-fitting, showing
through the hair their black lining. NOSE--Must be black. EYES--A
dark hazel colour, small, not prominent, and full of life, fire, and
intelligence. EARS--Small and V-shaped, of moderate thickness, set
well on the head, and dropping forward closely to the cheek. The ear
must be free of fringe, and the hair thereon shorter and darker in
colour than the body. NECK--Should be of a fair length, and gradually
widening towards the shoulders, well carried, and free of throatiness.
There is generally a slight sort of frill visible at each side of
the neck, running nearly to the corner of the ear. SHOULDERS AND
CHEST--Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well into the back;
the chest deep and muscular, but neither full nor wide. BACK AND
LOIN--Body moderately long; back should be strong and straight, with
no appearance of slackness behind the shoulders; the loin broad and
powerful, and slightly arched; ribs fairly sprung, rather deep than
round, and well ribbed back. HIND-QUARTERS--Should be strong and
muscular, thighs powerful, hocks near ground, stifles moderately bent.
STERN--Generally docked; should be free of fringe or feather, but
well covered with rough hair, set on pretty high, carried gaily, but
not over the back or curled. FEET AND LEGS--Feet should be strong,
tolerably round, and moderately small; toes arched, and neither turned
out nor in; black toe nails most desirable. Legs moderately long,
well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, with plenty of bone
and muscle; the elbows working freely clear of the sides; pasterns
short and straight, hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should
be moved straight forward when travelling, the stifles not turned
outwards, the legs free of feather, and covered, like the head, with
as hard a texture of coat as body, but not so long. COAT--Hard and
wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not so long as to hide the
outlines of the body, particularly in the hind-quarters, straight
and flat, no shagginess, and free of lock or curl. COLOUR--Should
be "whole-coloured," the most preferable being bright red, red,
wheaten, or yellow red. White sometimes appears on chest and feet;
it is more objectionable on the latter than on the chest, as a speck
of white on chest is frequently to be seen in all self-coloured
breeds. SIZE AND SYMMETRY--The most desirable weight in show condition
is, for a dog 24 lb., and for a bitch 22 lb. The dog must present
an active, lively, lithe, and wiry appearance; lots of substance,
at the same time free of clumsiness, as speed and endurance, as well
as power, are very essential. They must be neither cloddy or cobby,
but should be framed on the lines of speed, showing a graceful racing
outline. TEMPERAMENT--Dogs that are very game are usually surly or
snappish. The Irish Terrier as a breed is an exception, being
remarkably good-tempered, notably so with mankind, it being admitted,
however, that he is perhaps a little too ready to resent interference
on the part of other dogs. There is a heedless, reckless pluck about
the Irish Terrier which is characteristic, and, coupled with the
headlong dash, blind to all consequences, with which he rushes at
his adversary, has earned for the breed the proud epithet of "The
Dare-Devils." When "off-duty" they are characterised by a quiet,
caress-inviting appearance, and when one sees them endearingly,
timidly pushing their heads into their masters' hands, it is difficult
to realise that on occasions, at the "set on," they can prove they
have the courage of a lion, and will fight unto the last breath in
their bodies. They develop an extraordinary devotion to and have been
known to track their masters almost incredible distances.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: MR. FRED W. BREAKELL'S IRISH TERRIER CH. KILLARNEY
SPORT]

It is difficult to refer to particular Irish Terriers of to-day
without making invidious distinctions. There are so many excellent
examples of the breed that a list even of those who have gained
championship honours would be formidable. But one would hardly
hesitate to head the list with the name of Paymaster, a dog of rare
and almost superlative quality and true Irish Terrier character.
Paymaster is the property of Miss Lilian Paull, of Weston-super-Mare,
who bred him from her beautiful bitch Erasmic, from Breda Muddler,
the sire of many of the best. Side by side with Paymaster, Mr. F.
Clifton's Mile End Barrister might be placed. It would need a council
of perfection, indeed, to decide which is the better dog of the two.
Very high in the list, also, would come Mr. Henry Ridley's Redeemer
and Mr. Breakell's Killarney Sport. And among bitches one would name
certainly Mr. Gregg's Belfast Erin, Mr. Clifton's Charwoman, Mr.
Everill's Erminie, and Mr. J. S. McComb's Beeston Betty. These are
but half a dozen, but they represent the highest level of excellence
that has yet been achieved by scientific breeding in Irish Terrier
type.

Breeding up to the standard of excellence necessary in competition
in dog shows has doubtless been the agent which has brought the Irish
Terrier to its present condition of perfection, and it is the means
by which the general dog owning public is most surely educated to
a practical knowledge of what is a desirable and what an undesirable
dog to possess. But, after all, success in the show ring is not the
one and only thing to be aimed at, and the Irish Terrier is not to
be regarded merely as the possible winner of prizes. He is above all
things a dog for man's companionship, and in this capacity he takes
a favoured place. He has the great advantage of being equally suitable
for town and country life. In the home he requires no pampering; he
has a good, hardy constitution, and when once he has got over the
ills incidental to puppyhood--worms and distemper--he needs only to
be judiciously fed, kept reasonably clean, and to have his fill of
active exercise. If he is taught to be obedient and of gentlemanly
habit, there is no better house dog. He is naturally intelligent and
easily trained. Although he is always ready to take his own part,
he is not quarrelsome, but remarkably good-tempered and a safe
associate of children. Perhaps with his boisterous spirits he is prone
sometimes to be over-zealous in the pursuit of trespassing tabbies
and in assailing the ankles of intruding butcher boys and officious
postmen. These characteristics come from his sense of duty, which is
strongly developed, and careful training will make him discriminative
in his assaults.

Very justly is he classed among the sporting dogs. He is a born
sportsman, and of his pluck it were superfluous to speak. Fear is
unknown to him. In this characteristic as in all others, he is truly
a son of Erin.



CHAPTER XXXVII

THE WELSH TERRIER


This breed is near akin to the wire-hair Fox-terrier, the principal
differences being merely of colour and type. The Welsh Terrier is
a wire-haired black or grizzle and tan. The most taking colouring
is a jet black body and back with deep tan head, ears, legs, belly,
and tail. Several specimens have, however, black foreheads, skulls,
ears, and tail, and the black will frequently be seen also extending
for a short way down the legs. There must be no black, however, below
the hock, and there must be no substantial amount of white anywhere;
a dog possessing either of these faults is, according to the recognised
standard of the breed, disqualified. Many of the most successful bench
winners have, nevertheless, been possessed of a little white on the
chest and even a few hairs of that colour on their hind toes, and,
apparently, by the common consent of all the judges of the breed,
they have been in nowise handicapped for these blemishes.

There are not so many grizzle coloured Welsh Terriers now as there
used to be. A grizzle and tan never looks so smart as a black and
tan; but though this is so, if the grizzle is of a dark hard colour,
its owner should not be handicapped as against a black and tan; if,
on the contrary, it is a washed-out, bluish-looking grizzle, a judge
is entitled to handicap its possessor, apart altogether from the fact
that any such colour on the back is invariably accompanied by an
objectionable light tan on the legs, the whole being a certain sign
of a soft, silky, unterrierlike coat.

The coat of the Welsh Terrier slightly differs from that of the
wire-hair Fox-terrier in that it is, as a rule, not so abundant, and
is, in reality, a different class of coat. It is not so broken as
is that of the Fox-terrier, and is generally a smoother, shorter coat,
with the hairs very close together. When accompanied with this there
is a dense undercoat, one has, for a terrier used to work a good deal
in water, an ideal covering, as waterproof almost as the feathers
on a duck's back. The other difference between the Fox and Welsh
Terrier--viz., type--is very hard to define. To anyone who really
understands Welsh Terriers, the selection of those of proper type
from those of wrong type presents little if any difficulty.

As a show-bench exhibit the Welsh Terrier is not more than twenty-two
years old. He has, however, resided in Wales for centuries.

There is no doubt that he is in reality identical with the old black
and tan wire-haired dog which was England's first terrier, and which
has taken such a prominent part in the production and evolution of
all the other varieties of the sporting terrier.

There are several people living in or about Carnarvonshire who can
show that Welsh Terriers have been kept by their ancestors from, at
any rate, a hundred to two hundred years ago. Notable among these
is the present master of the Ynysfor Otterhounds, whose great
grandfather, John Jones, of Ynysfor, owned Welsh Terriers in or about
the year 1760. This pack of Otterhounds has always been kept by the
Jones of Ynysfor, who have always worked and still work Welsh Terriers
with them. From this strain some good terriers have sprung, and this
although neither the present master nor any of his ancestors have
concerned themselves greatly about the looks of their terriers, or
kept anything but a head record of their pedigrees. They are all,
however, pure bred, and are set much store on by their owner and his
family, just as they always have been by their predecessors.

Until about the year 1884 no one seems to have considered the question
of putting specimens of the breed on the show bench. About that year,
however, several gentlemen interested in the variety met together
to see what could be done in connection with the matter, the outcome
being that the Welsh Terrier Club was shortly afterwards founded,
the Kennel Club recognised the breed, and the terrier himself began
his career as a show dog.

The specimens which were first shown were, as may be imagined, not
a very high-class-looking lot. Although the breed had been kept pure,
no care had been taken in the culture of it, except that which was
necessary to produce a sporting game terrier, able to do its work.
One can readily understand, therefore, that such an entirely "fancy"
point as a long foreface and narrow, clean skull had never been
thought of for a moment, and it was in these particulars that the
Welsh Terrier at first failed, from a show point of view. Naturally
enough, good shoulders, sound hind-quarters, more than fair legs and
feet, and excellent jackets were to be found in abundance, but as
the body was almost invariably surmounted by a very short and
wedge-shaped head and jaw, often accompanied with a pair of heavy,
round ears, an undershot mouth, and a light, full eye, it will be
realised that the general appearance of the dog was not prepossessing.

The Welsh Terrier to-day is very much improved beyond what he was
when first put on the bench. This improvement has been brought about
by careful and judicious breeding from nothing but pure bred specimens.
No outside aid has been invoked--at any rate in the production of
any of the best terriers--and none has been required. It is a matter
for great congratulation that the breed has been kept pure despite
all temptation and exhortation.

The Welsh Terrier breeds as true as steel; you know what you are going
to get. Had popular clamour had its way years ago, goodness only know
what monstrosities would now be being bred.

The colour of the Welsh Terrier is, of course, against him for working
with a pack of hounds, especially in water. It is only fair, however,
to the breed to say that, barring this colour drawback, there is no
better terrier to hounds living. They are not quarrelsome, show very
little jealousy one of another in working, can therefore easily be
used, exercised, and kennelled together, being much better in this
respect than any of the other breeds of terriers. They also, as a
general rule, are dead game; they want a bit of rousing, and are not
so flashily, showily game as, say, the Fox-terrier; but, just as with
humans, when it comes to _real_ business, when the talking game is
played out and there is nothing left but the _doing_ part of the
business, then one's experience invariably is that the quiet man,
the quiet terrier, is the animal wanted.

On the formation of the Welsh Terrier Club a standard of perfection
was drawn up and circulated with the club rules. This standard has
remained unchanged up to the present day, and is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--The skull should be flat and rather wider between the ears than
the wire-hair Fox-terrier. The jaw should be powerful, clean cut
rather deeper and more punishing--giving the head a more masculine
appearance--than that usually seen in a Fox-terrier. The stop not
too defined, fair length from stop to end of nose, the latter being
of a black colour. EARS--The ears should be V-shaped, small, not too
thin, set on fairly high, carried forward, and close to the cheek.
EYES--The eyes should be small, not being too deeply set in or
protruding out of skull, of a dark hazel colour, expressive and
indicating abundant pluck. NECK--The neck should be of moderate length
and thickness, slightly arched and sloping gracefully into the
shoulders. BODY--The back should be short and well ribbed up, the
loin strong, good depth, and moderate width of chest. The shoulders
should be long, sloping and well set back. The hind-quarters should
be strong, thighs muscular and of good length, with the hocks
moderately straight, well set down and fair amount of bone. The stern
should be set on moderately high, but not too gaily carried. LEGS
AND FEET--The legs should be straight and muscular, possessing fair
amount of bone with upright and powerful pasterns. The feet should
be small, round and catlike. COAT--The coat should be wiry, hard,
very close and abundant. COLOUR--The colour should be black and tan
or black grizzle and tan, free from black pencilling on toes.
SIZE--The height at shoulders should be 15 inches for dogs, bitches
proportionately less. Twenty pounds shall be considered a fair average
weight in working condition, but this may vary a pound or so either
way.

DISQUALIFYING POINTS: NOSE white, cherry, or spotted to a considerable
extent with either of these colours. EARS prick, tulip, or rose.
Undershot jaw or pig jawed mouth. Black below hocks or white anywhere
to any appreciable extent, black pencilling on toes.



CHAPTER XXXVIII

THE SCOTTISH TERRIER


The Scottish Terrier as a show dog dates from about 1877 to 1879. He
seems almost at once to have attained popularity, and he has
progressed gradually since then, ever in an upward direction, until he
is to-day one of the most popular and extensively owned varieties of
the dog. Sir Paynton Pigott had, at the date mentioned, a very fine
kennel of the breed, for in _The Live Stock Journal_ of May 30th,
1879, we find his kennel fully reviewed in a most enthusiastic manner
by a correspondent who visited it in consequence of a controversy that
was going on at the time, as to whether or not there was such a dog at
all, and who, therefore, wished to see and judge for himself as to
this point. At the end of his report on the kennel the writer adds
these words: "It was certainly one of the happiest days of my life to
have the pleasure of looking over so many grand little dogs, but to
find them in England quite staggered me. Four dogs and eight bitches
are not a bad beginning, and with care and judicious selection in
mating, I have little doubt but Mr. Pigott's kennel will be as
renowned for Terriers as the late Mr. Laverack's was for Setters. I
know but few that take such a delight in the brave little 'die-hards'
as Mr. Pigott, and he may well feel proud of the lot he has got
together at great trouble and expense."

[Illustration: MRS. SPENCER'S DANDIE DINMONT CH. BRAW LAD Photograph
by T. Fall]

[Illustration: A TYPICAL AIREDALE HEAD]

[Illustration: MR. W. L. McCANDLISH'S SCOTTISH TERRIER EMS COSMETIC]

The fact that there was such a kennel already in existence proved, of
course, a strong point in favour of the _bona fides_ of the breed. The
best dog in it was Granite, whose portrait and description were given
in the _Journal_ in connection with the said review; and the other
animals of the kennel being of the same type, it was at once recognised
that there was, in fact, such a breed, and the mouths of the doubters
were stopped.

Granite was unquestionably a typical Scottish Terrier, even as we know
them at the present day. He was certainly longer in the back than we
care for nowadays, and his head also was shorter, and his jaw more
snipy than is now seen, but his portrait clearly shows he was a
genuine Scottish Terrier, and there is no doubt that he, with his
kennel mates, Tartan, Crofter, Syringa, Cavack, and Posey, conferred
benefit upon the breed.

To dive deeper into the antiquity of the Scottish Terrier is a thing
which means that he who tries it must be prepared to meet all sorts of
abuse, ridicule, and criticism. One man will tell you there never was
any such thing as the present-day Scottish Terrier, that the mere fact
of his having prick ears shows he is a mongrel; another, that he is
merely an offshoot of the Skye or the Dandie; another, that the only
Scottish Terrier that is a Scottish Terrier is a white one; another,
that he is merely a manufactured article from Aberdeen, and so on _ad
infinitum_.

It is a most extraordinary fact that Scotland should have unto herself
so many different varieties of the terrier. There is strong presumption
that they one and all came originally from one variety, and it is
quite possible, nay probable, that different crosses into other
varieties have produced the assortment of to-day. The writer is
strongly of opinion that there still exist in Scotland at the present
time specimens of the breed which propagated the lot, which was what
is called even now the Highland Terrier, a little long-backed,
short-legged, snipy-faced, prick or drop-eared, mostly sandy and
black-coloured terrier, game as a pebble, lively as a cricket, and all
in all a most charming little companion; and further, that to produce
our present-day Scottish Terrier--or shall we say, to improve the
points of his progenitor?--the assistance of our old friend the Black
and Tan wire-haired terrier of England was sought by a few astute
people living probably not very far from Aberdeen.

Scottish Terriers frequently go by the name of Aberdeen Terriers--an
appellation, it is true, usually heard only from the lips of people
who do not know much about them. Mr. W. L. McCandlish, one of the
greatest living authorities on the breed, in an able treatise
published some time back, tells us, in reference to this matter, that
the terrier under notice went at different periods under the names of
Highland, Cairn, Aberdeen, and Scotch; that he is now known by the
proud title of Scottish Terrier; and that "the only surviving trace of
the differing nomenclature is the title Aberdeen, which many people
still regard as a different breed--a want of knowledge frequently
turned to account by the unscrupulous dealer who is able to sell under
the name of Aberdeen a dog too bad to dispose of as a Scottish
Terrier." But there can be no doubt that originally there must have
been _some_ reason for the name. In a letter to the writer, Sir
Paynton Pigott says, "Some people call them and advertise them as the
Aberdeen Terrier, which is altogether a mistake; but the reason of it
is that forty years ago a Dr. Van Bust, who lived in Aberdeen, bred
these terriers to a large extent and sold them, and those buying them
called them, in consequence, 'Aberdeen Terriers,' whereas they were in
reality merely a picked sort of Old Scotch or Highland Terrier." Sir
Paynton himself, as appears from the columns of _The Live Stock
Journal_ (March 2nd, 1877), bought some of the strain of Van Bust, and
therein gives a full description of the same.

Sir Paynton Pigott's kennel of the breed assumed quite large
proportions, and was most successful, several times winning all the
prizes offered in the variety at different shows. He may well be
called the Father of the breed in England, for when he gave up
exhibiting, a great deal of his best blood got into the kennels of
Mr. H. J. Ludlow, who, as everyone knows, has done such a tremendous
amount of good in popularising the breed and has also himself produced
such a galaxy of specimens of the very best class. Mr. Ludlow's first
terrier was a bitch called Splinter II. The name of Kildee is, in the
breed, almost world-famous, and it is interesting to note that in
every line does he go back to the said Splinter II. Rambler--called by
the great authorities the first pillar of the stud book--was a son of
a dog called Bon-Accord, and it is to this latter dog and Roger Rough,
and also the aforesaid Tartan and Splinter II. that nearly all of the
best present-day pedigrees go back. This being so, it is unnecessary
to give many more names of dogs who have in their generations of some
years back assisted in bringing the breed to its present state of
perfection. An exception, however, must be made in the case of two
sons of Rambler, by name Dundee and Alister, names very familiar in
the Scottish Terrier pedigrees of the present day. Alister especially
was quite an extraordinary stud dog. His progeny were legion, and some
very good terriers of to-day own him as progenitor in nearly every
line. The best descendants of Alister were Kildee, Tiree, Whinstone,
Prince Alexander, and Heather Prince. He was apparently too much
inbred to, and though he produced or was responsible for several
beautiful terriers, it is much to be doubted whether in a breed which
is suffering from the ill-effects of too much inbreeding, he was not
one of the greatest sinners.

The Scottish Terrier Club was formed in the year 1882. In the same
year a joint committee drew up a standard of perfection for the breed,
Messrs. J. B. Morison and Thomson Gray, two gentlemen who were looked
upon as great authorities, having a good deal to do with it.

       *       *       *       *       *

STANDARD OF POINTS OF THE SCOTTISH TERRIER: SKULL--Proportionately
long, slightly domed and covered with short hard hair about 3/4 inch
long or less. It should not be quite flat, as there should be a sort
of stop or drop between the eyes. MUZZLE--Very powerful, and gradually
tapering towards the nose, which should always be black and of a good
size. The jaws should be perfectly level, and the teeth square, though
the nose projects somewhat over the mouth which gives the impression
of the upper jaw being longer than the under one. EYES--A dark-brown
or hazel colour; small, piercing, very bright and rather sunken.
EARS--Very small, prick or half prick (the former is preferable), but
never drop. They should also be sharp pointed, and the hair on them
should not be long, but velvety, and they should not be cut. The ears
should be free from any fringe at the top. NECK--Short, thick and
muscular; strongly set on sloping shoulders. CHEST--Broad in comparison
to the size of the dog, and proportionately deep. BODY--Of moderate
length, but not so long as a Skye's, and rather flat-sided; well
ribbed up, and exceedingly strong in hind-quarters. LEGS AND FEET--Both
fore and hind legs should be short and very heavy in bone, the former
being straight and well set on under the body, as the Scottish Terrier
should not be out at elbows. The hocks should be bent, and the thighs
very muscular, and the feet strong, small and thickly covered with
short hair, the fore feet being larger than the hind ones. TAIL--Should
be about 7 inches long, never docked, carried with a slight bend and
often gaily. COAT--Should be rather short (about 2 inches), intensely
hard and wiry in texture, and very dense all over the body. SIZE--From
15 lb. to 20 lb.; the best weight being as near as possible 18 lb. for
dogs, and 16 lb. for bitches when in condition for work. COLOUR--Steel
or iron grey, black brindle, brown brindle, grey brindle, black, sandy
and wheaten. White markings are objectionable, and can only be allowed
on the chest and to a small extent. GENERAL APPEARANCE--The face
should wear a very sharp, bright and active expression, and the head
should be carried up. The dog (owing to the shortness of his coat)
should appear to be higher on the leg than he really is; but at the
same time he should look compact and possessed of great muscle in his
hind-quarters. In fact, a Scottish Terrier, though essentially a
terrier, cannot be too powerfully put together, and should be from
about 9 inches to 12 inches in height.

SPECIAL FAULTS: MUZZLE--Either under or over hung. EYES--Large or
light-coloured. EARS--Large, round at the points or drop. It is also a
fault if they are too heavily covered with hair. LEGS--Bent, or
slightly bent, and out at elbows. COAT--Any silkiness, wave or
tendency to curl is a serious blemish, as is also an open coat.
SIZE--Specimens of over 20 lb. should be discouraged.

       *       *       *       *       *

There have, of recent years, been many very excellent specimens of the
Scottish Terrier bred and exhibited. Preeminent among them stands Mrs.
Hannay's Ch. Heworth Rascal, who was a most symmetrical terrier, and
probably the nearest approach to perfection in the breed yet seen.
Other very first-class terriers have been the same lady's Ch. Gair,
Mr. Powlett's Ch. Callum Dhu, Mr. McCandlish's Ems Cosmetic, Mr.
Chapman's Heather Bob and Heather Charm, Mr. Kinnear's Seafield Rascal,
Mr. Wood's Hyndman Chief, Messrs. Buckley and Mills's Clonmel Invader,
and Mr. Deane Willis's Ch. Huntley Daisy and Ch. Carter Laddie.

It is highly probable that of all the terrier tribe, the "Scottie,"
taken as a whole, is the best companion. He makes a most excellent
house-dog, is not too big, does not leave white hairs about all over
the place, loves only his master and his master's household, and is,
withal, a capable and reliable guard. He is, as a rule, a game,
attractive terrier, with heaps of brain power, and from a show point
of view there is always some recompense in keeping him, as it will be
found he breeds true to type and does not beget offspring of all sorts,
shapes, and makes.



CHAPTER XXXIX

THE WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIER


Man, being a hunting animal, kills the otter for his skin, and the
badger also; the fox he kills because the animal likes lamb and game
to eat. Man, being unable to deal in the course of a morning with the
rocks under and between which his quarry harbours, makes use of the
small dog which will go underground, to which the French name terrier
has been attached.

Towards the end of the reign of James the First of England and Sixth
of Scotland, we find him writing to Edinburgh to have half a dozen
"earth dogges or terrieres" sent carefully to France as a present, and
he directs that they be got from Argyll, and sent over in two or more
ships lest they should get harm by the way. That was roughly three
hundred years ago, and the King most probably would not have so highly
valued a newly-invented strain as he evidently did value the
"terrieres" from Argyll. We may take it then that in 1600 the
Argyllshire terriers were considered to be the best in Scotland, and
likely enough too, seeing the almost boundless opportunities the
county gives for the work of the "earth dogges."

But men kept their dogs in the evil pre-show days for work and not for
points, and mighty indifferent were they whether an ear cocked up or
lay flat to the cheek, whether the tail was exactly of fancy length,
or how high to a hair's breadth it stood. These things are _sine qua
non_ on the modern show bench, but were not thought of in the cruel,
hard fighting days of old.

In those days two things--and two things only--were imperatively
necessary: pluck and capacity to get at the quarry. This entailed that
the body in which the pluck was enshrined must be small and most
active, to get at the innermost recesses of the lair, and that the
body must be protected by the best possible teeth and jaws for
fighting, on a strong and rather long neck and directed by a most
capable brain. It is held that feet turned out a little are better for
scrambling up rocks than perfectly straight Fox-terrier like feet. In
addition, it was useful to have your dog of a colour easy to see when
in motion, though no great weight was laid upon that point, as in the
days before newspapers and trains men's eyes were good, as a rule.
Still, the quantity of white in the existing terriers all through the
west coast of Scotland shows that it must have been rather a favoured
colour.

