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Title: Rouen, It's History and Monuments - A Guide to Strangers
Author: Licquet, Théodore, 1787-1832
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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With a Map of the Town and Five Views.


Near the suspension Bridge.

Price: 2 Francs.


Histoire du Parlemant de Normandie, précédée d'un Essai historique sur
l'échiquier; par A. Floquet. 6 vols. 8vo. Price, 36 fr.

Chronique des Abbés de Saint-Ouen, publiée d'après un MS. de la
Bibliothèque du Roi, par Francisque Michel, 4to, with a view of the
abbey. Price, 10 fr.

Printed by I.-S. LEFEVRE, successor to F. BAUDRY, 20, rue des Carmes,



Cæsar, in his Commentaries does not speak of Rouen; Pomponius Mela, does
not mention it in his Geography; Ptolemy is the first author who has
noticed it. This observation alone will shew the absurdity of the
numerous etymologies assigned to its name of Rothomagus, of which we
have made Rouen. The least unlikely are those which have been taken from
the primitive language of the country; but, even then we can only form
conjectures more or less vague, as, in deriving Rothomagus from two
celtic words, some have considered that this name signifies a great
town; others, a town on the bank of a river; while others again a town
where duties were paid.

Ptolemy then gives us a commencement to the history of Rouen. In his
lifetime, that is to say, during the first part of the second-century,
Rouen bore the name of Rothomagus; it was the capital of the country of
the Velocasses.

If Rouen, as a town of Gaul, is little known to us, Rouen as a Roman
town is more so. Its existence is no longer doubtful; its importance
even is proved. All suppositions join to make one think that the Romans
were the first who erected external fortifications round the town.
Remains of walls evidently built by that people, were discovered in 1789
in the cellars of a house which had been built on the edge of the first
ditch[1]. These buildings extended westward even under the church of
Saint-Lo, and it is very probable that they joined towards the east with
other remains of roman architecture, found in digging the foundations of
another house, no 2, rue de la Chaîne.

Here then, is the first boundary of Rouen under the Romans, and
drawn-out by them: _on the south_ the Seine, the waters of which at this
time, came as high as the line occupied at present by the rue des
Bonnetiers, the place de la Calende, that of Notre-Dame on its southern
portion, and thus along to the extremity of the rue aux Ours. _On the
north_, the ditch which existed the whole length of the streets de
l'Aumône, and Fossés-Louis-VIII, that is to say, from the river Robec at
the east, to the rue de la Poterne at the west. From the latter point
draw a line in a southern direction passing across the Mew-Market, the
rue Massacre and the rue des Vergetiers, to the rue aux Ours and you
will have the _western limit_. The _eastern limit_ is naturally marked
out by the course of the Robec. The town maintained this boundary till
the Xth century, the period of the establishment of Rollon, in this
portion of Neustria to which the Normans gave their name.

I have already said, that Rouen, was an important town under the Romans,
and this truth is proved, by the fact. It does not figures, it is true,
in the notice of the dignities of the Empire, as the seat of a superior
magistrate, but, nevertheless it is spoken of, as a town having a
garrison; and, it was there that the _præfectus militum Ursariensium_
or, as we should say in English, the colonel of the regiment of the
Ursarians, resided.

The ecclesiastical annals also, prove the importance of Rouen at this
period. We find, in fact, during the first ages of christianity, the
apostles coming into Gaul, going to Rouen, and fixing their abode in a
principal town that the sacred word might be more easily spread thro'
the surrounding country.

As Saint-Nicaise did not come to Rouen, we must consider Saint-Mellon,
as its most ancient bishop. The erection, or the consecration of a first
chapel in Rouen, under the patronage of the virgin, is the only
important event which the life of this prelate contains. As to the
destruction of a temple dedicated to the pretended idol Roth, I think I
have proved in an other work[2], first, that there never existed an idol
of that name, neither was the temple situated on the ground occupied by
the church of Saint-Lo; secondly, that this temple was demolished by
Saint-Romain, nearly four hundred years later.

Nothing very remarkable happened at Rouen, under the successors of
Saint-Mellon, until Saint-Victrice. But, here commences a new era for
the town. Its population increases, its reputation extends, the temples
of the true god are multiplied; even Saint-Victrice himself works in
their erection: «He rolls the stones with his own hands, he carries them
on his shoulders.»

This town continued its career peaceably during nearly a century, until
Saint-Godard succeeded to the episcopate. Then we come to a great
historical transition.

Roman power had been long struggling against the encroachments of the
Francs in Gaul. Clovis, conquers the provinces situated between the
Somme, the Seine and the Aisne; the monarchy commences, and Rouen
becomes a French town.

To Saint-Godard who died in 529, Flavius succeeded the same year. The
first foundation by Clotaire I, of the abbey of Saint-Peter, now
Saint-Ouen, about the year 540, is attributed to him.

After Flavius, came Pretextat, whose name alone reminds us of those of
two women, unfortunately too celebrated, Fredégonde and Brunehaut. The
latter had been exiled to Rouen, by Chilperic, king of Soissons.
Merovee, son of Chilperic, loved Brunehaut and was loved by her. He came
to Rouen, and married his mistress; Pretextat blessed their union.
Chilperic arrives and the two lovers take refuge in the church of
Saint-Martin-sur-Renelle, a wooden building, on the wall of the town. It
is to Gregory of Tours that we owe this information which is valuable,
in as much, as it makes us acquainted with the limits of Rouen on the
north-west side at this period.

Fredegonde did not pardon Pretextat; she caused him to be murdered,
during mass, in the Cathedral.

The episcopate of Melance and of Hidulfe, the successors to Pretextat,
offers no very particular circumstances. That of Saint-Romain, is much
more remarkable, for the destruction of heathen temples, and the famous
miracle of the _Gargouille_, which, gave birth to the privilege not less
famous, which the chapter possessed of setting at liberty a prisoner
every year. It is thought generally, however, that Saint-Romain,
constructed one of the churches, which succeeded each other on the site
of the Cathedral, but, they were deceived who have said that this bishop
extirpated paganism from Rouen, and from the province. Saint-Ouen, who
came after Saint-Romain, found the people clownish, superstitious, and
idolatrous, in consequence of the negligence of some bishops, his
predecessors. The inhabitants of the neighbouring country, were coarse,
cruel and dishonest; morals and the sciences were cultivated only among
the higher classes of society. We find in the preface to the life of
Saint-Eloi by Saint-Ouen, that, even in the VIIth century, they read
authors of whose works nothing now remains.

Saint-Ouen, founded or enriched a great many religious establishments in
Rouen and its environs. It was under his episcopate, that a monument was
first raised to Saint-Nicaise within the walls of Rouen. He also caused
to be built the celebrated abbeys of Fontenelle (since Saint-Wandrille),
Jumiéges, and Saint-Austreberthe.

In the time of this archbishop, there was a state prison near the end of
the rue de la Poterne. It was in this prison that Saint-Ouen, having
been deceived by the mayor of the palace Ebroin, caused Philibert the
first Abbot of Jumieges to be confined on a false accusation of the
crime of high-treason.

To Saint-Ouen, Ansbert succeeded in 683; at this time doubtless the
mechanical arts were not very far advanced in Rouen, since the new
bishop, wishing to erect a rich mausoleum to his predecessor, sent for
workmen from different provinces.

According to the monk Aigrad, a great famine took place in Rouen and its
neighbourhood, during the episcopate of Ansbert, who caused the
treasures of the church to be given, for the relief of the poor.

Here, the history of Rouen is lost in obscurity; our materials are
reduced, we may almost say, to the mere list of bishops, until the time
when the north-men shewed themselves in this country. From the year 841,
when they appeared for the first time at the mouth of the Seine, until
the year 912, the period of the treaty of Saint-Claire-sur-Epte, Rouen,
and its environs presented nothing but a scene of carnage, fire, and,
slaughter. Strangers devouring the country; the villages deserted; the
population massacred; the towns half destroyed, every where discord,
hatred, avarice, and rapacity; all excesses united: such is the picture
of the country at that period. At last Rollo, is created duke of
Normandy; the proud Norwegian, becomes the benefactor of the country, to
which he had so long proved a scourge. The population reappears; an
active police is established, robberies are put a stop to; no more
plunderers exist on the highways, or thieves in the towns. Rouen, rises
from amidst its ruins, its monuments are repaired, its size increases,
its political influence is becoming immense.

The second boundary is due to Rollo, the first duke, and to his son
Guillaume Longue-Epée. They confined the waters of the Seine in a
narrower bed. Several churches, such as Saint-Martin-de-la-Roquette,
Saint-Clement, Saint-Stephen and Saint-Eloi, which had till then been
situated on small islands, were united to the main land, the portion
which had been gained from the river, received the name of
_Terres-Neuves_. The limits of the town remained the same on the north,
east and west.

Under the first succeeding dukes, the town extended westward, as far as
the Old-Market place. The _porte Cauchoise_ was erected about the
beginning of the XIth century, that is to say, under Richard II.

The fourth boundary was effected under the last dukes. The town extended
on the north to the height of the rue Pincedos: on the east, to the rue
de la Chèvre. These two streets occupy the ground on which the ditches
were situated at that time.

A very short time after, Philip-Augustus, who had just taken Rouen, and
all Normandy from Jean-Sans-Terre, caused the old castle to be built,
which was included within the interior of the town, in the middle of the
XIIIth century; the fifth boundary was made in the reign of
Saint-Louis. Rouen was then enlarged by the greater portion of the
ground which forms the parishes of Saint-Patrice, Saint-Nicaise,
Saint-Vivien, and Saint-Maclou. The gates of Martainville, Saint-Hilaire
and Bouvreuil were then built.

A sixth enlargement took place about the middle of the XIVth century.
The monastery of the Jacobins, which now forms a portion of the
prefecture, was enclosed within the walls of the town, as also the
Church of Saint-Peter-le-Portier, so that it obliged them to put the
porte Cauchoise farther out. On the east, the town was enlarged by the
quarter of the Marequerie.

It is not probably to Rollo, the first duke that we owe the institution
of the exchequer. The first trace of it, is only found under
William-the-Conqueror. Perhaps even, it was only known under his son
Henry Ist «the King Duke.» Ancient writers have thought that an
exchequer existed in England before the conquest. The learned Madox, on
the contrary, (vol. 1st page 177 and following) declares, that he has
not found in any document prior to William's expedition, the word
scaccarium (or exchequer). But he finds it shortly after that time, from
which it would appear natural to conclude that, that institution had
been carried over by that prince. The exchequer was removed sometimes to
Rouen, at other times to Caen, and sometimes to Falaise. Louis XIIth
fixed this sovereign court at Rouen, in 1449, and opened it on the 1st
october of the same year. Francis Ist raised the exchequer into a
parliament in the year 1515. It was interdicted in the month of August
1540, but the 7th January 1541, was reinstated.

Thick walls, deep ditches, and formidable towers, a great many turrets,
bastions, casemates, and fortified gates, made Rouen an important place,
before the revolution: omitting the different sieges, which it had to
sustain from the Normans, we must notice in 949 those by Otho, emperor
of Germany, Louis IVth, king of France, and Arnould count of Flanders;
that in 1204 by Philip-Augustus, 1418, by Henry Vth king of England;
that in 1449, after which, Charles VIIth retook the town from the
English; lastly, that of 1591, by Henry IVth. In all these sieges, and
many more which I have not mentioned, the inhabitants of Rouen always
gave proofs of great valour and sometimes of a resignation without

All the fortifications of the town have disappeared since the
revolution; its ancient appearance, is now only found in the interior,
in its religious monuments and a few houses, which time or the hand of
man appears to have forgotten.

Before 1790, Rouen contained thirty seven parochial churches and about
as many religious communities of both sexes. It now only contains six
parochial churches, and eight chapels of ease, with a church for the use
of protestants.

Rouen is situated on a gentle slope, on the right bank of the Seine,
which forms the southern boundary; the suburb of Saint-Sever, is
situated on the left bank. The geographical position of the town is the
49° 26' 27'' of north latitude and 1° 14' 16'' longitude, from the
meridian of Paris. The sun rises and sets about five minutes later at
Rouen, than at Paris. The length of Rouen without the suburbs, is one
kilometre and three hundred metres, or about the third part of a league,
from the south extremity of the rue Grand-Pont, to the north extremity
of the rue Beauvoisine. Its length from east to west is a quarter of a
league, from one extremity to the other of the places Cauchoise and
Saint-Hilaire. The circumference of the town by the quays does not
exceed six kilometres or one league and a half.

Rouen, by its home and foreign trade, is one of the most important towns
of the kingdom; the numerous manufactories which it contains, have
caused it to be surnamed the Manchester of France[3]. Rouen, is the see
of an archbishopric, whose metropolitan church has for suffragans the
bishoprics of Bayeux, Evreux, Seez and Coutances. It is the chief place
of the fourteenth military division; the principal town of the
departement of the Seine-Inferieure.

There is besides at Rouen, a cour royale, a tribunal de première
instance, six courts of justices of the peace; a chamber and tribunal
of commerce, a counsel of prudent men for the arbitration of small
differences, principally between the manufacturers and their workmen;
boards of direction for the direct and indirect taxes, for the customs
and for the registry of domains, and a mint. Amongst the principal
public buildings are two large hospitals, a handsome custom-house, the
exchange, a magnificent lunatic asylum (in Saint-Sever), a large and
small seminary, a royal college, nineteen public schools, a great many
elementary schools for children of both sexes, and two principal

Lastly, this town has thirty three barriers, three covered markets,
eight open markets, twenty one public places, about seventeen thousand
houses, and more than four hundred and seventy streets, and contains a
population of about ninety thousand inhabitants.

[Footnote 1: It is the sugar refinery of Mr Sautelet, rue des Carmes,
opposite the place of the same name.]

[Footnote 2: _Recherches sur l'histoire religieuse, morale et littéraire
de Rouen, depuis les premiers temps jusqu'a Rollon_. Rouen, J. Frère,
1826, 8vo.]

[Footnote 3: The principal filatures, manufactories and bleaching
establishments, are situated in the suburb of Saint-Sever, and in the
valleys of Deville, Bapeaume and Maromme. Amongst the principal stuffs,
which are wrought in its manufactories, we must mention its
_rouenneries_, the general name given to all those striped or checked
cotton, stuffs which are used for womens dresses.]

[Illustration: Cathédrale.]




All historians attribute the erection, or at least the consecration of
the first christian chapel in Rouen to Saint-Mellon. They agree also in
placing that chapel on a portion of the ground occupied at present by
the Cathedral. To point out exactly the place, would be next to
impossible; but we must necessarily suppose it to the north end of the
present edifice. The tower of Saint-Romain, the foundation of which is
probably the remains of one of the churches which succeeded each other
on this spot, and which, is assuredly the most ancient part of the whole
edifice, would of itself, prove what I say. It will not be doubted, when
we remember that the waters of the Seine, during the time of
Saint-Mellon (260 to 311), and even seven centuries afterwards, reached
as high as the place, which is known at present by the name of _la
Calende_, that is to say almost at the base of the present Cathedral on
its southern side.

The Cathedral, which was pillaged in the year 841, was not, according to
all probability, destroyed then; or, we must suppose (that which is
hardly possible), that it had been rebuilt in the interval before the
year 912, the period of the baptism of Rollo in this church. Being
exposed to continual acts of devastation from pirates, the inhabitants
fled in all directions, and did not think of building temples; and as
Rollo, having been baptized in this Cathedral, in the year 912, made
most magnificent presents immediately after the ceremony, it is clear,
that the edifice had been only plundered and not destroyed.

About the end of the Xth century, Richard Ist caused the Cathedral to
be enlarged. The archbishop Robert continued the improvements.

Guillaume-le-Bâtard placed Maurille in the archiepiscopal see, in the
year 1055. Maurille finished the Cathedral, and caused to be erected the
stone pyramid which bears his name, and in the year 1063, he dedicated
the temple in the presence of William, and the bishops of Bayeux,
Avranches, Lisieux, Evreux, Seez and Coutances.

In 1117, this Cathedral was struck by the electric fluid.

In 1200, the metropolitan church was destroyed by fire. Jean-Sans-Terre,
duke of Normandy and king of England, assigned funds for the
reconstruction of the edifice.

It is then from that period that the actual Cathedral dates.

I need not add that this immense edifice, such as we see it at present,
is the work of several centuries, beginning in the XIIIth and finishing
in the XVIth, excepting that portion which forms the base of the tower
of Saint-Romain, and which is much more ancient.

