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Title: The Medallic History of the United States of America 1776-1876
Author: Loubat, J. F.
Language: English
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                              THE

                        MEDALLIC HISTORY

                               OF

                  THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

                           1776-1876.



                              BY

                      J. F. LOUBAT, LL.D.

          MEMBER OF THE NEW-YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY.


          KNIGHT COMMANDER OF ST. STANISLAUS OF RUSSIA.
          KNIGHT OF THE FIRST CLASS OF THE CROWN AND OF
                 FREDERICK OF WÜRTTEMBERG.
          KNIGHT OF THE LEGION OF HONOR OF FRANCE.



            WITH 170 ETCHINGS BY JULES JACQUEMART.



                       _published by_
                 N. FLAYDERMAN & CO., INC.
             New Milford, Connecticut, U.S.A.


        Library of Congress Catalog Card No 67-28353


            Printed & Bound in Norwalk, Connecticut
                  by T. O'Toole & Sons, Inc.


       All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be
       reproduced in any form without written permission
       of the publisher.


                  N. FLAYDERMAN & CO., INC.
              New Milford, Connecticut, U.S.A.



TO THE HONORABLE ELIHU B. WASHBURNE,                                (p. vi)

LATE ENVOY EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER PLENIPOTENTIARY
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO FRANCE.


     My Dear Sir:

     Permit me to dedicate to you this work on our National Medals,
     as a slight testimonial for your distinguished services during
     your long official residence in Paris, and especially during
     the siege of that city in 1870-1871, when you had under your
     protection the subjects of fourteen governments besides your
     own, and yet so discharged your delicate and responsible duties
     as to win universal approbation.

                              Yours sincerely,
                                                J. F. LOUBAT.
     New-York, Union Club, _May_, _1878_.



INTRODUCTION.                                                      (p. vii)


Medals, by means of the engraver's art, perpetuate in a durable form
and within a small compass which the eye can embrace at a glance, not
only the features of eminent persons, but the dates, brief accounts,
and representations (direct or emblematical) of events; they rank,
therefore, among the most valuable records of the past, especially
when they recall men, deeds, or circumstances which have influenced
the life of nations. How much light has been furnished for the study
of history by the concise and faithful testimony of these silent
witnesses! The importance of medals is now universally acknowledged,
and in almost every country they are preserved with reverent care, and
made the subject of costly publications, illustrated by elaborate
engravings, with carefully prepared letter-press descriptions and
notes. Up to the present time no thorough work devoted to the medals
of the United States of America has been published. When I entered
upon the task, several years ago, of investigating their history  (p. viii)
for the period embracing the first century of the Republic, I had
little conception of the difficulties to be encountered. The search
involved a very considerable expenditure of time and labor, but at
last I have the satisfaction of offering to the public the result of
my investigations, completed according to the original plan.

Although our political history measures but a hundred years, it
records so many memorable deeds, and the names of so many illustrious
citizens, that our medals form, even now, an historically valuable
collection, to say nothing of the great artistic merit of some of
them. During the War of Independence alone, how many exploits, how
many heroes do we find worthy of being thus honored! How numerous
would have been our medals if Congress had not been imbued with the
conviction that only the very highest achievements are entitled to
such a distinction, and that the value of a reward is enhanced by its
rarity! In voting those struck after the War of 1812-'15 with Great
Britain, and after that of 1846-'47 with Mexico, the same discretion
was shown. There was still greater necessity for reserve during the
late Civil War, and only two were presented during that painful
period: one to Ulysses S. Grant, then a major-general, for victories,
and another to Cornelius Vanderbilt, in acknowledgment of his free
gift of the steamship which bore his name.

Similar national rewards have been earned also by deeds which interest
humanity, science, or commerce; as, for instance, the laying of the
transatlantic telegraph cable, the expedition of Doctor Kane to the
Arctic Seas, and the beneficence of George Peabody. If to these are
added the Indian peace medals, bearing the effigies of our          (p. ix)
successive Presidents, the various elements which compose the official
medals of the United States of America will have been enumerated.

As neither titles of nobility nor orders of knighthood exist in our
country, Congress can bestow no higher distinction on an American
citizen than to offer him the thanks of the nation, and to order that
a medal be struck in his honor. I cannot do better than to quote here
the words of General Winfield Scott, when he received from President
Monroe the medal voted to him for the battles of Chippewa and Niagara:

"With a deep sense of the additional obligation now contracted, I
accept at the hands of the venerable Chief Magistrate of the Union the
classic token of the highest reward a free man can receive: the
recorded approbation of his country."

Our medals number eighty-six in all, most of which were struck by
order of Congress in honor of citizens of the United States. Seventeen
belong to the period of the Revolution, twenty-seven to the War of
1812-'15, four to the Mexican War, and two to the Civil War. Only five
were voted to foreigners: one, in 1779, to Lieutenant-Colonel de
Fleury, a French gentleman in the Continental Army, for gallant
conduct at Stony Point; another, in 1858, to Dr. Frederick Rose, an
assistant-surgeon in the British Navy for kindness and humanity to
sick seamen on one of our men-of-war; and the others, in 1866, to three
foreign merchant captains, Messrs. Creighton, Low, and Stouffer, who,
in December, 1853, went to the aid of the steamer San Francisco,     (p. x)
thereby "rescuing about five hundred Americans."

Seven of the eighty-six medals do not owe their origin to a
congressional vote: two which were struck in the United Netherlands
(1782), one to commemorate their acknowledgment of the United States
of America, and the other the treaty of amity and commerce between the
two countries; that known as Libertas Americana (1783); the two in
honor of Franklin (1784-1786); the Diplomatic medal (1790); and lastly
that struck in memory of the conclusion of the treaty of commerce
between the United States and France (1822). Although these cannot
properly be classed as official medals, their historic importance and
value as works of art entitle them to a place in our national
collection.

Nearly all of the early medals were executed by French engravers,
whose names alone are a warrant for the artistic merit of their work.
We are indebted to Augustin Dupré, who has been called the "great
Dupré" for the Daniel Morgan, the Nathaniel Greene, the John Paul
Jones, the Libertas Americana, the two Franklin, and the Diplomatic
medals; to Pierre Simon Duvivier for those of George Washington, de
Fleury, William Augustine Washington, and John Eager Howard; to
Nicolas Marie Gatteaux for those of Horatio Gates, Anthony Wayne, and
John Stewart; and to Bertrand Andrieu and Raymond Gayrard for the one
in commemoration of the signature of the treaty of commerce between
France and the United States.

Congress had not yet proclaimed the independence of the thirteen
United Colonies when, on March 25, 1776, it ordered that a gold     (p. xi)
medal be struck and presented to "His Excellency, General Washington,"
for his "wise and spirited conduct in the siege and acquisition of
Boston." But this, although the first one voted, was not engraved
until after the de Fleury and the Libertas Americana pieces, both of
which were executed in Paris under the direction of Benjamin Franklin.
The following letter gives the date of the de Fleury medal:

     To His Excellency
        Mr. HUNTINGTON,                      Passy, March 4, 1780.
            President of Congress.

     Sir: Agreeably to the order of Congress, I have employed one of
     the best artists here in cutting the dies for the medal intended
     for M. de Fleury. The price of such work is beyond my
     expectation, being a thousand livres for each die. I shall try if
     it is not possible to have the others done cheaper.

       -       -       -       -       -

     With great respect I have the honour to be, Sir, your most
     obedient and most humble servant,
                                             B. FRANKLIN.

This medal was shown in the exhibition of the Royal Academy in Paris
in 1781. The Libertas Americana piece was struck in 1783.

Six of the earliest of the series were designed under the supervision
of Colonel David Humphreys, namely, those for Generals Washington,
Gates, Greene, and Morgan, and Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and
Howard. To insure a due observance of the laws of numismatics, and
that they might bear comparison with the best specimens of modern
times, Colonel Humphreys asked the aid of the French Academy of
Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres in the composition of the designs. (p. xii)
He explained his action in this respect to the President of Congress
in the following letter:

     To His Excellency                       Paris, March 18, 1785.
        THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

     Sir: Before I left America, I made application to the
     Superintendent of Finances for the sword which Congress had been
     pleased to order, by their resolution of the 17th of November,
     1781, to be presented to me, in consequence of which Mr. Morris
     informed me verbally that he would take the necessary
     arrangements for procuring all the honourary presents which had
     been directed to be given to different officers during the late
     war, and requested that I would undertake to have them executed
     in Europe. Some time after my arrival here, I received the
     inclosed letter[1] from him, accompanied with a list of medals,
     etc., and a description of those intended for General Morgan and
     Colonels Washington and Howard.

     Upon the receipt of these documents I did not delay to make the
     proper inquiries from the characters who were the best skilled in
     subjects of this nature, and after having spoken to some of the
     first artists, I was advised to apply to the Abbé Barthélémy,
     member of the academies of London, Madrid, Cortona, and
     Hesse-Cassel, and actual keeper of the King's Cabinet of Medals
     and Antiquities, at whose instance I wrote a letter to the Royal
     Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, of which a copy is
     inclosed. Being informed at the same time that the description of
     medals for General Morgan, etc., was not in the style and manner
     such medals were usually executed, I took the liberty of
     suspending the execution of them, until I could learn whether it
     is the pleasure of Congress to have them performed _exactly_ in
     the manner prescribed--which shall be done accordingly, in case I
     should not be honoured with further instructions on the subject
     before their approaching recess.

     The medals voted for the capture of Stony Point have been, or I
     believe may be, all struck from the die originally engraved to
     furnish one of them for Colonel de Fleury.

     As to the swords in question, it is proposed to have them all
     constructed in precisely the same fashion, the hilt to be of
     silver, round which a foliage of laurel to be enameled in    (p. xiii)
     gold in such a manner as to leave a medallion in the centre
     sufficient to receive the arms of the United States on one side,
     and on the reverse an inscription in English, "The United States
     to Colonel Meigs, July 25, 1777," and the same for the others.
     The whole ten, executed in this manner, may probably cost about
     three hundred louis d'or, which is (as I have been informed) but
     little more than was paid for the sword which some time since was
     presented on the part of the United States to the Marquis de la
     Fayette.

     I have the honour to be, with the most perfect respect,
                                             D. HUMPHREYS.

     P.S. I forgot to mention that, in order to have the medals for
     General Morgan, etc., executed in the manner originally proposed,
     it will be necessary for me to have more particular information
     of the numbers on both sides, of the killed, wounded, prisoners,
     trophies, etc., which the enemy lost in the action of the
     Cowpens.

                   [Footnote 1: I have not been able to find this
                   letter.]

The following is the letter to the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and
Belles-Lettres, referred to by Colonel Humphreys in the above:

                                             Paris, March 14, 1785.
     Mr. DACIER,
         Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions
               and Belles-Lettres, Rue Chabanais, Paris.

     Sir: Having it in charge to procure the honourary presents which
     (during the late war) have been voted by Congress to several
     meritorious officers in their service, particularly three medals
     in gold, one for General Washington, another for General Gates,
     and a third for General Greene; and, being extremely desirous
     that these medals should be executed in a manner grateful to the
     illustrious personages for whom they are designed, worthy the
     dignity of the sovereign power by whom they are presented, and
     calculated to perpetuate the remembrance of those great events
     which they are intended to consecrate to immortality, I therefore
     take the liberty to address, through you, Sir, the Academy of
     Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, on the subject, and entreat that
     this learned body will be pleased to honour me, as soon as    (p. xiv)
     may be convenient, with their advice and sentiments respecting
     the devices and inscriptions proper for the before mentioned
     medals. A memoir,[2] which has been left in the hands of M.
     Barthélémy, one of their members, will give the necessary
     information.

     In addressing so respectable an assembly of _literati_ I do not
     think myself permitted to enlarge on the importance of this
     subject, because they must know, much better than I can inform
     them, in how great a degree such monuments of public gratitude
     are calculated to produce a laudable emulation, a genuine love of
     liberty, and all the virtues of real patriotism, not only among
     the innumerable generations who are yet to people the wastes of
     America, but on the human character in general. Nor do I make
     those apologies for the trouble I am now giving, which would be
     requisite, did I not feel a conviction that whatever is
     interesting to the national glory of America, to the good of
     posterity, or to the happiness of the human race, cannot be
     indifferent to a society composed of the most enlightened and
     liberal characters in Europe, fostered by the royal protection of
     a monarch whose name will forever be as dear to the United States
     as it will be glorious in the annals of mankind.

     Being so unfortunate as not to be able to write myself in French,
     my intimate friend and brave companion in arms, M. le marquis de
     la Fayette, has had the goodness to make a translation of this
     letter into that language, which I inclose herewith.

     I have the honour to be, with the most perfect respect, Sir, your
     most obedient and most humble servant,
                                             D. HUMPHREYS.

                   [Footnote 2: I have not been able to find any trace
                   of this memoir in the archives of the French
                   Academy.]

A letter written by Franklin, about the same time, to John Jay, then
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, is of much interest in this connection:

     To the Honourable
        John JAY,                            Passy, May 10, 1785.
             Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

       -       -       -       -       -

     P.S. The striking of the medals being now in agitation here, I
     send the inclosed for consideration.

     _A thought concerning the Medals that are to be struck by      (p. xv)
     order of Congress._

     The forming of dies in steel to strike medals or money, is
     generally with the intention of making a great number of the same
     form.

     The engraving those dies in steel is, from the hardness of the
     substance, very difficult and expensive, but, once engraved, the
     great number to be easily produced afterward by stamping
     justifies the expense, it being but small when divided among a
     number.

     Where only one medal of a kind is wanted, it seems an unthrifty
     way to form dies for it in steel to strike the two sides of it,
     the whole expense of the dies resting on that medal.

     It was by this means that the medal voted by Congress for M. de
     Fleury cost one hundred guineas, when an engraving of the same
     figures and inscriptions might have been beautifully done on a
     plate of silver of the same size for two guineas.

     The ancients, when they ordained a medal to record the memory of
     any laudable action, and do honour to the performer of that
     action, struck a vast number and used them as money. By this
     means the honour was extended through their own and neighbouring
     nations, every man who received or paid a piece of such money was
     reminded of the virtuous action, the person who performed it, and
     the reward attending it, and the number gave such security to
     this kind of monuments against perishing and being forgotten,
     that some of each of them exist to this day, though more than two
     thousand years old, and, being now copied in books by the arts of
     engraving and painting, are not only exceedingly multiplied but
     likely to remain some thousands of years longer.

     The man who is honoured only by a single medal is obliged to show
     it to enjoy the honour, which can be done only to a few and often
     awkwardly. I therefore wish the medals of Congress were ordered
     to be money, and so continued as to be convenient money, by being
     in value aliquot parts of a dollar.

     Copper coins are wanting in America for small change. We have
     none but those of the King of England. After one silver or gold
     medal is struck from the dies, for the person to be honoured,
     they may be usefully employed in striking copper money, or in
     some cases small silver.

     The nominal value of the pieces might be a little more than the
     real, to prevent their being melted down, but not so much more as
     to be an encouragement of counterfeiting.     I am, etc.,
                                             B. FRANKLIN.

The Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres "entered on the     (p. xvi)
discussion with the same alacrity as if the subject had been designed
to illustrate the actions of their compatriots, or to immortalize some
glorious events in the annals of their own nation."[3] Commissioners,
consisting of four of its members, were at once appointed to suggest
designs for the three medals asked for Generals Washington, Gates, and
Greene.[4]

                   [Footnote 3: See A, page xxxiv.]

                   [Footnote 4: See B, page xxxvi.]

Through the courtesy of M. Narcisse Dupré, son of Augustin Dupré, I am
enabled to give the contract between his father and Colonel Humphreys
for the engraving of the medal for General Greene:[5]

                   [Footnote 5: For the French original see C, page
                   xli.]

     I, the undersigned, Augustin Dupré, engraver of medals and
     medallist of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, bind
     myself to Colonel Humphreys to engrave the medal representing the
     portrait of General Greene. On the reverse, Victory treading
     under her feet broken arms, with the legend and the exergue, and
     I hold myself responsible for any breakage of the dies up to
     twenty-four medals, and bind myself to furnish one at my own
     expense (the diameter of the medal to be twenty-four _lignes_).

     All on the following conditions: That for the two engraved dies
     of the said medal shall be paid me the sum of two thousand four
     hundred _livres_, on delivery of the two dies after the
     twenty-four medals which the Colonel desires have been struck.

     Done in duplicate between us, in Paris, this nineteenth of
     November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five (1785).

                                             D. HUMPHREYS.
                                             DUPRÉ.

On November 25th of the same year, M. Dacier, the perpetual secretary
of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, communicated another
letter from Colonel Humphreys, in which he requested the Academy to
compose designs for three more medals, which had been voted to
General Morgan and to Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and Howard.  (p. xvii)
Commissioners were appointed and designs made for these also.[6]

                   [Footnote 6: See B, page xxxvi.]

Colonel Humphreys having returned to America before the medals were
finished, their superintendence was undertaken by Mr. Jefferson, as
will be seen from the following letter:

     To the Honourable
        John JAY,                            Paris, February 14, 1787.
             Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

     Sir: Mr. Morris, during his office, being authorized to have the
     medals and swords executed, which had been ordered by Congress,
     he authorized Colonel Humphreys to take measures here for the
     execution. Colonel Humphreys did so, and the swords were finished
     in time for him to carry them. The medals not being finished, he
     desired me to attend to them. The workman who was to make that of
     General Greene brought me yesterday the medal in gold,
     twenty-three in copper, and the die. Mr. Short, during my
     absence, will avail himself of the first occasion which shall
     offer of forwarding the medals to you. I must beg leave, through
     you, to ask the pleasure of Congress as to the number they would
     choose to have struck. Perhaps they might be willing to deposit
     one of each person in every college of the United States. Perhaps
     they might choose to give a series of them to each of the crowned
     heads of Europe, which would be an acceptable present to them.
     They will be pleased to decide. In the meantime I have sealed up
     the die, and shall retain it till I am honoured with their orders
     as to this medal, and the others also, when they shall be
     finished.

               With great respect and esteem,
                                             Th: JEFFERSON.

In another letter to Mr. Jay, dated Marseilles, May 4, 1787, Mr.
Jefferson again refers to this subject:

       -       -       -       -       -

     I am in hopes Mr. Short will be able to send you the medals of
     General Gates by this packet. I await a general instruction as to
     these medals. The academies of Europe will be much pleased to
     receive a set.

        -       -       -       -       -

Mr. Jefferson's communication of the 14th of February was        (p. xviii)
brought to the notice of Congress by Mr. Jay, and was referred back to
him by Congress. The result was the following report:

                                             OFFICE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
                                                    July 11, 1787.

     The Secretary of the United States for the Department of Foreign
     Affairs, to whom was referred a letter from the Honourable Mr.
     Jefferson of the 14th of February last,

     _Reports_, Your secretary presumes that the following paragraphs
     in this letter occasion its being referred to him, viz.: "The
     workman who was to make a medal of General Greene brought me
     yesterday the medal in gold, twenty-three in copper, and the die.
     I must beg leave, through you, to ask the pleasure of Congress as
     to the number they would choose to have struck. Perhaps they
     might be willing to deposit one of each person in every college
     of the United States. Perhaps they might choose to give a series
     of them to each of the crowned heads of Europe, which would be an
     acceptable present to them. They will be pleased to decide. In
     the meantime I have sealed up the die, and shall retain it till I
     am honoured with their orders as to this medal, and the others
     also, when they shall be finished."

     As these medals were directed to be struck in order to signalize
     and commemorate certain interesting events and conspicuous
     characters, the distribution of them should in his opinion be
     such as may best conduce to that end. He therefore thinks that
     both of Mr. Jefferson's hints should be improved, to wit, that a
     series of these medals should be presented to each of the crowned
     heads in Europe, and that one of each set be deposited in each of
     the American colleges. He presumes that Mr. Jefferson does not
     mean that any should be presented to the King of Great Britain,
     for it would not be delicate; nor that by crowned heads he meant
     to exclude free states from the compliment, for to make
     discriminations would give offense.

     In the judgment of your secretary it would be proper to instruct
     Mr. Jefferson to present in the name of the United States one
     silver medal of each denomination to every monarch (except His
     Britannic Majesty), and to every sovereign and independent state
     without exception in Europe; and also to the Emperor of Morocco.
     That he also be instructed to send fifteen silver medals of each
     set to Congress, to be by them presented to the thirteen      (p. xix)
     United States respectively, and also to the Emperor of China with
     an explanation and a letter, and one to General Washington.
     That he also be instructed to present a copper medal of each
     denomination to each of the most distinguished universities
     (except the British) in Europe, and also to Count de Rochambeau,
     to Count d'Estaing, and to Count de Grasse; and, lastly, that he
     be instructed to send to Congress two hundred copper ones of each
     set, together with the dies.

     Your secretary thinks that of these it would be proper to present
     one to each of the American colleges, one to the Marquis de la
     Fayette, and one to each of the other major-generals who served
     in the late American army; and that the residue with the dies be
     deposited in the Secretary's Office of the United States, subject
     to such future orders as Congress may think proper to make
     respecting them.

     It might be more magnificent to give gold medals to sovereigns,
     silver ones to distinguished persons, and copper ones to the
     colleges; but, in his opinion, the nature of the American
     Governments, as well as the state of their finance, will
     apologize for their declining the expense.

     All which is submitted to the wisdom of Congress.

                                             John JAY.

The records of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres show
that in 1789, at the request of Mr. Jefferson, it also composed
designs for the medals awarded by Congress to General Wayne, Major
Stewart, and Captain John Paul Jones.[7] Mr. Jefferson had previously
had an interview with M. Augustin Dupré on the subject, as will be
seen by the following note, the original of which is in Mr.
Jefferson's handwriting:[8]

                   [Footnote 7: See D, page xli.]

                   [Footnote 8: For the French originals of this and
                   the following letter, see E, page xliv.]

    To
      M. DUPRÉ,
         Engraver of Medals and Medallist of the
             Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.

     Mr. Jefferson having received orders concerning medals to be
     struck would like to talk about them with M. Dupré, if he will
     please do him the honour to call on him to-morrow morning before
     eleven o'clock.

     Saturday, January 3, 1789.

In the following month, Mr. Jefferson again wrote to M. Dupré,      (p. xx)
inclosing descriptions of the designs for the medals of General Morgan
and of Admiral Jones. The reader will note some slight differences
between these and those originally composed by the Academy of
Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres:

    To
      M. DUPRÉ,
         Engraver of Medals and Medallist of the
             Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.

     Mr. Jefferson has the honour to send to M. Dupré the devices for
     the medals for General Morgan and Rear-Admiral Paul Jones, which
     he has just received from the Academy of Belles-Lettres, and the
     making of which he proposes to M. Dupré, the latter to be
     responsible for the success of the dies up to the striking of
     three hundred and fifty of each medal in gold, silver, or bronze,
     and to furnish proofs in tin at the end of the month of March
     next, so that the medals may all be struck before the 15th of
     April. He begs him to kindly mention the conditions on which he
     will undertake them, and Mr. Jefferson will have the honour to
     reply on receipt of them.

     February 13, 1789.


     _Medal for General Morgan, of twenty-four lignes in diameter._

     The general, at the head of his army, charges the enemy, which
     takes to flight.

     _Legend_: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

     _Exergue_: FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CÆSIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS 17 Jan.
     1781.

     _Reverse_: America, recognizable by her shield, rests her left
     hand upon a trophy of arms and of flags, and with her right
     crowns the general, who bends before her.

     _Legend_: DANIELI MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.


     _Medal for Rear-Admiral John Paul Jones, of twenty-four       (p. xxi)
     lignes._

     _Device_: His head (M. Houdon will furnish the bust in plaster).

     _Legend_: JOANNI PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: Naval Engagement.

     _Legend_: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.

     _Exergue_: AD ORAM SCOTIÆ 23 SEPT. 1779.

The following, from the same to the same, bearing date February 15,
1789, throws some light on the prices of the medals engraved by M.
Dupré:

     To
       M. DUPRÉ,
          Engraver of Medals, Paris.

     Mr. Jefferson has the honour to observe to M. Dupré that he pays
     only twenty-four hundred _livres_ to M. Duvivier or to M.
     Gatteaux for medals which measure twenty-four _lignes_, that he
     paid the same sum to M. Dupré himself for that of General Greene,
     and that recently M. Dupré asked no higher price for that of
     General Morgan. Mr. Jefferson cannot, therefore, consent to give
     more. For that sum he would expect to have the best work of M.
     Dupré and not that of inferior artists. As regards time, perhaps
     it may be possible to prolong it somewhat in regard to the medal
     for Admiral Paul Jones, that officer being at present in Europe.
     Mr. Jefferson will have the honour to await M. Dupré's answer,
     and will be happy to conclude this arrangement with him.[9]

     February 15, 1789.

                   [Footnote 9: For the French original see F, page
                   xlv.]

It is to be supposed that Dupré accepted these conditions, since he is
the engraver of the John Paul Jones medal, one of the finest specimens
in our collection. The Daniel Morgan piece is no less remarkable as an
effort of numismatic skill. The fight at the Cowpens, on the reverse,
is a striking example of the boldness with which Dupré enlarged   (p. xxii)
the limits of his art, and, in defiance of all traditional rules,
successfully represented several planes in the background.

I cannot do better than to give the opinion, concerning this and the
other of Dupré's American medals, of M. Charles Blanc,[10] from whom I
quote freely in the following:

                   [Footnote 10: INSTITUT DE FRANCE--ACADÉMIE DES
                   BEAUX-ARTS _Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages
                   d'Augustin Dupré, Graveur-Général des Monnoies de
                   la République. Lue dans la séance trimestrielle des
                   cinq classes de l'Institut, le 26 Octobre, 1870,
                   par M. Charles Blanc_.]

The Morgan medal, says this eminent French critic, seems to vibrate
beneath the rush of cavalry and the tread of infantry flying in the
background, indicated by the almost imperceptible lines of the metal
where the smoke of the cannonade is vanishing away in air. In the
Libertas Americana medal, which recalls, if we except the evacuation
of Boston, the two most memorable events of the War of Independence,
namely, the capitulation of General Burgoyne, at Saratoga, in October,
1777, and that of General Lord Cornwallis, at Yorktown, in October,
1781, Dupré has represented the new-born Liberty, sprung from the
prairies without ancestry and without rulers, as a youthful virgin,
with disheveled hair and dauntless aspect, bearing across her shoulder
a pike, surmounted by the Phrygian cap. This great artist, in
consequence of his intimacy with Franklin, had conceived the greatest
enthusiasm for the cause of the United States. Franklin resided at
Passy, and Dupré at Auteuil. As they both went to Paris every day,
they met and made acquaintance on the road--an acquaintance which soon
ripened into friendship. Dupré first engraved Franklin's seal with the
motto, "_In simplici salus_," and afterward his portrait. This   (p. xxiii)
portrait presents an _alto-rilievo_ which is well adapted for medals
only; it is conceived in the spirit of the French school, which has
always attached great importance to the truthful rendering of flesh.
The artist has indicated the flat parts, the relaxation of the
muscles, and, as it were, the quivering of the flesh, so as to convey
an exact idea of the age of the model. He has conscientiously
represented the lines which the finger of Time imprints on the
countenance, but, above all, he has given us with wonderful fidelity
the physiognomy of the American sage, his shrewd simplicity, his
sagacity, and his expression of serene uprightness. A Latin hexameter
from the pen of Turgot became the well-known legend of this medal:
"_Eripuit coelo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis._"

The four pieces executed by Duvivier are no less remarkable for beauty
and excellence of workmanship. They all figured at the exhibitions of
the members of the Royal Academy of Paris, that of the Chevalier de
Fleury, as mentioned before, in the exhibition of 1781, and those of
of General and of Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, and Lieutenant-Colonel
Howard, in that of 1789.[11]

                   [Footnote 11: See G, page xlv.]

In those by Gatteaux, the personification of America as an Indian
queen with an alligator at her feet is noteworthy.

With the exception of the Treaty of Commerce medal (1822), and perhaps
of that of Captain Truxtun, our medals after the War of Independence
were engraved and struck at home. Before that time, indeed, the one
voted in 1779 to Major Henry Lee had been made by John Wright, of
Philadelphia. From the close of the eighteenth century down to    (p. xxiv)
1840 John Reich and subsequently Moritz Fürst were the engravers of
the national medals. Reich's works are valued; unfortunately they are
few in number. They consist of the medal voted in 1805 to Captain
Edward Preble for his naval operations against Tripoli, of another
voted in 1813 to Captain Isaac Hull for the capture of the British
frigate Guerrière, and of those of Presidents Jefferson and Madison.
That of President Jefferson especially deserves attention for its
beauty.

But little can be said in commendation of the works of Fürst, whose
numerous medals are very inferior to Reich's, and still less worthy of
being compared with those of the French engravers. While wishing to
avoid undue severity, I cannot but endorse the opinion of General
Scott, given in a communication addressed to the Honorable William L.
Marcy, Secretary of War, in regard to the medal voted to General
Zachary Taylor, for victories on the Rio Grande:

     To the Honourable                  HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
        William L. MARCY,                    Washington, July 25, 1846.
           Secretary of War.

     As medals are among the surest monuments of history, as well as
     muniments of individual distinction, there should be given to
     them, besides intrinsic value and durability of material, the
     utmost grace of design, with the highest finish in mechanical
     execution. All this is necessary to give the greater or
     adventitious value; as in the present instance, the medal is to
     be, at once, an historical record and a reward of distinguished
     merit. The credit of the donor thus becomes even more than that
     of the receiver interested in obtaining a perfect specimen in the
     fine arts.

     The within resolution prescribes _gold_ as the material of the
     medal. The general form (circular) may be considered as equally
     settled by our own practice, and that of most nations, ancient
     and modern. There is, however, some little diversity in
     _diameter_ and _thickness_ in the medals heretofore ordered   (p. xxv)
     by Congress, at different periods, as may be seen in the cabinets
     of the War and Navy Departments. Diversity in dimensions is even
     greater in other countries.

     The specific character of the medal is shown by its two faces, or
     the _face_ and the _reverse_. The within resolution directs
     appropriate devices and inscriptions thereon.

     For the _face_, a bust likeness is needed, to give, with the name
     and the rank of the donee, _individuality_. To obtain the
     likeness, a first-rate miniature painter should, of course, be
     employed.

     The _reverse_ receives the device, appropriate to the events
     commemorated. To obtain this, it is suggested that the
     resolutions and despatches, belonging to the subject, be
     transmitted to a master in the art of design--say Prof. Weir, at
     West Point--for a drawing--including, if practicable, this
     inscription:

                              PALO ALTO;
                         RESACA DE LA PALMA:
                         MAY 8 AND 9, 1846.

     A third artist--all to be well paid--is next to be employed--a
     die-sinker. The mint of the United States will do the coinage.

     Copies, in cheaper metal, of all our gold medals, should be given
     to the libraries of the Federal and State Governments, to those
     of the colleges, etc.

     The medals voted by the Revolutionary Congress were
     executed--designs and dies--under the superintendence of Mr.
     Jefferson,[12] in Paris, about the year 1786. Those struck in
     honour of victories, in our War of 1812, were all--at least so
     far as it respected the land service--done at home, and not one
     of them presented, I think, earlier than the end of Mr. Monroe's
     administration (1825). The delay principally resulted from the
     want of good die-sinkers. There was only one of mediocre merit
     (and he a foreigner) found for the army. What the state of this
     art may now be in the United States I know not. But I beg leave
     again to suggest that the honour of the country requires that
     medals, voted by Congress, should always exhibit the arts
     involved, in their highest state of perfection _wherever_ found:
     for letters, science, and the fine arts constitute but _one_
     republic, embracing the world. So thought our early Government,
     and Mr. Jefferson--a distinguished member of that general
     republic.

     All which is respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War.

                   [Footnote 12: This is an error. See page xi.]

Whatever may be the weight of General Scott's opinion on such a   (p. xxvi)
subject, and whether or not it is important, as he insists, that
medals should possess high artistic value, in order that they may be
not only the rewards of merit and monuments of history, but also
favorable specimens of contemporary art, it must be acknowledged that
those struck since 1840 differ widely, in many respects, from those of
the preceding period. While the earlier works are of a pure and lofty
style, the later ones are not always in good taste. The former are
conceived generally in strict observance of classical rules, and will
bear comparison with the numismatic masterpieces of antiquity; the
latter reflect the realistic tendency of their day.

The Indian medals, with the exception of that of President Jefferson
and a few others, which are very fine, possess only an historic value.
These pieces owe their origin to the custom, in the colonial times, of
distributing to the chiefs of Indian tribes, with whom treaties were
concluded, medals bearing on the obverse the effigy of the reigning
British sovereign, and on the reverse friendly legends and emblems of
peace. Mr. Kean, member of the Continental Congress from South
Carolina, on April 20, 1786, moved: "That the Board of Treasury
ascertain the number and value of the medals received by the
commissioners appointed to treat with the Indians, from said Indians,
and have an equal number, with the arms of the United States, made of
silver, and returned to the chiefs from whom they were received." The
result was the Indian series, which bear on their obverses the busts
of the respective Presidents under whom they were issued (none   (p. xxvii)
exists of President Harrison, who died a month after his inauguration);
but it should be borne in mind that these are mere Indian peace
tokens, struck only for distribution as presents to friendly chiefs.

I have called in question the discernment of some of the Federal
administrations in their choice of engravers; unfortunately, I have
also to draw attention to an unaccountable delay in the execution of
one of the medals. It seems scarcely credible that the one voted in
1857 to Dr. Elisha Kent Kane for his discoveries in the Arctic Seas
has not yet been struck. Elder, in his "Life of E. K. Kane" (page
228), says:

     "Congress having failed at its first session after his (Kane's)
     return to appropriate, by a national recognition, the honors he
     had won for his country, had no other opportunity for repairing
     the neglect till after his death; then a gold medal was ordered,
     of which, I believe, nothing has been heard since the passage of
     the resolution."

To complete my undertaking, it was necessary not only to study the
composition and history of all our national medals, but also to have
plates of them engraved, which could only be done from the originals
or copies, or, as a last resort, from casts.

My first step was to apply to the Mint in Philadelphia for bronze
copies of all the medals. In 1855 the director of that establishment
had been authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury, to strike from
the original dies, copies of the medals for sale, as is the custom at
the Paris Mint. But when he sought to avail himself of this
authorization, it was discovered that many of the dies were missing.
It was thought probable that those of the medals which had been (p. xxviii)
struck in France during the War of Independence would be found there,
and the French Government was communicated with, in 1861, in regard to
the following: "Washington before Boston; General Wayne, for capture
of Stony Point; Colonel Fleury, for same; Captain Stewart, for same;
Major Lee, for capture of Paulus Hook; Colonel John Eager Howard, for
Cowpens; Colonel William Washington, for same; Major-General Greene,
for Eutaw Springs; Captain John Paul Jones, for capture of the Serapis
by the Bonhomme Richard."[13]

                   [Footnote 13: See H, page xlvii.]

But the Paris Mint possessed only the dies of the two Washington, of
the Howard, and of the John Paul Jones medals; moreover, the rules of
that establishment did not permit them to be given up. Bronze copies
of the four were obtained, however, and from them Messrs. George
Eckfeldt and R. Jefferson of the Philadelphia Mint cut new dies.

In Washington, in January, 1872, I was informed by Mr. Spofford, of
the Library of Congress, that after the fire which destroyed a portion
of that library, December 24, 1851, the bronze copies of the medals
formerly deposited there had been transferred to the Smithsonian
Institution. At the latter place I was shown the remains of the
collection, all more or less injured by fire. Moreover, the five
wanted were not to be found; and further investigations made in
December, 1877, in the Philadelphia Mint, showed that four of the
dies, namely, those of Generals Greene and Wayne, and of
Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury and Major Stewart, are still missing from
that establishment.

During the year 1872, I obtained permission from the Honorable
Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, to examine in the archives of  (p. xxix)
his department the official papers relating to the medals of the War
of Independence, and was fortunate enough to find the correspondence
concerning the Diplomatic medal between Jefferson, William Short, the
Marquis de la Luzerne, and the Count de Moustier. Afterward, in the
reports of the Massachusetts Historical Society (vol. vi., 3d series),
I found a description which seemed to apply to this same medal. I then
went to Philadelphia to see the writer of the description, Joshua
Francis Fisher, Esq., but he was on his death-bed, and it was
impossible to prosecute the inquiry. After his decease, I was informed
that no medal of the kind described was contained in his collection.

In 1790, President Washington ordered two Diplomatic medals to be
struck and presented, one to the Marquis de la Luzerne, French
Minister to the United States, and the other to his successor, the
Count de Moustier. In Paris, in 1874, I made application to the
present heads of those families, the Count de Vibray[14] and the
Marquis de Moustier,[15] for information concerning these medals; but
no trace of the object of my search could be found among their family
papers.

                   [Footnote 14: The Count de Vibray is the
                   representative in the female line of the de la
                   Luzerne family, which is extinct in the male line.]

                   [Footnote 15: The Marquis de Moustier is the
                   great-grandson of the Count de Moustier.]

About this time, Mr. Charles I. Bushnell, of New York city, kindly
sent me plaster casts of an obverse and of a reverse, in which I at
once recognized the Diplomatic medal, but neither bore the signature
of Dupré. Nevertheless, I had a plate engraved from them, hoping by
its aid to find the original.

I then turned once more to M. Gatteaux, the son of M. Nicolas      (p. xxx)
Marie Gatteaux, who had shown me, in 1868, in his house in the Rue de
Lille, Paris, the wax model of the obverse of the medal of General
Gates, and the designs for those of General Wayne and Major Stewart,
but, the house having been burnt during the reign of the Commune in
1871, he could furnish no information, and I was as far as ever from
discovering the original of this piece.

In 1876 I showed to M. Augustin Dumont, the celebrated sculptor,[16]
and the godson of Augustin Dupré, the plate engraved from the plaster
casts, and from him I learned that M. Narcisse Dupré, the son of
Augustin, was still living in the south of France, at Montpellier. M.
Dumont had given to M. Ponscarme, his pupil, now professor in the
École des Beaux-Arts, the _maquettes_, or lead proofs, of many of
Dupré's works. A few days later, M. Ponscarme showed me a _maquette_
of the obverse of the Diplomatic medal, and at last M. Narcisse Dupré
sent me a photograph of the reverse. I thus obtained proof of the
correctness of the engraved plate.

                   [Footnote 16: Among his most noted works is the
                   bronze statue of the Emperor Napoleon I., placed by
                   Napoleon III. on the column in the Place Vendôme,
                   Paris, which was overthrown by the Communists. The
                   statue has since been replaced on the reconstructed
                   column. M. Dumont, who is a professor in the École
                   des Beaux-Arts, is a member of the Institute,
                   Commander of the Legion of Honor, etc.]

While in Washington, in February, 1872, I was fortunate enough to
find, in the office of Rear-Admiral Joseph Smith, then chief of the
Bureau of Yards and Docks, in the Navy Department, where they were
used as paperweights, the original dies of the medal voted to
Commodore Edward Preble for his naval operations against Tripoli. I
immediately brought this to the notice of the chief clerks of     (p. xxxi)
the Navy and of the Treasury Departments, and also to that of Captain
(now Rear-Admiral) George H. Preble, a connection of the commodore's,
and these dies are now where they belong, in the Mint in Philadelphia.
Shortly afterward I was also instrumental in having restored to the
mint the dies of the Vanderbilt medal, which were lying in the cellar
of one of the New York city banks.

I have found it impossible to obtain any trustworthy information
respecting the designer and the engraver of the medal, voted on March
29, 1800, in honor of Captain Thomas Truxtun. As there were no
competent medallists in the United States at the period, and as we
were then at war with France, it is presumable that the dies were made
in England. If so, they were probably cut at the private mint of
Matthew Boulton, of Birmingham, who furnished the United States
Government for a long time with planchets for its copper coinage.

The work now offered to the public consists of two volumes: Volume I.,
Text; Volume II., Plates.

The text is subdivided into eighty-six sections, corresponding to the
number of the medals, in each of which is included, besides the
descriptive matter, all the documents that could be obtained relating
to the respective piece, and arranged according to the following plan:

1. The number of the medal, its date, and its number in the book of
plates. The medals are arranged chronologically: those voted by
Congress according to the dates of the several resolutions or acts
awarding them, and not in the order of the events which they
commemorate; the unofficial ones in the order of events which they
commemorate; and the presidential pieces according to the date   (p. xxxii)
of inauguration of each President.

2. The descriptive titles of each medal, in the following order: 1st,
the legends of the obverse and of the reverse; 2d, the name of the
person honored, or of the title by which the piece is known; 3d, the
event commemorated.

3. A description of the medal, beginning with the obverse: 1st, the
whole legend; 2d, the description of the emblems and devices; 3d, the
legend of the exergue; 4th, the names of the designer and of the
engraver. The same order has been followed for the reverse. The
legends are copied exactly from the medals, and when in Latin,
translated; the abbreviations are explained, and are, like the
translations, placed between parentheses. The words, "facing the
right" and "facing the left" mean the right or the left of the person
looking at the piece.

4. A short biographical sketch of the designers and of the engravers.

5. A short biographical sketch of the person in whose honor the medal
was struck, or of the President of the United States, in case of the
Indian peace tokens.

6. Original documents, such as Resolutions or Acts of Congress, the
official reports of the events commemorated, and letters of interest.

The original documents have been given in the belief that the reader
would prefer them to a mere recital of the events of which they treat.
Many of these are now printed for the first time.

It is interesting to note that Mr. Jefferson, as early as 1789,
entertained the idea of publishing an account of all the        (p. xxxiii)
American medals struck up to that time, as will be seen from the
following letter;

     To
       M. DUPRÉ,
          Engraver of Medals, Paris.

     Mr. Jefferson is going to have a description of all the medals
     printed, in order to send them, with copies of the medals, to the
     sovereigns of Europe. The one of Mr. Franklin, made by M. Dupré,
     is wanting; he begs you to lend him a copy, and to communicate to
     him the description also, if any has been made, as is probable.

     February 23, 1789[17].

                   [Footnote 17: The original of this letter, which is
                   in French, and which was communicated to me in
                   Paris by M. Narcisse Dupré, is undoubtedly in the
                   handwriting of Mr. Jefferson. I have sought in vain
                   for the document mentioned in it. See I, page 1.]

No mention is made of the size of the medals, as the plates show their
exact dimensions.

Being desirous that the execution of the engravings should be as
perfect as possible, I invited M. Jules Jacquemart, of Paris, to
undertake the whole of them. M. Jacquemart needs no praise. All
amateurs know his etchings from Van der Meer, Franz Hals, Rembrandt,
etc., and his plates for the "History of Porcelain," by M. Albert
Jacquemart, his father, for the "Gems and Jewels of the Crown,"
published by M. Barbet de Jouy, and for the "Collection of Arms" of
Count de Nieuwerkerke. The American public has had, moreover, an
opportunity of admiring the works of this eminent artist at the
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York city. His collaboration adds
great value to the artistic portion of this work.



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS                                               (p. xxxiv)

REFERRED TO IN THE INTRODUCTION.

A


                                        Mount Vernon, November, 1787.
     To
       THE PRINTER OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM (Mr. CAREY.)

     Sir: I understand that a part, if not all, of the medals which,
     in the course of the late war, were voted by Congress to officers
     of distinguished merit, and for the execution of which I
     contracted with artists at Paris, have lately arrived in America.
     But, not having seen any account published of the devices and
     inscriptions, I presume it will not be ungrateful to the public
     to receive some authentic information respecting these memorials
     of national glory. However superfluous the publication of the
     correspondence[18] on this subject with the Perpetual Secretary
     of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres might be
     deemed, it will not, I conceive, be improper it should be known
     that this learned society, to whom a reference was made, entered
     on the discussion with the same alacrity as if the subject had
     been designed to illustrate the actions of their compatriots, or
     to immortalize some glorious events in the annals of their own
     nation. You will be at liberty to insert in your _Museum_ the
     result of their deliberations.

     In our free republics certainly nothing should be suppressed that
     can tend to awaken a noble spirit of emulation, to cherish the
     fine feelings of patriotism, to exhibit alluring examples for
     imitation, or to extend and perpetuate the remembrance of those
     heroic achievements which have ennobled the era of the American
     Revolution. Few inventions could be more happily calculated to
     diffuse the knowledge and preserve the memory of illustrious
     characters and splendid events than medals--whether we take into
     consideration the imperishable nature of the substance whence
     they are formed, the facility of multiplying copies, or the
     practice of depositing them in the cabinets of the curious.
     Perhaps one improvement might be made. The sage and venerable Dr.
     Franklin, whose patriotic genius is active in old age, and ever
     prolific in projects of public utility, once suggested,[19] in
     conversation with me, as an expedient for propagating still more
     extensively the knowledge of facts designed to be perpetuated in
     medals, that their devices should be impressed on the current
     coin of the nation.

     Under influence of such ideas, I shall claim the indulgence  (p. xxxv)
     of my countrymen for bringing forward a communication which might
     possibly have come more satisfactorily from some other quarter.
     An apprehension that the subject might remain unnoticed is my
     apology.

     I am, Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant,
                                             David HUMPHREYS.

                   [Footnote 18: I have found none of this
                   correspondence in the archives of the French
                   Academy, Paris, nor in those of the State
                   Department, Washington, excepting the letter of
                   Colonel Humphreys to M. Dacier, dated Paris, March
                   14, 1785, for which see page xiii.]

                   [Footnote 19: See Franklin's despatch to the
                   Honorable John Jay, dated Passy, May 10, 1785, page
                   xiv.]


     _Devices and Inscriptions of American Medals._

     The gold medal for General Washington represents the head of His
     Excellency, with this legend: GEORGIO WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI
     EXERCITUUM, ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS, COMITIA AMERICANA. On the
     reverse: The Evacuation of Boston. The American army advances in
     good order toward the town, which is seen at a distance, while
     the British army flies with precipitation toward the strand, to
     embark on board the vessels with which the roads are covered. In
     the front of the picture, on the side of the American army,
     General Washington appears on horseback, amid a group of
     officers, to whom he seems to be pointing out the retreat of the
     enemy.

     Legend: HOSTIBUS PRIMO FUGATIS.

     On the Exergue: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM, DIE 17 MARTII, MDCCLXXVI.

     The gold medal for General Gates represents the head of that
     general, with this legend: HORATIO GATES, DUCI STRENUO, COMITIA
     AMERICANA.

     On the reverse: The enemy's general, at the head of his army, who
     are grounding their arms, presents his sword to the American
     general, whose troops stand with shouldered arms.

     Legend: SALUS REGIONUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM.

     On the Exergue: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITIONEM ACCEPTO, DIE 17
     OCTOBRIS, MDCCLXXVII.

     The gold medal of General Greene represents the head of that
     general, with this legend: NATHANIELI GREEN, EGREGIO DUCI,
     COMITIA AMERICANA.

     On the reverse: A Victory treading under feet broken arms.

     Legend: SALUS REGIONUM AUSTRALIUM.

     On the Exergue: HOSTIBUS APUD EUTAW DEBELLATIS, DIE 8 SEPTEMBRIS,
     MDCCLXXXI.

     The medal in gold for General Morgan, and those in silver for
     Colonels Howard and Washington, were to be indicative of the
     several circumstances which attended the victory at the Cowpens
     on the 17th of January, 1781, in conformity to a special
     resolution of Congress.

     It may not be foreign to the purpose to add that dies have
     formerly been engraved under the direction of Dr. Franklin,[20]
     for striking the gold medal for General Wayne, and the silver
     medals for Colonels de Fleury and Stewart, emblematic of their
     gallant conduct in storming the works of Stony Point, sword in
     hand.

                   [Footnote 20: This is an error. The medals for
                   General Wayne and Major Stewart were composed, at
                   the request of Mr. Jefferson, by the French Royal
                   Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, in
                   1789. See D, page xli.]

     These are all the medals voted by Congress in the course of the
     war.[21]

                   [Footnote 21: This is incorrect, as Congress voted
                   medals to Major Lee, September 24, 1779, and to
                   John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart,
                   November 3, 1780.]

       *       *       *       *       *

B                                                                (p. xxxvi)


_Registre des Assemblées et Délibérations de l'Académie Royale des
Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres pendant l'année 1785._


                                        Vendredi 8 avril 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur le secrétaire a fait part d'une lettre de Monsieur
     Humphreys, ancien colonel au service des États-Unis, par laquelle
     il demande trois médailles pour Messieurs Washington, le général
     Gates et le général Green. Il envoie en même temps des
     renseignements sur les actions de ces trois personnes.

     L'académie a remis à huitaine pour s'occuper de ces trois
     médailles.


                                        Mardi 19 avril 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Après ces différents arrangements, on s'est occupé des médailles
     demandées par le Congrès d'Amérique, et l'on a invité messieurs
     les académiciens à apporter des projets pour ces médailles, à la
     première séance, dans laquelle on est convenu de nommer des
     commissaires pour rédiger ces médailles.


                                        Vendredi 22 avril 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur Dacier a fait ensuite la lecture des projets des trois
     médailles pour les trois officiers généraux américains; après les
     avoir bien discutés, on a nommé, pour les terminer, Messieurs
     Barthélémy, Dupuy, Brotier et Le Blond.


                                        Mardi 26 avril 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur Dacier, le secrétaire perpétuel, lut ensuite les sujets
     de médailles demandées par le Congrès pour trois officiers
     généraux.


     _Pour Monsieur Washington._

     D'un côté sa tête.

     _Légende_: GEORGIO WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI EXERCITUUM ADSERTORI
     LIBERTATIS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: La prise de Boston, l'armée anglaise fuyant vers le
     rivage pour s'embarquer, etc.

     _Légende_: HOSTIBUS OU ANGLIS PRIMUM FUGATIS.

     _Exergue_: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM DIE 17 MARTII ANNO 1776.


     _Pour Monsieur Gates._

     D'un côté sa tête.

     _Légende_: HORATIO GATES DUCI PROVIDO COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: Le général ennemi, à la tête de son armée, présente son
     épée au général Gates, à la tête de l'armée américaine.

     _Légende_: SALUS PROVINCIARUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM.            (p. xxxvii)

     _Exergue_: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITIONEM ACCEPTO DIE 17
     8{bris} 1777.


     _Pour Monsieur Green._

     D'un côté sa tête.

     _Légende_: NATHANIELI GREEN EGREGIO DUCI COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: La Victoire foulant aux pieds des armes brisées.

     _Légende_: SALUS PROVINCIARUM AUSTRALIUM.

     _Exergue_: HOSTIBUS AD EUTAW DEBELLATIS DIE ... 1781.


                                        Vendredi 13 mai 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     D'après des observations des commissaires, on a cru devoir
     changer, dans les deux médailles du général Gates et du général
     Green, le mot _Provinciarum_ en celui de _Regionum_. Et dans les
     médailles de Gates, du côté de la tête, au lieu de _Duci provido_
     on a mis _Duci strenuo_.


                                        Vendredi 25 novembre 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur le secrétaire a fait encore la lecture d'une lettre du
     colonel Humphreys, secrétaire d'ambassade de l'Amérique, par
     laquelle il prie l'académie, au nom du Congrès, de faire trois
     médailles votées par le même Congrès; l'une pour le général
     Morgan, la seconde pour le colonel Washington, la troisième pour
     le colonel Howard.

     La délibération a été remise à huitaine selon l'usage.


                                        Mardi 6 décembre 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     On a nommé, pour rédiger les sujets de médailles demandées par le
     Congrès des États-Unis de l'Amérique, Messieurs Barthélémy, Des
     Brequigny, Le Blond, Brotier.


                                        Mardi 13 décembre 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur le secrétaire a lu les trois projets de médailles
     arrêtés par les commissaires pour les médailles du général Morgan
     et des colonels Washington et Howard, les voici:


     _Pour le général Morgan._

     _Type_: Le général à la tête de ses troupes, charge l'armée
     ennemie qui prend la fuite.

     _Légende_: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

     _Exergue_: CÆSIS AUT CAPTIS AD COWPENS HOSTIUM ... SIGNIS RELATIS
     ... 17 JAN. 1781.

     _Revers_: L'Amérique, reconnaissable à son écusson, appuie sa
     main gauche sur un trophée d'armes et de drapeaux, et de la
     droite couronne le général incliné devant elle.

     _Légende_:[22] N. MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

                   [Footnote 22: Abbreviation of NOMEN, name, or of
                   NESCIO, I know not.]

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA ANNO ...


     _Pour le colonel Washington._                             (p. xxxviii)

     _Type_: Le colonel, à la tête d'un petit nombre de soldats, fond
     sur l'ennemi, qui commence à prendre la fuite, et que lui montre
     la Victoire, placée au-dessus de sa tête.

     _Légende_: N. WASHINGTON LEGIONIS N. PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA, etc.

     _Revers_: L'inscription suivante doit être gravée dans une
     couronne de lauriers:

                              QUOD
                       PARVA MILITUM MANU
                   STRENUE PROSECUTUS HOSTES
                       VIRTUTIS INGENITÆ
                    PRÆCLARUM SPECIMEN DEDIT
                     IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS
                         17 JAN. 1781.


     _Pour le colonel Howard._

     Même type, même légende au nom près.

     Même exergue qu'à la précédente.

     Au _Revers_: Dans une couronne de lauriers:

                              QUOD
                    IN NUTANTEM HOSTIUM ACIEM
                         SUBITO IRRUENS
                    PRÆCLARUM BELLICÆ VIRTUTIS
                         SPECIMEN DEDIT
                     IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS
                         17 JAN. 1781.

[Translation.]

_Register of the Meetings and Deliberations of the Royal Academy of
Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres during the year 1785._


                                        Friday, April 8, 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     The secretary communicated a letter from Mr. Humphreys, formerly
     a colonel in the service of the United States, in which he asks
     for three medals for Messrs. Washington, General Gates and
     General Green. He sends at the same time information concerning
     the deeds of these three persons.

     The academy postponed for a week the consideration of these three
     medals.


                                        Tuesday, April 19, 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -
     After these different arrangements, the medals asked by the
     Congress of America considered, and the gentlemen academicians
     were invited to bring suggestions for these medals at the   (p. xxxix)
     following meeting, at which it was agreed that commissioners
     should be named to compose these medals.


                                        Friday, April 22, 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     M. Dacier then read the proposals for the three medals for the
     three American general officers; after they had been thoroughly
     discussed, Messrs. Barthélémy, Dupuy, Brotier, and Le Blond, were
     appointed to report on them.


                                        Tuesday, April 26, 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     M. Dacier, the perpetual secretary, then read the subjects of the
     medals asked for by Congress for the three general officers.


     _For Mr. Washington._

     On one side, his head.

     _Legend_: GEORGIO WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI EXERCITUUM ADSERTORI
     LIBERTATIS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: The taking of Boston, the English army fleeing toward
     the shore to embark, etc.

     _Legend_: HOSTIBUS or ANGLIS PRIMUM FUGATIS.

     _Exergue_: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM DIE 17 MARTII ANNO 1776.


     _For Mr. Gates._

     On one side, his head.

     _Legend_: HORATIO GATES DUCI PROVIDO COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: The enemy's general at the head of his army,
     surrenders his sword to General Gates, at the head of the
     American army.

     _Legend_: SALUS PROVINCIARUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM.

     _Exergue_: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITIONEM ACCEPTO DIE 17
     8{bris} 1777.


     _For Mr. Green._

     On one side, his head.

     _Legend_: NATHANIELI GREEN EGREGIO DUCI COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: Victory treading under her feet broken arms.

     _Legend_: SALUS PROVINCIARUM AUSTRALIUM.

     _Exergue_: HOSTIBUS AD EUTAW DEBELLATIS DIE ... 1781.


                                        Friday, May 13, 1783.

       -       -       -       -       -

     After observations by the commissioners, it was thought proper to
     change, in the two medals of General Gates and of General Green,
     the word _Provinciarum_ to that of _Regionum_. And in the medal
     of Gates, on the side of the head, instead of _Duci provido_ to
     substitute _Duci strenuo_.


                                        Friday, November 25, 1785.  (p. xl)

       -       -       -       -       -

     The secretary also read a letter of Colonel Humphreys, Secretary
     of Embassy of America, in which he requested the academy, in the
     name of Congress, to compose three medals voted by the same
     Congress: one for General Morgan, the second for Colonel
     Washington, the third for Colonel Howard.

     The discussion was laid over, according to custom, until next
     week.


                                        Tuesday, December 6, 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Messrs. Barthélémy, Des Brequigny, Le Blond, and Brotier, were
     named to compose the medals asked for by the Congress of the
     United States of America.


                                        Tuesday, December 13, 1785.

       -       -       -       -       -

     The secretary read the three reports agreed upon by the
     commissioners for the medals for General Morgan and Colonels
     Washington and Howard, as follows:


     _For General Morgan._

     _Device_: The general, at the head of his troops, charges the
     army of the enemy, which takes to flight.

     _Legend_: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

     _Exergue_: CÆSIS AUT CAPTIS AD COWPENS HOSTIUM ... SIGNIS RELATIS
     ... 17 JAN. 1781.

     _Reverse_: America, recognizable by her shield, rests her left
     hand upon a trophy of arms and of flags, and with her right
     crowns the general, who bends before her.

     _Legend_: N. MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA ANNO ...


     _For Colonel Washington._

     _Device_: The colonel, at the head of a few soldiers, rushes on
     the enemy, who begin to fly, and whom Victory, hovering over his
     head, points out to him.

     _Legend_: N. WASHINGTON LEGIONIS N. PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA, etc.

     _Reverse_: The following inscription to be engraved in a crown of
     laurel:

                              QUOD
                       PARVA MILITUM MANU
                   STRENUE PROSECUTUS HOSTES
                       VIRTUTIS INGENITÆ
                    PRÆCLARUM SPECIMEN DEDIT
                      IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS
                         17 JAN. 1781.


     _For Colonel Howard._                                         (p. xli)

     Same device, same legend, excepting the name.

     Same exergue as the preceding.

     _Reverse_: Within a crown of laurel:

                              QUOD
                    IN NUTANTEM HOSTIUM ACIEM
                         SUBITO IRRUENS
                    PRÆCLARUM BELLICÆ VIRTUTIS
                         SPECIMEN DEDIT
                      IN PUGNA APUD COWPENS
                          17 JAN. 1781

       *       *       *       *       *

C


     Je soussigné Augustin Dupré, graveur en médaille[23] et
     médailliste de l'Académie Royal de Peinture et Sculpture.

     M'engage envers Monsieur le colonel Humphreys à graver la
     médaille représentant le portrait du général Green. Au revers la
     Victoire foulant aux pieds des armes brisées avecque la légende
     et l'exergue, et répond de la fracture des coins jusqu'à la
     concurrence de vingt quatre médailles, dont j'en fourniray une en
     or à mes frais et dépend (le diamètre de la médaille sera de la
     grandeur de vingt-quatre lignes).

     Le tout aux conditions suivantes, que les deux coins gravés de
     ladite médaille me seront payée la somme de deux mille quatre
     cens livres en remettant les deux coins après avoir frappés les
     vingt quatre médailles que désire Monsieur le colonel.

     Fait le double entre nous, ce dix-neuf novembre mille sept cens
     quatre vingt cinq (1785) à Paris.

                                             D. HUMPHREYS.
                                             DUPRÉ.

                   [Footnote 23: The reader will detect many errors in
                   this and the following French letters. The
                   originals are copied exactly in each case.]

       *       *       *       *       *

D


_Registre des Assemblées et Délibérations de l'Académie Royale des
Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres pendant l'année 1789._


                                        Mardi 13 janvier 1789.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur Dacier annonça ensuite que Monsieur Jefferson, ministre
     des États-Unis d'Amérique, priait l'Académie de vouloir bien (p. xlii)
     s'occuper de sujets pour les trois médailles que le Congrès a
     résolu de frapper en l'honneur du général Wayne, du major Stewart
     et du commodore Paul Jones. Sur cette demande, la Compagnie a
     décidé que les commissaires nommés dans la séance précédente
     seraient chargés de rédiger le projet de ces médailles.


                                        Mardi 10 février 1789.

       -       -       -       -       -

     Monsieur Dacier a mis, au commencement de la séance, sous les
     yeux de l'Académie, le travail de Messieurs les commissaires
     relativement aux médailles qu'ils étaient chargés de rédiger.

     Sur la demande de Monsieur Jefferson, ministre des États-Unis de
     l'Amérique, on a corrigé ainsi l'exergue de la médaille
     anciennement composée pour le général Morgan:

     FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CÆSIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS, 17 JAN. 1781.


     _Médaille pour le général Wayne._

     _Type_: L'Amérique, reconnaissable à son écusson, tient de la
     main gauche, élevée, une couronne murale, et donne, de la droite,
     une couronne de lauriers au général incliné devant elle.

     _Légende_: N. WAYNE DUCI EXERCITUS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: Le Rocher et le Fort de Stony Point.

     _Légende_: STONY POINT EXPUGNATUM.

     _Exergue_: 15 JUL. 1779.


     _Pour le major Stewart._

     _Type_: L'Amérique, debout, comme ci-dessus, donne une palme au
     major, incliné devant elle.

     _Légende_: N. STEWART COHORTIS PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: Le major monte à l'assaut au travers d'un abatis
     d'arbres qu'il a fait rompre par sa troupe.

     _Légende_: STONY POINT OPPUGNATUM.

     _Exergue_: 15 JUL. 1779.


     _Pour le commodore Paul Jones._

     _Type_: La tête du commodore.

     _Légende_: PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: Combat de vaisseaux.

     _Légende_: PRIMUS AMERICANORUM TRIUMPHUS NAVALIS.

     _Exergue_: AD ORAM SCOTIÆ 23 SEPT. ANNO ...

     _Autre légende_: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.

     _Exergue_: Comme de l'autre part.

[Translation.]                                                   (p. xliii)

_Register of the Meetings and Deliberations of the Royal Academy of
Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres during the year 1789._

                                        Tuesday, January 13, 1789.

       -       -       -       -       -

     M. Dacier then announced that Mr. Jefferson, Minister of the
     United States of America, begged the academy kindly to occupy
     itself with the subjects of the three medals which Congress has
     resolved to strike in honor of General Wayne, Major Stewart, and
     Commodore Paul Jones. According to this request, the company have
     decided that the commissioners[24] named in the preceding sitting
     shall be charged with the composition of these medals.

                   [Footnote 24: These were Messrs. l'abbé Barthélémy,
                   l'abbé Garnier, l'abbé Le Blond, l'abbé Brotier, de
                   Vauvillier, Dupuis, and D. Poirier.]


                                        Tuesday, February 10, 1789.

       -       -       -       -       -

     M. Dacier submitted to the academy at the opening of the sitting,
     the report of the commissioners in reference to the medals, with
     the composition of which they had been intrusted.

     At the suggestion of Mr. Jefferson, Minister of the United States
     of America, the exergue of the medal formerly composed for
     General Morgan was altered as follows:

     FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CÆSIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS 17 JAN. 1781.


     _Medal for General Wayne._

     _Device_: America, recognizable by her shield, holds in her left
     hand, which is elevated, a mural crown, and presents with her
     right a crown of laurels to the general, who bends before her.

     _Legend_: N. WAYNE DUCI EXERCITUS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: The Rock and the Fort of Stony Point.

     _Legend_: STONY POINT EXPUGNATUM.

     _Exergue_: 15 JUL. 1779.


     _For Major Stewart._

     _Device_: America, standing as above, presents a palm to the
     major, who bends before her.

     _Legend_: N. STEWART COHORTIS PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: The major mounts to the assault through an abatis of
     trees, which his men have broken through.

     _Legend_: STONY POINT OPPUGNATUM.

     _Exergue_: 15 JUL. 1779.


     _For Commodore Paul Jones._                                  (p. xliv)

     _Device_: The head of the commodore.

     _Legend_: PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Reverse_: A naval engagement.

     _Legend_: PRIMUS AMERICANORUM TRIUMPHUS NAVALIS.

     _Exergue_: AD ORAM SCOTIÆ 23 SEPT. ANNO ...

     _Another legend_: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.[25]

                   [Footnote 25: The accepted legend.]

     _Exergue_: Same as above.

       *       *       *       *       *

E


     A Monsieur
       Monsieur DUPRÉ,
          Graveur en médaille et médailliste de l'Académie
                Royale de Peinture et Sculpture.

     Monsieur Jefferson ayant reçu des ordres au sujet des médailles à
     faire seroit bien aise d'en traiter avec Monsieur Dupré, s'il
     voudrait bien lui faire l'honneur de passer chez lui demain matin
     avant les onze heures.

     Samedi 3me janvier 1789.


     Monsieur Jefferson a l'honneur d'envoyer à Monsieur Dupré les
     devises des médailles pour le général Morgan et le contre-amiral
     Paul Jones qu'il vient de recevoir de l'Académie des
     Belles-Lettres, et dont il propose à Monsieur Dupré l'entreprise,
     en répondant du succès des coins jusqu'à frapper trois cents
     cinquante de chaque médaille en or, argent ou bronze, et d'en
     fournir les épreuves en étain au fin du mois de mars prochain, à
     fin que les médailles peuvent être frappées toutes avant le 15me
     avril. Il le prie d'avoir la bonté de lui indiquer les conditions
     auxquelles il les entreprendra, et Monsieur Jefferson aura
     l'honneur d'y répondre au moment qu'il les recevra.

     Ce 13me février 1789.


     _Médaille pour le général Morgan, de 24 lignes de diamètre._

     Le général à la tête de son armée charge l'ennemi, qui prend la
     fuite.

     _Légende_: VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX.

     _Exergue_: FUGATIS CAPTIS AUT CÆSIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBUS 17 JAN.
     1781.

     _Revers_: L'Amérique reconnaissable à son écusson appuie sa main
     gauche sur une trophée d'armes et de drapeaux, et de la droite,
     couronne le général incliné devant elle.

     _Légende_: DANIELI MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.


     _Médaille pour le contre-amiral John Paul Jones, de 24        (p. xlv)
     lignes._

     _Type_: Sa tête (M. Houdon fournira le buste en plâtre).

     _Légende_: JOANNI PAULO JONES CLASSIS PRÆFECTO.

     _Exergue_: COMITIA AMERICANA.

     _Revers_: Combat de vaisseaux.

     _Légende_: HOSTIUM NAVIBUS CAPTIS AUT FUGATIS.

     _Exergue_: AD ORAM SCOTIÆ 23 SEPT. 1779.

       *       *       *       *       *

F


     A Monsieur
       Monsieur DUPRÉ,
          Graveur en médailles, à Paris.

     Monsieur Jefferson a l'honneur d'observer à Monsieur Dupré qu'il
     ne donne pas pour les médailles de 24 lignes ni à Monsieur
     Duvivier ni à Monsieur Gatteaux que 2,400 livres, que c'est là ce
     qu'il a payé à Monsieur Dupré aussi pour celle du général Greene,
     et que Monsieur Dupré n'a demandé que ça dernièrement pour celle
     du général Morgan. Monsieur Jefferson ne peut pas consentir donc
     de donner plus. À ce prix, il attendroit ce que Monsieur Dupré
     pourrait faire de mieux, de soi-même, et non pas par des artistes
     subalternes. Pour ce qui regarde le temps, peut être qu'il seroit
     possible de le prolonger un peu pour la médaille de l'amiral Paul
     Jones, cet officier étant actuellement en Europe. Monsieur
     Jefferson aura l'honneur d'attendre la réponse de Monsieur Dupré
     et sera charmé de pouvoir conclure cet arrangement avec lui.

     Ce 15me février 1789.

       *       *       *       *       *

G


     EXPLICATION des Peintures, Sculptures et Gravures de Messieurs de
     l'Académie Royale, dont l'Exposition a été ordonnée, suivant
     l'intention de Sa Majesté, par M. le Comte de la Billarderie
     d'Angeviller, Conseiller du Roi en ses conseils, Mestre-de-Camp
     de Cavalerie, Chevalier de l'ordre Royal et Militaire de
     Saint-Louis, Commandeur de l'ordre de Saint-Lazare, Intendant du
     Jardin du Roi, Directeur et Ordonnateur Général des Bâtiments de
     Sa Majesté, Jardins, Arts, Académies & Manufactures Royales; de
     l'Académie Royale des Sciences.

                    À Paris, rue Saint-Jacques,

     De l'Imprimerie de la veuve Hérissant, Imprimeur du Roi, des
     Cabinet, Maison et Bâtiments de Sa Majesté; de l'Académie Royale
     de Peinture, etc.
                            M.DCC.LXXXI.

     Avec privilège du Roi.


     _Gravures._                                                  (p. xlvi)

     Par M. DUVIVIER, académicien, graveur général des Monnoies de
     France & des Médailles du Roi.

     294.--Sous un même cadre et sous un même numéro.
     1. *** ...
     2. *** ...
     3. *** ...
     4. Médaille ordonnée par les États-Unis de l'Amérique, à l'honneur
        de M. le Chevalier de Fleury, pour s'être distingué à la prise
        de Stony Point, en 1779.


     EXPLICATION des Peintures, Sculptures et Gravures de Messieurs de
     l'Académie Royale, dont l'Exposition a été ordonnée, suivant
     l'intention de Sa Majesté, par M. le Comte de la Billarderie
     d'Angeviller, Conseiller du Roi en ses conseils, Mestre-de-Camp
     de Cavalerie, Chevalier de l'ordre Royal et Militaire de
     Saint-Louis, Commandeur de l'ordre de Saint-Lazare, Gouverneur de
     Rambouillet, Directeur et Ordonnateur Général des Bâtiments de Sa
     Majesté, Jardins, Arts, Académies et Manufactures Royales; de
     l'Académie Royale des Sciences.

                             À Paris,

     De l'Imprimerie des Bâtiments du Roi et de l'Académie Royale de
     Peinture.

                           M.DCC.LXXXIX.

     Avec privilège du Roi.


     _Gravures._

     Par M. DUVIVIER, graveur général des Monnoies et des Médailles du
     Roi.

     1. *** ...
     2. *** ...
     3. *** ...
     4. *** ...
     5. Buste du Général Washington, & au revers, Évacuation de Boston,
     1776.
     6 & 7. Médailles pour le Colonel Washington et le Colonel Howard.
        ces trois médailles sont pour les États-Unis de l'Amérique.

[Translation.]

     EXPLANATION of the Paintings, Sculptures, and Engravings of the
     Gentlemen of the Royal Academy, of which the Exhibition has been
     ordered, according to the intention of His Majesty, by the Count
     de la Billarderie d'Angeviller, Councillor of the King in His
     Councils, Master-of-Camp of Cavalry, Knight of the Royal and
     Military Order of St. Louis, Commander of the Order of Saint
     Lazare, Intendant of the Garden of the King, Director and
     Ordonnator-General of His Majesty's Buildings, Gardens, Arts and
     Royal Academies and Manufactures; of the Royal Academy of
     Sciences.

                      Paris, Rue Saint Jacques,

     From the Printing Office of widow Hérissant, Printer to the King,
     to the Cabinet, Household and Buildings of His Majesty; of the
     Royal Academy of Paintings, etc.

                             M.DCC.LXXXI.

     With the privilege of the King.


     _Engravings._                                               (p. xlvii)

     By M. Duvivier, Academician, engraver-general of the Moneys of
     France and of the Medals of the King.

     294--In the same case and under the same number.
     1. *** ...
     2. *** ...
     3. *** ...
     4. Medal ordered by the United States of America in honor of the
        Chevalier de Fleury, for having distinguished himself at the
        taking of Stony Point, in 1779.


     EXPLANATION of the Paintings, Sculptures, and Engravings of the
     Gentlemen of the Royal Academy, of which the Exhibition has been
     ordered, according to the intention of His Majesty, by the Count
     de la Billarderie d'Angeviller, Councillor of the King in His
     Councils, Master-of-Camp of Cavalry, Knight of the Royal and
     Military Order of Saint Louis, Commander of the Order of Saint
     Lazare, Governor of Rambouillet, Director and Ordonnator-General
     of His Majesty's Buildings, Gardens, Arts, and Royal Academies
     and Manufactures; of the Royal Academy of Sciences.

                              PARIS.

     From the Printing Office of the Building of the King and of the
     Royal Academy of Painting.

                             M.DCC.LXXXIX.

     With the privilege of the King.


     _Engravings._

     By M. Duvivier, engraver-general of the Moneys and of the Medals
     of the King.

     1. *** ...
     2. *** ...
     3. *** ...
     4. *** ...
     5. Bust of General Washington, and on the reverse, Evacuation of
        Boston, 1776.
     6 and 7. Medals for Colonel Washington and Colonel Howard.
        These three medals are for the United States of America.

       *       *       *       *       *

H


                                        MINT OF THE UNITED STATES,
     Honorable                       Philadelphia, November 22, 1861.
       William L. DAYTON,
          Minister of the United States at the Court of France.

     Dear Sir: During the Revolutionary War, medals were awarded by
     resolution of the Continental Congress to certain officers who
     commanded the American forces in the principal conflicts with the
     enemy, or participated therein. The dies for these medals were
     prepared in Paris, and the medals produced there. Several of the
     dies in question are understood to be in the possession of the
     Mint of Medals at Paris. As we have recently prepared, for (p. xlviii)
     distribution, bronze medals from the national medal dies in our
     country, it would be very gratifying if the American medal dies,
     at the French Mint, could be procured and the series made complete.
     The medals that were prepared for us in Paris are interesting
     memorials of some of the most remarkable events in our history,
     and the appropriate place for the dies would appear to be in
     the National Mint of the United States.

     May I request the favor of you to ascertain, from the proper
     official source, what medal dies, relating to events connected
     with the history of the United States, are at the mint in Paris,
     and whether the same can be obtained. If not, I should be glad to
     have, say twenty copies in bronze, struck from the dies, provided
     the expense would not be too great.

     Inclosed I send you a list of the medals recently struck in
     bronze from the dies of a public character in our possession. It
     will be seen that it is deficient in medals of the Revolutionary
     era.

     The following American medal dies are believed to be at the French
     Mint of Medals:

          Washington before Boston.
          General Wayne, for capture of Stony Point.
          Colonel Fleury, for same.
          Captain Stewart, for same.
          Major Lee, for capture of Paulus Hook.
          Colonel John Eager Howard, for Cowpens.
          Colonel William Washington, for same.
          Major General Greene, for Eutaw Springs.
          Captain John Paul Jones, for capture of the Serapis by the
                  Bonhomme Richard.

    Your attention to the request contained herein will greatly
    oblige,
                 Your friend and obedient servant,
                                          James POLLOCK,
                                                Director of the Mint.


     To His Excellency,                 Legation of the United States,
        Monsieur THOUVENEL,                  Paris, December 10, 1861.
           Minister of Foreign Affairs, etc., Paris.

     Monsieur le Ministre: I have received from the Director of the
     Mint of the United States a letter (of which I annex a copy),
     calling me to procure a certain series of medals prepared in
     Paris to commemorate certain events in the history of the
     American Revolution.

     These dies having been prepared in Paris, and the medals struck
     here, it is supposed the former yet remain in some safe
     depository.

     If it is possible to procure the original dies, I am requested to
     do so; if that be not possible, I should be happy to learn if I
     can procure copies.

     I avail myself of the occasion to renew to Your Excellency the
     assurance of the high consideration with which I have the honor
     to be,
                          Your obedient servant,
                                          W. L. DAYTON.


     Monsieur DAYTON,                  Paris, le 17 janvier 1862. (p. xlix)
        Ministre des États-Unis à Paris.

     Monsieur: Par la lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de
     m'adresser le 10 décembre dernier, vous m'exprimiez le désir
     d'être mis en possession des coins d'un certain nombre de
     médailles commémoratives d'événements de la guerre de
     l'Indépendance qui ont été frappées à Paris. Monsieur le Ministre
     des Finances à qui j'avais du écrire à ce sujet, me répond que le
     Musée Monétaire ne possède les coins que de quatre de ces
     médailles. La prise de Boston, la prise de Serapis, bataille de
     Cowpens--Washington, et bataille de Cowpens--Howard. Le musée ne
     pourrait se dessaisir de ces coins, mais il serait facile,
     moyennant une légère dépense, de faire frapper de nouveaux
     exemplaires; il faudrait seulement, si la proposition était agrée
     par le gouvernement Fédéral, que vous me fissiez parvenir
     l'indication précise du nombre d'exemplaires de chacune de ces
     médailles qu'il désirerait obtenir.

     Agréez les assurances de la haute considération avec laquelle
     j'ai l'honneur d'être,
                    Monsieur,
                      Votre très humble et très obéissant serviteur,
     Pour le ministre et par autorisation,
                              Le Ministre Plénipotentiaire Directeur,
                                                           BANNEVILLE.

[Translation.]

     Mr. DAYTON,                        Paris, January 17, 1862.
         Minister of the United States, Paris.

     Sir: By the letter which you did me the honor to address to me on
     the 10th of December last, you expressed to me the desire to
     obtain the dies of a certain number of medals, commemorative of
     events of the War of Independence, which were struck in Paris.
     The Minister of Finance, to whom I had to write on the subject,
     replies that the Museum of the Mint possesses the dies of only
     four of these medals: the taking of Boston, the capture of the
     Serapis, the battle of the Cowpens--Washington, and the battle of
     the Cowpens--Howard. The museum cannot part with these dies, but
     it will be easy, at a small outlay, to have new copies struck; it
     will only be necessary, if the proposition is accepted by the
     Federal Government, for you to indicate to me the precise number
     of copies of each of these medals which it wishes to obtain.

     Receive the assurances of the high consideration with which I
     have the honor to be,
                          Sir,
             Your very humble and very obedient servant,
     For the minister and by authorization,
                      The Minister Plenipotentiary Director,
                                                   BANNEVILLE.


     To His Excellency,                 Legation of the United States,
        Monsieur THOUVENEL,                Paris, January 23, 1862.
           Minister of Foreign Affairs, etc., Paris.

     Monsieur Le Ministre: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt
     of your letter of the 17th instant in reference to the American
     medal dies. I avail myself of your kind offer to have copies
     struck from the original dies.

     Be pleased to direct that twenty copies in bronze be struck     (p. l)
     from such dies, with a diameter of two and one half inches. The
     expense will be met by this Legation immediately upon notice.

     I avail myself of the opportunity to assure Your Excellency of
     the high consideration with which I am,
                                       Your humble servant,
                                                   W. L. DAYTON.

       *       *       *       *       *

I


     À Monsieur DUPRÉ,
          Graveur en médailles, à Paris.

     Monsieur Jefferson va faire imprimer des explications de toutes
     les médailles, pour les envoyer avec les médailles aux souverains
     de l'Europe; il lui manque celle de M. Franklin, faite par M.
     Dupré; il le prie de lui en prêter une exemplaire, et de lui en
     communiquer l'explication aussi, s'il y en a été une de faite
     comme il y en avait sans doute.

     Ce 23 février 1789.



CONTENTS.                                                           (p. li)


   Number                                                   Number
  of Text                                                  of Plate.

  1       GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON.                           I

  [_Boston Retaken._]                                          Page.

  Description of Medal.......................................... 1
  Biographical Sketch of Pierre Simon Duvivier.................. 2
  Biographical Sketch of George Washington...................... 2
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Washington................................ March 25, 1776... 3
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress.................................. March 19, 1776... 4
  The President of Congress to General
    Washington................................. April 2, 1776... 5
  John Adams to General Washington............. April 2, 1776... 5
  General Washington to John Adams............ April 15, 1776... 6
  Colonel Humphreys to General Washington.......... May, 1785... 6
  Colonel Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson..... January 30, 1786... 6
  Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Humphreys.......... May 7, 1786... 7


  2       MAJOR-GENERAL HORATIO GATES.                        II

  [_Surrender of the British Army at Saratoga._]

  Description of Medal.......................................... 8
  Biographical Sketch of Nicolas Marie Gatteaux................. 9
  Biographical Sketch of Horatio Gates.......................... 9
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Gates.................................. November 4, 1777... 10
  General Gates to the President of
    Congress............................... October 18, 1777... 10
  Articles of Convention between Generals Gates and
    Burgoyne............................... October 16, 1777... 11
  Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Humphreys.... December 4, 1785... 13
  Colonel Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson........................ 13


  3       BRIGADIER-GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE.                   III

  [_Taking of Stony Point._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 14
  Biographical Sketch of Anthony Wayne......................... 14
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to General
    Wayne, to Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury, and to
    Major Stewart, etc........................ July 26, 1779... 15
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress.................................. July 16, 1779... 16
  General Wayne to General Washington......... July 16, 1779... 16
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress.................................. July 20, 1779... 16
  General Wayne to General Washington......... July 17, 1779... 20


  4       LIEUTENANT-COLONEL DE FLEURY.                       IV   (p. lii)

  [_Taking of Stony Point._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 22
  Biographical Sketch of François Louis Teisseidre de Fleury... 23
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress.................................. July 25, 1779... 24
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress.................................. July 28, 1779... 25
  Memorial for M. de Fleury.................................... 25


  5       MAJOR JOHN STEWART.                                  V

  [_Taking of Stony Point._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 28
  Biographical Sketch of John Stewart.......................... 28


  6       MAJOR HENRY LEE.                                    VI

  [_Surprise of Paulus Hook._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 29
  Biographical Sketch of Joseph Wright......................... 30
  Biographical Sketch of Henry Lee............................. 30
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Major
    Henry Lee, etc....................... September 24, 1779... 30
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress................................ August 23, 1779... 31
  Major Henry Lee to General Washington..... August 22, 1779... 32


  7       JOHN PAULDING, DAVID WILLIAMS, ISAAC VAN WART.     VII

  [_Capture of Major André._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 37
  Biographical Sketches of Paulding, Williams, and Van Wart.... 37
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to John Paulding,
    David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart..... November 3, 1780... 38
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress............................. September 26, 1780... 38
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress................................ October 7, 1780... 39


  8       BRIGADIER-GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN.                  VIII

  [_Victory of the Cowpens._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 40
  Biographical Sketch of Augustin Dupré........................ 41
  Biographical Sketch of Daniel Morgan......................... 41
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to General Morgan and
    to Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and Howard,
    etc....................................... March 9, 1781... 41
  General Morgan to General Greene......... January 19, 1781... 42
  Act of Congress Directing a Gold Copy of General Morgan's
    Medal to be Struck for Morgan Neville...... July 2, 1836... 45


  9       LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILLIAM A. WASHINGTON.           IX  (p. liii)

  [_Victory of the Cowpens._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 46
  Biographical Sketch of William Augustine Washington.......... 46


  10      LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN EAGER HOWARD.                X

  [_Victory of the Cowpens._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 48
  Biographical Sketch of John Eager Howard..................... 48


  11      MAJOR-GENERAL NATHANIEL GREENE.                     XI

  [_Victory of Eutaw Springs._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 50
  Biographical Sketch of Nathaniel Greene...................... 50
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Greene, etc............................ October 29, 1781... 51
  General Greene to the President of
    Congress............................. September 11, 1781... 52
  John Jay to Major William Pierce and
    others................................ February 12, 1788... 56


  12      ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
          BY THE UNITED NETHERLANDS.                         XII

  [_Libera Soror._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 57
  Biographical Sketch of John George Holtzhey.................. 58
  John Adams to Robert R. Livingston......... April 19, 1782... 58
  Extracts from the Register Books of the States of
    the Netherlands.................................... 1782... 58
  Original Documents from the Royal Archives at the
    Hague.............................................. 1782... 64
  John Adams to Robert R. Livingston......... April 22, 1782... 72


  13      TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED
          STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNITED NETHERLANDS.     XIII

  [_Favstissimo Foedere Jvnctæ._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 74
  Treaty between the United Netherlands and the United
    States of America....................... October 8, 1782... 75
  Convention between the United Netherlands and the
    United States of America................ October 8, 1782... 84


  14      LIBERTAS AMERICANA.                                XIV   (p. liv)

  [_Surrender of the British Armies at Saratoga and at Yorktown._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 86
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress............................... October 19, 1781... 87
  General Washington to the President of
    Congress............................... October 27, 1781... 88
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Thanks, etc., for the
    Taking of Yorktown..................... October 29, 1781... 88
  Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston... March 4, 1782... 90
  Benjamin Franklin to Sir William Jones..... March 17, 1783... 90
  Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston.. April 15, 1783... 90
  Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston... July 22, 1783... 91
  Benjamin Franklin to the Grand Master of
    Malta..................................... April 6, 1783... 91
  The Grand Master of Malta to Benjamin
    Franklin.................................. June 21, 1783... 92


  15      BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.                                  XV

  Description of Medal......................................... 93
  Biographical Sketch of Benjamin Franklin..................... 93


  16      BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.                                 XVI

  Description of Medal......................................... 95
  William Short to Thomas Jefferson........... June 14, 1790... 95
  Thomas Jefferson to the President of the National
    Assembly of France........................ March 8, 1791... 96


  17      CAPTAIN JOHN PAUL JONES.                          XVII

  [_Capture of the Serapis._]

  Description of Medal......................................... 97
  Biographical Sketch of John Paul Jones....................... 98
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to the
    Chevalier John Paul Jones.............. October 16, 1787... 98
  Captain John Paul Jones to Benjamin
    Franklin................................ October 3, 1779... 99
  M. de Sartine to the President of Congress... May 30, 1780.. 109
  M. de Sartine to Commodore John Paul Jones.. June 28, 1780.. 109
  Resolution of Congress Authorizing Captain Jones to Accept
    from the King of France the Cross of Military
    Merit................................. February 27, 1781.. 110
  The United States to the King of France.. October 19, 1787.. 110
  Thomas Jefferson to General Washington........ May 2, 1788.. 111
  Admiral John Paul Jones to Thomas
    Jefferson.................. August 29--September 9, 1788.. 112


  18      PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON.                     XVIII
                                                             XIX

  [_First President of the United Stales of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 113
  Indian Peace Medals......................................... 113


  19      THE DIPLOMATIC MEDAL.                               XX    (p. lv)

  Description of Medal........................................ 115
  Biographical Sketch of César Anne de la Luzerne............. 116
  Biographical Sketch of Éléonore François Élie de Moustier... 116
  John Adams to the President of Congress... August 3, 1779... 117
  Thomas Jefferson to William Short......... April 30, 1790... 117
  Thomas Jefferson to the Marquis de la
    Luzerne................................. April 30, 1790... 118
  William Short to Thomas Jefferson.......... June 14, 1790... 119
  Thomas Jefferson to William Short.......... July 26, 1790... 119
  Thomas Jefferson to the Count de Moustier.. March 2, 1791... 120
  Thomas Jefferson to William Short.......... March 8, 1791... 120
  William Short to Thomas Jefferson........... June 6, 1791... 121
  William Short to Thomas Jefferson..... September 25, 1791... 121
  William Short to M. Dupré................................... 122
  M. de Moustier to M. Dupré.................................. 123
  William Short to Thomas Jefferson....... February 8, 1792... 124
  M. Lagrange to William Short............ January 31, 1792... 124


  20      PRESIDENT JOHN ADAMS.                              XXI

  [_Second President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 127
  Biographical Sketch of John Adams........................... 127


  21      CAPTAIN THOMAS TRUXTUN.                           XXII

  [_Action with the Vengeance._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 128
  Biographical Sketch of Thomas Truxtun....................... 128
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Captain
    Truxtun, etc............................ March 29, 1800... 129
  Captain Thomas Truxtun to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................. February 3, 1800... 130
  Journal of Captain Truxtun of Occurrences on board
    the United States Ship Constellation.. February 1, 1800... 130
  President John Adams to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................... March 31, 1800... 132
  John Adams to Captain Thomas Truxtun... November 30, 1802... 132


  22      PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON.                      XXIII

  [_Third President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 133
  Biographical Sketch of John Reich........................... 133
  Biographical Sketch of Thomas Jefferson..................... 133


  23      COMMODORE EDWARD PREBLE.                          XXIV   (p. lvi)

  [_Naval operations against Tripoli._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 135
  Biographical Sketch of Edward Preble........................ 135
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Commodore
    Preble................................... March 3, 1805... 136
  President Thomas Jefferson to Congress. February 20, 1805... 136
  Commodore Preble to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................ September 18, 1804... 137
  R. Smith to George Harrison................ June 26, 1805... 150


  24      PRESIDENT JAMES MADISON.                           XXV

  [_Fourth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 151
  Biographical Sketch of James Madison........................ 152


  25      CAPTAIN ISAAC HULL.                               XXVI

  [_Capture of the Guerrière._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 153
  Biographical Sketch of Isaac Hull........................... 153
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Captains Hull,
    Decatur, Jones, etc................... January 29, 1813... 154
  Captain Hull to the Secretary of the Navy.. July 21, 1812... 155
  Captain Hull to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................... August 30, 1812... 157
  Captain Hull to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................... August 30, 1812... 159


  26      CAPTAIN JACOB JONES.                             XXVII

  [_Capture of the Frolic._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 160
  Biographical Sketch of Moritz Fürst......................... 160
  Biographical Sketch of Jacob Jones.......................... 161
  Captain Jacob Jones to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................. November 24, 1812... 161


  27      CAPTAIN STEPHEN DECATUR.                        XXVIII

  [_Capture of the Macedonian._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 163
  Biographical Sketch of Stephen Decatur...................... 163
  Captain Decatur to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................. October 30, 1812... 164


  28      CAPTAIN WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE.                       XXIX  (p. lvii)

  [_Capture of the Java._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 166
  Biographical Sketch of William Bainbridge................... 166
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain
    Bainbridge, etc.......................... March 3, 1813... 167
  Captain Bainbridge to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................... January 3, 1813... 167
  Extract from Captain Bainbridge's
    Journal.............................. December 30, 1812... 168
  H. D. Corneck to Lieutenant Wood......... January 1, 1813... 170


  29      LIEUTENANT EDWARD RUTLEDGE McCALL.                 XXX

  [_Capture of the Boxer._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 171
  Biographical Sketch of Edward Rutledge McCall............... 171
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Lieutenants
    McCall. Burrows, etc................... January 6, 1814... 172
  Captain Hull to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................ September 14, 1813... 172
  Lieutenant McCall to Captain Hull...... September 7, 1813... 173


  30      LIEUTENANT WILLIAM BURROWS.                       XXXI

  [_Capture of the Boxer._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 174
  Biographical Sketch of William Burrows...................... 174


  31      CAPTAIN OLIVER HAZARD PERRY.                     XXXII

  [_Victory of Lake Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 176
  Biographical Sketch of Oliver Hazard Perry.................. 176
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Captains
    Perry, Elliott, etc.................... January 6, 1814... 177
  Captain Perry to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................ September 10, 1813... 178
  Captain Perry to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................ September 13, 1813... 178
  The Secretary of the Navy to George
    Harrison.................................. July 4, 1814... 180


  32      CAPTAIN JESSE DUNCAN ELLIOTT.                   XXXIII

  [_Victory of Lake Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 183
  Biographical Sketch of Jesse Duncan Elliott................. 183


  33      CAPTAIN JAMES LAWRENCE.                          XXXIV (p. lviii)

  [_Captain of the Peacock._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 185
  Biographical Sketch of James Lawrence....................... 185
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Lawrence,
    etc................................... January 11, 1814... 186
  Captain Lawrence to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................... March 19, 1813... 186


  34      CAPTAIN THOMAS MACDONOUGH.                        XXXV

  [_Victory of Lake Champlain._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 189
  Biographical Sketch of Thomas Macdonough.................... 189
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captains
    Macdonough and Henley, Lieutenant Cassin,
    etc................................... October 20, 1814... 190
  Resolution of Congress Complimentary to Lieutenant
    Silas Duncan.............................. May 13, 1826... 190
  Captain Macdonough to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................ September 11, 1814... 191
  Captain Macdonough to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................ September 13, 1814... 191


  35      CAPTAIN ROBERT HENLEY.                           XXXVI

  [_Victory of Lake Champlain._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 193
  Biographical Sketch of Robert Henley........................ 194


  36      LIEUTENANT STEPHEN CASSIN.                      XXXVII

  [_Victory of Lake Champlain._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 195
  Biographical Sketch of Stephen Cassin....................... 196


  37      CAPTAIN LEWIS WARRINGTON.                      XXXVIII

  [_Capture of the Épervier._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 197
  Biographical Sketch of Lewis Warrington..................... 197
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain
    Warrington, etc....................... October 21, 1814... 198
  Captain Warrington to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................... April 29, 1814... 198


  38      CAPTAIN JOHNSTON BLAKELEY.                       XXXIX

  [_Capture of the Reindeer._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 200
  Biographical Sketch of Johnston Blakeley.................... 201
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain
    Blakeley, etc......................... November 3, 1814... 201
  Captain Blakeley to the Secretary of the
    Navy...................................... July 8, 1814... 201


  39      MAJOR-GENERAL JACOB BROWN.                          XL   (p. lix)

  [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 203
  Biographical Sketch of Jacob Brown.......................... 203
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Generals Brown,
    Scott, Porter, Gaines, Macomb, Ripley and
    Miller................................ November 3, 1814... 204
  General Brown to the Secretary of War....... July 7, 1814... 205
  General Orders.............................. July 6, 1814... 208
  General Brown to the Secretary of War....... August, 1814... 208
  General Brown to the Secretary of War. September 29, 1814... 211
  General Brown to the Secretary of War.... October 1, 1814... 214


  40      MAJOR-GENERAL PETER BUEL PORTER.                   XLI

  [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 215
  Biographical Sketch of Peter Buel Porter.................... 215
  General Porter to General Brown........September 22, 1814... 216


  41      BRIGADIER-GENERAL ELEAZER WHEELOCK RIPLEY.        XLII

  [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 219
  Biographical Sketch of Eleazer Wheelock Ripley.............. 219
  General Ripley to General Gaines. August 17, 1814........... 220


  42      BRIGADIER-GENERAL JAMES MILLER.                  XLIII

  [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 223
  Biographical Sketch of James Miller......................... 223


  43      MAJOR-GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT.                     XLIV

  [_Victories of Chippewa and Niagara._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 224
  Biographical Sketch of Winfield Scott....................... 224


  44      MAJOR-GENERAL EDMUND PENDLETON GAINES.             XLV

  [_Victory of Erie._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 226
  Biographical Sketch of Edmund Pendleton Gaines.............. 226
  General Gaines to the Secretary of War... August 15, 1814... 227
  General Gaines to the Secretary of War... August 23, 1814... 227
  General Gaines to the Secretary of War... August 26, 1814... 231


  45      MAJOR-GENERAL ALEXANDER MACOMB.                   XLVI    (p. lx)

  [_Victory of Plattsburgh._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 233
  Biographical Sketch of Alexander Macomb..................... 233
  General Macomb to the Secretary of
    War................................. September 15, 1814... 234
  Resolution of Congress Voting Rifles to Martin
    J. Aitkin and others...................... May 20, 1826... 237


  46      MAJOR-GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON.                    XLVII

  [_Victory of New Orleans._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 238
  Biographical Sketch of Andrew Jackson....................... 238
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Jackson.............................. February 27, 1815... 239
  General Jackson to the Secretary of War. January 13, 1815... 240
  General Jackson to the Secretary of War. January 19, 1815... 241
  General Jackson's Farewell Address to his
    Army....................................... March, 1815... 242
  Resolutions of Congress complimentary to Commodore
    D. T. Patterson and others........... February 15, 1815... 243
  Resolutions of Congress complimentary to the People of the
    State of Louisiana, etc.............. February 15, 1815... 244


  47      CAPTAIN CHARLES STEWART.                        XLVIII

  [_Capture of the Cyane and of the Levant._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 245
  Biographical Sketch of Charles Stewart...................... 245
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain
    Stewart, etc......................... February 22, 1816... 246
  Captain Stewart to the Secretary of the Navy... May, 1815... 246
  Minutes of the Action between the Constitution,
    Cyane, and Levant.................... February 20, 1815... 247


  48      CAPTAIN JAMES BIDDLE.                             XLIX

  [_Capture of the Penguin._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 249
  Biographical Sketch of James Biddle......................... 249
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain
    Biddle, etc.......................... February 22, 1816... 250
  Captain Biddle to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................... March 25, 1815... 250


  49      PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE.                              L

  [_Fifth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 253
  Biographical Sketch of James Monroe......................... 253


  50      MAJOR-GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON.               LI   (p. lxi)

  [_Victory of the Thames._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 254
  Biographical Sketch of William Henry Harrison............... 254
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to General Harrison
    and Governor Shelby, etc................. April 4, 1818... 255
  General Harrison to the Secretary of War. October 5, 1813... 255
  General Harrison to the Secretary of War. October 9, 1813... 256
  General Orders of Debarkation, of March, and of
    Battle.............................. September 27, 1813... 261


  51      GOVERNOR ISAAC SHELBY.                             LII

  [_Victory of the Thames._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 265
  Biographical Sketch of Isaac Shelby......................... 265


  52      TREATY OF COMMERCE WITH FRANCE.                   LIII

  Description of Medal........................................ 266
  Biographical Sketch of Bertrand Andrieu..................... 266
  Biographical Sketch of Raymond Gayrard...................... 267
  Treaty of Commerce with France............. June 24, 1822... 267


  53      PRESIDENT JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.                       LIV

  [_Sixth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 270
  Biographical Sketch of John Quincy Adams.................... 270


  54      PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON.                           LV

  [_Seventh President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 271


  55      COLONEL GEORGE CROGHAN.                            LVI

  [_Defence of Fort Stephenson._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 272
  Biographical Sketch of George Croghan....................... 272
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Colonel Croghan,
    etc.................................. February 13, 1835... 273
  Major Croghan to General Harrison......... August 5, 1813... 273


  56      PRESIDENT MARTIN VAN BUREN.                       LVII  (p. lxii)

  [_Eighth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 275
  Biographical Sketch of Martin Van Buren..................... 275


  57      PRESIDENT JOHN TYLER.                            LVIII

  [_Tenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 276
  Biographical Sketch of John Tyler........................... 276
  R. M. Patterson to J. C. Spencer........ November 2, 1841... 277
  J. C. Spencer to R. M. Patterson....... November 13, 1841... 278
  R. M. Patterson to John C. Spencer.... September 17, 1842... 279
  D. Parker to R. M. Patterson.......... September 21, 1842... 279


  58      PRESIDENT JAMES KNOX POLK.                         LIX

  [_Eleventh President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 280
  Biographical Sketch of James Knox Polk...................... 280


  59      MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.                       LX

  [_Victories on the Rio Grande._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 281
  Biographical Sketch of Zachary Taylor....................... 281
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to
    General Taylor........................... July 16, 1846... 282
  General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the
    Army....................................... May 9, 1846... 282
  General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the
    Army....................................... May 9, 1846... 283
  General Order Congratulating the Army....... May 11, 1846... 284
  General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the
    Army...................................... May 16, 1846... 285
  The Secretary of War to Doctor
    Patterson............................. December 9, 1846... 287
  Doctor Patterson to the Secretary of
    War.................................. December 12, 1846... 288


  60      MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.                      LXI

  [_Taking of Monterey._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 290
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Taylor................................... March 2, 1847... 290
  General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the
    Army................................... October 9, 1846... 291


  61      LOSS OF THE UNITED STATES BRIG-OF-WAR SOMERS.     LXII (p. lxiii)

  [_For Having Saved the Lives of Americans._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 299
  Biographical Sketch of Charles Gushing Wright............... 299
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to British, French, and
    Spanish Officers, etc.................... March 3, 1847... 300
  Lieutenant Semmes to Commodore M. C.
    Perry,............................... December 10, 1846... 300


  62      MAJOR-GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT.                    LXIII

  [_Mexican Campaign._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 304
  Biographical Sketch of Salathiel Ellis...................... 304
  Biographical Sketch of G. C. Humphries...................... 304
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Scott.................................... March 9, 1848... 305
  General Scott to the Secretary of War..... March 12, 1847... 305
  General Scott to the Secretary of War..... March 23, 1847... 307
  General Scott to the Secretary of War..... March 29, 1847... 309
  Terms of Capitulation for the Surrender of Vera Cruz, etc... 310
  General Scott to the Secretary of War..... April 19, 1847... 311
  General Orders No. 111.................... April 17, 1847... 314
  General Scott to the Secretary of War.... August 28, 1847... 315
  General Scott to the Secretary of
    War................................. September 11, 1847... 323
  General Scott to the Secretary of
    War................................. September 18, 1847... 325
  General Orders No. 286................... September, 1847... 334


  63      MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.                     LXIV

  [_Victory of Buena Vista._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 336
  Biographical Sketch of Frederick Augustus Smith............. 336
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Taylor..................................... May 9, 1848... 336
  General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the
    Army..................................... March 6, 1847... 337
  General Order Congratulating the Army.. February 26, 1847... 346


  64      PRESIDENT ZACHARY TAYLOR.                          LXV

  [_Twelfth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 348


  65      PRESIDENT MILLARD FILLMORE.                       LXVI

  [_Thirteenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 349
  Biographical Sketch of Joseph Willson....................... 349
  Biographical Sketch of Millard Fillmore..................... 349


  66      PRESIDENT FRANKLIN PIERCE.                       LXVII  (p. lxiv)

  [_Fourteenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 351
  Biographical Sketch of Franklin Pierce...................... 351


  67      COMMANDER DUNCAN NATHANIEL INGRAHAM.            LXVIII

  [_Release of Martin Coszta._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 352
  Biographical Sketch of Seth Eastman......................... 353
  Biographical Sketch of P. F. Cross.......................... 353
  Biographical Sketch of James Barton Longacre................ 353
  Biographical Sketch of Duncan Nathaniel Ingraham............ 353
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Commander
    Ingraham................................ August 4, 1854... 353
  Commander Ingraham to Commodore Stringham... July 6, 1853... 354
  Commander Ingraham to Commander Schwartz... June 28, 1853... 355
  Commander Schwartz to Commander Ingraham... June 29, 1853... 356
  Commander Ingraham to Commander Schwartz.... July 2, 1853... 356
  Commander Schwartz to Commander Ingraham.... July 2, 1853... 357
  S. N. Brown to Commander Ingraham.......... June 28, 1853... 357
  Enclosure from Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdale...................... 358
  Martin Coszta's Declaration of Intention... July 31, 1852... 359
  Agreement between the Consul-General of Austria and the Consul
    of the United States of America........... July 2, 1853... 359


  68      PRESIDENT JAMES BUCHANAN.                         LXIX

  [_Fifteenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 361
  Biographical Sketch of James Buchanan....................... 361


  69      DOCTOR FREDERICK HENRY ROSE.                       LXX

  [_Kindness and Humanity of Doctor Rose._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 362
  Biographical Sketch of A. C. Paquet......................... 362
  Biographical Sketch of Frederick Henry Rose................. 363
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Doctor
    Rose...................................... May 11, 1858... 363
  Captain Sands to the Secretary of the
    Navy.................................... April 15, 1858... 364


  70      PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN.                        LXXI

  [_Sixteenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 366
  Biographical Sketch of Abraham Lincoln...................... 366


  71      NAVY MEDAL OF HONOR.                           LXXII a   (p. lxv)

  Description of Medal........................................ 367
  Acts of Congress Instituting Naval Medals of Honor
    ..................................... December 21, 1861... 367
    ......................................... July 16, 1862... 367


  72      ARMY MEDAL OF HONOR.                           LXXII b

  Description of Medal........................................ 368
  Resolution and Act of Congress Instituting Army Medals of Honor
    ......................................... July 12, 1862... 368
    ......................................... March 3, 1863... 369


  73      MAJOR-GENERAL ULYSSES SIMPSON GRANT.            LXXIII

  [_Victories of fort Donelson, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 370
  Biographical Sketch of Antrobus............................. 371
  Biographical Sketch of Ulysses Simpson Grant................ 371
  Resolutions of Congress Voting a Medal to General
    Grant................................ December 17, 1863... 371
  General Grant to General Cullum........ February 16, 1862... 372
  General Buckner to General Grant....... February 16, 1862... 374
  General Grant to General Buckner....... February 16, 1862... 374
  General Buckner to General Grant....... February 16, 1862... 374
  General Orders No. 2................... February 17, 1862... 375
  General Grant to the Assistant
    Adjutant-General.......................... July 6, 1863... 375
  General Pemberton to General Grant.......... July 3, 1863... 391
  General Grant to General Pemberton.......... July 3, 1863... 392
  General Grant to General Pemberton.......... July 3, 1863... 392
  General Pemberton to General Grant.......... July 3, 1863... 393
  General Grant to General Pemberton.......... July 4, 1863... 393
  General Pemberton to General Grant.......... July 4, 1863... 394
  General Grant to the Assistant
    Adjutant-General..................... December 23, 1863... 394


  74      CORNELIUS VANDERBILT.                            LXXIV

  [_Free Gift of Steamship Vanderbilt._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 406
  Biographical Sketch of Emanuel Leutze....................... 406
  Biographical Sketch of Cornelius Vanderbilt................. 407
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Cornelius
    Vanderbilt............................ January 28, 1864... 407
  The Secretary of State to Cornelius
    Vanderbilt.............................. April 17, 1866... 408
  Cornelius Vanderbilt to the Secretary of
    State...................................... May 3, 1866... 408


  75      PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON.                         LXXV

  [_Seventeenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 410
  Biographical Sketch of Andrew Johnson....................... 410


  76      WRECK OF THE STEAMSHIP SAN FRANCISCO.            LXXVI  (p. lxvi)

  [_Testimonial of National Gratitude._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 411
  Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Captains Creighton,
    Low, and Stouffer........................ July 26, 1866... 412
  Major Wyse to the Adjutant General of the
    Army.................................. January 14, 1854... 412
  Consolidated Morning Report, 3d
    Artillery............................. January 14, 1854... 414
  Colonel Gates to the Adjutant-General of the
    Army.................................. January 16, 1854... 415
  Acts of Congress Voting Eight Months' Pay to Lieutenant Francis
    Key Murray and others
    ........................................ March 27, 1854... 416
    ........................................ August 5, 1854... 417


  77      CYRUS WEST FIELD.                               LXXVII

  [_Laying of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 418
  Biographical Sketch of J. Goldsborough Bruff................ 419
  Biographical Sketch of William Barber....................... 419
  Biographical Sketch of Cyrus West Field..................... 419
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Cyrus W.
    Field.................................... March 2, 1867... 419
  The Secretary of State to Cyrus W.
    Field.................................. January 7, 1869... 420


  78      GEORGE PEABODY.                                LXXVIII

  [_Promotion of Universal Education._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 421
  Biographical Sketch of George Peabody....................... 422
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to George
    Peabody................................. March 16, 1867... 423
  George Peabody's Gift for Southern
    Education............................. February 7, 1867... 423
  Action of the Trustees of the Peabody
    Gift.................................. February 8, 1867... 425
  The Secretary of State to George Peabody... June 23, 1868... 426
  George Peabody to the Secretary of
    State............................... September 18, 1868... 427
  The Secretary of State to George
    Peabody................................ October 7, 1868... 427
  George Peabody to the Secretary of
    State.................................. January 6, 1869... 428


  79      PRESIDENT ULYSSES SIMPSON GRANT.                 LXXIX

  [_Eighteenth President of the United States of America._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 429


  80      GEORGE FOSTER ROBINSON.                           LXXX

  [_Heroic Conduct._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 430
  Biographical Sketch of George Foster Robinson............... 431
  Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to George F.
    Robinson................................. March 1, 1871... 431
  Report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs in Regard to
    George F. Robinson........................................ 432


  81      LOSS OF THE STEAMER METIS.                       LXXXI (p. lxvii)

  [_Courage and Humanity._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 434
  Biographical Sketch of Charles E. Barber.................... 434
  Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Crandall
    and others........................... February 24, 1873... 434
  Captain David Ritchie to the Secretary of the
    Navy................................. September 1, 1872... 435
  Resolution of Congress Voting Thanks to Captain
    Ritchie............................... January 24, 1873... 437


  82      CENTENNIAL MEDAL.                               LXXXII

  [_Hundredth Anniversary of American Independence._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 438
  Act of Congress Authorizing Centennial
    Medals................................... June 16, 1874... 439
  Official Notice Promulgated by the Centennial Board of
    Finance................................. March 24, 1875... 439


  83      CENTENNIAL MEDAL.                              LXXXIII

  [_Hundredth Anniversary of American Independence._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 440


  84      LIFE SAVING MEDAL OF THE FIRST CLASS.           LXXXIV

  [_Saving Life from the Perils of the Sea._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 441
  Act of Congress Instituting Life Saving
    Medals................................... June 20, 1874... 442
  The Acting Secretary of the Treasury to Lucien M.
    Clemons.................................. June 30, 1876... 442
  The Acting Secretary of the Treasury to James
    Martin................................... March 3, 1877... 443
  The Acting Secretary of the Treasury to John
    Dean..................................... March 3, 1877... 444
  Report of the United States Life-Saving
    Service.............................. November 30, 1876... 444
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Colonel J. Schuyler
    Crosby................................... June 30, 1877... 447
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Carl
    Fosberg............................. September 22, 1877... 448
  Report of the United States Life-Saving
    Service.............................. November 29, 1877... 448
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Philip C.
    Bleil................................. January 15, 1878... 452


  85      LIFE SAVING MEDAL OF THE SECOND CLASS.           LXXXV

  [_Saving Life from the Perils of the Sea._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 453
  The Secretary of the Treasury to John O.
    Philbrick................................ July 22, 1876... 453
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Henry M.
    Lee...................................... July 31, 1877... 454
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Captain Charles
    H. Smith................................ March 12, 1878... 454
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Edward
    Nordall................................. March 12, 1878... 455
  The Secretary of the Treasury to Malachi
    Corbell................................. March 12, 1878... 456


  86      JOHN HORN, JR.                                 LXXXVI (p. lxviii)

  [_Heroic Exploits._]

  Description of Medal........................................ 457
  Biographical Sketch of John Horn, Jr........................ 457
  Act of Congress Voting a Medal to John
    Horn, Jr................................. June 20, 1874... 458
  John Horn, Jr., to Moses W. Field...... February 23, 1874... 458



LIST OF THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS                                    (p. lxix)

GIVEN OR REFERRED TO IN THE INTRODUCTION.