White West Highland Terriers were kept at Poltalloch sixty years ago,
and so they were first shown as Poltalloch Terriers. Yet although they
were kept in their purest strain in Argyllshire, they are still to be
found all along the west coast of Scotland, good specimens belonging
to Ross-shire, to Skye, and at Ballachulish on Loch Leven, so that it
is a breed with a long pedigree and not an invented breed of the
present day. Emphatically, they are not simply white coloured Scottish
Terriers, and it is an error to judge them on Scottish Terrier lines.
They are smaller than the average Scottie, more "foxy" in general
conformation--straight limbed, rather long, rather low, and active in
body, with a broad forehead, light muzzle and underjaw, and a bright,
small intelligent eye. Colonel Malcolm, of Poltalloch, who is
recognised as the great authority on the breed, lays stress upon the
quality of the coat. "The outer coat," he says, "should be very soft
on the forehead and get gradually harder towards the haunches, but the
harsh coat beloved of the show bench is all nonsense, and is the
easiest thing in the world to 'fake,' as anyone can try who will dip
his own hair into the now fashionable 'anturic' baths. The outer coat
should be distinctly _long_, but not long in the 'fancy' or show
sense. Still, it should be long enough to hang as a thatch over the
soft, woolly real coat of the animal and keep it dry so that a good
shake or two will throw off most of the water; while the under coat
should be so thick and naturally oily that the dog can swim through a
fair-sized river and not get wet, or be able to sit out through a
drenching rain guarding something of his master's and be none the
worse. This under coat I, at least, have never seen a judge look for,
but for the working terrier it is most important. The size of the dog
is perhaps best indicated by weight. The dog should not weigh more
than 18 lb., nor the bitch more than 16 lb.

"There is among judges, I find--with all respect I say it--an undue
regard for weight and what is called strength, also for grooming,
which means brushing or plucking out all the long hair to gratify the
judge. One might as well judge of Sandow's strength, not by his
performances, but by the kind of wax he puts on his moustache!

"The West Highland Terrier of the old sort--I do not, of course, speak
of bench dogs--earned their living following fox, badger, or otter
wherever these went underground, between, over, or under rocks that no
man could get at to move, and some of such size that a hundred men
could not move them. (And oh! the beauty of their note when they came
across the right scent!) I want my readers to understand this, and not
to think of a Highland fox-cairn as if it were an English fox-earth
dug in sand; nor of badger work as if it were a question of locating
the badger and then digging him out. No; the badger makes his home
amongst rocks, the small ones perhaps two or three tons in weight, and
probably he has his 'hinner end' against one of three or four hundred
tons--no digging him out--and, moreover, the passages between the
rocks must be taken as they are; no scratching them a little wider. So
if your dog's ribs are a trifle too big he may crush one or two
through the narrow slit and then stick. He will never be able to pull
himself back--at least, until starvation has so reduced him that he
will probably be unable, if set free, to win (as we say in Scotland)
his way back to the open.

"I remember a tale of one of my father's terriers who got so lost. The
keepers went daily to the cairn hoping against hope. At last one day a
pair of bright eyes were seen at the bottom of a hole. They did not
disappear when the dog's name was called. A brilliant idea seized one
of the keepers. The dog evidently could not get up, so a rabbit skin
was folded into a small parcel round a stone and let down by a string.
The dog at once seized the situation--and the skin--held on, was drawn
up, and fainted on reaching the mouth of the hole. He was carried home
tenderly and nursed; he recovered."

Referring to the characteristics of this terrier, Colonel Malcolm
continues:--"Attention to breeding as to colour has undoubtedly
increased the whiteness, but, other points being good, a dog of the
West Highland White Terrier breed is not to be rejected if he shows
his descent by a slight degree of pale red or yellow on his back or
his ears. I know an old Argyllshire family who consider that to
improve their terriers they ought all to have browny yellow ears.
Neither again, except for the show bench, is there the slightest
objection to half drop ears--_i.e._, the points of one or both ears
just falling over.

"Unfortunately, the show bench has a great tendency to spoil all
breeds from too much attention being given to what is evident--and
ears are grand things for judges to pin their faith to; also, they
greatly admire a fine long face and what is called--but wrongly
called--a strong jaw, meaning by that an ugly, heavy face. I have
often pointed out that the tiger, the cat, the otter, all animals
remarkable for their strength of jaw, have exceedingly short faces,
but their bite is cruelly hard. And what, again, could be daintier
than the face of a fox?

"The terrier of the West Highlands of Scotland has come down to the
present day, built on what I may perhaps call the fox lines, and it is
a type evolved by work--hard and deadly dangerous work. It is only of
late years that dogs have been bred for show. The so-called 'Scottish'
Terrier, which at present rules the roost, dates from 1879 as a show
dog.

"I therefore earnestly hope that no fancy will arise about these dogs
which will make them less hardy, less wise, less companionable, less
active, or less desperate fighters underground than they are at
present. A young dog that I gave to a keeper got its stomach torn open
in a fight. It came out of the cairn to its master to be helped. He
put the entrails back to the best of his ability, and then the dog
slipped out of his hands to finish the fight, and forced the fox out
into the open! That is the spirit of the breed; but, alas, that cannot
be exhibited on the show bench. They do say that a keeper of mine,
when chaffed by the 'fancy' about the baby faces of his 'lot,' was
driven to ask, 'Well, can any of you gentlemen oblige me with a cat,
and I'll show you?' I did not hear him say it, so it may only be a
tale.

"Anyhow, I have in my kennel a dog who, at ten months old, met a vixen
fox as she was bolting out of her cairn, and he at once caught her by
the throat, stuck to her till the pack came up, and then on till she
was killed. In the course of one month his wounds were healed, and he
had two other classical fights, one with a cat and the other with a
dog fox. Not bad for a pup with a 'baby face?'

"I trust my readers understand that the West Highland White Terriers
are not White Aberdeens, not a new invention, but have a most
respectable ancestry of their own. I add the formal list of points,
but this is the work of show bench experts--and it will be seen from
what I have written that I do not agree with them on certain
particulars. There should be feather to a fair degree on the tail, but
if experts will not allow it, put rosin on your hands and pull the
hair out--and the rosin will win your prize. The eye should not be
sunk, which gives the sulky look of the 'Scotch' Terrier, but should
be full and bright, and the expression friendly and confiding. The
skull should not be narrow anywhere. It is almost impossible to get
black nails in a dog of pure breed and the black soon wears off the
pad work, so folk must understand this. On two occasions recently I
have shown dogs, acknowledged, as dogs, to be quite first class, 'but,
you see, they are not the proper type.' The judges unfortunately have
as yet their eyes filled with the 'Scottish' terrier type and prefer
mongrels that show it to the real 'Simon Pure.'"

       *       *       *       *       *

STANDARD OF POINTS: The GENERAL APPEARANCE of the West Highland White
Terrier is that of a small, game, hardy-looking terrier, possessed
with no small amount of self-esteem, with a "varminty" appearance,
strongly built, deep in chest and back ribs, straight back and
powerful quarters, on muscular legs and exhibiting in a marked degree
a great combination of strength and activity. COLOUR--White. COAT--Very
important, and seldom seen to perfection; must be double-coated. The
outer coat consists of hard hair, about 2-1/2 inches long, and free
from any curl. The under coat, which resembles fur, is short, soft,
and close. Open coats are objectionable. SIZE--Dogs to weigh from 14
to 18 lb., and bitches from 12 to 16 lb., and measure from 8 to 12
inches at the shoulder. SKULL--Should not be too narrow, being in
proportion to his powerful jaw, proportionately long, slightly domed,
and gradually tapering to the eyes, between which there should be a
slight indentation or stop. Eyebrows heavy. The hair on the skull to
be from 3/4 to 1 inch long, and fairly hard. EYES--Widely set apart,
medium in size, dark hazel in colour, slightly sunk in the head, sharp
and intelligent, which, looking from under the heavy eyebrows, give a
piercing look. Full eyes, and also light-coloured eyes, are very
objectionable. MUZZLE--Should be powerful, proportionate in length,
and should gradually taper towards the nose, which should be fairly
wide, and should not project forward beyond the upper jaw. The jaws
level and powerful, and teeth square or evenly met, well set, and
large for the size of the dog. The nose and roof of mouth should be
distinctly black in colour. EARS--Small, carried erect or semi-erect,
but never drop, and should be carried tightly up. The semi-erect ear
should drop nicely over at the tips, the break being about
three-quarters up the ear, and both forms of ears should terminate in
a sharp point. The hair on them should be short, smooth (velvety), and
they should not be cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at the
top. Round, pointed, broad and large ears are very objectionable, also
ears too heavily covered with hair. NECK--Muscular, and nicely set on
sloping shoulders. CHEST--Very deep, with breadth in proportion to the
size of the dog. BODY--Compact, straight back, ribs deep and well
arched in the upper half of rib, presenting a flattish side appearance.
Loins broad and strong. Hind-quarters strong, muscular, and wide
across the top. LEGS AND FEET--Both fore and hind legs should be short
and muscular. The shoulder blades should be comparatively broad, and
well-sloped backwards. The points of the shoulder blades should be
closely knit into the backbone, so that very little movement of them
should be noticeable when the dog is walking. The elbow should be
close in to the body both when moving or standing, thus causing the
fore-leg to be well placed in under the shoulder. The fore-legs should
be straight and thickly covered with short hard hair. The hind-legs
should be short and sinewy. The thighs very muscular and not too wide
apart. The hocks bent and well set in under the body, so as to be
fairly close to each other either when standing, walking, or running
(trotting); and, when standing, the hind-legs, from the point of the
hock down to fetlock joint, should be straight or perpendicular and
not far apart. The fore-feet are larger than the hind ones, are round,
proportionate in size, strong, thickly padded, and covered with short
hard hair. The foot must point straight forward. The hind-feet are
smaller, not quite as round as fore-feet, and thickly padded. The
under surface of the pads of feet and all the nails should be
distinctly black in colour. Hocks too much bent (cow hocks) detract
from the general appearance. Straight hocks are weak. Both kinds are
undesirable, and should be guarded against. TAIL--Six or seven inches
long, covered with hard hairs, no feathers, as straight as possible;
carried gaily, but not curled over back. A long tail is objectionable.
MOVEMENT--Should be free, straight, and easy all round. In front, the
leg should be freely extended forward by the shoulder. The hind
movement should be free, strong, and close. The hocks should be freely
flexed and drawn close in under the body, so that, when moving off the
foot, the body is thrown or pushed forward with some force. Stiff,
stilty movement behind is very objectionable.

FAULTS: COAT--Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a serious
blemish, as is also an open coat. Black or grey hairs disqualify for
competition. SIZE--Any specimens under the minimum, or above the
maximum weight, are objectionable. EYES--Full or light coloured.
EARS--Round-pointed, drop, broad and large, or too heavily covered
with hair. MUZZLE--Either under or over shot, and defective teeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: COL. MALCOLM'S WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIERS SONNY AND
SARAH]

[Illustration: MISS E. McCHEANE'S SKYE TERRIERS CH. FAIRFIELD DIAMOND
AND CH. WOLVERLEY CHUMMIE Photograph by T. Fall]



CHAPTER XL

THE DANDIE DINMONT


The breed of terrier now known as the Dandie Dinmont is one of the
races of the dog which can boast of a fairly ancient lineage. Though
it is impossible now to say what was the exact origin of this breed,
we know that it was first recognised under its present name after the
publication of Scott's _Guy Mannering_, in the year 1814, and we know
that for many years previously there had existed in the Border
counties a rough-haired, short-legged race of terrier, the constant
and very effective companion of the Border farmers and others in their
fox-hunting expeditions.

Various theories have been suggested by different writers as to the
manner in which the breed was founded. Some say that the Dandie is the
result of crossing a strain of rough-haired terriers with the
Dachshund; others that a rough-haired terrier was crossed with the
Otterhound; and others again assert that no direct cross was ever
introduced to found the breed, but that it was gradually evolved from
the rough-haired terriers of the Border district. And this latter
theory is probably correct.

The Dandie would appear to be closely related to the Bedlington
Terrier. In both breeds we find the same indomitable pluck, the same
pendulous ear, and a light silky "topknot" adorning the skull of each;
but the Dandie was evolved into a long-bodied, short-legged dog, and
the Bedlington became a long-legged, short-bodied dog! Indeed to
illustrate the close relationship of the two breeds a case is quoted
of the late Lord Antrim, who, in the early days of dog shows,
exhibited two animals from the same litter, and with the one obtained
a prize or honourable mention in the Dandie classes, and with the
other a like distinction in the Bedlington classes.

It may be interesting to give a few particulars concerning the
traceable ancestors of the modern Dandie. In Mr. Charles Cook's book
on this breed, we are given particulars of one William Allan, of
Holystone, born in 1704, and known as Piper Allan, and celebrated as a
hunter of otters and foxes, and for his strain of rough-haired terriers
who so ably assisted him in the chase. William Allan's terriers
descended to his son James, also known as the "Piper," and born in the
year 1734. James Allan died in 1810, and was survived by a son who
sold to Mr. Francis Somner at Yetholm a terrier dog named Old Pepper,
descended from his grandfather's famous dog Hitchem. Old Pepper was
the great-grandsire of Mr. Somner's well-known dog Shem. These
terriers belonging to the Allans and others in the district are
considered by Mr. Cook to be the earliest known ancestors of the
modern Dandie Dinmont.

Sir Walter Scott himself informs us that he did not draw the character
of Dandie Dinmont from any one individual in particular, but that the
character would well fit a dozen or more of the Lidderdale yeomen of
his acquaintance. However, owing to the circumstance of his calling
all his terriers Mustard and Pepper, without any other distinction
except "auld" and "young" and "little," the name came to be fixed by
his associates upon one James Davidson, of Hindlee, a wild farm in the
Teviotdale mountains.

James Davidson died in the year 1820, by which time the Dandie Dinmont
Terrier was being bred in considerable numbers by the Border farmers
and others to meet the demand for it which had sprung up since the
appearance of _Guy Mannering_.

As a result of the controversies that were continually recurring with
regard to the points of a typical Dandie Dinmont there was formed in
the year 1876 the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, with the object of
settling the question for ever, and for this purpose all the most
noted breeders and others interested were invited to give their views
upon it.

The standard of points adopted by the club is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Strongly made and large, not out of proportion to the dog's
size; the muscles showing extraordinary development, more especially
the maxillary. SKULL--Broad between the ears, getting gradually less
towards the eyes, and measuring about the same from the inner corner
of the eyes to back of skull as it does from ear to ear. The forehead
well domed. The head is covered with very soft silky hair, which
should not be confined to a mere topknot, and the lighter in colour
and silkier it is the better. The cheeks, starting from the ears
proportionately with the skull, have a gradual taper towards the
muzzle, which is deep and strongly made, and measures about three
inches in length, or in proportion to skull as three is to five. The
muzzle is covered with hair of a little darker shade than the topknot,
and of the same texture as the feather of the fore-legs. The top of
the muzzle is generally bare for about an inch from the black part of
the nose, the bareness coming to a point towards the eye, and being
about one inch broad at the nose. The nose and inside of mouth black
or dark coloured. The teeth very strong, especially the canine, which
are of extraordinary size for such a small dog. The canines fit well
into each other, so as to give the greatest available holding and
punishing power, and the teeth are level in front, the upper ones very
slightly overlapping the under ones. (Many of the finest specimens
have a "swine mouth," which is very objectionable, but it is not so
great an objection as the protrusion of the under jaw.) EYES--Set wide
apart, large, full, round, bright, expressive of great determination,
intelligence and dignity; set low and prominent in front of the head;
colour a rich dark hazel. EARS--Pendulous, set well back, wide apart
and low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a very slight
projection at the base, broad at the junction of the head and tapering
almost to a point, the fore part of the ear tapering very little, the
tapering being mostly on the back part, the fore part of the ear
coming almost straight down from its junction with the head to the
tip. They should harmonise in colour with the body colour. In the case
of a pepper dog they are covered with a soft, straight, brownish hair
(in some cases almost black). In the case of a mustard dog the hair
should be mustard in colour, a shade darker than the body, but not
black. All should have a thin feather of light hair starting about two
inches from the tip, and of nearly the same colour and texture as the
topknot, which gives the ear the appearance of a distinct point. The
animal is often one or two years old before the feather is shown. The
cartilage and skin of the ear should not be thick, but rather thin.
Length of ear, from three to four inches. NECK--Very muscular, well
developed, and strong; showing great power of resistance, being well
set into the shoulders. BODY--Long, strong, and flexible; ribs well
sprung and round, chest well developed and let well down between the
fore-legs; the back rather low at the shoulder, having a slight
downward curve and a corresponding arch over the loins, with a very
slight gradual drop from top of loins to root of tail; both sides of
backbone well supplied with muscle. TAIL--Rather short, say from eight
inches to ten inches, and covered on the upper side with wiry hair of
darker colour than that of the body, the hair on the under side being
lighter in colour, and not so wiry, with a nice feather, about two
inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip; rather thick at the
root, getting thicker for about four inches, then tapering off to a
point. It should not be twisted or curled in any way, but should come
up with a curve like a scimitar, the tip, when excited, being in a
perpendicular line with the root of the tail. It should neither be set
on too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried gaily, and a
little above the level of the body. LEGS--The fore-legs short, with
immense muscular development and bone, set wide apart, the chest
coming well down between them. The feet well formed, and _not flat_,
with very strong brown or dark-coloured claws. Bandy legs and flat
feet are objectionable. The hair on the fore-legs and feet of a pepper
dog should be tan, varying according to the body colour from a rich
tan to a pale fawn; of a mustard dog they are of a darker shade than
its head, which is a creamy white. In both colours there is a nice
feather, about two inches long, rather lighter in colour than the hair
on the fore-part of the leg. The hind-legs are a little longer than
the fore ones, and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an
unnatural manner, while the feet are much smaller, the thighs are well
developed, and the hair of the same colour and texture as the fore
ones, but having no feather or dew claws; the whole claws should be
dark; but the claws of all vary in shade according to the colour of
the dog's body. COAT--This is a very important point; the hair should
be about two inches long; that from skull to root of tail a mixture of
hardish and soft hair, which gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand.
The hair should not be wiry; the coat is termed pily or pencilled. The
hair on the under part of the body is lighter in colour and softer
than that on the top. The skin on the belly accords with the colour of
dog. COLOUR--The colour is pepper or mustard. The pepper ranges from a
dark bluish black to a light silver grey, the intermediate shades
being preferred, the body colour coming well down the shoulder and
hips, gradually merging into the leg colour. The mustards vary from a
reddish brown to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs
and feet of a shade darker than the head. The claws are dark as in
other colours. (Nearly all Dandie Dinmonts have some white on the
chest, and some have also white claws.) SIZE--The height should be
from 8 to 11 inches at the top of shoulder. Length from top of
shoulder to root of tail should not be more than twice the dog's
height, but, preferably, one or two inches less. WEIGHT--From 14 lb.
to 24 lb. the best weight as near 18 lb. as possible. These weights
are for dogs in good working order.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the above standard of points we have a very full and detailed
account of what a Dandie should be like, and if only judges at shows
would bear them in mind a little more, we should have fewer
conflicting decisions given, and Dandie fanciers and the public
generally would not from time to time be set wondering as to what is
the correct type of the breed.

A Dandie makes an excellent house guard; for such a small dog he has
an amazingly deep, loud bark, so that the stranger, who has heard him
barking on the far side of the door, is quite astonished when he sees
the small owner of the big voice. When kept as a companion he becomes
a most devoted and affectionate little friend, and is very intelligent.
As a dog to be kept in kennels there is certainly one great drawback
where large kennels are desired, and that is the risk of keeping two
or more dogs in one kennel; sooner or later there is sure to be a
fight, and when Dandies fight it is generally a very serious matter;
if no one is present to separate them, one or both of the combatants
is pretty certain to be killed. But when out walking the Dandie is no
more quarrelsome than other breeds of terriers, if properly trained
from puppyhood.

There is one little matter in breeding Dandies that is generally a
surprise to the novice, and that is the very great difference in the
appearance of the young pups and the adult dog. The pups are born
quite smooth-haired, the peppers are black and tan in colour, and the
mustards have a great deal of black in their colouring. The topknot
begins to appear sometimes when the dog is a few months old, and
sometimes not till he is a year or so old. It is generally best to
mate a mustard to a pepper, to prevent the mustards becoming too light
in colour, though two rich-coloured mustards may be mated together
with good results. It is a rather curious fact that when two mustards
are mated some of the progeny are usually pepper in colour, though
when two peppers are mated there are very seldom any mustard puppies.

The popularity of the Dandie has now lasted for nearly a hundred
years, and there is no reason why it should not last for another
century, if breeders will only steer clear of the exaggeration of
show points, and continue to breed a sound, active, and hardy terrier.



CHAPTER XLI

THE SKYE, AND CLYDESDALE TERRIERS


That the Skye Terrier should be called "the Heavenly Breed" is a
tribute to the favour in which he is held by his admirers. Certainly
when he is seen in perfection he is an exceedingly beautiful dog. As
certainly there is no breed more affectionate, more faithful, or more
lovable. Among his characteristics are a long-enduring patience, a
prompt obedience, and a deep-hearted tenderness, combined with
fearless courage. He is more sensitive to rebuke and punishment than
most dogs, and will nurse resentment to those who are unjust to him;
not viciously, but with an almost human plaintiveness which demands an
immediate reconciliation. He is staunch and firm as his native hills
to those who are kind to him, and for entering into battle with an
enemy there is no dog more recklessly daring and resolute.

Visitors to dog shows are disposed to believe that the Skye Terrier,
with its well-groomed coat that falls in smooth cascades down its
sides, and its veil of thick hair that obscures the tender softness of
its dark and thoughtful eyes, is meant only to look beautiful upon the
bench or to recline in comfortable indolence on silken cushions. This
is a mistake. See a team of Skyes racing up a hillside after a
fugitive rabbit, tirelessly burrowing after a rat, or displaying their
terrier strategy around a fox's earth or an otter's holt, and you will
admit that they are meant for sport, and are demons at it. Even their
peculiarity of build is a proof that they are born to follow vermin
underground. They are long of body, with short, strong legs, adapted
for burrowing. With the Dachshund they approximate more closely than
any other breeds to the shape of the badger, the weasel, and the
otter, and so many animals which Nature has made long and low in order
that they may inhabit earths and insinuate themselves into narrow
passages in the moorland cairns.

There can be no question that these dogs, which are so typically
Highland in character and appearance, as well as the Clydesdale, the
Scottish, the Dandie Dinmont, and the White Poltalloch terriers, are
all the descendants of a purely native Scottish original. They are all
inter-related; but which was the parent breed it is impossible to
determine.

It is even difficult to discover which of the two distinct types of
the Skye Terrier was the earlier--the variety whose ears stand alertly
erect or its near relative whose ears are pendulous. Perhaps it does
not matter. The differences between the prick-eared Skye and the
drop-eared are so slight, and the characteristics which they have in
common are so many, that a dual classification was hardly necessary.
The earliest descriptions and engravings of the breed present a
terrier considerably smaller than the type of to-day, carrying a
fairly profuse, hard coat, with short legs, a body long in proportion
to its height, and with ears that were neither erect nor drooping, but
semi-erect and capable of being raised to alertness in excitement. It
is the case that drop-eared puppies often occur in the litters of
prick-eared parents, and _vice versa_.

As its name implies, this terrier had its early home in the misty
island of Skye; which is not to say that it was not also to be found
in Lewis, Oronsay, Colonsay and others of the Hebrides, as well as on
the mainland of Scotland. Dr. Johnson, who visited these islands with
Boswell in 1773, noticed these terriers and observed that otters and
weasels were plentiful in Skye, that the foxes were numerous, and that
they were _hunted by small dogs_. He was so accurate an observer that
one regrets he did not describe the Macleod's terriers and their work.
They were at that time of many colours, varying from pure white to
fawn and brown, blue-grey and black. The lighter coloured ones had
black muzzles, ears, and tails. Their tails were carried more gaily
than would be permitted by a modern judge of the breed.

In those days the Highlander cared less for the appearance than he did
for the sporting proclivities of his dogs, whose business it was to
oust the tod from the earth in which it had taken refuge; and for this
purpose certain qualities were imperative. First and foremost the
terrier needed to be small, short of leg, long and lithe in body, with
ample face fringe to protect his eyes from injury, and possessed of
unlimited pluck and dash.

The Skye Terrier of to-day does not answer to each and every one of
these requirements. He is too big--decidedly he is too big--especially
in regard to the head. A noble-looking skull, with large,
well-feathered ears may be admirable as ornament, but would assuredly
debar its possessor from following into a fox's lair among the
boulders. Then, again, his long coat would militate against the
activity necessary for his legitimate calling.

It was not until about 1860 that the Skye Terrier attracted much
notice among dog lovers south of the Border, but Queen Victoria's
admiration of the breed, of which from 1842 onwards she always owned
favourite specimens, and Sir Edwin Landseer's paintings in which the
Skye was introduced, had already drawn public attention to the
decorative and useful qualities of this terrier. The breed was
included in the first volume of the Kennel Club Stud Book, and the
best among the early dogs were such as Mr. Pratt's Gillie and
Dunvegan, Mr. D. W. Fyfe's Novelty, Mr. John Bowman's Dandie, and Mr.
Macdona's Rook. These were mostly of the drop-eared variety, and were
bred small.