The length of the Cathedral, in the inside, from the great portal to the
extremity of the chapel of the Virgin, is four hundred and eight feet
(about four hundred and fifty english); the chapel of the virgin is
eighty eight feet in length; the choir is one hundred and ten, and the
nave two hundred and ten. The entire breadth of the edifice from one
wall to the other is ninety seven feet two inches; namely, the nave
twenty seven feet; thickness of each pillar, seven feet eight inches,
each aisle fourteen feet, the chapels thirteen feet five inches. The
height of the nave is eighty four feet; that of the aisles is forty two
feet, the transept is one hundred and sixty four feet in length, by
twenty six in breadth. In the centre is a lantern, at the height of one
hundred and sixty feet under the key-stone, and it is supported by four
large pillars, each being thirty eight feet in circumference, and
composed of thirty one columns, which are grouped together; above the
arcades of the nave, there is a very narrow gallery. The edifice is
lighted by one hundred and thirty windows.

There are amongst the stained glass windows, several which deserve to
be, particularly noticed. I will here point out their places, after the
work of E.H. Langlois, on stained glass, and that of Gilbert on the

«Left aisle, in going up, opposite the fourth arcade of the nave: upper
panes occupied by several subjects taken from the life of saint John the
baptist, saint Nicolas, etc. We may remark curriers or tanners, and,
near a sort of gallery supported by columns, a stone cutter and a
sculptor making the capital of a column. A little farther up, we
perceive a church supported by arches, in the construction of which,
several masons are busily employed. Near it, is a woman kneeling, and
holding up with both her hands the plan of a gothic window.

Same aisle, in going up, and opposite the fourth arcade of the nave: a
window occupied with subjects relative to the life of saint Sever.

Left aisle of the choir, opposite the fourth arcade: a window entirely
occupied with the life of saint Julian-the-hospitaller.

Same aisle, between the semi-circular lateral chapel and the chapel of
the Virgin: two windows, representing the life of Joseph, the son of
Jacob. We may still read, although with difficulty, the name of the
painter and glazier. It is inscribed on a phylactery, in the following


On the other side of the choir, between the chapel of the Virgin and the
semi-circular lateral chapel: two windows, one representing the Passion;
the other the life of a saint. He is almost entirely represented naked
from the head to the waist, and on horseback. Semi-circular chapel of
the southern transept in the corner of the window, the martyrdom of
saint Laurent.»

All these windows date from the end of the XIIIth century. The most
curious is that representing the life of saint Julian-the-hospitaller.

The Cathedral contains likewise several fine specimens of windows of the
time of the _renaissance_. We must remark, especially, those which
represent the life of saint Romain, in the chapel dedicated to that
bishop and those which decorate the chapel of saint Stephen. We
perceive, in the latter, saint Thomas touching the wound of
Jesus-Christ; Christ preaching in the desert; Christ appearing to
Mary-Magdalen; etc.

The edifice is also lighted by three large roses (circular windows); two
at the extremities of the transept and the other above the organ. Of
these three windows the western is by far the finest. In the centre of
it, the Eternal Father is represented as surrounded by a multitude of
angels having each different musical instruments, around it are ten
figures of angels, each holding an instrument of the Passion.

The present organ of the Cathedral is a large sixteen feet one, and is
placed beneath the western circular window. It was made by Lefevre, the
celebrated organ maker in Rouen, in 1760.

The choir is surrounded by fourteen pillars. Before 1430, its upper part
was only lighted by a small number of narrow windows. Since that time,
it has been lighted by the fifteen large windows, which we now see. In
1467, under the cardinal d'Estouteville, the chapter caused stalls to be
made, which are very curiously sculptured.

A stone screen, of a style which harmonized with the rest of the edifice
formerly ornamented the entrance to the choir: In 1777, it was replaced
by the present. This screen, notwithstanding its beauty, is
unfortunately not in a style correspondent with the rest of the church.
The upper gallery is surmounted by a gilt figure of Christ, made of
lead, by Clodion. Between the pillars, we remark two marble altars, each
ornamented with a white marble statue. That to the right is the statue
of the Virgin, a much esteemed sculpture by Lecomte. This altar has
retained the name _autel da væu_ (or the altar of the vow) since 1637,
on account of a grand procession, which took place at that time, to
obtain the cessation of the plague. The procession, in reentering the
church stopped before this altar, on which the civic authorities placed
a silver lamp, weighing forty marks. The statue to the left is that of
saint Cecile, the patroness of musicians. This sculpture is also from
the chisel of Clodion. Both altars are ornamented with handsome
bas-reliefs, the one to the right representing, Jesus-Christ placed in
the tomb; that to the left, Saint Cecile, at the moment of her death.

The actual existence of a library in the Cathedral, may be traced back
as far as the year 1424. The canons, caused to be erected, for that
purpose, over the cellar of the chapter house, the large building which
we see at present. It was about one hundred feet long by twenty five
broad. They ascended to it by a handsome gothic staircase, erected by
order of the cardinal William d'Estouteville, during the second half of
the XVth century, and placed in the corner of the northern transept.
This library was plundered and destroyed by the calvinists, in 1562,
but, was restored by the archbishop Francis de Harley.

In 1788, the chapter ordered an additional story to be built over the
library, destined to receive the records of the church. The higher
portion of the staircase which conducts to this story, was erected in
1789, and in the same style as the rest of it.

As far as 1112 the cathedral possessed several manuscripts, which were
destroyed in the fire of 1200.

A great portion of the books of the cathedral are now deposited in the
public library at the town-hall.

There are twenty five chapels in the circumference of the Cathedral. The
most spacious, and the first to the right on entering, is that of
Saint-Stephen, _la grande eglise_. It was formerly the _Parish church_
of Notre-Dame.

At the extremity of this aisle of the nave in going up, is the chapel of
_petit Saint-Romain_, where the tomb of Rollo, the first duke is
situated. This prince had formerly been buried in the sanctuary, near
the great altar, which, at the time, was situated at the higher end of
the present nave. The altar having been removed farther back, the
remains of Rollo were deposited in the corner arcade where they now are.
Above the arcade is the following inscription on a table of black
marble, of which the following is a translation.

     Here lies Rollo, the first duke, the founder and father of
     Normandy, of which he was at first the terror and the scourge, but
     afterwards the restorer. Baptised in 912 by Francon, archbishop of
     Rouen, and died in 917[5]. His remains had formerly been deposited
     in the ancient sanctuary, where is at present the upper end of the
     nave. The altar having been removed to another place, the remains
     of the prince were deposited here, by the blessed Maurille,
     archbishop of Rouen, in the year 1063.

On the opposite aisle, and exactly opposite the chapel we hare just
left, is that of Saint-Anne. The remains of Guillaume-Longue-Epée, the
son and successor of Rollo, who was assassinated in an island of the
Somme, by order of Arnould, count of Flanders, are deposited in this
chapel. His remains are placed like those of his father, in an arched
corner, above which, is the following inscription, which we translate

     Here lies Guillaume-Longue-Epée, son of Rollo, duke de Normandy,
     killed by treason in the year 944. His remains had formerly been
     deposited in the ancient sanctuary, where is at present the upper
     end of the nave. The altar having been removed to an other place,
     the remains of the prince were deposited in this place by the
     blessed Maurille, in the year 1063.

What has become, of those funeral monuments, erected, formerly in the
choir of the Cathedral, in honour of kings, princes or warriors? Who
will assure us that the inscriptions placed at present in the sanctuary,
point out to us, the illustrious dead whose tombs we seek? Where is the
heart of Charles Vth, which was deposited in the middle of the
sanctuary? That of Richard-Cœur-de-Lion, to the right of the high altar?
The remains of Bedford, the son, the brother and the uncle of kings, of
that Bedford, who, according to Pommeraye, was interred to the left of
the high altar, and whose tomb stone they now shew us, behind the
altar, which tells us that he was interred on the right side of it? Of
all the tombs which existed formerly in the choir of the Cathedral,
there remains but three modern inscriptions on marble slabs, which have
been placed by chance. These three inscriptions are those of
Richard-Cœur-de-Lion, Henry the Younger one of his brothers and the duke
of Bedford. On the 30th of july 1838, being guided by historical
traditions, they had the idea to dig at the spot marked by the
inscription to Richard, and discovered the statue which formerly
decorated his tomb. This statue, which is hewn out of a single block of
very fine free stone, has been deposited provisionally in the chapel of
the Virgin. It is six feet and a half long, and represents king Richard
in a recumbent posture, his head supported by a square cushion, wearing
a crown enriched with precious stones; his feet are supported by a
crouching lion. On his left hand was a sceptre of which we only see the
remains; the right hand has disappeared. The princes, mantle descends
nearly to his ancles, in wide folds. It is over a tunic which reaches up
to the neck, and which is bound round the body, by an embroidered belt
of which the end hangs in front below the knee. These searches were
continued on the 31st of july, and the heart of Richard was found; it
was enclosed in a double box of lead, and what must leave no doubt of
this precious discovery; the following inscription in letters of the
time was engraved on the lid of the box:


The heart has been provisionally deposited in a private press in the
sacristy. These researches were skilfully directed by Mr Deville.

Let us now enter the chapel of the Virgin, and admire the treasure which
it contains.

To the left on entering, is a monument of stone, without inscription or
statue. It is that of Peter de Brezé, count of Maulevrier, grand
senechal of Anjou, Poitou and Normandy. He was killed at the battle of
Montlhery, the 16th july 1465. This monument is remarkable by its
graceful proportions, its elegance and the delicacy of its architecture.
It is composed of two pilasters of the arabesque style, supporting a
pointed arcade, surmounted by a pediment; the whole of it is in open
work and decorated on all sides with the initials PB, in gothic letters.
The niche of the tomb is about five feet wide by about four deep. Its
height is six feet four inches to the key of the vault, and decorated
with a shield bearing the arms of the deceased. Before the revolution,
the same shield, decorated the three pannels of the base of the
monument. We may still perceive the trace of the destroyers chisel. The
entire height of the mausoleum is seventeen feet. The points of the two
pilasters rise two feet and a half or three feet above the rest; which
would make the total height of the monument of about twenty feet.

The name of Peter de Brezé, is honourably mentioned in our annals at the
time of the conquest of Normandy. It was he who received the
capitulation of the castles of Harcourt, Gisors, Chateau-Gaillard. It
was he, who first entered Rouen, when that town opened its gates to
Charles VIIth[6]. The statue of Peter de Brezé and that of his wife,
Jeanne du Bec-Crespin, were formerly on the monument; but they do not
now exist and no one knows when they have been taken away.

Next to it, is the monument of Louis de Brézé, grand-son of the latter,
who died in july 1531. The celebrated Diana of Poitiers caused this
mausoleum to be raised to his memory. The body of the monument is
supported by four columns of black marble, with capitals and bases of
white alabaster. Between these columns is a coffin, on which the white
marble statue of the grand senechal, is laid. The deceased is stretched
on his back, his features are convulsed: one may see that he has just
expired. The body is quite naked, the left hand is laid on his breast.
The cenotaph is of black marble. The perfection of this sculpture causes
it to be attributed to the celebrated Jean Goujon. Behind this statue,
there was formerly another of the same personage, he was represented in
the dress of a count, with the collar of Saint-Michael, and a crown on
his head. We now only find the marks of the fixtures which fastened it
to the monument. At each end of the recumbent figure, are two statues of
women in alabaster. Diana of Poitiers in the dress of a widow, with her
arms crossed, is kneeling at the head. At the feet, is that of the
virgin holding the infant Jesus: it was according to general opinion, of
the time of Pommeraye, who speaks of paintings, figures, tapers and
chaplets suspended round the latter statue. There were two inscriptions,
one in prose, the other in verse. Both were erased at the revolution,
but they have been replaced since; the following is a copy of the prose

     Loys de Breszé, en son vivant cheualier de l'ordre, premier
     Chambellan du Roy, grand Seneschal, Lieutenant-général et
     gouverneur pour le dict Sieur, en ses pays et duché de Normendie,
     Capitaine de cent gentile hommes de la maison du dict sieur et de
     cent hommes d'armes de ses ordonnances, Capitaine de Rouen et de
     Caen, Comte de Mauléurier, Baron de Mauny et du Bec-Crespin,
     Seigneur Chastellain de Nugent-le-Roy, Ennet, Bréval et Monchauvet.
     Après avoir vescu par le cours de nature en ce monde en vertu,
     jusques à l'àge de LXXII ans, la mort l'a faiet mettre en ce
     tombeau pour retourner viure perpéluellement. Lequel décéda le
     dymence XXIIIe jour de juillet de mil vre trente ung. 1531.

A third inscription, which probably had not been perceived in 1793, is
seen at the upper corner of the left side:

    _Hoc Lodoice tibi posuit Brezœe sepulchrum,
      Pictonis amisso mœsta Diana viro.
    Indivulsa libi quondam et fidissima conjux,
      Ut fuit in thalamo, sie erit in tumulo_[7].

Some witty people have remarked that the duchess of Valentinois spoke
truly, and that she was as _faithful_ in one case as in the other.

Above the entablature, the equestrian statue, of the senechal, in white
marble is placed. On each side of the arcade, which contains this
statue, are four cariatides crowned with flowers, and representing: the
two to the right, prudence and glory; those to the left, victory and
faith. On the frieze, under some figures bearing festoons, we find this
motto: _tant grate chevre que mal giste_. The coping is an attic forming
a niche, in which is placed an alabaster statue; it holds a sword and
represents power, according to some, justice and prudence, according to

In the frieze above the figure is the following inscription: _In virtute
tabernaculum ejus_. The cornice is terminated by two goats supporting
the armorials of the senechal. The whole of the frieze is of alabaster,
while the architrave and cornice are of black marble. This mausoleum,
which is one of the most remarkable productions of the arts, under
Francis Ist, is attributed to Jean Cousin, or to a sculptor not less
celebrated, Jean Goujon.

The monument of the cardinals of Amboise, which is more splendid, but
not of so pure a style, decorates the right side of the chapel: it is
placed in the thickness of the wall. After working for seven years
without interruption, it was at last completely finished in 1525, under
the archbishop d'Amboise, the second of the name: we say archbishop,
because at that time the prelate had not been invested with the roman
purple. The bodies of these two cardinals are not deposited in this
monument; they are interred in a vault at the foot of it and which is
only large enough to contain the two leaden coffins, which are supported
on iron bars. The sepulchre was violated during the revolution, and the
coffins carried off. On the lower part of the monument, are six
beautiful little statues, in niches separated by pilasters, representing
faith, charity, prudence, power, justice and temperance. All these
statues are of white marble. On the tomb, which is of black marble, the
two cardinals George d'Amboise uncle and nephew are placed. They are
kneeling on cushions; their heads uncovered and their hands joined. The
expression of prayer and piety is perfect in the two figures, especially
in that of George d'Amboise Ist. At their feet and on the front of the
cenotaph, we find the following inscription, in a single line, which
only concerns the cardinal-minister:

    _Pastor eram cleri, populi pater, avrea sese
      Lilia subdebant quercus[8] et ipsa michi.
    Mortoos en iaceo, morte extingovinior honores;
      At virtus, morte nescia, morte viret._

On the ground of the monument is a bas-relief representing the patron of
the two prelates (saint George) overcoming the dragon; On the sides,
are eight different figures, amongst which we discover the virgin,
several saints and more particularly Saint-Romain, archbishop of Rouen
during the first half of the VIIth century. A _voussure_ ornamented
with sculptures, as remarkable for their good taste as for the richness
of their ornaments, supports an attic, where we find the statues of the
twelve apostles, two and two, in elegant niches separated by pilasters.

These two monuments are not only remarkable by their magnificence and by
the recollections they awaken, they have another attraction, as an
history of the art at the time when the gothic style was giving place to
that of the renaissance.

These monuments were renewed in 1838, in great perfection by M. Ubaudi,
sculptor of Paris.

The remains of cardinal Cambacérès, who died at Rouen, on the 25th
october 1818, are deposited in the little vault at the foot of the
monument of the cardinals of Amboise.

The altar of this chapel is decorated with a very fine picture by Philip
de Champagne, representing _the adoration of the shepherds_. This
picture is much esteemed by painters and connoisseurs[9]. On the right,
in leaving the chapel of the virgin, is a monument concerning which
until recently, there were only conjectures. It is the statue of a
bishop stretched on his back and under an arcade. On the lower part of
the sepulchre, are mutilated bas-reliefs, which one might suppose, were
intended to represent a synod. At least, we may distinguish several
personnages seated, holding books in their hands and a bishop in the
midst of them as if presiding. On the upper part we remark angels
bearing away the soul of the deceased, represented by the body of a
young child.

M.A. Deville, in his work on _the monuments of the cathedral of Rouen_,
has proved that this monument was that of Maurice, archbishop of Rouen,
who died in 1235. I must not pass over the popular tradition, however
ridiculous it may appear, which is attached to this monument. This
tradition says, that the body of the personage laid under this stone, is
that of a bishop who, in a fit of a passion, had killed his servant with
the blow of a soup-ladle. The people add, that the bishop repenting,
wished not to be interred in the church; but at the same time he forbad
them to bury him outside of it, and it was to obey this ambiguous order
that they made him a tomb in the thickness of the wall.