                                                                      Page.
  Benjamin Franklin to the President of Congress.... March 4, 1780..... xi
  Colonel Humphreys to the President of Congress... March 18, 1785.... xii
  Colonel Humphreys to the Perpetual Secretary of
    the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and
    Belles-Lettres of France....................... March 14, 1785... xiii
  Benjamin Franklin to the Secretary for Foreign
    Affairs.......................................... May 10, 1785.... xiv
  Contract between Colonel Humphreys and M. Dupré for
    Engraving the Medal of General Greene....... November 19, 1785.... xvi
  Thomas Jefferson to the Secretary for Foreign
    Affairs..................................... February 14, 1787... xvii
  Report of the Secretary for Foreign Affairs....... July 11, 1787.. xviii
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré.................... January 3, 1789.... xix
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré.................. February 13, 1789..... xx
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré.................. February 15, 1789.... xxi
  General Winfield Scott to the Secretary of War.... July 25, 1846... xxiv
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré.................. February 23, 1789. xxxiii
  Colonel Humphreys to the Printer of the American
    Museum (Mr. Carey)............................. November, 1787.. xxxiv
  Registre des Assemblées et Délibérations de l'Académie Royale
    des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres pendant l'année 1785......... xxxvi
  Contract between Colonel Humphreys and M. Dupré for
    Engraving the Medal of General Greene....... November 19, 1785.... xli
  Registre des Assemblées et Délibérations de l'Académie Royale
    des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres pendant l'année 1789........... xli
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré............. Royale January 3, 1789... xliv
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré........... Royale February 13, 1789... xliv
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré.................. February 15, 1789.... xlv
  Explication des Peintures. Sculptures et Gravures de
    Messieurs de l'Académie Royale, etc............. 1781 and 1789.... xlv
  James Pollock to William L. Dayton............ November 22, 1861.. xlvii
  William L. Dayton to the French Minister of Foreign
    Affairs..................................... December 10, 1861. xlviii
  Marquis de Banneville to W. L. Dayton.......... January 17, 1862... xlix
  William L. Dayton to the French Minister
    of Foreign Affairs........................... January 23, 1862... xlix
  Thomas Jefferson to M. Dupré.................. February 23, 1789...... l



LIST OF PLATES.


  Number                             Designer and         Number     Page
 of Plate.     Title of Medal.        Engraver.          of Text.  of Text.

    I       GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON.
              [_Boston retaken._]
            Georgio Washington svpremo dvci exercitvvm
              adsertori libertatis Comitia Americana. [Rx].
              Hostibus primo fugatis.
                                        DUVIVIER.            1          1

   II       MAJOR-GENERAL HORATIO GATES.
              [_Surrender of the British Army at Saratoga._]
            Horatio Gates duci strenuo Comitia Americana.
              [Rx]. Salus regionum septentrional.
                                        N. GATTEAUX.         2          8

  III       BRIGADIER-GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE.
              [_Taking of Stony Point._]
            Antonio Wayne duci exercitus Comitia Americana.
              [Rx]. Stoney-Point expugnatum.
                                        GATTEAUX.            3         14

   IV       LIEUTENANT-COLONEL DE FLEURY.
              [_Taking of Stony Point._]
            Virtutis et audaciæ monum. et præmium. [Rx].
              Aggeres paludes hostes victi.
                                        DUVIVIER.            4         22

    V       MAJOR JOHN STEWART.
              [_Taking of Stony Point._]
            Joanni Stewart cohortis præfecto Comitia Americana.
              [Rx]. Stoney-Point oppugnatum.
                                        GATTEAUX.            5         28

   VI       MAJOR HENRY LEE.
              [_Surprise of Paulus Hook._]
            Henrico Lee legionis equit. præfecto. Comitia
              Americana. [Rx]. Non obstantib fluminibus
              vallis, etc.
                                        J. WRIGHT.           6         29

  VII       JOHN PAULDING, DAVID WILLIAMS,
              ISAAC VAN WART.
              [_Capture of Major André._]
            Fidelity. [Rx]. Vincit amor patriæ.              7         37

 VIII       BRIGADIER-GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN.
              [_Victory of the Cowpens._]
            Danieli Morgan duci exercitus Comitia
              Americana. [Rx]. Victoria libertatis
              vindex.
                                        DUPRÉ.               8         40

   IX       LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILLIAM
               AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON.
              [_Victory of the Cowpens._]
            Gulielmo Washington legionis equit.
              præfecto Comitia American. [Rx]. Quod
              parva militum manu, etc.
                                        DUVIVIER.            9         46

    X       LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN
               EAGER HOWARD.
              [_Victory of the Cowpens._]
            Joh. Egar. Howard legionis peditum
              præfecto Comitia Americana. [Rx]. Quod
              in nutantem hostium aciem, etc.
                                        DUVIVIER            10         48

   XI       MAJOR-GENERAL NATHANIEL GREENE.
              [_Victory of Eutaw Springs._]
            Nathanieli Green egregio duci Comitia
              Americana. [Rx]. Salus regionum
              australium.
                                        DUPRÉ               11         50

  XII       ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE UNITED
             STATES OF AMERICA BY THE
              UNITED NETHERLANDS.
              [_Libera Soror._]
            Libera soror. [Rx]. Tyrannis virtute
              repulsa.
                                        I. G. HOLTZHEY.     12         57

 XIII       TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE
              BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES
              OF AMERICA AND THE UNITED
                   NETHERLANDS.
              [_Faustissimo Foedere Junctæ._]
            Faustissimo foedere junctæ. die VII Octob.
              MDCCLXXXII. [Rx]. Justitiam et non
              temnere divos.
                                        I. G. HOLTZHEY.     13         74

  XIV       LIBERTAS AMERICANA.
              [_Surrender of the British Armies at Saratoga and at
              Yorktown._]
            Libertas Americana. [Rx]. Non sine diis
              animosus infans.
                                        DUPRÉ.              14         86

   XV       BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.
            Benj. Franklin natus Boston. XVII Jan. MDCCVI.
              [Rx]. Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrum que tyrannis.
                                        AUG. DUPRÉ.         16         95

 XVII       CAPTAIN JOHN PAUL JONES.
              [_Capture of the Serapis._]
            Joanni Paulo Jones classis præfecto.
              Comitia Americana. [Rx]. Hostium
              navibus captis aut fugatis.
                                        DUPRÉ.              17         97

XVIII
  XIX       PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON.
              [_First President of the United States of America._]
            George Washington President. 1792.              18        113

   XX       THE DIPLOMATIC MEDAL.
            To peace and commerce. [Rx]. The United
              States of America.
                                        DUPRÉ.              19        115

  XXI       PRESIDENT JOHN ADAMS.
              [_Second President of the United States of America._]
            John Adams President of the U.S. A.D. 1797.
              [Rx]. Peace and friendship.                   20        127

 XXII       CAPTAIN THOMAS TRUXTUN.
              [_Action with the Vengeance._]
            Patriæ. patres. filio. digno. Thomas Truxtun.
              [Rx]. United States frigate Constellation of
              38 guns, &c.                                  21        128

XXIII      PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON.
             [_Third President of the United States of America._]
           Th. Jefferson President of the U.S. A.D.
             1801. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        REICH.              22        133

 XXIV       COMMODORE EDWARD PREBLE.
              [_Naval operations against Tripoli._]
            Edwardo Preble duci strenuo Comitia
              Americana. [Rx]. Vindici commercii
              Americani.
                                        REICH.              23        135

  XXV       PRESIDENT JAMES MADISON.
              [_Fourth President of the United States of America._]
            James Madison President of the U.S.A.
              D. 1809. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        REICH.              24        151

 XXVI       CAPTAIN ISAAC HULL.
              [_Capture of the Guerrière._]
            Isaacus Hull peritos arte superat Jul.
              MDCCCXII Aug. certamine fortes. [Rx].
              Horæ momento victoria.
                                        REICH.              25        153

XXVII       CAPTAIN JACOB JONES.
              [_Capture of the Frolic._]
            Jacobus Jones virtus in ardua tendit.
              [Rx]. Victoriam hosti majori celerrime
              rapuit.
                                        FÜRST.              26        160

XXVIII      CAPTAIN STEPHEN DECATUR.
              [_Capture of the Macedonian._]
            Stephanus Decatur navarchus, pugnis
              pluribus, victor. [Rx]. Occidit signum
              hostile sidera surgunt.
                                        FÜRST.              27        163

 XXIX       CAPTAIN WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE.
              [_Capture of the Java._]
            Gulielmus Bainbridge patria victisque
              laudatus. [Rx]. Pugnando.
                                        FÜRST.              28        166

  XXX       LIEUTENANT EDWARD RUTLEDGE McCALL.
              [_Capture of the Boxer._]
            Edward R. McCall navis Enterprise
              præfectus. Sic itur ad astra. [Rx].
              Vivere sat vincere.
                                        FÜRST.              29        171

 XXXI       LIEUTENANT WILLIAM BURROWS.
              [_Capture of the Boxer._]
            Victoriam tibi claram. patriæ mæstam. [Rx].
              Vivere sat vincere.
                                        FÜRST.              30        174

XXXII       CAPTAIN OLIVER HAZARD PERRY.
              [_Victory of Lake Erie._]
            Oliverus H. Perry, princeps stagno Eriense.
              classim totam contudit. [Rx]. Viam invenit
              virtus aut facit.
                                        FÜRST.              31        176

XXXIII      CAPTAIN JESSE DUNCAN ELLIOTT.
              [_Victory of Lake Erie._]
            Jesse D. Elliott. Nil actum reputans si quid
              superesset agendum. [Rx]. Viam invenit
              virtus aut facit.
                                        FÜRST.              32        183

XXXIV       CAPTAIN JAMES LAWRENCE.
              [_Capture of the Peacock._]
            Jac. Lawrence dulce et decorum est pro
              patria mori. [Rx]. Mansuetud. maj. quam
              victoria.
                                        FÜRST.              33        185

 XXXV       CAPTAIN THOMAS MACDONOUGH.
              [_Victory of Lake Champlain._]
            Tho. Macdonough. Stagno Champlain clas.
              Reg. Brit. superavit. [Rx]. Uno latere
              percusso. alterum impavide vertit.
                                        FÜRST.              34        189

XXXVI       CAPTAIN ROBERT HENLEY.
              [_Victory of Lake Champlain._]
            Rob. Henley Eagle præfect. palma virtu. per
              æternit. florebit. [Rx]. Uno latere percusso.
              alterum impavide vertit.
                                        FÜRST.              35        193

XXXVII      LIEUTENANT STEPHEN CASSIN.
              [_Victory of Lake Champlain._]
            Step. Cassin Ticonderoga præfect. Quæ
              regio in terris nos. non plena lab. [Rx]. Uno
              latere percusso. alterum impavide vertit.
                                        FÜRST.              36        195

XXXVIII     CAPTAIN LEWIS WARRINGTON.
              [_Capture of the Épervier._]
            Ludovicus Warrington dux navalis Ameri.
              [Rx]. Pro patria paratus aut vincere aut mori.
                                         FÜRST.             37        197

XXXIX       CAPTAIN JOHNSTON BLAKELEY.
              [_Capture of the Reindeer._]
            Johnston Blakeley Reip. Fæd. Am. nav.
              Wasp dux. [Rx]. Eheu! bis victor patria
              tua te luget plauditq.
                                        FÜRST.              38        200

   XL       MAJOR-GENERAL JACOB BROWN.
              [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]
            Major General Jacob Brown. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress November 3. 1814.
                                        FÜRST.              39        203

  XLI       MAJOR-GENERAL PETER BUEL PORTER.
              [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]
            Major General Peter B. Porter. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress November 3. 1814.
                                        FÜRST.              40        215

 XLII       BRIGADIER-GENERAL ELEAZER WHEELOCK RIPLEY.
              [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]
            Brig. General Eleazer W. Ripley. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress Novemb. 3. 1814.
                                        FÜRST.              41        219

XLIII       BRIGADIER-GENERAL JAMES MILLER.
              [_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]
            Brigadier Genl. James Miller. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress November 3. 1814.
                                        FÜRST.              42        223

 XLIV       MAJOR-GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT.
              [_Victories of Chippewa and Niagara._]
            Major General Winfield Scott. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress November 3. 1814. etc.
                                        FÜRST.              43        224

  XLV       MAJOR-GENERAL EDMUND P. GAINES.
              [_Victory of Erie._]
            Major General Edmund P. Gaines. [Rx]. Resolution
             of Congress November 3. 1814.
                                        FÜRST.              44        226

 XLVI       MAJOR-GENERAL ALEXANDER MACOMB.
              [_Victory of Plattsburgh._]
            Major General Alexander Macomb. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress November 3. 1814.
                                        FÜRST.              45        233

XLVII       MAJOR-GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON.
              [_Victory of New Orleans._]
            Major General Andrew Jackson. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress February 27. 1815.
                                        FÜRST.              46        238

XLVIII      CAPTAIN CHARLES STEWART.
              [_Capture of the Cyane and of the Levant._]
            Carolus Stewart navis Amer. Constitution dux.
              [Rx]. Una victoriam eripuit ratibus binis.
                                        FÜRST.              47        245

 XLIX       CAPTAIN JAMES BIDDLE.
              [_Capture of the Penguin._]
            The Congress of the U.S. to Capt. James
              Biddle. etc. [Rx]. Capture of the British ship
              Penguin by the U.S. ship Hornet.
                                        FÜRST.              48        249

    L       PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE.
              [_Fifth President of the United States of America._]
            James Monroe President of the U.S.A. D.
              1817. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        FÜRST.              49        253

   LI       MAJOR-GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON.
              [_Victory of the Thames._]
            Major General William H. Harrison. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress April 4. 1818.
                                        FÜRST.              50        254

  LII       GOVERNOR ISAAC SHELBY.
              [_Victory of the Thames._]
            Governor Isaac Shelby. [Rx]. Battle of the
              Thames. Octo. 5. 1813.
                                        FÜRST.              51        265

 LIII       TREATY OF COMMERCE WITH FRANCE.
            Lvdovicvs. XVIII Franc. et. Nav. rex. [Rx]. Gallia.
              et. America. foederata.
                                        ANDRIEU.
                                        GAYRARD.            52        266

  LIV       PRESIDENT JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
              [_Sixth President of the United States of America._]
            John Quincy Adams President of the United
              States 1825. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        FÜRST.              53        270

   LV       PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON.
              [_Seventh President of the United States of America._]
            Andrew Jackson President of the United States
              A.D. 1829. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        FÜRST.              54        271

  LVI       COLONEL GEORGE CROGHAN.
              [_Defence of Fort Stephenson._]
            Presented by Congress to Colonel George
              Croghan 1835. [Rx]. Pars magna fuit.
                                        FÜRST.              55        272

 LVII       PRESIDENT MARTIN VAN BUREN.
              [_Eighth President of the United States of America._]
            Martin Van Buren President of the United States
              A.D. 1837. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        FÜRST.              56        275

LVIII       PRESIDENT JOHN TYLER.
              [_Tenth President of the United States of America._]
            John Tyler, President of the United States.
              1841. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                                            57        276

  LIX       PRESIDENT JAMES KNOX POLK.
              [_Eleventh President of the United States of America._]
            James K. Polk President of the United States.
              1845. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        PEALE.              58        280

   LX       MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.
              [_Victories on the Rio Grande._]
            Major General Zachary Taylor. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress July 16th 1846, etc.
                                                            59        281

  LXI       MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.
              [_Taking of Monterey._]
            Major General Zachary Taylor. [Rx]. Resolution
              of Congress March 2nd 1847, etc.
                                                            60        290

 LXII       LOSS OF THE UNITED STATES BRIG-OR-WAR SOMERS.
              [_For Having Saved the Lives of Americans._]
            Somers navis Americana. [Rx]. Pro vitis
              Americanorum conservatis.
                                        C. C. WRIGHT.       61        299

LXIII       MAJOR-GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT.
              [_Mexican Campaign._]
            Major General Winfield Scott. [Rx].
              Vera Cruz. Cerro Gordo.
              Contreras, etc.
                                        S. ELLIS.
                                        G. C. HUMPHRIES.    62        394
                                        C. C. WRIGHT.

 LXIV       MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR
              [_Victory of Buena Vista._]
            Major General Zachary Taylor, etc.
              [Rx]. Buena Vista Feb. 22 & 23, 1847.
                                        S. ELLIS.
                                        F. A. SMITH.        63        336
                                        C. C. WRIGHT.

  LXV       PRESIDENT ZACHARY TAYLOR
              [_Twelfth President of the United States of America._]
            Zachary Taylor President of the United
              States 1849. [Rx]. Peace and friendship.
                                        F. PEALE.           64        348

 LXVI       PRESIDENT MILLARD FILLMORE.
              [_Thirteenth President of the United States of America._]
            Millard Fillmore President of the United
            States 1850. [Rx]. Labor virtue honor.
                                        S. ELLIS.
                                        J. WILLSON.         65        349

LXVII       PRESIDENT FRANKLIN PIERCE.
              [_Fourteenth President of the United States of America._]
            Franklin Pierce, President of the United
              States. 1853. [Rx]. Labor virute honor.
                                        S. ELLIS.
                                        J. WILLSON.         66        351

LXVIII      COMMANDER DUNCAN NATHANIEL INGRAHAM.
              [_Release of Martin Coszta._]
            Smyrna. American sloop of war St. Louis.
              Austrian brig of war Hussar. [Rx].
              Presented by the President of the
              United States to Commander Duncan N.
              Ingraham, etc.
                                        S. EASTMAN.
                                        P. F. CROSS.        67        352
                                        J. B. LONGACRE.

 LXIX       PRESIDENT JAMES BUCHANAN.
              [_Fifteenth President of the United States of America._]
            James Buchanan, President of the United
              States 1857. [Rx]. Labor virtue honor.
                                        S. ELLIS.
                                        J. WILLSON.         68        361

  LXX       DOCTOR FREDERICK HENRY ROSE.
              [_Kindness and Humanity of Doctor Rose._]
            James Buchanan, President of the United
              States. [Rx]. To Dr. Frederick Rose, Assistant
              Surgeon, Royal Navy, G.B.
                                        PAQUET.             69        362

 LXXI       PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
              [_Sixteenth President of the United States of America._]
            Abraham Lincoln, President of the United
              States 1862.
                                        S. ELLIS.           70        366

LXXIIa      NAVY MEDAL OF HONOR.        PAQUET.             71        367

LXXIIb      ARMY MEDAL OF HONOR.        PAQUET.             72        368

LXXIII      MAJOR-GENERAL ULYSSES SIMPSON GRANT.
              [_Victories of Fort Donelson, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga._]
            Major General Ulysses S. Grant. Joint Resolution
              of Congress December 17. 1863.
              [Rx]. Donelson, Vicksburg, etc.
                                        ANTROBUS.
                                        PAQUET.             73        370

LXXIV       CORNELIUS VANDERBILT.
              [_Free Gift of Steamship Vanderbilt._]
            A grateful country to her generous son
              Cornelius Vanderbilt. [Rx]. Bis dat qui tempori
              dat. 1865.
                                        LEUTZE.
                                        S. ELLIS.           74        406

 LXXV       PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON.
              [_Seventeenth President of the United States of America._]
            Andrew Johnson, President of the United
              States. 1865. [Rx]. Peace.
                                        PAQUET.             75        410

LXXVI       WRECK OF THE STEAMSHIP SAN FRANCISCO.
              [_Testimonial of National Gratitude._]
            By joint resolution of Congress to the
              rescuers of the passengers officers and
              men of steamship San Francisco, etc.
              [Rx]. July 26 1866.
                                        PAQUET.             75        410

LXXVII      CYRUS WEST FIELD.
              [_Laying of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable._]
            Honor and fame are the reward. [Rx]. By
              resolution of the Congress of the United
              States. March 2, 1867. to Cyrus W. Field,
              of New York, etc.
                                        J. G. BRUFF.
                                        BARBER.             77        418

LXXVIII     GEORGE PEABODY.
              [_Promotion of Universal Education._]
            [Rx]. The people of the United States to
              George Peabody, etc.                          78        421

LXXIX       PRESIDENT ULYSSES SIMPSON GRANT.
              [_Eighteenth President of the United States of America._]
            United States of America. Liberty justice
              and equality "Let us have peace." [Rx].
              On earth peace good will toward men.
                                        PAQUET.             79        429

 LXXX       GEORGE FOSTER ROBINSON.
              [_Heroic Conduct._]
            To George F. Robinson. Awarded by the
              Congress of the United States, March 1, 1871.
                                        G. Y. COFFIN.
                                        PAQUET.             80        430

LXXXI       LOSS OF THE STEAMER METIS.
              [_Courage and Humanity._]
            By Resolution of Congress February 24, 1873.
                                        W. & C. BARBER.     81        434

LXXXII      CENTENNIAL MEDAL.
              [_Hundredth Anniversary of American Independence._]
            These United Colonies are, and of right
              ought to be, free and independent States.
              [Rx]. In commemoration of the hundredth
              anniversary.
                                        W. BARBER.          83        440

LXXXIII     CENTENNIAL MEDAL.
              [_Hundredth Anniversary of American Independence._]
            These United Colonies are, and of right
              ought to be, free and independent
              States. [Rx]. By authority of the
              Congress, etc.
                                        W. BARBER.          83        440

LXXXIV      LIFE SAVING MEDAL OF THE FIRST CLASS.
              [_Saving Life from the Perils of the Sea._]
            Life Saving medal of the first class.
              United States of America. [Rx]. In
              testimony of heroic deeds, etc.
                                        PAQUET.             84        441

LXXXV       LIFE SAVING MEDAL OF THE SECOND CLASS.
              [_Saving Life from the Perils of the Sea._]
            Life Saving medal of the second class.
              United States of America. [Rx]. In testimony
              of heroic deeds, etc.
                                        PAQUET.             85        453

LXXXVI      JOHN HORN, JR.
             [_Heroic Exploits._]
            John Horn, Jr. [Rx]. By Act of Congress
              June 20th 1874. In recognition of his
              heroic exploits, etc.
                                        C. BARBER.          86        457



THE MEDALLIC HISTORY                                               (p. 001)

OF

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

1776-1876.


No. 1.
PLATE I.


_March 17, 1776._

     Georgio Washington svpremo dvci exercitvvm adsertori libertatis
     Comitia Americana. [Rx].[26] Hostibus primo fugatis.

                   [Footnote 26: [Rx]. Abbreviation of REVERSE.]

GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON.

[_Boston retaken._]

GEORGIO WASHINGTON SVPREMO DVCI EXERCITVVM ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS
COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American Congress to George Washington,
commander-in-chief of the armies, the assertor of liberty._) Undraped
bust of General Washington, facing the right. DUVIVIER. Paris. F.
(_fecit_).

HOSTIBUS PRIMO FUGATIS. (_The enemy put to flight for the first
time._) To the left, General Washington on horseback, surrounded by
his staff, points toward the British fleet, which is leaving Boston.
The American army, in battle array in front of its intrenchments,  (p. 002)
makes ready to occupy the city. Exergue: BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM XVII
MARTII MDCCLXXVI. (_Boston retaken, March 17, 1776._) On a cannon,
DUVIV. (_Duvivier_).[27]

                   [Footnote 27: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, xiii,
                   xvi, xxiii, xxv, xxviii; B, xxxvi; G, xlv; and H,
                   xlvii.]

Although this medal was the first one voted by Congress, it was not
struck until after that of the Chevalier de Fleury, which was voted
three years later. Its designs, and those of the medals awarded to
General Horatio Gates for Saratoga, General Nathaniel Greene for Eutaw
Springs, General Daniel Morgan, Lieutenant-Colonels William Augustine
Washington and John Eager Howard for the Cowpens, General Anthony
Wayne and Major John Stewart for Stony Point, and Captain John Paul
Jones for the capture of the Serapis, were composed by commissioners
appointed by the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, at
the request of Colonel David Humphreys and of Mr. Jefferson. The
legend of the reverse of the General Washington medal, as originally
proposed, was HOSTIBUS or ANGLIS PRIMUM FUGATIS. Several of the medals
are treated of at length in the Introduction, to which, to avoid
repetition, the reader is referred.


PIERRE SIMON DUVIVIER was born in Paris, November 5, 1731. He was the
son of Jean Duvivier, a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and
Sculpture, and the grandson of Jean Duvivier, known as Duvivier "_le
père_," the first of this distinguished family of medal engravers, who
lived in Liège at the beginning of the 17th century. Pierre Simon
Duvivier was engraver-general of the Paris Mint prior to 1793, and
executed medals of many eminent persons. America is indebted to him
for those of General Washington, Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury,
Lieutenant-Colonel William Augustine Washington, and Lieutenant-Colonel
John Eager Howard. He was a member of the Academy of Fine Arts, and
died June 10, 1819.


GEORGE WASHINGTON was born near Pope's Creek, Westmoreland County,
Virginia, February 22, 1732. He lost his father when but ten years of
age, and in 1752, in consequence of the death of his elder brother,
came into possession of the estate of Mount Vernon, on the Potomac
River, and other property. The same year he received a commission as
major of militia, and in 1755 became colonel and aid-de-camp to    (p. 003)
General Braddock. On the death of that officer in the disastrous march
against Fort Duquesne, Washington conducted the retreat, and was
shortly afterward appointed commander of the Virginia troops. In 1774
he was elected member of the first Continental Congress, held in
Philadelphia, and in the following year was appointed commander-in-chief
of the Continental Army, taking command of the forces at Cambridge,
July 3, 1775. On March 17, 1776, he compelled the British forces to
evacuate Boston, for which Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a
gold medal. He was commander-in-chief throughout the War of
Independence, and resigned his commission as such, December 23, 1783,
when he retired to Mount Vernon. He was delegate from Virginia to the
National Convention which met in Philadelphia in May, 1787, to frame
the Constitution of the United States, and was chosen its president.
He was afterward unanimously elected first President of the United
States, and was inaugurated in New York city, April 30, 1789. He was
re-elected, and inaugurated a second time, March 4, 1793; refused a
third term of office, and issued a farewell address, September 17,
1796. When a war with France was expected, in 1797, he was
re-appointed commander-in-chief. General Washington died at Mount
Vernon, December 14, 1799.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Washington._

IN CONGRESS.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of this Congress, in their own name,
     and in the name of the thirteen United Colonies, whom they
     represent, be presented to His Excellency General Washington, and
     the officers and soldiers under his command, for their wise and
     spirited conduct in the siege and acquisition of Boston; and that
     a medal of gold be struck in commemoration of this great event,
     and presented to His Excellency; and that a committee of
     three[28] be appointed to prepare a letter of thanks and a proper
     device for the medal.

     Monday, March 25, 1776.

                   [Footnote 28: The members chosen were Mr. J. Adams,
                   Mr. Jay, and Mr. Hopkins.]

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._                 (p. 004)

     To
       John HANCOCK, Esq.,              HEADQUARTERS, Cambridge,
          President of Congress.            March 19, 1776.

     Sir: It is with the greatest pleasure I inform you that, on
     Sunday last, the seventeenth instant, about nine o'clock in the
     forenoon, the ministerial army evacuated the town of Boston, and
     that the forces of the United Colonies are now in actual
     possession thereof. I beg leave to congratulate you, Sir, and the
     honourable Congress, on this happy event, and particularly as it
     was effected without endangering the lives and property of the
     remaining unhappy inhabitants.

     I have great reason to imagine their flight was precipitated by
     the appearance of a work which I had ordered to be thrown up last
     Saturday night on an eminence at Dorchester, which lay nearest to
     Boston Neck, called Nook's Hill.

     The town, although it has suffered greatly, is not in so bad a
     state as I expected to find it; and I have a particular pleasure
     in being able to inform you, Sir, that your house has received no
     damage worth mentioning. Your furniture is in tolerable order,
     and the family pictures are all left entire and untouched.
     Captain Cazeneau takes charge of the whole until he shall receive
     further orders from you.

     As soon as the ministerial troops had quitted the town, I ordered
     a thousand men (who had had the small-pox), under command of
     General Putnam, to take possession of the heights, which I shall
     endeavour to fortify in such a manner as to prevent their return,
     should they attempt it. But as they are still in the harbour, I
     thought it not prudent to march off with the main body of the
     army until I should be fully satisfied they had quitted the
     coast. I have, therefore, only detached five regiments, besides
     the rifle battalion, to New York, and shall keep the remainder
     here till all suspicion of their return ceases.

     The situation in which I found their works evidently discovered
     that their retreat was made with the greatest precipitation. They
     have left their barracks, and other works of wood at Bunker Hill,
     &c., all standing, and have destroyed but a small part of their
     lines. They have also left a number of fine pieces of cannon
     which they first spiked up, also a very large iron mortar, and,
     as I am informed, they have thrown another over the end of your
     wharf. I have employed proper persons to drill the cannon, and
     doubt not I shall save the most of them. I am not yet able to
     procure an exact list of all the stores they have left. As soon
     as it can be done, I shall take care to transmit it to you. From
     an estimate of what the quartermaster-general has already
     discovered, the amount will be twenty-five or thirty thousand
     pounds.

     Part of the powder mentioned in yours of the sixth instant has
     already arrived. The remainder I have ordered to be stopped on
     the road, as we shall have no occasion for it here. The letter to
     General Thomas I immediately sent to him. He desired leave for
     three or four days to settle some of his private affairs, after
     which he will set out for his command in Canada. I am happy that
     my conduct in intercepting Lord Drummond's letter is approved of
     by Congress.

                 I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                              Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

_The President of Congress to General Washington._                 (p. 005)

     To
       General WASHINGTON.              Philadelphia, April 2, 1776.

     Sir: It gives me the most sensible pleasure to convey to you, by
     order of Congress, the only tribute which a free people will ever
     consent to pay--the tribute of thanks and gratitude to their
     friends and benefactors. The disinterested and patriotic
     principles which led you to the field have also led you to glory;
     and it affords no little consolation to your countrymen to
     reflect that, as a peculiar greatness of mind induced you to
     decline any compensation for serving them, except the pleasure of
     promoting their happiness, they may, without your permission,
     bestow upon you the largest share of their affections and esteem.

     Those pages in the annals of America will record your title to a
     conspicuous place in the temple of fame which shall inform
     posterity that, under your direction, an undisciplined band of
     husbandmen, in the course of a few months, became soldiers; and
     that the desolation meditated against the country by a brave army
     of veterans, commanded by the most experienced generals, but
     employed by bad men in the worst of causes, was, by the fortitude
     of your troops, and the address of their officers, next to the
     kind interposition of Providence, confined for near a year within
     such narrow limits as scarcely to admit more room than was
     necessary for the encampments and fortifications they lately
     abandoned. Accept, therefore, Sir, the thanks of the United
     Colonies, unanimously declared by their delegates to be due to
     you and the brave officers and troops under your command; and be
     pleased to communicate to them this distinguished mark of the
     approbation of their country. The Congress have ordered a golden
     medal, adapted to the occasion, to be struck, and, when finished,
     to be presented to you.

     I have the honour to be, with every sentiment of esteem, Sir,
     your most obedient and very humble servant,
                                             John HANCOCK, President.

                              _____

_John Adams to General Washington._

     To
       General WASHINGTON.              Philadelphia, April 2, 1776.

     Sir: I congratulate you, as well as all the friends of mankind,
     in the reduction of Boston, an event which appeared to me of so
     great and decisive importance, that, the next morning after the
     arrival of the news, I did myself the honour to move for the
     thanks of Congress to Your Excellency, and that a medal of gold
     should be struck in commemoration of it. Congress have been
     pleased to appoint me, with two other gentlemen, to prepare a
     device. I should be very happy to have Your Excellency's
     sentiments concerning a proper one.

     I have the honour to be, with great respect, Sir, your most
     obedient and affectionate servant,
                                       John ADAMS.

                              _____

_General Washington to John Adams._                                (p. 006)

     To
       John ADAMS, Esq.,                New York, April 15, 1776.
          In Congress.

     Sir: I am impressed with the deepest gratitude for the high
     honour intended me by Congress. Whatever devices may be
     determined upon by the respectable committee they have chosen for
     that purpose will be highly agreeable to me.

     I have the honour to be, most respectfully, Sir, your most
     obedient and affectionate humble servant,
                                              Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

_Colonel Humphreys to General Washington._

     To
       General WASHINGTON.              Paris, May, 1785.

     My dear General: Upon leaving America Mr. Morris invested me with
     the power of procuring the several honourary presents which have
     been voted by Congress to different officers in their service
     during the late war. The Royal Academy of Inscriptions and
     Belles-Lettres, to whom I addressed a letter on the subject, have
     furnished me with the following device and inscriptions for the
     gold medal which is to be executed for Your Excellency:

     "On one side, the head of the general. Legend: 'GEORGIO
     WASHINGTON SUPREMO DUCI EXERCITUUM ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS COMITIA
     AMERICANA.' On the reverse: Taking possession of Boston. The
     American army advances in good order toward the town, which is
     seen at a distance, while the British army flies with
     precipitation toward the shore, to embark on board the vessels,
     with which the harbour is covered. In the front of the American
     army appears the general on horseback, in a group of officers,
     whom he seems to make observe the flight of the enemy. Legend:
     'HOSTIBUS PRIMO FUGATIS.' Exergue: 'BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM DIE
     XVII MARTII, MDCCLXXVI.'"

     I think it has the character of simplicity and dignity which is
     to be aimed at in a memorial of this kind, which is designed to
     transmit the remembrance of a great event to posterity. You
     really do not know how much your name is venerated on this side
     of the Atlantic.

     I have the honour to be, my dear General, your sincere friend and
     humble servant,
                                        D. HUMPHREYS.

                              _____

_Colonel Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson._

     To
       Thomas JEFFERSON, Esq.,          London, January 30, 1786.
          Paris.

     Dear Sir: Gatteaux, the engraver, lives in the street St. Thomas
     du Louvre, opposite the Treasury of the Duke de Chartres.

     Now that there is no obstacle to commencing the medal for     (p. 007)
     General Washington, since Houdon's return, I could wish,
     should it not be giving you too much trouble, that you would send
     for Duvivier, who lives in the old Louvre, and propose to him
     undertaking it upon exactly the terms he had offered, which, I
     think, were 2,400 livres, besides the gold and expense of
     coinage. If he should not choose it, we must let it rest until
     Dupré shall have finished General Greene's. Gatteaux has a paper
     on which is the description of General Washington's medal.

     I am, Sir, your most obedient and humble servant,
                                                      D. HUMPHREYS.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Humphreys._

     To
       Colonel HUMPHREYS,               Paris, May 7, 1786.
          London.

     Dear Sir: I have received the books and papers you mention, and
     will undertake to have finished what you left undone of the
     medals, or, at least, will proceed in it till the matter shall be
     put into better hands.

     I am, dear Sir, your friend and servant,
                                             Th: JEFFERSON.



No. 2.                                                             (p. 008)
PLATE II.


_October 17, 1777._

     Horatio Gates duci strenuo Comitia Americana. [Rx]. Salus
     regionum septentrional.

MAJOR-GENERAL HORATIO GATES.

[_Surrender of the British Army at Saratoga._]

HORATIO GATES DUCI STRENUO COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American Congress
to Horatio Gates, a valiant general._) Bust of General Gates, in
uniform, facing the left. N. GATTEAUX.

SALUS REGIONUM SEPTENTRIONAL. (_Salus regionum septentrionalium: The
safety of the northern regions._) Lieutenant-General Burgoyne is
surrendering his sword to General Gates. In the background, on the
left, the vanquished troops of Great Britain are grounding their arms
and standards. On the right is the victorious American army, in order
of battle, with colors flying.[29] Exergue: HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN
DEDITION. (_deditionem_) ACCEPTO DIE XVII. OCT. (_Octobris_)
MDCCLXXVII. (_The enemy surrendered at Saratoga, on the 17th of
October, 1777._) On the platform, GATTEAUX, F. (_fecit_).[30]

                   [Footnote 29: The "stars and stripes." Congress
                   passed, June 14, 1777, the following resolution:

                   _Resolved_, That the flag of the thirteen United
                   States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and
                   white; that the union be thirteen stars, white on a
                   blue field, representing a new constellation.

                   And it was to this new American flag that General
                   Burgoyne surrendered.

                   Congress changed the flag by the following act,
                   which was approved January 13, 1794:

                   _Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of
                   Representatives of the United States in Congress
                   assembled_, That from and after the first day of
                   May, anno Domini one thousand seven hundred and
                   ninety-five, the flag of the United States be
                   fifteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the
                   union be fifteen stars, white on a blue field.

                   Congress made a second change by an act approved
                   April 14, 1818:

                   _Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of
                   Representatives of the United States in Congress
                   assembled_, That from and after the fourth day of
                   July next, the flag of the United States be
                   thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and
                   white; that the union be twenty stars, white on a
                   blue field.

                   SECTION 2. _And be it further enacted_, That on the
                   admission of every new State into the Union, one
                   star be added to the union of the flag; and that
                   such addition shall take place on the fourth day of
                   July then next succeeding such admission.]

                   [Footnote 30: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, xiii,
                   xvi, xvii, xxx, xxxv; and B, xxxvi.]

The legend of the obverse of this medal, originally proposed by    (p. 009)
the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, was HORATIO
GATES DUCI PROVIDO COMITIA AMERICANA; and that of the reverse, SALUS
PROVINCIARUM SEPTENTRIONALIUM.


NICOLAS MARIE GATTEAUX was born in Paris, August 2, 1751, and in the
latter part of the reign of Louis XVI. was appointed engraver of
medals to the king. During the French Revolution he was intrusted with
the execution of various works of art for different branches of the
public service. The process followed in the printing of assignats, of
bills of exchange, and of lottery tickets, as well as the
printing-press which works at the same time with the dry and wet
stamp, were his inventions. He designed and engraved a number of
medals representing eminent persons, or important events of the
period, including three relating to the War of Independence, viz.,
those of General Gates, General Wayne, and Major John Stewart He died
in Paris, June 24, 1832.


HORATIO GATES was born in Malden, England, in 1728. He entered the
British army when young, and served under General Lord Cornwallis in
Nova Scotia, and afterward under General Braddock in his campaign
against Fort Duquesne, but, being severely wounded during the retreat,
left the army and settled in Virginia. Having received a commission as
adjutant-general, with the rank of brigadier, he accompanied
Washington to Cambridge in July, 1775. While commander-in-chief of the
northern army, he defeated General John Burgoyne at Stillwater,
September 17, 1777, and received his surrender at Saratoga on the 17th
of October following, for which most important achievement Congress
gave him a vote of thanks and a gold medal.[31] He was appointed
commander-in-chief of the southern department in June, 1780, but,
being defeated shortly afterward at Camden, on the 16th of August, he
was superseded by General Greene. During the remainder of the war he
played no prominent part, and, at the conclusion of peace, retired to
his estate, in Virginia. In 1790 he removed to New York city, where he
died, April 10, 1806.

                   [Footnote 31: The victory at Saratoga is also
                   commemorated in the Libertas Americana medal, No.
                   14, page 86, which was struck in Paris in 1783,
                   under the direction of Dr. Franklin.]

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 010)

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Gates._

IN CONGRESS.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of Congress, in their own name, and
     in behalf of the inhabitants of the thirteen United States, be
     presented to Major-General Gates, commander-in-chief in the
     northern department, and to Major-Generals Lincoln and Arnold,
     and the rest of the officers and troops under his command, for
     their brave and successful efforts in support of the independence
     of their country, whereby an army of the enemy, of ten thousand
     men, has been totally defeated; one large detachment of it,
     strongly posted and intrenched, having been conquered at
     Bennington; another repulsed with loss and disgrace from Fort
     Schuyler; and the main army of six thousand men, under
     Lieutenant-General Burgoyne, after being beaten in different
     actions, and driven from a formidable post and strong
     intrenchments, reduced to the necessity of surrendering
     themselves upon terms honourable and advantageous to these
     States, on the 17th day of October last, to Major-General Gates;
     and that a medal of gold be struck, under the direction of the
     Board of War, in commemoration of this great event, and in the
     name of these United States presented by the President to
     Major-General Gates.

     Tuesday, November 4, 1777.

                              _____

_General Gates to the President of Congress._

     To His Excellency
        John HANCOCK, Esq.,             Camp Saratoga,
             President of Congress.         October 18, 1777.

     Sir: I have the satisfaction to present Your Excellency with the
     convention of Saratoga, by which His Excellency
     Lieutenant-General Burgoyne has surrendered himself and his whole
     army into my hands, and they are now upon their march for Boston.
     This signal and important event is the more glorious, as it was
     effected with so little loss to the army of the United States.

     This letter will be presented to Your Excellency by my
     adjutant-general, Colonel Wilkinson, to whom I must beg leave to
     refer Your Excellency for the particulars that brought this great
     business to so happy and fortunate a conclusion.

     I desire to be permitted to recommend this gallant officer in the
     warmest manner to Congress, and entreat that he may be continued
     in his present office, with the brevet of a brigadier-general.

     The honourable Congress will believe me when I assure them that,
     from the beginning of this war, I have not met with a more
     promising military genius than Colonel Wilkinson, and whose
     services have been of the greatest importance to this army.

     I am, Sir, Your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant,
                                                  Horatio GATES.

                              _____

_Articles of Convention between Major-General Gates and            (p. 011)
Lieutenant-General Burgoyne._

     I.

     The troops under Lieutenant-General Burgoyne to march out of
     their camp, with the honours of war and the artillery of the
     intrenchments, to the verge of the river, where the old fort
     stood, where the arms and artillery are to be left, the arms to
     be piled by word of command from their own officers.

     II.

     A free passage to be granted to the army under Lieutenant-General
     Burgoyne to Great Britain, on condition of not serving again in
     North America during the present contest; and the port of Boston
     is assigned for the entry of transports to receive the troops
     whensoever General Howe shall so order.

     III.

     Should any cartel take place by which the army under General
     Burgoyne, or any part of it, may be exchanged, the foregoing
     article to be void, as far as such exchange be made.

     IV.

     The army under Lieutenant-General Burgoyne to march to
     Massachusetts Bay by the easiest, most expeditious and convenient
     route, and to be quartered in, near, or as convenient as possible
     to, Boston, that the march of the troops may not be delayed when
     transports arrive to receive them.

     V.

     The troops to be supplied, on their march and during their being
     in quarters, with provisions, by General Gates's orders, at the
     same rate of rations as the troops of his own army; and, if
     possible, the officers' horses and cattle are to be supplied with
     forage at the usual rates.

     VI.

     All officers to retain their carriages, bathorses, and other
     cattle, and no baggage to be molested or searched,
     Lieutenant-General Burgoyne giving his honour that there are no
     public stores secreted therein. Major-General Gates will, of
     course, take the necessary measures for the due performance of
     this article. Should any carriages be wanted, during the march,
     for the transportation of officers' baggage, they are, if
     possible, to be supplied by the country at the usual rates.

     VII.

     Upon the march, and during the time the army shall remain in
     quarters in Massachusetts Bay, the officers are not, as far as
     circumstances admit, to be separated from their men. The officers
     are to be quartered according to rank, and are not to be hindered
     from assembling their men for roll-call, and other necessary
     purposes of regularity.

     VIII.                                                         (p. 012)

     All corps whatsoever of Lieutenant-General Burgoyne's army,
     whether composed of sailors, bateaumen, artificers, drivers,
     independent companies, and followers of the army, of whatever
     country, shall be included in the fullest sense and the utmost
     extent of the above articles, and comprehended in every respect
     as British subjects.

     IX.

     All Canadians and persons belonging to the Canadian
     establishment, consisting of sailors, bateaumen, artificers,
     drivers, independent companies, and many other followers of the
     army, who come under no particular description, are to be
     permitted to return there; they are to be conducted immediately,
     by the shortest route, to the first British post on Lake George,
     are to be supplied with provisions in the same manner as the
     other troops, and are to be bound by the same condition of not
     serving during the present contest in North America.

     X.

     Passports to be immediately granted for three officers, not
     exceeding the rank of captains, who shall be appointed by
     Lieutenant-General Burgoyne to carry despatches to Sir William
     Howe, Sir Guy Carleton, and to Great Britain, by the way of New
     York; and Major-General Gates engages the public faith that these
     despatches shall not be opened. These officers are to set out
     immediately after receiving their despatches, and are to travel
     the shortest route and in the most expeditious manner.

     XI.

     During the stay of the troops in Massachusetts Bay the officers
     are to be admitted on parole, and are to be allowed to wear their
     side arms.

     XII.

     Should the army under Lieutenant-General Burgoyne find it
     necessary to send for their clothing and other baggage to Canada,
     they are permitted to do it in the most convenient manner, and
     the necessary passports granted for that purpose.

     XIII.

     These articles are to be mutually signed and exchanged to-morrow
     morning at nine o'clock, and the troops under Lieutenant-General
     Burgoyne are to march out of their intrenchments at three o'clock
     in the afternoon.

                                        Horatio GATES, Major-General.
                                        J. BURGOYNE, Lieutenant-General.

     Saratoga, October 16, 1777.

     To prevent any doubts that might arise from Lieutenant-General
     Burgoyne's name not being mentioned in the above treaty,
     Major-General Gates hereby declares that he is understood to be
     comprehended in it as fully as if his name had been specifically
     mentioned.

                                        Horatio GATES.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Humphreys._                           (p. 013)

     To
       Colonel HUMPHREYS,               Paris, December 4, 1785.
           London.

     Dear Sir: I inclose a letter from Gatteaux, observing that there
     will be an anachronism if, in making a medal to commemorate the
     victory of Saratoga, he puts on General Gates the insignia of the
     Cincinnati, which did not exist at that date. I wrote him, in
     answer, that I thought so, too, but that you had the direction of
     the business; that you were now in London; that I would write to
     you, and probably should have an answer within a fortnight; and
     that, in the mean time, he could be employed on other parts of
     the die. I supposed you might not have observed on the print of
     General Gates the insignia of the Cincinnati, or did not mean
     that that particular should be copied. Another reason against it
     strikes me: Congress have studiously avoided giving to the public
     their sense of this institution. Should medals be prepared to be
     presented from them to certain officers, and bearing on them the
     insignia of the order, as the presenting them would involve an
     approbation of the institution, a previous question would be
     forced on them, whether they would present these medals. I am of
     opinion it would be very disagreeable to them to be placed under
     the necessity of making this declaration. Be so good as to let me
     know your wishes on this subject by the first post, and be
     assured of the esteem with which I am, dear Sir, your friend and
     servant,
                                        Th: JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_Colonel Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson._

     To
       Thomas JEFFERSON, Esq.,          London, Leicester Square, No. 18.
          Paris.

     Dear Sir: I have been honoured with your favour of December 4th,
     and on the subject of Gatteaux' application take the liberty to
     inform you that I never had an idea of his engraving the insignia
     of the Cincinnati. I clearly see the impropriety of it. I should,
     therefore, be much obliged if you would take the trouble of
     giving him definitive instructions on this and any other points
     that may occur in the execution of the medal....

     I am, with the sincerest affection, dear Sir, your most obedient
     and humble servant,
                                        D. HUMPHREYS.



No. 3.                                                             (p. 014)
PLATE III.


_July 15, 7779._

     Antonio Wayne duci exercitus Comitia Americana. [Rx].
     Stoney-Point expugnatum.

BRIGADIER-GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE.

[_Taking of Stony Point._]

ANTONIO WAYNE DUCI EXERCITUS COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American
Congress to General Anthony Wayne._) America, personified as an Indian
queen, standing, and having at her feet a bow, an alligator, and the
American shield, presents to General Wayne a laurel and a mural crown.
GATTEAUX.

STONEY-POINT (_sic_) EXPUGNATUM. (_Stony Point carried by storm._) The
American troops carrying Stony Point by assault. Six ships on the
Hudson River. Exergue: XV JUL. MDCCLXXIX. (_15 Julii, 1779: July 15,
1779._) On the platform, GATTEAUX.[32]

                   [Footnote 32: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xix,
                   xxviii, xxx, xxxv; D, xli; and H, xlvii.]


ANTHONY WAYNE was born at Waynesborough, Chester County, Pennsylvania,
January 1, 1745. He was educated in Philadelphia. In 1774 he was elected
a member of the Pennsylvania Convention, and in 1775 was appointed
colonel of a regiment under General Thomas in Canada, and took part in
the engagements at Three Rivers and at Ticonderoga. In 1777 he was
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general under Washington, and fought
at the Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. On the night of July 15,
1779, he surprised and took Stony Point, on the Hudson River, for
which gallant deed Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold
medal. He afterward served in the South, occupied Savannah, July 11,
1782, and Charleston, South Carolina, on the 14th of December
following, and retired to his estate at the close of the war. On April
3, 1792, he was appointed major-general and commander-in-chief in the
war against the western Indians, and in 1794 gained an important
victory over the Miami tribe of Indians. He died at Presque Isle,  (p. 015)
now Erie, Pennsylvania, December 14, 1796. In 1809, his son, Colonel
Wayne, removed his remains to the cemetery of Radnor church, near
Waynesborough, where the Pennsylvania State Society of the Cincinnati
caused a handsome monument to be erected to his memory. He was known
during the Revolutionary War by the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony."

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to General Wayne, to Lieutenant
Colonel de Fleury, and to Major Stewart, etc._

IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That the thanks of Congress be given to
     His Excellency General Washington for the vigilance, wisdom, and
     magnanimity with which he hath conducted the military operations
     of these States, and which are among many other signal instances
     manifested in his orders for the late glorious enterprize and
     successful attack on the enemy's fortress on the bank of Hudson's
     river.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That the thanks of Congress be presented
     to Brigadier-General Wayne for his brave, prudent, and soldierly
     conduct in the spirited and well-conducted attack of Stony Point.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That Congress entertain a proper sense of
     the good conduct of the officers and soldiers under the command
     of Brigadier-General Wayne, in the assault of the enemy's works
     at Stony Point, and highly commend the coolness, discipline, and
     firm intrepidity exhibited on that occasion.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury and Major
     Stewart, who by their situation in leading the two attacks had a
     more immediate opportunity of distinguishing themselves, have, by
     their personal achievements, exhibited a bright example to their
     brother soldiers, and merit in a particular manner the
     approbation and acknowledgment of the United States.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That Congress warmly approve and applaud
     the cool determined spirit with which Lieutenant Gibbons and
     Lieutenant Knox led on the forlorn hope, braving danger and death
     in the cause of their country.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That a medal, emblematical of this
     action, be struck:

     That one of gold be presented to Brigadier-General Wayne, and a
     silver one to Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury and Major Stewart
     respectively.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That brevets of captain be given to
     Lieutenant Gibbons and Lieutenant Knox.

     That the brevet of captain be given to Mr. Archer, the bearer of
     the general's letter, and volunteer aid to Brigadier-General
     Wayne.

     That Congress approve the promises of reward made by General  (p. 016)
     Wayne, with the concurrence of the commander-in-chief, to the
     troops under his command.

     That the value of the military stores taken at Stony Point be
     ascertained, and divided among the gallant troops by whom it was
     reduced, in such manner and proportion as the commander-in-chief
     shall prescribe.

     Monday, July 26, 1779.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To                            New Windsor, half-past nine o'clock,
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.               July 16, 1779.

     Sir: I have the pleasure to transmit to Your Excellency the
     inclosed copy of a letter from Brigadier-General Wayne, which
     this moment came to hand. I congratulate Congress upon our
     success, and what makes it still more agreeable from the report
     of Captain Fishbourn, who brought me General Wayne's letter, the
     post was gained with but very inconsiderable loss on our part. As
     soon as I receive a particular account of the affair, I shall
     transmit it.

     I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                   Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

_General Wayne to General Washington._

     To                                 Stony Point, two o'clock A.M.,
       General WASHINGTON.                    July 16, 1779.

     Dear General: The fort and garrison with Colonel Johnson are
     ours. Our officers and men behaved like men who are determined to
     be free.
                 Yours, most sincerely,
                                        Anthony WAYNE.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.       New Windsor, July 20, 1779.

     Sir: On the 16th instant I had the honour to inform Congress of a
     successful attack upon the enemy's post at Stony Point, on the
     preceding night, by Brigadier-General Wayne and the corps of
     light infantry under his command. The ulterior operations on
     which we have been engaged have hitherto put it out of my power
     to transmit the particulars of this interesting event. They will
     now be found in the inclosed report, which I have received from
     General Wayne. To the encomiums he has deservedly bestowed on the
     officers and men under his command, it gives me pleasure to add,
     that his own conduct throughout the whole of this arduous
     enterprize merits the warmest approbation of Congress. He     (p. 017)
     improved upon the plan recommended by me, and executed it in a
     manner that does signal honour to his judgment and to his
     bravery. In a critical moment of the assault, he received a flesh
     wound in the head with a musket ball, but continued leading on
     his men with unshaken firmness.

     I now beg leave, for the private satisfaction of Congress, to
     explain the motives which induced me to direct the attempt. In my
     former letters I have pointed out the advantages which the enemy
     derived from the possession of this post and the one on the
     opposite side, and the inconveniences resulting from it to us. To
     deprive them of the former, and to remove the latter, were
     sufficient inducements to endeavour to dispossess them. The
     necessity of doing something to satisfy the expectations of the
     people, and reconcile them to the defensive plan we are obliged
     to pursue, and to the apparent inactivity which our situation
     imposes upon us; the value of the acquisition in itself, with
     respect to the men, artillery, and stores, which composed the
     garrison; the effect it would have upon the successive operations
     of the campaign, and the check it would give to the immediate
     depredations of the enemy at the present season; all these
     motives concurred to determine me to the undertaking. The certain
     advantages of success, even if not so extensive as might be
     hoped, would, at all events, be very important; the probable
     disadvantages of a failure were comparatively inconsiderable,
     and, on the plan which was adopted, could amount to little more
     than the loss of a small number of men.

     After reconnoitering the post myself, and collecting all the
     information I could get of its strength and situation, I found
     that, without hazarding a greater loss than we were able to
     afford, and with little likelihood of success, the attempt to
     carry it could only be by way of surprize. I therefore resolved
     on this mode, and gave my instructions to General Wayne
     accordingly, in hopes that Verplanck's Point might fall in
     consequence of the reduction of the other. Dispositions were made
     for the purpose, which unluckily did not succeed. The evening
     appointed for the attack, I directed Major-General McDougall to
     put two brigades under marching orders to be moved down toward
     Verplanck's, as soon as he should receive intelligence of the
     success of the attempt on this side, and requested General Wayne
     to let his despatches to me pass through General McDougall, that
     he might have the earliest advice of the event. But by some
     misconception, they came directly to headquarters, which
     occasioned a loss of several hours. The next morning
     Major-General Howe was sent to take the command of those troops,
     with orders to advance to the vicinity of the enemy's works, and
     open batteries against them. I was in hopes that this might
     either awe them, under the impression of what had happened on the
     other side, to surrender, or prepare the way for an assault. But
     some accidental delays, in bringing on the heavy cannon and
     intrenching tools necessary for an operation of this kind,
     unavoidably retarded its execution, till the approach of the
     enemy's main body made it too late. General Howe, to avoid being
     intercepted, found himself under the necessity of relinquishing
     his project and returning to a place of security. I did not unite
     the two attacks at the same time and in the same manner, because
     this would have rendered the enterprize more complex, more liable
     to suspicion, and less likely to succeed for want of an exact
     co-operation, which could hardly have been expected.
     When I came to examine the post at Stony Point, I found it    (p. 018)
     would require more men to maintain it than we could afford,
     without incapacitating the army for other operations. In the
     opinion of the engineer, corresponding with my own and that of
     all the general officers present, not less than fifteen hundred
     men would be requisite for its defence; and, from the nature of
     the works, which were opened toward the river, a great deal of
     labour and expense must have been incurred, and much time
     employed to make them defensible by us. The enemy, depending on
     their shipping to protect their rear, had constructed the works
     solely against an attack by land. We should have had to apprehend
     equally an attack by water, and must have inclosed the post.
     While we were doing this, the whole army must have been in the
     vicinity, exposed to the risk of a general action, on terms which
     it would not be our interest to court, and too distant to assist
     in carrying on the fortifications at West Point, or to support
     them in case of necessity. These considerations made it a
     unanimous sentiment to evacuate the post, remove the cannon and
     stores, and destroy the works, which was accomplished on the
     night of the 18th, one piece of heavy cannon only excepted. For
     want of proper tackling within reach to transport the cannon by
     land, we were obliged to send them to the fort by water. The
     movements of the enemy's vessels created some uneasiness on their
     account, and induced me to keep one of the pieces for their
     protection, which finally could not be brought off without
     risking more for its preservation than it was worth. We also lost
     a galley, which was ordered down to cover the boats. She got
     under way on her return the afternoon of the 18th. The enemy
     began a severe and continued cannonade upon her, from which
     having suffered some injury she was run on shore, which disabled
     her from proceeding. As she could not be got afloat till late in
     the flood-tide, and one or two of the enemy's vessels under
     favour of the night passed above her, she was set on fire and
     blown up.

     Disappointed in our attempt on the other side, we may lose some
     of the principal advantages hoped from the undertaking. The enemy
     may re-establish the post at Stony Point, and still continue to
     interrupt that communication. Had both places been carried,
     though we should not have been able to occupy them ourselves,
     there is great reason to believe the enemy would hardly have
     mutilated their main body a second time, and gone through the
     same trouble to regain possession of posts where they had been so
     unfortunate. But though we may not reap all the benefits which
     might have followed, those we do reap are very important. The
     diminution of the enemy's force, by the loss of so many men, will
     be felt in their present circumstances. The artillery and stores
     will be a valuable acquisition to us, especially in our scarcity
     of heavy cannon for the forts. The event will have a good effect
     upon the minds of the people, give our troops greater confidence
     in themselves, and depress the spirits of the enemy
     proportionably. If they resolve to re-establish the post, they
     must keep their force collected for the purpose. This will serve
     to confine their ravages within a narrower compass, and to a part
     of the country already exhausted. They must lose part of the
     remainder of the campaign in rebuilding the works; and when they
     have left a garrison for its defence, their main body, by being
     lessened, must act with so much the less energy, and so much the
     greater caution.

     They have now brought their whole force up the river, and
     yesterday they landed a body at Stony Point. It is supposed not
     impossible that General Clinton may retaliate by a stroke     (p. 019)
     upon West Point; and his having stripped New York and its
     dependencies pretty bare, and brought up a number of small boats,
     are circumstances that give a colour to the surmise. Though all
     this may very well be resolved into different motives, prudence
     requires that our dispositions should have immediate reference to
     the security of this post; and I have, therefore, drawn our force
     together, so that the whole may act in its defence on an
     emergency. To-morrow I shall remove my own quarters to the fort.

     It is probable Congress will be pleased to bestow some marks of
     consideration upon those officers who distinguished themselves
     upon this occasion. Every officer and man of the corps deserves
     great credit; but there were particular ones, whose situation
     placed them foremost in danger, and made their conduct most
     conspicuous. Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury and Major Stewart
     commanded the two attacks. Lieutenants Gibbons and Knox commanded
     the advanced parties, or _forlorn hope_; and all acquitted
     themselves as well as possible. These officers have a claim to be
     more particularly noticed. In any other service promotion would
     be the proper reward, but in ours it would be injurious. I take
     the liberty to recommend in preference some honourary present,
     especially to the field-officers. A brevet captaincy to the other
     two, as it will have no operation in regimental rank, may not be
     amiss.

     Congress will perceive that some pecuniary rewards were promised
     by General Wayne to his corps. This was done with my concurrence;
     and in addition to them, as a greater incitement to their
     exertions, they were also promised the benefit of whatever was
     taken in the fort. The artillery and stores are converted to the
     use of the public, but, in compliance with my engagements, it
     will be necessary to have them appraised, and the amount paid to
     the captors in money. I hope my conduct in this instance will not
     be disapproved. Mr. Archer, who will have the honour of
     delivering these despatches, is a volunteer aid to General Wayne,
     and a gentleman of merit. His zeal, activity, and spirit are
     conspicuous on every occasion.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Geo. WASHINGTON.

     P.S. Congress may be at a loss what to do with Mr. Archer. A
     captain's brevet, or commission in the army at large, will be
     equal to his wishes; and he deserves encouragement on every
     account. Lest there should be any misapprehension as to what is
     mentioned about the manner of sending despatches through General
     McDougall, I beg leave to be more explicit. I directed General
     Wayne, when he marched from his ground, to send his despatches in
     the first instance to the officer of his baggage guard, left at
     the encampment from which he marched, who was to inform his
     messenger where I was to be found. I left word with this officer
     to forward the messenger to General McDougall, and I desired
     General McDougall to open the despatches. The messenger, who was
     Captain Fishbourn, came directly on, either through misconception
     in General Wayne, in the officer of the guard, or in himself.

     I forgot to mention that there are two standards taken, one
     belonging to the garrison and one to the Seventeenth regiment;
     these shall be sent to Congress by the first convenient
     opportunity.

                              _____

_General Wayne to General Washington._                             (p. 020)

     To
       General WASHINGTON.              Stony Point, July 17, 1779.

     Sir: I have the honour to give you a full and particular relation
     of the reduction of this Point, by the light infantry under my
     command.

     On the 15th instant, at twelve o'clock, we took our line of march
     from Sandy Beach, distant fourteen miles from this place; the
     roads being exceedingly bad and narrow, and having to pass over
     high mountains, through deep morasses and difficult defies, we
     were obliged to move in single files the greatest part of the
     way. At eight o'clock in the evening the van arrived at Mr.
     Springsteel's, within one mile and a half of the enemy, and
     formed into columns as fast as they came up, agreeably to the
     order of battle annexed; namely, Colonels Febiger's and Meigs'
     regiments, with Major Hull's detachment, formed the right column;
     Colonel Butler's regiment and Major Murfey's two companies the
     left. The troops remained in this position until several of the
     principal officers with myself had returned from reconnoitering
     the works. At half-past eleven o'clock, being the hour fixed on,
     the whole moved forward. The van of the right consisted of one
     hundred and fifty volunteers, properly officered, who advanced
     with unloaded muskets and fixed bayonets, under the command of
     Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury; these were preceded by twenty picked
     men, and a vigilant and brave officer, to remove the abatis and
     other obstructions. The van of the left consisted of one hundred
     volunteers, under the command of Major Stewart, with unloaded
     muskets and fixed bayonets, also preceded by a brave and
     determined officer with twenty men, for the same purpose as the
     other.

     At twelve o'clock, the assault was to begin on the right and left
     flanks of the enemy's works, while Major Murfey amused them in
     front; but a deep morass covering their whole front, and at this
     time overflowed by the tide, together with other obstructions,
     rendered the approaches more difficult than was at first
     apprehended, so that it was about twenty minutes after twelve
     before the assault began. Previously to which I placed myself at
     the head of Febiger's regiment, or the right column, and gave the
     troops the most pointed orders not to fire on any account, but
     place their whole dependence on the bayonet, which order was
     literally and faithfully obeyed. Neither the deep morass, the
     formidable and double rows of abatis, nor the strong works in
     front and flank, could damp the ardour of the troops, who, in the
     face of a most tremendous and incessant fire of musketry, and
     from cannon loaded with grape-shot, forced their way at the point
     of the bayonet through every obstacle, both columns meeting in
     the centre of the enemy's works nearly at the same instant. Too
     much praise cannot be given to Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury (who
     struck the enemy's standard with his own hand) and to Major
     Stewart, who commanded the advanced parties, for their brave and
     prudent conduct.

     Colonels Butler, Meigs, and Febiger conducted themselves with
     that coolness, bravery, and perseverance that will ever insure
     success.

     Lieutenant-Colonel Hay was wounded in the thigh, bravely fighting
     at the head of his battalion. I should take up too much of Your
     Excellency's time were I to particularize every individual who
     deserves it, for his bravery on this occasion. I cannot,      (p. 021)
     however, omit Major Lee, to whom I am indebted for frequent and
     very useful intelligence, which contributed much to the success
     of the enterprize, and it is with the greatest pleasure I
     acknowledge to you, that I was supported in the attack by all the
     officers and soldiers under my command, to the utmost of my wishes.
     The officers and privates of the artillery exerted themselves in
     turning the cannon against Verplanck's Point, and forced the
     enemy to cut the cables of their shipping, and run down the river.

     I should be wanting in gratitude were I to omit mentioning
     Captain Fishbourn and Mr. Archer, my two aids-de-camp, who, on
     every occasion, showed the greatest intrepidity, and supported me
     into the works after I received my wound in passing the last
     abatis.

     Inclosed are the returns of the killed and wounded of the light
     infantry, as also of the enemy, together with the number of
     prisoners taken; likewise of the ordnance and stores found in the
     garrison.

     I forgot to inform Your Excellency that, previously to my
     marching, I had drawn General Muhlenberg into my rear, who, with
     three hundred men of his brigade, took post on the opposite side
     of the marsh, so as to be in readiness either to support me, or
     to cover a retreat, in case of accident; and I have no doubt of
     his faithfully and effectually executing either, had there been
     any occasion for him.

     The humanity of our brave soldiery, who scorned to take the lives
     of a vanquished foe calling for mercy, reflects the highest
     honour on them, and accounts for the few of the enemy killed on
     the occasion.

     I am not satisfied with the manner in which I have mentioned the
     conduct of Lieutenants Gibbons and Knox, the two gentlemen who
     led the advanced parties of twenty men each. Their distinguished
     bravery deserves the highest commendation. The former belongs to
     the Sixth Pennsylvania regiment, and lost seventeen men killed
     and wounded in the attack; the latter belongs to the Ninth
     Pennsylvania regiment, and was more fortunate in saving his men,
     though not less exposed.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Anthony WAYNE.



No. 4.                                                             (p. 022)
PLATE IV.


_July 15, 1779._

     Virtutis et audaciæ monum. et præmium. [Rx]. Aggeres paludes
     hostes victi.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL DE FLEURY.

[_Taking of Stony Point._]

VIRTUTIS ET AUDACIÆ MONUM. ET PRÆMIUM. (_Virtutis et audaciæ
monumentum et præmium: A memorial and reward of courage and
boldness._) Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury, as a Roman soldier,
helmeted, stands amidst the ruins of a fort, holding in his right hand
a sword, and in his left the staff of an enemy's flag, which he
tramples under his right foot Exergue: D. (_sic_) DE FLEURY EQUITI
GALLO PRIMO SUPER MUROS RESP. AMERIC. D.D. (_D. de Fleury equiti gallo
primo super muros Respublica Americana dono dedit: The American
Republic presented this gift to D. de Fleury, a French knight, the
first to mount the walls._) DUVIVIER.

AGGERES PALUDES HOSTES VICTI. (_Fortifications, marshes, enemies
overcome._) The fortress of Stony Point. Six vessels on the Hudson
River. Exergue: STONY-PT. EXPUGN. XV JUL. MDCCLXXIX. (_Stony Point
expugnatum, 15 Julii, 1779: Stony Point carried by storm, July 15,
1779_).[33]

                   [Footnote 33: See INTRODUCTION, pages ix, x, xi,
                   xii, xv, xxiii, xxviii, xxxv; G, xlv; and H,
                   xlvii.]

I give an extended biography of the Chevalier de Fleury, the only
foreigner to whom a medal was awarded during the Revolutionary War,
because no accurate account of him has hitherto been published. The
facts were obtained partly from the archives of the French Ministry of
War, through the politeness of M. Camille Roussel, member of the
French Academy, and at the time historiographer of the Ministry of
War, and partly from the archives of the Ministry of Marine. I am  (p. 023)
also indebted to M. Roussel for the memorial (petition) of M. de
Fleury, a translation of which is given below.


FRANÇOIS LOUIS TEISSEIDRE DE FLEURY, son of François Teisseidre,
Seigneur de Fleury, was born at St. Hippolyte, Languedoc, France,
August 28, 1749. He entered the French army as a volunteer in the
regiment of Rouergue infantry, May 15, 1768; became second-lieutenant,
September 15, 1768; lieutenant second class, of rifles, June 11, 1776;
first lieutenant, June 2, 1777; major of Saintonge infantry, March 19,
1780; colonel of the Pondichéry (India) regiment, January 16, 1784;
maréchal-de-camp, June 30, 1791; and resigned, June 24, 1792. He was
made a knight of St. Louis, December 5, 1781. The Chevalier de Fleury
served in Corsica during the campaigns of 1768, 1769, and 1770. Having
been commissioned a captain of engineers in 1776, he obtained a
furlough and entered the American army as a volunteer, was appointed
by Congress a captain of engineers, May 22, 1777, and was sent first
to General Washington's army, and toward the end of the campaign to
Fort Mifflin, where he was wounded. At the battle of the Brandywine,
he had a horse shot under him, and was again wounded. Congress presented
him with a horse, "as a testimonial of the sense they had of his
merits," September 13, 1777, and promoted him to a lieutenant-colonelcy,
"in consideration of the disinterested gallantry he had manifested in
the service of the United States," November 26, 1777. In the assault
on Stony Point, July 15, 1779, he commanded one of the attacks, was
the first to enter the main works, and struck the British flag with
his own hands, for which gallant deed Congress voted him a silver
medal. On Friday, October 1, 1779, Congress passed the following
resolution concerning Lieutenant-Colonel de Fleury: "_Resolved_, That
Congress entertain a high sense of the zeal, activity, military
genius, and gallantry of Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury, which he has
exhibited on a variety of occasions during his service in the armies
of these States, wherein, while he has rendered essential benefit to
the American cause, he has deservedly acquired the esteem of the army
and gained unfading reputation for himself." He continued in America
after General Count de Rochambeau's arrival, serving under him in the
campaigns of 1780, 1781, and 1782; and received a pension of four
hundred livres by royal decree of May 8, 1783, in consideration of his
distinguished services, especially at the siege and taking of      (p. 024)
Yorktown, October 19, 1781. He afterward served in India, commanded
in chief the islands of Mauritius and of Bourbon from May to November,
1785, obtained a pension of one thousand livres, in consideration of
his services, November, 1786, and returned to France in April, 1790.
He held the rank of maréchal-de-camp in the army of the North, and
commanded at Montmédy after General de Bouillé's flight in 1791, and
at Givet and Cambray in 1791 and 1792. At the breaking out of the war
he was at Valenciennes, and served under Marshals de Rochambeau and de
Luckner. During the retreat from Mons his horse, which had been shot
under him, fell upon him, and, while lying helpless in that position,
he was ridden over by the enemy's cavalry. After a long illness he
left the army, June 24, 1792, and retired to Rebais, in the Department
of Seine-et-Oise.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.[34]

                   [Footnote 34: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the taking
                   of Stony Point, are given under No. 3, page 14.]

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To                                 Headquarters, West Point,
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.            July 25, 1779.

     Sir: Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury having communicated to me his
     intention to return to France at the present juncture, on some
     matters interesting to himself, I have thought proper to give him
     this letter to testify to Congress the favourable opinion I
     entertain of his conduct. The marks of their approbation which he
     received on a former occasion have been amply justified by all
     his subsequent behaviour. He has signalized himself in more than
     one instance since; and in the late assault on Stony Point he
     commanded one of the attacks, was the first that entered the
     enemy's works, and struck the British flag with his own hands, as
     reported by General Wayne. It is but justice to him to declare
     that, in the different stations in which he has been employed, he
     has rendered services of real utility, and has acquitted himself
     in every respect as an officer of distinguished merit, one whose
     talents, zeal, activity, and bravery alike entitle him to
     particular notice. He has intimated to me a desire to obtain a
     furlough for a few months. I doubt not Congress will be disposed
     to grant him every indulgence which can be granted with
     propriety.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._                 (p. 025)

CERTIFICATE.

     To
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.       West Point, July 28, 1779.

     I certify that Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury has served in the army
     of the United States since the beginning of the campaign of 1777,
     to the present period, and has uniformly acquitted himself as an
     officer of distinguished merit for talents, zeal, activity,
     prudence, and bravery; that he first obtained a captain's
     commission from Congress, and entered as a volunteer in a corps
     of riflemen, in which, by his activity and bravery, he soon
     recommended himself to notice; that he next served as
     brigade-major, with the rank of major, first in the infantry and
     then in the cavalry, in which stations he acquired reputation in
     the army, and the approbation of his commanding officers, of
     which he has the most ample testimonies; that, toward the
     conclusion of the campaign of 1777, he was sent to the important
     post of Fort Mifflin in quality of engineer, in which he rendered
     essential services, and equally signalized his intelligence and
     his valour.

     That, in consequence of his good conduct on this and on former
     occasions, he was promoted by Congress to the rank of
     lieutenant-colonel, and has been since employed in the following
     stations, namely, as a sub-inspector, as second in command in a
     corps of light infantry in an expedition against Rhode Island,
     and lastly as commandant of a battalion of light infantry in the
     army under my immediate command; that in each of these
     capacities, as well as the former, he has justified the
     confidence reposed in him, and acquired more and more the
     character of a judicious, well-informed, indefatigable, and brave
     officer. In the assault of Stony Point, a strong fortified post
     of the enemy on the North River, he commanded one of the attacks,
     was the first that entered the main works, and struck the British
     flag with his own hands.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

     _A Memorial for M. de Fleury, an Officer in the Regiment of
     Rouergue for twelve years; a Captain of Engineers in the Service
     of France for three years; and a Lieutenant-Colonel in the
     Service of the United States for two years._

     M. de Fleury left France with M. du Coudray in 1776.

     He obtained a furlough and was commissioned as a captain of
     engineers.

     Congress having refused to employ M. du Coudray and the officers
     who came over with him, almost all of them were discouraged; but
     M. de Fleury joined the army and served as a volunteer private
     during a part of the campaign of 1777.

     At the fight of Piscataqua he had the good fortune to be remarked
     while in performance of his duty, and he was promoted to the rank
     of captain. (_Certified by Colonel Morgan_).

     He was afterward employed to make a survey of the environs of (p. 026)
     Philadelphia, which was to be the seat of the approaching campaign,
     to take soundings in the Delaware, and to fortify Billingsport.
     (_Certified by General Washington_).

     The enemy having landed at Hith, he joined the army and acted as
     major of brigade.

     At the battle of the Brandywine, he remained on the field after
     his brigade had been routed, had a horse shot under him, and
     carried off a piece of ordnance.

     On the report of General Washington to Congress, it was ordered
     that a horse be presented to M. de Fleury "as a mark of the high
     sense Congress entertained of his merits." (_Certified by General
     Washington and General Sullivan_).

     N.B. This honour has been paid only to General Arnold and M. de
     Fleury.

     At the battle of Germantown he acted as brigade-major of
     dragoons, charged several times, and made several prisoners. The
     horse which had been given to him by Congress was shot under him,
     and he himself was wounded in the leg. (_Certified by General
     Count Pulaski_).

     Fort Mifflin, on Mud Island, the only defence of the Delaware,
     was threatened by the British army and squadron. It was a post of
     the greatest importance, and M. de Fleury was sent there as chief
     engineer. He sustained a siege of six weeks behind a stockade. A
     ship of sixty-four guns, the Augusta, and one of 22 guns, the
     Merlin, blew up under fire from the fort. The commandant and the
     garrison, numbering 600 men, were relieved three times, but M. de
     Fleury refused to leave the fort. He was wounded October 15th,
     and the fort was evacuated that same night. For this action he
     was made a lieutenant-colonel, and a letter of thanks was
     addressed to him by the President of Congress. (_Certified by
     Congress, the General-in-chief, and M. de la Fayette_).

     During the winter of 1778 he formed the project of crossing the
     ice and setting fire to the English squadron. The Delaware not
     being frozen that year hard enough for his purpose, he invented
     explosive boats, and he was engaged in constructing them when he
     received orders to join the Army of the North. (_Certified by
     General Washington and Commodore Hasilwood_).

     The Canadian expedition did not take place, and on his return M.
     de Fleury was appointed inspector and charged with forming,
     instructing, and disciplining the troops. (_Certified by General
     Washington_).

     At the opening of the campaign of 1778 he was second in command
     of a select corps (in which was the general's body-guard) of 600
     men, 2 pieces of ordnance, and 50 cavalry. He served in this
     capacity at the battle of Monmouth and afterward.

     On the arrival of the French squadron, he was sent to meet Count
     d'Estaing by General Washington, and he went with him to Rhode
     Island, where an attack was expected.

     It was by his advice that the fruitless siege of Newport was
     raised, and that the retreat to the north part of the island was
     resolved upon. The corps in which he served repulsed the enemy
     and covered the retreat. (_Certified by General Sullivan_).

     When he returned to the Army of the South, Count d'Estaing kindly
     wrote to General Washington: "Allow me to recommend particularly
     to your favour M. de Fleury. General Sullivan will tell you what
     he did at Rhode Island; he is an excellent officer and a useful
     Frenchman. I should be happy, if the occasion offered, to serve
     again with him. He is fitted to bring about good feeling among
     private individuals, and to make them as friendly as our two  (p. 027)
     nations are." (_Letter of M. d'Estaing_).

     At the opening of the campaign of 1779 M. de Fleury was in
     command of a corps of light infantry; he was the first to mount
     the ramparts of Stony Point, and he took the enemy's flag with
     his own hand. (_Certified by the General and by Congress_).

     On this occasion the President of Congress wrote that Congress
     hoped he would receive some reward from his own country, and the
     French minister also expressed a hope that his Court would give
     America, through M. de Fleury, some token of the satisfaction
     with which the services of a French officer to America were
     viewed in France. (_Letter from Mr. Jay_).

     When M. de la Luzerne arrived, General Washington requested him
     to call the attention of the French Court to the conduct of M. de
     Fleury.

     At the close of the campaign, by the advice of his general, he
     asked for nine months' leave. At his departure, General
     Washington wrote to Congress that he desired the return of an
     officer who had rendered such important services. (_Letter of
     General Washington_).

     Though far from rich, M. de Fleury declined any pecuniary
     recompense on leaving America.

     M. de Fleury, having thus by his services risen from the ranks to
     a lieutenant-colonelcy, and having been honoured by the good will
     of the nation and of the army, the esteem of Congress and the
     confidence of his general, ventures to solicit some mark of the
     approbation of his Prince and of the minister under whose
     auspices he entered the service of an ally of France.

     Though convinced that he owes his success to his good fortune
     rather than to his talents, and that by his zeal he has alone
     been enabled to make up for his deficiency, he ventures to hope
     that his country will not overlook his services, and that his
     return to a beloved land--which is a source of happiness to every
     Frenchman--will not prove in his case a misfortune and a loss.

     P.S. M. de Fleury has made some surveys and written reports which
     have met with the approbation of M. Girard; he begs to be allowed
     to present them to the Minister. (_Letter of M. Girard_).



No. 5.                                                             (p. 028)
PLATE V.


_July 15, 1779._

     Joanni Stewart cohortis præfecto Comitia Americana. [Rx].
     Stoney-Point oppugnatum.

MAJOR JOHN STEWART.

[_Taking of Stony Point._]

JOANNI STEWART COHORTIS PRÆFECTO COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American
Congress to Major John Stewart._) America, personified as an Indian
queen, leaning on the American shield, and having at her feet an
alligator, presents a palm branch to Major Stewart. GATTEAUX.

STONEY-POINT (_sic_) OPPUGNATUM. (_Stony Point assaulted._) Major
Stewart, at the head of his men, is crossing an abatis of trees, in
pursuit of the defeated enemy; in the background the American troops
are mounting to the assault of Stony Point Six ships are on the Hudson
River. Exergue: XV JUL. MDCCLXXIX. (_15 Julii, 1779: July 15, 1779._)
On the platform, GATTEAUX.[35][36]

                   [Footnote 35: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xix,
                   xxviii, xxx, xxxv; D, xli; and H, xlvii.]

                   [Footnote 36: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the taking
                   of Stony Point, are given under No. 3, page 14.]


JOHN STEWART was a major of infantry, served under General Wayne, and
for his gallantry at the storming of Stony Point, on the Hudson River,
July 15, 1779, Congress voted him a silver medal. No trustworthy
information can be found concerning him. He is reported to have died
near Charleston, South Carolina, from injuries caused by a fall from
his horse.



No. 6.                                                             (p. 029)
PLATE VI.


_August 19, 1779._

     Henrico Lee legionis equit. præfecto. Comitia Americana. [Rx].
     Non obstantib fluminibus vallis, etc.

MAJOR HENRY LEE.

[_Surprise of Paulus Hook._]

HENRICO LEE LEGIONIS EQUIT. PRÆFECTO. COMITIA AMERICANA. (_Henrico Lee
legionis equitum præfecto Comitia Americana: The American Congress to
Henry Lee, major of cavalry._) Bust of Major Lee, facing the right. On
edge of bust, J. WRIGHT.

Within a crown of laurel: NON OBSTANTIB FLUMINIBUS VALLIS ASTUTIA &
VIRTUTE BELLICA PARVA MANU HOSTES VICIT VICTOSQ. ARMIS HUMANITATE
DEVINXIT. IN MEM PUGN AD PAULUS HOOK DIE XIX. AUG. 1779. (_Non
obstantibus fluminibus vallis astutia et virtute bellica parva manu
hastes vicit victosque armis humanitate devinxit. In memoria pugni ad
Paulus Hook, die 19 Augusti, 1779: Notwithstanding rivers and
ramparts, he conquered, with a handful of men, the enemy by skill and
valor, and attached by his humanity those vanquished by his arms. In
commemoration of the battle of Paulus Hook, August 19, 1719._)[37]

                   [Footnote 37: See INTRODUCTION, pages xxiii,
                   xxviii, xxxv; and H, xlvii.]

The original die of the obverse of this medal is in the Mint at
Philadelphia, but the original die of the reverse is not to be found
there. A new one was engraved for the Mint, some time ago, by Mr. Wm.
Barber.


JOSEPH WRIGHT was born in Bordentown, New Jersey, in 1756. He      (p. 030)
studied painting in England and France, and, after his return to
America, painted a portrait of General Washington. He was appointed
first draughtsman and die sinker to the United States Mint, and made
the dies of a medal, the bust on the obverse of which was considered
to be the best medallic profile likeness of Washington. He also made
the medal voted by Congress to Major Lee. He died in Philadelphia in
1793.


HENRY LEE was born in Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia,
January 29, 1756. He was graduated at Princeton College, New Jersey,
in 1773; was appointed captain in 1777, and major in 1778. He
surprised Paulus Hook, August 19, 1779, and received for the
"prudence, address, and bravery" displayed by him on that occasion the
thanks of Congress and a gold medal; he became lieutenant-colonel,
November 6, 1780, and joined the southern army under General Greene,
greatly distinguished himself in various engagements, and resigned in
1782. In 1786 he was chosen one of the delegates to Congress from
Virginia; was governor of that State, 1791-1794; member of Congress,
1799; and on the death of Washington was selected to pronounce his
eulogium, in which he embodied the memorable words: "First in war,
first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He wrote, in
1809, "Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United
States." He died on Cumberland Island, Georgia, March 25, 1818. He was
known during the Revolutionary War by the sobriquet of "Light Horse
Harry."

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting a Medal to Major Henry Lee, etc._

BY THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of Congress be given to His
     Excellency General Washington, for ordering with so much wisdom
     the late attack on the enemy's fort and works at Powles Hook.[38]

                   [Footnote 38: Properly Paulus Hook (Hoeck), now
                   Jersey City. It derived its name from Michael
                   Paulusen, who was commissary there in 1633.]

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of Congress be given to           (p. 031)
     Major-General Lord Stirling for the judicious measures taken by
     him to forward the enterprize and to secure the retreat of the
     party.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of Congress be given to Major Lee for
     the remarkable prudence, address and bravery displayed by him on
     the occasion; and that they approve the humanity shown in
     circumstances prompting to severity, as honourable to the arms of
     the United States, and correspondent to the noble principles on
     which they were assumed.

     _Resolved_, That Congress entertain a high sense of the
     discipline, fortitude, and spirit manifested by the officers and
     soldiers under the command of Major Lee in the march, action and
     retreat; and while with singular satisfaction they acknowledge
     the merit of these gallant men, they feel an additional pleasure
     by considering them as part of an army, in which very many brave
     officers and soldiers have proved, by their cheerful performance
     of every duty under every difficulty, that they ardently wish to
     give the truly glorious examples they now receive.

     _Resolved_, That Congress justly esteem the military caution so
     happily combined with daring activity by Lieutenants McAllister
     and Rudolph in leading on the forlorn hope.

     _Resolved_, That a medal of gold, emblematical of this affair, be
     struck, under the direction of the Board of Treasury, and
     presented to Major Lee.

     _Resolved_, That the brevet, and the pay and subsistence of
     captain, be given to Lieutenant McAllister and to Lieutenant
     Rudolph respectively.

     _Resolved_, That the sum of 15,000 dollars be put into the hands
     of Major Lee, to be by him distributed among the non-commissioned
     officers and soldiers of the detachment he commanded at the
     attack and surprize of Powles Hook, in such manner as the
     commander-in-chief shall direct.

     Friday, September 24, 1779.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To                                 Head Quarters, West Point,
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.            August 23, 1779.

     Sir: I have the honour to enclose to Your Excellency Major Lee's
     report of the surprize and capture of the garrison of Powles
     Hook. The Major displayed a remarkable degree of prudence,
     address, enterprize and bravery, upon this occasion, which does
     the highest honour to himself and to all the officers and men
     under his command. The situation of the post rendered the attempt
     critical and the success brilliant. It was made in consequence of
     information that the garrison was in a state of negligent
     security, which the event has justified. I am much indebted to
     Lord Stirling for the judicious measures he took to forward the
     enterprize, and to secure the retreat of the party. Lieutenant
     McAllister, who will have the honour of delivering these      (p. 032)
     despatches, will present Congress with the standard of the
     garrison, which fell into his possession during the attack. Major
     Lee speaks of this gentleman's conduct in the handsomest terms.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Geo. WASHINGTON.

     P.S. The report not having been received till this day, prevented
     a speedier transmission. Major Lee mentions twenty men lost on
     our side. Captain Rudolph informs me that, since the report was
     concluded, several of the missing had returned, which will lessen
     the supposed loss near one half.

                              _____

_Major Henry Lee to General Washington._

     To His Excellency                  Paramus, August 22, 1779.
        General WASHINGTON.

     Sir: Lord Stirling was pleased to communicate to Your Excellency
     my verbal report to his Lordship of the 19th instant. I now do
     myself the honour to present a particular relation of the
     enterprize Your Excellency was pleased to commit to my direction.

     I took command of the troops employed on this occasion on the
     18th. They amounted to four hundred infantry, composed of
     detachments from the Virginia and Maryland divisions, and one
     troop of dismounted dragoons.

     The troops moved from the vicinity of the New Bridge about four
     o'clock P.M. Patrols of horse being detached to watch the
     communication with the North River, and parties of infantry
     stationed at the different avenues leading to Powles Hook. My
     anxiety to render the march as easy as possible, induced me to
     pursue the Bergen road lower than intended. After filing into the
     mountains, the timidity or treachery of the principal guide
     prolonged a short march into a march of three hours; by this
     means the troops were exceedingly harassed, and being obliged,
     through deep mountainous woods, to regain our route, some parties
     of the rear were unfortunately separated. This affected me most
     sensibly, as it not only diminished the number of men destined
     for the assault, but deprived me of the aid of several officers
     of distinguished merit.

     On reaching the point of separation, I found my first disposition
     impracticable, both from the near approach of day and the rising
     of the tide. Not a moment being to spare, I paid no attention to
     the punctilios of honour or rank, but ordered the troops to
     advance in their then disposition. Lieutenant Rudolph, whom I had
     previously detached to reconnoitre the passages of the canal,
     returned to me at this point of time and reported that all was
     silence within the works, that he had fathomed the canal and
     found the passage on the centre route still admissible. This
     intervening intelligence was immediately communicated from front
     to rear, and the troops pushed on with that resolution, order,
     and coolness which insures success.

     The forlorn hopes, led by Lieutenant McAllister, of the       (p. 033)
     Maryland, and Lieutenant Rudolph, of the dragoons, marched on
     with trailed arms, in most profound silence. Such was the
     singular address of these two gentlemen, that the first notice to
     the garrison was the forlorns plunging into the canal. A firing
     immediately commenced from the block-houses and along the line of
     the abatis, but did not in the least check the advance of the
     troops. The forlorns, supported by Major Clarke, at the head of
     the right column, broke through all opposition, and found an
     entrance into the main work. So rapid was the movement of the
     troops, that we gained the fort before the discharge of a single
     piece of artillery. The centre column, conducted by Captain
     Forsyth, on passing the abatis, took a direction to their left.
     Lieutenant Armstrong led on the advance of this column. They soon
     possessed themselves of the officers and troops posted at the
     house No. 6, and fully completed every object of their
     destination. The rear column, under Captain Handy, moved forward
     in support of the whole. Thus were we completely victorious in
     the space of a few moments.

     The appearance of daylight, my apprehension lest some accident
     might have befallen the boats, the numerous difficulties of the
     retreat, the harassed state of the troops, and the destruction of
     all our ammunition by passing the canal, conspired in influencing
     me to retire in the moment of victory. Major Clarke, with the
     right column, was immediately put in motion with the greater part
     of the prisoners. Captain Handy followed on with the remainder.
     Lieutenants Armstrong and Reed formed the rear guard.

     Immediately on the commencement of the retreat, I sent forward
     Captain Forsyth to Prior's Mill to collect such men from the
     different columns as were most fit for action, and to take post
     on the heights of Bergen to cover the retreat.

     On my reaching this place I was informed by Cornet Neill (who had
     been posted there during the night for the purpose of laying the
     bridge and communicating with the boats), that my messenger,
     directed to him previous to the attack, had not arrived, nor had
     he heard from Captain Peyton, who had charge of the boats.

     Struck with apprehension that I should be disappointed in the
     route of retreat, I rode forward to the front, under Major
     Clarke, whom I found very near the point of embarkation, and no
     boats to receive them. In this very critical situation I lost no
     time in my decision, but ordered the troops to regain Bergen road
     and shove on to the New Bridge; at the same time I communicated
     my disappointment to Lord Stirling by express, then returned to
     Prior's Bridge to the rear-guard.

     Oppressed by every possible misfortune, at the head of troops
     worn down by a rapid march of thirty miles, through mountains,
     swamps, and deep morasses, without the least refreshment during
     the whole march, ammunition destroyed, incumbered with prisoners,
     and a retreat of fourteen miles to make good, on a route
     admissible of interception at several points, by a moving in our
     rear, and another (from the intelligence I had received from the
     captured officers) in all probability well advanced on our right;
     a retreat naturally impossible to our left; under all these
     distressing circumstances, my sole dependence was in the
     persevering gallantry of the officers and obstinate courage of
     the troops. In this I was fully satisfied by the shouts of the
     soldiery, who gave every proof of unimpaired vigour the moment
     that the enemy's approach was announced.

     Having gained the point of intersection opposite Weehawken,   (p. 034)
     Captain Handy was directed to move with his division on the
     mountain road, in order to facilitate the retreat. Captain
     Catlett, of the Virginia regiment, fortunately joined me at this
     moment, at the head of fifty men, with good ammunition. I
     immediately halted this officer, and having detached two parties,
     the one on the Bergen road in the rear of Major Clarke, the other
     on the banks of the North River, I moved with the party under the
     command of the captain on the centre route. By these precautions
     a sudden approach of the enemy was fully prevented. I am very
     much indebted to this officer, and the gentlemen under him, for
     their alacrity and vigilance on this occasion.

