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Title: A Short Account of King's College Chapel
Author: Littlechild, Walter Poole
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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A SHORT ACCOUNT OF KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL



_LONDON AGENTS_

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO. LTD.

[Illustration: OUTSIDE]



A SHORT ACCOUNT

OF

KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL

BY

W. P. LITTLECHILD

(CHAPEL CLERK)

          _SECOND EDITION_
          _With Illustrations_

          =CAMBRIDGE:=
          W. HEFFER & SONS LTD.
          1921



Preface to Second Edition


THE success which has attended this little work from its first
appearance, and the approval with which it has been received prompts me
to issue a second and revised edition.

Regret has been expressed by some, that I omitted to give a description
of all the windows, and that there were no illustrations in the first
edition. This I have endeavoured to remedy by giving the subjects of all
the windows (with here and there a special note) and inserting some
pictures of the Chapel both inside and out, also the arms and supporters
(a dragon and greyhound) of Henry VII, crowned rose and portcullis, from
the walls of the ante-chapel and the initials H.A. from the screen.

I am indebted to Messrs. Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd., 1 Amen Corner,
London, for the loan of the blocks of the former, which appeared in the
late Sir William St. John Hope's book _Heraldry for Craftsmen and
Designers_. The latter, together with three photographs of the Chapel,
were specially taken for me by Mr. A. Broom. I wish also to thank the
Provost of Eton, Dr. M. R. James, for permission to use some part of his
description of the windows. I am also indebted to Mr. J. Palmer Clark
for leave to reproduce the photograph of the ship in the window on the
south side. I am also grateful to Mr. Benham and Dr. Mann for their
assistance in compiling the lists of Provosts and Organists. I have
again to thank Sir G. W. Prothero, Honorary Fellow of the College, for
reading through the manuscript and proofs of both editions and for his
valuable suggestions. In conclusion, I would ask for the kind indulgence
of my readers for any errors that may be discovered in this little book,
and shall be glad to have them pointed out to me.

          W. P. L.

  CAMBRIDGE,
    ST. JAMES' DAY,
  _July 25, 1921._



Illustrations


  OUTSIDE                                _Frontispiece_

                                               PAGE

  LOOKING EAST FROM PROVOST STALL   _face_      4

  THE SCREEN FROM WEST END                      8

  SHIP WINDOW                                  11

  H.A. FROM THE SCREEN                         27

  ARMS OF HENRY VII.                           35

  ROSE AND PORTCULLIS                          35
      (Badges of Henry VII.)



The Foundation


IN the year 1441 Henry VI[1] founded King's College for a Rector and
twelve scholars. He remodelled his plan in 1443, and styled his
foundation the College of St. Mary and St. Nicholas.[2] It was to
consist of a Provost, seventy Fellows, or Scholars, together with
Chaplains, Lay Clerks, and Choristers. The court was originally on the
north side of the present chapel opposite Clare College, and was the
home of many generations of Kingsmen until about 1825. In 1829 this
court was sold to the University, and the buildings thereon were
demolished to make way for an extension of the University Library; but
the old entrance gateway was happily spared and incorporated with the
new Library building, and stands there, as a "venerable and beautiful
specimen of architecture," at the present day.

On St. James' Day, July 25th, 1446, the King laid the foundation stone
of the chapel, and so began a building which, as a distinguished member
of the college (Lord Orford) said, would "alone be sufficient to ennoble
any age." It has been classed with the chapel of Henry VII at
Westminster and Saint George's collegiate church at Windsor, as one of
"the three great royal chapels of the Tudor age"; but there is no
edifice, except Eton College Chapel, which forms in any way a fair
subject of comparison with that of King's College.

The _style_ is rich perpendicular, marking the point where the last
Gothic meets the early Renaissance. Nicholas Close has commonly been
considered to be the architect. He was a man of Flemish family, and for
a few years held the cure of the parish of St. John Zachary, which
church stood on the west side of Milne Street, and probably so close to
it that the high altar of the church was on ground afterwards enclosed
within the western bays of the Ante-Chapel. Close, in 1450, was
appointed to the See of Carlisle, and in 1452 transferred to Lichfield.
He certainly received from the King the grant of a coat of arms for his
services, but it might fairly be said that John Langton, Master of
Pembroke College, and Chancellor of the University, who also had the
title of "Surveyor," a term generally admitted to be synonymous with
architect, has an equally strong claim. But Mr. G. G. Scott, in his
essay on English Church Architecture, says "the man who really should
have had the credit of conceiving this great work was the master-mason,
Reginald Ely, appointed by a patent of Henry VI to press masons,
carpenters, and other workers." According to Mr. Scott's view, "Close
and his successors did the work which in modern days would be done,
though less efficiently, by a building committee. But they were
ecclesiastics, not architects; it is the master-mason, not the more
dignified 'surveyor,' to whom the honour of planning the building should
be attributed."



Royal Benefactors


[Illustration: LOOKING EAST FROM PROVOST STALL]

BESIDES the founder, whose misfortunes hindered the completion of his
work, four successive kings aided in its erection. When Henry was taken
prisoner at St. Albans in 1455, the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick
promised to supply funds for the college buildings. For a time they kept
their word, and some part of the £1,000 a year promised by Henry from
the Duchy of Lancaster continued to be paid; but the defeat of the King
at the battle of Towton in 1461 and the subsequent overthrow of the
Lancaster dynasty checked progress. "After a long time spent in hiding
in secret places, wherein for safety's sake he was forced to keep close,
he was found and taken, brought as a traitor and criminal to London, and
imprisoned in the Tower, and eventually suffered a violent death. He was
buried at Chertsey Abbey, but his body was afterwards removed to Windsor
Castle."[3] Still, the idea was there, and it remained for a later
generation only to imitate and complete. In 1483, just before Edward
IV's death, we find that nearly £1,300 had been spent on the chapel,
about £1,100 given by the King, and £100 by Thomas Rotherham, Archbishop
of York, Lord Chancellor of England, formerly a Fellow of the College,
but it is not stated how the deficit was met. Richard III, on his
accession, resumed the work with great vigour. Between May and December,
1484, about £750 was spent, nearly all of which was provided by the
king.

It is stated that in the year 1506 sufficient progress had been made in
the building to admit of the performance of divine service, at which
Henry VII and his mother, Margaret Countess of Richmond, Foundress of
St. John's and Christ's Colleges, who were on a visit to Cambridge, were
present; and it is said that John Fisher, President of Queens' College,
Bishop of Rochester, took part as chief celebrant. Professor Willis, in
_The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge_, takes
exception to this statement. He is of opinion that, as the Screen and
Stall work was not finished until 1536, and as the old Chapel[4] did not
fall down until 1537 (in fact it was used on the eve of the day on
which it fell), it is unlikely that the new chapel was used for service
until that time. He further quotes Dr. Caius to strengthen this view.