Not far from the chapel of the Virgin, in the right aisle, on looking
eastward, we find the sacristy. We should stop a moment before its stone
partition with its iron door: they are both much esteemed works of the
end of the XVth century. The partition wall is from the liberality of
Philip de la Rose, chief-archdeacon, and was erected in the year 1473
according to Farin, but 1479 according to Pommeraye[10].

Leaving now the inside of the cathedral let us examine the exterior of
this admirable edifice. Here, details are impossible; we must see the
whole mass, to form an idea of it. Who could number so many pieces of
sculpture, capitals, sculptured galleries, bas-reliefs, and ornaments,
which are multiplied under all forms? Historical explanations are those
only which can be offered to the reader. We may add, that they are the
most useful, since the rest is an affair of the eyes. The whole of the
western facade, comprehended between the two front towers, is from the
munificence of cardinal d'Amboise I. The building commenced on the 12th
of june 1509, and was finished in 1530. The bas-reliefs, which decorate
the doorways under the three entrances from the porch, were more or less
mutilated by the calvinists in 1562. That on the right is now scarcely
to be recognized: that of the great portal represents the genealogical
tree of Jesse, or of the family of the Virgin; that on the left, the
beheading of John the Baptist; the latter porch suffered considerably
from a frightful storm, which took place in 1683.[11]

The tower, which terminates the facade to the north, bears the name of
Saint-Romain. Its foundation is the most ancient part of the whole
edifice; the rest was built later and at different periods. The whole
was terminated in 1477, under the cardinal d'Estouteville. Before the
revolution the tower of Saint-Romain contained eleven bells, there were
four others in the pyramid, and only one in the Butter Tower, but which
was heavier than all the others and of which I shall speak.

The tower, which terminates the facade to the south, is named the butter
tower (_Tour de Beurre_), because, it was erected with the alms of the
faithful, who, afterwards obtained leave to eat butter during Lent: Its
height is two hundred and thirty feet. The first stone was laid in the
month of november 1485, by Robert de Croixmare, archbishop of Rouen. It
was nearly twenty two years in building, since the edifice according to
Pommeraye, was only terminated in 1507. Before its completion, it was
consecrated (in 1496), by Henry Potin, suffragan to cardinal of Amboise

On the 29th of september 1500, this cardinal gave 4,000 livres, to be
used in the casting of a bell; wishing, that it might be _the finest in
the kingdom_. The furnaces were already built at the foot of the tower;
and the mould commenced; but, they remembered that the wood work of the
tower would not be strong enough to bear such a colossus. The mould was
broken, and they made another which was smaller. The operation was
commenced on monday the 2nd of august 1501, at eight o'clock in the
evening, after a general procession round the Cathedral and the
archbishop's palace. The circumference of this bell was thirty feet, its
height ten feet and it weighed 36000 pounds. It is said, that the
founder, John le Machon, of Chartres, who cast it, was so satisfied in
having succeeded in this enterprise, that he died of joy twenty six days

On the visit of Louis XVI to Rouen, in 1786, the bell called George
d'Amboise was cracked. In 1793, it was converted into cannons. Some
pieces bearing the following inscription were made into medals and are
now very rare.



The door _of the librarians_, at the northern extremity of the transept,
has been named so, from the booksellers shops formerly situated on each
side of the court. Commenced in 1280, this portal was only finished in
1478. It was the usual entrance of great personnages, except the king
and the princes of the blood, who entered the church by the great
western porch. The bas-relief over the door had never been finished: the
two lower compartments are the only ones. The court, which is before the
porch of the librarians, was formerly a burying ground. They ceased to
inter, because a murder had been committed in it and it had not been
purified. This entrance to the church is ornamented with an infinite
number of bas-reliefs, some representing subjects from the bible, others
extremely comical and even licentious; several of these sculptures have
of late been cleaned to be moulded. To the left, when facing the door,
we perceive a man without his head, negligently leaning on his elbow:
in his right hand a head is seen, which is that of a pig.

If we wish to view the northern side, we must enter the _cour de
l'Albane_.[12] The collateral chapels are lighted by nine windows, which
are surmounted by different ornaments. We also perceive, on some of the
lower windows of the tower of Saint-Romain, the round arch of the XIth
century; from which one may conjecture that this portion of the tower
was spared from the conflagration, in the year 1200.

The porch of the _Calende_, was built at the same period as that of the
booksellers, and is nearly disposed in the same manner. Above the door,
we distinguish a large bas-relief, which is divided into three
compartments: the lower one, says Mr Gilbert, represents _Joseph sold
by his brethren_; that in the middle; _the funeral of Jacob_; and the
upper one _Jesus-Christ on the cross_. To the right and left of the
porch, are several large statues, which are more or less mutilated, and
a profusion of bas-reliefs, most of which represent the history of

The facade of this porch, like that of the booksellers, is accompanied
by two square towers of handsome proportions, and having large pointed

On the tower which still exists in the centre, there was formerly a
handsome pyramid of three hundred and ninety six feet in height, a
monument of the talents of Robert Becquet and of the liberality of
cardinal d'Amboise, the second of the name. It was commenced in the
month of june 1542, and terminated in the month of august 1544.

This beautiful pyramid was destroyed by fire, on the 15th of september
1822; at seven o'clock in the morning it had already fallen; two hours
after, the roof of the choir, that of the transept and the third part of
the roof of the nave, had equally fallen in. The melted lead of the roof
was bought by M. Firmin Didot and converted into types for printing.

We cannot give too many praises to the zeal of M. de Vansay, prefect of
the department at that time: the misfortune happened on the 15th
september, and already on the 26th of the same month, the government
having been informed and solicited by that magistrate, ordered M.
Alavoine, one of the best architects, to go to Rouen, and confer with
the prefect on the means of remedying the havoc caused by the fire.
Early in the year 1823, the roofs of a aisles had already been repaired;
and a portion of the nave had been covered with lead, by the 15th march
of the same year. The roofs of the choir and of the whole transept, were
also soon repaired; but, for these parts, a copper covering was
preferred as being more solid and less liable to be destroyed. The
raising and renewing the lantern was terminated in 1829.

From this new platform, the pyramid will rise majestically in the air,
and of it we already discover thirteen floors (the pyramid will be
completed with one more), each of four metres fifty centimetres, that is
to say a height of fifty eight metres, or about one hundred and eighty
feet. The spire of the church was first erected of stone but was
overthrown by the electric fluid, after that, it was twice built of
wood, and both times it became the prey of the flames; to rebuild it
with wood would have been gathering materials for a third fire, but now
it is made of cast iron and in open work. At the summit of the spire,
there will be a small lantern surrounded by a gallery for the purpose of
meteorological observations. The total weight of the spire when
completed, will be 600,000 kilogrammes, or about 1,200,000 pounds. It is
composed of 2,540 pieces, not including 12,879 iron pins[13]. Lastly,
this magnificent pyramid will reach an elevation of 436 feet; that is to
say 40 feet higher than the former, and will only be 13 feet less than
the highest pyramid of Egypt[14].

[Footnote 4: _Historical description of the Cathedral of Rouen_, by
Gilbert Rouen, Ed. Frère, 1837, 8vo. with 3 plates.--_Essay on ancient
and modern painting on glass_, etc., by E.H. Langlois. Rouen, Ed. Frère,
1832. 8vo, with 7 plates.]

[Footnote 5: It is an error: Rollon did not die till the year 931 or

[Footnote 6: _Monuments of the cathedral of Rouen_, by A. Deville.
Rouen, N. Periaux, 1837, 8vo, with 12 plates.]

[Footnote 7: O Louis de Brezé, Diana of Poitiers, afflicted by the death
of her husband, has raised this monument to your memory, she was your
inseparable companion, your very faithful spouse in the conjugal state,
and will be equally so in the tomb.]

[Footnote 8: That is to say that the pope Julias IInd was of the house
of Rovero (_Quercus_).]

[Footnote 9: The cathedral possesses also several other remarkable
pictures; we distinguish amongst others, an _Annunciation_, by Letellier
of Rouen, nephew of the celebrated Poussin: it is placed in the second
chapel of the left aisle, on entering by the great portal. To the right
and left of the choir, we find a _Samaritan_, by Charles Tardieu, and
_The lying in the Sepulchre_, by Poisson.]

[Footnote 10: Mr Deville makes the dates between the years 1480 to
1482, according to the manuscript capitulary registers of the

[Footnote 11: We perceive two counterforts, which have been lately
erected on each side of the portal, under the direction of Mr Alavoine,
to consolidate the front of the edifice, which had caused some fear, as
to its solidity.]

[Footnote 12: So called from the college of the same name founded by
Pierre de Colmieu, archbishop of Rouen and cardinal of Albe.]

[Footnote 13: The whole of these pieces of iron were cast at the
foundery at Conches, a small town, which is situated at about twelve
leagues from Rouen, and the expense is valued at 500,000 francs.]

[Footnote 14: For the description of the archbishop's palace, see the
chapter on the civil monuments.]


The abbey of Saint-Ouen, is the most ancient, in Rouen and in the whole
province of Normandy.

[Illustration: Saint-Ouen]

Founded in 533, during the reign of Clothaire Ist and the episcopate of
Flavius, the sixteenth archbishop of Rouen, (comprehending
Saint-Nienise), this abbey flourished particularly under the illustrious
prelate, whose name it bears and who enriched it with his patrimony.

The 14th of may, in the year 841, the Normans landed at Rouen; the
following day they burned the abbey of Saint-Ouen.

Rollo, having become a Christian, and a peaceable possessor of Normandy,
ordered the abbey to be repaired, and had the relics restored which the
monks had carried off to secure them from the profanation of the

The monastery soon took the name of Saint-Ouen; instead of that of
Saint-Peter, by which it was previously known.

The dukes Richard I and Richard II followed the example of Rollo, and
continued the restoration of the abbey.

Such was the reputation of this monastery, that the emperor Otho, who
had laid siege to the town during the reign of Richard Ist, surnamed
_Sans-Peur_, demanded a safe conduct to come and perform his devotions
at Saint-Ouen.

Nicolas, son of Richard IIIrd, and the fourth abbot under William the
conqueror, caused the edifice, which had subsisted until then, to be
demolished, and laid the first stone of a new church in 1046. Nicolas
died too soon to complete the work; it was not finished until the year
1226, by William Ballot, the sixth abbot, who caused it to be dedicated
in the same year, on the 17th of october, by Geoffroy, archbishop of

The cloister and other buildings necessary for the use of the monks were
finished under Rainfroid, the seventh abbot; but, in 1236, only ten
years after the completion of this church, the work of eighty years was
destroyed by fire in one day.

Through the liberality of the empress Matilda and Henry IInd, her son,
the monks of Saint-Ouen succeeded in rebuilding their monastery; but it
was again completely destroyed by fire in 1248.

At last, the celebrated Jean (_John_) or _Roussel Marc d'argent_, the
twenty-fourth abbot, was elected in 1303. Fifteen years later, he laid
the first stone of the present magnificent church, which is so generally
admired. In one and twenty years, during which the works of this edifice
proceeded, the choir, the chapels, the pillars which support the tower,
and the greater part of the transept were finished. These buildings cost
63,036 livres five sous tournois, or about 2,600,000 francs of the
present money.

The edifice was not entirely completed until the beginning of the XVIth
century; but, the tower existed before the end of the XVth. An english
tourist[15] has expressed the following sentiments on this magnificent

«You gaze, and are first-struck with its matchless window: call it rose,
or marygold, as you please. I think, for delicacy and richness of
ornament, this window is perfectly unrivalled. There is a play of line
in the mullions, which, considering their size and strength, may be
pronounced quite a master-piece of art. You approach, regretting the
neglected state of the lateral towers, and enter, through the large and
completely-opened centre doors, the nave of the abbey. It was towards
sun-set when we made our first entrance. The evening was beautiful; and
the variegated tints of sunbeam, admitted through the stained glass of
the window, just noticed, were perfectly enchanting. The window itself,
as you look upwards, or rather as you fix your eye upon the centre of
it, from the remote end of the abbey, or the Lady's chapel, was a
perfect blaze of dazzling light: and nave, choir, and side aisles,
seemed magically illumined. We declared instinctively that the abbey of
Saint-Ouen could hardly have a rival; certainly no superior.»

«The grand western entrance presents you with the most perfect view of
the choir, a magical circle, or rather oval, flanked by lofty and
clustered pillars, and free from the surrounding obstruction of screens,
etc. Nothing more airy and more captivating of the kind can be imagined.
The finish and delicacy of these pillars are quite surprising. Above,
below, around, every thing is in the purest style of the XIVth and
XVth centuries. On the whole, it is the absence of all obtrusive and
unappropriate ornament which gives to the interior of this building that
light, unencumbered, and faery-like effect which so peculiarly belongs
to it, and which creates a sensation that I never remember to have felt
within any other similar edifice.»

The length, within the walls, is four hundred and sixteen feet eight
inches (about four hundred and fifty feet english measure), which may be
divided in the following manner: The nave, two hundred and forty four
feet; the choir, one hundred and two feet; the remaining portion, to the
extremity of the chapel of the Virgin, seventy feet eight inches; in the
whole, eight feet eight inches more than the Cathedral. The height under
the keystone is one hundred feet. The breadth, including the aisles, is
seventy eight feet; viz: thirty four feet for the nave, and twenty two
feet for each aisle. The transept is one hundred and thirty feet in
length, by thirty four in width.

The church is lighted by one hundred and twenty five windows placed in
three rows not including the three rosaces. The second row lights a
circular inner gallery, which is above the aisles, and several of them
offer paintings of great beauty. Amongst others Saint-Romain is
represented making himself master of the _Gargouille_, and forcing the
Seine to return to its bed.

Against the first pillar to the right, on entering by the Western porch,
is placed a large marble vessel containing holy water. By a very curious
optical effect, we can see the roof of the church in its entire length.

The choir was formerly separated by a magnificent screen, of which we
find an engraving in the _History of the Abbey_, by Pommeraye. This
screen, was erected in 1462 by the munificence of the cardinal
d'Estouteville; in 1562, it was partly destroyed by the calvinists, and
repaired in 1655, by William Cotterel, grand prior of Saint-Ouen. This
fine structure entirely disappeared at the revolution.

Eleven chapels, including the one dedicated to the Virgin, surround the
choir of the church. The first, in going towards the eastern extremity,
contains the baptismal font, and is dedicated to Saint-Martial. There
also, was formerly a very curious clock, which has disappeared within
the last forty years. A small figure of Saint-Michael came out and
struck the hours on a figure representing satan and then disappeared.

In the second chapel, following the same direction, Alexander de
Berneval, one of the architects of the church, was buried in 1440. He is
represented, on the sepulchral stone which covers his remains, by the
side of his pupil; the following inscription is engraved on this stone
in gothic letters:

     Ci gist maistre Alexandre de Berneval, maistre des Œuvres de
     Machonnerie du Roy, notre Sire, du baillage de Rouen et de cette
     Eglise, qui trespassa l'an de grace mil CCCCXL le vo jour de
     janvier. Priez Dieu pour l'ame de lui.

We also remark the statue of Sainte-Cécile, which is placed between two
pillars of the corinthian order. The other chapels, except that of the
Virgin, do not offer any thing remarkable.

English tourists will find in the latter, the tomb of the youngest son
of Talbot; the following is the epitaph:

     Ci gist noble homme Jean Tallebot, fils du sieur de Tallebot,
     Mareschal de France, qui deceda en aunees de puerilite, le IV
     Banvier MCCCCXXXVIII.

The interior of the church contains several fine paintings, such as:
_The miracle of the loaves_, by Daniel Hallé, and _a Visitation_, by
Deshayes, of Rouen, in the chapel of the Virgin; _an opening of the holy
gate_, by Léger, of Rouen, behind the pulpit on the wall of the aisle.
This painting has been much spoiled by the damp. The different chapels
also contain some less worthy of notice.

The great tower is altogether a monument of great beauty. Its height is
about one hundred feet above the roof of the church. It is surmounted by
a crown wrought in openwork and of a fine effect. The total height of
the tower is two hundred and forty four feet, from the pavement of the
church. It is supported, in the interior of the edifice, by four
pillars, each formed of a group of twenty four columns.

The whole body of the church is supported, to the exterior, by thirty
four arches, forming with the buttresses by which they are supported, a
most magnificent ensemble.

The western porch from its unfinished state does not offer any thing
remarkable except the rosace of which we have already spoken.