     On the rear's approach to the Fort Lee road, we met a detachment
     under the command of Colonel Ball, which Lord Stirling had pushed
     forward, on the first notice of our situation, to support the
     retreat. The colonel moved on, and occupied a position which
     effectually covered us.

     Some little time after this, a body of the enemy (alluded to in
     the intelligence I mentioned to have received from the officers
     while in the fort) made their appearance, issuing out of the
     woods on our right, and moving through the fields directly to the
     road. They immediately commenced a fire upon my rear. Lieutenant
     Reed threw himself, with a party, into a stone house which
     commanded the road. These two officers were directed mutually to
     support each other, and give time for the troops to pass the
     English Neighbourhood Creek, at the liberty pole. On the enemy's
     observing this disposition, they immediately retired by the same
     route they had approached, and gained the woods. The
     precipitation with which they retired, preventing the possibility
     of Colonel Ball's falling in with them, saved the whole.

     The body which moved in our rear, having excessively fatigued
     themselves by the rapidity of their march, thought prudent to
     halt before they came in contact with us.

     Thus, Sir, was every attempt to cut off our rear completely
     baffled. The troops arrived safe at the New Bridge, with all the
     prisoners, about one o'clock P.M. on the nineteenth.

     I should commit the highest injustice was I not to assure Your
     Excellency that my endeavours were fully seconded by every
     officer in his station; nor can any discrimination justly be made
     but what arose from opportunity. The troops vied with each other
     in patience under their many sufferings, and conducted themselves
     in every vicissitude of fortune with a resolution which reflects
     the highest honour on them.

     During the whole action not a single musket was fired on our
     side--the bayonet was our sole dependence.

     Having gained the fort, such was the order of the troops, and
     attention of the officers, that the soldiers were prevented from
     plundering, although in the midst of every sort.

     American humanity has been again signally manifested.
     Self-preservation strongly dictated, on the retreat, the putting
     the prisoners to death, and British cruelty fully justified it,
     notwithstanding which, not a man was wantonly hurt.

     During the progress of the troops in the works, from the
     different reports of my officers, I conclude not more than fifty
     of the enemy were killed, and a few wounded. Among the killed is
     one officer, supposed (from his description) to be a captain in
     Colonel Buskirk's regiment. Our loss, on this occasion, is very
     trifling. I have not yet had a report from the detachment of  (p. 035)
     the Virginians; but as I conclude their loss to be proportionate
     to the loss of the other troops, I can venture to pronounce
     that the loss of the whole, in killed, wounded, and missing,
     will not exceed twenty. As soon as the report comes to hand,
     I will transmit to headquarters an accurate return. I herewith
     enclose a return of the prisoners taken from the enemy.

     At every point of the enterprize I stood highly indebted to Major
     Clarke for his zeal, activity, and example. Captains Handy and
     Forsyth have claim to my particular thanks for the support I
     experienced from them on every occasion. The Captains Reed,
     McLane, Smith, Crump, and Wilmot, behaved with the greatest zeal
     and intrepidity. I must acknowledge myself very much indebted to
     Major Burnet and Captain Peyton, of the dragoons, for their
     counsel and indefatigability in the previous preparations to the
     attack. The premature withdrawal of the boats was owing to the
     non-arrival of my despatches; and, though a most mortifying
     circumstance, can be called nothing more than unfortunate.
     Lieutenant Vanderville, who was to have commanded one of the
     forlorns, but was thrown out by alteration of the disposition of
     battle, conducted himself perfectly soldier-like. The whole of
     the officers behaved with the greatest propriety; and, as I said
     before, no discrimination can justly be made, but what arose from
     opportunity.

     The Lieutenants McAllister, Armstrong, Reed, and Rudolph
     distinguished themselves remarkably. Too much praise cannot be
     given to those gentlemen for their prowess and example. Captain
     Bradford, of the train, who volunteered it with me, for the
     purpose of taking direction of the artillery, deserves my warmest
     thanks for his zeal and activity. I am personally indebted to
     Captain Rudolph and Dr. Irvine, of the dragoons, who attended me
     during the expedition, for their many services.

     I beg leave to present Your Excellency with the flag of the fort
     by the hands of Mr. McAllister, the gentleman into whose
     possession it fell.

     It is needless for me to explain my reasons for the instantaneous
     evacuation of the fort. Your Excellency's knowledge of the post
     will suggest fully the propriety of it. The event confirms it.

     Among the many unfortunate circumstances which crossed our
     wishes, none was more so than the accidental absence of Colonel
     Buskirk and the greatest part of his regiment. They had set out
     on an expedition up the North River the very night of the attack.
     A company of vigilant Hessians had taken their place in the fort,
     which rendered the secrecy of approach more precarious, and, at
     the same time, diminished the object of the enterprize by a
     reduction of the number of the garrison. Major Sutherland
     fortunately saved himself by a soldier counterfeiting his person.
     This imposition was not discovered until too late.

     I intended to have burned the barracks, but on finding a number
     of sick soldiers and women with young children in them, humanity
     forbade the execution of my intention. The key of the magazine
     could not be found, nor could it be broken open in the little
     time we had to spare, many attempts having been made to that
     purpose by the Lieutenants McAllister and Reed. It was completely
     impracticable to bring off any pieces of artillery. I consulted
     Captain Bradford on the point, who confirmed me in my opinion.
     The circumstance of spiking them being trivial it was omitted
     altogether.

     After most of the troops had retired from the works, and were (p. 036)
     passed and passing the canal, a fire of musketry commenced
     from a few stragglers, who had collected in an old work, on the
     right of the main fort. Their fire being ineffectual, and the
     object trifling, I determined not to break in upon the order of
     retreat, but continued passing the defile in front. I cannot
     conclude this relation without expressing my wannest thanks to
     Lord Stirling, for the full patronage I received from him in
     every stage of the enterprize. I must also return my thanks to
     the cavalry, for their vigilant execution of the duties assigned
     them.

     Captain Rudolph waits on Your Excellency with these despatches. I
     beg leave to refer to this officer for any further explanation
     that may be required.

     I have the honour to be, Sir, with the most perfect respect,
            Your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant,
                                                       Henry LEE, Jr.



No. 7.                                                             (p. 037)
PLATE VII.


_September 23, 1780._

     Fidelity. [Rx]. Vincit amor patriæ.

JOHN PAULDING, DAVID WILLIAMS, ISAAC VAN WART.

[_Capture of Major André._]

FIDELITY. Field embossed in and wreathed with two branches, one of
laurel, the other of palm, united by a ribbon.

VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ. (_Love of country conquers._) A vacant space, to
receive the name of the recipient, between two branches of
fleur-de-lis, united by a ribbon.[39]

                   [Footnote 39: See INTRODUCTION, page xxxv.]

This is not properly a medal, but a _repoussé_, made by a silversmith.


JOHN PAULDING was born in New York in 1759; and died in Westchester
County, New York, February 18, 1848.


DAVID WILLIAMS was born in Tarrytown, October 21, 1754, and died in
Broome, Schoharie County, New York, August 2, 1831.


ISAAC VAN WART was born in New York in 1750, and died in Westchester
County, New York, May 23, 1818.


These three militiamen captured Major André, of the British Army,
September 23, 1780, and refusing his large offers of money, delivered
him up to the American commanding officer of the district. Thus the
treasonable intentions of General Arnold to surrender West Point to
the enemy were frustrated. For this great service to their country
they each received the thanks of Congress and a silver medal.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 038)

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to John Paulding, David
Williams, and Isaac Van Wart._

BY THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

     _Whereas_, Congress have received information that John Paulding,
     David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, three young volunteer
     militiamen of the State of New York, did, on the 23d day of
     September last, intercept Major John André, adjutant-general of
     the British army, on his return from the American lines, in the
     character of a spy; and, notwithstanding the large bribes offered
     them for his release, nobly disdaining to sacrifice their country
     for the sake of gold, secured and conveyed him to the commanding
     officer of the district, whereby the dangerous and traitorous
     conspiracy of Benedict Arnold was brought to light, the insidious
     designs of the enemy baffled, and the United States rescued from
     impending danger:

     _Resolved_, That Congress have a high sense of the virtuous and
     patriotic conduct of the said John Paulding, David Williams, and
     Isaac Van Wart. In testimony whereof,

     _Ordered_, That each of them receive annually, out of the public
     treasury, 200 dollars in specie, or an equivalent in the current
     money of these States, during life; and that the Board of War
     procure for each of them a silver medal, on one side of which
     shall be a shield with this inscription: "Fidelity," and on the
     other the following motto: "Vincit amor patriæ," and forward them
     to the commander-in-chief, who is requested to present the same,
     with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of Congress for
     their fidelity, and the eminent service they have rendered their
     country.

     Friday, November 3, 1780.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To                                 Robinson House, In The Highlands,
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.                September 26, 1780.

     Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     In the mean time, a packet had arrived from Lieutenant-Colonel
     Jameson, announcing the capture of a John Anderson, who was
     endeavouring to go to New York with several interesting and
     important papers, all in the handwriting of General Arnold. This
     was also accompanied with a letter from the prisoner, avowing
     himself to be Major John André, adjutant-general of the British
     army, relating the manner of his capture, and endeavouring to
     show that he did not come under the description of a spy. From
     the several circumstances, and information that the general
     (Arnold) seemed to be thrown into some degree of agitation on
     receiving a letter, a little time before he went down from    (p. 039)
     his quarters, I was led to conclude immediately, that he had
     heard of Major André's captivity, and that he would, if possible,
     escape to the enemy; and I accordingly took such measures as
     appeared the most probable, to apprehend him. But he had embarked
     in a barge, and proceeded down the river under a flag to the
     Vulture sloop-of-war, which lay some miles below Stony and
     Verplanck's Points. After he got on board, he wrote to me a
     letter, of which the enclosed is a copy.

     Major André is not arrived yet, but I hope he is secure, and that
     he will be here to-day. I have been and am taking proper
     precautions, which I trust will prove effectual, to prevent the
     important consequences which this conduct on the part of General
     Arnold was intended to produce. I do not know the party that took
     Major André, but it is said to have consisted only of militia,
     who acted in such a manner as does them the highest honour, and
     proves them to be men of great virtue. They were offered, I am
     informed, a large sum of money for his release, and as many goods
     as they would demand, but without any effect. Their conduct gives
     them a just claim to the thanks of their country, and I also hope
     they will be otherwise rewarded. As soon as I know their names, I
     shall take pleasure in transmitting them to Congress.

       -       -       -       -       -

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To
       THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.       Paramus, October 7, 1780.

     Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     I have now the pleasure to communicate the names of the three
     persons who captured Major André, and who refused to release him,
     notwithstanding the most earnest importunities and assurances of
     a liberal reward on his part. Their conduct merits our wannest
     esteem; and I beg leave to add, that I think the public will do
     well to make them a handsome gratuity. They have prevented in all
     probability our suffering one of the severest strokes that could
     have been meditated against us. Their names are John Paulding,
     David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Geo. WASHINGTON.



No. 8.                                                             (p. 040)
PLATE VIII.


_January 17, 1781._

     Danieli Morgan duci exercitus Comitia Americana. [Rx]. Victoria
     libertatis vindex.

BRIGADIER-GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN.

[_Victory of the Cowpens._]

DANIELI MORGAN DUCI EXERCITUS COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American
Congress to General Daniel Morgan._) America, personified as an Indian
queen, standing, places with her right hand a crown of laurel upon the
head of General Morgan, while her left rests on a bow. To the left are
seen trophies of the enemy's arms; against a cannon is the American
shield, upon which lies a branch of laurel; to the right is a forest.
DUPRÉ, F. (_fecit_).

VICTORIA LIBERTATIS VINDEX. (_Victory, the vindicator of liberty._)
General Morgan is leading his troops, who advance with colors flying,
and put to flight the British army; in the foreground, a combat
between an Indian and a dismounted cavalry soldier. Exergue: FVGATIS
CAPTIS AVT CAESIS AD COWPENS HOSTIBVS XVII. JAN. MDCCLXXXI. (_Fugatis
captis aut cæsis ad Cowpens hostibus, 17 Januarii, 1781: The enemy put
to flight, taken, or slain at the Cowpens, January 17, 1781._) DUPRÉ
INV ET F. (_Dupré invenit et fecit_).[40]

                   [Footnote 40: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, xii,
                   xiii, xvii, xx, xxi, xxii, xxxv; B, xxxvi; D, xli;
                   E, xliv; and F, xlv.]

The legend of the exergue of this medal, as originally proposed by the
French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, was CÆSIS AUT
CAPTIS AD COWPENS HOSTIUM * * SIGNIS RELATIS * * 17 JAN. 1781. The
change was made at the suggestion of Jefferson.


AUGUSTIN DUPRÉ was born in St. Etienne, France, October, 1748.     (p. 041)
He began life as a workman in a manufactory of arms. In 1768 he
went to Paris as apprentice to an engraver, and became one of the most
distinguished medal engravers of the latter part of the 18th century.
Among his works are the celebrated five franc piece known as "à
l'Hercule," the five centime and one decime pieces, on which the head
of Liberty is the profile of Madame Récamier, and seven medals
relating to America: John Paul Jones, General Morgan, General Greene,
Libertas Americana, the Diplomatic medal, and two of Franklin. Dupré
was engraver-general of the Paris Mint from July, 1791, to 1801, when
he was dismissed by General Bonaparte, then first consul. He died at
Armentières, January 31, 1833.


DANIEL MORGAN was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, in 1736. In
early life he served as a teamster in General Braddock's army, and
afterward settled in Frederick (now Clarke) County, Virginia. In 1775
he was captain of a rifle company, and served under Washington. He
accompanied General Arnold to Canada, and was made prisoner at Quebec;
he served again under Washington, as colonel of a rifle regiment, in
1776, and greatly distinguished himself under General Gates at
Saratoga. He was brigadier-general in 1780, served in the South under
Generals Gates and Greene, and won the brilliant victory of the
Cowpens, January 17, 1781, for which Congress gave him a vote of
thanks and a gold medal. Soon afterward he resigned from ill health,
and retired to his plantation. He was a member of Congress from 1795
to 1799. In 1780 he removed to Winchester, Virginia, where he died
July 6, 1802.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to General Morgan and to
Lieutenant-Colonels Washington and Howard, etc._

BY THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

     Considering it as a tribute due to distinguished merit to give a
     public approbation of the conduct of Brigadier-General Morgan,
     and of the officers and men under his command, on the 17th day of
     January last, when with 80 cavalry and 237 infantry of the troops
     of the United States, and 553 militia from the States of
     Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, he     (p. 042)
     obtained a complete and important victory over a select and
     well appointed detachment of more than 1,100 British troops
     commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton; do therefore
     _resolve_:--

     That the thanks of the United States in Congress assembled be
     given to Brigadier-General Morgan, and the officers and men under
     his command, for their fortitude and good conduct displayed in
     the action at the Cowpens, in the State of South Carolina, on the
     17th day of January last:

     That a medal of gold be presented to Brigadier-General Morgan,
     and a medal of silver to Lieutenant-Colonel Washington (William),
     of the cavalry, and one of silver to Lieutenant-Colonel Howard,
     of the infantry of the United States; severally with emblems and
     mottoes descriptive of the conduct of those officers respectively
     on that memorable day:

     That a sword be presented to Colonel Pickens, of the militia, in
     testimony of his spirited conduct in the action before mentioned:

     That Captain Edward Giles, aid-de-camp of Brigadier-General
     Morgan, have the brevet commission of major; and that Baron de
     Glasbuch, who served with Brigadier-General Morgan as a
     volunteer, have the brevet commission of captain in the army of
     the United States; in consideration of their merit and services.

     _Ordered_, That the commanding officer in the southern department
     communicate these resolutions in general orders.

     Friday, March 9, 1781.

                              _____

_General Morgan to General Greene._

     To                                 Camp, near Cain Creek,
       General GREENE.                     January 19, 1781.

     Sir: The troops I have the honour to command have been so
     fortunate as to obtain a complete victory over a detachment from
     the British army, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton. The
     action happened on the 17th instant, about sunrise, at the
     Cowpens. It perhaps would be well to remark, for the honour of
     the American arms, that although the progress of this corps was
     marked with burning and devastation, and although they waged the
     most cruel warfare, not a man was killed, wounded, or even
     insulted, after he surrendered. Had not the Britons during this
     contest received so many lessons of humanity, I should natter
     myself that this might teach them a little. But I fear they are
     incorrigible.

     To give you a just idea of our operation, it will be necessary to
     inform you, that on the 14th instant, having received certain
     intelligence that Lord Cornwallis and Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton
     were both in motion, and that their movements clearly indicated
     their intentions of dislodging me, I abandoned my encampment on
     Grindall's Ford on the Pacolet, and on the 16th, in the evening,
     took possession of a post, about seven miles from the Cherokee
     Ford, on Broad river. My former position subjected me at once (p. 043)
     to the operations of Cornwallis and Tarleton, and in case of a
     defeat, my retreat might have easily been cut off. My situation
     at the Cowpens enabled me to improve any advantages I might gain,
     and to provide better for my own security should I be unfortunate.
     These reasons induced me to take this post, at the risk of its
     wearing the face of a retreat.

     I received regular intelligence of the enemy's movements from the
     time they were first in motion. On the evening of the 16th
     instant they took possession of the ground I had removed from in
     the morning, distant from the scene of action about twelve miles.
     An hour before daylight, one of my scouts returned and informed
     me that Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton had advanced within five
     miles of our camp. On this information, I hastened to form as
     good a disposition as circumstances would admit, and from the
     alacrity of the troops, we were soon prepared to receive them.
     The light infantry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Howard, and
     the Virginia Militia, under the command of Major Triplett, were
     formed on a rising ground, and extended a line in front. The
     third regiment of dragoons, under Lieutenant-Colonel Washington,
     were posted at such a distance in their rear as not to be
     subjected to the line of fire directed at them, and to be so near
     as to be able to charge the enemy should they be broken. The
     volunteers of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, under
     the command of the brave and valuable Colonel Pickens, were
     situated to guard the flanks. Major McDowell, of the North
     Carolina Volunteers, was posted on the right flank in front of
     the line, one hundred and fifty yards; and Major Cunningham, of
     the Georgia Volunteers, on the left, at the same distance in
     front. Colonels Brannon and Thomas, of the South Carolinians,
     were posted on the right of Major McDowell, and Colonels Hays and
     McCall, of the same corps, on the left of Major Cunningham.
     Captains Tate and Buchanan, with the Augusta Riflemen, to support
     the right of the line.

     The enemy drew up in single line of battle, four hundred yards in
     front of our advanced corps. The first battalion of the 71st
     regiment was opposed to our right, the 7th regiment to our left,
     the infantry of the legion to our centre, the light companies on
     their flank. In front moved two pieces of artillery.
     Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton, with his cavalry, was posted in the
     rear of his line.

     The disposition of battle being thus formed, small parties of
     riflemen were detached to skirmish with the enemy, upon which
     their whole line moved on with the greatest impetuosity, shouting
     as they advanced. McDowell and Cunningham gave them a heavy and
     galling fire, and retreated to the regiments intended for their
     support. The whole of Colonel Pickens' command then kept up a
     fire by regiments, retreating agreeably to their orders. When the
     enemy advanced to our line, they received a well-directed and
     incessant fire; but their numbers being superior to ours, they
     gained our flanks, which obliged us to change our position. We
     retired in good order about fifty paces, formed, advanced on the
     enemy, and gave them a fortunate volley, which threw them into
     disorder. Lieutenant-Colonel Howard, observing this, gave orders
     for the line to charge bayonets, which was done with such address
     that they fled with the utmost precipitation, leaving their field
     pieces in our possession. We pushed our advantages so
     effectually, that they never had an opportunity of rallying, had
     their intentions been ever so good.

     Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, having been informed that      (p. 044)
     Tarleton was cutting down our riflemen on the left, pushed
     forward, and charged them with such firmness, that, instead of
     attempting to recover the fate of the day, which one would have
     expected from an officer of his splendid character, they broke
     and fled.

     The enemy's whole force were now bent solely in providing for
     their safety in flight--the list of their killed, wounded, and
     prisoners, will inform you with what effect Tarleton, with the
     small remains of his cavalry, and a few scattering infantry he
     had mounted on his waggon horses, made their escape. He was
     pursued twenty-four miles, but owing to our having taken a wrong
     trail at first, we never could overtake him.

     As I was obliged to move off the field of action in the morning,
     to secure the prisoners, I cannot be so accurate as to the killed
     and wounded as I could wish. From the reports of an officer whom
     I sent to view the ground, there were one hundred
     non-commissioned officers and privates, and ten commissioned
     officers, killed, and two hundred rank and file wounded. We have
     now in our possession five hundred and two non-commissioned
     officers and privates prisoners, independent of the wounded, and
     the militia are taking up stragglers continually. Twenty-nine
     commissioned officers have fallen into our hands. Their rank you
     will see by an enclosed list. The officers I have paroled, the
     privates I am conveying by the safest route to Salisbury.

     Two standards, two field pieces, thirty-five waggons, a
     travelling forge, and all their music are ours. Their baggage,
     which was immense, they have in a great measure destroyed.

     Our loss is inconsiderable, which the enclosed return will
     evince. I have not been able to ascertain Colonel Pickens' loss,
     but know it to be very small.

     From our force being composed of such a variety of corps, a wrong
     judgment may be formed of our numbers. We fought only eight
     hundred men, two-thirds of which were militia. The British, with
     their baggage guard, were not less than one thousand one hundred
     and fifty, and these veteran troops. Their own officers confess
     that they fought one thousand and thirty-seven.

     Such was the inferiority of our numbers, that our success must be
     attributed to the justice of our cause and the bravery of our
     troops. My wishes would induce me to mention the name of every
     sentinel in the corps I have the honour to command. In justice to
     the bravery and good conduct of the officers, I have taken the
     liberty to enclose you a list of their names, from a conviction
     that you will be pleased to introduce such characters to the
     world.

     Major Giles, my aid, and Captain Brookes, my brigade-major,
     deserve and have my thanks for their assistance and behaviour on
     this occasion.

     The Baron de Glasbuch, who accompanies Major Giles with these
     despatches, served with me in the action as a volunteer, and
     behaved in such a manner as merits your attention.

     I am, dear Sir, your obedient servant,
                                        Daniel MORGAN.

     P.S. Our loss was very inconsiderable, not having more than
     twelve killed and about sixty wounded.

     The enemy had ten commissioned officers and upwards of one    (p. 045)
     hundred rank and file killed, two hundred rank and file
     wounded, and twenty-seven officers and more than five hundred
     privates which fell into our hands, with two pieces of artillery,
     two Standards, eight hundred stand of arms, one travelling forge,
     thirty-five waggons, ten negroes, and upwards of one hundred
     dragoon horses.

     Although our success was complete, we fought only eight hundred
     men, and were opposed by upwards of one thousand British troops.

                              _____

     _Act of Congress directing a gold copy of General Morgan's medal
     to be struck and presented to Morgan Neville, Esq., the lineal
     heir of General Morgan._

     _Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States in Congress assembled_, That, in pursuance of the
     request of Morgan Neville, in his memorial presented at the
     present session of Congress, the director of the mint be and he
     is hereby authorized and directed to cause to be struck, a gold
     medal, of the intrinsic value of one hundred and fifty dollars,
     in honour of the battle of the Cowpens, which was fought on the
     seventeenth day of January, seventeen hundred and eighty-one, to
     replace the original medal presented by a resolution of the
     Continental Congress, of March ninth, seventeen hundred and
     eighty-one, to Brigadier-General Daniel Morgan; the said medal to
     be struck from the original die, and delivered when executed to
     the said Morgan Neville, the lineal heir of General Morgan; the
     expense of the same to be paid out of any money in the treasury
     not otherwise appropriated.

     Approved July 2d, 1836.



No. 9.                                                             (p. 046)
PLATE IX.


_January 17, 1781._

     Gulielmo Washington legionis equit. præfecto Comitia American.
     [Rx]. Quod parva militum manu, etc.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILLIAM AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON.

[_Victory of the Cowpens._]

GULIELMO WASHINGTON LEGIONIS EQUIT. (_equitum_) PRÆFECTO COMITIA
AMERICAN. (_Americana._) (_The American Congress to William
Washington, commander of a regiment of cavalry._) Lieutenant-Colonel
Washington, at the head of his men, is pursuing the enemy's cavalry. A
winged Victory hovers above him, holding in her right hand a crown of
laurel, and in her left a palm branch. DUV. (_Duvivier_).

Within a crown of laurel: QUOD PARVA MILITUM MANU STRENUE PROSECUTUS
HOSTES VIRTUTIS INGENITÆ PRÆCLARUM SPECIMEN DEDIT IN PUGNA AD COWPENS
XVII. JAN. (_Januarii_) MDCCLXXXI.(_Because in vigorously pursuing the
enemy with a handful of soldiers he gave a noble example of innate
courage at the battle of the Cowpens, January 17, 1781_).[41],[42]

                   [Footnote 41: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, xii,
                   xvii, xxiii, xxviii, xxxv; B, xxxvi; G, xlv; and H,
                   xlvii.]

                   [Footnote 42: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official report of the battle
                   of the Cowpens, are given under No. 8, page 40.]


WILLIAM AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON, a distant relation of General
Washington's, was born in Stafford County, Virginia, February 28,
1752. He was educated for the church, but entered the army as captain
of infantry, and fought in the battles of Long Island, Trenton, and
Princeton. In 1778 he was lieutenant-colonel of dragoons, and served
in the South under Generals Lincoln, Greene, and Morgan. He
distinguished himself at the victory of the Cowpens, for which he  (p. 047)
received from Congress a silver medal; was made a prisoner at Eutaw
Springs, and remained in captivity in Charleston, South Carolina, till
the close of the war, when he settled in that city. He served for some
time in the South Carolina Legislature; was appointed on General
Washington's staff with the rank of brigadier-general, in 1797, and
died in Charleston, March 6, 1810.



No. 10.                                                            (p. 048)
PLATE X.


_January 17, 1781._

     Joh. Egar Howard legionis peditum præfecto Comitia Americana.
     [Rx]. Quod in nutantem hostium aciem, etc.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN EAGER HOWARD.

[_Victory of the Cowpens._]

JOH. (_Johanni_) EGAR. (_sic_) HOWARD LEGIONIS PEDITUM PRÆFECTO
COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American Congress to John Eager Howard,
commander of a regiment of infantry._) Lieutenant-Colonel Howard, on
horseback, is in pursuit of a foot-soldier of the enemy who is
carrying away a standard. A winged Victory hovers over him, holding in
her right hand a crown of laurel, and in her left a palm branch.
DUVIV. (_Duvivier_).

Within a crown of laurel: QUOD IN NUTANTEM HOSTIUM ACIEM SUBITO
IRRUENS PRÆCLARUM BELLICÆ VIRTUTIS SPECIMEN DEDIT IN PUGNA AD COWPENS
XVII. JAN. (_Januarii_) MDCCLXXXI. (_Because by rushing suddenly on
the wavering lines of the enemy, he gave a brilliant example of
martial courage at the battle of the Cowpens, January 17,
1781_).[43],[44]

                   [Footnote 43: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, xii,
                   xvii, xxiii, xxviii, xxxv; B, xxxvi; G, xlv; and H,
                   xlvii.]

                   [Footnote 44: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official report of the battle
                   of the Cowpens, are given under No. 8, page 40.]


JOHN EAGER HOWARD was born in Baltimore County, Maryland, June 4,
1752. On the breaking out of the Revolution he was appointed captain,
and took part in the battle of White Plains. He was promoted to the
rank of major in 1777, and fought at Germantown and Monmouth. He
became lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Maryland regiment of infantry in
1779, and served in the South under Generals Gates, Greene, and
Morgan, taking a brilliant part in every engagement. At the victory of
the Cowpens he held in his hands at one time the swords of seven   (p. 049)
British officers who had surrendered to him. For his services in
this battle Congress awarded him a silver medal. He was colonel of the
2d Maryland regiment at Eutaw Springs. At the close of the war he
retired to Baltimore, and was governor of Maryland, 1789-1792, and
United States senator, 1796-1803 When a war with France was expected
in 1797, he was selected by General Washington for one of his
brigadier-generals. He organized the defence of Baltimore in 1814, and
died in that city, October 12, 1827.



No. 11.                                                            (p. 050)
PLATE XI.


_September 8, 1781._

     Nathanieli Green egregio duci Comitia Americana. [Rx]. Salus
     regionum australium.

MAJOR-GENERAL NATHANIEL GREENE.

[_Victory of Eutaw Springs._]

NATHANIELI GREEN (_sic_) EGREGIO DUCI COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The
American Congress to Nathaniel Greene, a distinguished general._) Bust
of General Greene, in uniform, facing the left.

SALUS REGIONUM AUSTRALIUM. (_The safety of the southern regions._) A
winged Victory holds a crown of laurel in her right hand, and a palm
branch in her left; one foot is resting on a trophy of arms and flags
of conquered enemies. Exergue: HOSTIBUS AD EUTAW DEBELLATIS DIE VIII
SEPT (_Septembris_) MDCCLXXXI. (_The enemy vanquished at Eutaw on the
8th of September, 1781._) DUPRÉ.[45]

                   [Footnote 45: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, xiii,
                   xvi, xvii, xviii, xxi, xxviii, xxxv; B, xxxvi; C,
                   xli; F, xlv; and H, xlvii.]

The legend of the reverse of this medal, as originally proposed by the
French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres was, SALUS
PROVINCIARUM AUSTRALIUM.


NATHANIEL GREENE was born at Potowhommet, Warwick County, Rhode
Island, May 27, 1742. He began life as a blacksmith, but entered the
"Kentish Guards" as a private in 1774. He was made brigadier-general
of the Rhode Island contingent to the army before Boston, in May, 1775,
and a brigadier-general in the Continental Army, June 22, 1775, and
remained in active service throughout the war. In 1776 he commanded in
Long Island as a major-general; and fought at Trenton, Princeton, the
Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, Newport, and Springfield. He was
quartermaster-general from March 2, 1778, to August, 1780; and was
commander of the army, in September, when Arnold's treason was
discovered. The same year he was appointed commander-in-chief of   (p. 051)
the southern department, retook the two Carolinas and Georgia, and won
the battle of Eutaw Springs, September 8, 1781, for which victory
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold medal. After the war he
removed to a plantation, which the State of Georgia had given him, on
the Savannah river, and died there of a sunstroke, June 19, 1786.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting a Medal to General Greene, etc._

BY THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of the United States in Congress
     assembled, be presented to Major-General Greene for his wise,
     decisive, and magnanimous conduct in the action of the 8th of
     September last, near the Eutaw Springs, in South Carolina, in
     which, with a force inferior in number to that of the enemy, he
     obtained a most signal victory.

     That the thanks of the United States in Congress assembled, be
     presented to the officers and men of the Maryland and Virginia
     brigades, and Delaware battalion of continental troops, for the
     unparalleled bravery and heroism by them displayed, in advancing
     to the enemy through an incessant fire, and charging them with an
     impetuosity and ardour that could not be resisted.

     That the thanks of the United States in Congress assembled, be
     presented to the officers and men of the legionary corps and
     artillery, for their intrepid and gallant exertions during the
     action.

     That the thanks of the United States in Congress assembled, be
     presented to the brigade of North Carolina for their resolution
     and perseverance in attacking the enemy, and sustaining a
     superior fire.

     That the thanks of the United States in Congress assembled, be
     presented to the officers and men of the state corps of South
     Carolina, for the zeal, activity, and firmness by them exhibited
     throughout the engagement.

     That the thanks of the United States in Congress assembled, be
     presented to the officers and men of the militia, who formed the
     front line in the order of battle, and sustained their post with
     honour, propriety, and resolution, worthy of men determined to be
     free.

     _Resolved_, That a British standard be presented to
     Major-General Greene as an honourable testimony of his merit, and
     a golden medal emblematical of the battle and victory aforesaid.

     That Major-General Greene be desired to present the thanks of (p. 052)
     Congress to Captains Pierce and Pendleton, Major Hyrne and Captain
     Shubrick, his aids-de-camp in testimony of their particular
     activity and good conduct during the whole of the action.

     That a sword be presented to Captain Pierce, who bore the
     general's despatches giving an account of the victory, and that
     the Board of War take order herein.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of the United States in Congress
     assembled, be presented to Brigadier-General Marion, of the South
     Carolina militia, for his wise, gallant, and decided conduct in
     defending the liberties of his country; and particularly for his
     prudent and intrepid attack on a body of the British troops, on
     the 30th day of August last, and for the distinguished part he
     took in the battle of the 8th of September.

     Monday, October 29, 1781.

                              _____

_General Greene to the President of Congress._

                    Headquarters, Martin's Tavern, near Ferguson's Swamp,
     To His Excellency            South Carolina, September 11, 1781.
        THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

     Sir: In my last despatch of the 25th of August, I informed Your
     Excellency that we were on our march for Fryday's Ferry, to form
     a junction with the State troops and a body of militia,
     collecting at that place, with an intention to make an attack
     upon the British army laying at Colonel Thompson's, near McCord's
     Ferry. On the 27th, on our arrival near Fryday's Ferry, I got
     intelligence that the enemy were retiring.

     We crossed the river at Howell's Ferry, and took post at Motte's
     plantation. Here I got intelligence that the enemy had halted at
     the Eutaw Springs, about forty miles below us; and that they had
     a reinforcement, and were making preparations to establish a
     permanent post there. To prevent this, I was determined rather to
     hazard an action, notwithstanding our numbers were greatly
     inferior to theirs. On the 5th we began our march, our baggage
     and stores having been ordered to Howell's Ferry under a proper
     guard. We moved by slow and easy marches, as well to disguise our
     real intention, as to give General Marion an opportunity to join
     us, who had been detached for the support of Colonel Harden, a
     report of which I transmitted in my letter of the 5th, dated
     Maybrick's Creek. General Marion joined us on the evening of the
     7th, at Burdell's plantation, seven miles from the enemy's camp.

     We made the following disposition, and marched at four o'clock
     the next morning to attack the enemy. Our front line was composed
     of four small battalions of militia, two of North and two of
     South Carolinians; one of the South Carolinians was under the
     immediate command of General Marion, and was posted on the right,
     who also commanded the front line; the two North Carolina
     battalions, wider the command of Colonel Malmady, were posted in
     the centre; and the other South Carolina battalion under the  (p. 053)
     command of General Pickens, was posted on the left. Our second
     line consisted of three small brigades of continental
     troops--one from North Carolina, one from Virginia, and one from
     Maryland. The North Carolinians were formed into three
     battalions, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Ash, Majors
     Armstrong and Blount; the whole commanded by General Sumner, and
     posted upon the right. The Virginians consisted of two
     battalions, commanded by Major Snead and Captain Edmonds, and the
     whole by Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, and posted in the centre.
     The Marylanders also consisted of two battalions, commanded by
     Lieutenant-Colonel Howard and Major Hardman, and the brigade by
     Colonel Williams, deputy adjutant-general to the army, and were
     posted upon the left. Lieutenant-Colonel Lee with his legion
     covered our right flank; and Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson, with
     the State troops, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonels Hampton,
     Middleton, and Polk, our left. Lieutenant-Colonel Washington,
     with his horse and the Delaware troops, under Captain Kirkwood,
     formed a corps of reserve. Two three-pounders, under
     Captain-Lieutenant Gaines, advanced with the front line, and two
     sixes, under Captain Browne, with the second.

     The legion and State troops formed our advance, and were to
     retire upon the flanks upon the enemy's forming. In this order we
     moved on to the attack. The legion and State troops fell in with
     a party of the enemy's horse and foot, about four miles from
     their camp, who, mistaking our people for a party of militia,
     charged them briskly, but were soon convinced of their mistake by
     the reception they met with. The infantry of the State troops
     kept up a heavy fire, and the legion in front, under Captain
     Rudolph, charged them with fixed bayonets; they fled on all
     sides, leaving four or five dead on the ground, and several more
     wounded. As this was supposed to be the advance of the British
     army, our front line was ordered to form and move on briskly in
     line, the legion and State troops to take their position upon the
     flanks. All the country is covered with timber, from the place
     the action began to Eutaw Springs. The firing began again between
     two and three miles from the British camp. The militia were
     ordered to keep advancing as they fired. The enemy's advanced
     parties were soon driven in, and a most tremendous fire began on
     both sides from right to left, and the legion and State troops
     were closely engaged. General Marion, Colonel Malmady, and
     General Pickens conducted the troops with great gallantry and
     good conduct; and the militia fought with a degree of spirit and
     firmness that reflects the highest honour upon that class of
     soldiers. But the enemy's fire being greatly superior to ours,
     and continuing to advance, the militia began to give ground. The
     North Carolina brigade, under General Sumner, was ordered up to
     their support. These were all new levies, and had been under
     discipline but little more than a month, notwithstanding which
     they fought with a degree of obstinacy that would do honour to
     the best of veterans, and I could hardly tell which to admire
     most, the gallantry of the officers or the bravery of the troops.
     They kept up a heavy and well directed fire, and the enemy
     returned it with equal spirit, for they really fought worthy of a
     better cause, and great execution was done on both sides. In this
     stage of the action, the Virginians under Lieutenant-Colonel
     Campbell, and the Marylanders under Colonel Williams, were led on
     to a brisk charge, with trailed arms, through a heavy cannonade
     and a shower of musket balls. Nothing could exceed the gallantry
     and firmness of both officers and soldiers upon this          (p. 054)
     occasion. They preserved their order, and pressed on with such
     unshaken resolution that they bore all before them. The enemy was
     routed in all quarters. Lieutenant-Colonel Lee had, with great
     address, gallantry, and good conduct, turned the enemy's left
     flank, and was charging them in rear at the same time the
     Virginia and Maryland troops were charging them in front. A most
     valuable officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Hampton, who commanded the
     State cavalry, and who fortunately succeeded Lieutenant-Colonel
     Henderson in command, charged a party of the enemy, and took
     upwards of one hundred prisoners. Lieutenant-Colonel Washington
     brought up the corps of reserve upon the left, where the enemy
     seemed disposed to make further resistance, and charged them so
     briskly with the cavalry and Captain Kirkwood's infantry as gave
     them no time to rally or form. Lieutenant-Colonels Polk and
     Middleton, who commanded the State infantry, were no less
     conspicuous for their good conduct than their intrepidity; and
     the troops under their command gave a specimen of what may be
     expected from men, naturally brave, when improved by proper
     discipline. Captain-Lieutenant Gaines, who commanded the
     three-pounders with the front line, did great execution until his
     pieces were dismounted. We kept close at the enemy's heels after
     they broke, until we got into their camp, and a great number of
     prisoners were continually falling into our hands, and some
     hundreds of the fugitives ran off toward Charleston. But a party
     threw themselves into a large three-story brick house, which
     stands near the spring; others took post in a picqueted garden,
     while others were lodged in an impenetrable thicket, consisting
     of a cragged shrub called a blackjack. Thus secured in front, and
     upon the right by the house and a deep ravine, upon the left by
     the picqueted garden and in the impenetrable shrubs, and the rear
     also being secured by the springs and deep hollow ways, the enemy
     renewed the action. Every exertion was made to dislodge them.
     Lieutenant-Colonel Washington made most astonishing efforts to
     get through the thicket to charge the enemy in the rear, but
     found it impracticable, had his horse shot under him, and was
     wounded and taken prisoner. Four six-pounders were ordered up
     before the house--two of our own and two of the enemy's, which
     they had abandoned--and they were pushed on so much under the
     command of the fire from the house and the party in the thicket
     as rendered it impracticable to bring them off again when the
     troops were ordered to retire. Never were pieces better served;
     most of the men and officers were either killed or wounded.
     Washington failing in his charge upon the left, and the legion
     baffled in an attempt upon the right, and finding our infantry
     galled by the fire of the enemy, and our ammunition mostly
     consumed, though both officers and men continued to exhibit
     uncommon acts of heroism, I thought proper to retire out of the
     fire of the house, and draw up the troops at a little distance in
     the woods, not thinking it advisable to push our advantages
     further, being persuaded the enemy could not hold the post many
     hours, and that our chance to attack them on the retreat was
     better than a second attempt to dislodge them, in which, if we
     succeeded, it must be attended with considerable loss.

     We collected all our wounded, except such as were under the
     command of the fire of the house, and retired to the ground from
     which we marched in the morning, there being no water nearer, (p. 055)
     and the troops ready to faint with the heat and want of
     refreshment, the action having continued near four hours. I left
     on the field of action a strong picquet, and early in the morning
     detached General Marion and Lieutenant-Colonel Lee, with the
     legion of horse between Eutaw and Charleston, to prevent any
     reinforcements from coming to the relief of the enemy; and also
     to retard their march, should they attempt to retire, and give
     time to the army to fall upon their rear and put a finishing
     stroke to our success. We left two pieces of our artillery in the
     hands of the enemy, and brought off one of theirs. On the evening
     of the 9th the enemy retired, leaving upward of seventy of their
     wounded behind them, and not less than one thousand stand of arms
     that were picked up on the field, and found broke and concealed
     in the Eutaw Springs. They stove between twenty and thirty
     puncheons of rum, and destroyed a great variety of other stores,
     which they had not carriages to carry off. We pursued them the
     moment we got intelligence of their retiring; but they formed a
     junction with Major McArthur at this place, General Marion and
     Lieutenant-Colonel Lee not having a force sufficient to prevent
     it; but on our approach they retired to the neighbourhood of
     Charleston. We have taken five hundred prisoners, including the
     wounded the enemy left behind; and I think they cannot have
     suffered less than six hundred more in killed and wounded. The
     fugitives that fled from the field of battle spread such an alarm
     that the enemy burnt their stores at Dorchester, and abandoned
     their post at Fair Lawn; and a great number of negroes and others
     were employed in felling trees across the roads for some miles
     without the gates at Charleston. Nothing but the brick house, and
     the peculiar strength of the position at Eutaw, saved the remains
     of the British army from being all made prisoners.

     We pursued them as far as this place; but not being able to
     overtake them, we shall halt a day or two to refresh, and then
     take our old position on the high hills of Santee. I think myself
     principally indebted for the victory we obtained to the free use
     of the bayonet, made by the Virginians and Marylanders, the
     infantry of the legion, and Captain Kirkwood's light infantry,
     and though few armies ever exhibited equal bravery with ours in
     general, yet the conduct and intrepidity of these corps were
     peculiarly conspicuous. Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell fell as he
     was leading his troops to the charge, and though he fell with
     distinguished marks of honour, yet his loss is much to be
     regretted; he was the great soldier and the firm patriot.

     Our loss in officers is considerable, more from their value than
     their number; for never did men or officers offer their blood
     more willingly in the service of their country. I cannot help
     acknowledging my obligations to Colonel Williams for his great
     activity on this and many other occasions in forming the army,
     and for his uncommon intrepidity in leading on the Maryland
     troops to the charge, which exceeded anything I ever saw. I also
     feel myself greatly indebted to Captains Pierce and Pendleton,
     Major Hyrne and Captain Shubrick, my aids-de-camp, for their
     activity and good conduct throughout the whole of the action.

     This despatch will be handed to Your Excellency by Captain
     Pierce, to whom I beg leave to refer you for further particulars.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Nath. GREENE.

                              _____

_John Jay to Major William Pierce and others._                     (p. 056)

                                        Office for Foreign Affairs,
                                               12 February, 1788.
     _To the Honourables_
         MAJOR WILLIAM PIERCE and NATHANIEL PENDLETON, Esquire, of
         Georgia, and LIEUTENANT-COLONEL LEWIS MORRIS[46], MAJOR THOMAS
         SHUBRICK and MAJOR HYRNE, of South Carolina, formerly aids of
         the late General GREENE.

     Sir: It gives me pleasure to have an opportunity of transmitting
     to you, by order of Congress, a copy of the medal struck by their
     direction in honour of the late General Greene. A variety of
     circumstances conspire to render this work of public attention
     acceptable to you, though I am persuaded none among them will
     more immediately affect the feelings, than the relation it bears
     to that great man, whose loss you in particular, and the people
     of America in general, have great reason to regret and lament.

           I have the honour to be, etc.
                                        John JAY.

                   [Footnote 46: Colonel Morris's name does not
                   appear in the resolution of Congress. See No. 11,
                   page 50.]



No. 12.                                                            (p. 057)
PLATE XII.


_April 19, 1782._

     Libera soror. [Rx]. Tyrannis virtute repulsa.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BY THE UNITED NETHERLANDS.

LIBERA SOROR. (_Free sister._) The sun shedding its rays on two
maidens, one of whom, with breast-plate and helmet, and personifying
the States-General of the Netherlands, holds with her left hand a
staff surmounted by a cap of Liberty over the head of her companion.
The latter, an Indian queen (_America_), holds in her left hand a
lance, a shield with thirteen stars (_the thirteen original United
States_), and the end of a chain which binds a leopard (_Great
Britain_), on whose head she rests her left foot. Their right hands,
clasped, are extended over a fire burning on an antique altar
ornamented with a caduceus and a cornucopia, the attributes of
Mercury, god of commerce. Exergue: SOLEMNI DECR. AGN. 19 APR.
MDCCLXXXII (_Solemni decreto agnita, 19 Aprilis, 1782: Acknowledged by
a solemn decree, April 19, 1782_).

TYRANNIS VIRTUTE REPULSA. (_Tyranny repulsed by virtue._) A unicorn
(_Great Britain_), royally gorged, lies extended at the foot of a
precipice, against which it has broken its horn; in the background a
vast country (_America_), diversified by plains, rivers and mountains.
Exergue: SUB GALLIÆ AUSPICIIS (_Under the auspices of France_). On the
platform: I. G. HOLTZHEY FEC. (_fecit_).[47]

                   [Footnote 47: See INTRODUCTION, page x.]


JOHN GEORGE HOLTZHEY was born in Amsterdam, in 1729. He was the    (p. 058)
eldest son of Martin Holtzhey, a celebrated engraver, who died in
Middleburg, November I, 1767. John George Holtzhey was the pupil of
his father, and engraved, in collaboration with him, the plates in a
work entitled: "Catalogus der (73 stuks) Medailles en gedenkpenningen
betrekking hebbende op de voornamste historien der Vereenigde Nederlanden
(Amsterdam, 1755)." Among his works are two medals relating to the
United States of America, "Libera Soror," and "Faustissimo Foedere
Junctæ." He was one of the most eminent engravers of his day. He died
in Amsterdam, February 15, 1808.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_John Adams to Robert R. Livingston._

     To
       Robert R. LIVINGSTON,            Amsterdam, April 19th, 1782.
         Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

     Sir: I have the honour to transmit you the following resolutions
     of the respective provinces, relative to my admission in quality
     of Minister Plenipotentiary, together with two resolutions of
     their High Mightinesses, upon the same subject, all in the order
     in which they were taken.

               I have the honour, etc.,
                                        John ADAMS.

                              _____

FRIESLAND.

_Extract from the Register Book of the Lords, the States of
Friesland._

     "The requisition of Mr. Adams, for presenting his letters of
     credence from the United States of North America to their High
     Mightinesses, having been brought into the Assembly and put into
     deliberation, as also the ulterior address to the same purpose,
     with a demand of a categorical answer, made by him, as is more
     amply mentioned in the minutes of their High Mightinesses, of the
     4th of May, 1781, and the 9th of January, 1782, whereupon, it
     having been taken into consideration, that the said Mr. Adams
     would have, probably, some propositions to make to their High
     Mightinesses, and to present to them the principal articles and
     foundations upon which the Congress, on their part, would enter
     into a treaty of commerce and friendship, or other affairs to
     propose, in regard to which dispatch would be requisite.

     "It has been thought fit and resolved to authorize the gentlemen,
     the Deputies of this Province at the generality, and to
     instruct them to direct things, at the table of their High    (p. 059)
     Mightinesses, in such a manner that the said Mr. Adams be
     admitted forthwith as Minister of the Congress of North America,
     with further order to the said Deputies, that if there should be
     made, moreover, any similar propositions by the same to inform
     immediately their Noble Mightinesses of them. And an extract of
     the present Resolution shall be sent them for their information,
     that they may conduct themselves conformably.

       "Thus resolved at the Province House, the 26th of February, 1782.
          "Compared with the aforesaid book to my knowledge,
                                                  A. J. V. SMINIA."

                              _____

HOLLAND AND WEST FRIESLAND.

_Extract of the Resolutions of the Lords, the States of Holland and
West Friesland, taken in the Assembly of their Noble and Grand
Mightinesses._

                                        Thursday, March 28th, 1782.

     "Deliberated by resumption upon the address and the ulterior
     address of Mr. Adams, made the 4th of May, 1781, and the 9th of
     January, 1782, to the President of the States-General,
     communicated to the Assembly, the 9th of May, 1781, and the 22d
     of last month, to present his letters of credence, in the name of
     the United States of America, to their High Mightinesses, by
     which ulterior address the said Mr. Adams has demanded a
     categorical answer, that he may acquaint his constituents
     thereof; deliberated also upon the petitions of a great number of
     merchants, manufacturers and others, inhabitants of this Province
     interested in commerce, to support their request presented to the
     States-General the 20th current, to the end that efficacious
     measures might be taken to establish a commerce between this
     country and North America, copies of which petitions have been
     given to the members the 21st; and it has been thought fit, and
     resolved, that the affairs shall be directed, on the part of
     their Noble and Grand Mightinesses, at the Assembly of the
     States-General, and there shall be there made the strongest
     instances that Mr. Adams be admitted and acknowledged, as soon as
     possible, by their High Mightinesses in quality of Envoy of the
     United States of America. And the Counsellor-Pensionary has been
     charged to inform, under his hand, the said Mr. Adams of this
     Resolution of their Noble and Grand Mightinesses."

                              _____

ZEALAND.

_Extract of the Resolutions of their High Mightinesses, the
States-General of the United Provinces._

                                        Monday, April 8th, 1782.

     "The Deputies of the Province of Zealand have brought to the
     Assembly and caused to be read there the Resolution of the States
     of the said Province, their principals, to cause to be admitted
     as soon as possible, Mr. Adams, in quality of Envoy of the
     Congress of North America in the following terms:

_Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Lords, the    (p. 060)
States of Zealand._

                                        April 4th, 1782.

     "It has been thought fit and ordered, that the gentlemen, the
     Ordinary Deputies of this Province at the generality, shall be
     convoked and authorized, as it is done by the present, to assist
     in the direction of affairs at the Assembly of their High
     Mightinesses, in such a manner that Mr. Adams may be acknowledged
     as soon as possible as Envoy of the Congress of North America;
     that the letters of credence be accepted, and that he be admitted
     in that quality according to the ordinary form, enjoining further
     upon the said Lords, the Ordinary Deputies, to take such
     propositions as should be made to this Republic, by the said Mr.
     Adams, for the information and the deliberation of their High
     Mightinesses, to the end to transmit them here as soon as
     possible. And an extract of this resolution of their Noble
     Mightinesses shall be sent to the gentlemen, their Ordinary
     Deputies, to serve them as an instruction.
                                               J. M. CHALMERS."

     "Upon which, having deliberated, it has been thought fit and
     resolved to pray, by the present, the gentlemen, the Deputies of
     the Provinces of Guelderland, Utrecht, and Groningen, and
     Ommelanden, who have not as yet explained themselves upon this
     subject, to be pleased to do it, as soon as possible."

                              _____

OVERYSSEL.

_Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Equestrian Order,
and of the cities composing the States Overyssel._

                                        Zwoll, 5th of April, 1782.

     "The grand Bailiff de Sallande, and the other commissions of
     their Noble Mightinesses for the affairs of finance, having
     examined, conformably to their commissarial resolution of the 3d
     of this month, the addresses of Mr. Adams, communicated to the
     Assembly the 4th of May, 1781, and the 22d of February, 1782, to
     present his letters of credence to their High Mightinesses, in
     the name of the United States of North America; as well as the
     resolution of the Lords, the States of Holland and West
     Friesland, dated the 28th of March, 1782, carried the 29th of the
     same month to the Assembly of their High Mightinesses, for the
     admission and acknowledgment of Mr. Adams, have reported to the
     Assembly, that they should be of opinion that the gentlemen, the
     Deputies of this Province in the States-General, ought to be
     authorized and charged to declare in the Assembly of their High
     Mightinesses, that the Equestrian Order and the cities' Judge,
     that it is proper to acknowledge, as soon as possible, Mr. Adams,
     in quality of Minister of the United States of North America, to
     their High Mightinesses. Upon which, having deliberated, the
     Equestrian Order and the cities have conformed themselves to the
     said report.

       "Compared with the aforesaid Register.
                                             Derk DUMBAR."

                              _____

GRONINGEN.                                                         (p. 061)

_Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their Noble
Mightinesses, the States of Groningen and Ommelanden._

                                        Tuesday, 9th of April, 1782.

     "The Lords, the States of Groningen and Ommelanden, having heard
     the report of the gentlemen, the Commissioners for the Petitions
     of the Council of State and the Finances of the Province, and
     having carefully examined the demand of Mr. Adams, to present his
     letters of credence from the United States of North America, to
     their High Mightinesses, have, after deliberation upon the
     subject, declared themselves of opinion that in the critical
     circumstances in which the Republic finds itself at present, it
     is proper to take, without loss of time, such efficacious
     measures as may not only repair the losses and damages that the
     kingdom of Great Britain has caused, in a manner so unjust, and
     against every shadow of right, to the commerce of the Republic,
     as well before as after the war, but particularly such as may
     establish the free navigation and the commerce of the Republic,
     for the future, upon the most solid foundations, as may confirm
     and re-assure it by the strongest bonds of reciprocal interest,
     and that, in consequence, the gentlemen, the Deputies at the
     Assembly of their High Mightinesses, ought to be authorized on
     the part of the Province, as they are by the present, to admit
     Mr. Adams to present his letters of credence from the United
     States of North America, and to receive the propositions which he
     shall make, to make report of them to the Lords, the States of
     this Province.
                                        E. LEWE, _Secretary_."

     "The States-General, having deliberated the same day upon this
     resolution, have _Resolved_, 'That the Deputies of the Province
     of Guelderland, which has not yet declared itself upon the same
     subject, should be requested to be pleased to do it as soon as
     possible.'"

                              _____

UTRECHT.

_Extract of the Resolutions of their Noble Mightinesses, the States of
the Province of Utrecht._

                                        10th of April, 1782.

     "Heard the report of Mr. de Westerveld, and other Deputies of
     their Noble Mightinesses for the Department of War, who, in
     virtue of the commissarial resolutions of the 9th of May, 1781,
     the 16th of January, and the 20th of March, of the present year,
     1782, have examined the resolution of their High Mightinesses of
     the 4th of May, 1781, containing an overture, that the President
     of the Assembly of their High Mightinesses had made, 'that a
     person, styling himself J. Adams, had been with him, and had
     given him to understand that he had received letters of credence
     for their High Mightinesses from the United States of North
     America, with a request that he would be pleased to communicate
     them to their High Mightinesses,' as well as the resolution of
     their High Mightinesses, of the 9th of January, containing an
     ulterior overture of the President, 'that the said Mr. Adams  (p. 062)
     had been with him, and had insisted upon a categorical
     answer, whether his said letters of credence would be accepted or
     not;' finally, the resolution of their High Mightinesses, of the
     5th of March last, with the insertion of the resolution of
     Friesland, containing a proposition 'to admit Mr. Adams in
     quality of Minister of the Congress of North America.'"

     "Upon which, having deliberated and remarked that the Lords, the
     States of Holland and West Friesland, by their resolution,
     carried the 29th of March to the States-General, have also
     consented to the admission of the said Mr. Adams in quality of
     Minister of the Congress of North America, it has been thought
     fit, and resolved, that the gentlemen, the Deputies of this
     Province in the States-General, should be authorized, as their
     Noble Highnesses authorize them by the present, to conform
     themselves, in the name of this Province, to the resolution of
     the Lords, the States of Holland and West Friesland, and of
     Friesland, and to consent, by consequence, that Mr. Adams be
     acknowledged and admitted as Minister of the United States of
     North America, their Noble Mightinesses being at the same time of
     opinion that it would be necessary to acquaint Her Majesty, the
     Empress of Russia, and the other neutral powers, with the
     resolution to be taken by their High Mightinesses upon this
     subject, in communicating to them (as much as shall be necessary)
     the reasons which have induced their High Mightinesses to it, and
     in giving them the strongest assurances, that the intention of
     their High Mightinesses is by no means to prolong thereby the
     war, which they would have willingly prevented and terminated
     long since; but that, on the contrary, their High Mightinesses
     wish nothing with more ardor than a prompt re-establishment of
     peace, and that they shall be always ready on their part to
     co-operate in it, in all possible ways, and with a suitable
     readiness, so far as that shall be any way compatible with their
     honour and their dignity. And to this end an extract of this
     shall be carried by missive to the gentlemen, the Deputies at the
     Generality."

                              _____

GUELDERLAND.

_Extract from the Precis of the ordinary Diet, held in the City of
Nimeguen, in the month of April, 1782._

                                        Wednesday, 17th of April, 1782.

     "The requisition of Mr. Adams to present his letter of credence
     to their High Mightinesses, in the name of the United States of
     North America, having been brought to the Assembly and read, as
     well as an ulterior address made upon this subject, with the
     demand of a categorical answer by the said Mr. Adams, more amply
     mentioned in the registers of their High Mightinesses, of the
     date of the 4th of May, 1781, and the 9th of January, 1782,
     moreover, the resolutions of the Lords, the States of the six
     other Provinces, carried successively to the Assembly of their
     High Mightinesses, and all tending to admit Mr. Adams, in quality
     of Envoy of the United States of North America, to this Republic;
     upon which their Noble Mightinesses, after deliberation, have (p. 063)
     resolved to authorize the Deputies of this Province, as they
     authorize them by the present, to conform themselves in the name
     of this Province, to the resolution of the Lords, the States of
     Holland and West Friesland, and to consent, by consequence, that
     Mr. Adams may be acknowledged and admitted, in quality of Envoy
     of the United States of North America, to this Republic. In
     consequence, an extract of the present shall be sent to the said
     Deputies, to make, as soon as possible, the requisite overture of
     it to the Assembly of their High Mightinesses.
                                                   J. IN DE BETOUW."

     This resolution of Guelderland was no sooner remitted, on the
     19th, to their High Mightinesses, than they took immediately a
     resolution conformable to the unanimous wish of the Seven
     Provinces, conceived in the following terms:

_Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their High
Mightinesses, the States-General of the United Provinces._

                                        Friday, April 19th, 1782.

     "Deliberated by resumption upon the address and the ulterior
     address, made by Mr. Adams, the 4th of May, 1781, and the 9th of
     January of the current year, to the President of the Assembly of
     their High Mightinesses, to present to their High Mightinesses
     his letters of credence, in the name of the United States of
     North America, and by which ulterior address the said Mr. Adams
     has demanded a categorical answer, to the end to be able to
     acquaint his constituents thereof; it has been thought fit and
     resolved, that Mr. Adams shall be admitted and acknowledged in
     quality of Envoy of the United States of North America to their
     High Mightinesses, as he is admitted and acknowledged by the
     present."
                                                   W. BOREEL."
             "Compared with the aforesaid register.
                                              H. FAGEL."

                              _____

THE FORMAL RESOLUTION OF THEIR HIGH MIGHTINESSES.

_Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of their High
Mightinesses, the States-General of the United Provinces._

                                        Monday, April 22d, 1782.

     "Mr. Boreel, who presided in the Assembly the last week, has
     reported to their High Mightinesses and notified them, that Mr.
     John Adams, Envoy of the United States of America, had been with
     him last Saturday, and had presented to him a letter from the
     Assembly of Congress, written at Philadelphia, the 1st of
     January, 1781, containing a credence for the said Mr. Adams, to
     the end to reside in quality of its Minister Plenipotentiary near
     their High Mightinesses. Upon which, having deliberated, it has
     been thought fit and resolved to declare by the present, that the
     said Mr. Adams is agreeable to their High Mightinesses; that  (p. 064)
     he shall be acknowledged in quality of Minister Plenipotentiary,
     and that there shall be granted to him an audience, or assigned
     commissioners, when he shall demand it. audience, or assigned
     above shall be given to the said Mr. Adams by the agent, Van der
     Burch de Spieringshoek.
                                                    W. VAN CITTERS."
              "Compared with the aforesaid register.
                                               H. FAGEL."

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS, FROM THE ROYAL ARCHIVES AT THE HAGUE, RELATING TO
THE ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY THE UNITED
NETHERLANDS.[48]

                   [Footnote 48: These copies were obtained through
                   the politeness of Baron de Zuijlen de Nijevelt,
                   Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of
                   the Netherlands to France. The original record of
                   the action of the State of Utrecht could not be
                   found in the Royal Archives.]

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten der
provincie Friesland van den jare 1782._

     Adams te admitteeren als minister weegens het congres van
     Noord-America.

     Ter vergaderinge voorgedragen en in deliberatie gelegd zijnde het
     versoek van de heer Adams om zijne brieven van credentie van de
     Verenigde Staten van Noord-America aan Hun Hoog Mog' te
     overhandigen, mitsgaders het nader adres ten dien einde, met
     versoek van een cathegorisch antwoord door deselve gedaan en
     breeder in de notulen van Hun Hoog Mog' van den 4 May 1781 en 9
     January 1782, vermeld.

     Waarop in consideratie genomen zijnde dat de voorschr. heer Adams
     niet onwaarschijnlijk eenige propositien aan Hun Hoog Mog' zoude
     hebben te doen en voorname articulen en gronden aan Hun Hoog Mog'
     kunnen ter hand stellen, waarop 't congres aan haare zijde in een
     tractaat van commercie en vriendschap zoude willen treeden of
     andere zaaken hebben voortedragen, waaromtrent spoed vereischt
     wierde, is goedgevonden en verstaan de heeren deeser prov.
     gecommitteerden ter generaliteit te authoriseeren en te gelasten,
     het ter tafel van Hun Hoog Mog' daar heen te dirigeeren, dat
     gedagte heer Adams met den eersten als minister van het Congres
     van Noord-America, werde toegelaten, met verdere last aan
     opgemelde gecommitteerden, om indien door deselve eenige
     soortgelijke propositien werden gedaan, daar van ten spoedigsten
     Hun Ed. Mog' te informeeren.

     En sal extract deeses aan hun worden toegesonden tot narigt en om
     sig daar na te gedragen.

     Aldus geresolveert op 't Landschapshuis den 26e February 1782.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten van  (p. 065)
Holland en Westfriesland van den jare, 1782._

                                        Donderdag den 28 Maart 1782.

     Bij resumtie gedelibereert zijnde op het adres en nader adres van
     den heer Adams den 4 Mey 1781 en 9 January 1782 aan den heer ter
     generaliteit presideerende en den 9 Mey 1781 en 22 der voorlede
     maand ter vergadering gecommuniceert, om uit naam der Vereenigde
     Staten van Noord-America zijne brieven van credentie aan Hun Hoog
     Mogende te overhandigen en bij welk nader adres gemelde heer
     Adams een cathagorisch antwoord heeft versogt, om daar van aan
     sijne principaalen kennis te kunnen geeven, als meede op de
     requesten van een groot aantal commercieerende, fabriceerende en
     sig door den handel geneerende ingezeetenen in deese provincie,
     tot appui van hunne versoeken ter generaliteit den 20 deeser
     gedaan ten einde tot verkrijging der handel uit deesen landen op
     Noord-America, efficacieuse middelen werden beraamt, op den 21
     deeser bij copie aan de leden gegeeven.

     Is goedgevonden en verstaan dat de saak van wegens Hun Edele
     Groot Mog' ter generaliteit daar heen sal worden gedirigeert en
     daar op ten sterkste geinsteert, dat de heer Adams als afgezant
     van de Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America, ten spoedigsten bij
     Hun Hoog Mog' moge werden ge admitteert en erkent; en word de
     raadpensionaris gelast den voornoemden heer Adams van deese Hun
     Edele Groot Mog' resolutie onder de hand te informeeren.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten der
provincie Zeeland van den jare 1782._

                                        Den 29 Maart 1782.

     De raadpensionaris heeft ter voldoening aan Hun Ed. Mog'
     onderscheiden resolutien commissoriaal van den 5, 11 en 25 deezer
     maand, uit naam van heeren commissarissen gerapporteerd, dat
     geexamineerd hadden het nader adres van den heer Adams, den 9
     January deezes jaars aan den heer præsideerende ter vergadering
     van Hun Hoog Mog' gedaan op het subject van het overhandigen
     zijner brieven van credentie aan hoogstdezelve uit naam der
     Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America, ten einde en met verzoek van
     een cathagorisch antwoord daar op, om deswegens aan dezelve
     kennis te kunnen geeven, voorts de resolutie der heeren Staten
     van Vriesland den 5 deezer ter generaliteit ingebragt, houdende
     een auctorisatie op derzelver gecommitteerden om het aldaar daar
     heen te dirigeeren dat gemelden heer Adams met den eersten als
     minister van Noord-America worde erkend, nog Hun Hoog Mog'
     resolutie nopens de aan hoogstdezelve den 20 deezer
     gepræsenteerde drie requesten door commercieerende, fabriceerende
     en met verscheiden handel zig geneerende ingezeetenen deezer
     landen, waar bij op het sterkste aandringen op een vryen handel
     tusschen de ingezeetenen deezer republicq en die van
     Noord-America, en eindelijk de den 25 deezer aan Hun Ed.      (p. 066)
     Mog' gepræsenteerde requesten door het collegie van de
     kooplieden te Middelburg en die te Vlissingen, verzoekende dat
     hoogstdezelve de heeren gedeputeerden van deeze provincie ter
     generaliteit gelieven te auctoriseeren, om het ter vergadering
     van Hun Hoog Mog' insgelyks daar heen te helpen dirigeeren dat
     meergenoemden heer Adams in voorschr. qualiteit erkend, met
     denzelven in onderhandeling getreeden en een tractaat van
     commercie en navigatie gesloten werde, bij voorige notulen
     breeder vermeld, bij welke gelegenheid de raadpensionaris wyders
     heeft gerelateerd, dat even voor het aangaan van het besogne nog
     ontfangen hebbende een request van een groot aantal kooplieden,
     rheeders, assuradeurs, trafiquanten en fabricquers binnen de stad
     Middelburg, tendeerende ten zelven einde als de twee evengemelde
     requesten, heeren commissarissen, onder Hun Ed. Mog' welnemen
     (als relatif tot het onderwerp waar over 't besogne was
     gedecerneerd) geen zwarigheid hadden gemaakt om hetzelve al mede
     te examineeren en daarop rapport te doen, ter wyl heeren
     commissarissen ook waren geinformeerd geworden dat eenige
     kooplieden te Veere mede van voornemen zijn geweest om tot
     hetzelve oogmerk zig aan Hun Ed. Mog te adresseeren, indien
     tijdig genoeg van de voorschr. requesten hadden kennis gehad; dat
     heeren commissarissen, in ernstige overweginge genomen hebbende
     het verval van den koophandel, die voorname zenuw van den Staat,
     de vermindering, ja bijna geheelen stilstand van de fabricquen en
     traficquen, mitsgaders het middel 't geen mogelyk zon kunnen
     strekken om al het zelve wederom eenigsins te herstellen of wel
     tot voorig aanzien te brengen, en dus de schaden, welken de
     commercieerende ingezeetenen door den oorlog met het rijk van
     Groot Brittannien bereids geleeden hadden, wederom vergoed te
     krijgen, door naamelyk het sluyten van een tractaat van commercie
     en negotie tusschen deeze republyk en de Vereenigde Staten van
     Noord-Amerika als waar op zoo zeer door 's lands ingezeetenen
     alomme wordt aangedrongen en waar toe ook van de zyde van het
     congres sedert eenige maanden aanzoek was gedaan; na alles
     rijpelyk onderzogt, als mede in 't breede beredeneerd te hebben,
     eindelijk gemeend hadden Hun Ed. Mog' te moeten adviseeren dat de
     heeren ordinaris gedeputeerden deezer provincie ter generaliteit
     door Hun Ed. Mog' zoo spoedig immers doenlijk zij, zouden
     behooren te worden aangeschreeven en geauctoriseerd, om het ter
     vergadering van Hun Hoog Mog' daar heen te helpen dirigeeren, dat
     de heer Adams, als minister plenipotentiaris van het congres van
     Noord-America, ten spoedigsten werde erkend, deszelfs brieven van
     credentie geaccepteerd, en in die hoedanigheid ter gemelde
     vergadering van Hun Hoog Mog' toegelaaten, met verderen last aan
     dezelve heeren ordinaris gedeputeerden om zoodaanige propositien,
     als door den voorschr. heer aan deeze republijk zouden mogen
     worden gedaan, ter kennis en deliberatie van Hun Ed. Mog'
     copielijk overtenemen en dezelve ten spoedigsten overtezenden.
     Waarop gedelibereerd zijnde, hebben de raadpensionaris voor den
     heer eersten edelen, benevens de heeren gedeputeerden van
     Middelburg, Ziericzee, Goes, Tholen en Veere copie verzogt van
     het voorschr. rapport en die van Tholen ook van de drie over het
     zelve onderwerp aan Hun Ed. Mog' gepresenteerde requesten, om te
     brengen ter kennis en deliberatie van de heeren hunne respective
     committenten. De heeren gedeputeerden van Vlissingen hebben
     geinhaereerd het advys door dezelve omtrent de admissie van den
     heer Adams op de laastvoorige sessie uitgebragt en wyders
     geinsteerd dat de andere leden zig, zoo ras mogelijk op dit   (p. 067)
     important poinct gelieven te verklaaren, waar op die van Veere
     aannaamen om in deeze zaak alle spoed te recommandeeren aan
     de heeren hunne principaalen, ten einde zoo veel van dezelve
     dependeerde, een spoedige conclusie zal kunnen worden genomen.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten der
provincie Zeeland van den jare 1782._

                                        Den 4 April 1782.

     De heer van Lijnden voor den heer eersten edelen en de heeren
     gedeputeerden van Middelburg, Ziericzee, Goes, Tholen en Veere
     verzogt zijnde zig te verklaaren op het rapport van het besogne
     den 29 Maart, jongstleden ter vergadering uitgebragt, raakende
     het erkennen van den heer Adams, als minister plenipotentiaris
     der Vereenigde Staten van Noord-Amerika, by voorige notulen
     breeder gemeld, heeft eerstgemelden heer aangenomen zig daar op
     nader te zullen verklaaren; die van Middelburg, Goes, Tholen en
     Veere hebben, op speciaalen last van de heeren hunne
     committenten, zig met het voorschr. rapport geconformeerd en die
     van Ziericzee uit specialen last gedeclareerd, dat indien de
     kooplieden binnen de stad Ziericzee in tijds kennisse bekomen
     hadden dat die van de Walchersche steden zig wegens deeze zaak
     aan Hun Ed. Mog' zouden addresseeren, zij uyt overtuiging van het
     nut, het geen uit eene alliantie met de Noord-Americaansche
     Staten voor den koophandel en scheepvaart deezer landen zouden
     voortspruiten, zig zeer gaarne daar bij zouden hebben gevoegd.
     Dat Hun Ed. Actb. ook volkomen geconvinceerd van het important
     belang hetgeen in zoodanige alliantie voor de geheele republiq
     geleegen zij, van wegens hunne stad de dertien Vereenigde Staten
     van Noord-America als vry en onafhankelyk erkennen en mitsdien
     met alle empressement moeten insteeren, dat de heeren ordinaris
     geedeputeerden ter generaliteit ten spoedigsten werden gelast,
     den heer Adams als minister plenipotentiaris van het congres, ter
     audientie te admitteren en als dan de propositien, welke door
     denzelven tot het aangaan van een tractaat van koophandel of
     eenige andere dergelijke, mogten worden gedaan, ter deliberatie
     van Hun Ed. Mog' overteneemen. Het welk gehoord, heeft de
     raadpensionaris verzogt dat den heer van Lijnden zig nu ook
     geliefde te expliceeren, die daar op gezegd heeft dat, ziende de
     inclinatie van alle deszelfs medeleden in de admissie van den
     heer Adams zeer wel konde toekomen, doch dat eenige bedenkingen
     hebbende op een te neemen resolutie, conform het dispositif van
     het voorschr. rapport, zoude praefereeren dat in deeze zaak werde
     te werk gegaan even als bij de heeren Staten van Holland, en
     mitsdien hoogstderzelver resolutie gevolgd, en vervolgens door
     den raadpensionaris daar op omvrage gedaan zijnde, hebben die van
     Middelburg geoordeeld dat alle zwaarigheid zoude kunnen worden
     weggenomen, indien maar eenvoudig wierde gesteld de volgende
     periode: "en in die hoedanigheid, op de gewoone wijze
     toegelaaten," zonder melding te maken van het "admitteeren"
     bepaaldelijk "ter vergadering van Hun Hoog Mogende," de heeren
     gedeputeerden van de vijf andere steden hebben zig met onderlinge
     concurrentie met het gemeld conciliatoir advijs der heeren    (p. 068)
     van Middelburg geconformeerd, waar na de heer van Lijnden
     heeft gedeclareerd dat, ofschoon meer inclineerde, zoo als gezegd
     heeft, om de resolutie van Holland te volgen, echter bespeurende
     de overeenkomende sentimenten der andere leden om, onder de
     voorgeslage verandering, het rapport ter conclusie te brengen en
     overtuigd zijnde van de noodzaakelykheid dat hier omtrent een
     resolutie met eenpaarigheid werde genomen, zig als nu ook daar by
     zoude voegen, om de afdoening deezer zaak te bevorderen.
     Vervolgens bij resumtie gedelibereerd zijnde op het voorschr.
     rapport, als mede op de onderscheidene requesten en andere
     stukken daar bij gemeld, is, met eenparige bewilliging van alle
     de leden, goedgevonden en verstaan dat de heeren ordinaris
     gedeputeerden deezer provincie ter generaliteit zullen worden
     aangeschreven, en geauctoriseerd, gelijk geschiedt by deeze om
     het ter vergadering van Hun Hoog Mogende daar heen te helpen
     dirigeeren, dat de heer Adams, als afgezant van het congres van
     Noord-America, ten spoedigsten werde erkend deszelfs brieven van
     credentie geaccepteerd en in die hoedanigheid op de gewoone wyze
     toegelaaten; met verdere last aan dezelve heeren ordinaris
     gedeputeerden om zoodaanige propositien, als door den voorschr.
     heer Adams aan deeze republicq zouden mogen worden gedaan, ter
     kennis en deliberatie van Hun Ed. Mog' copielijk overteneemen en
     dezelve ten spoedigsten herwaards te zenden.

     En zal extract van deeze Hun Ed. Mog' resolutie aan gemelde
     heeren ordinaris gedeputeerden, tot derzelver narigt worden
     gezonden, zonder resumtie.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten der
provincie Overijssel, van 11 Maart tot 1 November 1782._

                                        Vrijdag den 5 April 1782.

     De heeren de droste van Zalland en andere Hunner Ed. Mog'
     gecommitteerden tot de zaaken van financie, ingevolge en ter
     voldoening van derzelver resolutie commissoriaal van den 30
     deezer hebbende geexamineerd de adressen van den heere Adams, den
     4e Mey 1781 en 9e January 1782, aan den heere ter generaliteit
     presideerende en den 9e Mey 1781 en 22 February 1782 ter
     vergadering gecommuniceert, om uit naam van de Vereenigde Staten
     van Noord-America, zijne brieven van credentie aan Hun Hoog
     Mogende te overhandigen; als mede de resolutie van de heeren
     staten van Holland en Westvriesland van den 28e Maart 1782 den
     29e, dierzelfde maand ter vergadering van Hun Hoog Mog' ingebragt
     op de admissie en erkentenis van den heere Adams, als afgezant
     der Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America. Hebben ter vergadering
     gerapporteert, dat van advise zouden wesen, dat de heeren
     gecommitteerden van wegens deeze provincie ter generaliteit
     zouden behooren te worden geautoriseerd en gelast, om ter
     vergadering van Hun Hoog Mog' te declareeren, dat Ridders en
     Steden van oordeel zijn, dat de heer Adams als afgezant van de
     Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America bij Hun Hoog Mog' ten
     spoedigsten behoorde te worden erkent.

     Waarop zijnde gedelibereerd, hebben Ridders en Steden zig met
     het voorschr. rapport geconformeert.

     En hebben wijders de heeren gedeputeerden der stad Deventer   (p. 069)
     geinsteert, dat de twee overige pointen vervat in derzelver
     resolutie van den 30 Maart 1782, geinsereerd in deeze onze
     notulen van den 3 dezer mede ter deliberatie mogen worden
     genomen.

     Waarmede de heere droste van Ysselmuijden zig heeft gevoegd.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten der
provincie Stad en Lande (Groningen) van 1781-1782._

                                        Dingsdag den 9 April 1782.

     Gedelibereert sijnde op het rapport der heeren Gecommitteerden
     tot de petitien van de Raad van State en deezer provincie
     finances, in dato den 26 deser, tenderende om den heere Adams tot
     het overgeven van zijne brieven van credentie van de Vereenigde
     Staten van Noord-America aan Hun Hoog Mogende toetelaaten,
     luidende als volgt:

     _Rapport_ der heeren Gecommitteerden tot de petitien van de Raad
     van State en deser provincie finances.

     EDELE MOGENDE HEEREN.

     Door de heeren Uwer Edele Mogende gecommitteerden ingevolge en
     ter voldoeninge aan de resolutie commissoriaal, in dato den 4 May
     des voorigen jaars, zijnde geexamineert, het verzoek van den heer
     Adams, om zijne brieven van credentie van de Vereenigde Staten
     van Noord-America aan Hun Hoog Mogende te overhandigen, als mede
     ter voldoeninge aan de resolutie commissoriaal in dato den 14
     Maart jongstl. daar tevens zijnde gelesen en naagegaan, de
     resolutie der Heeren Staten van Friesland op den 5 Meert, daar
     bevorens ter vergadering van Hun Hoog Mogende ingebragt waar bij
     de heeren derzelver gecommitteerden ter generaliteit hebben
     gelast ter tafel van Hun Hoog Mogende het daar heen te dirigeren
     dat de heer Adams, als minister van 't congres van Noord-America,
     by Hun Hoog Mogende werde toegelaten met verdere last aan
     opgemelde gecommitteerden indien door dezelve eenige propositien
     werden gedaan, betrekkelijk het aangaan van een tractaat van
     commercie en vriendschap, daar van ten spoedigsten de heeren
     Staten van Friesland te informeren, hebben de heeren
     gecommitteerden de eer UEdele Mogende te rapporteeren, dat van
     gedagten zouden zijn, dat in de hachelijke omstandigheden, waar
     in de republyk zich thans ziet gebragt, zodane efficacieuse
     maatregelen, zonder tijdverzuim, behoorden te worden genomen,
     waar door niet alleen de geledene schadens en naedeelen tegens
     allen schijn van recht, zoo voor als nae het declareren van den
     oorlog door het rijk van Groot Brittannien, op zulk een
     onregtvaardige wyze aan de commercie dezer landen toegebragt,
     zoude kunnen worden vergoed, maar vooral ook de vrye scheepvaart
     en koophandel van de Republyk voor het toekomende op vaste
     gronden gestelt en door de sterkste banden van weederkerige
     belangens bevestigt en beveiligt en dat overzulks de heeren
     UEdele Mogende gedeputeerden ter vergaderinge van Hun Hoog    (p. 070)
     Mogende behoorden te worden geauthoriseert, om zoo haast door
     de provincie van Holland en Westfriesland, of eene der meest
     geinteresseerde provincien, daar in mede zal sijn geconsenteert,
     den heer Adams, tot het overgeven sijner brieven van credentie
     van de Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America toetelaten, diens te
     doene propositie overtenemen en daar van aan UEdele Mogende ten
     eersten verslag te doen.

     Aldus gedaan binnen Groningen in het provincie huis, op dingsdag
     den 26 Maart 1782--

                       was getekent:

                  T. VAN HOORN,      G. LEWE,
                  L. A. TRIP,        T. JARGES,
                  I. H. KEISER,      S. I. NIEHOFF,
                  P. LAMAN,          F. FIDDENS, en
                        I. A. ENGELHARD.

     Hebben de heeren Staten van Stad en Lande, zich met het
     uitgebragte rapport geconformeert en de heeren ministers
     geauthoriseert, hier van extract naa der zaaken omstandigheid
     geconcipieert, te verzenden; zonder resumtie aftewachten.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Heeren Staten der
provincie Gelderland van 1782-1783._

                                        Mercurii den 17 April 1782.

     Was ter vergaderinge ingekomen en aan gedeputeerden en
     hoofdsteden copielijk medegedeeld.

     1.

     Een missive van de gecommitteerdens ter generaliteit van den 8
     Maart, hebbende tot bylage copie van eene bij haar nevens de
     heeren gedeputeerden van de provincien van Zeeland, van Utrecht
     en van Stad en Lande overgenomene resolutie van de heeren Staten
     van de provincie van Friesland op den 5 daar bevorens ter tafele
     van Haar Hoog Mogende geexhibeerd, waar bij de gecommitteerdens
     van welgemelte provincie ter generaliteit worden gelast, het ter
     vergadering van Haar Hoog Mogende daar heenen te dirigereen, dat,
     in consideratie der redenen in voorschreeve resolutie vervat, de
     heer Adams, met ten eersten als minister van het congres van
     Noord-America, bij de republicq werde geadmitteerd, van welke
     missive en bijlage op den 9 Maart de afschriften aan
     gedeputeerden en hoofdsteden waaren ingezonden.

     2.

     DAT 'T HOF ENZ.

     Op welke voorschreve poincten voor zoo verre daar op niet mogte
     geresolveerd zijn, welgemelde raaden verzogten, dat Haar Edele
     Mogende zoodane resolutien zouden gelieven te neemen als na
     derselver hooge wijsheid zouden oordeelen en vermeenen te
     behooren.

     Ter vergaderinge voorgebragt en gelesen zijnde het versoek    (p. 071)
     van den heer Adams, om uit naam van de Vereenigde Staten
     van Noord-America, zijne brieven van credentie aan Hun Hoog
     Mogende te overhandigen, mitsgaders het nader adres ten dien
     einde, met versoek van een cathegorisch antwoord door denzelven
     gedaan en breder in de notulen van Hun Hoog Mogende van den 4 May
     1781 en 9 January 1782, vermeld, als mede de resolutie van de
     heeren Staten van de ses andere provincien, ter vergadering van
     Hun Hoog Mogende successivelyk ingebragt, alle tendeerende tot
     het admitteeren van den heer Adams, als afgesant van de
     Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America, bij dese republicq.

     Hebben Haar Edele Mogende na gehoudene deliberatie, goedgevonden
     de gecommitteerdens van wegens dese provincie ter generaliteit te
     authoriseeren, gelijk geauctoriseert worden bij dezen, on zig
     namens deze provincie met de resolutie der heeren Staten van
     Holland en Westfriesland te conformeeren en dienvolgens te
     consenteeren dat de heer Adams, als gezant van de Vereenigde
     Staten van Noord-America bij deze republicq werde erkend en
     geadmitteerd.

     Zullende oversulx extract dezes aan welgemelte gecommitteerdens
     worden toegesonden, om daar van ten spoedigsten ter vergadering
     van Hun Hoog Mogende de vereischte opening te doen.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Hoog Mogende Heeren
Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Provincien van den jare 1782. 1 deel._

                                        Veneris den 19 April 1782.

     Bij resumtie gedelibereerd sijnde op het adres en nader adres van
     den heer Adams, den 4 Mey, 1781 en 9 January deezes jaars aan den
     heer ter vergadering van Haar Hoog Mogende præsideerende, gedaan,
     om uit naem der Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America, zijne brieven
     van credentie aan Haar Hoog Mogende te overhandigen, en bij welk
     nader adres, gem. heer Adams, een cathegorisch antwoord heeft
     versogt, om daer van aan zijne principalen kennis te kunnen
     geeven.

     Is goedgevonden en verstaan, dat de heer Adams als afgezant van
     de Vereenigde Staten van Noord-America, bij Haar Hoog Mogende zal
     worden geadmitteert en erkent, gelijk deselve geadmitteert en
     erkend word bij deezen.

     De heeren gedeputeerden van de provincien van Zeeland en Utrecht
     hebben geinhaereert de resolutien van de heeren Staten hunne
     principalen op het voorn subject ter vergadering van Haar Hoog
     Mogende ingebragt.

                              _____

_Extract uit het Register der resolutien van de Hoog Mogende Heeren
Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden van den jare 1782. 1 deel._

                                        Lunae den 22 April 1782.

     De heer Boreel, in de voorleeden week ter vergaderinge
     gepraesideert hebbende heeft aan Haar Hoog Mogende voorgedragen
     en bekend gemaakt dat den heer John Adams, afgezant van de    (p. 072)
     Vereenigde Staten van America, voorleeden saturdag bij hem was
     geweest en aan hem overgeleevert hadde een missive van de
     vergadering van 't Congres, geschreeven te Philadelphia den 1
     January 1781, houdende creditif op gemelde heer Adams, om in
     qualitiet als hunnen minister plenipotentiars bij Haar Hoog
     Mogende te resideeren.

     Waarop gedelibereerd sijnde, is goedgevonden en verstaan mits
     deezen te verklaaren dat gemelde heer Adams aan Haar Hoog Mogende
     aangenaam is en dat deselve in de qualitiet van minister
     plenipotentiaris sal worden erkent en dat aan dezelve audientie
     sal worden verleent of commissarissen toegevoegt zullen worden,
     als hij die zal komen te versoeken.

     En zal hier van aan geme. heer Adams door den agent van der Burch
     van Spieringshoek, kennise worden gegeeven.

                              _____

_John Adams to Robert R. Livingston._

     To                                 The Hague, April 22d, 1782.
       Robert R. LIVINGSTON.

     Sir: On the 22d of April I was introduced, by the Chamberlain, to
     His Most Serene Highness, the Prince of Orange.

     Knowing that His Highness spoke English, I asked his permission
     to speak to him in that language, to which he answered, smiling,
     "if you please, Sir." Although French is the language of the
     Court, he seemed to be pleased, and to receive as a compliment my
     request to speak to him in English.

     I told him I was happy to have the honour of presenting the
     respects of the United States of America, and a letter of
     credence from them to His Most Serene Highness, and to assure him
     of the profound veneration in which the House of Orange had been
     held in America even from its first settlement, and that I should
     be happier still to be the instrument of further cementing the
     new connexions between two nations professing the same religion,
     animated by the same spirit of liberty, and having reciprocal
     interests, both political and commercial, so extensive and so
     important; and that, in the faithful and diligent discharge of
     the duties of my mission, I flattered myself with hopes of the
     approbation of His Most Serene Highness.

     His Highness received the letter of credence, which he opened and
     read. The answer that he made to me was in a voice so low and so
     indistinctly pronounced that I comprehended only the conclusion
     of it, which was that "he had made no difficulty against my
     reception." He then fell into familiar conversation with me, and
     asked me many questions about indifferent things, as is the
     custom of Princes and Princesses upon such occasions. How long I
     had been in Europe? How long I had been in this country? Whether
     I had purchased a house at the Hague? Whether I had not lived
     some time at Leyden? How long I had lived at Amsterdam? How I
     liked the country? &c.

     This conference passed in the Prince's chamber of audience, with
     his Highness alone. I had waited some time in the antechamber, as
     the Duc de la Vauguyon was in conference with the Prince.     (p. 073)
     The Duke, on his return through the antechamber, meeting me
     unexpectedly, presented me his hand with an air of cordiality
     which was remarked by every courtier, and had a very good effect.

     The Prince has since said to the Duc de la Vauguyon that he was
     obliged to me for not having pressed him upon the affair of my
     reception at the beginning. He had reason; for if I had, and he
     had said or done anything offensive to the United States or
     disagreeable to me, it would now be remembered, much to the
     disadvantage of the Court.

               I have the honour to be, Sir,
                     Your most obedient and most humble servant,
                                                         John ADAMS.



No. 13.                                                            (p. 074)
PLATE XIII.


_October 8, 1782._

     Favstissimo foedere jvnctæ. die VII Octob. MDCCLXXXII. [Rx].
     Justitiam et non temnere divos.

TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND
THE UNITED NETHERLANDS.

FAVSTISSIMO FOEDERE JVNCTÆ. DIE VII OCTOB.[49] (_Octobris_)
MDCCLXXXII. (_United by a most auspicious alliance, October 7, 1782._)
Fame seated on the clouds is blowing a trumpet, held in her left hand;
in her right she holds two shields: one bearing the arms of the United
Netherlands, the other studded with thirteen stars (_the thirteen
original United States_); above the two shields is a wreath, and
beneath them are the lion's skin and the club of Hercules.

                   [Footnote 49: The date should be October 8, not 7,
                   as will be seen by the official documents below.]

JUSTITIAM ET NON TEMNERE DIVOS.[50] (_Learn justice, and not to
despise the gods._) On the face of a pyramid, the base of which is
adorned with flowers, is placed the crowned shield of Amsterdam,
resting on fasces; beneath, on a scroll, the inscription: PRODROMUS
(_a forerunner_). A flying Mercury places a wreath on the shield;
below on the right, an anchor, a basket of flowers, and a cock crowing
(_France_); in the background, the sea covered with ships. Exergue: S.
P. Q. AMST. SACRVM. (_Senatui populoque Amstelodamensi sacrum:
Dedicated to the Senate and people of Amsterdam_). On the platform, I.
G. HOLTZHEY FEC. (_fecit_).[51]

                   [Footnote 50: Virgil, _Æneid_, Book VI, 620. This
                   mutilated quotation is scarcely intelligible. The
                   entire verse is: "DISCITE JUSTITIAM, MONITI, ET NON
                   TEMNERE DIVOS." (_Admonished [by me], learn justice
                   and not to despise the gods_).]

                   [Footnote 51: SEE INTRODUCTION, page x.]

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 075)

_Treaty of Amity and Commerce between their High Mightinesses the
States-General of the United Netherlands and the United States of
America, to wit: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, and Georgia. Concluded October 8, 1782; ratified January 22,
1783._

     Their High Mightinesses the States-General of the United
     Netherlands and the United States of America, to wit: New
     Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence
     Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
     Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
     Georgia, desiring to ascertain, in a permanent and equitable
     manner, the rules to be observed relative to the commerce and
     correspondence which they intend to establish between their
     respective States, countries and inhabitants, have judged that
     the said end cannot be better obtained than by establishing the
     most perfect equality and reciprocity for the basis of their
     agreement, and by avoiding all those burdensome preferences which
     are usually the sources of debate, embarrassment, and discontent;
     by leaving also each party at liberty to make, respecting
     commerce and navigation, such ulterior regulations as it shall
     find most convenient to itself; and by founding the advantages of
     commerce solely upon reciprocal utility and the just rules of
     free intercourse; reserving withal to each party the liberty of
     admitting at its pleasure other nations to a participation of the
     same advantages.

     On these principles their said High Mightinesses the
     States-General of the United Netherlands have named for their
     Plenipotentiaries, from the midst of their assembly, Messieurs
     their Deputies for the Foreign Affairs; and the said United
     States of America, on their part, have furnished with full powers
     Mr. John Adams, late Commissioner of the United States of America
     at the Court of Versailles, heretofore Delegate in Congress from
     the State of Massachusetts Bay, and Chief Justice of the said
     State, who have agreed and concluded as follows, to wit:


     ARTICLE I.

     There shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace and
     sincere friendship between their High Mightinesses, the Lords,
     the States-General of the United Netherlands, and the United
     States of America, and between the subjects and inhabitants of
     the said parties, and between the countries, islands, cities, and
     places situated under the jurisdiction of the said United
     Netherlands and the said United States of America, their subjects
     and inhabitants, of every degree, without exception of persons or
     places.


     ARTICLE II.

     The subjects of the said States-General of the United Netherlands
     shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands,
     cities, or places of the United States of America, or any of
     them, no other nor greater duties or imposts, of whatever nature
     or denomination they may be, than those which the nations the (p. 076)
     most favoured are or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall
     enjoy all the rights, liberties, privileges immunities, and
     exemptions in trade, navigation, and commerce which the said
     nations do or shall enjoy, whether in passing from one port to
     another in the said States, or in going from any of those ports
     to any foreign port of the world, or from any foreign port of the
     world to any of those ports.


     ARTICLE III.

     The subjects and inhabitants of the said United States of America
     shall pay in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities
     or places of the said United Netherlands, or any of them, no
     other nor greater duties or imposts, of whatever nature or
     denomination they may be, than those which the nations the most
     favoured are or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all
     the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities and exemptions in
     trade, navigation and commerce, which the said nations do or
     shall enjoy, whether in passing from one port to another in the
     said States, or from any one toward any one of those ports from
     or to any foreign port of the world. And the United States of
     America, with their subjects and inhabitants, shall leave to
     those of their High Mightinesses the peaceable enjoyment of their
     rights in the countries, islands and seas in the East and West
     Indies, without any hindrance or molestation.


     ARTICLE IV.

     There shall be an entire and perfect liberty of conscience
     allowed to the subjects and inhabitants of each party, and to
     their families; and no one shall be molested in regard to his
     worship, provided he submits, as to the public demonstration of
     it, to the laws of the country: There shall be given, moreover,
     liberty, when any subjects or inhabitants of either party shall
     die in the territory of the other, to bury them in the usual
     burying-places, or in decent and convenient grounds to be
     appointed for that purpose, as occasion shall require; and the
     dead bodies of those who are buried shall not in any wise be
     molested. And the two contracting parties shall provide, each one
     in his jurisdiction, that their respective subjects and
     inhabitants may henceforward obtain the requisite certificates in
     cases of deaths in which they shall be interested.


     ARTICLE V.

     Their High Mightinesses the States-General of the United
     Netherlands and the United States of America shall endeavour, by
     all the means in their power, to defend and protect all vessels
     and other effects, belonging to their subjects and inhabitants,
     respectively, or to any of them, in their ports, roads, havens,
     internal seas, passes, rivers, and as far as their jurisdiction
     extends at sea, and to recover, and cause to be restored to the
     true proprietors, their agents, or attorneys, all such vessels
     and effects, which shall be taken under their jurisdiction: And
     their vessels of war and convoys, in cases when they may have a
     common enemy, shall take under their protection all the vessels
     belonging to the subjects and inhabitants of either party, which
     shall not be laden with contraband goods, according to the
     description which shall be made of them hereafter, for places
     with which one of the parties is in peace and the other at    (p. 077)
     war, nor destined for any place blockaded, and which shall hold
     the same course or follow the same route; and they shall defend
     such vessels as long as they shall hold the same course or follow
     the same route, against all attacks, force and violence of the
     common enemy, in the same manner as they ought to protect and
     defend the vessels belonging to their own respective subjects.


     ARTICLE VI.

     The subjects of the contracting parties may, on one side and on
     the other, in the respective countries and States, dispose of
     their effects by testament, donation or otherwise; and their
     heirs, subjects of one of the parties, and residing in the
     country of the other, or elsewhere, shall receive such
     successions, even _ab intestato_, whether in person or by their
     attorney or substitute, even although they shall not have
     obtained letters of naturalization, without having the effects of
     such commission tested under pretext of any rights or
     prerogatives of any province, city or private person. And if the
     heirs to whom such successions may have fallen shall be minors,
     the tutors or curators established by the judge domiciliary of
     the minors may govern, direct, administer, sell and alienate the
     effects fallen to the said minors by inheritance, and, in
     general, in relation to the said successions and effects, use all
     the rights and fulfill all the functions which belong, by the
     disposition of the laws, to guardians, tutors and curators:
     provided, nevertheless, that this disposition cannot take place
     but in cases where the testator shall not have named guardians,
     tutors or curators by testament, codicil or other legal
     instrument.


     ARTICLE VII.

     It shall be lawful and free for the subjects of each party to
     employ such advocates, attorneys, notaries, solicitors or factors
     as they shall judge proper.


     ARTICLE VIII.

     Merchants, masters and owners of ships, mariners, men of all
     kinds, ships and vessels, and all merchandizes and goods in
     general, and effects of one of the confederates, or of the
     subjects thereof, shall not be seized or detained in any of the
     countries, lands, islands, cities, places, ports, shores, or
     dominions whatsoever of the other confederate, for any military
     expedition, publick or private use of any one, by arrests,
     violence, or any colour thereof; much less shall it be permitted
     to the subjects of either party to take or extort by force
     anything from the subjects of the other party, without the
     consent of the owner; which, however, is not to be understood of
     seizures, detentions, and arrests which shall be made by the
     command and authority of justice, and by the ordinary methods, on
     account of debts or crimes, in respect whereof the proceedings
     must be by way of law, according to the forms of justice.


     ARTICLE IX.

     It is further agreed and concluded that it shall be wholly free
     for all merchants, commanders of ships, and other subjects and
     inhabitants of the contracting parties, in every place        (p. 078)
     subjected to the jurisdiction of the two powers respectively, to
     manage themselves their own business; and moreover as to the use
     of interpreters or brokers, as also in relation to the loading or
     unloading of their vessels, and everything which has relation
     thereto, they shall be, on one side, and on the other, considered
     and treated upon the footing of natural subjects, or, at least,
     upon an equality with the most favoured nation.


     ARTICLE X.

     The merchant ships of either of the parties, coming from the port
     of an enemy, or from their own, or a neutral port, may navigate
     freely towards any port of an enemy of the other ally: they shall
     be, nevertheless, held, whenever it shall be required, to
     exhibit, as well upon the high seas as in the ports, their
     sea-letters and other documents described in the twenty-fifth
     article, stating expressly that their effects are not of the
     number of those which are prohibited as contraband; and not
     having any contraband goods for an enemy's port, they may freely,
     and without hindrance, pursue their voyage towards the port of an
     enemy. Nevertheless, it shall not be required to examine the
     papers of vessels convoyed by vessels of war, but credence shall
     be given to the word of the officer who shall conduct the convoy.


     ARTICLE XI.

     If, by exhibiting the sea-letters and other documents described
     more particularly in the twenty-fifth article of this treaty, the
     other party shall discover there are any of those sorts of goods
     which are declared prohibited and contraband, and that they are
     consigned for a port under the obedience of his enemy, it shall
     not be lawful to break up the hatches of such ship, nor to open
     any chests, coffers, packs, casks, or other vessels found
     therein, or to remove the smallest parcels of her goods, whether
     the said vessel belongs to the subjects of their High
     Mightinesses the States-General of the United Netherlands or to
     the subjects or inhabitants of the said United States of America,
     unless the lading be brought on shore, in presence of the
     officers of the Court of Admiralty, and an inventory thereof
     made; but there shall be no allowance to sell, exchange or
     alienate the same until after that due and lawful process shall
     have been had against such prohibited goods of contraband, and
     the Court of Admiralty, by a sentence pronounced, shall have
     confiscated the same, saving always as well the ship itself as
     any other goods found therein, which are to be esteemed free, and
     may not be detained on pretence of their being infected by the
     prohibited goods, much less shall they be confiscated as lawful
     prize: But, on the contrary, when, by the visitation at land, it
     shall be found that there are no contraband goods in the vessel,
     and it shall not appear by the papers that he who has taken and
     carried in the vessel has been able to discover any there, he
     ought to be condemned in all the charges, damages and interests
     of them, which he shall have caused, both to the owners of
     vessels and to the owners and freighters of cargoes with which
     they shall be loaded, by his temerity in taking and carrying them
     in; declaring most expressly the free vessels shall assure the
     liberty of the effects with which they shall be loaded, and that
     this liberty shall extend itself equally to the persons who shall
     be found in a free vessel, who may not be taken out of her,
     unless they are military men actually in the service of an enemy.


     ARTICLE XII.                                                  (p. 079)

     On the contrary, it is agreed that whatever shall be found to be
     taken by the subjects and inhabitants of either party, or any
     ship belonging to the enemies of the other, or to their subjects,
     although it be not comprehended under the sort of prohibited
     goods, the whole may be confiscated in the same manner as if it
     belonged to the enemy; except, nevertheless, such effects and
     merchandizes as were put on board such vessel before the
     declaration of war, or in the space of six months after it, which
     effects shall not be, in any manner, subject to confiscation, but
     shall be faithfully and without delay restored in nature to the
     owners who shall claim them, or cause them to be claimed, before
     the confiscation and sale, as also their proceeds, if the claim
     could not be made, but in the space of eight months after the
     sale, which ought to be publick: Provided, nevertheless, that if
     the said merchandizes are contraband, it shall by no means be
     lawful to transport them afterwards to any port belonging to
     enemies.


     ARTICLE XIII.