About the year 1874, fierce and stormy disputes arose concerning the
distinctions of the Scottish breeds of terriers. The controversy was
continued until 1879, when the Kennel Club was approached with the
view to furnishing classes. The controversy was centred upon three
types of Scottish terriers: those which claimed to be pure Skye
Terriers, a dog described briefly as Scotch, and a third, which for a
time was miscalled the Aberdeen. To those who had studied the
varieties, the distinctions were clear; but the question at issue
was--to which of the three rightly belonged the title of Scottish
Terrier? The dog which the Scots enthusiasts were trying to get
established under this classification was the Cairn Terrier of the
Highlands, known in some localities as the short-coated, working Skye,
and in others as the Fox-terrier, or Tod-hunter. A sub-division of
this breed was the more leggy "Aberdeen" variety.

The present-day Skye is without doubt one of the most beautiful
terriers in existence. He is a dog of medium size, with a weight not
exceeding 25 lb., and not less than 18 lb. he is long in proportion to
his height, with a very level back, a powerful jaw with perfectly
fitting teeth, a small hazel eye, and a long hard coat just reaching
the ground. In the prick-eared variety the ears are carried erect,
with very fine ear feathering, and the face fringe is long and thick.
The ear feathering and face fall are finer in quality than the coat,
which is exceedingly hard and weather-resisting. And here it is well
to point out that the Skye has two distinct coats: the under coat,
somewhat soft and woolly, and the upper, hard and rain-proof. This
upper coat should be as straight as possible, without any tendency to
wave or curl. The tail is not very long, and should be nicely
feathered, and in repose never raised above the level of the back.

The same description applies to the drop-eared type, except that the
ears in repose, instead of being carried erect, fall evenly on each
side of the head. When, however, the dog is excited, the ears are
pricked forward, in exactly the same fashion as those of the Airedale
Terrier. This is an important point, a houndy carriage of ear being a
decided defect. The drop-eared variety is usually the heavier and
larger dog of the two; and for some reason does not show the quality
and breeding of its neighbour. Lately, however, there has evidently
been an effort made to improve the drop-eared type, with the result
that some very excellent dogs have recently appeared at the important
shows.

Probably Mr. James Pratt has devoted more time and attention to the
Skye Terrier than any other now living fancier, though the names of
Mr. Kidd and Mr. Todd are usually well known. Mr. Pratt's Skyes were
allied to the type of terrier claiming to be the original Skye of the
Highlands. The head was not so large, the ears also were not so
heavily feathered, as is the case in the Skye of to-day, and the
colours were very varied, ranging from every tint between black and
white.

In 1892 a great impetus was given to the breed by Mrs. Hughes, whose
kennels at Wolverley were of overwhelmingly good quality. Mrs. Hughes
was quickly followed by such ardent and successful fanciers as Sir
Claud and Lady Alexander, of Ballochmyle, Mrs. Freeman, Miss Bowyer
Smyth, and Miss McCheane. Lately other prominent exhibitors have
forced their way into the front rank, among whom may be mentioned the
Countess of Aberdeen, Mrs. Hugh Ripley, Mrs. Wilmer, Miss Whishaw, and
Mrs. Sandwith. Mrs. Hughes' Wolverley Duchess and Wolverley Jock were
excellent types of what a prick-eared Skye should be. Excellent, too,
were Mrs. Freeman's Alister, and Sir Claud Alexander's Young Rosebery,
Olden Times, Abbess, and Wee Mac of Adel, Mrs. Wilmer's Jean, and Mr.
Millar's Prince Donard. But the superlative Skye of the period, and
probably the best ever bred, is Wolverley Chummie, the winner of
thirty championships which are but the public acknowledgment of his
perfections. He is the property of Miss McCheane, who is also the
owner of an almost equally good specimen of the other sex in Fairfield
Diamond. Among the drop-eared Skyes of present celebrity may be
mentioned Mrs. Hugh Ripley's Perfection, Miss Whishaw's Piper Grey,
and Lady Aberdeen's Cromar Kelpie.

There are two clubs in England and one in Scotland instituted to
protect the interests of this breed, namely, the Skye Terrier Club of
England, the Skye and Clydesdale Club, and the Skye Terrier Club of
Scotland. The Scottish Club's description is as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Long, with powerful jaws and incisive teeth closing level, or
upper just fitting over under. _Skull_: wide at front of brow,
narrowing between the ears, and tapering gradually towards the muzzle,
with little falling in between or behind the eyes. _Eyes_: hazel,
medium size, close set. _Muzzle_: always black. EARS (PRICK OR
PENDANT)--When _prick_, not large, erect at outer edges, and slanting
towards each other at inner, from peak to skull. When _pendant_,
larger, hanging straight, lying flat, and close at front.
BODY--Pre-eminently long and low. Shoulders broad, chest deep, ribs
well sprung and oval shaped, giving a flattish appearance to the
sides. Hind-quarters and flank full and well developed. Back level and
slightly declining from the top of the hip joint to the shoulders. The
neck long and gently crested. TAIL--When _hanging_, the upper half
perpendicular, the under half thrown backward in a curve. When
_raised_, a prolongation of the incline of the back, and not rising
higher nor curling up. LEGS--Short, straight, and muscular. No dew
claws, the feet large and pointing forward. COAT (DOUBLE)--An _under_,
short, close, soft, and woolly. An _over_, long, averaging 5-1/2
inches, hard, straight, flat, and free from crimp or curl. Hair on
head, shorter, softer, and veiling the forehead and eyes; on the ears,
overhanging inside, falling down and mingling with the side locks, not
heavily, but surrounding the ear like a fringe, and allowing its shape
to appear. Tail also gracefully feathered. COLOUR (ANY VARIETY)--Dark
or light blue or grey, or fawn with black points. Shade of head and
legs approximating that of body.

1. AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS: DOG--Height at shoulder, 9 inches. Length,
back of skull to root of tail, 22-1/2 inches; muzzle to back of skull,
8-1/2 inches; root of tail to tip joint, 9 inches. Total length, 40
inches. BITCH--Half an inch lower, and 2-1/2 inches shorter than dog,
all points proportional; thus, body, 21 inches; head, 8 inches; and
tail, 8-1/2 inches. Total, 37-1/2 inches.

2. AVERAGE WEIGHT: DOG--18 lb.; bitch, 16 lb. No dog should be over 20
lb., nor under 16 lb.; and no bitch should be over 18 lb., nor under
14 lb.

       *       *       *       *       *

Whereas the Scottish Club limits the approved length of coat to 5-1/2
inches, the English Club gives a maximum of 9 inches. This is a fairly
good allowance, but many of the breed carry a much longer coat than
this. It is not uncommon, indeed, to find a Skye with a covering of 12
inches in length, which, even allowing for the round of the body,
causes the hair to reach and often to trail upon the ground.

The Clydesdale may be described as an anomaly. He stands as it were
upon a pedestal of his own; and unlike other Scotch terriers he is
classified as non-sporting. Perhaps his marvellously fine and silky
coat precludes him from the rough work of hunting after vermin, though
it is certain his game-like instincts would naturally lead him to do
so. Of all the Scottish dogs he is perhaps the smallest; his weight
seldom exceeding 18 lb. He is thus described by the Skye Terrier Club
of Scotland:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A long, low, level dog, with heavily fringed erect
ears, and a long coat like the finest silk or spun glass, which hangs
quite straight and evenly down each side, from a parting extending
from the nose to the root of the tail. HEAD--Fairly long, skull flat
and very narrow between the ears, gradually widening towards the eyes
and tapering very slightly to the nose, which must be black. The jaws
strong and the teeth level. EYES--Medium in size, dark in colour, not
prominent, but having a sharp, terrier-like expression, eyelids black.
EARS--Small, set very high on the top of the head, carried perfectly
erect, and covered with long silky hair, hanging in a heavy fringe
down the sides of the head. BODY--Long, deep in chest, well ribbed up,
the back being perfectly level. TAIL--Perfectly straight, carried
almost level with the back, and heavily feathered. LEGS--As short and
straight as possible, well set under the body, and entirely covered
with silky hair. Feet round and cat-like. COAT--As long and straight
as possible, free from all trace of curl or waviness, very glossy and
silky in texture, with an entire absence of undercoat. COLOUR--A level,
bright steel blue, extending from the back of the head to the root of
the tail, and on no account intermingled with any fawn, light or dark
hairs. The head, legs, and feet should be a clear, bright, golden tan,
free from grey, sooty, or dark hairs. The tail should be very dark
blue or black.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Clydesdale Terrier is rare, at any rate as regards the show bench;
there are never more than two or three at most exhibited south of the
Tweed, even when classes are provided at the big shows and
championships offered, thus indicating that the breed is not a popular
one; and amongst those kennels who do show there exists at the present
time but one dog who can lay claim to the title of champion; this
unique specimen is the property of Sir Claud Alexander, Bart., of
Ballochmyle, and is known under the name of Wee Wattie. There are of
course several fanciers in Scotland, among whom may be mentioned Mr.
G. Shaw, of Glasgow, who is the owner of several fine examples of the
breed, including beautiful San Toy and the equally beautiful Mozart.

As with the Skye Terrier, it seems a matter of difficulty to produce a
perfect Clydesdale, and until the breed is taken up with more energy
it is improbable that first class dogs will make an appearance in the
show ring. A perfect Clydesdale should figure as one of the most
elegant of the terrier breed; his lovely silken coat, the golden brown
hue of his face fringe, paws and legs, his well pricked and feathery
ear, and his generally smart appearance should combine to form a
picture exciting general admiration.



CHAPTER XLII

THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER


The most devout lover of this charming and beautiful terrier would
fail if he were to attempt to claim for him the distinction of descent
from antiquity. Bradford, and not Babylon, was his earliest home, and
he must be candidly acknowledged to be a very modern manufactured
variety of the dog. Yet it is important to remember that it was in
Yorkshire that he was made--Yorkshire, where live the cleverest
breeders of dogs that the world has known.

One can roughly reconstitute the process. What the Yorkshiremen
desired to make for themselves was a pigmy, prick-eared terrier with a
long, silky, silvery grey and tan coat. They already possessed the
foundation in the old English Black and Tan wire-haired Terrier. To
lengthen the coat of this working breed they might very well have had
recourse to a cross with the prick-eared Skye, and to eliminate the
wiry texture of the hair a further cross with the Maltese dog would
impart softness and silkiness without reducing the length. Again, a
cross with the Clydesdale, which was then assuming a fixed type, would
bring the variety yet nearer to the ideal, and a return to the black
and tan would tend to conserve the desired colour. In all probability
the Dandie Dinmont had some share in the process. Evidence of origin
is often to be found more distinctly in puppies than in the mature
dog, and it is to be noted that the puppies of both the Dandie and the
Yorkshire are born with decided black and tan colouring.

The original broken-haired Yorkshire Terrier of thirty years ago was
often called a Scottish Terrier, or even a Skye, and there are many
persons who still confound him with the Clydesdale, whom he somewhat
closely resembles. At the present time he is classified as a toy dog
and exhibited almost solely as such. It is to be regretted that until
very lately the terrier character was being gradually bred out of him,
and that the perkiness, the exuberance and gameness which once
distinguished him as the companion of the Yorkshire operative, was in
danger of being sacrificed to the desire for diminutive size and
inordinate length of coat.

Perhaps it would be an error to blame the breeders of Yorkshire
Terriers for this departure from the original type as it appeared,
say, about 1870. It is necessary to take into consideration the
probability that what is now called the old-fashioned working variety
was never regarded by the Yorkshiremen who made him as a complete and
finished achievement. It was possibly their idea at the very beginning
to produce just such a diminutive dog as is now to be seen in its
perfection at exhibitions, glorying in its flowing tresses of steel
blue silk and ruddy gold; and one must give them full credit for the
patience and care with which during the past forty years they have
been steadily working to the fixed design of producing a dwarfed breed
which should excel all other breeds in the length and silkiness of its
robe. The extreme of cultivation in this particular quality was
reached some years ago by Mrs. Troughear, whose little dog Conqueror,
weighing 5-1/2 lb., had a beautiful enveloping mantle of the uniform
length of four-and-twenty inches.

Doubtless all successful breeders and exhibitors of the Yorkshire
Terrier have their little secrets and their peculiar methods of
inducing the growth of hair. They regulate the diet with extreme
particularity, keeping the dog lean rather than fat, and giving him
nothing that they would not themselves eat. Bread, mixed with green
vegetables, a little meat and gravy, or fresh fish, varied with milk
puddings and Spratt's "Toy Pet" biscuits, should be the staple food.
Bones ought not to be given, as the act of gnawing them is apt to mar
the beard and moustache. For the same reason it is well when possible
to serve the food from the fingers. But many owners use a sort of mask
or hood of elastic material which they tie over the dog's head at
meal-times to hold back the long face-fall and whiskers, that would
otherwise be smeared and sullied. Similarly as a protection for the
coat, when there is any skin irritation and an inclination to scratch,
linen or cotton stockings are worn upon the hind feet.

Many exhibitors pretend that they use no dressing, or very little, and
this only occasionally, for the jackets of their Yorkshire Terriers;
but it is quite certain that continuous use of grease of some sort is
not only advisable but even necessary. Opinions differ as to which is
the best cosmetic, but Hairmero, the dressing prepared for the purpose
by Miss D. Wilmer, of Yoxford, Suffolk, could not easily be improved
upon for this or any other long-coated breed.

For the full display of their beauty, Yorkshire Terriers depend very
much upon careful grooming. It is only by grooming that the silvery
cascade of hair down the dog's sides and the beautiful tan face-fall
that flows like a rain of gold from his head can be kept perfectly
straight and free from curl or wrinkle; and no grease or pomade, even
if their use were officially permitted, could impart to the coat the
glistening sheen that is given by the dexterous application of the
brush. The gentle art of grooming is not to be taught by theory.
Practice is the best teacher. But the novice may learn much by
observing the deft methods employed by an expert exhibitor.

Mr. Peter Eden, of Manchester, is generally credited with being the
actual inventor of the Yorkshire Terrier. He was certainly one of the
earliest breeders and owners, and his celebrated Albert was only one
of the many admirable specimens with which he convinced the public of
the charms of this variety of dog. He may have given the breed its
first impulse, but Mrs. M. A. Foster, of Bradford, was for many years
the head and centre of all that pertained to the Yorkshire Terrier,
and it was undoubtedly she who raised the variety to its highest point
of perfection. Her dogs were invariably good in type. She never
exhibited a bad one, and her Huddersfield Ben, Toy Smart, Bright,
Sandy, Ted, Bradford Hero, Bradford Marie, and Bradford Queen--the
last being a bitch weighing only 24 oz.--are remembered for their
uniform excellence. Of more recent examples that have approached
perfection may be mentioned Mrs. Walton's Ashton King, Queen, and
Bright, and her Mont Thabor Duchess. Mr. Mitchell's Westbrook Fred has
deservedly won many honours, and Mr. Firmstone's Grand Duke and Mynd
Damaris, and Mrs. Sinclair's Mascus Superbus, stand high in the
estimation of expert judges of the breed. Perhaps the most beautiful
bitch ever shown was Waveless, the property of Mrs. R. Marshall, the
owner of another admirable bitch in Little Picture. Mrs. W. Shaw's Ch.
Sneinton Amethyst is also an admirable specimen.

The standard of points laid down by the Yorkshire Terrier Club is as
follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a long-coated pet dog, the coat hanging
quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from the
nose to the end of the tail. The animal should be very compact and
neat, his carriage being very sprightly; bearing an air of importance.
Although the frame is hidden beneath a mantle of hair, the general
outline should be such as to suggest the existence of a vigorous and
well-proportioned body. HEAD--Should be rather small and flat, not too
prominent or round in the skull; rather broad at the muzzle, with a
perfectly black nose; the hair on the muzzle very long, which should
be a rich, deep tan, not sooty or grey. Under the chin, long hair,
about the same colour as on the crown of the head, which should be a
bright, golden tan, and not on any account intermingled with dark or
sooty hairs. Hairs on the sides of the head should be very long, of a
few shades deeper tan than that on the top of the head, especially
about the ear-roots. EYES--Medium in size, dark in colour, having a
sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as to look directly
forward. They should not be prominent. The edges of the eyelids should
be dark. EARS--Small, V-shaped, and carried semi-erect, covered with
short hair; colour to be a deep rich tan. MOUTH--Good even mouth;
teeth as sound as possible. A dog having lost a tooth or two, through
accident or otherwise, is not to disqualify, providing the jaws are
even. BODY--Very compact, with a good loin, and level on the top of
the back. COAT--The hair, as long and as straight as possible (not
wavy), should be glossy, like silk (not woolly), extending from the
back of the head to the root of the tail; colour, a bright steel blue,
and on no account intermingled with fawn, light or dark hairs. All tan
should be darker at the roots than at the middle of the hairs, shading
off to a still lighter tan at the tips. LEGS--Quite straight, should
be of a bright golden tan, well covered with hair, a few shades
lighter at the end than at the roots. FEET--As round as possible;
toe-nails black. TAIL--Cut to medium length; with plenty of hair,
darker blue than the rest of the body, especially at the end of the
tail, which is carried slightly higher than the level of the back.
WEIGHT--Divided into two classes; under 5 lb. and over 5 lb. to 12 lb.



CHAPTER XLIII

THE POMERANIAN


Long before the Pomeranian dog was common in Great Britain, this breed
was to be met with in many parts of Europe, especially in Germany; and
he was known under different names, according to his size and the
locality in which he flourished. The title of Pomeranian is not
admitted by the Germans at all, who claim this as one of their
national breeds, and give it the general name of the German Spitz.

At Athens, in the Street of Tombs, there is a representation of a
little Spitz leaping up to the daughter of a family as she is taking
leave of them, which bears the date equivalent to 56 B.C., and in the
British Museum there is an ancient bronze jar of Greek workmanship,
upon which is engraved a group of winged horses at whose feet there is
a small dog of undoubted Pomeranian type. The date is the second
century, B.C.

It is now generally accepted that, wherever our Pomeranian originated,
he is a Northern or Arctic breed. Evidence goes to show that his
native land in prehistoric times was the land of the Samoyedes, in the
north of Siberia, along the shores of the Arctic Ocean. The Samoyede
dog is being gradually introduced into England, and good specimens can
be frequently seen at the principal shows. The similarity between our
large white Pomeranian and the Samoyede is too great to be accidental.
And we are drawn to the conclusion that in prehistoric times a
migration of the Samoyedes was made from their native land into
Pomerania, the most eastern province of Prussia bordering on the
Baltic Sea, and that these people took with them their dogs, which
were the progenitors of the present race of Pomeranian or Spitz.

But in any case the Pomeranian dog, so called, has been a native of
various parts of Europe from very early times. His advent into England
has been of comparatively recent date, at least in any great numbers,
so far as can be ascertained, since no ancient records exist on this
question. Gainsborough, however, painted the famous actress, Mrs.
Robinson, with a large white Pomeranian sitting by her side.

In Rees' _Encyclopedia_, published in 1816, a good picture of a white
Pomeranian is given with a fairly truthful description. In this work
he is said to be "larger than the common sheep dog." Rees gives his
name as _Canis Pomeranius_, from Linnaeus, and _Chien Loup_, from
Buffon. From these examples, therefore, we may infer that the large
Pomeranian, or Wolf Spitz, was already known in England towards the
end of the eighteenth century at least. There are, however, no
systematic registers of Pomeranians prior to the year 1870.

Even ten years later than this last date, so little was the breed
appreciated that a well-known writer on dogs began an article on the
Pomeranian with the words "The Pomeranian is admittedly one of the
least interesting dogs in existence, and consequently his supporters
are few and far between."

The founders of the Kennel Club held their first dog show in 1870, and
in that year only three Pomeranians were exhibited. For the next
twenty years little or no permanent increase occurred in the numbers
of Pomeranians entered at the chief dog show in England. The largest
entry took place in 1881, when there were fifteen; but in 1890 there
was not a single Pomeranian shown. From this time, however, the
numbers rapidly increased. Commencing in 1891 with fourteen,
increasing in 1901 to sixty, it culminated in 1905 with the record
number of one hundred and twenty-five. Such a rapid advance between
the years 1890 and 1905 is unprecedented in the history of dog shows,
although it is right to add that this extraordinarily rapid rise into
popularity has since been equalled in the case of the now fashionable
Pekinese.

This tendency to advancement in public favour was contemporaneous with
the formation of the Pomeranian Club of England, which was founded in
1891, and through its fostering care the Pomeranian has reached a
height of popularity far in advance of that attained by any other
breed of toy dog. One of the first acts of the club was to draw up a
standard of points as follows:--

       *       *       *       *       *

APPEARANCE--The Pomeranian should be a compact, short coupled dog,
well knit in frame. He should exhibit great intelligence in his
expression, and activity and buoyancy in his deportment. HEAD AND
NOSE--Should be foxy in outline or wedge-shaped, the skull being
slightly flat, large in proportion to the muzzle, which should finish
rather fine and free from lippiness. The teeth should be level, and
should on no account be undershot. The hair on the head and face
should be smooth and short-coated. The nose should be black in white,
orange and sable dogs; but in other colours may be self, but never
parti-colour or white. EARS--Should be small, not set too far apart,
nor too low down, but carried perfectly erect like those of a fox,
and, like the head, should be covered with short, soft hair.
EYES--Should be medium in size, not full, nor set too wide apart,
bright and dark in colour, showing great intelligence; in white,
shaded sable, or orange dogs the rims round the eyes should be black.
NECK AND BODY--The neck should be rather short, well set in. The back
must be short and the body compact, being well ribbed up and the
barrel well rounded. The chest must be fairly deep and not too wide,
but in proportion to the size of the dog. LEGS--The fore-legs must be
well feathered, perfectly straight, of medium length, and not such as
would be termed "leggy" or "low" on leg, but in due proportion in
length and strength to a well-balanced frame. Must be fine in bone and
free in action. The hind-legs and thighs must be well feathered,
neither contracted nor wide behind; the feet small and compact in
shape. Shoulders should be clean, and well laid back. TAIL--The tail
is one of the characteristics of the breed, and should be turned over
the back and carried flat and straight, being profusely covered with
long, harsh, spreading hair. COAT--There should be two coats, an
undercoat and an overcoat; the one a soft fluffy undercoat, the other
a long, perfectly straight coat, harsh in texture, covering the whole
of the body, being very abundant round the neck and fore part of the
shoulders and chest where it should form a frill of profuse standing
off straight hair, extending over the shoulders. The hind-quarters
should be clad with long hair or feathering, from the top of the rump
to the hock. COLOUR--All whole colours are admissible, but they should
be free from white or shadings, and the whites must be quite free from
lemon or any other colour. A few white hairs in any of the self
colours shall not necessarily disqualify. At present the whole
coloured dogs are:--White, black, brown (light or dark), blue (as pale
as possible), orange (which should be as deep and even in colour as
possible), beaver, or cream. Dogs, other than white, with white foot
or feet, leg or legs, are decidedly objectionable and should be
discouraged, and cannot compete as whole coloured specimens. In
parti-coloured dogs the colours should be evenly distributed on the
body in patches; a dog with white or tan feet or chest would not be a
parti-colour. Shaded sables should be shaded throughout with three or
more colours, the hairs to be as "uniformly shaded" as possible, with
no patches of self colour. In mixed classes where whole coloured and
parti-coloured Pomeranians compete together, the preference should, if
in other points they are equal, be given to the whole coloured
specimens. Where classification is not by colours the following is
recommended for adoption by show committees:--1. Not exceeding 7 lb.
(Pomeranian Miniatures). 2. Exceeding 7 lb. (Pomeranians). 3.
Pomeranians and Pomeranian Miniatures mixed.

       *       *       *       *       *

The early type of a Pomeranian was that of a dog varying from 10 lb.
or 12 lb. weight up to 20 lb. weight, or even more, and some few of
about 12 lb. and over are still to be met with; but the tendency among
present-day breeders is to get them as small as possible, so that
diminutive specimens weighing less than 5 lb. are now quite common,
and always fetch higher prices than the heavier ones. The dividing
weight, as arranged some ten years ago by the Pomeranian Club, is 8
lb., and the Kennel Club has recently divided the breed into two
classes of Pomeranians and Pomeranians Miniature.

As a rule the white specimens adhere more nearly to the primitive
type, and are generally over 8 lb. in weight, but through the
exertions of many breeders, several are now to be seen under this
limit.

The principal breeders of this colour in England to-day are Miss
Hamilton of Rozelle, Miss Chell, Miss Lee-Roberts, Mrs. Pope, and Mrs.
Goodall-Copestake. The first two whites to become full champions under
Kennel Club rules were Rob of Rozelle and Konig of Rozelle, both
belonging to Miss Hamilton of Rozelle.