The southern porch, commonly called _des Marmquzels_, merits much more
the attention of the curious, by the astonishing variety of sculptures,
which ornament it. We may especially admire two pendants of a very bold

Above the door, is a bas-relief, which is divided into three parts,
representing the different circumstances of the sepulture of the Virgin,
of her assumption and entrance into heaven. This porch is assuredly one
of the most pure, light and perfect samples of gothic architecture.
During the revolution, the church, of Saint-Ouen was converted into a
smithy. Afterwards they here celebrated the decadary feasts, promulgated
laws, pronounced marriages, and even gave a great breakfast to the
conscripts of the _year VII_, the first who went under that
denomination. At last it was restored to its primitive use, the only one
worthy of it, for we may say of Saint-Ouen: _Hic vere est domus Dei_.

The ancient abbey-house of Saint-Ouen was demolished, in 1816. So many
historical recollections were attached to the existence of this edifice,
that its loss is much regretted by the friends of the arts. This mansion
was the ordinary place of abode of the kings of France, on their passage
through this town. Henry II, Charles IX, Henri III, Henry IV, Lewis XIII
successively inhabited it. Henry IVth, resided there four months; it
was from this house that he addressed to the aldermen of his good town
of Rouen those words which will never be forgotten: _Mes amis, soyez-moi
bans sujets, et je vous serai bon roi, el le meilleur roi que vous ayez
jamais eu_.

In the public garden, formerly that of the monastery, and which lies to
the north, east and south sides of the church, is a very curious
construction, in the form of a tower, called the _Chambre aux Clercs_.
It is without doubt a fragment of one of the churches, which succeeded
each other on this spot. It is situated at the north-east angle of the
northern transept. Its architecture is of the XIth century. People have
remarked, that it holds as much resemblance to the remains of a strong
castle, as to a fragment of a religious edifice. The interior is divided
into two stories, the second contains the works of the clock.

The meridian placed against the wall, to the north of the basin, is that
which ornamented the ancient exchange. On the lower extremity of the
obelisk, we remark a woman seated, representing Commerce. The figure of
Time points to the solar line. In 1815, the medallion of Lewis XVth was
replaced, which had been taken away in 1792. This monument is by Paul
Slodtz, a statuary of the last century.

[Footnote 15: Dibdin's _Bibliographical, antiquarian and picturesque
tour in France and Germany_; London, Payne and co. 1821, royal 8vo, vol.


In the year 1228, this parish was situated without the walls of the
town. In that year, Geoffroy de Capreville granted a portion of ground
belonging to himself, and situated in the parish of Saint-Maclou,
_without_ the town. At that time the church of Saint-Maclou was only a
chapel, of which the construction was not very remarkable. About the
middle of the XVth century, the erection of the present edifice was
commenced. In the year 1511, the works were far advanced, the platform
which was to support the steeple having been already built.

[Illustration: Saint-Maclou]

This church was formerly called the _fille aînée de Mgr l'archevêque_.
The sacred oils were kept in this church, and were distributed to the
different parishes of the diocese. This privilege was shown by two
vases, supported on two iron bars on each side of the cross, which
surmounted the great porch. In the general processions, the cross of
Saint-Maclou took precedence of all others, and led the procession.

The church is one hundred and forty two feet in length, by seventy six
feet in breadth, taking in the aisles. Its height, from the pavement of
the nave to the extremity of the ancient steeple, was about two hundred
and forty feet. This handsome steeple, in the form of a cone, rose to a
height of one hundred and fifteen feet above the lantern: one could
ascend to the cross, by the exterior of it, without a ladder. In 1705,
it was shaken by a hurricane; thirty years later, it became dangerous:
and they were obliged to take down the greater part of it. It was almost
destroyed during the revolution, when its whole covering of lead was
taken off, to make bullets. At present they are repairing the belfry
which was erected instead of that steeple.

The interior of the church merits the whole attention of the curious. I
will mention particularly the beautifully sculptured staircase, which
leads to the organ. The authors of _the picturesque and romantic
travels into ancient France_, have not forgotten to place this gothic
jewel in their work.

The great porch of Saint-Maclou is very remarkable. It had formerly
three very commodious entrances; but, they have contrived, at I do not
know what time, to build a house _before_ and _quite close_ to the
southwest door way; which, in consequence is closed up.

The municipal administration lately decided that this house should be
pulled down, that the door which it closes up may be opened; but it will
be of no use but for the general appearence of the front of the edifice,
as this door does not present, like the others, any very interesting
details of architecture. It is more than probable that they existed
formerly, but, being hid from view, the door was taken off and replaced
by the plain one, which exists at present; this loss must be deeply
felt, when we contemplate the sculpture, which ornamented the other
entrances and which strangers will not fail to admire, either in the
western front or the northern porch from the rue Martainville. These
sculptures, which are attributed to the celebrated Jean Goujon, consist
principally of bas-reliefs representing different subjects from the
Bible, such as _the death of the Virgin_, on the door in the rue
Martainville; the _baptism of Jesus-Christ_, on the door of the great
porch, etc. On the small door to the left, are also some very curious

Saint-Maclou still preserves almost the whole of its ancient painted
glass windows, which are composed in general of isolated figures of
saints, covered with canopies and in the style of the _Renaissance_. The
lower portions of these paintings have been very much mutilated.[16]

Almost opposite the northern porch of the church, we find the entrance
to what was formerly the burying ground of Saint-Maclou, which answered
the same purpose in Rouen, as that of the SAINT-INNOCENTS, in Paris.
M.E.-H. Langlois has discovered, on the columns of the buildings which
surrounded this ancient churchyard, the fragments, unfortunately almost
shapeless, of a _macabre_ dance.

[Footnote 16: The model in relief of this church and made in the first
hall of the XVth century, may be seen in the Museum of antiquities.]


This church was built in 1535, on the ground and in place of a smaller
one. The chapel of the passion, which is to the right on entering the
choir, dates from 1648, as well as the side of the edifice, which faces
the rue Saint-Patrice. Quite near the church, and in buildings belonging
to the parish, a community of priests had been founded in 1641, at the
expense of the curate; they had several privileges allowed by the king.
They could enter fifteen _muids_ of wine, without paying duty for it,
they could take eight bushels of salt in the year, from the kings stores
and at the merchant's price, and give the right of _committimus_ to all
ecclesiastics, after a year's residence in the town.

The church of Saint-Patrice, has some stained glass windows of the
greatest beauty. They are of the XVIth century, which was the most
brilliant period of painting on glass in France.

Mr Langlois, in his excellent work, which I have already cited, gives a
description of the painted glass windows. The whole interior of the
chapel, which is situated at the extremity on the left side, and facing
the east, is remarkable for the beauty of its windows. Most of them bear
the date of their execution, and the name of the donor. The pulpit of
Saint-Patrice was formerly in the church of Saint-Lô; it is of the
style of the _Renaissance_, and in good taste.


From the avenue of the Mont-Riboudet, we perceive this elegant church at
the end of a row of young trees. It is built after the plans of
Lebrument and ornamented by the chisel of Jadoulle; this modern building
is distinguished by the beauty of its architecture and of its
sculptures. It was terminated and consecrated the 7th april 1781.

The front, which faces the south, is composed of a peristyle, supported
by four corinthian columns. In the pediment, above the entablature, we
perceive a bas-relief, which represents a _woman suckling children_, the
symbol of charity. The representation of this virtue could not have been
better placed, than on the front of a church adjoining the Hôtel-Dieu.

The interior of the edifice is composed of a nave and two aisles, at the
upper extremity of the nave rises an arched dome, which is surmounted on
the outside by an obelisk supporting a globe.

Several costly pictures decorate the chapels. Those which are perceived
at the extremities of the two aisles are more particularly esteemed.
They are by Vincent, a distinguished painter of the french school. That
on the right represents the _cure of the blind man_; that on the left,
the _cure of the paralytic_.

The chapel of the _religiouses_ of the Hotel-Dieu, is situated behind
the high altar.

(For a description of the hospital, see farther on, the article on civil


In the commencement of the VIth century, Rouen possessed a bishop of
this name. At first, it might be natural to think that this bishop was
the patron of the church of Saint-Sever; but it is not so. The following
legend, is the history of this foundation, in a few words.

In the reign of Richard Ist, third duke of Normandy, two ecclesiastics
of Rouen made a pilgrimage to the sepulchre of Saint-Sever, bishop of
Avranches. The body of the saint was deposited in the neighbourhood of
_Mont-Saint-Michel_, in a church surrounded by forests. A priest lived
alone in the neighbourhood. The two ecclesiastics, from an excess of
devotion resolved to carry away the remains of the bishop. The priest
heard of it and put a stop to their enterprise. They returned to Rouen,
and humbly begged Richard, whose consent they easily obtained to
authorize the removal of the remains, and in spite of the tears and
remonstrances of the inhabitants, they carried off the holy relics,
which they forwarded to Rouen. The procession rested at the hamlet of
Emendreville (now the suburb of Saint-Sever). Here the miracle, which
had already been shown several times on the road, was renewed again,
that is to say, the shrine which contained the remains of the saint
became so heavy, that it was impossible to raise it, until they had made
a vow to build a chapel on that spot; such is the origin of the church
of Saint-Sever. Till then this place had been called Emendreville. It
retained that denomination about four centuries afterwards; but at last
it took the name of the saint, in whose honour the parochial church had
been built. The present church was consecrated on the 27th january
1538. Neither its interior or exterior offer any thing worthy of notice.


This was the chapel of the ancient _Carmes déchaussés_. Those fathers
obtained letters patent on the 27th july 1624. They purchased a house
at the entrance of the suburb Bouvreuil; which was then in the parish of
Saint-Godard, and laid the foundations of their monastery. The duke of
Longueville, laid the first stone of their church on the 20th november
1643, which they demolished in 1678, to build a new one, of which the
first stone was laid in the month of july 1679, by Mr Pierre de
Bec-de-Lièvre, first president of the _Cour des Aides_, who untill the
time of his death, which took place in july 1685, paid the whole
expenses of the building. After his death, his two sons MM. Pierre and
Thomas-Charles de Bec-de-Lièvre, finished the edifice at their own
expense. This is the present church: it was consecrated on the 21st of
december 1687. In 1791, it was dedicated to Saint-Romain, as one of the
chapels of ease of the town of Rouen. After having been shut for a time,
it was again placed amongst the chapels of ease, in 1802. It is now a
parochial church. On the front, which faces the east, we find the
following inscription in large, letters of gold:



This church contains some extremely curious antiquities. The first,
without doubt, is the monument of the archbishop Saint-Romain, which is
of granite, and forms, if I may say so, the high altar in the choir, as
the top of the high altar covers the monument, which is elsewhere very
plainly seen. It was formerly in the crypt of Saint-Godard, where
Saint-Romain was buried. It was brought afterwards to this church on the
20th february 1804. The ashes of the illustrious prelate had been
dispersed by the calvinists, in 1562.

We may also admire the beautiful painted glass windows, which were
brought partly from Saint-Maur, Saint-Etienne-des-Tonneliers, and
Saint-Martin-sur-Renelle. The following is an explanation: In the first
chapel, _a Transfiguration_, to the left on entering. In the next chapel
_a holy Family_. This chapel contains also a beautiful small marble
statue _of Saint-Louis_, and a bas-relief, by Jadoulle, representing
_Tobit burying the dead_. The firsts chapel to the right, contains the
font: there is a remarkable painted glass, divided into six partitions,
which represents _the history of Adam_. It is in this chapel that we
find a very curious cover of some baptismal-fonts, which was brought
from the ancient church of Saint-Etienne. The bas-reliefs, which
ornament it, represent _the Passion of Jesus-Christ_. In the sort of
lantern, which surmounts the cover, is _a Resurrection_. These
sculptures on wood, which are of great beauty, are of the beginning of
the XVIth century. At the farther end of the chapel, is a fresco
painting by Pécheux representing _the baptism of Jesus-Christ_.

In the next chapel, which is dedicated to Saint-Theresa, we see
_Sainte-Geneviève_, the patroness of Paris. In her left hand she holds a
book, and in her right a lighted taper. Satan tries to blow it out with
a pair of bellows, while, behind the saint, an angel is ready to light
it again. These different painted glasses were brought from Saint-Maur.

In the chapel of Saint-Joseph, is a painted window representing
_Saint-Stephen before his judges_. In the chapel of the Virgin, which is
opposite, we see _Saint-Stephen stoned_; these two painted windows
belonged to the church of Saint-Etienne-des-Tonneliers.

Some glasses of the higher windows, brought from
Saint-Martin-sur-Renelle, represent _the passion of our Lord_.

In the choir, in the chapel to the left, _Tobit burying the dead_,
above we see _the resurrection of Lazarus_; in the same window _Job on
the dunghill_; and underneath, _the Lord's supper_.

In another chapel of the choir, opposite to the former, is _Jesus-Christ
in the temple, overthrowing the tables of the money-changers_; beside
it, is _the rich man at table_; Lazarus is at the outside of the door.
The stained glass of these two chapels belonged to Saint-Maur. Most of
them, from the richness of their coloring, and the perfection of their
execution, are very remarkable.

Under the dome at the lop of the nave, are five different fresco,
paintings which represent different acts relative to the life of the
patron of the church. One represents _the consecration of Saint-Romain
as bishop_; in another, _he overthrows the pagan temples_; farther on,
is _the miracle of the dragon or Gargouille_; next to it, is the
procession of the shrine to obtain the deliverance of a prisoner, a
ceremony which was instituted after the miracle of which we have already
spoken. The _apotheosis of Saint-Romain_ crowns these four paintings.

At the top of the sanctuary, behind the high altar, there is also
another fresco by Pêcheux, _representing the agony of Jesus-Christ_. The
painting receives the light from above, by an opening made expressly for
that purpose.

The organ, which was made by Mr Lebreton, of Rouen, was received on the
11th july 1830. It is composed of four keys, forty two registers, and
one pedal. Although modern, the church of Saint-Romain, merits as we
see, to be examined in all its details.


The origin of Saint-Godard is unknown, all that can be affirmed is that
there existed anciently on this spot a chapel dedicated to the Virgin.
This latter circumstance induced the belief for a long time, that the
first Cathedral was erected on this place. It will suffice, to establish
the contrary, to say that the church of Saint-Godard, was included
within the interior of the town only at the commencement of the XIIIth

In the year 533, and not 530 as Farin says, whose chronology is often
erroneous, the archbishop saint Godard was interred in the subterraneous
chapel of this church, which then changed its ancient name for that of
the holy prelate, whose remains it had received. Saint-Romain was also
interred in the same chapel.

It was only after different additions that the church of Saint-Godard
became what we now see it. It is one hundred and fifteen feet long, by
seventy eight broad. In 1556, its organ was a very small one; it was
afterwards enlarged; but, in 1562, it was destroyed by the calvinists.
The present organ, which was established in 1640, is the work of a
scotchman, named George Lesselié.

The church of Saint-Godard, when suppressed at the second
circumscription of the churches of Rouen, saw all its ornaments and
riches pass to the parishes of Saint-Ouen and Saint-Patrice. Amongst the
ornaments, we will mention its admirable painted windows, which were the
finest in France, according to Farin and Levieil,[17] whose opinion has
become an authority. A great many of these glasses were broken in the
_chambre aux clercs_ of Saint-Ouen. When, reopened for religious
purposes, in 1806, the church of Saint-Godard became again possessed of
two of its finest windows: that of the chapel of the Virgin, to the
right facing the choir, and that of the chapel of Saint-Nicolas, on the
opposite side. The first represents the mother of the saviour, and the
kings of Judea from whom she was descended. The celestial head of the
Virgin is of astonishing beauty of composition.

The window of the chapel dedicated to Saint-Nicolas represents different
acts of the life of saint Romain; and the painter, one may imagine, has
not forgotten the history of the _Gargouille_. These two windows are
each thirty two feet high by twelve in width. Nothing can be comparable
to the beauty of the colour of these two windows; from thence came the
proverb, in speaking of wine of a purple colour: _It is the colour of
the windows of Saint-Godard_.

[Footnote 17: _The art of painting on glass_. 1774, folio, fig.]


The church, that is to say, the primitive chapel which was built on this
spot, was one of those which were founded, about the middle of the
VIIth century, by the illustrious archbishop saint Ouen. It was at that
time very far out of the city, since the limits on this side of the
town extended only as far as the streets de l'Aumône, and Robec, during
the life-time of saint Ouen. It was only six hundred years after, under
saint Louis, that the church of Saint-Nicaise was comprehended within
the interior of the town. The choir of this church is remarkable for the
symmetry of its proportions. Its organ was placed in 1634. The remainder
of the architecture of this church does not offer any thing to fix the
attention. At the eastern extremities of the aisles, we perceive two
mutilated painted glass windows; but which nevertheless call forth the
admiration of the connaisseur. The one of them represents the three
christian virtues, the other, two figures of the same description, with
that of a bishop. The heads are very beautiful, and the draperies quite
dazzling, from their brilliant colours.