     And that more effectual care may be taken for the security of
     subjects and people of either party, that they do not suffer
     molestation from the vessels of war or privateers of the other
     party, it shall be forbidden to all commanders of vessels of war
     and other armed vessels of the said States-General of the United
     Netherlands and the said United States of America, as well as to
     all their officers, subjects and people, to give any offence or
     do any damage to those of the other party; and if they act to the
     contrary they shall be, upon the first complaint which shall be
     made of it, being found guilty after a just examination, punished
     by their proper judges, and, moreover, obliged to make
     satisfaction for all damages and interests thereof, by
     reparation, under pain and obligation of their persons and goods.


     ARTICLE XIV.

     For further determining of what has been said, all captains of
     privateers or fitters-out of vessels armed for war, under
     commission and on account of private persons, shall be held,
     before their departure, to give sufficient caution, before
     competent judges, either to be entirely responsible for the
     malversations which they may commit in their cruizes or voyages,
     as well as for the contraventions of their captains and officers
     against the present treaty, and against the ordinances and edicts
     which shall be published in consequence of and conformity to it,
     under pain of forfeiture and nullity of the said commissions.


     ARTICLE XV.

     All vessels and merchandizes, of whatsoever nature, which shall
     be rescued out of the hands of any pirates or robbers, navigating
     the high seas without requisite commissions, shall be brought
     into some port of one of the two States, and deposited in the
     hands of the officers of that port, in order to be restored
     entire to the true proprietor as soon as due and sufficient
     proofs shall be made concerning the property thereof.


     ARTICLE XVI.

     If any ships or vessels belonging to either of the parties, their
     subjects, or people, shall, within the coasts or dominions of the
     other, stick upon the sands, or be wrecked, or suffer any     (p. 080)
     other sea damage, all friendly assistance and relief shall be
     given to the persons shipwrecked, or such as shall be in danger
     thereof; and the vessels, effects and merchandizes, or the part
     of them which shall have been saved or the proceeds of them, if,
     being perishable, they shall have been sold, being claimed within
     a year and a day by the masters or owners, or their agents or
     attorneys, shall be restored, paying only the reasonable charges,
     and that which must be paid, in the same case, for the salvage,
     by the proper subjects of the country: there shall also be
     delivered them safe conducts or passports for their free and safe
     passage from thence, and to return, each one to his own country.


     ARTICLE XVII.

     In case the subjects or people of either party, with their
     shipping, whether publick and of war, or private and of
     merchants, be forced, through stress of weather, pursuit of
     pirates or enemies, or any other urgent necessity for seeking of
     shelter and harbor, to retract and enter into any of the rivers,
     creeks, bays, ports, roads or shores belonging to the other
     party, they shall be received with all humanity and kindness, and
     enjoy all friendly protection and help, and they shall be
     permitted to refresh and provide themselves, at reasonable rates,
     with victuals, and all things needful for the sustenance of their
     persons or reparation of their ships; and they shall no ways be
     detained or hindered from returning out of the said ports or
     roads, but may remove and depart when and whither they please,
     without any let or hindrance.


     ARTICLE XVIII.

     For the better promoting of commerce on both sides, it is agreed
     that, if a war should break out between their High Mightinesses
     the States-General of the United Netherlands and the United
     States of America, there shall always be granted to the subjects
     on each side the term of nine months after the date of the
     rupture, or the proclamation of war, to the end that they may
     retire, with their effects, and transport them where they please,
     which it shall be lawful for them to do, as well as to sell or
     transport their effects and goods, in all freedom and without any
     hindrance, and without being able to proceed, during the said
     term of nine months, to any arrests of their effects, much less
     of their persons; on the contrary, there shall be given them, for
     their vessels and their effects, which they could carry away,
     passports and safe conducts for the nearest ports of their
     respective countries, and for the time necessary for the voyage.
     And no prize made at sea shall be adjudged lawful, at least if
     the declaration of war was not or could not be known in the last
     port which the vessel taken has quitted; but for whatever may
     have been taken from the subjects and inhabitants of either
     party, and for the offences which may have been given them, in
     the interval of the said terms, a complete satisfaction shall be
     given them.


     ARTICLE XIX.

     No subject of their High Mightinesses the States-General of the
     United Netherlands shall apply for or take any commission or
     letters of marque for arming any ship or ships to act as
     privateers against the said United States of America, or any of
     them, or the subjects and inhabitants of the said United States,
     or any of them, or against the property of the inhabitants    (p. 081)
     of any of them, from any Prince or State with which the said
     United States of America may happen to be at war: nor shall any
     subject or inhabitant of the said United States of America, or
     any of them, apply for or take any commission or letters of
     marque for arming any ship or ships to act as privateers against
     the High and Mighty Lords the States-General of the United
     Netherlands, or against the subjects of their High Mightinesses,
     or any of them, or against the property of any one of them, from
     any Prince or State with which their High Mightinesses may be at
     war: And if any person of either nation shall take such
     commission or letters of marque, he shall be punished as a
     pirate.


     ARTICLE XX.

     If the vessels of the subjects or inhabitants of one of the
     parties come upon any coast belonging to either of the said
     allies, but not willing to enter into port, or being entered into
     port and not willing to unload their cargoes or break bulk, or
     take in any cargo, they shall not be obliged to pay, neither for
     the vessels nor for the cargoes, at least if there is not just
     cause to presume that they carry to an enemy merchandizes of
     contraband.


     ARTICLE XXI.

     The two contracting parties grant to each other, mutually, the
     liberty of having, each in the ports of the other, consuls,
     vice-consuls, agents, and commissaries, of their own appointing,
     whose functions shall be regulated by particular agreement,
     whenever either party chooses to make such appointments.


     ARTICLE XXII.

     This treaty shall not be understood in any manner to derogate
     from the ninth, tenth, nineteenth, and twenty-fourth articles of
     the treaty with France, as they were numbered in the same treaty,
     concluded the sixth of February, 1778, and which make the
     articles ninth, tenth, seventeenth, and twenty-second of the
     treaty of commerce now subsisting between the United States of
     America and the Crown of France; nor shall it hinder His Catholic
     Majesty from according to that treaty, and enjoying the
     advantages of said four articles.


     ARTICLE XXIII.

     If at any time the United States of America shall judge necessary
     to commence negotiations with the King or Emperor of Morocco and
     Fez, and with the Regencies of Algiers, Tunis, or Tripoli, or
     with any of them, to obtain passports for the security of their
     navigation in the Mediterranean Sea, their High Mightinesses
     promise that upon the requisition which the United States of
     America shall make of it, they will second such negotiations in
     the most favourable manner, by means of their Consuls residing
     near the said King, Emperor, and Regencies.


     _Contraband._

     ARTICLE XXIV.

     The liberty of navigation and commerce shall extend to all sorts
     of merchandizes, excepting only those which are distinguished
     under the name of contraband, or merchandizes prohibited;     (p. 082)
     and under this denomination of contraband and merchandizes
     prohibited, shall be comprehended only warlike stores and arms,
     as mortars, artillery, with their artifices and appurtenances,
     fusils, pistols, bombs, grenades, gunpowder, saltpetre, sulphur,
     match, bullets and balls, pikes, sabres, lances, halberts,
     casques, cuirasses, and other sorts of arms, as also soldiers,
     horses, saddles, and furniture for horses; all other effects and
     merchandizes, not before specified expressly, and even all sorts
     of naval matters, however proper they may be for the construction
     and equipment of vessels of war, or for the manufacture of one or
     another sort of machines of war, by land or sea, shall not be
     judged contraband, neither by the letter, nor according to any
     pretended interpretation whatever, ought they or can they be
     comprehended under the notion of effects prohibited or
     contraband: so that all effects and merchandizes, which are not
     expressly before named, may, without any exception, and in
     perfect liberty, be transported by the subjects and inhabitants
     of both allies, from and to places belonging to the enemy;
     excepting only the places which at the time shall be besieged,
     blocked, or invested; and those places only shall be held for
     such which are surrounded nearly by some of the belligerent
     powers.


     ARTICLE XXV.

     To the end that all dissention and quarrel may be avoided and
     prevented, it has been agreed, that in case that one of the two
     parties happens to be at war, the vessels belonging to the
     subjects or inhabitants of the other ally shall be provided with
     sea letters or passports, expressing the name, the property, and
     the burthen of the vessel, as also the name of abode of the
     master, or commander of the said vessel, to the end that thereby
     it may appear that the vessel really and truly belongs to the
     subjects or inhabitants of one of the parties; which passports
     shall be drawn and distributed, according to the form annexed to
     this treaty; each time that the vessel shall return, she should
     have such her passport renewed, or at least they ought not to be
     of more ancient date than two years, before the vessel has been
     returned to her own country.

     It has also been agreed that such vessels, being loaded, ought to
     be provided not only with the said passports or sea letters, but
     also with a general passport, or with particular passports or
     manifests, or other publick documents, which are ordinarily given
     to vessels outward bound in the ports from whence the vessels
     have set sail in the last place, containing a specification of
     the cargo, of the place from whence the vessel departed, and of
     that of her destination, or, instead of all these, with
     certificates from the magistrates or governors of cities, places
     and colonies from whence the vessel came, given in the usual
     form, to the end that it may be known whether there are any
     effects prohibited or contraband, on board the vessels, and
     whether they are destined to be carried to an enemy's country or
     not; and in case any one judges proper to express in the said
     documents the persons to whom the effects on board belong, he may
     do it freely, without, however, being bound to do it; and the
     omission of such expression cannot and ought not to cause a
     confiscation.


     ARTICLE XXVI.

     If the vessels of the said subjects or inhabitants of either of
     the parties, sailing along the coasts or on the high seas, are
     met by a vessel of war, or privateer, or other armed vessel   (p. 083)
     of the other party, the said vessels of war, privateers, or
     armed vessels, for avoiding all disorder, shall remain without
     the reach of cannon, but may send their boats on board the
     merchant vessel, which they shall meet in this manner, upon which
     they may not pass more than two or three men, to whom the master
     or commander shall exhibit his passport, containing the property
     of the vessel, according to the form annexed to this treaty: And
     the vessel, after having exhibited such a passport, sea letter,
     and other documents, shall be free to continue her voyage, so
     that it shall not be lawful to molest her, or search her in any
     manner, nor give her chase, nor to force her to alter her course.


     ARTICLE XXVII.

     It shall be lawful for merchants, captains, and commanders of
     vessels, whether publick and of war, or private and of merchants,
     belonging to the said United States of America, or any of them,
     or to their subjects and inhabitants, to take freely into their
     service, and receive on board of their vessels, in any port or
     place in the jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses aforesaid,
     seamen or others, natives or inhabitants of any of the said
     States, upon such conditions as they shall agree on, without
     being submitted for this to any fine, penalty, punishment,
     process, or reprehension whatsoever.

     And reciprocally, all merchants, captains, and commanders,
     belonging to the said United Netherlands, shall enjoy, in all the
     ports and places under the obedience of the said United States of
     America, the same privilege of engaging and receiving seamen or
     others, natives or inhabitants of any country of the domination
     of the said States-General: Provided, that neither on one side
     nor the other, they may not take into their service such of their
     countrymen who have already engaged in the service of the other
     party contracting, whether in war or trade, and whether they meet
     them by land or sea; at least if the captains or masters under
     the command of whom such persons may be found, will not of his
     own consent discharge them from their service, upon pain of being
     otherwise treated and punished as deserters.


     ARTICLE XXVIII.

     The affair of the refraction shall be regulated in all equity and
     justice, by the magistrates of cities respectively, where it
     shall be judged that there is any room to complain in this
     respect.


     ARTICLE XXIX.

     The present treaty shall be ratified and approved by their High
     Mightinesses the States-General of the United Netherlands and by
     the United States of America; and the acts of ratification shall
     be delivered in good and due form, on one side and on the other,
     in the space of six months, or sooner if possible, to be computed
     from the day of the signature.

     In faith of which, we the Deputies and Plenipotentiaries of the
     Lords the States-General of the United Netherlands, and the
     Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, in
     virtue of our respective authorities and full powers, have signed
     the present treaty and apposed thereto the seals of our arms.

     Done at the Hague the eighth of October, one thousand seven   (p. 084)
     hundred and eighty-two.

                    John ADAMS.                      [L.S.]
                    George VAN RANDWYCK.             [L.S.]
                    B. V. D. SANTHEUVEL.             [L.S.]
                    P. V. BLEISWIJK.                 [L.S.]
                    W. C. H. VAN LIJNDEN.            [L.S.]
                    D. J. VAN HEECKEREN.             [L.S.]
                    Joan VAN KUFFELER.               [L.S.]
                    F: G: VAN DEDEM, TOT DEN GELDER. [L.S.]
                    H: TJASSENS.                     [L.S.]

                              _____

_Convention between the Lords the States-General of the United
Netherlands and the United States of America, concerning vessels
recaptured. Concluded October 8, 1782._

     The Lords the States-General of the United Netherlands and the
     United States of America, being inclined to establish some
     uniform principles with relation to prizes made by vessels of
     war, and commissioned by the two contracting Powers, upon their
     common enemies, and to vessels of the subjects of either party,
     captured by the enemy, and recaptured by vessels of war
     commissioned by either party, have agreed upon the following
     articles:


     ARTICLE I.

     The vessels of either of the two nations recaptured by the
     privateers of the other, shall be restored to the first
     proprietor, if such vessels have not been four and twenty hours
     in the power of the enemy, provided the owner of the vessel
     recaptured pay therefor one-third of the value of the vessel, as
     also of that of the cargo, the cannons and apparel, which third
     shall be valued by agreement, between the parties interested; or,
     if they cannot agree thereon among themselves, they shall address
     themselves to the officers of the admiralty of the place where
     the privateer who has retaken the vessel shall have conducted
     her.


     ARTICLE II.

     If the vessel recaptured has been more than twenty-four hours in
     the power of the enemy, she shall belong entirely to the
     privateer who has retaken her.


     ARTICLE III.

     In case a vessel shall have been recaptured by a vessel of war
     belonging to the States-General of the United Netherlands, or to
     the United States of America, she shall be restored to the first
     owner, he paying a thirtieth part of the value of the ship, her
     cargo, cannons and apparel, if she has been recaptured in the
     interval of twenty-four hours, and the tenth part if she has been
     recaptured after the twenty-four hours, which sums shall be   (p. 085)
     distributed in form of gratifications to the crews of the vessels
     which have retaken her. The valuation of the said thirtieth parts
     and tenth parts shall be regulated according to the tenor of the
     first article of the present convention.


     ARTICLE IV.

     The restitution of prizes, whether they may have been retaken by
     vessels of war or by privateers, in the mean time and until
     requisite and sufficient proofs can be given of the property of
     vessels recaptured, shall be admitted in a reasonable time, under
     sufficient sureties for the observation of the aforesaid
     articles.


     ARTICLE V.

     The vessels of war and privateers of one and of the other of the
     two nations, shall be reciprocally, both in Europe and in the
     other parts of the world, admitted in the respective ports of
     each with their prizes, which may be unloaded and sold according
     to the formalities used in the State where the prize shall have
     been conducted, as far as may be consistent with the 22d article
     of the treaty of commerce: Provided, always, that the legality of
     prizes by the vessels of the Low Countries shall be decided
     conformably to the laws and regulations established in the United
     Netherlands; as, likewise, that of prizes made by American
     vessels, shall be judged according to the laws and regulations
     determined by the United States of America.


     ARTICLE VI.

     Moreover, it shall be free for the States-General of the United
     Netherlands, as well as for the United States of America, to make
     such regulations as they may judge necessary, relative to the
     conduct which their respective vessels and privateers ought to
     hold in relation to the vessels which they shall have taken and
     conducted into the ports of the two powers.

     In faith of which, We, the Deputies and Plenipotentiaries of the
     Lords the States-General of the United Netherlands, and Minister
     Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, have, in virtue
     of our respective authorities and full powers, signed these
     presents, and confirmed the same with the seals of our arms.

     Done at the Hague the eighth of October, one thousand seven
     hundred and eighty-two.

                    John ADAMS.                       [L.S.]
                    George VAN RANDWYCK.              [L.S.]
                    B. V. D. SANTHEUVEL.              [L.S.]
                    P. V. BLEISWIJK.                  [L.S.]
                    W. C. H. VAN LIJNDEN.             [L.S.]
                    D. J. VAN HEECKEREN.              [L.S.]
                    Joan VAN KUFFELER.                [L.S.]
                    F: G: VAN DEDEM, TOT DEN GELDER.  [L.S.]
                    H: TJASSENS.                      [L.S.]



No. 14.                                                            (p. 086)
PLATE XIV.


_1782._

     Libertas Americana. [Rx]. Non sine diis animosus infans.

LIBERTAS AMERICANA.

[_Surrender of the British Armies at Saratoga and at Yorktown._]

LIBERTAS AMERICANA. (_American liberty._) The head of a beautiful
maiden, facing the left, with dishevelled hair floating in the wind,
and with the rod of liberty surmounted by the Phrygian cap on her
right shoulder. Exergue: 4 JUIL. (_sic_) 1776. (_4 Julii, 1776: July
4, 1776._) On edge of bust, DUPRÉ.

NON SINE DIIS ANIMOSUS INFANS.[52] (_The courageous child was aided by
the gods._) The infant Hercules (_America_), in his cradle, is
strangling two serpents, while Minerva (_France_) stands by, helmeted,
and with spear in her right hand, ready to strike a leopard
(_England_) whose attacks she wards off with her shield decked with
the lilies of France. Exergue: 17/19 OCT. 1777/1781. (17/19 _Octobris_
1777/1781: 17/19 _October_, 1777/1781.)[53] DUPRÉ. F. (_fecit_).[54]

                   [Footnote 52: Horace, Book III, Ode iv, 20.]

                   [Footnote 53: Dates of the surrender of the British
                   armies at Saratoga and at Yorktown.]

                   [Footnote 54: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xi, and
                   xxii.]

This medal was not voted by Congress, but was ordered by Franklin, in
commemoration of the surrenders of Lieutenant-General Burgoyne and of
General Lord Cornwallis. As the official reports of the first of these
events have already been given under No. 2, page 9, I give here only
the documents relating to the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, at
Yorktown.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 087)

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To His Excellency                  Headquarters, near York,
        THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.          October 19, 1781.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform Congress that a reduction of the
     British army, under the command of Lord Cornwallis, is most
     happily effected. The unremitted ardour which actuated every
     officer and soldier in the combined army on this occasion, has
     principally led to this important event, at an earlier period
     than my most sanguine hopes had induced me to expect.

     The singular spirit of emulation, which animated the whole army
     from the first commencement of our operations, has filled my mind
     with the highest pleasure and satisfaction, and had given me the
     highest presages of success.

     On the 17th instant, a letter was received from Lord Cornwallis,
     proposing a meeting of commissioners to consult on terms for the
     surrender of the posts of York and Gloucester. This letter (the
     first that had passed between us) opened a correspondence, a copy
     of which I do myself the honour to inclose; that correspondence
     was followed by the definitive capitulation, which was agreed to
     and signed on the 19th, copy of which is herewith transmitted;
     and which I hope will meet with the approbation of Congress.

     I should be wanting in the feelings of gratitude did I not
     mention on this occasion, with the warmest sense of
     acknowledgment, the very cheerful and able assistance which I
     have received in the course of our operations from His Excellency
     the Count de Rochambeau. Nothing could equal this zeal of our
     allies but the imitating spirit of the American officers, whose
     ardour would not suffer their exertions to be exceeded.

     The very uncommon degree of duty and fatigue, which the nature of
     the service required from the officers of engineers and artillery
     of both armies, obliges me particularly to mention the
     obligations I am under to the commanding and other officers of
     those corps.

     I wish it was in my power to express to Congress how much I feel
     myself indebted to the Count de Grasse, and the officers of the
     fleet under his command, for the distinguished aid and support
     which has been afforded by them, between whom and the army the
     most happy concurrence of sentiments and views have subsisted,
     and from whom every possible co-operation has been experienced
     which the most harmonious intercourse could afford.

     Returns of the prisoners, military stores, ordnance, shipping and
     other matters, I shall do myself the honour to transmit to
     Congress as soon as they can be collected by the heads of
     departments to which they belong.

     Colonel Laurens and the Viscount de Noailles, on the part of the
     combined army, were the gentlemen who acted as commissioners for
     forming and settling the terms of capitulation and surrender,
     herewith transmitted, to whom I am particularly obliged for their
     readiness and attention exhibited on the occasion.

     Colonel Tilghman, one of my aids-de-camp, will have the       (p. 088)
     honour to deliver these despatches to Your Excellency; he will be
     able to inform you of every minute circumstance which is
     particularly mentioned in my letter. His merits, which are too
     well known to need any observations at this time, have gained my
     particular attention, and I could wish that they may be honoured
     by the notice of Your Excellency and Congress.

     Your Excellency and Congress will be pleased to accept my
     congratulations on this happy event, and believe me to be, with
     the highest respect and esteem,

          Sir, your Excellency's most obedient humble servant,
                                                  Geo. WASHINGTON.

     P.S. Though I am not possessed of the particular returns, yet I
     have reason to suppose that the number of prisoners will be
     between five and six thousand, exclusive of seamen and others.

                              _____

_General Washington to the President of Congress._

     To His Excellency                  Headquarters, near York,
        THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.          October 27, 1781.

     Sir: I do myself the honour to enclose to Your Excellency copies
     of returns of prisoners, artillery, arms, ordnance, and other
     stores, surrendered by the enemy in their posts of York and
     Gloucester, on the 19th instant, which were not completed at the
     time of my despatches, and but this moment handed to me. A draft
     of these posts, with the plan of attack and defence, is herewith
     transmitted; and twenty-four standards, taken at the same time,
     are ready to be laid before Congress.

     My present despatches being important, I have committed to the
     care of Colonel Humphreys, one of my aids-de-camp, whom, for his
     attention, fidelity and good services, I beg leave to recommend
     to Congress and Your Excellency.

     I have the honour to be,
           Sir, Your Excellency's most obedient humble servant,
                                                  Geo. WASHINGTON.

                              _____

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Thanks, etc., for the Taking of
Yorktown._

BY THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED:

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of the United States, in Congress
     assembled, be presented to His Excellency General Washington, for
     the eminent services which he has rendered to the United States,
     and particularly for the well concerted plan against the      (p. 089)
     British garrisons in York and Gloucester; for the vigour,
     attention, and military skill with which that plan was executed,
     and for the wisdom and prudence manifested in the capitulation.

     That the thanks of the United States, in Congress assembled, be
     presented to His Excellency the Count de Rochambeau, for the
     cordiality, zeal, judgment, and fortitude, with which he seconded
     and advanced the progress of the allied army against the British
     garrison in York.

     That the thanks of the United States, in Congress assembled, be
     presented to His Excellency Count de Grasse, for his display of
     skill and bravery in attacking and defeating the British fleet
     off the Bay of Chesapeake, and for his zeal and alacrity in
     rendering, with the fleet under his command, the most effectual
     and distinguished aid and support to the operations of the allied
     army in Virginia.

     That the thanks of the United States, in Congress assembled, be
     presented to the commanding and other officers of the corps of
     artillery and engineers of the allied army, who sustained
     extraordinary fatigue and danger in their animated and gallant
     approaches to the lines of the enemy.

     That General Washington be directed to communicate to the other
     officers and soldiers under his command the thanks of the United
     States, in Congress assembled, for their conduct and valour on
     this occasion:

     _Resolved_, That the United States, in Congress assembled, will
     cause to be erected, at York, in Virginia, a marble column,
     adorned with emblems of the alliance between the United States
     and His Most Christian Majesty, and inscribed with a succinct
     narrative of the surrender of Earl Cornwallis to His Excellency
     General Washington, commander-in-chief of the combined forces of
     America and France, to His Excellency the Count de Rochambeau,
     commanding the auxiliary troops of His Most Christian Majesty in
     America, and to His Excellency the Count de Grasse,
     commanding-in-chief the naval army of France in Chesapeake.

     _Resolved_, That two stands of colours taken from the British
     army under the capitulation of York, be presented to His
     Excellency General Washington, in the name of the United States
     in Congress assembled.

     _Resolved_, That two pieces of the field ordnance, taken from the
     British army under the capitulation of York, be presented by the
     commander-in-chief of the American army to Count de Rochambeau;
     and that there be engraved thereon a short memorandum, that
     Congress were induced to present them from considerations of the
     illustrious part which he bore in effectuating the surrender.

     _Resolved_, That the Secretary of Foreign Affairs be directed to
     request the Minister Plenipotentiary of His Most Christian
     Majesty, to inform his Majesty that it is the wish of Congress
     that Count de Grasse may be permitted to accept a testimony of
     their approbation, similar to that to be presented to Count de
     Rochambeau.

     _Resolved_, That the Board of War be directed to present to
     Lieutenant-Colonel Tilghman, in the name of the United States in
     Congress assembled, a horse properly caparisoned, and an elegant
     sword, in testimony of their high opinion of his merit and
     ability.

     Monday, October 29, 1781.

                              _____

_Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston._                       (p. 090)

     To the Honourable
        Robert R. LIVINGSTON,           Passy, March 4, 1782.
           Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

     Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     This puts me in mind of a medal I have had a mind to strike since
     the late great event[55] you gave me an account of, representing
     the United States by the figure of an infant Hercules in his
     cradle, strangling the two serpents; and France by that of
     Minerva, sitting by as his nurse, with her spear and helmet, and
     her robe specked with a few "_fleurs-de-lis_". The extinguishing
     of two entire armies in one war is what has rarely happened, and
     it gives a presage of the future force of our growing empire....

                With great esteem,
                                  B. FRANKLIN.

                   [Footnote 55: The surrender of Lord Cornwallis, at
                   Yorktown, which took place October 19, 1781.]

                              _____

_Benjamin Franklin to Sir William Jones._

     To
       Sir William JONES.               Passy, March 17, 1783.

     Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     The engraving of my medal, which you know was projected before
     the peace, is but just finished. None are yet struck in hard
     metal, but will be in a few days. In the meantime, having this
     good opportunity by Mr. Penn, I send you one of the "_épreuves_".
     You will see that I have profited by some of your ideas, and
     adopted the mottoes you were so kind as to furnish....

                                   B. FRANKLIN.

                              _____

_Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston._

     To the Honourable
        Robert R. LIVINGSTON,           Passy, April 15, 1783.
               Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

     Sir: I have caused to be struck here the medal which I formerly
     mentioned to you, the design of which you seemed to approve. I
     enclose one in silver for the President of Congress and one in
     copper for yourself. The impression on copper is thought to
     appear best; and you will soon receive a number for the members.
     I have presented one to the King and another to the Queen,    (p. 091)
     both in gold; and one in silver to each of the ministers, as a
     monumental acknowledgment, which may go down to future ages,
     of the obligations we are under to this nation. It is mighty well
     received, and gives general pleasure. If the Congress approve of
     it, as I hope they will, I may add something on the die (for
     those to be struck hereafter) to shew that it was done by their
     order, which I could not venture to do till I had authority for
     it.

     With the greatest respect, I have the honour to be, Sir, your
     most obedient and most humble servant,
                                           B. FRANKLIN.

                              _____

_Benjamin Franklin to Robert R. Livingston._

     To the Honourable
        Robert R. LIVINGSTON,           Passy, July 22, 1783.
            Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

     Sir: I made the Grand Master of Malta a present of one of our
     medals in silver, writing to him a letter of which I enclose a
     copy, and I believe our people will be kindly received in his
     port.

     With the greatest respect, I have the honour to be, Sir, your
     most obedient and most humble servant.
                                           B. FRANKLIN.

                              _____

_Benjamin Franklin to the Grand Master of Malta._

     To His Eminent Highness
        THE GRAND MASTER OF MALTA.      Passy, 6 April, 1783.

     My Lord: I have the honour to address to Your Eminent Highness
     the medal which I have lately had struck. It is an Homage of
     gratitude, my Lord, which is due to the interest you have taken
     in our cause and we no less owe it to your virtues and to Your
     Eminent Highnesses wise Administration of Government.

     Permit me, my Lord, to demand your protection for such of our
     citizens as circumstances may lead to your ports. I hope that
     Your Eminent Highness will be pleased to grant it to them and
     kindly receive the assurances of the profound respect with which
     I am, my Lord,

     Your Eminent Highnesses most humble and most obedient servant,
                                                  B. FRANKLIN.

                              _____

_The Grand Master of Malta to Benjamin Franklin._                  (p. 092)

     To His Excellency
        B. FRANKLIN.                    Malta, 21 June, 1783.

     Sir: I received with the most lively sensibility the medal which
     Your Excellency sent me, and the value I set upon this
     acquisition leaves my gratitude unbounded. This monument of
     American liberty has a distinguished place in my cabinet.

     Whenever chance or commerce shall lead any of your fellow
     citizens or their vessels into the ports of our Island, I shall
     receive them with the greatest Welcome, they shall experience
     from me every assistance they may claim. I shall observe with
     infinite pleasure any growing connection between that interesting
     nation and my subjects, especially if it will tend to convince
     Your Excellency of the distinguished sentiments with which I am,

            Sir, Your Excellency's most affectionate servant,
                                              The Grand Master,
                                                           ROHAN.



No. 15.                                                            (p. 093)
PLATE XV.


_1784._

     Benj. Franklin natus Boston. XVII Jan. MDCCVI. [Rx]. Eripuit
     coelo fulmen sceptrum que tyrannis.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.

BENJ. FRANKLIN NATUS BOSTON. XVII JAN. MDCCVI. (_Benjamin Franklin
natus Boston, 17 Januarii, 1706: Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston,
January 17, 1706._) Bust of Franklin, facing the left. On edge of
bust, DUPRÉ F. (_fecit_).

ERIPUIT COELO FULMEN SCEPTRUM QUE TYRANNIS. (_He drew fire from heaven
and wrenched the sceptre from tyrants._) A genius pointing with his
right hand to a lightning-rod attracting the electric spark, and with
his left to a broken crown and sceptre at his feet. Exergue: SCULPSIT
ET DICAVIT AUG. DUPRÉ ANNO MDCCLXXXIV. (_Sculpsit et dicavit
Augustinus Dupré, anno 1784: Engraved and dedicated by Augustin Dupré,
in the year 1784_).[56],[57]

                   [Footnote 56: See INTRODUCTION, pages x and xxiii.]

                   [Footnote 57: For original documents, see No. 16,
                   page 95.]


BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was born in Boston, January 17, 1706. He began life
as an apprentice to his brother, a printer; went to England to follow
his trade, but ultimately settled in Philadelphia in 1726, where he
edited the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and in 1732 began the publication
of "Poor Richard's Almanac." He founded the first fire company in
1737, and soon afterward the first fire insurance company. In 1752 he
discovered the identity of lightning and the electric fluid, and
invented the lightning-rod. In consideration of his brilliant services
to science, the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by the
university of Oxford in 1762. Benjamin Franklin was a member of the
Continental Congress, 1775-1776; a signer of the Declaration of
Independence, and one of the commissioners to France, 1776-1785. He
signed the offensive and defensive treaty with France, in Paris,   (p. 094)
February 6, 1778; and the definitive treaty of peace with England,
September 3, 1783. He was governor of Pennsylvania, 1786-1788; and
died in Philadelphia, April 17, 1790. Congress ordered a mourning of
four months, and the National Assembly of France, on the proposal of
Mirabeau, seconded by Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld and General de la
Fayette, went into mourning for three days. Turgot composed in his
honor the celebrated latin verse: _Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrum que
tyrannis_.



No. 16.                                                            (p. 095)
PLATE XVI.


_1786._

     Benj. Franklin natus Boston. XVII Jan. MDCCVI. [Rx]. Eripuit
     coelo fulmen sceptrum que tyrannis.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.

BENJ. FRANKLIN NATUS BOSTON. XVII JAN. MDCCVI. (_Benjamin Franklin,
natus Boston, 17 Januarii, 1706: Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston,
January 17, 1706._) Bust of Franklin, facing the left. On edge of
bust, DUPRÉ F. (_fecit_).

Within a crown of oak: ERIPUIT COELO FULMEN SCEPTRUM QUE TYRANNIS.
(_He drew fire from Heaven and wrenched the sceptre from tyrants_).
Exergue: SCULPSIT ET DICAVIT AUG. DUPRÉ ANNO MDCCLXXXVI. (_Sculpsit et
dicavit Augustinus Dupré, anno 1786: Engraved and dedicated by
Augustin Dupré, in the year 1786_).[58]

                   [Footnote 58: See INTRODUCTION, pages x and xxiii.]

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_William Short to Thomas Jefferson._

     To the Honourable
        Thomas JEFFERSON,               Paris, June the 14th, 1790.
           Secretary of State.

     Sir: On the news of Dr. Franklin's death being received here, the
     National Assembly decreed that they would go in mourning for
     three days--and that the President should write to Congress to
     notify to them the part they take in the melancholy event. A kind
     of enthusiasm has spread also through the different parts of the
     capital--different societies and bodies have shown their adhesion
     to the sentiments of the National Assembly in different ways.

                             I am, etc.,
                                        Wm. SHORT.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to the President of the National Assembly of     (p. 096)
France._

     To                                 Philadelphia, March 8th, 1791.
       THE PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF FRANCE.

     Sir: I have it in charge from the President of the United States
     of America to communicate to the National Assembly of France the
     peculiar sensibility of Congress to the tribute paid to the
     memory of Benjamin Franklin, by the enlightened and free
     Representatives of a great nation, in their decree of the 11th of
     June, 1790.

     That the loss of such a citizen should be lamented by us, among
     whom he lived, whom he so long and eminently served, and who feel
     their country advanced and honoured by his birth, life and
     labours, was to be expected, but it remained for the National
     Assembly of France to set the first example of the Representative
     of one nation doing homage by a public act to the private citizen
     of another, and by withdrawing arbitrary lines of separation, to
     reduce into one fraternity the good and the great, wherever they
     have lived or died.

     That these separations may disappear between us in all times and
     circumstances, and that the union of sentiment, which mingles our
     sorrows on this occasion, may continue long to cement the
     friendship and the interests of our two nations is our constant
     prayer. With no one is it more sincere than with him, who in
     being charged with the honour of conveying a public sentiment, is
     permitted that of expressing the homage of profound respect and
     veneration with which he is,

                Sir, your most obedient and humble servant,
                                        Th: JEFFERSON.



No. 17.                                                            (p. 097)
PLATE XVII.


_September 23, 1779._

     Joanni Pavlo Jones classis præfecto. Comitia Americana. [Rx].
     Hostivm navibvs captis avt fvgatis.

CAPTAIN JOHN PAUL JONES.

[_Capture of the Serapis._]

JOANNI PAVLO JONES CLASSIS PRÆFECTO. COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American
Congress to naval commander John Paul Jones_). Bust of Captain Jones,
in uniform, facing the right. On edge of bust, DUPRÉ F. (_fecit_).

HOSTIVM NAVIBVS CAPTIS AVT FVGATIS. (_The enemy's vessels taken or put
to flight._) Naval action between the United States frigate Bonhomme
Richard, of forty guns, Captain John Paul Jones, and the British
frigate Serapis, of forty-four guns, Captain Pearson. Both vessels are
grappled, lying head and stern. The Bonhomme Richard is on fire, and
her crew are boarding the Serapis. To the left, a third vessel.[59]
Exergue: AD ORAM SCOTIÆ (_sic_) XXIII SEPT. (_Septembris_)
M.DCCLXXVIIII. (_Off the coast of Scotland, September 23, 1779._)
DUPRÉ. F. (_fecit_).[60]

                   [Footnote 59: See Admiral Jones's curious
                   observations on the position of the accessories on
                   the reverse, in his letter to Jefferson, dated
                   August 29,/September 9, 1788, page 112.]

                   [Footnote 60: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xix, xx,
                   xxi, xxviii; D, xli; E, xliv; F, xlv; and H,
                   xlvii.]

The legend on the reverse of the medal is the second of the two
proposed by the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. The
first was, PRIMUS AMERICANORUM TRIUMPHUS NAVALIS.

The bust of John Paul Jones, on the obverse of this medal, is from a
plaster cast by Houdon, the celebrated sculptor.


THE CHEVALIER JOHN PAUL JONES was born at Arbingland, in the       (p. 098)
parish of Kirkbean, in Scotland, July 6, 1747. He went to sea when
young, and settled in Virginia in 1773. In 1775 he was appointed a
lieutenant in the navy, through the recommendation of General Jones,
of North Carolina, and in gratitude to him, he added the name of Jones
to his family name of Paul. He joined the Alfred, of thirty guns and
three hundred men, and on her deck, October 10, 1776, when off
Chestnut street wharf, Philadelphia, under a salute of thirteen guns,
hoisted with his own hands the first American naval flag. This had
thirteen stripes, but without the blue union, and bore across the
field a rattlesnake with the motto "Don't tread on me." Appointed
captain in October, 1776, he was soon afterward sent by Congress to
France, to arrange certain naval matters with the American
commissioners. Subsequently he carried terror along the coast of
England, and on September 23, 1779, fought his famous action off
Flamborough Head, near Scarborough, in which he took the Serapis,
Captain Richard Pearson. He was enthusiastically received in France,
and King Louis XVI. presented him with a sword of honor and with the
cross of Military Merit. Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold
medal, in 1787, and sent him to France, Denmark, and Sweden, as agent
for prize money. The same year he entered the Russian service with the
rank of rear-admiral, and received from the Empress Catherine II. the
cross of St. Anne. He had a command in the squadron stationed in the
Black Sea, where he greatly distinguished himself, but embittered by
slanderous calumnies, he left the Russian service and settled in
Paris, where he died in poverty, July 18, 1792. The National Assembly
of France, then in session, expressed their regret for him by wearing
mourning, and sent a deputation to attend his funeral.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to the Chevalier John Paul
Jones._

IN CONGRESS.

     _Resolved unanimously_, That a medal of gold be struck and
     presented to the Chevalier John Paul Jones, in commemoration of
     the valour and brilliant services of that officer, in the command
     of a squadron of French and American ships, under the flag and
     commission of the United States, off the coast of Great Britain,
     in the late war; and that the Honourable Mr. Jefferson,       (p. 099)
     Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at the Court of
     Versailles, have the same executed, with the proper devices.

     _Resolved_, That a letter be written to His Most Christian
     Majesty, informing him that the United States, in Congress
     assembled, have bestowed upon the Chevalier John Paul Jones, this
     medal, as well in consideration of the distinguished marks of
     approbation which His Majesty has pleased to confer upon that
     officer, as from a sense of his merit: And, that as it is his
     earnest desire to acquire greater knowledge in his profession, it
     would be acceptable to Congress, that His Majesty would be
     pleased to permit him to embark with his fleets of evolution,
     convinced that he can no where else so well acquire that
     knowledge which may hereafter render him more extensively useful.

     _Ordered_, That the Secretary of Foreign Affairs prepare a letter
     for the above purpose, to be signed by the President, and that
     the Chevalier Jones be the bearer of the said letter.

     Tuesday, October 16, 1787.

                              _____

_Captain John Paul Jones to Benjamin Franklin._

                                      On board the ship Serapis,
     To His Excellency       At anchor without the Texel, in Holland,
        Benjamin FRANKLIN.             October 3, 1779.

     Honoured and Dear Sir: When I had the honour of writing to you on
     the 11th of August, previous to my departure from the Road of
     Groaix, I had before me the most flattering prospect of rendering
     essential service to the common cause of France and America. I
     had a full confidence in the voluntary inclination and ability of
     every captain under my command to assist and support me in my
     duty with cheerful emulation; and I was persuaded that every one
     of them would pursue glory in preference to interest.

     Whether I was or was not deceived will best appear by a relation
     of circumstances.

     The little squadron under my orders, consisting of the Bonhomme
     Richard of 40 guns, the Alliance of 36 guns, the Pallas of 32
     guns, the Cerf of 18 guns, and the Vengeance of 12 guns, joined
     by two privateers, the Monsieur and the Granville, sailed from
     the Road of Groaix at daybreak on the 14th of August; the same
     day we spoke with a large convoy bound from the southward to
     Brest.

     On the 18th we retook a large ship belonging to Holland, laden
     chiefly with brandy and wine that had been destined from
     Barcelona for Dunkirk, and taken eight days before by an English
     privateer. The captain of the Monsieur, however, took out of this
     prize such articles as he pleased in the night, and the next day
     being astern of the squadron and to windward, he actually wrote
     orders _in his proper_ name, and sent away the prize under one of
     his own officers. This, however, I superseded by sending her  (p. 100)
     for L'Orient under my orders in the character of
     commander-in-chief. The evening of the day following the Monsieur
     separated from the squadron.

     On the 20th we saw and chased a large ship, but could not
     overtake her, she being to windward.

     On the 21st we saw and chased another ship that was also to
     windward, and thereby eluded our pursuit. The same afternoon we
     took a brigantine called the Mayflower, laden with butter and
     salt provisions, bound from Limerick, in Ireland, for London;
     this vessel I immediately expedited for L'Orient.

     On the 23d we saw Cape Clear and S. W. part of Ireland. That
     afternoon, it being calm, I sent some armed boats to take a
     brigantine that appeared in the N. W. quarter. Soon after in the
     evening it became necessary to have a boat ahead of the ship to
     tow, as the helm could not prevent her from laying across the
     tide of flood, which would have driven us into a deep and
     dangerous bay, situated between the rocks on the south called the
     Shallocks, and on the north called the Blaskets. The ship's boats
     being absent, I sent my own barge ahead to tow the ship. The
     boats took the brigantine, she was called the Fortune, and bound
     with a cargo of oil, blubber, and staves, from Newfoundland for
     Bristol; this vessel I ordered to proceed immediately for Nantes
     or St. Malo. Soon after sunset the villains who towed the ship,
     cut the tow rope and decamped with my barge. Sundry shots were
     fired to bring them to without effect; in the mean time the
     master of the Bonhomme Richard, without orders, manned one of the
     ship's boats, and with four soldiers pursued the barge in order
     to stop the deserters. The evening was clear and serene, but the
     zeal of that officer, Mr. Cutting Lent, induced him to pursue too
     far, and a fog which came on soon afterwards prevented the boats
     from rejoining the ship, although I caused signal guns to be
     frequently fired. The fog and calm continued the next day till
     towards evening. In the afternoon Captain Landais came on board
     the Bonhomme Richard and behaved towards me with great
     disrespect, affirming in the most indelicate manner and language
     that I had lost my boats and people through my imprudence in
     sending boats to take a prize! He persisted in his reproaches,
     though he was assured by Messrs. de Weibert and de Chamillard
     that the barge was towing the ship at the time of elopement, and
     that she had not been sent in pursuit of the prize. He was
     affronted because I would not the day before suffer him to chase
     without my orders, and to approach the dangerous shore I have
     already mentioned, where he was an entire stranger, and when
     there was not sufficient wind to govern a ship. He told me he was
     the only American in the squadron, and was determined to follow
     his own opinion in chasing when and where he thought proper, and
     in every other matter that concerned the service, and that, if I
     continued in that situation three days longer, the squadron would
     be taken, etc. By the advice of Captain de Cottineau, and with
     the free consent and approbation of M. de Varage, I sent the Cerf
     in to reconnoitre the coast, and endeavour to take the boats and
     people the next day, while the squadron stood off and on in S. W.
     quarter, in the best possible situation to intercept the enemy's
     merchant ships, whether outward or homeward bound. The Cerf had
     on board a pilot well acquainted with the coast, and was ordered
     to join me again before night. I approached the shore in the
     afternoon, but the Cerf did not appear; this induced me to    (p. 101)
     stand off again in the night in order to return and be joined
     by the Cerf the next day; but to my great concern and
     disappointment, though I ranged the coast along, and hoisted our
     private signals, neither the boats nor the Cerf joined me. The
     evening of that day, the 26th, brought with it stormy weather,
     with the appearance of a severe gale from the S. W., yet I must
     declare I did not follow my own judgment, but was led by the
     assertion which had fallen from Captain Landais, when I in the
     evening made a signal to steer to the northward and leave that
     station, which I wished to have occupied at least a week longer.
     The gale increased in the night with thick weather; to prevent
     separation, I carried a top light and fired a gun every quarter
     of an hour. I carried also a very moderate sail, and the course
     had been clearly pointed out by a signal before night; yet, with
     all this precaution, I found myself accompanied only by the
     brigantine Vengeance in the morning, the Granville having
     remained astern with a prize, as I have since understood the
     tiller of the Pallas broke after midnight, which disabled her
     from keeping up, but no apology has yet been made in behalf of
     the Alliance.

     On the 31st we saw the Flannen Islands, situated near the Lewis,
     on the N. W. coast of Scotland; and the next morning, off Cape
     Wrath, we gave chase to a ship to windward, at the same time two
     ships appearing in the N. W. quarter, which proved to be the
     Alliance and a prize ship which she had taken, bound, as I
     understood, from Liverpool to Jamaica. The ship which I chased
     brought to at noon; she proved to be the Union, letter of marque,
     bound from London for Quebec, with a cargo of naval stores on
     account of government, adapted for the service of British armed
     vessels on the lakes. The public despatches were lost, as the
     Alliance very imprudently hoisted American colours, though
     English colours were then flying on board the Bonhomme Richard.
     Captain Landais sent a small boat to ask whether I would man the
     ship, or he should, as in the latter case he would suffer no boat
     nor person from the Bonhomme Richard to go near the prize.
     Ridiculous as this appeared to me, I yielded to it for the sake
     of peace, and received the prisoners on board the Bonhomme
     Richard, while the prize was manned from the Alliance. In the
     afternoon another sail appeared, and I immediately made the
     signal for the Alliance to chase; but, instead of obeying, he
     wore and laid the ship's head the other way. The next morning I
     made a signal to speak with the Alliance, to which no attention
     was shown; I then made sail with the ships in company for the
     second rendezvous which was not far distant, and where I fully
     expected to be joined by the Pallas and Cerf.

     The 2d of September we saw a sail at daybreak, and gave chase;
     that ship proved to be the Pallas, and had met with no success
     while separated from the Bonhomme Richard.

     On the 3d the Vengeance brought to a small Irish brigantine,
     bound homeward from Norway. The same evening I sent the Vengeance
     in the N. E. quarter to bring up the two prize ships that
     appeared to me to be too near the islands of Shetland, while with
     the Alliance and Pallas I endeavoured to weather Fair Isle, and
     to get into my second rendezvous, where I directed the Vengeance
     to join me with the three prizes. The next morning, having
     weathered Fair Isle, and not seeing the Vengeance nor the prizes,
     I spoke the Alliance, and ordered her to steer to the northward
     and bring them up to the rendezvous.

     On the morning of the 4th the Alliance appeared again, and    (p. 102)
     had brought to two very small coasting sloops in ballast, but
     without having attended properly to my orders of yesterday. The
     Vengeance joined me soon after, and informed me that in
     consequence of Captain Landais' orders to the commanders of the
     two prize ships, they had refused to follow him to the
     rendezvous. I am to this moment ignorant of what orders these men
     received from Captain Landais, nor know I by virtue of what
     authority he ventured to give his orders to prizes in my
     presence, and without either my knowledge or approbation. Captain
     Ricot further informed me that he had burnt the prize brigantine,
     because that vessel proved leaky; and I was sorry to understand
     afterward that though the vessel was Irish property, the cargo
     was property of the subjects of Norway.

     In the evening I sent for all the captains to come on board the
     Bonhomme Richard, to consult on future plans of operations.
     Captains Cottineau and Ricot obeyed me, but Captain Landais
     obstinately refused, and after sending me various uncivil
     messages, wrote me a very extraordinary letter in answer to a
     written order which I had sent him, on finding that he had
     trifled with my verbal orders. The next day a pilot boat came on
     board from Shetland, by which means I received such advices as
     induced me to change a plan which I otherwise meant to have
     pursued; and as the Cerf did not appear at my second rendezvous,
     I determined to steer towards the third in hopes of meeting her
     there.

     In the afternoon a gale of wind came on, which continued four
     days without intermission. In the second night of that gale the
     Alliance, with her two little prizes, again separated from the
     Bonhomme Richard. I had now with me only the Pallas and the
     Vengeance, yet I did not abandon the hopes of performing some
     essential service. The winds continued contrary, so that we did
     not see the land till the evening of the 13th, when the hills of
     the Cheviot in the S. E. of Scotland appeared. The next day we
     chased sundry vessels, and took a ship and a brigantine, both
     from the Firth of Edinburgh, laden with coal. Knowing that there
     lay at anchor in Leith Road an armed ship of 20 guns, with two or
     three fine cutters, I formed an expedition against Leith, which I
     purposed to lay under a large contribution, or otherwise to
     reduce it to ashes. Had I been alone, the wind being favourable,
     I would have proceeded directly up the Firth, and must have
     succeeded, as they lay there in a state of perfect indolence and
     security, which would have proved their ruin. Unfortunately for
     me, the Pallas and Vengeance were both at a considerable distance
     in the offing, they having chased to the southward; this obliged
     us to steer out of the Firth again to meet them. The captains of
     the Pallas and Vengeance being come on board the Bonhomme
     Richard, I communicated to them my project, to which many
     difficulties and objections were made by them; at last, however,
     they appeared to think better of the design, after I had assured
     them that I hoped to raise 200,000 pounds sterling on Leith, and
     that there was no battery of cannon there to oppose our landing.
     So much time, however, was unavoidably spent in pointed remarks
     and sage deliberation that night, that the wind became contrary
     in the morning.

     We continued working to windward up the Firth without being able
     to reach the road of Leith, till, on the morning of the 17th,
     when, being almost within cannon shot of the town, having     (p. 103)
     everything in readiness for a descent, a very severe gale of
     wind came on, and being directly contrary, obliged us to bear
     away, after having in vain endeavoured for some time to withstand
     its violence. The gale was so severe that one of the prizes that
     had been taken on the 14th sunk to the bottom, the crew being
     with difficulty saved. As the alarm by this time had reached
     Leith by means of a cutter that had watched our motions that
     morning, and as the wind continued contrary (though more moderate
     in the evening), I thought it impossible to pursue the enterprize
     with a good prospect of success; especially as Edinburgh, where
     there is always a number of troops, is only a mile distant from
     Leith, therefore I gave up the project.

     On the 19th, having taken a sloop and a brigantine in ballast,
     with a sloop laden with building timber, I proposed another
     project to M. Cottineau, which would have been highly honourable
     though not profitable; many difficulties were made, and our
     situation was represented as being the most perilous. The enemy,
     he said, would send against us a superior force, and that if I
     obstinately continued on the coast of England two days longer, we
     should all be taken. The Vengeance having chased along shore to
     the southward, Captain Cottineau said he would follow her with
     the prizes, as I was unable to make much sail, having that day
     been obliged to strike the main-top-mast to repair damages; and
     as I afterward understood, he told M. de Chamillard that unless I
     joined them the next day, both the Pallas and the Vengeance would
     leave that coast. I had thoughts of attempting the enterprize
     alone after the Pallas had made sail to join the Vengeance. I am
     persuaded, even now, that I would have succeeded, and to the
     honour of my young officers, I found them as ardently disposed to
     the business as I could desire; nothing prevented me from
     pursuing my design but the reproach that would have been cast
     upon my character, as a man of prudence, had the enterprize
     miscarried. It would have been said, was he not forewarned by
     Capt. Cottineau and others?

     I made sail along shore to the southward, and next morning took a
     coasting sloop, in ballast, which, with another that I had taken
     the night before, I ordered to be sunk. In the evening I again
     met with the Pallas and Vengeance, off Whitby. Captain Cottineau
     told me he had sunk the brigantine, and ransomed the sloop, laden
     with building timber, that had been taken the day before. I had
     told Captain Cottineau, the day before, that I had no authority
     to ransom prizes.

     On the 21st we saw and chased two sail, off Flamborough Head, the
     Pallas in the N. E. quarter, while the Bonhomme Richard followed
     by the Vengeance in the S. W. The one I chased, a brigantine
     collier in ballast, belonging to Scarborough, was soon taken, and
     sunk immediately afterward, as a fleet then appeared to the
     southward. It was so late in the day that I could not come up
     with the fleet before night; at length, however, I got so near
     one of them as to force her to run ashore, between Flamborough
     Head and the Spurn. Soon after I took another, a brigantine from
     Holland, belonging to Sunderland; and at daylight the next
     morning, seeing a fleet steering towards me from the Spurn, I
     imagined them to be a convoy, bound from London for Leith, which
     had been for some time expected; one of them had a pendant
     hoisted, and appeared to be a ship of force. They had not,
     however, courage to come on, but kept back, all except the one
     which seemed to be armed, and that one also kept to windward  (p. 104)
     very near the land, and on the edge of dangerous shoals,
     where I could not with safety approach. This induced me to make a
     signal for a pilot, and soon afterward two pilot boats came off;
     they informed me that the ship that wore a pendant was an armed
     merchant ship, and that a king's frigate lay there in sight, at
     anchor within the Humber, waiting to take under convoy a number
     of merchant ships bound to the northward. The pilots imagined the
     Bonhomme Richard to be an English ship of war, and, consequently,
     communicated to me the private signal which they had been
     required to make. I endeavoured by this means to decoy the ships
     out of the port, but the wind then changing, and with the tide
     becoming unfavourable for them, the deception had not the desired
     effect, and they wisely put back. The entrance of the Humber is
     exceedingly difficult and dangerous, and, as the Pallas was not
     in sight, I thought it not prudent to remain off the entrance; I,
     therefore, steered out again to join the Pallas off Flamborough
     Head. In the night we saw and chased two ships until three
     o'clock in the morning, when, being at a very small distance from
     them, I made the private signal of recognizance, which I had
     given to each captain before I sailed from Groaix. One half of
     the answer only was returned. In this position both sides lay to
     till daylight, when the ships proved to be the Alliance and the
     Pallas.

     On the morning of that day, the 23d of September, the brig from
     Holland not being in sight, we chased a brigantine that appeared
     laying to windward. About noon we saw and chased a large ship
     that appeared coming round Flamborough Head, from the northward,
     and at the same time I manned and armed one of the pilot boats to
     sail in pursuit of the brigantine, which now appeared to be the
     vessel that I had forced ashore. Soon after this a fleet of
     forty-one sail appeared off Flamborough Head, bearing N. N. E.;
     this induced me to abandon the single ship which had then
     anchored in Burlington Bay; I also called back the pilot boat and
     hoisted a signal for a general chase. When the fleet discovered
     us bearing down all the merchant ships crowded sail towards the
     shore. The two ships of war that protected the fleet at the same
     time steered from the land, and made the disposition for the
     battle. In approaching the enemy I crowded every possible sail,
     and made the signal for the line of battle, to which the Alliance
     showed no attention. Earnest as I was for the action, I could not
     reach the commodore's ship until seven in the evening, being then
     within pistol shot, when he hailed the Bonhomme Richard. We
     answered him by firing a whole broadside.

     The battle being thus begun, was continued with unremitting fury.
     Every method was practised on both sides to gain an advantage,
     and rake each other; and I must confess that the enemy's ship
     being much more manageable than the Bonhomme Richard, gained
     thereby several times an advantageous situation, in spite of my
     best endeavours to prevent it. As I had to deal with an enemy of
     _greatly superior force_, I was under the necessity of closing
     with him, to prevent the advantage which he had over me in point
     of manoeuvre. It was my intention to lay the Bonhomme Richard
     athwart the enemy's bow, but as that operation required great
     dexterity in the management of both sails and helm, and some of
     our braces being shot away, it did not exactly succeed to my
     wishes; the enemy's bowsprit, however, came over the Bonhomme
     Richard's poop, by the mizzen mast, and I made both ships fast
     together in that situation, which, by the action of the wind  (p. 105)
     on the enemy's sails, forced her stern close to the Bonhomme
     Richard's bow, so that the ships lay square alongside of each
     other, the yards being all entangled, and the cannon of each ship
     touching the opponent's side. When this position took place it
     was eight o'clock, previous to which the Bonhomme Richard had
     received sundry eighteen pound shot below the water and leaked
     very much. My battery of 12-pounders, on which I had placed my
     chief dependence, being commanded by Lieut. Dale and Col.
     Weibert, and manned principally with American seamen and French
     volunteers, were entirely silenced and abandoned. As to the six
     old 18-pounders that formed the battery of the lower gun-deck,
     they did no service whatever; two out of three of them burst at
     the first fire, and killed almost all the men who were stationed
     to manage them. Before this time, too, Col. de Chamillard, who
     commanded a party of twenty soldiers on the poop, had abandoned
     that station, after having lost some of his men. These men
     deserted their quarters. I had now only two pieces of cannon,
     9-pounders, on the quarter-deck that were not silenced, and not
     one of the heavier cannon was fired during the rest of the
     action. The purser, Mr. Mease, who commanded the guns on the
     quarter-deck, being dangerously wounded in the head, I was
     obliged to fill his place, and with great difficulty rallied a
     few men, and shifted over one of the lee quarter-deck guns, so
     that we afterwards played three pieces of 9-pounders upon the
     enemy. The tops alone seconded the fire of this little battery,
     and held out bravely during the whole of the action; especially
     the main top, where Lieut. Stack commanded. I directed the fire
     of one of the three cannon against the main-mast with
     double-headed shot, while the other two were exceedingly well
     served with grape and canister-shot to silence the enemy's
     musketry, and clear her decks, which was at last effected. The
     enemy were, as I have since understood, on the instant of calling
     for quarter, when the cowardice or treachery of three of my under
     officers induced them to call to the enemy. The English commodore
     asked me if I demanded quarter, and I having answered him in the
     most determined negative, they renewed the battle with double
     fury; they were unable to stand the deck, but the fire of their
     cannon, especially the lower battery, which was entirely formed
     of 18-pounders, was incessant. Both ships were set on fire in
     various places, and the scene was dreadful beyond the reach of
     language. To account for the timidity of my three under officers,
     I mean the gunner, the carpenter, and the master-at-arms, I must
     observe that the two first were slightly wounded, and as the ship
     had received various shots under water, and one of the pumps
     being shot away, the carpenter expressed his fear that she would
     sink, and the other two concluded that she was sinking, which
     occasioned the gunner to run aft on the poop, without my
     knowledge, to strike the colours; fortunately for me, a cannon
     ball had done that before, by carrying away the ensign staff; he
     was, therefore, reduced to the necessity of sinking, as he
     supposed, or of calling for quarter, and he preferred the latter.

     All this time the Bonhomme Richard had sustained the action
     alone, and the enemy, though much superior in force, would have
     been very glad to have got clear, as appeared by their own
     acknowledgments, and their having let go an anchor the instant I
     laid them on board, by which means they would have escaped, had I
     not made them well fast to the Bonhomme Richard.

     At last, at half-past nine o'clock, the Alliance appeared,    (p. 106)
     and I now thought the battle at an end; but to my utter
     astonishment, he discharged a broadside full into the stern of
     the Bonhomme Richard. We called to him for God's sake to forbear
     firing into the Bonhomme Richard; yet he passed along the off
     side of the ship, and continued firing. There was no possibility
     of his mistaking the enemy's ship for the Bonhomme Richard, there
     being the most essential difference in their appearance and
     construction; besides it was then full moonlight, and the sides
     of the Bonhomme Richard were all black, while the sides of the
     prizes were yellow; yet, for their greater security, I showed the
     signal of our reconnoissance by putting out three lanterns, one
     at the head (bow), another at the stern (quarter), and the third
     in the middle, in a horizontal line. Every tongue cried that he
     was firing into the wrong ship, but nothing availed, he passed
     round, firing into the Bonhomme Richard's head, stern, and
     broadside, and by one of his volleys killed several of my best
     men and mortally wounded a good officer on the forecastle. My
     situation was really deplorable. The Bonhomme Richard received
     various shots under water from the Alliance; the leak gained on
     the pumps; and the fire increased much on board both ships. Some
     officers persuaded me to strike, of whose courage and good sense
     I entertain a high opinion. My treacherous master-at-arms let
     loose all my prisoners, without my knowledge, and my prospect
     became gloomy indeed. I would not, however, give up the point.
     The enemy's main-mast began to shake, their firing decreased,
     ours rather increased, and the British colours were struck at
     half an hour past ten o'clock.

     This prize proved to be the British ship-of-war the Serapis, a
     new ship of 44 guns, built on their most approved construction,
     with two complete batteries, one of them 18-pounders, and
     commanded by the brave Commodore Richard Pearson. I had yet two
     enemies to encounter far more formidable than the Britons--I mean
     fire, and water. The Serapis was attacked only by the first, but
     the Bonhomme Richard was assailed by both: there were five feet
     water in the hold, and though it was moderate from the explosion
     of so much gunpowder, yet the three pumps that remained could
     with difficulty only keep the water from gaining. The fire broke
     out in various parts of the ship, in spite of all the water that
     could be thrown to quench it, and at length broke out as low as
     the powder magazine, and within a few inches of the powder. In
     that dilemma, I took out the powder upon deck, ready to be thrown
     overboard at the last extremity, and it was 10 o'clock the next
     day, the 24th, before the fire was entirely extinguished. With
     respect to the situation of the Bonhomme Richard, the rudder was
     cut entirely off the stern frame, and the transoms were almost
     entirely cut away; the timbers, by the lower deck especially,
     from the mainmast to the stern, being greatly decayed with age,
     were mangled beyond my power of description; and a person must
     have been an eye witness to form a just idea of the tremendous
     scene of carnage, wreck, and ruin that everywhere appeared.
     Humanity cannot but recoil from the prospect of such finished
     horror, and lament that war should produce such fatal
     consequences.

     After the carpenters, as well as Capt. de Cottineau, and other
     men of sense had well examined and surveyed the ship (which was
     not finished before five in the evening), I found every person
     to be convinced that it was impossible to keep the Bonhomme   (p. 107)
     Richard afloat so as to reach a port if the wind should
     increase, it being then only a very moderate breeze. I had but
     little time to remove my wounded, which now became unavoidable,
     and which was effected in the course of the night and next
     morning. I was determined to keep the Bonhomme Richard afloat,
     and, if possible, to bring her into port. For that purpose, the
     first lieutenant of the Pallas continued on board with a party of
     men to attend the pumps, with boats in waiting, ready to take
     them on board, in case the water should gain on them too fast.
     The wind augmented in the night and the next day, on the 25th, so
     that it was impossible to prevent the good old ship from sinking.
     They did not abandon her until after 9 o'clock; the water was
     then up to the lower deck, and a little after ten, I saw with
     inexpressible grief the last glimpse of the Bonhomme Richard. No
     lives were lost with the ship, but it was impossible to save the
     stores of any sort whatever. I lost even the best part of my
     clothes, books, and papers; and several of my officers lost all
     their clothes and effects.

     Having thus endeavoured to give a clear and simple relation of
     the circumstances and events that have attended the little
     armament under my command, I shall freely submit my conduct
     therein to the censure of my superiors and the impartial public.
     I beg leave, however, to observe, that the force that was put
     under my command was far from being well composed; and as the
     great majority of the actors in it have appeared bent on the
     pursuit of interest only, I am exceedingly sorry that they and I
     have been at all concerned. I am in the highest degree sensible
     of the singular attentions which I have experienced from the
     court of France, which I shall remember with perfect gratitude
     until the end of my life, and will always endeavour to merit,
     while I can, consistent with my honour, continue in the public
     service. I must speak plainly. As I have always been honoured
     with the full confidence of Congress, and as I always flattered
     myself with enjoying in some measure the confidence of the court
     of France, I could not but be astonished at the conduct of M. de
     Chaumont, when, in the moment of my departure from Groaix, he
     produced a paper, a concordat, for me to sign, in common with the
     officers whom I had commissioned but a few days before. Had that
     paper, or even a less dishonourable one, been proposed to me at
     the beginning, I would have rejected it with just contempt, and
     the word _déplacement_, among others, should have been necessary.
     I cannot, however, even now suppose that he was authorized by the
     court to make such a bargain with me; nor can I suppose that the
     minister of marine meant that M. de Chaumont should consider me
     merely as a colleague with the commanders of the other ships, and
     communicate to them not only all he knew, but all he thought,
     respecting our destination and operations. M. de Chaumont has
     made me various reproaches on account of the expense of the
     Bonhomme Richard, wherewith I cannot think I have been justly
     chargeable. M. de Chamillard can attest that the Bonhomme Richard
     was at last far from being well fitted or armed for war. If any
     person or persons who have been charged with the expense of that
     armament have acted wrong, the fault must not be laid to my
     charge. I had no authority to superintend that armament, and the
     persons who had authority were so far from giving me what I
     thought necessary that M. de Chaumont even refused, among other
     things, to allow me irons to secure the prisoners of war.

     In short, while my life remains, if I have any capacity to    (p. 108)
     render good and acceptable services to the common cause, no
     man will step forward with greater cheerfulness and alacrity than
     myself, but I am not made to be dishonoured, nor can I accept of
     the _half confidence_ of any man living; of course, I cannot,
     consistent with my honour and a prospect of success, undertake
     future expeditions, unless when the object and destination is
     communicated to me alone, and to no other person in the marine
     line. In cases where troops are embarked, a like confidence is
     due alone to their commander-in-chief. On no other condition will
     I ever undertake the chief command of a private expedition; and
     when I do not command in chief, I have no desire to be in the
     secret.

     Captain Cottineau engaged the Countess of Scarborough, and took
     her after an hour's action, while the Bonhomme Richard engaged
     the Serapis. The Countess of Scarborough is an armed ship of 20
     six-pounders, and was commanded by a king's officer. In the
     action, the Countess of Scarborough and the Serapis were at a
     considerable distance asunder; and the Alliance, as I am
     informed, fired into the Pallas, and killed some men. If it
     should be asked why the convoy was suffered to escape, I must
     answer, that I was myself in no condition to pursue, and that
     none of the rest showed any inclination, not even M. Ricot, who
     had held off at a distance to windward during the whole action,
     and withheld by force the pilot boat with my lieutenant and 15
     men. The Alliance, too, was in a state to pursue the fleet, not
     having had a single man wounded, or a single shot fired at her
     from the Serapis, and only three that did execution from the
     Countess of Scarborough, at such a distance that one stuck in the
     side, and the other two just touched and then dropped into the
     water. The Alliance killed one man only on board the Serapis. As
     Captain de Cottineau charged himself with manning and securing
     the prisoners of the Countess of Scarborough, I think the escape
     of the Baltic fleet cannot so well be charged to his account.

     I should have mentioned that the main-mast and mizzen topmast of
     the Serapis fell overboard soon after the captain had come on
     board the Bonhomme Richard.

     Upon the whole, the captain of the Alliance has behaved so very
     ill in every respect that I must complain loudly of his conduct.
     He pretends that he is authorized to act independent of my
     command. I have been taught the contrary; but, supposing it to be
     so, his conduct has been base and unpardonable. M. de Chamillard
     will explain the particulars. Either Captain Landais or myself is
     highly criminal, and one or the other must be punished. I forbear
     to take any steps with him until I have the advice and
     approbation of Your Excellency. I have been advised by all the
     officers of the squadron to put M. Landais under arrest; but, as
     I have postponed it so long, I will bear with him a little
     longer, until the return of my express.

     We this day anchored here, having since the action been tossed to
     and fro by contrary winds. I wished to have gained the road of
     Dunkirk on account of our prisoners, but was overruled by the
     majority of _my colleagues_. I shall hasten up to Amsterdam, and
     there, if I meet with no orders from my government, I will take
     the advice of the French ambassador. It is my present intention
     to have the Countess of Scarborough ready to transport the
     prisoners from hence to Dunkirk, unless it should be found more
     expedient to deliver them to the English ambassador, taking his
     obligation to send to Dunkirk, &c., immediately an equal number
     of American prisoners. I am under strong apprehensions that our
     object here will fail, and that through the imprudence of     (p. 109)
     M. de Chaumont, who has communicated everything he knew or
     thought on the matter to persons who cannot help talking of it at
     a full table. This is the way he keeps state secrets, though he
     never mentioned the affair to me.

                         I am ever, &c.,
                                       John P. JONES.

                              _____

_M. de Sartine to the President of Congress._

     To
       Mr. HUNTINGTON,                  Versailles, May 30, 1780.
           President of the Congress of the United States.

     Commodore Paul Jones, after having shown to all Europe, and
     particularly to the enemies of France and the United States, the
     most unquestionable proofs of his valour and talents, is about
     returning to America to give an account to Congress of the
     success of his military operations. I am convinced, Sir, that the
     reputation he has so justly acquired will precede him, and that
     the recital of his actions alone will suffice to prove to his
     fellow citizens that his abilities are equal to his courage. But
     the King has thought proper to add His suffrage and attention to
     the public opinion. He has expressly charged me to inform you how
     perfectly He is satisfied with the services of the Commodore,
     persuaded that Congress will render him the same justice. He has
     offered, as a proof of His esteem, to present him with a sword,
     which cannot be placed in better hands, and likewise proposes to
     Congress to decorate this brave officer with the Cross of
     Military Merit.[61] His Majesty conceives that this particular
     distinction, by holding forth the same honours to the two
     nations, united by the same interests, will be looked upon as one
     tie more that connects them, and will support that emulation
     which is so precious to the common cause. If, after having
     approved the conduct of the Commodore, it should be thought
     proper to give him the command of any new expedition to Europe,
     His Majesty will receive him again with pleasure, and presumes
     that Congress will oppose nothing that may be judged expedient to
     secure the success of his enterprizes. My personal esteem for him
     induces me to recommend him very particularly to you, Sir, and I
     dare flatter myself that the reception he will receive from
     Congress and you, will warrant the sentiments with which he has
     inspired me.

                    I have the honour of being, &c.,
                                                DE SARTINE.

                   [Footnote 61: Captain John Paul Jones was the only
                   American officer decorated by the King of France
                   during the Revolutionary War.]

                              _____

_M. de Sartine to Commodore John Paul Jones._

     Mr. Paul JONES,                    Versailles, June 28, 1780.
         Commodore in the Navy of the United States of America.

     Sir: The King has already testified His approbation of the zeal
     and valour which you have displayed in Europe, in support of the
     common cause between the United States and His Majesty, and   (p. 110)
     He has also informed you of the distinguished proofs He is
     disposed to give you thereof. Persuaded that the United States
     will give their consent that you should receive the cross of the
     institution of Military Merit, I send you, in the packet
     addressed to M. de la Luzerne, the one designed for you. You will
     be pleased to deliver him this packet, and he will confer on you
     this distinction by a chevalier of the institution, agreeably to
     His Majesty's orders. But at any rate that you should have a
     proof of the King's approbation and munificence, His Majesty has
     ordered a gold headed sword to be made for you, which will be
     immediately delivered to you, and He has the greatest confidence
     in the use you will make of it for His glory and that of the
     United States.

                         I have the honour, etc.,
                                            DE SARTINE.

                              _____

_Resolution of Congress Authorizing Captain Jones to Accept from the
King of France the Cross of Military Merit._

IN CONGRESS.

     The Committee to whom was referred the letter of May 30, 1780,
     from M. de Sartine, delivered in a report, whereupon

     _Resolved_, That the Congress entertain a high sense of the
     distinguished bravery and military conduct of John Paul Jones,
     Esq., captain in the navy of the United States, and particularly
     in his victory over the British frigate Serapis on the coast of
     England, which was attended with circumstances so brilliant as to
     excite general applause and admiration.

     That the Minister Plenipotentiary of these United States at the
     Court of Versailles, communicate to His Most Christian Majesty
     the high satisfaction Congress have received from the conduct and
     gallant behaviour of Captain John Paul Jones, which have merited
     the attention and approbation of His Most Christian Majesty, and
     that His Majesty's offer of adorning Captain Jones with a Cross
     of Military Merit is highly acceptable to Congress.

     February 27, 1781.

                              _____

_The United States to the King of France._

IN CONGRESS, October 19, 1787.

     The Secretary for Foreign Affairs reports that agreeably to the
     order of the 16th, he hath prepared the following letter to His
     Most Christian Majesty, which having been duly signed and
     countersigned, was delivered to the Chevalier John Paul Jones.

     GREAT AND BELOVED FRIEND:

     We, the United States in Congress assembled, in consideration of
     the distinguished marks of approbation with which Your Majesty
     has been pleased to honour the Chevalier John Paul Jones, as  (p. 111)
     well as from a sense of his merit, have unanimously directed
     a medal of gold to be struck and presented to him, in
     commemoration of his valour and brilliant services, while
     commanding a squadron of French and American ships under our flag
     and commission, off the coast of Great Britain, in the late war.

     As it is his earnest desire to acquire greater knowledge in his
     profession, we cannot forbear requesting of Your Majesty to
     permit him to embark in your fleets of evolution, where only it
     will be probably in his power to acquire that degree of knowledge
     which may hereafter render him more extensively useful.

     Permit us to repeat to Your Majesty our sincere assurances that
     the various and important benefits for which we are indebted to
     your friendship will never cease to interest us in whatever may
     concern the happiness of Your Majesty, your family, and people.

     We pray God to keep you, our great and beloved friend, under his
     holy protection.

     Done at the city of New York, the nineteenth day of October, in
     the year of our Lord 1787, and of our sovereignty and
     independence the 12th.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to General Washington._

     To General WASHINGTON.             Paris, May 2, 1788.

     Dear Sir: The war between the Russians and Turks has made an
     opening for Commodore Paul Jones. The Empress has invited him
     into her service. She insures to him the rank of a Rear Admiral
     and will give him a separate command, and it is understood that
     he is never to be commanded. I think she means to oppose him to
     the Captain Pasha on the Black Sea. He is, by this time, probably
     at St. Petersburg. The circumstances did not permit his awaiting
     the permission of Congress, because the season was close at hand
     for opening the campaign. But he has made it a condition that he
     shall be free at all times to return to the orders of Congress,
     whenever they shall please to call for him; and also that he
     shall not, in any case, be expected to bear arms against France.
     I believe Congress had it in contemplation to give him the grade
     of Admiral from the date of his taking the Serapis. Such a
     measure now would greatly gratify him, second the efforts of
     fortune in his favour and better the opportunities of improving
     him for our service, whenever the moment shall come in which we
     may want him.

     I have the honour to be Your Excellency's most obedient and most
     humble servant,
                                        Th: JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_Admiral John Paul Jones to Thomas Jefferson._                     (p. 112)

     His Excellency                    On board the Wladimir,
         Thomas JEFFERSON, Esq.            Before Oczacoff,
                                    August 20--September 9, 1788.

     Sir: Some of my friends in America did me the honour to ask for
     my bust. I enclose the names of eight gentlemen, to each of whom
     I promised to send one. You will oblige me by desiring Mr. Houdon
     to have them prepared and packed up, two and two; and if Mr.
     Short, to whom I present my respects, will take the trouble to
     forward them by good opportunities, via Havre de Grace, writing,
     at the same time, a few words to each of these gentlemen, I shall
     esteem it a particular favour.

     Before I left Copenhagen, I wrote to Mr. Amoureux, merchant at
     L'Orient, to dispose of some articles of mine in his hands, and
     remit you the amount. I hope he has done it, and that his
     remittance may be sufficient to pay Mr. Houdon, and the expense
     of striking the medal with which I am honoured by the United
     States. But lest this should not turn out as I expect, I have
     directed Dr. Bancroft to pay any draft of yours on him for my
     account, as far as four or five thousand livres. I shall want
     four gold medals as soon as the dies are finished. I must present
     one to the United States, another to the King of France, and I
     cannot do less than offer one to the Empress. As you will keep
     the dies for me, it is my intention to have some more gold medals
     struck; therefore I beg you, in the meantime, not to permit the
     striking of a single silver or copper medal.

     I send enclosed an extract from my journal on my expedition from
     France to Holland, in the year 1779, for the information of the
     Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. I trust, at the same
     time, more to your judgment than to theirs. There is a medallist
     who executed three medals for me in wax, one of them is the
     battle between the Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis. The position
     of the two ships is not much amiss; but the necessary figures are
     much too near the principal objects; and he has placed them to
     windward, instead of being as they really were, to leeward of the
     Bonhomme Richard and Serapis. I do not at this moment recollect
     the medallist's name, but he lives on the 3d or 4th stage, at a
     marble cutter's almost opposite, but a little higher than your
     former house, Cul-de-sac Rue Taitbout, and may be easily found.
     It would be of use to see the medal he has made, although it is
     by no means to be copied. I have not comprehended, in the extract
     of my journal, the extreme difficulties I met with in Holland,
     nor my departure from the Texel in the Alliance, when I was
     forced out by the Vice Admiral Rhynst, in the face of the enemy's
     fleet. The critical situation I was in, in Holland, needs no
     explanation, and I shall not say how much the honour of the
     American flag depended on my conduct, or how much it affected all
     the belligerent powers. I shall only say it was a principal cause
     of the resentment of England against Holland, and the war that
     ensued. It is for you and the Academy to determine whether that
     part of my services ought to be the subject of one side of the
     medal.

     I am, with perfect esteem and attachment, Your Excellency's most
     obedient humble servant,
                                        J. P. JONES.



No. 18.                                                            (p. 113)
PLATES XVIII and XIX.


_April 30, 1789--March 4, 1797._

     George Washington, President, 1792.

PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON.

[_First President of the United States of America._]

General Washington in uniform and bareheaded, standing, facing the
left, has just given the calumet of peace to an Indian chief, who is
smoking it. The Indian, standing, facing the right, has a large medal
suspended from around his neck; on the left, a pine tree; at its foot,
a tomahawk; in the background, a farmer ploughing. Exergue: GEORGE
WASHINGTON PRESIDENT. 1792.

The arms and crest of the United States of America. Arms: Paleways of
thirteen pieces, argent and gules, a chief, azure. The escutcheon on
the breast of the American eagle, displayed proper, holding in his
dexter talon an olive branch, and in his sinister a bundle of thirteen
arrows,[62] all proper, and in his beak a scroll inscribed with this
motto, E PLURIBUS UNUM (_One out of many_). Crest: Over the head of
the eagle, which appears above the escutcheon, a glory, or, breaking
through a cloud, proper, and surrounding thirteen stars forming a
constellation, argent, on an azure field.[63]

                   [Footnote 62: The thirteen original States.]

                   [Footnote 63: See INTRODUCTION, page xxvi.]

It was then customary with the Indians, when they made a treaty of
peace, to simulate the burying of the tomahawk. In a speech of Red
Jacket's to the Honorable Samuel Dexter, secretary of War, delivered
at Philadelphia, February 11, 1802, is the following passage:
"Brother, you offered to join with us in tearing up the largest pine
tree in our forests, and under it to bury the tomahawk. We         (p. 114)
gladly join with you, brother, in this work, and let us heap rocks and
stones on the root of this tree, that the tomahawk may never again be
found."

The engraving is a representation of the medal generally known as the
Red Jacket medal, from its having been given by President Washington
to the celebrated Seneca orator and chief Sa-go-ya-wat-ha (_He keeps
them awake_), better known as Red Jacket, on the occasion of his visit
to Philadelphia in March and April, 1792. On the death of this great
chief of the Six Nations of the State of New York (Mohawks, Oneidas,
Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras), in 1830, it passed into
the hands of his nephew the Seneca chief So-sa-wa (_Corpulent man_),
James Johnson. It now belongs to James Johnson's grand-nephew,
Do-ne-ho-gà-wa (_Open door_), General Ely S. Parker, who served during
the Civil War on the staff of General U.S. Grant. He was afterward for
some time commissioner of Indian Affairs, and is now living in the
city of New York. It is owing to the politeness of General Parker that
I am able to give an engraving of this, the only well-authenticated
Washington Indian peace medal, although similar ones were given during
his administration to different Indian chiefs, as will be seen from
the following extract from a message addressed by General Knox, then
secretary of War, to the Choctaw nation, and dated Philadelphia,
February, 17, 1792: "Brothers, your father, General Washington, sends
you two great silver medals--you will point out the two great chiefs
who are to receive these marks of distinction."

General Parker says that this medal was made by Dr. Rittenhouse, who
was director of the United States Mint at Philadelphia from 1792 till
1795, that these medals were of three sizes from President Jefferson
to President Fillmore's administration, and that they were given to
Indian chiefs according to their rank. Since then they have been made
of two sizes only.



No. 19.                                                            (p. 115)
PLATE XX.


_April 30, 1790._

     To Peace and Commerce. [Rx]. The United States of America.

THE DIPLOMATIC MEDAL.

TO PEACE AND COMMERCE. To the left, America, personified as an Indian
queen, seated, facing the right, and holding in her left hand the
cornucopia of abundance (_Peace_), welcomes Mercury (_Commerce_) to
her shores, and with her right calls his attention to her products,
packed ready for transportation. In the background, to the right, the
sea, and a ship under full sail. Exergue: IV JUL. MDCCLXXVI. (_4
Julii, 1776: July 4, 1776_).

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The arms and crest of the United States
of America. Arms: Paleways of thirteen pieces, argent and gules, a
chief, azure. The escutcheon on the breast of the American eagle,
displayed proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive branch, and in
his sinister a bundle of thirteen arrows,[64] all proper, and in his
beak a scroll inscribed with this motto, E PLURIBUS UNUM (_One out of
many_). Crest: Over the head of the eagle, which appears above the
escutcheon: a glory, or, breaking through a cloud, proper, and
surrounding thirteen stars forming a constellation, argent, on an
azure field.[65]

                   [Footnote 64: The thirteen original States.]

                   [Footnote 65: See INTRODUCTION, pages x, xxix and
                   xxx.]

Only two of these Diplomatic medals have thus far been awarded, one to
the Marquis de la Luzerne and the other to the Count de Moustier.


CÉSAR ANNE DE LA LUZERNE was born in Paris in 1741. He was         (p. 116)
graduated at the Chevau-légers school, became aide-de-camp to the Duke
de Broglie; was appointed major-general of cavalry in 1762; and
colonel of the French grenadiers in 1776. Quitting the army, he
entered the diplomatic service, and was envoy to the court of
Maximilian Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, in 1766, and minister to the
United States in 1779-1784. He contracted, under his own
responsibility, a loan to relieve the distress of the American army in
1780; received from Harvard College the degree of LL.D. in 1781, and
the same from Dartmouth College in 1782. He was appointed ambassador
to England in January, 1788. Thomas Jefferson, then secretary of
State, wrote to him, April 30, 1790, by order of President Washington,
conveying to him an express acknowledgment of his services, and of the
high appreciation of them by the government and people of America,
informing him also that, by order of the President of the United
States, a medal and a chain of gold would be prepared and delivered to
him by the chargé d'affaires of the United States at the court of
France. The Marquis de la Luzerne died in London, September 14, 1791,
before the medal was finished.


ÉLÉONORE FRANÇOIS ÉLIE, COUNT, AFTERWARD MARQUIS, DE MOUSTIER, was
born in Paris, March 15, 1751. He entered the army when but fourteen
years of age, and at sixteen was sub-lieutenant in the Royal Navarre
cavalry; captain in the Dauphin dragoons 1771; mestre-de-camp, 1777,
and soon after maréchal-de-camp; and lieutenant-general, 1816.
Entering the diplomatic service in 1771, he first served as
gentilhomme d'ambassade in Lisbon, then as conseiller d'ambassade in
London, 1772; was chargé d'affaires at Naples, and in 1777, minister
to the court of Treves, He was sent on a special mission to England in
1783, and as minister to the United States in 1787. In 1790 he
declined the mission to the court of St. James, and went as ambassador
to Berlin. Thomas Jefferson, then secretary of State, informed him,
March 2, 1791, by order of President Washington, that a medal and a
chain of gold would be presented to him by Mr. Short, in the name of
the United States of America. In September, 1791, he declined the
ministry of Foreign Affairs, emigrated in 1792, and came back to
France with Louis XVIII. in 1814. The Marquis de Moustier died at
Bailli, near Versailles, February 1, 1816.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 117)

_John Adams to the President of Congress._

     To His Excellency
        John JAY,                       Braintree, August 3, 1779.
             President of Congress.

     Sir: The Chevalier de la Luzerne is a Knight of the Order of St.
     John of Jerusalem, of an ancient and noble family, connected by
     blood with many characters of principal name in the kingdom; a
     grandson of the celebrated Chancellor de la Moignon; a nephew of
     Monsieur Malesherbes, perhaps still more famous as first
     President of the Court of Aids, and as Minister of State, a
     brother of the Comte de la Luzerne, and of the Bishop of Langres,
     one of the three Dukes and Peers who had the honour to assist in
     the consecration of the King; a near relative of the Marshal de
     Broglie, and the Comte his brother, and of many other important
     personages in that country; nor is his personal character less
     respectable than his connections. As he is possessed of much
     useful information of all kinds, and particularly of the
     political system of Europe, obtained in his late Embassy in
     Bavaria; and of the justest sentiments of the mutual interests of
     his country and ours, and of the utility to both of that alliance
     which so happily unites them, and at the same time divested of
     all personal and party attachments and aversions, Congress and
     their constituents, I flatter myself, will have much satisfaction
     in his negotiations, as well as in those of the Secretary to the
     Embassy, Monsieur Marbois, who was also Secretary to the Embassy
     in Bavaria, and is a Counsellor of the Parliament of Metz, a
     gentleman whose abilities, application and disposition cannot
     fail to make him useful in this momentous office he sustains.

          I have the honour to be with great respect, Sir,
                     Your most obedient and most humble servant,
                                                        John ADAMS.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to William Short._

     To
       William SHORT, Esquire,          New York, April 30th, 1790.
           Chargé d'Affaires of the United States of America,
                 Paris.

     Dear Sir: It has become necessary to determine on a present
     proper to be given to diplomatic characters on their taking leave
     of us; and it is concluded that a medal and chain of gold will be
     the most convenient. I am therefore to ask the favour of you to
     order the dies to be engraved with all the despatch practicable.
     The medal must be of 30-lines diameter, with a loop on the edge
     to receive the chain. On one side must be the arms of the United
     States, of which I send you a written description, and        (p. 118)
     several impressions in wax, to render that more intelligible;
     round them as a legend must be "The United States of America."
     The device on the other side we do not decide on; one suggestion
     has been a Columbia (a fine female figure) delivering the emblems
     of Peace and Commerce to a Mercury, with the legend "Peace and
     Commerce" circumscribed, and the date of our Republic, to-wit: IV
     Jul. MDCCLXXVI, subscribed as an Exerguum; but having little
     confidence in our own ideas in an art not familiar here, they are
     only suggested to you, to be altered, or altogether postponed to
     such better device as you may approve on consulting with those
     who are in the habit and study of medals. Duvivier and Dupré seem
     to be the best workmen, perhaps the last is the best of the two.

          I am with great and sincere esteem,
                                      Thomas JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to the Marquis de la Luzerne._

     To His Excellency
        THE MARQUIS DE LA LUZERNE.      New York, April 30th, 1790.

     Sir: When in the course of your Legation to the United States
     your affairs rendered it necessary that you should absent
     yourself a while from that station, we flattered ourselves with
     the hopes that that absence was not final. It turned out in
     events that the interests of your Sovereign called for your
     talents, and the exercise of your functions in another quarter.
     You were pleased to announce this to the former Congress through
     their Secretary for Foreign Affairs, at a Time when that body was
     closing its Administration, in order to hand it over to a
     Government, then preparing on a different model. This Government
     is now formed, organized and in action, and it considers among
     its earliest duties and assuredly among its most cordial, to
     testify to you the Regret which the People and Government of the
     United States felt at your Removal from among them; a very
     general and sincere regret, and tempered only by the consolation
     of your personal advancement which accompanied it. You will
     receive, Sir, by order of the President of the United States, as
     soon as it can be prepared, a Medal and chain of gold, of which
     he desires your acceptance, in token of their Esteem and of the
     sensibility with which they will ever recall your Legation to
     their memory.

     But as this compliment may hereafter be rendered to other
     missions, from which yours was distinguished by eminent
     circumstances, the President of the United States wishes to pay
     you the distinguished tribute of an express acknowledgment of
     your services, and our sense of them. You came to us, Sir,
     through all the perils which encompassed us on all sides. You
     found us struggling and suffering under difficulties as singular
     and trying as our situation was new and unprecedented. Your
     magnanimous nation had taken side with us in the conflict and
     yourself become the center of our common councils, the link which
     connected our common operations.

     In that position you laboured without ceasing, till all labours
     were crowned with glory to your nation, Freedom to ours, and
     Benefit to both. During the whole we had constant evidence    (p. 119)
     of your Zeal, your abilities, and your good Faith; and we desire
     to convey this Testimony of it home to your own Breast and to that
     of your Sovereign, our best and greatest Friend, and this I do,
     Sir, in the name and by the express Instruction of the President
     of the United States.

     I feel how flattering it is to me, Sir, to be the organ of the
     public sense on this occasion, and to be justified by that office
     in adding to theirs, the homage of those sentiments of respect
     and esteem with which I have the honour to be,

         Your Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant,
                                                   Thomas JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_William Short to Thomas Jefferson._

     To the Honourable                  Paris, June the 14th, 1790.
        Thomas JEFFERSON,
           Secretary of State.

     Dear Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     I received three days ago the first letters which have come to my
     hands from you since your arrival in New York. That of the latest
     date was April 30th. I communicated to Mr. de Montmorin[66] also
     the copy of the letter to Mr. de la Luzerne, which he desired I
     should allow him to retain.

     I shall employ Dupré to execute the medal you mention, after
     having consulted with the Abbé Barthélémi, respecting those parts
     which are left undecided, and no time shall be lost in forwarding
     the business.
       -       -       -       -       -
                                        Wm. SHORT.

                   [Footnote 66: Minister of Foreign Affairs of Louis
                   XVI.]

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to William Short._

     To
       William SHORT, Esquire,          New York, July 26th, 1790.
          Chargé d'Affaires of the United States of America,
                 Paris.

     Dear Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     As I presume the die will be finished by the time you receive
     this, I am to desire you will have a medal of gold struck for the
     Marquis de la Luzerne, and have put to it a chain of 365 links,
     each link containing gold of the value of two dollars and a half,
     or 13 livres 10 sous, the links to be of plain wire, so that
     their workmanship may cost as it were nothing. The whole will
     make a present of a little more than a thousand dollars,
     including the medal and chain. As soon as done, be pleased
     to forward them by a safe hand to the Marquis de la Luzerne,  (p. 120)
     in the name of the President of the United States, informing him
     that it is the one spoken of in my letter to him of April 30th,
     1790. Say nothing to anybody of the value of the present, because
     that will not always be the same in all cases. Be so good as to
     have a second medal of gold struck in the same die, and to send
     this second, together with the dies, to Philadelphia by the first
     safe person who shall be passing. No chain to be sent with it.

            I am with great and sincere esteem,
                                        Th: JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to the Count de Moustier._

     To
       THE COUNT DE MOUSTIER.           Philadelphia, March 2d, 1791.

     Sir: I have received your favour of November 6th, wherein you
     inform me that the King has thought proper, by a new mission to
     the Court of Berlin, to put an end to your functions as his
     Minister Plenipotentiary with the United States.

     The President, in a letter to the King, has expressed his sense
     of your merit, and his entire approbation of your conduct while
     here, and has charged me to convey to yourself the same
     sentiments on his part.

     Had you returned to your station with us, you would have received
     new and continued marks of the esteem inspired by the general
     worth of your character, as well as by the particular
     dispositions you manifested towards this country.

     Amidst the regrets excited by so early a loss of you, it will be
     a consolation, if your new situation shall contribute to advance
     your own happiness.

     As a testimony of these sentiments, we ask the acceptance of a
     medal and chain of gold, with which Mr. Short is instructed to
     present you on the part of the United States.

     To this general tribute, permit me to add my own, with sincere
     wishes for your constant happiness, and assurances of the respect
     and esteem with which
               I have the honour to be, Sir,
                      Your most obedient and most humble servant,
                                        Th: JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_Thomas Jefferson to William Short._

     To
       William SHORT, Esquire.          Philadelphia, March 8th, 1791.

     Dear Sir: You are directed to have a medal struck from the
     diplomatic die, formerly ordered, and to present it with a chain
     of gold to the Count de Moustier, who is notified that this will
     be done by you. I formerly informed you that we proposed to   (p. 121)
     vary the worth of the present by varying the size of the links of
     the chain, which are fixed at 365 in number. Let each in the
     present instance contain six livres worth of gold, and let it be
     made of plain wire, so that the value may be in the metal and not
     at all in the workmanship. I shall hope to receive the dies
     themselves when a safe conveyance presents itself.
                     I am, with great esteem,
                                        Th: JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_William Short to Thomas Jefferson._

     To the Honourable
       Thomas JEFFERSON,                Paris, June 6th, 1791.
          Secretary of State.

     Dear Sir: The medal which you desire to be made for Mr. de
     Moustier shall be executed as soon as I can have the "coins"
     [dies] finished. You will no doubt be much astonished at this
     delay, but the engraver has been so devoted to the affair of
     their money, which is contending for by all the artists, that it
     has been impossible to get him to finish the work he had
     undertaken for the United States, and which was nearly completed
     last fall. This delay cannot last much longer, and he assures me
     he will shorten it as much as possible. He is to write a letter
     that I may send it to Mr. de la Luzerne and show him that the
     delay does not proceed from me. I don't know by what opportunity
     to send you the dies; there is no other than by the public
     carriages to Havre, and at present they would be stopped and
     examined by several of the municipalities, who would take them,
     from their weight, to be specie to be exported, which they do not
     allow, notwithstanding the decrees of the assembly....

                                        Wm. SHORT.

                              _____

_William Short to Thomas Jefferson._

     To the Honourable
       Thomas JEFFERSON,                Paris, September 25th, 1791.
          Secretary of State.

     Dear Sir: You will have heard of the death of Mr. de la Luzerne
     in England. The dies for the medal destined for him have been
     retarded in a most unexpected manner on account of the engraver
     being employed here in the new coinage. Previous to the death of
     Mr. de la Luzerne, I explained to him the cause of this delay and
     sent him a letter from the engraver on the subject, which he
     answered by a desire that the national work should be first
     performed. The dies were since completed, but unfortunately one
     of them failed, as often happens, in the hardening.

     The engraver is now employed in repairing this evil and says it
     will be done in two or three weeks.

     I suppose it so certain that this medal should be given to    (p. 122)
     Mr. de la Luzerne's representative, that as soon as it is
     ready I shall mention the subject to Mr. de Montmorin and follow
     his advice respecting it.

                Dear Sir, Yours affectionately,
                                               Wm. SHORT.

                              _____

_William Short to M. Dupré._

     Monsieur:[67]

     Comme je ne pense pas que vous ignoriez que la médaille pour
     l'Amérique, dont le coin a péri à l'épreuve du balancier, est
     promise depuis longtemps à des personnes d'un caractère distingué
     sans doute vous ne serez pas surpris de l'intérêt que je prends à
     ce que ni la délicatesse des donateurs ni l'empressement des
     légataires soient compromis.

     Or je ne vois, Monsieur, qu'un seul moyen de l'éviter, c'est de
     remettre aux donateurs, pour le moment, la seule épreuve que le
     coin a permis et qui est entre vos mains; ce moyen, en écartant
     tout soupçon de négligence de ma part, évite aussi aux États-Unis
     le désagrément de paraître avoir oublié ses promesses.

     Veuillez donc bien, Monsieur, vous prêter à cet arrangement, dont
     les personnes intéressées ne manqueront pas certainement de vous
     tenir compte, vos droits sur la fabrication n'étant, d'ailleurs,
     que retardés, puisque le coin doit être refait.

     Je vous prie donc, Monsieur, de remettre la médaille au porteur,
     afin que je puisse la présenter pour remédier, en quelque sorte,
     à l'accident, et dans le cas ou vous penseriez devoir la retenir,
     veuillez bien m'en informer par écrit afin que je puisse me
     justifier de toute autre manière vis-à-vis les personnes
     intéressées.

     Je suis très-parfaitement, Monsieur, etc.

                   [Footnote 67: The original of this letter, without
                   date or signature, which is in French, and which
                   was communicated to me in Paris by M. Narcisse
                   Dupré, is undoubtedly in the handwriting of Mr.
                   William Short.]

[Translation.]

_William Short to M. Dupré._

     Sir: As I do not suppose that you are ignorant that the medal for
     America, of which the die was broken in the coining press, has
     been for a long time promised to distinguished persons, you will
     no doubt not be surprised at the interest which I take that
     neither the delicacy of the donors nor the desire of the legatees
     should be compromised.

     Now, Sir, I see only one means of avoiding this, that is to give
     to the donors, for the time being, the only proof which the die
     has permitted and which is in your hands; this, while removing
     all suspicion of negligence on my part, prevents also the United
     States from occupying the disagreeable position of appearing to
     have forgotten its promises.

     Be good enough therefore, Sir, to lend yourself to this       (p. 123)
     arrangement, which the interested persons will most certainly not
     fail to acknowledge; your rights upon the making being besides
     only retarded, since a new die must be made.

     I beg you therefore, Sir, to hand the medal to the bearer, so
     that I may present it to remedy, in some degree, the accident;
     and in case you think you ought to retain it, be kind enough to
     inform me thereof in writing, so that I may justify myself in
     every way to the interested parties.

     I am, very truly, Sir, etc.

                              _____

_M. de Moustier to M. Dupré._

     À
      Monsieur DUPRÉ,
         Graveur, place Dauphine, 10.

     J'ai eû d'autant plus de regret, Monsieur, du retard qu'a éprouvé
     l'exécution de la médaille qui m'a été destinée par le
     gouvernement des États-Unis, que j'ai appris qu'il était dû à des
     causes qui ont dû vous contrarier. J'espère qu'une troisième
     opération aura un succès complet. Je le désire plus vivement
     depuis que j'ai vu par l'empreinte en métal qui est chez Mr.
     Short, combien cette médaille est agréable à produire par un
     François en pays étranger qui aime à y faire valoir ses
     compatriotes. Lorsqu'elle sera achevée, je vous serai fort obligé
     de vouloir bien me la remettre, puisque Mr. Short doit
     s'absenter.

     J'ai l'honneur d'être très-parfaitement, Monsieur, votre
     très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur,
                                             F. DE MOUSTIER.

[Translation.]

     To
       M. DUPRÉ,
          Engraver, Place Dauphine, 10.

     I have had the more regret, Sir, at the delay which has happened
     to the execution of the medal destined for me by the Government
     of the United States, since I have learned that it was due to
     causes which have been annoying to you. I hope that a third trial
     will prove a complete success. I desire it the more ardently
     since I have seen by the impression in metal at Mr. Short's how
     gratifying its exhibition will be for a Frenchman abroad who
     loves to do honor to his compatriots. When it shall be finished I
     will be much obliged to you if you will please have it sent to
     me, since Mr. Short is about to leave.

     I have the honor to be very truly, Sir, your most humble and very
     obedient servant,
                      F. DE MOUSTIER.

                              _____

_William Short to Thomas Jefferson._                               (p. 124)

     To the Honourable
        Thomas JEFFERSON,               Paris, February 8th, 1792.
            Secretary of State.

     Dear Sir: The diplomatic medals ordered so long ago and delayed
     so unexpectedly for the reasons already given to you have been at
     length completed and delivered with their chains, that for Mr. de
     la Luzerne to Mr. de Montmorin, and that for Mr. de Moustier to
     himself.

     I inclose you copies of their prices--the originals with the
     receipts remain in my hands for your directions--they were paid
     for, together with 2,400 livres, to the engraver Dupré, by a
     draft on the bankers at Amsterdam, the whole amounting, as you
     will see, to 14,570 livres, the exchange, 32-1/2, made 3,946.1.
     The nominal price of the chains was more than 6 livres and 13
     livres 10--gold having risen on account of the assignats, but the
     exchange having lowered in a greater proportion, the price is
     less in florins than it would otherwise have been. The gold
     employed in the chains was of 20 karats, the usual alloy, and
     weighed the first 4m. 5o. 4-1/2gr. 31d., and the second 1m. 6o.
     4gr. The gold of the medals was finer, according to usage. I had
     only two golden medals struck. The six of bronze will await your
     orders.

                  Your obedient servant,
                                        Wm. SHORT.

                              _____

_M. Lagrange to William Short._

     À Monsieur SHORT:                   Paris ce 31 Janvier 1792.

     J'ai l'honneur de vous prévenir que les deux médailles et les
     étuis sont prêts. Je vous serais obligé de les faire retirer à la
     monnoye des médailles ainsi que les six médailles de bronze.

     Les 2 médailles d'or pèsent 2m. 4on. 1gr. à 175_l._ l'once 3434_l._
       2 bélières en or à 6_l._ chaque                            12
       6 médailles de bronze à 7_l._ chaque                       42
       2 étuis de galuchet[68]                                   142
                                                                ----
                              Total                             3630

     J'ai l'honneur d'être Monsieur votre très humble et très
     obéissant serviteur,
                         LAGRANGE,
                           Caissier de la Monnoye des Médailles.

                   [Footnote 68: Galuchet, prepared shark-skins.]

                              _____

Mémoire de deux grandes chaines d'or fournies à Monsieur Short par
Auguste, orfèvre du Roi.