Henry VII, who has been credited with an excessive tendency to
accumulate treasure, was, next to the Founder, much the largest
contributor. A short time before his death in 1509[5], moved perhaps to
emulate the liberal example of his pious mother, he gave £5,000 to the
college, with instructions to his executors to finish the building. May
we not also think that Richard Fox, Founder of Corpus Christi College,
Oxford, Bishop of Winchester from 1500 to 1528, who was Henry VII's
constant adviser, Privy Seal, and one of his executors, had something to
do with this mark of Henry's generosity and favour? This sum of £5,000
was probably all spent by the beginning of 1512, when the King's
executors made over to the Provost and scholars, in 1511-12, a second
sum of £5,000.

Thus in 1515, in the 7th year of King Henry VIII's reign, the stonework
of the chapel was completed; it had cost, in the present value of money,
about £160,000. The stone used in the construction is of different
kinds. The white magnesian limestone from Huddlestone in Yorkshire is
that which was chiefly used in the lifetime of the Founder. The lower
part of the walls was built of this; the upper part was built with stone
brought from Clipsham in Rutlandshire in 1477. A third kind, from Weldon
in Northamptonshire, was used for the vaulting of the choir and
ante-chapel, executed in 1512 and the following years. The north and
south porches were vaulted with a magnesian limestone, more yellow in
colour, from the Yorkshire quarry of Hampole.

The outside measurement of the chapel from turret to turret is 310 feet,
the said turrets being 146 feet high. The four westernmost buttresses on
the south and five on the north side are ornamented with heraldic
devices, crowns, roses, and portcullises, while on the set-offs
separating the stages are dragons, greyhounds, and antelopes bearing
shields.

[Illustration: THE SCREEN FROM WEST END]

Inside, the chapel is 289 feet long, 40 feet wide from pier to pier,
and 80 feet high from the floor to the central point of the stone vault.
The _tracery_ of the roof is a fine specimen of the fan-vault which is
rarely to be found in Continental architecture, but is the peculiar
glory of the English style. It can truly be said that stone seems, by
the cunning labour of the chisel, to have been robbed of its weight and
density and suspended aloft as if by magic, while the fretted roof is
achieved with the wonderful minuteness and airy security of a cobweb.
Similar roofs appear in Bath Abbey (the architect of which was Dr.
Oliver King, a member of King's), in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in
Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster, in Sherborne Minster, and in the
ambulatory of the choir of Peterborough; but the earliest example of
this kind of vaulting is the cloister of Gloucester (1381-1412), of
which the late Dean Spence speaks in the following lines:

          "Old Gloucester's peerless cloister, once the haunt
           Of mitred Abbot and of monk in cowl.
           Above we see the long fan-traceried arch;
           Beneath are letter'd stones and human dust."

The same words can be applied to this chapel, for here we have the long
fan-traceried arch, and beneath are stones and human dust, for many
members of King's and others are buried within its walls.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Henry was born at Windsor in the year 1421. When Henry V was
informed that Catherine had borne him an heir he asked: Where was the
boy born? At Windsor was the reply. Turning to his Chamberlain, he gave
voice to the following prophetic utterance:

  "I Henry born at Monmouth,
   Shall small time reign, and much get;
   But Henry of Windsor shall long reign and loose all.
   But as God will, so be it."

[2] The preamble to the charter granted by Henry in January 1441, and
confirmed by Act of Parliament in February of the same year, as
translated, reads as follows:--

         "To the honour of Almighty God, in whose hand are
         the hearts of Kings; of the most blessed and
         immaculate Virgin Mary, mother of Christ; and also
         of the glorious Confessor and Bishop Nicholas,
         Patron of my intended College, on whose festival we
         first saw the light."

[3] In the College Library may be seen a small piece of silk in which
his bones were wrapped, and which was taken from the coffin by the late
Sir W. H. St. John Hope in the presence of Dr. M. R. James, when it was
opened on the 4th November, 1910.

[4] The accounts show that a chapel existed from the beginning, and that
it stood between the south side of the old court and the north side of
the present Chapel. It consisted of a chancel, nave, and ante-chapel,
and had a door at the west end, and east and west windows. It was richly
fitted up; and numerous allusions to plate, hangings, relics, service
books, vestments, choristers and large and small organs, show that the
services were performed with full attention to the ritual of the day.

[5] He was buried in his chapel at Westminster beside that of his wife,
Elizabeth of York. Lord Bacon says "He lieth at Westminster in one of
the stateliest and daintiest monuments of Europe both for the chapel and
the sepulchre. So that he dwelleth more richly dead in the monument of
his tomb than he did alive in Richmond or in any of his palaces."



Work of Freemasons


IT may be that some of my readers are members of the Masonic body. Mr.
John Proctor Carter, sometime Fellow of King's and Eton, in writing a
history of the chapel, published in 1867, writes thus: "So many learned
authors have been at fault when they have ventured into the obscurity
which envelops the history of the Freemasons, by a gang of whom this
chapel, in common with, at all events, a large number of mediaeval
buildings were erected, that to say a word upon the subject may seem
presumptuous. The theory of a traditional science, confined entirely to
the members of a secret society that had ramified over the whole of
civilised Europe, and to whom developments in architecture were due, has
been pushed to extremity by some writers. By a natural reaction others
have been led to discredit altogether the existence of such a society,
and to consider the masonic fraternity merely as one of the various
trade corporations or guilds whose relics have descended to our own day.
But apart from the argument drawn from universal belief, there is
probably sufficient evidence to show that the Freemasons were
distinguished to some extent from other guilds, partly by the possession
of peculiar secrets, and partly by their religious character. They seem
to have been as it were the knight-errants of architecture, and to have
travelled from city to city and country to country in the exercise of
what they must have deemed a half sacred profession."

Ample proof has been adduced that Henry VI was not only a Mason himself
(having been admitted a member of the fraternity in 1450), but did a
good deal for the craft; and Freemasonry has much to thank him for. In a
history of Westminster Abbey, written by the late Dean Farrar, is to be
found the following: "Even the geometrical designs which lie at the base
of its ground plan are combinations of the triangle, the circle, and the
oval." Masons' marks are to be found in various places on the walls in
chapel.