More black Pomeranians have been bred in England than of any other
colour, and during the last fifteen years the number of good specimens
that have appeared at our great exhibitions has been legion. There do
not seem to be so many really good ones to-day as heretofore; this is
explained, perhaps, by the fact that other colours are now receiving
more and more attention from breeders. A typical small black of to-day
is Billie Tee, the property of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Mappin. He scales
only 5-1/2 lb., and is therefore, as to size and weight as well as
shape, style, and smartness of action, a good type of a toy Pomeranian.
He was bred by Mrs. Cates, and is the winner of over fifty prizes and
many specials. To enumerate all the first-class blacks during the last
thirty years would be impossible, but those which stand out first and
foremost have been Black Boy, King Pippin, Kaffir Boy, Bayswater
Swell, Kensington King, Marland King, Black Prince, Hatcham Nip,
Walkley Queenie, Viva, Gateacre Zulu, Glympton King Edward, and Billie
Tee.

The brown variety has for a long time been an especial favourite with
the public, and many good ones have been bred during the last ten
years. There are many different shades of browns, varying from a dark
chocolate to a light beaver, but in all cases they should be
whole-coloured.

An admirable example of the brown Pomeranians is the incomparable Ch.
Tina. This beautiful little lady was bred by Mrs. Addis from Bayswater
Swell ex Kitsey, and scaled a little under 5 lb. She won over every
Pomeranian that competed against her, besides having been many times
placed over all other dogs of any breed in open competition.

The shaded sables are among the prettiest of all the various colours
which Pomeranians may assume. They must be shaded throughout with
three or more colours, as uniformly as possible, with no patches of
self-colour. They are becoming very popular, and good specimens are
much sought after at high prices. Mrs. Hall-Walker has been constant
in her devotion to this variety for several years, and she possesses a
very fine team in Champions Dainty Boy, Dainty Belle, Bibury Belle,
and in Gateacre Sable Sue. Mrs. Vale Nicolas also has recently been
most successful with shaded sables. Ch. Nanky Po, over 8 lb., and
Champions Sable Mite and Atom bear witness to this statement. Her
lovely Mite is a typical example of a small Pomeranian of this colour.
He was bred by Mr. Hirst, by Little Nipper ex Laurel Fluffie, and
scales only 4-1/4 lb. Mention should also be made of Miss Ives' Dragon
Fly, Mrs. Boutcher's Lady Wolfino, Miss Bland's Marland Topaz, Mr.
Walter Winans' Morning Light, and Mr. Fowler's May Duchess.

The blues, or smoke-coloured Pomeranians, have likewise their
admirers, and among those who have taken up these as a speciality may
be mentioned Miss Ives, Mrs. Parker, Mrs. Loy, and Miss Ruby Cooke.

Another colour which has attained of late years increasing popularity
in England is orange. These should be self-coloured throughout, and
light shadings, though not disqualifying, should be discouraged. The
principal breeder of the orange Pomeranian to-day is Mr. W. Brown, of
Raleigh, Essex, who has probably more specimens in his kennels than
any other breeder of this colour. Tiny Boy, The Boy, and Orange Boy
are his best, and all three are approved sires. Mrs. Hall-Walker is an
admirer of this colour, and her Gateacre Philander, Lupino, and Orange
Girl are great prize-winners. Miss Hamilton of Rozelle has for many
years bred "oranges," and has given to the Pomeranian Club, of which
she is President, two challenge cups for Pomeranians of this colour.
Mrs. Birch also is a lover of this hue, and possesses such good dogs
as Rufus Rusticus and Cheriwinkle.

There is still another variety which bears the name of parti-coloured.
As the name implies, these dogs must be of more than one colour, and
the colours should be evenly distributed on the body in patches; for
example, a black dog with a white foot or leg or chest would not be a
parti-colour. As a matter of fact, there have been bred in England
very few parti-coloured Pomeranians; they seem to be freaks which are
rarely produced. It does not follow that by mating a black dog to a
white bitch, or _vice versa_, a parti-coloured will be necessarily
obtained; on the contrary, it is more likely that the litter will
consist of some whole-coloured blacks, and some whole-coloured whites.
Miss Hamilton's Mafeking of Rozelle, and Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Shelton
Novelty, are the two most prominent specimens at the present time,
although Mrs. Harcourt-Clare's Magpie and Mr. Temple's Leyswood Tom
Tit were perhaps better known some time ago.

Among toy dogs this particular breed has enjoyed an unprecedented
popularity; the growth in the public favour among all classes has been
gradual and permanent during the last fifteen years, and there are no
signs that it is losing its hold on the love and affection of a large
section of the English people. His handsome appearance, his activity,
and hardihood, his devotedness to his owner, his usefulness as a
housedog, and his many other admirable qualities will always make the
Pomeranian a favourite both in the cottage and in the palace.



CHAPTER XLIV

THE KING CHARLES SPANIELS


In the fourth chapter of Macaulay's _History of England_ we read of
King Charles II. that "he might be seen before the dew was off the
grass in St. James's Park, striding among the trees playing with his
Spaniels and flinging corn to his ducks, and these exhibitions
endeared him to the common people, who always like to see the great
unbend."

Queen Elizabeth's physician, Dr. Caius, described these little
Spaniels as "delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges, called the
Spaniel gentle or the comforter," and further said: "These dogges are
little, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the
delicatenesse of daintie dames and wanton women's wills, instruments
of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away the
treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from their commendable
exercises. These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they
provoke as more meete playfellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in
their bosoms, to keepe company withall in their chambers, to succour
with sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at board, to lie in their
lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good
reason it should be so, for coursenesse with fynenesse hath no
fellowship, but featnesse with neatnesse hath neighbourhood enough."

There would appear to be much divergence of opinion as to the origin
of this breed, and the date of its first appearance in England, but it
was certainly acclimatised here as early as the reign of Henry VIII.,
and it is generally thought that it is of Japanese origin, taken from
Japan to Spain by the early voyagers to the East, and thence imported
into England. The English Toy Spaniels of to-day, especially the
Blenheim variety, are also said by some to be related to some sporting
Spaniels which belonged to Queen Mary about the year 1555, and might
have been brought over from Germany. Mary kept a pack of Spaniels for
hunting purposes.

There is another theory advanced, and with some reason that the
English Toy Spaniel of the present day derived its origin from the
Cocker Spaniel, as these larger dogs have the same colours and
markings, black and tan, tricolour, and red and white. The Cocker also
occasionally has the spot on the forehead which is a characteristic of
the Blenheim.

Be the origin of the King Charles Spaniel, and its advent in this
country, what it may, King Charles II. so much indulged and loved
these little friends that they followed him hither and thither as they
pleased, and seem to have been seldom separated from him. By him they
were loved and cherished, and brought into great popularity; in his
company they adorn canvas and ancient tapestries, and are reputed to
have been allowed free access at all times to Whitehall, Hampton
Court, and other royal palaces.

There are now four recognised varieties of the English Toy Spaniel,
or, more properly speaking, five, as the Marlborough Blenheims are
considered a distinct type. The latter are said by some to be the
oldest of the Toy Spaniels; by others to have been first brought over
from Spain during the reign of Charles II. by John Churchill, first
Duke of Marlborough, from whose home, Blenheim Palace, the name was
derived, and has ever since been retained.

If we may take the evidence of Vandyck, Watteau, Francois Boucher, and
Greuze, in whose pictures they are so frequently introduced, all the
toy Spaniels of bygone days had much longer noses and smaller, flatter
heads than those of the present time, and they had much longer ears,
these in many instances dragging on the ground.

The Marlborough Blenheim has retained several of the ancestral points.
Although this variety is of the same family, and has the same name, as
the short-nosed Blenheim of the present day, there is a great deal of
difference between the two types. The Marlborough is higher on the
legs, which need not be so fully feathered. He has a much longer
muzzle and a flatter and more contracted skull. The Marlborough
possesses many of the attributes of a sporting Spaniel; but so also
does the modern Blenheim, although perhaps in a lesser degree. He has
a very good scent. Mr. Rawdon B. Lee states that "the Blenheims of
Marlborough were excellent dogs to work the coverts for cock and
pheasant, and that excepting in colour there is in reality not much
difference in appearance between the older orange and white dogs (not
as they are to-day, with their abnormally short noses, round skulls,
and enormous eyes), and the liver and white Cockers which H. B. Chalon
drew for Daniel's _Rural Sports_ in 1801."

This will bear out the statement that the smaller type of Spaniel may
be descended from the Cockers.

The ground colour of this dog is white, with chestnut encircling the
ears to the muzzle, the sides of the neck are chestnut, as are also
the ears. There is a white blaze on the forehead, in the centre of
which should be a clear lozenge-shaped chestnut spot, called the
beauty spot, which by inbreeding with other varieties is fast being
lost. Chestnut markings are on the body and on the sides of the
hind-legs. The coat should incline to be curly; the head must be flat,
not broad, and the muzzle should be straight. The chestnut should be
of a rich colour.

The four varieties--the King Charles, Tricolour or (as he has been
called) Charles I. Spaniel, the modern Blenheim, and the Ruby--have
all the same points, differing from one another in colour only, and
the following description of the points as determined by the Toy
Spaniel Club serves for all:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Should be well domed, and in good specimens is absolutely
semi-globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half-circle, and
projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose.
EYES--The eyes are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line
of the face, not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large,
and dark as possible, so as to be generally considered black, their
enormous pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, increasing the
description. There is always a certain amount of weeping shown at the
inner angles. This is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct.
STOP--The "stop" or hollow between the eyes is well marked, as in the
Bulldog, or even more so; some good specimens exhibit a hollow deep
enough to bury a small marble. NOSE--The nose must be short and well
turned up between the eyes, and without any indication of artificial
displacement afforded by a deviation to either side. The colour of the
end should be black, and it should be both deep and wide with open
nostrils. JAW--The muzzle must be square and deep, and the lower jaw
wide between the branches, leaving plenty of space for the tongue, and
for the attachment of the lower lips, which should completely conceal
the teeth. It should also be turned up or "finished," so as to allow
of its meeting the end of the upper jaw turned up in a similar way, as
above described. EARS--The ears must be long, so as to approach the
ground. In an average-sized dog they measure twenty inches from tip to
tip, and some reach twenty-two inches, or even a trifle more. They
should be set low on the head, hang flat to the sides of the cheeks,
and be heavily feathered. In this last respect the King Charles is
expected to exceed the Blenheim, and his ears occasionally extend to
twenty-four inches. SIZE--The most desirable size is indicated by the
accepted weight of from 7 lb. to 10 lb. SHAPE--In compactness of shape
these Spaniels almost rival the Pug, but the length of coat adds
greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the coat is wetted,
looks small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be
decidedly "cobby," with strong, stout legs, short broad back and wide
chest. The symmetry of the King Charles is of importance, but it is
seldom that there is any defect in this respect. COAT--The coat should
be long, silky, soft and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there
should be a profuse mane, extending well down in the front of the
chest. The feather should be well displayed on the ears and feet, and
in the latter case so thickly as to give the appearance of their being
webbed. It is also carried well up the backs of the legs. In the Black
and Tan the feather on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding
that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather on the tail
(which is cut to the length of three and a half to four inches) should
be silky, and from five to six inches in length, constituting a marked
"flag" of a square shape, and not carried above the level of the back.
COLOUR--The colour differs with the variety. The Black and Tan is a
rich glossy black and deep mahogany tan; tan spots over the eyes, and
the usual markings on the muzzle, chest, and legs are also required.
The Ruby is a rich chestnut red, and is whole-coloured. The presence
of a _few_ white hairs _intermixed with the black_ on the chest of a
Black and Tan, or _intermixed with the red_ on the chest of a Ruby
Spaniel, shall carry _weight against_ a dog, but shall not in itself
absolutely disqualify; but a white patch on the chest or white on
any other part of a Black and Tan or Ruby Spaniel shall be a
disqualification. The Blenheim must on no account be whole-coloured,
but should have a ground of pure pearly white, with bright rich
chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in large patches. The
ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze of white extending from
the nose up the forehead, and ending between the ears in a crescentic
curve. In the centre of this blaze at the top of the forehead there
should be a clear "spot" of red, of the size of a sixpence. Tan ticks
on the fore-legs and on the white muzzle are desirable. The Tricolour
should in part have the tan of the Black and Tan, with markings like
the Blenheim in black instead of red on a pearly-white ground. The
ears and under the tail should also be lined with tan. The Tricolour
has no "spot," that beauty being peculiarly the property of the
Blenheim. The All Red King Charles is known by the name of "Ruby
Spaniel"; the colour of the nose is black. The points of the "Ruby"
are the same as those of the "Black and Tan," differing only in
colour.

       *       *       *       *       *

The King Charles variety used to consist of black and tan and black
and white Spaniels, and it is thought that by the inter-breeding of
the two specimens the Tricolour was produced. The colour of the King
Charles now is a glossy black with rich mahogany tan spots over the
eyes and on the cheeks. There should also be some tan on the legs and
under the tail.

The Prince Charles, or Tricolour, should have a pearly-white ground
with glossy black markings evenly distributed over the body in
patches. The ears should be lined with tan; tan must also be seen over
the eyes, and some on the cheeks. Under the tail also tan must appear.

The Blenheim must also have a pearly-white ground with bright rich
chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in patches over the
body. The ears and cheeks must be red, and a white blaze should
stretch from the nose to the forehead and thence in a curve between
the ears. In the middle of the forehead there should be, on the white
blaze, a clear red spot about the size of a sixpence. This is called
the "Blenheim spot," which, as well as the profuse mane, adds greatly
to the beauty of this particular Toy Spaniel. Unfortunately, in a
litter of Blenheims the spot is often wanting.

The Ruby Spaniel is of one colour, a rich, unbroken red. The nose is
black. There are now some very beautiful specimens of Ruby Spaniels,
but it is only within the last quarter of a century that this variety
has existed. It seems to have originally appeared in a litter of King
Charles puppies, when it was looked upon as a freak of nature, taking
for its entire colour only the tan markings and losing the black
ground.

The different varieties of Toy Spaniels have been so much interbred
that a litter has been reputed to contain the four kinds, but this
would be of very rare occurrence. The Blenheim is now often crossed
with the Tricolour, when the litter consist of puppies quite true to
the two types. The crossing of the King Charles with the Ruby is also
attended with very good results, the tan markings on the King Charles
becoming very bright and the colour of the Ruby also being improved.
Neither of these specimens should be crossed with either the Blenheim
or the Tricolour, as white must not appear in either the King Charles
or the Ruby Spaniel.

It is regretted by some of the admirers of these dogs that custom has
ordained that their tails should be docked. As portrayed in early
pictures of the King Charles and the Blenheim varieties, the tails are
long, well flagged, and inclined to curve gracefully over the back,
and in none of the pictures of the supposed ancestors of our present
Toy Spaniels--even so recent as those painted by Sir Edwin Landseer--do
we find an absence of the long tail.

If left intact, the tail would take two or three years to attain
perfection, but the same may be said of the dog generally, which
improves very much with age, and is not at its best until it is three
years old, and even then continues to improve.

Although the Toy Spaniels are unquestionably true aristocrats by
nature, birth, and breeding, and are most at home in a drawing-room or
on a well-kept lawn, they are by no means deficient in sporting
proclivities, and, in spite of their short noses, their scent is very
keen. They thoroughly enjoy a good scamper, and are all the better for
not being too much pampered. They are very good house-dogs, intelligent
and affectionate, and have sympathetic, coaxing little ways. One point
in their favour is the fact that they are not noisy, and do not yap
continually when strangers go into a room where they are, or at other
times, as is the habit with some breeds of toy dogs.

Those who have once had King Charles Spaniels as pets seldom care to
replace them by any other variety of dog, fearing lest they might not
find in another breed such engaging little friends and companions,
"gentle" as of yore and also "comforters."

Although these dogs need care, they possess great powers of endurance.
They appreciate warmth and comfort, but do not thrive so well in
either extreme heat or intense cold. One thing to be avoided is the
wetting of their feathered feet, or, should this happen, allowing them
to remain so; and, as in the case of all dogs with long ears, the
interior of the ears should be carefully kept dry to avoid the risk of
canker.

In going back to a period long before the last century was half-way
through, we find that a great number of these ornamental pets were in
the hands of working men living in the East End of London, and the
competition among them to own the best was very keen. They held
miniature dog shows at small taverns, and paraded their dogs on the
sanded floor of tap-rooms, their owners sitting around smoking long
church-warden pipes. The value of good specimens in those early days
appears to have been from P5 to P250, which latter sum is said to have
been refused by a comparatively poor man for a small black and tan
with very long ears, and a nose much too long for our present-day
fancy. Among the names of some old prominent breeders and exhibitors
may be mentioned those of C. Aistrop, J. Garwood, J. A. Buggs, and
Mrs. Forder.

It is interesting to note, on looking over a catalogue of the Kennel
Club Show, that in 1884 the classes for Toy Spaniels numbered five,
with two championship prizes, one each for Blenheims and Black and
Tans, and the total entries were 19. At this date neither Tricolours
nor Rubies were recognised as a separate variety by the Kennel Club,
and they had no place in the register of breeds until the year 1902.
At the Kennel Club show in 1904 thirty-one classes were provided and
eight challenge certificate prizes were given, the entries numbering
109.

The formation of the Toy Spaniel Club in 1885, and the impetus
given to breeders and exhibitors by the numerous shows with good
classification, have caused this beautiful breed to become more
popular year by year. Fifty years ago the owners might be almost
counted on the fingers of one's hands; now probably the days of the
year would hardly cover them.

Among the most successful exhibitors of late years have been the Hon.
Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the Hon. Mrs. Lytton, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. L. H.
Thompson, Miss Young, Mrs. H. B. Looker, Mrs. Privette, Miss Hall, the
Misses Clarkson and Grantham, Mrs. Dean, Mr. H. Taylor, Mrs. Bright,
Mrs. Adamson, Miss Spofforth, Mrs. Hope Paterson, Mrs. Lydia Jenkins,
and Miss E. Taylor.

The novice fancier, desirous of breeding for profit, exhibition, or
pleasure, when price is an object for consideration, is often better
advised to purchase a healthy puppy from a breeder of repute rather
than to be deluded with the notion that a good adult can be purchased
for a few pounds, or to be carried away with the idea that a cheap,
indifferently bred specimen will produce first-class stock. It takes
years to breed out bad points, but good blood will tell.

When you are purchasing a bitch with the intention of breeding, many
inquiries should be made as to the stock from which she comes. This
will influence the selection of the sire to whom she is to be mated,
and he should excel in the points in which she is deficient. It is
absolutely necessary to have perfectly healthy animals, and if the
female be young, and small stock is desired, her mate should be
several years her senior. A plain specimen of the right blood is quite
likely to produce good results to the breeder; for example, should
there be two female puppies in a well-bred litter, one remarkable as
promising to have all the requirements for a coming champion, the
other large and plain, this latter should be selected for breeding
purposes as, being stronger, she will make a better and more useful
mother than her handsome sister, who should be kept for exhibition, or
for sale at a remunerative price.

The modern craze for small specimens makes them quite unsuitable for
procreation. A brood bitch should not be less than 9 lb. in weight,
and even heavier is preferable. A sire the same size will produce
small and far more typical stock than one of 5 lb. or 6 lb., as the
tendency is to degenerate, especially in head points; but small size
can be obtained by suitably selecting the parents.

The early spring is the best season for breeding, as it gives the
puppies a start of at least six months in which to grow and get strong
before the cold weather sets in, although, of course, they can be bred
at any time, but autumn and winter puppies are more troublesome to
rear. It is always wise to administer occasionally, both to puppies
and adults, a dose of worm medicine, so as to give no chance to
internal parasites--the most troublesome ill with which the dog owner
has to wrestle, causing even more mortality than the dreaded scourge
of distemper.

The rules of hygiene cannot be overlooked, as upon them hangs the
success of the breeder; plenty of fresh air, light, and sunshine are
as necessary as food. Puppies of this breed are essentially delicate,
and must be kept free from cold and draughts, but they require liberty
and freedom to develop and strengthen their limbs, otherwise they are
liable to develop rickets. Their food should be of the best quality,
and after the age of six months, nothing seems more suitable than
stale brown bred, cut up dice size, and moistened with good stock
gravy, together with minced, lean, underdone roast beef, with the
addition, two or three times a week, of a little well-cooked green
vegetable, varied with rice or suet pudding and plain biscuits. Fish
may also be given occasionally.

When only two or three dogs are kept, table scraps will generally be
sufficient, but the pernicious habit of feeding at all times, and
giving sweets, pastry, and rich dainties, is most harmful, and must
produce disastrous results to the unfortunate animal. Two meals a day
at regular intervals are quite sufficient to keep these little pets in
the best condition, although puppies should be fed four times daily in
small quantities. After leaving the mother they will thrive better if
put on dry food, and a small portion of scraped or finely minced lean
meat given them every other day, alternately with a chopped hard-boiled
egg and stale bread-crumbs.



CHAPTER XLV

THE PEKINESE AND THE JAPANESE


Few of the many breeds of foreign dogs now established in England have
attained such a measure of popularity in so short a time as the
Pekinese. Of their early history little is known, beyond the fact that
at the looting of the Summer Palace of Pekin, in 1860, bronze effigies
of these dogs, known to be more than two thousand years old, were
found within the sacred precincts. The dogs were, and are to this day,
jealously guarded under the supervision of the Chief Eunuch of the
Court, and few have ever found their way into the outer world.

So far as the writer is aware, the history of the breed in England
dates from the importation in 1860 of five dogs taken from the Summer
Palace, where they had, no doubt, been forgotten on the flight of the
Court to the interior. Admiral Lord John Hay, who was present on
active service, gives a graphic account of the finding of these little
dogs in a part of the garden frequented by an aunt of the Emperor, who
had committed suicide on the approach of the Allied Forces. Lord John
and another naval officer, a cousin of the late Duchess of Richmond's,
each secured two dogs; the fifth was taken by General Dunne, who
presented it to Queen Victoria. Lord John took pains to ascertain that
none had found their way into the French camp, and he heard then that
the others had all been removed to Jehal with the Court. It is
therefore reasonable to suppose that these five were the only Palace
dogs, or Sacred Temple dogs of Pekin, which reached England, and it is
from the pair which lived to a respectable old age at Goodwood that so
many of the breed now in England trace their descent.

[Illustration: TOY DOGS 1. MISS STEVENS' TYPICAL JAPANESE PUPPY;
2. MRS. VALE NICOLAS'S POMERANIAN CH. THE SABLE MITE _Photograph by T.
Fall_; 3. MISS M. A. BLAND'S POMERANIAN CH. MARLAND KING _Photograph
by T. Fall_; 4. LADY HULTON'S BLENHEIM CH. JOY _Photograph by
Russell_; 5. THE HON. MRS. LYTTON'S KING CHARLES CH. THE SERAPH]

Many years ago Mr. Alfred de Rothschild tried, through his agents in
China, to secure a specimen of the Palace dog for the writer, in order
to carry on the Goodwood strain, but without success, even after a
correspondence with Pekin which lasted more than two years; but we
succeeded in obtaining confirmation of what we had always understood:
namely, that the Palace dogs are rigidly guarded, and that their theft
is punishable by death. At the time of the Boxer Rebellion only
Spaniels, Pugs, and Poodles were found in the Imperial Palace when it
was occupied by the Allied Forces, the little dogs having once more
preceded the court in the flight to Si-gnanfu.

The Duchess of Richmond occasionally gave away a dog to intimate
friends, such as the Dowager Lady Wharncliffe, Lady Dorothy Nevill,
and others, but in those days the Pekinese was practically an unknown
quantity, and it can therefore be more readily understood what
interest was aroused about eleven years ago by the appearance of a
small dog, similar in size, colour, and general type to those so
carefully cherished at Goodwood. This proved to be none other than the
since well-known sire Ah Cum, owned by Mrs. Douglas Murray, whose
husband, having extensive interests in China, had managed after many
years to secure a true Palace dog, smuggled in a box of hay, placed
inside a crate which contained Japanese deer!

Ah Cum was mated without delay to two Goodwood bitches, the result
being, in the first litters, Ch. Goodwood Lo and Goodwood Put-Sing.
To these three sires, some of the bluest Pekinese blood is traceable,
_vide_ Ch. Goodwood Chum, Ch. Chu-Erh of Alderbourne, Ch. Gia-Gia,
Manchu Tao-Tai, Goodwood Ming, Marland Myth, and others.

It must, however, be clearly admitted that since the popularity of the
breed has become established we unluckily see scores of Pekinese in
the show-ring who have lost all resemblance to the original type, and
for this the Pekinese Club is in some measure to blame. The original
points for the guidance of breeders and judges were drawn up by Lady
Samuelson, Mrs. Douglas Murray, and Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox, who
fixed the maximum size at 10 lb.--a very generous margin. Since then
the club has amended the scale of points, no doubt in order to secure
a larger membership, and the maximum now stands at 18 lb.

Is it therefore to be wondered at that confusion exists as to what is
the true type? At shows there should be two distinct classes; the
Palace dog and the Pekin Spaniel, or any other name which would enable
the breeds to be kept distinct.