     _Petite Chaine._ À l'époque où l'or était à 110_l._ l'once,   (p. 125)
     chaque maillon de cette chaine devait coûter 6_l._, maintenant
     que l'or vaut 133_l._ 6-8. Ce qui est plus du 6ème en sus de
     son ancien prix, celui de chaque chainon revient à 7_l._, ce
     qui élève le total des

       365 chainons à la somme de                           2555_l._
       L'anneau et l'S de cette chaine valeur                 65
                                                            ----
                                                                2620

     _Grande Chaine._ Chaque maillon de la grande chaine qui par la
     même raison ne devait coûter que 13_l._ 10 revient au prix de
     16_l._, ce qui fait pour le total des

       365 chainons à la somme de                           5840_l._
       Pour l'anneau et l'S de cette chaine valeur            80
                                                            ----
                                                                5920
                                                                ----
                              Total des deux chaines            8540_l._

[Translation.]

_M. Lagrange to William Short._

     To Mr. SHORT.                      Paris, January 31, 1792.

     I have the honor to advise you that the two medals and the cases
     are ready. I would be obliged to you to have them taken from the
     Mint of Medals, as also the six medals in bronze.

     The two gold medals weigh 2m. 4oz. 1gr.[69]
       At 175 livres[70] the ounce                          3,434 livres
       2 loop-rings in gold at 6 livres each                   12
       6 medals in bronze at 7 livres each                     42
       2 galuchet cases                                       142
                                                            -----
                              Total                         3,630

     I have the honor to be, Sir, your very humble and very obedient
     servant,
                                   LAGRANGE,
                                        Cashier of the Mint of Medals.

                   [Footnote 69: Former weights of France: 1 livre = 2
                   marcs = 16 ounces = 128 gros = 384 deniers = 9,216
                   grains.]

                   [Footnote 70: Former moneys of France: 1 livre = 20
                   sous = 240 deniers or 48 liards. 1 livre = 0.9876
                   francs.]

                              _____

Account of the two large gold chains furnished to Mr. Short by
Auguste, goldsmith to the king.

     _Small Chain._ At the time when gold was worth 110 livres the
     ounce, each link of this chain was to cost 6 livres; now that
     gold is worth 133 livres, 6 sous, 8 deniers, which is more    (p. 126)
     than one-sixth above its former price, that of each link
     comes to 7 livres, which increases the total of the

       365 links to the sum of                             2,555_l._
       The ring and the S of this chain, cash                 65_l._
                                                           -----
                                                                2,620_l._

     _Large Chain._ Each link of the large chain, which for the same
     reason was to cost only 13 livres, 10 sous, comes to 16 livres,
     which makes for the total of

       365 links the sum of                                5,840_l._
       For the ring and the S of this chain, cash             80_l._
                                                           -----
                                                                5,920_l._
                                                                -----
                              Total for both chains             8,540_l._



No. 20.                                                            (p. 127)
PLATE XXI.


_March 4, 1797--March 4, 1801._

     John Adams President of the U.S. A.D. 1797. [Rx]. Peace and
     friendship.

PRESIDENT JOHN ADAMS.

[_Second President of the United States of America._]

JOHN ADAMS PRESIDENT OF THE U. S. (_United States_) A. D. (_Anno
Domini: The year of our Lord_) 1797. Bust of President John Adams,
facing the right.

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes, and buttons with the American eagle
on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and a
tomahawk crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.


JOHN ADAMS was born at Braintree, now Quincy, Massachusetts, October
19, 1735. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1755, studied law, and
settled in Boston in 1768; he was a delegate to Congress, 1774-1778;
serving on the Boards of Naval and of Foreign Affairs, and also on the
Board of War; commissioner to France, 1778; to Holland, 1780; minister
to Holland, 1782; to England, 1785-1788; vice-president of the United
States, 1789-1793; President of the United States, 1797-1801. He
retired to Quincy in 1801, and died there, July 4, 1826, on the
fiftieth anniversary of the Independence of the United States, and on
the same day with Thomas Jefferson.



No. 21.                                                            (p. 128)
PLATE XXII.


_February 2, 1800._

     Patriæ. patres. filio. digno. Thomas Truxtun. [Rx]. United State
     frigate Constellation, of 38 guns, &c.

CAPTAIN THOMAS TRUXTUN.

[_Action with the Vengeance._]

PATRIÆ. PATRES. FILIO. DIGNO. THOMAS TRUXTUN. (_The fathers of the
country to their worthy son, Thomas Truxtun._) Bust of Captain
Truxtun, in uniform, facing the left.

UNITED STATES FRIGATE CONSTELLATION OF 38 GUNS PURSUES ATTACKS AND
VANQUISHES THE FRENCH SHIP LA VENGEANCE OF 54 GUNS 1 FEBY.
(_February_) 1800. Naval action between the United States frigate
Constellation, of thirty-eight guns, Captain Truxtun, and the French
frigate La Vengeance, of fifty-four guns, Captain Pitot. The
Constellation has lost her main mast. Exergue: BY VOTE OF CONGRESS, TO
THOMAS TRUXTUN 29 MAR. (_March_) 1800.[71]

                   [Footnote 71: See INTRODUCTION, pages xxiii and
                   xxxi.]

The engraving is an exact representation of the original gold medal,
at present the property of Thomas Truxtun Houston, jr., of Washington,
the great-grandson, in the female line, of Commodore Truxtun.


THOMAS TRUXTON was born in Jamaica, Long Island, New York, February
15, 1755. He served as lieutenant and captain of privateers during the
War of Independence. In 1782, while engaged in carrying Mr. Thomas
Barclay, United States consul-general, to France, he beat off a    (p. 129)
British frigate of thirty-two guns. After the war he commanded East
Indiamen, but in 1794, on the creation of the American Navy, he
received a commission as captain, and was appointed to the
Constellation, of thirty-eight guns. In 1799, he captured
l'Insurgente, a French frigate of thirty-six guns, Captain Barreault.
His celebrated engagement with La Vengeance, of fifty-four guns,
Captain Pitot, took place February 2, 1800, and for this exploit
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold medal. He afterward
commanded the President, of forty-four guns. In 1802, Mr. Smith,
secretary of the Navy under President Jefferson, having interpreted as
a resignation Truxtun's refusal to accept the command of the
Mediterranean squadron, unless a flag captain was given him, the
country was deprived of this gallant officer's services. He retired to
New Jersey, and afterward removed to Philadelphia, where he was
high-sheriff of the city and county from 1816 to 1819, and where he
died, May 5, 1822.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting a Medal to Captain Truxtun, etc._

     _Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the
     United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to present to Captain
     Thomas Truxtun a golden medal, emblematical of the late action
     between the United States frigate Constellation, of thirty-eight
     guns, and the French ship of war La Vengeance, of fifty-four, in
     testimony of the high sense entertained by Congress of his
     gallantry and good conduct in the above engagement, wherein an
     example was exhibited by the Captain, officers, sailors, and
     marines, honourable to the American name, and instructive to its
     rising navy.

     _Resolved_: That the conduct of James Jarvis, a midshipman in
     said frigate, who gloriously preferred certain death to an
     abandonment of his post, is deserving of the highest praise, and
     that the loss of so promising an officer is a subject of national
     regret.

     Approved March 29, 1800.

                              _____

_Captain Thomas Truxtun to the Secretary of the Navy._             (p. 130)

     To
       Benjamin STODDART, Esq.,         United States ship Constellation,
          Secretary of the Navy.          At sea, February 3, 1800.

     Sir: On the 30th ult. I left St. Christopher's, with the
     Constellation, in excellent trim, and stood to windward in order
     to gain the station for myself before the road of Guadaloupe; and
     at half-past seven in the morning of the day following I
     discovered a sail to the south-east, to which I gave chase, and
     for the further particulars of that chase, and the action after
     it, I must beg to refer to the extracts from my journal,
     herewith, as being the best mode of exhibiting a just and candid
     account of all our transactions in the late business, which has
     ended in the almost entire dismantlement of the Constellation,
     though, I trust, to the high reputation of the American flag.

          I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                       Thos. TRUXTUN.

_Occurrences on board the United States ship Constellation, of
thirty-eight guns, under my command, February 1, 1800_:

     Throughout these twenty-four hours very unsettled weather; kept
     on our tacks, beating up under Guadaloupe, and at half-past seven
     in the morning, the road of Basseterre bearing east, five leagues
     distant, saw a sail in the south-east standing to the south-west,
     which, from her situation, I at first took for a large ship from
     Martinique, and hoisted English colours in giving chase, by way
     of inducement for her to come down and speak me, which would have
     saved us a long chase to leeward off my intended cruising ground;
     but finding she did not attempt to alter her course, I examined
     her more minutely, as we approached her, and discovered that she
     was a heavy French frigate, mounting at least fifty-four guns. I
     immediately gave orders for the yards to be slung with chains,
     top-sail sheets, &c., stoppered, and the ship cleared, and
     everything prepared for action, and hauled down the English
     colours. At noon the wind became light, and I observed the chase
     that we had before been gaining fast on held way with us, but I
     was determined to continue the pursuit, though the running to
     leeward, I was convinced, would be attended with many serious
     disadvantages, especially if the object of my wishes were not
     gratified.

     Passed two schooners standing to the northward, one of these
     showed American colours, and was a merchant vessel, and the other
     I supposed to be of the same description.

     February 2d, at one P.M., the wind being somewhat fresher than
     at the noon preceding, and an appearance of its continuance, our
     prospect of bringing the enemy to action began to brighten, as I
     perceived we were coming up with the chase fast, and every inch
     of canvas being set that could be of service, except the bog
     reefs which I kept in the topsails, in case of the chase, finding
     an escape from our thunder impracticable, should haul on a wind
     and give us fair battle. But this did not prove to be her
     commander's intention. I, however, got within hail of him at 8
     P.M., hoisted our ensign, and had the candles in the battle   (p. 131)
     lanterns all lighted, and the large trumpet in the lee-gangway
     ready to speak him, and to demand the surrender of his ship to
     the United States of America; but he, at that instant, commenced
     a fire from his stern and quarter guns, directed at our rigging
     and spars. No parley being then necessary, I sent my principal
     aid-de-camp, Mr. Vandyke, to the different officers commanding
     divisions on the main battery, to repeat strictly my orders,
     before given, not to throw away a single charge of powder, but to
     take good aim and fire directly into the hull of the enemy, and
     load principally with two round shot, and now and then with a
     round shot and stand of grape, &c., to encourage the men at their
     quarters; to cause or suffer no noise or confusion whatever; but
     to load and fire as fast as possible when it could be done with
     certain effect. These orders being given, in a few moments I
     gained a position on his weather quarter that enabled us to
     return, effectually, his salute; and thus a close and as sharp an
     action as ever was fought between two frigates, commenced and
     continued until within a few minutes of 1 A.M., when the enemy's
     fire was completely silenced, and he was again sheering off.

     It was at this moment that I considered him as my prize, and was
     trimming, in the best manner I could, my much shattered sails,
     when I found the mainmast was totally unsupported by rigging,
     every shroud being shot away, and some of them in several places,
     that even stoppers were useless, and could not be applied with
     effect. I then gave orders for the officers to send the men up
     the gun-deck to endeavour to secure it, in order that we might
     get alongside of the enemy again as soon as possible; but every
     effort was in vain, for the mainmast went over the side a few
     minutes after, and carried with it the top-men, among whom was an
     amiable young gentleman who commanded the maintop, Mr. James
     Jarvis, son of James Jarvis, Esq., of New York. It seems that
     this young gentleman was apprized of the mast going in a few
     minutes by an old seaman, but he had already so much of the
     principle of an officer ingrafted on his mind, not to leave his
     quarters on any account, that he told the men if the mast went
     they must go with it, which was the case, and only one of them
     was saved.

     I regret much his loss, as a promising young officer and amiable
     young man, as well as on account of a long intimacy that has
     subsisted between his father and myself; but have great
     satisfaction in finding that I have lost no other, and only two
     or three slightly wounded, out of thirty-nine killed and
     wounded--fourteen of the former, and twenty-five of the latter.

     As soon as the mainmast went every effort was made to clear the
     wreck from the ship as soon as possible, which was effected in
     about an hour. It being impossible to pursue the enemy, and as
     her security was the great object, I immediately bore away for
     Jamaica, for repairs, etc., finding it impossible to reach a
     friendly port in any of the islands to windward.

     I should be wanting in common justice were I to omit here to
     journalize the steady attention to order, and the great exertion
     and bravery of all my officers, seamen and marines, in this
     action, many of whom I had sufficiently tried before, on a
     similar occasion, and all their names are recorded in the
     muster-roll I sent to the Secretary of the Navy, dated the
     nineteenth of December last, signed by myself.

     All hands employed at repairing the damages sustained in the  (p. 132)
     action, so far as to get the ship into Jamaica as soon as
     possible.

                                        Thomas TRUXTUN.

                              _____

_President John Adams to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To
       B. STODDART,                     Philadelphia, March 31, 1800.
         Secretary of the Navy.

     The President of the United States requests the Secretary of the
     Navy to take immediate measures for carrying into execution the
     resolution of Congress of the 29th, for presenting to Captain
     Thomas Truxtun a gold medal, emblematical of the late action
     between the United States frigate Constellation, of thirty-eight
     guns, and the French ship-of-war La Vengeance, of fifty-four, in
     testimony of the high sense entertained by Congress of his
     gallantry and good conduct in the above engagement, wherein an
     example was exhibited by the captain, officers, sailors and
     marines, honourable to the American name, and instructive to its
     rising navy.

                                        John ADAMS.

                              _____

_John Adams to Captain Thomas Truxtun._

     To
       CAPTAIN THOMAS TRUXTUN, U.S.N.   Quincy, November 30th, 1802.

     Sir: I have many apologies to make for omitting so long to
     acknowledge the receipt of your obliging favour of the 10th of
     July. The copy you have done me the honour to present me, of the
     medal voted by Congress, and executed according to my directions
     to the Secretary of the Navy, I accept with great pleasure, not
     only from my personal regard to the giver, but because I esteem
     every laurel conferred upon you, for the glorious action of the
     1st of March, 1800, as an honour done to our beloved country.
     From both of these motives I have been highly gratified with the
     honour the gentlemen of Lloyd's Coffee House have done themselves
     in the handsome acknowledgment they have made of their
     obligations to you. I regret that the artist had not completed
     the medal in season, that I might have had the satisfaction of
     presenting it to an officer who has so greatly deserved it; and I
     lament still more that I had not the power of promoting merit to
     its just rank in the navy, that of an admiral.

     The counsel which Themistocles gave to Athens, Pompey to Rome,
     Cromwell to England, De Witt to Holland, and Colbert to France, I
     have always given and shall continue to give to my countrymen,
     that, as the great questions of commerce and power between
     nations and empires must be decided by a military marine, and war
     and peace are determined at sea, all reasonable encouragement
     should be given to the navy. The trident of Neptune is the
     sceptre of the world.

                        I am, Sir, etc.,
                                        John ADAMS.



No. 22.                                                            (p. 133)
PLATE XXIII.


_March 4, 1801--March 4, 1809._

     Th. Jefferson President of the U.S. A.D. 1801. [Rx]. Peace and
     friendship.

PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON.

[_Third President of the United States of America._]

TH. (_Thomas_) JEFFERSON PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. (_United States_) A.D.
(_Anno Domini: The year of our Lord_) 1801. Bust of President
Jefferson, facing the left.

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity: on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes and as many buttons; on the other, the
American eagle; above the hands, a calumet and a tomahawk
crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.[72]

                   [Footnote 72: See INTRODUCTION, pages xxiv and
                   xxvi.]

This medal bears no signature, but as the smaller size of the same is
marked R. (_Reich_), it is presumable that both are the work of that
engraver.


JOHN REICH, a native of Germany, came to America by the advice of
Henry Voigt, chief coiner of the United States Mint, who on his
arrival took him into his employ to make scales and other fine work.
Mr. Scott took him afterward as an assistant to make dies, but tried
in vain to have him appointed by the government. Reich made the Preble
and Hull medals and the Indian medals of Presidents Jefferson and
Madison. He died in Albany, State of New York, in 1833.


THOMAS JEFFERSON was born at Shadwell, Albemarle County, Virginia,
April 2, 1743. He studied at William and Mary College, Virginia, and
was admitted to the bar in 1767. He was a member of the House of   (p. 134)
Burgesses, of Virginia, from 1769 till the Revolution; was delegate to
the Continental Congress in 1775; wrote the Declaration of
Independence, 1776; was governor of Virginia, 1779-1781; member of
Congress, 1782; minister to France, 1785-1789; secretary of State to
President Washington, 1790-1793; vice-president of the United States,
1797-1801; President (first term), 1801-1805; (second term),
1805-1809. He then retired to his estate of Monticello, in Albemarle
County, Virginia, and died there, July 4, 1826, on the fiftieth
anniversary of the Independence of the United States, and on the same
day with John Adams.



No. 23.                                                            (p. 135)
PLATE XXIV.


_1804._

     Edwardo Preble duci strenuo Comitia Americana. [Rx]. Vindici
     commercii Americani.

COMMODORE EDWARD PREBLE.

[_Naval operations against Tripoli._]

EDWARDO PREBLE DUCI STRENUO COMITIA AMERICANA. (_The American Congress
to Edward Preble, a valiant officer._) Bust of Commodore Preble, in
uniform, facing the left. On edge of bust, R. (_Reich_).

VINDICI COMMERCII AMERICANI. (_To the vindicator of American
commerce._) The United States fleet, commanded by Commodore Preble, is
bombarding Tripoli. Exergue: ANTE TRIPOLI MDCCCIV. (_Off Tripoli,
1804_).[73]

                   [Footnote 73: See INTRODUCTION, pages xxiv and
                   xxx.]


EDWARD PREBLE was born at Falmouth Neck, now Portland, Maine, August
15, 1761. He served as midshipman and lieutenant during the War of
Independence, was appointed lieutenant in the navy in 1798, and
commanded the brig Pickering. In 1799 he became captain, and was
appointed to the Essex. Owing to ill health he was unemployed till
1803, when he was given the command of the squadron sent against
Tripoli. For his skill and bravery on this expedition Congress gave
him a vote of thanks and a gold medal. In 1806, President Jefferson
offered him the Navy Department, which he declined on account of ill
health. He died in Portland, August 25, 1807.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 136)

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Commodore Preble._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress be, and the same are hereby, presented to
     Commodore Edward Preble, and through him to the officers, seamen,
     and marines attached to the squadron under his command, for their
     gallantry and good conduct displayed in the several attacks on
     the town, batteries and naval force of Tripoli, in the year one
     thousand eight hundred and four.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause a gold medal to be struck, emblematical of the attacks
     on the town, batteries, and naval force of Tripoli, by the
     squadron under Commodore Preble's command, and to present it to
     Commodore Preble in such a manner as, in his opinion, will be
     most honourable to him; and that the President be further
     requested to cause a sword to be presented to each of the
     commissioned officers and midshipmen who have distinguished
     themselves in the several attacks.

     _Resolved_, That one month's pay be allowed, exclusively of the
     common allowance, to all the petty officers, seamen, and marines,
     of the squadron, who so gloriously supported the honour of the
     American flag, under the orders of their gallant commander, in
     the several attacks.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be also
     requested to communicate to the parents, or other near relatives,
     of Captain Richard Somers, Lieutenants Henry Wadsworth, James
     Decatur, James R. Caldwell, Joseph Israel, and Midshipman John
     Sword Dorsey, the deep regret which Congress feel for the loss of
     those gallant men, whose names ought to live in the recollections
     and affections of a grateful country, and whose conduct ought to
     be regarded as an example to future generations.

     Approved March 3, 1805.

                              _____

_President Thomas Jefferson to Congress._

                              Washington, D. C., February 20th, 1805.

     TO THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES.

     I communicate, for the information of Congress, a letter of
     September 18, from Commodore Preble, giving a detailed account of
     the transactions of the vessels under his command, from July the
     9th to the 10th of September, last past.

     The energy and judgment displayed by this excellent officer,
     through the whole course of the service lately confided to him,
     and the zeal and bravery of his officers and men in the several
     enterprizes executed by them, cannot fail to give high
     satisfaction to Congress and their country, of whom they have
     deserved well.

                                        Th: JEFFERSON.

                              _____

_Commodore Preble to the Secretary of the Navy._                   (p. 137)

     To the Honourable
       SECRETARY OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY,
         Washington, D. C.              United States ship Constitution,
                                    Malta Harbour, September 18th, 1804.

     Sir: I had the honour to write you from Messina, under date of
     the 5th of July; I then expected to have sailed the day
     following, but was detained, by bad weather, until the 9th, when
     I left it, with two small bomb vessels under convoy, and arrived
     at Syracuse, where we were necessarily detained four days. On the
     14th I sailed, the schooners Nautilus and Enterprize in company,
     with six gun boats and two bomb vessels, generously loaned us by
     His Sicilian Majesty. The bomb vessels are about thirty tons,
     carry a thirteen-inch brass sea mortar, and forty men. Gun boats,
     twenty-five tons, carry a long iron twenty-four pounder in the
     bow, with a complement of thirty-five men. They are officered and
     manned from the squadron, excepting twelve Neapolitan
     bombardiers, gunners, and sailors, attached to each boat, who
     were shipped by permission of their Government. This step I found
     necessary, as every vessel in the squadron was considerably short
     of complement. The gun boats are constructed for the defence of
     harbours; they are flat bottomed and heavy, and do not sail or
     row even tolerably well. They were never intended to go to sea,
     and, I find, cannot be navigated with safety, unless assisted by
     tow ropes from larger and better sailing vessels, nor even then,
     in very bad weather; however, as they were the best I could
     obtain, I have thought it for the good of our service to employ
     them, particularly as the weather in July and August is generally
     pleasant, and, without them, my force too small to make any
     impression on Tripoli.

     On the 16th of July we arrived at Malta, where we were detained
     by contrary gales until the 21st, when we left it, and arrived in
     sight of Tripoli the 25th, and were joined by the Syren, Argus,
     Vixen and Scourge. Our squadron now consisted of the
     Constitution, three brigs, three schooners, two bombs, and six
     gun-boats, our whole number of men one thousand and sixty. I
     proceeded to make the necessary arrangements for an attack on
     Tripoli, a city well walled, protected by batteries judiciously
     constructed, mounting one hundred and fifteen pieces of heavy
     cannon, and defended by twenty-five thousand Arabs and Turks; the
     harbour protected by nineteen gun-boats, two galleys, two
     schooners of eight guns each, and a brig mounting ten guns,
     ranged in order of battle, forming a strong line of defence, at
     secure moorings, inside a long range of rocks and shoals,
     extending more than two miles to the eastward of the town, which
     form the harbour, protects them from the northern gales, and
     renders it impossible for a vessel of the Constitution's draught
     of water to approach near enough to destroy them, as they are
     sheltered by the rocks, and can retire under that shelter to the
     shore, unless they choose to expose themselves in the different
     channels and openings of the reefs, for the purpose of annoying
     their enemies. Each of their gunboats mounts a heavy eighteen or
     twenty-six pounder in the bow, and two brass howitzers on their
     quarters, and carry from thirty-six to fifty men. The galleys
     have each one hundred men, schooners and brigs about the same
     number. The weather was not favourable for anchoring until the
     28th, when, with the wind E. S. E., the squadron stood in     (p. 138)
     for the coast, and at 3 P.M. anchored, per signal, Tripoli
     bearing S. two and a half miles distant. At this moment the wind
     shifted suddenly from E. S. E. to N. N. W., and from thence to N.
     N. E. At 5 o'clock it blew strong, with a heavy sea, setting
     directly on shore. I made the signal to prepare to weigh. At 6,
     the wind and sea having considerably increased the signal was
     made for the squadron to weigh and gain an offing. The wind
     continued veering to the eastward, which favoured our gaining
     sea-room without being obliged to carry so great a press of sail
     as to lose any of our gunboats, although they were in great
     danger. The gale continued varying from N. E. to E. S. E. without
     increasing much, until the 31st, when it blew away our reefed
     foresail, and close-reefed main-topsail; fortunately, the sea did
     not rise in proportion to the strength of the gale, or we must
     have lost all our boats. August 1st the gale subsided, and we
     stood towards the coast: every preparation was made for an attack
     on the town and harbour. August 3d, pleasant weather, wind East;
     stood in with the squadron towards Tripoli. At noon we were
     between two or three miles from the batteries, which were all
     manned, and observing several of their gunboats and galleys had
     advanced, in two divisions, without the rocks, I determined to
     take advantage of their temerity. At half-past 12 I wore off
     shore, and made the signal to come within hail, when I
     communicated to each of the commanders my intention of attacking
     the enemy's shipping and batteries. The gun and mortar boats were
     immediately manned and prepared to cast off, the gunboats in two
     divisions of three each; the first division commanded by Captain
     Somers, in No. 1; Lieutenant Decatur in No. 2, and Lieutenant
     Blake in No. 3; the second division commanded by Captain Decatur,
     in No. 4, Lieutenant Bainbridge in No. 5, and Lieutenant Trippe
     in No. 6. The two bombards were commanded by Lieutenant-Commandant
     Dent, and Mr. Robinson, First Lieutenant of this ship. At
     half-past 1 o'clock, having made the necessary arrangements for
     the attack, wore ship and stood towards the batteries. At 2
     signal made to cast off the boats; at a quarter-past 2 signal for
     bombs and gunboats to advance and attack the enemy. At half-past
     2 general signal for battle. At three-quarters-past 2 the bombs
     commenced the action, by throwing shells into the town. In an
     instant the enemy's shipping and batteries opened a tremendous
     fire, which was promptly returned by the whole squadron within
     grape-shot distance; at the same time the second division, of
     three gunboats, led by the gallant Captain Decatur, was
     advancing, with sails and oars, to board the eastern division of
     the enemy, consisting of nine boats. Our boats gave the enemy
     showers of grape and musket balls as they advanced; they,
     however, soon closed, when the pistol, sabre, pike and tomahawk
     were made good use of by our brave tars. Captain Somers, being in
     a dull sailer, made the best use of his sweeps, but was not able
     to fetch far enough to windward to engage the same division of
     the enemy's boats which Captain Decatur fell in with; he,
     however, gallantly bore down with his single boat on five of the
     enemy's western division, and engaged within pistol shot,
     defeated and drove them within the rocks, in a shattered
     condition, and with the loss of a great number of men. Lieutenant
     Decatur, in No. 2, was closely engaged with one of the enemy's
     largest boats of the eastern division, which struck to him, after
     having lost a large proportion of men, and, at the instant that
     brave officer was boarding her to take possession, he was     (p. 139)
     treacherously shot through the head by the captain of the
     boat that had surrendered, which base conduct enabled the
     poltroon (with the assistance he received from the other boats)
     to escape. The third boat of Captain Somers' division kept to
     windward, firing at the boats and shipping in the harbour; had
     she gone down to his assistance, it is probable several of the
     enemy's boats would have been captured in that quarter. Captain
     Decatur, in No. 4, after having, with distinguished bravery,
     boarded and carried one of the enemy of superior force, took his
     prize in tow, and gallantly bore down to engage a second, which,
     after a severe and bloody conflict, he also took possession of.
     These two prizes had thirty-three officers and men killed, and
     twenty-seven made prisoners, nineteen of which were badly
     wounded. Lieutenant Trippe, of the Vixen, in No. 6, ran alongside
     of one of the enemy's large boats, which he boarded with only
     Midshipman John Henley and nine men, his boat falling off before
     any more could get on board; thus was he left, compelled to
     conquer or perish, with the odds of _thirty-six_ to _eleven_. The
     Turks could not withstand the ardour of this brave officer and
     his assistants; in a few minutes the decks were cleared, and her
     colours hauled down. On board of this boat fourteen of the enemy
     were killed, and twenty-two made prisoners, seven of which were
     badly wounded. The rest of their boats retreated within the
     rocks. Lieutenant Trippe received eleven sabre wounds, some of
     which are very severe; he speaks in the highest terms of Mr.
     Henley, and those who followed him. Lieutenant Bainbridge, in No.
     5, had his latteen yard shot away early in the action, which
     prevented his getting alongside the enemy's boats, but he galled
     them by a steady and well directed fire, within musket shot;
     indeed he pursued the enemy until his boat grounded under the
     batteries; she was, fortunately, soon got off. The bomb vessels
     kept their stations, although covered with the spray of the sea
     occasioned by the enemy's shot. They were well conducted by
     Lieutenants Dent and Robinson, who kept up a constant fire from
     the mortars, and threw a great number of shells into the town.
     Five of the enemy's gunboats, and two galleys, composing the
     centre division, and stationed within the rocks, as a reserve,
     joined by the boats that had been driven in, and supplied by
     fresh men from the shore to replace those they had lost, twice
     attempted to row out, to endeavour to surround our gunboats and
     their prizes: I as often made the signal to cover them, which was
     promptly attended to by the brigs and schooners, all of which
     were gallantly conducted, and annoyed the enemy exceedingly, but
     the fire from this ship kept their flotilla completely in check.
     Our grape shot made great havoc among their men, not only on
     board their shipping, but on shore. We were several times within
     two cables length of the rocks, and within three of their
     batteries, every one of which, in succession, were silenced, so
     long as we could bring our broadside to bear upon them; but the
     moment we passed a battery, it was re-animated, and a constant,
     heavy fire kept up from all that we could not point our guns at.
     We suffered most when wearing or tacking; it was then I most
     sensibly felt the want of another frigate. At half-past four, the
     wind inclining to the northward, I made the signal for the bombs
     and gunboats to retire from action, and, immediately after, the
     signal to tow off the gunboats and prizes, which was handsomely
     executed by the brigs, schooners, and boats of the squadron,
     covered by a heavy fire from the Constitution. At three-quarters
     past 4, P.M., the light vessels, gunboats, and prizes being   (p. 140)
     out of reach of the enemy's shot, I hauled off to take the
     bomb vessels in tow. We were two hours under the fire of the
     enemy's batteries, and the only damage received in the ship is a
     twenty-four pound shot nearly through the centre of the mainmast,
     thirty feet from the deck; main royal yard and sail shot away;
     one of our quarter-deck guns damaged by a thirty-two pound shot,
     which, at the same time, shattered a mariner's arm; two lower
     shrouds and two backstays were shot away, and our sails and
     running rigging considerably cut. We must impute our getting off
     thus well to our keeping so near that they overshot us, and to
     the annoyance our grape shot gave them; they are, however, but
     wretched gunners. Gunboat No. 5 had her main yard shot away, and
     the rigging and sails of the brigs and schooners were
     considerably cut. Lieutenant Decatur was the only officer killed,
     but in him the service has lost a valuable officer. He was a
     young man who gave strong promise of being an ornament to his
     profession. His conduct in the action was highly honourable, and
     he _died nobly_. The enemy must have suffered very much in killed
     and wounded, both among the shipping and on shore. Three of their
     gunboats were sunk in the harbour, several of them had their
     decks nearly cleared of men by our shot, and a number of shells
     burst in the town and batteries, which must have done great
     execution. The officers, seamen, and marines, of the squadron
     behaved in the most gallant manner. The Neapolitans, in emulating
     the ardour of our seamen, answered my highest expectations.

     I cannot but notice the active exertions and officer-like conduct
     of Lieutenant Gordon, and the other lieutenants of the
     Constitution. Mr. Harriden, the master, gave me full
     satisfaction, as did all the officers and ship's company. I was
     much gratified with the conduct of Captain Hall and Lieutenant
     Greenleaf, and the marines belonging to his company, in the
     management of six long twenty-six pounders, on the spar-deck,
     which I placed under his direction. Captain Decatur speaks in the
     highest terms of the conduct of Lieutenant Thorn and Midshipman
     McDonough, of No. 4, as does Captain Somers of Midshipmen Ridgely
     and Miller, attached to No. 1.

     Annexed is a list of killed and wounded, and, enclosed, a copy of
     my general orders on this occasion:

     _Killed._ Gunboat No. 2: Lieutenant James Decatur.

     _Wounded._ Constitution: one marine; gunboat No. 4: Captain
     Decatur (slightly), one sergeant of marines and two seamen;
     gunboat No. 6: Lieutenant Trippe (severely), one boatswain's mate
     and two marines; gunboat No. 1: two seamen; gunboat No. 2: two
     seamen. Total, one killed, thirteen wounded.

     _August 5._ We were at anchor with the squadron about two leagues
     north from the city of Tripoli; the Argus in chase of a small
     vessel to the westward, which she soon came up with, and brought
     within hail; she proved to be a French privateer, of four guns,
     which put into Tripoli a few days since, for water, and left it
     this morning. I prevailed on the captain, for a consideration, to
     return to Tripoli, for the purpose of landing fourteen very badly
     wounded Tripolitans, which I put on board his vessel, with a
     letter to the Prime Minister, leaving it at the option of the
     Bashaw to reciprocate this generous mode of conducting the war.
     The sending these unfortunate men on shore, to be taken care of
     by their friends, was an act of humanity on our part, which   (p. 141)
     I hope will make a proper impression on the minds of the
     barbarians, but I doubt it. All hands were busily employed in
     altering the rig of the three prizes from latteen vessels to
     sloops, and preparing for a second attack. Observed one of the
     enemy's schooners and the brig (two corsairs in the harbour) to
     be dismasted; was informed by the French captain that the damage
     these vessels received in the action of the 3d had occasioned
     their masts being taken out.

     _August 7th._ The French privateer came out, and brought me a
     letter from the French Consul, in which he observes, that our
     attack of the 3d instant has disposed the Bashaw to accept of
     reasonable terms, and invited me to send a boat to the rocks with
     a flag of truce, which was declined, as the white flag was not
     hoisted at the Bashaw's castle. At 9 A.M., with a very light
     breeze from the eastward, and a strong current which obliged the
     Constitution to remain at anchor, I made the signal for the light
     vessels to weigh, and the gun and bomb boats to cast off, and
     stand in shore toward the western batteries; the prize boats
     having been completely fitted for service, and the command of
     them given to Lieutenants Crane, of the Vixen, Thorn, of the
     Enterprize, and Caldwell, of the Syren, the whole advanced with
     sails and oars. The orders were for the bombs to take a position
     in a small bay to the westward of the city, where but few of the
     enemy's guns could be brought to bear on them, but from whence
     they could annoy the town with shells; the gunboats to silence a
     battery of seven heavy guns which guarded the approach to that
     position, and the brigs and schooners to support them, in case
     the enemy's flotilla should venture out. At half-past one P.M.,
     a breeze from N. N. E., I weighed with the Constitution and stood
     in for the town; but the wind being on shore, made it imprudent
     to engage the batteries with the ship, as, in case of a mast
     being shot away, the loss of the vessel would probably ensue,
     unless a change of wind should favour our getting off. At
     half-past two P.M., the bomb and gun boats having gained their
     station, the signal was made for them to attack the town and
     batteries. Our bombs immediately commenced throwing shells, and
     the gunboats opened a sharp and well directed fire on the town
     and batteries, within point blank shot, which was warmly returned
     by the enemy. The seven gun battery, in less than two hours, was
     silenced, except one gun; I presume the others were dismounted by
     our shot, as the walls were almost totally destroyed. At a
     quarter-past three P.M., a ship hove in sight to the northward,
     standing for the town; made the Argus signal to chase. At
     half-past three, one of our prize gunboats was blown up by hot
     shot from the enemy, which passed through her magazine: she had
     on board twenty-eight officers, seamen, and marines, ten of whom
     were killed, and six wounded; among the killed were James R.
     Caldwell, First Lieutenant of the Syren, and Midshipman John S.
     Dorsey, both excellent officers; Midshipman Spence and eleven men
     were taken up unhurt. Captain Decatur, whose division this boat
     belonged to, and who was near at the time she blew up, reports to
     me that Mr. Spence was superintending the loading of the gun at
     that moment, and, notwithstanding the boat was sinking, he and
     the brave fellows surviving, finished charging, gave three cheers
     as the boat went from under them, and swam to the nearest boats,
     where they assisted during the remainder of the action. The
     enemy's gunboats and galleys (fifteen in number) were all in
     motion close under the batteries, and appeared to meditate an
     attack on our boats; the Constitution, Nautilus, and Enterprize,
     were to windward, ready, at every hazard, to cut them off     (p. 142)
     from the harbour, if they should venture down; while the
     Syren and Vixen were near our boats, to support and cover any
     that might be disabled. The enemy thought it most prudent,
     however, to retire to their snug retreat behind the rocks, after
     firing a few shot. Our boats, in two divisions, under Captains
     Somers and Decatur, were well conducted, as were our bomb
     vessels, by Lieutenants Dent and Robinson. The town must have
     suffered much from this attack, and their batteries, particularly
     the seven gun battery, must have lost many men. At half-past five
     P.M., the wind began to freshen from the N. N. E., I made the
     signal for the gun and bomb boats to retire from action, and for
     the vessels to which they were attached to take them in tow. The
     Argus made signal that the strange sail was a friend.

     In this day's action No. 4 had a twenty-four pound shot through
     her hull; No. 6 her latteen yard shot away; No. 8 a twenty-four
     pound shot through her hull, which killed two men; some of the
     other boats had their rigging and sails considerably cut. We
     threw forty-eight shells, and about five hundred twenty-four
     pound shot into the town and batteries. All the officers and men
     engaged in the action behaved with the utmost intrepidity. At
     half-past six all the boats were in tow, and the squadron
     standing to the northwest. At eight, the John Adams, Captain
     Chauncey, from the United States, joined company. At nine the
     squadron anchored, Tripoli bearing southeast, five miles distant.
     Gunboat No. 3 was this day commanded by Mr. Brooks, master of the
     Argus, and No. 6 by Lieutenant Wadsworth, of the Constitution.

     Annexed is a return of our loss in this attack.

     _Killed._ Gunboat No. 9: One lieutenant, one midshipman, one
     boatswain's mate, one quarter gunner, one sergeant of marines,
     and five seamen; Gunboat No. 8: Two seamen.

     _Wounded._ Gunboat No. 9: Six seamen, two of whom mortally.
     Total, twelve killed, six wounded.

     Captain Chauncey brought me the first positive information that
     any reinforcement was to be expected. By him I was honoured with
     your letters of the 7th, 22d, and 31st of May, informing me that
     four frigates were coming out, under Commodore Barren, who is to
     supersede me in the command of our naval forces in these seas, at
     the same time approbating my conduct, and conveying to me the
     thanks of the President for my services. I beg you, Sir, to
     accept my warmest thanks for the very obliging language in which
     you have made these communications, and to assure the President
     that to merit the applause of my country is my only aim, and to
     receive it the highest gratification it can bestow.

     Captain Chauncey informed me that the frigates might be expected
     every moment, as they were to sail from Hampton Roads four days
     after him. In consequence of this information (and as I could not
     bring the John Adams into action, she having left all her gun
     carriages for her gun deck, except eight, on board the Congress
     and Constellation, a day or two previous to her sailing), I
     determined to wait a few days for the arrival of Commodore
     Barron, before another attack, when, if he should arrive, the
     fate of Tripoli must be decided in a few hours, and the Bashaw
     completely humbled. Had the John Adams brought out her gun
     carriages, I should not have waited a moment, and can have    (p. 143)
     no doubt but the next attack would make the arrival of more
     ships unnecessary for the termination of the Tripoline war. I
     gave Captain Chauncey orders to remain on the station, that we
     might be benefited by the assistance of his boats and men, as
     nearly half the crews of the Constitution, brigs and schooners,
     were taken out to man the bombs, gun and ship's boats when
     prepared for an attack.

     _August 9th._ We were engaged supplying the bombs and gunboats
     with ammunition and stores, and getting everything in readiness
     for an attack, the moment Commodore Barron should arrive and make
     the signal. I cannot but regret that our naval establishment is
     so limited as to deprive me of the means and glory of completely
     subduing the haughty tyrant of Tripoli, while in the chief
     command; it will, however, afford me satisfaction to give my
     successor all the assistance in my power. At three P.M. I went
     on board the Argus, for the purpose of reconnoitering the harbour
     of Tripoli; we stood in towards the town, and were near being
     sunk by the enemy's fire; one of their heaviest shot, which
     struck about three feet short of the water line, raked the copper
     off her bottom under water, and cut the plank half through. In
     the evening the wind blew strong from the N. N. E.; the squadron
     weighed, and kept under sail all night. The day following we
     anchored, Tripoli bearing S. S. W., six miles distant. At ten A.M.
     the French Consul hoisted a white flag at his flagstaff, under
     the national colours, which was a signal that the Bashaw was
     ready to treat. I sent a boat into the harbour, and took this
     opportunity to forward Captain Bainbridge, and his officers,
     letters from their friends. The boat was not allowed to land, but
     returned in the afternoon, and brought me a letter, advising that
     the Bashaw was ready to receive five hundred dollars for the
     ransom of each of the prisoners, and terminate the war, without
     any consideration for peace or tribute. This is three hundred and
     fifty thousand dollars less than was demanded previous to the
     action of the 3d instant. These terms I did not hesitate to
     reject, as I was informed by Captain Chauncey that it was the
     expectation of our Government, on the arrival of four frigates,
     to obtain the release of the officers and crew of the
     Philadelphia without ransom, and dictate the terms of peace. I
     enclose you copies of our correspondence, which will convince you
     that our attacks have not been made without effect.

     _August 16th._ No news of the frigates, and but short allowance
     of water in the squadron. I sent the Enterprize to Malta, with
     orders to the agent there to hire transports, and send off
     immediately a supply of fresh water, provision, and other stores
     which have become necessary, as some of the squadron have now
     been upwards of five months in sight of this dismal coast,
     without once visiting a friendly port. Those vessels, as well as
     the gunboats, received their supply of water and provisions from
     the Constitution.

     _August 18th._ As the season is fast approaching when we may
     expect bad weather, and no news of the frigates, I have
     determined to make an attack as soon as the wind proves
     favourable. At eight P.M. I sent Captains Decatur and Chauncey,
     in two small boats, to reconnoitre the harbour, and observe the
     disposition of the enemy's flotilla at night. They returned at
     midnight, and reported that they were anchored in a line abreast,
     from the mole to the Bashaw's castle, with their heads to the
     eastward, for the defence of the inner harbour. At daylight   (p. 144)
     the wind shifted suddenly from northeast to north-northwest, and
     brought a heavy sea on shore, which obliged us, for greater
     safety, to weigh and stand to sea.

     _August 20th._ We had gained an offing of nine or ten leagues;
     still blowing hard. We had met with the ketch Intrepid, from
     Syracuse, with a cargo of fresh water, stock, and vegetables, for
     the squadron.

     _August 22d._ Fell in with a ship from Malta, with water and live
     stock for the squadron. These cargoes arrived very opportunely,
     as we have for some time past been on a short allowance of water.
     The wind having moderated, we stood in and anchored with the
     squadron, six miles northeast by north from Tripoli. All the
     boats were engaged in discharging the transports. The Enterprize
     arrived from Malta, but brought no intelligence of the long
     expected frigates.

     _August 24th._ With a light breeze from the northeast, we stood
     in with the squadron, prepared for action, intending to attack
     the town and shipping in the night. At eight in the evening,
     anchored about two and a half miles from the batteries. At
     midnight it fell calm. I sent the bomb vessels, under the
     protection of the gunboats, to bombard the town; the boats of the
     squadron were employed in towing them in. At two A.M. the
     bombardment commenced, and continued until daylight, but with
     what effect is uncertain. At six all the boats joined us, and
     were taken in tow by the squadron, which was under weigh and
     standing off. At seven, anchored four miles north of the town.
     The weather for several days, proved unfavourable for approaching
     the shore.

     _August 28th._ We were favoured with a pleasant breeze from the
     eastward; at three P.M. we weighed, and stood in for Tripoli; at
     five, anchored the Constitution, two miles north by east from
     Fort English, and two miles and a half from the Bashaw's castle;
     the light vessels ordered to keep under way; we were employed
     until eight P.M. in making arrangements for attacking the town;
     a number of the officers, and many of the seamen, of the
     Constitution being attached to the bomb, gun and ship's boats;
     Captain Chauncey, with several of his officers, and about seventy
     seamen and marines, volunteered their services on board the
     Constitution. All the boats in the squadron were officered and
     manned, and attached to the several gunboats. The two bomb
     vessels could not be brought into action, as one was leaky and
     the mortar-bed of the other had given way. The John Adams,
     Scourge, transports and bombs, were anchored seven miles to the
     northward of the town. Lieutenant Commander Dent, of the Scourge,
     came on board the Constitution, and took charge on the gun-deck.
     Lieutenant Izard, of the Scourge, also joined me. Lieutenant
     Gordon commands gunboat No. 2, and Lieutenant Lawrence, of the
     Enterprize, No. 5; these are the only changes. At half past one,
     A.M., the gunboats, in two divisions, led by Captains Decatur
     and Somers, were ordered to advance and take their stations close
     to the rocks at the entrance of the harbour, within grape-shot
     distance of the Bashaw's castle. The Syren, Argus, Vixen,
     Nautilus, Enterprize, and boats of the squadron accompanied them.
     At three, A.M., the boats anchored with springs on, within
     pistol shot of the rocks, and commenced a brisk fire on the
     shipping, town, batteries, and Bashaw's castle, which was warmly
     returned, but not as well directed. The ship's boats remained
     with the gunboats, to assist in boarding the enemy's          (p. 145)
     flotilla, if it should venture out, while the brigs and schooners
     kept under way, ready for the same service, or for annoying the
     enemy as occasion might present. At daylight, presuming that the
     gunboats had nearly expended their ammunition, we weighed with
     the Constitution, and stood in for the harbour. Fort English, the
     Bashaw's castle, crown and mole batteries, kept up a heavy fire
     upon us as we advanced. At half past five, I made the signal for
     the gunboats to retire from action, and for the brigs and
     schooners to take them in tow. We were then within two cables
     length of the rocks, and commenced a heavy fire of round and
     grape on thirteen of the enemy's gunboats and galleys, which were
     in pretty close action with our boats. We sunk one of the enemy's
     boats, at the same time, two more, disabled, ran on shore to
     avoid sinking; the remainder immediately retreated. We continued
     running in until we were within musket shot of the crown and mole
     batteries, when we brought to and fired upwards of three hundred
     round shot, besides grape and canister, into the town, Bashaw's
     castle, and batteries. We silenced the castle and two of the
     batteries for some time. At a quarter past six, the gunboats
     being all out of shot and in tow, I hauled off, after having been
     three-quarters of an hour in close action. The gunboats fired
     upwards of four hundred round shot, besides grape and canister,
     with good effect. A large Tunisian galliot was sunk in the mole.
     A Spanish ship, which had entered with an ambassador from the
     Grand Seignor, received considerable damage. The Tripoline
     galleys and gunboats lost many men, and were much cut. The
     Bashaw's castle and town have suffered very much; as have their
     crown and mole batteries.

     Captains Decatur and Somers conducted their divisions of gunboats
     with their usual firmness and address, and were well supported by
     the officers and men attached to them. The brigs and schooners
     were also well conducted during the action, and fired a number of
     shot at the enemy, but their guns are too light to do much
     execution. They suffered considerably in their sails and rigging.
     The officers and crew of the Constitution behaved well. I cannot,
     in justice to Captain Chauncey, omit noticing the very able
     assistance I received from him on the quarter-deck of the
     Constitution during the whole of the action. The damage which we
     have received is principally above the hull. Three lower shrouds,
     two spring stays, two top-mast back stays, trusses, chains, and
     lifts of the main yard, shot away. Our sails had several cannon
     shot through them, and were beside considerably cut by grape;
     much of our running rigging cut to pieces. One of our anchor
     stocks, and our larboard cable, shot away, and a number of grape
     shot were sticking in different parts of the hull, but not a man
     hurt! A boat belonging to the John Adams, with a master's mate
     (Mr. Creighton) and eight men, was sunk by a double-headed shot
     from the batteries, while in tow of the Nautilus, which killed
     three men, and badly wounded one, who, with Mr. Creighton and the
     other four, were picked up by one of our boats. The only damage
     our gunboats sustained was in their rigging and sails, which were
     considerably cut by the enemy's round and grape shot. At eleven,
     A.M., we anchored with the squadron, five miles northeast by
     north from Tripoli, and repaired the damage received in the
     action.

     _August 29th_ and _30th_. Preparing the bomb vessels for service;
     supplying the gunboats with ammunition, etc.

     _August 31st._ A vessel arrived from Malta with provisions    (p. 146)
     and stores; brought no news of Commodore Barron or the frigates.
     We discharged this vessel's cargo and ordered her to return.

     _September 2d._ The bomb vessels having been repaired and ready
     for service, Lieutenants Dent and Robinson resumed the command of
     them. Lieutenant Morris of the Argus, took command of No. 3, and
     Lieutenant Trippe, having nearly recovered from his wounds,
     resumed the command of No. 6, which he so gallantly conducted the
     3d ultimo. Captain Chauncey, with several young gentlemen, and
     sixty men from the John Adams, volunteered on board the
     Constitution. At four P.M., made the signal to weigh; kept under
     sail all night. At eleven P.M., a general signal to prepare for
     battle. A Spanish polacre in ballast came out of Tripoli, with an
     ambassador of the Grand Seignor on board, who had been sent from
     Constantinople to Tripoli to confirm the Bashaw in his title;
     this ceremony takes place in all the Barbary regencies every five
     years. The captain of this vessel informed us that our shot and
     shells had made great havoc and destruction in the city, and
     among the shipping, and that a vast number of people had been
     killed: also informs us that three of the boats which were sunk
     by our shot in the actions of the 3d and 28th ultimo, had been
     got up, repaired, and fitted for service.

     _September 3d._ At two P.M., Tripoli bore south southwest, two
     miles and a half distant; wind east by north. At half-past two
     the signals were made for the gunboats to cast off, advance, and
     attack the enemy's galleys and gunboats, which were all under
     weigh in the eastern part of the harbour, whither they had for
     some time been working up against the wind. This was certainly a
     judicious movement of theirs, as it precluded the possibility of
     our boats going down to attack the town, without leaving the
     enemy's flotilla in their rear, and directly to windward. I
     accordingly ordered the bomb vessels to run down within proper
     distance of the town and bombard it, while our gunboats were to
     engage the enemy's galleys and boats to windward. At half-past
     three P.M., our bombs having gained the station to which they
     were directed, anchored, and commenced throwing shells into the
     city; at the same time our gunboats opened a brisk fire on the
     galleys, &c., within point blank shot, which was warmly returned
     by them and Fort English, and by a new battery a little to the
     westward; but as soon as our boats arrived within good musket
     shot of their galleys and boats, they gave way and retreated to
     the shore within the rocks, and under cover of musketry from Fort
     English. They were followed by our boats, and by the Syren,
     Argus, Vixen, Nautilus and Enterprize, as far as the reefs would
     permit them to go with prudence. The action was then divided. One
     division of our boats, with the brigs and schooners, attacked
     Fort English, whilst the other was engaged with the enemy's
     galleys and boats. The Bashaw's castle, the mole, crown, and
     several other batteries kept up a constant fire on our bomb
     vessels, which were well conducted, and threw shells briskly into
     the town; but, from their situation, they were very much exposed,
     and in great danger of being sunk. I accordingly ran within them
     with the Constitution, to draw off the enemy's attention and
     amuse them whilst the bombardment was kept up. We brought to
     within reach of grape, and fired eleven broadsides into the
     Bashaw's castle, town and batteries, in a situation where more
     than seventy guns could bear upon us. One of their batteries was
     silenced. The town, castle and other batteries considerably   (p. 147)
     damaged. By this time, it was half-past four o'clock; the wind
     was increasing, and inclining rapidly to the northward. I made
     the signal for the boats to retire from action, and for the brigs
     and schooners to take them in tow, and soon after hauled off with
     the Constitution to repair damages. Our main-topsail was
     totally disabled by a shell from the batteries, which cut away
     the leech rope, and several cloths of the sail; another shell
     went through the fore-top-sail, and one through the jib; all our
     sails considerably cut; two top-mast backstays shot away, main
     sheets, fore tacks, lifts, braces, bowlines, and the running
     rigging, generally, very much cut, but no shot in our hull,
     excepting a few grape. Our gunboats were an hour and fifteen
     minutes in action. They disabled several of the enemy's galleys
     and boats, and considerably damaged Fort English. Most of our
     boats received damage in their rigging and sails. The bomb vessel
     No. 1, commanded by Lieutenant Robinson, was disabled, every
     shroud being shot away; the bed of the mortar rendered useless,
     and the vessel near sinking; she was, however, towed off. About
     fifty shells were thrown into the town, and our boats fired four
     hundred round shot, besides grape and canister. They were led
     into action by Captains Decatur and Somers, with their usual
     gallantry. The brigs and schooners were handsomely conducted, and
     fired many shot with effect at Fort English, which they were near
     enough to reach with their carronades; they suffered considerably
     in their rigging, and the Argus received a thirty-two pound shot
     in the hull forward, which cut off a bower cable as it entered.
     We kept under weigh until eleven P.M., when we anchored, Tripoli
     bearing south southwest three leagues. I again, with pleasure,
     acknowledge the services of an able and active officer in Captain
     Chauncey, serving on the quarter-deck of the Constitution. At
     sunrise I made the signal for the squadron to prepare for action.
     The carpenters were sent on board the bombs to repair damages,
     and our boats employed in supplying the bombs and gunboats with
     ammunition, and to replace the expenditures.

     Desirous of annoying the enemy by all the means in my power, I
     directed to be put into execution a long contemplated plan of
     sending a fire ship, or _infernal_, into the harbour of Tripoli,
     in the night, for the purpose of endeavouring to destroy the
     enemy's shipping, and shatter the Bashaw's castle and town.
     Captain Somers, of the Nautilus, having volunteered his services,
     had, for several days before this period, been directing the
     preparation of the ketch Intrepid, assisted by Lieutenants
     Wadsworth and Israel. About one hundred barrels of powder, and
     one hundred and fifty fixed shells, were apparently judiciously
     disposed of on board her. The fusees leading to the magazine,
     where all the powder was deposited, were calculated to burn for a
     quarter of an hour.

     _September 4th._ The Intrepid being prepared for the intended
     service, Captain Somers and Lieutenant Wadsworth made choice of
     two of the fastest rowing boats in the squadron, for bringing
     them out, after reaching their destination, and firing the
     combustible materials which were to communicate with the fusees.
     Captain Somers' boat was manned with four seamen from the
     Nautilus, and Lieutenant Wadsworth's with six from the
     Constitution. Lieutenant Israel accompanied them. At eight in the
     evening, the Intrepid was under sail, and standing for the port,
     with a leading breeze from the eastward. The Argus, Vixen, and
     Nautilus, convoyed her as far as the rocks. On entering the   (p. 148)
     harbour, several shot were fired at her from the batteries.
     In a few minutes after, when she had apparently nearly gained the
     intended place of destination, she suddenly exploded, without
     their having previously fired a room filled with splinters and
     other combustibles, which were intended to create a blaze in
     order to deter the enemy from boarding while the fire was
     communicating to the fusees which led to the magazine. The effect
     of the explosion awed their batteries into profound silence with
     astonishment; not a gun was afterwards fired for the night. The
     shrieks of the inhabitants informed us that the town was thrown
     into the greatest terror and consternation by the explosion of
     the magazine, and the bursting and falling of shells in all
     directions. The whole squadron waited, with the utmost anxiety,
     to learn the fate of the adventurers, from a signal previously
     agreed on, in case of success; but waited in vain. No signs of
     their safety were to be observed. The Argus, Vixen and Nautilus,
     hovered round the entrance of the port until sunrise, when they
     had a fair view of the whole harbour. Not a vestige of the ketch
     or her boats was to be seen. One of the enemy's largest gunboats
     was missing, and three others were seen very much shattered and
     damaged, which the enemy were hauling on shore. From these
     circumstances, I am led to believe that these boats were detached
     from the enemy's flotilla to intercept the ketch, and, without
     suspecting her to be a fire ship, the missing boat had suddenly
     boarded her, when the gallant Somers and heroes of his party,
     observing the other three boats surrounding them, and no prospect
     of escape, determined, at once, to prefer _death_ and the
     _destruction of the enemy_ to _captivity_ and _torturing
     slavery_, put a match to the tram leading directly to the
     magazine, which at once blew the whole into the air, and
     terminated their existence. My conjectures respecting this affair
     are founded on a resolution which Captain Somers, Lieutenants
     Wadsworth and Israel had formed--neither to be taken by the
     enemy, nor suffer him to get possession of the powder on board
     the Intrepid. They expected to enter the harbour without
     discovery, but had declared that should they be disappointed, and
     the enemy should board them, before they reached the point of
     destination, in such force as to leave them no hopes of a safe
     retreat, that they would put a match to the magazine, and blow
     themselves and their enemies up together; determined, as there
     was no exchange of prisoners, that their country should never pay
     ransom for them, nor the enemy receive a supply of powder through
     their means. The disappearance of one of the enemy's boats, and
     the shattered condition of three others, confirm me in my opinion
     that they were an advanced guard, detached from the main body of
     the flotilla on discovering the approach of the Intrepid, and
     that they attempted to board her before she had reached her point
     of destination; otherwise the whole of their shipping must have
     suffered, and perhaps would have been totally destroyed. That she
     was blown up before she had gained her station is certain, by
     which the service has lost three very gallant officers. Captain
     Somers, and Lieutenants Wadsworth and Israel were officers of
     conspicuous bravery, talents, and merit. They had uniformly
     distinguished themselves in the several actions; were beloved and
     lamented by the whole squadron.

     _September 5th._ We were employed in supplying the gunboats with
     ammunition, &c., and repairing the bomb vessels for another
     attack, but, the wind shifting to the N. N. E., a heavy swell
     setting on shore, and other indications of bad weather,
     determined me, for greater safety, to take the guns, mortars, (p. 149)
     shot and shells out of the boats into the Constitution and
     John Adams, which was accordingly done. The weather continuing
     to wear a threatening aspect until the 7th, and our ammunition
     being reduced to a quantity not more than sufficient for three
     vessels to keep up the blockade, no intelligence of the expected
     reinforcement, and the season so far advanced as to render it
     imprudent to hazard the gunboats any longer on the station, I
     gave orders for the John Adams, Syren, Nautilus, Enterprize and
     Scourge, to take the bombs and gunboats in tow, and proceed to
     Syracuse with them. The Argus and Vixen to remain with the
     Constitution, to keep up the blockade.

     _September 10th._ The United States ship President, Commodore
     Barron, and Constellation, Captain Campbell, hove in sight, and
     soon joined company, when the command of the squadron was
     surrendered to Commodore Barron with the usual ceremony. I
     continued in company with the squadron until the 12th, when three
     strange ships came in sight, standing direct for Tripoli. Chase
     was given, and two of them boarded and taken possession of by the
     Constitution, the President in company, about four leagues from
     Tripoli, but not more than five miles from the land, while the
     Constellation and Argus were in chase of the third. The two
     boarded by the Constitution were loaded with about sixteen
     thousand bushels of wheat. Tripoli is in a state of starvation,
     and there can be no doubt but these cargoes were meant as a
     supply and relief to our enemies.

     Considering the season too far advanced, and weather too
     uncertain, to hazard any further operations against Tripoli, at
     present, Commodore Barron determined that the prizes should be
     sent to Malta, under convoy of the Constitution, it being
     necessary she should go into port to be recaulked and refitted. I
     notified to Commodore Barron that it was my wish to return to the
     United States, in the frigate John Adams, Captain Chauncey; this
     readily, and in the handsomest manner, met his acquiescence. I
     shall accordingly return in that ship.

     The service in this quarter cannot suffer from this arrangement,
     as Captain Decatur is at present without a ship, and my return
     will place him immediately in the exercise of the duties attached
     to that commission which he has so gallantly earned, and his
     country generously bestowed. I shall feel a pleasure in leaving
     the Constitution under the command of that officer, whose
     enterprising and manly conduct I have often witnessed, and whose
     merits eminently entitle him to so handsome a command.

     The other commanders merit the highest commendations for their
     prompt obedience to orders, on all occasions, and for the zeal,
     spirit and judgment which they displayed in the several attacks
     on the enemy's shipping and batteries, as well as for the general
     good order and discipline at all times observed on board their
     respective vessels. The officers of the squadron have conducted
     themselves in the most gallant and handsome manner; and the
     conduct of the different ship's companies have merited my warmest
     approbation since I have had the honour to command them.

     It affords me much satisfaction to observe that we have neither
     had a duel nor a court martial in the squadron since we left the
     United States.

     I most sincerely regret the loss of our gallant countrymen, who
     have sacrificed their lives to the honour of the service, and
     that it has not been in my power, consistent with the         (p. 150)
     interest and expectation of our country, to liberate Captain
     Bainbridge and the unfortunate officers and crew of the
     Philadelphia. Be assured, sir, I have incessantly endeavoured to
     effect this desirable object. I have no doubt but my successor
     will be able to effect their release, and establish peace, on
     such terms as will reflect the highest honour on himself and his
     country.

     _September 17th._ Arrived at Malta with the two detained Greek
     vessels. We experienced very bad weather, but had the
     satisfaction to learn that the bombs and gunboats had arrived
     safe at Syracuse, the 15th instant, without accident. Each of the
     Tripoline gunboats which we have captured has two brass howitzers
     abaft, and a handsome copper gun in the bow, which carries a
     twenty-nine pound shot, is eleven and a half feet long, and
     weighs six thousand six hundred pounds.

     I send you a plan of the town and harbour of Tripoli, with the
     disposition of our squadron, and the enemy's flotilla, at the
     time of the several attacks, with sundry other papers.

     I have the honour to be, with the highest respect, sir,

                     Your most obedient servant,
                                        Edward PREBLE.

                              _____

_R. Smith to George Harrison._

     To
       George HARRISON, Esq.,           Navy Department,
          Philadelphia.                 June 26, 1805.

     Sir: I have received your letter, accompanied by drawings of the
     medal for Commodore Preble. I now return you the Commodore's
     likeness and one of the drawings sent to me by you. I approve the
     drawings, excepting as to size, which appears to me to be too
     large. I doubt whether any die can be made to impress so large a
     surface. We should depart, too, from general custom, by making
     this medal so large. The medal voted by the old Congress, for
     General Washington, was three inches diameter, those for General
     Greene, Gates, &c., were two and a half inches, and those for
     Morgan, Wayne, &c., were two inches. The drawings of the medal
     for Commodore Preble are four inches. I have no objections to the
     medal for Commodore Preble being two and a half inches. Confer
     with artists upon the subject and let me hear from you. It is my
     determination to have it made by Mr. Reich, and you may so inform
     him, that he may not engage in other business to interfere with
     this.

     I am respectfully, sir, your most obedient servant,
                                        R. SMITH.



No. 24.                                                            (p. 151)
PLATE XXV.


_March 4, 1809--March 4, 1817._

     James Madison President of the U. S. A. D. 1809. [Rx]. Peace and
     friendship.

PRESIDENT JAMES MADISON.

[_Fourth President of the United States of America._]

JAMES MADISON PRESIDENT OF THE U. S. (_United States_) A. D. (_Anno
Domini: The year of our Lord_) 1809. Bust of President Madison, facing
the left. On ring, R. (_Reich_).

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped, in token of amity; on the
cuff of the left wrist three stripes and as many buttons with the
American eagle on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a
calumet and a tomahawk crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.[74]

                   [Footnote 74: See INTRODUCTION, page xxiv.]

The dies of the reverse of this medal served for all the Indian
Presidential medals struck previous to July, 1846, when new ones had
to be made, as will be seen from the following extracts from
despatches of R. M. Patterson, director of the Mint, to William
Merrill, commissioner of Indian affairs, bearing date, Philadelphia,
July 18, 1846:

     "As the dies for the Indian medals belong to the War Department,
     it is proper that I should mention that the reverses are no
     longer in a condition to be employed. They have been used for all
     the medals struck since the time of President Jefferson, and it
     was with difficulty that they could be made to answer for those
     which we have just completed. A new set will be absolutely
     necessary, and it seems not unreasonable that they should be paid
     out of the appropriation made for these medals, in striking which
     they have finally failed."

And Philadelphia, December 5, 1846:                                (p. 152)

     "In a letter which I addressed to you on the 18th of July last, I
     stated that the reverses used for the Indian medals were no
     longer in a condition to be again employed. I mentioned that the
     cost of a new set would be $300, and I asked your authority to
     have them made without further delay. This authority you gave me
     in your letter of the 21st of July. I have now to report that
     complete sets both of hubs and dies have been made, and that the
     hubs will put it in our power to replace a die, at any time, if
     it should be injured. All apprehension from this source is
     therefore removed for the future."


JAMES MADISON was born at King George, on the Rappahannock river,
Virginia, March 16, 1751. He was graduated at the College of New
Jersey, Princeton, 1771; studied law; was member of the General
Assembly of Virginia, 1776; of the Continental Congress, 1780-1783; of
the State Legislature of Virginia, 1784; of the Philadelphia
Convention, 1787; representative in Congress from Virginia, 1789-1797;
secretary of State to President Jefferson, 1801-1809; President of the
United States (first term), 1809-1813; (second term), 1813-1817. He
died at his estate of Montpelier, Orange County, Virginia, June 28,
1836.



No. 25.                                                            (p. 153)
PLATE XXVI.


_August 19, 1812._

     Isaacus Hull peritos arte superat Jul MDCCCXII Aug. certamine
     fortes. [Rx]. Horae memento victoria.

CAPTAIN ISAAC HULL.

[_Capture of the Guerrière._]

ISAACUS HULL PERITOS ARTE SUPERAT JUL. (_Julii_), MDCCCXII AUG.
(_Augusti_) CERTAMINE FORTES.[75] (_Isaac Hull conquers in July, 1812,
the skilled by stratagem, and in August, the strong in battle._) Bust
of Captain Hull, in uniform, facing the left. On edge of bust, R.
(_Reich_).

                   [Footnote 75: As this legend refers to two events,
                   Hull's celebrated escape from a British fleet in
                   July, and his capture of the Guerrière in August,
                   1812, the official reports of both those important
                   affairs are given.]

HORAE MOMENTO VICTORIA. (_Victory in the space of an hour._) Naval
action between the United States frigate Constitution, of forty-four
guns, Captain Hull, and the British frigate Guerrière, of forty-nine
guns, Captain Dacres. The Constitution, firing her starboard battery,
carries away the Guerrière's mizzenmast, which, in falling, takes with
it the mainmast; the Guerrière, having already lost her foremast, is
completely dismasted; the Constitution, on the contrary, is but
slightly injured in her rigging. Exergue: INTER CONST. NAV. AMER. ET
GUER. ANGL. (_Inter Constitution navem Americanam et Guerrière
Anglicanam: Between the American vessel Constitution and the English
vessel Guerrière_).[76]

                   [Footnote 76: See INTRODUCTION, page xxiv.]


ISAAC HULL was born at Derby, Connecticut, March 9, 1775. He was first
in the merchant service, but entered the navy as lieutenant in 1798,
and served under Commodores Preble and Barron before Tripoli,      (p. 154)
1802-1805. In May, 1804, he was appointed master-commandant, and in
April, 1806, captain. On July 17, 1812, and on the following two days,
while in command of the frigate Constitution, he found himself
becalmed, with a fleet of five British vessels in pursuit of him, but
by repeatedly sending out his kedge anchors and hauling his ship up to
them, he kept out of their reach until the breeze sprung up again,
when he soon left them far astern. A few weeks later, August 19, he
fell in with and captured the British frigate Guerrière, Captain J. A.
Dacres, for which gallant action Congress gave him a vote of thanks
and a gold medal. After the war, he commanded in the Pacific and the
Mediterranean. He was a member of the Naval Board, and was at the head
of the navy yards at Boston and at Washington. He died in
Philadelphia, February 3, 1843.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Captains Hull, Decatur,
Jones, etc._

     _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States of America in Congress assembled_, That the
     President of the United States be, and he is hereby, requested to
     present to Captain Hull of the frigate Constitution, Captain
     Decatur of the frigate United States, and Captain Jones of the
     sloop of war Wasp, each a gold medal, with suitable emblems and
     devices; and a silver medal, with like emblems and devices, to
     each commissioned officer of the aforesaid vessels, in testimony
     of the high sense entertained by Congress of the gallantry, good
     conduct, and services of the captains, officers, and crews of the
     aforesaid vessels in their respective conflicts with the British
     frigates the Guerrière and the Macedonian, and sloop of war
     Frolic; and the President is also requested to present a silver
     medal,[77] with like emblems and devices, to the nearest male
     relative of Lieutenant Bush, and one to the nearest male relative
     of Lieutenant Funk, in testimony of the gallantry and merit of
     those deceased officers, in whom their country has sustained a
     loss much to be regretted.

                   [Footnote 77: The silver medals are copies of the
                   gold ones given to the captains of the respective
                   ships.]

     SECTION 2. _And be it further resolved_, That the President of
     the United States be, and he hereby is, requested to present to
     Lieutenant Elliott of the navy of the United States, an elegant
     sword, with suitable emblems and devices, in testimony of the
     just sense entertained by Congress of his gallantry and good
     conduct in boarding and capturing the British brigs Detroit and
     Caledonia, while anchored under the protection of Fort Erie.

     Approved January 29, 1813.

                              _____

_Captain Hull to the Secretary of the Navy._                       (p. 155)

     To the Honourable             United States frigate Constitution,
        Paul HAMILTON,                    at Sea, July 21, 1812.
          Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: In pursuance of your orders of the 3d instant, I left
     Annapolis on the 5th instant, and the Capes on the 12th, of which
     I advised you by the Pilot that brought the ship to sea.

     For several days after we got out the wind was light and ahead,
     which with a strong southerly current prevented our making much
     way to the northward. On the 17th at 2 P.M., being in 22 fathoms
     water off Egg Harbour, four sail of ships were discovered from
     the mast head to the northward and in shore of us; apparently
     ships of war. The wind being very light, all sail was made in
     chase of them, to ascertain whether they were enemy's ships or
     our squadron having got out of New York waiting the arrival of
     the Constitution, the latter of which I had reason to believe was
     the case.

     At 4 in the afternoon a ship was seen from the mast head bearing
     about N. E., standing for us under all sail, which she continued
     to do until sundown, at which time she was too far off to
     distinguish signals, and the ships in shore were only to be seen
     from the tops, they were standing off to the southward, and
     eastward. As we could not ascertain before dark what the ship in
     the offing was, I determined to stand for her and get near enough
     to make the night signal. At 10, in the evening, being within six
     or eight miles of the strange sail, the Private Signal was made,
     and kept up nearly one hour, but finding she could not answer it,
     I concluded she and the ships in shore were enemies. I
     immediately hauled off to the southward and eastward, and made
     all sail, having determined to lay off till day light, to see
     what they were. The ship that we had been chasing, hauled off
     after us, showing a light, and occasionally making signals,
     supposed to be for the ships in shore.

     _July 18th._ At daylight, or a little before it was quite light,
     saw two sail under our lee, which proved to be frigates of the
     enemy--one frigate astern, within about five or six miles, and a
     line-of-battle ship, a frigate, a brig and schooner, about ten or
     twelve miles directly astern, all in chase of us, with a fine
     breeze, and coming up very fast, it being nearly calm where we
     were. Soon after sunrise the wind entirely left us, and the ship
     would not steer, but fell round off with her head towards the two
     ships under our lee. The boats were instantly hoisted out and
     sent ahead to tow the ship's head round, and to endeavour to get
     her farther from the enemy, being then within five miles of three
     heavy frigates. The boats of the enemy were got out, and sent
     ahead to tow, which, with the light air that remained with them,
     they came up very fast. Finding the enemy coming fast up, and but
     little chance of escaping from them, I ordered two of the guns on
     the gun deck, ran out at the cabin windows for stern guns on the
     gun deck, and hoisted one of the 24-pounders off the gun deck,
     and run that, with the forecastle gun, an 18-pounder, out at the
     ports on the quarter deck, and cleared the ship for action, being
     determined they should not get her without resistance on our
     part, notwithstanding their force and the situation we were
     placed in.

     At about seven in the morning the ship nearest us             (p. 156)
     approaching within gunshot and directly astern, I ordered one of
     the stern guns fired to see if we could reach her, to endeavour
     to disable her masts, found the shot fell a little short, would
     not fire any more. At 8 four of the enemy's ships nearly within
     gunshot, some of them having six or eight boats ahead towing,
     with all their oars and sweeps out to row them up with us, which
     they were fast doing. It now appeared that we must be taken, and
     that our escape was impossible, four heavy ships nearly within
     gunshot and coming up fast, and not the least hope of a breeze to
     give us a chance of getting off by outsailing them.

     In the situation, finding ourselves in only twenty-four fathoms
     water (by the suggestion of that valuable officer, Lieutenant
     Morris), I determined to try and warp the ship ahead by carrying
     out anchors and warping her up to them. Three or four hundred
     fathoms of rope was instantly got up, and two anchors got ready
     and sent ahead, by which means we began to gain ahead of the
     enemy. They however soon saw our boats carrying out the anchors,
     and adopted the same plan, under very advantageous circumstances,
     as all the boats from the ship furthermost off were sent to tow
     and warp up those nearest to us, by which means they again came
     up, so that at 9 the ship nearest us began firing her bow guns,
     which we instantly returned by our stern guns in the cabin and on
     the quarter deck. All the shots from the enemy fell short, but we
     have reason to believe that some of ours went on board her, as we
     could not see them strike the water. Soon after 9 a second
     frigate passed under our lee and opened her broadside, but
     finding her shot fell short, discontinued her fire, but
     continued, as did all the rest of them, to make every possible
     exertion to get up with us.

     From 9 to 12, all hands were employed in warping the ship ahead,
     and in starting some of the water in the main hold, to lighten
     her, by which, with the help of a light air, we rather gained of
     the enemy, or at least held on our own. About 2, in the
     afternoon, all the boats from the line of battle ship, and some
     of the frigates, were sent to the frigate nearest to us, to
     endeavour to tow her up, but a light breeze sprung up, which
     enabled us to hold way with her, notwithstanding they had eight
     or ten boats ahead, and all her sails furled to tow her to
     windward. The wind continued light until 11 at night, and the
     boats were kept ahead towing and warping to keep out of the reach
     of the enemy, three of the frigates being very near us. At 11, we
     got a light breeze from the southward, the boats came alongside,
     and were hoisted up, the ship having too much way to keep them
     ahead, the enemy still in chase and very near.

     _July 19th._ At daylight passed within gun shot of one of the
     frigates, but she did not fire on us, perhaps for fear of
     becalming her as the wind was light. Soon after passing us she
     tacked and stood after us. At this time six sail were in sight
     under all sail after us. At 9, in the morning, saw a strange sail
     on our weather beam, supposed to be an American merchant ship.
     The instant the frigate nearest us saw her, she hoisted American
     colours, as did all the squadron, in hopes to decoy her down. I
     immediately hoisted English colours, that she might not be
     deceived. She soon hauled her wind, and it is to be hoped made
     her escape. All this day the wind increased gradually, and we
     gained on the enemy, in the course of the day, six or eight
     miles, they however continued chasing us all night under a press
     of sail.

     _July 20th._ At daylight in the morning only three of them    (p. 157)
     could be seen from the mast head, the nearest of which was
     about twelve miles off directly astern. All hands were set at
     work wetting the sails, from the royals down, with the engine and
     fire-buckets, and we soon found that we left the enemy very fast.
     At quarter past 8, the enemy finding that they were fast dropping
     astern, gave over the chase, and hauled their own wind to the
     northward, probably for the station off New York. At half-past 8,
     saw a sail ahead, gave chase after her under all sail. At 9, saw
     another strange sail under our lee bow. We soon spoke the first
     sail, discovered and found her to be an American brig from St.
     Domingo, bound to Portland. I directed the captain how to steer
     to avoid the enemy, and made sail for the vessel to leeward. On
     coming up with her, she proved to be an American brig from St.
     Bartholomews, bound to Philadelphia, but on being informed of
     war, she bore up for Charleston, S. C.

     Finding the ship so far to the southward and eastward, and the
     enemy's squadron stationed off New York, which would make it
     impossible for the ship to get in there, I determined to make for
     Boston to receive your further orders, and I hope that my having
     done so will meet your approbation. My wish to explain to you as
     clearly as possible why your orders have not been executed, and
     the length of time the enemy were in chase of us, with various
     other circumstances, have caused me to make this communication
     much longer than I would have wished, yet I cannot (in justice to
     the brave officers and crew under my command) close it without
     expressing to you the confidence I have in them, and assuring you
     that their conduct whilst under the guns of the enemy was such as
     might have been expected from American officers and seamen.

     I have the honour to be, with great respect, Sir, your obedient
     humble servant,
                                        Isaac HULL.

                              _____

_Captain Hull to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States Frigate Constitution,
        Paul HAMILTON,             Off Boston Light, August 30, 1812.
          Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you that on the 19th instant, at
     2 P.M., being in latitude 41° 42´, longitude 55° 48´, with the
     Constitution under my command, a sail was discovered from the
     masthead bearing E. by S. or E. S. E., but at such a distance we
     could not tell what she was. All sail was instantly made in
     chase, and we soon found we came up with her. At 3 P.M. could
     plainly see that she was a ship on the starboard tack, under easy
     sail, close on a wind; at half past 3 P.M. made her out to be a
     frigate; continued the chase until we were within about three
     miles, when I ordered the light sails taken in, the courses
     hauled up, and the ship cleared for action. At this time the
     chase had backed his main top-sail, waiting for us to come down.
     As soon as the Constitution was ready for action, I bore down
     with an intention to bring him to close action immediately; but
     on our coming within gunshot she gave us a broadside and filled
     away, and wore, giving us a broadside on the other tack; but  (p. 158)
     without effect; her shot falling short. She continued wearing
     and manoeuvering for about three-quarters of an hour, to get
     a raking position, but finding she could not, bore up, and
     run under topsails and gib, with the wind on the quarter.
     Immediately made sail to bring the ship up with her, and five
     minutes before 6 P.M. being alongside within half pistol shot,
     we commenced a heavy fire from all our guns, double-shotted with
     round and grape, and so well directed were they, and so warmly
     kept up, that in fifteen minutes her mizzen-mast went by the
     board, and her mainyard in the slings, and the hull, rigging and
     sails were very much torn to pieces. The fire was kept up with
     equal warmth for fifteen minutes longer, when her main-mast and
     fore-mast went, taking with them every spar, excepting the
     bowsprit; on seeing this we ceased firing, so that in thirty
     minutes after we got fairly alongside the enemy she surrendered,
     and had not a spar standing, and her hull below and above water
     so shattered that a few more broadsides must have carried her
     down.

     After informing you that so fine a ship as the Guerrière,
     commanded by an able and experienced officer, had been totally
     dismasted, and otherwise cut to pieces, so as to make her not
     worth towing into port, in the short space of 30 minutes, you can
     have no doubt of the gallantry and good conduct of the officers
     and ship's company I have the honour to command. It only remains,
     therefore, for me to assure you, that they all fought with great
     bravery; and it gives me great pleasure to say, that from the
     smallest boy in the ship to the oldest seaman, not a look of fear
     was seen. They all went into action giving three cheers, and
     requesting to be laid close alongside the enemy.

     Enclosed I have the honour to send you a list of killed and
     wounded on board the Constitution, and a report of the damages
     she has sustained; also a list of the killed and wounded on board
     the enemy, with his quarter-bill, &c.

     I have the honour to be, with very great respect, Sir, your
     obedient servant,

                                        Isaac HULL.

     Killed and wounded on board the United States frigate
     Constitution, Isaac Hull, Esquire, Captain, in the action with
     His Britannic Majesty's frigate Guerrière, James A. Dacres,
     Esquire, Captain, on the 20th of August, 1812:

     _Killed_: W. S. Bush, Lieutenant of Marines, and 6 seamen        7
     _Wounded_: Lieutenant C. Morris, Master J. C. Aylwin,
                4 seamen, 1 marine                                    7
                                                                     --
                                        Total killed and wounded     14

     United States frigate Constitution, August 21st, 1812.

                                        T. S. CHEW, _Purser_.
                                        Isaac HULL, _Captain_.

     Killed and wounded on board His Britannic Majesty's frigate
     Guerrière:

     _Killed_: 3 officers, 12 seamen and marines                     15
     _Wounded_: J. A. Dacres, Captain, 4 officers, 57 seamen and
                marines                                              62
     _Missing_: Lieutenants Pullman and Roberts, and 22 seamen and
                marines, supposed to have gone overboard with the
                masts                                                24
                                                                    ---
                                 Total killed, wounded and missing  101

                              _____

_Captain Hull to the Secretary of the Navy._                       (p. 159)

     To the Honourable             United States Frigate Constitution,
        Paul HAMILTON,             Boston, August 30, 1812.
          Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir:
       -       -       -       -       -

     I cannot but make you acquainted with the very great assistance I
     received from that valued officer, Lieutenant Morris, in bringing
     the ship into action, and in working her whilst along side the
     enemy, and I am extremely sorry to state that he is badly
     wounded, being shot through the body; we have yet hopes of his
     recovery, when I am sure he will receive the thanks and gratitude
     of his country, for this and the many gallant acts he has done in
     its service. Were I to name any particular officer as having been
     more useful than the rest, I should do them great injustice; they
     all fought bravely, and gave me every possible assistance that I
     could wish. I am extremely sorry to state to you the loss of
     Lieutenant Bush, of marines; he fell at the head of his men in
     getting ready to board the enemy. In him our country has lost a
     valuable and brave officer. After the fall of Lieutenant Bush,
     Lieutenant Contee of the corps, took command of the marines, and
     I have pleasure in saying that his conduct was that of a brave,
     good officer, and the marines behaved with great coolness and
     courage during the action, and annoyed the enemy very much whilst
     she was under our stern.

     I have the honour to be, with very great respect, Sir, your
     obedient servant,
                      Isaac HULL.



No. 26.                                                            (p. 160)
PLATE XXVII.


_October 18, 1812._

     Jacobus Jones virtus in ardua tendit. [Rx]. Victoriam hosti
     majori celerrime rapuit.

CAPTAIN JACOB JONES.

[_Capture of the Frolic._]

IACOBUS JONES VIRTUS IN ARDUA TENDIT. (_Jacob Jones. Valor seeks
difficulties._) Bust of Captain Jones, in uniform, facing the right.
On edge of bust, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

VICTORIAM HOSTI MAJORI CELERRIME RAPUIT. (_He quickly snatched victory
from a superior enemy._) Naval action between the United States
sloop-of-war Wasp, of eighteen guns, Captain Jones, and the British
sloop-of-war Frolic, of twenty-two guns, Captain Whinyates. The Wasp
has lost her main-topmast, and is raking the Frolic as she lays her on
board. The Americans are in possession of the enemy's forecastle.
Exergue: INTER WASP NAV. AMERI. ET FROLIC NAV. ANG. DIE XVIII OCT.
MDCCCXII. (_Inter Wasp navem Americanam et Frolic navem Anglicanam,
die 18 Octobris, 1812: Between the American vessel Wasp and the
English vessel Frolic, October 18, 1812._) On the platform, FÜRST. F.
(_fecit_).


MORITZ FÜRST was born in Presburg, Hungary, and studied with Würt, a
die sinker in the Imperial Mint of Vienna. He was for a time
superintendent of the Royal Mint of Lombardy. In 1807 he was engaged
by the American Consul at Leghorn as die sinker to the United States
Mint, arrived the same year in America, and entered on his duties in
the spring of 1808. He made nearly all the medals voted by Congress to
the army and navy for the War of 1812-1815, and the Indian medals of
Presidents Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and Martin Van
Buren. He resided for many years in New York.


JACOB JONES was born near Smyrna, Kent County, Delaware, in March, (p. 161)
1770. He first studied medicine, but entered the navy as midshipman in
1799, was lieutenant in 1801, was taken prisoner in the frigate
Philadelphia, off Tripoli, 1803, and remained in captivity for twenty
months. Having been commissioned as master-commandant in 1810, he was
given, in 1811, the sloop-of-war Wasp, with which he captured the
British sloop-of-war Frolic, Captain Whinyates, October 18, 1812. For
this gallant action Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold
medal. He became captain in 1813, and received the frigate Macedonian.
He afterward commanded squadrons in the Mediterranean and in the
Pacific; was a member of the Naval Board and governor of the Naval
Asylum in Philadelphia, where he died, August 3, 1850.

                   [Footnote 78: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal is given under No. 25, page 154.]

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Captain Jacob Jones to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable
        Paul HAMILTON,                  New York, November 24th, 1813.
          Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I here avail myself of the first opportunity of informing
     you of the occurrences of our cruise, which terminated in the
     capture of the Wasp, on the 18th of October, by the Poictiers, of
     74 guns, while a wreck from damages received in an engagement
     with the British sloop-of-war Frolic, of 22 guns; 16 of them
     32-pound carronades, and four twelve-pounders on the main deck,
     and two twelve-pounders, carronades, on the top-gallant
     forecastle, making her superior in force to us by four
     twelve-pounders. The Frolic had struck to us, and was taken
     possession of, about two hours before our surrendering to the
     Poictiers.

     We had left the Delaware on the 13th. The 16th had a heavy gale,
     in which we lost our jib-boom and two men. Half-past 11, on the
     night of the 17th, in the latitude of 37 degrees north, and
     longitude 65 degrees west, we saw several sail; two of them
     appeared very large. We stood from them for some time, then
     shortened sail, and steered the remainder of the night the course
     we had perceived them on. At daylight, on Sunday the 18th, we saw
     them ahead, gave chase, and soon discovered them to be a convoy
     of six sail, under the protection of a sloop-of-war, four of them
     large ships, mounting from 16 to 18 guns. At 30 minutes past 11,
     A.M., we engaged the sloop-of-war, having first received her
     fire at the distance of fifty or sixty yards, which space we  (p. 162)
     gradually lessened until we laid her on board, after a well
     supported fire of 43 minutes; and although so near, while
     loading the last broadside, that our rammers were shoved against
     the side of the enemy, our men exhibited the same alacrity which
     they had done during the whole of the action. They immediately
     surrendered upon our gaining their forecastle, so that no loss
     was sustained on either side after boarding.

     Our main-topmast was shot away between four and five minutes from
     the commencement of the firing, and falling, together with the
     main-topsail yard, across the larboard fore and fore-topsail
     braces, rendered our head-yards unmanageable the remainder of the
     action. At eight minutes the gaff and main-topgallant-mast came
     down, and at twenty minutes from the beginning of the action,
     every brace and most of the rigging was shot away. A few minutes
     after separating from the Frolic, both her masts fell upon deck,
     the main-mast going close by the deck, and the fore-mast twelve
     or fifteen feet above it.

     The courage and exertions of the officers and crew fully answered
     my expectations and wishes. Lieutenant Biddle's active conduct
     contributed much to our success by the exact attention paid to
     every department during the engagement, and the animating example
     he afforded the crew by his intrepidity. Lieutenants Rodgers,
     Booth, and Mr. Rapp shewed, by the incessant fire from their
     divisions, that they were not to be surpassed in resolution or
     skill. Mr. Knight and every other officer acted with a courage
     and promptitude highly honourable, and, I trust, have given
     assurance that they may be relied on whenever their services may
     be required.

     I could not ascertain the exact loss of the enemy, as many of the
     dead lay buried under the masts and spars that had fallen upon
     deck, which two hours exertion had not sufficiently removed. Mr.
     Biddle, who had charge of the Frolic, states that, from what he
     saw and from information from the officers, the number killed
     must have been about thirty, and that of the wounded about forty
     or fifty: of the killed is her first lieutenant and sailing
     master; of the wounded Captain Whinyates and the second
     lieutenant.

     We had five killed and five wounded, as per list; the wounded are
     recovering. Lieutenant Claxton, who was confined by sickness,
     left his bed a little previous to the engagement, and though too
     weak to be at his division, remained upon deck, and shewed, by
     his composed manner of noting incidents, that we had lost, by his
     illness, the services of a brave officer.

         I am, respectfully yours, etc.,
                                        Jacob JONES.



No. 27.                                                            (p. 163)
PLATE XXVIII.


_October 25, 1812._

     Stephanus Decatur navarchus, pugnis pluribus, victor. [Rx].
     Occidit signum hostile sidera surgunt.

CAPTAIN STEPHEN DECATUR.

[_Capture of the Macedonian._]

STEPHANUS DECATUR NAVARCHUS, PUGNIS PLURIBUS, VICTOR. (_Stephen
Decatur, a naval captain, conqueror in many battles._) Bust of Captain
Decatur, in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

OCCIDIT SIGNUM HOSTILE SIDERA SURGUNT. (_The enemy's standard falls,
the stars arise._) Naval action between the United States frigate
United States, of forty-four guns, Captain Decatur, and the British
frigate Macedonian, of forty-nine guns, Captain Carden; the United
States, to leeward, is firing her port broadside; the Macedonian has
lost her mizzenmast, her fore and main-topmasts, and her mainyard.
Exergue: INTER STA. UNI. NAV. AMERI. ET MACEDO. NAV. ANG. DIE XXV
OCTOBRIS MDCCCXII. (_Inter United States navem Americanam et
Macedonian navem Anglicanam, die 25 Octobris, 1812: Between the
American vessel United States and the English vessel Macedonian,
October 25, 1812._) On the platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


STEPHEN DECATUR was born in Sinnepuxent, Worcester County, Maryland,
January 5, 1779. He was appointed a midshipman, 1798; a lieutenant,
1799; served in the Mediterranean under Commodore Dale, 1801, and
under Commodore Preble, 1803; and, while in command of the Intrepid,
destroyed the Philadelphia, off Tripoli, February 15, 1804. For this
gallant deed he was immediately promoted to the rank of captain.   (p. 164)
He commanded a division of gunboats under Preble in the subsequent
attacks on Tripoli. On October 25, 1812, when in command of the
frigate United States, he captured the British frigate Macedonian,
Captain John Carden, for which action Congress gave him a vote of
thanks and a gold medal. In January, 1815, he left New London as
commodore, having his flag on the President, but was soon afterward
captured by an English fleet. The same year he sailed for the
Mediterranean in command of a squadron, and made treaties with
Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. On his return home he became a member of
the Naval Board. He was shot in a duel by Commodore Barron, at
Bladensburg, Maryland, March 22, 1820, and died the same evening.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.[79]

                   [Footnote 79: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal is given under No. 25, page 154.]

_Captain Decatur to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States ship United States,
       Paul HAMILTON,                at Sea, October 30, 1812.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you, that on the 25th instant,
     being in the latitude 29°, N., longitude 29°, 30', W., we fell in
     with, and, after an action of an hour and a half, captured His
     Britannic Majesty's ship Macedonian, commanded by Captain John
     Carden, and mounting 49 carriage guns (the odd gun shifting). She
     is a frigate of the largest class, two years old, four months out
     of dock, and reputed one of the best sailors in the British
     service. The enemy being to windward, had the advantage of
     engaging us at his own distance, which was so great, that for the
     first half hour we did not use our carronades, and at no moment
     was he within the complete effect of our musketry or grape: to
     this circumstance and a heavy swell, which was on at the time, I
     ascribe the unusual length of the action.

     The enthusiasm of every officer, seaman, and marine on board this
     ship, on discovering the enemy; their steady conduct in battle,
     and precision of their fire, could not be surpassed. Where all
     met my fullest expectations, it would be unjust for me to
     discriminate. Permit me, however, to recommend to your particular
     notice my first Lieutenant, William H. Allen. He has served with
     me upwards of five years, and to his unremitted exertions in
     disciplining the crew, is to be imputed the obvious superiority
     of our gunnery exhibited in the result of this contest.

     Subjoined is a list of the killed and wounded on both sides.  (p. 165)
     Our loss, compared with that of the enemy, will appear small.
     Amongst our wounded, you will observe the name of Lieutenant
     Funk, who died in a few hours after the action: he was an
     officer of great gallantry and promise, and the service has
     sustained a severe loss in his death.

     The Macedonian lost her mizzen-mast, fore and main-top-masts and
     main yard, and was much cut up in her hull. The damage sustained
     by this ship was not such as to render her return into port
     necessary, and had I not deemed it important that we should see
     our prize in, should have continued our cruize.

     With the highest consideration, I am, yours, etc.,
                                                       Stephen DECATUR.

     Killed              5
     Wounded             7--1 since dead.
                        --
                        12

          MACEDONIAN.

     Killed             36
     Wounded            68
                       ---
                       104



No. 28.                                                            (p. 166)
PLATE XXIX.


_December 29, 1812._

     Gulielmus Bainbridge patria victisque laudatus. [Rx]. Pugnando.

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE.

[_Capture of the Java._]

GULIELMUS BAINBRIDGE PATRIA VICTISQUE LAUDATUS. (_William Bainbridge
praised by his country and by the vanquished foe._) Bust of Captain
Bainbridge, in uniform, facing the right; underneath, a star. FÜRST.
F. (_fecit_).

PUGNANDO. (_In fighting._) The naval action is over. The British
frigate Java, of forty-nine guns, Captain Lambert, is completely
dismasted; while the United States frigate Constitution, of forty-four
guns, Captain Bainbridge, is but slightly damaged in her rigging.
Exergue: INTER CONST. NAV. AMERI. ET JAV. NAV. ANGL. DIE XXIX DECEM.
MDCCCXII. (_Inter Constitution navem Americanam et Java navem,
Anglicanam, die 29 Decembris, 1812: Between the American vessel
Constitution and the English vessel Java, December 29, 1812._) FÜRST.
F. (_fecit_).


WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE was born in Princeton, New Jersey, May 7, 1774. He
began life in the merchant service, but entered the navy as lieutenant
in 1798, was master-commandant in 1799, and captain in 1800. With the
frigate George Washington he went to Algiers, whence he conveyed an
ambassador to Constantinople, the George Washington being the first
American vessel ever seen there. He commanded the Philadelphia when
she was lost off Tripoli, November 1, 1803. After his return to the
United States he did not serve again afloat till 1812, when he
obtained the command of the Constitution; and on December 29 of the
same year he captured the British frigate Java, Captain Lambert,   (p. 167)
for which action Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold medal.
After the war he commanded twice in the Mediterranean, and after
1821 served on shore, commanding different navy yards, and was
president of the Naval Board. He died in Philadelphia, July 28, 1833.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Bainbridge, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be, and he is hereby, requested to
     present to Captain William Bainbridge, of the frigate
     Constitution, a gold medal, with suitable emblems and devices;
     and a silver medal,[80] with suitable emblems and devices, to
     each commissioned officer of the said frigate, in testimony of
     the high sense entertained by Congress of the gallantry, good
     conduct, and services of Captain Bainbridge, his officers, and
     crew, in the capture of the British frigate Java, after a brave
     and skillful combat.

                   [Footnote 80: The silver medals are copies of the
                   one in gold given to Captain Bainbridge.]

     Approved March 3, 1813.

                              _____

_Captain Bainbridge to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To
       THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY,   United States frigate Constitution,
          Washington, D. C.          St. Salvador, January 3d, 1813.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you that on the 29th ultimo, at
     2 P.M., in south latitude 13°, 06', and west longitude 39°, ten
     leagues distance from the coast of Brazils, I fell in with and
     captured His Britannic Majesty's frigate Java, of 49 guns, and
     upwards of 400 men, commanded by Captain Lambert, a very
     distinguished officer. The action lasted one hour and fifty-five
     minutes, in which time the enemy was completely dismasted, not
     having a spar of any kind standing. The loss on board the
     Constitution was 9 killed and 25 wounded, as per enclosed list.
     The enemy had 60 killed and 101 wounded, certainly (among the
     latter, Captain Lambert, mortally), but by the enclosed letter,
     written on board the ship (by one of the officers of the Java),
     and accidentally found, it is evident that the enemy's wounded
     must have been much greater than as above stated, and who must
     have died of their wounds previously to their being removed. The
     letter states 60 killed and 170 wounded.

     For further details of the action, I beg leave to refer you   (p. 168)
     to the enclosed extracts from my journal. The Java had in
     addition to her own crew upwards of one hundred supernumerary
     officers and seamen, to join the British ships-of-war in the East
     Indies: also Lieutenant-General Hyslop, appointed to the command
     of Bombay, Major Walker and Captain Wood, of his staff, and
     Captain Marshall, master and commander in the British navy, going
     to the East Indies to take command of a sloop-of-war there.

     Should I attempt to do justice, by representation, to the brave
     and good conduct of all my officers and crew, during the action,
     I should fail in the attempt; therefore, suffice it to say, that
     the whole of their conduct was such as to merit my highest
     encomiums. I beg leave to recommend the officers particularly to
     the notice of government, as also the unfortunate seamen who were
     wounded, and the families of those men who fell in the action.

     The great distance from our own coast, and the perfect wreck we
     made the enemy's frigate, forbid every idea of attempting to take
     her to the United States; and not considering it prudent to trust
     her in a port of Brazils, particularly St. Salvador, I had no
     alternative but burning her, which I did on the 31st ultimo,
     after receiving all the prisoners and their baggage, which was
     very tedious work, only having one boat left (out of eight) and
     not one left on board the Java.

     On blowing up the frigate Java, I proceeded to this place, where
     I have landed all the prisoners on their parole, to return to
     England and there remain until regularly exchanged, and not serve
     in their professional capacities in any place or in any manner
     whatever, against the United States of America, until the
     exchange shall be effected.

     I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                  W. BAINBRIDGE.

                              _____

_Extract from Captain Bainbridge's Journal, containing minutes of the
action with the British frigate Java._

     "_Wednesday, December 30th, 1812_ (nautical time) in latitude 13
     degrees, 6 minutes South, and longitude 39 West, ten leagues from
     the coast of Brazil, commences with clear weather and moderate
     breezes from east north-east, hoisted our ensign and pendant. At
     15 minutes past meridian, the ship hoisted her colours, an
     English ensign having a signal flying at her main, red, yellow
     and red. At 1.26 P.M. being sufficiently from the land, and
     finding the ship to be an English frigate, took in the main-sail
     and royals, tacked ship and stood for the enemy. At 1.50 P.M. the
     enemy bore down with the intention of raking us, which we avoided
     by wearing. At 2 P.M. the enemy being within half a mile of us,
     and to windward, and having hauled down his colours, except an
     Union Jack at the mizzen-mast head, induced me to give orders to
     the officers of the 3d division to fire one gun ahead of the
     enemy to make him show his colours, which being done, brought on
     a fire from us of the whole broadside, on which the enemy hoisted
     his colours and immediately returned our fire. A general action
     with round and grape then commenced, the enemy keeping at a   (p. 169)
     much greater distance than I wished, but could not bring him to
     closer action without exposing ourselves to several rakes.
     Considerable manoeuvres were made by both vessels to rake and
     avoid being raked. The following minutes were taken during
     the action:

     "At 2.10 P.M. commenced the action within good grape and canister
     distance, the enemy to windward, but much further than I wished.
     At 2.30 our wheel was shot entirely away; 2.40, determined to
     close with the enemy, notwithstanding his raking, set the fore
     and main-sail and luffed up close to him; 2.50, the enemy's
     jib-boom got foul of our mizzen rigging; 3, the head of the
     enemy's bowsprit and jib-boom shot away by us; 3.5, shot away the
     enemy's foremast by the board; 3.15, shot away his main-top-mast
     just above the cap; 3.40, shot away gaff and spanker boom; 3.55,
     shot away his mizzenmast nearly by the board; 4.5, having
     silenced the fire of the enemy completely, and his colours in
     main rigging being down, supposed he had struck, then hauled
     aboard the courses to shoot ahead to repair our rigging, which
     was extremely cut, leaving the enemy a complete wreck. Soon after
     discovered the enemy's flag was still flying; hove to, to repair
     some of our damage; 4.20, the enemy's main-mast went nearly by
     the board; 4.50, wore ship and stood for the enemy; 5.25, got
     very close to the enemy in a very effectual _raking position_,
     athwart his bows, and was at the very instant of raking him, when
     he most prudently struck his flag, for had he suffered the
     broadside to have raked him, his additional loss must have been
     extremely great, as he laid an unmanageable wreck upon the water.

     "After the enemy had struck, wore ship and reefed the topsails,
     then hoisted out one of the only two remaining boats we had left
     out of eight, and sent Lieutenant Parker, 1st of the
     Constitution, to take possession of the enemy, which proved to be
     His Britannic Majesty's frigate Java, rated 38 but carried 49
     guns, and manned with upwards of 400 men, commanded by Captain
     Lambert, a very distinguished officer, who was mortally wounded.
     The action continued, from the commencement to the end of the
     fire, one hour and fifty-five minutes. The Constitution had 9
     killed and 25 wounded. The enemy had 60 killed and 101 certainly
     wounded, but by a letter written on board the Constitution, by
     one of the officers of the Java, and accidentally found, it is
     evident the enemy's wounded must have been considerably greater
     than as above stated, and who must have died of their wounds
     previously to their being removed. The letter states 60 killed
     and 170 wounded. The Java had her own complement of men complete,
     and upwards of one hundred supernumeraries, going to join the
     British ships-of-war in the East Indies; also several officers,
     passengers, going out on promotion. The force of the enemy in
     number of men, at the commencement of the action, was no doubt
     considerably greater than we have been able to ascertain, which
     is upwards of 400 men. The officers were extremely cautious in
     discovering the number. By her quarter bill she had one man more
     stationed at each gun than we had.