The Windows


[Illustration: SHIP WINDOW]

AS I have previously mentioned, the building was begun in 1446, but,
owing to the long Civil Wars, it dragged on until 1515; and it was in
that year that a contract was entered into with one Barnard Flower, to
glaze the windows "with good, clene, sure, and perfyte glass, according
to the old and new lawe," or, as we should put it, the Old and New
Testament. Barnard Flower died between July 25, 1517, the date of his
will, and August 14, 1517, the date when the will was proved, having
completed only four windows, one of which is generally believed to be
that over the north door, while a second faces the organ on the same
side. He describes himself as "Barnard Floure, the Kinges glasyer of
England, dwelling within the precynt of Saint Martin hospitale, in the
Burgh of Southwark, in the county of Surrey." In 1526 two contracts
were entered into with other firms to complete the rest of the windows,
which was done in 1531. Among the names of those who entered into the
last contract were two Flemings. Windows of a similar kind, although
smaller, are to be found at Fairford in Gloucestershire; these date from
about 1490.

The windows of the Chapel contain the finest series in the world of
pictures in glass on a large scale. The tracery is filled with heraldic
devices. At the top of the centre light are the Royal Arms as borne by
Henry VII, and the rest of the badges are Roses, Crowns, Portcullises,
Hawthorn bushes and Fleur-de-lys, being all appropriate to Henry VII.
There are also the initials H. E. (Henry VII and Elizabeth of York) and
H. K. for Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon as Prince and Princess of
Wales. These badges run all round the side windows. In each side window
there are four subjects, two side lights above and two below the transom
or crossbar, while in the centre light are four figures, men and angels
alternately, "Messengers," as they are called, because they hold scrolls
or tablets (in Latin) descriptive of the pictures at the sides. All the
side windows, except the easternmost window on the south side, are
carried out in a similar manner.

In most cases the two lower pictures illustrate two scenes in the New
Testament, and the two upper ones give types of these scenes drawn from
the Old Testament or elsewhere. There are exceptions to this
arrangement, as, for instance, the first two windows on the north side
and in those illustrating the Acts of the Apostles.

The main _subjects of the windows_ are the life of the Virgin Mary and
the life of Christ. The scenes begin with the Birth of the Virgin, in
the westernmost window on the north side, and proceed through the
principal events of our Lord's life to the Crucifixion in the east
window. This is followed on the south side by the following events as
recorded in the Gospels, of which the last depicted is the Ascension in
the one opposite the organ. Next comes the history of the Apostles as
recorded in the Acts, while the legendary history of the Virgin occupies
the last two windows.[6]

The following diagram may be of use in helping my readers to decipher
the windows on the north and south sides.


[Illustration:

  --------------
  |   | F  |   |
  |   | o  |   |
  |   | u  |   |
  | 1 | r  | 2 |
  |   |    |   |
  |   | M  |   |
  |   | e  |   |
  |   | s  |   |
  --------------
  |   | s  |   |
  |   | e  |   |
  |   | n  |   |
  | 3 | g  | 4 |
  |   | e  |   |
  |   | r  |   |
  |   | s  |   |
  -------------]

FOOTNOTE:

[6] The side windows are 49 feet in height from the base to the point of
the arch, and 16 feet in width.



THE SUBJECTS OF THE WINDOWS ARE AS FOLLOWS:


NORTH SIDE

WINDOW I. (WESTERNMOST.)

  1. The offering of Joachim and   2. Joachim is bidden by an Angel to
     Anna rejected by the High        return to Jerusalem, where he
     Priest.                          would meet his wife at the Golden
                                      Gate of the Temple.

  3. Joachim and Anna at the       4. Birth of the Virgin.
     Golden Gate of the
     Temple.


WINDOW II.

  1. Presentation of a Golden      2. Marriage of Tobias and Sara.
     Table (found by fishermen
     entangled in their nets)
     in the Temple of the Sun.

  3. Presentation of the Virgin    4. Marriage of Joseph and Mary.
     in the Temple.

At the bottom of each picture in this window there is a small
compartment containing a half-length figure of a man or angel bearing a
legend.


WINDOW III.

  1. The Temptation of Eve.        2. Moses and the Burning Bush.

  3. The Annunciation.             4. The Nativity.[A]

[A] Joseph, Mary, and a number of little angels adore the Child. Through
an opening in the background are seen the Angels appearing to the
Shepherds.


WINDOW IV.

  1. The Circumcision of Isaac     2. The visit of the Queen of Sheba to
     by Abraham.                      Solomon.

  3. The Circumcision of Christ.   4. The Adoration of the Magi.[B]

[B] The Virgin and Child on right: the Star above. Just above the Virgin
in the picture the head of an Ox and an Ass may be seen.


WINDOW V.

  1. The Purification of Women     2. Jacob's Flight from Esau.[C]
     under the Law.

  3. The Presentation of Christ    4. The Flight into Egypt.
     in the Temple.[D]

[C] In the background on right Rebecca is seen bringing Jacob to Isaac
to be blessed.

[D] Simeon is a conspicuous figure.


WINDOW VI.

  1. The Golden Calf on a Ruby     2. The Massacre of the Seed Royal by
     Pillar.                          Athaliah.

  3. The Idols of Egypt            4. The Massacre of the Innocents.
     falling.[E]

[E] At the bottom are the figures 15017, generally read as a date
(1517).


WINDOW VII.

  1. Naaman Washing in Jordan.     2. Jacob tempts Esau to sell his
                                      birthright.

  3. The Baptism of Christ.        4. The Temptation of Christ.[F]

[F] Below in front the devil (represented as an old man) tempts Christ
to turn stones into bread. Above on left the two are seen on the high
mountain: on right they stand on the pinnacle of the temple.


WINDOW VIII.

  1. Elisha raises the             2. The Triumph of David.[G]
     Shumanite's Son.

  3. The raising of Lazarus.       4. The entry into Jerusalem.[H]


[G] David enters on left balancing the huge head of Goliath on the point
of a sword. On right are the women with musical instruments.

[H] A man in a tree cuts down branches: others spread garments.


WINDOW IX.

  1. The Fall of Manna.            2. The Fall of the Rebel Angels.

  3. The Last Supper.[I]           4. The Agony in the Garden.[J]

[I] Christ on left stands and gives the sop to Judas, who bends over the
table from right. He is red-haired.

[J] A cup is shown at the left upper corner, and an angel is represented
as coming down to comfort our Lord. The disciples are shown asleep at
the bottom of the picture.


WINDOW X.

  1. Cain killing Abel.            2. Shemei cursing David.

  3. The Betrayal.[K]              4. Christ mocked and blind-folded.[L]

[K] Judas kisses Christ. Peter attacks Malchus.

[L] Annas and other Jews look on from above.


WINDOW XI.

  1. Jeremiah imprisoned.          2. Noah mocked by Ham.

  3. Christ before Annas.          4. Christ before Herod.


WINDOW XII.

  1. Job tormented.                2. Solomon crowned.

  3. The Scourging of Christ.      4. Christ crowned with thorns.


WINDOW XIII.