The following is the scale of points as issued by the Pekinese Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Massive, broad skull, wide and flat between the ears (not dome
shaped); wide between the eyes. NOSE--Black, broad, very short and
flat. EYES--Large, dark, prominent, round, lustrous. STOP--Deep.
EARS--Heart-shaped; not set too high; leather never long enough to
come below the muzzle; not carried erect, but rather drooping, long
feather. MUZZLE--Very short and broad; not underhung nor pointed;
wrinkled. MANE--Profuse, extending beyond shoulder blades, forming
ruff or frill round front of neck. SHAPE OF BODY--Heavy in front;
broad chest falling away lighter behind; lion-like; not too long in
the body. COAT AND FEATHER AND CONDITION--Long, with thick undercoat;
straight and flat, not curly nor wavy; rather coarse but soft; feather
on thighs, legs, tail and toes, long and profuse. COLOUR--All colours
allowable, red, fawn, black, black and tan, sable, brindle, white and
parti-coloured. Black masks, and spectacles round the eyes, with lines
to the ears, are desirable. LEGS--Short; fore-legs heavy, bowed out at
elbows; hind-legs lighter, but firm and well shaped. FEET--Flat, not
round; should stand well up on toes, not on ankles. TAIL--Curled and
carried well up on loins; long, profuse straight feather. SIZE--Being
a toy dog the smaller the better, provided type and points are not
sacrificed. Anything over 18 lb. should disqualify. When divided by
weight, classes should be over 10 lb., and under 10 lb. ACTION--Free,
strong and high; crossing feet or throwing them out in running should
not take off marks; weakness of joints should be penalised.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox has occasionally been criticised for her
advocacy of _whole-coloured_ specimens, but in support of this
preference it can be proved that the original pair brought to
Goodwood, as well as Mrs. Murray's Ah Cum, were all of the golden
chestnut shade; and, as no brindled, parti-coloured, or black dog has
ever been born at Goodwood or Broughton, we have some authority for
looking upon whole-colour as an important point. This view was in the
first place confirmed by the late Chinese Ambassador in London, and
further by Baron Speck von Sternberg, who was for many years Minister
at Pekin and had very special facilities for noting the points of the
Palace dogs.

In every case a black muzzle is indispensable, also black points to
the ears, with trousers, tail and feathering a somewhat lighter shade
than the body. There is considerable divergence of opinion as to the
penalisation of what, in other breeds, is known as a "Dudley" nose,
but on this point there must be some difficulty at shows; in the
Pekinese the colour of the nose varies in a remarkable way, especially
in the case of the bitches. For instance, a pinkish tinge was always
visible on the nose of Goodwood Meh before the birth of her puppies;
but it resumed its normal colour when the puppies were a few weeks
old. As a representative type, Chu-Erh of Alderbourne resembles most
nearly the old Goodwood dogs. He has the same square, cobby
appearance, broad chest, bowed legs, profuse feather, and large,
lustrous eyes--points which are frequently looked for in vain
nowadays--and his breeder and owner may well be proud of him.

The Pekinese differs from the Japanese dog in that it appears to be
far stronger in constitution, and withstands the changes of the
English climate with much greater ease; in fact, they are as hardy,
_under healthy conditions_, as any English breed, and the only serious
trouble seems to be the weakness which is developing in the eyes.
Small abscesses frequently appear when the puppies are a few months
old, and, although they may not affect the sight, they almost
inevitably leave a bluish mark, while in some cases the eye itself
becomes contracted. Whether this is one of the results of in-breeding
it is difficult to say, and it would be of interest to know whether
the same trouble is met with in China.

The Pekinese bitches are excellent mothers, provided they are not
interfered with for the first few days. This was discovered at
Goodwood years ago by the fact that, on two or three occasions, one
Celestial lady, who had been given greater attention than she
considered necessary, revenged herself by devouring her own family of
puppies! One thing seems from experience to be especially advisable--as
far as can be arranged, to breed in the spring rather than autumn. The
puppies need all the open air and exercise that is possible, and where
rickety specimens are so frequently met with it is only natural that a
puppy who starts life with the summer months ahead is more likely to
develop well than one born in the autumn. Great attention should be
paid with reference to the frequent--almost certain--presence of
worms, which trouble seems more prevalent with Pekinese than with any
other breed. Wherever possible, fish should be given as part of the
dietary; some Pekinese devour it with relish; others will not touch
it, but there is no doubt it is a useful item in the bill of fare.
Bread well soaked in very strong stock, sheep's head, and liver are
always better as regular diet than meat, but in cases of debility a
little raw meat given once a day is most beneficial.

It would not be fitting to close an article on Pekinese without
bearing testimony to their extraordinarily attractive characteristics.
They are intensely affectionate and faithful, and have something
almost cat-like in their domesticity. They display far more character
than the so-called "toy dog" usually does, and for this reason it is
all-important that pains should be taken to preserve the true type, in
a recognition of the fact that quality is more essential than quantity.

       *       *       *       *       *

As their breed-name implies, these tiny black and white, long-haired
lap dogs are reputed to be natives of the land of the chrysanthemum.
The Japanese, who have treasured them for centuries, have the belief
that they are not less ancient than the dogs of Malta. There seems to
be a probability, however, that the breed may claim to be Chinese just
as surely as Japanese. The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, an authority on
exotic dogs whose opinion must always be taken with respect, is
inclined to the belief that they are related to the short-nosed
Spaniels of Thibet; while other experts are equally of opinion that
the variety is an offshoot from the Spaniels of Pekin. It is fairly
certain that they are indigenous to the Far East, whence we have
derived so many of our small snub-nosed, large-eyed, and long-haired
pets. The Oriental peoples have always bred their lap dogs to small
size, convenient for carrying in the sleeve. The "sleeve dog" and the
"chin dog" are common and appropriate appellations in the East.

The Japanese Spaniel was certainly known in England half a century
ago, and probably much earlier. Our seamen often brought them home as
presents for their sweethearts. These early imported specimens were
generally of the larger kind, and if they were bred from--which is
doubtful--it was by crossing with the already long-established King
Charles or Blenheim Spaniels. Their colours were not invariably white
and black. Many were white and red, or white with lemon-yellow
patches. The colouring other than white was usually about the
long-fringed ears and the crown of the head, with a line of white
running from the point of the snub black nose between the eyes as far
as the occiput. This blaze up the face was commonly said to resemble
the body of a butterfly, whose closed wings were represented by the
dog's expansive ears.

The white and black colouring is now the most frequent. The points
desired are a broad and rounded skull, large in proportion to the
dog's body; a wide, strong muzzle and a turned-up lower jaw. Great
length of body is not good; the back should be short and level. The
legs are by preference slender and much feathered, the feet large and
well separated. An important point is the coat. It should be abundant,
particularly about the neck, where it forms a ruffle, and it ought
to be quite straight and very silky. The Japanese Spaniel is
constitutionally delicate, requiring considerable care in feeding. A
frequent--almost a daily--change of diet is to be recommended, and
manufactured foods are to be avoided. Rice usually agrees well; fresh
fish, sheep's head, tongue, chicken livers, milk or batter puddings
are also suitable; and occasionally give oatmeal porridge, alternated
with a little scraped raw meat as an especial favour. For puppies
newly weaned it is well to limit the supply of milk foods and to avoid
red meat. Finely minced rabbit, or fish are better.

Of the Japanese Spaniels which have recently been prominent in
competition, may be mentioned Miss Serena's Champion Fuji of Kobe, a
remarkably beautiful bitch, who was under 5 lb. in weight, and who in
her brief life gained six full championships. Mrs. Gregson's Ch. Tora
of Braywick, a fine red and white dog, somewhat over 7 lb., is also to
be remembered as a typical example of the breed, together with Kara,
the smallest Jap ever exhibited or bred in this country, weighing only
2-1/2 lb. when 2-1/2 years old; Lady Samuelson's Togo and O'Toyo of
Braywick, and Mrs. Hull's Ch. Daddy Jap.

There has lately been a tendency to lay too much stress upon
diminutive size in this variety of the dog, to the neglect of
well-formed limbs and free movement; but on the whole it may be
stated with confidence that the Japanese is prospering in England,
thanks largely to the energetic work of the Japanese Chin Club, which
was formed some three years ago to promote the best interests of the
breed.

The following is the official standard issued by the Club:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Should be large for size of animal, very broad and with slightly
rounded skull. MUZZLE--Strong and wide; very short from eyes to nose;
upper jaw should look slightly turned up between the eyes; lower jaw
should be also turned up or finished so as to meet it, but should the
lower jaw be slightly underhung it is not a blemish provided the teeth
are not shown in consequence. NOSE--Very short in the muzzle part. The
end or nose proper should be wide, with open nostrils, and must be the
colour of the dog's marking, _i.e._, black in black-marked dogs, and
red or deep flesh colour in red or lemon marked dogs. EYES--Large,
dark, lustrous, rather prominent, and set wide apart. EARS--Small and
V-shaped, nicely feathered, set wide apart and high on the head and
carried slightly forward. NECK--Should be short and moderately thick.
BODY--Very compact and squarely built, with a short back, rather wide
chest, and of generally "cobby" shape. The body and legs should really
go into a square, _i.e._, the length of the dog should be about its
height. LEGS--The bones of the legs should be small, giving them a
slender appearance, and they should be well feathered. FEET--Small and
shaped, somewhat long; the dog stands up on its toes somewhat. If
feathered, the tufts should never increase the width of the foot, but
only its length a trifle. TAIL--Carried in a tight curl over the back.
It should be profusely feathered so as to give the appearance of a
beautiful "plume" on the animal's back. COAT--Profuse, long, straight,
rather silky. It should be absolutely free from wave or curl, and not
lie too flat, but have a tendency to stand out, especially at the neck,
so as to give a thick mane or ruff, which with profuse feathering on
thighs and tail gives a very showy appearance. COLOUR--Either black
and white or red and white, _i.e._, parti-coloured. The term red
includes all shades, sable, brindle, lemon or orange, but the brighter
and clearer the red the better. The white should be clear white, and
the colour, whether black or red, should be evenly distributed in
patches over the body, cheeks, and ears. HEIGHT AT SHOULDER--About ten
inches. WEIGHT--The size desirable is from 4 lb. to 9 lb. The smaller
size is preferable if good shape.



CHAPTER XLVI

THE MALTESE DOG AND THE PUG


No doubt has been cast upon the belief that the small, white, silky
_Canis Melitaeus_ is the most ancient of all the lap dogs of the
Western world. It was a favourite in the time of Phidias; it was an
especial pet of the great ladies of Imperial Rome. It appears to have
come originally from the Adriatic island of Melita rather than from
the Mediterranean Malta, although this supposition cannot be verified.
There is, however, no question that it is of European origin, and that
the breed, as we know it to-day, has altered exceedingly little in
type and size since it was alluded to by Aristotle more than three
hundred years before the Christian era. One may gather from various
references in literature, and from the evidence of art, that it was
highly valued in ancient times. "When his favourite dog dies," wrote
Theophrastus in illustration of the vain man, "he deposits the remains
in a tomb, and erects a monument over the grave, with the inscription,
'Offspring of the stock of Malta.'"

The "offspring of the stock of Malta" were probably first imported
into England during the reign of Henry VIII. It is certain that they
were regarded as "meet playfellows for mincing mistresses" in the
reign of Elizabeth, whose physician, Dr. Caius, alluded to them as
being distinct from the Spaniel, "gentle or comforter."

Early writers aver that it was customary when Maltese puppies were
born to press or twist the nasal bone with the fingers "in order that
they may seem more elegant in the sight of men"--a circumstance which
goes to show that our forefathers were not averse to improving
artificially the points of their dogs.

The snowy whiteness and soft, silky texture of its coat must always
cause the Maltese dog to be admired; but the variety has never been
commonly kept in England--a fact which is, no doubt, due to the
difficulty of breeding it and to the trouble in keeping the dog's long
jacket clean and free from tangle. Thirty or forty years ago it was
more popular as a lap dog than it has ever been since, and in the
early days of dog shows many beautiful specimens were exhibited. This
popularity was largely due to the efforts of Mr. R. Mandeville, of
Southwark, who has been referred to as virtually the founder of the
modern Maltese. His Fido and Lily were certainly the most perfect
representatives of the breed during the decade between 1860 and 1870,
and at the shows held at Birmingham, Islington, the Crystal Palace,
and Cremorne Gardens, this beautiful brace was unapproachable.

It is a breed which to be kept in perfection requires more than
ordinary attention, not only on account of its silky jacket, which is
peculiarly liable to become matted, and is difficult to keep
absolutely clean without frequent washing, but also on account of a
somewhat delicate constitution, the Maltese being susceptible to colds
and chills. If affected by such causes, the eyes are often attacked,
and the water running from them induces a brown stain to mar the
beauty of the face. Skin eruptions due to unwise feeding, or parasites
due to uncleanliness, are quickly destructive to the silky coat, and
constant watchfulness is necessary to protect the dog from all
occasion for scratching. The diet is an important consideration
always, and a nice discernment is imperative in balancing the
proportions of meat and vegetable. Too much meat is prone to heat the
blood, while too little induces eczema. Scraps of bread and green
vegetables well mixed with gravy and finely-minced lean meat form the
best dietary for the principal meal of the day, and plenty of exercise
is imperative.

The following is the standard description and points of the Maltese
Club of London:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAD--Should not be too narrow, but should be of a Terrier shape, not
too long, but not apple-headed. EARS--Should be long and well
feathered, and hang close to the side of the head, the hair to be well
mingled with the coat at the shoulders. EYES--Should be a dark brown,
with black eye rims and not too far apart. NOSE--Should be pure black.
LEGS AND FEET--Legs should be short and straight, feet round, and the
pads of the feet should be black. BODY AND SHAPE--Should be short and
cobby, low to the ground, and the back should be straight from the top
of the shoulders to the tail. TAIL AND CARRIAGE--Should be well arched
over the back and well feathered. COAT, LENGTH AND TEXTURE--Should be
a good length, the longer the better, of a silky texture, not in any
way woolly, and should be straight. COLOUR--It is desirable that they
should be pure white, but slight lemon marks should not count against
them. CONDITION AND APPEARANCE--Should be of a sharp Terrier
appearance, with a lively action, the coat should not be stained, but
should be well groomed in every way. SIZE--The most approved weights
should be from 4 lb. to 9 lb., the smaller the better, but it is
desirable that they should not exceed 10 lb.

       *       *       *       *       *

There seems to be no doubt that the fawn-coloured Pug enjoys the
antiquity of descent that is attached to the Greyhound, the Maltese
dog, and some few other venerable breeds.

Although much has been written on the origin of these dogs, nothing
authentic has been discovered in connection with it. Statements have
appeared from time to time to the effect that the Pug was brought into
this country from Holland. In the early years of the last century it
was commonly styled the Dutch Pug. But this theory does not trace the
history far enough back, and it should be remembered that at that
period the Dutch East India Company was in constant communication with
the Far East. Others declare that Muscovy was the original home of the
breed, a supposition for which there is no discernible foundation. The
study of canine history receives frequent enlightenment from the study
of the growth of commercial intercourse between nations, and the trend
of events would lead one to the belief that the Pug had its origin in
China, particularly in view of the fact that it is with that country
that most of the blunt-nosed toy dogs, with tails curled over their
backs, are associated.

The Pug was brought into prominence in Great Britain about sixty years
ago by Lady Willoughby de Eresby, of Grimthorpe, near Lincoln, and Mr.
Morrison, of Walham Green, who each independently established a kennel
of these dogs, with such success that eventually the fawn Pugs were
spoken of as either the Willoughby or the Morrison Pugs. At that
period the black variety was not known. The Willoughby Pug was duller
in colour than the Morrison, which was of a brighter, ruddier hue, but
the two varieties have since been so much interbred that they are now
undistinguishable, and the fact that they were ever familiarly
recognised as either Willoughbys or Morrisons is almost entirely
forgotten. A "fawn" Pug may now be either silver grey or apricot, and
equally valuable.

Whatever may have been the history of the Pug as regards its nativity,
it had not been long introduced into England before it became a
popular favourite as a pet, and it shared with the King Charles
Spaniel the affection of the great ladies of the land. The late Queen
Victoria possessed one, of which she was very proud. The Pug has,
however, now fallen from his high estate as a ladies' pet, and his
place has been usurped by the Toy Pomeranian, the Pekinese, and
Japanese, all of which are now more highly thought of in the
drawing-room or boudoir. But the Pug has an advantage over all these
dogs as, from the fact that he has a shorter coat, he is cleaner and
does not require so much attention.

It was not until the establishment of the Pug Dog Club in 1883 that a
fixed standard of points was drawn up for the guidance of judges when
awarding the prizes to Pugs. Later on the London and Provincial Pug
Club was formed, and standards of points were drawn up by that
society. These, however, have never been adhered to. The weight of a
dog or bitch, according to the standard, should be from 13 lb. to 17
lb., but there are very few dogs indeed that are winning prizes who
can draw the scale at the maximum weight. One of the most distinctive
features of a fawn Pug is the trace, which is a line of black running
along the top of the back from the occiput to the tail. It is the
exception to find a fawn Pug with any trace at all now. The muzzle
should be short, blunt, but not upfaced. Most of the winning Pugs of
the present day are undershot at least half an inch, and consequently
must be upfaced. Only one champion of the present day possesses a
level mouth. The toe-nails should be black according to the standard,
but this point is ignored altogether. In fact, the standard, as drawn
up by the Club, should be completely revised, for it is no true guide.
The colour, which should be either silver or apricot fawn; the
markings on the head, which should show a thumb-mark or diamond on the
forehead, together with the orthodox size, are not now taken into
consideration, and the prizes are given to over-sized dogs with big
skulls that are patchy in colour, and the charming little Pugs which
were once so highly prized are now the exception rather than the rule,
while the large, lustrous eyes, so sympathetic in their expression,
are seldom seen.

The black Pug is a recent production. He was brought into notice in
1886, when Lady Brassey exhibited some at the Maidstone Show. By whom
he was manufactured is not a matter of much importance, as with the
fawn Pug in existence there was not much difficulty in crossing it
with the shortest-faced black dog of small size that could be found,
and then back again to the fawn, and the thing was done. Fawn and
black Pugs are continually being bred together, and, as a rule, if
judgment is used in the selection of suitable crosses, the puppies are
sound in colour, whether fawn or black. In every respect except
markings the black Pug should be built on the same lines as the fawn,
and be a cobby little dog with short back and well-developed
hind-quarters, wide in skull, with square and blunt muzzle and
tightly-curled tail.



CHAPTER XLVII

THE BRUSSELS GRIFFON


Away back in the 'seventies numbers of miners in Yorkshire and the
Midlands are said to have possessed little wiry-coated and
wiry-dispositioned red dogs, which accompanied their owners to work,
being stowed away in pockets of overcoats until the dinner hour, when
they were brought out to share their masters' meals, perchance chasing
a casual rat in between times. Old men of to-day who remember these
little "red tarriers" tell us that they were the originals of the
present-day Brussels Griffons, and to the sporting propensities of the
aforesaid miners is attributed the gameness which is such a
characteristic of their latter-day representatives.

No one who is well acquainted with the Brussels Griffon would claim
that the breed dates back, like the Greyhound, to hoary antiquity, or,
indeed, that it has any pretensions to have "come over with the
Conqueror." The dog is not less worthy of admiration on that account.
It is futile to inquire too closely into his ancestry; like Topsy, "he
growed" and we must love him for himself alone.

Even in the last fifteen years we can trace a certain advance in the
evolution of the Brussels Griffon. When the breed was first introduced
under this name into this country, underjaw was accounted of little or
no importance, whereas now a prominent chin is rightly recognised as
being one of the most important physical characteristics of the race.
Then, again, quite a few years ago a Griffon with a red pin-wire coat
was rarely met with, but now this point has been generally rectified,
and every show specimen of any account whatever possesses the
much-desired covering.

The first authentic importations of Brussels Griffons into this
country were made by Mrs. Kingscote, Miss Adela Gordon, Mrs. Frank
Pearce, and Fletcher, who at that time (_circa_ 1894) kept a dog-shop
in Regent Street. Mrs. Handley Spicer soon followed, and it was at her
house that, in 1896, the Griffon Bruxellois Club was first suggested
and then formed. The Brussels Griffon Club of London was a later
offshoot of this club, and, like many children, would appear to be
more vigorous than its parent. Griffons soon made their appearance at
shows and won many admirers, though it must be admitted that their
progress up the ladder of popularity was not so rapid as might have
been expected. The breed is especially attractive in the following
points: It is hardy, compact, portable, very intelligent, equally
smart and alert in appearance, affectionate, very companionable, and,
above all, it possesses the special characteristic of wonderful eyes,
ever changing in expression, and compared with which the eyes of many
other toy breeds appear as a glass bead to a fathomless lake.

Griffons are hardy little dogs, though, like most others, they are
more susceptible to damp than to cold. While not greedy, like the
Terrier tribe, they are usually good feeders and good doers, and not
tiresomely dainty with regard to food, as is so often the case with
Toy Spaniels. It must be admitted that Griffons are not the easiest of
dogs to rear, particularly at weaning time. From five to eight weeks
is always a critical period in the puppyhood of a Griffon, and it is
necessary to supersede their maternal nourishment with extreme
caution. Farinaceous foods do not answer, and usually cause trouble
sooner or later. A small quantity of scraped raw beef--an eggspoonful
at four weeks, increasing to a teaspoonful at six--may be given once a
day, and from four to five weeks two additional meals of warm
milk--goat's for preference--and not more than a tablespoonful at a
time should be given. From five to six weeks the mother will remain
with the puppies at night only, and three milk meals may be given
during the day, with one of scraped meat, at intervals of about four
hours, care being taken to give too little milk rather than too much.
At six weeks the puppies may usually be taken entirely from the
mother, and at this time it is generally advisable to give a gentle
vermifuge, such as Ruby. A very little German rusk may also be added
to the milk meals, which may be increased to one and a-half
tablespoonfuls at a time, but it must always be remembered that, in
nine cases out of ten, trouble is caused by overfeeding rather than
underfeeding, and until the rubicon of eight weeks has been passed,
care and oversight should be unremitting. At eight weeks' old, Force
or brown breadcrumbs may be added to the morning milk, chopped meat
may be given instead of scraped at midday, the usual milk at tea-time,
and a dry biscuit, such as Plasmon, for supper. At ten weeks old the
milk at tea-time may be discontinued and the other meals increased
accordingly, and very little further trouble need be feared, for
Griffons very rarely suffer from teething troubles.

Brussels Griffons are divided into three groups, according to their
appearance, and representatives of each group may be, and sometimes
are, found in one and the same litter. First and foremost, both in
importance and in beauty, comes the Griffon Bruxellois, a cobby,
compact little dog, with wiry red coat, large eyes, short nose, well
turned up, and sloping back, very prominent chin, and small ears.
Secondly come the Griffons of any other colour, or, as they are termed
in Brussels, Griffons Belges. These are very often Griffons of the
usual colour, with a mismark of white or black, or occasionally they
may be grey or fawn. But the most approved colour, and certainly the
most attractive, is black and tan. The third group of Brussels
Griffons is that termed "smooth," or, in Brussels, Griffons
Brabancons. The smooth Griffon is identical with the rough in all
points except for being short-haired. As is well known, smooth
Griffons are most useful for breeding rough ones with the desired hard
red coat, and many well-known show dogs with rough coats have been
bred from smooth ones: for example, Sparklets, Ch. Copthorne Lobster,
Ch. Copthorne Treasure, Ch. Copthorne Talk-o'-the-Town, and Copthorne
Blunderbuss. This and many other facts in connection with breeding
Griffons will be learnt from experience, always the best teacher.

The descriptive particulars of the Brussels Griffon are:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A lady's little dog--intelligent, sprightly,
robust, of compact appearance--reminding one of a cob, and captivating
the attention by a quasi-human expression. HEAD--Rounded, furnished
with somewhat hard, irregular hairs, longer round the eyes, on the
nose and cheeks. EARS--Erect when cropped as in Belgium, semi-erect
when uncropped. EYES--Very large, black, or nearly black; eyelids
edged with black, eyelashes long and black, eyebrows covered with
hairs, leaving the eye they encircle perfectly uncovered. NOSE--Always
black, short, surrounded with hair converging upward to meet those
which surround the eyes. Very pronounced stop. LIPS--Edged with black,
furnished with a moustache. A little black in the moustache is not a
fault. CHIN--Prominent without showing the teeth, and edged with a
small beard. CHEST--Rather wide and deep. LEGS--As straight as
possible, of medium length. TAIL--Erect, and docked to two-thirds.
COLOUR--In the Griffons Bruxellois, red; in the Griffons Belges,
preferably black and tan, but also grey or fawn; in the Petit
Brabancon, red or black and tan. TEXTURE OF COAT--Harsh and wiry,
irregular, rather long and thick. In the Brabancon it is smooth and
short. WEIGHT--Light weight, 5 lb. maximum; and heavy weight, 9 lb.
maximum. FAULTS--The faults to be avoided are light eyes, silky hair
on the head, brown nails, teeth showing, a hanging tongue or a brown
nose.