This church was formerly called _Saint-Vincent-sur-Rive_, because it was
situated on the bank of the river. The treasurers of Saint-Vincent had
the salt measures in their keeping, they were deposited in a small tower
at the entrance of the church, for that purpose. When the boats loaded
with salt passed by the church, they had to give a certain quantity to
the parish, which has been since replaced by an annual sum of 140
livres. Saint-Vincent, like most other catholic temples, was pillaged in
1562 by the calvinists.

Saint-Vincent is a handsome production of the _renaissance_. The
architecture of the interior is light and gracious, if we except the
ornaments, which are not in very good taste, and which have been
fastened on the pillars of the choir, in the middle of the last century,
after the designs of the architect De France.

The painted glases of this church are very remarkable. At the lower
extremity of the right aisle, in looking towards the choir, we perceive
a pane of glass, a part of which is done on pasteboard by Albert-Durer,
representing the virgin kneeling beside several of the apostles. The
draperies of the former are in admirable gothic style; the heads of the
others are also very fine.

In the northern aisle, that is to say, to the left on entering by the
great porch, opposite the choir, we remark a window representing the
history of saint John the baptist. The lower pannel represents the
_Decapitation_ of the saint, whose head they are carrying to Herod, who
is seated at table with Herodias. In the next window, in going towards
the eastern extremity, there is a view of the church of Saint-Ouen, but
it is unfortunately broken. We can only now distinguish its tower.

In the chapel to the left of the choir, there is a window representing
the miracle attributed to Ferdinand, better known under the name of
saint Anthony of Padua, and taken from the lives of the saints, by the
reverend father François Giry.

The interior of Saint-Vincent, and especially the southern aisle, still
offers some very fine painted windows which are unfortunately very much


This church has given its name to the street in which it is situated. It
was formerly but a chapel in the midst of meadows and marshes. In the
year 1209, it was situated, without the town. It was formerly low and
dark; in 1636, the roof was raised to a greater height. Before the year
1661, the organ was placed, in the left aisle: at this period, it was
placed in its present situation. This church does not offer any thing
very remarkable, unless perhaps its lofty steeple, in the form of a
sugar loaf.



Saint-Gervais was perhaps after the virgin, the first person to whom an
altar was erected in Rouen. Neither Pommeraye, Farin,
Toussaint-Duplessis, nor several other modern writers, have spoken of
the origin of this church; the following is a sketch of it.

In 386, saint Victrice, then archbishop of Rouen, received from
Saint-Ambroise a box of relics, amongst which were the remains of
Saint-Gervais. Saint-Victrice caused a church to be erected in which
were to be deposited those venerable remains. The archbishop tells us
that he worked with his own hands, and that he even helped to carry the
stones on his shoulders. Should not the temple where the remains of
Saint-Gervais had been deposited, have been named after this martyr? Was
it natural to give another name? Certainly not; and we may conclude
therefore that the present church of Saint-Gervais has been erected on
the ground where that formerly stood, which Saint-Victrice had caused to
be built; and which afterwards was raised into an abbey, and is at the
present time a chapel of ease. The church of Saint-Gervais suffered
considerably during the religious contests: in the year 1591, it was
almost destroyed. At that time the royal army had taken possession of it
and had established a battery near to it, which caused great havoc in
the town of Rouen, this army was commanded by the Marquis de Villars,
for the league.

Strangers should not forget to visit an extremely curious ancient
monument, the crypt of Saint-Gervais. It is immediately under the choir
of the church. The descent is by a stair-case composed of twenty eight
stone steps. The length of this subterranean chapel is thirty five feet,
by sixteen in breadth and fifteen in height. The two first archbishops
of Rouen, saint Mellon and saint Avitien, are buried under the two
arcades, which we perceive on the right and left at the foot of the
stair-case. These arcades had been walled up at the time of the
religions troubles; in 1723, they were opened again. The monument of
saint Mellon is that to the left on entering. We here discover the only
vestiges of roman architecture, which are to be found in this town. The
roman road, which existed sixteen centuries ago, between the ancient
_Rothomagus_ and _Juliobona_, passed close to this church.

William the Conqueror, when mortally wounded by the pummel of his
saddle, on his way to Paris, caused himself to be carried to the priory
of Saint-Gervais, where he died on the 9th of september 1087.


In the year 1562, the calvinists entered by force into the town of
Rouen, by the suburb of Saint-Hilaire, and destroyed at the same time
the church of that name. It was rebuilt twenty eight or thirty years
after. Like the church of Saint-Vivien, it has given its name to the
quarter in which it is situated; and like it also, offers nothing worthy
the attention of the antiquary.


Farin and some other authors have said that this had been an ancient
temple of _Adonis_; nothing however proves, or justifies such an
assertion; and we only see in this, a popular tradition on which we
must not rely.

Formerly this little church was very curious in some of its portions. It
is the only one in Rouen, which offers the three semi-circular
_absides_, which we find in most of the monuments of the XIth century.
The middle is the highest and projects farther out than the other two.
There is a row of curious figures on the outside of the edifice in its
whole circumference: some of which are represented with great
moustaches. According to Mr Cotman, who has remarked figures of a
similar description in different parts of Normandy, these great
moustaches must at first have been a satire upon the Saxons who wore
them, when at the same time the Normans had their heads completely
shaved. Robert Wace tells us that at the battle of Hastings the English
took the Normans for an army of priests.

In the interior of the edifice, the triple choir was separated from the
nave by a semi-circular arcade, the capital of which was covered with
sculptures, which have been unfortunately destroyed. This nave was
modern, and dated only from the commencement of the XVIIth century, the
most ancient portion is from the commencement of the XIth century.

The modern portion was destroyed some years since. A new church in the
form of an ancient basilica has been erected close to it, from the
designs of Mr Du Boullay. Antiquaries will learn with pleasure that the
administration of the town has taken measures to preserve the three
_absides_ of the ancient little edifice, with the intention of using it
as a sacristy to the new church.

The walk, at the extremity of which the church of Saint-Paul is
situated, was formed in 1692 and 1693; but was only the planted in 1729.
The whole space from watering place to the foot of mount
Saint-Catherine was formerly a vast meadow with a few gardens. The road
when finished was called the _Chemin neuf_; it is now called the _cours
Dauphin_, so named in memory of the birth of the dauphin, son of Lewis

At the extremity of this avenue there are several springs of mineral
waters. They are called the waters of Saint-Paul, from the name of the
parish. There are also several of similar description in the quarter
Martainville, called la Marequerie.



Before the Seine was enclosed in its present bed, the church of
Saint-Eloi was situated on an Island. Afterwards, without changing
place, it found itself situated on the _terres neuves_, like the other
churches, Saint-Etienne-des-Tonneliers, Saint-Clément, and
Saint-Martin-du-Pont. In 1030, under the duke Robert, those new lands
were considered as suburbs of Rouen: _In suburbia Rotomagensi ecclesiam
sancti Eligii_, etc.

The church of Saint-Eloi was formerly considered as one of the best
lighted in the town of Rouen. There were, a short time since, but are
now walled up, three windows, of which the painted glass was executed in
the XVIth century; they have been transferred to Saint-Mary's, to
ornament the museum of antiquities. Formerly there was a well in the
choir, but which is now filled up, from which the water was drawn up by
a chain, from whence the proverb, still used in Rouen, is derived: «It
is cold as the chain of the well of Saint-Eloi.»

This church has been granted for protestant worship, since 1803. The
number of persons who profess this worship in Rouen, is about 2,000. The
service commences at eleven o'clock in the morning. English service is
also performed in this church at three o'clock in the afternoon.

The _place Saint-Eloi_ does not offer any thing worthy of notice; it was
the ancient burying ground of the parish of that name: and has since
become the poultry and game market.




At the top of the rue Nationale.

This religious edifice, which is of the XVth century, did not offer
any thing remarkable but its tower, which is entire.


Rue aux Ours, near the rue de la Vicomté, was erected between the years
1526 and 1557.


At the corner of the street of that name, and the rue des Iroquois.

The construction of this edifice, dates from the commencement of the
XVIth century.


Rue des Bons-Enfans, at the corner of the rue Ecuyère.


Rue Sainte-Croix-des-Pelletiers, at the top of the street.


At the corner of the streets Saint-George and de la Vicomté.


In the street of that name. Its tower merits principally the attention
of the traveller; it was commenced in 1490 and finished in 1501. The
screen of Saint-Laurent was considered a chef-d'œuvre of architecture.



The modern building which stands near the northern transept of the
church of Saint-Ouen was the dormitory of the monks. It is now the town
hall. The offices occupy the ground and first floor, the library and
gallery of paintings the second. The great stair-case is remarkable for
its elegance and lightness; it has been compared to that at Somerset
house. On the first landing we find in a niche, the statue of Lewis
XVth in his youth, from the chisel of Lemoine. The great stair-case,
next the church, constructed from the designs of Lebrument, the
architect of the Madeleine, is distinguished by the boldness of its
architecture; it leads to the library and gallery of paintings. The new
facade of the town hall is composed of two wings which are parallel at
their extremities, and a peristyle between the two former, but which
does not so far project. Two columns of the corinthian order support the
pediment, on which the armorial bearings of the town are sculptured;
they are supported on one side by Mercury and the attributes of
Commerce, and on the other by Industry in the likeness of Minerva. On
the first floor of the southern wing, there is a very fine room, which
is used for the meetings of the municipal body; one of the rooms on the
second floor has been devoted to the meetings of the royal academy,
their former room having been joined to the public library.

The ancient town-hall, which was built in the year 1608, was situated
at the corner of the rue Thouret and the rue de la Grosse-Horloge, and
near the tower of the belfry; the only portion of this building which
remains, is that which faces the rue Thouret. This edifice having fallen
into ruin, it was decided that a new town-hall should be erected. In
1757, a plan was adopted, and the monument was to be raised at the
western extremity of the old market place; but after having laid out one
million of francs, on the foundations alone, they became terrified at
the enormous sum, which it would require. The municipal administration
still possesses the model in relief of the said monument: it was of very
curious architecture and may still be seen at the Museum.


This edifice adjoins the Cathedral church. The principal body of the
building, which faces the street, was begun and partly finished in
1461, by the cardinal d'Estouteville; but death overtook this prelate
before he had completed the whole. It does not appear that his
successor, Robert de Croixmare, continued the works. It was, according
to Farin, the cardinal George d'Amboise Ist, who terminated the
edifice. The only remarkable portion of the interior of this edifice is
that named the _gallery of the states_. It is decorated with four large
paintings by Robert. They represent views of Havre, Dieppe, Rouen and
Gaillon, the once celebrated chateau of the archbishops of Rouen, and
built by the cardinal d'Amboise Ist, with the savings which he made
from his salary, from the profits of his legation, and from the large
fines which he levied, with the knowledge of the king, on the rebel
towns of Italy.

In 1508, when Lewis XIIth with his queen came to Rouen, he alighted at
the archiepiscopal palace. The dauphin Francis of Valois, son of
Francis Ist, inhabited it also in 1531.

The modern building which looks on the garden, and which is to the right
on entering, was erected at the commencement of the last century. The
library, which is appropriated to the chapter of the cathedral, is
situated on the first floor.


When we say that the Palais-de-Justice was erected by Lewis XIIth, in
1499, as a court of exchecquer, which that prince had arranged should be
held at Rouen, we must not comprehend that part of the building called
the _salle des Procureurs_, or attorneys hall, which dates from 1493,
and which was erected (as we have mentioned at the article exchange), as
a place of meeting for the merchants of the town. Even at the present
time, this hall calls forth the admiration of the best architects. Its
length is one hundred and fifty feet, by fifty in breadth. Its lofty
roof is not supported by a single pillar; the ingenuity of the work is
here contrasted with its boldness of conception. The only ornaments
which decorate the walls of the hall are elegant empty niches, which are
detached in relief, and at equal distances. The principal staircase,
which leads up to the salle des Procureurs, was erected a few years
since, under the superintendence of M. Gregoire. The _Conciergerie_ and
prisons are situated under this hall.

[Illustration: Palais de Justice]

The Palais-de-Justice, properly so called, forms as it were one side of
a square, at the northern extremity of the salle des Procureurs. Its
facade, which looks towards the south, is two hundred feet in length,
and is ornamented with every thing that the architecture of the time
possessed of the richest and most delicate. The angular pillars of the
piers are covered with canopied statues and small steeples, which extend
from the base to the summit; the numerous ornaments, which surround the
windows, those which accompany and surmount the windows of the roof; the
leaden balustrade which surrounds the roof, the arcades which form a
gallery, and are carried along the whole of the entablature, lastly, the
elegant octangular turret which occupies the middle of the facade and
separates it into two equal parts, are of the greatest beauty and purity
of taste, in spite of a certain mixture in the style, which
characterizes the transition from gothic architecture to that of the
_renaissance_, style which already began to be in use. The name of the
architect, unknown till recently, is Roger Ango.

At the farther end of the salle des Procureurs is a door, which leads
into the ancient _Grand Chambre_ (great Chamber), in which the court of
assizes are now held. This hall may be considered as the finest in the
kingdom. The ceiling, which is divided into sculptured compartments,
decorated with gilt bronze ornaments, is of oak to which time has given
the appearance of ebony. The whole of the flooring was formerly covered
with _arabesques_, according to the custom of the reign of Lewis the
XIIth. From this floor, an ancient fire place which existed in the
_Chambre de Conseil_, or Counsel Hall, a curious painting which the
antiquarian Millin mentions in his _national antiquities_ and on which
witnesses were sworn have all disappeared.

On the exterior, only two parts of this elegant edifice, that which is
exposed to the setting sun, and the middle one to the south, have
retained their primitive beauty. The latter is now under repair and
renovation. At the commencement of the last century, the modern portion
of the building which faces the west, was erected. The front of this
building fell to the ground on the 10th of april 1812, and brought down
with it the whole ceiling, which was painted by the celebrated Jouvenet,
who, having his right hand paralysed, painted with his left, and in a
manner worthy of such a painter, the _Triumph of Justice_.

Considerable embellishments have taken place in the court of the Palais.
The massive flight of stone steps, which led to the _salle des
Procureurs_, and which especially hid from view the beautiful angular
turret, has been removed. A new staircase has been erected at the middle
of the facade, before the door of the prisons, the entrance to which, is
at the side. This staircase is composed of a single straight flight, of
five metres (fifteen feet) in breadth, and is crowned by a porch in the
style of the building. The ancient wall, which closed the court on the
side of the rue aux Juifs, has been replaced by a cast iron railing, in
the gothic style. The front of the Palais being thus exposed to view,
the aspect of the edifice becomes as imposing as picturesque. Behind the
Palais-de-Justice, in the rue Saint-Lô, is a large building, which
answers the purpose of a court of appeals, for the _cour royale_. The
offices of the town-hall were established here during the revolution. It
was formerly the residence of the first presidents of the parliament of


The following inscription, which is engraved on a brass plate, and is
perfectly well preserved, is placed above the door at the foot of the

     En lan de lincarnarian nee segour. mil ccc.xx.iiii. et neuf. fu
     comencé rest berfrop: et Es ans ensuiuas iusques en lan mil.
     ccc.xx.iiii. et xviii. fu fait et parfait. ou quel temps noble home
     mess. Guille de Bellengues rheunllier chambellen di Roy nostre
     Sire estoit cappitaine de reste ville. honorable home pourneu et
     sage Johan de la tuille bailly. et sire Guillaumealorge. Johan
     mustel. Guille de gaugy. Richart de sommery. Nicolae le roux.
     Gaultier campion, ronseillers de la Dicteville. et pierres hermes
     reseueur d'icelle.

Proceeding on, we ascend the tower of the belfry, by a flight of two
hundred steps, at the top of which is the bell, with the following


We perceive by this inscription, that this bell was named _Rouvel_, and
not _Rembol_, as tradition would have it; but it is better known under
the name of the Cloche d'argent (silver bell), although not a grain of
silver entered into the composition of it. It rings every night at nine
o'clock. It also rings peals on occasion of any national rejoicings or
public calamities. This bell was made in the year 1447; it was then
called the _horloge du Beffroi_. The stone vault, which crosses the
street, at the place still called _porte Massacre_ (the murder gate) was
erected in 1527. On each side of this arcade, we perceive the dial
plates and medallions.

Under the Vault, in the centre, we see sculptures representing a
shepherd tending sheep. On each of the sides, are other sheep grazing.
To the left, and facing the old market place, we may read the following
inscription: _Animam suam ponit pro ovibus suis_, which indicates
sufficiently the allegory of this composition, if we did not also see on
the opposite side these other words: _Pastor bonus_.

Beside the arcade, but nearer to the rue des Vergetiers, the tower of
the Belfry rises. We perceive a platform at the top of the tower,
surrounded by an iron railing, from whence is a view of the whole town.
Above is a dome, surmounted by a small steeple.