The _East Window_ is quite different. For one thing it is much larger,
and has nine vertical divisions instead of five. Here, in the tracery,
in addition to other heraldic badges, is the "Dragon of the great
Pendragonship," holding a banner with the arms of Henry VII. Also there
is seen the ostrich feather of the Prince of Wales with the motto "Ich
Dien."[7]

In this window there are no Messengers with inscriptions; only six
scenes from the Passion beginning at the bottom left hand corner, and
each occupying three lights instead of two. In the first three lights
below the transom is the Ecce Homo; in the centre three, Pilate washing
his hands, the final moment in the trial. Our Lord is represented in the
centre light with his back to the spectator. In the three on the right
is Christ bearing the Cross. Here is shown Saint Veronica kneeling and
offering to our Lord a handkerchief to wipe his face. The legend goes on
to say that, when he returned it to her, his face was impressed upon it;
and it is now one of the four great relics preserved in the piers of the
dome of St. Peter's at Rome.

Above the transom, the left three lights contain the Nailing to the
Cross. In the centre three is Christ crucified between the thieves. At
the base of the Cross may be seen our Lord's robe on the ground, and two
figures kneeling upon it and pointing down to pieces of paper or dice, a
scene depicting the fulfilment of the prophecy: "They parted my garments
among them and upon my vesture they did cast lots." In the right three
lights the body of Christ is taken down from the Cross.


SOUTH SIDE


WINDOW XIV.

The Brazen Serpent, after a picture by Rubens, now in the National
Gallery.[M]

  3. Naomi and her                 4. The Virgin and other Holy Women
     Daughters-in-Law.                lamenting over the body of Christ.

[M] There was originally only half a window here. The lower half was
intended to have a building (which was in part begun) abutting on it.
This building was removed in 1827, and the lower part of the window
opened up. The old glass was moved down to the lower lights in 1841, and
in 1845 the glass which now occupies the upper main lights inserted by
Hedgeland. The only thing that can be said in its favour is its vivid
colours.


WINDOW XV.

  1. Joseph cast into the pit by   2. Israel going out of Egypt.
     his brethren.

  3. Burial of Christ.             4. The Harrowing of Hell.


WINDOW XVI.

  1. Jonah vomited up by the       2. Tobias returning to his Mother.
     Whale.[N]

  3. The Resurrection of           4. Christ appearing to his Mother
     Christ.                          at prayer.

[N] This subject is often asked about. The whale is represented as a
great green monster with a large black patch for the open mouth. Jonah
is shown in a recumbent position on the ground. At the back is part of a
ship, while in the extreme background may be seen Ninevah.


WINDOW XVII.

  1. Reuben at the pit, he finds   2. Darius visiting the lions' den
     it empty, and Joseph gone.       finds Daniel alive.

  3. The three Marys at the        4. Christ, with a spade, appears to
     Sepulchre, which they find       Mary Magdalene in the garden.[O]
     empty.

[O] Mary Magdalene is also seen alone in the background, looking into
the Sepulchre.


WINDOW XVIII.

  1. The Angel Raphael meets       2. Habakuk feeding Daniel in the
     Tobias.                          lions' den.

  3. Christ meets the two          4. The Supper at Emmaus.
     Disciples on the way
     to Emmaus.


WINDOW XIX.

  1. The Return of the Prodigal    2. The meeting of Jacob and Joseph.
     Son.[P]

  3. The Incredulity of St.        4. Christ appearing to the Apostles
     Thomas.                          _without_ Thomas.[Q]

[P] In the upper part of the left hand light is depicted the killing of
the fatted calf.

[Q] This subject and its type ought to precede numbers 1 and 3.


WINDOW XX.

  1. Elijah carried up to          2. Moses receives the Tables of Law.
     Heaven.[R]

  3. The Ascension of Christ.      4. The Descent of the Holy Ghost.

[R] He casts his mantle, represented by a lovely piece of ruby glass,
down to Elisha.


WINDOW XXI.

  1. Peter and John heal the       2. The Apostles arrested.[S]
     lame man at the gate of
     the Temple.

  3. Peter and the Apostles        4. The Death of Annanias.[U]
     going to the Temple.[T]

[S] In the background, Peter and John are seen bound to a pillar and
scourged.

[T] In the background, Peter preaching inside the building.

[U] In the background is seen his body being carried out for burial.


WINDOW XXII.

  1. The Conversion of St. Paul.    2. Paul conversing with Jews at
                                       Damascus.[V]

  3. Paul and Barnabas at           4. Paul stoned at Lystra.
     Lystra.

[V] In the background he is seen being let down in a basket from a
window. In this and the preceding window figures of St. Luke, habited as
a doctor, with his ox by him, alternate with figures of angels in the
central light.


WINDOW XXIII.

  1. Paul and the Demoniac         2. Paul before the Chief Captain
     Woman.                           Lysias at Jerusalem.

  3. Paul saying farewell at       4. Paul before Nero.
     Philippi.[W]

[W] In this subject is a beautiful specimen of a late fifteenth century
ship. The ship has her sails furled, and is anchored by her port anchor
as her starboard anchor is fished (_i.e._ made fast with its shank
horizontal) to the ship's side by her cable. An empty boat is alongside.
At the top of the mainmast is a fighting top from which project two
large spears.

An excellent article on this ship was contributed by Messrs. H. H.
Brindley, M.A., and Alan H. Moore, B.A., and read to the members of the
Cambridge Antiquarian Society in 1909.


WINDOW XXIV.

  1. The Death of Tobit.           2. The Burial of Jacob.

  3. The Death of the Virgin.      4. The Funeral of the Virgin.


WINDOW XXV.

  1. The Translation of Enoch.     2. Solomon receives his mother
                                      Bath-Sheba.

  3. Assumption of the Virgin.     4. The Coronation of the Virgin.[X]

[X] She kneels in the centre, full face. On right the Son, seated; on
left the Father, crowning Mary. The dove between. Angels playing music
in front.


WINDOW XXVI.

The _West Window_ was filled with stained glass depicting the Last
Judgment, by Messrs. Clayton and Bell, of London, in 1879. There is no
doubt that in the original scheme of the windows this was intended to be
the subject of the west window.[8] Like the east window, it consists of
nine lights, divided by a transom into two tiers. The general idea is to
set forth the scene of the Judgment as within a vast hall of
semi-circular plan. In the central light of the upper tier is seated the
figure of our Lord on the throne of judgment. On each side of the
principal figure are groups of angels jubilant with trumpets and bearing
emblems of the Passion.

On the right and left, each in three divisions, are seated figures of
Apostles and other Saints. In the three lights below the figure of our
Lord are St. Michael and two other angels, the one on the dexter side
(the left side as you look at it) bearing a Lily, the other on the
sinister (right) holding a flaming sword. St. Michael in the centre is
in full armour. He carries the scales of judgment, and rests one hand on
a cruciferous shield.