[Illustration: TOY DOGS 1. MRS. GRESHAM'S PUG CH. GRINDLEY KING
2. MRS. T. WHALEY'S BRUSSELS GRIFFON GLENARTNEY SPORT 3. PEKINESE CH.
CHU-ERH OF ALDERBOURNE _Photograph by Russell_]



CHAPTER XLVIII

THE MINIATURE BREEDS


Except in the matter of size, the general appearance and qualifications
of the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier should be as nearly like the
larger breed as possible, for the standard of points applies to both
varieties, excepting that erect, or what are commonly known as tulip
ears, of semi-erect carriage, are permissible in the miniatures. The
officially recognised weight for the toy variety is given as "under
seven pounds," but none of the most prominent present-day winners
reach anything like that weight; some in fact are little more than
half of it, and the great majority are between 4 lb. and 5 lb.

Probably the most popular specimens of the miniature Black and Tan at
the present time are Mr. Whaley's Glenartney Sport and Mr. Richmond's
Merry Atom. Merry Atom is only 4-1/2 lb. in weight, and he is
beautifully proportioned, with a fine, long head, a small, dark eye,
small ears, and the true type of body. His markings of deep black and
rich tan are good, and his coat is entirely free from the bare patches
which so often mar the appearance of these toys, giving the suggestion
of delicacy.

The Miniature Black and Tan is certainly not a robust dog, and he has
lost much of the terrier boisterousness of character by reason of
being pampered and coddled; but it is a fallacy to suppose that he is
necessarily delicate. He requires to be kept warm, but exercise is
better for him than eiderdown quilts and silken cushions, and
judicious feeding will protect him from the skin diseases to which he
is believed to be liable. Under proper treatment he is no more
delicate than any other toy dog, and his engaging manners and
cleanliness of habit ought to place him among the most favoured of
lady's pets and lapdogs. It is to be hoped that the efforts now being
made by the Black and Tan Terrier Club will be beneficial to the
increased popularity of this diminutive breed.

For the technical description and scale of points the reader is
referred to the chapter on the larger variety of Black and Tan Terrier.

       *       *       *       *       *

Of late years Toy Bull-terriers have fallen in popularity. This is a
pity, as their lilliputian self-assertion is most amusing. As pets
they are most affectionate, excellent as watch-dogs, clever at
acquiring tricks, and always cheerful and companionable. They have
good noses and will hunt diligently; but wet weather or thick
undergrowth will deter them, and they are too small to do serious harm
to the best stocked game preserve.

The most valuable Toy Bull-terriers are small and very light in
weight, and these small dogs usually have "apple-heads." Pony Queen,
the former property of Sir Raymond Tyrwhitt Wilson, weighed under
3 lb., but the breed remains "toy" up to 15 lb. When you get a dog
with a long wedge-shaped head, the latter in competition with small
"apple-headed" dogs always takes the prize, and a slightly
contradictory state of affairs arises from the fact that the small dog
with an imperfectly shaped head will sell for more money than a dog
with a perfectly shaped head which is larger.

In drawing up a show schedule of classes for this breed it is perhaps
better to limit the weight of competitors to 12 lb. The Bull-terrier
Club put 15 lb. as the lowest weight allowed for the large breed, and
it seems a pity to have an interregnum between the large and miniature
variety; still, in the interests of the small valuable specimens, this
seems inevitable, and opportunist principles must be applied to doggy
matters as to other business in this world. At present there is a
diversity of opinion as to their points, but roughly they are a long
flat head, wide between the eyes and tapering to the nose, which
should be black. Ears erect and bat-like, straight legs and rather
distinctive feet; some people say these are cat-like.

Toy Bull-terriers ought to have an alert, gay appearance, coupled with
refinement, which requires a nice whip tail. The best colour is pure
white. A brindle spot is not amiss, and even a brindle dog is
admissible, but black marks are wrong. The coat ought to be close and
stiff to the touch. Toy Bull-terriers are not delicate as a rule. They
require warmth and plenty of exercise in all weathers.

       *       *       *       *       *

The most elegant, graceful, and refined of all dogs are the tiny
Italian Greyhounds. Their exquisitely delicate lines, their supple
movements and beautiful attitudes, their soft large eyes, their
charming colouring, their gentle and loving nature, and their
scrupulous cleanliness of habit--all these qualities justify the
admiration bestowed upon them as drawing-room pets. They are fragile,
it is true--fragile as eggshell china--not to be handled roughly. But
their constitution is not necessarily delicate, and many have been
known to live to extreme old age. Miss Mackenzie's Jack, one of the
most beautiful of the breed ever known, lived to see his seventeenth
birthday, and even then was strong and healthy. Their fragility is
more apparent than real, and if they are not exposed to cold or damp,
they require less pampering than they usually receive. This cause has
been a frequent source of constitutional weakness, and it was
deplorably a fault in the Italian Greyhounds of half a century ago.

One cannot be quite certain as to the derivation of the Italian
Greyhound. Its physical appearance naturally suggests a descent from
the Gazehound of the ancients, with the added conjecture that it was
purposely dwarfed for the convenience of being nursed in the lap.
Greek art presents many examples of a very small dog of Greyhound
type, and there is a probability that the diminutive breed was a
familiar ornament in the atrium of most Roman villas. In Pompeii a
dwarfed Greyhound was certainly kept as a domestic pet, and there is
therefore some justification for the belief that the Italian prefix is
not misplaced.

In very early times the Italian Greyhound was appreciated. Vandyck,
Kneller, and Watteau frequently introduced the graceful figures of
these dogs as accessories in their portraits of the Court beauties of
their times, and many such portraits may be noticed in the galleries
of Windsor Castle and Hampton Court. Mary, Queen of Scots is supposed
to have been fond of the breed, as more surely were Charles I. and
Queen Anne. Some of the best of their kind were in the possession of
Queen Victoria at Windsor and Balmoral, where Sir Edwin Landseer
transferred their graceful forms to canvas.

Among the more prominent owners of the present time are the Baroness
Campbell von Laurentz, whose Rosemead Laura and Una are of superlative
merit alike in outline, colour, style, length of head, and grace of
action; Mrs. Florence Scarlett, whose Svelta, Saltarello, and Sola are
almost equally perfect; Mrs. Matthews, the owner of Ch. Signor, our
smallest and most elegant show dog; and Mr. Charlwood, who has
exhibited many admirable specimens, among them Sussex Queen and Sussex
Princess.

The Italian Greyhound Club of England has drawn up the following
standard and scale of points:--

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A miniature English Greyhound, more slender in all
proportions, and of ideal elegance and grace in shape, symmetry, and
action. HEAD--Skull long, flat and narrow. Muzzle very fine. Nose dark
in colour. Ears rose shaped, placed well back, soft and delicate, and
should touch or nearly touch behind the head. Eyes large, bright, and
full of expression. BODY--Neck long and gracefully arched. Shoulders
long and sloping. Back curved and drooping at the quarters. LEGS AND
FEET--Fore-legs straight, well set under the shoulder; fine pasterns;
small delicate bone. Hind-legs, hocks well let down; thighs muscular.
Feet long--hare foot. TAIL, COAT AND COLOUR--Tail rather long and with
low carriage. Skin fine and supple. Hair thin and glossy like satin.
Preferably self-coloured. The colour most prized is golden fawn, but
all shades of fawn--red, mouse, cream and white--are recognised.
Blacks, brindles and pied are considered less desirable. ACTION--High
stepping and free. WEIGHT--Two classes, one of 8 lb. and under, the
other over 8 lb.

       *       *       *       *       *

The diminutive Shetland Sheepdog has many recommendations as a pet.
Like the sturdy little Shetland pony, this dog has not been made small
by artificial selection. It is a Collie in miniature, no larger than a
Pomeranian, and it is perfectly hardy, wonderfully sagacious, and
decidedly beautiful. At first glance the dog might easily be mistaken
for a Belgian Butterfly dog, for its ears are somewhat large and
upstanding, with a good amount of feather about them; but upon closer
acquaintance the Collie shape and nature become more pronounced.

The body is long and set low, on stout, short legs, which end in
long-shaped, feathered feet. The tail is a substantial brush,
beautifully carried, and the coat is long and inclined to silkiness,
with a considerable neck-frill. The usual weight is from six to ten
pounds, the dog being of smaller size than the bitch. The prettiest
are all white, or white with rich sable markings, but many are black
and tan or all black. The head is short and the face not so aquiline
as that of the large Collie. The eyes are well proportioned to the
size of the head, and have a singularly soft round brightness,
reminding one of the eye of a woodcock or a snipe.

The Shetlanders use them with the sheep, and they are excellent little
workers, intelligent and very active, and as hardy as terriers. Dog
lovers in search of novelty might do worse than take up this
attractive and certainly genuine breed.



CHAPTER XLIX

PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT


Many people are deterred from keeping dogs by the belief that the
hobby is expensive and that it entails a profitless amount of trouble
and anxiety; but to the true dog-lover the anxiety and trouble are far
outbalanced by the pleasures of possession, and as to the expense,
that is a matter which can be regulated at will. A luxuriously
appointed kennel of valuable dogs, who are pampered into sickness,
may, indeed, become a serious drain upon the owner's banking account,
but if managed on business principles the occupation is capable of
yielding a very respectable income. One does not wish to see
dog-keeping turned into a profession, and there seems to be something
mean in making money by our pets; but the process of drafting is
necessary when the kennel is overstocked, and buying and selling are
among the interesting accessories of the game, second only to the
pleasurable excitement of submitting one's favourites to the judgment
of the show-ring. The delights of breeding and rearing should be their
own reward, as they usually are, yet something more than mere
pin-money can be made by the alert amateur who possesses a kennel of
acknowledged merit, and who knows how to turn it to account. A
champion ought easily to earn his own living: some are a source of
handsome revenue.

Occasionally one hears of very high prices being paid for dogs
acknowledged to be perfect specimens of their breed. For the St.
Bernard Sir Belvidere sixteen hundred pounds were offered. Plinlimmon
was sold for a thousand, the same sum that was paid for the Bulldog
Rodney Stone. For the Collies Southport Perfection and Ormskirk
Emerald Mr. Megson paid a thousand sovereigns each. Size is no
criterion of a dog's market value; Mrs. Ashton Cross is said to have
refused two thousand pounds for her celebrated Pekinese Chu-Erh, and
there are many lap-dogs now living that could not be purchased for
that high price. These are sums which only a competent judge with a
long purse would dream of paying for an animal whose tenure of active
life can hardly be more than eight or ten years, and already the dog's
value must have been attested by his success in competition. It
requires an expert eye to perceive the potentialities of a puppy, and
there is always an element of speculative risk for both buyer and
seller. Many a dog that has been sold for a song has grown to be a
famous champion. At Cruft's show in 1905 the Bulldog Mahomet was
offered for ten pounds. No one was bold enough to buy him, yet
eighteen months afterwards he was sold and considered cheap at a
thousand. Uncertainty adds zest to a hobby that is in itself engaging.

Thanks to the influence of the Kennel Club and the institution of dog
shows, which have encouraged the improvement of distinct breeds, there
are fewer nondescript mongrels in our midst than there were a
generation or so ago. A fuller knowledge has done much to increase the
pride which the British people take in their canine companions, and
our present population of dogs has never been equalled for good
quality in any other age or any other land.

The beginner cannot easily go wrong or be seriously cheated, but it is
well when making a first purchase to take the advice of an expert and
to be very certain of the dog's pedigree, age, temper, and condition.
The approved method of buying a dog is to select one advertised for
sale in the weekly journals devoted to the dog. A better way still, if
a dog of distinguished pedigree is desired, is to apply direct to a
well-known owner of the required breed, or to visit one of the great
annual shows, such as Cruft's, Manchester, The Ladies' Kennel
Association, The Kennel Club (Crystal Palace, in October), The
Scottish Kennel Club, or Birmingham, and there choose the dog from the
benches, buying him at his catalogue price.

In determining the choice of a breed it is to be remembered that some
are better watchdogs than others, some more docile, some safer with
children. The size of the breed should be relative to the accommodation
available. To have a St. Bernard or a Great Dane galumphing about a
small house is an inconvenience, and sporting dogs which require
constant exercise and freedom are not suited to the confined life of a
Bloomsbury flat. Nor are the long-haired breeds at their best
draggling round in the wet, muddy streets of a city. For town life the
clean-legged Terrier, the Bulldog, the Pug, and the Schipperke are to
be preferred. Bitches are cleaner in the house and more tractable than
dogs. The idea that they are more trouble than dogs is a fallacy. The
difficulty arises only twice in a twelvemonth for a few days, and if
you are watchful there need be no misadventure.

If only one dog, or two or three of the smaller kinds, be kept, there
is no imperative need for an outdoor kennel, although all dogs are the
better for life in the open air. The house-dog may be fed with
meat-scraps from the kitchen served as an evening meal, with rodnim or
a dry biscuit for breakfast. The duty of feeding him should be in the
hands of one person only. When it is everybody's and nobody's duty he
is apt to be neglected at one time and overfed at another. Regularity
of feeding is one of the secrets of successful dog-keeping. It ought
also to be one person's duty to see that he has frequent access to the
yard or garden, that he gets plenty of clean drinking water, plenty of
outdoor exercise, and a comfortable bed.

For the toy and delicate breeds it is a good plan to have a dog-room
set apart, with a suitable cage or basket-kennel for each dog.

Even delicate Toy dogs, however, ought not to be permanently lodged
within doors, and the dog-room is only complete when it has as an
annexe a grass plot for playground and free exercise. Next to
wholesome and regular food, fresh air and sunshine are the prime
necessaries of healthy condition. Weakness and disease come more
frequently from injudicious feeding and housing than from any other
cause. Among the free and ownerless pariah dogs of the East disease
is almost unknown.

For the kennels of our British-bred dogs, perhaps a southern or a
south-western aspect is the best, but wherever it is placed the kennel
must be sufficiently sheltered from rain and wind, and it ought to be
provided with a covered run in which the inmates may have full
liberty. An awning of some kind is necessary. Trees afford good
shelter from the sun-rays, but they harbour moisture, and damp must be
avoided at all costs. When only one outdoor dog is kept, a kennel can
be improvised out of a packing-case, supported on bricks above the
ground, with the entrance properly shielded from the weather. No dog
should be allowed to live in a kennel in which he cannot turn round at
full length. Properly constructed, portable, and well-ventilated
kennels for single dogs are not expensive and are greatly to be
preferred to any amateurish makeshift. A good one for a terrier need
not cost more than a pound. It is usually the single dog that suffers
most from imperfect accommodation. His kennel is generally too small
to admit of a good bed of straw, and if there is no railed-in run
attached he must needs be chained up. The dog that is kept on the
chain becomes dirty in his habits, unhappy, and savage. His chain is
often too short and is not provided with swivels to avert kinks. On a
sudden alarm, or on the appearance of a trespassing tabby, he will
often bound forward at the risk of dislocating his neck. The
yard-dog's chain ought always to be fitted with a stop link spring to
counteract the effect of the sudden jerk. The method may be employed
with advantage in the garden for several dogs, a separate rope being
used for each. Unfriendly dogs can thus be kept safely apart and still
be to some extent at liberty.

There is no obvious advantage in keeping a watch-dog on the chain
rather than in an enclosed compound, unless he is expected to go for a
possible burglar and attack him. A wire-netting enclosure can easily
be constructed at very little expense. For the more powerful dogs the
use of wrought-iron railings is advisable, and these can be procured
cheaply from Spratt's or Boulton and Paul's, fitted with gates and
with revolving troughs for feeding from the outside.

Opinions differ as to the best material for the flooring of kennels
and the paving of runs. Asphalte is suitable for either in mild
weather, but in summer it becomes uncomfortably hot for the feet,
unless it is partly composed of cork. Concrete has its advantages if
the surface can be kept dry. Flagstones are cold for winter, as also
are tiles and bricks. For terriers, who enjoy burrowing, earth is the
best ground for the run, and it can be kept free from dirt and buried
bones by a rake over in the morning, while tufts of grass left round
the margins supply the dogs' natural medicine. The movable sleeping
bench must, of course, be of wood, raised a few inches above the
floor, with a ledge to keep in the straw or other bedding. Wooden
floors are open to the objection that they absorb the urine; but dogs
should be taught not to foul their nest, and in any case a frequent
disinfecting with a solution of Pearson's or Jeyes' fluid should
obviate impurity, while fleas, which take refuge in the dust between
the planks, may be dismissed or kept away with a sprinkling of
paraffin. Whatever the flooring, scrupulous cleanliness in the kennel
is a prime necessity, and the inner walls should be frequently
limewashed. It is important, too, that no scraps of rejected food or
bones should be left lying about to become putrid or to tempt the
visits of rats, which bring fleas. If the dogs do not finish their
food when it is served to them, it should be removed until hunger
gives appetite for the next meal.

Many breeders of the large and thick-coated varieties, such as St.
Bernards, Newfoundlands, Old English Sheepdogs, and rough-haired
Collies, give their dogs nothing to lie upon but clean bare boards.
The coat is itself a sufficient cushion, but in winter weather straw
gives added warmth, and for short-haired dogs something soft, if it is
only a piece of carpet or a sack, is needed as a bed to protect the
hocks from abrasion.

With regard to feeding, this requires to be studied in relation to the
particular breed. One good meal a day, served by preference in the
evening, is sufficient for the adult if a dry dog-cake or a handful of
rodnim be given for breakfast, and perhaps a large bone to gnaw at.
Clean cold water must always be at hand in all weathers, and a drink
of milk coloured with tea is nourishing. Goat's milk is particularly
suitable for the dog: many owners keep goats on their premises to give
a constant supply. It is a mistake to suppose, as many persons do,
that meat diet provokes eczema and other skin troubles; the contrary
is the case. The dog is by nature a carnivorous animal, and wholesome
flesh, either cooked or raw, should be his staple food. Horseflesh,
which is frequently used in large establishments, is not so fully to
be relied upon as ordinary butcher meat. There is no serious objection
to bullocks' heads, sheeps' heads, bullocks' tripes and paunches and a
little liver given occasionally is an aperient food which most dogs
enjoy. But when it can be afforded, wholesome butcher's meat is
without question the proper food. Oatmeal porridge, rice, barley,
linseed meal, and bone meal ought only to be regarded as occasional
additions to the usual meat diet, and are not necessary when dog cakes
are regularly supplied. Well-boiled green vegetables, such as cabbage,
turnip-tops, and nettle-tops, are good mixed with the meat; potatoes
are questionable. Of the various advertised dog foods, many of which
are excellent, the choice may be left to those who are fond of
experiment, or who seek for convenient substitutes for the
old-fashioned and wholesome diet of the household. Sickly dogs require
invalid's treatment; but the best course is usually the simplest, and,
given a sound constitution to begin with, any dog ought to thrive if
he is only properly housed, carefully fed, and gets abundant exercise.



CHAPTER L

BREEDING AND WHELPING


The modern practice of dog-breeding in Great Britain has reached a
condition which may be esteemed as an art. At no other time, and in no
other country, have the various canine types been kept more rigidly
distinct or brought to a higher level of perfection. Formerly
dog-owners--apart from the keepers of packs of hounds--paid scant
attention to the differentiation of breeds and the conservation of
type, and they considered it no serious breach of duty to ignore the
principles of scientific selection, and thus contribute to the
multiplication of mongrels. Discriminate breeding was rare, and if a
Bulldog should mate himself with a Greyhound, or a Spaniel with a
Terrier, the alliance was regarded merely as an inconvenience. So
careless were owners in preventing the promiscuous mingling of alien
breeds that it is little short of surprising so many of our canine
types have been preserved in their integrity.

The elimination of the nondescript cur is no doubt largely due to the
work of the homes for lost dogs that are instituted in most of our
great towns. Every year some 26,000 homeless and ownerless canines are
picked up by the police in the streets of London, and during the
forty-seven years which have elapsed since the Dogs' Home at Battersea
was established, upwards of 800,000 dogs have passed through the
books, a few to be reclaimed or bought, the great majority to be put
to death. A very large proportion of these have been veritable
mongrels, not worth the value of their licences--diseased and maimed
curs, or bitches in whelp, turned ruthlessly adrift to be consigned to
the oblivion of the lethal chamber, where the thoroughbred seldom
finds its way. And if as many as 500 undesirables are destroyed every
week at one such institution, 'tis clear that the ill-bred mongrel
must soon altogether disappear. But the chief factor in the general
improvement of our canine population is due to the steadily growing
care and pride which are bestowed upon the dog, and to the scientific
skill with which he is being bred.

Admitting that the dogs seen at our best contemporary shows are
superlative examples of scientific selection, one has yet to
acknowledge that the process of breeding for show points has its
disadvantages, and that, in the sporting and pastoral varieties more
especially, utility is apt to be sacrificed to ornament and type, and
stamina to fancy qualities not always relative to the animal's
capacities as a worker. The standards of perfection and scales of
points laid down by the specialist clubs are usually admirable guides
to the uninitiated, but they are often unreasonably arbitrary in their
insistence upon certain details of form--generally in the neighbourhood
of the head--while they leave the qualities of type and character to
look after themselves or to be totally ignored.

It is necessary to assure the beginner in breeding that points are
essentially of far less moment than type and a good constitution. The
one thing necessary in the cultivation of the dog is to bear in mind
the purpose for which he is supposed to be employed, and to aim at
adapting or conserving his physique to the best fulfilment of that
purpose, remembering that the Greyhound has tucked-up loins to give
elasticity and bend to the body in running, that a Terrier is kept
small to enable him the better to enter an earth, that a Bulldog is
massive and undershot for encounters in the bullring, that the
Collie's ears are erected to assist him in hearing sounds from afar,
as those of the Bloodhound are pendant, the more readily to detect
sounds coming to him along the ground while his head is bent to the
trail. Nature has been discriminate in her adaptations of animal
forms; and the most perfect dog yet bred is the one which approaches
nearest to Nature's wise intention.

The foregoing chapters have given abundant examples of how the various
breeds of the dog have been acquired, manufactured, improved,
resuscitated, and retained. Broadly speaking, two methods have been
adopted: The method of introducing an outcross to impart new blood,
new strength, new character; and the method of inbreeding to retain an
approved type. An outcross is introduced when the breed operated upon
is declining in stamina or is in danger of extinction, or when some
new physical or mental quality is desired. New types and eccentricities
are hardly wanted, however, and the extreme requirements of an
outcross may nowadays be achieved by the simple process of selecting
individuals from differing strains of the same breed, mating a bitch
which lacks the required points with a dog in whose family they are
prominently and consistently present.

Inbreeding is the reverse of outcrossing. It is the practice of mating
animals closely related to each other, and it is, within limits, an
entirely justifiable means of preserving and intensifying family
characteristics. It is a law in zoology that an animal cannot transmit
a quality which it does not itself innately possess, or which none of
its progenitors has ever possessed. By mating a dog and a bitch of the
same family, therefore, you concentrate and enhance the uniform
inheritable qualities into one line instead of two, and you reduce the
number of possibly heterogeneous ancestors by exactly a half right
back to the very beginning. There is no surer way of maintaining
uniformity of type, and an examination of the extended pedigree of
almost any famous dog will show how commonly inbreeding is practised.
Inbreeding is certainly advantageous when managed with judgment and
discreet selection, but it has its disadvantages also, for it is to be
remembered that faults and blemishes are inherited as well as merits,
and that the faults have a way of asserting themselves with annoying
persistency. Furthermore, breeding between animals closely allied in
parentage is prone to lead to degeneracy, physical weakness, and
mental stupidity, while impotence and sterility are frequent
concomitants, and none but experienced breeders should attempt so
hazardous an experiment. Observation has proved that the union of
father with daughter and mother with son is preferable to an alliance
between brother and sister. Perhaps the best union is that between
cousins. For the preservation of general type, however, it ought to be
sufficient to keep to one strain and to select from that strain
members who, while exhibiting similar characteristics, are not
actually too closely allied in consanguinity. To move perpetually from
one strain to another is only to court an undesirable confusion of
type.

In founding a kennel it is advisable to begin with the possession of a
bitch. As a companion the female is to be preferred to the male; she
is not less affectionate and faithful, and she is usually much cleaner
in her habits in the house. If it is intended to breed by her, she
should be very carefully chosen and proved to be free from any serious
fault or predisposition to disease. Not only should her written
pedigree be scrupulously scrutinised, but her own constitution and
that of her parents on both sides should be minutely inquired into.

A bitch comes into season for breeding twice in a year; the first time
when she is reaching maturity, usually at the age of from seven to ten
months. Her condition will readily be discerned by the fact of an
increased attentiveness of the opposite sex and the appearance of a
mucous discharge from the vagina. She should then be carefully
protected from the gallantry of suitors. Dogs kept in the near
neighbourhood of a bitch on heat, who is not accessible to them, go
off their feed and suffer in condition. With most breeds it is unwise
to put a bitch to stud before she is eighteen months old, but Mr.
Stubbs recommends that a Bull bitch should be allowed to breed at her
first heat, while her body retains the flexibility of youth; and there
is no doubt that with regard to the Bulldog great mortality occurs in
attempting to breed from maiden bitches exceeding three years old. In
almost all breeds it is the case that the first three litters are the
best. It is accordingly important that a proper mating should be
considered at the outset, and a prospective sire selected either
through the medium of stud advertisements or by private arrangement
with the owner of the desired dog. For the payment of the requisite
stud fee, varying from a guinea to ten or fifteen pounds, the services
of the best dogs of the particular breed can usually be secured. It is
customary for the bitch to be the visitor, and it is well that her
visit should extend to two or three days at the least. When possible a
responsible person should accompany her.