About the middle of the Xth century, Richard Ist, surnamed
_Sans-Peur_, and third duke of Normandy, caused a palace to be erected
on the Seine, which consisted of a large tower and served at the same
time as a defence to the town. It was also the state prison. Henry Ist
added several buildings. Several fortifications had been previously
erected, the former being then called the Vielle-Tour (old Tower). This
tower was destroyed by Philip-Augustus; it was there, according to the
greater number of historians, that in 1204 the cruel John-Sans-Terre
caused his nephew, Arthur of Britanny, to be confined, and murdered him
with his own hand. The present _halles_ (covered markets) occupy the
greater portion of the site formerly occupied by the palace and the
_Vieille-Tour_, which has left its name to the two markets we are
presently going to speak of.

Those vast warehouses for different manufactures, called _halles_ (or
marts), were erected in the second half of the XIIIth century, about
the time when Lewis IXth fixed the fifth enclosure of the town of
Rouen. These marts are considered the most important in France. The most
considerable portion, and also the most ancient of the whole building,
is set apart for the sale of linen cloths. Its length is two hundred and
seventy two feet, by fifty in breadth. The roof is supported by two rows
of stone pillars. The two other marts, one for coton stuffs and the
other for worsted stuffs and cloth, are each two hundred feet in
length. These marts were open till about the year 1493, at which time
they were enclosed, to prevent vagabonds taking shelter in them. The
linen mart separates the market which is held on this place in to two
unequal portions. The larger occupies the north side, and is called the
_place de la Haute-Vieille-Tour_; it is reserved for the sale of old
linen, old utensils and particularly for the sale of crockery and glass
ware. The second occupies the south side, and is called the
Basse-Vieille-Tour, because it is considerably lower than the other
portion. Several kinds of eatables are sold here, especially fish.

There formerly existed a very beautiful fountain in the middle of the
higher place, which was composed of a triangular pyramid, surmounted by
a statue of Alexander; but not the least vestige of it remains. The
present fountain is supplied with water from the Gaalor spring.

Near the linen-mart, we observe a remarkable edifice, which projects
from the rest of the building, called the monument of Saint-Romain. This
structure however does not form part of the marts, to which it has not
the least resemblance. Neither did it form apart, of the palace of the
ancient dukes of Normandy, as some persons still believe. The style of
its architecture sufficiently indicates the time of its erection, namely
1542. The corinthian order of architecture appears in the whole height
of the building. It was on the first floor that the celebrated old
ceremony, called the _levée de la Fierte_, for the delivrance of a
prisoner, took place every year.[18]

In the neighbourhood of the linen and cotton marts, is the corn mart;
it is three hundred feet in length, its breadth being in proportion. It
is open three days in the week: mondays, wednesdays and fridays: the two
others marts are open only on fridays.

[Footnote 18: To have all accounts of this ceremony, see the work of Mr
Floquet, entitled: _Histoire du Privilige de Saint-Romain_, etc,--Rouen,
E. Le Grand, 1833, 2 vol. 8vo.]


Untill the year 1493, the merchants of Rouen had no place of meeting
alloted to transact their commercial affairs. They met however, in the
cathedral but, without authorisation. The municipal authorities, wishing
to put a stop to this state of things, made an arrangement with the
bailiff of Rouen, who issued a decree: «That there should be erected at
the lower end of the New-Market place, and at the expense of the town, a
large stone building, and on the second floor of this edifice, a large
hall was to be reserved for the use of the merchants of the town, those
of other nations also having the same right, to meet and transact their
affairs; which hall is to be named, for the future, the common town

The stone building here spoken of, is that vast wing, which closes the
court of the _Palais-de-Justice_ to the west; and the common town hall
is that known under the name of _Salle des Procureurs_ or _des

About the year 1664, the merchants company obtained a portion of ground
on the quay, where they met untill 1827. Since then, that portion of
ground has been given up to enlarge the quay. The meridian which
ornamented this ancient exchange, is now placed in the garden of the
town hall. Since the straightening of the quay, the uncovered exchange
has been placed before the _Consuls_--(or covered exchange) so that the
one might communicate with the other: it occupies the portion of ground,
which is situated between the rue Nationale and the rue des Iroquois,
and is surrounded by an iron railing.



It is in the gallery on the ground floor, that the merchants meet, when
the rainy weather does not permit their meeting in the uncovered
exchange: This was formerly the _Juridiction consulaire_; so its
destination has not been changed since the tribunal of commerce is
established here. In the middle of the gallery on the ground floor, and
to the right on entering from the quay, we remark a handsome staircase,
which is formed by a double flight of steps, from the first landing.
Before the revolution, the statue of Louis XVth was placed here.

This staircase leads up to the audience hall of the chamber of commerce,
which is the most remarkable of the three rooms which compose the first
floor of the building. It is ornamented, with a fine picture of Christ
by Van Dyck. In one of the neighbouring rooms are two paintings of large
dimensions, by Lemonnier, a native of Rouen. One of these paintings
represents the audience given by Louis XVIth to the Chamber of commerce
of Rouen, on the 28th june 1786, in the great hall of the archbishop's
palace, called the _Salle des États_. All the figures are of natural
size, and are striking likenesses. The subject of the other painting is

There are three different entrances to this edifice, one from the rue
Nationale, another from the rue des Charrettes and a third from the


The edifice containing the ancient custom-house being a great deal too
small and inconvenient for that purpose, it became indispensable to
erect another building. For this object, the municipal administration
opened a public competition on the 14th october 1833, for the erection
of another edifice. In the month of may 1834, the preference was given
to the plan of Mr Ed. Isabelle, a distinguished architect in Paris, who
was charged with putting his plan into execution. The excavations were
commenced on the 17th february 1835, in the presence of the mayor, the
municipal council, etc., and the building was terminated in 1838.

The architectural appearance of this edifice reminds us a little of the
severe style of the florentine architecture; the large doorway is
ornamented with the attributes of commerce, as likewise the coping of
the edifice; two bas-reliefs, of eight and a half feet high, and
sculptured on stone by David, representing the _symbols of navigation
and commerce_, decorate the middle of the facade on the first floor.
This building is situated on the _Havre quay_, a little farther on than
the old one. It has three entrances: the principal, on the quay, leads
into a large rectangular court, which is covered with a cupola of
cast-iron; opposite to the entrance of this court, is placed against the
wall the fine bas-relief, which ornamented the front of the old
custom-house, a very handsome piece of workmanship by Coustou, a
statuary of the XVIIIth century; it represents Mercury with the
different attributes of commerce. Two other entrances from the quay lead
to the offices and dwellings of some higher persons attached to the
customs. The lateral entrances serve as outlets to merchandise after
having been searched or examined in the covered court.

The bonded and examining warehouses are on the ground floor, as likewise
the offices of the comptroller, sub-comptroller and searchers; the
entresole is destined for other offices; the first floor is occupied
with the dwelling and offices of the director; and lastly, the second
story contains the dwelling of the principal receiver and the residing

_The entrepôt réel_, is situated, behind the new custom-house; this
warehouse is used for warehousing merchandise after the duties, have
been paid. The front of this edifice which is situated in the _rue des
Charrettes_, was erected in 1826.


_Rue de Sotteville, suburb of Saint-Sever._

For a long time the municipal council had occupied themselves with the
idea of endowing the town with an establishment of this description, the
want of which was imperiously felt; numerous plans were presented and
discussed; at last, after a thorough examination, the town obtained, by
royal ordinance of the 18th august 1833, the authorisation to establish
a public and common slaughterhouse, with apparatus for melting the
tallow, scalding house and tripe house, on the fine property, which is
situated in the _rue de Sotteville_, at the corner of the _avenue de
Grammont_, bought for that purpose from Mr Burel.

A public competition was opened at the end of the year 1838 for the
plans of this establishment, and the prize was decreed, on the 20th
march 1834, to _Mr Etienne-Théodore Dommey_, an architect from Paris.

The first stone of this establishment was laid by Mr Hy Barbet, the
mayor of Rouen, on the 28th july 1835, in the presence of the civil and
military authorities and a large number of spectators.

This important establishment, which was built within the period of two
years, and which is now completed, is one of the finest of this
description. The expences, including the purchase of the ground,
amounted to the sum of 970,000 francs, and the annual product is
estimated about 80,000 francs.

The principal entrance is from the _rue de Sotteville_, a handsome
gateway between two gate houses gives a view of the whole building. The
total superficies of the buildings is of seven thousand three hundred
and thirty seven metres, or about the same number of yards.

Spacious streets and avenues planted with trees permit of a free access
to all parts of the establishment. It is well supplied with water, and
has a canal to carry off the dirty water of the establishment, which
allows its being kept very clean.

To visit the slaughterhouse, apply to the secretary general's office at
the town hall.


_Rue du Grand-Maulevrier._

The entrance court, is almost square, and surrounded on the four sides
by buildings of a regular architecture. This portion formed the ancient
college of the Jesuits. At a short distance to the north, and on a
raised portion of ground, stands a large building formerly called the
_Joyeuse seminary_, from the name of its founder, the cardinal de
Joyeuse. These two establishments have now been united. That part, named
_Joyeuse_, is exclusively reserved for the youngest children: they have
their separate play ground, which is formed of the terraces of the
garden. The courts, which are alloted to the other classes, are situated
lower than the former. The college contains about two hundred boarders
and five hundred day scholars.

The college church particularly deserves to be mentioned. Its porch is
situated in the rue Bourg-L'abbé; we remark on the right of the entrance
a statue of Charlemagne, which we recognise by the globe he holds in his
hand; on the left, is that of Saint-Louis. The erection of this church
was commenced in 1614. It was formerly intended to be attached to the
college of the Jesuits. Marie de Medicis laid the first stone of this
church, which was only finished in 1704, and dedicated on the 21st of
december of the same year. Several paintings decorate the interior,
which is grand and majestic. The public are admitted into this church
during the hours of divine service.

The municipal administration has caused a handsome marble mausoleum to
be erected to the memory of the cardinal de Joyeuse, the founder of the
seminary, in one of the lateral chapels to the left on entering.



_Rue de Lecat, at the extremity of the rue de Crosne._

The establishment of vast hospitals is very ancient in Rouen. The one of
which I am speaking was formerly situated near the cathedral, between
the _Calende square_ and the _rue de la Madeleine_. The house which is
opposite the southern porch of Notre-Dame, is a part of the remains of
that hospital. In 1758, it was transferred to the new building, which
had been erected in 1749, on the place called _the Lieu-de-Santé_, other
buildings having been afterwards added.

The Hôtel-Dieu is exclusively reserved for the reception of the
inhabitants of the town, excepting cases of urgency, which after having
been treated during six months, are dismissed as incurable, and are
admitted into the Hospice-Général, if they have dwelt during ten years
in the town. More than four thousand persons are admitted into this
hospital annually. About two thirds of the sick are under the care of
the physicians, the remainder under that of the surgeons of the
establishment. Different rooms are reserved for different maladies. One
of these is alloted to soldiers; another, which is known under the name
of _Gésine_, is reserved for lying in women. There is also a separate
room for Children under five years of age, and several rooms for

There are in all fifteen rooms, containing together more than six
hundred beds, the half of which are of iron.

The medical practice is divided into two distincts parts; that of
physicians, that of surgeons. Their visits are made regularly twice in
the day.

The Hotel-Dieu, is at the western extremity of the _rue de
Crosne-hors-Ville_, which is planted with trees, and offers a fine
avenue. The buildings which form the hospital (properly so called), are
those which are situated opposite the entrance gate which gives
admittance to the vast court of the hospital.

The two hospitals are under the same superintendance which is renewed by
one fifth, every year. This commission acquires each day a greater right
to public gratitude and especially to that of the poor.


This is situated in the lower part of the town, to the south-east, and
occupies a vast portion of ground adjoining the boulevard Martainville.
Gratitude causes us here to mention the name of Claude Groulard, first
president of the parliament of Rouen, in 1602. From that date the
establishment of an hospital, really took place for the reception of the
poor sick inhabitants. Previously, there existed only a subsidy, for the
relief of the poor. After Groulard, a counsellor of parliament, named
Damiens, wishing to uphold more effectually the existence of the
hospital; quitted his house and situation, on purpose to live within and
in this way be nearer to watch over the wants of the poor.

The Hospice-Général has been successively enlarged at different periods.
Lately, they have made a considerable purchase of land, and erected vast
buildings. Its population is of about two thousand individuals. Although
under the same administrative commission as the Hôtel-Dieu, it has its
particular director, who acts under the superintendance of the
commission, which commission is subject to the public administration.

The care of foundlings is one of the principal attributes of the
Hospice-Général. Orphans, who are found without means of existence, are
brought up in the same way as those who are abandoned; excepting, that
they are maintained at the expence of the _communes_ to which they
belong; while at the same time the others are chargeable to the
departement; excepting however the assistence of the communes. The
establishment provides the baby linen and clothing for the use of the
foundlings; it likewise pays all the expenses of feeding and education
of these children, as long as they remain in the hospital. When they are
sent into the country, the amount of board, and nurses charges, till
they attain the age of twelve years, is paid out of the funds of the
departement. The Hospice-Général, receives each year on an average
about five or six hundred foundlings. A _tour_ is always ready at one of
the entrances to receive them. Once a week, two coaches filled with
these unfortunate little creatures, are sent off one into the country
called the _pays de Bray_, the other to that called the _Roumois_, where
they are left with agents who are charged to leave them with the nurses.
In each of those _communes_, doctors are employed by the administrative
commission to visit them in case of sickness.

We perceive, the front of the church of the hospital, from the boulevard
Martainville. In 1785, the ancient chapel belonging to this hospital
being found too small to contain the population, it became necessary to
erect the present for that purpose. This church was dedicated on the
25th march 1790. The architecture has been much criticised. Perhaps
more harmony on the whole might have been desirable; but nevertheless,
the different parts of it are handsome, and the edifice, such as it is,
still does honour to its author, the late Mr Vauquelin.

The principal entrance to this hospital is situated in the rue


_Situated in the rue Saint-Julien, suburb of Saint-Sever._

The _fréres de Saint-Yon_, having been invited, in 1705, to come and
establish themselves in Rouen, by the archbishop Nicolas Colbert and the
first president Nicolas Camus de Pont-Carré, they accordingly purchased
the portion of ground, which bears their name, in 1708. They erected the
church themselves without the assistance of an architect, even acting as
masons and workmen. The first stone was laid on the 7th june 1728. This
edifice is of remarkable execution. In the exterior, its elevation is
about ninety six feet including a lantern of about thirty, which stands
above the transept of the edifice. In the interior, the length is one
hundred and twenty five feet and the breadth twenty five feet. On the
16th of july 1734, the _Frères de Saint-Yon_, carried with great pomp,
to their Church, the remains of their founder, the venerable Lasalle,
who died in 1719, and was buried in the church of Saint-Sever.
Independently of poor children, who were instructed by the monks
according to their condition, they likewise received incorrigible
children, who were sent by their parents to be taken care of; they also
received a limited number of insane persons, thirty were habitually kept
here at the expence of their families.

From the time when the _Frères de Saint-Yon_, as also all other
religious communities, were suppressed, untill 1820, the house of
Saint-Yon, became successivly a revolutionary prison, a barrack, a
_grenier d'abondance_, or corn store house, a house of detention for
spanish prisoners, an hospital for wounded soldiers in 1814, and a poor
house. This last establishment was one of the most considerable of this
description; but, it was suppressed in 1820, by royal ordonance.

Already in the preceding year, the _Conseil général_ of the departement
of the Seine-Inferieure had taken into consideration the deplorable
state, to which the unfortunate insane were reduced, and they resolved
to alleviate their wretched condition. It had been represented to them
that these unfortunate people could not receive in the hospitals of
Rouen, Havre or Dieppe, where there were great numbers of them shut up,
the great attention, which their position required, or not even those
which humanity demanded.

The _conseil général_ on a proposition from Mr Malouet, then prefect
of the departement, voted the establishment of a special asylum for the
insane belonging to the departement. The buildings and dependencies of
the ancient monastery of Saint-Yon were designated as being fit for that
purpose. The situation of the place at the extremity of the suburb, and
in a healthy situation, and the numerous plantations which it would be
easy to make in the large gardens which surround the establishment,
appeared as many favourable circumstances, to fix the choice of the

Therefore, in 1821, they entered into a contract for the building of
five different courts for the treatement of insane persons.

On the 25th August 1822, on the feast of Saint-Louis, the prefect Mr
de Vanssay laid the first stone of the establishement.

From that time the works were carried on with activity. Already in July
1825, fifty seven patients had been admitted. This asylum contains at
this time, 390 boarders and 150 poors at the charge of the departement.