The lower portions of the lights show, on the one side, the resurrection
of the blessed, with angels receiving them. A special feature of the
design is seen in the lowermost portion near the centre. Here appears
the figure of the founder, King Henry VI. He rises from his grave gazing
upward, and bearing in his hands a model of the chapel itself. On the
other side the lost are shown, driven out by angels threatening them
with flaming swords.

In the tracery are arranged various shields and heraldic devices, which
comprise the arms of Queen Victoria, Henry VI, Henry VII, Henry VIII,
the Provost (Dr. Okes), the Visitor (the Bishop of Lincoln, Chr.
Wordsworth), F. E. Stacey, Esq. (the Donor), with those of King's
College, Eton College, and the University.

       *       *       *       *       *

The question has often been asked, How did the windows escape during the
_Civil War_? There is one story that the west window was broken by
Cromwell's soldiers (who certainly were quartered in the chapel), and
that the rest of the glass was taken out and concealed inside the organ
screen. Another, which appears in a small book called "The Chorister,"
is that all the glass was taken down and buried in pits in the college
grounds in one night by a man and a boy. Both these stories are entirely
fictitious. The best answer to the question may be found in the words of
the Provost of Eton (Dr. M. R. James), who says, in one of his addresses
on the windows: "It is most probable that Cromwell, anxious to have at
least one of the universities on his side, gave some special order that
no wilful damage should be wrought on this building, which, then as now,
was the pride of Cambridge and of all the country round." The windows
have been taken out and re-leaded at various times--first between 1657
and 1664; next in 1711-1712; thirdly in 1725-1730; fourthly in
1757-1765; fifthly in 1847-1850; and fourteen of them (one in each year)
in a period extending from 1893 to 1906, by the late Mr. J. E. Kempe,
when several mistakes which then existed were put right.

FOOTNOTES:

[7] This window from its base to the top of the arch is 53 feet and 25
feet wide.

[8] This window is 49 feet from its base to the top of the arch and 33
feet 6 inches in width.



The Woodwork, Organ, etc.


[Illustration: H.A. FROM THE SCREEN]

THE _Screen_ dividing the choir from the ante-chapel is one of the
earliest and purest examples of renaissance woodwork in this country and
is no doubt the work of foreign artists (probably Italian), several
having been brought over and employed by Henry VIII. Carved upon it are
the badge of Anne Boleyn, a crowned falcon holding a sceptre; the
initials H. R., R. A., H. A., with true lovers' knots entwining these
two letters; the arms of Henry VIII and Anne impaled; while below in the
same compartment is a bull's head caboched. This last is not a rebus[9]
in the true sense of the term (for at least one would expect the letter
N or something similar to appear), yet I venture to say it refers to
Anne, and, with the rest, shows the date of the work to be 1533-1536,
during which period her influence was at its height. At the back of the
Provost's stall is carved an admirable representation of St. George and
the dragon. Over the door on this side are the arms of King's and Eton
emblazoned. The definition of the arms of King's is as follows: Sable,
three roses argent, a chief per pale, azure a fleur-de-lis of France,
and gules a lion of England.[10] That of Eton is the same, with the
exception of three lilies in the place of the roses.[11]

The organ was put up in 1688 by René Harris,[12] taking the place of one
erected in 1606 by an organ-builder named Dalham; some portions of the
case date back to the time of Henry VIII. On the outer towers of the
organ facing west are two angels holding trumpets. These were put up in
1859, taking the place of two pinnacles, which in their turn were
substituted for two figures about the size of David on this same side.
In 1859 the organ was much enlarged by Messrs. Hill, of London.

The _Coats of Arms_ at the back of the stalls on the north and south
sides were put up at the expense of Thomas Weaver, a former Fellow of
the College, in 1633. Amongst them are the arms of England as they were
at the time; those of Henry V, VI, VII, VIII, Eton and King's
College--for Henry VI (no doubt following out the scheme adopted by
William of Wykeham, who founded Winchester School and New College,
Oxford) founded Eton also--also the arms of Cambridge University, and,
to show a friendly feeling to the sister University, those of Oxford
placed on the opposite side. The canopies of the stalls and the panel
work east of them were executed in 1675-1679.

The _Altar Table_, from a design by Mr. Garner, was first used on Advent
Sunday, 1902; and the woodwork round the chancel was finished in 1911.
The architects were Messrs. Blow and Billary, the work being executed by
Messrs. Rattee and Kett, the celebrated ecclesiastical builders, of
Cambridge.

The _Candelabra_ which stand within the Chancel, were the gift of
Messrs. Bryan, Wayte, and Witts, sometime Fellows; conjointly with the
College, and are of the date 1872.

The _Candlesticks_ on the Altar were given by Edward Balston, a former
Fellow, in 1850; and the _Cross_ (by Mr. Bainbridge Reynolds) is in
memory of the late Rev. Augustus Austen Leigh, Provost, 1889-1905.

The _Picture_ on the north side, "The Deposition," by Daniel de
Volterra, was presented to the College by the Earl of Carlisle in 1780.
It previously occupied the central position in the woodwork placed there
in 1774, and was removed in 1896 when the east window was re-leaded. The
handsome _Lectern_ was given to the College by Robert Hacomblen, who was
Provost from 1509 to 1528. The candle branches were added in 1668. It
was removed to the Library in 1774, where it remained until 1854.

Before I go on to speak of the side Chapels, I think it is worth
recording that on Wednesday, May 4, 1763, nine Spanish Standards taken
at Manilla by Brigadier General Draper, formerly Fellow, were carried in
procession to the Chapel by the scholars of the College. A Te Deum was
sung, and the Revd. William Barford, Fellow, and Public Orator, made a
Latin oration. The colours were first placed on each side of the Altar
rails, but afterwards were hung up on the Organ Screen; they eventually
found a resting-place in one of the South Chapels. About 20 years ago
they were sent to a needlework guild in London with a view to their
being restored, but it was found they were too far gone. Some of the
remnants that were returned are preserved in a glass case in the vestry,
where they may be seen.

FOOTNOTES:

[9] A rebus was invariably a badge or device forming a pun upon a man's
surname. It probably originated in the canting heraldry of earlier days.
A large number of rebuses ending in "ton" are based upon a tun or
barrel; such are the _lup_ on a _ton_ of Robert Lupton, Provost of Eton
1504, which appears in the spandrils of the door in the screen leading
into his chapel at Eton College, or the _kirk_ and _ton_ of Abbott
Kirkton on the deanery gate at Peterborough. The _eye_ and the _slip_ of
a tree, which form, together with a man falling from a tree (I slip!),
the rebuses of Abbot Islip, are well known. The _ox_ crossing a _ford_
in the arms of Oxford, and the _Cam_ and its great _bridge_ in the arms
of Cambridge are kindred examples.