     "The Constitution was very much cut in her sails and rigging, and
     many of her spars injured. At 7 P.M. the boat returned with
     Lieutenant Chads, the first lieutenant of the enemy's frigate,
     and Lieutenant-General Hyslop (appointed governor of Bombay),
     Major Walker and Captain Wood, belonging to his staff. Captain
     Lambert, of the Java, was too dangerously wounded to be       (p. 170)
     removed immediately. The cutter returned on board the prize for
     the prisoners, and brought Captain Marshall, master and commander
     of the British navy, who was passenger on board, as also several
     other naval officers, destined for ships in the East Indies.

     "The Java was an important ship, fitted out in the completest
     manner, to carry Lieutenant-General Hyslop and staff to Bombay,
     and several naval officers for different ships in the East
     Indies; and had despatches for St. Helena, Cape of Good Hope, and
     every British establishment in the India and China seas. She had
     on board copper for a 74 and two brigs building at Bombay, and I
     expect a great many other valuables; but everything was blown up
     in her except the officers' baggage, when we set her on fire at 3
     P.M., on the 1st of January, 1813 (nautical time)."

[Copy.]

_H. D. Corneck to Lieutenant Wood._

                  Prisoner on board the American frigate Constitution.
     To LIEUTENANT PETER V. WOOD,
         22d Regiment of Foot, St. Salvador, Brazils, January 1st, 1813.
             Isle of France or Bourbon, East Indies.

     My dear Sir: I am sorry to inform you of the unpleasant news of
     Mr. Gascoigne's death. Mr. Gascoigne and myself were shipmates in
     Marlboro', and first came to sea together. He was shot in the
     early part of the action by a round shot in his right thigh, and
     died a few minutes after; four others of his messmates shared the
     same fate, together with 60 men killed and 170 wounded. The
     official account you no doubt heard of before this reaches you. I
     beg you will let all his friends and relations hear of his
     untimely fate. We were on board the Java frigate for a passage to
     India, when we fell in with this frigate. Two parcels I have sent
     you under good care. Hope this will reach you safe.

                            Yours truly,
                                        H. D. CORNECK.

     [A true copy.]
          William BAINBRIDGE.



No. 29.                                                            (p. 171)
PLATE XXX.


_September 4, 1813._

     Edward [Rx]. McCall navis Enterprise præfectus. Sic itur ad astra.
     [Rx]. Vivere sat vincere.

LIEUTENANT EDWARD RUTLEDGE McCALL.

[_Capture of the Boxer._]

EDWARD R. _(Rutledge)_ McCALL NAVIS ENTERPRISE _(sic)_ PRÆFECTUS. SIC
ITUR AD ASTRA.[81] (_Edward Rutledge McCall, Commander of the vessel
Enterprize. Thus one attains glory._) Bust of Lieutenant McCall, in
uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 81: Virgil, Æneid, Book IX, 641.]

VIVERE SAT VINCERE. (_To conquer is to live enough._) Naval engagement
between the United States brig-of-war Enterprize, of fourteen guns,
Lieutenant-Commander Burrows, and the British brig-of-war Boxer, of
fourteen guns, Captain Blythe. The Enterprize is raking the Boxer,
fore and aft. The latter has lost her main-topmast. Exergue: INTER
ENTERPRIZE NAV. AMERI. ET BOXER NAV. BRIT.[82] DIE IV SEPT. MDCCCXIII.
(_Inter Enterprize navem Americanam et Boxer navem Britannicam, die 4
Septembris, 1813: Between the American vessel Enterprize and the
British vessel Boxer, September 4, 1813._) FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 82: It is singular that on some of the
                   silver coins of Great Britain the abbreviation
                   BRIT. (Britanniarum) is spelled with one _t_, and
                   on some of the copper coins, with two _t's_, thus,
                   BRITT.]


EDWARD RUTLEDGE MCCALL was born in Charleston, South Carolina, August
5, 1790. He entered the navy in January, 1808. In 1813 he was first
lieutenant of the Enterprize, under Lieutenant Burrows, in the action
with the Boxer, took the command after that officer fell, and captured
the British vessel, for which gallant deed Congress gave him a     (p. 172)
vote of thanks and a gold medal. He afterward served in the
Mediterranean under Commodore Perry, was promoted to the rank of
master-commandant in 1825, and to that of captain in 1835. He died in
Bordentown, New Jersey, July 31, 1853.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Lieutenants McCall, Burrows,
etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to present to the
     nearest male relative of Lieutenant William Burrows, and to
     Lieutenant Edward R. McCall, of the brig Enterprize, a gold
     medal, with suitable emblems and devices; and a silver medal,[83]
     with like emblems and devices, to each of the commissioned
     officers of the aforesaid vessel, in testimony of the high sense
     entertained by Congress of the gallantry and good conduct of the
     officers and crew in the conflict with the British sloop Boxer,
     on the fourth of September, in the year 1813. And the President
     is also requested to communicate to the nearest male relative of
     Lieutenant Burrows the deep regret which Congress feel for the
     loss of that valuable officer, who died in the arms of victory,
     nobly contending for his country's rights and fame.

                   [Footnote 83: The silver medals are copies of the
                   one in gold given to Lieutenant McCall.]

     Approved January 6, 1814.

                              _____

_Captain Hull to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States Navy Yard, Portsmouth,
       William JONES,                September 14th, 1813.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to forward to you, by the mail, the flags
     of the late British brig Boxer, which were nailed to her
     mast-heads at the time she engaged, and was captured by, the
     United States brig Enterprize.

     Great as the pleasure is that I derive from performing this part
     of my duty, I need not tell you how different my feelings would
     have been, could the gallant Burrows have had this honour.

     He went into action most gallantly, and the difference of injury
     done the two vessels proves how nobly he fought.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Isaac HULL.

                              _____

_Lieutenant McCall to Captain Hull._                               (p. 173)

     To                            United States Brig Enterprize,
       Isaac HULL, Esq.,             Portland, September 7th, 1813.
         United States Navy Yard, Portsmouth.

     Sir: In consequence of the unfortunate death of
     Lieutenant-Commander William Burrows, late commander of this
     vessel, it devolves on me to acquaint you with the result of our
     cruize. After sailing from Portsmouth on the 1st instant, we
     steered to the eastward, and on the morning of the 3d, off Wood
     Island, discovered a schooner, which we chased into this harbour,
     where we anchored. On the morning of the 4th weighed anchor and
     swept out, and continued our cruize to the eastward. Having
     received information of several privateers being off Manhagan, we
     stood for that place; and on the following morning, in the bay
     near Penguin Point, discovered a brig getting under weigh, which
     appeared to be a vessel of war, and to which we immediately gave
     chase. She fired several guns and stood for us, having four
     ensigns hoisted. After reconnoitering and discovering her force,
     and the nation to which she belonged, we hauled upon a wind to
     stand out of the bay, and at 3 o'clock shortened sail, tacked and
     ran down with an intention to bring her to close action. At 20
     minutes after 3 P.M., when within half pistol shot, the firing
     commenced from both, and after being warmly kept up, and with
     some manoeuvering, the enemy hailed and said they had
     surrendered, about 4 P.M. Their colours being nailed to the
     masts, could not be hauled down. She proved to be His Britannic
     Majesty's brig Boxer, of 14 guns, Samuel Blythe, Esquire,
     commander, who fell in the early part of the engagement, having
     received a cannon shot through the body. And I am sorry to add
     that Lieutenant Burrows, who had gallantly led us to action, fell
     also about the same time by a musket ball, which terminated his
     existence in eight hours.

     The Enterprize suffered much in spars and rigging, and the Boxer
     both in spars, rigging and hull, having many shots between wind
     and water. It would be doing injustice to the merit of Mr.
     Tillinghast, 2d lieutenant, were I not to mention the able
     assistance I received from him during the remainder of the
     engagement, by his strict attention to his own division and other
     departments. And the officers and crew, generally, I am happy to
     add, from their cool and determined conduct, have my warmest
     approbation and applause.

     As no muster roll that can be fully relied on came into my
     possession, I cannot exactly state the number killed on board the
     Boxer; but from information received from the officers of that
     vessel, it appears that there are between twenty and twenty-five
     killed, and fourteen wounded. Enclosed is a list of killed and
     wounded on board the Enterprize.

     I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                  Edward R. M'CALL, _Senior Officer_.

     _Killed_ 1, _Wounded_ 13; of whom Lieutenant Burrows, Commander,
     Midshipman Kervan Waters, and carpenter's mate Elisha Blossom,
     have since died.



No. 30.                                                            (p. 174)
PLATE XXXI.


_September 4, 1813._

     Victoriam tibi claram. patriæ mæstam. [Rx]. Vivere sat vincere.

LIEUTENANT WILLIAM BURROWS.

[_Capture of the Boxer._]

VICTORIAM TIBI CLARAM. PATRIÆ MÆSTAM (_sic_). (_A victory brilliant
for thee, sorrowful for thy country_). A funeral urn upon a tomb is
surrounded with naval emblems; a crown of laurel is hanging from a
trident, and in a cartoon of elliptical form: W. (_William_) BURROWS.
FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

VIVERE SAT VINCERE. (_To conquer is to live enough._) Naval engagement
between the United States brig-of-war Enterprize, of fourteen guns,
Lieutenant-Commander Burrows, and the British brig-of-war Boxer, of
fourteen guns, Captain Blythe. The Enterprize is raking the Boxer,
fore and aft. The latter has lost her main-topmast. Exergue: INTER
ENTERPRIZE NAV. AMERI. ET BOXER NAV. BRIT. DIE IV SEPT. MDCCCXIII.
(_Inter Enterprize navem Americanam et Boxer navem Britannicam, die 4
Septembris, 1813: Between the American vessel Enterprize and the
British vessel Boxer, September 4, 1813._) FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[84]

                   [Footnote 84: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the capture
                   of the Boxer, are given under No. 29, page 171.]


WILLIAM BURROWS was born in Kenderton, near Philadelphia, October 6,
1785. He entered the navy as midshipman, January 4, 1800; served in
the Constitution under Commodore Preble in the campaign against
Tripoli; returned to America about 1807 as lieutenant, and served in
different vessels on various stations. In the summer of 1813, he
obtained the command of the sloop-of-war Enterprize, with which,   (p. 175)
on September 5, he engaged the British sloop-of-war Boxer, Captain
Blythe, but was killed in the beginning of the action, as was also the
commander of the enemy's vessel, and they were both buried with
military honors at Portland, Maine. Congress, by joint resolution,
approved January 6, 1814, requested the President of the United States
to present to the nearest male relative of Lieutenant Burrows a gold
medal, and to communicate to him the deep regret they felt at this
officer's loss.



No. 31.                                                            (p. 176)
PLATE XXXII.


_September 10, 1813._

     Oliverus H. Perry, princeps stagno Eriense. classim totam
     contudit. [Rx]. Viam invenit virtus aut facit.

CAPTAIN OLIVER HAZARD PERRY.

[_Victory of Lake Erie._]

OLIVERUS H. (_Hazard_) PERRY. PRINCEPS STAGNO ERIENSE. CLASSIM TOTAM
CONTUDIT. (_Oliver Hazard Perry, commander-in-chief, destroyed on Lake
Erie an entire fleet._) Bust of Captain Perry, in uniform, facing the
right.

VIAM INVENIT VIRTUS AUT FACIT. (_Valor finds or makes a way._) The
United States fleet on Lake Erie, carrying fifty-four guns, and
commanded by Captain Perry, stands out to meet the British fleet with
sixty-three guns, under Captain Barclay. Exergue: INTER CLASS. AMERI.
ET BRIT. DIE X. SEP. MDCCCXIII. (_Inter classim Americanam et
Britannicam, die 10 Septembris, 1813: Between the American and British
fleets, September 10, 1813._) FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


OLIVER HAZARD PERRY was born in South Kingston, Rhode Island, August
23, 1785. He entered the navy as a midshipman, April 7, 1799, on the
sloop-of-war General Greene, then commanded by his father, Captain
Christopher Raymond Perry. He served in the Mediterranean during the
Tripolitan war, was made lieutenant in 1807, and master-commandant in
1812, when he received a division of gunboats at Newport, Rhode
Island. In February, 1813, he was transferred to the command on Lake
Erie, where, on September 10, he defeated and captured the entire
British squadron under Captain Barclay. For this important victory he
received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal, and was promoted to
the rank of captain, and as such commanded the Java in the         (p. 177)
Mediterranean for several years. In March, 1819, he set out with a
squadron for the coast of South America, and died of yellow fever at
Port Spain, Trinidad, August 23, 1819. The remains of Commodore Perry
were transferred, in 1827, by order of the Government, in the United
States ship Lexington, to Newport, Rhode Island. His battle-flag on
Lake Erie, with the motto "Don't give up the ship!" is preserved in
the Naval Academy, at Annapolis.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Captains Perry, Elliott,
etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress be, and the same are hereby, presented to
     Captain Oliver Hazard Perry, and through him to the officers,
     petty officers, seamen, marines, and infantry serving as such,
     attached to the squadron under his command, for the decisive and
     glorious victory gained on Lake Erie, on the tenth of September,
     in the year 1813, over a British squadron of superior force.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause gold medals to be struck, emblematical of the action
     between the two squadrons, and to present them to Captain Perry
     and Captain Jesse D. Elliott, in such manner as will be most
     honourable to them; and that the President be further requested
     to present a silver medal,[85] with suitable emblems and devices,
     to each of the commissioned officers, either of the navy or army,
     serving on board, and a sword to each of the midshipmen and
     sailing-masters who so nobly distinguished themselves on that
     memorable day.

                   [Footnote 85: The silver medals are copies of the
                   ones in gold given to the captains of the
                   respective ships.]

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to present a silver medal, with like emblems and devices, to the
     nearest male relative of Lieutenant John Brooks, of the marines,
     and a sword to the nearest male relatives of Midshipmen Henry
     Lamb, and Thomas Claxton, jr., and to communicate to them the
     deep regret which Congress feel for the loss of those gallant
     men, whose names ought to live in the recollection and affection
     of a grateful country, and whose conduct ought to be regarded as
     an example to future generations.

     _Resolved_, That three months' pay be allowed, exclusively of the
     common allowance, to all the petty officers, seamen, marines, and
     infantry serving as such, who so gloriously supported the honour
     of the American flag, under the orders of their gallant
     commander, on that signal occasion.

     Approved January 6, 1814.

                              _____

     _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the   (p. 178)
     United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to present a sword to
     the nearest male relation of Midshipman John Clarke, who was
     slain gallantly combating the enemy in the glorious battle gained
     on Lake Erie, under the command of Captain Perry, and to
     communicate to him the deep regret which Congress feels for the
     loss of that brave officer.

     Approved February 19, 1814.

                              _____

_Captain O. H. Perry to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable    U.S. brig Niagara, off the Western Sisters,
       William JONES,       Head of Lake Erie, Sept. 10, 1813, 4 P.M.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: It has pleased the Almighty to give to the arms of the
     United States a signal victory over their enemies on this lake.
     The British squadron, consisting of two ships, two brigs, one
     schooner, and one sloop, have this moment surrendered to the
     force under my command, after a sharp conflict.

     I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                   O. H. PERRY.

                              _____

_Captain O. H. Perry to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States schooner Ariel,
       William JONES,                Put-in-Bay, Sept. 13, 1813.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: In my last I informed you that we had captured the enemy's
     fleet on this lake. I have now the honour to give you the most
     important particulars of the action. On the morning of the 10th
     instant, at sunrise, they were discovered from Put-in-Bay, where
     I lay at anchor with the squadron under my command. We got under
     weigh, the wind light at south-west, and stood for them. At 10
     A.M. the wind hauled to south-east and brought us to windward;
     formed the line and bore up. At 15 minutes before 12, the enemy
     commenced firing; at five minutes before 12, the action commenced
     on our part. Finding their fire very destructive, owing to their
     long guns, and its being mostly directed at the Lawrence, I made
     sail, and directed the other vessels to follow, for the purpose
     of closing with the enemy. Every brace and bow line being soon
     shot away, she became unmanageable, notwithstanding the great
     exertions of the sailing master. In this situation, she sustained
     the action upwards of two hours within canister distance, until
     every gun was rendered useless, and the greater part of her crew
     either killed or wounded. Finding she could no longer annoy   (p. 179)
     the enemy, I left her in charge of Lieutenant Yarnall, who,
     I was convinced, from the bravery already displayed by him, would
     do what would comport with the honour of the flag. At half-past
     two, the wind springing up Captain Elliot was enabled to bring
     his vessel, the Niagara, gallantly into close action. I
     immediately went on board of her, when he anticipated my wish by
     volunteering to bring the schooner which had been kept astern by
     the lightness of the wind into close action. It was with
     unspeakable pain that I saw, soon after I got on board the
     Niagara, the flag of the Lawrence come down, although I was
     perfectly sensible that she had been defended to the last, and
     that to have continued to make a show of resistance would have
     been a wanton sacrifice of the remains of her brave crew. But the
     enemy was not able to take possession of her, and circumstances
     soon permitted her flag again to be hoisted. At 45 minutes past 2
     the signal was made for "close action." The Niagara being very
     little injured, I determined to pass through the enemy's line,
     bore up and passed ahead of their two ships and a brig, giving a
     raking fire to them from the starboard guns, and to a large
     schooner and sloop, from the larboard side, at half pistol shot
     distance. The smaller vessels at this time having got within
     grape and canister distance, under the direction of Captain
     Elliot, and keeping up a well directed fire, the two ships, a
     brig and a schooner surrendered, a schooner and sloop making a
     vain attempt to escape.

     Those officers and men who were immediately under my observation,
     evinced the greatest gallantry, and I have no doubt that all
     others conducted themselves as became American officers and
     seamen. Lieutenant Yarnall, first of the Lawrence, although
     several times wounded, refused to quit the deck. Midshipman
     Forrest (doing duty as lieutenant), and sailing-master Taylor,
     were of great assistance to me. I have great pain in stating to
     you the death of Lieutenant Brooks, of the marines, and
     midshipman Lamb, both of the Lawrence, and midshipman John
     Clarke, of the Scorpion; they were valuable and promising
     officers. Mr. Hambleton, purser, who volunteered his services on
     deck, was severely wounded late in the action. Midshipman Claxton
     and Swartout, of the Lawrence, were severely wounded. On board
     the Niagara, Lieutenants Smith and Edwards, and midshipman
     Webster (doing duty as sailing-master) behaved in a very handsome
     manner. Captain Brevoort, of the army, who acted as a volunteer
     in the capacity of a marine officer, on board that vessel, is an
     excellent and brave officer, and with his musketry did great
     execution. Lieutenant Turner, commanding the Caledonia, brought
     that vessel into action in the most able manner, and is an
     officer that, in all situations, may be relied on. The Ariel,
     Lieutenant Parker, and Scorpion, sailing-master Champlin, were
     enabled to get early into action, and were of great service.
     Captain Elliot speaks in the highest terms of Mr. Magrath,
     purser, who had been despatched in a boat on service, previous to
     my getting on board the Niagara, and, being a seaman, since the
     action has rendered essential service in taking charge of one of
     the prizes. Of Captain Elliot, already so well known to the
     government, it would be almost superfluous to speak; in this
     action, he evinced his characteristic bravery and judgment; and,
     since the close of the action, has given me the most able and
     essential assistance.

     I have the honour to enclose you a return of the killed and   (p. 180)
     wounded, together with a statement of the relative force of
     the squadrons. The captain and first lieutenant of the Queen
     Charlotte, and first lieutenant of the Detroit, were killed.
     Captain Barclay, senior officer, and the commander of the Lady
     Prevost, severely wounded. Their loss in killed and wounded I
     have not yet been able to ascertain; it must, however, have been
     very great.

                Very respectfully, &c.,
                                        O. H. PERRY.

     _Statement of the force of the British squadron._

     Ship Detroit           19 guns: 1 on pivot and 2 howitzers.
     Queen Charlotte        17  "                   1     "
     Schooner Lady Prevost  13  "                   1     "
     Brig Hunter            10  "
     Sloop Little Belt       3  "
     Schooner Chippeway      1  "                   2 swivels.
                            --
                            63 guns.

     NOTE: The Detroit is a new ship, very strongly built, and mounts
     long twenty-fours, eighteens and twelves.

     _Statement of the force of the United States squadron._

     Brig Lawrence      20 guns.
      "   Niagara       20  "
      "   Caledonia      3  "
     Schooner Ariel      4  "  (1 burst early in action.)
      "       Scorpion   2  "
      "       Somers     2  "  and 2 swivels.
     Sloop Trippe        1  "
     Schooner Tigress    1  "
      "       Porcupine  1  "
                        --
                        54 guns.

     The exact number of the enemy's force has not been ascertained,
     but I have good reason to believe that it exceeded ours by nearly
     100 men.

                             S. HAMBLETON, _Purser_.
                             O. H. PERRY, _Captain and senior officer_.

                              _____

_The Secretary of the Navy to George Harrison._

     To
       George HARRISON, Esq.,           Navy Department,
         Navy Agent, Philadelphia.        July 4th, 1814.

     Sir: In order to have made the swords and medals contemplated by
     the inclosed resolutions of Congress, I have to request that you
     will engage artists for that purpose whose abilities and      (p. 181)
     taste will insure their being executed in the best manner.
     You will perceive by the resolution that the device for the medal
     for Captains Perry and Elliott must be emblematical of the action
     on Lake Erie; and, it appears to me, that representations of the
     several engagements are the most suitable devices for the others.
     The best representations of those engagements yet engraved may be
     seen, I understand, in the Academy of Arts at Philadelphia, where
     the artists and amateurs might readily determine on the devices.
     The number of dies for the medals will be as follows, viz.:

     Capture of the Guerrière by the Constitution    1
        "       "   Macedonian by the United States  1
        "       "   Frolic by the Wasp               1
        "       "   Java by the Constitution         1
        "       "   Peacock by the Hornet            1
        "       "   Boxer by the Enterprize          1
     Victory on Lake Erie                            1
                                                    --
                                             Dies    7

     The reverse of the medals will be properly appropriated to the
     respective portraits of the several commanders, which, I believe,
     have all been published. These, however, ought to be correct
     likenesses. Of the number of medals of each kind to be struck,
     you will be informed in due time.

     As it will scarcely be possible to represent distinctly the
     deeply interesting scenes of the memorable victory of Erie on one
     face of the medal, it may be well to omit the portrait of
     Commodore Perry, and divide the representation of the action into
     two prominent and distinct parts which mark the crisis of the
     battle, in the first terminating with the abandonment of the
     Lawrence, and the passage of the hero in his gig, with his flag,
     from that ship to the Niagara. Second, the bringing up of the
     gunboats and small vessels by Captain Elliott, and the subsequent
     breaking through the enemy's line and capture of his whole fleet.
     Thus the entire action may be distinctly and beautifully
     represented.

     Herewith you will receive one of the medals struck for Commodore
     Preble, which is tolerably well executed and of good size. The
     emblematical figures ought to be bold and distinct, rather than
     minutely delineated, which renders the effect less striking and
     enhances the labour and cost. With respect to the cost it must be
     regulated by a due attention to the views of the Legislature and
     to economy without parsimony.

     The number is considerable, and will require all the artists who
     are qualified for the execution.

     It is very desirable to have them completed as soon as possible,
     and particularly before the next meeting of Congress. If the
     number of artists in Philadelphia shall not be sufficient, you
     will employ those of New York or elsewhere. I submit this
     business to your care with confidence and pleasure, because I
     know that your own discriminating tastes and judgment in these
     matters will be combined with your admiration of the men, and the
     scenes to be commemorated, in producing the best and most speedy
     execution.

     The sword for Captain Elliott will be an elegant dress sword; (p. 182)
     a cut and thrust, with belt, &c., such in form as is prescribed
     for a dress sword of a captain in the navy, but decorated with
     devices and inscriptions suitable to the occasion, and finished in
     the best style the sum of $800 will procure. The swords of the
     warrant officers, twelve in number, will be of the same form
     and with proper belts, &c., will be finished in the best style
     that $250 each will procure. These you will please have finished
     as soon as possible.

     The medals should be finished in succession according to the
     order of the dates of the events, unless the whole can be put in
     hand at once, which is very desirable.

     I am respectfully, Sir, your most obedient servant,
                                  W. JONES, _Secretary of the Navy_.



No. 32.                                                            (p. 183)
PLATE XXXIII.


_September 10, 1813._

     Jesse D. Elliott. Nil actum reputans si quid superesset agendum.
     [Rx]. Viam invenit virtus aut facit.

CAPTAIN JESSE DUNCAN ELLIOTT.

[_Victory of Lake Erie._]

JESSE D. (_Duncan_) ELLIOTT. NIL ACTUM REPUTANS SI QUID SUPERESSET
AGENDUM.[86] (_Jesse Duncan Elliott. Considering nothing done, if
aught remained to be done._) Bust of Captain Elliott, in uniform,
facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 86: Nil actum credens quum quid
                   superesset agendum. Lucan, Pharsalia, Book II,
                   657.]

VIAM INVENIT VIRTUS AUT FACIT. (_Valor finds or makes a way._) The
United States fleet on Lake Erie, carrying fifty-four guns, and
commanded by Captain Perry, stands out to meet the British fleet with
sixty-three guns, under Captain Barclay. Exergue: INTER CLASS. AMERI.
ET BRIT. DIE X. SEP. MDCCCXIII. (_Inter classim Americanam et
Britannicam, die 10 Septembris, 1813: Between the American and British
fleets, September 10, 1813._) FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[87]

                   [Footnote 87: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the action
                   on Lake Erie, are given under No. 31, page 176.]


JESSE DUNCAN ELLIOTT was born in Maryland, July 14, 1782. He was
appointed midshipman in 1804; was promoted to be lieutenant in 1810;
served under Commodore Chauncey on the lakes in 1812; and on October
8, commanding an expedition, he cut out two British ships from under
Fort Erie. For this daring act Congress voted him a sword of honor. He
was master-commandant in July, 1813; and second in command in      (p. 184)
Perry's victory on Lake Erie, for which he received from Congress a
vote of thanks and a gold medal. On Perry's departure in October,
1815, he succeeded him in command. He became captain in 1818; and
afterward commanded the Mediterranean squadron, and the navy yards of
Boston and of Philadelphia. He died in Philadelphia, December 10,
1845.



No. 33.                                                            (p. 185)
PLATE XXXIV.


_February 24, 1813._

     Jac Lawrence dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. [Rx].
     Mansuetud. maj. quam victoria.

CAPTAIN JAMES LAWRENCE.

[_Capture of the Peacock._]

JAC. (_Jacobus_) LAWRENCE DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI[88]
(_James Lawrence. It is sweet and becoming to die for one's country._)
Bust of Captain Lawrence in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F.
(_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 88: Horace, Book II, Ode II, 13.]

MANSUETUD. MAJ. QUAM VICTORIA. (_Mansuetudo major quam victoria:
Clemency greater than victory._) The action is over. The United States
sloop-of-war Hornet, of twenty guns, Captain Lawrence, is lying to and
sending her boats to the rescue of the crew of the British brig-of-war
Peacock, of twenty-two guns, Captain Peake, which has lost her
mainmast, and is going down head foremost. Exergue: INTER HORNET NAV
AMERI ET PEACOCK NAV ANG DIE XXIV FEB MDCCCXIII. (_Inter Hornet, navem
Americanam, et Peacock, navem Anglicanam, die 24 Februarii, 1813:
Between the American vessel Hornet and the English vessel Peacock,
February 24, 1813._) On the platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


JAMES LAWRENCE was born in Burlington, New Jersey, October 1, 1781. He
was appointed a midshipman in 1798, and became a lieutenant in 1802;
served against Tripoli, 1802-1804, and was second in command under
Decatur, in the Intrepid, when the Philadelphia was destroyed off  (p. 186)
Tripoli. In 1810 he became master-commandant, and on February 24,
1813, with the Hornet, captured the British brig-of-war Peacock,
Captain William Peake. For this action, Congress awarded him a vote of
thanks and a gold medal. As captain he commanded the Chesapeake in
1813 and fell, mortally wounded, in the engagement with the British
ship Shannon, Captain Broke. His last words, when carried below, were,
"Don't give up the ship!" He died four days after the combat, on June
5, 1813, and was buried with military honors at Halifax, Nova Scotia.
His remains were afterward taken to the United States, and now lie in
Trinity church-yard, New York city.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Lawrence, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to present to the
     nearest male relative of Captain James Lawrence, a gold medal,
     and a silver medal[89] to each of the commissioned officers who
     served under him in the sloop-of-war Hornet, in her conflict with
     the British vessel-of-war, the Peacock, in testimony of the high
     sense entertained by Congress of the gallantry and good conduct
     of the officers and crew in the capture of that vessel; and the
     President is also requested to communicate to the nearest male
     relative of Captain Lawrence the sense which Congress entertains
     of the loss which the naval service of the United States has
     since sustained in the death of that distinguished officer.

                   [Footnote 89: The silver medals are copies of the
                   one in gold given to Captain Lawrence.]

     Approved January 11, 1814.

                              _____

_Captain Lawrence to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable                  United States ship Hornet,
       William JONES,                 Holmes' Hole, March 19th, 1813.
          Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you of the arrival, at this
     port, of the United States ship Hornet, under my command, from a
     cruise of 145 days, and to state to you, that after Commodore
     Bainbridge left the coast of Brazils, (on the 6th of January
     last,) the Hornet continued off the harbour of St. Salvador,
     blockading the Bonne Citoyenne until the 24th, when the Montagu
     74 hove in sight, and chased me into the harbour; but night   (p. 187)
     coming on, I wore and stood to the southward. Knowing that
     she had left Rio Janeiro for the express purpose of relieving the
     Bonne Citoyenne and the packet, (which I had also blockaded for
     fourteen days, and obliged her to send her mail to Rio in a
     Portuguese smack,) I judged it most prudent to change my cruising
     ground, and stood to the eastward, with the view of cruising off
     Pernambuco; and on the 4th day of February, captured the English
     brig Resolution, from Rio Janeiro, bound to Maranham, with
     coffee, jerked beef, flour, fustic and butter, and about 25,000
     dollars in specie. As the brig sailed dull, and could ill spare
     hands to man her, I took out the money and set her on fire. I
     then ran down the coast for Maranham, and cruised there for a
     short time; from thence ran off Surinam. After cruising off that
     coast from the 5th to the 22d of February, without meeting a
     vessel, I stood for Demarara, with an intention, should I not be
     fortunate on that station, to run through the West Indies, on my
     way to the United States. But on the morning of the 24th, I
     discovered a brig to leeward, to which I gave chase; ran into
     quarter less four, and not having a pilot, was obliged to haul
     off; the fort at the entrance of Demarara river at this time
     bearing south west, distance about 2-1/2 leagues. Previously to
     giving up the chase, I discovered a vessel at anchor without the
     bar, with English colours flying, apparently a brig of war. In
     beating round Corobano bank, in order to get at her, at half past
     3 P.M. I discovered another sail on my weather quarter edging
     down for us. At 4.20 minutes she hoisted English colours, at
     which time we discovered her to be a large man-of-war brig; beat
     to quarters, and cleared ship for action; kept close by the wind,
     in order, if possible, to get to the weather gage. At 5.10
     minutes, finding I could weather the enemy, I hoisted American
     colours, and tacked. At 5.20 minutes, in passing each other,
     exchanged broadsides within half pistol shot. Observing the enemy
     in the act of wearing, I bore up, received his starboard
     broadside, ran him close on board on the starboard quarter, and
     kept up such a heavy and well directed fire, that in less than
     fifteen minutes he surrendered, being literally cut to pieces,
     and hoisted an ensign, union down, from his fore-rigging, as a
     signal of distress. Shortly after, his main-mast went by the
     board; dispatched Lieutenant Shubrick on board, who soon returned
     with her first lieutenant, who reported her to be His Britannic
     Majesty's late brig Peacock, commanded by Captain William Peake,
     who fell in the latter part of the action; that a number of her
     crew were killed and wounded, and that she was sinking fast,
     having then six feet of water in her hold; dispatched the boats
     immediately for the wounded, and brought both vessels to anchor.
     Such shot-holes as could be got at were then plugged, her guns
     thrown overboard, and every possible exertion used to keep her
     afloat, until the prisoners could be removed, by pumping and
     bailing, but without effect, and she unfortunately sunk in five
     and a half fathoms water, carrying down thirteen of her crew and
     three of my brave fellows, viz.: John Hart, Joseph Williams, and
     Hannibal Boyd. Lieutenant Conner, Midshipman Cooper, and the
     remainder of the Hornet's crew, employed in removing the
     prisoners, with difficulty saved themselves by jumping in a boat
     that was lying on her bows as she went down. Four men, of the
     thirteen mentioned, were so fortunate as to gain the fore-top,
     and were afterwards taken off by the boats. Previous to her going
     down, four of her men took to her stern boat, which had been much
     damaged during the action, which I hope reached the shore     (p. 188)
     in safety; but from the heavy sea running at the time, the
     shattered state of the boat, and the difficulty of landing on the
     coast, I much fear they were lost. I have not been able to
     ascertain from her officers the exact number killed. Captain
     Peake and four men were found dead on board. The master, one
     midshipman, carpenter, and captain's clerk, and twenty-nine
     seamen were wounded, most of them very severely; three of them
     died of their wounds after being removed, and nine drowned. Our
     loss was trifling in comparison. John Place, killed; Samuel
     Coulson and Joseph Dalrymple, slightly wounded; George Coffin and
     Lewis Todd, severely burnt by the explosion of a cartridge. Todd
     survived only a few days. Our rigging and sails were much cut;
     one shot through the foremast, and the bowsprit slightly injured.
     Our hull received little or no damage. At the time the Peacock
     was brought to action, the L'Espiègle (the brig mentioned above
     as being at anchor), mounting sixteen two-and-thirty pound
     carronades, and two long nines, lay at about six miles in shore,
     and could plainly see the whole of the action. Apprehensive that
     she would beat out to the assistance of her consort, such
     exertions were made by my officers and crew in repairing damages,
     &c., that by 9 o'clock the boats were stowed, a new set of sails
     bent, and the ship completely ready for action. At 2 A.M. got
     under weigh, and stood by the wind to the northward and westward,
     under easy sail.

     On mustering next morning, found we had 277 souls on board,
     including the crew of the American brig Hunter, of Portland,
     taken a few days before by the Peacock. And, as we had been on
     two-thirds allowance of provisions for some time, and had but
     3,400 gallons of water on board, I reduced the allowance to three
     pints a man, and determined to make the best of my way to the
     United States.

     The Peacock was deservedly styled one of the finest vessels of
     her class in the British navy, probably about the tonnage of the
     Hornet. Her beam was greater by five inches, but her extreme
     length not so great by four feet. She mounted sixteen twenty-four
     pound carronades, two long nines, one twelve-pound carronade on
     her topgallant-forecastle, as a shifting gun, and one four or
     six-pounder, and two swivels mounted aft. I find, by her
     quarter-bill, that her crew consisted of 134 men, four of whom
     were absent in a prize.

     The cool and determined conduct of my officers and crew during
     the action, and their almost unexampled exertions afterwards,
     entitled them to my warmest acknowledgments, and I beg leave most
     earnestly to recommend them to the notice of government.

     By the indisposition of Lieutenant Stewart I was deprived of the
     services of an excellent officer; had he been able to stand the
     deck I am confident his exertions would not have been surpassed
     by any one on board. I should be doing injustice to the merits of
     Lieutenant Shubrick, and of acting-lieutenants Conner and Newton,
     were I not to recommend them particularly to your notice.
     Lieutenant Shubrick was in the actions with the Guerrière and
     Java. Captain Hull and Commodore Bainbridge can bear testimony to
     his coolness and good conduct on both occasions.

         With the greatest respect, I remain, &c.,
                                                  James LAWRENCE.

     P.S. At the commencement of the action my sailing master and
     seven men were absent in a prize, and Lieutenant Stewart and six
     men on the sick list.



No. 34.                                                            (p. 189)
PLATE XXXV.


_September 11, 1814._

     Tho. Macdonough. Stagno Champlain clas. Reg. Brit superavit.
     [Rx]. Uno latere percusso. alterum impavide vertit.

CAPTAIN THOMAS MACDONOUGH.

[_Victory of Lake Champlain._]

THO. MACDONOUGH. STAGNO CHAMPLAIN CLAS. REG. BRIT. SUPERAVIT. (_Thomas
Macdonough Stagno Champlain classim Regis Britannia superavit: Thomas
Macdonough defeated the Royal British fleet on Lake Champlain._) Bust
of Captain Macdonough, in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F.
(_fecit_).

UNO LATERE PERCUSSO. ALTERUM IMPAVIDE VERTIT. (_Beaten on one side, he
fearlessly turns the other._) Naval action on Lake Champlain, between
the United States fleet, carrying eighty-six guns, under Captain
Macdonough, and the British fleet, with ninety-five guns, commanded by
Commodore Downie. To the right, the city of Plattsburgh in flames.
Exergue: INTER CLASS. AMERI. ET BRIT. DIE XI SEPT. MDCCCXIIII. (_Inter
classim Americanam et Britannicam, die 11 Septembris, 1814: Between
the American and British fleets, September 11, 1814._) On the
platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


THOMAS MACDONOUGH was born in Newcastle County, Delaware, December 23,
1783. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800; served in the
Tripolitan campaign, and was with Decatur in the Intrepid, when the
latter blew up the Philadelphia. He was made a lieutenant in February,
1807, and a master-commandant in July, 1813. He defeated the British
squadron, commanded by Commodore George Downie, on Lake Champlain,
September 11, 1814, for which victory he received the thanks of
Congress and a gold medal, and was promoted to the rank of         (p. 190)
captain. He commanded the Mediterranean squadron for several years,
and died at sea, November 18, 1825, of consumption, on his homeward
voyage to the United States.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Captains Macdonough and
Henley, Lieutenant Cassin, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress be, and the same are hereby, presented to
     Captain Thomas Macdonough, and through him to the officers, petty
     officers, seamen, marines, and infantry serving as marines,
     attached to the squadron under his command, for the decisive and
     splendid victory gained on Lake Champlain, on the eleventh of
     September, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fourteen,
     over a British squadron of superior force.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause gold medals to be struck, emblematical of the action
     between the two squadrons, and to present them to Captain
     Macdonough and Captain Robert Henley, and also to Lieutenant
     Stephen Cassin, in such a manner as may be most honourable to
     them; and that the President be further requested to present a
     silver medal,[90] with suitable emblems and devices, to each of
     the commissioned officers of the navy and army serving on board,
     and a sword to each of the midshipmen and sailing-masters, who so
     nobly distinguished themselves in that memorable conflict.

                   [Footnote 90: The silver medals are copies of the
                   one in gold given to Captain Macdonough.]

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to present a silver medal, with like emblems and devices, to the
     nearest male relative of Lieutenant Peter Gamble, and of
     Lieutenant John Stansbury, and to communicate to them the deep
     regret which Congress feel for the loss of those gallant men,
     whose names ought to live in the recollection and affection of a
     grateful country.

     _Resolved_, That three months' pay be allowed, exclusively of the
     common allowance, to all petty officers, seamen, marines, and
     infantry serving as marines, who so gloriously supported the
     honour of the American flag on that memorable day.

     Approved October 20, 1814.

                              _____

_Resolution of Congress Complimentary to Lieutenant Silas Duncan._

     _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States in Congress assembled_: That the provisions of the
     joint resolutions of Congress passed October twentieth, eighteen
     hundred and fourteen, entitled "Resolution expressive of the
     sense of Congress of the gallant conduct of Captain Thomas
     Macdonough, the officers, seamen and marines, and infantry    (p. 191)
     serving as marines on board of the United States squadron on Lake
     Champlain," be so construed and extended as to include the names
     of Silas Duncan, a lieutenant in the Navy of the United States,
     in testimony of the sense which is entertained by both houses of
     Congress of the distinguished gallantry and good conduct of the
     said Lieutenant Duncan, in an action with the enemy's forces on
     the sixth of September, eighteen hundred and fourteen, on the
     same lake.

     Approved May 13th, 1826.

                              _____

_Captain Macdonough to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honorable                 United States Ship Saratoga,
       William JONES,             Off Plattsburgh, September 11th, 1814.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: The Almighty has been pleased to grant us a signal victory
     on Lake Champlain, in the capture of one frigate, one brig, and
     two sloops-of-war of the enemy.

             I have the honor to be, &c.
                                        T. MACDONOUGH.

                              _____

_Captain Macdonough to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honorable              Ship Saratoga,
       William JONES,         Plattsburgh Bay, September 13th, 1814.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to give you the particulars of the action
     which took place on the 11th instant, on this lake.

     For several days the enemy were on their way to Plattsburgh by
     land and water, and it being well understood that an attack would
     be made at the same time by their land and naval forces, I
     determined to await, at anchor, the approach of the latter.

     At 8 A.M. the look-out boat announced the approach of the enemy.
     At 9, he anchored in a line ahead, at about 300 yards distance
     from my line; his ship was opposed to the Saratoga, his brig to
     the Eagle, Captain Robert Henley, his gallies, thirteen in
     number, to the schooner, the sloop, and a division of our
     gallies, one of his sloops assisting their ship and brig, the
     other assisting their gallies. Our remaining gallies, with the
     Saratoga and Eagle.

     In this situation, the whole force on both sides became engaged,
     the Saratoga suffering much, from the heavy fire of the
     Confiance. I could perceive at the same time, however, that our
     fire was very destructive to her. The Ticonderoga, Lieutenant
     Commandant Cassin, gallantly sustained her full share of the
     action. At half-past 10 o'clock, the Eagle not being able to
     bring her guns to bear, cut her cable, and anchored in a more (p. 192)
     eligible position, between my ship and the Ticonderoga, where
     she very much annoyed the enemy, but unfortunately, leaving me
     exposed to a galling fire from the enemy's brig. Our guns on the
     starboard side being nearly all dismounted, or not manageable, a
     stern anchor was let go, the bower cut, and the ship winded with
     a fresh broadside on the enemy's ship, which soon after
     surrendered. Our broadside was then sprung to bear on the brig,
     which surrendered in about 15 minutes after.

     The sloop that was opposed to the Eagle had struck some time
     before, and drifted down the line; the sloop which was with their
     gallies having struck also. Three of their gallies are said to be
     sunk, the others pulled off. Our gallies were about obeying with
     alacrity the signal to follow them, when all the vessels were
     reported to me to be in a sinking state. It then became necessary
     to annul the signal to the gallies, and order their men to the
     pumps. I could only look at the enemy's gallies going off in a
     shattered condition, for there was not a mast in either squadron
     that could stand to make sail on; the lower rigging being nearly
     shot away, hung down as though it had been just placed over mast
     heads.

     The Saratoga had 55 round shot in her hull, the Confiance 105.
     The enemy's shot passed principally just over our heads, as there
     were not 20 whole hammocks in the nettings after the close of the
     action, which lasted, without intermission, two hours and twenty
     minutes.

     The absence and sickness of Lieutenant Raymond Perry left me
     without the services of that excellent officer; much ought fairly
     to be attributed to him for his great care and attention in
     disciplining the ship's crew, as her first lieutenant. His place
     was filled by a gallant young officer, Lieutenant Peter Gamble,
     who, I regret to inform you, was killed early in the action.
     Acting-lieutenant Vallette worked the first and second division
     of guns with able effect. Sailing-master Brum's attention to the
     springs, and in the execution of the order to wind the ship, and
     occasionally at the guns, met my entire approbation; also Captain
     Youngs, commanding the acting marines, who took his men to the
     guns. Mr. Beale, purser, was of great service at the guns, and in
     carrying my orders throughout the ship, with Midshipman
     Montgomery. Master's mate Joshua Justin had command of the third
     division; his conduct during the action was that of a brave
     officer. Midshipmen Monteath, Graham, Williamson, Platt, Thwing,
     and Acting-Midshipman Baldwin all behaved well, and gave evidence
     of their making valuable officers. The Saratoga was twice set on
     fire by hot shot from the enemy's ship.

     I close, Sir, this communication with feelings of gratitude for
     the able support I received from every officer and man attached
     to the squadron which I have the honour to command.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        T. MACDONOUGH.



No. 35.                                                            (p. 193)
PLATE XXXVI.


_September 11, 1814._

     Rob. Henley Eagle præfect. palma virtu per æternit. florebit.
     [Rx]. Uno latere percusso. alterum impavide vertit.

CAPTAIN ROBERT HENLEY.

[_Victory of Lake Champlain._]

ROB. HENLEY EAGLE PRÆFECT. PALMA VIRTU. PER ÆTERNIT. FLOREBIT.
(_Robertus Henley, Eagle præfectus; palma virtutis per æternitatem
florebit: Robert Henley, commander of the Eagle. The palm of bravery
will flourish forever._) Bust of Captain Henley, in uniform, facing
the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

UNO LATERE PERCUSSO. ALTERUM IMPAVIDE VERTIT. (_Beaten on one side, he
fearlessly turns the other._) Naval action on Lake Champlain, between
the United States fleet, carrying eighty-six guns, under Captain
Macdonough, and the British fleet, with ninety-five guns, commanded by
Commodore Downie. To the right the city of Plattsburgh in flames.
Exergue: INTER CLASS. AMERI. ET BRIT. DIE XI SEPT. MDCCCXIIII. (_Inter
classim Americanam et Britannicam, die 11 Septembris, 1814: Between
the American and British fleets, September 11, 1814._) On the
platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[91]

                   [Footnote 91: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the victory
                   on Lake Champlain, are given under No. 34, page
                   189.]


ROBERT HENLEY was born in James City County, Virginia, January 5,  (p. 194)
1783. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1799, and was on board of
the Constellation, under Captain Truxtun, during her combat with La
Vengeance; he was a lieutenant in 1807; a commander August 12, 1814;
obtained the Eagle, and was second in command to Macdonough in his
victory on lake Champlain, September 11, 1814, receiving for his
conduct on that occasion the thanks of Congress and a gold medal. He
was appointed captain, March 3, 1825; served in the home squadron and
in the West Indies, and died on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina,
October 7, 1828.



No. 36.                                                            (p. 195)
PLATE XXXVII.


_September 11, 1814._

     Step. Cassin Ticonderoga præfect. Quæ regio in terris nos. non
     plena lab. [Rx]. Uno latere percusso. alterum impavide vertit.

LIEUTENANT STEPHEN CASSIN.

[_Victory of Lake Champlain._]

STEP. CASSIN TICONDEROGA PRÆFECT. QUÆ REGIO IN TERRIS NOS. NON PLENA
LAB.[92] (_Stephanus Cassin, Ticonderoga præfectus. Quæ regio in
terris nostri non plena laboris: Stephen Cassin, commander of the
Ticonderoga. What region of the earth is not full of our works._) Bust
of Lieutenant Cassin, in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F.
(_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 92: Virgil, Æneid, Book I, 464.]

UNO LATERE PERCUSSO. ALTERUM IMPAVIDE VERTIT. (_Beaten on one side, he
fearlessly turns the other._) Naval action on Lake Champlain, between
the United States fleet, carrying eighty-six guns, under the command
of Captain Macdonough, and the British fleet, with ninety-five guns,
commanded by Commodore Downie. To the right the city of Plattsburgh in
flames. Exergue: INTER CLASS. AMERI. ET BRIT. DIE XI SEPT. MDCCCXIIII.
(_Inter classim Americanam et Britannicam, die 11 Septembris, 1814:
Between the American and British fleets, September 11, 1814._) On the
platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[93]

                   [Footnote 93: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the action
                   on Lake Champlain, are given under No. 34, page
                   189.]


STEPHEN CASSIN was born in Philadelphia, February 16, 1783. He     (p. 196)
entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800, served in the Tripolitan
campaign, and became a lieutenant in 1807. He commanded the
Ticonderoga in Macdonough's victory on Lake Champlain, September 11,
1814, and for his conduct on that occasion was promoted to the rank of
master, and received a vote of thanks and a gold medal from Congress.
He was made captain, March 3, 1825, commanded for some time the navy
yard at Washington, District of Columbia, and died there, April 29,
1857.



No. 37.                                                            (p. 197)
PLATE XXXVIII.


_March 29, 1814._

     Ludovicus Warrington dux navalis Ameri. [Rx]. Pro patria paratus
     aut vincere aut mori.

CAPTAIN LEWIS WARRINGTON.

[_Capture of the Épervier._]

LUDOVICUS WARRINGTON DUX NAVALIS AMERI. (_Americanus_) (_Lewis
Warrington, American naval commander._) Bust of Captain Warrington, in
uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

PRO PATRIA PARATUS AUT VINCERE AUT MORI. (_Prepared to conquer or die
for his country._) Naval action between the United States sloop-of-war
Peacock, of eighteen guns, Captain Warrington, and the British
brig-of-war Épervier, of eighteen guns, Captain Wales; the Peacock, to
leeward, is firing her port broadside. The Épervier has lost her
main-topmast Exergue: INTER PEACOCK NAV. AMERI ET EPERVIE (_sic_) NAV.
ANG. DIE XXIX MAR. MDCCCXIV. (_Inter Peacock navem Americanam et
Épervier navem Anglicanam, die 29 Martii, 1814: Between the American
vessel Peacock and the English vessel Épervier, March 29, 1814._)
FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


LEWIS WARRINGTON was born in Williamsburgh, Virginia, November 3,
1782. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800, and served under
Commodore Preble in the Tripolitan campaign; was lieutenant, 1807; and
master-commandant, 1813. He sailed from New York in March, 1814,   (p. 198)
in command of the sloop-of-war Peacock, and on the 29th of the
same month took the British brig-of-war Épervier, Captain Wales, for
which gallant deed he received the thanks of Congress and a gold
medal. He was promoted to the rank of captain in November of the same
year, and subsequently served on the Naval Board. In 1842 he became
chief of the ordnance and hydrographic bureau of the Navy Department,
in which capacity he died in Washington, October 12, 1851.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Warrington, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to present to Captain
     Lewis Warrington, of the sloop-of-war Peacock, a gold medal, with
     suitable emblems and devices, and a silver medal,[94] with like
     emblems and devices, to each of the commissioned officers, and a
     sword to each of the midshipmen, and to the sailing-master of
     said vessel, in testimony of the high sense entertained by
     Congress of the gallantry and good conduct of the officers and
     crew, in the action with the British brig Épervier, on the 29th
     day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and
     fourteen, in which action the decisive effect and great
     superiority of the American gunnery were so signally displayed.

                   [Footnote 94: The silver medals are copies of the
                   one in gold to Captain Warrington.]

     Approved October 21, 1814.

                              _____

_Captain Warrington to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States sloop Peacock, at sea,
       William JONES,              Latitude 27° 47´, longitude 89°.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.     April 29th, 1814.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you that we have this morning
     captured, after an action of 42 minutes, His Majesty's brig
     Épervier, Captain Wales, rating and mounting 18 thirty-two pound
     carronades, with 128 men, of whom 8 were killed and 15 wounded,
     according to the best information we could obtain. Among the
     latter is her first lieutenant, who has lost an arm, and received
     a severe splinter wound in the hip. Not a man in the Peacock  (p. 199)
     was killed, and only two wounded, neither dangerously so.
     The fate of the Épervier would have been determined in much less
     time, but for the circumstance of our fore-yard being totally
     disabled by two round shots in the starboard quarter from her
     first broadside, which entirely deprived us of the use of our
     fore and fore-top sails, and compelled us to keep the ship large
     throughout the remainder of the action. This, with a few top-mast
     and top-gallant back-stays cut away, a few shots through our
     sails, is the only injury the Peacock has sustained. Not a round
     shot touched our hull; our masts and spars are as sound as ever.
     When the enemy struck he had five feet water in his hold, his
     main top-mast was over the side, his main-boom shot away, his
     fore-mast cut nearly in two and tottering, his fore rigging and
     stays shot away, his bowsprit badly wounded, and forty-five shot
     holes in his hull, twenty of which were within a foot of his
     water line. By great exertion we got her in sailing order just as
     dark came on.

     In fifteen minutes after the enemy struck, the Peacock was ready
     for another action, in every respect but her fore-yard, which was
     sent down, finished and had the fore-sail set again in forty-five
     minutes: such was the spirit and activity of our gallant crew.
     The Épervier had under her convoy an English hermaphrodite brig,
     a Russian and a Spanish ship, which all hauled their wind, and
     stood to the east-northeast. I had determined upon pursuing the
     former, but found that it would not answer to leave our prize in
     her then crippled state, and the more particularly so, as we
     found she had in her $120,000 in specie, which we soon
     transferred to this sloop. Every officer, seaman, and marine did
     his duty, which is the highest compliment I can pay them.

                     I am, respectfully,
                                        L. WARRINGTON.



No. 38.                                                            (p. 200)
PLATE XXXIX.


_June 28, 1814._

     Johnston Blakeley Reip. Fæd. Am. nav. Wasp dux. [Rx]. Eheu! bis
     victor patria tua te luget plauditq.

CAPTAIN JOHNSTON BLAKELEY.

[_Capture of the Reindeer._]

JOHNSTON BLAKELEY REIP. FÆD. AM. NAV. WASP DUX. (_Johnston Blakeley,
Reipublicæ Fæderatæ Americanæ navis Wasp dux: Johnston Blakeley,
Captain of the American Federal Republic's vessel Wasp._) Bust of
Captain Blakeley, in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

EHEU! BIS VICTOR PATRIA TUA TE LUGET PLAUDITQ. (_Plauditque_) (_Alas!
twice conqueror, thy country laments and applauds thee._) Naval action
between the United States sloop-of-war Wasp, of eighteen guns, Captain
Blakeley, and the British sloop-of-war Reindeer, of eighteen guns,
Captain Manners; the Wasp, to windward, is firing her port broadside.
The British vessel is striking her colors. Exergue: INTER WASP NAV.
AMERI. ET REINDEER NAV. ANG. DIE XXVIII JUNIUS (_sic_) MDCCCXIV.
(_Inter Wasp navem Americanam et Reindeer navem Anglicanam, die 28
Junius, 1814: Between the American vessel Wasp and the English vessel
Reindeer, June 28, 1814._) On the platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


JOHNSTON BLAKELEY was born at Seaford, County Down, Ireland,       (p. 201)
October, 1781. He was brought, when very young, to North Carolina,
where his parents settled, and where they died while he was still a
child. He entered the navy as a midshipman, February 5, 1800, and
served under Commodore Preble in the Tripolitan campaign. In 1813,
when a lieutenant, he commanded the Enterprize, and in the same year
became master-commandant of the sloop-of-war Wasp, with which, on June
28, 1814, he took the British sloop-of-war Reindeer, Commander William
Manners. For this memorable action Congress gave him a vote of thanks
and a gold medal. He afterward cruised off the coast of France, and
was lost at sea in the Wasp, of which no news has ever been received.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Blakeley, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to present to Captain
     Johnston Blakeley, of the sloop Wasp, a gold medal, with suitable
     devices, and a silver medal,[95] with like devices, to each of
     the commissioned officers, and also a sword to each of the
     midshipmen, and the sailing-master of the aforesaid vessel, in
     testimony of the high sense entertained by Congress of the
     gallantry and good conduct of the officers and crew, in the
     action with the British sloop-of-war Reindeer, on the
     twenty-eighth of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and
     fourteen; in which action determined bravery and cool
     intrepidity, in nineteen minutes, obtained a decisive victory by
     boarding.

                   [Footnote 95: The silver medals are copies of the
                   medal in gold to Captain Blakeley.]

     Approved November 3, 1814.

                              _____

_Captain Blakeley to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable                  United States Ship Wasp,
       William JONES                      L'Orient, July 8th, 1814.
         Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: On Tuesday, the 28th instant, being then in latitude 48°
     36´, north, and longitude 11° 15´ west, we fell in with, engaged,
     and after an action of nineteen minutes, captured His         (p. 202)
     Britannic Majesty's sloop-of-war the Reindeer, William Manners,
     Esquire, commander.

     Where all did their duty and each appeared anxious to excel, it
     is very difficult to discriminate. It is, however, only rendering
     them their merited due, when it is declared of Lieutenants Reily
     and Bury, 1st and 3d of this vessel, and whose names will be
     found among those of the conquerors of the Guerrière and Java;
     and of Mr. Tillinghast, 2d lieutenant, who was greatly
     instrumental in the capture of the Boxer; that their conduct and
     courage on this occasion fulfilled my highest expectations and
     gratified every wish. Sailing-master Carr is also entitled to
     great credit for the zeal and ability with which he discharged
     his various duties.

     The cool and patient conduct of every officer and man, while
     exposed to the fire of the shifting gun of the enemy, and without
     an opportunity of returning it, could only be equalled by the
     animation and ardour exhibited when actually engaged, or by the
     promptitude and firmness with which every attempt of the enemy to
     board was met and successfully repelled. Such conduct may be
     seen, but cannot well be described.

     The Reindeer mounted sixteen 24 pound carronades, two long 6 or 9
     pounders, and a shifting 12 pound carronade, with a complement
     (on board) of 118 men. Her crew were said to be the pride of
     Plymouth.

     Our loss in men has been severe, owing in part to the proximity
     of the two vessels and the extreme smoothness of the sea, but
     chiefly in repelling boarders. That of the enemy, however, was
     infinitely more so, as will be seen by the list of killed and
     wounded on both sides.

     Six round shot struck our hull, and many grape which did not
     penetrate far. The fore-mast received a 24 pound shot, which
     passed through its centre, and our rigging and sails were a good
     deal injured.

     The Reindeer was literally cut to pieces in a line with her
     ports; her upper works, boats and spare spars, were one complete
     wreck. A breeze springing up next afternoon, her fore-mast went
     by the board.

     Having received all the prisoners on board, which from the number
     of wounded occupied much time, together with their baggage, the
     Reindeer was on the evening of the 29th, set on fire, and in a
     few hours blew up.

          I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                        J. BLAKELEY.

     _Killed and Wounded._ The loss on board the Reindeer was 25
     killed and 42 wounded, total 67. On board the Wasp, 5 killed and
     21 wounded, principally in boarding; among the latter, midshipmen
     Langdon and Toscan, both of whom expired some days after the
     action.



No. 39.                                                            (p. 203)
PLATE XL.


_July 5 and 25, and September 17, 1814._

     Major General Jacob Brown. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress November
     3. 1814.

MAJOR-GENERAL JACOB BROWN.

[_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

MAJOR GENERAL JACOB BROWN. Bust of General Brown, in uniform, facing
the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS NOVEMBER 3. 1814. In the center of a trophy,
composed of the enemy's arms and flags, are the Roman fasces, emblem
of the strength and of the union of America. The fasces are surrounded
by a crown of laurel, from which hang three cartoons, each bearing the
name of one of the three victories: "NIAGARA" "ERIE" "CHIPPEWA". At
the foot of the trophy the American eagle, with outspread wings, holds
in its talons a British standard. Exergue: BATTLES OF CHIPPEWA. JULY
5. 1814. NIAGARA. JULY 25. 1814. ERIE. SEP. (_September_) 17. 1814.
FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


JACOB BROWN was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, May 9, 1775. He
began life as a school teacher, and afterward became a land surveyor
in Ohio. He removed to Jefferson County, New York, in 1799; was made a
colonel of New York militia, 1809; a brigadier-general of the same,
1810; and distinguished himself by his defence of Sackett's Harbor,
May 29, 1813. He was appointed a brigadier-general in the United   (p. 204)
States army, July 19, 1813; major-general, January 24, 1814; and, in
the same year, commander-in-chief on the Canada frontier. In this
capacity he won the battles of Chippewa, July 5; Niagara, July 25; and
Erie, September 17. For these victories Congress gave him a vote of
thanks and a gold medal. He became commander-in-chief of the army in
1821, and died at head-quarters in Washington, February 24, 1828.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to Generals Brown, Scott,
Porter, Gaines, Macomb, Ripley, and Miller._

     _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the thanks
     of Congress be, and they are hereby, presented to Major General
     Brown, and through him, to the officers and men of the regular
     army, and of the militia under his command, for their gallantry
     and good conduct in the successive battles of Chippewa, Niagara,
     and Erie, in Upper Canada, in which British veteran troops were
     beaten and repulsed by equal or inferior numbers; and that the
     President of the United States be requested to cause a gold medal
     to be struck, emblematical of these triumphs, and presented to
     Major-General Brown.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause a gold medal to be struck, with suitable emblems and
     devices, and presented to Major-General Scott, in testimony of
     the high sense entertained by Congress of his distinguished
     services in the successive conflicts of Chippewa and Niagara, and
     of his uniform gallantry and good conduct in sustaining the
     reputation of the arms of the United States.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause gold medals to be struck, with suitable emblems and
     devices, and presented to Brigadier-General Ripley,
     Brigadier-General Miller, and Major-General Porter, in testimony
     of the high sense entertained by Congress of their gallantry and
     good conduct in the several conflicts of Chippewa, Niagara, and
     Erie.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of Congress be, and they are hereby,
     presented to Major-General Gaines, and through him to the
     officers and men under his command, for their gallantry and good
     conduct in defeating the enemy at Erie on the fifteenth of    (p. 205)
     August, repelling with great slaughter the attack of a British
     veteran army, superior in numbers; and that the President of the
     United States be requested to cause a gold medal to be struck,
     emblematical of this triumph, and presented to Major-General
     Gaines.

     _Resolved_, That the thanks of Congress be, and they are hereby,
     presented to Major-General Macomb, and through him to the
     officers and men of the regular army under his command, and to
     the militia and volunteers of New York and Vermont, for their
     gallantry and good conduct, in defeating the enemy at Plattsburgh
     on the eleventh of September, repelling with one thousand five
     hundred men, aided by a body of militia and volunteers from New
     York and Vermont, a British veteran army, greatly superior in
     number; and that the President of the United States be requested
     to cause a gold medal to be struck, emblematical of this triumph,
     and presented to Major-General Macomb.

     Approved November 3, 1814.

                              _____

_Major-General Brown to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable                  Head Quarters, Chippewa Plains,
       John ARMSTRONG,                          July 7th, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: On the 2d instant I issued my order for crossing the Niagara
     river, and made the arrangements deemed necessary for securing
     the garrison of Fort Erie. On the 3d that post surrendered at 5
     P.M. Our loss in this affair was four of the 25th regiment,
     under Major Jessup, of Brigadier-General Scott's brigade,
     wounded. I have enclosed a return of the prisoners, of the
     ordnance and ordnance stores captured.

     To secure my rear, I have placed a garrison in this fort, and
     requested Captain Kennedy to station his vessels near the post.

     On the morning of the 4th, Brigadier-General Scott, with his
     brigade and a corps of artillery, was ordered to advance toward
     Chippewa, and be governed by circumstances; taking care to secure
     a good military position for the night. After some skirmishing
     with the enemy, he selected this plain with the eye of a soldier,
     his right resting on the river, and a ravine being in front. At
     11 at night I joined him with the reserve, under General Ripley,
     our field and battering train, and corps of artillery under Major
     Hindman. General Porter arrived the next morning with a part of
     the New York and Pennsylvania volunteers, and some of the
     warriors of the Six Nations.

     Early in the morning of the 5th, the enemy commenced a petty war
     upon our pickets, and, as he was indulged, his presumption
     increased; by noon he showed himself on the left of our extensive
     line, and attacked one of our pickets as it was returning to
     camp. Captain Treat, who commanded it, retired disgracefully,
     leaving a wounded man on the ground. Captain Biddle, of the
     artillery, who was near the scene, impelled by feelings highly
     honourable to him as a soldier and officer, promptly assumed the
     command of this picket, led it back to the wounded man and
     brought him off the field. I ordered Captain Treat, on the post,
     to retire from the army, as I am anxious that no officer      (p. 206)
     shall remain under my command who can be suspected of cowardice.
     I advise that Captain Treat[96] be struck from the rolls of the
     army.

     At 4 o'clock in the afternoon, agreeably to a plan I had given
     General Porter, he advanced from the rear of our camp, with the
     volunteers and Indians (taking the woods in order to keep out of
     view of the enemy), with the hope of bringing his pickets and
     scouting parties between his (Porter's) line of march, and our
     camp. As Porter moved, I ordered the parties advanced in front of
     our camp to fall back gradually, under the enemy's fire, in order
     to draw him, if possible, up to our line. About half past 4, the
     advance of General Porter's command met the light parties of the
     enemy in the woods, upon our extreme left. The enemy were driven,
     and Porter advancing near to Chippewa, met their whole column in
     order of battle. From the cloud of dust rising, and the heavy
     firing, I was led to conclude that the entire force of the enemy
     was in march, and prepared for action. I immediately ordered
     General Scott to advance with his brigade, and Towson's
     artillery, and meet them upon the plain in front of our camp. The
     general did not expect to be gratified with a field engagement.
     He advanced in the most prompt and officer-like style, and in a
     few minutes was in close action upon the plain, with a superior
     force of British regular troops. By this time General Porter's
     command had given way, and fled in every direction,
     notwithstanding his personal gallantry, and great exertions to
     stay their flight. The retreat of the volunteers and Indians
     caused the left flank of General Scott's brigade to be greatly
     exposed. Captain Harris, with his dragoons, was directed to stop
     the fugitives, behind the ravine fronting our camp; and I sent
     Colonel Gardner to order General Ripley to advance with the 21st
     regiment which formed part of the reserve, pass to the left of
     our camp, skirt the woods so as to keep out of view, and fall
     upon the rear of the enemy's right flank. This order was promptly
     obeyed, and the greatest exertions were made by the 21st regiment
     to gain their position, and close with the enemy, but in vain;
     for such was the zeal and gallantry of the line commanded by
     General Scott, that its advance upon the enemy was not to be
     checked. Major Jessup, commanding the left flank battalion,
     finding himself pressed in front and in flank, and his men
     falling fast around him, ordered his battalion to "support arms
     and advance;" the order was promptly obeyed, amidst the most
     deadly and destructive fire. He gained a more secure position,
     and returned upon the enemy so galling a discharge, as caused
     them to retire. By this time, their whole line was falling back,
     and our gallant soldiers pressing upon them as fast as possible.
     As soon as the enemy had gained the sloping ground, descending
     towards Chippewa, and distant a quarter of a mile, he broke and
     ran to gain his works. In this effort he was too successful, and
     the guns from his batteries opening immediately upon our line,
     checked in some degree the pursuit. At this moment I resolved to
     bring up all my ordnance and force the place by a direct attack,
     and gave the order accordingly. Major Wood, of the corps of
     engineers, and my aid, Captain Austin, rode to the bank of the
     creek towards the right of their line of works, and examined
     them. I was induced by their report, the lateness of the hour,
     and the advice of General Scott and Major Wood, to order the
     forces to retire to camp.

     My most difficult duty remains to be performed; I am          (p. 207)
     depressed with the fear of not being able to do justice to my
     brave companions in arms, and apprehensive, that some who had an
     opportunity of distinguishing themselves, and promptly embraced
     it, will escape my notice.

     Brigadier-General Scott is entitled to the highest praise our
     country can bestow: to him, more than any other man, I am
     indebted for the victory of the 5th of July. His brigade has
     covered itself with glory. Every officer and every man of the 9th
     and 22d, 11th and 15th regiments _did his duty_ with a zeal and
     energy worthy of the American character. When every officer
     stands so pre-eminently high in the path of his duty and honour,
     it is impossible to discriminate, but I cannot deprive myself of
     the pleasure of saying, that Major Leavenworth commanded the 9th
     and 22d, Major Jessup the 25th, and Major McNeil the 11th.
     Colonel Campbell was wounded early in the action, gallantly
     leading on his regiment.

     The family of General Scott were conspicuous in the field;
     Lieutenant Smith of the 6th infantry, major of brigade, and
     Lieutenants Worth and Watts his aids.

     From General Ripley and his brigade, I received every assistance
     that I gave them an opportunity of rendering. I did not order any
     part of the reserve into action until General Porter's command
     had given way, and then General Scott's movements were so rapid
     and decisive, that General Ripley could not get up in time with
     the 21st, to the position as directed. The corps of artillery
     under Major Hindman were not generally in action; this was not
     their fault. Captain Towson's company was the only one that had a
     full opportunity of distinguishing itself, and it is believed
     that no company ever embraced an opportunity with more zeal or
     more success.

     A detachment from the 2d brigade under the command of
     Lieutenant-Colonel McDonald, penetrated the woods with the
     Indians and volunteers, and for their support. The conduct of
     McDonald and his command reflects high honour on the brigade to
     which they belong.

     The conduct of General Porter has been conspicuously gallant.
     Every assistance in his power to afford, with the description of
     force under his command, has been rendered. We could not expect
     him to contend with the British column of regulars which appeared
     upon the plains of Chippewa. It was no cause of surprise to me to
     see his command retire before this column.

     Justice forbids that I should omit to name my own family. They
     yield to none in honourable zeal, intelligence, and attention to
     duty. Colonel Gardner, Major Jones, and my aids, Captains Austin
     and Spencer, have been as active and as much devoted to the cause
     as any officers of the army. Their conduct merits my warmest
     acknowledgments; of Gardner and Jones I shall have occasion again
     to speak to you.

     Major Camp, deputy-quarter-master-general, deserves my particular
     notice and approbation. By his great exertions, I was enabled to
     find the means of crossing. Captain Daliba, of the ordnance
     department, has rendered every service in his power.

     The inclosed return will show you our loss, and furnish you with
     the names of the dead and wounded officers. These gallant men
     must not be forgotten. Our country will remember them, and do
     them justice.

                With great respect, &c.,
                                        Jacob BROWN.

                   [Footnote 96: Captain Treat was tried by a
                   court-martial and honorably acquitted.]

                              _____

_General Orders._                                                  (p. 208)

                              Adjutant-General's Office, left Division,
                                  Chippewa Plains, July 6th, 1814.

     Major-General Brown has the gratification to say, that the
     soldiers of the 2d division, west of the Niagara, merit greater
     applause than he is able to bestow in general orders; they merit
     the highest approbation of the country. The conduct of
     Brigadier-General Scott's brigade, which had the opportunity to
     engage the whole force of the enemy, the greater part, it is
     believed, of all in the peninsula, removes on the day of this
     battle the reflection on our country, that its reputation in arms
     is yet to be established. His brigade consists of battalions of
     the 9th, the 11th, the 25th and a detachment of the 22d. Towson's
     company of artillery, which was attached to it, gallantly
     commenced, and with it sustained the action.

     The volunteers and Indians performed their part; they drove the
     enemy's Indians and light troops until they met the British army:
     they meet the general's approbation.

     Of the reports of killed and wounded, the names of the wounded
     officers will be mentioned, in order that they may be rewarded
     with that honourable mention which is due.

        By order of Major-General Brown.
                                        C. K. GARDNER, _Adj't Gen_.

                              _____

_General Brown to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable
       John ARMSTRONG,                  Buffalo, August, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: Confined as I was, and have been, since the last engagement
     with the enemy, I fear that the account I am about to give may be
     less full and satisfactory than under other circumstances it
     might have been made. I particularly fear that the conduct of the
     gallant men it was my good fortune to lead, will not be noticed
     in a way due to their fame and the honour of our country.

     You are already apprized that the army had, on the 25th ultimo,
     taken a position at Chippewa. About noon of that day, Colonel
     Swift, who was posted at Lewistown advised me by express that the
     enemy appeared in considerable force in Queenstown, and on its
     heights; that four of the enemy's fleet had arrived during the
     preceding night, and were then lying near Fort Niagara, and that
     a number of boats were in view moving up the strait. Within a few
     minutes after this intelligence had been received, I was further
     informed by Captain Denmons, of the quarter-master's department,
     that the enemy was landing at Lewistown, and that our baggage and
     stores at Schlosser, and on their way thither, were in danger of
     immediate capture. It is proper here to mention, that having
     received advices as late as the 20th from General James, that our
     fleet was then in port, and the commodore sick, we ceased to look
     for co-operation from that quarter, and determined to disencumber
     ourselves of baggage, and march directly for Burlington       (p. 209)
     Heights. To mask this intention, and to draw from Schlosser a
     small supply of provisions, I fell back upon Chippewa.

     As this arrangement, under the increased force of the enemy, left
     much at hazard on our side of the Niagara, and as it appeared by
     the before stated information, that the enemy was about to avail
     himself of it, I conceived that the most effectual method of
     recalling him from this object was to put myself in motion
     towards Queenstown. General Scott, with his first brigade,
     Towson's artillery, and all the dragoons and mounted men were
     accordingly put in march on the road leading thither, with orders
     to report, if the enemy appeared, and to call for assistance, if
     that was necessary. On the general's arrival at the falls, he
     learned that the enemy was in force directly in his front, a
     narrow piece of woods alone intercepting his view of them.
     Waiting only to give this information, he advanced upon them. By
     this time Assistant Adjutant General Jones had delivered his
     message, the action began, and before the remaining part of the
     division had crossed the Chippewa, it had become close and
     general between the advanced corps. Though General Ripley with
     his second brigade, Major Hindman with the corps of artillery,
     and General Porter at the head of his command, had respectively
     pressed forward with ardour, it was not less than an hour before
     they were brought to sustain General Scott, during which time his
     command most skilfully and gallantly maintained the conflict.
     Upon my arrival, I found that the general had passed the wood,
     and engaged the enemy on the Queenstown road, and on the ground
     to the left of it, with the 9th, 11th and 22d regiments, and
     Towson's artillery. The 25th had been thrown to the right, to be
     governed by circumstances.

     Apprehending that these corps were much exhausted, and knowing
     that they had suffered severely, I determined to interpose a new
     line with the advancing troops; and thus disengage General Scott,
     and hold his brigade in reserve. Orders were accordingly given to
     General Ripley. The enemy's artillery at this moment occupied a
     hill which gave great advantage, and was the key of the whole
     position. It was supported by a line of infantry. To secure
     victory, it was necessary to carry this artillery and seize the
     height. This duty was assigned to Colonel Miller, while, to
     favour its execution, the 1st regiment, under the command of
     Colonel Nicholas, was directed to manoeuvre and amuse the
     infantry. To my great mortification, this regiment, after a
     discharge or two, gave way and retreated some distance, before it
     could be rallied, though it is believed the officers of the
     regiment exerted themselves to shorten this distance. In the mean
     time, Colonel Miller, without regard to this occurrence, advanced
     steadily and gallantly to his object, and carried the height and
     the cannon. General Ripley brought up the 23d regiment, (which
     had also faltered,) to his support, and the enemy disappeared
     from before them. The 1st regiment was now brought into line on
     the left of the 21st, and the detachment of the 17th and 19th,
     General Porter occupying with his command the extreme left. About
     this time, Colonel Miller carried the enemy's cannon. The 25th
     regiment, under Major Jessup was engaged in a more obstinate
     conflict with all that remained to dispute with us the field of
     battle. The major, as has been already stated, had been ordered
     by General Scott, at the commencement of the action, to take
     ground to his right. He had succeeded in turning the enemy's
     flank; had captured (by a detachment under Captain Ketchum),  (p. 210)
     General Riall and sundry other officers, and showed himself again
     to his own army, in a blaze of fire, which defeated or destroyed
     a very superior force of the enemy. He was ordered to form on the
     right of the 2d regiment. The enemy rallying his forces, and as
     is believed, having received reinforcements, now attempted to
     drive us from our position and regain his artillery. Our line was
     unshaken and the enemy repulsed. Two other attempts having the
     same object, had the same issue. General Scott was again engaged
     in repelling the former of these, and the last I saw of him in
     the field of battle, he was near the head of his column, and
     giving to its march a direction that would place him on the
     enemy's right. It was with great pleasure I saw the good order
     and intrepidity of General Porter's volunteers from the moment of
     their arrival; but during the last charge of the enemy those
     qualities were conspicuous. Stimulated by the examples set them
     by their gallant leader, by Major Wood of the Pennsylvania corps,
     by Colonel Dobbin of New York, and by their officers generally,
     they precipitated themselves upon the enemy's line, and made all
     the prisoners which were taken at this point of the action.

     Having been for some time wounded, and being a good deal
     exhausted by the loss of blood, it became my wish to devolve the
     command on General Scott, and retire from the field; but on
     enquiry, I had the misfortune to learn, that he was disabled by
     wounds; I therefore kept my post, and had the satisfaction to see
     the enemy's last effort repulsed. I now consigned the command to
     General Ripley.

     While retiring from the field, I saw and felt, that the victory
     was complete on our part, if proper measures were promptly
     adopted to secure it. The exhaustion of the men was, however,
     such as made some refreshment necessary. They particularly
     required water. I was myself extremely sensible of the want of
     this necessary article. I therefore believed it proper, that
     General Ripley and the troops should return to camp, after
     bringing off the dead, the wounded, and artillery; and in this I
     saw no difficulty, as the enemy had entirely ceased to act.
     Within an hour after my arrival in camp, I was informed that
     General Ripley had returned without annoyance, and in good order.
     I now sent for him, and after giving him my reasons for the
     measure I was about to adopt, ordered him to put the troops in
     the best possible condition; to give to them the necessary
     refreshment; to take the pickets and camp-guards, and every other
     description of force; to put himself on the field of battle as
     the day dawned, and there to meet and beat the enemy if he again
     appeared. To this order he made no objection, and I relied upon
     its execution. It was not executed. I feel most sensibly how
     inadequate are my powers in speaking of the troops, to do justice
     to their merits, or to my own sense of them. Under abler
     direction, they might have done more and better.

     From the preceding details, you have new evidence of the
     distinguished gallantry of Generals Scott and Porter, of Colonel
     Miller and Major Jessup, of the 1st brigade. The chief, with his
     aid-de-camp Worth, his major of brigade Smith, and every
     commander of battalion, were wounded. The 2d brigade suffered
     less; but as a brigade, their conduct entitled them to the
     applause of their country. After the enemy's strong position had
     been carried by the 21st and the detachments of the 17th and
     19th, the 1st and 23d assumed a new character. They could not
     again be shaken or dismayed. Major McFarland, of the latter, fell
     nobly at the head of his battalion.

     Under the command of General Porter, the militia volunteers   (p. 211)
     of Pennsylvania and New York stood undismayed amidst the hottest
     fire, and repulsed the veterans opposed to them. The Canadian
     volunteers, commanded by Colonel Wilson, are reported by General
     Porter as having merited and received his approbation.

     The corps of artillery commanded by Major Hindman, behaved with
     its usual gallantry. Towson's company attached to the 1st
     brigade, was the first and the last engaged, and during the whole
     conflict maintained that high character which they had previously
     won by their skill and their valour. Captains Biddle and Ritchie
     were both wounded early in the action, but refused to quit the
     field. The latter declared that he would never leave his piece;
     and true to his engagement, fell by its side covered with wounds.

     The staff of the army had its peculiar merit and distinction.
     Colonel Gardner, adjutant-general, though ill, was on horseback,
     and did all in his power; his assistant, Major Jones, was very
     active and useful. My gallant aids-de-camp, Austin and Spencer,
     had many and critical duties to perform, in discharge of which
     the latter fell; I shall ever think of this young man with pride
     and regret; regret that his career has been so short; pride that
     it has been so noble and distinguished. The engineers, Majors
     McRee and Wood, were greatly distinguished on this day, and their
     high military talents exerted with great effect; they were much
     under my eye and near my person, and to their assistance a great
     deal is fairly to be ascribed. I most earnestly recommend them as
     worthy of the highest trust and confidence. The staff of Generals
     Ripley and Porter, discovered great zeal and attention to duty.
     Lieutenant E. B. Randolph, of the 20th regiment, is entitled to
     notice; his courage was conspicuous.

     I enclose a return of our loss: those noted missing may generally
     be numbered with the dead. The enemy had but little opportunity
     of making prisoners.

          I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                        Jacob BROWN.

                              _____

_General Brown to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable                  Headquarters, Camp Fort Erie,
       John ARMSTRONG,                     September 29th, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: In my letter of the 18th instant I briefly informed you of
     the fortunate issue of the sortie which took place the day
     preceding. But it is due to the gallant officers and men, to
     whose bravery we are indebted for our success on this occasion,
     that I should give you a more circumstantial and detailed account
     of this affair.

     The enemy's camp I had ascertained to be situated in a field,
     surrounded by woods, nearly two miles distant from their
     batteries and entrenchments, the object of which was to keep the
     parts of their force which was not upon duty, out of the range of
     our fire from Fort Erie and Black Rock. Their infantry was formed
     into three brigades, estimated at 1,200 or 1,500 men each. One of
     these brigades, with a detail from their artillery, was       (p. 212)
     stationed at their works, (these being but 500 yards distant from
     old Fort Erie, and the right of our line). We had already
     suffered much from the fire of two of their batteries, and were
     aware that a third was about to open upon us. Under these
     circumstances, I resolved to storm the batteries, destroy the
     cannon, and roughly handle the brigade upon duty, before those in
     reserve could be brought into action.

     On the morning of the 17th, the infantry and riflemen, regulars
     and militia, were ordered to be paraded, and put in readiness to
     march precisely at 12 o'clock. General Porter with the
     volunteers, Colonel Gibson with the riflemen, and Major Brooke
     with the 23rd and 21st infantry, and a few dragoons acting as
     infantry, were ordered to move from the extreme left of our
     position, upon the enemy's right, by a passage opened through the
     woods for the occasion. General Miller was directed to station
     his command in the ravine, which lies between Fort Erie and the
     enemy's batteries, by passing them by detachments through the
     skirts of the wood, and the 21st infantry, under General Ripley,
     was posted as a corps of reserve between the new bastions of Fort
     Erie; all under cover and out of the view of the enemy.

     About 20 minutes before 3 P.M. I found the left columns, under
     the command of General Porter, which were destined to turn the
     enemy's right, within a few rods of the British entrenchments.
     They were ordered to advance and commence the action. Passing
     down the ravine, I judged from the report of musketry, that the
     action had commenced on our left; I now hastened to General
     Miller and directed him to seize the moment and pierce the
     enemy's entrenchments between batteries No. 2 and 3. My orders
     were promptly and ably executed. Within 30 minutes after the
     first gun was fired, batteries No. 3 and 2, the enemy's line of
     entrenchments, and his two block houses, were in our possession.
     Soon after, battery No. 1 was abandoned by the British. The guns
     in each were spiked by us, or otherwise destroyed, and the
     magazine of No. 3 was blown up.

     A few minutes before the explosion, I had ordered up the reserve
     under General Ripley. As he passed me at the head of his column,
     I desired him, as he would be the senior in advance, to
     ascertain, as near as possible, the situation of the troops in
     general, and to have a care that not more was hazarded than the
     occasion required; that, the object of the sortie effected, the
     troops would retire in good order, &c. General Ripley passed
     rapidly on; soon after, I became alarmed for General Miller, and
     sent an order for the 21st to hasten to his support towards
     battery No. 1. Colonel Upham received the order, and advanced to
     the aid of General Miller. General Ripley had inclined to the
     left, where Major Brooke's command was engaged, with a view of
     making some necessary enquiries of that officer, and in the act
     of doing so, was unfortunately wounded. By this time, the object
     of the sortie was accomplished beyond my most sanguine
     expectations. General Miller had consequently ordered the troops
     on the right to fall back; observing this movement, I sent my
     staff along the line to call in the other corps. Within a few
     minutes they retired from the ravine, and from thence to camp.

     Thus, one thousand regulars, and an equal portion of militia, in
     one hour of close action, blasted the hopes of the enemy,
     destroyed the fruits of fifty days labour, and diminished his
     effective force 1,000 men at least. I am at a loss how to express
     my satisfaction at the gallant conduct of the officers and    (p. 213)
     men of this division, whose valour has shown superior to
     every trial. General Porter, in his official report herein
     enclosed, has very properly noticed those patriotic citizens who
     have done so much honour to themselves, by freely and voluntarily
     tendering their services at a dangerous and critical period.

     As the scene of action was in a wood, in advance of the position
     I had chosen for directing the movements of the whole, the
     several reports of commandants of corps, must guide me in
     noticing individuals.

     General Miller mentions Lieutenant-Colonel Aspinwall,
     Lieutenant-Colonel Beedle, Major Trimble, Captain Hull, Captain
     Ingersoll, Lieutenant Crawford, Lieutenant Lee, and particularly
     Ensign O'Fling, as entitled to distinction.

     Lieutenant-Colonel McDonald, upon whom the command of the rifle
     corps devolved, upon the fall of the brave and generous Gibson,
     names Adjutant Shortridge, of the 1st, and Ballard of the 4th
     regiments, as deserving the highest applause for their promptness
     and gallantry in communicating orders. Of the other officers of
     the corps, he reports generally, that the bravery and good
     conduct of all was so conspicuous as to render it impossible to
     discriminate.

     Major Brooke, to whom much credit is due for the distinguished
     manner in which he executed the orders he received, speaks in
     high terms of Lieutenants Goodell, Ingersoll, Livingston, and
     ensigns Brant and O'Fling, of the 23d, particularly of the
     latter. Also of Captain Simms, Lieutenants Bissel, Shore, and
     Brinot, of the 1st infantry, and Lieutenant Watts, of the
     dragoons.

     Lieutenant-Colonel Upham, who took the command of the reserve
     after General Ripley was disabled, bestows great praise upon
     Major Chambers, of the 4th regiment of riflemen, attached to the
     21st infantry, as also upon Captain Bradford and Lieutenant
     Holding of that regiment.

     My staff, Colonel Snelling, Colonel Gardner, Major Jones, and my
     aids-de-camp, Major Austin and Lieutenant Armstrong, were, as
     usual, zealous, intelligent, and active; they performed every
     duty required of them to my entire satisfaction.

     Major Hall, assistant inspector general, led a battalion of
     militia, and conducted with skill and gallantry. Lieutenant
     Kirby, aid-de-camp to General Ripley, was extremely active and
     useful during the time he was in action.

     Lieutenants Frazer and Riddle were in General Porter's staff;
     their bravery was conspicuous, and no officers of their grade
     were more useful.

     The corps of artillery, commanded by Major Hindman, which has
     been so eminently distinguished throughout this campaign, had no
     opportunity of taking a part in the sortie. The 25th infantry,
     under Colonel Jessup, was stationed in Fort Erie to hold the key
     of our position.

     Colonel Brady, on whose firmness and good conduct every reliance
     could be placed, was in command at Buffalo with the remains of
     the 22d infantry. Lieutenant-Colonel McRee and Lieutenant-Colonel
     Wood, of the corps of engineers, having rendered to this army
     services the most important, I must seize the opportunity of
     again mentioning them particularly. On every trying occasion, I
     have reaped much benefit from their sound and excellent advice.
     No two officers of their grade could have contributed more to the
     safety and honour of this army. Wood, brave, generous and     (p. 214)
     enterprising, died as he had lived, without a feeling but for the
     honour of his country and glory of her arms. His _name_ and
     _example_ will live to guide the soldiers in the path of duty so
     long as true heroism is held in estimation. McRee lives to enjoy
     the approbation of every virtuous and generous mind, and to
     receive the reward due to his services and high military talents.

     It is proper here to notice, that although but one-third of the
     enemy's force was on duty when his works were carried, the whole
     were brought into action while we were employed in destroying his
     cannon. We secured prisoners from seven of his regiments, and
     know that the 6th and 87th suffered severely in killed and
     wounded, yet these regiments were not upon duty.

     Lieutenant-General Drummond broke up his camp during the night of
     the 21st, and retired to his entrenchments behind the Chippewa. A
     part of our men came up with the rear of his army at Frenchman's
     creek; the enemy destroyed part of their stores by setting fire
     to the building from which they were employed in conveying them.
     We found in and about the camp a considerable quantity of cannon
     ball, and upwards of one hundred stand of arms.

     I send you enclosed herein a return of our loss. The return of
     prisoners enclosed does not include the stragglers that came in
     after the action.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Jacob BROWN.

                              _____

_General Brown to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable                  Head Quarters, Fort Camp Erie,
       John ARMSTRONG,                       October 1st, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: Looking over my official account of the action of the 17th
     ultimo, I find that the names of the regiments which composed
     General Miller's command have not been given. As I believe it
     even more important to distinguish corps than individuals, I am
     anxious to correct this mistake. General Miller on that day
     commanded the remains of the 9th and 11th infantry, and a
     detachment of the 19th. Of three field officers who were attached
     to them, two were severely wounded, Lieutenant-Colonel Aspinwall,
     of the 9th, gallantly leading his men to the attack upon the
     enemy's entrenchments; and Major Trimble, of the 19th, who was
     shot within their works, conducting with great skill and bravery.
     A detachment of the 17th regiment was attached to the 21st.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Jacob BROWN.



No. 40.                                                            (p. 215)
PLATE XLI.


_July 5 and 25, and September 17, 1814._

     Major General Peter B. Porter. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     November 3. 1814.

MAJOR-GENERAL PETER BUEL PORTER.

[_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

MAJOR GENERAL PETER B. (_Buel_) PORTER. Bust of General Porter, in
uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS NOVEMBER 3. 1814. A winged Victory, holding in
her right hand a palm branch and a wreath of laurel, and in her left
three standards, upon which are written: "ERIE" "CHIPPEWA" "NIAGARA."
She dictates to the muse of History, who is seated on the ground,
writing. Exergue: BATTLES OF CHIPPEWA. JULY 5. 1814. NIAGARA. JULY 25.
1814. ERIE. SEP. (_September_) 17. 1814. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


PETER BUEL PORTER was born in Salisbury, Connecticut, August 14, 1773.
He was graduated at Yale College, New Haven, in 1791; and studied law
and commenced practice in Canandaigua, New York, in 1795. He was a
member of Congress, 1809-1813; a major-general of New York volunteers,
1813; and distinguished himself at the battles of Chippewa, Niagara,
and Erie, for which Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold
medal.[97] He was again a member of Congress, 1815-1816; was appointed
a United States commissioner for determining the north-western
boundary, 1816; and was secretary of War in 1828-1829. He died at
Niagara Falls, March 20, 1844.

                   [Footnote 97: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the battles
                   of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie, are given under No.
                   39, page 203.]

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 216)

_Brigadier-General P. B. Porter to Major-General Jacob Brown._

     To
       Jacob BROWN, Esq.,               Fort Erie, September 22d, 1814.
         Major-General commanding.

     Sir: In executing the duty you have imposed on me, of reporting
     the conduct of the officers and men composing the left column,
     which you were pleased to place under my command, in the sortie
     of the 17th instant, the pleasure I derive in representing to you
     the admirable conduct of the whole, is deeply chastened by sorrow
     for the loss of many brave and distinguished men.

     Being obliged, from the nature of the ground, to act on foot, it
     was impossible that my own personal observation should reach to
     every officer. Some part of this report must therefore rest upon
     the information of others.

     It is the business of this communication to speak of the conduct
     of individuals; yet you will permit me to premise, although well
     known to yourself already, that the object of the left column was
     to penetrate by a circuitous route between the enemy's batteries,
     where one-third of his force was always kept on duty, and his
     main camp, and that it was sub-divided into three divisions: the
     advance of 200 riflemen, and a few Indians, commanded by Colonel
     Gibson, and two columns moving parallel to, and 30 yards distant
     from, each other. The right column was commanded by
     Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, headed by 400 infantry, under Major
     Brooke, of the 23d, and followed by 500 volunteers and militia,
     being parts of Lieutenant-Colonels Dobbin's, M'Burney's, and
     Fleming's regiments, and was intended to attack the batteries.

     The left column of 500 militia was commanded by Brigadier-General
     Davis, and comprised the commands of Lieutenant-Colonels Hopkins,
     Churchhill and Crosby, and was intended to hold in check any
     reinforcements from the enemy's camp; or both columns
     (circumstances requiring it, which frequently happened) to
     co-operate in the same object.

     After carrying by storm, in the handsomest style, a strong block
     house, in rear of the third battery, making its garrison
     prisoners, destroying the three 24-pounders and their carriages
     in the third battery, and blowing up the enemy's magazine, and
     after co-operating with General Miller in taking the second
     battery, the gallant leaders of the three divisions all fell
     nearly at the same time; Colonel Gibson, at the second battery,
     and General Davis and Lieutenant-Colonel Wood in an assault upon
     the first.

     Brigadier-General Davis, although a militia officer of little
     experience, conducted on this occasion with all the coolness and
     bravery of a veteran, and fell while advancing upon the enemy's
     entrenchments. His loss as a citizen as well as a soldier, will
     be severely felt in the patriotic county of Genesee. Colonel
     Gibson fully sustained the high military reputation which he had
     before so justly acquired. You know how exalted an opinion I have
     always entertained of Lieutenant-Colonel Wood of the engineers.
     His conduct on this day was what it uniformly has been, on every
     similar occasion, an exhibition of military skill, acute judgment,
     and heroic valour. Of the other regular officers,             (p. 217)
     Lieutenant-Colonel M'Donald and Major Brooke, senior in command,
     will report to you in relation to their respective divisions.
     Permit me, however, to say of these two officers, that, much as
     was left to them by the fall of their distinguished leaders, they
     were able to sustain their parts in the most admirable manner,
     and they richly deserve the notice of the government.

     Of the militia, I regret that the limits of a report will not
     permit me even to name all of those who on this occasion
     established claims to the gratitude of their fellow citizens;
     much less to particularize individual merit. Lieutenant-Colonels
     Hopkins, M'Burney, Churchhill and Crosby, and Majors Lee, Marcle,
     Wilson, Lawrence, Burr, Dunham, Kellogg and Ganson, are entitled
     to the highest praise for their gallant conduct, their steady and
     persevering exertions. Lieutenant-Colonel Dobbin being prevented
     by severe indisposition from taking the field, Major Hall,
     assistant inspector general, volunteered his services to join
     Major Lee in the command of the volunteer regiment; and Major Lee
     and every other officer speak in the highest terms of the gallant
     and good conduct of this young officer.

     Captain Fleming, who commanded the Indians, was, as he always is,
     in the front of the battle. There is not a more intrepid soldier
     in the army. I should be ungrateful were I to omit the names of
     Captains Knapp and Hull of the volunteers, and Captain Parker and
     Lieutenant Chatfield of the militia, by whose intrepidity I was,
     during the action, extricated from the most unpleasant situation.
     Captains Richardson, Buel and Kennedy, Lieutenants Parkhurst and
     Brown, and Adjutants Dobbin, Bates and Robinson, particularly
     distinguished themselves. The patriotic conduct of Captain
     Elliot, with twenty young gentlemen, who volunteered from
     Batavia, and of Major Hubbard, with fourteen men exempted by age
     from military duty, should not be omitted. They were conspicuous
     during the action.

     You will excuse me if I shall seem partial in speaking of my own
     family, consisting of my brigade major, Frazer, my volunteer
     aid-de-camp Riddle (both first lieutenants in the 15th infantry),
     Captain Bigger, of the Canadian volunteers, Messrs. Williams and
     Delapierre, volunteer aids for the day, all of whom, except Mr.
     Williams, were wounded.

     Lieutenants Frazer and Riddle were engaged for the most of the
     preceding day with fatigue parties, cutting roads for the advance
     of the column through the swamp, and falling timber to the rear,
     and within 150 yards of the enemy's right; which service they
     executed with so much address as to avoid discovery; and on the
     succeeding day they conducted the two columns to the attack.
     Frazer was severely wounded by a musket ball while spiking a gun
     on the second battery. Riddle, after the first battery was
     carried, descended into the enemy's magazine, and after securing
     (with the assistance of quarter master Greene of the volunteers,
     whose good conduct deserves much praise) a quantity of fixed
     ammunition, blew up the magazine, and suffered severely by the
     explosion. I must solicit, through you, Sir, the attention of the
     general government to these meritorious young men. Captain Bigger
     is an excellent officer, and rendered me much assistance, but was
     dangerously wounded. The other young gentlemen are citizens, and
     deserve much credit for their activity, and for having
     voluntarily encountered danger. My aid-de-camp, Major Dox, was
     confined at Buffalo by sickness.

     On the whole, Sir, I can say of the regular troops attached   (p. 218)
     to the left column, of the veteran volunteers of Lieutenant-Colonel
     Dobbin's regiment, that every man did his duty, and their conduct
     on this occasion reflects a new lustre on their former brilliant
     achievements. To the militia, the compliment is justly due, and I
     could pay them no greater one, than to say, that they were not
     surpassed by the heroes of Chippewa and Niagara in steadiness and
     bravery.

     The studied intricacy of the enemy's defences, consisting not
     only of the breastwork connecting their batteries, but of
     successive lines of entrenchments for a hundred yards in the
     rear, covering the batteries and enfilading each other, and the
     whole obstructed by abatis, brush and felled timber, was
     calculated to produce confusion among the assailants, and led to
     several contests at the point of the bayonet. But by our double
     columns, any temporary irregularity in the one, was always
     corrected by the other. Our success would probably have been more
     complete but for the rain which unfortunately set in soon after
     we commenced our march, which rendered the fire of many of our
     muskets useless, and by obscuring the sun, led to several unlucky
     mistakes. As an instance of this, a body of 50 prisoners who had
     surrendered, were ordered to the fort in charge of a subaltern
     and 14 volunteers; the officer mistaking the direction, conducted
     them towards the British camp in the route by which we had
     advanced, and they were re-taken with the whole of the guard,
     excepting the officer and one man, who fought their way back.
     Several of our stragglers were made prisoners by the same
     mistake. But, Sir, notwithstanding these accidents, we have
     reason to rejoice at our signal success, in inflicting a vastly
     disproportionate injury on the enemy, and in wholly defeating all
     his plans of operation against this army.

            I have the honour to be, &c.
                                        P. B. PORTER,
                  _Brigadier General commanding Volunteers and Militia_.



No. 41.                                                            (p. 219)
PLATE XLII.


_July 5 and 25, August 15, and September 17, 1814._

     Brig. General Eleazer W. Ripley. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     Novemb. 3. 1814.

BRIGADIER-GENERAL ELEAZER WHEELOCK RIPLEY.

[_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

BRIG. (_Brigadier_) GENERAL ELEAZER W. (_Wheelock_) RIPLEY. Bust of
General Ripley, in uniform, facing the right FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS NOVEMB. (_November_) 3. 1814. A winged Victory,
standing, holds in her right hand a trumpet and a crown of laurel, and
with her left is hanging upon a palm tree a shield on which are the
words: "CHIPPEWA" "NIAGARA" "ERIE." Exergue: BATTLES OF CHIPPEWA JULY
5. 1814. NIAGARA JULY 25. 1814. ERIE. AUG. (_August_) 15. SEP.
(_September_) 17 1814. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[98]

                   [Footnote 98: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the battles
                   of Chippewa, Niagara and Erie, are given under No.
                   39, page 203, and No. 44, page 226.]


ELEAZER WHEELOCK RIPLEY was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, April 15,
1782. He was graduated at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire,
in 1800, and studied law. He was speaker of the Legislature of
Massachusetts in 1812; a lieutenant-colonel the same year; colonel of
the 21st regiment of infantry, 1813; and a brigadier-general, 1814. He
distinguished himself at Chippewa, at Niagara, and at Erie, for which
services he received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal. He   (p. 220)
was wounded at Niagara, and again dangerously at Erie; was breveted a
major-general, July 25, 1814; resigned in 1820, and settled in
Louisiana, which he represented in Congress, 1835-1839. He died at
West Feliciana, Louisiana, March 2, 1839.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Brigadier-General E. W. Ripley to Brigadier-General Gaines._

     To
       BRIGADIER-GENERAL GAINES.        Fort Erie, August 17th, 1814.

     Sir: I take the liberty of reporting you the cause of operations
     on the left flank of the camp, during the action of the 15th
     instant.

     From indications satisfactory to me, I was persuaded very early
     of the enemy's design of attacking us in our position. Before any
     alarm, I caused my brigade to occupy their alarm posts. On the
     first fire of the picket, Captain Towson opened his artillery
     upon them from Fort Williams, in a style which does him infinite
     credit. It was continued with very great effect upon the enemy
     during the whole action.