If the stud dog is a frequenter of shows he can usually be depended
upon to be in sound physical condition. No dog who is not so can be
expected to win prizes. But it ought to be ascertained before hand
that he is what is known as a good stock-getter. The fee is for his
services, not for the result of them. Some owners of stud dogs will
grant two services, and this is often desirable, especially in the
case of a maiden bitch or of a stud dog that is over-wrought, as so
many are. It is most important that both the mated animals should be
free from worms and skin disorders. Fifty per cent. of the casualties
among young puppies are due to one or other of the parents having been
in an unhealthy condition when mated. A winter whelping is not
advisable. It is best for puppies to be born in the spring or early
summer, thus escaping the rigours of inclement weather.

During the period of gestation the breeding bitch should have ample
but not violent exercise, with varied and wholesome food, including
some preparation of bone meal; and at about the third week, whether
she seems to require it or not, she should be treated for worms. At
about the sixtieth day she will begin to be uneasy and restless. A
mild purgative should be given; usually salad oil is enough, but if
constipation is apparent castor oil may be necessary. On the
sixty-second day the whelps may be expected, and everything ought to
be in readiness for the event.

A coarsely constituted bitch may be trusted to look after herself on
these occasions; no help is necessary, and one may come down in the
morning to find her with her litter comfortably nestling at her side.
But with the Toy breeds, and the breeds that have been reared in
artificial conditions, difficult or protracted parturition is
frequent, and human assistance ought to be at hand in case of need.
The owner of a valuable Bull bitch, for example, would never think of
leaving her to her own unaided devices. All undue interference,
however, should be avoided, and it is absolutely necessary that the
person attending her should be one with whom she is fondly familiar.

In anticipation of a possibly numerous litter, a foster-mother should
be arranged for beforehand. Comfortable quarters should be prepared in
a quiet part of the house or kennels, warm, and free from draughts.
Clean bedding of wheaten straw should be provided, but the bitch
should be allowed to make her nest in her own instinctive fashion. Let
her have easy access to drinking water. She will probable refuse food
for a few hours before her time, but a little concentrated nourishment,
such as Brand's Essence or a drink of warm milk, should be offered to
her. In further preparation for the confinement a basin of water
containing antiseptic for washing in, towels, warm milk, a flask of
brandy, a bottle of ergotine, and a pair of scissors are commodities
which may all be required in emergency. The ergot, which must be used
with extreme caution and only when the labour pains have commenced, is
invaluable when parturition is protracted, and there is difficult
straining without result. Its effect is to contract the womb and expel
the contents. But when the puppies are expelled with ease it is
superfluous. For a bitch of 10 lb. in weight ten drops of the extract
of ergot in a teaspoonful of water should be ample, given by the
mouth. The scissors are for severing the umbilical cord if the mother
should fail to do it in her own natural way. Sometimes a puppy may be
enclosed within a membrane which the dam cannot readily open with
tongue and teeth. If help is necessary it should be given tenderly and
with clean fingers. Occasionally a puppy may seem to be inert and
lifeless, and after repeatedly licking it the bitch may relinquish all
effort at restoration and turn her attention to another that is being
born. In such a circumstance the rejected little one may be discreetly
removed, and a drop of brandy on the point of the finger smeared upon
its tongue may revive animation, or it may be plunged up to the neck
in warm water. The object should be to keep it warm and to make it
breathe. When the puppies are all born, their dam may be given a drink
of warm milk and then left alone to their toilet and to suckle them.
If any should be dead, these ought to be disposed of. Curiosity in
regard to the others should be temporarily repressed, and inspection
of them delayed until a more fitting opportunity. If any are then seen
to be malformed or to have cleft palates, these had better be removed
and mercifully destroyed.

It is the experience of many observers that the first whelps born in a
litter are the strongest, largest, and healthiest. If the litter is a
large one, the last born may be noticeably puny, and this disparity in
size may continue to maturity. The wise breeder will decide for
himself how many whelps should be left to the care of their dam. The
number should be relative to her health and constitution, and in any
case it is well not to give her so many that they will be a drain upon
her. Those breeds of dogs that have been most highly developed by man
and that appear to have the greatest amount of brain and intelligence
are generally the most prolific as to the number of puppies they
produce. St. Bernards, Pointers, Setters are notable for the usual
strength of their families. St. Bernards have been known to produce as
many as eighteen whelps at a birth, and it is no uncommon thing for
them to produce from nine to twelve. A Pointer of Mr. Barclay Field's
produced fifteen, and it is well known that Mr. Statter's Setter
Phoebe produced twenty-one at a birth. Phoebe reared ten of these
herself, and almost every one of the family became celebrated. It
would be straining the natural possibilities of any bitch to expect
her to bring up eighteen puppies healthily. Half that number would tax
her natural resources to the extreme. But Nature is extraordinarily
adaptive in tempering the wind to the shorn lamb, and a dam who gives
birth to a numerous litter ought not to have her family unduly
reduced. It was good policy to allow Phoebe to have the rearing of as
many as ten out of her twenty-one. A bitch having twelve will bring up
nine very well, one having nine will rear seven without help, and a
bitch having seven will bring up five better than four.

Breeders of Toy-dogs often rear the overplus offspring by hand, with
the help of a Maw and Thompson feeding-bottle, peptonised milk, and
one or more of the various advertised infants' foods or orphan puppy
foods. Others prefer to engage or prepare in advance a foster-mother.
The foster-mother need not be of the same breed, but she should be
approximately of similar size, and her own family ought to be of the
same age as the one of which she is to take additional charge. One can
usually be secured through advertisement in the canine press. Some
owners do not object to taking one from a dogs' home, which is an easy
method, in consideration of the circumstance that by far the larger
number of "lost" dogs are bitches sent adrift because they are in
whelp. The chief risk in this course is that the unknown foster-mother
may be diseased or verminous or have contracted the seeds of
distemper, or her milk may be populated with embryo worms. These are
dangers to guard against. A cat makes an excellent foster-mother for
Toy-dog puppies.

Worms ought not to be a necessary accompaniment of puppyhood, and if
the sire and dam are properly attended to in advance they need not be.
The writer has attended at the birth of puppies, not one of whom has
shown the remotest sign of having a worm, and the puppies have almost
galloped into healthy, happy maturity, protected from all the usual
canine ailments by constitutions impervious to disease. He has seen
others almost eaten away by worms. Great writhing knots of them have
been ejected; they have been vomited; they have wriggled out of the
nostrils; they have perforated the stomach and wrought such damage
that most of the puppies succumbed, and those that survived were
permanently deficient in stamina and liable to go wrong on the least
provocating. The puppy that is free from worms starts life with a
great advantage.



CHAPTER LI

SOME COMMON AILMENTS OF THE DOG AND THEIR TREATMENT


The experienced dog-owner has long ago realised that cleanliness,
wholesome food, judicious exercise and a dry, comfortable and
well-ventilated kennel are the surest safeguards of health, and that
attention to these necessaries saves him an infinitude of trouble and
anxiety by protecting his dogs from disease. On the first appearance
of illness in his kennels the wise dog-owner at once calls in the
skill of a good veterinary surgeon, but there are some of the minor
ailments which he can deal with himself whilst he ought at least to be
able to recognise the first symptoms of the dreaded Distemper and give
first aid until the vet. arrives to apply his remedies and give
professional advice.

DISTEMPER.

Although more than one hundred years have elapsed since this was
first imported to this country from France, a great amount of
misunderstanding still prevails among a large section of dog-breeders
regarding its true nature and origin. The fact is, the disease came to
us with a bad name, for the French themselves deemed it incurable. In
this country the old-fashioned plan of treatment was wont to be the
usual rough remedies--emetics, purgatives, the seton, and the lancet.
Failing in this, specifics of all sorts were eagerly sought for and
tried, and are unfortunately still believed in to a very great extent.

Distemper has a certain course to run, and in this disease Nature
seems to attempt the elimination of the poison through the secretions
thrown out by the naso-pharyngeal mucous membrane.

Our chief difficulty in the treatment of distemper lies in the
complications thereof. We may, and often do, have the organs of
respiration attacked; we have sometimes congestion of the liver, or
mucous inflammation of the bile ducts, or some lesion of the brain or
nervous structures, combined with epilepsy, convulsions, or chorea.
Distemper is also often complicated with severe disease of the bowels,
and at times with an affection of the eyes.

_Causes_--Whether it be that the distemper virus, the poison seedling
of the disease, really originates in the kennel, or is the result of
contact of one dog with another, or whether the poison floats to the
kennel on the wings of the wind, or is carried there on a shoe or the
point of a walking-stick, the following facts ought to be borne in
mind: (1) Anything that debilitates the body or weakens the nervous
system paves the way for the distemper poison; (2) the healthier the
dog the more power does he possess to resist contagion; (3) when the
disease is epizootic, it can often be kept at bay by proper attention
to diet and exercise, frequent change of kennel straw, and perfect
cleanliness; (4) the predisposing causes which have come more
immediately under my notice are debility, cold, damp, starvation,
filthy kennels, unwholesome food, impure air, and grief.

_The Age at which Dogs take Distemper_--They may take distemper at any
age; the most common time of life is from the fifth till the eleventh
or twelfth month.

_Symptoms_--There is, first and foremost, a period of latency or of
incubation, in which there is more or less of dullness and loss of
appetite, and this glides gradually into a state of feverishness. The
fever may be ushered in with chills and shivering. The nose now
becomes hot and dry, the dog is restless and thirsty, and the
conjunctivae of the eyes will be found to be considerably injected.
Sometimes the bowels are at first constipated, but they are more
usually irregular. Sneezing will also be frequent, and in some cases
cough, dry and husky at first. The temperature should be taken, and if
there is a rise of two or three degrees the case should be treated as
distemper, and not as a common cold.

At the commencement there is but little exudation from the eyes and
nose, but as the disease advances this symptom will become more
marked, being clear at first. So, too, will another symptom which is
partially diagnostic of the malady, namely, increased heat of body
combined with a rapid falling off in flesh, sometimes, indeed,
proceeding quickly on to positive emaciation.

As the disease creeps downwards and inwards along the air-passages,
the chest gets more and more affected, the discharge of mucus and pus
from the nostrils more abundant, and the cough loses its dry
character, becoming moist. The discharge from the eyes is simply mucus
and pus, but if not constantly dried away will gum the inflamed lids
together, that from the nostrils is not only purulent, but often mixed
with dark blood. The appetite is now clean gone, and there is often
vomiting and occasional attacks of diarrhoea.

Now in mild cases we may look for some abatement of the symptoms about
the fourteenth day. The fever gets less, inflammation decreases in the
mucous passages, and appetite is restored as one of the first signs of
returning health. More often, however, the disease becomes complicated.

_Diagnosis_--The diagnostic symptoms are the severe catarrh, combined
not only with fever, but speedy emaciation.

_Pneumonia_, as we might easily imagine, is a very likely complication,
and a very dangerous one. There is great distress in breathing, the
animal panting rapidly. The countenance is anxious, the pulse small
and frequent, and the extremities cold. The animal would fain sit up
on his haunches, or even seek to get out into the fresh air, but
sickness, weakness, and prostration often forbid his movements. If the
ear or stethoscope be applied to the chest, the characteristic signs
of pneumonia will be heard; these are sounds of moist crepitations,
etc.

_Bronchitis_ is probably the most common complication; in fact, it is
always present, except in very mild cases. The cough becomes more
severe, and often comes on in tearing paroxysms, causing sickness and
vomiting. The breathing is short and frequent, the mouth hot and
filled with viscid saliva, while very often the bowels are constipated.
If the liver becomes involved, we shall very soon have the jaundiced
eye and the yellow skin. _Diarrhoea_ is another very common
complication. We have frequent purging and, maybe, sickness and
vomiting. _Fits_ of a convulsive character are frequent concomitants
of distemper. _Epilepsy_ is sometimes seen, owing, no doubt, to
degeneration of the nerve centres caused by blood-poisoning. There are
many other complications, and skin complaints are common after it.

_Treatment_--This consists firstly in doing all in our power to guide
the specific catarrhal fever to a safe termination; and, secondly, in
watching for and combating complications. Whenever we see a young dog
ailing, losing appetite, exhibiting catarrhal symptoms, and getting
thin, with a rise in temperature, we should not lose an hour. If he be
an indoor dog, find him a good bed in a clean, well-ventilated
apartment, free from lumber and free from dirt. If it be summer, have
all the windows out or opened; if winter, a little fire will be
necessary, but have half the window opened at the same time; only take
precautions against his lying in a draught. Fresh air in cases of
distemper, and, indeed, in fevers of all kinds, cannot be too highly
extolled.

The more rest the dog has the better; he must be kept free from
excitement, and care must be taken to guard him against cold and wet
when he goes out of doors to obey the calls of Nature. The most
perfect cleanliness must be enjoined, and disinfectants used, such as
permanganate of potash, carbolic acid, Pearson's, or Izal. If the sick
dog, on the other hand, be one of a kennel of dogs, then quarantine
must be adopted. The hospital should be quite removed from the
vicinity of all other dogs, and as soon as the animal is taken from
the kennel the latter should be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected,
and the other dogs kept warm and dry, well fed, and moderately
exercised.

_Food and Drink_--For the first three or four days let the food be
light and easily digested. In order to induce the animal to take it,
it should be as palatable as possible. For small dogs you cannot have
anything better than milk porridge. [1] At all events, the dog must,
if possible, be induced to eat; he must not be "horned" unless there
be great emaciation; he must not over-eat, but what he gets must be
good. As to drink, dogs usually prefer clean cold water, and we cannot
do harm by mixing therewith a little plain nitre.

[1] Oatmeal porridge made with milk instead of water.

_Medicine_--Begin by giving a simple dose of castor oil, just enough
and no more than will clear out the bowels by one or two motions.
Drastic purgatives, and medicines such as mercury, jalap, aloes, and
podophyllyn, cannot be too highly condemned. For very small Toy dogs,
such as Italian Greyhounds, Yorkshire Terriers, etc., I should not
recommend even oil itself, but _manna_--one drachm to two drachms
dissolved in milk. By simply getting the bowels to act once or twice,
we shall have done enough for the first day, and have only to make
the dog comfortable for the night.

On the next day begin with a mixture such as the following: Solution
of acetate of ammonia, 30 drops to 120; sweet spirits of nitre, 15
drops to 60; salicylate of soda, 2 grains to 10. Thrice daily in a
little camphor water.

If the cough be very troublesome and the fever does not run very high,
the following may be substituted for this on the second or third day:
Syrup of squills, 10 drops to 60; tincture of henbane, 10 drops to 60;
sweet spirits of nitre, 10 drops to 60, in camphor water.

A few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid should be added to the dog's
drink, and two teaspoonfuls (to a quart of water) of the chlorate of
potash. This makes an excellent fever drink, especially if the dog can
be got to take decoction of barley--barley-water--instead of plain
cold water, best made of Keen and Robinson's patent barley.

If there be persistent sickness and vomiting, the medicine must be
stopped for a time. Small boluses of ice frequently administered will
do much good, and doses of dilute prussic acid, from one to four drops
in a little water, will generally arrest the vomiting.

If constipation be present, we must use no rough remedies to get rid
of it. A little raw meat cut into small pieces--minced, in fact--or a
small portion of raw liver, may be given if there be little fever; if
there be fever, we are to trust for a time to injections of plain
soap-and-water. Diarrhoea, although often a troublesome symptom, is,
it must be remembered, a salutary one. Unless, therefore, it becomes
excessive, do not interfere; if it does, give the simple chalk mixture
three times a day, but no longer than is needful.

The discharge from the mouth and nose is to be wiped away with a soft
rag--or, better still, some tow, which is afterwards to be
burned--wetted with a weak solution of carbolic. The forehead, eyes,
and nose may be fomented two or three times a day with moderately hot
water with great advantage.

It is not judicious to wet a long-haired dog much, but a short-haired
one may have the chest and throat well fomented several times a day,
and well rubbed dry afterwards. Heat applied to the chests of
long-haired dogs by means of a flat iron will also effect good.

The following is an excellent tonic: Sulphate of quinine, 1/8 to 3
grains; powdered rhubarb, 2 to 10 grains; extract of taraxacum, 3 to
20 grains; make a bolus. Thrice daily.

During convalescence good food, Virol, Spratts' invalid food and
invalid biscuit, moderate exercise, fresh air, and protection from
cold. These, with an occasional mild dose of castor oil or rhubarb,
are to be our sheet-anchors. I find no better tonic than the tablets
of Phosferine. One quarter of a tablet thrice daily, rolled in tissue
paper, for a Toy dog, up to two tablets for a dog of Mastiff size.

BRONCHITIS.

Dogs that have been exposed to wet, or that have been put to lie in a
damp or draughty kennel with insufficient food, are not less liable
than their masters to catch a severe cold, which, if not promptly
attended to, may extend downward to the lining membranes of bronchi or
lungs. In such cases there is always symptoms more or less of fever,
with fits of shivering and thirst, accompanied with dullness, a tired
appearance and loss of appetite. The breath is short, inspirations
painful, and there is a rattling of mucus in chest or throat. The most
prominent symptom, perhaps, is the frequent cough. It is at first dry,
ringing, and evidently painful; in a few days, however, or sooner, it
softens, and there is a discharge of frothy mucus with it, and, in the
latter stages, of pus and ropy mucus.

_Treatment_--Keep the patient in a comfortable, well-ventilated
apartment, with free access in and out if the weather be dry. Let the
bowels be freely acted upon to begin with, but no weakening discharge
from the bowels must be kept up. After the bowels have been moved we
should commence the exhibition of small doses of tartar emetic with
squills and opium thrice a day. If the cough is very troublesome, give
this mixture: Tincture of squills, 5 drops to 30; paregoric, 10 drops
to 60; tartar emetic, one-sixteenth of a grain to 1 grain; syrup and
water a sufficiency. Thrice daily.

We may give a full dose of opium every night. In mild cases carbonate
of ammonia may be tried; it often does good, the dose being from two
grains to ten in camphor water, or even plain water.

The chronic form of bronchitis will always yield, if the dog is young,
to careful feeding, moderate exercise, and the exhibition of cod-liver
oil with a mild iron tonic. The exercise, however, must be moderate,
and the dog kept from the water. A few drops to a teaspoonful of
paregoric, given at night, will do good, and the bowels should be kept
regular, and a simple laxative pill given now and then.

DIARRHOEA,

or looseness of the bowels, or purging, is a very common disease among
dogs of all ages and breeds. It is, nevertheless, more common among
puppies about three or four months old, and among dogs who have
reached the age of from seven to ten years. It is often symptomatic of
other ailments.

_Causes_--Very numerous. In weakly dogs exposure alone will produce
it. The weather, too, has no doubt much to do with the production of
diarrhoea. In most kennels it is more common in the months of July and
August, although it often comes on in the very dead of winter. Puppies,
if overfed, will often be seized with this troublesome complaint. A
healthy puppy hardly ever knows when it has had enough, and it will,
moreover, stuff itself with all sorts of garbage; acidity of the
stomach follows, with vomiting of the ingesta, and diarrhoea succeeds,
brought on by the acrid condition of the chyme, which finds its way
into the duodenum. This stuff would in itself act as a purgative, but
it does more, it abnormally excites the secretions of the whole
alimentary canal, and a sort of sub-acute mucous inflammation is set
up. The liver; too, becomes mixed up with the mischief, throws out a
superabundance of bile, and thus aids in keeping up the diarrhoea.

Among other causes, we find the eating of indigestible food, drinking
foul or tainted water, too much green food, raw paunches, foul kennels,
and damp, draughty kennels.

_Symptoms_--The purging is, of course, the principal symptom, and the
stools are either quite liquid or semi-fluid, bilious-looking,
dirty-brown or clay-coloured, or mixed with slimy mucus. In some cases
they resemble dirty water. Sometimes, as already said, a little blood
will be found in the dejection, owing to congestion of the mucous
membrane from liver obstruction. In case there be blood in the stools,
a careful examination is always necessary in order to ascertain the
real state of the patient. Blood, it must be remembered, might come
from piles or polypi, or it might be dysenteric, and proceed from
ulceration of the rectum and colon. In the simplest form of diarrhoea,
unless the disease continues for a long time, there will not be much
wasting, and the appetite will generally remain good but capricious.

In bilious diarrhoea, with large brown fluid stools and complete loss
of appetite, there is much thirst, and in a few days the dog gets
rather thin, although nothing like so rapidly as in the emaciation of
distemper.

_The Treatment_ will, it need hardly be said, depend upon the cause,
but as it is generally caused by the presence in the intestine of some
irritating matter, we can hardly err by administering a small dose of
castor oil, combining with it, if there be much pain--which you can
tell by the animal's countenance--from 5 to 20 or 30 drops of laudanum,
or of the solution of the muriate of morphia. This in itself will
often suffice to cut short an attack. The oil is preferable to rhubarb,
but the latter may be tried--the simple, not the compound powder--dose
from 10 grains to 2 drachms in bolus.

It the diarrhoea should continue next day, proceed cautiously--remember
there is no great hurry, and a sudden check to diarrhoea is at times
dangerous--to administer dog doses of the aromatic chalk and opium
powder, or give the following medicine three times a day: Compound
powdered catechu, 1 grain to 10; powdered chalk with opium, 3 grains
to 30. Mix. If the diarrhoea still continues, good may accrue from a
trial of the following mixture: Laudanum, 5 to 30 drops; dilute
sulphuric acid, 2 to 15 drops; in camphor water.

This after every liquid motion, or, if the motions may not be observed,
three times a day. If blood should appear in the stools give the
following: Kino powder, 1 to 10 grains; powder ipecac., 1/4 to 3
grains; powdered opium 1/2 to 2 grains. This may be made into a bolus
with any simple extract, and given three times a day.

The food is of importance. The diet should be changed; the food
requires to be of a non-stimulating kind, no meat being allowed, but
milk and bread, sago, or arrowroot or rice, etc. The drink either pure
water, with a pinch or two of chlorate and nitrate of potash in it, or
patent barley-water if the dog will take it.

The bed must be warm and clean, and free from draughts, and, in all
cases of diarrhoea, one cannot be too particular with the cleanliness
and disinfection of the kennels.

CONSTIPATION,

more commonly called costiveness, is also a very common complaint. It
often occurs in the progress of other diseases, but is just as often a
separate ailment.

Perhaps no complaint to which our canine friends are liable is less
understood by the non-professional dog doctor and by dog owners
themselves. Often caused by weakness in the coats of the intestine.
_The exhibition of purgatives can only have a temporary effect in
relieving the symptoms_, and is certain to be followed by reaction,
and consequently by further debility. Want of exercise and bath common
cause.

Youatt was never more correct in his life than when he said: "Many
dogs have a dry constipated habit, often greatly increased by the
bones on which they are fed. This favours the disposition to mange,
etc. It produces indigestion, encourages worms, blackens the teeth,
and causes fetid breath."

_Symptoms_--The stools are hard, usually in large round balls, and
defecation is accomplished with great difficulty, the animal often
having to try several times before he succeeds in effecting the act,
and this only after the most acute suffering. The faeces are generally
covered with white mucus, showing the heat and semi-dry condition of
the gut. The stool is sometimes so dry as to fall to pieces like so
much oatmeal.

There is generally also a deficiency of bile in the motions, and, in
addition to simple costiveness, we have more or less loss of appetite,
with a too pale tongue, dullness, and sleepiness, with slight redness
of the conjunctiva. Sometimes constipation alternates with diarrhoea,
the food being improperly commingled with the gastric and other juices,
ferments, spoils, and becomes, instead of healthy blood-producing
chyme, an irritant purgative.

_Treatment_--Hygienic treatment more than medicinal. Mild doses of
castor oil, compound rhubarb pill, or olive oil, may at first be
necessary. Sometimes an enema will be required if the medicine will
not act.

Plenty of exercise and a swim daily (with a good run after the swim),
or instead of the swim a bucket bath--water thrown over the dog.

Give oatmeal, rather than flour or fine bread, as the staple of his
diet, but a goodly allowance of meat is to be given as well, with
cabbage or boiled liver, or even a portion of raw liver. Fresh air and
exercise in the fields. You may give a bolus before dinner, such as
the following: Compound rhubarb pill, 1 to 5 grains; quinine, 1/8 to
2 grains; extract of taraxacum, 2 to 10 grains. Mix.

FITS.