[10] "The founder designed, by the colour of the field, to denote the
perpetuity of his foundation; by the roses, his hope that the college
might bring forth the choicest flowers, redolent of science of every
kind, to the honour and most devout worship of Almighty God and the
undefiled virgin and glorious mother; and by the chief, containing
portions of the arms of France and England, he intended to impart
something of royal nobility, which might declare the work to be truly
regal and renowned."--_Cooper's Memorials of Cambridge._

[11] At a meeting of old Etonian generals at Eton on May 20, 1919, the
following reference was made to the arms of Eton:--

  "What bears Etona on her shield?
     What each true son should be;
   A lion valiant in the field;
     At heart a fleur-de-lis."
               _Daily Telegraph_, May 21, 1919.

[12] Mr. T. F. Bumpas in his _London Churches, Ancient and Modern_,
speaks of him as an organ builder of some note. Renatus Harris he is
there styled. "In 1663 the Benchers of the Temple Church being anxious
of obtaining the best possible organ, we find him in competition with
one Bernard Schmidt, a German, who afterwards became Anglicized as
'Father Smith.' Each builder erected an organ which were played on
alternate Sundays. Dr. Blow and Purcell played upon Smith's organ, while
Draghi, organist to the Queen Consort, Catherine of Braganza, touched
Harrises. The conflict was very severe and bitter. Smith was successful.
Harrises organ having been removed, one portion of it was acquired by
the parishioners of St. Andrew's, Holborn, while the other was shipped
to Dublin, where it remained in Christ Church Cathedral until 1750, when
it was purchased for the Collegiate Church of Wolverhampton. In 1684 he
competed again with Father Smith for the contract for an organ for St.
Laurance, Gresham Street, and was successful. In 1669 he built a fine
large organ for St. Andrews, Undershaft." He was also engaged in 1693 to
keep in order the organ in Jesus College Chapel, Cambridge, at a yearly
salary of £3.



The Side Chapels


I WOULD next draw the attention of my readers to two of the side
chapels. The second from the west on the south side is known as
_Hacumblen's Chapel_, and contains a brass marking the place of his
burial. It also contains a tomb (the only one in the Chapel) to the
great Duke of Marlborough's only son, John Churchill Marquis of
Blandford, who died of the small-pox in 1702 while resident in College.
In the window next the Court is a portrait of the Founder, and the other
figure is St. John the Evangelist. In the tracery are the evangelistic
symbols and the four fathers of the Latin church--St. Jerome, St.
Ambrose, St. Augustine and St. Gregory; and in the window which divides
the chantry from the Ante-chapel is to be seen the Annunciation, with,
on the one side, St. Ursula and the eleven thousand virgins, and St.
Christopher with the infant Jesus; on the other, St. Anne with the
Blessed Virgin, and St. John the Baptist with the Lamb.

The third chapel on the same side is _Provost Brassie's Chapel_, where
he was buried in 1558. In the window is some fifteenth century glass,
which, having been removed from the north side chapels, was repaired in
1857 and placed here. The Provost of Eton, whose knowledge of old glass
makes him a competent authority, is now of opinion that it was made for
the side Chapels, and was probably the gift of John Rampaine,
Vice-Provost in 1495.

Of the remaining chantries on the south side, the first contains the
Music Library; the next three are to be utilized as a Library of Ancient
Theological works; and the last two will be fitted up and dedicated, as
a War Memorial to those members of the College who made the great
sacrifice in the War 1914-1919. Some fine Flemish glass, given by Mrs.
Laurence Humphrey, and two lights purchased of St. Catherine's College,
and other fragments of the XVth and XVIth century of great interest and
beauty have already been placed in the windows, and a reredos is in
course of erection. In the window of the second chantry from the west on
the north side are the arms of Roger Goad (Provost 1569-1610) impaling
the arms of the College,[13] in a most beautiful floral border.

[Illustration: ROSE AND PORTCULLIS. (Badges of Henry VII.)]

[Illustration: ARMS OF HENRY VII. ]

Two other _Side Chapels_ deserve to be mentioned, viz. the two eastmost
on the north side, which were the first roofed with lierne vaulting. The
one furthest east has been lately restored to use for early celebrations
of the Holy Communion and other devotional services. Visitors should pay
special attention to the lovely doorway in stone through which you
enter, and the one on the opposite side. In the apex of the arch are the
arms of Edward the Confessor, on the left those of East Anglia, on the
right those of England. On that of the opposite side is a figure of the
Blessed Virgin Mary at the top, flanked on the right by one of St.
Margaret, and on the left by St. Catherine. These figures have been
defaced, probably by William Dowsing, who is said to have gone about the
country like a lunatic, breaking windows, etc. He visited the College in
1644.

The _Ante-chapel_ is profusely decorated with the arms of Henry VII,
with a dragon and greyhound as supporters, "the dragon of the great
Pendragonship" and the greyhound of Cecilia Neville, wife of Richard
Duke of York in every severy, and with crowned roses and portcullis
alternating with each other, intimating that, as the portcullis was the
second defence of a fortress when the gate was broken down, so he had a
second claim to the crown through his mother, daughter of John de
Beaufort. After the accession of the Tudor dynasty there arose a mania
for heraldic devices; in some cases an unsatisfactory mode of
decoration, but in this building one that possesses not only historical
interest, but great decorative value.

During the time when these styles of Gothic architecture prevailed that
are now called the Decorated and the Perpendicular, the roof,[14] the
columns, the stained glass windows, the seats, altar, tombs, and even
the flooring, were filled with emblasonment. Nor was heraldic ornament
confined to architecture; it formed the grand embellishment of the
interior of palaces and baronial castles.[15]

In the middle of one of the roses at the west end, toward the south, may
be seen a small figure of the Virgin Mary, about which Malden says:
"Foreigners make frequent enquiries, and never fail to pay it a
religious reverence, crossing their breasts at the sight, and addressing
it with a short prayer." I cannot say that, in my long experience, I
have ever observed an instance of this.

FOOTNOTES:

[13] Heads of Colleges have the right of impaling with their own arms
the arms of the College of which they are the head in the same way as a
Bishop impales the arms of the See over which he presides. Deans of
secular churches and the Regius Professors of Divinity at Cambridge
(since 1590) have the same privilege.

[14] Of Melrose it is written:

  "The keystone that locked each ribbed aisle
   Was a fleur-de-lys or a quarterfoil."

[15] "The gorgeous halls which were on every side
      With rich array and costly arras dight."