     The enemy advanced with fixed bayonets, and attempted to enter
     our works between the fort and water. They brought ladders for
     the purpose of scaling, and in order to prevent their troops from
     resorting to any other course excepting the bayonet, had caused
     all the flints to be taken from their muskets. The column that
     approached in this direction consisted of Colonel Fischer's
     command, and amounted in number to at least 1,500 men; and,
     according to the representation of prisoners, they were 2,000
     strong. The companies posted at the point of the works, which
     they attempted to escalade, were Captain Ross's, Captain
     Marston's, Lieutenant Bowman's, and Lieutenant Larned's, of the
     21st regiment, not exceeding 250 men, under command of Major
     Wood, of the engineer corps. On the enemy's approach they opened
     their musketry upon them in a manner the most powerful. Fort
     Williams and this little band, emitted one broad uninterrupted
     sheet of light. The enemy were repulsed. They rallied, came on a
     second time to the charge, and a party waded round our line by
     the lake, and came in on the flank; but a reserve of two
     companies, posted in the commencement of the action to support
     this point, marched up and fired upon the party, who were all
     killed or taken. Five times in this manner did the enemy advance
     to the charge; five times were their columns beaten back in the
     utmost confusion by a force one-sixth of their numbers; till  (p. 221)
     at length finding the contest unavailing, they retired. At
     this point we made 147 prisoners.

     During the contest in this quarter, the lines of the whole of the
     left wing were perfectly lined, in addition to the reserves; and
     I found myself able to detach three companies of the 23d regiment
     from the left, to reinforce the troops at Fort Erie, viz.:
     Captain Wattles', Lieutenant Cantine's, and Lieutenant Brown's
     companies, and one of the 19th under Captain Chunn. They were in
     the fort during the time of the explosion, and their conduct is
     highly spoken of by Major Brooke, their commanding officer.
     Indeed, from the high state to which that regiment has been
     brought by Major Brooke, I am convinced that no troops will
     behave better.

     In submitting to your view the conduct of the troops under my
     command on this occasion, I find every thing to applaud, nothing
     to reprehend. The utmost coolness and subordination was
     manifested, both by the 21st and 23d regiments. To Major Wood I
     feel particularly indebted. This officer's merits are so well
     known, that approbation can scarcely add to his reputation. He
     has the merit, with the Spartan band, in connection with Captain
     Towson's artillery, of defeating a vaunting foe of six times his
     force. Major Brooke did every thing in his power: and it affords
     me pleasure at all times to call the attention of the general
     commanding to this amiable and accomplished officer.

     The officers commanding companies immediately engaged, have my
     highest commendation. Their conduct was most judicious and
     gallant. I cannot refrain from adverting to the manner in which
     Captain Towson's artillery was served. I have never seen it
     equalled. This officer has so often distinguished himself, that
     to say simply that he is in action, is a volume of eulogium; the
     army, only to be informed he is there, by a spontaneous assent,
     are at once satisfied that he has performed well his part. I have
     no idea that there is an artillery officer in any service
     superior to him in the knowledge and performance of his duty.

     The officers I have mentioned as commanding companies of the 21st
     and 23d regiments, are particularly commended by their commanding
     officers. Captain Marston, a most valuable officer, commanded a
     first line of three companies opposed to the enemy's column.
     Captain Ropes commanded the companies of reserve. Major Wood
     reports in the highest terms of the good conduct of the
     subalterns. Lieutenants Riddle, of the 15th, attached to the
     21st, and Hall, and ensigns Bean, Jones, Gumming, and Thomas, of
     the 19th, as being extremely active, and performing their duties
     with alacrity.

     The manner in which Lieutenant Belknap, of the 23d, retired with
     his picket guard from before the enemy's column, excites my
     particular commendation. He gave orders to fire three times as he
     was retreating to camp, himself bringing up the rear. In this
     gallant manner, he kept the light advance of the enemy in check,
     for a distance of two or three hundred yards. I have to regret,
     that when entering our lines after his troops, the enemy pushed
     so close upon him that he received a severe wound from a bayonet.

     Lieutenant Bushnel and Cissney, of the 19th, while gallantly
     engaged with the enemy at Fort Erie, were both severely, if not
     mortally, wounded. Their conduct merits the warmest approbation.

     Permit me to recommend to your notice, the good conduct of my (p. 222)
     staff, Lieutenant Kirby, of the corps of artillery, my
     aid-de-camp, and Lieutenant Holding, acting brigade major; their
     activity and zeal was entirely to my satisfaction.

     I close this long report, with stating to you, in the highest
     terms of approbation, the skillfulness exhibited by Doctor
     Fuller, surgeon of the 23d, and Doctor Trowbridge, surgeon of the
     21st infantry, with their mates Doctor Gale, of the 23d, and
     Doctors Everett and Allen, of the 21st; their active, humane and
     judicious treatment of the wounded, both of the enemy and of our
     own, together with their steady and constant attention to the
     duties of their station, must have attracted your personal
     observation, and I am confident will receive your approbation.

          I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                        E. W. RIPLEY,
                         _Brigadier-General commanding 2d Brigade_.



No. 42.                                                            (p. 223)
PLATE XLIII.


_July 5 and 25, and September 17, 1814._

     Brigadier Genl. James Miller. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     November 3. 1814.

BRIGADIER-GENERAL JAMES MILLER.

[_Victories of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie._]

BRIGADIER GEN{L}. (_General_) JAMES MILLER. Bust of General Miller, in
uniform, facing the right. Exergue: I'LL TRY. His answer when he
received the order to attack the enemy's batteries on the hill at
Niagara. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS NOVEMBER 3. 1814. Colonel Miller, at the head
of his troops, is carrying the British batteries on the hill at
Niagara. Exergue: BATTLES OF CHIPPEWA JULY 5. 1814. NIAGARA. JULY 25.
1814. ERIE SEP. (_September_) 17. 1814. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


JAMES MILLER was born in Peterborough, Hillsborough County, New
Hampshire, April 25, 1776. He practiced law from 1803 to 1808, when he
entered the army with the rank of major; was made a lieutenant-colonel
in 1810, and distinguished himself in the West, under Harrison; and
became colonel of the 21st infantry, March 9, 1814. He greatly
distinguished himself at Chippewa, Niagara, and at Erie, for which he
was breveted a brigadier-general and received the thanks of Congress
and a gold medal.[99] At Niagara, when ordered to carry the British
batteries on the heights, he made the celebrated reply, "I'll try,
Sir." He resigned in 1819; and was governor of Arkansas Territory in
1819-1825, and United States collector of customs at Salem,
Massachusetts, from 1825 to 1849. He died at Temple, New Hampshire,
June 7, 1851.

                   [Footnote 99: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the battles
                   of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie, are given under No.
                   39, page 203.]



No. 43.                                                            (p. 224)
PLATE XLIV.


_July 5 and 25, 1814._

     Major General Winfield Scott. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     November 3. 1814 etc.

MAJOR-GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT.

[_Victories of Chippewa and Niagara._]

MAJOR GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT. Bust of General Scott, in uniform,
facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

A serpent, entwined in a wreath of laurel and palm, is biting its
tail--emblem of immortality through glory and victory. RESOLUTION OF
CONGRESS NOVEMBER 3. 1814. BATTLES OF CHIPPEWA JULY 5. 1814. NIAGARA
JULY 25. 1814. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[100],[101]

                   [Footnote 100: See INTRODUCTION, page
                   ix.]

                   [Footnote 101: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal, and the official reports of the battles
                   of Chippewa and Niagara, are given under No. 39,
                   page 203.]


WINFIELD SCOTT was born near Petersburg, Virginia, June 13, 1786. He
was graduated at William and Mary College, Virginia, studied law, and
for some time engaged in practice. He was appointed captain of light
artillery, May 3, 1808, and served in Louisiana under General
Wilkinson, but resigned on account of differences with him. He was
made lieutenant-colonel of the 2d artillery, July 6, 1812, and was
taken prisoner at Queenstown Heights, Upper Canada, in the following
October. He became colonel of the 2d artillery and adjutant-general
under General Dearborn, March 18, 1813, and brigadier-general March 9,
1814. He distinguished himself at Chippewa, July 5, and on July 25, at
Niagara (Lundy's Lane) where he was severely wounded. Congress gave
him a vote of thanks and a gold medal for Chippewa and Niagara, and he
was breveted a major-general, September 14, 1814. He went on a mission
to Europe in 1815; was sent to Maine to settle the boundary question
in 1839, and was promoted major-general and commander-in-chief of  (p. 225)
the army, June 25, 1841. As commander-in-chief in Mexico he took Vera
Cruz, March 26, 1847, and gained the battles of Cerro Gordo, April 18;
Contreras, August 19; San Antonio and Churubusco, August 20; Molinos
del Rey, September 8; Chapultepec, September 13; and occupied the City
of Mexico, September 14. For this brilliant campaign Congress gave him
a vote of thanks and a gold medal.[102] He received the honorary
degree of LL. D. from Columbia College, New York, in 1850, and also
from Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1861. He was an
unsuccessful candidate for the Presidency in 1852; was made
lieutenant-general, by brevet, February 28, 1855; was sent on a
mission to Oregon to settle the boundary question, 1859; remained true
to the Union at the outbreak of the Civil War, and resigned, November
1, 1861. He died at West Point, New York, May 29, 1866.

                   [Footnote 102: See No. 62, page 304.]



No. 44.                                                            (p. 226)
PLATE XLV.


_August 15, 1814._

     Major General Edmund P. Gaines. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     November 3. 1814.

MAJOR-GENERAL EDMUND PENDLETON GAINES.

[_Victory of Erie._]

MAJOR GENERAL EDMUND P. (_Pendleton_) GAINES. Bust of General Gaines,
in uniform, facing the right FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS NOVEMBER 3. 1814. A winged Victory, standing on
a British shield, holds a palm branch in her left hand, and places
with her right a crown of laurel upon the cascabel of a cannon
standing upright in the ground, and forming the centre of a trophy of
the enemy's arms: on the cannon is the inscription ERIE. Exergue:
BATTLE OF ERIE AUG. (_August_) 15. 1814. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[103]

                   [Footnote 103: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal is given under No. 39, page 203.]


EDMUND PENDLETON GAINES was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, March
20, 1777. He entered the army as ensign of infantry, 1799; became
first-lieutenant, 1802; captain, 1807; major and lieutenant-colonel,
1812; colonel, 1813, and brigadier-general 1814. He greatly
distinguished himself at the battle of Erie, August 15, 1814, and was
badly wounded on the 28th of the same month. For his services on this
occasion he was breveted major-general, September 14, 1814, and
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold medal. He served in
Florida (Seminole war) and in Georgia (Creek war); and was commander
of the southern and afterward of the western military districts. He
died in New Orleans, June 6, 1849.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 227)

_General Gaines to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable             Head-Quarters, Fort Erie, U. C.,[104]
       John ARMSTRONG,                      August 15th, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

                   [Footnote 104: U. C., Abbreviation of Upper
                   Canada.]

     Sir: My heart is gladdened with gratitude to Heaven and joy to my
     country, to have it in my power to inform you that the gallant
     army under my command has this morning beaten the enemy commanded
     by Lieutenant-General Drummond, after a severe conflict of nearly
     three hours, commencing at 2 o'clock this morning. They attacked
     us on each flank, got possession of the salient bastion of the
     old Fort Erie, which was regained at the point of the bayonet,
     with a dreadful slaughter. The enemy's loss in killed and
     prisoners, is about 600; near 300 killed. Our loss is
     considerable, but I think not one-tenth as great as that of the
     enemy. I will not detain the express to give you the particulars.
     I am preparing my force to follow up the blow.

               With great respect, etc.,
                                        Edmund P. GAINES,
                                _Brigadier-General commanding_.

                              _____

_General Gaines to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable           Head-Quarters, left wing, 2d Division,
       John ARMSTRONG,             Fort Erie, U. C., August 23d, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to communicate, for the information of the
     department of war, the particulars of the battle fought at this
     place, on the 15th instant, between the left wing of the 2d
     division of the northern army, under my command, and the British
     forces in the Peninsula of Upper Canada, commanded by
     Lieutenant-General Drummond, which terminated in a signal victory
     in favour of the united American arms.

     Our position on the margin of the lake, at the entrance of the
     Niagara river, being nearly a horizontal plain, twelve or fifteen
     feet above the surface of the water, possessing few natural
     advantages, had been strengthened in front by temporary parapet
     breast works, entrenchments and abatis, with two batteries and
     six field pieces. The small unfinished fort, Erie, with a 24, 18
     and 12 pounder, forms the north-east, and the Douglass battery,
     with an 18 and 6 pounder near the edge of the lake, the
     south-east angle of our right. The left is defended by a redoubt
     battery, with six field pieces just thrown up on a small ridge.
     Our rear was left open to the lake, bordered by a rocky shore of
     easy ascent. The battery on the left was defended by Captain  (p. 228)
     Towson; Fort Erie, by Captain Williams, with Major Trimble's
     command of the 19th infantry; the batteries on the front, by
     Captains Biddle and Fanning; the whole of the artillery commanded
     by Major Hindman. Parts of the 11th, 9th and 22d infantry (of the
     late veteran brigade of Major-General Scott) were posted on the
     right, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Aspinwall. General
     Ripley's brigade, consisting of the 21st and 23d, defended on the
     left. General Porter's brigade of New York and Pennsylvania
     volunteers, with our distinguished riflemen, occupied the centre.

     I have heretofore omitted stating to you, that during the 13th
     and 14th, the enemy had kept up a brisk cannonade, which was
     sharply returned from our batteries, without any considerable
     loss on our part. At 6 P.M. one of their shells lodged in a small
     magazine in Fort Erie, which was fortunately almost empty. It
     blew up with an explosion more awful in appearance than injurious
     in its effects, as it did not disable a man or derange a gun. It
     occasioned but a momentary cessation of the thunders of the
     artillery on both sides; it was followed by a loud and joyous
     shout by the British army, which was instantly returned on our
     part, and Captain Williams, amidst the smoke of the explosion,
     renewed the contest by an animated roar of his heavy cannon.

     From the supposed loss of our ammunition, and the consequent
     depression such an event was likely to produce upon the minds of
     our men, I felt persuaded that this explosion would lead the
     enemy to assault, and made my arrangements accordingly.

     The night was dark, and the early part of it raining, but the
     faithful sentinel slept not; one-third of the troops were up at
     their posts. At half-past two o'clock, the right column of the
     enemy approached, and though enveloped in darkness black as his
     designs and principles, was distinctly heard on our left, and
     promptly marked by our musketry under Major Wood, and cannon
     under Captain Towson. Being mounted at the moment, I repaired to
     the point of attack, where the sheet of fire rolling from
     Towson's battery, and the musketry of the left wing of the 21st
     infantry under Major Wood, enabled me to see the enemy's column
     of about 1,500 men approaching on that point, his advance was not
     checked, until it had approached within ten feet of our infantry.
     A line of loose brush representing an abatis only intervened; a
     column of the enemy attempted to pass round the abatis through
     the water, where it was nearly breast deep. Apprehending that
     this point would be carried, I ordered a detachment of riflemen
     and infantry to its support, but having met with the gallant
     commander, Major Wood, was assured by him that he could defend
     his position without reinforcements. At this moment the enemy
     were repulsed, but instantly renewed the charge and were again
     repulsed. My attention was now called to the right, where our
     batteries and lines were soon lighted by a most brilliant fire of
     cannon and musketry; it announced the approach of the centre and
     left columns of the enemy, under Colonels Drummond and Scott; the
     latter was received by the veteran 9th, under the command of
     Captain Foster, and Captains Broughton and Harding's companies of
     New York and Pennsylvania volunteers, aided by a six-pounder
     judiciously posted by Major M'Ree, chief engineer, who was most
     active and useful at this point; they were repulsed. That of the
     centre, led by Colonel Drummond, was not long kept in check; it
     approached at once every assailable point of the fort; and    (p. 229)
     with scaling ladders ascended the parapet, but was repulsed
     with fearful carnage. The assault was twice repeated, and as
     often checked, but the enemy having moved round the ditch covered
     by darkness, added to the heavy cloud of smoke which had rolled
     from our cannon and musketry, enveloping surrounding objects,
     repeated the charge, re-ascended the ladders; the pikes, bayonets
     and spears fell upon our gallant artillerists. The gallant
     spirits of our favourite Captain Williams and Lieutenants
     M'Donough and Watmough, with their brave men, were overcome. The
     two former, and several of their men, received deadly wounds. Our
     bastion was lost; Lieutenant M'Donough, being severely wounded,
     demanded quarter; it was refused by Colonel Drummond. The
     lieutenant then seized a handspike and nobly defended himself
     until he was shot down with a pistol by the monster who had
     refused him quarter, who often reiterated the order: "_Give the
     damned Yankees no quarter._" This officer, whose bravery, if it
     had been seasoned with virtue, would have entitled him to the
     admiration of every soldier, the hardened murderer soon met his
     fate. He was shot through the breast while repeating the order
     "_to give no quarter_."

     The battle now raged with increased fury on the right, but on the
     left the enemy was repulsed and put to flight. Thence and from
     the centre I ordered reinforcements. They were promptly sent by
     Brigadier-General Ripley and Brigadier-General Porter. Captain
     Fanning, of the corps of artillery, kept up a spirited and
     destructive fire with his field pieces, on the enemy attempting
     to approach the fort. Major Hindman's gallant efforts, aided by
     Major Trimble, having failed to drive the enemy from the bastion,
     with the remaining artillerists and infantry in the forts,
     Captain Birdsall, of the 4th rifle regiment, with a detachment of
     riflemen, gallantly rushed in through the gateway to their
     assistance, and with some infantry, charged the enemy, but was
     repulsed, and the captain severely wounded. A detachment from the
     11th, 19th, and 22d infantry, under Captain Foster, of the 11th,
     were introduced over the interior bastion, for the purpose of
     charging the enemy. Major Hall, assistant inspector general, very
     handsomely tendered his services to lead the charge. The charge
     was gallantly made by Captain Foster and Major Hall, but owing to
     the narrowness of the passage up to the bastion, admitting only
     two or three men abreast, it failed. It was often repeated, and
     as often checked; the enemy's force on the bastion was, however,
     much cut to pieces and diminished by our artillery and small
     arms. At this moment every operation was arrested by the
     explosion of some cartridges deposited in the end of the stone
     building adjoining the contested bastion. The explosion was
     tremendous: it was decisive; the bastion was restored. At this
     moment Captain Biddle was ordered to cause a field piece to be
     posted so as to enfilade the exterior plain and salient glacis.
     The captain, though not recovered from a severe contusion in the
     shoulder, received from one of the enemy's shells, promptly took
     his position, and served his field piece with vivacity and
     effect. Captain Farming's battery likewise played upon them at
     this time with great effect. The enemy were in a few moments
     entirely defeated, taken or put to flight, leaving on the field
     222 killed, 174 wounded, and 186 prisoners. A large portion are
     so severely wounded that they cannot survive; the slightly
     wounded, it is presumed, were carried off.

     To Brigadier-General Ripley, much credit is due for the       (p. 230)
     judicious disposition of the left wing, previous to the action,
     and for the steady disciplined courage manifested by him and his
     immediate command, and for the promptness with which he complied
     with my orders for reinforcement during the action.
     Brigadier-General Porter, commanding the New York and
     Pennsylvania volunteers, manifested a degree of vigilance and
     judgment in his preparatory arrangements, as well as military
     skill and courage in the action, which proves him to be worthy
     the confidence of his country, and the brave volunteers who
     fought under him. Of the volunteers, Captains Broughton and
     Harding with their detachments posted on the right, and attached
     to the line commanded by Captain E. Foster, of the veteran 9th
     infantry, handsomely contributed to the repulse of the left
     column of the enemy under Colonel Scott.

     The judicious preparations and steady conduct of
     Lieutenant-Colonel Aspinwall commanding the first brigade, merit
     approbation.

     To Major McRee, chief engineer, the greatest credit is due for
     the excellent arrangement and skillful execution of his plans for
     fortifying and defending the right, and for his correct and
     seasonable suggestions to regain the bastion. Major Wood, of the
     engineers, also greatly contributed to the previous measures of
     defence. He has accepted the command of a regiment of infantry,
     (the 21st,) for which he has often proved himself well qualified,
     but never so conspicuously as on this occasion.

     Towson's battery emitted a constant sheet of fire. Wood's small
     arms lighted up the space, and repulsed five terrible charges
     made between the battery and the lake. Brigadier-General Ripley
     speaks in high terms of the officers and men engaged,
     particularly Captains Marston and Ropes, Lieutenants Riddle (of
     the 15th, doing duty with the 21st) and Hall; Ensigns Benn,
     Jones, Cummings and Thomas of the 21st, and Keally and Green of
     the 19th.

     Major Hindman, and the whole of the artillery under the command
     of that excellent officer, displayed a degree of gallantry and
     good conduct not to be surpassed. The particular situation of
     Captain Towson, and the much lamented Captain Williams and
     Lieutenant M'Donough, and that of Lieutenant Watmough, as already
     described, with their respective commands, rendered them most
     conspicuous. The courage and good conduct of Lieutenant
     Zantzinger and Lieutenant Childs, is spoken of in high terms by
     Major Hindman and Captain Towson, as also that of Sergeant-Major
     Denhon. Captains Biddle and Fanning, on the centre and right of
     their entrenchments, threw their shot to the right, left and
     front, and annoyed the Indians and light troops of the enemy
     approaching from the woods. Lieutenant Fontaine in his zeal to
     meet the enemy, was unfortunately wounded and made prisoner.
     Lieutenant Bird was active and useful, and in fact every
     individual belonging to the corps did their duty.

     The detachment of Scott's gallant brigade, consisting of parts of
     the 9th, 11th and 22d infantry, did its duty in a manner worthy
     the high reputation the brigade had acquired at Chippewa, and at
     the Falls of Niagara. The 9th, under the command of Captain
     Edmund Foster, was actively engaged against the left of the
     enemy, and with the aid of Lieutenant Douglass's corps of
     bombardiers, commanding the water battery, and that of the
     volunteers, under Captains Broughton and Harding, effected their
     repulse. The good conduct of Lieutenants Childs, Cushman and
     Foot, and Ensign Blake, deserves commendation.

     The officers killed, are Captain Williams and Lieutenant      (p. 231)
     McDonough of the artillery. Wounded, Lieutenant Watmough of the
     artillery; Ensign Cissney 19th; Lieutenant Bushnel 21st;
     Lieutenants Brown and Belknap 23d; and Captain Birdsall, 4th
     rifle regiment, all severely.

     Lieutenant Fontaine of the artillery, who was taken prisoner,
     writes from the British camp, that he fortunately fell into the
     hands of the Indians, who, after taking his money, treated him
     kindly. It would seem, then, that these savages had not joined in
     the resolution to give no quarter.

     To Major Jones, assistant adjutant-general, and Major Hull,
     assistant inspector-general; Captain Harris of the dragoons,
     volunteer aid-de-camp; Lieutenant Belton, aid-de-camp, much
     credit is due for their constant vigilance and strict attention
     to every duty previous to the action, and the steady courage,
     zeal, and activity, which they manifested during the action.

     The surgeons, doctors Fuller 23d, Trowbridge 21st, with their
     mates, doctors Gale of the 23d, and Everett and Allen of the
     21st, deserve the warmest approbation, for their indefatigable
     exertions and humane attention to the wounded of our army, as
     well as to the prisoners who fell into their hands.

          I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                        E. P. GAINES,
                              _Brigadier-General commanding_.

                              _____

_General Gaines to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable          Headquarters, Fort Erie, Upper Canada,
       John ARMSTRONG,                   August 26th, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: In my report of the battle of the 15th instant, I
     inadvertently omitted the names of Captain Chunn of the 19th,
     Lieutenants Bowman and Larned, of the 21st, and Jewett of the
     11th infantry, as also my brigade major, Lieutenant Gleason, each
     of whom bore a conspicuous part in the action, and whom I beg
     leave to recommend to your notice. Lieutenants Bowman and Larned
     commanded companies in the 21st, which so gallantly beat the
     enemy's right column. Captain Chunn, with his company was doing
     duty with the same regiment. I also omitted mentioning that a
     part of this regiment pursued the enemy's right upwards of a
     mile, and took 100 prisoners; his left was also pursued, and more
     than a hundred prisoners were taken beyond our works. These facts
     prove that the affair was not merely a _defence_ of our position,
     or a mere _repulse_ of the enemy, as I find it called by some. As
     regards myself, I am satisfied with the _result_, and am not
     disposed to make any difficulty about the _name_ by which the
     affair may be called; but it is due to the brave men I have the
     honour to command, that I should say, that the affair was to the
     enemy a _sore beating_ and a _defeat_, and it was to us a
     _handsome victory_.

     Our position is growing stronger every day by the exertions of
     Majors M'Ree and Wood, and the officers and men generally. We
     keep up a smart cannonade.

     One of the enemy's pickets yesterday approached nearer to     (p. 232)
     ours than usual. Major Brooke, officer of the day, added 100
     men to our picket, attacked and drove them in with considerable
     loss; the major brought in about 30 muskets. In this affair
     however, we have to lament the loss of another gallant officer,
     Captain Wattles, of the 23d; our loss was otherwise
     inconsiderable.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        E. P. GAINES,
                              _Brigadier-General commanding_.



No. 45.                                                            (p. 233)
PLATE XLVI.


_September 11, 1814._

     Major General Alexander Macomb. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     November 3. 1814.

MAJOR-GENERAL ALEXANDER MACOMB.

[_Victory of Plattsburgh._]

MAJOR GENERAL ALEXANDER MACOMB. Bust of General Macomb, in uniform,
facing the right FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS NOVEMBER 3. 1814. The American army repulsing
the British troops, who are striving to cross the Saranac river. To
the left, Plattsburgh in flames; to the right, naval battle on Lake
Champlain; in the distance, Cumberland Head. Exergue: BATTLE OF
PLATTSBURGH SEPT. (_September_) 11. 1814. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[105]

                   [Footnote 105: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal is given under No. 39, page 203.]


ALEXANDER MACOMB was born in Detroit, April 3, 1782. He entered the
army as cornet of cavalry, 1799; was 2d lieutenant, 1801; 1st
lieutenant of engineers, 1802; captain, 1805; major, 1808;
lieutenant-colonel 1810; colonel 3d Artillery, 1812; and
brigadier-general, January, 1814. He gained the victory of Plattsburgh
over the British troops, commanded by the governor-general of the
Canadas, General Sir George Prevost, September 11, 1814, for which
important achievement Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold
medal, and he was breveted major-general. He was appointed chief of
the engineer corps, 1821, and became major-general and commander-in-chief
of the army, May 24, 1828. He died at the head-quarters of the army in
Washington, June 25, 1841.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 234)

_General Macomb to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable                  Head-Quarters, Plattsburgh,
       John ARMSTRONG,                    September 15th, 1814.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to communicate for the information of the
     war department, the particulars of the advance of the enemy into
     the territory of the United States, the circumstances attending
     the siege of Plattsburgh, and the defence of the posts entrusted
     to my charge.

     The governor-general of the Canadas, Sir George Prevost, having
     collected all the disposable force of Lower Canada, with a view
     of conquering the country as far as Crown Point and Ticonderoga,
     entered the territories of the United States on the first of the
     month, and occupied the village of Champlain, there avowed his
     intentions, and issued orders and proclamations tending to
     dissuade the people from their allegiance, and inviting them to
     furnish his army with provisions. He immediately began to press
     the wagons and teams in the vicinity, and loaded them with his
     heavy baggage and stores. From this I was persuaded he intended
     to attack this place. I had but just returned from the lines,
     where I had commanded a fine brigade, which was broken to form
     the division under Major-General Izard, ordered to the westward.
     Being senior officer he left me in command, and except the four
     companies of the 6th regiment, I had not an organized battalion
     among those remaining. The garrison was composed of convalescents
     and recruits of the new regiments, all in the greatest confusion,
     as well as the ordnance and stores, and the works in no state of
     defence.

     To create an emulation and zeal among the officers and men in
     completing the works, I divided them into detachments, and placed
     them near the several forts; declaring in orders, that each
     detachment was the garrison of its own work, and bound to defend
     it to the last extremity. The enemy advanced cautiously and by
     short marches, and our soldiers worked day and night; so that by
     the time he made his appearance before this place we were
     prepared to receive him.

     General Izard named the principal work _Fort Moreau_, and to
     remind the troops of the actions of their brave countrymen, I
     called the redoubt on the right _Fort Brown_, and that on the
     left _Fort Scott_. Besides these three works, we have two
     block-houses strongly fortified.

     Finding, on examining the returns of the garrison, that our force
     did not exceed fifteen hundred effective men for duty, and well
     informed that the enemy had as many thousands, I called on
     General Mooers, of the New York militia, and arranged with him
     plans for bringing forth the militia _en masse_. The inhabitants
     of the village fled with their families and effects, except a few
     worthy citizens and some boys, who formed themselves into a
     party, received rifles, and were exceedingly useful. By the 4th
     of the month, General Mooers collected about 700 militia, and
     advanced seven miles on the Beekmantown road, to watch the
     motions of the enemy, and to skirmish with him as he advanced;
     also to obstruct the roads with fallen trees, and to break up the
     bridges.

     On the Lake road, at Deer Creek bridge, I posted 200 men      (p. 235)
     under Captain Sproul, of the 13th regiment, with orders to
     _abatis_ the woods, to place obstructions in the road, and to
     fortify himself; to this party I added two field pieces. In
     advance of that position, was Lieutenant-Colonel Appling, with
     110 riflemen, watching the movements of the enemy and procuring
     intelligence. It was ascertained that before daylight on the 6th,
     the enemy would advance in two columns, on the two roads before
     mentioned, dividing at Sampson's, a little below Chazy village.
     The column on the Beekmantown road proceeded most rapidly, the
     militia skirmished with his advanced parties, and, except a few
     brave men, fell back most precipitately in the greatest disorder,
     notwithstanding the British troops did not deign to fire on them,
     except by their flankers and advanced patrols. The night
     previous, I ordered Major Wool to advance with a detachment of
     250 men, to support the militia, and set them an example of
     firmness. Also Captain Leonard, of the light artillery, was
     directed to proceed with two pieces, to be on the ground before
     day; yet he did not make his appearance before 8 o'clock, when
     the enemy had approached within two miles of the village. With
     his conduct, therefore, I am not well pleased. Major Wool, with
     his party, disputed the road with great obstinacy, but the
     militia could not be prevailed on to stand, notwithstanding the
     exertions of their general and staff officers; although the
     fields were divided by strong stone walls, and they were told
     that the enemy could not possibly cut them off. The State
     dragoons of New York wear red coats, and they being on the
     heights to watch the enemy, gave constant alarm to the militia,
     who mistook them for the enemy, and feared his getting in their
     rear. Finding the enemy's columns had penetrated within a mile of
     Plattsburgh, I despatched my aid-de-camp, Lieutenant Root, to
     bring off the detachment at Dead Creek, and to inform
     Lieutenant-Colonel Appling that I wished him to fall on the
     enemy's right flank. The colonel fortunately arrived just in time
     to save his retreat, and to fall in with the head of a column
     _debouching_ from the woods. Here he poured in a destructive fire
     from his riflemen at rest, and continued to annoy the column
     until he formed a junction with Major Wool. The field pieces did
     considerable execution among the enemy's columns. So undaunted,
     however, was the enemy, that he never deployed in his whole
     march, always pressing on our columns. Finding that every road
     was full of troops crowding on us on all sides, I ordered the
     field pieces to retire across the bridge and form a battery for
     its protection, and to cover the retreat of the infantry, which
     was accordingly done, and the parties of Appling and Wool, as
     well as that of Sproul, retired alternately, keeping up a brisk
     fire until they got under cover of the works. The enemy's light
     troops occupied the houses near the bridge, and kept up a
     constant firing from the windows and balconies, and annoyed us
     much. I ordered them to be driven out with hot shot, which soon
     put the houses in flames, and obliged the sharp-shooters to
     retire. The whole day, until it was too late to see, the enemy's
     light troops endeavoured to drive our guards from the bridge, but
     they suffered dearly for their perseverance. An attempt was also
     made to cross the upper bridge, where the militia handsomely
     drove them back. The column which marched by the Lake road was
     much impeded by the obstructions and the removal of the bridge at
     Dead Creek, and, as it passed the creek and beach, the gallies
     kept up a lively and galling fire. Our troops being now all on
     the south side of the Saranac, I directed the planks to be taken
     off the bridges and piled up in the form of breastworks, to   (p. 236)
     cover our parties intended for disputing the passage, which
     afterwards enabled us to hold the bridges against very superior
     numbers.

     From the 7th to the 11th, the enemy was employed in getting on
     his battering train, and erecting his batteries and approaches,
     and constantly skirmishing at the bridges and fords. By this
     time, the militia of New York, and the volunteers of Vermont,
     were pouring in from all quarters: I advised General Mooers to
     keep his force along the Saranac, to prevent the enemy's crossing
     the river, and to send a strong body in his rear to harass him
     day and night, and keep him in continual alarm. The militia
     behaved with great spirit after the first day, and the volunteers
     of Vermont were exceedingly serviceable. Our regular troops,
     notwithstanding the constant skirmishing and repeated endeavours
     of the enemy to cross the river, kept at their work day and night
     strengthening the defences, and evinced a determination to hold
     out to the last extremity.

     It was reported that the enemy had only waited the arrival of his
     flotilla, to make a general attack. About eight in the morning of
     the 11th, as was expected, the flotilla appeared in sight round
     Cumberland Head, and at nine, bore down and engaged our flotilla
     at anchor in the bay off the town. At the same instant, the
     batteries were opened on us, and continued throwing bomb shells,
     shrapnels, balls, and congreve rockets until sunset, when the
     bombardment ceased, every battery of the enemy being silenced by
     the superiority of our fire. The naval engagement lasted but two
     hours, in full view of both armies. Three efforts were made by
     the enemy to pass the river, at the commencement of the cannonade
     and bombardment, with a view of assaulting the works, and he had
     prepared for that purpose an immense number of scaling ladders.
     One attempt to cross was made at the village bridge, another at
     the upper bridge, and a third at a ford about three miles from
     the works. At the two first he was repulsed by the regulars; at
     the ford, by the brave volunteers and militia, where he suffered
     severely in killed, wounded, and prisoners; a considerable body
     having crossed the stream, but were either killed, taken, or
     driven back. The woods at this place were very favourable to the
     operations of the militia. A whole company of the 76th regiment
     was here destroyed, the three lieutenants and 27 men prisoners,
     the captain and the rest killed.

     I cannot forego the pleasure of here stating the gallant conduct
     of Captain M'Glassin, of the 15th regiment, who was ordered to
     ford the river, and attack a party constructing a battery on the
     right of the enemy's line, within five hundred yards of Fort
     Brown, which he handsomely executed at midnight with fifty men;
     drove off the working party, consisting of one hundred and fifty,
     and defeated a covering party of the same number, killing one
     officer and six men in the charge, and wounding many. At dusk the
     enemy withdrew his artillery from the batteries, and raised the
     siege; at nine, under cover of the night, he sent off in a great
     hurry all the baggage he could find transport for, and also his
     artillery. At two next morning the whole army precipitately
     retreated, leaving the sick and wounded to our generosity, and
     the governor left a note with a surgeon requesting the humane
     attention of the commanding general.

     Vast quantities of provisions were left behind and destroyed,
     also an immense quantity of bombshells, cannon balls, grape shot,
     ammunition, flints, &c., &c.; intrenching tools of all        (p. 237)
     sorts, also tents and marquees. A great deal has been found
     concealed in the ponds and creeks, and buried in the ground, and
     a vast quantity carried off by the inhabitants. Such was the
     precipitancy of his retreat, that he arrived at Chazy, a distance
     of eight miles, before we had discovered he had gone. The light
     troops, volunteers, and militia pursued immediately on learning
     of his flight; and some of the mounted men made prisoners five
     dragoons of the 19th regiment, and several others of the rear
     guard. A continued fall of rain and a violent storm prevented
     further pursuit. Upwards of 300 deserters have come in, and many
     are hourly arriving. We have buried the British officers of the
     army and navy with the honours of war, and shown every attention
     and kindness to those who have fallen into our hands.

     The conduct of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and
     soldiers of my command, during this trying occasion, cannot be
     represented in too high terms, and I feel it my duty to recommend
     to the particular notice of government, Lieutenant-Colonel
     Appling of the 1st rifle corps, Major Wool of the 29th, Major
     Totten of the corps of engineers, Captain Brooks of the
     artillery, Captain M'Glassin of the 15th, Lieutenants De Russy
     and Trescott of the corps of engineers, Lieutenants Smyth,
     Mountford, and Cromwell of the artillery, also my aid-de-camp
     Lieutenant Root, who have all distinguished themselves by their
     uncommon zeal and activity, and have been greatly instrumental in
     producing the happy and glorious result of the siege.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Alexander MACOMB.

     The loss of the enemy in killed, wounded, prisoners, and
     deserters, since his first appearance, cannot fall short of
     2,500, including many officers, among whom is Colonel Wellington,
     of the Buffs.

                              _____

_Resolution of Congress Voting Rifles to Martin F. Aitkin and others._

     _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be, and he is hereby authorized to
     cause to be delivered to Martin J. Aitkin, Azariah C. Flagg, Ira
     A. Wood, Gustavus A. Bird, James Trowbridge, Hazen Mooers, Henry
     K. Averill, St. John B. L. Skinner, Frederick P. Allen, Hiram
     Walworth, Ethan Everist, Amos Soper, James Patten, Bartemus
     Brooks, Smith Bateman, Melancthon W. Travis and Flavel Williams,
     each, one rifle, promised them by General Macomb, while
     commanding the Champlain department, for their gallantry and
     patriotic services as a volunteer corps, during the siege of
     Plattsburgh in September, one thousand eight hundred and
     fourteen, on each of which said rifles there shall be a plate
     containing an appropriate inscription.

     Approved May 20, 1826.



No. 46.                                                            (p. 238)
PLATE XLVII.


_January 8, 1815._

     Major General Andrew Jackson. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     February 27. 1815.

MAJOR-GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON.

[_Victory of New Orleans._]

MAJOR GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON. Bust of General Jackson, in uniform,
facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS FEBRUARY 27. 1815. A winged Victory, holding in
her left hand a crown of laurel, and a tablet upon which she has
written, at the dictation of Peace, the word ORLEANS. Exergue: BATTLE
OF NEW ORLEANS JANUARY 8. 1815. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


ANDREW JACKSON was born in the Waxhaw Settlement, North Carolina,
March 15, 1767. His parents had recently emigrated from Ireland, and
he lost them both early in life. In 1781 he joined the Continental
Army and served in North Carolina. Having studied law, he removed, in
1788, to Nashville. He was the first member of Congress from
Tennessee, in 1796; was United States senator, 1797-1798; judge of the
Supreme Court of Tennessee, 1799; resigned in 1804, and retired to his
farm, called "The Hermitage," near Nashville. As major-general of the
Tennessee Volunteers, he gained victories over the Creek Indians at
Talladega, November 9, 1813, at Emuckfaw and Enotochopco, January 22
and 24, and at Tohopeka, March 27, 1814. He was appointed
brigadier-general in the United States Army on April 19,           (p. 239)
major-general on May 1, 1814, and commander-in-chief for the defence
of Louisiana against the British troops under General Packenham, whom
he completely defeated at the battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815.
For this great victory Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a gold
medal. He retired from the army, 1819, was governor of Florida
territory, 1821, United States senator from Tennessee, 1823-1824,
unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1824, and President of the
United States (first term), 1829-1833; (second term), 1833-1837. He
retired to the Hermitage in 1837, and died there June 8, 1845. He was
known by the sobriquet of "Old Hickory."

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

 _Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Jackson._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress be, and they are hereby, given to
     Major-General Jackson, and, through him, to the officers and
     soldiers of the regular army, of the militia and of the
     volunteers, under his immediate command, and to the officers and
     soldiers charged with the defence of Fort St. Philip, for their
     uniform gallantry and good conduct, conspicuously displayed
     against the enemy, from the time of his landing before New
     Orleans until his final expulsion from the State of Louisiana,
     and particularly for the valour, skill, and good conduct on the
     eighth of January last, in repulsing, with great slaughter, a
     numerous British army of chosen veteran troops, when attempting
     by a bold and daring attack to carry by storm the works hastily
     thrown up for the protection of New Orleans, and thereby
     obtaining a most signal victory over the enemy with a disparity
     of loss, on his part, unexampled in military annals.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause to be struck a gold medal, with devices emblematical of
     this splendid achievement, and presented to Major-General
     Jackson, as a testimony of the high sense entertained by Congress
     of his judicious and distinguished conduct on that memorable
     occasion.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause the foregoing resolution to be communicated to
     Major-General Jackson in such terms as he may deem best
     calculated to give effect to the objects thereof.

     Approved February 27, 1815.

                              _____

_General Jackson to the Secretary of War._                         (p. 240)

     To the Honourable                  Head Quarters,
       SECRETARY OF WAR,        Camp 4 miles below New Orleans,
          Washington, D. C.           January 13th, 1815.

     Sir: At such a crisis, I conceive it my duty to keep you
     constantly advised of my situation.

     On the 10th instant I forwarded you an account of the bold
     attempt made by the enemy on the morning of the 8th to take
     possession of my works by storm, and of the severe repulse he met
     with. That report having been sent by the mail which crosses the
     lake, may possibly have miscarried; for which reason I think it
     the more necessary briefly to repeat the substance of it.

     Early on the morning of the 8th, the enemy having been actively
     employed the two preceding days in making preparations for a
     storm, advanced in two strong columns on my right and left. They
     were received, however, with a firmness which it seems they
     little expected, and which defeated all their hopes. My men,
     undisturbed by their approach, which indeed they long anxiously
     wished for, opened upon them a fire so deliberate and certain as
     rendered their scaling ladders and fascines, as well as their
     more direct implements of war, perfectly useless. For upwards of
     an hour it was continued with a briskness of which there have
     been but few instances, perhaps in any country. In justice to the
     enemy, it must be said, they withstood it as long as could be
     expected from the most determined bravery. At length, however,
     when all prospect of success became hopeless, they fled in
     confusion from the field, leaving it covered with their dead and
     wounded. Their loss was immense. I had at first computed it at
     1500, but it is since ascertained to have been much greater. Upon
     information which is believed to be correct, Colonel Hayne, the
     inspector-general, reports it to be in total 2600. His report I
     enclose you. My loss was inconsiderable, being only seven killed
     and six wounded. Such a disproportion in loss, when we consider
     the number and kind of troops engaged, must, I know, excite
     astonishment, and may not everywhere be fully credited; yet I am
     perfectly satisfied that the account is not exaggerated on the
     one part, nor underrated on the other.

     The enemy, having hastily quitted a post which they had gained
     possession of on the other side of the river, and we having
     immediately returned to it, both armies at present occupy their
     former positions. Whether, after the severe losses he has
     sustained, he is preparing to return to his shipping, or to make
     still mightier efforts to attain his first object, I do not
     pretend to determine. It becomes me to act as though the latter
     were his intention. One thing, however, seems certain, that if he
     still calculates on effecting what he has hitherto been unable to
     accomplish, he must expect considerable reinforcements, as the
     force with which he landed must undoubtedly be diminished by at
     least 3000. Besides the loss which he sustained on the night of
     the 23d ultimo, which is estimated at 400, he cannot have
     suffered less between that period and the morning of the 18th
     instant than 3000; having, within that time, been repulsed in two
     general attempts to drive us from our position, and there having
     been continual cannonading and skirmishing during the whole of
     it. Yet he is still able to show a very formidable force.

     There is little doubt that the commanding general, Sir Edward (p. 241)
     Packenham, was killed in the action of the 8th, and that
     Major-Generals Keane and Gibbs were badly wounded.

     Whenever a more leisure moment shall occur, I will take the
     liberty to make and forward you a more circumstantial account of
     the several actions, and particularly that of the 8th, in doing
     which my chief motive will be to render justice to those brave
     men I have the honour to command, and who have so remarkably
     distinguished themselves.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Andrew JACKSON.

                              _____

_General Jackson to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honourable
       SECRETARY OF WAR,                Camp below New Orleans,
         Washington, D. C.                January 19th, 1815.

     Sir: Last night at 12 o'clock, the enemy precipitately decamped,
     and returned to their boats, leaving behind them, under medical
     attendance, eighty of his wounded, including two officers, 14
     pieces of his heavy artillery, and a quantity of shot, having
     destroyed much of his powder. Such was the situation of the
     ground he abandoned, and of that through which he retired,
     protected by canals, redoubts, entrenchments and swamps on his
     right, and the river on his left, that I could not, without
     encountering a risk which true policy did not seem to require, or
     to authorize, attempt to annoy him much on his retreat. We took
     only eight prisoners.

     Whether it is the purpose of the enemy to abandon the expedition
     altogether, or renew his efforts at some other point, I do not
     pretend to determine with positiveness. In my own mind, however,
     there is but little doubt that his last exertions have been made
     in this quarter, at any rate for the present season, and by the
     next I hope we shall be fully prepared for him. In this belief I
     am strengthened not only by the prodigious loss he has sustained
     at the position he has just quitted, but by the failure of his
     fleet to pass Fort St. Philip.

     His loss on this ground, since the debarkation of his troops, as
     stated by the last prisoners and deserters, and as confirmed by
     many additional circumstances, must have exceeded four thousand;
     and was greater in the action of the 8th than was estimated, from
     the most correct data then in his possession, by the
     inspector-general, whose report has been forwarded to you. We
     succeeded, on the 8th, in getting from the enemy about 1000 stand
     of arms of various descriptions.

     Since the action of the 8th, the enemy has been allowed very
     little respite; my artillery from both sides of the river being
     constantly employed, till the night, and indeed until the hour of
     their retreat, in annoying them. No doubt they thought it quite
     time to quit a position in which so little rest could be found.

     I am advised by Major Overton, who commanded at Fort St. Philip,
     in a letter of the 18th, that the enemy having bombarded his fort
     for 8 or 9 days from 13-inch mortars without effect, had, on the
     morning of that day, retired. I have little doubt that he would
     have been able to have sunk their vessels had they attempted to
     run by.

     Giving the proper weight to all these considerations, I       (p. 242)
     believe you will not think me too sanguine in the belief that
     Louisiana is now clear of its enemy. I hope, however, I need not
     assure you, that wherever I command, such a belief shall never
     occasion any relaxation in the measures for resistance. I am but
     too sensible that the moment when the enemy is opposing us, is
     not the most proper to provide for them.

            I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                          Andrew JACKSON.

                              _____

_General Jackson's Farewell Address to his Army._

                                        New Orleans, March, 1815.

     The major-general is at length enabled to perform the pleasing
     task of restoring to Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, and the
     territory of the Mississippi, the brave troops who have acted
     such a distinguished part in the war which has just terminated.
     In restoring these brave men to their homes, much exertion is
     expected of, and great responsibility imposed on, the commanding
     officers of the different corps. It is required of Major-Generals
     Carroll and Thomas, and Brigadier-General Coffee, to march their
     commands, without unnecessary delay, to their respective states.
     The troops from the Mississippi territory and state of Louisiana,
     both militia and volunteers, will be immediately mustered out of
     service, paid, and discharged.

     The major-general has the satisfaction of announcing the
     approbation of the President of the United States to the conduct
     of the troops under his command, expressed, in flattering terms,
     through the honourable Secretary of War.

     In parting with those brave men, whose destinies have been so
     long united with his own, and in whose labours and glories it is
     his happiness and his boast to have participated, the commanding
     general can neither suppress his feelings, nor give utterance to
     them as he ought. In what terms can he bestow suitable praise on
     merit so extraordinary, so unparalleled? Let him, in one burst of
     joy, gratitude, and exultation, exclaim, "These are the saviours
     of their country; these the patriot soldiers, who triumphed over
     the invincibles of Wellington, and conquered the conquerors of
     Europe!" With what patience did you submit to privations; with
     what fortitude did you endure fatigue; what valour did you
     display in the day of battle! You have secured to America a proud
     name among the nations of the earth; a glory which will never
     perish.

     Possessing those dispositions which equally adorn the citizen and
     the soldier, the expectations of your country will be met in
     peace, as her wishes have been gratified in war. Go, then, my
     brave companions, to your homes; to those tender connections and
     blissful scenes which render life so dear; full of honour, and
     crowned with laurels that will never fade. When participating in
     the bosoms of your families, the enjoyment of peaceful life, with
     what happiness will you not look back to the toils you have
     borne, to the dangers you have encountered? How will all your
     past exposures be converted into sources of inexpressible
     delight? Who, that never experienced your sufferings, will    (p. 243)
     be able to appreciate your joys? The man who slumbered
     ingloriously at home, during your painful marches, your nights of
     watchfulness, and your days of toil, will envy you the happiness
     which these recollections will afford; still more will he envy
     the gratitude of that country which you have so eminently
     contributed to save.

     Continue, fellow-soldiers, on your passage to your several
     destinations, to preserve that subordination, that dignified and
     manly deportment, which have so ennobled your character.

     While the commanding general is thus giving indulgence to his
     feelings, towards those brave companions, who accompanied him
     through difficulties and danger, he cannot permit the names of
     Blount, and Shelby, and Holmes, to pass unnoticed. With what
     generous ardour and patriotism have these distinguished governors
     contributed all their exertions to provide the means of victory!
     The recollection of their exertions, and of the success which has
     resulted, will be to them a reward more grateful than any which
     the pomp of title, or the splendour of wealth, can bestow.

     What happiness it is to the commanding general, that, while
     danger was before him, he was, on no occasion, compelled to use,
     towards his companions in arms, either severity or rebuke. If,
     after the enemy had retired, improper passions began their empire
     in a few unworthy bosoms, and rendered a resort to energetic
     measures necessary for their suppression, he has not confounded
     the innocent with the guilty, the seduced with the seducers.
     Towards you, fellow-soldiers, the most cheering recollections
     exist, blended, alas! with regret, that disease and war should
     have ravished from us so many worthy companions. But the memory
     of the cause in which they perished, and of the virtues which
     animated them while living, must occupy the place where sorrow
     would claim to dwell.

     Farewell, fellow-soldiers. The expression of your general's
     thanks is feeble; but the gratitude of a country of freemen is
     yours, yours the applause of an admiring world.

                                        Andrew JACKSON,
                                 _Major-General commanding_.

                              _____

_Resolutions of Congress complimentary to Commodore D. T. Patterson
and others._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     Congress entertain a high sense of the valour and good conduct of
     Commodore D. T. Patterson, of the officers, petty officers, and
     seamen attached to his command for their prompt and efficient
     co-operation with General Jackson in the late gallant and
     successful defence of the city of New Orleans when assailed by a
     powerful British force.

     _Resolved_, That Congress entertain a high sense of the valour
     and good conduct of Major Daniel Carmick, of the officers,
     non-commissioned officers, and marines under his command, in the
     defence of the said city, on the late memorable occasion.

     Approved February 15, 1815.

                              _____

_Resolutions of Congress complimentary to the People of the State  (p. 244)
of Louisiana, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That
     Congress entertain a high sense of the patriotism, fidelity,
     zeal, and courage with which the people of the State of Louisiana
     promptly and unanimously stepped forth, under circumstances of
     imminent danger from a powerful invading army, in defence of all
     the individual, social and political rights held dear to man.
     Congress declare and proclaim, that the brave Louisianians
     deserve well of the whole people of the United States.

     _Resolved_, That Congress entertain a high sense of the
     generosity, benevolence, and humanity displayed by the people of
     New Orleans in voluntarily affording the best accommodations in
     their power, and giving the kindest attention to the wounded, not
     only of our own army, but also to the wounded prisoners of a
     vanquished foe.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause the foregoing resolutions to be communicated to His
     Excellency the Governor of Louisiana, accompanied with the
     request that he cause the greatest possible publicity to be given
     to them for the information of the whole people of Louisiana.

     Approved February 15, 1815.



No. 47.                                                            (p. 245)
PLATE XLVIII.


_February 20, 1815._

     Carolus Stewart navis Amer. Constitution dux. [Rx]. Una
     victoriam eripuit ratibus binis.

CAPTAIN CHARLES STEWART.

[_Capture of the Cyane and of the Levant._]

CAROLUS STEWART NAVIS AMER. (_Americanæ_) CONSTITUTION DUX. (_Charles
Stewart, captain of the American vessel Constitution._) Bust of
Captain Stewart, in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

UNA VICTORIAM ERIPUIT RATIBUS BINIS. (_He snatched victory from two
vessels with one._) Naval action between the United States frigate
Constitution, of fifty-two guns, Captain Stewart, and the British
frigate Cyane, of thirty-four guns, Captain Falcon, and the
sloop-of-war Levant, of twenty-one guns, Captain the Honorable George
Douglas. The Constitution, to windward, is opening with her port
battery on the Levant; both British vessels are returning the fire
from their starboard batteries. Exergue: INTER CONSTITU. NAV. AMERI.
ET LEVANT ET CYANE NAV. ANG. DIE XX. FEBR. MDCCCXV. (_Inter
Constitution navem Americanam et Levant et Cyane naves Anglicanas, die
20 Februarii, 1815: Between the American vessel Constitution and the
English vessels Levant and Cyane, on the 20th of February, 1815._) On
the platform, FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


CHARLES STEWART was born in Philadelphia, July 18, 1778. He began life
in the merchant service, but entered the navy as lieutenant, March 13,
1798. He served in the West Indies, and afterward in the Tripolitan
campaign, commanding the Siren. He escorted the Intrepid to        (p. 246)
Tripoli when Decatur blew up the Philadelphia, and was promoted to the
rank of master-commandant, May 19, 1804, and of captain, April 22,
1806. While in command of the frigate Constitution he fought and
captured, February 20, 1815, the two British ships-of-war, Cyane,
Captain Gordon Falcon, and Levant, Captain the Honorable George
Douglas, for which brilliant action he received the thanks of Congress
and a gold medal. He commanded in the Mediterranean from 1816 to 1820;
in the Pacific from 1821 to 1823; was member of the Naval Board from
1830 to 1833; commanded the navy yard at Philadelphia, 1837; and was
put on the retired list in 1857; but was replaced on the active list
as senior flag officer, 1859, and was appointed rear-admiral on the
retired list, 1862. He died at Bordentown, New Jersey, November 7,
1869.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Stewart, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be, and he is hereby requested, to
     present to Captain Charles Stewart, of the frigate Constitution,
     a gold medal, with suitable emblems and devices, and a silver
     medal,[106] with suitable emblems and devices, to each
     commissioned officer of the said frigate, in testimony of the
     high sense entertained by Congress of the gallantry, good conduct
     and services of Captain Stewart, his officers and crew, in the
     capture of the British vessels of war, the Cyane and Levant,
     after a brave and skilful combat.

                   [Footnote 106: The silver medals are copies of the
                   gold medal given to Captain Stewart.]

     Approved February 22, 1816.

                              _____

_Captain Stewart to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States Frigate Constitution,
       SECRETARY OF THE NAVY,                   May, 1815.
         Washington, D. C.

     Sir: On the 20th of February last, the island of Madeira bearing
     about west southwest, distant 60 leagues, we fell in with His
     Britannic Majesty's two ships-of-war, the Cyane and Levant,   (p. 247)
     and brought them to action about 6 o'clock in the evening, both
     of which, after a spirited engagement of 40 minutes, surrendered
     to the ship under my command.

     Considering the advantages derived by the enemy from a divided
     and more active force, as also their superiority in the weight
     and number of guns, I deem the speedy and decisive result of this
     action the strongest assurance which can be given to the
     government that all under my command did their duty, and
     gallantly supported the reputation of American seamen.

     Enclosed you will receive the minutes of the action, and a list
     of the killed and wounded on board this ship; also enclosed you
     will receive for your information a statement of the actual force
     of the enemy, and the number killed and wounded on board their
     ships, as near as could be ascertained.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        Charles STEWART.

     American loss: 3 killed, 12 wounded. British loss: 35 killed, 42
     wounded. Prisoners taken, 313.

                              _____

_Minutes of the action between the United States frigate Constitution,
and His Britannic Majesty's skips Cyane and Levant, on the 20th
February, 1815._

     Commences with light breezes from the east, and cloudy weather.
     At one, discovered a sail two points on the larboard bow, hauled
     up and made sail in chase. At a quarter past one, made the sail
     to be a ship; at three-quarters past one, discovered another sail
     ahead; made them out at two P.M. to be both ships, standing
     close hauled, with their starboard tacks on board; at four P.M.
     the weathermost ship made signals, and bore up to her consort,
     then about 10 miles to leeward; we bore up after her, and set
     lower top-mast, top-gallant, and royal studding-sails in chase;
     at half-past four, carried away our main royal mast; took in the
     sails and got another prepared; at five P.M. commenced firing on
     the chase from our two larboard bow guns; our shot falling short,
     ceased firing; at half-past five, finding it impossible to
     prevent their junction, cleared ship for action, then about four
     miles from the two ships; at forty minutes after five, they
     passed within hail of each other, and hauled by the wind on the
     starboard tack, hauled up their courses, and prepared to receive
     us: at forty-five minutes past five, they made all sail close
     hauled by the wind, in hopes of getting to the windward of us; at
     fifty-five minutes past five, finding themselves disappointed in
     their object, and we were closing with them fast, they shortened
     sail, and formed on a line of wind, about half a cable's length
     from each other. At six P.M. having them under command of our
     battery, hoisted our colours, which was answered by both ships
     hoisting English ensigns. At five minutes past six, ranged up on
     the starboard side of the sternmost ship, about 300 yards
     distant, and commenced the action by broadsides, both ships
     returning our fire with the greatest spirit for about fifteen
     minutes, then the fire of the enemy beginning to slacken, and
     the great column of smoke collected under our lee, induced    (p. 248)
     us to cease our fire to ascertain their positions and conditions.
     In about three minutes the smoke clearing away, we found
     ourselves abreast of the headmost ship, the sternmost ship
     luffing up for our larboard quarter; we poured a broadside into
     the headmost ship, and then braced aback our main and mizzen
     topsails, and backed astern under cover of the smoke, abreast the
     sternmost ship, when the action was continued with spirit and
     considerable effect until 35 minutes past 6, when the enemy's
     fire again slackened, and we discovered the headmost bearing up;
     filled our topsails, shot ahead, and gave her two stern rakes. We
     then discovered the sternmost ship wearing also; wore ship
     immediately after her, and gave her a stern rake, she luffing to
     on our starboard bow and giving us her larboard broadside. We
     ranged upon her larboard quarter, within hail, and were about to
     give her our starboard broadside, when she struck her colours,
     fired a lee gun and yielded. At fifty minutes past six took
     possession of His Britannic Majesty's ship Cyane, Captain Gordon
     Falcon, mounting 34 guns. At 8 P.M. filled away after her
     consort, which was still in sight to leeward. At half-past eight
     found her standing towards us, with her starboard tacks close
     hauled, with top-gallant sails set and colours flying. At 50
     minutes past 8 ranged close alongside to windward of her, on
     opposite tacks, and exchanged broadsides; wore immediately under
     her stern, and raked her with a broadside. She then crowded all
     sail and endeavoured to escape by running, hauled on board our
     tacks, set spanker and flying-jib in chase. At half-past 9
     commenced firing on her from our starboard bow chaser; gave her
     several shot, which cut her spars and rigging considerably. At 10
     P.M. finding they could not escape, fired a gun, struck her
     colours, and yielded. We immediately took possession of His
     Britannic Majesty's ship Levant, Hon. Captain George Douglas,
     mounting 21 guns. At 1 A.M. the damages of our rigging were
     repaired, sails shifted, and the ship in fighting condition.



No. 48.                                                            (p. 249)
PLATE XLIX.


_March 23, 1815._

     The Congress of the U. S. to Capt. James Biddle, etc. [Rx].
     Capture of the British ship Penguin by the U. S. ship Hornet.

CAPTAIN JAMES BIDDLE.

[_Capture of the Penguin._]

THE CONGRESS OF THE U. S. (_United States_) TO CAPT. (_Captain_) JAMES
BIDDLE. FOR HIS GALLANTRY GOOD CONDUCT AND SERVICES. Bust of Captain
Biddle, in uniform, facing the right FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

CAPTURE OF THE BRITISH SHIP PENGUIN BY THE U. S. (_United States_)
SHIP HORNET. Naval action between the United States sloop-of-war
Hornet, of eighteen guns, Captain Biddle, and the British sloop-of-war
Penguin, of nineteen guns, Captain Dickenson. The Hornet, to
windward, is raking the Penguin. The British vessel has lost her
main-top-gallant-mast In the distance the peak of Tristan d'Acunha.
Exergue: OFF TRISTAN D'ACUNHA MARCH XXIII MDCCCXV. On the platform,
FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


JAMES BIDDLE was born in Philadelphia, February 28, 1783. He entered
the navy as a midshipman in 1800, and went to the Mediterranean with
Captain Bainbridge. He was wrecked in the Philadelphia, and was a
prisoner in Tripoli for nearly two years; was a lieutenant in 1807,
and first lieutenant of the Wasp in 1812, when she captured the
Frolic. For his conduct on this occasion he was promoted to the rank
of master-commandant. While in command of the sloop-of-war Hornet he
captured the British sloop-of-war Penguin, Captain Dickenson, March
23, 1815, receiving for this gallant deed the thanks of Congress and a
gold medal. He became a captain in the same year, and commanded    (p. 250)
the Mediterranean squadron, 1830-1832. He was governor of the Naval
Asylum in Philadelphia, 1838-1842; commanded the East India squadron,
1845, and was on the west coast of Mexico during the Mexican war. He
died in Philadelphia, October 1, 1848.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to Captain Biddle, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be, and he is hereby, requested to
     present to Captain James Biddle, of the sloop of war Hornet, a
     gold medal, with suitable emblems and devices, and a silver
     medal,[107] with suitable emblems and devices, to each
     commissioned officer of the said sloop of war, in testimony of
     the high sense entertained by Congress, of the gallantry, good
     conduct, and services of Captain Biddle, his officers and crew,
     in capturing the British sloop of war Penguin, after a brave and
     skilful combat.

                   [Footnote 107: The silver medals are copies of the
                   one in gold to Captain Biddle.]

     Approved February 22, 1816.

                              _____

_Captain Biddle to the Secretary of the Navy._

     To the Honourable             United States sloop Hornet,
       SECRETARY OF THE NAVY, Off Tristan D'Acunha, March 25th, 1815.
         Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you, that on the morning of the
     23d instant, at half past ten, when about to anchor off the north
     end of the island of Tristan d'Acunha, a sail was seen to the
     southward and eastward, steering to the westward, the wind fresh
     from the S. S. W. In a few minutes she had passed on to the
     westward, so that we could not see her for the land. I
     immediately made sail for the westward, and shortly after getting
     in sight of her again, perceived her to bear up before the wind.
     I hove to for him to come down to us. When she had approached
     near, I filled the main-topsail, and continued to yaw the ship,
     while she continued to come down, wearing occasionally to prevent
     her passing under our stern. At 1.40 P.M. being within nearly
     musket shot distance, she hauled her wind on the starboard tack,
     hoisted English colours and fired a gun. We immediately luffed
     to, hoisted our ensign and gave the enemy a broadside. The action
     being thus commenced, a quick and well directed fire was      (p. 251)
     kept up from this ship, the enemy gradually driving near to
     us, when at 1.05 minutes he bore up apparently to run us on
     board. As soon as I perceived he would certainly fall on board, I
     called the boarders, so as to be ready to repel any attempt to
     board us. At the instant every officer and man repaired to the
     quarterdeck, where the two vessels were coming in contact, and
     eagerly pressed me to permit them to board the enemy; but this I
     would not permit, as it was evident, from the commencement of the
     action, that our fire was greatly superior both in quickness and
     effect. The enemy's bowsprit came in between our main and mizzen
     rigging, on our starboard side, affording him an opportunity to
     board us, if such was his design, but no attempt was made. There
     was a considerable swell on, and as the sea lifted us ahead, the
     enemy's boom carried away our mizzen shrouds, stern davits, and
     spanker boom, and he hung upon our larboard quarter. At this
     moment an officer, who was afterwards recognized to be Mr.
     M'Donald, the first lieutenant, and the then commanding officer,
     called out that they had surrendered. I directed the marines and
     musketry men to cease firing, and, while on the taffrail asking
     if they had surrendered, I received a wound in the neck. The
     enemy had just then got clear of us, and his fore-mast and
     bowsprit being both gone, and perceiving us wearing to give a
     fresh broadside, he again called out that he had surrendered. It
     was with difficulty I could restrain my crew from firing into him
     again, as he had certainly fired into us after having
     surrendered. From the firing of the first gun, to the last time
     the enemy cried out he had surrendered, was exactly 22 minutes by
     the watch. She proved to be His Britannic Majesty's sloop of war
     Penguin, mounting six 32 pound carronades, two long 12's, a 12
     pound carronade on the top-gallant fore-castle, with swivels on
     the capstern in the tops. She had a spare port forward, so as to
     fight both her long guns a side. She sailed from England in
     September last. She was shorter upon deck than this ship, by two
     feet, but she had a greater length of keel, greater breadth of
     beam, thicker sides, and higher bulwarks than this ship, and was
     in all respects a remarkably fine vessel of her class. The enemy
     acknowledge a complement of 132, 12 of them supernumerary marines
     from the Medway 74, received on board in consequence of their
     being ordered to cruise for the American privateer Young Wasp.
     They acknowledge, also, a loss of 14 killed and 28 wounded; but
     Mr. Mayo, who was in charge of the prize, assures me that the
     number of killed was certainly greater. Among the killed is
     Captain Dickenson, who fell at the close of the action, and the
     boatswain; among the wounded is the second lieutenant, purser,
     and two midshipmen. Each of the midshipmen lost a leg. We
     received on board, in all, 118 prisoners, four of whom have since
     died of their wounds. Having removed the prisoners, and taken on
     board such provisions and stores as would be useful to us, I
     scuttled the Penguin this morning, before daylight, and she went
     down. As she was completely riddled by our shot, her foremast and
     bowsprit both gone, and her main-mast so crippled as to be
     incapable of being secured, it seemed unadvisable, at this
     distance from home, to attempt sending her to the United States.

     This ship did not receive a single round shot in her hull, nor
     any material wound in her spars; the rigging and sails were very
     much cut; but having bent a new suit of sails and knotted and
     secured our rigging, we are now completely ready, in all      (p. 252)
     respects, for any service. We were eight men short of complement,
     and had nine upon the sick list the morning of the action.

     Enclosed is a list of killed and wounded. I lament to state that
     Lieutenant Conner is wounded dangerously. I feel great solicitude
     on his account, as he is an officer of much promise, and his loss
     would be a serious loss to the service.

     It is a most pleasing part of my duty to acquaint you that the
     conduct of Lieutenants Conner and Newton, Mr. Mayo,
     Acting-Lieutenant Brownlow, of the marines, sailing master
     Romney, and other officers, seamen, and marines I have the honour
     to command, was in the highest degree creditable to them, and
     calls for my warmest recommendation. I cannot, indeed, do justice
     to their merits. The satisfaction which was diffused throughout
     the ship when it was ascertained that the stranger was an enemy's
     sloop of war, and the alacrity with which every one repaired to
     quarters, fully assured me that their conduct in the action would
     be marked with coolness and intrepidity.

     The loss on board the Hornet, was 1 killed and 11 wounded.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        J. BIDDLE.



No. 49.                                                            (p. 253)
PLATE L.


_March 4, 1817--March 4, 1825._

     James Monroe President of the U. S. A. D. 1817. [Rx]. Peace and
     friendship.

PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE.

[_Fifth President of the United States of America._]

JAMES MONROE PRESIDENT OF THE U. S. (_United States_) A. D. (_Anno
Domini: The year of our Lord_) 1817. Bust of President Monroe, facing
the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes, and buttons with the American eagle
on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and a
tomahawk crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.


JAMES MONROE was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, April 28,
1758. He was educated at William and Mary College, Virginia, served
with distinction in the revolutionary war from 1776 to 1778; was
member of the Virginia Assembly, 1782; delegate to Congress,
1783-1786; senator of the United States, 1790-1794; minister to
France, 1794-1796; governor of Virginia, 1799-1802; was sent on a
special mission to France for the acquisition of Louisiana, 1802; was
minister to England, 1803-1808; and to Spain, 1805; governor of
Virginia, 1810; secretary of State under President Madison, 1811-1817;
acting secretary of War, 1814-1815; President of the United States
(first term), 1817-1821; (second term), 1821-1825. He died in the city
of New York, July 4, 1831, on the fifty-fifth anniversary of the
Independence of the United States.



No. 50.                                                            (p. 254)
PLATE LI.


_October 5, 1813._

     Major General William H. Harrison. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress
     April 4. 1818.

MAJOR-GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON.

[_Victory of the Thames._]

MAJOR GENERAL WILLIAM H. (_Henry_) HARRISON. Bust of General Harrison,
in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS APRIL 4, 1818. America, personified as a
maiden, with a spear in her right hand and resting on the American
shield, places with her left a crown of laurel on a trophy formed of
the arms of the enemy, on which hangs a buckler, with the inscription
FORT MEIGS BATTLE OF THE THAMES. Exergue: BATTLE OF THE THAMES OCTOBER
5. 1813. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).


WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON was born in Berkeley, Charles City County,
Virginia, February 9, 1773. He entered the army as ensign in 1791;
served in the north-west against the Indians, under General St. Clair,
and afterward under General Wayne, to whom he was aid-de-camp; became
captain in 1795; resigned in 1797; was appointed secretary of the
North-west territory, and was its delegate in Congress, 1799. He was
governor of the territory of Indiana, 1801-1813; defeated Tecumseh at
Tippecanoe, November 7, 1811; was made brigadier-general and commander
of the North-west territory in 1812, major-general in 1813; gallantly
defended Fort Meigs, and defeated the British army at the battle of
the Thames, October 5, 1813, for which victory Congress gave him a
vote of thanks and a gold medal. He resigned his commission shortly
afterwards. Was a member of Congress from Ohio, 1816-1819; Ohio State
senator, 1819-1824; United States senator, 1825-1828, and          (p. 255)
President of the United States, March 4, 1841. He died in the White
House, Washington, on April 4, one month after his inauguration. He
was known in the West by the sobriquet of "Old Tippecanoe." No
presidential medal of him was struck.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolutions of Congress Voting Medals to General Harrison and
Governor Shelby, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress be, and they are hereby, presented to
     Major-General William Henry Harrison, and Isaac Shelby, late
     Governor of Kentucky, and, through them, to the officers and men
     under their command, for their gallantry and good conduct in
     defeating the combined British and Indian forces under
     Major-General Proctor, on the Thames, in Upper Canada, on the
     fifth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirteen,
     capturing the British army, with their baggage, camp equipage and
     artillery; and that the President of the United States be
     requested to cause two gold medals to be struck, emblematical of
     this triumph, and presented to General Harrison and Isaac Shelby,
     late Governor of Kentucky.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to present to Colonel Richard M. Johnson a sword, as a testimony
     of the high sense entertained by Congress of the daring and
     distinguished valour displayed by himself and the regiment of
     volunteers under his command, in charging and essentially
     contributing to vanquish the combined British and Indian forces
     under Major-General Proctor, on the Thames, in Upper Canada, on
     the fifth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and
     thirteen.

     Approved April 4, 1818.

                              _____

_General Harrison to the Secretary of War._

     To                                 Headquarters, near Moravian Town,
       GENERAL JOHN ARMSTRONG,                 On the river Thames,
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.   80 miles from Detroit,
                                                  October 5, 1813.

     Sir: I have the honour to inform you that, by the blessing of
     Providence, the army under my command has obtained a complete
     victory over the combined Indian and British forces under     (p. 256)
     the command of General Proctor. I believe that nearly the
     whole of the enemy's regulars are taken or killed. Amongst the
     former are all the superior officers, excepting General Proctor.
     My mounted men are now in pursuit of him. Our loss is very
     trifling. The brave Colonel R. M. Johnson is the only officer
     whom I have heard of that is wounded, he badly, but I hope not
     dangerously.

           I have the honour to be, &c.,
                                        William H. HARRISON.

                              _____

_General Harrison to the Secretary of War._

     To
       GENERAL JOHN ARMSTRONG,               Head Quarters, Detroit,
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.    October 9th, 1813.

     Sir: In my last letter from Sandwich, of the 30th ultimo, I did
     myself the honour to inform you, that I was preparing to pursue
     the enemy on the following day. From various causes, however, I
     was unable to put the troops in motion until the morning of the
     2d instant, and then to take with me only about 140 of the
     regular troops, Johnson's mounted regiment, and such of Governor
     Shelby's volunteers as were fit for a rapid march, the whole
     amounting to about 3500 men. To General M'Arthur, with about 700
     effectives, the protection of this place, and the sick, was
     committed. General Cass's brigade, and the corps of
     Lieutenant-Colonel Ball, were left at Sandwich, with orders to
     follow me as soon as the men received their knapsacks and
     blankets, which had been left on an island in Lake Erie.

     The unavoidable delay at Sandwich was attended with no
     disadvantage to us. General Proctor had posted himself at
     Dalson's, on the right bank of the river Thames (or French),
     fifty-six miles from this place, where I was informed he intended
     to fortify and to receive me. He must have believed, however,
     that I had no disposition to follow him, or that he had secured
     my continuance here, by the reports that were circulated that the
     Indians would attack and destroy this place, upon the advance of
     the army, as he neglected the breaking up of the bridges until
     the night of the 2d instant. On the night our army reached the
     river, which is 25 miles from Sandwich, and is one of four
     streams crossing our route, over all of which are bridges, and
     being deep and muddy, are unfordable for a considerable distance
     into the country. The bridge here was found entire, and in the
     morning I proceeded with Johnson's regiment, to save, if
     possible, the others. At the second bridge, over a branch of the
     river Thames, we were fortunate enough to capture a lieutenant of
     dragoons and 11 privates, who had been sent by General Proctor to
     destroy them. From the prisoners I learned that the third bridge
     was broken up, and that the enemy had no certain information of
     our advance. The bridge, having been imperfectly destroyed, was
     soon repaired, and the army encamped at Drake's farm, four miles
     below Dalson's.

     The river Thames, along the banks of which our route lay, is a
     fine deep stream, navigable for vessels of considerable burthen,
     after the passage of the bar at its mouth, over which there is
     six and a half feet water.

     The baggage of the army was brought from Detroit in boats,    (p. 257)
     protected by three gun-boats, which Commodore Perry had
     furnished for the purpose, as well as to cover the passage of the
     army over the Thames itself, or the mouth of its tributary
     streams; the banks being low, and the country generally open
     (prairies), as high as Dalson's, these vessels were well
     calculated for the purpose. Above Dalson's, however, the
     character of the river and adjacent country, is considerably
     changed. The former, though still deep, is very narrow, and its
     banks high and woody. The commodore and myself, therefore, agreed
     upon the propriety of leaving the boats under a guard of 150
     infantry, and I determined to trust to fortune, and the bravery
     of my troops, to effect the passage of the river. Below a place
     called Chatham, and four miles above Dalson's, is the third
     fordable branch of the Thames. The bridge over its mouth had been
     taken up by the Indians, as well as at M'Gregor's Mills, one mile
     above. Several hundred of the Indians remained to dispute our
     passage, and, upon the arrival of the advanced guard, commenced a
     heavy fire from the opposite bank of the creek, as well as that
     of the river. Believing that the whole force of the enemy was
     there, I halted the army formed in order of battle, and brought
     up our two six-pounders to cover the party that were ordered to
     repair the bridge, and cross the troops. Colonel Johnson's
     mounted regiment, being upon the right of the army, had seized
     the remains of the bridge at the mills, under a heavy fire from
     the Indians. Our loss, upon this occasion, was two killed and
     three or four wounded; that of the enemy was ascertained to be
     considerably greater. A house near the bridge, containing a very
     considerable number of muskets, had been set on fire; but it was
     extinguished by our troops, and the arms saved. At the first farm
     above the bridge, we found one of the enemy's vessels on fire,
     loaded with arms and ordnance stores, and learned that they were
     a few miles ahead of us, still on the right bank of the river,
     with the great body of Indians. At Bowles's farm, four miles from
     the bridge, we halted for the night, found two other vessels, and
     a large distillery, filled with ordnance and other valuable
     stores, to an immense amount, in flames. It was impossible to put
     out the fire; two twenty-four pounders, with their carriages,
     were taken, and a large quantity of ball and shells of various
     sizes. The army was put in motion early on the morning of the
     5th. I pushed on, in advance, with the mounted regiment, and
     requested Governor Shelby to follow, as expeditiously as
     possible, with the infantry. The governor's zeal, and that of his
     men, enabled them to keep up with the cavalry, and by 9 o'clock,
     we were at Arnold's mills, having taken, in the course of the
     morning, two gun-boats and several bateaux, loaded with
     provisions and ammunition.

     A rapid at the river at Arnold's mills affords the only fording
     to be met with for a very considerable distance; but, upon
     examination, it was found too deep for the infantry. Having,
     however, fortunately taken two or three boats and some canoes, on
     the spot, and obliging the horsemen to take a footman behind
     each, the whole were safely crossed by 12 o'clock. Eight miles
     from the crossing we passed a farm where a part of the British
     troops had encamped the night before, under the command of
     Colonel Warburton. The detachment with General Proctor had
     arrived the day before at the Moravian towns, four miles higher
     up. Being now certainly near the enemy, I directed the advance of
     Johnson's regiment to accelerate their march, for the purpose of
     procuring intelligence. The officer commanding it, in a short
     time, sent to inform me that his progress was stopped by      (p. 258)
     the enemy, who were formed across our line of march. One of
     the enemy's wagoners being also taken prisoner, from the
     information received from him, and my own observation, assisted
     by some of my officers, I soon ascertained enough of their
     position, and order of battle, to determine that which it was
     proper for me to adopt.

     I have the honour herewith to enclose you my general order of the
     27th ultimo, prescribing the order of march and of battle when
     the whole army should act together. But as the number and
     description of the troops had been essentially changed since the
     issuing of the order, it became necessary to make a corresponding
     alteration in their disposition. From the place where our army
     was last halted, to the Moravian towns, a distance of about three
     and a half miles, the road passes through a beech forest without
     any clearing, and for the first two miles near to the bank of the
     river. At from two to three hundred yards from the river a swamp
     extends parallel to it throughout the whole distance. The
     intermediate ground is dry, and although the trees are tolerably
     thick, it is in many places clear of underbrush. Across this
     strip of land, its left _appuyed_ upon the river, supported by
     artillery placed in the wood, their right in the swamp covered by
     the whole of their Indian force, the British troops were drawn
     up.

     The troops at my disposal consisted of about one hundred and
     twenty regulars of the 27th regiment, five brigades of Kentucky
     volunteer militia infantry under his excellency Governor Shelby,
     averaging less than five hundred men, and Colonel Johnson's
     regiment of mounted infantry, making in the whole an aggregate
     something above 3000. No disposition of an army opposed to an
     Indian force can be safe, unless it is secured on the flanks and
     in the rear. I had therefore no difficulty in arranging the
     infantry conformably to my general order of battle. General
     Trotter's brigade of 500 men formed the front line, his right
     upon the road and his left upon the swamp. General King's brigade
     as a second line, 150 yards in the rear of Trotter's, and
     Childs's brigade, as a corps of reserve, in the rear of it. These
     three brigades formed the command of Major-General Henry; the
     whole of General Desha's division, consisting of two brigades,
     were formed _en potence_ upon the left of Trotter.

     While I was engaged in forming the infantry, I had directed
     Colonel Johnson's regiment, which was still in front, to be
     formed in two lines opposite to the enemy, and upon the advance
     of the infantry, to take ground to the left, and forming upon
     that flank, to endeavour to turn the right of the Indians. A
     moment's reflection, however, convinced me, that from the
     thickness of the woods and swampiness of the ground, they would
     be unable to do anything on horseback, and there was no time to
     dismount them and place their horses in security; I therefore
     determined to refuse my left to the Indians, and to break the
     British lines at once by a charge of the mounted infantry; the
     measure was not sanctioned by any thing I had seen or heard of,
     but I was fully convinced that it would succeed. The American
     backwoodsmen ride better in the woods than any other people. A
     musket or rifle is no impediment to them, being accustomed to
     carry them on horseback from their earliest youth. I was
     persuaded, too, that the enemy would be quite unprepared for the
     shock, and that they could not resist it. Conformably to this
     idea, I directed the regiment to be drawn up in close column, (p. 259)
     with its right at the distance of fifty yards from the road
     (that it might be, in some measure, protected by the trees
     from the artillery), its left upon the swamp, and to charge, at
     full speed, as soon as the enemy delivered their fire. The few
     regular troops of the 27th regiment, under the command of their
     colonel (Paul), occupied, in column of sections of four, the
     small space between the road and the river, for the purpose of
     seizing the enemy's artillery, and some ten or twelve friendly
     Indians were directed to move under the bank. The crotchet,
     formed by the front line and General Desha's division was an
     important point. At that place the venerable governor of Kentucky
     was posted, who, at the age of sixty-six, preserves all the
     vigour of youth, the ardent zeal which distinguished him in the
     Revolutionary war, and the undaunted bravery which he manifested
     at King's Mountain. With my aids-de-camp, the acting Assistant
     Adjutant-General, Captain Buttler, my gallant friend Commodore
     Perry, who did me the honour to serve as my volunteer
     aid-de-camp, and Brigadier-General Cass, who, having no command,
     tendered me his assistance, I placed myself at the head of the
     front line of infantry, to direct the movements of the cavalry
     and give them the necessary support. The army had moved on this
     order but a short distance, when the mounted men received the
     fire of the British line, and were ordered to charge; the horses
     in the front of the column recoiled from the fire; another was
     given by the enemy, and our column, at length getting into
     motion, broke through the enemy with irresistible force. In one
     minute the contest in front was over. The British officers seeing
     no hopes of reducing their disordered ranks to order, and our
     mounted men wheeling upon them and pouring in a destructive fire,
     immediately surrendered. It is certain that three only of our
     troops were wounded in this charge. Upon the left, however, the
     contest was more severe with the Indians. Colonel Johnson, who
     commanded on that flank of his regiment, received a most galling
     fire from them, which was returned with great effect. The Indians
     still further to the right advanced and fell in with our front
     line of infantry, near its junction with Desha's division, and,
     for a moment, made an impression on it. His Excellency, Governor
     Shelby, however, brought up a regiment to its support, and the
     enemy, receiving a severe fire in front, and a part of Johnson's
     regiment having gained their rear, retreated with precipitation.
     Their loss was very considerable in the action and many were
     killed in their retreat.

     I can give no satisfactory information of the number of Indians
     that were in the action, but they must have been considerably
     upwards of one thousand. From the documents in my possession
     (General Proctor's official letters, all of which were taken),
     and from the information of respectable inhabitants of this
     territory, the Indians, kept in pay by the British, were much
     more numerous than has been generally supposed. In a letter to
     General de Rottenburg, of the 27th instant, General Proctor
     speaks of having prevailed upon most of the Indians to accompany
     him. Of these it is certain that fifty or sixty Wyandot warriors
     abandoned him.

     A British officer, of high rank, assured one of my aids-de-camp,
     that on the day of our landing, General Proctor had at his
     disposal upwards of three thousand Indian warriors, but asserted
     that the greatest part had left him previous to the action.

     The number of our troops was certainly greater than that of   (p. 260)
     the enemy, but when it is recollected that they had chosen a
     position that effectually secured their flank, which it was
     impossible for us to turn, and that we could not present to them
     a line more extended than their own, it will not be considered
     arrogant to claim for my troops the palm of superior bravery.

     In communicating to the President, through you, Sir, my opinion
     of the conduct of the officers who served under my command, I am
     at a loss how to mention that of Governor Shelby, being convinced
     that no eulogium of mine can reach his merits. The governor of an
     independent State, greatly my superior in years, in experience
     and in military character, he placed himself under my command,
     and was not more remarkable for his zeal and activity, than for
     the promptitude and cheerfulness with which he obeyed my orders.
     The Major-Generals Henry and Desha, and the Brigadiers Allen,
     Caldwell, King, Childs, and Trotter, all of the Kentucky
     volunteers, manifested great zeal and activity. Of Governor
     Shelby's staff, his adjutant-general, Colonel Walker, rendered
     great service, as did his aids-de-camp, General Adair, and Majors
     Barry and Crittenden. The military skill of the former was of
     great service to us, and the activity of the two latter gentlemen
     could not be surpassed. Illness deprived me of the talents of my
     adjutant-general, Colonel Gaines, who was left at Sandwich. His
     duties were, however, ably performed by the acting assistant
     adjutant-general, Captain Buttler. My aids-de-camp, Lieutenant
     O'Fallon and Captain Todd, of the line, and my volunteer aids,
     John Speed Smith and John Chambers, Esquires, have rendered me
     the most important services from the opening of the campaign. I
     have already stated that General Cass and Commodore Perry
     assisted me in forming the troops for the action. The former is
     an officer of the highest merit, and the appearance of the brave
     commodore cheered and animated every breast.

     It would be useless, Sir, after stating the circumstances of the
     action, to pass encomiums upon Colonel Johnson and his regiment.
     Veterans could not have manifested more firmness. The colonel's
     numerous wounds prove that he was in the post of danger.
     Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson, and the Majors Payne and
     Thompson were equally active though more fortunate. Major Wood of
     the engineers, already distinguished by his conduct at Fort
     Meigs, attended the army with two six-pounders. Having no use for
     them in the action, he joined in the pursuit of the enemy, and
     with Major Payne, of the mounted regiment, two of my
     aids-de-camp, Todd and Chambers, and three privates, continued it
     for several miles after the rest of the troops had halted, and
     made many prisoners.

     I left the army before an official return of the prisoners, or
     that of the killed and wounded, was made out. It was however
     ascertained that the former amounts to 601 regulars, including 25
     officers. Our loss is 7 killed and 22 wounded, 5 of which have
     since died. Of the British troops 12 were killed and 22 wounded.
     The Indians suffered most, 33 of them having been found upon the
     ground, besides those killed on the retreat.

     On the day of the action, six pieces of brass artillery were
     taken, and two iron 24 pounders the day before. Several others
     were discovered in the river, and can be easily procured. Of the
     brass pieces, three are the trophies of our revolutionary war,
     that were taken at Saratoga and York, and surrendered by General
     Hull. The number of small arms taken by us and destroyed      (p. 261)
     by the enemy, must amount to upwards of 5000; most of them had
     been ours and taken by the enemy at the surrender of Detroit, at
     the river Raisin, and at Colonel Dudley's defeat. I believe that
     the enemy retain no other military trophy of their victories than
     the standard of the 4th regiment; they were not magnanimous
     enough to bring that of the 4th regiment into the field, or it
     would have been taken.

     You have been informed, Sir, of the conduct of the troops under
     my command in action; it gives me great pleasure to inform you,
     that they merit also the approbation of their country for their
     conduct, in submitting to the greatest privations with the utmost
     cheerfulness.

     The infantry were entirely without tents, and for several days
     the whole army subsisted upon fresh beef, without bread or salt.

          I have the honour to be, etc.,
                                        William H. HARRISON.

     P.S. General Proctor escaped by the fleetness of his horses,
     escorted by 40 dragoons and a number of mounted Indians.

                              _____

_General Orders of Debarkation, of March, and of Battle._

                                        Head Quarters, on Board
                                   the United States schooner Ariel,
                                          September 27, 1813.

     As it is the intention of the general to land the army on the
     enemy's coast, the following will be order of debarkation, of
     march, and of battle:

     The right wing of the army will be composed of the Kentucky
     volunteers, under the command of His Excellency, Governor Shelby,
     acting as major-general. The left wing, of the light corps of
     Lieutenant-Colonel Ball, and the brigades of Generals M'Arthur
     and Cass. The arrangement is made with a view to the localities
     of the ground upon which the troops are to act and the
     composition of the enemy's force, and is calculated, in marching
     up the lake or straight, to place our regular troops in the open
     ground on the lake, where they will probably be opposed by the
     British regulars, and the Kentucky volunteers in the woods, which
     it is presumed will be occupied by the enemy's militia and the
     Indians. When the signal is given for putting to the shore, the
     corps of Lieutenant-Colonel Ball will precede the left wing: the
     regiment of volunteer riflemen the right wing: these corps will
     land with the utmost celerity, consistent with the preservation
     of good order, and as soon as landed will seize the most
     favourable position of annoying the enemy and covering the
     disembarkation of the troops of the line. General Cass's brigade
     will follow Colonel Ball's corps, and General Calmes the
     volunteer riflemen. The regiments will land and form in
     succession upon those which precede them. The right wing, with
     its left in front, displaying to the right; and the left wing,
     with its right in front, displaying to the left. The brigades of
     Generals King, Allen, and Caldwell will form successively to the
     right of General Calmes. General M'Arthur and Child's         (p. 262)
     brigades will form the reserve. The general will command in
     person the right brigades of Generals Cass and Calmes, assisted
     by Major-General Henry. His Excellency, Governor Shelby, will
     have the immediate command of three brigades on the right,
     assisted by Major-General Desha. As soon as the troops are
     disembarked, the boats are to be immediately sent back to the
     fleet. It will be observed that the order of landing here
     prescribed is somewhat that of direct eschelons deployed into
     line upon the advanced corps of the right and left wing. It is
     the intention of the general, however, that all the troops which
     are provided with boats should land in as quick succession as
     possible; and the general officers in command towards the
     extremities of the line, are authorized to deviate from the
     arrangement to counteract any movement of the enemy, by landing
     any part of their commands, previously to the formation of the
     corps, which is herein directed to precede them. The corps of
     Lieutenant-Colonel Ball and the volunteer rifle regiment will
     maintain the position they occupy on landing, until the troops of
     the line are formed to support them; they will then retire
     through the intervals of the line, or to the flanks, and form in
     the rear of the line.

     A detachment of artillery, with a six, four and three-pounder and
     howitzer, will land with the advanced light corps; the rest of
     the artillery will be held in reserve, and landed at such point
     as Major Wood may direct.

     The point of landing for the reserve, under Brigadier-General
     M'Arthur, cannot now be designated; it will be made to support
     any point of the line which may require aid, or be formed on the
     flanks, as circumstances may render necessary. The arrangement
     for landing the troops will be made entirely under the direction
     of an officer of the navy, whom Commodore Perry has been so
     obliging as to offer for that purpose. The debarkation of the
     troops will be covered by the cannon of the vessels. The troops
     being landed, and the enemy driven off, or not opposing the
     landing, the army will change its front to the left, and form in
     order of battle in the following manner: The two brigades of
     regular troops, and two of the volunteers, to be formed in two
     lines at right angles to the shore of the lake. General
     M'Arthur's brigade and Calmes' to form the front line, and Cass's
     and Childs's the second line; the regular troops still on the
     left; that flank of both lines, resting on the shore; the
     distance between the two lines will be 300 yards. The remaining
     three brigades of volunteers will be drawn up in a single line of
     two ranks, at right angles to the line of march, its head upon
     the right of the front line, forming a crotchet (_en potence_)
     with that line, and extending beyond the second line. The corps
     of Lieutenant-Colonel Ball will form the advance of the left
     wing, at the distance of 300 yards, the regiment of rifle
     volunteers the advance of the right wing, at the same distance.

     Some light pieces of artillery will be placed in the road leading
     up the lake, and at such other points as Major Wood may direct.
     When the order is given for marching, the first and second lines
     will advance by files from the heads of companies; in other
     words, these two lines will form two columns, marching by their
     flanks by companies at entire distances. The three brigades on
     the right flank will be faced to the left and marched forward;
     the head of this column still forming en potence with the front
     line. It is probable that the two brigades of the front line
     will extend from the lake some distance into the woods, on    (p. 263)
     the right flank, and it is desirable it should be so; but
     should it be otherwise, and the crotchet or angle be at any time
     on the open ground, his excellency Governor Shelby will
     immediately prolong the front line to the right, by adding to it
     as many companies of the leading brigade of the flank column as
     will bring the angle, and consequently the flank column itself,
     completely within the woods. It is to be presumed that the enemy
     will make their attack upon the army in its march, that their
     regular troops will form their right upon the lake, their militia
     occupy the ground between the regulars and the woods, and the
     Indians the woods. The formation herein prescribed is intended to
     resist an arrangement of this kind. Should the general's
     conjecture on that subject prove correct, as it must be evident
     that the right of the enemy cannot be turned, and on that wing
     his best troops must be placed, it will be proper to refuse him
     our left, and direct our principal effort to uncover the flank of
     his regulars by driving off his militia. In the event supposed,
     therefore, it will be proper to bring up a part or the whole of
     General Cass's brigade, to assist the charge made by General
     Calmes, or that the former should change positions with the
     brigade of volunteers in the second line. Should the general
     think it safe to order the whole of Cass's brigade to the right,
     without replacing it with another, General Cass will march to the
     right, formed in oblique eschelons of companies. It will be the
     business of General M'Arthur, in the event of his wing being
     refused to watch the motions of the enemy, with the assistance of
     the artillery, to prevent his front line at least from
     interrupting the progress of our right. Should the enemy's
     militia be defeated, the brigade of ours in advance will
     immediately wheel upon the flank of the British regulars, and
     General M'Arthur will advance to attack them in front. In the
     mean time, his excellency Governor Shelby can use the brigade in
     reserve of the second line to prolong the flank line from its
     front or left, or to reinforce any weak part of the line. In all
     cases where troops in advance are obliged to retire through those
     who are advancing to support them, it will be done by companies
     in files, which will retire through the intervals of the
     advancing line, and will immediately form in rear. The light
     troops will be particularly governed by this direction.

     The disposition of the troops on the right flank is such as the
     commanding general thinks best calculated to resist an attack
     from Indians, which is only to be expected from that quarter. His
     excellency Governor Shelby will, however, use his discretion in
     making any alteration which his experience and judgment may
     dictate. Lieutenant-Colonel Ball, Lieutenant-Colonel Simral, and
     the general officers commanding on the flank line, are to send
     out small detachments in advance of the two former corps, and to
     the flank of the latter. Should they discover the enemy in force,
     immediately notice will be sent to the head of the lines. The
     general commanding on the spot will immediately order the signals
     for forming in order of battle, which will be the beat "_to
     arms_."

     All signals will be immediately repeated by all the drums of the
     line; the signal for the whole to halt, is the retreat. Drums
     will be distributed along the heads of companies, and the taps
     occasionally given to regulate their march.

     Lieutenant-Colonels Ball and Simral are to keep the general
     constantly advised of the discoveries made by the advanced
     parties. Where it shall become necessary for the corps of     (p. 264)
     Ball and Simral to retire, they will form on the flank or in
     the rear of Generals M'Arthur and Calmes's brigades, and receive
     the orders of the brigadiers respectively.

     Brigadier-General Cass will designate such officers as he may
     deem proper, to assist Captain Elliott, of the navy, in the
     arrangement of the troops. The general will be the signal for the
     whole to move. By command,

                                   Edmund P. GAINES, _Col. Adj. Gen._



No. 51.                                                            (p. 265)
PLATE LII.


_October 5, 1813._

     Governor Isaac Shelby. [Rx]. Battle of the Thames. Octo. 5. 1813.

GOVERNOR ISAAC SHELBY.

[_Victory of the Thames._]

GOVERNOR ISAAC SHELBY. Bust of Governor Shelby in a general's uniform,
facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

BATTLE OF THE THAMES. OCTO. (_October_) 5. 1813. The battle of the
Thames; in the background, a forest; in the foreground, the mounted
riflemen are charging the enemy. Exergue: RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS APRIL
4. 1818. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).[108]

                   [Footnote 108: The resolution of Congress voting
                   this medal and the official reports of the Battle
                   of the Thames are given under No. 50, page 254.]


ISAAC SHELBY was born in Hagerstown, Maryland, December 11, 1750. He
served in the South throughout the Revolutionary War, rose to the rank
of colonel, and displayed great gallantry in the battle of King's
Mountain, October 7, 1780, for which he received a sword of honor and
thanks from the Legislature of North Carolina. He was governor of
Kentucky, 1792-1796, and 1812-1816; he joined General Harrison with
four thousand Kentucky volunteers, and distinguished himself in the
battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813, for which victory Congress gave
him a vote of thanks and a gold medal. He declined to be secretary of
War in 1817, and died in Lincoln County, Kentucky, July 18, 1826.



No. 52.                                                            (p. 266)
PLATE LIII.


_June 24, 1822._

     Lvdovicvs. XVIII Franc. et. Nav. rex. [Rx]. Gallia. et. America.
     foederata.

TREATY OF COMMERCE WITH FRANCE.

LVDOVICVS. XVIII FRANC. ET. NAV. REX. (_Ludovicus XVIII. Franciæ et
Navarræ rex: Louis XVIII, King of France and Navarre._) Bust of Louis
the Eighteenth, facing the right DE PUYMAURIN DIREXIT[109]
(_directed_). On edge of bust, ANDRIEU. F. (_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 109: De Puymaurin was director of the
                   Paris Mint at the time this medal was struck.]

GALLIA. ET. AMERICA. FOEDERATA. (_France and America allied._) France
and America, personified as two female figures, standing, leaning on a
column, on which is a bust of Mercury. France, beside whom is a shield
bearing the three fleurs de lis, holds in her right hand a cornucopia,
and America rests her left hand on the prow of a galley; on the face
of the column is engraved: MDCCCXXII (1822). Exergue: NOVIS.
COMMERCIORVM. PACTIS IVNCTAE (_United by new treaties of
commerce._) GAYRARD. F. (_fecit_).[110]

                   [Footnote 110: See INTRODUCTION, pages x and
                   xxiii.]


BERTRAND ANDRIEU was born in Bordeaux, France, in 1762. He studied
first at the academy of Bordeaux, then with Lavaux. He came to Paris
early in life. Among his principal medals are: the taking of the
Bastille; the battle of Marengo; the passage of the St. Bernard; the
baptism of the King of Rome; the head of the Emperor Napoleon; the
head of the Empress Josephine; the head of the Empress Marie Louise;
and the cathedral of Vienna. He also executed the obverse of the medal
commemorating the treaty of commerce of 1822, between the United
States of America and France. He died in Paris, December 10, 1822.


RAYMOND GAYRARD was born at Rodez, France, in 1777. He             (p. 267)
volunteered and served in the army from 1796 to 1802; then studied
under Launay and Jeoffroy, and first attracted attention by his
medallions of the Emperor Napoleon and of the Archduchess Marie
Louise, on the occasion of their marriage. Among his principal medals
are: the visits to the mint of the Emperor of Austria, and of the King
of Prussia; the second entrance of Louis XVIII. into Paris; the
removal of the ashes of the Duke d'Enghien to the chapel at Vincennes;
the triumphal entrance of the Duke d'Angoulême into Paris; the death
of Louis XVIII.; and the accession to the throne of Charles X. He also
engraved the reverse of the medal commemorating the treaty of commerce
between the United States of America and France. He was distinguished
also as a sculptor, and among his statues is one of the American
Republic. He was engraver to King Louis XVIII. and Charles X., was
decorated with the Legion of Honor in 1825, and received a medal of
the 2d class for sculpture at the Exhibition of Fine Arts in 1814, and
an honorable mention at the Universal Exhibition of 1855. He died in
Paris, May 4, 1858.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Treaty with France, 1822._

     _Convention of Navigation and Commerce between the United States
     of America and His Majesty the King of France and Navarre,
     concluded June 24, 1822; ratifications exchanged February 12,
     1823; proclaimed February 12, 1823._

     The United States of America and His Majesty the King of France
     and Navarre, being desirous of settling the relations of
     navigation and commerce between their respective nations, by a
     temporary convention reciprocally beneficial and satisfactory,
     and thereby of leading to a more permanent and comprehensive
     arrangement, have respectively furnished their full powers in
     manner following, that is to say,

     The President of the United States to John Quincy Adams, their
     Secretary of State, and His Most Christian Majesty to the Baron
     Hyde de Neuville, Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St.
     Louis, Commander of the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross of the
     Royal American Order of Isabella the Catholic, his Envoy
     Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near the United
     States; Who, after exchanging their full powers, have agreed  (p. 268)
     on the following articles:

     ARTICLE I.

     Articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United
     States, imported into France in vessels of the United States,
     shall pay an additional duty, not exceeding twenty francs per ton
     of merchandize, over and above the duties paid on the like
     articles, also of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the
     United States, when imported in French vessels.

     ARTICLE II.

     Articles of the growth, produce or manufacture of France,
     imported into the United States in French vessels, shall pay an
     additional duty, not exceeding three dollars and seventy-five
     cents per ton of merchandize, over and above the duties collected
     upon the like articles, also of the growth, produce or
     manufacture of France, when imported in vessels of the United
     States.

     ARTICLE III.

     No discriminating duty shall be levied upon the productions of
     the soil or industry of France, imported in French bottoms into
     the ports of the United States for transit or re-exportation; nor
     shall any such duties be levied upon the productions of the soil
     or industry of the United States, imported in vessels of the
     United States into the ports of France for transit or
     re-exportation.

     ARTICLE IV.

     The following quantities shall be considered as forming the ton
     of merchandize for each of the articles hereinafter specified:

     Wines: Four 61-gallon hogsheads, or 244 gallons of 231 cubic
     inches, American measure.