Whatever be the cause, they are very alarming. In puppies they are
called Convulsions, and resemble epileptic fits. Keep the dog very
quiet, but use little force, simply enough to keep him from hurting
himself. Keep out of the sun, or in a darkened room. When he can
swallow give from 2 to 20 grains (according to size) of bromide of
potassium in a little camphor water thrice daily for a few days. Only
milk food. Keep quiet.

SKIN DISEASES.

In the whole range of dog ailments included in the term canine
pathology there are none more bothersome to treat successfully nor
more difficult to diagnose than those of the skin. There are none
either that afford the quack or patent-nostrum monger a larger field
for the practice of his fiendish gifts. If I were to be asked the
questions, "Why do dogs suffer so much from skin complaints?" and "Why
does it appear to be so difficult to treat them?" I should answer the
first thus: Through the neglect of their owners, from want of
cleanliness, from injudicious feeding, from bad kennelling, and from
permitting their favourites such free intercourse with other members
of the canine fraternity. Overcrowding is another and distinct source
of skin troubles.

My answer to the second question is that the layman too often treats
the trouble in the skin as if it were the disease itself, whereas it
is, generally, merely a symptom thereof. Examples: To plaster
medicated oils or ointments all over the skin of a dog suffering from
constitutional eczema is about as sensible as would be the painting
white of the yellow skin in jaundice in order to cure the disordered
liver.

But even those contagious diseases that are caused by skin germs or
animalcules will not be wholly cured by any applications whatever.
Constitutional remedies should go hand in hand with these. And, indeed,
so great is the defensive power of strong, pure blood, rich in its
white corpuscles or leucocytes, that I believe I could cure even the
worst forms of mange by internal remedies, good food, and tonics, etc.,
without the aid of any dressing whatever except pure cold water.

In treating of skin diseases it is usual to divide them into three
sections: (1) The non-contagious, (2) the contagious, and (3) ailments
caused by external parasites.

(1) The Non-Contagious.--(a) Erythema.--This is a redness, with slight
inflammation of the skin, the deeper tissues underneath not being
involved. _Examples_--That seen between the wrinkles of well-bred Pugs,
Mastiffs, or Bulldogs, or inside the thighs of Greyhounds, etc. If the
skin breaks there may be discharges of pus, and if the case is not
cured the skin may thicken and crack, and the dog make matters worse
with his tongue.

_Treatment_--Review and correct the methods of feeding. A dog should
be neither too gross nor too lean. Exercise, perfect cleanliness, the
early morning sluice-down with cold water, and a quassia tonic. He may
need a laxative as well.

_Locally_--Dusting with oxide of zinc or the violet powder of the
nurseries, a lotion of lead, or arnica. Fomentation, followed by cold
water, and, when dry, dusting as above. A weak solution of boracic
acid (any chemist) will sometimes do good.

(b) Prurigo.--Itching all over, with or without scurf. Sometimes
thickening.

_Treatment_--Regulation of diet, green vegetables, fruit if he will
take it, brushing and grooming, but never roughly. Try for worms and
for fleas.

(c) Eczema.--The name is not a happy one as applied to the usual
itching skin disease of dogs. Eczema proper is an eruption in which
the formed matter dries off into scales or scabs, and dog eczema,
so-called, is as often as not a species of lichen. Then, of course, it
is often accompanied with vermin, nearly always with dirt, and it is
irritated out of all character by the biting and scratching of the dog
himself.

_Treatment_--Must be both constitutional and local. Attend to the
organs of digestion. Give a moderate dose of opening medicine, to
clear away offending matter. This simple aperient may be repeated
occasionally, say once a week, and if diarrhoea be present it may be
checked by the addition of a little morphia or dilute sulphuric acid.
Cream of tartar with sulphur is an excellent derivative, being both
diuretic and diaphoretic, but it must not be given in doses large
enough to purge. At the same time we may give thrice daily a tonic
pill like the following:--

Sulphate of quinine, 1/8 to 3 grains; sulphate of iron, 1/2 grain to 5
grains; extract of hyoscyamus, 1/8 to 3 grains; extract of taraxacum
and glycerine enough to make a pill.

_Locally_--Perfect cleanliness. Cooling lotions patted on to the sore
places. Spratts' Cure. (N.B.--I know what every remedy contains, or I
should not recommend it.) Benzoated zinc ointment after the lotion has
dried in. Wash carefully once a week, using the ointment when skin is
dry, or the lotion to allay irritation.

(2) Contagious Skin Diseases.--These are usually called mange proper
and follicular mange, or scabies. I want to say a word on the latter
first. It depends upon a microscopic animalcule called the _Acarus
folliculorum_. The trouble begins by the formation of patches, from
which the hair falls off, and on which may be noticed a few pimples.
Scabs form, the patches extend, or come out on other parts of the body,
head, legs, belly, or sides. Skin becomes red in white-haired dogs.
Odour of this trouble very offensive. More _pain_ than itching seems
to be the symptomatic rule. Whole body may become affected.

_Treatment_--Dress the affected parts twice a week with the
following:--

Creosote, 2 drachms; linseed oil, 7 ounces; solution of potash, 1
ounce. First mix the creosote and oil, then add the solution and shake.
Better to shave the hair off around the patches. Kennels must be kept
clean with garden soap and hot water, and all bedding burned after use.
From three months to six will be needed to cure bad cases.

Mange Proper is also caused by a parasite or acarus, called the
_Sarcops canus_. Unlike eczema, this mange is spread from dog to dog
by touch or intercommunication, just as one person catches the itch
from another.

_The Symptoms_--At first these may escape attention, but there are
vesicles which the dog scratches and breaks, and thus the disease
spreads. The hair gets matted and falls off. Regions of the body most
commonly affected, head, chest, back, rump, and extremities. There may
not be much constitutional disturbance from the actual injury to the
skin, but from his suffering so much from the irritation and the want
of rest the health suffers.

_Treatment_--Avoid the use of so-called disinfectants. Most of those
sold as such are simply deodorisers, and, applied to the skin, are
useless. Nor are they of much use in cleaning the kennels. Nothing
suits better for woodwork than, first, carbolic wash, and then a
thorough scrubbing with hot water and garden soap.

Some ointment must be used to the skin, and as I am writing for laymen
only I feel chary in recommending such strong ones as the green iodide
of mercury. If you do use it mix it with twice its bulk of the
compound sulphur ointment. Do over only a part or two at a time. The
dog to be washed after three days. But the compound sulphur ointment
itself is a splendid application, and it is not dangerous.

(3) Skin Complaints from Vermin.--The treatment is obvious--get rid of
the cause.

_As their diagnosis is so difficult, whenever the dog-owner is in
doubt, make certain by treating the dog not only by local applications
but constitutionally as well_. In addition to good diet, perfect
cleanliness of coat, kennel, and all surroundings, and the application
of the ointment or oil, let the dog have all the fresh air possible,
and exercise, but never over-exciting or too fatiguing. Then a course
of arsenic seldom fails to do good.

I do not believe in beginning the exhibition of arsenic too soon. I
prefer paying my first attentions to the digestive organs and state of
the bowels. The form of exhibition which I have found suit as well as
any is the _tasteless Liquor arsenicalis_. It is easily administered.
It ought to be given mixed with the food, as it ought to enter the
blood with the chyle from the diet. It ought, day by day, to be
gradually, not hurriedly, increased. Symptoms of loathing of food and
redness of conjunctiva call for the cessation of its use for two or
three days at least, when it is to be recommended at the same size of
dose given when left off.

There are two things which assist the arsenic, at least to go well
with it; they are, iron in some form and Virol. The latter will be
needed when there is much loss of flesh. A simple pill of sulphate of
iron and extract of liquorice may be used. Dose of _Liquor arsenicalis_
from 1 to 6 drops _ter die_ to commence with, gradually increased to 5
to 20 drops.

Dandruff.--A scaly or scurfy condition of the skin, with more or less
of irritation. It is really a shedding of the scaly epidermis brought
on by injudicious feeding or want of exercise as a primary cause. The
dog, in cases of this kind, needs cooling medicines, such as small
doses of the nitrate and chlorates of potash, perhaps less food.
Bowels to be seen to by giving plenty of green food, with a morsel of
sheep's melt or raw liver occasionally. Wash about once in three weeks,
a very little borax in the last water, say a drachm to a gallon. Use
mild soap. Never use a very hard brush or sharp comb. Tar soap
(Wright's) may be tried.

PARASITES--INTERNAL.

WORMS.

We have, roughly speaking, two kinds of worms to treat in the dog:
(1) the round, and (2) the tape.

(1) _Round-worms_--They are in shape and size not unlike the garden
worm, but harder, pale, and pointed.

_Symptoms_--Sometimes these are alarming, for the worm itself is
occasionally seized with the mania for foreign travel, and finds its
way into the throat or nostrils, causing the dog to become perfectly
furious, and inducing such pain and agony that it may seem charity to
end its life. The worms may also crawl into the stomach, and give rise
to great irritation, but are usually dislodged therefrom by the
violence accompanying the act of vomiting.

Their usual habitat, however, is the small intestines, where they
occasion great distress to their host. The appetite is always depraved
and voracious. At times there is colic, with sickness and perhaps
vomiting, and the bowels are alternately constipated or loose. The
coat is harsh and staring, there usually is short, dry cough from
reflex irritation of the bronchial mucous membrane, a bad-smelling
breath and emaciation or at least considerable poverty of flesh.

The disease is most common in puppies and in young dogs. The appearance
of the ascaris in the dog's stools is, of course, _the_ diagnostic
symptom.

_Treatment_--I have cured many cases with santonin and areca-nut
powder (betel-nut), dose 10 grains to 2 drachms; or turpentine, dose
from 10 drops to 1-1/2 drachms, beaten up with yolk of egg.

But areca-nut does better for tape-worm, so we cannot do better than
trust to pure santonin. The dose is from 1 grain for a Toy up to 6
grains for a Mastiff. Mix it with a little butter, and stick it well
back in the roof of the dog's mouth. He must have fasted previously
for twelve hours, and had a dose of castor oil the day before. In four
or five hours after he has swallowed the santonin, let him have a dose
of either olive oil or decoction of aloes. Dose, 2 drachms to 2 ounces
or more. Repeat the treatment in five days. Spratts' cure may be
safely depended on for worms. [1]

[1] Many dog owners swear by the preparation called Ruby, which can be
recommended as a cure for worms.--Ed.

The perfect cleanliness of the kennel is of paramount importance.

The animal's general health requires looking after, and he may be
brought once more into good condition by proper food and a course of
vegetable tonics. If wanted in show condition we have Plasmon to fall
back upon, and Burroughs and Wellcome's extract of malt.

There is a round-worm which at times infests the dog's bladder, and
may cause occlusion of the urethra; a whip-worm inhabiting the caecum;
another may occupy a position in the mucous membrane of the stomach;
some infest the blood, and others the eye.

(2) _Tape-worms_--There are several kinds, but the treatment is the
same in all cases. The commonest in the country is the Cucumerine.

This is a tape-worm of about fifteen inches in average length,
although I have taken them from Newfoundland pups fully thirty inches
long. It is a semi-transparent entozoon; each segment is long compared
to its breadth, and narrowed at both ends. Each joint has, when
detached, an independent sexual existence.

The dog often becomes infested with this parasite from eating sheeps'
brains, and dogs thus afflicted and allowed to roam at pleasure over
fields and hills where sheep are fed sow the seeds of gid in our
flocks to any extent. We know too well the great use of Collie dogs to
the shepherd or grazier to advise that dogs should not be employed as
assistants, but surely it would be to their owners' advantage to see
that they were kept in a state of health and cleanliness.

_Treatment_--We ought to endeavour to prevent as well as to cure. We
should never allow our dogs to eat the entrails of hares or rabbits.
Never allow them to be fed on raw sheep's intestines, nor the brains
of sheep. Never permit them to lounge around butchers' shops, nor eat
offal of any kind. Let their food be well cooked, and their skins and
kennels kept scrupulously clean. Dogs that are used for sheep and
cattle ought, twice a year at least, to go under treatment for the
expulsion of worms, whether they are infested or not; an anthelmintic
would make sure, and could hardly hurt them.

For the expulsion of tape-worms we depend mostly on areca-nut. In
order that the tape-worm should receive the full benefit of the remedy,
we order a dose of castor oil the day before in the morning, and
recommend no food to be given that day except beef-tea or mutton broth.
The bowels are thus empty next morning, so that the parasite cannot
shelter itself anywhere, and is therefore sure to be acted on.

Infusion of cusco is sometimes used as an anthelmintic, so is wormwood,
and the liquid extract of male fern, and in America spigelia root and
pumpkin seeds.

The best tonic to give in cases of worms is the extract of quassia.

Extract of quassia, 1 to 10 grains; extract of hyoscyamus, 1/2 to 5
grains. To make one pill. Thrice daily.

PARASITES.--EXTERNAL.

FLEAS.

Washing with Spratts' medicated soap. Extra clean kennels. Dusting
with Keating, and afterwards washing. This may not kill the fleas, but
it drives them off. Take the dog on the grass while dusting, and begin
along the spine. Never do it in the house.

TICKS.

I have noticed these disagreeable bloodsuckers only on the heads and
bodies of sporting or Collie dogs, who had been boring for some time
through coverts and thickets. They soon make themselves visible, as
the body swells up with the blood they suck until they resemble small
soft warts about as big as a pea. They belong to the natural family,
_Ixodiadae_.

_Treatment_--If not very numerous they should be cut off, and the part
touched with a little turps. The sulphuret of calcium will also kill
them, so will the more dangerous white precipitate, or even a strong
solution of carbolic acid, which must be used sparingly, however.

LICE.

The lice are hatched from nits, which we find clinging in rows, and
very tenaciously too, to the hairs. The insects themselves are more
difficult to find, but they are on puppies sometimes in thousands. To
destroy them I have tried several plans. Oil is very effectual, and
has safety to recommend it. Common sweet oil is as good a cure as any,
and you may add a little oil of anise and some sublimed sulphur, which
will increase the effect. Quassia water may be used to damp the coat.
The matted portions of a long-haired dog's coat must be cut off with
scissors, for there the lice often lurk. The oil dressing will not
kill the nits, so that vinegar must be used. After a few days the
dressing must be repeated, and so on three or four times. To do any
good, the whole of the dog's coat must be drenched in oil, and the dog
washed with good dog soap and warm water twelve hours afterwards.



CHAPTER LII

THE DOG AND THE LAW


PRIVILEGES OF FIRST BITE

It is popularly, but rather erroneously, supposed that _every_ dog is
entitled to one bite. Perhaps it would be more accurate to state that
every dog may with impunity have one snap or one intended bite, but
only dogs of hitherto irreproachable character are permitted the
honour of a genuine tasteful bite.

Once a dog, however, has displayed dangerous propensities, even though
he has never had the satisfaction of effecting an actual bite, and
once his owner or the person who harbours him becomes aware of these
evil inclinations (scienter) either of his own knowledge or by notice,
the Law looks upon such dog as a dangerous beast which the owner keeps
at his peril.

The onus of proof is on the victim to show that the owner had previous
knowledge of the animal's ferocity, though in reality very little
evidence of scienter is as a rule required, and notice need not
necessarily be given directly to the owner, but to any person who has
charge of the dog.

The person attacked has yet another remedy. He can, if he is able,
kill the dog before it can bite him, but he is not justified in
shooting the animal as it runs away, even _after_ being bitten.

By 28 and 29 Vict., c. 60, the owner of a dog which attacks sheep or
cattle--and cattle includes horses--is responsible for all damage, and
there is no necessity to prove previous evil propensities. This Act is
wholly repealed by the Act called the Dogs' Act, 1906, which came into
force on January 1st, 1907, but the new Act re-enacts the section
having reference to damage to cattle, and says that in such cases it
is not necessary for the persons claiming damages to show a previous
mischievous propensity in the dog or the owner's knowledge of such
previous propensity or to show that the injury was attributable to
neglect on the part of the owner; the word "cattle" includes horses,
asses, sheep, goats, and swine.

The Law looks upon fighting between dogs as a natural and necessary
incident in the career of every member of the canine race, and gives
no redress to the owner of the vanquished animal, provided the fight
was a fair one, and the contestants appear to consider it so. The
owner, however, of a peaceably disposed dog which is attacked and
injured, or killed, by one savage and unrestrained, has a right of
action against the owner of the latter. The owner of the peaceably
disposed animal may justifiably kill the savage brute in order to save
his dog, but he must run the risk of being able to prove that this was
the only means of putting a stop to the fight.

LICENCES

Every dog owner must annually take out a licence for each dog he
keeps. The licence, which is obtainable at all post-offices at the
cost of 7s. 6d., is dated to run from the hour it is taken out until
the following 31st December. The person in whose custody or upon whose
premises the dog is found will be deemed its owner until proved
otherwise.

The owners of certain dogs for certain purposes are, however, exempted
from taking out licences, viz.: (1) Dogs under the age of six months;
(2) hounds under twelve months old neither used nor hunted with the
pack, provided that the Master has taken out proper licences for all
hounds entered in the pack; (3) one dog kept and used by a blind
person solely for his or her guidance; (4) dogs kept and used solely
for the purpose of tending sheep or cattle or in the exercise of the
occupation or calling of a shepherd.

MUZZLING REGULATIONS

Under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Acts, 1878-1894, local
authorities (_i.e._, county, borough, or district councils) were
empowered to issue orders regulating the muzzling of dogs in public
places and the keeping of dogs under control (otherwise than by
muzzling). Offenders under these Acts are liable to a fine not
exceeding P20.

The Statute 57 and 58 Vict., c. 57, gives the Board of Agriculture
power to make orders for muzzling dogs, keeping them under control,
and the detention and disposal of stray dogs; and section 2 of the
Dogs Act, 1906 (known by some as the Curfew Bell Act), says that the
Diseases of Animals Act, 1894, shall have effect:

(a) For prescribing and regulating the wearing by dogs while in a
highway or in a place of public resort of a collar with the name and
address of the owner inscribed on the collar or on a plate or badge
attached thereto:

(b) With a view to the prevention of worrying of cattle for preventing
dogs or any class of dogs from straying during all or any of the hours
between sunset and sunrise.

STRAY DOGS

The Dogs Act, 1906, has some important sections dealing with seizure
of stray dogs, and enacts that where a police officer has reason to
believe that any dog found in a highway or place of public resort is a
stray dog, he may seize and retain it until the owner has claimed it
and paid all expenses incurred by reason of its detention. If the dog
so seized wears a collar on which is the address of any person, or if
the owner of the dog is known, then the chief officer of police or
some person authorised by him in that behalf shall serve on either
such person a notice in writing stating that the dog has been seized,
and will be sold or destroyed if not claimed within seven clear days
of the service of the notice.

Failing the owner putting in an appearance and paying all expenses of
detention within the seven clear days, then the chief officer of
police or any person authorised by him may cause the dog to be sold,
or destroyed in a manner to cause as little pain as possible. The
police must keep a proper register of all dogs seized, and every such
register shall be open to inspection at all reasonable times by any
member of the public on payment of a fee of one shilling, and the
police may transfer such dog to any establishment for the reception of
stray dogs, but only if there is a proper register kept at such
establishment open to inspection by the public on payment of a fee not
exceeding one shilling.

Another section enacts that any person who takes possession of a stray
dog shall forthwith either return the dog to its owner or give notice
in writing to the chief officer of police of the district where the
dog was found, containing a description of the dog and stating the
place where the dog was found, and the place where he is being
detained, and any person failing to comply with the provisions of this
section shall be liable on conviction under the Summary Jurisdiction
Acts to a fine not exceeding forty shillings.

IMPORTATION OF DOGS

The power of making Orders dealing with the importation of dogs is
vested in the Board of Agriculture, who have absolute authority in the
matter.

The initial step to be taken by a person wishing to import any dog
into Great Britain from any other country excepting Ireland, the
Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, is that he must fill up an
application form to the said Board, which he has previously obtained
from them, in which he applies for a licence to land the dog under the
conditions imposed by the Board, which he undertakes to obey.

On the form he has to give a full description of the dog, the name and
address of the owner, the proposed port of landing, and the approximate
date of landing, and further from lists which he will receive from the
Board he must select the carrying agents he proposes should superintend
the movement of the dog from the port of landing to the place of
detention, and also the premises of a veterinary surgeon on which he
proposes the dog shall be detained and isolated as required by the
Order. An imported dog must be landed and taken to its place of
detention in a suitable box, hamper, crate or other receptacle, and as
a general rule has to remain entirely isolated for a period of six
months.

MOTOR CARS AND DOGS

Unquestionably the greatest enemy that the dog possesses at the
present time is the motor car.

Presuming the owner of the dog is fortunate enough to know whose car
it was that ran over his dog, and to have some evidence of excessive
or unreasonable speed or other negligence on the part of the car
driver at the time of the accident, he will find the law ever ready to
assist him. A dog has every bit as much right to the high road as a
motor car. Efforts have been made on the part of motor owners to get
the Courts to hold that dogs on a high road are only under proper
control if on a "lead," and that if they are not on a "lead" the owner
of them is guilty of negligence in allowing his dog to stroll about,
and therefore is not entitled to recover: such efforts have not been
successful. Even supposing a Court to hold that the fact of a dog
being loose in this way or unaccompanied was evidence of negligence
against his owner this would by no means defeat his owner's claim, for
the law is, that though a plaintiff may have been negligent in some
such way as this, yet if the defendant could, by the exercise of
reasonable care, have avoided the accident, the plaintiff can still
recover. There are several cases that decide this valuable principle.



INDEX


Airedale Terrier
  Assyrian Sculpture and Dog
  --Mastiff

Basset-Hound
  Beagle
  Bedlington Terrier
  Bible, Dog in The
  Black and Tan Terrier
  Blenheim Spaniel
  Bloodhound
  Borzoi
  Breeding:
    Bulldog
    Newfoundland
    Borzoi
    Dachshund
    Smooth Fox-Terrier
    Dandie Dinmont
    King Charles Spaniel
    General Notes
  Bronchitis
  Brussels Griffon
  Bulldog
  --Miniature
  --French
  Bull-terrier
  ----Toy

Chow Chow
  Clumber Spaniel
  Clydesdale Terrier
  Cocker Spaniel
  Collie
  Constipation
  Coursing

Dachshund
  Dalmatian
  Dandie Dinmont
  Deerhound
  Diarrhoea
  Distemper

English Terrier, White
  English Water Spaniel
  Egypt, Dog in

Feeding
  Field Spaniel
  First Bite, Privileges of
  Fits
  Fleas
  Fox as progenitor of the Dog
  Foxhound
  Fox-terrier, Smooth
  --Wire-hair

Great Dane
  Greeks, Dogs and Ancient
  Greyhound
  --Italian

Harrier

Importation if Dogs
  Irish Terrier
  Irish Water Spaniel
  Italian Greyhound

Jackal as progenitor of Dog
  Japanese Spaniel

Kennels and their management
  King Charles Spaniel

Labrador, The
  Law, Dog and the
  Licences

Maltese Dog
  Manchester Terrier
  --Miniature
  Mange
  Mastiff, Assyrian
  --English
  Miniature Breeds:
    Bulldog
    French Bulldog
    Poodle
    Pomeranian
    Black and Tan Terrier
    Toy Bull-terrier
    Italian Greyhound
    Shetland Sheepdog
  Motor Cars and Dogs
  Muzzling Regulations

Newfoundland

Origin of the Dog
  Otterhound

Pekinese
  Phoenicians, and Dogs
  Pointer
  Pomeranian
  Poodle
  --Toy White
  Primitive Man and Dog
  Pug
  Puppies, Treatment of:
    Mastiff
    Bulldog
    Newfoundland
    Great Dane
    Old English Sheepdog
    Poodle
    Borzoi
    Dachshund
    King Charles Spaniel
    Pekinese
    Brussels Griffon
    General Notes

Retriever, Flat-Coated
  --Curly
  Rome, Dogs and Ancient

Samoyede
  Schipperke
  Scottish Terrier
  Setter, English
  --Irish
  --Black and Tan
  Sheepdog, Old English
  Shetland Sheepdog
  Skin Diseases
  Skye Terrier
  Spaniel Family, The
  Spaniel, Irish Water
  --English
  --Clumber
  --Sussex
  --Field
  --English Springer
  --Welsh Springer
  --Cocker
  --King Charles
  Springer, English
  --Welsh
  St. Bernard
  Stray Dogs
  Sussex Spaniel

Terrier, Old Working
  --White English
  --Black and Tan
  --Bull-
  --Smooth Fox-
  --Wire-hair Fox-
  --Airedale
  --Bedlington
  --Irish
  --Welsh
  --Scottish
  --West Highland White
  --Dandie Dinmont
  --Skye, and Clydesdale
  --Yorkshire

Toy Dogs:
  Pomeranian
  Poodle, White
  King Charles Spaniel
  Pekinese and Japanese
  Maltese and Pug
  Brussels Griffon
  Miniature Black and Tan,
    Bull-terrier, Italian Greyhound
    and Shetland Sheepdog

Waterloo Cup
  Welsh Terrier
  West Highland White Terrier
  Whippet
  Wolf as progenitor of Dog
  Wolfhound, Irish
  --Russian (Borzoi)
  Worm, Treatment for

Yorkshire Terrier





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