Memorials of the Dead


HAPPILY the chapel does not abound in _epitaphs_, a species of memorial
often extravagant or even ridiculous, but there is one, viz. of Thomas
Crouch, a former Fellow, M.P. for the University, who died 1679, written
by himself, which, in my opinion, is of a high character. It is as
follows:

                     "At the last day
          God will lay open the graves, and bring forth
          All men from their sepulchres.
          It shall be known, when that day
          Shall come, what manner of man I was."

One may notice two striking features contained in this epitaph: (1) He
believes in the resurrection; (2) he does not care what man thinks of
him, it is God who shall decide whether he was good or bad.

Money was not a dominant motive with those employed on our old
buildings, but master and man worked together for a common object, with
a common sympathy; and especially in our cathedrals and minsters they
kept uppermost in their minds that they were working for the glory of
God. "They thought not of a perishable home Who thus could build."

Froude, in his _History of England_ (I. 51), says of our ancestors:
"They cannot come to us, and our imaginations can but feebly penetrate
to them. Only among the aisles of the cathedrals, only as we gaze upon
their silent figures sleeping on their tombs, some faint conceptions
float before us of what these men were when they were alive."

There are four _Sepulchral Brasses_ on the floor of the chantries. The
earliest one is that of Dr. William Towne, who is buried in the second
chantry from the east, to which I have already referred as being the
first roofed in. He is represented in academical costume; and on his
hands hangs a scroll with the following words: "Farewell to glory, to
reputation in learning, to praise, to the arts, to all the vanity of
this world. God is my only hope."[16] Under his feet is the inscription:
"Pray for the soul of Master William Towne, Doctor of Divinity, once a
Fellow of this College, who died on the eleventh day of March, 1494.
Whose soul God pardon. Amen." The words "Pray for the soul" and "Whose
soul God pardon. Amen," have been partially effaced.[17]

The most ancient brass after Dr. Towne's is that of Dr. Argentine, who
is buried in the vestry on the south side nearest to the east. His
figure is placed, according to his last desire, on the tombstone in his
doctoral robes, with his hands elevated towards the upper part of the
stone, where there was formerly placed a Crucifix. From his mouth
proceed these words: "O Christ, Son of God and the Virgin, crucified
Lord, Redeemer of mankind, remember me." Below his feet are the words:
"This stone buries the body of John Argentine, Master of Arts,
Physician, Preacher of the Gospel; Passenger, remember, thou art mortal;
pray in an humble posture, that my soul may live in Christ, in a state
of immortality." On a fillet round the tombstone the following words are
engraved: "Pray for the soul of John Argentine, Master of Arts, Doctor
of Physick and Divinity, and Provost of this College, who died February
2, 1507. May God have mercy on his soul. Amen."[18]

The next is that of Robert Hacumblen, in the second chantry from the
west on the same side. He is represented in ecclesiastical costume in
processional vestments. On a label proceeding from his mouth is
inscribed the following line: "O Christ, be thy wounds my pleasing
remedy." This applies to a shield in the sinister corner of the stone,
which represents the five wounds of Christ. The shield in the dexter
corner is missing. It probably contained his coat of arms, which were:
vert, a cross saltire argent between four lilies of the second. On the
fillet, which on all sides surrounds the stone, are the words:

          "O Lord, judge me not according to my actions.
           I have done nothing worthy in Thy sight.
           Therefore I beseech Thy majesty,
           That Thou, O God, wouldst blot out my iniquity.
           Have mercy, Jesu."

At the corners are the evangelistic emblems. The inscription that was
under his feet has been taken away. It may be that it contained the
words "Pray for the soul," etc.

The fourth brass is in the next chantry toward the east, and is that of
Robert Brassie. He is also in ecclesiastical costume in processional
vestments, without the cope exposing the almuce. The label that
proceeded from his mouth is missing. At his feet are the following
words: "Here lies Robert Brassie, Doctor of Divinity, formerly Provost
of this College, who departed this life November 10, A.D. 1558."

On the walls of the Ante-chapel there are several _Memorial Brasses_.
The oldest is a diamond-shaped one, on the left of the south porch, to
the memory of John Stokys, Public Orator, who died 17th July, 1559. That
of a similar shape on the right is a repoussé tablet in copper, and is
to the memory of J. K. Stephen, Fellow, who died February, 1892. In the
last bay is one to Richard Okes, Doctor in Theology, who was Provost of
the College from 1850 to 1888.

On the north wall there are seven tablets. Taking them in order of
death, the first is to Roland Williams, S.T.P., Fellow, who died 15th
February, 1870. Then Henry Bradshaw, M.A., Fellow, University Librarian,
died 15th February, 1886; William Johnson (afterwards Cory), M.A.,
Fellow, and for many years a Master at Eton, died 1892; Charles Vickery
Hawkins, Scholar, died 6th August, 1894; John Henry Middleton, M.A.,
Professorial Fellow, Slade Professor, died 1896; Arthur Thomas Reid,
Scholar, who met his death in climbing a mountain near Bangor, North
Wales, September, 1907; Frederick Whitting, M.A., Senior Fellow, who was
for 24 years Bursar and 20 years Vice-Provost, died suddenly in London,
1st January, 1911. Other tablets in the chantries commemorate various
members of the College.

FOOTNOTES:

[16] In all cases I have refrained from using the Latin, and have
contented myself with giving the English translation.

[17] The words "Pray for the soul," or "May whose soul God pardon," were
sufficient excuse for fanatics such as Dowsing to destroy or deface the
beautiful brasses in various parts of the kingdom. But the fanatics were
not alone to blame; for it is well known that churchwardens and even
incumbents of our churches have in many cases taken up and sold the
brasses to satisfy some whim of their own in what they called
"restoration" of the edifice over which they had charge.

[18] It may appear to my readers somewhat strange that in this case the
words "Pray for the soul" and "May God have mercy, &c." are intact.
Until 1898 this chantry had a boarded floor above the slab, the fillet
round not being visible. The figure itself with label was affixed to a
board and placed in the vestry for those who cared to inspect it. When
the floor was removed the Brass was placed in its proper place on the
slab and the whole inscription could then be seen. There are the
matrixes of four coats of arms. Probably they were King's, Eton, the
University, and Argentine's own coat, which was gules, three covered
cups argent. At the upper corners of the fillet are the evangelistic
emblems of St. Matthew and St. John, while those of St. Mark and St.
Luke, which were evidently at the bottom, have been taken away.