     Brandies, and all other liquids, 244 gallons.

     Silks and all other dry goods, and all other articles usually
     subject to measurement, forty-two cubic feet French, in France,
     and fifty cubic feet American measure in the United States.

     Cotton: 804lbs. avoirdupois, or 365 kilogrammes.

     Tobacco: 1600lbs. avoirdupois, or 725 kilogrammes.

     Ashes, pot and pearl: 2240lbs. avoirdupois, or 1016 kilogrammes.

     Rice: 1600lbs. avoirdupois, or 725 kilogrammes, and for all
     weighable articles, not specified, 2240lbs. avoirdupois, or 1016
     kilogrammes.

     ARTICLE V.

     The duties of tonnage, light money, pilotage, port charges,
     brokerage, and all other duties upon foreign shipping, over and
     above those paid by the national shipping in the two countries
     respectively, other than those specified in articles 1 and 2 of
     the present convention, shall not exceed in France, for vessels
     of the United States, five francs per ton of the vessel's
     American register; nor for vessels of France in the United
     States, ninety four cents per ton of the vessel's French
     passport.

     ARTICLE VI.

     The contracting parties, wishing to favour their mutual commerce,
     by affording in their ports every necessary assistance to their
     respective vessels, have agreed that the consuls and          (p. 269)
     vice-consuls may cause to be arrested the sailors, being part of
     the crews of the vessels of their respective nations, who shall
     have deserted from the said vessels, in order to send them back
     and transport them out of the country. For which purpose the said
     consuls and vice-consuls shall address themselves to the courts,
     judges, and officers competent, and shall demand the said
     deserters in writing, proving by an exhibition of the registers
     of the vessel, or ship's roll, or other official documents, that
     those men were part of the said crews; and on this demand, so
     proved, (saving however where the contrary is proved,) the
     delivery shall not be refused; and there shall be given all aid
     and assistance to the said consuls and vice-consuls for the
     search, seizure, and arrest of the said deserters, who shall even
     be detained and kept in the prisons of the country, at their
     request and expense, until they shall have found an opportunity
     of sending them back. But if they be not sent back within three
     months, to be counted from the day of their arrest, they shall be
     set at liberty, and shall be no more arrested for the same cause.

     ARTICLE VII.

     The present temporary convention shall be in force for two years
     from the first day of October next, and even after the expiration
     of that term, until the conclusion of a definitive treaty, or
     until one of the parties shall have declared its intention to
     renounce it, which declaration shall be made at least six months
     beforehand.

     And in case the present arrangement should remain without such
     declaration of its discontinuance by either party, the extra
     duties specified in the 1st and 2d articles shall, from the
     expiration of the said two years, be, on both sides, diminished
     by one-fourth of their whole amount, and, afterwards by
     one-fourth of the said amount from year to year, so long as
     neither party shall have declared the intention of renouncing it
     as above stated.

     ARTICLE VIII.

     The present convention shall be ratified on both sides, and the
     ratifications shall be exchanged within one year from the date
     hereof, or sooner, if possible. But the execution of the said
     convention shall commence in both countries on the first of
     October next, and shall be effective, even in case of
     non-ratification, for all such vessels as may have sailed bonâ
     fide for the ports of either nation, in the confidence of its
     being in force.

     In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed
     the present convention, and have hereto affixed their seals, at
     the city of Washington, this 24th day of June, A. D. 1822.

                                        John QUINCY ADAMS     [l.s.]
                                        G. HYDE DE NEUVILLE   [l.s.]

     SEPARATE ARTICLE.

     The extra duties levied on either side before the present day, by
     virtue of the act of Congress of 15th May, 1820, and of the
     ordinance of 26th July of the same year, and others confirmative
     thereof, and which have not already been paid back, shall be
     refunded.

     Signed and sealed as above, this 24th day of June, 1822.

                                        John QUINCY ADAMS     [l.s.]
                                        G. HYDE DE NEUVILLE   [l.s.]



No. 53.                                                            (p. 270)
PLATE LIV.


_March 4, 1825--March 4, 1829._

     John Quincy Adams President of the United States 1825. [Rx].
     Peace and friendship.

PRESIDENT JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.

[_Sixth President of the United States of America._]

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 1825. Bust of
President John Quincy Adams, facing the right.

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes, and buttons with the American eagle
on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and a
tomahawk crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.

The obverse of this medal, though not signed, was engraved by Fürst.


JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, son of President John Adams, was born in
Braintree, now Quincy, Massachusetts, July 11, 1767. He spent several
years of his early life in Europe with his father; was graduated at
Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1787; was admitted to the
bar in 1791, and settled in Boston; was minister to Holland, England,
and Prussia, 1794-1801; United States senator, 1803-1808; minister to
Russia, 1809-1814; one of the negotiators of the treaty of Ghent,
1814; secretary of State under President Monroe, 1817-1825; President
of the United States, 1825-1829; representative in Congress,
1831-1848. He died in the Capitol in Washington, February 23, 1848.



No. 54.                                                            (p. 271)
PLATE LV.


_March 4, 1829--March 4, 1837._

     Andrew Jackson President of the United States A.D. 1829. [Rx].
     Peace and friendship.

PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON.

[_Seventh President of the United States of America._]

ANDREW JACKSON PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES A. D. (_Anno Domini: The
year of our Lord_), 1829. Bust of President Jackson, facing the right.
FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes and buttons with the American eagle on
them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and tomahawk
crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.



No. 55.                                                            (p. 272)
PLATE LVI.


_August 2, 1813._

     Presented by Congress to Colonel George Croghan 1835. [Rx]. Pars
     magna fuit.

COLONEL GEORGE CROGHAN.

[_Defence of Fort Stephenson._]

PRESENTED BY CONGRESS TO COLONEL GEORGE CROGHAN 1835. Bust of Colonel
Croghan, in uniform, facing the right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

In a pendant: PARS MAGNA FUIT[111] (_His share was great._) Major
Croghan is defending, with one hundred and sixty men, Fort Stephenson
against the attack of the British army, one thousand strong. In the
background, three gunboats on Lake Erie. Exergue: SANDUSKY 2; AUGUST
1813. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

                   [Footnote 111: Virgil, Æneid, Book II, 6.]

As this medal was not voted by Congress until 1835, it is placed here
according to the chronological order adopted.


GEORGE CROGHAN was born near Louisville, Kentucky, November 15, 1791.
He was graduated at William and Mary College, Virginia, and in 1811
was aid-de-camp to Colonel Boyd at the battle of Tippecanoe; captain
in 1812, major in 1813, and aid-de-camp to General Harrison at Fort
Meigs. On August 3, 1813, with a garrison of one hundred and sixty
men, he repulsed General Proctor at the head of an army of one
thousand British troops and Indians. For this gallant deed Congress,
in 1835, gave him a vote of thanks and a gold medal. In 1814 he was
appointed lieutenant-colonel; resigned in 1817; was promoted to the
rank of inspector-general and colonel in 1825; served under General
Taylor in Mexico, and died in New Orleans, January 8, 1849.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 273)

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to Colonel Croghan, etc._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States be requested to cause a gold medal
     to be struck, with suitable emblems and devices, and presented to
     Colonel Croghan, in testimony of the high sense entertained by
     Congress of his gallantry and good conduct in the defence of Fort
     Stephenson; and that he present a sword to each of the following
     officers engaged in that affair: to Captain James Hunter, to the
     eldest male representative of Lieutenant Benjamin Johnston, and
     to Lieutenant Cyrus A. Baylor, John Meek, Ensign Joseph Duncan,
     and the nearest male representative of Ensign Edmund Shipp,
     deceased.

     Approved February 13, 1835.

                              _____

_Major Croghan to General Harrison._

     To
       MAJOR-GENERAL HARRISON,        Lower Sandusky, August 5th, 1813.
         Commanding Northwestern Army.

     Dear Sir: I have the honour to inform you that the combined force
     of the enemy, amounting to at least 500 regulars, and seven or
     eight hundred Indians, under the immediate command of General
     Proctor, made its appearance before this place early on Sunday
     evening last, and so soon as the general had made such
     disposition of his troops as would cut off my retreat, should I
     be disposed to make one, he sent Colonel Elliott, accompanied by
     Major Chambers, with a flag to demand the surrender of the fort,
     as he was anxious to spare the effusion of blood, which he should
     probably not have it in his power to do should he be reduced to
     the necessity of taking the place by storm. My answer to the
     summons was, that I was determined to defend the place to the
     last extremity, and that no force, however large, should induce
     me to surrender it. So soon as the flag had returned, a brisk
     fire was opened upon us from the gunboats in the river, and from
     a five and a half inch howitzer on shore, which was kept up with
     little intermission through the night. At an early hour the next
     morning, three sixes (which had been placed during the night
     within 250 yards of the pickets) began to play upon us, but with
     little effect. About 4 o'clock P.M., discovering that the fire
     from all his guns was concentrated against the northwestern angle
     of the fort, I became confident that his object was to make a
     breach, and attempt to storm the works at that point. I therefore
     ordered out as many men as could be employed for the purpose of
     strengthening that front, which was so effectually secured by
     means of bags of flour, sand, &c., that the picketing suffered
     little or no injury. Notwithstanding which, the enemy, about 5
     o'clock, having formed in close column, advancing to assail our
     works at the expected point, at the same time making two feints
     at the front of Captain Hunter's line, the column which advanced
     against the north-western angle, consisting of about 350 men, (p. 274)
     was so completely enveloped in smoke as not to be discovered
     until it had approached within fifteen or twenty paces of the
     lines; but the men being all at their posts and ready to receive
     it, commenced so heavy and galling a fire as to throw the column
     a little into confusion. Being quickly rallied, it advanced to
     the outer works and began to leap into the ditch. Just at that
     moment a fire of grape was opened from our six pounder (which had
     been previously arranged so as to rake in that direction), which,
     together with the musketry, threw them into such confusion, that
     they were compelled to retire precipitately to the woods. During
     the assault, which lasted about half an hour, an incessant fire
     was kept up by the enemy's artillery (which consisted of five
     sixes and a howitzer), but without effect. My whole loss during
     the siege, was one killed and seven wounded slightly. The loss of
     the enemy in killed, wounded, and prisoners, must exceed one
     hundred and fifty; one lieutenant-colonel, a lieutenant and fifty
     rank and file, were found in and about the ditch, those of the
     remainder, who were not able to escape, were taken off during the
     night by the Indians. Seventy stand of arms and several brace of
     pistols have been collected near the work. About three in the
     morning the enemy sailed down the river, leaving behind them a
     boat, containing clothing and considerable military stores. Too
     much praise cannot be bestowed on the officers, non-commissioned
     officers, and privates under my command for their gallantry and
     good conduct during the siege.

                    Yours, with respect,
                                        G. CROGHAN,
                         _Major 17th U. S. Infantry comdg. L. S._



No. 56.                                                            (p. 275)
PLATE LVII.


_March 4, 1837--March 4, 1841._

     Martin Van Buren President of the United States A. D. 1837. [Rx].
     Peace and friendship.

PRESIDENT MARTIN VAN BUREN.

[_Eighth President of the United States of America._]

MARTIN VAN BUREN PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES A. D. (_Anno Domini:
The year of our Lord_) 1837. Bust of President Van Buren, facing the
right. FÜRST. F. (_fecit_).

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes, and buttons with the American eagle
on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and tomahawk
crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.


MARTIN VAN BUREN was born at Kinderhook, Columbia County, New York,
December 5, 1782. He received his early education at a common school;
was admitted to the bar in the city of New York, 1803; State senator,
1812; attorney-general of New York, 1815; United States senator,
1821-1828; governor of New York, 1828; secretary of State to President
Jackson, 1829-1831; appointed minister to England, 1831, but was not
confirmed by the Senate; vice-president of the United States,
1833-1837; President of the United States, 1837-1841. He was an
unsuccessful candidate for the Presidency in 1848. He died at
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862.



No. 57.                                                            (p. 276)
PLATE LVIII.


_April 4, 1841--March 4, 1845._

     John Tyler, President of the United States. 1841. [Rx]. Peace and
     friendship.

PRESIDENT JOHN TYLER.

[_Tenth[112] President of the United States of America._]

                   [Footnote 112: General Harrison, the ninth
                   President, died one month after his inauguration,
                   and no Indian peace medal of him was struck.]

JOHN TYLER, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 1841. Bust of President
Tyler, facing the left.

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes, and buttons with the American eagle
on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and tomahawk
crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.

This medal bears no signature. Below are given the only documents
relating to it which could be obtained.


JOHN TYLER was born in Charles City County, Virginia, March 29, 1790.
He was graduated at William and Mary College, Virginia, 1807; and was
admitted to the bar, 1809. He was a member of the State Legislature,
1811-1816; member of Congress, 1816-1821; member of the State
Legislature, 1823-1825; governor of Virginia, 1825-1827; United States
senator, 1827-1836; vice-president of the United States, March 4,
1841, and President, on the death of General Harrison (April 4),   (p. 277)
1841-1845. He took part with the South during the Civil War, and
was a member of the Confederate Congress. He died in Richmond, January
17, 1862.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_R. M. Patterson to J. C. Spencer._

     To the Honorable
       J. C. SPENCER,                   Mint of the United States,
         Secretary of War.                  November 2, 1841.

     Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter
     of the 28th ult., and am gratified to see the interest which you
     take in the subject of our American Medals.

     The Military Medals of which we have the dies, are now in the
     course of execution, in compliance with your request. Among them
     is included the Medal voted, in 1777, to General Gates, of which
     the dies were given, by the family, through Colonel Burr, to our
     former chief coiner, Mr. Eckfeldt.

     Electrotype copies of the other Medals, properly mounted, could
     be furnished at two dollars each. We have already the means of
     making the following: Washington--Boston, 1776; Colonel
     Howard--Cowpens, 1781; General Greene, 1781: Alliance with
     France, 1777-1781[113]; Colonel Washington--Cowpens, 1781.

     The dies for the Indian Medals, bearing the heads of the
     successive Presidents, have heretofore been cut by artists in
     this country; the earlier ones by Reich, the later by Fürst. One
     of these is dead, and the other in Europe.

     I now propose, with your approbation, to pursue a different
     course, and to dispense entirely with the services of the die
     sinker. For this purpose, a medallion likeness of the President
     must be modeled in wax or clay, on a table of four inches in
     diameter, and I understand that an artist at Washington, named
     Chapman, is competent to this work. A plaster cast from this
     model is used as a pattern for a casting in fine iron, which can
     be executed by Babbit at Boston, as well as at the celebrated
     foundries at Berlin. This casting is then placed in an instrument
     called a _portrait lathe_ (of which we have a very perfect one at
     the Mint, which I caused to be made at Paris), and reduced
     fac-similes of it are turned by the lathe, thus preparing for us
     the dies which we need.

     The advantages offered by this mode of operating are manifest. A
     model made on a large scale in relief, and in plastic material,
     can hardly fail to be more perfect than a head sunk originally on
     a die of steel. I accordingly anticipate from this process a more
     perfect set of dies, than any we have yet made. But it is not an
     untried experiment which I propose to make. I send you herewith,
     a medal of Franklin executed by us here, entirely by this process.
     The original was a medallion likeness of Franklin in burnt    (p. 278)
     clay. All the rest was a purely mechanical operation, (the work
     being, in fact, done by a steam engine), except a little
     retouching, and the impression of the letters.

     The proposed method presents the advantage of greater economy.
     The last Indian Medal dies, which were the cheapest we have had
     made, cost $1,160; Mr. Peale, our chief coiner, is willing to
     undertake the execution of those for President Tyler, for $800.

     The Medals for President Van Buren were begun, and in fact
     completed, in anticipation of the necessary appropriation by
     Congress, and I would suggest to you, whether the same course
     would not be desirable now.

     I present the following estimate, for the appropriation to be
     asked:

        For furnishing
            three head dies........................... $800.00
        For preparing, striking, ringing, etc.,
            60 of the largest Medals at $2.37 each..... 142.20
        For 200 of the two smaller sizes at
            $1.37 each................................. 274.00
        Fine silver used for the Medals.............. 1,000.00
        Contingencies.................................. 283.80
                                                     ---------
                                                     $2,500.00

                   [Footnote 113: The Libertas Americana medal.]

     It may perhaps be judged proper to introduce Indian Medals of
     President Harrison into the series.

     In this case, the estimate need not be doubled, for it is not to
     be supposed that many more _Medals_ would be wanted. I should
     suppose that an additional appropriation of $1000 would be
     sufficient. I may remark, however, that Washington is not in the
     series of Indian Medals, and that Harrison, like Washington, is
     in the series of those voted by Congress to our successful
     military commanders.

     I wait your instructions, which I shall execute with great
     pleasure.

     Very respectfully, your faithful servant,
                                        R. M. PATTERSON, _Director_.

                              _____

_J. C. Spencer to R. M. Patterson._

     To
       DOCTOR R. M. PATTERSON,          Department of War.
         Director of the Mint,       Washington, Nov. 13, 1841.
         Philadelphia, Penn.

     Sir: I have had the pleasure to receive your letter of the 2d
     instant, respecting the means of procuring the dies for Medals
     bearing the likeness of President Tyler. The advantages of the
     mode you propose are sufficiently attested by the execution of
     the Medal accompanying your letter, and, in accordance with your
     suggestions, measures have been adopted to have a medallion
     likeness of the President taken, the execution of which has been
     entrusted to Mr. Pettrich, whose merit as an artist cannot be
     unknown to you.

     Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                        J. C. SPENCER.

                              _____

_R. M. Patterson to John C. Spencer._                              (p. 279)

     To the Honorable
       John C. SPENCER,                 Mint, U.S.
         Secretary of War.         September 17, 1842.

     Sir: Permit me to ask whether an appropriation was made at the
     late session of Congress for defraying the expense of making a
     set of medals bearing the head of the President, to be given to
     Indian chiefs, as has been the custom heretofore. In consequence
     of our former correspondence on this subject, you are aware that
     some steps have already been taken for accomplishing this object.
     Let me inquire of you whether the work is to go forward.

                                        R. M. PATTERSON, _Director_.

                              _____

_D. Parker to R. M. Patterson._

     R. M. PATTERSON, Esq.,                 War Department.
       Director of the Mint,       Washington, D. C., Sep. 21, 1842.
         Philadelphia.

     Sir: In answer to your letter of the 17th instant, in the absence
     of the Secretary of War, I have to state that $2,500 was
     appropriated during the last session of Congress for making
     medals bearing the head of the President, to be given to Indian
     chiefs. Of this $50 was paid to Mr. Pettrich, and a requisition
     has this day been made in your favor for $1,500, which the
     Treasury Department is requested to remit to you as early as
     practicable.

     Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                        D. PARKER, _Chief Clerk_.



No. 58.                                                            (p. 280)
PLATE LIX.


_March 4, 1845--March 4, 1849._

     James K. Polk, President of the United States, 1845. [Rx]. Peace
     and friendship.

PRESIDENT JAMES KNOX POLK.

[_Eleventh President of the United States of America._]

JAMES K (_Knox_) POLK PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 1845. Bust of
President Polk, facing the left.

PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP. Two hands clasped in token of amity; on the cuff
of the left wrist three stripes, and buttons with the American eagle
on them; the other wrist bare; above the hands, a calumet and tomahawk
crossed--Indian emblems of peace and war.

The obverse of this medal, though not signed, was made by Franklin
Peale, as may be seen by the following extract from a despatch of R.
M. Patterson, director of the Mint, to William Medill, commissioner of
Indian Affairs, and dated Philadelphia, June 15, 1846. "The Indian
medals, with the head of President Polk, being nearly finished by our
chief coiner, Mr. Peale, etc."


JAMES KNOX POLK was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina,
November 2, 1795. He was graduated at the University of North
Carolina, 1818; was admitted to the bar in Nashville, Tennessee, 1820;
member of the State Legislature, 1823-1825; member of Congress,
1825-1839; speaker of the House of Representatives of the United
States, 1835-1839; governor of Tennessee, 1839-1841; President of the
United States, 1845-1849. He died in Nashville, June 15, 1849.



No. 59.                                                            (p. 281)
PLATE LX.


_May 8 and 9, 1846._

     Major General Zachary Taylor. [Rx]. Resolution of Congress, July
     16th, 1846, etc.

MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.

[_Victories on the Rio Grande._]

MAJOR GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR. Bust of General Taylor, in uniform,
facing the right.

Within a wreath of laurel and palm inclosing a serpent biting its
tail--emblem of immortality through glory and victory: RESOLUTION OF
CONGRESS JULY 16{TH} 1846. PALO ALTO MAY 8{TH} 1846 RESACA DE LA PALMA
MAY 9{TH} 1846.[114]

                   [Footnote 114: See INTRODUCTION, pages xxiv and
                   xxv.]


ZACHARY TAYLOR was born in Orange County, Virginia, September 24,
1784. His father soon after removed to a plantation near Louisville,
Kentucky, where young Taylor passed the early years of his life. He
entered the army as first lieutenant of infantry, 1808; was captain,
1810; distinguished himself by his defence of Fort Harrison, on the
Wabash river, against the Indians led by Tecumseh, September 5, 1812,
for which he was breveted major; full major, 1814; lieutenant-colonel,
1819; colonel, 1832. He served during all this period against the
Indians on the north-west frontier; he was ordered to Florida in 1836,
and won the battle of Okechobee against the Seminoles, December 25,
1837, for which he was made brigadier-general by brevet and
commander-in-chief in Florida, 1838; commander of the first division
in the south-west in 1840, in which year he removed from Kentucky to
Louisiana, where he bought a plantation near Baton Rouge. Appointed
commander of the army of occupation in Texas, July, 1845, he defeated
the Mexican armies in battle at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, May
8 and 9, 1846; at Monterey, September 24, same year; and at Buena
Vista, February 22 and 23, 1847. For these victories Congress gave
him a vote of thanks and three gold medals.[115] He was made       (p. 282)
major-general, June 29, 1846; became President of the United States,
March 5, 1849, and died at the White House in Washington, July 9,
1850. His soldiers gave him the sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready."

                   [Footnote 115: See Nos. 60, page 290, and 63, page
                   336.]

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Taylor._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and the House of
     Representatives of the United States of America in Congress
     assembled_: That the thanks of Congress are due, and are hereby
     tendered to Major-General Zachary Taylor, commanding the army of
     occupation, his officers and men, for the fortitude, skill,
     enterprise, and courage, which have distinguished the recent
     brilliant operations on the Rio Grande.

     SECTION 2. _And be it further resolved_, That Congress sincerely
     sympathize with the relatives and friends of the officers and
     soldiers of the army of the United States who so bravely fell in
     the service of their country on the Rio Grande.

     SECTION 3. _And be it further resolved_, That the President of
     the United States be requested to cause the foregoing resolutions
     to be communicated to General Taylor, and through him to the army
     under his command.

     SECTION 4. _And be it further resolved_, That the President of
     the United States be authorized and requested to have a medal of
     gold procured, with appropriate devices and inscriptions thereon,
     and presented to General Taylor, in the name of the Republic, as
     a tribute to his good conduct, valor, and generosity to the
     vanquished.

     Approved July 16, 1846.

                              _____

_General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the Army._

     To                               Headquarters, Army of Occupation,
       THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,    Camp at Palo Alto, Texas,
         Washington, D. C.                        May 9, 1846.

     Sir: I have the honor to report that I was met near this place
     yesterday, on my march from Point Isabel, by the Mexican forces,
     and, after an action of about five hours, dislodged them from
     their position and encamped upon the field. Our artillery
     consisting of two eighteen-pounders and two light batteries, was
     the arm chiefly engaged, and to the excellent manner in which it
     was manoeuvred and served is our success mainly due.

     The strength of the enemy is believed to have been about      (p. 283)
     6000 men, with seven pieces of artillery and 800 cavalry. His
     loss is probably at least one hundred killed. Our strength did
     not exceed, all told, twenty-three hundred, while our loss was
     comparatively trifling: four men killed, three officers and
     thirty-seven men wounded, several of the latter mortally. I
     regret to say that Major Ringgold, 2d Artillery, and Captain
     Page, 4th Infantry, are severely wounded. Lieutenant Luther, 2d
     Artillery, slightly so.

     The enemy has fallen back, and it is believed has repassed the
     river. I have advanced parties now thrown forward in his
     direction, and shall move the main body immediately.

     In the haste of this report, I can only say that the officers and
     men behaved in the most admirable manner throughout the action. I
     shall have the pleasure of making a more detailed report when
     those of the different commanders shall be received.

     I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                        Z. TAYLOR,
                    _Brevet Brigadier-General U. S. A._, _commanding_.

                              _____

_General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the Army._

                                  Head-Quarters, Army of Occupation,
                       Camp at Resaca de la Palma, 3 miles from Matamoros,
     To                             10 o'clock P.M., May 9, 1846.
       THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,
          Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have the honor to report that I marched with the main body
     of the army at two o'clock to-day, having previously thrown
     forward a body of light infantry into the forest, which covers
     the Matamoros road. When near the spot where I am now encamped,
     my advance discovered that a ravine crossing the road had been
     occupied by the enemy with artillery. I immediately ordered a
     battery of field artillery to sweep the position, flanking and
     sustaining it by the 3d, 4th, and 5th regiments, deployed as
     skirmishers to the right and left. A heavy fire of artillery and
     of musketry was kept up for some time, until finally the enemy's
     batteries were carried in succession by a squadron of dragoons
     and the regiments of infantry that were on the ground. He was
     soon driven from his position, and pursued by a squadron of
     dragoons, battalion of artillery, 3d Infantry, and a light
     battery, to the river. Our victory has been complete. Eight
     pieces of artillery, with a great quantity of ammunition, three
     standards, and some one hundred prisoners have been taken; among
     the latter, General La Vega, and several other officers. One
     general is understood to have been killed. The enemy has
     recrossed the river, and I am sure will not again molest us on
     this bank.

     The loss of the enemy in killed has been most severe. Our     (p. 284)
     own has been very heavy, and I deeply regret to report that
     Lieutenant Inge, 2d Dragoons, Lieutenant Cochrane, 4th Infantry,
     and Lieutenant Chadbourne, 8th Infantry, were killed on the
     field. Lieutenant-Colonel Payne, 4th Artillery,
     Lieutenant-Colonel McIntosh, Lieutenant Dobbins, 3d Infantry;
     Captain Hoe and Lieutenant Fowler, 5th Infantry; and Captain
     Montgomery, Lieutenants Gates, Selden, McClay, Burbank, and
     Jordan, 8th Infantry, were wounded. The extent of our loss in
     killed and wounded is not yet ascertained, and is reserved for a
     more detailed report.

     The affair of to-day may be regarded as a proper supplement to
     the cannonade of yesterday; and the two taken together, exhibit
     the coolness and gallantry of our officers and men in the most
     favorable light. All have done their duty, and done it nobly. It
     will be my pride, in a more circumstantial report of both
     actions, to dwell upon particular instances of individual
     distinction.

     It affords me peculiar pleasure to report that the field-work
     opposite Matamoros has sustained itself handsomely during a
     cannonade and bombardment of 160 hours. But the pleasure is
     alloyed with profound regret at the loss of its heroic and
     indomitable commander, Major Brown, who died to-day from the
     effect of a shell. His loss would be a severe one to the service
     at any time, but to the army under my orders it is indeed
     irreparable. One officer and one non-commissioned officer killed,
     and ten men wounded, comprise all the casualties incident to this
     severe bombardment.

     I inadvertently omitted to mention the capture of a large number
     of pack-mules left in the Mexican camp.

     I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                        Z. TAYLOR,
                     _Brevet Brigadier-General U. S. A._, _commanding_.

                              _____

_General Order Congratulating the Army._

                                   Head Quarters, Army of Occupation,
                                     Resaca de la Palma, May 11, 1846.

     The commanding general congratulates the army under his command
     upon the signal success which has crowned its recent operations
     against the enemy. The coolness and steadiness of the troops
     during the action of the 8th, and the brilliant impetuosity with
     which the enemy's position and artillery were carried on the 9th,
     have displayed the best qualities of the American soldier. To
     every officer and soldier of his command, the general returns his
     thanks for the noble manner in which they have sustained the
     honor of the service and of the country. While the main body of
     the army has been thus actively employed, the garrison left
     opposite Matamoros has rendered no less distinguished service, by
     sustaining a severe cannonade and bombardment for many successive
     days. The army and the country, while justly rejoicing in this
     triumph of our arms, will deplore the loss of many brave      (p. 285)
     officers and men who fell gallantly in the hour of combat.

     It being necessary for the commanding general to visit Point
     Isabel on public business, Colonel Twiggs will assume command of
     the corps of the army near Matamoros, including the garrison of
     the field-work. He will occupy the former lines of the army,
     making such dispositions for defence and for the comfort of his
     command as he may deem advisable. He will hold himself strictly
     on the defensive until the return of the commanding general.

     By order of Brig. Gen. Taylor.
                                        W. W. BLISS, _Act. Adj. Gen._

                              _____

_General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the Army._

                                   Head-Quarters, Army of Occupation,
     To                            Camp near Matamoros, May 16, 1846.
       THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,
          Washington, D. C.

     "Sir: The main body of the Army of Occupation marched under my
     immediate orders from Point Isabel on the evening of the 7th of
     May, and bivouacked seven miles from that place.

     "Our march was resumed the following morning. About noon, when
     our advance of cavalry had reached the water-hole of 'Palo Alto,'
     the Mexican troops were reported in our front, and were soon
     discovered occupying the road in force. I ordered a halt upon
     reaching the water, with a view to rest and refresh the men, and
     to form deliberately our line of battle. The Mexican line was now
     plainly visible across the prairie, and about three-quarters of a
     mile distant. Their left, which was composed of a heavy force of
     cavalry, occupied the road, resting upon a thicket of chapparal,
     while masses of infantry were discovered in succession on the
     right, greatly outnumbering our own force.

     "Our line of battle was now formed in the following order,
     commencing on the extreme right: 5th Infantry, commanded by
     Lieutenant-Colonel M'Intosh; Major Ringgold's Artillery; 3d
     Infantry, commanded by Captain L. N. Morris; two
     eighteen-pounders, commanded by Lieutenant Churchill, 3d
     Artillery; 4th Infantry, commanded by Major G. W. Allen; the 3d
     and 4th regiments composed the Third Brigade, under command of
     Lieutenant-Colonel Garland; and all the above corps, together
     with two squadrons of dragoons, under Captains Ker and May,
     composed the right wing, under the orders of Colonel Twiggs. The
     left was formed by the battalion of artillery, commanded by
     Lieutenant-Colonel Childs, Captain Duncan's Light Artillery, and
     the Eighth Infantry, under Captain Montgomery; all forming the
     First Brigade, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Belknap. The
     train was parked near the water, under direction of Captains
     Grossman and Myers, and protected by Captain Ker's squadron.

     "About 2 o'clock, we took up the march, by heads of columns, in
     the direction of the enemy, the eighteen-pounder battery
     following the road. While the columns were advancing,         (p. 286)
     Lieutenant Blake, Topographical Engineer, volunteered a
     reconnoissance of the enemy's line, which was handsomely
     performed, and resulted in the discovery of at least tyro
     batteries of artillery in the intervals of their cavalry and
     infantry. These batteries were soon opened upon us, when I
     ordered the columns halted and deployed into line, and the fire
     to be returned by all our artillery. The Eighth Infantry, on our
     extreme left, was thrown back to secure that flank. The first
     fires of the enemy did little execution, while our
     eighteen-pounders and Major Ringgold's artillery soon dispersed
     the cavalry which formed his left. Captain Duncan's battery,
     thrown forward in advance of the line, was doing good execution
     at this time. Captain May's squadron was now detached to support
     that battery and the left of our position. The Mexican cavalry
     with two pieces of artillery were now reported to be moving
     through the chapparal to our right to threaten that flank, or
     make a demonstration against the train. The Fifth Infantry was
     immediately detached to check this movement, and, supported by
     Lieutenant Ridgely, with a section of Major Ringgold's battery
     and Captain Walker's company of volunteers, effectually repulsed
     the enemy, the Fifth Infantry repelling a charge of lancers, and
     the artillery doing great execution in their ranks. The Third
     Infantry was now detached to the right as a still further
     security to that flank, yet threatened by the enemy. Major
     Ringgold, with the remaining section, kept up his fire from an
     advanced position, and was supported by the Fourth Infantry.

     "The grass of the prairie had been accidentally fired by our
     artillery, and the volumes of smoke now partially concealed the
     armies from each other. As the enemy's left had evidently been
     driven back, and left the road free, the cannonade having been
     suspended, I ordered forward the eighteen-pounders on the road
     nearly to the position first occupied by the Mexican cavalry, and
     caused the First Brigade to take up a new position still on the
     left of the eighteen-pounder battery. The Fifth was advanced from
     its former position and occupied a point on the extreme right of
     the new line. The enemy made a change of position corresponding
     to our own, and after suspension of nearly an hour the action was
     resumed.

     "The fire of artillery was now most destructive; openings were
     constantly made through the enemy's ranks by our fire, and the
     constancy with which the Mexican infantry sustained this severe
     cannonade was a theme of universal remark and admiration. Captain
     May's squadron was detached to make a demonstration on the left
     of the enemy's position, and suffered severely from the fire of
     artillery to which it was for some time exposed.

     "The Fourth Infantry, which had been ordered to support the
     eighteen-pounder battery, was exposed to a most galling fire of
     artillery, by which several men were killed, and Captain Page
     dangerously wounded. The enemy's fire was directed against our
     eighteen-pounder battery, and the guns under Major Ringgold in
     its vicinity. The major himself, while coolly directing the fire
     of his pieces, was struck by a cannon ball and mortally wounded.

     "In the mean time, the Battalion of Artillery, under
     Lieutenant-Colonel Childs, had been brought up to support the
     artillery on our right. A strong demonstration of cavalry was now
     made by the enemy against this part of our line, and the column
     continued to advance under a severe fire from the eighteen-pounders.
     The battalion was instantly formed in square, and held ready  (p. 287)
     ready to receive the charge of cavalry, but when the advancing
     squadrons were within close range, a deadly fire of canister from
     the eighteen-pounders dispersed them. A brisk fire of small-arms
     was now opened upon the square, by which one officer, Lieutenant
     Luther, 2d Artillery, was slightly wounded, but a well directed
     volley from the front of the square silenced all further firing
     from the enemy in this quarter. It was now nearly dark, and the
     action was closed on the right of our line, the enemy having been
     completely driven back from his position, and foiled in every
     attempt against our line.

     "While the above was going forward on our right, and under my own
     eye, the enemy had made a serious attempt against the left of our
     line. Captain Duncan instantly perceived the movement, and by a
     bold and brilliant manoeuvring of his battery, completely
     repulsed several successive efforts of the enemy to advance in
     force upon our left flank. Supported in succession by the 8th
     Infantry and Captain Ker's squadron of dragoons, he gallantly
     held the enemy at bay, and finally drove him, with immense loss,
     from the field. The action here and along the whole line
     continued until dark, when the enemy retired into the chapparal
     in rear of his position. Our army bivouacked on the ground it
     occupied. During the afternoon the train had been moved forward
     about half a mile, and was parked in rear of the new position.

     "Our loss this day was nine killed, forty-four wounded, and two
     missing. Among the wounded were Major Ringgold, who has since
     died, and Captain Page dangerously wounded. Lieutenant Luther
     slightly so.

     "Our own force is shown by the field report to have been 177
     officers and 2111 men: aggregate 2288. The Mexican force,
     according to the statements of their own officers, was not less
     than 6000 regular troops, with ten pieces of artillery, and
     probably exceeded that number; the irregular force not known.
     Their loss was not less than 200 killed and 400 wounded; probably
     greater. This estimate is very moderate, and formed upon the
     number actually counted upon the field, and upon the report of
     their own officers.

     "As already reported in my first brief despatch, the conduct of
     our officers and men was everything that could be desired.
     Exposed for hours to the severest trial, cannonade of artillery,
     our troops displayed a coolness and constancy which gave me
     throughout the assurance of victory.

     "I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                        Z. TAYLOR,
                     _Brevet Brigadier-General U.S.A._, _commanding_."

                              _____

_The Secretary of War to Doctor Patterson._

     To                                 War Department,
       DOCTOR R. M. PATTERSON,          December 9th, 1846.
         Director of the United States Mint, Philadelphia.

     Sir: By a resolution of Congress, approved the 16th of July last,
     the President is authorized and requested to have a medal of gold
     procured, with appropriate devices and inscriptions thereon,  (p. 288)
     and presented to General Taylor. Preliminary arrangements are
     being made to carry out the object of the resolution, and as soon
     as a likeness of the general can be procured, the Department will
     be prepared to place the design of the medal in the hands of the
     die sinker. In the meantime it is desired to know whether the
     work can be executed at the Mint, under your direction, and what
     measures it may be necessary to take to insure a speedy
     compliance with the resolution. May I request to be furnished
     with your views on the subject, with such suggestions as may
     facilitate the object contemplated.

     Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                   Wm. L. MARCY, _Secretary of War_.

                              _____

_Doctor Patterson to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honorable
       William L. MARCY,                Mint of the United States,
         Secretary of War.   December 12, 1846.

     Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter
     of the 9th inst., regarding the execution of the Medal voted by
     Congress to General Taylor, and asking me to present "my views on
     the subject with such suggestions as may facilitate the object
     contemplated."

     I comply cheerfully with this request, and recommend the
     following measures:

     _First._ That a likeness of General Taylor be procured in
     profile. A good daguerreotype would answer very well.

     _Secondly._ That a medallion of the head and bust be made in wax,
     on a plate of about four inches in diameter. Mr. Chapman, of New
     York, would be competent to make it.

     _Thirdly._ This being done, the remainder of the work required
     for making the obverse die can be committed to Mr. Franklin
     Peale, the chief coiner of the Mint. A cast is made from the
     medallion in iron. This is used as a pattern, and a reduced copy
     of it is cut in steel, by the action of an apparatus called a
     portrait lathe, which we have in our possession here.

     When the likeness is thus cut on the die, the legend is to be
     struck in, and will consist, I presume, of the name and title,
     MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.

     For the reverse, I would recommend that no emblematic design
     should be attempted, but that it be composed of a wreath,
     enclosing the words:

                    RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS
                        JULY 16, 1846.
                          PALO ALTO
                         MAY 8, 1846.
                      RESACA DE LA PALMA
                         MAY 9, 1846.

     The medal awarded General Scott presents an example of that which
     is now suggested.

     For the dies thus described (hardened and polished complete), (p. 289)
     Mr. Peale estimates the whole cost at $600.

     For the gold medal the estimate is as follows:

               8 oz. fine gold at $20.67     $165.36
               Striking and wastage            20.00
               Case                             5.00
                                             -------
                                             $190.36

                    Whole cost               $790.36

     May I venture to make another suggestion? It is, that besides the
     medal of gold which is sent to General Taylor himself, there be a
     large number of copies struck in bronze, to be distributed in
     such manner as may be determined by the War Department.

     In this case, it would be necessary to make _hubs_ for the
     purpose of replacing the dies when injured.

     Including this work Mr. Peale presents the following estimates:

               500 bronze medals, at $1.50   $750
               500 cases, at $1.00            500
                                           ------
                                           $1,250

     Mr. Peale asks me to present the medals which are sent with this
     letter. That in bronze is for yourself, and that in silver gilt
     we request you to give to the President.

     They were made by the process recommended in this letter. The
     medallion was modelled by Mr. Chapman. You will not fail to
     observe that the head and shoulder are in too great relief, the
     former to such an extent as partially to overshadow the features
     of the face. This is a fault easily avoided in a new medallion.

     I beg you to be assured that any services which I can render to
     you in this matter are fully at your command.

                              Very respectfully,
                                   Your faithful servant,
                                        R. M. PATTERSON, _Director_.



No. 60.                                                            (p. 290)
PLATE LXI.


_September 24, 1846._

     Major General Zachary Taylor, [Rx]. Resolution of Congress March
     2nd 1847, etc.

MAJOR-GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR.

[_Taking of Monterey._]

MAJOR GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR. Bust of General Taylor, in uniform,
facing the right.

Within a wreath of oak: RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS MARCH 2nd 1847 MONTEREY
SEPTEMBER 1846.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Taylor._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress are due, and are hereby tendered, to
     Major-General Zachary Taylor, his officers and men, for the
     fortitude, skill, enterprise, and courage which distinguished the
     late brilliant military operations at Monterey.

     _Resolved_, That the President be requested to cause to be struck
     a gold medal, with devices emblematical of this splendid
     achievement, and presented to General Taylor as a testimony of
     the high sense entertained by Congress for his judicious and
     distinguished conduct on that memorable occasion.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be further
     requested to cause swords, with suitable devices, to be presented
     to Major-General Butler, Major-General Henderson, and to
     Brigadier-General Quitman, in testimony of the high sense
     entertained by Congress of their gallantry and good conduct in
     storming Monterey.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be further
     requested to present a sword, with suitable devices, to the
     nearest male relative of Brigadier-General Hamer, and to
     communicate to him the deep regret which Congress feels for the
     loss of a gallant man, whose name ought to live in the        (p. 291)
     recollection and affection of a grateful country.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause the foregoing resolutions to be communicated to General
     Taylor, and through him, to the army under his command.

     Approved March 2d, 1847.

                              _____

_General Taylor to the Adjutant-General of the Army._

                                   Head-Quarters, Army of Occupation,
     To                            Camp Near Monterey, October 9, 1846.
       THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,
          Washington, D. C.

     Sir: I have now the honor to submit a detailed report of the
     recent operations before Monterey, resulting in the capitulation
     of that city.

     The information received on the route from Seralvo, and
     particularly the continual appearance in our front of the Mexican
     cavalry, which had a slight skirmish with our advance at the
     village of Ramas, induced the belief, as we approached Monterey,
     that the enemy would defend that place. Upon reaching the
     neighborhood of the city, on the morning of the 19th of
     September, this belief was fully confirmed. It was ascertained
     that he occupied the town in force; that a large work had been
     constructed commanding all the northern approaches; and that the
     Bishop's Palace, and some heights in its vicinity near the
     Saltillo road, had also been fortified and occupied with troops
     and artillery. It was known, from information previously
     received, that the eastern approaches were commanded by several
     small works in the lower edge of the city.

     The configuration of the heights and gorges in the direction of
     the Saltillo road, as visible from the point attained by our
     advance on the morning of the 19th, led me to suspect that it was
     practicable to turn all the works in that direction, and thus cut
     the enemy's line of communication. After establishing my camp at
     the "Walnut Springs," three miles from Monterey, the nearest
     suitable position, it was, accordingly, my first care to order a
     close reconnoissance of the ground in question, which was
     executed on the evening of the 19th by the engineer officers,
     under the direction of Major Mansfield. A reconnoissance of the
     eastern approaches was at the same time made by Captain Williams,
     Topographical Engineer. The examination made by Major Mansfield
     proved the entire practicability of throwing forward a column to
     the Saltillo road, and thus turning the position of the enemy.
     Deeming this to be an operation of essential importance, orders
     were given to Brevet Brigadier-General Worth, commanding the
     second division, to march with his command on the 20th; to turn
     the hill of the Bishop's Palace; to occupy a position on the
     Saltillo road, and to carry the enemy's detached works in that
     quarter, where practicable. The first regiment of Texas mounted
     volunteers, under command of Colonel Hays, was associated with
     the second division on this service. Captain Sanders, Engineers,
     and Lieutenant Meade, Topographical Engineers, were also      (p. 292)
     ordered to report to General Worth for duty with his column.

     At 2 o'clock P.M., on the 20th, the second division took up its
     march. It was soon discovered by officers who were reconnoitering
     the town, and communicated to General Worth, that its movement
     had been perceived, and that the enemy was throwing
     reinforcements towards the Bishop's Palace and the height which
     commands it. To divert his attention as far as practicable, the
     first division, under Brigadier-General Twiggs, and the field
     division of volunteers, under Major-General Butler, were
     displayed in front of the town until dark. Arrangements were made
     at the same time to place in battery during the night, at a
     suitable distance from the enemy's main work, the citadel, two
     twenty-four pounder howitzers, and a ten-inch mortar, with a view
     to open a fire on the following day, when I proposed to make a
     diversion in favor of General Worth's movement. The 4th Infantry
     covered this battery during the night. General Worth had, in the
     mean time, reached and occupied for the night a defensive
     position just without range of a battery above the Bishop's
     Palace, having made a reconnoissance as far as the Saltillo road.

     Before proceeding to report the operations of the 21st and
     following days, I beg leave to state that I shall mention in
     detail only those which were conducted against the eastern
     extremity of the city, or elsewhere, under my immediate
     direction, referring you for the particulars of General Worth's
     operations, which were entirely detached, to his own full report.

     Early on the morning of the 21st, I received a note from General
     Worth, written at half-past nine o'clock the night before,
     suggesting what I had already intended, a strong diversion
     against the centre and left of the town, to favor his enterprise
     against the heights in rear. The infantry and artillery of the
     first division, and the field division of volunteers, were
     ordered under arms and took the direction of the city, leaving
     one company of each regiment as a camp guard. The 2d Dragoons,
     under Lieutenant-Colonel May, and Colonel Wood's regiment of
     Texas mounted volunteers, under the immediate direction of
     General Henderson, were directed to the right to support General
     Worth, if necessary, and to make an impression, if practicable,
     upon the upper quarter of the city. Upon approaching the mortar
     battery, the 1st and 3d regiments of infantry and battalion of
     Baltimore and Washington volunteers, with Captain Bragg's field
     battery, the whole under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel
     Garland, were directed toward the lower part of the town, with
     orders to make a strong demonstration, and carry one of the
     enemy's advanced works, if it could be done without too heavy
     loss. Major Mansfield, Engineers, and Captain Williams and
     Lieutenant Pope, Topographical Engineers, accompanied this
     column, Major Mansfield being charged with its direction and the
     designation of points of attack. In the meantime the mortar,
     served by Captain Ramsay, of the Ordnance, and the howitzer
     battery under Captain Webster, 1st Artillery, had opened their
     fire upon the citadel, which was deliberately sustained, and
     answered from the work. General Butler's division had now taken
     up a position in rear of this battery, when the discharges of
     artillery, mingled finally with a rapid fire of small arms,
     showed that Lieutenant-Colonel Garland's command had become
     warmly engaged. I now deemed it necessary to support this attack,
     and accordingly ordered the 4th Infantry and three regiments of
     General Butler's division, to march at once by the left       (p. 293)
     flank in the direction of the advanced work at the lower
     extremity of the town, leaving one regiment (1st Kentucky) to
     cover the mortar and howitzer battery. By some mistake two
     companies of the 4th Infantry did not receive this order, and
     consequently did not join the advance companies until some time
     afterward.

     Lieutenant-Colonel Garland's command had approached the town in a
     direction to the right of the advanced work (No. 1) at the
     northeastern angle of the city, and the engineer officer, covered
     by skirmishers, had succeeded in entering the suburbs and gaining
     cover. The remainder of this command now advanced and entered the
     town under a fire of artillery from the citadel and the works on
     the left, and of musketry from the houses and small works in
     front. A movement to the right was attempted with a view to gain
     the rear of No. 1, and carry that work, but the troops were so
     much exposed to a fire which they could not effectually return,
     and had already sustained such severe loss, particularly in
     officers, that it was deemed best to withdraw them to a more
     secure position. Captain Backus, 1st Infantry, however, with a
     portion of his own and other companies, had gained the roof of a
     tannery, which looked directly into the gorge of No. 1, and from
     which he poured a most destructive fire into that work and upon
     the strong building in its rear. This fire happily coincided in
     point of time with the advance of a portion of the volunteer
     division upon No. 1, and contributed largely to the fall of that
     strong and important work.

     The three regiments of the volunteer division, under the
     immediate command of Major-General Butler, had in the mean time
     advanced in the direction of No. 1. The leading brigade, under
     Brigadier-General Quitman, continued its advance upon that work,
     preceded by three companies of the 4th Infantry, while General
     Butler, with the first Ohio regiment, entered the town to the
     right. The companies of the 4th Infantry had advanced within
     short range of the work, when they were received by a fire that
     almost, in one moment, struck down one-third of the officers and
     men, and rendered it necessary to retire and effect a conjunction
     with the two other companies then advancing. General Quitman's
     brigade, though suffering most severely, particularly in the
     Tennessee regiment, continued its advance, and finally carried
     the work in handsome style, as well as the strong building in its
     rear. Five pieces of artillery, a considerable supply of
     ammunition, and thirty prisoners, including three officers, fell
     into their hands. Major-General Butler, with the 1st Ohio
     regiment, after entering the edge of the town, discovered that
     nothing was to be accomplished in his front, and at this point,
     yielding to the suggestions of several officers, I ordered a
     retrograde movement; but learning almost immediately from one of
     my staff that the battery No. 1 was in our possession, the order
     was countermanded; and I determined to hold the battery and
     defences already gained. General Butler, with the 1st Ohio
     regiment, then entered the town at a point farther to the left,
     and marched in the direction of the battery No. 2. While making
     an examination, with a view to ascertain the possibility of
     carrying this second work by storm, the general was wounded and
     soon after compelled to quit the field. As the strength of No. 2
     and the heavy musketry fire flanking the approach rendered it
     impossible to carry it without great loss, the 1st Ohio regiment
     was withdrawn from the town.

     Fragments of the various regiments engaged were now under     (p. 294)
     cover of the captured battery, and some buildings in its
     front, and on the right. The field batteries of Captains Bragg
     and Ridgely were also partially covered by the battery. An
     incessant fire was kept up on this position from battery No. 2,
     and other works on its right, and from the citadel on all our
     approaches. General Twiggs, though quite unwell, joined me at
     this point, and was instrumental in causing the artillery
     captured from the enemy to be placed in battery, and served by
     Captain Ridgely against No. 2, until the arrival of Captain
     Webster's howitzer battery, which took its place. In the mean
     time, I directed such men as could be collected of the 1st, 3d,
     and 4th regiments, and Baltimore battalion, to enter the town,
     penetrating to the right, and carry the 2d battery if possible.
     This command, under Lieutenant-Colonel Garland, advanced beyond
     the bridge "Purisima," when, finding it impracticable to gain the
     rear of the 2d battery, a portion of it sustained themselves for
     some time in that advanced position; but as no permanent
     impression could be made at that point, and the main object of
     the general operation had been effected, the command, including a
     section of Captain Ridgely's battery, which had joined it, was
     withdrawn to battery No. 1. During the absence of this column, a
     demonstration of cavalry was reported in the direction of the
     citadel. Captain Bragg, who was at hand, immediately galloped
     with his battery to a suitable position, from which a few
     discharges effectually dispersed the enemy. Captain Miller, 1st
     Infantry, was dispatched with a mixed company to support the
     battery on this service. The enemy's lancers had previously
     charged upon the Ohio and a part of the Mississippi regiment,
     near some fields at a distance from the edge of the town, and had
     been repulsed with a considerable loss. A demonstration of
     cavalry on the opposite side of the river was also dispersed in
     the course of the afternoon by Captain Ridgely's battery, and the
     squadrons returned to the city. At the approach of evening, all
     the troops that had been engaged were ordered back to camp,
     except Captain Ridgely's battery, and the regular infantry of the
     first division, who were detailed as a guard for the works during
     the night, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Garland. One
     battalion of the 1st Kentucky regiment was ordered to reinforce
     this command. Intrenching tools were procured, and additional
     strength was given to the works, and protection to the men, by
     working parties during the night, under the direction of
     Lieutenant Scarritt, Engineers.

     The main object proposed in the morning had been effected. A
     powerful diversion had been made to favor the operations of the
     2d Division, one of the enemy's advanced works had been carried,
     and we now had a strong foot-hold in the town. But this had not
     been accomplished without a heavy loss, embracing some of our
     gallant and promising officers. Captain Williams, Topographical
     Engineers, Lieutenants Terrett and Dilworth, 1st Infantry,
     Lieutenant Woods, 2d Infantry, Captains Morris and Field,
     Brevet-Major Barbour, Lieutenants Irwin and Hazlitt, 3d Infantry,
     Lieutenant Hoskins, 4th Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Watson,
     Baltimore battalion, Captain Allen and Lieutenant Putman,
     Tennessee regiment, and Lieutenant Hett, Ohio regiment, were
     killed, or have since died of wounds received in this engagement,
     while the number and rank of the officers wounded gives
     additional proof of the obstinacy of the contest, and the good
     conduct of our troops. The number of killed and wounded       (p. 295)
     incident to the operations in the lower part of the city on the
     21st is 394.

     Early in the morning of this day (21st), the advance of the 2d
     Division had encountered the enemy in force, and after a brief
     but sharp conflict, repulsed him with heavy loss. General Worth
     then succeeded in gaining a position on the Saltillo road, thus
     cutting the enemy's line of communication. From this position the
     two heights south of the Saltillo road were carried in
     succession, and the gun taken in one of them turned upon the
     Bishop's Palace. These important successes were fortunately
     obtained with comparatively small loss; Captain McKavett, 8th
     Infantry, being the only officer killed.

     The 22d day of September passed without any active operations in
     the lower part of the city. The citadel and other works continued
     to fire at parties exposed to their range, and at the work now
     occupied by our troops. The guard left in it the preceding night,
     except Captain Ridgely's company, was relieved at midday by
     General Quitman's brigade. Captain Bragg's battery was thrown
     under cover in front of the town to repel any demonstration of
     cavalry in that quarter. At dawn of day the height above the
     Bishop's Palace was carried, and soon after meridian the palace
     itself was taken, and its guns turned upon the fugitive garrison.
     The object for which the 2d Division was detached had thus been
     completely accomplished, and I felt confident that with a strong
     force occupying the road and heights in his rear, and a good
     position below the city in our possession, the enemy could not
     possibly maintain the town.

     During the night of the 22d the enemy evacuated nearly all his
     defences in the lower part of the city. This was reported to me
     early in the morning of the 23d by General Quitman, who had
     already meditated an assault upon those works. I immediately sent
     instructions to that officer, leaving it to his discretion, to
     enter the city, covering his men by the houses and walls, and
     advance carefully as far as he might deem prudent. After ordering
     the remainder of the troops as a reserve, under the orders of
     Brigadier-General Twiggs, I repaired to the abandoned works and
     discovered that a portion of General Quitman's brigade had
     entered the town, and were successfully forcing their way towards
     the principal plaza. I then ordered up the 2d regiment of Texas
     mounted volunteers, who entered the city dismounted, and, under
     the immediate orders of General Henderson, co-operated with
     General Quitman's brigade. Captain Bragg's battery was also
     ordered up, supported by the 3d Infantry; and after firing for
     some time at the cathedral, a portion of it was likewise thrown
     into the city. Our troops advanced from house to house, and from
     square to square, until they reached a street but one square in
     rear of the principal plaza, in and near which the enemy's force
     was mainly concentrated. This advance was conducted vigorously,
     but with due caution, and although destructive to the enemy, was
     attended with but small loss on our part. Captain Ridgely, in the
     mean time, had served a captured piece in battery No. 1 against
     the city, until the advance of our men rendered it imprudent to
     fire in the direction of the cathedral. I was now satisfied that
     we could operate successfully in the city, and that the enemy had
     retired from the lower portion of it to make a stand behind his
     barricades. As General Quitman's brigade had been on duty the
     previous night, I determined to withdraw the troops to the    (p. 296)
     evacuated works, and concert with General Worth a combined
     attack upon the town. The troops accordingly fell back
     deliberately, in good order, and resumed their original
     positions, General Quitman's brigade being relieved after
     nightfall by that of General Hamer. On my return to camp, I met
     an officer with the intelligence that General Worth, induced by
     the firing in the lower part of the city, was about making an
     attack at the upper extremity, which had also been evacuated by
     the enemy to a considerable distance. I regretted that this
     information had not reached me before leaving the city, but still
     deemed it inexpedient to change my orders, and accordingly
     returned to the camp. A note from General Worth written at eleven
     o'clock P.M., informed me that he had advanced to within a short
     distance of the principal plaza, and that the mortar (which had
     been sent to his division in the morning) was doing good
     execution within effective range of the enemy's position.

     Desiring to make no further attempt upon the city without
     complete concert as to the lines and mode of approach, I
     instructed that officer to suspend his advance until I could have
     an interview with him on the following morning at his
     head-quarters.

     Early on the morning of the 24th, I received, through Colonel
     Moreno, a communication from General Ampudia, proposing to
     evacuate the town; which, with the answer, were forwarded with my
     first despatch. I arranged with Colonel Moreno a cessation of
     fire until twelve o'clock, at which hour I would receive the
     answer of the Mexican general at General Worth's head-quarters,
     to which I soon repaired. In the mean time, General Ampudia had
     signified to General Worth, his desire for a personal interview
     with me, to which I acceded, and which finally resulted in a
     capitulation, placing the town and the material of war, with
     certain exceptions, in our possession. A copy of that
     capitulation was transmitted with my first despatch.

     Upon occupying the city, it was discovered to be of great
     strength in itself, and to have its approaches carefully and
     strongly fortified. The town and works were armed with forty-two
     pieces of cannon, well supplied with ammunition, and manned with
     a force of at least 7000 troops of the line, and from 2000 to
     3000 irregulars. The force under my orders before Monterey, was
     425 officers and 6220 men. Our artillery consisted of one
     ten-inch mortar, two twenty-four-pounder howitzers, and four
     light field batteries of four guns each; the mortar being the
     only piece suitable to the operations of a siege.

     Our loss is twelve officers and one hundred and eight men killed;
     thirty-one officers and three hundred and thirty-seven men
     wounded. That of the enemy is not known, but is believed
     considerably to exceed our own.

     I take pleasure in bringing to the notice of the government the
     good conduct of the troops, both regulars and volunteers, which
     has been conspicuous throughout the operations. I am proud to
     bear testimony to their coolness and constancy in battle, and the
     cheerfulness with which they have submitted to exposure and
     privation. To the general officers commanding divisions,
     Major-Generals Butler and Henderson, and Brigadier-Generals
     Twiggs and Worth, I must express my obligations for the efficient
     aid which they have rendered in their respective commands. I was
     unfortunately deprived, early on the 21st, of the valuable
     services of Major-General Butler, who was disabled by a wound
     received in the attack on the city. Major-General Henderson,
     commanding the Texan volunteers, has given me important aid   (p. 297)
     in the organization of the command, and its subsequent
     operations. Brigadier-General Twiggs rendered important services
     with his division, and as the second in command after
     Major-General Butler was disabled. Brigadier-General Worth was
     intrusted with an important detachment which rendered his
     operations independent of my own. These operations were conducted
     with ability, and crowned with complete success.

     I desire also to notice Brigadier-Generals Hamer and Quitman,
     commanding brigades in General Butler's division;
     Lieutenant-Colonels Garland and Wilson, commanding brigades in
     General Twiggs' division; Colonels Mitchell, Campbell, Davis, and
     Wood, commanding the Ohio, Tennessee, Mississippi, and 2d Texas
     regiments, respectively; and Majors Lear, Allen, and Abercrombie,
     commanding the 3d, 4th, and 1st regiments of infantry; all of
     whom served under my eye, and conducted their commands with
     coolness and gallantry against the enemy. Colonel Mitchell,
     Lieutenant-Colonel McClung, Mississippi regiment, Major Lear, 3d
     Infantry, and Major Alexander, Tennessee regiment, were all
     severely wounded, as were Captain Lamotte, 1st Infantry,
     Lieutenant Graham, 4th Infantry, Adjutant Armstrong, Ohio
     regiment, Lieutenants Scudder and Allen, Tennessee regiment, and
     Lieutenant Howard, Mississippi regiment, while leading their men
     against the enemy's position, on the 21st and 23d. After the fall
     of Colonel Mitchell, the command of 1st Ohio regiment devolved
     upon Lieutenant-Colonel Weller; that of the 3d Infantry, after
     the fall of Major Lear, devolved in succession upon Captain
     Bainbridge and Captain Henry, the former being also wounded. The
     following named officers have been favorably noticed by their
     commanders: Lieutenant-Colonel Anderson, and Adjutant Heiman,
     Tennessee regiment; Lieutenant-Colonel McClung, Captains Cooper
     and Downing, Lieutenants Patterson, Calhoun, Moore, Russell, and
     Cook, Mississippi regiment; also Sergeant-Major Hearlan,
     Mississippi regiment, and Major Price, and Captain J. Smith,
     unattached, but serving with it. I beg leave also to call
     attention to the good conduct of Captain Johnston, Ohio regiment,
     and Lieutenant Hooker, 1st Artillery, serving on the staff of
     General Hamer, and of Lieutenant Nichols, 2d Artillery, on that
     of General Quitman. Captains Bragg and Ridgely served with their
     batteries during the operations under my own observation, and in
     part under my immediate orders, and exhibited distinguished skill
     and gallantry. Captain Webster, 1st Artillery, assisted by
     Lieutenants Donaldson and Bowen, rendered good service with the
     howitzer battery, which was much exposed to the enemy's fire on
     the 21st.

     From the nature of the operations, the 2d Dragoons were not
     brought into action, but were usefully employed under the
     direction of Lieutenant-Colonel May, as escorts, and in keeping
     open our communications. The 1st Kentucky regiment was also
     prevented from participating in the action of the 21st, but
     rendered highly important services under Colonel Ormsby, in
     covering the mortar battery, and holding in check the enemy's
     cavalry during the day.

     I have noticed above the officers whose conduct either fell under
     my immediate eye, or is noticed only in minor reports which are
     not forwarded. For further mention of individuals, I beg leave to
     refer to the reports of division commanders. I fully concur in
     their recommendations, and desire that they may be considered as
     a part of my own report.

     From the officers of my personal staff, and of the engineers, (p. 298)
     topographical engineers, and ordnance, associated with me,
     I have derived valuable and efficient assistance during the
     operations. Colonel Whiting, assistant quartermaster-general,
     Colonels Croghan and Belknap, inspector generals, Major Bliss,
     assistant adjutant general, Captain Sibley, assistant
     quartermaster, Captain Waggaman, commissary of subsistence,
     Captain Eaton and Lieutenant Garnett, aids-de-camp, and Major
     Kirby and Van Buren, pay department, served near my person, and
     were ever prompt, in all situations, in the communication of my
     orders and instructions. I must express my particular obligations
     to Brevet-Major Mansfield and Lieutenant Scarritt, corps of
     Engineers. They both rendered most important services in
     reconnoitring the enemy's positions, conducting troops in attack,
     and strengthening the works captured from the enemy. Major
     Mansfield, though wounded on the 21st, remained on duty during
     that and the following day, until confined by his wound to camp.
     Captain Williams, Topographical Engineer, to my great regret and
     the loss of the service, was mortally wounded while fearlessly
     exposing himself in the attack of the 21st. Lieutenant Pope, of
     the same corps, was active and zealous throughout the operations.
     Major Munroe, chief of the Artillery, Major Craig and Captain
     Ramsay, of the Ordnance, were assiduous in the performance of
     their proper duties. The former superintended their mortar
     service on the 22d, as particularly mentioned in the report of
     General Worth, to which I also refer for the services of the
     engineer and topographical officers detached with the second
     division.

     Surgeon Craig, medical director, was actively employed in the
     important duties of his department, and the medical staff
     generally were unremitting in their attentions to the numerous
     wounded; their duties with the regular regiments being rendered
     uncommonly arduous by the small number serving in the field.

     I respectfully enclose herewith, in addition to the report of
     division commanders, a field return of the force before Monterey
     on the 21st of September; a return of killed, wounded and missing
     during the operations, and two topographical sketches, one
     exhibiting all the movements around Monterey, the other on a
     large scale illustrating more particularly the operations in the
     lower quarters of the city, prepared respectively by Lieutenants
     Meade and Pope, Topographical Engineers.

     I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                          Z. TAYLOR,
                           _Major-General U. S. A._, _commanding_.



No. 61.                                                            (p. 299)
PLATE LXII.


_December 10, 1846._

     Somers navis Americana. [Rx]. Pro vitis Americanorum conservatis.

LOSS OF THE UNITED STATES BRIG-OF-WAR SOMERS.

[_for Having Saved the Lives of Americans._]

SOMERS NAVIS AMERICANA. (_The American vessel Somers._) The United
States brig-of-war Somers knocked down at sea. Exergue: ANTE VERA CRUZ
DEC. 10{TH} 1846. (_Off Vera Cruz, December 10th, 1846._) C. C.
WRIGHT. F. (_fecit_).

PRO VITIS AMERICANORUM CONSERVATIS. (_For having saved the lives of
Americans._) Three men-of-war's boats, English, Spanish, and French,
pulling for the Somers. Exergue: A vacant space for the name of the
recipient. ENG. (_engraved_) BY C. C. WRIGHT.

I saw, in 1872, in the office of the chief clerk of the Navy
Department, Washington, two small paintings of both sides of this
medal. They were signed: Butterworth, pinxit.


CHARLES CUSHING WRIGHT was born in Maine in 1796. He was a bank note
engraver and a die sinker, and made several medals, among others those
voted to General Taylor for Buena Vista, to General Scott for Mexico,
to Colonel Bliss by the State of New York, to General Taylor by the
State of Louisiana, to the Volunteers in Mexico by the City of New
York, and the Somers medal. He died in New York, June 7, 1854.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 300)

_Resolution of Congress Voting Medals to British, French, and Spanish
Officers, etc._

     _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     President of the United States is hereby authorized and requested
     to cause suitable gold and silver medals to be prepared and
     presented to the officers and men belonging or attached to the
     French, British, and Spanish ships of war in the harbor of Vera
     Cruz, who so gallantly and at the imminent peril of their lives,
     aided in rescuing from a watery grave many of the officers and
     crew of the United States brig Somers.

     Approved March 3d, 1847.

                              _____

_Lieutenant Semmes to Commodore M. C. Perry._

     To                                 U. S. frigate Raritan,
       COMMODORE M. C. PERRY,      Anton Lizardo, December 10, 1846.
         Second in command, Home Squadron.

     Sir: It becomes my painful duty to inform you of the loss of the
     U.S. brig Somers, late under my command, and of the drowning of
     more than half of her crew. The details of this sad catastrophe
     are briefly as follows:

     After having been forty-five days maintaining the blockade off
     Vera Cruz, I anchored on the evening of the 7th instant under
     Verde Island, where it had been my practice to take shelter from
     the N. W. gales, which blow with such frequency and violence
     along this coast at this season of the year. Soon after sunrise
     the next morning, a sail having been descried from the masthead,
     I immediately got under way, and commenced beating up between the
     Verde Island and Pascoros reefs. In a short time I was enabled,
     with my glass, to make out the strange sail to be a man of war,
     whereupon I hoisted my number, and had the satisfaction in
     fifteen or twenty minutes more to see the stranger show that of
     the "John Adams." The wind, which had been blowing from the W. N.
     W. when we got under way, gradually hauled to the northwest and
     settled for a while at N. N. E. The barometer having fallen the
     night previous to 29.80 in., and being still down, and the
     weather looking still unsettled, I was apprehensive of a gale. As
     soon, therefore, as the "John Adams" showed her number, I wore
     round and ran down towards Verde Island, with a view of coming
     to, and getting my vessel snug before the gale should come on.
     When I had nearly approached the anchorage, the look-out at the
     masthead cried "Sail ho!" a second time. On applying my glass to
     the direction indicated from aloft, I perceived this second sail
     to be a brig in the N. E., standing apparently for Vera Cruz (she
     did afterwards run between the inner Anegada and the Blanquilla).
     I immediately abandoned my intention of anchoring, as the gale
     had not yet set in, and hauling on a wind, under top-sails and
     courses, commenced to beat up the passage a second time,      (p. 301)
     with the view of placing myself between the strange sail
     and the Port, to prevent the possibility of her running the
     blockade, if she should be so inclined. I made one tack towards
     the Pascoros reefs, and at the time of the catastrophe, was
     standing on the larboard tack, with the northern point of the
     Verde Island reef a couple of points on my lee bow. We were still
     under topsails, courses, jib and spanker, and the Brig did not
     appear too much pressed. I was myself standing on the lee
     arm-chest, having just passed over from the weather quarter, and,
     with my spy-glass in hand, was observing the reef on our lee bow
     to see whether it were possible to weather it, or in the event of
     our not being able to do this, to give timely notice to the
     officer of the deck to tack ship. I had not been long in this
     position before the officer of the deck, 2d Lieut. Jas. L.
     Parker, remarked to me that he thought it looked a little squally
     to windward. I immediately passed over to the weather side, and
     as it looked a little darker than it had done, I ordered him to
     haul up the mainsail, and brail up the spanker, and directed the
     helm to be put up. These orders were promptly obeyed. Lieut.
     Parker took the mainsail off her, and had got the spanker about
     half brailed up, when the squall struck us. It did not appear to
     be very riotous, nor was its approach accompanied by any foaming
     of the water, or other indications which usually mark the
     approach of heavy squalls. But the Brig being flying light,
     having scarcely any water or provisions, and but six tons of
     ballast on board, she was thrown over almost instantly, so far as
     to refuse to obey her helm, the pressure of the water on the lee
     bow rather inclining her to luff; seeing which, I directed the
     helm to be put down, hoping that I might luff and shake the wind
     out of her sails, until the force of the squall should be spent.
     The quartermaster at the helm had hardly time to obey this order,
     before the brig was on her beam ends, and the water pouring into
     every hatch and scuttle. Being now convinced that she must
     speedily go down unless relieved, I ordered the masts to be cut
     away. The officers and men, who, with few exceptions, had, by
     this time, gained the weather bulwarks of the vessel, immediately
     began to cut away the rigging. But as this was a forlorn hope,
     the brig filling very fast, and her masts and yards lying flat
     upon the surface of the sea, I placed no reliance whatever on
     their efforts. A few moments more, and I was convinced that, in
     spite of all our exertions, she must inevitably go down in a very
     short time. I accordingly turned my attention to the saving of as
     many lives as possible. The boats secured in the grips amidships,
     and the starboard-quarter boat, were already several feet under
     water, so that it was impossible to reach them, but we succeeded
     in disengaging the larboard-quarter boat from her davits, a small
     boat pulling five oars, and dropped her, fortunately, to leeward
     of the brig to prevent her being thrown upon the vessel's side,
     and crushed by the sea. I ordered Midshipman F. G. Clark to take
     charge of this boat, and with the purser, surgeon, and seventeen
     men, make for Verde Island, if possible, and after having landed
     all but the boat's crew, to return and save others. It was now
     blowing a strong gale, with a heavy sea running, and I deemed it
     imprudent to trust more men in so small a boat. Besides, I was
     anxious to shove her off, before the vessel should sink, lest
     there might be a rush for her, and no life at all should be
     saved. I cannot refrain from expressing, in this place, my
     admiration of the noble conduct of several of the men embarked in
     this boat, who implored the officers by name to take their    (p. 302)
     places, saying they would willingly die by the wreck, if the
     officers would but save themselves. Of course, none of the
     generous fellows were permitted to come out, and they were all
     subsequently safely landed, as they deserved to be. Midshipman
     Clark fortunately succeeded in shoving off, and pulling some
     twenty paces from the brig before she went down. When she was on
     the point of sinking beneath us, and engulfing us in the waves, I
     gave the order: "Every man save himself who can." Whereupon there
     was a simultaneous plunge into the sea, of about sixty officers
     and men, each one trying to secure some frail object that had
     drifted from the wreck, for the purpose of sustaining himself in
     the awful struggle with the sea, which awaited him. Some reached
     a grating, some an oar, some a boat's mast, some a hen-coop, &c.,
     but many poor fellows sprang into the sea to perish in a few
     minutes, not being able to find any object of support. Lieut.
     Parker and myself, being both swimmers, were fortunate enough to
     reach one of the arm-chest gratings, which afforded us partial
     support, but on which we should inevitably have been drowned, if
     we had not, when we had swam some twenty or thirty paces, secured
     an upper half port which came drifting by us. We lashed this with
     lanyards attached to it to our grating, and thenceforth got along
     much better. Midshipman Clark, after he had landed the officers
     and men under his charge at Verde Island, shoved off a second
     time, in obedience to the orders I had given him, at the imminent
     peril of his life, for the gale was now blowing with such
     violence, and the sea running so heavy, that it seemed impossible
     that so small a boat could live, and skirted the Verde Island to
     see if it were possible to rescue any of us from the waves. His
     efforts were rewarded with partial success, as he picked up
     Lieutenant Parker and myself and one of the seamen. As soon as I
     landed I sent Midshipman Clark out again, who ventured as far
     from the island as he thought his boat would live, but this time
     he returned unsuccessful, having been able to descry no floating
     object whatever. Lieutenant Claiborne saved himself on a small
     hatch about two feet square, used for covering the pump-well, and
     which he found floating near the wreck. He was thrown with great
     violence upon a reef near Sacrificios, but fortunately escaped
     without serious injury. As strange as it may appear to you, there
     could not have elapsed more than ten minutes between our being
     struck with the squall and the total disappearance of the
     "Somers." I feel that I would not be doing justice to the
     officers and men who were under my command on this melancholy
     occasion, if I were to close this report without bearing
     testimony to their uniform coolness and self-possession under the
     trying circumstance under which we were placed, the alacrity with
     which they obeyed my orders, and when all was over the generosity
     with which they behaved to each other in the water, where the
     struggle was one of life and death. I have thus concluded what I
     had to say in relation to the causes of the disaster, and our own
     exertions; but with heartfelt acknowledgments, it remains for me
     to inform you of the gallant and feeling manner in which all the
     foreign men-of-war lying at Sacrificios came to our rescue. They
     hoisted out and manned boats immediately, and at the hazard of
     their lives, put out towards the wreck. They were at first driven
     back by the violence of the wind and sea, but renewed their
     efforts upon the first lull, and had the unhoped for satisfaction
     of saving fourteen more of our unfortunate companions. To Captain
     Lambert, of the English frigate "Endymion;" Captain           (p. 303)
     Frankland, of the English corvette "Alarm;" Commander Matson, of
     the English brig "Daring;" Captain Dubut, of the French brig
     "Mercure;" Captain de Labédoyère, of the French brig "Pylade;"
     and Captain Puente, of the Spanish corvette "Louisa Fernandez;"
     who all sent boats, and supplied us with clothing, and hospitably
     entertained us on board their ships, we owe a lasting debt of
     gratitude.

     In conclusion, I respectfully request that at as early a date as
     convenient you will order a Court of Inquiry to investigate my
     conduct in this unfortunate affair.

                                   R. SEMMES, _Lieutenant commanding_.



No. 62.                                                            (p. 304)
PLATE LXIII.


_1847._

     Major General Winfield Scott. [Rx]. Vera Cruz. Cerro Gordo.
     Contreras, etc.

MAJOR-GENERAL SCOTT.

[_Mexican Campaign._]

In a pendant: MAJOR GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT. Undraped bust of General
Scott, facing the left. Fifteen stars on each side. Exergue:
RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS MARCH 9. 1848. S. ELLIS DEL. (_delineavit._) On
the edge of bust, C. C. WRIGHT, F. (_fecit_).

Six crowns of laurel and oak intertwined; in each the name of one of
the Mexican victories of General Scott: VERA CRUZ. CERRO GORDO.
CONTRERAS. SAN ANTONIO & CHURUBUSCO. MOLINO DEL REY. CHAPULTEPEC. In
the centre is the taking of the capital, CITY OF MEXICO, which General
Scott is observing on horseback. G. C. HUMPHRIES DEL. (_delineavit._)
C. C. WRIGHT FECt. (_fecit_).


SALATHIEL ELLIS was born in Vermont in 1806, and followed his parents
to St. Lawrence County, New York. He became a portrait painter, cameo
cutter and die sinker. He settled in New York city about 1842, and
designed the obverses of the medals awarded to General Taylor for
Buena Vista, and to General Scott for Mexico; he engraved the obverses
of the medals of Presidents Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan, and Lincoln,
and also of that given to Cornelius Vanderbilt.


G. C. HUMPHRIES, who designed the reverse of this medal, died in
London, England.

                              _____

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.                                                (p. 305)

_Resolution of Congress Voting a Medal to General Scott._

     _Resolved unanimously by the Senate and House of Representatives
     of the United States of America in Congress assembled_: That the
     thanks of Congress be, and they are hereby, presented to Winfield
     Scott, Major-General commanding-in-chief the army in Mexico, and
     through him to the officers and men of the regular and volunteer
     corps under him, for their uniform gallantry and good conduct,
     conspicuously displayed at the siege and capture of the city of
     Vera Cruz and castle of San Juan d'Ulloa, March 29, 1847; and in
     the successive battles of Cerro Gordo, April 18; Contreras, San
     Antonio, and Churubusco, August 19 and 20; and for the victories
     achieved in front of the city of Mexico, September 8, 11, 12, and
     13; and the capture of the metropolis, September 14, 1847; in
     which the Mexican troops, greatly superior in numbers, and with
     every advantage of position, were in every conflict signally
     defeated by the American arms.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be, and he is
     hereby, requested to cause to be struck a gold medal, with
     devices emblematical of the series of brilliant victories
     achieved by the army, and presented to Major-General Winfield
     Scott, as a testimony of the high sense entertained by Congress
     of his valor, skill, and judicious conduct in the memorable
     campaign of 1847.

     _Resolved_, That the President of the United States be requested
     to cause the foregoing resolutions to be communicated to
     Major-General Scott in such terms as he may deem best calculated
     to give effect to the objects thereof.

     Approved March 9, 1848.

                              _____

_General Scott to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honorable                     Headquarters of the Army,
       William L. MARCY,             Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz,
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.     March 12, 1847.

     Sir: The colors of the United States were triumphantly planted
     ashore, in full view of the city and castle, and under the
     distant fire of both, in the afternoon of the 9th inst. Brevet
     Brigadier-General Worth's brigade of regulars led the descent,
     quickly followed by the division of United States volunteers
     under Major-General Patterson, and Brigadier-General Twiggs'
     reserve brigade of regulars. The three lines successively landed
     in sixty-seven surf-boats, each boat conducted by a naval
     officer, and rowed by sailors from Commodore Conner's squadron,
     whose lighter vessels flanked the boats so as to be ready to
     protect the operation by their cross-fire. The whole army reached
     the shore in fine style, and without direct opposition (on the
     beach), accident or loss, driving the enemy from the ground to be
     occupied.

     The line of investment, according to General Orders, No. 47, was
     partially taken up the same night; but has only been completed
     to-day, owing to most extraordinary difficulties: 1. The environs
     of the city, outside of the fire of its guns and those of the (p. 306)
     castle, are broken into innumerable hills of loose sand, from
     20 to 250 feet in height, with almost impassable forests of
     chapparal between; and 2. Of all our means, of land
     transportation: wagons, carts, pack-saddles, horses and mules,
     expected to join us from Tampico and the Brazos, weeks ago, but
     fifteen carts and about one hundred draught-horses have yet
     arrived. Three hundred pack-mules are greatly needed to relieve
     the troops in taking subsistence alone, along the line of
     investment of more than five miles, as, at present, our only
     depot is south of the city. On the cessation of the present
     raging norther, which almost stifles the troops with sand,
     sweeping away hills and creating new, I hope to establish a
     second depot north of the city, which will partially relieve the
     left wing of the army.

     In extending the line of investment around the city, the troops
     for three days have performed the heaviest labors in getting over
     the hills and cutting through the intervening forests, all under
     the distant fire of the city and castle, and in the midst of many
     sharp skirmishes with the enemy. In these operations we have lost
     in killed and wounded several valuable officers and men. Among
     the killed I have to report Brevet Captain Alburtis, of the
     United States 2d Infantry, much distinguished in the Florida war,
     and a most excellent officer. He fell on the 11th inst., and
     Lieutenant-Colonel Dickenson, of the South Carolina Regiment, was
     badly wounded in a skirmish the day before. Two privates have
     been killed in these operations, and four or five wounded. As yet
     I have not been able to obtain their names.

     As soon as the subsistence of the troops can be assured, and
     their positions are well established, I shall, by an organized
     movement, cause each brigade of regulars and volunteers to send
     detachments, with supports, to clear its front, including
     sub-bourgs, of the enemy's parties, so as to oblige them to
     confine themselves within the walls of the city.

     I have heretofore reported that but two-sevenths of the
     siege-train and ammunition had reached me. The remainder is yet
     unheard of. We shall commence landing the heavy metal as soon as
     the storm subsides, and hope that the five-sevenths may be up in
     time.

     The city being invested, would, no doubt, early surrender, but
     for fear that, if occupied by us, it would immediately be fired
     upon by the castle. I am not altogether without hope of finding
     the means of coming to some compromise with the city on this
     subject.

     So far, the principal skirmishing has fallen to the lot of
     Brigadier-General Pillow's and Quitman's brigades. Both old and
     new volunteer regiments have conducted themselves admirably.
     Indeed, the whole army is full of zeal and confidence, and cannot
     fail to acquire distinction in the impending operations.

     To Commodore Conner, the officers and sailors of his squadron,
     the army is indebted for great and unceasing assistance, promptly
     and cheerfully rendered. Their co-operation is the constant theme
     of our gratitude and admiration. A handsome detachment of
     marines, under Captain Edson, of that corps, landed with the
     first line, and is doing duty with the army.

     _March 13th._ The enemy, at intervals, continues the fire of
     heavy ordnance, from the city and castle, upon our line of
     investment, both by day and night, but with little or no effect.

     The norther has ceased, which has renewed our communication   (p. 307)
     with the storeships at anchor under Sacrificios. We shall
     immediately commence landing the few pieces of heavy ordnance,
     with ordnance stores, at hand, and hope soon to have the
     necessary draught mules to take them to their positions. Any
     further delay in the arrival of those means of transportation
     will be severely felt in our operations.

     I have the honor to remain, Sir, with high respect, your obedient
     servant,
                                        Winfield SCOTT.

                              _____

_General Scott to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honorable                     Headquarters of the Army,
       William L. MARCY,             Camp Washington, before Vera Cruz,
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.    March 23, 1847.

     Sir: Yesterday, seven of our 10-inch mortars being in battery,
     and the labors for planting the remainder of our heavy metal
     being in progress, I addressed, at two o'clock P.M., a summons
     to the Governor of Vera Cruz, and within the two hours limited by
     the bearer of the flag, received the governor's answer. Copies of
     the two papers (marked respectively A and B) are herewith
     enclosed.

     It will be perceived that the Governor, who, it turns out, is the
     commander of both places, chose, against the plain terms of the
     summons, to suppose me to have demanded the surrender of the
     castle and of the city; when, in fact, from the non-arrival of
     our heavy metal, principally mortars, I was in no condition to
     threaten the former.

     On the return of the flag with the reply, I at once ordered the
     seven mortars, in battery, to open upon the city. In a short time
     the smaller vessels of Commodore Perry's squadron, two steamers
     and five schooners, according to previous arrangement with him,
     approached the city within about a mile and an eighth, whence,
     being partially covered from the castle, an essential condition
     to their safety, they also opened a brisk fire upon the city.
     This has been continued uninterruptedly by the mortars, and only
     with a few intermissions, by the vessels, up to 9 o'clock this
     morning, when the commodore, very properly, called them off from
     a position too daringly assumed.

     Our three remaining mortars are now (12 o'clock A.M.) in
     battery, and the whole ten in activity. To-morrow, early, if the
     city should continue obstinate, batteries Nos. 4 and 5 will be
     ready to add their fire; No. 4 consisting of four 24-pounders and
     two 8-inch Paixhan guns, and No. 5 (naval battery) of three
     32-pounders and three 8-inch Paixhans: the guns, officers, and
     sailors, landed from the squadron; our friends of the navy being
     unremitting in their zealous co-operation, in every mode and
     form.

     So far, we know that our fire upon the city has been highly
     effective, particularly from the battery of 10-inch mortars,
     planted at about 800 yards from the city. Including the
     preparation and defence of the batteries, from the beginning, now
     many days, and notwithstanding the heavy fire of the enemy, from
     city and castle, we have only had four or five men wounded    (p. 308)
     and one officer and one man killed, in or near the trenches. That
     officer was Captain John R. Vinton, of the United States third
     Artillery, one of the most talented, accomplished, and effective
     members of the army, and who was highly distinguished in the
     brilliant operations at Monterey. He fell last evening in the
     trenches, where he was on duty as field and commanding officer,
     universally regretted. I have just attended his honored remains
     to a soldier's grave, in full view of the enemy and within reach
     of his guns.

     Thirteen of the long needed mortars, leaving twenty-seven,
     besides heavy guns, behind, have arrived, and two of them landed.
     A heavy norther then set in (at meridian) that stopped that
     operation, and also the landing of shells. Hence the fire of our
     mortar batteries has been slackened since two o'clock to-day, and
     cannot be reinvigorated until we shall again have a smooth sea.
     In the mean time I shall leave this report open for journalizing
     events that may occur up to the departure of the steam
     ship-of-war, the Princeton, with Commodore Conner, who, I learn,
     expects to leave the anchorage off Sacrificios, for the United
     States, the 25th instant.

     _March 24th._ The storm having subsided in the night, we
     commenced this forenoon, as soon as the sea became a little
     smooth, to land shot, shells, and mortars.

     The naval battery, No. 5, was opened with great activity, under
     Captain Aulick, the second in rank of the squadron, at about 10
     A.M. His fire was continued to 2 o'clock P.M., a little before
     he was relieved by Captain Mayo, who landed with a fresh supply
     of ammunition, Captain Aulick having exhausted the supply he had
     brought with him. He lost four sailors, killed, and had one
     officer, Lieutenant Baldwin, slightly hurt.

     The mortar batteries Nos. 1, 2, and 3, have fired but languidly
     during the day for want of shells, which are now going out from
     the beach.

     The two reports of Colonel Bankhead, chief of artillery, both of
     this date, copies of which I enclose, give the incidents of those
     three batteries.

     Battery No. 4, which will mount four 24-pounders and two 8-inch
     Paixhan guns, has been much delayed in the hands of the
     indefatigable engineers by the norther that filled up the work
     with sand nearly as fast as it could be opened by the
     half-blinded laborers. It will, however, doubtless be in full
     activity early to-morrow morning.

     _March 25th._ The Princeton being about to start for
     Philadelphia, I have but a moment to continue this report.

     All the batteries, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, are in awful activity
     this morning. The effect is, no doubt, very great, and I think
     the city cannot hold out beyond to-day. To-morrow morning many of
     the new mortars will be in a position to add their fire, when, or
     after the delay of some twelve hours, if no proposition to
     surrender should be received, I shall organize parties for
     carrying the city by assault. So far the defence has been
     spirited and obstinate.

     I enclose a copy of a memorial received last night, signed by the
     consuls of Great Britain, France, Spain, and Prussia, within Vera
     Cruz, asking me to grant a truce to enable the neutrals, together
     with Mexican women and children, to withdraw from the scene of
     havoc about them. I shall reply, the moment an opportunity may be
     taken, to say: 1. That a truce can only be granted on application
     of Governor Morales, with a view to surrender. 2. That in     (p. 309)
     sending safeguards to the different consuls, beginning so far
     back as the 13th inst., I distinctly admonished them,
     particularly the French and Spanish consuls, and of course
     through the two, the other consuls, of the dangers that have
     followed. 3. That although at that date I had already refused to
     allow any person whatever to pass the line of investment either
     way, yet the blockade had been left open to the consuls and other
     neutrals to pass out to their respective ships of war up to the
     22d instant; and 4. I shall enclose to the memorialists a copy of
     my summons to the Governor, to show that I had fully considered
     the impending hardships and distresses of the place, including
     those of women and children, before one gun had been fired in
     that direction. The intercourse between the neutral ships of war
     and the city was stopped at the last mentioned date by Commodore
     Perry, with my concurrence, which I placed on the ground that
     that intercourse could not fail to give to the enemy _moral aid
     and comfort_.

     It will be seen from the memorial that our batteries have already
     had a terrible effect on the city (also known through other
     sources), and hence the inference that a surrender must soon be
     proposed. In haste,

     I have the honor to remain, Sir, with respect, your most obedient
     servant,
                                        Winfield SCOTT.

                              _____

_General Scott to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honorable                   Head-Quarters of the Army,
       William L. MARCY,                Vera Cruz, March 29, 1847.
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

     Sir: The flag of the United States of America floats triumphantly
     over the walls of the city and castle of San Juan d'Ulloa.

     Our troops have garrisoned both since 10 o'clock; it is now noon.
     Brigadier-General Worth is in command of the two places.

     Articles of capitulation were signed and exchanged at a late hour
     night before last. I enclose a copy of the document.

     I have heretofore reported the principal incidents of the siege
     up to the 25th instant. Nothing of striking interest occurred
     till early in the morning of the next day, when I received
     overtures from General Landero, on whom General Morales had
     devolved the principal command. A terrible storm of wind and sand
     made it difficult to communicate with the city, and impossible to
     refer to Commodore Perry. I was obliged to entertain the
     proposition alone, or to continue the fire upon a place that had
     shown a disposition to surrender; for the loss of a day, or
     perhaps several, could not be permitted. The accompanying papers
     will show the proceedings and results.

     Yesterday, after the norther had abated, and the commissioners
     appointed by me early the morning before had again met those
     appointed by General Landero, Commodore Perry sent ashore his
     second in command, Captain Aulick, as a commissioner on the part
     of the navy. Although not included in my specific arrangement
     with the Mexican commander, I did not hesitate, with proper   (p. 310)
     courtesy, to desire that Captain Aulick might be duly introduced
     and allowed to participate in the discussions and acts of the
     commissioners who had been reciprocally accredited. Hence the
     preamble to his signature. The original American commissioners
     were Brevet Brigadier-General Worth, Brigadier-General Pillow,
     and Colonel Totten. Four more able or judicious officers could
     not have been desired.

     I have to add but little more. The remaining details of the
     siege; the able co-operation of the United States squadron,
     successively under the command of Commodores Conner and Perry,
     the admirable conduct of the whole army, regulars and volunteers,
     I should be happy to dwell upon as they deserve; but the steamer
     Princeton, with Commodore Conner on board, is under way, and I
     have commenced organizing an advance into the interior. This may
     be delayed a few days, waiting the arrival of additional means of
     transportation. In the mean time, a joint operation, by land and
     water will be made upon Alvarado. No lateral expedition, however,
     shall interfere with the grand movement towards the capital.

     In consideration of the great services of Colonel Totten, in the
     siege that has just terminated most successively, and the
     importance of his presence at Washington, as the head of the
     engineer bureau, I intrust this despatch to his personal care,
     and beg to commend him to the very favorable consideration of the
     department.

     I have the honor to remain, Sir, with high respect, your most
     obedient servant,
                                        Winfield SCOTT.

                              _____

_Terms of Capitulation agreed upon for the surrender to the arms of
the United States of America of Vera Cruz, the castle of San Juan
d'Ulloa and their dependencies, with their armaments, munitions of
war, garrisons, and arms._

     I.

     The whole garrison, or garrisons, to be surrendered to the arms
     of the United States of America, as prisoners of war, the 29th
     instant at 10 o'clock A.M., the garrisons to be permitted to
     march out with all the honors of war, and to lay down their arms
     to such officers as may be appointed by the general-in-chief of
     the United States army, and at a point to be agreed on by the
     commissioners.

     II.

     Mexican officers shall preserve their arms and private effects,
     including horse and horse furniture, and to be allowed, regular
     and irregular officers and also the rank and file, five days to
     retire to their respective homes, on parole, as hereinafter
     prescribed.

     III.

     Coincident with the surrender, as stipulated in Article I, the
     Mexican flags of the various forts and stations shall be struck,
     saluted by their own batteries; and, immediately thereafter,
     forts Santiago and Conception and the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa,
     occupied by the forces of the United States.

     IV.

     The rank and file of the regular portion of the prisoners to  (p. 311)
     be disposed of, after surrender and parole, as their
     general-in-chief may desire, and the irregular to be permitted to
     return to their homes. The officers, in respect to all arms and
     descriptions of force, giving the usual parole, that the said
     rank and file, as well as themselves, shall not serve again until
     duly exchanged.

     V.

     All the _materiel_ of war, and all public property of every
     description found in the city, the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa,
     and their dependencies, to belong to the United States; but the
     armament of the same (not injured or destroyed in the further
     prosecution of the actual war) may be considered as liable to be
     restored to Mexico by a definite treaty of peace.

     VI.

     The sick and wounded Mexicans to be allowed to remain in the
     city, with such medical officers of the army as may be necessary
     to their care and treatment.

     VII.

     Absolute protection is solemnly guaranteed to persons in the
     city, and property, and it is clearly understood that no private
     building or property is to be taken or used by the forces of the
     United States, without previous arrangement with the owners, and
     for a fair equivalent.

     VIII.

     Absolute freedom of religious worship and ceremonies is solemnly
     guaranteed.

                              _____

_General Scott to the Secretary of War._

     To the Honorable                      Headquarters of the Army,
       William L. MARCY,         Plan del Rio, 50 miles from Vera Cruz,
         Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.      April 19, 1847.

     Sir: The plan of attack, sketched in General Orders, No. 111,
     forwarded herewith, was finely executed by this gallant army
     before two o'clock P.M. yesterday. We are quite embarrassed with
     the results of victory, prisoners of war, heavy ordnance, field
     batteries, small arms and accoutrements.

     About three thousand men laid down their arms, with the usual
     proportion of field and company officers, besides five generals,
     several of them of great distinction: Pinson, Yarrero, La Vega,
     Noriega, and Obardo. A sixth general, Vasquez, was killed in
     defending the battery (tower) in the rear of the whole Mexican
     army, the capture of which gave us these glorious results.

     Our loss, though comparatively small in numbers, has been
     serious. Brigadier-General Shields, a commander of activity, zeal
     and talent, is, I fear, if not dead, mortally wounded. He is  (p. 312)
     some five miles from me at the moment. The field of operations
     covered many miles, broken by mountains and deep chasms, and I
     have not a report, as yet, from any division or brigade.

     Twiggs' division, followed by Shields' (now Colonel Baker's)
     brigade, are now at Xalapa, and Worth's division is en route
     thither, all pursuing, with good results, as I learn, that part
     of the Mexican army, perhaps six or seven thousand men, who had
     fled before our right had carried the tower, and gained the
     Xalapa road.

     Pillow's brigade alone is near me at this depot of wounded, sick,
     and prisoners; and I have time only to give from him the names of
     1st Lieutenant F. B. Nelson, and 2d Lieutenant C. J. Hill, both
     of the 2d Tennessee foot (Haskell's regiment), among the killed,
     and in the brigade one hundred and six, of all ranks, killed or
     wounded.

     Among the latter, the gallant Brigadier-General himself has a
     smart wound in the arm, but not disabled; and Major R. Farqueson,
     2d Tennessee, Captain H. F. Murray, 2d Lieutenant G. T.
     Sutherland, 1st Lieutenant W. P. Hale, Adjutant, all of the same
     regiment, severely, and 1st Lieutenant W. Yearwood, mortally
     wounded. And I know, from personal observation on the ground,
     that 1st Lieutenant Ewell, of the Rifles, if not now dead, was
     mortally wounded in entering, sword in hand, the intrenchments
     around the captured tower.

     Second Lieutenant Derby, Topographical Engineers, I also saw, at
     the same place, severely wounded, and Captain Patten, 2d United
     States Infantry, lost his right hand. Major Sumner, 2d United
     States Dragoons, was slightly wounded the day before, and Captain
     Johnston, Topographical Engineers (now Lieutenant-Colonel of
     Infantry), was very severely wounded some days earlier while
     reconnoitering. I must not omit to add that Captain Mason, and 2d
     Lieutenant Davis, both of the rifles, were among the very
     severely wounded in storming the same tower.

     I estimate our total loss, in killed and wounded, may be about
     two hundred and fifty, and that of the enemy at three hundred and
     fifty. In the pursuit toward Xalapa (25 miles hence), I learn, we
     have added much to the enemy's loss in prisoners, killed and
     wounded. In fact, I suppose his retreating army to be nearly
     disorganized, and hence my haste to follow, in an hour or two, to
     profit by events.

     In this hurried and imperfect report I must not omit to say that
     Brigadier-General Twiggs, in passing the mountain range beyond
     Cerro Gordo, crowned with the tower, detached from his division,
     as I suggested the day before, a strong force to carry that
     height, which commanded the Xalapa road at the foot, and could
     not fail, if carried, to cut off the whole, or any part of the
     enemy's forces, from a retreat in any direction.

     A portion of the 1st Artillery, under the often distinguished
     Brevet-Colonel Childs, the 3d Infantry, under Captain Alexander,
     the 7th Infantry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Plympton, and the
     Rifles, under Major Loring, all under the temporary command of
     Colonel Hamey, 2d Dragoons, during the confinement to his bed of
     Brevet Brigadier-General P. F. Smith, composed that detachment.
     The style of execution, which I had the pleasure to witness, was
     most brilliant and decisive.

     The brigade ascended the long and difficult slope of Cerro Gordo,
     without shelter, and under the tremendous fire of artillery and
     musketry, with the utmost steadiness, reached the breastworks,
     drove the enemy from them, planted the colors of the 1st      (p. 313)
     Artillery, 3d and 7th Infantry, the enemy's flag still flying,
     and, after some minutes' sharp firing, finished the conquest
     with the bayonet.

     It is a most pleasing duty to say that the highest praise is due
     to Harney, Childs, Plympton, Loring, Alexander, their gallant
     officers and men, for this brilliant service, independent of the
     great results which soon followed.

     Worth's division of regulars coming up at this time, he detached
     Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel C. F. Smith, with his light battalion,
     to support the assault, but not in time. The general, reaching
     the tower a few minutes before me, and observing a white flag
     displayed from the nearest portion of the enemy towards the
     batteries below, sent out Colonels Harney and Childs to hold a
     parley. The surrender followed in an hour or two.

     Major-General Patterson left a sick bed to share in the dangers
     and fatigues of the day; and after the surrender went forward to
     command the advance forces towards Xalapa.

     Brigadier-General Pillow and his brigade twice assaulted with
     great daring the enemy's line of batteries on our left; and
     though without success, they contributed much to distract and
     dismay their immediate opponents.

     President Santa Anna, with Generals Canalizo and Almonte, and
     some six or eight thousand men, escaped toward Xalapa just before
     Cerro Gordo was carried, and before Twiggs' division reached the
     national road above.

     I have determined to parole the prisoners, officers and men, as I
     have not the means of feeding them here, beyond to-day, and
     cannot afford to detail a heavy body of horse and foot, with
     wagons, to accompany them to Vera Cruz. Our baggage train, though
     increasing, is not half large enough to give an assured progress
     to this army.

     Besides, a greater number of prisoners would, probably, escape
     from the escort in the long and deep sandy road without
     subsistence, ten to one, than we shall find again, out of the
     same body of men, in the ranks opposed to us. Not one of the Vera
     Cruz prisoners is believed to have been in the lines of Cerro
     Gordo. Some six of the officers, highest in rank, refuse to give
     their paroles, except to go to Vera Cruz, and thence, perhaps, to
     the United States.

     The small arms and accoutrements, being of no value to our army
     here or at home, I have ordered them to be destroyed, for we have
     not the means of transporting them. I am, also, somewhat
     embarrassed with the pieces of artillery, all bronze, which we
     have captured. It would take a brigade, and half the mules of our
     army, to transport them fifty miles.

     A field battery I shall take for service with the army; but the
     heavy metal must be collected and left here for the present. We
     have our own siege-train and the proper carriages with us.

     Being much occupied with the prisoners and all the details of a
     forward movement, besides looking to the supplies which are to
     follow from Vera Cruz, I have time to add no more, intending to
     be at Xalapa early to-morrow. We shall not, probably, again meet
     with serious opposition this side of Perote; certainly not,
     unless delayed by the want of the means of transportation.

     I have the honor to remain, Sir, with high respect, your most
     obedient servant,
                                        Winfield SCOTT.

                              _____

_General Orders No. 111._                                          (p. 314)

                                        Headquarters of the Army,
                                        Plan del Rio, April 17, 1847.

     The enemy's line of intrenchments and batteries will be attacked
     in front, and at the same time turned, early in the day,
     to-morrow, probably before ten o'clock A.M.

     The second (Twiggs') division of regulars is already advanced
     within easy turning distance towards the enemy's left. That
     division has instructions to move forward before daylight
     to-morrow and take up a position across the national road in the
     enemy's rear, so as to cut off a retreat towards Xalapa. It may
     be reinforced to-day if unexpectedly attacked in force, by
     regiments, one or two taken from Shields' brigade of volunteers.
     If not, the two volunteer regiments will march for that purpose
     at daylight to-morrow morning, under Brigadier-General Shields,
     who will report to Brigadier-General Twiggs, on getting up with
     him, or the general-in-chief, if he be in advance.

     The remaining regiment of that volunteer brigade will receive
     instructions in the course of this d