It occupies a superficies of nine or ten hectares. The inmates are taken
care of by the sisters of Saint-Joseph of Cluny.

The admirable order which reigns in the establishment, the internal
management to which the insane are subjected, have already attracted the
attention of foreign medical men, who are charged with the treatement of
the same malady in the hospitals of their own countries. It may be said
that this asylum has, for several years served as a model to all the


There are two principal prisons in Rouen: the _house of correction_, and
the _maison de justice_, in the court of the Palais-de-Justice. The
first, commonly called _Bicêtre_, contains the debtors, prisoners
accused but not tried, and those sentenced to imprisonment under twelve
months; in the second those already convicted for crimes are confined.
Those sentenced to more than twelve months are sent to the central depôt
at Gaillon, ten leagues distant from Rouen.

According to a statement made by Mr Vingtrinier, the principal
physician of the prisons, the average of the population of the house of
correction is about three hundred; that of the _maison de justice_ about
ninety; the mortality about one in fifty nine, in the first, and one in
sixty eight, in the second.


There are three different barracks in Rouen: the first is situated near
the _quai aux Meules_ at Saint-Sever, and contains about one thousand
men. The second on the Champ-de-Mars, and contains about seven hundred
and fifty men. The third is the _caserne Bonne-Nouvelle_, situated in
the suburb of Saint-Sever. Most people pass the ancient priory of
_Bonne-Nouvelle_ (so named by Queen Matilda, on receiving the news of
the victory of Hastings), and see only a barrack. To the monks who
formerly inhabited this ancient priory, cuirassiers, dragoons and foot
soldiers have succeeded.

The barracks of _Bonne-Nouvelle_ will contain about three hundred
cavalry or about six hundred infantry.



_Place de la Pucelle._

After the cathedral and Saint-Ouen, this town possesses no other
monument which excites more the curiosity of french or English
antiquarians. The first person who described the famous bas-reliefs of
the _Camp du Drap-d'Or_, which ornament the exterior of the ancient
gallery of the edifice, is dom Montfaucon in the 4th volume of his
_Monuments of the french Monarchy_. He only did it, on the indications
given by the abbé Noel, who gave the first explanations of these
sculptures. After Montfaucon came Dr Ducarel, who has only copied the
learned benedictine. Dibdin, the British antiquarian, has also paid his
tribute of admiration to the hotel du Bourgtheroulde, in his
_Bibliographical, antiquarian and picturesque tour through France_.
Cotman and Dawson Turner, his countrymen, have given a place to this
edifice in their respective publications. M. de Jolimont, in his _most
remarquable monuments in the town of Rouen_ devotes an article and two
engravings to this edifice. MM. Nodier, Taylor and de Cailleux have
enriched their _picturesque and romantic tour_, with a collection of
lithographic engravings representing the celebrated interview between
Francis Ist and Henry VIIIth, that took place in 1520 in a field
situated between Guines and Ardres in Picardy. Mr A. Le Prevost has
also written learned memoirs on the hotel du Bourgtheroulde. He has
fixed the date of the building (about the end of the XVth century), and
revealed the name of the founder (Guillaume-le-Roux), and facilitated
the numerous descriptions which have been made of it. The most
complete, is that given by M. Delaquérière, in his work entitled:
_Historical description of the houses of Rouen_.

In the short description that we give of this remarkable building, we
must notice the bas-reliefs, six in number, which adorn the elegant
hexagonal tower, in the inner court and represent pastoral scenes. We
must also add that interpreters make a great mistake when they inform
strangers that the celebrated maid of Orleans (burnt in 1431) was judged
and imprisoned in this building.


_Rue Saint-Amand._


The pious monks who caused this simple and touching inscription to be
engraven over the gate of their monastery, never supposed that one day
it would offer the most strange of _solecisms_. Enter this house and
you will have great difficulty in believing that you visit one of the
most celebrated abbeys in Rouen.

This abbey, which was founded and endowed by the pious lady Aimeline,
and enriched by the liberalities of Robert-the-Magnificent, this once
famous monastery, which was honoured by the protection of kings, is now
a confused sort of inclosure and inhabited by workmen of different
kinds. Dirty courts and buildings in ruin have been for a long time the
only remains of the interior of Saint-Amand. Some parts nevertheless
have escaped destruction. Such is a very curious building, which had
been erected about the end of the XVIth century during the life of the
abbot Thomasse Daniel. This edifice is extremely remarkable from the
sculptures which cover the whole front, and chiefly represent pointed
windows. On the first floor, we find a room with two fire places, on
one we may still distinguish in spite of mutilation, the armorial
bearings of the Daniel family. The wainscot is even more curious than
the sculptures which ornament the front of the house. At one of the
corners of this building there is a small turret, of stone, its form is
polygonal; its ornaments are rich and in very good taste: it is a fine
specimen of the productions of the _renaissance_.

The building, with a front of the Ionic order, which is separated from
the other by the turret of which we have just spoken, contains a room,
which a few years ago, excited the curiosity of connoisseurs. The fire
place was surmounted by an oaken wainscot, which represented, in niches
separated by pilasters, four figures, those of the virgin, the angel
Gabriel, Saint-Margaret and Saint-Magdalen.


_Opposite the front of the Cathedral._

This was the ancient _Palace of the Court des Aides_. The building is
principally composed of hewn stone: it was built about the year 1509.
Although this edifice has suffered numerous degradations, it still
merits the attention of connoisseurs. The building has two separate
fronts: the principal one opposite the cathedral, the other in the _rue
du Petit-Salut_. The decorations are the same on both.

In 1705, the _Cour des Aides_ was united to the _Cour des Comptes_,
under the name _Cour de Comptes, Aides et Finances de Rouen_. The
present edifice has nevertheless always retained the name of _Bureau des


Ancient town hall, rue de la Grosse-Horloge and rue Thouret.

Sculptured wooden houses, Grande-Rue, no 115 and 129.

House, rue aux Juifs, no 47 and 49.

House, rue Percière, no 11.

House, rue Bouvreuil, no 4.

House, rue Etoupée, no 4.

Houses, rue des Carmes, no 69 to 77.

House, rue Caquerel, no 13.

House, rue Damiette, no 29.

Houses, rue Eau-de-Robec, no 186, 221, 223.

Houses, rue Malpalu, no 90 and 92.

Houses, rue du Change, no 2 to 8.

Houses, rue du Bac, no 28 and 30.

House, rue des Cordeliers, no 45.

Houses which are remarkable as having been those in which the following
celebrated men were born.

House in the rue de la Pie, no 4, where in 1606 the great Corneille was

House in the rue des Bons-Enfants, no 132-134, where Fontenelle, was
born on the 11th february 1657.

House in the rue aux Ours, no 61. An inscription placed on this house
reminds us, that it was here, that A. Boieldieu, the celebrated
composer, was born.

House rue aux Juifs, no 9. Here Jean Jouvenet, the celebrated painter,
was born on the 21st August, 1647.

To these celebrated names we must add the following of men equally
natives of Rouen: Thomas Corneille (the brother of Peter), Lémery,
Basnage, Samuel Bochart, the fathers Berruyer, Brumoy, Daniel, Sanadon,
the painters Restout, Letellier, Sacquepée, Colombel, Lemonnier,
Gericault, mademoiselle Champmeslé, madame Du Boccage, Armand Carrel,
Edward Adam, Dulong. Rouen is the birth-place of many other
distinguished men.



This bridge was opened to the public, in 1829. It is about one hundred
and fifty yards higher up than the bridge of boats, which was formerly
almost opposite the _rue du Bac_[19]. We may almost say that it is
formed of two separate bridges, of which the two ends join each other on
the western extremity of the _Ile Lacroix_. Each part of the bridge is
composed of three arches. The span of the middle arch is of thirty one
mètres (93 feet french); the lateral arches, are of twenty six mètres
(78 feet); the whole length of the bridge is two hundred and sixty six
mètres (798 feet). In the centre of the platform on the bridge, is
placed the bronze statue of Pierre Corneille, on a pedestal of white
Carrara marble, which rests on a base of granite.

This statue is twelve feet high, and weighs 4540 kilogrammes (9274
pounds _de marc_). It was cast by Mr Honoré Gonon, at Paris, after the
model by Mr David. The pedestal is by Mr Grégoire, the civil architect
of the Seine-Inférieure. The height of the monument is twenty six feet.
The first stone was laid by the king, on the 10th september 1833. The
statue was solemnly inaugurated, on the 19 october 1834. On one side of
the pedestal, we distinguish the following inscription:


This statue was erected by means of a subscription, opened by the
Society of Emulation of Rouen. It is to this society that we owe the
first idea of this national monument.

A medal was struck for the occasion, and represents on one side the head
of _Pierre Cornellie_, with the following inscription:

_Pierre Corneille, born at Rouen the 6th june 1606, died at Paris on
the 1st october 1684._

And on the reverse, the statue, with this inscription:

_Statue of bronze, erected by subscription to Pierre Corneille in his
native town, through the exertions of the Society of Emulation of Rouen,
in 1834._

[Footnote 19: Erected in 1626, it was demolished in september 1836.]


The numerous commercial trading vessels, which come up the Seine, were
formerly obliged to wait several days, before they could get along side
the quay to discharge. It became essential to enlarge the port, for
which reason the stone bridge, at the entrance to the town, was built;
but this arrangement rendered another bridge indispensable; and in 1828,
the town council consulted on the possibility of removing the bridge of
boats farther down; but the bad state it was in, and the enormous sum it
cost to keep it in repair, and the length of time it took to open it for
the passage of vessels, at once caused them to give up all idea of this
old machine, formerly looked upon us a wonder; but, which did not now
answer the purpose.

On the 8th of june 1834, a royal ordinance was issued, approving the
undertaking. At last MM. Seguin brothers, civil engineers, and Pierre
Colin, undertaker of public works, were, on the 16th october 1834,
declared the approved contractors for the erection of the bridge; at the
same time granting to them the receipts of the tolls for a period of 99
years, the bridge to be terminated at the latest, by the 1st of january
1837. And it was entirely completed by the 1st september 1836 (the very
day the bridge of boats was suppressed). At the expiration of the 99
years, the bridge will become the property of the government. Its
breadth is seven metres thirty centimetres, its length 197 metres, and
the whole expense has amounted to 750,000 fr. On the left of the bridge
is situated a guard house, and on the right Brune's house, erected by
the city as a reward for courage and devotedness on many occasions.



The source of the Seine is to be found near the hamlet of Envergeraux,
and about two leagues and half from the village of Saint-Seine, in
Burgundy. After a course of more than 200 leagues from east to west, it
falls into the Ocean, between Havre and Honfleur[20].

The depth of the Seine at Rouen allows this town to be classed amongst
the principal ports of France. They calculate at from 2000 to 2500 the
number of vessels of all sizes, which annually come this port.

[Footnote 20: See: _Voyage from Havre to Rouen_; and _Excursion from
Rouen to Paris, by the Seine_. Rouen, 1839, in-18vo, with maps and


This rivulet has its source near the village of _Fontaine-sous-Préaux_;
about two leagues from Rouen, runs through five _communes_, and enters
Rouen by the suburb Saint-Hilaire; passing through the town, it falls
into the Seine, near the stone bridge.


The Aubette has its source at Saint-Aubin, a small village near Rouen.
This rivulet runs through _Saint-Léger-du-bourg-Denis_, _Darnétal_,
enters Rouen by the suburb Martainville, and falls into the Seine, at
the entrance to the _Cours-Dauphin_, near the porte _Guillaume-Lion_.
These two rivers are specially useful for mills and dying


If the etymology of the name _Renelle_ is doubtful, the utility of the
stream at least is not so. It supplies numerous tanneries, of which
there are still a great many in the street which bears its name. This
sort of industry is very ancient in Rouen, and has never been
established in any other part of the town. On the 22nd of march 1560,
the parliament issued an act, ordering all the tanners to remove their
establishments to the _Eau-de-Robec_; but, they said that they required
clear water to carry on their trade, and therefore, were allowed, by
order of the king, to remain on the Renelle. This rivulet comes from the
Gaalor spring, and flows from the fountain of the _Bailliage_, almost in
a straight line to the Seine, into which it falls.


The more churches there were in a town, there should be as many public
fountains. Under the ancient law, a tub was placed at the entrance of
the temples, in which the priests washed their hands and feet; under the
new, and in imitation, fountains were placed near the churches, where
the christians, before entering, washed their face and hands. This
remark was applicable especially, in Rouen, before the revolution, where
the number of churches and fountains was quite equal. There are not now
thirty seven parochial churches; but we can still count thirty six
public fountains, not including those in many private houses.

Of all these fountains, only seven merit particular attention, from
their architectural and historical character. They are the fountains of
the _Croix-de-Pierre_, the _Crosse_, the _Grosse-Horloge_, the
_Vieux-Marché_, the _Pucelle_, _Saint-Maclou_, and _Lisieux_.


_Carrefour Saint-Vivien._

There formerly existed, not far from the fountain known at present under
the name of the _Croix-de-Pierre_ (stone cross), a cross, which had been
raised through the piety of the inhabitants; but, we now can find no
authentic document of the period of its being erected; all we know is
that it had been rebuilt in the year 1628.

This fountain is composed of three partitions in the form of a pyramid,
and is ornamented with some statues; its appearance is exceedingly fine.
One may still form an idea of the beauty of its architecture, in spite
of its ruinous condition, and even the repairs it has undergone.


_At the corner of the streets des Carmes, and de l'Hopital._

This is a small monument in the gothic style of the end of the XVth
century. The sculptures which decorate it, are remarkable for their
fineness and delicacy. It is surmounted by a royal crown. Its name comes
from its being situated at the corner of the house, which had for sign
the crozier belonging to the monks of Notre-Dame de l'Ile-Dieu.

Some etymologists see in the word _Crosse_, an alteration of the english
word _cross_. In the year 1815, this fountain was completely renewed.


_At the corner of the streets des Vergetiers, and the Grande-Rue._


_On the old market place._

A modern square building, of the doric order. It was erected by Mr
Bouet, an architect of Rouen.


Strangers will be repaid for their trouble in going to see these
fountains. The first, is situated at the corner of the church of
Saint-Maclou; there remain still two figures of children, an elegant
creation of Jean Goujon. We mention the second, the _fountain of the
Pucelle_, on the place of the same name, on account of the historical
recollections, which are attached to it. It is a heavy composition of
Paul Slodtz. Its want of style causes us to regret the beautiful
triangular fountain, which was erected after the execution, in this
square; of the _heroine of Vaucouleurs_, a monument which instead of
destroying, they should have tried to preserve.


_Rue de la Savonnerie._

This fountain is by far the most remarkable of the whole. It is thus
named on account of its being erected against a house, which belonged to
the bishop of Lisieux, who lodged in it when he came to Rouen. At the
top of the pyramid, we may remark Apollo, dressed in a most
extraordinary manner, and represented playing on the harp. Under the god
of the poets, we distinguish the horse Pegasus. Immediately beneath, a
figure with three heads is represented, of which the manuscripts make a
_philosophy_[21]. The nine muses are distributed in the rest of the
masonry, under the figure with three heads, which might almost be that
of a Hecate. Rocks, trees, turf and sheep, form the accompaniements of
this _Mount-Parnassus_.

The water ran formerly from two brass figures of Salamanders, which
indicated the date of the time of Francis the first. Mutilated as it is,
this monument is still very curious, and merits to be visited. Its
erection dates from the year 1518.

[Footnote 21: According to these manuscripts, the three heads represent
_Logic_, _Philosophy_ and _Metaphysics_. They were surmounted by a


Rouen has also its mineral waters, which, even in the neighbouring
towns, have a sort of reputation, I will point out three of the
principal sources, after _Lepecq de la Clôture_: The first, to the east,
is known under the name of _la Marèquerie_, to which we arrive by the
rue Martainville; the second, to the south east, named _de Saint-Paul_;
the third is situated at _Déville_, in the neighbourhood of Rouen. The
learned doctor, on whose authority I speak, assures us that sick people
to whom he ordered the water of the last named spring, were cured by the
use of it. He also adds, that this spring might become very valuable to
the inhabitants of the western quarter of the town. Nevertheless, it has
never been much known, and even at the present day very few people are
acquainted with its existence.



The name of the first of these two places points out to us that it is
the most ancient in Rouen; it is also the most considerable. It existed
in the XIth century, and was at that period, situated in the suburb.
Formerly, it covered a much larger space of ground than at present;
since, in the XVIth century, it occupied the whole of the ground
contained between the _rue du Vieux-Palais_, the church of Saint-Eloi
and Saint-Michael; the last mentioned church has disappeared within the
last few-years, and is replaced by a handsome building, which is named
the _Hôtel Saint-Michel_. About the commencement of the XVIth century,
the houses in the neighbourhood of the church of Saint-Eloi and the _rue
du Vieux-Palais_, were erected; one of them still remains, it is the
Hôtel da Bourgtheroulde, which I have already described. The old market
was thus divided, into two unequal parts. The spot where the innocent
_Joan of Arc_ was burnt in 1431, retains the name of _place de la
Pucelle_. It is also called _place du Marché-aux-Veaux_, on account of
its former destination. It is then on the old market place, that the
French heroine was sacrificed to the superstition of that age.