Conclusion


LIKE human beings, the chapel has received well-merited praise from
many, while some have used their knowledge (or want of it) to criticise.
Fuller speaks of it "as one of the rarest fabricks in Christendom,
wherein the stonework, woodwork, and glasswork contend which shall
deserve most admiration." To quote Carter again: "It is entitled to be
ranked with the finest buildings of the world," although he further goes
on to say: "The exterior aspect is perhaps justly open to some
criticism, but it has received unqualified abuse at the hands of some
writers." Ruskin was very severe, comparing it to a billiard table,
turned upside down, the four corner turrets being the four legs; but he
afterwards, it is said, retracted. The late Rev. Augustus Austen Leigh,
Provost of the College from 1888 to 1905, in writing a history of the
College, says: "Like other really great works, King's Chapel produces an
impression which is instantaneous, and at the same time permanent. It
does not disarm criticism, but it compels admiration. And if anyone is
inclined to criticise, let him look at the exterior on a moonlight night
from the south side of the Quadrangle, or from the top of Trinity
Street, or let him take his stand within the ante-chapel at the
northwest corner on a bright summer's day, and cast his eye along the
coloured glass and stone vaulting till he catches a part of the east
window rising above the stately rood-loft; and if he does not feel that
there is an inspiration in the building which is above criticism, he
must be a man that hath no music in himself."

I cannot end this brief sketch better than by quoting Wordsworth's two
famous sonnets on King's College Chapel:--

          "Tax not the Royal Saint with vain expense,
           With ill-matched aims the Architect who planned--
           Albeit labouring for a scanty band
           Of white-robed Scholars only--this immense
           And glorious work of fine intelligence!
           Give all thou canst; high Heaven rejects the lore
           Of nicely-calculated less or more;
           So deemed the man who fashioned for the sense
           These lofty pillars, spread that branching roof
           Self-poised, and scooped into ten thousand cells,
           Where light and shade repose, where music dwells
           Lingering--and wandering on as loth to die;
           Like thoughts whose very sweetness yieldeth proof
           That they were born for immortality.

                .     .     .     .     .     .     .

           What awful pérspective! while from our sight
           With gradual stealth the lateral windows hide
           Their portraitures, their stone-work glimmers, dyed
           In the soft chequerings of a sleepy light.
           Martyr, or King, or sainted Eremite,
           Whoe'er ye be, that thus, yourselves unseen,
           Imbue your prison-bars with solemn sheen,
           Shine on, until ye fade, with coming night.
           But from the arms of silence--list! O list!
           The music bursteth into second life;
           The notes luxuriate, every stone is kissed
           By sound, or ghost of sound, in mazy strife;
           Heart-thrilling strains, that cast, before the eye
           Of the devout, a veil of ecstasy!



Appendix

List of Provosts from the Year 1443


          WILLIAM MILLINGTON, D.D.              April 10, 1443
          JOHN CHEDWORTH, D.D.                  Nov. 5, 1446
          [Y]ROBERT WOODLARKE, D.D.             May 17, 1452
          WALTER FIELD, D.D.                    Oct. 15, 1479
          JOHN DOGGET, D.C.L. (Oxon)            April 18, 1499
          JOHN ARGENTINE, D.D. and M.D.         May 4, 1501
          RICHARD HATTON, LL.D.                 Mar. 21, 1507
          ROBERT HACUMBLEN, D.D.                June 28, 1509
          EDWARD FOX, D.D.                      Sept. 27, 1528
          [Z]GEORGE DAY                         June 5, 1538
          SIR JOHN CHEKE, M.A.                  April 1, 1548
          RICHARD ATKINSON, D.D.                Oct. 25, 1553
          ROBERT BRASSIE, D.D.                  Oct. 3, 1556
          PHILIP BAKER, D.D.                    Dec. 12, 1558
          ROGER GOAD, D.D.                      Mar. 19, 1569
          FOG NEWTON, D.D.                      May 15, 1610
          WILLIAM SMITH, D.D.                   Aug. 22, 1612
          SAMUEL COLLINS, D.D.                  April 25, 1615
          BENJAMIN WHICHCOT, D.D.               Mar. 19, 1644
          JAMES FLEETWOOD, D.D.                 June 29, 1660
          SIR THOMAS PAGE, M.A.                 Jan. 16, 1675
          [AA]JOHN COPLESTONE, D.D.              Aug. 24, 1681
          CHARLES RODERICK, LL.D. and D.D.      Oct. 13, 1689
          JOHN ADAMS, D.D.                      May 2, 1712
          ANDREW SNAPE, D.D.                    Feb. 21, 1719
          WILLIAM GEORGE, D.D.                  Jan. 30, 1742
          JOHN SUMNER, D.D.                     Oct. 18, 1756
          WILLIAM COOKE, D.D.                   Mar. 25, 1772
          HUMPHREY SUMNER, D.D.                 Nov. 3, 1797
          GEORGE THACKERAY, D.D.                April 4, 1814
          RICHARD OKES, D.D.                    Nov. 2, 1850
          AUGUSTUS A. LEIGH, M.A.               Feb. 9, 1889
          MONTAGUE R. JAMES, Litt.D.            May 13, 1905
          SIR WALTER DURNFORD, LL.D.            Nov. 16, 1918


List of Organists from 1592

          EDWARD GIBBONS, Mus.B. (Cantab. & Oxon)       1592-1599
          JOHN TOMKINS, Mus.B. (Cantab.)                1606-1622
          MATTHEW BARTON                                1622-1625
          GILES TOMKINS                                 1625-1626
          ---- MARSHALL                                 1626-1627
          JOHN SILVER                                        1627
          HENRY LOOSEMORE, Mus.B. (Cantab.)             1627-1671
          THOMAS TUDWAY, Mus.D. (Cantab.)               1671-1728
          ROBERT FULLER, Mus.B. (Cantab.)               1728-1743
          JOHN RANDALL, Mus.D. (Cantab.)                1743-1799
          JOHN PRATT                                    1799-1855
          WILLIAM AMPS, M.A. (Cantab.)                  1855-1876
          ARTHUR HENRY MANN, F.R.C.O., Mus.D.
            (Oxon), 1882; M.A. (Cantab.), 1910          1876-

FOOTNOTES:

[Y] The last Provost appointed by the Founder.

[Z] It is very strange, but there is no evidence of Provost Day having
taken a degree of any kind. He was Master of St. John's College,
Cambridge, 1537; Provost, 1538; Bishop of Chichester, 1543. On making
enquiry at Chichester, the answer is "We have no reference whatever to
his having taken a degree, odd as this is to us."

[AA] The last Provost nominated by the Crown.



                PRINTED BY
            W. HEFFER & SONS LTD.
             CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation marks added.

Page 4, "bnried" changed to "buried" (buried at Chertsey Abbey)

Page 10, "ravelled" changed to "travelled" (have travelled from city)

Page 36, "Naaomi" changed to "Naomi" (Naomi and her Daughters-in-Law)





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