Fruit, eggs, cream cheeses, or small Neufchâtel cheeses: such are the
supplies to be found in this market. About fifty years ago, a gilt
leaden statue, representing Louis XVth in his youth, and covered with
the royal mantle, was to be seen. This monument has been replaced by the
present obelisk, which furnishes an abundant supply of water to the
inhabitants of this quarter.


Before 1429, this place served as a poultry and grass market. In 1537,
it was paved and enclosed with a low wall. In 1641, two stone Crosses,
still visible in some ancient engravings, were placed at the two
corners. In the time of _Pommeraye_, the _parvis_ Notre-Dame, was the
place on which bonfires were lighted. At present it is the flower and
seed market, regularly held on the sundays and fridays.


It was formerly called _Port-Morant_, _port des navires_, or _port de
Notre-Dame_, because, before the first dukes enclosed the Seine within
certain limits, the vessels discharged their cargoes at this place. The
house which is exactly opposite the porch of the church and on which we
distinguish a dial, is the remains of the old _Hôtel-Dieu_.


In the year 949, Otho, emperor of Germany, Louis IVth, king of France,
and Arnold, count of Flanders, laid siege to the town of Rouen. The duke
Richard Ist, surnamed _Sans-Peur_, made a _sortie_ by the _porte
Beauvoisine_, and fell on the enemies of which he made a great
slaughter. This action took place partly on the site of the present
_Rouge-Mare_ (red-pool), from the blood with which it was covered.

In 1450, the _Rouge-Mare_ became the horse market, which has, since the
end of the last century, been transferred to the _Boulingrin_. The
_Rouge-Mare_ is now the butter market.


The English have returned to the French that which they had borrowed of
them. Formerly, people did not go to walk on the _boulevard_, but on the
_boule-verd_, from which the english have made _bowling-green_, a
literal translation. From this word, the french derive their

This place is situated at the junction of the rampes Beauvoisine and
Saint-Hilaire; it is a vast square surrounded by a magnificent double
row of horse chestnut trees. Since the horse market has been transferred
to it, people commonly call it the _new Rouge-Mare_.




_At the Town Hall._

The opening of this library took place on the 4th july 1809. Since
then, the inhabitants and strangers are admited into this establishment
every day, (except Sundays, thursdays and during the vacations), from
eleven till four, and from 6 till 9 o'clock in the evening. The present
collection, consists of about thirty five thousand volumes. There are
above eleven hundred manuscripts. Several of them are very curious and
rare, from their date, their illuminations, or their subjects. Amongst
the first, although not the most ancient, I will mention the famous
_Gradual_ by Daniel d'Aubonne, who died in the year 1714. It measures
two feet seven inches in length by one foot ten inches in breadth and
weighs seventy three pounds. It is ornamented with brass plates; on each
side of the binding, we may observe the armorial bearings of the abbey
of Saint-Ouen, which are also of brass. This manuscript contains about
two hundred vignettes, initials of all sizes, and also a great number of
gilt letters. One cannot admire too much the patience of the author, who
passed thirty years, it is said, on this immense undertaking. The
library contains also other manuscripts, infinitely more precious,
amongst which are several of the XIth, IXth, and even of the VIIth
and VIIIth centuries. The learned will distinguish amongst the most
important of the manuscripts, the curious missal of archbishop Robert,
which was brought from England about the year 1050, with the
_benedictionary_, which was used at the coronation of the Anglo-Saxon
Kings. These two manuscripts are ornamented with magnificent miniatures
in the greek style of the empire. The books printed before the year 1500
amount to three hundred and twenty eight, of which two hundred and forty
bear dates; the most ancient is of 1468.

The library contains also collections of great value and editions which
have become very rare. The government has enriched it with several very
valuable works. The most important gift that has yet been made to the
library, is that which was sent, by the commission of records in
England, of the collection of historical documents, which they have
published. This magnificent gift, which will be followed by several
others, is composed of 71 vols. folio, and 168 vols. 8 vo.

The Leber's magnificent collection of books and manuscripts, bought last
year by the city, will shortly be added to the public library.

The present keeper is M.A. Pottier.


_At the Town Hall._

The opening of the picture gallery took place on the same day (4th july
1809), as that of the library. The greater part of the paintings have
been collected in the departement. The government has also assisted in
enriching it, by giving several paintings of different schools, the
municipal council by voting different acquisitions, and some private
persons, by voluntary gifts. This interesting collection is composed of
about three hundred paintings, amongst which we remark _a Virgin in the
midst of Angels_, called _the Virgin of Saint-Sixte_, by Raphael, an
admirable copy, if not a second original of the picture known under the
same name in the gallery of Dresden; also three small paintings, placed
next to each other, and which are incontestably by that great painter
and in his best style; the Van Eyck representing _the Virgin in the
midst of young girls; a mass during the league_, a painting which is
curious on account of the subject and great personnages which it
represents; _a Conversion of saint Matthew_, by Valentin; _a saint
Francis in prayer_, by Hannibal Carrache; _an Ecce Homo_ and a copy of
the _Holy family_, by Mignard; _a death of saint Francis_, by Jouvenet;
several marines, by Vernet; _a descent from the Cross_, by Lahire; _the
plague of Milan_, by Lemonnier, of Rouen; and a great many others, which
it would require too much room to mention here. At the extremity of the
entrance gallery, we remark a statue of baked clay by Caffiery[22],
representing Pierre Corneille. Several marble statues and plaster castes
of the finest ancient statues, are placed in the room at the extremity
of this gallery. The statues which we observe in the lobby are those of
general Bonchamps, by David, and opposite, that of Achilles, by Bougron.
The latter belongs to the academy, which possesses also the magnificent
painting by Mr Court, representing _Corneille complimented in the
theatre by the great Condé_ and the fine _portrait of Boieldieu_, by Mr
Boullenger de Boisfremont. These two paintings are placed in the hall of
the academy, adjoining that of the library and picture gallery;
strangers are permitted to see them.

During the month of July, there is an exhibition of paintings,
principally by artists of Rouen.

The establishment is open to the public on sundays and thursdays, and
every day to painters and strangers, from ten till four o'clock.

The present keeper is M.H. Bellangé.

[Footnote 22: Another statue of Corneille, in marble, is placed in the
large hall on the ground floor; it is a much esteemed work of Cortot, a
french sculptor.]


_At Saint-Mary's, rue Poussin._

This museum, which was established in 1833, after a proposition of Mr
Dupont-Delporte, prefect, by the general council of the departement, was
opened to the public in 1834. It occupies two of the galleries of the
cloister of the ancient convent of Saint-Mary. In the first gallery are
the gallic, roman and gallo-roman antiquities, as also those of the
middle ages; in the second, those of the period, termed the
_renaissance_. This chronological order has been preserved as much as
possible. The searches which have taken place in different parts of the
departement, and especially in the roman theatre at Lillebonne, have
produced the greater number of antiquities. A great many others are
through the generosity of private individuals. This museum contains
statues, busts, bas-reliefs, fragments of architecture, sarcophagi, urns
of marble and stone; vases of bronze, glass and baked earth; gallic and
roman medals, pieces of french coins, seals of the middle ages, stained
glass, arms, pieces of furniture, utensils and ornaments of different

This museum is open on sundays and holy days from eleven till four
o'clock, and on tuesdays and thursdays for amateurs and strangers, from
twelve till three o'clock.

The keeper is Mr A. Deville.


_At Saint-Mary's, rue Poussin._

The municipal administration of Rouen founded the gallery of natural
history, in 1827; but, it was only in the year 1832, and after having
been enriched by the administration of that time, that it was judged fit
to be offered to public curiosity.

The increase of this museum has been rapid; already, within its few
years of existence, it may be advantageously compared with most
provincial collections; and through the maritime situation of the town,
may one day be placed immediately after that at Paris. It is remarkable,
for the numerous shells which it possesses, as also for some mammiferi,
which are exceedingly rare. This gallery is open to the public, on
sundays and holy days; foreigners and students may enter on any day.

Mr Pouchet is the director of this establishment.













This garden was formerly situated on the _Cours-Dauphin_, but, the
municipal administration wishing to render that portion of the town
named Martainville, more healthy, entertained the project of opening a
street at the entrance of the town, on the ground occupied by this
garden; in consequence they sought another place, more suitable for a
botanical garden. The place fixed upon, is the _park of Trianon_, where
people formerly went, to visit the fine hot houses, and rare collection
of dahlias and other plants, which belonged to a distinguished english
florist, Mr Calvert.

This new botanical garden, is situated at the extremity of the rue
d'Elbeuf, and forms a square of about 45,500 metres (or yards) surface.
Mr Lejeune, an architect, gave the plan of this garden.


These lectures take place every year, (beginning the 15th november), on
tuesdays and saturdays at one o'clock, in one of the halls of the
ancient convent of Saint-Marie. The lectures are principally on the
application of chemistry to arts and industry.


These lectures were instituted in 1835; they take place twice a week in
the amphitheatre at Saint-Marie.


This school, founded by Mr Descamps, the author of the _lives of
flemish painters_, is now established at Saint-Marie. The lessons
commence in the month of november and finish in the month of august,
from one o'clock till three.


They take place in the amphitheatre, which is given for this science,
and is situated at Saint-Marie, Poussin street. The lectures take place
on tuesdays and saturdays, during the winter, at eight o'clock in the

There are besides, at Saint-Marie, every sunday, lectures on geometry
and mechanics applied to arts and manufactures, and lectures also on
commercial law and book keeping.


The different branches are taught in the hospitals, by the physicians
who are attached to these establishments.


The _Théâtre-des-Arts_ at the corner of the rues _Grand-Pont_ and des
_Charrettes_, was erected by Francis Gueroult, an architect of Rouen.
The first stone was laid on the 18th june 1774, and the opening took
place the 29th june 1776, on Saint-Peter's day and the fête of
Corneille. This theatre was altered and lighted with gas, in 1835, and
will contain about seventeen or eighteen hundred persons. The ceiling
was painted by Lemoine, a native of this city, and represents the
_apotheosis of Corneille_.

The peristyle fronting the rue des Charrettes is in the form of a
quarter of a circle and is composed of columns of the ionic order. The
medallion of Pierre Corneille is sculptured on the entablature which is
supported by these columns, and on each side of the medallion, we
perceive Melpomene with a dagger, and Thalia with a mask.

The performers for operas and comedies are generally good.

The second theatre is situated on the old market place and is called the
_Théâtre-Français_; this building formerly used as a tennis court, was
opened for theatrical purposes on the 2nd of february 1793. This
theatre will contain about twelve hundred persons. Besides these two
theatres, there is a third at the entrance of Saint-Sever, which is the
circus or _Ambigu-Dramatique_.



These are the fashionable walks. The bronze statue between the two is
that of Boieldieu, the celebrated french composer a native of Rouen. It
is the work of the sculptor Dantan the younger.


According to _Farin_, this public walk was formed for a walk for the
ladies, and is one of the finest in the kingdom; its length is about 674
fathoms. Four rows of large elms form the whole length on the banks of
the Seine. On holy-thursday, the _Cours-de-la-Reine_ begins to be used
as a fashionable promenade, and it may be said that on that day, it has
a very gay appearance.


The first is the principal entrance to Rouen from Havre and Dieppe, and
the second, at the opposite extremity of the quay, the entrance from
Paris, Evreux, etc.


They occupy, for the greater part, the place of the ditches which
surrounded the town; they were planted between the years 1770 and 1780
and were paved in 1783, at the expense of the town. They are about 3
miles in length.


Mount Saint-Catherine first presents itself. We may go to it, either by
the Paris high road, or by the _petites eaux_ Martainville. The last
mentioned, although the least frequented, is perhaps the preferable
route on account of the diversity of the landscape.

It will be useless for the traveller, when he has reached the top of the
hill, to look for the ancient abbey of the _Sainte-Trinité-du-Mont_, the
chapel of the _priory of Saint-Michel_, or the fortifications, in which
the marquis of Villars withstood the attacks of Henry IVth; nothing of
them remains at the present day, except two remnants of a wall, which
threaten to fall on the traveller, who is imprudent enough to approach
too near them.

From this elevated position, in turning towards the north-east, we see
the valley of _Darnetal_, which has become so rich through the industry
of those who inhabit it. The eye reposes with pleasure on the gothic
tower of the church of _Carville_; and of which, according to tradition,
Henry IVth, made a post of observation when he besieged the fort of the
_ligue_. We must not forget that an English detachment, which served in
the army of the king, conducted itself very bravely in the different
attacks, with which it was entrusted. On the opposite side of the valley
of Darnetal and towards the north, we distinguish the hill named _des
Sapins_, on which the monumental burying ground is situated. This latter
hill adjoins the _Bois-Guillaume_ from which also the view is admirable
although inferior to that from the mount Saint-Catherine, which advances
like a promontory, above the immense valley of the Seine, while that of
Bois-Guillaume or Beauvoisine, recedes from the circular line formed by
the union of these different hills.

The Bois-Guillaume joins _Saint-Aignan_. We cross the latter _commune_,
on our way to _Mont-aux-Malades_, formerly the _Mont-Saint-Jacques_.
Antiquarians will not fail to go and see a church at this place, which
is a venerable remains of norman architecture. There were two, but the
other is now almost destroyed. Travellers should also visit the hill of
_Canteleu_ from which the view is very fine, and at the same time the
country house of M. Élie Lefebure, called the _Chateau of Canteleu_.


There are at present, five burying grounds for the roman catholics, and
two for the protestants. They are the burying grounds of
_Saint-Gervais_, _Beauvoisine_, _Val-de-la-Jatte_, of which a part has
been walled off for the protestants; _Mont-Gargan_, _Saint-Sever_, and
_Champ-des-Oiseaux_, which latter forms the second protestant burying
ground. The great demand of families, to obtain a piece of ground, on
which to erect a monument on the tomb of a relation, had caused a great
diminution of ground for interments; the municipal administration
therefore took measures to prevent the consequences of it. On the
proposition of the marquis de Martainville, then mayor of the town they
determined, on the 24th april 1823, that a monumental burying should be
established on the east of Rouen, on a portion of the hill of Fir-Trees
which was barren, and could be disposed of without any loss.

This new burying ground contains about ten acres of ground, enclosed
with walls. A chapel is erected on the highest point of the hill; and a
vault has been formed under it for the provisional deposit of bodies,
which cannot be interred immediately. A tariff exists, which regulates
the sum to be paid by families, who wish to purchase a place in this
burying ground.


[Illustration: Map]


Historical introduction                              1.


Parochial churches.

Cathedral                                           19.

Saint-Ouen                                          56.

Saint-Maclou                                        69.

Saint-Patrice                                       74.

Sainte-Madeleine                                    76.

Saint-Sever                                         77.

Saint-Romain                                        79.

Saint-Godard                                        85.

Saint-Nicaise                                       88.

Saint-Vincent                                       90.

Saint-Vivien                                        92.

Chapels of ease.

Saint-Gervais                                       93.

Saint-Hilaire                                       96.

Saint-Paul                                          96.

Protestant worship.

Saint-Eloi                                          99.

Churches closed in 1791                            101.


Town hall (Hotel-de-Ville)                         104.

Archiepiscopal palace                              106.

Palace-of-Justice                                  103.

Tower of the Grosse-Horloge                        113.

Coverted markets                                   116.

Exchange (la Hourse)                               120.

Tribunal of commerce or the Consuls                122.

Custom house (la Douane)                           123.

Public slaughterhouse (les Abbatoirs)              126.

Royal college                                      129.

Hospitals                                          131.

Prisons                                            141.

Soldiers-Barracks                                  142.

Remarkable edifices.

Hotel du Bourgtheroulde                            144.

Ancient abbey of Saint-Amand                       146.

Ancient bureau des finances                        149.

Remarkable houses and celebrated men               150.


Stone bridge and statue of Corneille               152.

Suspension bridge                                  155.

River and rivulets                                 157.

Fountains                                          160.

Mineral waters                                     165.

Squares and marketplaces                           166.

The maid of Orleans, etc.                          167.

Library, picture gallery and museums.

Public library                                     171.

Picture gallery                                    174.

Museum of antiquities                              177.

Museum of natural history                          179.

Learned societies                                  180.

Botanical garden, etc.                             181.

Public and gratuitous courses of instruction       189.

Theatres                                           184.

Walks in Rouen                                     186.

Walks without the town                             188.

Burying grounds                                    190.

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